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THE FRUGAL HOUSEWIFE, OR Complete Woman Cook.

WHEREIN The Art of Dressing all Sorts of Viands, with Cleanliness, Decency, and Elegance, Is explained in Five Hundred approved RECEIPTS, in

  • Roasting,
  • Boiling,
  • Frying,
  • Broiling,
  • Gravies,
  • Sauces,
  • Stews,
  • Hashes,
  • Soups,
  • Fricassees,
  • Ragoos,
  • Pasties,
  • Pies,
  • Tarts,
  • Cakes,
  • Puddings,
  • Syllabubs,
  • Creams,
  • Flummery,
  • Jellies,
  • Giams, and
  • Custards.

Together with the BEST METHODS of

  • Potting,
  • Collaring,
  • Preserving,
  • Drying,
  • Candying,
  • Pickling,

And making of ENGLISH WINES.

To which are prefixed, Various BILLS OF FARE, For DINNERS and SUPPERS in every Month of the Year; and a copious INDEX to the whole.

By SUSANNAH CARTER, Of CLERKENWELL.

LONDON. Printed for F. NEWBERY, at the Corner of St. Paul's Church-Yard.

BOSTON: Re-Printed and Sold by EDES and GILL, in Queenstreet.

[Page]

Alphabetical INDEX.

Of ROASTING.
  • General Directions for Page 1
  • BEEF Page 1
  • Cod's Head Page 14
  • Duck, Tame Page 8
  • Duck, Wild Page 11
  • Eels Page 15
  • Fowls Page 8
  • Fowls with Chesnuts Page 9
  • Fowls the German Way Page 10
  • Goose Page 8
  • Goose with Green sauce Page 10
  • Hare Page 7
  • Lamb Page 4
  • Larks Page 13
  • Mutton Page 2
  • Mutton Venison Fashion Page 2
  • Mutton, Breast of, with Force-meat Page 3
  • Orto [...]ans Page 13
  • Partridges Page 12
  • Pheasants Page 12
  • Pig Page 6
  • Pigeons Page 10
  • P [...]ke Page 14
  • Plovers Page 12
  • Pork Page 5
  • Pork, Chine of Stuffed Page 6
  • Quails Page 11
  • Rabbits Page 8
  • Rabbit, Hare Fashion Page 8
  • Ruffs and Reefs Page 13
  • Snipes Page 11
  • Teal Page 11
  • Turkey Page 8
  • Turkey, with Chesnuts Page 9
  • Tongue and Udder Page 3
  • Veal Page 4
  • Venison Page 7
  • Wige [...] Page 11
  • Woodcock [...] Page 11
Of BOILING.
  • General rules for Page 15
  • Artichoaks Page 32
  • Asparagus Page 31
  • Beans, French Page 33
  • Beans, Bro [...]d Page 32
  • Beef Page 1 [...]
  • Brocoli Page 33
  • Cabbage Page 34
  • Calf's Head Page 17
  • Carp Page 26
  • Carrots Page 36
  • Chickens Page 19
  • Cod Page 23
  • Cod's Head Page 23
  • Crimp Cod Page 24
  • Colliflower Page 32
  • Ducks Page 19
  • Eels Page 28
  • Flounders Page 25
  • Fowls Page 19
  • Goose Page 1 [...]
  • Ham Page 18
  • Lamb Page 17
  • Mackrel Page 28
  • Mutton Page 16
  • Neat's Tongue Page 18
  • Partridges Page 22
  • Parsnips Page 36
  • Peas, Green Page 34
  • Pheasants Page 22
  • Pigeons Page 20
  • Pike Page 22
  • Plaice Page 25
  • Pork, Leg of Page 10
  • Pork, Pickled Page 16
  • Potatoes Page 36
  • Rabbits [...]6
  • Rabbits, with Onions Page 2 [...]
  • Salmon Page 2 [...]
  • Scate Page 24
  • Snipes Page 21
  • [Page]Soals Page 25
  • Spinach Page 35
  • Sorouts Page 34
  • Sturgeon Page 25
  • Tench Page 27
  • Turbot Page 22
  • Turkey Page 19
  • Turnips Page 35
  • Turtle Page 28
  • Veal Page 17
  • Venison Page 18
  • Woodcocks Page 21
Of FRYING.
  • Artichoak Bottom Page 47
  • Beef Collops Page 40
  • Beef Steaks Page 38
  • Calf' [...] Liver and Bacon Page 41
  • Carp Page 42
  • Ce [...]ary Page 48
  • Colliflowers Page 47
  • Eels Page 45
  • Eggs, as round as Balls Page 42
  • Flat Fish Page 44
  • H [...]r [...]ngs Page 45
  • Lamb, Loin of Page 38
  • Lampries Page 45
  • Mutton Cutlets Page 41
  • Onions Page 48
  • Oysters Page 47
  • Parsley Page 48
  • Potatoes Page 48
  • Sausages with Apples Page 39
  • Scotch Collops Page 40
  • Small F [...]shes Page 46
  • Tench Page 42
  • Tripe Page 37
  • Trout Page 44
  • Veal Cutlets Page 40
  • Veal, Cold Page 39
  • Sweetb [...]eads and Kidneys Page 41
BROILING.
  • Beef Steaks Page 49
  • Chickens Page 50
  • Cod Page 50
  • Cod's Sounds Page 51
  • Eels Page 51
  • Eggs Page 52
  • Eels spitchcocked Page 52
  • Haddocks Page 50
  • Herrings Page 51
  • Mackrel Page 50
  • Mutton Chops Page 49
  • Pigeons Page 49
  • Pork Chops Page 49
  • Salmon Page 50
  • Whitings Page 50
GRAVIES and SAUCES.
  • Anchovy Sauce Page 61
  • Apple Sauce Page 59
  • Bread Sauce Page 60
  • Butter to melt Page 57
  • Butter to burn Page 57
  • Cellary Sauce Page 58
  • Cellary Sauce, brown Page 58
  • Egg Sauce Page 58
  • Essence of Ham Page 55
  • Fish Sauce Page 62
  • Gravy, to draw Page 53
  • Gravy, white Page 53
  • Gravy, without meat Page 53
  • Gravy, for a Turkey or Fowl Page 54
  • Gravy, to make mutton eat like Venison Page 54
  • Gravy for a Fowl, when you have no meat Page 54
  • Gravy for Fish Page 55
  • Lobster Sauce Page 60
  • Lemon Sauce Page 59
  • Mint Sauce Page 60
  • Mushroom Sauce for roasted or boiled Page 57
  • Onion Sauce Page 59
  • Oyster Sauce Page 61
  • Pap Sauce Page 60
  • Parsley Sauce Page 60
  • Parsley Sauce, when no Parsley can be got Page 60
  • Shallot Sauces Page 58
  • Shrimp Sauce Page 61
  • Sauce a pretty one for boiled Fowls Page 59
  • Sauce for Fish Pie [...] Page 56
  • [Page]Sauce for sweet pies Page 56
  • Sauce for savory pies Page 56
  • Sauce for roast meat Page 56
  • Sauce, a standing one Page 55
STEWING.
  • Beef Page 62
  • Beef Collops Page 64
  • Beef Gobbets Page 63
  • Beef Steaks Page 64
  • Breast of Veal Page 66
  • Brisket of Beef Page 62
  • Cabbage Page 74
  • Carp or Ten [...]h Page 71
  • Chickens Page 68
  • Cod Page 72
  • Cucumbers Page 74
  • Ducks Page 70
  • Eels Page 72
  • Eggs and Spinach Page 73
  • Fowl or Turky Page 68
  • Gibblets Page 70
  • Hare Page 67
  • Hare to jugg Page 67
  • Knuckle of Veal Page 65
  • Lettice and Pease Page 74
  • Muscles or Oysters Page 7 [...]
  • Mushrooms Page 75
  • Mutton Chops Page 66
  • Neck or Leg of Mutton Page 67
  • Neck of Veal Page 65
  • Ox Palates Page 63
  • Oysters or Muscles Page 73
  • Parsnips Page 73
  • Pea [...] with Lettice Page 74
  • Pears Page 75
  • Pig [...]6
  • Pigeons Page 69
  • Pigeons to jug Page 69
  • Spinach and Eggs Page 73
  • Tench or Carp Page 74
  • Turky or Fowl Page 68
  • Veal in gene [...]al Page 64
  • Wild Fowl Page 70
HASHES.
  • Beef Page 76
  • Brain Cakes Page 78
  • Calf's Head brown or wh [...]te Page 78 79
  • Fowls Page 80
  • Hare Page 80
  • Lamb's Head and Pluck Page 77
  • Mutton Page 76
  • Mock Turtle Page 79
  • Veal, to mince Page 77
SOUPS.
  • Gravy Soup Page 81
  • G [...]bblet Soup Page 81
  • Pea [...]e Soup Page 82
  • Green Peas Soup Page 82
  • Whi [...]e portable Soup Page 83
  • Brown portable Soup Page 85
  • Verm [...]celli Soup Page 86
  • Soup Lorraine Page 87
  • Sorrel Soup with Eggs Page 88
  • Asparagus Soup Page 88
  • C [...]aw-fish Soup Page 89
  • Oyster Soup Page 89
  • Eel Soup Page 89
  • Brown Soup Page 90
  • White Soup Page 90
  • Onion Soup Page 91
  • Rice Soup Page 92
  • Turnip Soup Page 92
  • Soup Meagre Page 93
FRICASSEES.
  • Artichoak Bottome Page 104
  • Calf's Head Page 95
  • Calf's Feet Page 95
  • Chickens, white [...]00
  • Chickens, brown [...]00
  • Cod Page 101
  • Eggs, white or brown [...]
  • Flounders Page 101
  • Hare [...]9
  • Lamb, brown or white [...]6
  • Lamb-stones and Sweetbreads Page 97
  • Mushrooms Page 1 [...]4
  • Neat's Tongue Page 9 [...]
  • Ox Pala [...]e Page 94
  • Pig's [...]a [...]s Page 97
  • Pig's Pettitoes Page 98
  • [Page]Pigeons Page 100
  • P [...]aise Page 101
  • Rabbits, white Page 99
  • Rabb [...]ts, brown Page 99
  • Soals Page 101
  • Sw [...]etbreads Page 96
  • Tenc [...], w [...]te or brown Page 102
  • Tripe Page 95
RAGOUTS.
  • A rich Ragout Page 107
  • Ragouts for made Dishes [...]08
  • Beef, ca [...]ed Beef a-la-mode Page 105
  • Breast of Veal Page 105
  • Eggs Page 108
  • Hog's Feet and Ears Page 107
  • Leg of Mutton Page 107
  • Neck of Veal [...]06
  • Oysters [...]9
  • Snipes Page 108
  • Sturgeon Page 109
  • Veal Sweetbreads Page 106
PASTRY.
  • Paste for Tarts Page 110
  • Puff Paste Page 110
  • Paste for raised Pies Page 110
  • Paste for Venison Pasties Page 111
  • Paste Royal Page 111
  • Paste for Custards Page 111
  • Artichoak Pie Page 118
  • Apple Pie Page 119
  • Battalia Pie Page 115
  • Calf's Head Pie Page 116
  • Carp Pie Page 116
  • Chicken Pie Page 114
  • Cherry Pie Page 119
  • Eel Pie Page 118
  • Hare Pie Page 111
  • Hen Pie Page 114
  • Lamb Pie Page 112
  • Lamb Pie, with currants Page 112
  • Lamb- [...] and Sweetbread Pie Page 115
  • Egg Pie Page 116
  • Flounder Pie Page 117
  • Gooseberry Pie Page 119
  • Lamprey Pie Page 118
  • Lumber Pie Page 112
  • Minced Pie Page 116
  • Mutton Pie Page 113
  • Neat's Tongue Pie Page 115
  • Oyster Pie Page 117
  • Pear Pie Page 119
  • Pigeon Pie Page 115
  • Plumb Pie Page 119
  • Potatoe Pie Page 118
  • Shrewsbury Pie Page 112
  • Swee [...] Chicken Pie Page 114
  • Tr [...]t Pie [...]18
  • Turky Pie Page 115
  • Venison Pie [...]16
  • Veal Pie Page 113
  • Umble Pie Page 111
Tarts of divers kinds.
  • Ice [...]ng for Tarts Page 122
  • Almond Tarts Page 122
  • Apricot Tarts Page 121
  • Apple Tarts Page 120
  • Lemon Tarts Page 121
  • Lemon Puffs Page 123
  • Orange Tarts Page 121
  • Orange Puffs Page 123
  • Pear Tarts Page 120
CAKES.
  • Rich Cakes Page 123 124
  • Spanish Cake Page 125
  • Portugal Cake Page 125
  • Dutch Cakes Page 125
  • Shrewsbury Cakes Page 126
  • Marlborough Cakes Page 126
  • Queen Cakes Page 126
  • Uxbridge Cakes Page 127
  • A Pound Cake Page 127
  • Seed Cake Page 127
  • Almond Cakes Page 128
  • Saffron Cakes Page 128
  • Orange Cakes Page 128
  • Common Biscuits Page 129
  • Wigs Page 130
  • Buns Page 130
  • Maccaroons Page 130
  • Fritter [...] Page 131
  • [Page]Pancakes Page 131
  • Cheese Cakes Page 131
  • Cheese Cakes, without Rennet Page 132
  • Potatoe or Lemon Cheese Cakes Page 133
  • A plain boiled Pudding Page 133
  • Light Pudding Page 134
  • Quaking Pudding Page 134
  • Biscuit Pudding Page 134
  • Plumb Pudding, boiled Page 135
  • [...]unbridge Pudding Page 135
  • Custard Pudding Page 135
  • Hunting Pudding Page 136
  • Suet Pudding, boiled Page 136
  • Steak Pudding Page 136
  • Potatoe Pudding, boiled Page 137
  • Almond Pudding boiled Page 137
  • Rice Pudding boiled Page 137
  • Prune or Damfon Pudding Page 137
  • Apple Pudding Page 138
  • Baked Pudding Page 138
  • Bread Pudding, baked Page 138
  • Millet Pudding Page 138
  • Marrow Pudding Page 139
  • Rice Pudding Page 139
  • Poor Man's Pudding Page 139
  • Orange Pudding Page 140
  • Carrot Pudding Page 140
  • Quince, Apricot, or white Pear Plumb-Pudding Page 141
  • Italian Pudding Page 141
  • Apple Pudding, baked Page 141
  • Norfolk Dumplings Page 142
  • Hard Dumplings Page 142
  • Apple Dumplings Page 142
SYLLABUBS, CREAMS, and FLUMMERY.
  • A fine Syllabub Page 143
  • Whipt Syllabub Page 143
  • A fine Cream [...]43
  • Lemon Cream Page 143
  • Rasberry Cream Page 144
  • Whipt Cream Page 144
  • A Trifle Page 144
  • Flummery Page 145
  • Oatmeal Flummery Page 145
JELLIES, GIAMS, and CUSTARDS.
  • Calf's Feet Jelly Page 146
  • Hart's horn Jelly Page 146
  • Currant Jelly Page 147
  • Rasberry Giam Page 147
  • Custards Page 148
  • Custards boiled Page 148
  • Almond Custards Page 148
  • Rice Custards Page 149
POTTING.
  • Beef Page 149
  • Charrs Page 149
  • Eels Page 150
  • Fowls Page 149
  • Lampreys Page 150
  • Pigeons Page 149
  • Trout Page 149
  • Venison Page 149
COLLARING.
  • Beef Page 150
  • Breast of Veal Page 150
  • Breast of Mutton Page 151
  • Eels Page 151
  • Pork Page 151
PRESERVING.
  • Angelica, to candy Page 158
  • Apricots to preserve Page 155
  • Apricots, green Page 155
  • Pean [...], French all the Year Page 152
  • Bullace Page 153
  • Cherries Page 156
  • Cherries, to dry Page 157
  • Currants, to preserve Page 157
  • Damsons, to preserve Page 153
  • Gooseberries Page 154
  • Marmalade, to make Page 153
  • Mulberries, to preserve Page 153
  • Peaches, to dry Page 157
  • Peaches, to preserve Page 154
  • [Page]Peas, till Christmas Page 152
  • Plumbs Page 153
  • Rasberries Page 156
PICKLING.
  • Asparagus Page 158
  • Barberries Page 169
  • Beans, French Page 162
  • Cabbage Page 162
  • Cucumbers Page 163
  • Mangos of Melons Page 159
  • Mushrooms Page 159
  • Nastert [...]um buds, or seeds Page 159
  • Onions Page 162
  • Raddish pods Page 161
  • [...]mphire Page 161
MADE WINES.
  • Gooseberry Wine Page 163
  • Corrant Wine Page 164
  • Ra [...]fin Wine Page 164
  • Rasberry Wine Page 165
  • Morella Wine Page 165
  • Elder Wine Page 165
  • Cowslip Wine Page 166
  • Mead Page 166
  • Balm Wine Page 167
  • Birch Wine Page 167
  • Orange Wine Page 168
[Page]

A BILL of FARE, for every Month in the Year.

In JANUARY.

Dinner.

BEEF-SOUP, made of brisket of beef; and the beef served up in the dish. Turkey and chin [...] roasted, with gravy and onion sauce; minced pies.

Or,

Achb [...]ne of beef boiled and carrots and savoys, with melted butter; ham, and fowls roasted, with rich gravy; tarts.

Or,

Vermicelli soup, fore quarter of lamb and sallad in season; fresh salmon, a sufficient quantity boiled, with smelts fried, and lobster sauce; minced pies.

Supper.

Chickens fricaseed; wild ducks with rich gravy sauce; piece of sturgeon or brawn, and minced pies.

Or,

A hare with a pudding in its belly, and strong gravy and claret sauce; ben turkey boiled and oyster sauce, and onion sauce; brawn, and minced pies.

In FEBRUARY.

Dinner.

Chine or saddle of mutton roasted, with pickles; calve's-head boiled and grilled, garnished with boiled slices of ba­con, and with brains mashed with parsley and butter, salt, pepper, and a little vinegar: the tongue slit and laid upon the brains; a boiled pudding.

Or,

Ham, and fowls roasted, with gravy sauce; leg of lamb boiled, with spinach.

Or,

A piece of fresh salmon, with lobster sauce, and garnished with fried smelts, or flounders; chickens roasted and asparagus, with gravy and plain butter.

Supper.

Scotch coll [...]ps, ducklings, with rich gravy; minced pies.

Or,

Fried soles with shrimp sauce; fore-quarter of lamb roast­ed, with mint sauce; dish of ta [...]ts and cus [...]ar [...]s.

In MARCH.

Dinner.

Roast beef, and horse- [...]add [...]sh to garn [...]sh the dis [...]salt-f [...]s [...] with egg sauce, and potatoes or par [...]ps, with melted b [...]tter; p [...]as [...] [...].

Or,

Ham, and fowls roasted; marrow pudding.

[Page] Or

Leg of mutton boiled, with turnips and caper sauce; co [...] boiled, with oyster sauce and garnished with horse-radish; a bread pudding.

Supper.

Scollop or fried oysters; leg of lamb, with spinach; tarts and fruit.

Or,

Fricasee of co [...]combs, lambstones, and sweetbreads; pi­geon pie and marrow pudding.

In APRIL.

Dinner.

Ham, and chickens roasted, with gravy sauce: a piece of boiled beef, and carrots and greens.

Or,

A roasted shoulder of veal stuffed, and melted butter; a leg of pork boiled and pease pudding.

Or,

A dish of fish, (as in season) [...]oast beef garnished with horse-radish, and plumb pudding.

Supper.

Fricas [...] of lambstones and sweetbreads, or sucking rabbits, [...]oasted pigeons and asparagus.

Or,

Boil'd fowls and bacon, or p [...]ckled pork, with greens and butter melted; a baked plu [...] pudding or tarts.

In MAY.

Dinner.

Beef soup, with herbs well boiled▪ fillet of veal well stuf­fed and roasted; a ham boiled.

Or,

Rump of [...] salted and boiled, with a summer cabbage; fresh salm [...] boiled and fried smelts to garnish the dish, with lob [...]er or shr [...]m [...] sauce.

Or,

[...] of mutton roasted, with a spring sallad, and a dish of fish.

Supper.

[...] roasted, with gravy sauce; [...] coll [...]ps, w [...]th [...], & [...]. [...]rts.

O [...],

[...], with gravy sa [...]ce; [...].

In JUNE.

[...].

[...]eg of [...] boiled, with [...]apers, [...] and turnips, [...] roasted, with rich gravy and cla­ret sauce; mar [...]w pudd [...]ng.

[Page] Or,

Saddle of grass lamb roasted, with mint sauce and turni [...]s; turbo [...] boiled, with shrimp and anchovy sauce; a quaking pudding.

Or,

A baunch of venison roasted, with rich gravy and claret sauce; tarts.

Supper.

Fricasee of young rabbits, roast fowls and gravy sauce; goos [...]berry tarts.

Or,

Makarel boiled, with pla [...]n butter and makarel herbs; leg of lamb boiled and spinach.

In JULY.

Dinner.

Green Goose, with gravy sauce, neck of veal boiled, with bacon and greens.

Or,

Roasted pig, with proper sauce of gravy and brain [...], pret­ty well seasoned; mackarel boiled, with melted butter and herbs; green pease.

Or,

Mackarel boiled, with melted butter and herbs; fore-quarter of lamb, with sallad of [...]oss lettuce, &c.

Supper.

Chickens roasted, with gravy or egg sauce; lobsters or prawns; green pease.

Or,

Stewed crap; ducklings, with gravy sauce, and pease.

In AUGUST.

Dinner.

Ham, and fowls roasted, with gravy sauce; beans.

Or,

Neck of venison, with gravy and claret sauce; fresh salmon, with lobster sauce; apple pie, hot and buttered.

Or,

Beef a-la-mode; green pease; haddock boiled, and fried sole [...] or flounders to garnish the dish.

Supper.

White fricassee of chickens; green pease; ducks roasted, with gravy sauce.

Or,

Ch [...]ckens or pigeons roasted, with asparagus; artich [...]kes, with melted butter.

In SEPTEMBER.

Dinner.

Green pe [...]se soup; breast of veal roasted; boiled plain pudding.

[Page] Or,

Leg of lamb boiled, with turnips, spinach and cape [...] sauc [...] goose roasted, with gravy, mustard, and apple sauce; [...] pigeon pie.

Supper.

Boiled pullets, with oyster sauce, greens and bacon; dish of fried soles.

Or,

A leveret, with gravy sauce; wild ducks, with gravy sauce and onion sauce; apple pie.

In OCTOBER.

Dinner.

Cod's head, with shrimp and oyster sauce; knuckle of veal and bacon, and greens.

Or,

Leg of mutton boiled, with turnips and caper sauce; Scotch collops; fresh salmon boiled, with shrimp and anchovy sauce.

Or,

Calf's head dressed turtle fashion; roast beef, with horse-radish; beef soup.

Supper.

Wild ducks, with gravy sauce; scoll [...]ped oysters; min [...] pies.

Or,

Fried smelts, with anchovy sauce; boiled fowl, with oy­ster sauce; minced pies or tarts.

In NOVEMBER.

Dinner.

A roasted goose, with gravy, and apple sauce, and mu­stard; cod's head, with oyster sauce; minc [...]d pies.

Or,

Roast tongue and udder; roast fowls and pigeon pie.

Supper.

Stewed carp, calf's head hashed; minced pies.

In DECEMBER.

Dinner.

Ham, and fowls roasted, with greens and gravy sauce; gravy soup; fresh salmon, garnished with whiting or tro [...]t fried, and with anchovy sauce.

Or,

Cod's head, with shrimp and oyster sauce; roast beef, garnished with horse-radish, and plumb pudding boiled.

Or,

Roast beef, with horse-radish; marrow pudding, and Scotch collops.

Supper.

Brawn; pullets boiled and oyster sauce: minced pies.

Or,

Broil'd chickens with mushrooms; a [...]are or wild ducks, with rich gravy sauce, minced pies.

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[Page 1]

THE FRUGAL HOUSEWIFE.

CHAP. I. Of ROASTING.

General Rules to be observed in Roasting.

YOUR fire must be made in proportion to the piece you are to dress; that is, if it be a little or thin piece, make a small brisk fire that it may be done quick and nice; but if a large joint▪ observe to lay a good fire to cake, and let it be always clear at the bot­tom. Allowing a quarter of an hour for every pound of meat at a steady fire, your expectations will hardly ever fail, from a surloin of beef to a small joint: Nevertheless, I shall mention some few observations as to beef, mutton, lamb, veal, pork, &c.

BUTCHERS MEAT.

To roast Beef.

If it be a surloin or chump, butter a piece of writing paper, and fasten it on to the back [Page 2] of your meat, with small skewers, and lay i [...] down to a soaking fire, at a proper distance. As soon as your meat is warm, dust on some flour, and baste it with butter; then sprin­kle some salt, and, at times, baste with what drips from it. About a quarter of an hour before you take it up, remove the paper, dust on a little flour, and baste with a piece of butter, that it may go to table with a good froth▪ Garnish your dish with scraped horse-raddish; and serve it up with potatoes, broc­cali▪ French beans, colliflower, horse raddish, or cellary.

To roast Mutton.

If a chine, or saddle of mutton, let the s [...]in be raised, and then skewered on again▪ this will prevent it from scorching, and make it eat mellow: A quarter of an hour before you take it up, take off the skin, dust on some flour, and baste it with butter: Sprin­kle on a little salt. As the chine, saddle, and leg, are the largest joints, they require a stronger fire than the shoulder, neck, or loin▪ [...]arnish with scraped horse-raddish; and serve it up with potatoes, brocali, French beans, colliflower, water cresses, or horse-raddish.

You may serve up a shoulder of mutton with onion sauce, if approved of.

To roast Mutton, Venison fashion.

Take a hind quarter of fat mutton, and cu [...] the leg l [...]ke a haunch; lay it in a pan with th [...] back-side of it down, pour a bottle of re [...]wine over it, and let it lie twenty-four hours▪ [Page 3] then spit it, and baste it with the same liquor and butter all the time it is roasting at a good quick fire, and two hours and a half will do it. Have a little good gravy in a cup, and currant jelly in another. A good fat neck of mutton eats finely done thus.

To roast a Breast of Mutton with Forc'd meat.

A breast of mutton dressed thus is very good; the forced meat must be put under the skin at the end, and then the skin pinned down with horns; before you dredge it, wash it over with a bunch of feathers dipt in eg [...]. Garn [...] with lemon, and put good gravy in the dish.

A Shoulder or Leg of Mutton stuffed.

Stuff a leg of mutton with mutton suet, salt, pepper, nutmeg, and the yolks of eggs: then roast it, stick it all over with cloves, and when it is about half done, cu [...] off some of the under side of the fleshy end in little bi [...]s, put those into a pipkin with a pint of oysters, li­quor and all, a little salt and mace, and half a pint of hot water; stew them till half the liquor is wasted, then put in a piece of butter rolled in flour, shake all t [...]gether, and when the mutton is done enough, take it up; pour the sauce over it, and send it to table.

To roast a Tongue, or Udder.

Parboil it first, then roast it: stick eight or ten cloves about it; baste it with buttter, and send it up with gravy and sweet sauce. An udder eats very well done the same way.

[Page 4]
To roast Lamb.

Lay it down to a clear good fire, that will want little stirring; then baste it with butter, and dust on a little flour; baste it with what falls from it: and a little be­fore you take it up, baste it again with but­ter, and sprinkle on a little salt and parsley shred fine. Send it up to table with a nice salad, mint sauce, green peas, french beans, or colliflower.

To roast Veal.

When you roast the loin, or fillet, paper the udder of the fillet, to preserve the fat, and the back of the loin, to prevent it from scorching; lay the meat at first some distance from the fire, that it may soak; baste it well with butter, then dust on a little flour. When it has soaked some time, draw it nearer the [...]re: And a little before you take it up, baste it again. Most people chuse to stuff a fillet. The breast you must roast with the caul on, and the sweetbread skewered on the backside: When it is near enough, take off the caul, and baste it with butter. It is proper to have a toast nicely baked, and laid in the dish with a loin of veal. Garnish with lemon.

The stuffing for a fillet of veal is made in the following manner; take about a pound of grated bread, half a pound of suet, some par­sley shred fine, thyme, marjorum, or savo­ry, which you like best, a little grated nut­meg, lemon peel, pepper and salt, and mix these well together with the whites and yolks of eggs.

[Page 5]
To roast Pork.

Pork requires more doing than any other meat; and it is best to sprinkle it with a little salt the night before you use it, and hang it up; by that means it will take off the faint, sickly taste.

When you roast a chine of pork, lay it down to a good fire, and at proper distance, that it may be well soaked.

A spare-rib is to be roasted with a fire that is not too strong, but clear; when you lay it down, dust on some flour, and baste it with butter: A quarter of an hour before you take it up, shred some sage small; baste your pork; strew on the sage; dust on a little flour, and sprinkle a little salt before you take it up.

A loin must be cut on the skin in small streaks; and then basted; but put no flour on, which would make the skin bli [...]ter: And see that it is jointed before you lay it down to the fire.

A leg of pork is often roasted with s [...]ge and onion shred fine, with a little pepper and sal [...] ▪ and stuffed at the knuckle, with the gravy in the dish; But a better way is this, parboil it first, and take off the skin; lay it down to a good clear fire: Baste it with butter, then shre [...] some sage fine, and mix it with pepper, salt, nutmeg, and bread crumbs: Strew this over it the time it is roasting: Baste it again with butter just before you take it up, that it may be of a fine brown, and have a nice froth: Send up some good gravy in the dish, and serve it up with apple sauce and pota­toes. [Page 6] A griskin roasted in this manner eats finely.

To stuff a Chine of Pork.

Make a stuffing of the fat leaf of pork, parsley, thyme, sage, eggs, and crumbs of bread: season it with pepper, salt, shalot and nutmeg, and stuff it thick, then roast it gently, and when it is about a quarter roast­ed, cut the skin in slips, and make your sauce with apples, lemon-peel, two or three cloves and a blade of mace, sweeten it with sugar, put some butter in, and have mustard in a cup.

To roast a Pig.

Spit your pig, and lay it down to a clear fire, kept good at both ends: Put into the belly a few sage leaves, a little pepper and salt, a little crust of bread, and a bit of but­ter, then sew up the belly; flour it all over very well, and do so till the eyes begin to start. When you find the skin is tight and crisp, and the eyes are dropp'd, put two plates into the dripping pan, to save what gravy comes from it: Put a quarter of a pound of butter into a clean course cloth, and rub all over it, till the flour is quite taken off; then take it up into your dish, take the sage, &c. out of the belly, and chop it small; cut off the head, open it, and take out the brains, which chop, and put the sage and brains into half a pint of good gravy, with a piece of butter rolled in flour; then cut your pig down the back, and lay it flat in the dish: Cut off the two ears, and lay one up­on [Page 7] each shoulder; take off the under jaw, cut it in two, and lay one upon each side: put the head between the shoulders; pour the gravy out of the plates into your sauce and then into the dish: Send it to table garnsh­ed with a lemon, and if you please pap sauce in a bason.

GAME and POULTRY.

To roast Venison.

After the haunch of venison is spitted, take a piece of butter, and rub all over the fat, dust on a little flour, and sprinkle a little salt: Then take a sheet of writing-paper, butter it well, and lay over the fat part; put two sheets over that, and tie the paper on with small twine: Keep it well basted, and let there be a good soaking fire. If a large haunch, it will take full three hours to do it. Five mi­nutes before you send it to table, take off the paper, dust it over with a little flour, and baste it with butter; let it go up with a good froth; put no gravy in the dish, but send it in one boat, and currant jelly melted, in another.

To roast a Hare.

Case and truss your hare, and then make a pudding thus. A quarter of a pound of beef suet minced fine; as much bread crumbs; the liver chopped fine; parsley and lemon-peel shred fine, season'd with pepper, salt, and nutmeg. Moisten it with an egg, and put it into the hare; sew up the belly, and lay it down to a good fire: Let your dripping-pan be very clean, put into it a quart of milk, and six ounces of butter, and baste it with this [Page 8] till the whole is used: About five minutes be­fore you take it up, dust on a little flour, and baste with fresh butter, that it may go to ta­ble with a good froth. Put a little gravy in the dish, and the rest in a boat: Garnish your dish with lemon.

To roast Rabbits.

Baste them with good butter, and drudge them with a little flour. Half an hour will do them, at a very quick clear fire; and, if they are very small, twenty minutes will do them. Take the livers, with a little bunch of parsley, and boil them, and then chop them very fine together. Melt some good butter, and put half the liver and parsley into the but­ter; pour it into the dish, and garnish the dish with the other half. Let your rabbits be done of a fine light brown.

To roast a Rabbit Hare fashion.

Lard a rabbit with bacon; put a pudding in its belly, and roast it as you do a hare, and it eats very well. Send it up with gravy sauce.

To roast a Turkey, Goose, Duck, Fowl, &c.

When you roast a turkey, goose, fowl, or chicken, lay them down to a good fire. Singe them clean with white paper, baste them with butter, and dust on some flour. As to time, a large turkey will take an hour and twenty minutes; a middling one a full hour; a full grown goose▪ if young an hour; a large fowl three quarters of an hour; a middling one half an hour, and a small chick­en twenty minutes; but this depends intirely on the goodness of your fire.

[Page 9]When your fowls are thoroughly plump, and the smoak draws from the breast to the fire, you may be sure that they are very near done. Then baste them with butter; dust on a very little flour, and as soon as they have a good froth, serve them up.

Geese and ducks are commonly seasoned with onions, sage, and a little pepper and salt.

A turkey, when roasted, is generally stuf­fed in the craw with force-meat; or the fol­lowing stuffing: Take a pound of veal, as much grated bread, half a pound of suet cut and beat very fine, a little parsley, with a small matter of thyme, or savory▪ two cloves, half a nutmeg grated, a tea-spoon full of shred le­mon peel, a little pepper and salt, and the yolks of two eggs.

Sauce for a Turkey. Good gravy in a dish; and either bread, onion, or oyster sauce in a bason.

Sauce for a Goose. A little good gravy in one bason, and some apple sauce in another.

For a Duck. A little gravy in the dish, and onions in a tea-cup.

Sauce for Fowls. Parsley and butter; or gravy in the dish, and either bread sauce, oysters sauce or egg sauce in a bason.

A Fowl, or Turkey, roasted with Chesnuts.

Roast a quarter of a hundred of chesnuts, and peel them; save out eight or ten, the rest bruise in a mortar, with the liver of the fowl, a quarter of a pound of ham well pound­ed, sweet herbs and parsley chopped fine: [Page 10] Season it with mace, nutmeg, pepper and salt: Mix all these together, and put them into the belly of your fowl: Spit it, and tie the neck and vent close. For sauce, take the rest of the chesnuts, cut them in pieces, and put them into a strong gravy, with a glass of white wine: Thicken with a piece of butter rolled into flour. Pour the sauce in the dish, and garnish with orange and water-cresses.

To roast a green Goose with green Sauce.

Roast your goose nicely; in the mean time, make your sauce thus: Take half a pint of the juice of sorrel, a spoonful of white wine, a little grated nutmeg, and some grated bread; boil this over a gentle fire, and sweeten it with pounded sugar to your taste; let your goose have a good froth on it before you take it up; put some good strong gravy in the dish, and the same in a boat. Garnish with lemon.

The German way of dressing Fowls.

Take a turkey or fowl, stuff the breast with what force meat you like, fill the body with roasted chesnuts peeled, and lay it down to roast; take half a pint of good gravy, with a little piece of butter roll'd in flour: boil these together, with some small turnips and sausages cut in slices, and fried or boiled Garnish with chesnuts.

Note. You may dress ducks the same way.

To roast Pigeons.

Take a little pepper and salt, a small pie [...] of butter, and some parsley cut small; [...] these together, put them into the bellies of your pigeons, tying the neck ends tight▪ [Page 11] take another string, fasten one end of it to their legs and rumps, and the other to the mantlepiece. Keep them constantly turning round, and baste them with butter. When they are done, take them up, lay them in a dish, and they will swim with gravy.

Wild Ducks, Widgeons, or Teal.

Wild fowl are in general liked rather under done; and if your fire is very good and brisk, a duck or Widgeon will be done in a quarter of an hour; for as soon as they are well hot through, they begin to loose their gravy, and if not drawn off, will eat hard. A teal is done in little more than ten minutes.

To roast Woodcocks or Snipes.

Spit them on a small bird spit; flour them, and baste them with butter: Have ready a slice of bread, toasted brown, which lay in a dish and set it under your birds, for the trail to drop on. When they are enough, take them up, and lay them on the toast; put some good gravy in the dish and some melt­ed butter in a cup. Garnish with orange or lemon.

To roast Quails.

Truss them, and stuff their bellies with beef suet and sweet herbs shred very fine, and seasoned with a little spice: When they grow warm▪ baste them with salt and water, then drudge them, and baste them with but­ter. For sauce, dissolve an anchovy in good gravy, with two or three shalots shred very fine, and the juice of a Seville orange; dish them up in this sauce, and garnish your dish [Page 12] with fried bread crumbs, and lemon; send them to table as hot as possible.

To roast Pheasants.

Take a brace of pheasants, lard them with small lards of bacon; butter a piece of white paper, and put over the breasts, and about ten minutes before they are done, take off the paper; flour and baste them with nice butter, that they may go to table with a fine froth: Put good gravy in the dish, and bread sauce, as for partridges, in a boat; garnish your dish with lemon.

To roast Partridges.

When they are a little under-roasted, drudge them with flour, and baste them with fresh butter: Let them go to table with a fine froth, and gravy sauce in the dish, and bread sauce in a bason. Make your bread sauce thus: Take a good piece of stale bread, and put it into a pint of water, with some whole pepper, a blade of mace, and a bit of onion: Let it boil till the bread is soft; the [...] take out the spice and onion; pour out the water, and beat the bread with a spoon till it is like pap; put in a good piece of butter, and a little salt; set it over the fire for two or three minutes; then put it into your boat. Garnish your partridges with sliced orange or lemon.

To roast Plovers.

Green plovers are roasted as you do wood­cocks: Lay them upon a toast, and put good gravy sauce in the dish. Grey plovers are roasted, or stewed, thus: Make a force meat [Page 13] of artichoak bottoms cut small, seasoned with pepper, salt, and nutmeg: Stuff the bellies, and put the birds into a sauce pan with a good gravy just to cover them, a glass of white wine, and a blade of mace; cover them close, and stew them softly, till they are ten­der; then take up your plovers into the dish; put in a piece of butter, rolled in flour, to thick­en your sauce; let it boil till smooth; squeeze in a little lemon; scum it clean, and pour it over the birds. Garnish with orange.

To roast Larks.

Truss your larks with the legs a-cross, and put a sage leaf over the breast; put them upon a long fine skewer, and between every lark a little piece of thin bacon; then tie the sk [...]wers to a spit, and roast them at a quick, clear fi [...]e, baste them with butter, and strew over them some crumbs of bread mixed with flour: fry some bred crumbs of a nice brown, in a bit of butter; lay your larks round in your dish, the bread cr [...]mbs in the middle, with a sliced orange for garnish. Send good gravy in a dish.

To roast Ortolans.

You may lard them with bacon, or roast them without, putting a vine leaf between each; spit them side-ways, baste them with butter, and strew bread crumbs on them while Roasting: Send them to table with fried bread crumbs a-round them, garnished with lemon, and a good gravy sauce in a boat.

To dre [...]s Ruffs and R [...]efs.

You may fatten them as you do chickens, [Page 14] with white bread, milk and sugar: They feed fast, and will die in their fattening, if not killed in time. When you dress them, draw them, and truss them cross-legged, as you do snipes, and spit them the same way; lay them upon a buttered toast, pour good gravy into the dish, and serve them up quick.

Of FISH.

To roast a Cod's Head.

Take the head, wash and scour it very clean, then scotch it with a knife, strew a little salt on it, and law it on a stew-pan before the fire, with something behind it: throw away the water that runs from it the first half hour, then strew on it some nutmeg, cloves, mace, and salt, and baste it often with butter, turn­ing it till it is enough. If it be a large head it will take four or five hours roasting; then take all the gravy of the fish, as much white wine, and more meat gravy, some horse-rad­dish, one or two shalots, a little sliced ginger, some whole pepper, cloves, mace, and nutmeg, a bay leaf or two; boil this liquor up with butter, and the liver of the fish boiled, broke, and strained into it, with the yolks of two or three eggs, oysters, shrimps, and balls made of fish; place fried fish round it. Garnish with lemon, and horse-raddish.

To roast a Pike.

Take a large pike, gut it, clean it, and lard it with eel and bacon, as you lard a fowl; then take thyme, savory, salt, mace, nutmeg, some crumbs of bread, beef-suet, [Page 15] and parsley, shred all very fine, and mix it up with raw eggs; make it in a long pud­ding, and put it in the belly of your pike; sew up the belly, and dissolve three anchovies in butter, to baste it with; put two splints on each side the pike, and tie it to the spit: melt butter thick for the sauce; or if you please, oyster sauce, and brui [...]e the pudding in it. Garnish with lemon.

To roast an Eel.

Take a large eel, and scour him well with salt; skin him almost to the tail; then gut, wash, and dry him; take a quarter of a pound of suet, shred as fine as possible; put to it sweet herbs, a shalot likewise shred very fine, and mix them together, with some salt, pepper, and grated nutmeg; scotch your eel on both sides, the breadth of a finger's distance, wash it over with yolks of eggs, lay some seasoning over it, and stuff the belly with it; then draw the skin over it, put a long skewer through it, and tie it to the spit, baste it with butter, and make the sauce of anchovies and butter melted.

CHAP. II. Of BOILING.

General Rules to be observed in boiling.

BE very careful that your pots and co­vers are well tinned, very clean, and free from sand. Mind that your pot really boils all the while; otherwise you will be disappointed in dressing any joint, though it has been a proper time over the fire. [Page 16] Fresh meat should be put in when the water [...] ▪ and salt meat whilst it is cold. Take car [...] likewise to have sufficient room and wa­ter in the pot▪ and allow a quarter of an hour to every p [...]und of meat, let it weigh more or less.

BUTCHERS MEAT.

To boil Beef or Mutton.

When your meat is put in, and the pot boils, take care to scum it very clean, other­wise the scum will boil down, stick to your meat, and make it look black. Send up your di [...]h with turnips, greens, potatoes, or carrots. If it be a leg or loin of mutton, you may al [...] put melted butter and capers in a boat.

To boil a Leg of Pork.

A leg of pork must lie in salt six or seven days; after which put into the pot to be boiled, without using any means to freshe [...] it. It requires much water to swim in over the fire, and also to be fully boiled; so that care should be taken, that the fire does not slacken while it is dressing. Serve it up with a pease pudding, melted butter, Durham mus­tard, buttered turnips, carrots or greens.

N. B. The other joints of the swine are most commonly roasted.

To boil Pickled Pork.

Wash the pork, and scrape it clean. Put it in wh [...]n the water is cold, and boil it till the [...]ind be tender It is to be served up always with boiled greens, and is most commonly i [...]lf a sauce to boiled fowls or veal.

[Page 17]
To boil Veal.

Let the pot boil, and have a good fire when you put in the meat; be sure to scum it very clean. A knuckle of veal will take more boiling in proportion to its weight, than any other joint, because the beauty is to have all the gristles soft and tender.

You may either send up boiled veal with parsley and butter; or with bacon and greens.

To boil a Calf's Head.

The head must be picked very clean, and soaked in a large pan of water, a considerable time before it be put into the pot. Tie the brains up in a rag▪ and put them into the pot at the [...]ame time with the head▪ [...] the pot well; then put in a piece of bacon, in pro­portion to the number of people to eat there­of. You wil [...] find it to be enough by the ten­derness of the flesh about that part that join­ed to the neck. When enough you may gr [...]ll it before the fire, or serve it up with melted butter, bacon and greens, and with the brains mushed and bea [...] up with a little butter, salt, pepper, vinegar or lemon, sage, and parsley, in a seperate plate, and the tongue slit and laid in the same p [...]te; or serve the brains whole, and the to [...]gue slit down the midd [...]e.

To boil Lamb.

A leg of lamb of five pounds will not be boiled in less than an hour and a quarter; and if, as it ought to be, it be boiled in a good deal of water, and your pot be kept clean scummed, you may dish it up as white as a [Page 18] curd. Send it to table with stewed spinach; and melted butter in a boat.

To boil a Neat's Tongue.

A dried tongue should be soaked over night, when you dress it put it into cold water, and let it have room; it will take at least four hours. A green tongue out of the pickle, need not be soaked, but will require near the same time. An hour before you dish it up, take it out and blanch it, then put it in­to the pot again till you want it, this will make it eat the tenderer.

To boil a Ham.

A ham requires a great deal of water, there­fore put it into the copper cold, and let it only simmer for two hours, and allow a full quar­ter of an hour to every pound of ham; by this means your ham will eat tender and well.

A dry ham should be soaked in water over night; a green one does not require soaking. Take care they are well cleaned before you dress them.

Before you send a ham to table take off the rind, and sprinkle it over with bread crumbs, and put in an oven for a quarter of an hour: or you may crisp it with a hot salamander.

To boil a Haunch of Venison.

Salt the haunch well, and let it lay a week; then boil it with a colliflower, some turnips, young cabbages and beet roots; lay your ve­nison in the dish, dispose the garden things [...]ound it, and send it to table.

[Page 19]

GAME and POULTRY.

To boil a Turkey, Fowl, Goose, Duck, &c.

Poultry are best boiled by themselves, and in a good deal of water; scum your pot clean, and you need not be afraid of their going to table of a bad colour. A large turkey, with a force- [...]at in the craw, will take two hours; one without, an hour and a half; a hen tur­key, three quarters of an hour; a large fowl, forty minutes; a small one, half an hour; a large chicken twenty minutes, and a small one, a quarter of an hour. A full grown goose salted, an hour and a half; a large duck, near an hour.

Sauce for boiled Turkey. Take a little wa­ter, a bit of thyme, an onion, a blade of mace, a little lemon-peel and an anchovy; boil these together, and strain them through a sieve, adding a little melted butter. Fry a few sausages to lay round the dish, and gar­nish with lemon.

Sauce for a Fowl. Parsley and butter; or white oyster sauce.

For a Goose. Onions, or cabbage, first boil­ed, and then stewed in butter for a few minutes.

For Ducks. They should be smothered with onions.

Chickens boiled with Cellery Sauce.

Put two fine chickens into a sauce-pan to boil, and in the mean time prepare the sauce; take the white part of two bunches of cellery, cut about an inch and a half long, and boil it till tender; strain off the water, and put [Page 20] the cellery into a stew pan, with half a pint of cream, and a piece of butter rolled in flour; season with pepper and salt; set it over a clear fire, and keep it stirring till it is smooth, and of a good thickness. Have ready half a dozen rashers of bacon; take up your chickens, pour your sauce into the dish, and put the rashers of bacon, and sliced lemon round.

To boil Pigeons.

Let the pigeons be boiled by themselves for about a quarter of an hour; then boil a pro­per quantity of bacon▪ cut square, and lay it in the middle of the dish. Stew some spi­nach to put round, and lay the pigeons o [...] the spinach. Garnish with parsley dried crisp before the fire.

To boil Rabbits.

Truss your rabbits close; boil them of white; for sauce, take the livers, which, wh [...] boiled, bruise with a spoon very fine, and take out all the strings; put to this some good vea [...] broth, a little parsley shred fine, and some bar­baries clean pick'd from the stalks; season it with mace and nutmeg; thicken it with a piece of butter rolled in flour, and a little white wine: Let your sauce be of a good thickness, and pour it over your rabbits. Garnish with lemon [...] and barberries.

To boil Rabbits with Onions.

Truss your rabbits short, with the heads turned over their shoulders: Let them be boiled off very white: Boil some large oni­ons in a good deal of water, till they are ve­ry tender; put them into a cullender, and [Page 21] when drained, pass them through it with a good piece of butter, a little salt, and a gill of cream: Stir them over the fire till they are of a good thickness; then dish up your rabbits, and pour the onions over them. Gar­nish with lemon and raw parsley.

To boil Woodcocks, or Snipes.

Boil them either in beef gravy, or good strong broth made in the best manner; put your gravy, when made to your mind, into a sauce-pan, and season it with salt; take the guts of your snipes out clean, and put them into your gravy, and let them boil; let them be covered close, and kept boiling, and then ten minutes will be sufficient. In the mean time, cut the guts and liver small. Take a small quantity of the liquor your snipes are boiled in, and stew the guts with a blade of mace. Take some crumbs of bread (about the quantity of the inside of a stale roll,) and have them ready fried crisp in a little fresh butter; when they are done, let them stand ready in a plate before the fire. When your snipes or woodcocks are ready, take about half a pint of the liquor they are boiled in, and put in two spoonfuls of red wine to the guts, and a lump of butter rolled in flour, about as big as a walnut: set them on the fire in a sauce-pan. Never stir it with a spoon, but shake it well till the butter is all melted; then put in your crumbs; shake your sauce pan well; then take your birds up, and pour your sauce over them.

[Page 22]
To boil Pheasants.

Let them be dressed in a good deal of wa­ter; if large, three quarters of an hour will do them, if small, half an hour. For sauce, use stewed cellery, thickened with cream, and a piece of butter rolled in flour, a little salt, and nutmeg grated, and a spoonful of white wine; pour the sauce over them; and garnish with orange cut in quarters.

To boil Partridges.

Boil them quick, and in a good deal of wa­ter; a quarter of an hour will do them.

For sauce, parboil the livers, and scald some parsley: Chop these fine; and put them into some melted butter, squeeze in a little lemon, give it a boil up, and pour it over the birds. Garnish with lemon.

But this is a more elegant Sauce.

Take a few mushrooms, fresh peeled, and wash them clean, put them in a sauce-pan with a little salt, set them over a quick fire, let them boil up, then put in a quarter of a pint of cream, and a little nutmeg; shake them together with a very little piece of but­ter rolled in flour, give it two or three shakes over the fire, [...]hree or four minutes will do; then pour it over the birds.

Of FISH.

To boil a Turbot.

A turbot ought to be put into pump water, with salt and vinegar, for two hours before it is dressed. In the mean time, put a suf­ficiency of water into a fish-kettle, with a stick of horse-raddish sliced, a handful of salt, [Page 23] and a faggot of sweet herbs. When the water tastes of the seasoning, take it off the fire, and let it cool a little, to prevent the fish from breaking. Put a handful of salt into the mouth and belly of the turbot, put it into the kettle, and boil it gently; a middling turbot will take about twenty minutes.

When it is enough, drain it a little: lay it upon a dish sufficiently large, and garnish with fried smelts, sliced lemon, scraped horse-rad­dish, and barberries.

Sauce. Lobster sauce, anchovy sauce, and plain butter in separate basons.

To boil a Cod.

Gut and wash the fish very clean inside and out, and rub the back bone with a handful of salt; put it upon a fish plate, and boil it gent­ly till it be enough; and remember always to boil the liver along with it. Garnish with scraped horse-radish, small fried fish, and and sliced lemon.

Sauce. Oyster sauce, shrimp sauce, or lob­ster sauce, with plain melted butter in different boats, and mustard in a tea-cup.

To boil a Cod's Head.

After tying your cod's head round with pack-thread, to keep it from flying, put a fish-kettle on the fire, large enough to cover it with water; put in some salt, a little vinegar, and some horse-radish sliced; when the water boils, lay your fish upon a drainer, and put it into the kettle; let it boil gently till it rises to the surface of the water, which it will do, if your kettle is large enough; [Page 24] then take it out, and set it to drain; slide it carefully off your drainer into your fish plate. Garnish with lemon, and horse-radish scraped.

Have oyster sauce in one bason, and shrimp sauce in another.

To boil Crimp Cod.

Cut a cod into slices, and throw it into pump water and salt: set over your stove a large fish kettle, or turbot-pan, almost full of spring-water, and salt sufficient to make it brackish; let it boil quick, then put in your slices of cod, and keep it boiling and clean scum'd: in about eight minutes the fish will be enough; then take the slices carefully up, and lay them on a fish plate. Garnish your dish with horse radish, lemon and raw parsley.

Send shrimp sauce in one boat, and oyster sauce in one other.

You may if you please, take some of the largest slices, flour them, and broil them to a fine brown, and send them in a dish for the lower end of the table.

To boil Scate.

Great care must be taken in cleaning this fish, and as it is commonly too large to be boil [...]d in a pan at once, the best way is to cut it into long slips cross-ways, about an inch broad and throw it into salt and water; and if the water boils quick it will be enough i [...] three minu [...]es. Drain it well, and serve it up with butter and mustard in one bason, and anchovy sauce in another.

[Page 25]You may, if you please place spitch cock'd [...]eels, round about the scate.

To boil Soals.

Clean the soals well, and having laid them two hours in vinegar, salt and water, dry them in a cloth, and then put them into a fish-pan with an onion, some whole pepper, and a little salt. Cover the pan, and let them boil till enough. Serve them up with ancho­vy sauce, and butter melted plain; or with shrimp or muscle sauce.

To boil Plaice and Flounders.

Let the pan boil; throw some salt into the water; then put in the fish; and (being boiled enough) take it out with a slice, and drain it well. Serve it up with parsley boiled, to garnish the edges of the dish; and with a bason of butter melted plain, and anchovy sauce, or butter melted with a little catchup.

To boil Sturgeon.

Having cleaned the sturgeon well, boil it in as much liquor as will just cover it, adding two or three bits of lemon-peel, some whole pepper, a stick of horse-radish, and a pint of vinegar, to every two quarts of water. When it is enough, garnish the dish with fried oysters, sliced lemon, and scraped horse-radish; and serve it up with a sufficient quan­tity of melted fresh butter, with cavear dis­solved in it; or (where that is not to be had) with anchovy sauce, and with the body of a crab bruised in the butter, and a little lemon-juice, served up in basons.

[Page 26]
To boil Salmon.

Let it be well scraped and cleansed fr [...] scales and blood; and after it has lain abo [...] an hour in salt and spring-water, put it [...] a fish-kettle, with a proportionate quant [...] of salt and horse radish, and a bunch of sw [...] herbs. Put it in while the water is lu [...]warm, and boil it gently till enough, [...] about half an hour, if it be thick; or twe [...]ty minutes, if it be a small piece. [...] off the water, dry it well, and dish it [...] upon a fish-plate, in the center, and g [...]nish the dish with horse rad [...]sh scraped▪ ( [...] done for roast beef,) or [...] fried smelts [...] gudgeons, and with slices of lemon round [...].

The sauce to be melted butter, with [...] without anchovy, shrimp or lobster sauce, [...] in different basons, served up with the fish.

To boil Carp.

Take a brace of large carp, scale the [...] and slit the tails, let them bleed into abo [...] half a pint of red wine, with half a nutm [...] grated; (keep it stirring, or the blood [...] congeal) then gut and wash them very clea [...] boil the roes first, and then the carp, as y [...] would do any other fish, then fry them; [...] some sippets cut corner-ways; dip some [...] oysters in butter, and fry them also, of a [...] brown.

For the sauce, take two anchovies, piece of lemon-peel, a little horse-radi [...] and a bit of onion; boil these in water [...] the anchovies are wasted; strain the liq [...] into a clean sauce-pan, and, as you like, [...] [Page 27] oysters stewed, a lobster cut small, without the spawn, craw-fish, or shrimps; set it over the fire, and let it boil; then take near a pound of butter, roll a good piece in flour, put it into your sauce-pan with the liquor, with what other ingredients you intend, and boil all together, till it is of a good thickness; then pour in the wine and blood, and shak [...] it about, letting it only simmer. Take up the fish, put them into a dish, and pour the sauce over them.

Garnish your dish with fried oysters, horse-radish, fried parsley and lemon; stick the [...]ippets about the fish, and lay the roe, some on the fish, and the rest in the dish; send it to [...]abl [...] as hot as you can.

A [...] this is an expensive method, you may, if you please, dress c [...]rp according to the next receipt for dressing tench.

To boil Tench

Clean your tench very well, then put them into a stew-pan, with as much water as will cover them; put in some salt, whole pepper▪ lemon-peel, horse-radish, and a bundle of sweet herbs, and boil them till they are [...] ­nough.

Take some of the liquor, a glass of white wine, a pint of shrimps, and an anchovy bruised; boil all together in a sauce-pan, roll a good piece of butter in flour, and brake it into the sauce; when of a proper thickness, pour it over the dish. Garnish with lemon and horse-radish scraped.

[Page 28]
To boil Mackrel.

Having cleaned the mackrel very well, and soaked them for some time in spring water, put them and the roes into a stew-pan, with as much water as will cover them, and little salt▪ [...]oil a small bunch of fennel along with them, and when you send them up, gar­nish with the roes, and the fennel shred fine.

Sauce. Grated sugar in a saucer; melted butter, and green gooseberries boiled, in different basons; or, parsley and butter, with a little vinegar.

To boil Eels.

Having skinned and washed your ells, and cut off the back fins with a pair of scissars, roll them round with the heads innermost, and run a strong skewer through them. Put them into a stew-pan, with a sufficient quan­tity of water, and a little vinegar and salt. Garnish with sliced lemon.

Sau [...]e. Parsley and butter.

To boil a Pike, or Jack.

Gut and clean your pike very well with salt and water, fasten the tail in the mouth with a skewer, then put it into a stew-pan, with as much water as will cover it, a little vinegar and salt, and a piece of horse-radish sliced. Garnish with sliced lemon, and scra­ped horse-radish.

Sauce. Anchovy, or shrimp sauce; or mel­ted butter and catchup.

To dress a Turtle.

Fill a boiler or kettle with a quantity of water sufficient to scald the callap [...]h and cal­lapee, [Page 29] the fins, &c. And about nine o'clock hang up your turtle by the hind fins, cut off its head, and save the blood; then with a sharp pointed knife seperate the callapach from the callapee (or the back from the belly part) down to the shoulders, so as to come at the entrails, which take out, and clean them, as you would those of any other animal, and throw them into a tub of clean water, taking great care not to break the gall, but to cut it off the liver▪ and throw it away. Then seperate each distinctly, and put the guts into another vessel, open them with a small penknife, from end to end, wash them clean, and draw them through a wool [...]len cloth in warm water, to clear away the slime, and then put them into clean cold water till they are used, with the other par [...] of the entrails, which must all be cut up small to be mixed in the baking dishes with the meat. This done, seperate the back and belly pieces entirely, cutting away the four fins by the upper joint, which scald, pee [...] off the loose skin, and cut them into small pieces, laying them by themselves, either in another vessel, or on the table, read [...] to be seasoned. Then cut off the meat from the belly part, and clean the back from the lungs, kidneys, &c. and that meat cut into pieces as small as a walnut, laying it likewise by itself. After this you are to scald the back and belly pieces, pulling off the shell from the back, and the yellow skin from the belly; when all will be white and [Page 30] clean, and with the kitchen cleaver cut those up likewise into pieces, about the bigness or breadt [...] of a card. Put those pieces into clean cold water, wash them out, and place them in a heap on the table, so that each part may lay by itself.

The meat, being thus prepared and laid se­parate, for seasoning, mix two-third parts of salt, or rather more, and one-third part of Cayenne pepper, black pepper, and a nutmeg and mace pounded fine, and mixed together; the quantity to be proportioned to the size of the turtle, so that in each dish there may be about three spoonfuls of seasoning to every twelve pounds of meat.

Your meat being thus seasoned, get some sweet herbs, such as thyme, savory, &c. let them be dried and rubbed fine, and hav [...]g provided some deep dishes to bake it in▪ (which should be of the common brown ware) put in the coarsest parts of the meat at the bottom, with about a quarter of a pound of butter in each dish, and then some of each of the several parcels of meat, so that the dishes may be all alike, and have equal portions of the different parts of the turtle; and between each laying of the meat, strew a little of the mixture of sweet herbs. Fill your dishes within an inch and an half, or two inches of the top; boil the blood of the turtle, and put into it; then lay on force-meat balls made of veal, or fowl, highly seasoned with the same seasoning as the turtle; put in each dish a gill of good Madeira wine, and as much [Page 31] water as it will conveniently hold; then break over it five or six eggs, to keep the meat from scorching at the top, and over that shake a handful of shred parsley, to make it look green; when done, put your dishes into an oven made hot enough to bake bread, and in an hour and an half, or two hours, (according to the size of your dishes) it will be sufficiently done.

To boil all kinds of GARDEN STUFF.

IN dressing all [...]orts of kitchen garden herbs, take care they are clean washed; that there be no small snails, or caterpillars be­tween the leaves; and that all the coarse outer leaves, and the tops that have received any injury by the weather, be taken off. Next wash them in a good deal of water, and put them into a cullender to drain. Care must likewise be taken, that your pot or sauce-pan be clean, well tinned, and free from sand, or grease.

To boil Asparagus.

First cut the white ends off about six inches from the head, and scrape them from the green part downward very clean. As you scrape them, throw them into a pan of clean water; and after a little soaking, tie them up in small even bundles. When your water boils, put them in, and boil them up quick; but by over boiling they will lose their heads. Cut a slice of bread for a toast, and bake it brown on both sides. When your grass is done, take them up carefully; dip the toast in the asparagus water, and lay it in the [Page 32] bottom of your dish; then lay the heads of the asparagus on it, with the white end [...] downwards: pour a little melted butter over the heads; cut an orange into small quarters, and stick them between for garnish.

To boil Artichokes.

Wring off the stalks close to the artichokes: Throw them into water and wash them clean; then put them into a pot or sauce-pan. [...]hey will take better than an hour after the water boils; but the best way is to take out a leaf, and if it draws easy, they are enough. Send them to table with butter in tea-cups between each artichoke.

To boil Colliflowers.

A colliflower is the most favorite plant in the kitchen-garden, amongst the generality of people. Take off all the green part, and cut the flower close at the bottom from the stalk: and if it be large or dirty, cut it into four quarters, that it may lay better in the pan, and be thoroughly cleansed. Let it soak an hour, if possible, in clean water; and then put it into boiling milk and water, (if you have any milk,) or water only, and skim the pan very well. When the flower or stalks left about it feel tender, it will be enough; but it must be taken up before it loses its crispness; for colliflower is good for nothing that boils till it becomes [...]uite soft. When enough, lay it to drain in a cullender for a minute or two, and serve it up in a dish by itself, and with melted butter in a bason.

[Page 34] [...] are enough. Strain them off. Garnish the dish wi [...]h boiled parsley, and send plain but­ter in a cup, or boat.

To boil Green Pease.

When your pease are shelled, and the wa­ter boils, which should not be much more than will cover them, put them in with a few leaves of mint: As soon as they boil, throw in a piece of butter as big as a walnut, and stir the [...] about; when they are enough, strai [...] them off, and sprinkle on a little salt; shake them till the water drains off; se [...]d them hot to table, with melted butter in a cup.

To boil Cabbage.

If your cabbage is large, cut it into quar­ters; if small, cut it in half; let your wa­ter boil, then put in a little salt, and next your cabbag [...], with a little more salt upon it; make your water boil as soon as possible, and when the stalk is tender, take up your cab­bage into a cullender, or sieve, that the wa­ter may drain off, and send it to table as hot as you can. Savoys are dressed in the same manner.

To boil Sprouts.

Pick and wash your sprouts very clean, and see there are no snails or grubs between the leaves, cut them a-cross the stem, but not the heart; after they are well washed, take them out of the water to drain; when your water boils, put in some salt, and then the sprouts, with a little more salt on them: make them boil quick, and if any scum a­rises [Page 35] take it clean off. As soon as the stalks are tender strain them off, or they will not only lose their colour, but likewise their flavour.

To boil Spinach.

There is no herb requires more care in the washing, than spinach; you must carefully p [...]ck it leaf by leaf, take off the [...] and wash it in three or four waters; then put it into a cullender to drain. It does not re­quire much water to dress it: half a pint, in a sauce-pan that holds two quarts, will dress as much spinach as is generally wanted for a small family. When your water boils put in your spinach with a small handful of salt, pressing it down with the spoon, as you put it into the sauce-pan; let it boil quick, and as soon as tender, put it into a sieve or cul­lender, and press out all the water. When you send it to table, raise it up wi [...]h a fo [...], that it may lay hollow in the dish.

To boil Turnips.

A great deal depends upon preparing this root for boiling. They require paring till all the stringy coat be cut quite off: for that outside will never boil tender. Being well rinded, out them in two, and boil them in the pot with either beef, mutton, or lamb. When they become tender, take them out, press the liquor from them between two trenchers, put them into a pan, and mash them with butter and a little salt, and send them to table in a plate or bason by them­selves. Or send them out of the pot in a [Page 36] plate, with some melted butter in a bason, for every one [...]o butter and season them, as they like.

To boil Parsnips.

Parsnips are a very sweet root, and an a­greeable sauce for salt fish. They should be boiled in a great deal of water, and when yo [...] find they are soft (which is known by running a fork into them) take them up and carefully scrape all the dirt off them, and then with a knife scrape them all fine, throwing away all the dirty parts; then put them into a sauce-pan with some milk, and stir them over the fire till they are thick. Take care they do not burn; add a good piece of butter, and a little salt, and when the butter is melted send them to table.

But common parsnips are served up in a dish, when well boiled and scraped, with melted butter in a bason.

To boil Carrots.

Let them be scraped very clean, and when they are enough, rub them in a clean cloth, then slice some of them into a plate, and pour some melted butter over them; and garnis [...] the dish with the others, either whole or cut into pieces, or split down the middle. If they are young spring carrots, half an hour will boil them; if large, an hour; but old Sand­wich carrots will take two hours.

To boil Potatoes.

Potatoes must always be peeled, except they be very small and new, then some people fan­cy to eat skin and all. Some pare potatoes [Page 37] before they are put into the pot; others think it the best way both for saving time and pre­venting waste, to peel off the skin as soon as they are boiled; which then slips off by rub­bing them with a coarse cloth. In boiling of them take care they be enough, and not over done; for if boiled too much, they mas [...] and become watery. Therefore it requires good attention when you are boiling pota­toes, and that they be taken up as soon as they begin to shew the least disposition to break. This is a root in great request, and served up in a dish or plate, whole for the most part, with a bason of melted butter. On which occasion, it will be some addition to the potatoes to set them befere the fire till they are quite dry, and a little browned.

CHAP. II. Of FRYING.

Of BUTCHERS MEAT.

To fry Tripe.

CUT your tripe into pieces about three inches long, dip them into the yolk of an egg and a few crumbs of bread, fry them of a fine brown, and then take them out of the pan, & lay them in a dish to drain. Have ready a warm dish to put them in, and send them to table, with butter and mustard in a cup.

[Page 38]

To fry Beef Steaks.

Take rump steaks, beat them very well with a ro [...]ler, fry them in half a pint of ale that is no [...] bitter, and whilst they are frying▪ cut large onion small, a very little thyme, some p [...]rsl [...]y shred small, some grated nutmeg, and a little pepper and [...]alt, roll a [...]l together in a piece of but [...]r, and then in a little flour, put this into the s [...]ew-pan▪ and shake all to­gether. When the steaks are tender, and the sauce of a fine thickness, dish them up.

Another way to fry Beef Steaks.

Cut the lean by itself, and beat them well with the back of a knife▪ fry them in just as much butter as will moisten the pan, pour out the gravy as it runs out of the meat, tur [...] them often, and do them over a gentle fire; then fry the fat by itself, and lay upon the lean, and put to the gravy a glass of re [...] wine, half an anchovy, a little nutmeg, a lit­tle beaten pepper, and a shalot cut small; give it two or three little boils, season it with salt to your palate, pour it over the steaks, and send them to table.

To fry a loin of Lamb.

Cut the loin into thin steaks, put a very little pepper and salt, and a little nutmeg on them, and fry them in fresh butter; when enough take out the steaks, lay them in a dish before the fire to keep hot; then pour out the butter, shake a little flour over the bottom of the pan, pour in a quarter of a pint of boiling water, and put in a piece of [Page 39] butter; shake all together, give it a boil or two up, pour it over the steaks, and send it to table.

Note. You may do mutton the same way, and add two spoonfulls of walnut pickle.

To fry Sausages with Apples.

Take half a pound of sausages, and six apples; slice four about as thick as a crown, cut the other two in quarters, fry them with the sausages of a fine light brown, and lay sausages in the middle of the dish, and the apples round. Garnish with the quartered apples.

Stewed cabbage and sausages fried, is a good dish; then heat cold peas pudding in the pan, lay it in the dish, and the sausages round, heap the pudding in the middle, and lay the sausages all round edge-ways, and one in the middle at length.

To fry cold Veal.

Cut it into pieces about as thick as half a crown, and as long as you please, dip them in the yolk of an egg, and then in crumbs of bread, with a few sweet herbs, and shred le­mon-peel in it; grate a little nutmeg over them, and fry them in fresh butter. The butter must be hot, and just enough to fry them in: In the mean time, make a little gravy of the bone of the veal; when the meat is fried, take it out with a fork, and lay it in a dish before the fire, then shake a little flour into the pan, and stir it round; put in a little gravy, squeeze in a little lemon, and pour it over the veal. Garnish with lemon.

[Page 40]

To fry Beef Collops.

Cut your beef in thin slices, about two inches long, lay them upon your dresser, and [...]ack them with the back of a knife; grate a little nutmeg over them, and dust on some flour; lay them into a s [...]ew pan, and put in as much water as you think sufficient for sauce; shred half an onion, and a little le­mon-peel very fine, a bundle of sweet herbs, and a little pepper and salt: Roll a piece of butter in flour, and set them over a clear fire, till they begin to simmer; shake them toge­ther often▪ but don't let them boil up; after they begin to simmer, ten minutes will do them; take out your herbs, and dish them up. Garnish the dish with pickles and horse-radish.

To make Scotch Collops.

Dip the slices of lean veal in the yolks of eggs, that have been beaten up with melted butter, a little salt, some grated nutmeg, and grated lemon-peel. Fry them quick; shake them all the time, to keep the butter from oiling. Then put to them some beef gravy, and some mushrooms, or forced meat balls. Garnish with sausages and sliced lemon, and slices of broiled or fried bacon.

Observe, if you would have the collops white, do not dip them in eggs. And whe [...] fried tender, but not brown, pour off the li­quor quite clean, and put in some cream to the meat, and give it just a boil up.

To fry Veal Cutlets.

Cut a neck of veal into steaks, and fry [Page 41] them in butter; and having made a strong broth of the scrag-end, boiled with two an­chovies, some nutmeg, some lemon peel, and parsley shred very small, and browned with a little burnt butter, put the cutlets and a glass of white wine into this liquor. Toss them up together: thicken with a bit of but­ter rolled in flour; and dish all together. Squeeze a Seville orange over, and strew as much salt on as shall give a relish.

To fry Mutton Cutlets.

Take a handful of grated bread, a little thyme and parsley, and lemon-peel shred ve­ry small, with some nutmeg, pepper and salt; then take a loin of mutton, cut it into steaks, and let them be well beaten; then take the yolks of two eggs, rub all over the steaks. Strew on the grated bread with these ingre­dients mixed together. Make the sauce of gravy, with a spoonful or two of claret and a little anchovy.

To fry Calf's Liver and Bacon.

Cut the liver in slices, and fry it first brown and nice, and then the bacon; lay the liver in the dish, and the bacon upon it. Serve it up with gravy and butter, and a little orange or lemon juice, and garnish with sliced le­mon.

To fry Sweetbreads and Kidneys.

After splitting the kidneys, fry them and the sweetbreads in butter. Serve them up with a brown ragout sauce, and mushrooms; garnished with fried parsley and sliced lemon.

[Page 42]

To fry Eggs as round as Balls.

Having a deep frying-pan, and three pints of clarified butter, heat it as hot as for frit­ters, and stir it with a stick, till it runs round like a whirlpool; then break an egg into the middle, and turn it round with your stick, till it be as hard a poached egg; the whirl­ing round of the butter will make it as round as a ball, then take it up with a slice, and put it in a dish before the fire; they will keep hot half an hour, and yet be soft; so you may do as many as you please. You may poach them in boiling water in the same manner.

Of FISH.

To fry Carp.

Scale and clean your carp very well, slit them in two, sprinkle them with salt, flour them, and fry them in clarified butter. Make a ragout with a good fish broth, the melts of your fish, artichoake bottoms cut in small dice, and half a pint of shrimps; thicken it with the yolks of eggs▪ or a piece of butter rolled in flour; pour the ragout into a dish, and lay your fried carp upon it. Garnish with fried sippets, crisp parsley, and lemon.

To fry Tench.

Slime your tenches, slip the skin along the backs, and with the point of your knife raise it up from the bone, then cut the skin a-cross at the head and tail, then strip it off, and take out the bone; then take another tench, or a carp, and mince the flesh small with mushrooms, chives, and parsley. Sea­son [Page 43] them with salt, pepper, beaten mace, nutmeg, and a few savoury herbs minced small. Mingle these all well together, then pound them in a mortar, with crumbs of bread, as much as two eggs, soaked in cream, the yolks of three or four eggs, and a piece of butter. When these have been well pounded, stuff the tenches with this farce: Take clarified butter, put it into a pan, set it over the fire, and when it is hot flour your tenches, and put them into the pan one by one, and fry them brown; then take them up, lay them in a coarse cloth before the fire, to keep hot. In the mean time, pour all the grease and fat out of the pan, put in a quarter of a pound of butter, shake some flour all over the pan, keep stirring with a spoon till the butter is a little brown; then pour in half a pint of white wine, stir it to­gether, pour in half a pint of boiling water, an onion stuck with cloves, a bundle of sweet herbs, and a blade or two of mace. Cover them close, and let them stew as softly as you can for a quarter of an hour, then strain off the liquor, put it into the pan again, add two spoonfuls of catchup, have ready an ounce of truffles or morels boiled in half a pint of water tender, pour in the truffles water and all, into the pan, a few mushrooms, and either half a pint of oysters, clean washed in their own liquor, and the liquor and all put into the pan, or some craw-fish; but then you must put in the tails, and after clean picking them, boil them in half a pint of [Page 44] water, then strain the liquor and put into the sauce: or take some fish-melts, and tos [...] up in your sauce. All this is just as you fancy.

When you find your sauce is very good, put your tench into the pan, make them quite hot, then lay them into your dish, and pour the sauce over them. Garnish with lemon.

Or you may, for change, put in half a pint of stale beer instead of water. Or you may dress tench just as you do carp.

To fry Trout.

Scale your trout clean, then gut them, and take out the gills, wash them, and dry them in a cloth, flour them, and fry them in but­ter, till they are of a fine brown; when they are enough, take them up, and serve them; fry some parsley green, and crisp, melt an­chovy and butter, with a spoonful of white wine. Dish your fish, and garnish with fri­ed parsley, and sliced lemon. You may pour your sauce over the fish, or send it in a boat, which you please.

In this manner you may fry perch, small pike, jacks, roach, gudgeons, or a chine of fresh salmon.

To fry flat Fish.

Dry the fish well in a cloth, rub them over with the yolk of an egg, and dust over some flour, let your oil, butter, lard, or dripping, be ready to boil before you put in the fish; fry them off with a quick fire▪ [Page 45] and let them be of a fine brown. Before you dish them up, lay them upon a drainer before the fire sloping, for two or three mi­nutes, which will prevent their eating greasy.

You must observe on fast-days, and in Lent, never to dress your fish in any thing but but­ter, or oil.

To fry Herrings.

After having cleaned your herrings, take out the roes, dry them and the herrings in a cloth; flour them, and fry them in butter of a fine brown; lay them before the fire to drain; slice three or four onions, flour them, and fry them nicely; dish up the herrings, and garnish them with the roes and onions: Send them up as hot as you can, with butter and mustard in a cup.

To fry Eels.

After having skinned and cleaned your eels, split them, and cut them in pieces; let them lay for two or three hours in a pickle made of vinegar, salt, pepper, bay leaves, sliced onion, and juice of lemon; then drudge them well with flour, and fry them in clarified butter; serve them dry with fried parsley, and lemon for garnish. Send plain butter in a cup.

To fry Lampries.

Bleed them, and save the blood, then wash them in hot water, to take off the slime, cut them in pieces, and let them be fried in butter, not quite enough; drain out all the fat, then put in a little white wine▪ [Page 46] and shake your pan; season them with whole pepper, nutmeg, salt, sweet herbs, and a bay leaf, a good piece of butter rolled in flour, and the blood that was saved; co­ver them close, and shake the pan often. When you think they are enough, take them up, and give the sauce a quick boil, squeeze in a little lemon, and pour the sauce over the fish; send it to table. Garnish with lemon.

To fry small Fish of all Sorts.

Small fish are generally dressed to garnish a dish of fish, as smelts, gudgeons, roach, small whitings, &c. wipe them dry with a cloth, then rub them over with the yolk of an egg, flour them, and fry them in oil, butter, hogs-lard, or beef-dripping; take care they are fried of a fine light brown; and if they are sent by themselves in a dish, garnish with fried parsley and lemon.

Whitings, when small, should be turned round, the tail put in the mouth, and so fried; if large, they are skinned, and turned round and fried.

Plaice, flounders, and dabs, are rubbed over with eggs, and fried.

Small maids are frequently dipped in bat­ter, and fried.

As these sorts of fish are generally dressed by themselves for supper, you may send va­rious sauces as you like; either shrimps, oysters, anchovy and butter, or plain melted butter; and some choose oil and lemon.

[Page 47]

To fry Oysters.

You must make a batter of milk, eggs, and flour; then take your oysters and wash them, wipe them dry, and dip them in the batter; then roll them in some crumbs of bread and a little mace beat fine, and fry them in very hot butter or lard.

Or, beat four eggs with salt, put in a little nutmeg grated, and a spoonful of grated bread, then make it as thick as batter for pancakes with fine flour; drop the oysters in, and fry them brown in clarified beef suet. They are to lie rou [...] any dish of fish; ox pa­lates boiled tender, blanched, and cut in pieces, then fried in such batter, is proper to garnish hashes or f [...]ic [...]ssees.

Of GARDEN STUFF.

To fry Artichoke Bottoms.

FIRST blanch them in water, then flour them, fry them in fresh butter, lay them in your dish, and pour melted butter over them. Or you may put a little red wine into the butter, and season with nutmeg, pepper, and salt.

To fry Colliflowers.

Take two fine colliflowers, boil them in milk and water, then leave one whole, and pull the other to pieces; take half a pound of butter, with two spoonfuls of water, a little dust of flour, and melt the butter in a stew-pan; then put in the whole colliflower cut in two, and the other pulled to pieces, and fry it till it is of a very light brown. Season it with pepper and salt. When it is [Page 48] enough, lay the two halves in the middle, and pour the rest all over.

To fry Celery.

Take six or eight heads of celery, cut off the green tops, and take off the outside stalks, wash them clean; then have ready half a pint of white wine, the yolks of three eggs beat fine, and a little salt and nut­meg; mix all well together with flour into a batter, dip every head into the batter, and fry them in butter. When enough, lay them in the dish, and put melted butter over them.

To fry Potatoes.

Cut them into thin slices, as big as a crown piece, fry them brown, lay them in the plate or dish, pour melted butter, and sack and sugar over them. These are a pretty cor­ner-plate.

To fry Onions.

Take some large onions, peel them, and cut them into slices about a quarter of an inch thick; then dip these slices into batter, or an egg beaten, without breaking them, and fry them of a nice brown.

To fry Parsley.

Pick the parsley very clean, and see that it be young. Then put a little butter into a clean pan, and when it is very hot put in the parsley; keep it stirring with a knife till it be crisp, then take it out, and use it as gar­nish to fried lamb, &c.

[Page 49]

CHAP. IV. Of BROILING.

To broil Beef Steaks, Mutton, or Pork Chops.

SEASON the steak with a mixture of pep­per and salt, and lay it on the grid-iron. Do not turn the steak till one side be enough; and when the other side has been turned a little while, a fine gravy will lie on the top of it; which you must take care to preserve; and list it all together with a pair of small tongs, or carefully with a knife and fork, into a hot dish, and put a little piece of butter un­der it, which will help to d [...]aw out the gravy. Some palates like it with a shalot or two▪ or an onion, shed very fine in the dish or plate.

But if they be mutton or pork steaks, they must be turned quick on the gridiron.

The general sauce for steaks is horse-radish for beef; mustard for pork; and girkins pickled for mutton. But in the season, I would recommend a good sallad, or green cucumbers, or cellery for beef or mutton, and green peas for lamb steaks. All which sau­c [...]s are served up in saucers, or plates, &c. distinct from the meat.

To broil Pigeons.

Put a bit of butter, some shred parsleys and a little pepper and salt into the bellie, of the pigeons, and tie them up neck and vent. Set your gridiron high, that they may not burn, and have a little melted butter in a cup. You may split them, and [Page 50] broil them with a little pepper and salt; and you may roast them only with a little parsley and butter in a dish.

To broil Chickens.

Slit them down the back, and season them with pepper and salt, lay them on a very clear fire, and at a very great distance. Let the inside lie next the fire, till it is above half done: then turn them, and take great care the fleshy side do not burn, throw some fine raspings of bread over it, and let them be of a fine brown, but not burnt. Let your sauce be good gravy, with mushrooms, and garnish with lemon and the livers broiled, the giz­zards cut, slashed, and broiled with pepper and salt.

To broil Cod, Salmon, Whiting, or Haddock.

Flour them, and have a quick clear fire, set your gridiron high, broil them of a fine brown; lay them in a dish▪ and for sauce have good melted butter. Take a lobster, bruise the body in the butter, cut the meat small, put all together into the melted but­ter, make it hot and pour it into the dish, or into basons. Garnish with horse-radish and lemon.

To broil Mackrel.

Cut off their heads, gut them, wash them clean, pull out the roe at the neck end, boil it in a little water, then bruise it with a spoon, beat up the yolk of an egg, with a little nutmeg, a little lemon-peel cut fine, a little thyme, some parsley boiled and chopped fine, a little pepper and salt, and a [Page 51] few crumbs of bread; mix all well together, and fill the mackrel; flour it well, and broil it nicely. Let your sauce be plain butter, with a little catchup or walnut pickle.

To broil Herrings.

Scale them, gut them, cut off their heads, wash them clean, dry them in a cloth▪ flour them and broil them, but with a knife just notch them a cross: take the heads and mash them, boil them in small beer or ale, with a little whole pepper and [...] onion. Let it boil a quarter o [...] an [...] ▪ then strain it▪ thicken it with butter and [...], add a good deal of mustard. Lay the fish in a dish, and pour the sauce into a bason; or plain melted butter and mustard.

To broil Cod-Sounds.

You must first lay them in hot water a few min [...]tes; take them out and rub them well with salt, to take off the skin and black dirt, then they will look white; then put them in water and give them a broil. Take them out and flour them well, pepper and salt them, and broil them. When they are e­nough, lay them in the dish, and pour melt­ed butter and mustard into the dish. Broil them whole.

To broil Eels.

Take a large eel, skin it and make it clean. Open the belly, cut it in four pieces, take the tail-end, strip off the flesh, beat it in a mortar, season it with a little beaten mace, a little grated nutmeg, pepper [Page 52] and salt, a little parsley and thyme, a little lemon-peel, an equal quantity of crumbs of b [...]e [...]d, roll it in a little piece of butter; then mix it again with the yolk of an egg, roll it up again, and fill the three pieces of belly with it. Cut the skin of the eel, wrap the pieces in, and sew up the skin. Broil them we [...]l, have butter and an anchovy for sauce, with a piece of lemon.

To Spitch [...]ock Eels.

You must split a large eel down the back, and joint the bones, cut it in two or three pieces, melt a little butter, put in a little vi­negar and salt, let your eel lay in it two or three minutes; then take the pieces up one by one, turn them round with a little fine skewer, roll them in crumbs of bread, and broil them of a fine brown. Let your sauce be plain butter, with the juice of lemon, or anchovy sauce.

To broil Eggs.

First put your salamander into the fire, then cut a slice round a quartern loaf, toast it brown, and butter it, lay it in the dish, and set it before the fire; poach seven eggs, just enough to set the whites, take them out care­fully, and lay them on your toast; brown them with the salamander, grate some nutmeg over them, and squeeze Seville orange over all. Garnish your dish with orange cut in slices.

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CHAP. V. Of GRAVIES and SAUCES.

To draw Gravy.

CUT a piece of beef into thin slices▪ and fry them brown in a stew-pan, with two or three onions, and two or three lean slices of bacon; then pour to it a ladle of strong broth, rubbing the brown from the pan very clean; add to it more strong broth, claret▪ white wine, anchovy, a faggot of sweet herbs: season it, and stew it very well. Strain it off and keep it for use.

To make white Gravy.

Take part of a knuckle of veal, or the worst part of a neck of veal, boil about a pound of this in a quart of water, an onion, some whole pepper, six cloves, a little salt, a bunch of sweet herbs, half a nutmeg sliced: let them boil an hour, then strain it off, and keep it for use.

A gravy without Meat.

Take a glass of small beer, a glass of wate [...] ▪ an onion cut small, some pepper and salt, and a little lemon-peel grated, a clove or two, a spoonfull of mushroom liquor, or pickled wal­nut liquor; put this into a bason, then take a piece of butter, put it in a sauce-pan, and set it on the fire; and let it melt, then dr [...]dge in some flour, and stir it well till the froth sinks, and it will be brown; put in some sliced onion, then put your mixture to the brown butter, and give it a boil up.

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Gravy for a Turkey or Fowl.

Take a pound of lean beef, cut and hack it, then flour it well, put a piece of butter as big as a hen's egg in a stew-pan; when it is melted, put in your beef, fry it on all sides a little brown, then pour in three pints of boil­ing water, and a bundle of sweet herbs, two or three blades of mace, three or four cloves, twelve whole pepper-corns, a little bit of car­rot, a little crust of bread toasted brown; cover it close, and let it boil till there is about a pint or less, then season it with salt, and strain it off.

Gravy to make Mutton eat like Venison.

Take a woodcock, or snipe, that is stale, (the staler the better) pick it, cut it in two, and hack it with a knife; put it into a stew-pan, with as much gravy as you shall want, and let it simmer for half an hour; then strain the gravy for use This will give the mutton so true a flavour of game, that no one can tell it from venison.

Gravy for a Fowl, when you have no Meat ready.

Take the neck, liver, and gizzard, boil them in half a pint of water, with a little piece of bread to [...]sted brown, a little pepper and salt, and a little bit of thyme. Let them boil till there is about a qu [...]rter of a pint; then pour in half a glass of red wine, boil it and strain it; then bruise the liver w [...]ll in, and strain it again; thicken it with a little piece of b [...]tter rolled in flour, and it will be very good.

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To make a strong Fish Gravy.

Take two or three eels, or any fish you have, skin or scale them, gut them and wash them from grit, cut them into little pieces, put them into a sauce pan, cover them with water, a little crust of bread toasted brown, a blade or two of mace, some whole pepper, a few sweet herbs, and a little bit of lemon-peel. Let it boil till it is rich and good, then have ready a piece of butter, according to your gravy; if a pint, as big as a walnut. Melt it in the sauce-pan, then shake in a lit­tle flour, and toss it about till it is brown, and then strain in the gravy to it. Let it boil a few minutes, and it will be good.

To make Assence of Ham.

Take off the fat of a ham, and cut the lean in slices, beat them well and lay them in the bottom of a stew-pan, with slices of car­rots, parsnips and onions; cover your pan, and set it over a gentle fire; let them stew till they begin to stick, then sprinkle on a lit­tle flour, and turn them; then moisten with broth and veal gravy. Season them with three or four mushrooms, as many truffles, a whole leak, some parsley, and half a dozen cloves: or instead of a leak, a clove of gar­lick. Put in some crusts of bread, and let them simmer over the fire for a quarter of an hour; strain it, and set it aside for use. Any pork or ham does for this, that is well cured.

To make a standing Sauce.

Take a quart of claret or white wine, put it in a glazed jar, with the juice of two [Page 56] lemons, five large anchovies, some Jamaica pepper whole, some sliced ginger, some mace, a few cloves, a little lemon peel, horse radish sliced, some sweet herbs, six shallots, two spoonfuls of capers, and their liquor, put all these in a linnen bag, and put it into the wine, stop it close, and set the vessel in a kettle of hot water for an hour, and keep it in a warm place. A spoonful or two of this liquor is good in any sauce.

To make Sauce for Roasted Meat.

Take an anchovy, wash it very clean, and put to it a glass of red wine, a little strong broth or gravy, some nutmeg, one shallot shred, and the juice of a Seville orange; stew these together a little, and pour it to the gravy that runs from your meat.

To make Sauce for Savoury Pies.

Take some gravy, some anchovy, a bunch of sweet herbs, an onion, and a little mush­room liquor; boil it a little, and thicken it with burnt butter, then add a little claret, open your pie and put it in. This serves for mutton, lamb, veal, or beef pies.

To make Sauce for a sweet Pie.

Take some white wine, a little lemon juice, or verjuice, and some sugar; boil it, then beat two eggs, and mix them well together; then open your pie, and pour it in. This may be used for veal or lamb pies.

To make Sauce for Fish Pies.

Take claret▪ whi [...]e wine and vinegar, oyster liquor, anchovies and drawn butter; [Page 57] when the pies are baked, pour it in with a funnel.

To melt Butter thick.

Your sauce pan must be well tinned, and very clean. Just moisten the bottom with as small a quantity of water as possible, not a­bove a spoonful to half a pound of butter. You may or may not dust the butter with flour: it is better not to flour it. Cut the butter in slices, and put it into the pan be­fore the little water becomes hot. As it melts, keep the pan shaking one way frequently; and when it is all melted let it boil it up, and it will be smooth, fine, and thick.

To burn Butter.

Put two ounces of butter over a slow fire, in a stew-pan or sauce-pan, without water. When the butter is melted dust on a little flour, and keep it stirring till it grows thick and brown.

To make Mushroom Sauce for White Fowls.

Take a pint of mushrooms, wash and pick them very clean, and put them into a sauce-pan, with a little salt, some nutmeg, a blade of mace, a pint of cream, and a good piece of butter rolled in flour. Boil these all toge­ther, and keep stirring them; then pour your sauce into the dish, and garnish with lemon.

Mushroom Sauce for White Fowls boiled.

Take half a pint of cream, and a quarter of a pound of butter, stir them together one way till it is thick; then add a spoonful of [Page 58] mushroom pickle, pickled mushrooms, or fresh if you have them. Garnish only with le­mon.

To make Cellary Sauce, for roasted or boiled Fowls, Turkies, Partridges, or other Game.

Take a large bunch of cellary, wash and pare it very clean, cut it into little thin bits, and boil it softly in a little water till it is tender; then add a little beaten mace, some nutmeg, pepper, and salt, thickened with a good piece of butter rolled in flour; then boil it up, and pour it in the dish.

To make brown Cellary Sauce.

Stew the cellary as above, then add mace, nutmeg, pepper, salt, a piece of butter roll­ed in flour, with a glass of red wine, a spoon­full of catchup, and half a pint of good gravy; boil all these together, and pour into the dish. Garnish with lemon.

To make Egg Sauce for roasted Chickens.

Melt your butter thick and fine, chop two or three hard boiled eggs fine, put them into a bason▪ pour the butter over them, and have good gravy in the dish.

Shallot Sauce for roasted Fowls.

Take five or six shallots peeled and cut small, put them into a sauce-pan, with two spoonfuls of white wine, two of water, and two of vinegar; give them a boil up, and pour them into the dish, with a little pepper and salt. Fowls laid on water-cresses is very good, without any other sauce.

Shallot Sauce for a Scrag of Mutton boiled.

Take two spoonfuls of the liquor the mutton is boiled in, two spoonfuls of vinegar, [Page 59] two or three shallots cut fine, with a little salt; put it into a sauce pan, with a piece of butter as big as a walnut, rolled in a little flour; stir it together, and give it a boil. For those who love shallots, it is the prettiest sauce that can be made to a scrag of mutton.

To make Lemon Sauce for boiled Fowls.

Take a lemon, pare off the rind, then cut it in [...]o slices, and cut it small; take all the kernels ou [...], bruise the liver with two or three spoonfuls of good gravy then melt some but­ter, mix it all together, give them a boil, and cut in a little lemon-peel very small.

A pretty Sauce for a boil [...]d Fowl.

Take the liver of the fowl, bruise it with a little of the liquor, cut a little lemon peel fine, melt some good butter, and mix the liver by degrees; give it a boil, and pour it into the dish.

To make Onion Sauce.

Boil some large onions in a good deal of water, till they are very tender; put them in­to a cullender, and when drained, pass them through it with a spoon; put them into a clean sauce-pan, with a good piece of butter, a little salt, and a gill of cream: Stir them over the fire till they are of a good thickness.

To make Apple Sauce.

Take as many boiling apples as you chuse, peel them, and take out all the cores; put them in a sauce-pan with a little water, and a [Page 60] few cloves, and simmer them till quite soft. Then strain off all the water, and b [...]at them up with a little brown sugar and butter.

Bread, or Pap Sauce.

Take a pint of water, put in a good piece of crumb of bread, a blade of mace, and a little whole pepper, boil it for eight or ten minutes and then pour the water off; take out the spice, and beat up the bread with a little butter.

Mint Sauce.

Take young mint▪ pick and wash it clean; then shred it fine, put it into a small bason, sprinkle it well with sugar, and pour in vine­gar to your palate.

Parsley Sauce.

Tie the parsley up in a bunch, and boil it till soft; shred it fine, and mix it with melt­ed butter.

To make Parsley Sauce in Winter, when there is no Parsley to be got.

Take a little parsley-seed, tie it up in a clean rag, and boil it for ten minutes in a sauce-pan; then take out the seeds, and let the water cool a little Take as much of the liquor as you want, drudge in a little flour; and then put in your butter & melt it. Shred a little boiled spinach, and put it in also; and pour it into a boat.

To make Lobster Sauce.

Take a lobster, bruise the body and spawn, that is in the inside, very fine, with the back of a spoon, mince the meat of the [Page 61] tail and claws very small, melt your butter of a good thickness, put in the bruised part, and shake it well together, then put in the minced meat with a little nutmeg grated, and a spoonful of white wine; let it just boil up, and pour it into boats, or over your fish.

To make Shrimp Sauce.

Put half a pint of shrimps, clean picked, into a gill of good gravy; let it boil up with a lump of butter rolled in flour, and a spoon­ful of red wine.

To make Oyster Sauce.

Take a pint of oysters that are tolerably large; put them into a sauce-pan with their own liquor, a blade of mace, a little whole pepper, and a bit of lemon-peel; let them stew over the fire till the oysters are plump; pour all into a clean pan, and wash them carefully, one by one, out of the liquor; strain about a gill of the liquor through a fine sieve, add the same quantity of good gravy, cut half a pound of fresh butter in pieces, roll up some in flour, and then put all to your oysters; set it over the fire, shake i [...] round often till it boils, and add a spoon­ful of white wine; let it just boil, and pour it into your bason or boat.

To make Anchovy Sauce.

Strip an anchovy, bruise it very fine, put it into a half a pint of gravy, a quarter of a pound of butter rolled in flour, a spoonful of red wine, and a tea spoonful of catchup▪ boil all together till it is properly thick, and serve it up.

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To make a good Fish Sauce.

Take half a pint of water, two anchovi [...] split, a clove, a bit of mace, a little lemon-peel, a few pepper-corns, and a large spoonf [...] of red wine; boil all together, till your anchovy is dissolved; then strain it off, and thicken it with butter rolled in flour. Thi [...] is the best sauce for skate, maids▪ or thornback.

N. B. For other particular sauces, see the receipts for different dishes.

CHAP. VI. Of STEWING.

To stew Beef.

TAKE four pounds of stewing beef, with the hard fat of brisket beef cut in piec [...] ▪ Put these into a stew-pan with three pints of water, a little salt, pepper, dried marjor [...] powdered, and three cloves. Cover the pa [...] very close; and let it stew four hours over a slow fire. Then throw into it as much tu [...] ­nips and carrots cut into square pieces, as you think convenient; and the white part of a large leek, two heaps of celery shred fine▪ a crust of bread burnt, and half a pint of red wine (or good small beer will do as well). Then pour it all into a soup-dish, and serve it up hot, garnished with boiled carrot sliced.

To stew Brisket of Beef.

Having rubbed the brisket with common salt and salt-petre, let it lie four days. Then lard the skin with fat bacon, and put [Page 63] it into a stew-pan with a quart of water, a pint of red wine or strong beer, half a pound of butter, a bunch of sweet herbs, three or four shalots, some pepper, and half a nut­meg grated. Cover the pan very close. Stew it over a gentle fire for six hours. Then fry some square pieces of boiled turnips very brown. Strain the liquor the beef was stewed in. Thicken it with burnt butter, and having mixed the turnips with it, pour all together over the beef in a large dish. Serve it up hot, and garnish it with lemon sliced. An o [...] cheek, or a leg of beef may be served up in the same manner.

To stew Beef Gobbets.

Cut any piece of beef, except the leg, in pieces, the size of a pullet's egg. Put them in a stew-pan, and cover them with water. Let them stew one hour, and skim them very clean. Then add a sufficient quantity of mace, cloves, and whole pepper tied up loose in a muslin rag, some celery cut small, and salt, turnips, and carrots pared and cut in slices▪ a little parsley, a bundle of sweet herbs, a large crust of bread, and if you please, add an ounce of pearl barley, or rice. Cover all close▪ and stew it till tender. Then take out the herbs, spices and bread, and add a French roll fried and cut in four. Dish up all toge­ther, and send it to table.

To stew Ox Palates.

Put the palates into a sauce pan of cold water, and let them stew very softly over a [Page 64] slow fire till they are tender. Then cut them into pieces, and dish them with cocks-combs and artichoke bottoms cut small; and garnish with lemon sl [...]ced, and with sweet-breads stewed for white dishes, and fried for brown ones, and cut also in little pieces.

N. B. This stew is generally used for improving a fricasee, or a ragout of veal, lamb, rabbits, &c.

To stew Beef Steaks.

Half broil the beef steaks; then put them into a stew-pan, season them with pepper and salt according to your palate; just cover them with gravy. Also put in a piece of butter rolled in flour. Let them stew gently for half an hour, then add the yolks of two eggs beat up, and stir all together for two or three minutes, and serve it up. Garnish with pickles and horse-radish scraped.

To stew Beef Collops.

Cut raw beef, as veal is cut for Scotch collops. Put the collops into a stew-pan with a little water, a glass of white wine, a shalot, a little dried marjorum rubbed to powder, some salt and pepper, and a slice or two of fat bacon. Set this over a quick fire till the pan be full of gravy, which will be in a little time: add to it a little mushroom juice; and the [...] serve it up hot; and garnish with sliced le­mon, or small pickles and red cabbage.

To stew Veal in general.

Let the veal be raw, roasted or boiled; cut it into thick slices, and just cover the [Page 65] veal with water in a stew-pan. Season with pepper, salt, and grated nutmeg, a little mace, sweet marjoram, a shallot, and lemon-thyme, or a little grated lemon-peel. Stew all toge­ther, and when almost enough, put into the liquor a little good gravy, and mushroom li­quor, a glass of white wine, and a little lemon juice. Let these stew a little longer. Then strain off the liquor, and thicken it with but­ter and flour. Lay the meat in the dish, and pour the sauce over it. Garnish the dish with sippets, and fried oysters▪ or bits of broiled bacon and sliced lemon, on the rim of the dish.

To stew a knuckle of Veal.

Boil the knuckle till there is just enough liquor for sauce. To which add one spoon­ful of catchup, one of red wine, and one of walnut pickle: also some truffles, morels, or dried mushrooms cut small if you please. Boil all together. When enough, take up the meat; lay it in a dish, pour the sauce or liquor over it, and send it to table, garnished with sliced lemon.

To stew a Neck of Veal.

Cut a neck of veal in steaks, and season them well with a mixture of salt, pepper, gra­ted nutmeg, thyme, and knotted marjoram. Stew these gently over a slow fire, in cream or new milk, till they be enough. Then add two anchovies, some gravy or strong broth, and a piece of butter rolled in flour. Toss it up till it becomes thick. Then put it in a dish and serve it up hot. Garnish with le­mon sliced.

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To stew a Breast of Veal.

Let the breast be fat and white, cut o [...] both ends, and boil them for gravy. Make a forced meat of the sweet-bread boiled, a few crumbs of bread▪ a little beef suet, two eggs, pepper and salt, a spoonful or two of cream and a little grated nutmeg, with which mixture, having raised the thin part of the breast, stuff the veal. Skewer the skin close down, drudge it over with flour; tie it up in a cloth, and boil it in milk and water about an hour.

The proper sauce for this dish is made of a little gravy, about a gill of oysters, a few mushrooms s [...]ed fine, and a little juice of le­mon, thickened with flour and butter.

To stew a Pig.

Roast a pig till it is thorough hot, then skin it, cut it in pieces, and put it into a stew-pan, with a sufficient quantity of strong gravy, a gill of white wine, some pepper, salt and nutmeg, an onion, a little marjoram, three spoonfuls of elder vinegar, (if you have any) and a piece of butter. Cover all close, and let it stew gently over a slow fire and when enough▪ serve it up hot, pou [...]ed upon sippets, and garnished with lemon sliced.

To stew Mutton Chops.

Cut the chops thin, put them into a shallow tin-pan, with a cover that shuts very close. Add a very lit [...]l [...] water, with a little salt and pepper. Cover the pan very close, and set it over a very slow fire. [Page 67] They will be done in a very few minutes. Dish them with their own liquor. Garnish with capers, or other pickles.

To stew a Leg, or Neck of Mutton.

Bone the joint to be stewed. Break the bones and put them into a sauce-pan, with a sufficient quantity of whole pepper, salt and mace, to make it relish; also one nut­meg bruised, one anchovy▪ and one middling turnip; a little faggot of sweet herbs, two middling onions quartered, a pint of al [...] (and as much red wine, if you like it) two quarts of water, and a hard crust of bread. Stop it close, and let it stew five hours. Then put in the mutton, and let it stew two hours.

To stew a Hare.

Beat it well with a rolling pin in its own blood. Cut it into little bits and fry them. Then put the hare into a stew-pan▪ with a quart of strong gravy, pepper and salt ac­cording to the palate, and let it stew till tender. Thicken it with butter and flour. Serve it up in its gravy, with sippets in the dish, and lemon sliced for garnish.

To Jug a Hare.

Having cased the hare, turn the blood out of the body into the jug. Then cut the hare to pieces, but do not wash it. Then cut three quarters of a pound of fat bacon into thin slices. Pour upon the blood about a pint of strong old pale beer: put into the jug a middling sized onion, stuck with three or four cloves, and a bunch of sweet herbs: [Page 68] and having seasoned the hare with pepper, salt, nutmeg, and lemon-peel grated, put in the meat, a layer of hare, and a layer of bacon. Then stop the jug close, so that the steam be kept in entirely; put the jug into a kettle of water over the fire, and let it stew three hours, then strain off the liquor, and having thickened it with burnt butter, serve it up hot, garnished with lemon sliced.

To stew a Turkey or Fowl.

Take a turkey or fowl, put it into a sauce-pan, or pot, with a sufficient quantity of gravy or good broth; a bunch of cellery cut small, and a muslin rag filled with mace, pepper, and all spice, tied loose, with an onion and a sprig of thyme. When these have stewed softly till enough, take up the turkey or fowl: thicken the liquor it was stewed in with butter and flour: and having dished the turkey, or fowl, pour the sauce into the dish.

To stew Chickens.

Cut two chickens into quarters, wash them and put them into a clean sauce pan, with a pint of water, half a pint of red wine, some mace, pepper, a bundle o [...] sweet herbs, an onion, and a piece of stale crust of bread. Cover them close, and stew them half an hour. Then put in a piece of butter, as big as an egg, rolled in flour, and cover it again close for five or six mi­nutes. Shake the sauce-pan about, and take out the onion and sweet herbs. Garnish with sliced lemon.

[Page 69] N. B. Rabbits, partridges, &c. may be done the same way; and it is the most inno­cent manner for sick, or lying-in persons.

To stew Pigeons.

Stuff the bellies of the pigeons with a sea­soning made of ground pepper, salt, beaten mace, and some sweet herbs shred very fine. Tie up the neck and vent, and when half roasted, put them into a stew-pan, with a suf­ficient quantity of gravy, a little white wine, some pickled mushrooms, and a bit of lemon-peel. Let them stew till enough. Then take them out, thicken the liquor with butter and the yolks of eggs. Dish the pigeons, and pour the sauce over them. Garnish with lemon.

N. B. If you would enrich this receipt— You may, when the pigeons are almost done, put in some artichoke bottoms, boiled and fried in butter, or asparagus tops boiled.

To Jug Pigeons.

Truss and season the pigeons with pepper and salt; and having stuffed them with a mixture of their own livers shred with beef suet, bread crumbs, parsley, marjoram, and two eggs, sew them up at both ends, and put them into the jug, the breast down­wards, with half a pound of butter. Stop up the jug, so as that no steam can get out; then set them in a pot of water to stew. They will take two hours and more in doing, and they must boil all the time. [Page 70] When stewed enough, take them out of the gravy, skim off the fat clean; put a spoonful of cream, a little lemon-peel, an anchovy shr [...]d, a few mushrooms, and a little white wine to the gravy; and having thickened it with but­ter & flour, & dished up the pigeons, pour the sauce over them. Garnish with sliced lemon.

To stew Ducks

Draw and clean your d [...]cks well, and put them into a stew-pan with strong beef gravy, a glass of red wine, a little whole pepper, [...] onion, an anchovy, and lemon peel. When well stewed, thicken the gravy with butter and flour, and serve all up together, garnished with shalots.

To stew Wild Fowl.

Half roast a wild duck, &c. Then cut it into bits. When cold, put it into a stew-pan, with a sufficient quantity of beef gravy, and let it stew till tender. Then thicken it with burnt butter, and serve it up all together, with sippets within the sides, and lemon sli­ced on the rim of the dish.

To stew Giblets

Let the giblets be clean picked and washed, the feet skinned, and the bill cut off, the head split in two, the pinion bones broken, the li­ver and gizzard cut it four, and the neck in two pieces; put them into half a pint of water, with pepper, salt, a small onion, & sweet herbs. Cover the sauce pan close, and let them stew till enough upon a slow fire. Then season [Page 71] them with salt, take out the onion, and herbs, and pour them into a dish with all the liquor.

To stew Carp or Tench.

Scrape them very clean, then gut them, wash them and the roes in a pint of good stale beer, to preserve all the blood and boil the carp with a little salt in the water.

In the mean time strain the beer, and put it into a sauce-pan, with a pint of red wine, two or three blades of mace, some whole pepper, black and white▪ an onion stuck with cloves, half an nutmeg bruised, a bundle of sweet herbs, a piece of lemon peel as big as a six pence, an anchovy, and a little piece of horse-radish▪ Let these boil toge­ther softly for a quarter of an hour, co­vered close; then train the liquor and add to it half the hard roe beat to pieces, two or three spoonfuls of catchup, a quarter of a pound of fresh butter, and a spoonful of mushroom pickle; let it boil, and keep stirring it till the sauce is thick and enough; if it wants any salt, you must put some in; then take the rest of the roe, and beat it up with the yolk of an egg, some nutmeg, and a little lemon-peel cut small; fry it in fresh butter in little cakes, and some pieces of bread cut three-corner ways and fried brown. When the carp are enough take them up, pour your sauce over them, lay the cakes round the dish, with horse-radish scraped fine, and fried parsley. The rest lay on the carp, and put the fried bread about them, [Page 72] lay round them sliced lemon [...] upon the edge of the dish, and two or [...] p [...]ces on the carp. Send them to [...].

To stew a Cod.

Cut your cod into slices an [...] lay them in the bottom of a large [...]; season them with nutmeg, beaten p [...]pper, and salt, a bundle of sweet herbs, and an onion, half a pint of white wine, and a quarter of a pint of water; cover it close, and let it simmer softly for five or six mi­nutes; then squeeze in the juice of a lemon; put in a few oysters and the liquor, strained; a piece of butter as big as an egg, rolled in flour, and a blade or two of mace; co [...]er it close, and let it stew softly, shaking the pan often. When it is enough, take out the sweet-breads and onion, and dish it up; pour the sauce over it. Garnish with lemon.

To stew Ee [...]s.

Skin, gut, and wash them very clean in six or eight waters, to wash away all the sand; then cut them in pieces, about as long as your finger; put just water enough in the pan for sauce, with an onion stuck with cloves, a little bundle of sweet herbs, a blade of mace, and some whole pepper in a thin muslin rag. Cover the pan, and let them stew very softly.

Look at them now and then; put in a little piece of butter rolled in flour, and a little chopped parsley. When you find they are quite tender and well done, take out [Page 73] the onion, spice, and sweet herbs Put in salt enough to season them, and dish them up with the sauce.

To stew Oysters or Muscles.

Plump them in their own liquor; then, having drained off the the liquor, wash them clean in fair water. Set the liquor drained from the oysters, or as much as necessary, with the addition of an equal quantity of wa­ter and white wine, a little whole pepper, and a blade of mace, over the fire, and boil it well. Then put in the oysters, and let them just boil up, and thicken it with a piece of butter and flour: Some will add the yolk of an egg. Serve them up with sippets and the liquor, and garnish the dish with gra­ted bread, or sliced lemon.

To stew Spinach and Eggs.

Pick and wash your spinach very clean, put it into a sauce-pan, with a little salt; cover it close, shake the pan often, when it is just tender, and whilst it is green, throw it into a sieve to drain, and lay it in your dish. In the mean time have a stew-pan of water boil­ing, break as many eggs in cups as you would poach. When the water boils, put in the eggs, have an egg slice ready to take [...]hem out with, lay them on the spinach, and gar­nish the dish with orange cut in quarters, and send up melted butter in a cup.

To stew Parsnips.

Boil them tender, scrape them from the dirt, cut them into slices, put them into a [Page 74] sauce pan, with cream enough for sauce, a piece of butter rolled in flour, a little salt, and shake the sauce-pan often. When the cream boils, pour them into a plate for a cor­ner-dish, or aside dish at supper.

To stew Cucumbers.

Pare twelve cucumbers, and slice them as thick as a crown piece; put them to drain, and then lay them in a coarse cloth till they are dry; flour them and fry them brown in butter; pour out the fat, then put to them some gravy, a little claret, some pepper, cloves, and mace, and let them stew a little; then roll a bit of butter in flour, and toss them up▪ season with salt: you may add a little mushroom liquor.

To stew Pease and Lettice.

Take a quart of green pease, two nice let­tices clean washed and picked, cut them small a-cross, put all into a sauce-pan, with a quar­ter of a pound of butter, pepper and salt to your palate; cover them close, and let them stew softly, shake the pan often. Let them stew ten minutes, then shake in a little flour, toss them round, and pour in half a pint of good gravy; put in a little bundle of sweet herbs, and an onion, with three cloves, and a blade of mace stuck in it. Cover the pan close, and let them stew a quarter of an hour; then take out the onion and sweet herbs, and pour all into the dish.

To stew-Red Cabbage.

Take a red cabbage, lay it in cold water an hour, cut it into thin slices a-cross, and [Page 75] then into little pieces. Put it into a stew-pan, with a pound of sausages, a pint of gravy, a little bit of ham or lean bacon: cover it close, and let it stew half an hour; then take the pan off the fire, and skim off the fat, shake in a little flour, and set it on again. Let it stew two or three minutes, then lay the sau­sages in the dish, and pour the rest all over. You may, before you take it up, put in [...] a spoonful of vinegar.

To stew Pears.

Pare six pears, and ei [...]her quarter them▪ or do them whole: they make a pretty dish with one whole, the rest cut in quarters, and the cores taken out. Lay them in a deep earthen pot, with a few cloves, a piece of lem [...]n peel, a gill of red wine, and a quarter of a pound of fine sugar. If the pears are very large, they will take half a pound of sugar, and half a pint of red wine; cover them close with brown paper, and bake them till they are enough.

Serve them up hot or cold, just as you like them, and they will be very good with water in the place of wine.

To stew Mushrooms.

Take fresh mushrooms, either in buttons, or when the tops are spread, clean them well, washing the buttons with a wet flannel, and the tops must have their skins pulled off, and their gills scraped out, if they happen to be found, or else do not use them; cut the tops, if they are good, in large pieces, and put them all together in a sauce-pan, without any [Page 76] liquor, cover it close, and let them stew gent­ly, with a little salt, till they are tender, and covered with liquor; then take out your mushrooms, and drain them▪ or else put some pepper to them, with some white wine, and when they have boiled up, pour off the sauce, and thicken it with a little butter rolled in flour: some will put in a shalot at the first, and other spice, but that will spoil the flavour of the mushrooms, which every body desires to preserve.

CHAP. VII. Of HASHES.

To hash Beef.

TAKE the raw part of any joint of beef, and cut it into thin slices, about the length of a little finger, and about the same breadth. Take also a little water, and an equal quantity of stale beer; boil it well with a large onion cut in two, pepper and salt: then take a piece of butter rolled in flour, and stir it in the pan till it burns. Put it into the sauce, and let it boil a minute or two. Then put in the sliced beef, but you must only just let it warm through. Some add mushroom or walnut liquor, or catchup. Serve this up to table in a soup-dish, garnished with pickles.

To Hash Mutton.

Take mutton half roasted, and cut it in pieces as big as a half crown; then put into the sauce-pan half a pint of claret, as much [Page 77] strong broth or gravy, (or water, if you have not the other) one anchovy, a shallot, a little whole pepper, some nutmeg grated, and salt to your taste; let these stew a little, then put in the meat, and a few capers and samphire shred; when it is hot through, thicken it up with a piece of fresh butter rol­led in flour; toast sippets, and lay them in the dish, and pour the me [...]t on them. Gar­nish with lemon.

To hash Lamb's Head and Pluck.

Boil the head and pluck a quarter of an hour, at most, the heart five minutes, the liver and lights half an hour. Cut the heart, liver and lights into small square bits, not bigger than a pea. Make a gravy o [...] the liquor that runs from the head, and a quarter of a pint of the liquor in which it is boiled, a little walnut liquor or catchup, and a little vinegar, pepper and salt. Then put in the brains and the harshed meat, shake them well together in the liquor, which should be only just as much as to wet the meat. Pour all upon sippets in a hollow dish; and, having grilled the head before the fire, or with a salamander, lay it open with the brown side upwards▪ upon the harshed liver, &c. Garnish with sliced pickled cucumbers, and thin slices of bacon broiled.

To mince Veal.

Take any part of veal that is under done, either roasted or boiled, and shred it as fi [...]e as possible with a knife. Then take a suf­ficient [Page 78] quantity of beef gravy, dissolve in it the quantity of a hazel nut of cavear to half a pound of meat, and then put into the gravy the minced veal, and let it boil not above a minute. Pour it into a soup plate or dish upon sippets of bread toasted; and garnish the dish with pickled cucumbers, &c. or with thin slices of bacon broiled.

To hash a Calf' [...] Head brown.

Take a calf's head and boil it; when it is cold, take one half of the head and cut off the meat in thin slices, put it into a stew-pan, wi [...]h a little brown gravy, put to it a spoonful or two of walnut pickle, a spoonful of catchup▪ a little claret, a little shred mace▪ a few capers shred, or a little mango; boil it over a stove, and thicken it with butter and flour; take the other part of the head, cut off the bone ends, and score it with a knife, season it with a little pepper and salt▪ rub it over with the yolk of an egg, and strew over a few bread crumbs, and a little parsley; then set it before the fire to broil till it is brown; and when you dish up the other part, lay this in the middle; lay about your hash brain-cakes, with forced-meat balls, and crisp bacon.

To make the Brain Cakes.

Take a handful of bread crumbs, a little shred lemon peel, pepper, salt, nutmeg, sweet marjoram, parsley shred fine, and the yolks of three eggs; take the brains and skin them, boil and chop them small, so mix [Page 79] them all together; take a little butter in your pan when you fry them, and drop them in as you do fritters, and if they run in your pan, put in a handful more of bread crumbs.

To hash a Calf's Head white.

Take a calf's head, and boil it as much as you would do for eating, when it is cold cut it in thin slices, and put it into a stew-pan, with a white gravy; then put to it a little shred mace, salt, a pint of oysters, a few shred mushrooms, lemon-peel, three spoonfuls of white wine, and some juice of lemon; shake all together, boil it over the stove, and thicken it up with a little flour and butter. When you put it in your dish, you must put a boiled fowl in the middle, and a few slices of crisp bacon round the dish.

To dress a Mock Turtle.

Take a calf's head, and scald off the hair as you would do off a pig; then clean it, cut off the horny part in thin slices, with as little of the lean as possible; put in the brains and the giblets of a goose well boiled; have ready between a quart and three pints of strong mutton, or veal gravy, with a pint of Madeira wine, a large tea-spoonful of Cayan pepper, a large onion cut very small; half the peel of a large lemon shred as fine as possible, a little salt, the juice of two lemons, and sweet herbs cut small; stew all these together, till the meat is very tender, which will be in about an [Page 80] hour and a half; and then have ready the back shell of a turtle, lined with a paste of flour and water, which you must first set in the oven to harden; then put in the ingredi­ents, and set it into the oven to brown the top; and when that is done, suit your garnish at the top with the yolks of eggs boiled hard, and forced meat balls.

N. B. If you cannot get the shell of a turtle, a China soup-dish will do as well; and the setting may be omitted.

To hash cold Fowl.

Cut your fowl up, divide the legs, wings, breast, &c. into two or three pieces; then put them into a stew-pan, with a blade or two of mace, and a little shred lemon-peel: drudge on a little flour, and throw in some gravy; when it begins to simmer, put in a few pickled mushrooms, and a lump of butter rolled in flour. When it boils, give it a toss or two, and pour it into the dish. Garnish with sliced lemon and barberries.

To hash a Hare.

Cut up your hare intirely, put it into a stew-pan with some good gravy, a gill of red wine, some shred lemon-peel, and a bundle of sweet herbs; let it stew for an hour; then add some forced meat balls, and yolks of twelve hard-boiled eggs, with truffles and morells. Give them a boil up, then take out the herbs▪ place the hare [...]ndsomely on the dish, and pour the [...] over it. Garnish with sliced [...] barberries

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CHAP. VIII. Of SOUPS.

To make Gravy Soup.

TAKE the bones of a rump of beef, and a piece of the neck, and boil it till you have all the goodness of it; then strain it off, and take a good piece of butter, put it in a stew-pan, and brown it, then put to it an oni­on stuck with cloves, some cellery, endive, spinach, and three carrots; put to your gra­vy some pepper, salt, and cloves, and let it boil all together; then put in sippets of bread dried by the fire; and you may add a glass of red wine. Serve it up with a French roll toasted, and laid in the middle.

To make a rich Giblet Soup.

Take four pounds of gravy beef, two pounds of scrag of mutton, two pounds of scrag of veal; stew them well down in a sufficient quantity of water for a strong broth, let it stand till it is quite cold, then skim the fat clean off. Take two pair of giblets well scal­ded and cleaned, put them into your broth, and let them simmer till they are stewed ten­der; then take out your giblets, and run the soup through a fine sieve to catch the small bones; then take an ounce of butter, and put it into a stew-pan, mixing a proper quantity of flour, which make it of a fine light brown. Take a small handful of chieves, the same of parsley, very little pennyroyal, and a [Page 82] very little sweet-marjoram; chop all these herbs together excessive small, put your soup over a slow fire, put in your giblets, butter and flour, and small herbs; then take a pint of Madeira wine, some Cayenne pepper, and salt to your palate. Let them all simmer to­gether, till the herbs are tender, and the soup is finished. Send it to table with the giblets in it.

N. B. The livers must be stewed in a sauce-pan by themselves, and put in the dish when you serve it up.

To make a good Pease Soup.

Take a quart of split pease, put them into a gallon of soft water, with a faggot of herbs, some whole Jamaica and black pepper, two or three onions, a pound of lean beef, a pound of mutton, and a pound of the belly piece of salt pork; boil all together, till your meat is thoroughly tender, and your soup strong; then strain it through a sieve, and put it into a clean sauce-pan; cut and wash three or four large heads of cellery, some spinach, and a handful of dried mint, rubbed fine; boil it till your cellery is tender; then serve it up with toasted bread cut in dice.

To make Green Pease Soup.

Have a knuckle of veal of four pounds, a pint and a half of the oldest green pease sh [...]lled, set them over the fire, with five qu [...]ts of water▪ add two or three blades of mace, a qu [...]rter of an ounce of whole pepper, a small onion stuck with three cloves, and a [Page 83] faggot of sweet-herbs, cover it close, and let it boil till half is wasted; strain it off, and pass your liquor through a sieve, put it into a clean sauce-pan, with a pint of the youngest pease, the heart of a cabbage, a lettice or two, and the white part of three or four heads of cellery cut small; cover it close, and let it stew for an hour. If you think it is not thick enough, take some of your soup, and put in half a spoonful of flour; stir it in a bason till it is smooth; pour it into your soup; stir it well together, and let it boil for ten minutes, then dish it up with the crust of a French roll.

To make a white portable Soup.

Take a leg of veal bone it, and take off all the skin and fat, take likewise two dozen of fowls, or chickens feet washed clean, and chopped to pieces; put all into a large stoving-pot, with three gallons of soft water, and let it stove gently, till the meat is so tender, as to separate. You must keep your pot tight covered, and a constant fire during the time of its stoving; in about seven or eight hours, try your jelly in a cup, and when quite cold, if it is so stiff, you cannot cut it with a knife, take it off, and strain it through a sieve, and take off all the fat and skum first with a spoon, and then with philtering paper: Provide China cups, and fill them with the clear jelly; set them in a gravy-pan or a large stew-pan of boiling water over a stove; in this water boil your jelly in the cups, till it is as thick as glue. [Page 84] After which, let them stand in the water till they are quite cold: Before you turn them out of your cups, run the edge of a knife round them, to loosen them; then turn them upon a piece of new flannel, which will draw out all the moisture gra­dually. Turn them every six or eight hours, till they are perfectly dry, and like a piece of glue; keep them in as dry a place as you can, and in a little time they will be so dry, that you may carry them in your pocket, without the least inconveni­ence. When you want to use it, take a piece about the bigness of a walnut, and pour a pint of boiling water on it, stirring it till it is dissolved; season it with salt to your taste, and you will have a bason of strong broth. If you want a dish of soup, boil vermicelli in water; then to a cake of your soup, pour a pint of water, so that four cakes will make two quarts; when it is thoroughly melted, set it over the fire just to simmer; pour it into the dish, put in thin slices of bread hardened before the fire, and the vermicelli upon them. Thus you have a dish of soup in about half an hour. Whilst this is doing, you may have any thing drest to follow, which will not only be a good addition to your dinner, but sav­ing time.

Note. You must season it to your palate, as there is no salt, or seasoning of any kind in the preparation.

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To make a brown portable Soup.

Take a large leg of beef, bone it, and take off the skin, and what fat you can▪ put it into a stoving-pot, with a tight cover; put to it about four gallons of soft water, with six anchovies, half an ounce of mace, a few cloves, half an ounce of whole white pepper, three onions cut in two, a faggot of thyme, sweet marjoram, and parsley, with the bottom crust of a two-penny loaf that is well backed; cover it very close, and let it have a constant fire to do leisurely for seven or eight hours; then stir it very well together, to make the meat separate: Cover it close again, and in an hour try your broth in a cup, to see if it will glutinate▪ if it does, take it off, and strain it through a canvas jelly bag into a clean pan; then have China, or well glazed earthen cups, and fill them with the clear jelly; put them into a broad gravy-pan, or stew pan, with boiling water; set in the cups, and let them boil in that till they are perfectly glue. When they are almost cold, run a knife round them, and turn them upon a piece of new flannel, to draw out all the moisture; in six or seven hours turn them, and do so till they are per­fectly hard and dry; put them into stone jars, and keep them in a dry place.

This is very good for soups, sauces, or gravies. When you intend to make it into soup, shred and wash very clean what herbs you have to enrich it, as cellery, endive, charvil, leeks, lettice, or indeed what herbs [Page 86] you can get; boil them in water till they are tender, strain them off, and with that water dissolve what quantity of portable soup you please, according to the strength you would have it. If you are where you can get it, fry a French roll, and put in the middle of your dish, moistened first with some of your soup, and when your cakes are thoroughly melted, put your herbs to it, and set it over the fire till it is just at boiling; then dish it up, and send it to table.

To make Vermicelli Soup.

Take two quarts of strong veal broth, put it into a clean sauce-pan, with a piece of bacon stuck with cloves, and half an ounce of butter rolled in flour; then take a small fowl trussed to boil, break the breast-bone, and put it into your soup; stove it close, and let it stew three quarters of an hour; take about two ounces of vermicelli, and put to it some of the broth; set it over the fire till it is quite tender. When your soup is ready, take out the fowl, and put it into the dish; take out your bacon, skim your soup as clean as possible; then pour it on the fowl, and lay your vermicelli all over it; cut some French bread thin, put it into your soup, and send it to table.

If you chuse it, you may make your soup with a knuckle of veal, and send a handsome piece of it in the middle of the dish, instead of the fowl.

[Page 87]

To make Soup Lorraine.

Have ready a strong veal broth that is white, & clean scummed from all fat; blanch a pound of almonds, beat them in a mortar▪ with a little water, to prevent their oiling, and the yolks of four poached eggs, the lean part of the legs, and all the white part of a roasted fowl; pound all together as fine as possible; then take three quarts of the veal broth put it into a clean stew pan, put your ingredients in, and mix them well together; chip in the crust of two French rolls well ras­ped; boil all together over a stove, or a clear fire. Take a French roll, cut a piece out of the top, and take out all the crumb; mince the white part of a roasted fowl very fine, season it with pepper, salt, nutmeg, and a lit­tle beaten mace; put in about an ounce of butter, and moisten it with two spoonfuls of your soup strained to it; set it over the stove to be thorough hot: Cut some French rolls in slices, and set them before the fire to crisp; then strain off your soup through a tammy or a lawn strainer, into another clean stew pot; let it stew till it is as thick as cream; then have your dish ready: put in some of your crisp bread; fill your roll with the mince, and lay on the top as close as possible; put it in the middle of the dish, and pour a ladleful of your soup over it; put in your bread first, then pour in the soup, till the dish is full. Garnish with petty patties; or make a rim for your dish, and garnish with lemon raced.

[Page 88]If you please, you may send a chicken bo­ned in the middle, instead of the roll; or you may send it to table with only crisp bread.

To make Sorrel Soup with Eggs.

Take the chump end of a loin of mutton, and part of a knuckle of veal to make your stock with; season it with pepper, salt, cloves▪ mace and a faggot of sweet herbs; boil it till it is as rich as you would have it; strain it off, and put it into a clean sauce-pan: Put in a young fowl, cover it over, and stove it; then take three or four large handfuls of sor­rel washed clean; chop it grosly, fry it in but­ter, put it to your soup, and let it boil till your fowl is thoroughly done; skim it clean, and send it to table with the fowl in the mid­dle, and six poached eggs round it. Garnish the dish with fried sippets, and stewed sorrel.

To make Asparagus Soup.

Take five or six pounds of lean beef cut in lumps, and rolled in flour; put it in your stew-pan, with two or three slices of fat bacon at the bottom; then put it over a slow fire, and cover it close, stirring it now and then till the gravy is drawn: then put i [...] two quarts of water, and half a pint of ale. Cover it close, and let it stew gently for an hour, with some whole pepper, and salt to your mind; then strain off the liquor, and take off the fat; put in the leaves of white beets, some spinach, some cabbage lettice, a little mint, some sorrel, and a little sweet [Page 89] marjoram powdered; let these boil up in your liquor, then put in the green tops of aspara­gus cut small, & let them boil till all is tender. Serve it up hot, with a French roll in the middle.

Rich Soups in Lent, or for Fast Days. To make a Craw fish Soup.

Cleanse them, and boil them in water, salt, and spice; pull off their feet and tails, and fry them; break the rest of them in a stone mor­tar, season them with savoury spice, and an onion, a hard egg, grated bread, and sweet herbs boiled in good strong small beer; strain it, and pu [...] to it scalded chopped parsley, and French rolls; then put in the fried craw fish, with a few mushrooms. Garnish the dish with sliced lemon, and the feet and tail of a craw-fish.

To make Oyster Soup.

Have ready a good fish-stock, then take two quarts of oysters without the beards; bray the hard part in a mortar, with the yolks of ten hard eggs, Set what quantity of fish-stock you shall want over the fire with your oysters; season it with pepper, salt, and grated nu [...]meg. When it boils, put in the eggs, and let it boil till it is as thick as cream. Dish it up with bread cut in dice.

To make an Eel Soup.

Take eels according to the quantity of soup you would make; a pound of eels will make a pint of good soup; so to every pound of eels put a quart of water, a crust of bread, two or three blades of mace, a little [Page 90] whole pepper, an onion, and a bundle of sweet herbs▪ cover them close, and let them boil till half the liquor is wasted; then strain it, toast some bread, and cut it small, lay the bread in the dish, and pour in your soup. If you have a stew-hole, set the dish over it fo [...] a minute, and send it to table. If you find your soup not rich enough, you must let it boil till it is as strong as you would have it, and add a piece of carrot to brown it.

To make a brown Soup.

Into a clean sauce pan, put three quarts, or more, of water, with raspings sufficient to thicken it, two or three onions cut a-cross, two or three cloves, some whole pepper, and a lit­tle salt; cover it close, and let it boil about an hour and a half, then strain it through a sieve; have cellery, carrots, endive, lettice, spinach, and what other herbs you like, not cut two small, and fry them in butter; take a clean stew-pan, that is large enough for your ingredients, put in a good piece of but­ter, dust in flour, and keep it stirring till it is of a fine brown; then pour in your herbs and soup, boil it till the herbs are tender, and the soup of a proper thickness. Have bread cut in dice, and fried brown; pour your soup into the dish, put some of the bread into the soup, the rest in a plate, and serve it up.

To make a white Soup.

Put in a clean sauce-pan, two or three quarts of water, the crumb of a two-penny [Page 91] loaf, with a bundle of herbs, some whole pepper, two or three cloves, an onion or two cut a cross, and a little salt; let it boil covered till it is quite smooth; take cellery, endive, and lettice, only the white parts, cut them in pieces, not too small, and boil them till they are very tender. Strain your soup off into a clean stew-pan; put your herbs in, with a good piece of butter stirred in it till the butter is melted, and let it boil for some time, till it is very smooth. If any scum arises, take it off very clean: Soak a small French roll, nicely rasped, in some of the soup; put in the middle of the dish, pour in your soup, and send it to table.

To make Onion Soup.

First, put a tea-kettle of water on to boil, then slice six Spanish onions, or some of the largest onions you have got; flour them pretty well, then put them into a stew-pan that will hold about three quarts, fry them in butter till they are of a fine brown, but not burnt; pour in boiling water sufficient to fill the soup-dish you intend; let it boil, and take half a pound of butter rolled in flour, break it in, and keep it stirring till your butter is melted. As it boils, skim it very well, and put in a little pepper and salt; cut a French roll into slices, and set it before the fire to crisp; poach seven or eight eggs very nicely; cut off all the ragged part of the whites, drain the water from them, and lay them upon [Page 92] every slice of roll; pour your soup into the dish, and put the bread and eggs carefully into the dish with a skimmer. If you have any spinach boiled, lay a leaf between every piece of roll, and send it to table.

If you have any Parmezan cheese, scrape about an ounce very fine, and put it in when you pour on your boiling water; it gives it a very high flavour, and is not to be perceived by the taste what it is.

To make a Rice Soup.

To two quarts of water, put three quarters of a pound of rice, clean picked and washed, with a stick of cinnamon; let it be covered very close, and simmer till your rice is ten­der; take out the cinnamon, and grate half a nutmeg; beat up the yolk of four eggs, and strain them to half a pint of white wine, and as much pounded sugar as will make it palatable; put this to your soup, and stir it very well together: Set it over the fire, stirring it till it boils, and is of a good thickness; then send it to table.

To make Turnip Soup.

Pare a bunch of turnips (save out three or four) put them into a gallon of water, with half an ounce of white pepper, a [...] onion stuck with cloves, three blades of mace, half a nutmeg bruised, a good faggot of sweet herbs, and a large crust of bread. Boil them an hour and a half, then pass them through a sieve; clean a bunch of cellery, cut it small, and put it into your turnips and liquor, with two of the turnips [...] saved, [Page 93] and two young carrots cut in dice; cover it close, and let it stew; then cut turnips and carrots in dice, flour them, and fry them brown in butter, with two large onions cut thin, and fried likewise; put them all into your soup, with some vermicelli; let it boil softly, till your cellery is tender, and your soup is good. Season it with salt to your palate.

To make Soup Meagre.

Take a bunch of cellery washed clean, and cut in pieces, a large handful of spinach, two cabbage lettices, and some parsley; wash all very clean, and shred them small; then take a large clean stew-pan, put in about half a pound of butter, and when it is quite hot, slice four large onions very thin, and put into your butter; stir them well together for two or three minutes; then put in the rest of your herbs; shake all well together for near twenty minutes; dust in some flour, and stir them together; pour in two quarts of boiling water; season with pepper, salt, and beaten mace: Chip a handful of crust of bread, and put in; boil it half an hour, then beat up the yolks of three eggs in a spoonful of vinegar; pour it in, and stir it for two or three minutes; then send it to table.

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CHAP. IX. Of FRICASSEES.

To fricassee Neats Tongue.

BOIL them tender, peel them, cut them into thin slices, and fry them in fresh butter; then pour out the butter; put in as much gravy as will be wanted for sauce, a bundle of sweet herbs, an onion, some pep­per and salt, and a blade or two of mace; simmer all together half an hour. Then take out the tongue, strain the gravy, put it with the tongue in the stew-pan again, beat up the yolks of two eggs, with a glas [...] of white wine, a little grated nutmeg, a piece of butter as big as a walnut rolled in flour; shake all together for four or five mi­nutes, dish it up, and send it to table.

To fricassee Ox Palates.

Put the palates upon the fire in cold water, and let them boil softly till they are very tender; then blanch and scrape them clean. Rub them all over with mace, nutmegs, cloves, and pepper beaten fine, and with crumbs of bread. Put them into a stew pan of hot butter. Fry them brown on both sides. Then, having poured off the fat, put as much beef or mutton gravy into the stew-pan as is required for sauce, and an anchovy, a little lemon juice, and salt to make it palatable, and a piece of butter rolled in flour. When these have simmered together a quarter of an hour, dish them up, and garnish with sliced lemon.

[Page 95]

To fricassee Tripe.

Take the whitest and the thickest seam tripe; cut the white part in thin slices, and put it into a stew-pan, with a little white gravy, a spoonful of white wine, a little lemon juice, and lemon-peel grated. Add to it the yolks of two or three eggs beat very well, with a little thick cream, shred parsley, and two or three chieves. Let them all be shook together over a stove or slow fire, till the gravy becomes as thick as cream; but it must not boil, for fear it should curdle. Pour all together into a dish laid with sippets. Garnish with sliced lemon and mush­rooms.

To fricassee a Calf's Head.

Take half a calf's head that is boiled ten­der, cut it into slices, and put it into a stew-pan, with some good veal broth; season it with mace, pepper and salt, an arti [...]hoke bot­tom cut in dice, some force-meat balls first boiled, morels and truffles; let these boil to­gether for a quarter of an hour; scum it clean; beat up the yolks of two eggs in a gill of cream, put this in, and shake it round till it is ready to boil; squeeze in a little lemon, and serve it up. Garnish with lemon.

To fricassee Calf's Feet.

Dress the calf's feet, boil them as you would do for eating, take out the long bones, cut them in two, and put them into a stew-pan, with a little white gravy, and a spoon­ful or two of white wine; take the yolks of [Page 96] two or three eggs, two or three spoonfuls of of cream, grate in a little nutmeg and salt, and shake all together with a lump of butter. Garnish your dish with slices of lemon and currants, and serve it up.

To fricassee V [...]al Sweetbreads.

Cut the sweetbreads in thin slices, the length-way. Dip them in eggs. Season them with pepper, salt, and grated nutmeg. Fry them a light brown. Then put them into a stew-pan, with a sufficient quantity of brown gravy, and a spoonful of lemon-juice. Thicken it with butter and flour. Serve it up altogether, garnished with bits of toasted bacon and crisp parsley.

To fricassee Lamb brown.

Cut a hind quarter of lamb into thin sli­ces; season them with pepper and salt, a lit­tle nutmeg, savory, marjoram, and lemon, thyme dried and powered (some add a shal­lot.) Then fry it on the fire briskly, and af­terwards toss the lamb up in strong gravy, a glass of red wine, a few oysters, some force-meat balls, two palates, a little burnt butter, and an egg or two, or a bit of butter rolled in flour to thicken it. Serve all up in one dish, garnished with sliced lemon.

To fricassee Lamb white.

Take a leg of lamb, half roast it; when it is cold cut it in slices, put it into a stew-pan with a little white gravy, a shallot shred fine, a little nutmeg, salt, and a few shred capers; let it boil over a stove till the lamb [Page 97] is enough; to thicken your sauce, take three spoonfuls of cream, the yolks of two eggs, a little shred parsley, and beat them well toge­ther, then put it into a stew [...]pan, and shake it till it is thick, but do not let it boil; if this do not make it thick, put in a little flour and butter, so serve it up. Garnish your dish with mushrooms, oysters, and lemon.

To fricassee Lambstones and Sweetbreads.

Have ready some lambstones blanched, par­boiled and sliced, and flour two or three sweet­breads; if very thick, cut them in two, the yolks of six hard eggs whole; a few pistacho nut kernels, and a few large oysteys; fry these all of a fine brown, then pour out all the but­ter, and add a pint of drawn gravy, the lamb­stones, some asparagus tops of about an inch long, some grated nutmeg, a little pepper and salt, two shallots shred small, and a glass of white wine. Stew all these together for ten minutes, then add the yolks of six eggs beat very fine, with a little white wine, and a lit­tle mace; stir all together till it is of a fine thickness, and then dish it up. Garnish with lemon.

To fricassee Pig's Ears.

Take three or four pig's ears, clean and boil them very tender, cut them in small pieces the length of your finger, and fry them with butter till they be brown; put them into a stew-pan with a little brown gravy, a lump of butter, a spoonful of vinegar, and a little mustard and salt, thickened with [Page 98] flour. Take two or three pig's feet, and boil them very tender, fit for eating; then cut them in two, and take out the large bones; dip them in eggs, and strew over them a few bread crumbs: season them with pepper and salt. Then either fry or broil them, and lay them in the middle of the dish with the pig's ears.

To fricassee Pig's Pettitoes.

Clean the pettitoes very well from hair, &c. split them in two down the middle. Boil them with the liver, lights and heart, till they are very tender, in half a pint of wa­ter or more, according to the quantity of the meat, with an onion, a bunch of sweet herbs, a little whole pepper, and a blade of mace. But in five minutes take out the liver, lights and heart, mince them very small, grate a lit­tle nutmeg over them, and drudge them with flour gently. And when the pettitoes or feet are quite tender, take them out, strain the liquor in which they were boiled; and then put all together into a sauce pan, with a lit­tle salt, a bit of butter as big as a walnut, and either a spoonful of vinegar, or the juice of half a small lemon. Shake the sauce pan often; and after it has simmered five or six minutes, and you have laid some toasted sip­pets, or slices of bread round the inside of the dish▪ lay the minced meat and sauce in the middle, and the split pettitoes round it. Gar­nish with sliced lemon.

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To fricassee a Hare.

Boil the hare with apples, onions, and parsley; when it is tender, shred it small, then put thereto a pint of claret, one nutmeg, a little pepper and salt, and two or three an­chovies; stir these together, with the yolks of twelve hard eggs shred small; when it is served up, put in as much melted butter as will make it moist; garnish the dish with some of the bones, and the whites of eggs boiled hard, and cut in halves.

To fricassee Rabbits white.

Half roast two young rabbits; then skin and cut them in pieces, using only the whitest parts; which you must put into a stew pan, with a sufficient quantity of white gravy, a small anchovy, a little onion, shred mace, grated lemon-peel, and nutmeg; and let it have one boil. Then take a little cream, the yolks of two eggs, a lump of butter, a little juice of lemon and shred parsley, and put them all together into a stew-pan, and shake them over the fire, till they become as white as cream; but do not let the mixture boil, for it will curdle if it does. Garnish the dish with sliced lemon and pickles.

To fricassee Rabbits brown,

Cut a rabbit's legs in three pieces, and the other parts about the same size. Beat them thin and fry them in butter over a quick fire: when fried put them into a stew-pan with a little gravy, a spoonful of of catchup and a [Page 100] little grated nutmeg. Shake it up with a little flour and butter, and garnish the dish with fried parsley, made very crisp.

To fricassee Chickens white.

Half roast the chickens, then having cut them up, as for eating, skin them, and put them into a stew-pan with a little white gravy, the juice of a lemon, an anchovy for every chicken, and a sufficient quantity of mace and nutmeg grated, and then boil them. Take also the yolks of eggs as much as necessary, a little sweet cream and shred parsley; and put them into a stew-pan with a lump of butter and a little salt. Shake them all the time they are over the fire, but do not let them boil, for that would make them curdle. Serve it up poured upon sippets, and garnish the dish with sliced-lemon, or pickled mushrooms.

To fricassee Chickens brown.

Cut up the chickens raw, in the manner as you do for eating, and flat the pieces a little with a rolling-pin. Fry them of a light brown; afterwards put them into a stew-pan, with a sufficient quantity, but not too much gravy, a spoonful or two of white-wine, to two or three chickens, a little nut­meg and salt. Thicken it up with flour and butter. Garnish with sippets within the dish, and with crisp parsley on the rim.

To fricassee Pigeons.

Quarter each pigeon and fry them. Take also some green pease, and fry them also till [Page 101] they be like to burst. Then pour boiling water upon them, and season the liquor with pepper, salt, onions, garlic, parsley and vi­negar. Thicken with yolks of eggs.

To fricassee Cod.

Get the sounds, blanch them, then make them very clean, and cut them into little pieces. If they be dried sounds, you must first boil them tender. Get some of the roes, blanch them and wash them clean, cut them into round pieces about an inch thick, with some of the livers, an equal quantity of each, to make a handsome dish, and a piece of cod of about a pound for the middle. Put them into a stew pan, season them with a little beaten mace, grated nutmeg and salt, a little sweet herbs, an onion, and a quarter of a pint of fish broth or boiling water; cover them close, and let them stew a few minutes; then put in half a pint of red wine, a few oysters with the liquor strained, a piece of butter rolled in flour, shake the pan round, and let them stew softly till they are enough, take out the sweet herbs and onion, and dish it up. Garnish with lemon.

To fricassee Soals, Plaice, or Flounders.

Strip off the black skin of the fish, but not the white; then take out the bones, and cut the flesh into slices about two inches long; dip the slices in the yolks of eggs, and strew over them raspins of bread; then fry them in clarified butter, and when they are fried enough, take them out on a plate, [Page 102] and set them by the fire till you have made the following sauce.

Take the bones of the fish, boil them up with water, and put in some anchovy and sweet herbs, such as thyme and parsley, and add a little pepper, cloves and mace. When these have boiled together some time, take the butter in which the fish was fried, put it into a pan over the fire, shake flour into i [...], and keep it stirring while the flour is shaking in; then strain the liquor into it, in which the fish bones, herbs, and spice were boiled, and boil it together, till it is very thick, ad­ding lemon-juice to your taste. Put your fish into a dish, and pour your sauce over it; serve it up, garnished with slices of lemon and fried parsley.

N. B. This dish may take place on any part of the table, either in the first or second [...]ourse.

To fricassee Tench white.

Having cleaned your tench very well, cut off their heads, slit them in two, and if large, cut each half in three pieces, if small in two: Melt some butter in a stew-pan, and put in your tench; dust in some flour, and pour in some boiling water, and a few mushrooms, and season it with salt, pepper, a bundle of sweet herbs, and an onion stuck with cloves: When this boils, pour in a pint of white wine boiling hot, let stew till suf­ficiently wasted; take out the fish, and strain the liquor, saving the mushroom; bind your fricassee with the yolks of three [Page 103] or four eggs beat up with a little verjuice, some parsley chopped fine, and a little n [...]tmeg grated; stir it all the time it boils, from it very clean, pour your sauce over the [...], and send it to table.

To fricassee Tench brown.

Prepare your tench as in the other receipt; put some butter and flour into a stew-pan, and brown it; then put in the tench with the same seasoning you did for your white fri­cassee; when you have tossed them up, moisten them with a little fish broth; boil a pint of white wine, and put to your fricassee, stew it [...] enough, and properly wasted; then take the fish up, and strain the liquor, bind it with a brown cullis, and serve it up. If asparagus or artichoaks are in season, you may boil these, and add them to your fricassee.

To fricassee Eggs white.

Boil eight or ten eggs; take off the shells, cut some in halves, and some in quarters; have ready half a pint of cream, a good piece of butter, a little nutmeg, a glass of white wine, and a spoonful of chopped parsley; stir all together over a clear fire till it is thick and smooth; lay your eggs into your dish, and pour the sauce over. Garnish with hard eggs cut in half, oranges quartered, and toast­ed sippets; send it hot to table.

To fricassee Eggs brown.

Boil as many eggs hard as you want to fill your dish; take off the shells, and fry them [Page 104] in butter, of a fine brown; pour your fat out of the pan, put in some flour, and a lump of butter, stir it till it is thick, and of a good brown; pour in some boiling water, a gill of Madeira, a little pepper, salt, and beaten mace; boil all together, till it is of a good thickness; scum it, and squeeze in a little o­range; cut some of your eggs in half, lay the flat side uppermost, and the whole ones be­tween; pour the sauce over. Garnish with fried parsley, and a Seville orange, cut in small quarters.

To fricassee Artichoke Bottoms.

Take them either dried or pickled; if dri­ed, you must lay them in warm water for three or four hours, shifting the water two or three times; then have ready a little cream, and a piece of fresh butter, stirred together one way over the fire till it is melted, then put in the artichokes, &▪ when they are hot dish them up.

To fricassee Mushrooms.

Take a quart of fresh mushrooms, make them clean, put them into a sauce-pan, with three spoonfuls of water, and three of milk, and a very little salt, set them on a quick fire, and let them boil up three times; then take th [...]m off, grate in a little nutmeg▪ put in a little beaten mace, half a pint of thick cream, a piece of butter rolled well in flour, put it all together into the sauce-pan, shaking it well all the time. When [...] liquor is fine and thick, dish them up; [...] careful they do not curdle. You may stir [Page 105] the sauce-pan carefully with a spoon all the time.

CHAP. X. Of RAGOUTS.

To ragout a piece of Beef, called Beef a-la-Mode.

TAKE a buttock of beef, interlarded with great lard, rolled up with chopped spice, sage, parsl [...]y, thyme, and green onions; put it into a great sauce-pan, and bind it close with coarse tape. When it is half done, turn it; let it stand over the fire on a stove twelve hours. It is fit to be eat cold or hot. When it is cold, slice it out thin, and toss it up in a fine ragout of sweet breads, oysters, mushrooms, and palates.

To ragout a Breast of Veal.

Put a breast of veal, with an onion, a bundle of sweet herbs, a little black pepper and grated nutmeg, a blade or two of mace, and a very little lemon-peel grated into a large stew-pan, and just cover it with water; when it grows tender take it up and bone it.

Put the bones into the liquor, and boil them till it makes good gravy. Then strain it off. Add to this liquor a quarter of a pint of rich beef gravy, half an ounce of truffles and morels, a spoonful of catchup, and two spoonfuls of white wine. While these are boiling together, flour the veal and fry it in butter till it becomes to be of a fine brown. Then drain off the butter, [Page 106] and pour the gravy to the veal, with a few mushrooms.

Boil all together till the liquor becomes rich and thick. Cut the sweetbread into four, and spread the pieces and forced-meat balls over the dish; having first laid the veal in the dish, and poured the sauce all over it. Gar­nish with sliced lemon.

To ragout a Neck of Veal.

Cut it into steaks, flatten them with a rol­ling-pin, lard them with bacon, and season them with a mixture of salt, pepper, nutmeg grated, mace, lemon-peel and thyme. Then deep each steak separately in the yolks of eggs. Put all together in a stew-pan, over a slow fire, and keep basting and turning the steaks in order to keep in the gravy. When they are done sufficiently, dish them with half a pint of strong gravy seasoned high, mush­rooms, and pickles, and forced-meat balls dipped in the yolks of eggs. Garnish with stewed and fried oysters.

If you intend a brown ragout, put in a glass of red wine: if a white ragout, put in white wine, with the yolks of eggs beaten up with two or three spoonfuls of cream.

To ragout Veal Sweetbreads.

Cut sweetbreads into pieces as big as a walnut; wash and dry them, put them into a stew-pan of hot burned butter. Stir them till they are brown, and then pour over them as much gravy, mushrooms, pepper, salt, and alspice, as will cover them, and let them stew half an hour. Then pour off [Page 107] the liquor; pass it through a sieve, & thick­en it for sauce. Place the veal sweet-breads in the dish, pour the sauce over them, and serve them up, garnished with sliced lemon or orange.

To ragout a Leg of Mutton.

Take off all the fat and skin, and cut the flesh very thin in the right way of the grain. Butter the stew-pan, dust it with flour, and put in the meat, with half a lemon and half an onion cut very small, a blade of mace, and a little bundle of sweet herbs. Stir it a minute or two. Then put in a quarter of a pint of gravy, and an anchovy minced small, mixed with butter and flour. Stir it again for six minutes, and then dish it up.

To ragout Hog's Feet and Ears.

If they are raw or soused, boil the feet and ears till they are tender, after which cut them into thin bits about two inches long, and a quarter of an inch thick. Put them into a stew-pan with half a pint of good gravy, a glass of white wine, a good piece of butter rolled in flour, a little pepper and salt, a good deal of mustard, and half an onion. Stir all together till it becomes of a fine thickness, and then pour it into a dish, meat and gravy together.

To make a rich Ragout.

Having parboiled lambstones and sweet­breads, and blanched some cocks-combs, cut them all in slices, and season them with a mixture of pepper and salt, mace and nutmeg. Then fry them a little in lard; [Page 108] drain them, and toss them up in good gravy, with a bunch of sweet herbs, two shallots, a few mushrooms, truffles and morels. Thicken it with burnt butter, and add a glass of claret or red wine. Garnish the dish with pickled mushrooms, or fried oysters, and sliced lemon.

A ragout for made Dishes.

Take red wine, gravy, sweet herbs, and spice, in which toss up lamb stones, cocks-combs boiled, blanched and sliced, with sliced sweetbreads, oysters, mushrooms, truffles, and morels; thicken these with brown butter, and use it occasionally when wanted to en­rich a ragout of any sort.

A ragout of Snipes.

Take two brace of snipes clean picked; put a piece of butter into a stew-pan, and give your snipes a browning; then cut them down the back, and press them flat, but do not take out the trails; put them into a stew-pan, with some good gravy, a small glass of red wine, a gill of small mushrooms, and a lit­tle beaten mace, and salt: Let them stew five or six minutes; then roll a piece of but­ter in flour. When it is the thickness of cream, skim it clean, & dish them up. Gar­nish your dish with toasted sippets, and orange cut in small quarters.

A ragout of Eggs.

Boil six eggs hard; then take large mush­rooms, peal and scrape them clean, put them into a sauce-pan, with a little salt, cover them, and let them boil; put to them a gill [Page 109] of red wine, a good piece of butter rolled in flour, seasoned with mace and nutmeg; let it boil till it is of a good thickness; cut the white of your eggs round, so that you do not break the yolks; lay some toasted sippets in your dish, with the yolks of eggs: then pour over your ragout; garnish your dish with the whites; lay the flat side uppermost, and a Seville orange between.

To ragout Sturgeon.

Cut sturgeon into collops, lard, and rub them over with an egg, durst in some flour▪ and fry them of a fine brown in lard: As soon as they are done, put them into a stew-pan, with a pint of good gravy, some sweet herbs shred fine, some slices of lemon, veal sweetbreads, cut in pieces, truffles, mushrooms, and a glass of white wine; bind it with a good cullis, till it is of a proper thickness; then take off all the scum very clean; dish it up, and garnish it with ba [...]berries and lemon.

To ragout Oysters.

Open four dozen of the largest Melton oysters, and save the liquor; make a thick batter with cream, the yolks of eggs, nutmeg grated, and parsley chopped fine: Dip the oysters into the batter, and then roll them in bread crumbs, and fry them of a fine brown; when they are fried take them up, and lay them on a drainer before the fire; empty your pan, and dust some flour all over it, then put in about two ounces of butter: When it is melted and thick, strain [Page 110] in your oyster liquor, and stir it well [...] ­gether; put in two ounces of Pistacho-nuts shelled, and let them boil; then put in half a pint of white wine, beat up the yolks of two eggs in four spoonfuls of cream; stir all together till it is of a proper thickness; [...]ay the oysters in the dish, and pour the ragout over. Garnish the dish with a Seville orange cut in small quarters.

CHAP. XI. Of PASTRY.

To make Paste for Tarts.

TAKE two pounds and a half of butter, to three pounds of flour, and half a pound of fine sugar beaten; rub all your butter in the flour, and make it into a paste with cold milk, and two spoonfuls of brandy.

Puff Paste.

Take a quartern of flour, and a pound and a half of butter; rub a third part of the but­ter in the flour, and make a paste with water; then roll out your paste, and put your butter upon it in bits, and flour it; then fold it up, and roll it again; then put in more butter, and flour it, and fold it up again; then put the rest of the butter in, flour it, fold it, and roll it twice before you use it.

Paste for raised Pies.

To half a peck of flour, take two pounds of butter, and put it in pieces in a sauce-pan of water over the fire, and when the butter is melted, make a hole in the flour, [Page 111] skimming off the butter, and put it in the flour, with some of the water; then make it up in a stiff paste, and put it before the fire in a cloth, if you do not use it presently.

Paste for Venison Pasties.

Take four pounds of butter to half a peck of flour; rub it all in your flour, but not too small; then make it into paste, and beat it with a rolling pin for an hour before you use it; you may beat three or four eggs, and put into your paste, when you mix it, if you please.

Paste Royal for Patty-pans.

Lay down a pound of flour; work it up with half a pound of butter, two ounces of fine sugar, and four eggs.

Paste for Custards.

Lay down flour, and make into a stiff paste with boiling water; sprinkle it with a little cold water to keep it from cracking.

To make a Hare Pie.

Cut the hare in pieces, break the bones, and lay them in the pie; lay on balls, sliced lemon, and butter, and close it with the yolks of hard eggs.

An Umble Pie.

Take the humbles of a buck, and boil them, and chop them as small as meat for minced pies, and put to them as much beef suet, eight apples, half a pound of sugar, a pound and a half of currants, a little salt, some mace, cloves, nutmeg, and a little pep­per; then mix them together, and put it into a paste; add half a pint of sack, the juice [Page 112] of one lemon and orange, close the pie, and when it is baked serve it up.

A Lumber Pie.

Take a pound and a half of fillet of veal, mince it with the same quantity of beef suet, season it with sweet spice, five pippins, a hand­ful of spinach, and a hard lettice, thyme and parsley: Mix with it a penny loaf grated, and the yolks of two or three eggs, sack and orange-flower water, sweet spice, a pound and a half of currants and preserves, and a [...]audle.

A Shrewsbury Pie.

Take a couple of rabbits, cut them in pieces, season them well with pepper and salt; then take some fat pork, and season it in like man­ner, then take the rabbits livers parboiled, some butter, eggs, pepper and salt, a little sweet marjoram, and a little nutmeg; make these into balls, and lay it in your pie amongst the meat; then take artichoak bottoms boiled tender, cut in dice, and lay these likewise among the meat, then close your pie, and put in it as much white wine and water as you think proper. Bake it and serve it up.

A Lamb Pie.

Season the lamb steaks; lay them in the pie with sliced lamb-stones and sweetbreads, savory balls, and oysters. Lay on butter, and close the pie with a lear.

A Lamb Pie with Currants.

Take a leg and a loin of lamb, cut the flesh into small pieces, and season it with a [Page 113] little salt, cloves, mace, and nutmeg; then lay the lamb in your paste, and as many cur­rants as you think proper, and some Lisbon sugar, a few raisins stoned and chopped small: add some forced-meat balls, some yolks of hard eggs, with artichoke bottoms, or pota­toes that have been boiled and cut in dice, with candid orange and lemon-peel cut in sli­ces; put butter on the top, and a little water; then close your pie, bake it gently, and when it is baked take off the top▪ and put in your caudle made of gravy from the bones, some white wine and juice of lemon; thicken it with the yolks of two eggs, and a bit of but­ter. When you pour in your caudle, let it be hot, and shake it well in the pie; then serve it, having laid on the cover.

Note. If you observe too much fat swim­ming on the liquor of your pie, take it off be­fore you pour on the caudle.

A Mutton Pie.

Season the mutton steaks, fill the pie, lay on butter, and close it. When it is baked, toss up a handful of chopped capers, cucum­bers, and oysters in gravy, with an anchovy and drawn butter.

A Veal Pie.

Raise a high round pie, then cut a fillet of veal into three or four fillets, season it with savory seasoning, and a little minced sage and sweet herbs; lay it in the pie with slices of bacon at the bottom, and between each piece lay on butter, and close the pie. When it is baked, and half cold, fill it up with clarified butter.

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A Hen Pie.

Cut it in pieces, and lay it in the pie; lay on balls, sliced lemon, butter and close it with the yolks of hard eggs, let the lear be thick­ened with eggs.

A Chicken Pie.

Take six small chickens; roll up a piece of butter in sweet herbs; season and lay them into a cover, with the marrow of two bones rolled up in the batter of eggs, a dozen of yolks of eggs boiled hard, and two dozen of savory balls; when you serve it up, pour in a [...] quart of good white gravy.

A sweet Chicken Pie.

Break the bones of four chickens, then cut them into small pieces, season them highly with mace, cinnamon and salt; have four yolks of eggs boiled hard and quartered, and five artichoke bottoms, eight ounces of raisins o [...] the sun stoned▪ eight ounces of preserved citron, lemon and eringo roots, of each alike, eight ounces of marrow, four slices of [...]ined lemon, eight ounces of currants, fifty balls of forced meat, made as for umble pie; put i [...] [...]ll, one with the other, but first butter the bot­tom of the pie, and put in a pound of fresh [...]utter on the top lid, and bake it; then put [...]n a pint of white wine mixed with a little sack, and if you w [...]ll, the juice of two oranges, sweetening it to your taste. Make it boil, and thicken it with the yolks of two eggs: put it [...] the pie when both are very hot▪ and serve

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A Turkey Pie.

Bone the turkey, season it with sauory spice, and lay it in the pie▪ with two capons cut in pieces, to fill up the corners. A goose pie is made the same way, with two rabbits, to fill it up as aforesaid.

A Pigeon Pie.

Truss and season the pigeons with sa [...]ory spices, lard them with bacon, and stuff them with forced-meat; lay on lamb-stones, sweet-breads, and butter; close the pie wit [...] a lear. A chicken or capon pie may be made the same way.

A Battalia Pie.

Take four small chickens, and squab pi­geons, four sucking rabbits, cut them in pieces, and season them with savory spice; lay them in the pie, with four sweet-breads sliced, as many sheeps tongues and shivered palates, two pair of lambs stones, twenty or thirty cocks-combs, with savoury balls and oysters; lay on butter, and close the pie with a lear.

A lamb-stone and Sweet-bread Pie.

Boil, blanch, and slice them, and season them with savory seasoning; lay them in the pie with sliced artichoke bottoms, lay on butter, and close the pie with a lear.

A Neat's Tongue Pie.

Half boil the tongues, blanch them and slice them, season them with savory season­ing, sliced lemon, balls, and butter, and then close the pie. When it is baked, take gravy and veal sweet-breads, or palates and [Page 116] cocks-combs, tossed up, and poured into the pie.

A Calf's Head Pie.

Almost boil the calf's head, take out the bones, cut it in thin slices, season and mix it with sliced shivered palates, cocks-combs, oysters, mushrooms and balls. Lay on but­ter, and close the pie with a lear.

A Venison Pasty.

Raise a high round pie, shred a pound of beef suet, and put it into the bottom; cut your venison in pieces, and season it with pepper and salt. Lay it on the suet, lay on butter, close the pie, and bake it six hours.

An Egg Pie.

Shred the yolks of twenty hard eggs, with the same quantity of marrow and beef suet; season it with sweet spice, citron, orange and lemon; fill and close the pie.

Minced Pie.

Shred a pound of neats tongue parboiled, with two pounds of beef suet, five pippins, and a green lemon-peel; season it with an ounce of spice, a little salt, a pound of sugar, two pounds of currants, half a pint of sack, a little orange flour water, the juice of three or flour lemons, a quarter of a pound of ci­tron, lemon and orange-peel. Mix these together, and fill the pies.

A Carp Pie.

To a quartern of flour put two pounds of butter, rubbing a third part in; then make it into paste with water; then roll in the rest of the butter at three times; lay [Page 117] your paste in the dish, put in some bits of butter on the bottom paste, with pepper and salt; then scale and gut your carps; put them in vinegar, water and salt; then wash them out of the vinegar and water, and dry them, and make the following pudding for the belly of the carp; take the flesh of an eel, and cut it small, put some grated bread, two buttered eggs, an anchovy cut small, a little nutmeg grated, and pepper and salt. Mix these toge­ther well, and fill the belly of the carp; then make some force-meat balls of the same mixture; then cut off the tail and fins of the carp, and lay it in the crust, with slices of fat bacon, a little mace, and some bits of but­ter; then close your pie, and before you set it in the oven, pour in half a pint of claret. Serve it hot.

Oyster Pie.

Parboil a quart of large oysters in their own liquor, mince them small, and pound them in a mortar, with pistachio nuts, marrow, and sweet herbs, and onion and savory seeds, and a little grated bread; or season as aforesaid whole. Lay on butter and close it.

Flounder Pie.

Take twelve large flounders, cut off their tails, fins, and heads; then season them with pepper and salt, cloves, mace, and nutmeg beaten fine; then take two or three eels w [...]ll cleaned, and cut in lengths of three inches, and season as before; then lay your flounders and eels in your pie, and [Page 118] the yolks of eight hard eggs, half a pint of pickled mushrooms, an anchovy; a whole onion, a bunch of sweet herbs, some lemon-peel grated. You must put three quarters of a pound of butter, on the top, with a quarter of a pint of water, and a gill of white wine; then close your pie, and serve it hot, first taking out the onion and bunch of sweet herbs.

Trout Pie.

Clean, wash, and scale them, lard them with pieces of a silver eel rolled up in spice, and sweet herbs, and bay-leaves powdered; lay on and between them the bottoms of sliced artichokes, mushrooms, oysters, capers, and sliced lemon; lay on butter, and close the pie.

Eel Pie.

Cut, wash, and season them with sweet seasoning, and a handful of currants; butter, and close it.

Lamprey Pie.

Clean, wash, and season them with sweet seasoning; lay them in a coffin with citron and lemon sliced; butter and close the pie.

Artichoke or Potatoe Pie.

Take artichoke bottoms, season them with a little mace and cinnamon sliced, eight ounces of candied lemon and citron sliced, eringo-roots and prunellas, a slit of each, two ounces of barberries, eight ounces of marrow, eight ounces of raisins of the sun stoned, and two ounces of sugar; butter the bottom of the pie, and put in all, one [Page 119] with the other, and eight ounces of butter on the top lid; bake it, and then put on a l [...]ar, made as for the chicken Pie.

To make an Apple or Pear Pie.

Make a good puff paste crust, lay some round the sides of the dish, pare and quarter your apples, and take out the cores lay a row of apples thick, throw in half the sugar you design for your pie, mince a little lemon-peel fine, throw over and squeeze a little lemon o­ver them, then a few cloves, here and there one, then the rest of your apples and the rest of your sugar. You must sweeten to your pa­late, and squeeze a little more lemon. Boil the peeling of the apples and the cores in fair water, with a blade of mace, till it is very good; strain it and boil the syrup with a lit­tle sugar, till there is but very little and good, pour it into your pie, put on your upper crust and bake it. You may put in a little quince or marmalade, if you please.

Thus make a pear pie, but don't put in any quince. You may butter them when they come out of the oven; or beat up the yolks of two eggs and half a pint of cream, with a little nutmeg, sweetened with sugar, take off the lid and pour in the cream. Cut the crust in little three corner pieces, stick a­bout the pie and send it to table.

To make a Cherry, Plumb, or Gooseberry Pie.

Make a good crust, lay a little round the sides of your dish, throw sugar at the bot­tom, and lay in your fruit and sugar at top. [Page 120] A few red currants does well with them; put on your lid, and bake it in a slack oven.

Make a plumb pie the same way, and a gooseberry pie. If you would have it red, let it stand a good while in the oven after the bread is drawn. A custard is very good with the gooseberry pie.

To make Tarts of divers Kinds

If you propose to make them in patty-pans, first butter them well, and then put a thin crust, all over them, in order to your taking them out with the greater ease; but if you make use of either glass or china dishes, add no crust but the top one. Strew a pro­per quantity of fine sugar at the bottom; and after that lay in your fruit of what sort soever, as you think most proper, and strew a like quantity of the same sugar over them. Then put your lid on, and let them be baked in a slack oven. If you make tarts of apples, pears, apricots, &c. the beaten crust is looked upon as the most proper; but that is submitted to your own particular fancy.

To make Apple Tart, or Pear Tart.

Pare them first; then cut them into quar­ters, and take the cores out; in the next place▪ cut each quarter across again; throw them, so prepared into a sauce pan, with no more water in it than will just cover the fruit; let them simmer over a slow fire, till they are perfectly tender. Before you set your fruit on the fire, take care to put a good large [Page 121] piece of lemon-peel into the water. Have the patty-pans in readiness, and strew fine sugar at the bottom; then lay in the fruit, and cover them with as much of the same sugar as you think convenient. Over each tart pour a tea spoonful of lemon juice, and three spoonfuls of the liquor in which they were boiled. Then lay the lid over them, and put them into a slack oven.

If the tarts be made of apricots, &c. you must neither pare them, nor cut them, nor stone them, nor use lemon juice; which is the only material difference in making them.

Observe, with respect to preserved tarts ▪ only lay in the preserved fruit, and put a very thin crust over them; and bake them as short a time as possible.

Orange or Lemon Tarts.

Take six large lemons, and rub them very well with salt, and put them in water for two days, with a handful of salt in it; then change them into fresh water every day (without salt) for a fortnight, then boil them for two or three hours till they are tender, cut them into half quarters, and then cut them again three-corner-ways as thin as you can. Take six pippins pared, cored, and quartered, and a pint of fair water; let them boil till the pippins break; put the li­quor to your orange or lemon, with half the pulp of the pippins well broken, and a pound of sugar. Boil these together a quarter of an hour, then put it in a gallipot▪ [Page 122] and squeeze an orange in it: if it be a lemon tart squeeze a lemon; two spoonfuls is enough for a tart. Your patty-pans must be small and shallow. Use fine puff-paste, and very thin; a little baking will do. Just as your tarts are going into the oven, with a feather, or brush, do them over with melted butter, and then sift double refined sugar over them; and this is a pretty iceing on them.

Iceing for Tarts.

Beat and sift a quarter of a pound of fine loaf sugar. Put it into a mortar with the white of one egg, that has been well beat up Add to these two spoonfuls of rose-water, and beat all together till it be so thick as just to run, observing to stir it all one way. It is laid on the tart with a brush or small bunch of feathers dipped in the iceing. Set the tarts, when so done, into a cool oven to harden. But take care not to let them stand too long: for that will discolour them.

An Almond Tart, very good.

To half a pound of almonds blanched, and very finely beat with orange-flower water, put a pint of thick cream, two large Naples biskets grated, and five yolks of eggs with near half a pound of sugar; put all into a dish garnished with a paste, and lay slips in diamonds cross the top; bake it in a cool oven; and when drawn out, stick slips of candid citron in each diamond.

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Orange Puffs.

Pare off the rinds from Seville oranges or lemons, then rub them with salt; let them lie twenty-four hours in water, then boil them in four changes of water, making the first salt; drain them dry, and [...]eat them fine to a puff; then bruise in the pieces of all that you have pared, make it very sweet with fine sugar, and boil it till it is thick▪ let it stand till it is cold, and then it will be fit to put in the paste.

Lemon Puffs.

Take a pound and a quarter of double re­fined sugar beaten and sifted, and grate the rinds of two lemons, and mix well with the sugar; then beat the whites of two new laid eggs very well, and mix them well with the sugar and lemon-peel; beat them together an hour and a quarter, then make them up in what form you please; be quick to set them in a moderate oven; do not take off the papers till cold.

CHAP. XII. To make all Sorts of CAKES.

A Rich Cake.

TAKE six pounds of the best fresh butter, work it to a cream with your hands; then throw in by degrees three pounds of double refined sugar well beat and sifted: mix them well together; then work in three pounds of blanched almonds: and having beaten four pounds of eggs, and strained them through a sieve, put them in: beat [Page 124] them altogether till they are thick and look white. Then add half a pint of French brandy, half a pint of sack, a small quantity of ginger, about two ounces of mace, cloves, and cinnamon each, and three large nutmegs all beaten in a mortar as fine as possible. Then shake in gradually four pounds of well dried and sifted flour: and when the oven is well prepared, and a thin hoop to bake it in, stir into this mixture (as you put it into the hoop) seven pounds of currants clean washed and rubbed, and such a quantity of candied orange, lemon, and citron in equal proportions, as shall be thought convenient. The oven must be quick, and the cake at least will take four hours to bake it: Or, you may make two or more cakes out of these ingredients, you must beat it with your hands, and the currants must be dried before the fire, and put into the cake warm.

Another.

To a quartern and half of fine flour add six pounds of currants, an ounce of cloves and mace, a little cinnamon, two grated nutmegs, a pound of the best sugar, some candied lemon, orange and citron, cut in thin pieces; a pint of sweet wine; a little orange-flower or rose water; a pint of yeast; a quart of cream; two pounds of butter melted, and poured into the middle of the flour. Then strew some flour over the butter, and let it stand half an hour before the fire. After which knead it well together, [Page 125] and lay it before the fire to make it rise, and work it up very well. Put this mixture into a tin hoop, and bake it two hours and a half in a gentle oven.

A Spanish Cake.

Take twelve eggs, three quarters of a pound of the best moist sugar, mill them in a chocolate mill, till they are all of a lather; then mix in one pound of flour, half a pound of pounded almonds▪ two ounces of candid orange-peel, two ounces of citron, four large spoonfuls of orange or rose water, half an ounce of cinnamon, and a glass of sack. It is better when baked in a slow oven.

Portugal Cakes.

Put a pound of fine sugar, a pound of fresh butter, five eggs, and a little mace, beaten, into a broad pan; beat it with your hands till it is very light, and looks curdling; then put thereto a pound of flour, half a pound of currants very dry, beat them toge­ther, fill tin pans, and bake them in a slack oven. You may make seed-cakes the same way, only put in carraway-seeds instead of currants.

Dutch Cakes.

Take five pounds of flour, two ounces of carraway-seeds, half a pound of sugar, and something more than a pint of milk, and put into it three quarters of a pound of butter; then make a hole in the middle of the flour, and put in a full pint of good ale-yeast: then pour in the butter and milk, [Page 126] and make these into a paste, letting it stand a quarter of an hour before the fire to rise; then mould it, and roll it into cakes pretty thin; prick them all over pretty much, or they will blister; bake them a quarter of an hour.

Shrewsbury Cakes.

Take to one pound of sugar, three pounds of the finest flour, a nutmeg grated, and some beaten cinnamon; the sugar and spice must be sifted into the flour; and wet it with three eggs, and as much melted butter as will make it of a good thickness to roll into a paste; mould it well, and roll it; cut it into what shape you please; perfume them, and prick them before they go into the oven.

Marlborough Cakes.

Take eight eggs, yolks and whites, beat and strain them, and put to them a pound of sugar beaten and sifted; beat it three quarters of an hour together, then put in three quarters of a pound of flour well dried▪ and two ounces of carraway seeds; beat it all well together, and bake it in a quick oven in broad tin pans.

Queen Cakes.

Take a pound of sugar, and beat it fine, pour in yolks and two whites of eggs, half a pound of butter, a little rose water, six spoonfuls of warm cream, a pound of cur­rants, and as much flour as will make it up; stir them well together, and put them into your patty pans, being well buttered; bake [Page 127] them in an oven, almost as hot as for manchet, for half an hour; then take them out and glaze them, and let them stand but a little after the glazing is on, to rise.

Uxbridge Cakes.

Take a pound of wheat-flour, seven pounds of currants, half a nutmeg, four pounds of butter, rub your butter cold very well a­mongst the meal. Dress the currants very well in the flour, butter, and seasoning, and knead it with so much good new yeast as will make it into a pretty high paste: usu­ally two penny-worth of yeast to that quan­tity. After it is kneaded well together, let it stand an hour to rise. You may put half a pound of paste in a cake.

A pound Cake.

Take a pound of butter, beat it in an earthen pan with your hand one way till it is like a fine thick cream; then have ready twelve eggs, with half the whites; beat them well, and beat them up with the butter, and work into it a pound of flour, a pound of sugar, and a few carraways, well together for an hour with your hand, or a great wooden spoon. Butter a pan and put it in, and then bake it an hour in a quick oven.

A Seed Cake.

Take three pounds of fine flour, and two pounds of butter, rub it in the flour; eight eggs, and four whites, a little cream, and five spoonfuls of yeast. Mix all together; and put it before the fire to rise; then put [Page 128] in three quarters of a pound of carraway-seeds, and put it in a hoop or tin rim well buttered. An hour and a half will bake it.

Fine Almond Cakes.

Take a pound of Jordon almonds, blanch them, beat them very fine with a little orange-flower water, to keep them from oil­ing; then take a pound and a quarter of fine sugar, boil it to a high candy; then put in your almonds. Then take two fresh lemons, grate off the rind very thin and put as much juice as to make it of a quick taste; then put this mixture into glasses, and set in a stove, stiring often, that it may not candy: so when it is a little dry, part it into little cakes upon sheets of paper or tin to dry.

Saffron Cakes.

Take half a peck of the finest flour, a pound of butter, and a pint of cream, or good milk; set the milk on the fire, put in the butter, and a good deal of sugar; then strain saffron to your taste and liking into the milk; take seven or eight eggs, with two yolks, and seven or eight spoonfuls of yeast; then put the milk to it when it is almost cold, with salt and coriander seeds: knead them all together, make them up in reasonable sized cakes, and bake them in a quick oven.

Orange Cakes.

Take the peels of four oranges, being first pared, and the meat taken out; boil them tender, and beat them small in a marble mortar▪ then take the meat of them, and [Page 129] two or more oranges, the seeds and skins being picked out, and mix it with the peelings that are beaten, set them on the fire, with a spoonful or two of orange-flower water, keeping it stirring till that moisture be pretty well dried up; then have ready, to every pound of that pulp, four pounds and a quarter of double-refined sugar, finely sifted. Make the sugar very hot, and dry it upon the fire, and then mix it and the pulp to­gether, and set it on the fire again, till the sugar be very well melted, but take care it does not boil. You may put in a little peel, small shred or grated; and when it is cold, draw it up in double papers; dry them before the fire, and when you turn them, put two together; or you may keep them in deep glasses or pots, and dry them as you have occasion.

Common Biscuits.

Beat up six eggs, with a spoonful of rose-water and a spoonful of sack, then add a pound of fine powdered sugar, and a pound of flour; mix them into the eggs by degrees, with an ounce of coriander seeds; mix all well together, shape them on white thin paper or tin moulds, in any form you please. Beat the white of an egg, and with a feather rub them over, and dust fine sugar over them. Set them in an oven moderately heated, till they rise and come to a good colour; and if you have no stove to dry them in, put them into the oven at night, and let them stand till morning.

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To make Wigs.

Take three pounds and a half of flour, and three quarters of a pound of butter, and rub it into the flour till none of it be seen; then take a pint or more of new milk, and make it very warm, and half a pint of new ale-yeast, then make it into a light paste; put in carraway-seeds, and what spice you please; then make it up and lay it before the fire to rise; then work in three quarters of a pound of sugar, and then roll them into what form you please, pretty thin, and put them on tin plates, and hold them before the fire to rise again, before you set them in; your oven must be pretty quick.

To make Buns.

Take two pounds of fine flour, a pint of ale-yeast, put a little sack in the yeast and three eggs beaten; knead all these together with a little warm milk, a little nutmeg, and a little salt. Then lay it before the fire, till it rise very light. Then knead in it a pound of fresh butter, and a pound of round carraway-comfits, and bake them in a quick oven on floured papers in what shape you please.

Maccaroons.

Take a pound of almonds, let them be scalded, blanched, and thrown into cold water, then dry them in a cloth, and pound them in a mortar; moisten them with o­range-flower water, or the white of an egg, lest they turn to an oil; after, take an equal quantity of fine powdered sugar, with [Page 131] three or four whites of eggs, and a little musk; beat all well together, and shape them on wafer paper with a spoon. Bake them on tin plates in a gentle oven.

Good Fritters.

Mix half a pint of good cream, very thick with flour, beat six eggs, leaving out four whites, and to the eggs put six spoonfuls of sack, and strain them into the butter; put in a little grated nutmeg, ginger and cin­namon, all very fine, also a little salt; then put in another half pint of cream, and beat the batter near an hour; pare and slice your apples thin, dip every piece in the batter, and throw them into a pan full of boiling lard.

Pan Cakes.

Take a pint of thick cream, six spoon­fuls of sack, and half a pint of flour, six eggs, (but only three whites) one grated nutmeg, a quarter of a pound of melted but­ter, a very little salt, and some sugar; fry these thin in a dry pan.

Cheesecakes after the best Manner.

First warm a pint of cream, and then add to it five quarts of milk that is warm from the cow; and when you have put a sufficient quantity of rennet to it, stir it about till it comes to a curd: then put the curd into a cloth, or linen bag, and let the whey be very well drained from it; but take care not to squeeze it hard: when it is sufficiently dry, throw it into a mortar, and beat it till it is as fine as butter. To the curd, thus [Page 132] prepared, add half a pound of sweet almonds blanched, and the same quantity of macaroons, both beaten together as fine as powder. If you have none of the last near at hand, make use of Naples biskits in their stead; then add to your ingredients the yolks of nine eggs that have been well beaten, a whole nutmeg, and half a pound of double refined sugar. When you have mingled all these well together, melt a pound and a quarter of the best fresh butter, and stir it well into it.

As to your puff-paste for your cheesecakes, it must be made in the manner following.

Wet a pound of fine flour with cold water, and then roll it out; put in gradually at least two pounds of the best fresh butter, and shake a small quantity of flour upon each coat as you roll it. Make it just as you use it.

N. B. Some will add to these, both cur­rants and perfumed plumbs.

Cheesecakes without Rennet.

Take a quart of thick cream, and set it over a clear fire, with some quartered nut­megs in it; just as it boils up, put in twelve eggs well beaten; stir it a little while on the fire, till it begins to curdle; then take it off, and gather the curd as for cheese; put it in a clean cloth, tie it together, and hang it up, that the whey may run from it; when it is pretty dry, put it in a stone mortar, with a pound of butter, a quarter of a pint of thick cream, some sack, orange-flower [Page 133] water, and half a pound of fine sugar; then beat and grind all these together for an hour or more, till it is very fine; then pass it through a hair sieve, and fill your patty-pans but half full; you may put currants in half the quantity if you please; a little more than a quarter of an hour will bake them▪ take the nutmeg out of the cream when it is boiled.

Potatoe or Lemon Cheesecakes.

Take six ounces of potatoes, four ounces of lemon-peel, four ounces of sugar, four ounces of butter; boil the lemon-peel tender, pare and scrape the potatoes, boil them ten­der, and bruise them; beat the lemon-peel with the sugar, then beat all together very well, and melt the the butter in a little thick cream; mix all together very well, and let it lie till cold; put crust in your patty-pans, and fill them little more than half full. Bake them in a quick oven half an hour; sift some double refined sugar on them as they go into the oven; this quantity will make a dozen small patty-pans.

CHAP. XIII. Of PUDDINGS, &c.

To make a plain boiled Pudding.

TAKE a pint of new milk, mix with it six eggs well beaten, two spoonfuls of flour, half a nutmeg grated, a little salt and sugar. Put this mixture into a cloth or bag. Put it into boiling water: and half [Page 134] an hour will boil it. Serve it up with melted butter.

A Light Pudding.

Take a pint of cream or new milk from the cow; in which boil a little nutmeg, cin­namon, and mace. Take out the spice, and beat up the yolks of eight eggs, and the whites of four, with a glass of sweet moun­tain wine: to which add a little salt and sugar, and then mix them with the milk. Into which put a halfpenny roll, a spoonful of flour, and a little rose-water: and having beat them well toge [...]her, tie all up in a thick cloth, and boil it for an hour. Melt butter, sugar, and a little white wine for sauce, and pour it over the pudding, when dished.

A Quaking Pudding.

Take a penny white loaf grated, two spoonfuls of flour of rice, and seven eggs beaten up. Put them in a quart of cr [...]m or new milk. Season them with nutmeg grated and white-rose water. Tie it up. Boil it an hour, and then serve it up with plain butter melted, and with sugar and a little wine.

A [...] [...]iscuit Pudding.

Grate three Naples biscuit. Pour a pint of cream or milk over it hot. Cover it close till it be cold. Then add a little grated nutmeg, the yolks of four eggs and two whites beaten, a little orange-flower or rose-water, two ounces of powdered sugar, and half a spoonful of flour. Mix these well, [Page 135] and boil them in a china bason, tied in a cloth, one hour. Turn it out of the bason, and serve it up in a dish with butter, wine, and sugar melted and poured over it.

Boiled Plumb Puddings.

Shred a pound of beef suet very fine, to which add three quarters of a pound of raisins stoned, a little grated nutmeg, a large spoonful of sugar, a little salt, some white wine, four eggs beaten, three spoonfuls of cream, and five spoonfuls of flour. Mix them well, and boil them in a cloth three hours. Pour over this pudding melted but­ter, when dished.

The Tunbridge Puddings.

Pick and dry a pint of great oatmeal. Bruise it, but not small, in a mortar. Boil it a quarter of an hour in new milk. Then cover it close, and let it stand till it be cold. To this, when cold, add eight eggs beaten and strained, a penny loaf grated, half a pound of beef suet shred small, half a nut­meg grated, three spoonfuls of Maderia or sack, a quarter of a pound or more of su­gar. Mix these well together. Tie it up in a cloth, and boil it three hours. Serve it up with a good deal of butter pour­ed over it.

A Custard Pudding.

Take two spoonfuls of fine flour, half a grated nutmeg, a little salt and sugar, six eggs well beaten, and mix them all in a pint of cream, or new milk. Boil it in a cloth half an hour; and serve it up with plain butter melted.

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A Hunting Pudding.

Mix a pound of beef suet shred fine with a pound of fine flour, three quarters of a pound of currants well cleaned, a quarter of a pound of raisins stoned and shred, five eggs, a little grated lemon-peel, two spoon­fuls of sugar, and a little bandy. Mix them well together. Tie it up in a cloth; and boil it full two hours. Serve it up with white wine, and butter melted.

A boiled Suet Pudding.

Take a quart of milk, a pound of suet shred small, four eggs, two spoonfuls of grated ginger, or one of beaten pepper, a tea spoonful of salt. Mix the seasoning and suet first in one pint of the milk, and make a thick batter with flour. Then mix in the rest of the milk with the seasoning and suet, till it becomes a pretty thick batter. Boil it two hours. Serve it up with plain butter.

A Steak Pudding.

Make a rich crust of a quartern of flour and two pounds of suet shred fine, mixed up with cold water: seasoned with a little salt, and made stiff. The steaks may be either beef or mutton: well seasoned with pepper and salt. Roll the paste out half an inch thick. Lay the steaks upon it, and roll them up in it. Then tie it in a cloth, and put it into boiling water. A small pudding will be done enough in three hours. A large one takes five hours boiling.

N. B. Pigeons eat well this way.

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A boiled Potatoe Pudding.

Boil two pounds of potatoes, and beat them in a mortar fine, beat in half a pound of melted butter, boil it half an hour. Pour melted butter over it, with a glass of white wine, or the juice of a Seville orange, and throw sugar all over the pudding and dish.

A boiled Almond Pudding.

Beat a pound of sweet almonds as small as possible, with three spoonfuls of rose-water, and a gill of sack or white wine, and mix in half a pound of fresh butter melted, with five yolks of eggs and two whites, a quart of cream, a quarter of a pound of sugar, half a nutmeg grated, one spoonful of flour, and three spoonfuls of crumbs of white bread; mix all well together and boil it. It will take half an hour boiling.

A boiled Rice Pudding.

Take a quarter of a pound of rice, and half a pound of raisins stoned. Tie them in a cloth so as to give the rice room to swell. Boil it two hours. And serve it up with melted butter, sugar, and grated nutmeg thrown over it.

A Prune or Damson Pudding.

Take a quart of milk, beat six eggs, half the whites, with half a pint of the milk and four spoonfuls of flour, a little salt and two spoonfuls of beaten ginger; then by degrees mix in all the milk, and a pound of prunes. Tie it in a cloth; boil it an hour, melt butter and pour over it. Damsons eat well this way.

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An Apple pudding.

Make [...] good puff-paste, roll it out half an inch thick, pare the apples, and core them, enough to fill the crust, and close it up. Tie it in a cloth and boil it. I [...] a small pudding two hours; if a large one three or four hours. When it is enough turn it into a dish; cut a piece of crust out of the top, butter and sugar it to the palate; lay on the crust again, and send it to table hot.

N. B. A pear pudding, and a damson pudding, or any sort of plumbs, apricots, cher­ries, or mulberries, may be made the same way.

A plain baked pudding.

Boil a quart of milk; then stir in flour till thick. Add half a pound of butter, six oun­ces of sugar, a nutmeg grated, a little salt, ten eggs, but not all the whites. Mix them well. Put it into a dish buttered, and it will be baked in three quarters of an hour.

A Bread pudding baked.

Take a pint of cream and a quarter of a pound of butter, set it on the fire, and keep it stirring. When the butter shall be melted, put in as much grated stale bread as will make it pretty light, a nutmeg, a sufficient quantity of sugar, three or four eggs, and a little salt. Mix all together. Butter a dish, put it in, and bake it half an hour.

A Millet Pudding.

Take half a pound of millet and boil it over night in two quarts of milk. In the [Page 139] morning add six ounces of sugar, six of melted butter, seven eggs, half a nutmeg, a pint of cream, and sweeten it to your taste. Add ten eggs, and half the whites. Bake it.

A Marrow Pudding.

Boil a quart of cream. Take it off the fire boiling, and slice into it a penny white loaf. Add to it eight ounces of blanched almonds beaten fine, two spoonfuls of white rose-water, the yolks of six eggs, a glass of sack, a little salt, six ounces of candied le­mon and citron sliced thin, and a pound of beef marrow sliced thin, and half a pound of currants. Mix all together, and put it into a dish rubbed with butter. Half an hour will bake it; and when enough, dust on fine sugar, and serve it up hot.

A Rice Pudding.

Beat half a pound of rice to powder. Set it with three pints of new milk upon the fire and let it boil well, and when it grows almost cold, put to it eight eggs well beaten, and half a pound of suet or butter, half a pound of sugar, and a sufficient quantity of cinnamon, nutmeg and mace. Half an hour will bake it.

You may add a few currants and candied lemon and citron peel, or other sweet meats: and lay a puff paste first all over the sides and rim of the dish.

A Poor Man's Pudding.

Take some stale bread; pour over it some hot water, till it is well soaked; then press [Page 140] out the water, and wash the bread; add some powdered ginger, nutmeg grated, and a little salt; some rose water or sack, some Lisbon sugar, and some currants; mix them well together, and lay it in a pan well but­tered on the sides; and when it [...] well flat­ted with a spoon, lay some pieces of butter on the top; bake it in a gentle oven, and serve it hot. You may turn it out of the pan when it is cold, and it will eat like a fine cheesecake.

An Orange Pudding.

Take the yolks of sixteen eggs, beat them well, with half a pound of melted butter, grate in the rind of two fine Seville oranges, beat in half a pound of fine sugar, two spoon­fuls of orange-flower water, two of rose-water, a gill of sack, half a pint of cream, two Naples biskits, or the crumb of a half-penny roll soaked in the cream, and mix all well together. Make a thin puff paste, and lay it all over the dish and round the rim, pour in the pudding and bake it. It will take about as long baking as a custard.

A Carrot Pudding.

You must take a raw carrot, scrape it very clean and grate it: take half a pound of the grated carrot, and a pound of grated bread, beat up eight eggs, leave out half the whites, and mix the eggs with half a pint of cream: then stir in the bread and carrot, half a pound of fresh butter melted, half a pint of sack, three spoonfuls of orange-flower water, and nutmeg grated. Sweeten [Page 141] to your palate. Mix all well together, and if it is not thin enough, stir in a little new milk or cream. Let it be of a moderate thickness: lay a puff paste all over the dish, and pour in the ingredients. Bake it, which will take an hour. It may also be boiled. If so, serve it up with melted butter, and put in white wine and sugar.

A Quince, Apricot, or white Pear-Plumb Pudding.

Scald your quinces very tender, pare them very thin, scrape off the soft; mix it with su­gar very sweet, put in a little ginger and a little cinnamon. To a pint of cream you must put three or four yolks of eggs, and stir it into your quinces till they are of a good thick­ness. It must be pretty thick. So you may do apricots or white pear-plumbs, but never pare them. Butter your dish, pour it in, and bake it.

An Italian Pudding.

Lay puff-paste at the bottom and round the edges of the dish. Upon which pour a mix­ture of a pint of cream, French rolls enough to thicken it, ten eggs beaten very fine, a nut­meg grated, twelve pippins sliced, some orange peel and sugar, and half a pint of red wine▪ Half an hour will bake it.

An Apple Pudding.

Scald three or four codlins and bruise them through a sieve. Add a quarter of a pound of bisket, a little nutmeg, a pint of cream, ten eggs, but only half of the whites. Sweet­en to your taste, and bake it.

[Page 142]

A Norfolk Dumpling.

Make a batter as for pancakes, with a pint of milk, two eggs, a little salt, and as much flour as is needful. Drop this batter, in pie­ces, into a pan of boiling water. And if the water boils fast, they will be enough in three minutes. Throw them into a sieve or cullen­dar to drain. Then lay them in a dish. Stir a slice of fresh butter into each, and eat them hot.

A Hard Dumpling.

Mix flour and water, and a little salt, like a paste. Roll it into balls, as big as a tur­key's egg. Have a pan of boiling water rea­dy. Throw the balls of paste into the water, having first rolled them in flour. They eat best boiled in a beef-pot: and a few currants added makes a pretty change. Eat them with butter, as above.

Apple Dumplings.

Pare and core as many codlins, as you in­tend to make dumplings. Make a little cold butter paste. Roll it to the thickness of one's finger; and lap it round every apple singly, and if they be boiled singly in pieces of cloth, so much the better. Put them into boiling water, and they will be enough in half an hour. Serve them up with melted butter and white wine; and garnish with grated su­gar about the dish.

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Of SYLLABUBS, CREAMS, and FLUMMERY.

To make a fine Syllabub from the Cow.

SWEETEN a quart of cyder, with double refined sugar, and grate a nutmeg into it; then milk the cow into your liquor. When you have thus added what quantity of milk you think proper, pour half a pint, or more (in proportion to the quantity of syllabub you make) of the sweetest cream you can get, all over it.

A Whipt Syllabub.

Take two porringers of cream, and one of white wine, grate in the skin of a lemon, take the whites of three eggs sweeten it to your taste, then whip it with a whisk, take off the froth as it rises, and put i [...] into your syllabub-glasses or pots, and they are fit for use.

To make a Fine Cream.

Take a pint of cream, sweeten it to your palate; grate a little nutmeg, put in a spoonful of orange-flower water, and rose-water, and two spoonfuls of sack; beat up four eggs and two whites, stir it all together one way over the fire, till it is thick; have cups ready, and pour it in.

Lemon Cream.

Take the juice of four large lemons, half a pint of water, a pound of double refined sugar beaten fine, the whites of seven eggs, and the yolk of one beaten very well▪ mix [Page 144] all together, strain it, set it on a gentle fire, stirring it all the while, and skim it clean; put into it the peel of one lemon when it is very hot, but not to boil; take out the le­mon-peel, and pour it into china dishes.

Rasberry Cream.

Take a quart of thick sweet cream, and boil it two or three wallops; then take it off the fire, and strain some juice of ras­berries into it to your taste; stir it a good while before you put your juice in, that it may be almost cold when you put it to it, and afterwards stir it one way for almost a quarter of an hour; then sweeten it to your taste, and when it is cold you may send it up.

Whipped Cream.

Take a quart of thick cream, & the whites of eight eggs beaten with half a pint of sack; mix it together, and sweeten it to your taste with double refined sugar; you may perfume it (if you please) with musk or amber-grease tied in a rag, and steeped a little in the cream, Whip it with a whisk, and a bit of lemon-peel tied in the middle of the whisk. Take off the froth with a spoon, and lay it in your glasses or basons.

To make a Trifle.

Cover the bottom of a dish or bowl with Naples biscuits broke in pieces, macaroons broke in halves, and ratafia cakes. Just wet them all through with sack; then make a good boiled custard, not two thick, and [Page 145] when cold pour it over it, then put a syl­labub over that.—You may garnish it with ratafia cakes, currant jelly, and flow­ers.

Flummery.

Take a large calf's foot, cut out the great bones, and boil them in two quarts of wa­ter; then strain it off, and put to the clear jelly half a pint of thick cream, two ounces of sweet almonds, and an ounce of bitter almonds, well beaten together. Let it just boil, and then strain it off, and, when it is as cold as milk from the cow, put it into cups or glasses.

Oatmeal Flummery.

Put oatmeal (as much as you want) into a broad deep pan. Then cover it with wa­ter, stir it together, and let it stand twelve hours. Then pour off that water clear, and and put on a good deal of fresh water, shift it again in twelve hours, and so on in twelve more. Then pour off that water clear, and strain the oatmeal through a coarse hair-sieve, and pour it into a sauce pan, keeping it stirring all the time with a stick, till it boils and becomes very thick. Then pour it into dishes. When cold, turn it into plates, and eat it with what you please, either wine and sugar, or milk. It eats very pretty with cyder and sugar.

You may observe to put a great deal of water to the oatmeal, and when you pour off the last water, pour on just enough fresh to strain the oatmeal well. Some let it [Page 146] stand forty eight hours, some three days, shifting the water every twelve hours; but that is as you like it for sweetness or tartness. Groats once cut, does better than oatmeal. Mind to stir it together when you put in fresh water.

CHAP. XV. Of JELLIES, GIAMS, and CUSTARDS.

Calf's feet Jelly.

CUT four calf's feet in pieces, put them into a pipkin, with a gallon of water, cover them close, and boil them softly till al­most half be consumed, run the liquor through a sieve, and let it stand till it be cold. Then with a knife take off the fat, at top and bot­tom, and melt the fine part of the jelly in a preserving pan or skillet, and put in a pint of Rhenish wine, the juice of four or five lemons, double refined sugar to your taste, the whites of eight eggs beaten to a froth; stir and boil all these together near half an hour; then strain it through a sieve into a jelly-bag; put into your jelly-bag a very small sprig of rose­mary, and a piece of lemon-peel; pass it through the bag till it is as clear as water.

Hart's-horn Jelly.

Take a large gallipot with hart's-horn; then fill it full with spring water, tie a double paper over the gallipot, and set it in a baker's oven with houshold bread. In the [Page 147] morning take it out; run it through a jelly-bag; season with juice of lemons, double refined sugar, and the whites of eight eggs well beaten. Let it have a boil, and run it through the jelly-bag again into jelly glasses; put a bit of lemon-peel in the bag.

Currant Jelly.

Having stript the currants from [...]he stalks, put them into a stone jar: st [...]p it close; s [...]t it in a kettle of boiling water half way [...]he jar: let it boil half an hour; take it out, and strain the juice through a coarse hair-sieve. To a point of juice put a pound of sugar; set it over a fine quick clear fire in a preserving-pan or bell-metal skillet. Keep stirring it all the time till the sugar be melted; then skim the scum off as fast as it rises.

When the jelly is very clear and fine, pour it into earthen or china cups or galli­pots. When cold, cut white paper, just the bigness of the top of the pot, and lay on the jelly; dip those papers in brandy; then cover the top close with white paper, and prick it full of holes. Set it in a dry place. You may put some into glasses, for present use.

Rasberry Giam.

Take a pint of currant jelly, and a quart of rasberries, bruise them well together, set them over a slow fire, keeping it stirring all the time till it boils. Let it boil five or six minutes, pour it into gallipots, paper them as you do the currant jelly, and keep it for [Page 148] use. They will keep for two or three years, and have the full flavour of the rasberry.

A Custard.

Sweeten a quart of new milk to your taste; grate in a little nutmeg, beat up eight eggs well (leaving out half the whites) stir them into the milk, and bake them in china cups, or put them in a deep china dish. Have a kettle of water boiling, set the cups in, let the water come above half way, but do not let it boil two fast for fear of its getting into the cups. You may add a little rose-water, and French brandy.

Boiled Custards.

Put into a pint of cream two ounces of almonds, blanched and beaten very fine, with rose or orange flower water, or a little mace; let them boil till the cream is a little thickened, then sweeten it and stir in the [...]ggs, and keep it stirring over the fire, till it is as thick as you would have it; then put to it a little orange-flower water▪ stir it well together, and put it into china cups.

N. B. You may make them without almonds.

Almond Custards.

Take a pint of cream, blanch and beat a quarter of a pound of almonds fine, with two spoonfuls of rose-water. Sweeten it to your palate. Beat up the yolks of four eggs, stir all together one way over the fire, till it is thick; then pour it out into cups. Or you may bake it in little china cups.

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Rice Custards.

Boil a quart of cream with a blade of mace, and a quartered nutmeg, put thereto boiled rice, well beat with the cream; mix them to­gether, stirring them all the while they boil. When enough take it off, and sweeten it to your taste; put in a little orange flower water, then pour it into dishes. When cold, serve it.

CHAP. XVI. POTTING and COLLARING.

To pot Beef or Venison.

WHEN you have boiled or baked, and cut your meat small, let it be well beaten in a marble mortar, with some butter melted for that purpose, and two or three anchovies, till you find it mellow, and agreeable to your palate. Then put it close down in pots, and pour over them a sufficient quantity of clari­fied butter. You may season your ingredi­ents with what spice you please.

To pot Pigeons, or any other Fowls.

Your pigeons being trussed and seasoned with savoury spice, put them in a pot, cove [...] them with butter, and bake them: then ta [...] them out and drain them, and when they are cold, cover them with clarified butter. The same way you may pot fish, only bone them when they are baked.

To pot Charrs or Trouts.

Clean the fish well and bone them; wash them with vinegar, cut off the tails, fins▪ [Page 150] and heads; then season them with pepper, salt, nutmeg, and a few cloves; then put them close in a pot, & bake them with a little ver-juice and some butter; let them be co [...]red close and bake two hours; then pour off the liquor, and cover them with clarified butter.

To pot Lampreys or Eels.

Take lampreys or eels, skin, gut, and wash them, and slit them down the back; take out the bones, and cut them in pieces to fit your pot; then season them with pepper, salt, and nutmeg, and put them in the pot, with half a pint of vinegar. They must be close cove­red, and bake half an hour; and when done, pour off the liquor, and cover them with cla­rified butter.

How to collar Beef.

Lay a flank of beef in ham-brine a fort­night: then take it out and dry it in a cloth; lay it on a board▪ take out all the leather and skin, cut it cross and cross; season it with sa­voury spice, two anchovies, and a handful or two of thyme, parsley, sweet marjoram, win­ter savoury▪ onions, and fennell; strew it on the meat, roll it in a hard collar in a cloth, few it close, tie it at both ends, and put it in a collar-pot with a pint of claret, cochineal, and two quarts of pump water. When it is cold, take it out of the cloth.

To collar a Breast of Veal.

Bone the veal, season it all over the inside with cloves, mace, and salt beat fine, a [Page 151] handful of sweet-herbs stripped of the stalks, and a little sage, penny-royal and parsley shred very fine, then roll it up, as you do brawn; bind it with narrow tape very close, then tie a cloth round it, and boil it very tender in vinegar and water, a like quantity, with a little cloves, mace, pepper and salt, all whole. Make it boil, then put in the collars, when boiled tender, take them up; and when both are cold, take off the cloth, lay the collar in an earthen pan, and pour the liquor over; cover it close, and keep it for use.

To collar a Breast of Mutton.

Cut off the red skin, and take out the bones and gristles. Then take grated white bread, a little cloves, mace, salt, and pepper, the yolks of three hard eggs bruised small, and a little lemon-peel shred fine; with which, having laid the meat even and flat, season it all over, and add four or five anchovies washed and boned: then roll the meat like a collar, and bind it with coarse tape, and bake, boil, or roast it.

To collar Pork.

Bone a breast of pork, season it with sa­voury seasoning, a good quantity of thyme, parsley and sage; then roll it in a hard collar in a cloth, tie it at both ends, and boil it; and when it is cold▪ steep it in the savoury liquor, in which it was boiled.

To collar Eels.

Scour large silver eels with salt, slit them down the back, and take out all the bones; [Page 152] then wash and dry them, and season the [...] with savoury spice, minced parsley, thyme, sage, and onion; and roll each in little collars in a cloth, and tie them close. The [...] boil them in water and salt, with the heads and bones, half a pint of vinegar, a faggot of herbs, some ginger, and a penny worth of isinglass; when they are tender, take them up, tie them close again, strain the pickle, and keep the eels in it.

CHAP. XVII. Of PRESERVING, DRYING, and CANDYING.

To keep green Peas till [...].

TAKE fine young pe [...]s, shell them, throw them into a cullender to drain, then lay a cloth four or five times double on a table, and spread them on; dry them very well, and have your bottles ready, fill them and cover them with mutton suet fat; when it is a little cool, fill the necks almost to the top, cork them, tie a bladder and a lath over them, and set them in a cool dry place.

To keep French Beans all the year.

Take young beans, gathered on a dry day, have a large stone jar ready, lay a layer of salt at the bottom, and then a layer of beans, then salt and then beans, and so on till the jar is full; cover them with salt, and tie a coarse cloth over them and a board on that, and then a weight to keep it close from all air; set them in a dry cellar, and [Page 153] when you use them, take some out and cover them close again; wash them you took out very clean, and let them lie in soft water twenty four hours, shifting the water often; when you boil them do not put any salt in the water.

To keep White Bullace, Pea [...] Plumbs, or Damsons, &c. for Tarts or Pies.

Gather them when full grown, and just as they begin to turn. Pick all the largest out, save about two third [...] of the fruit, to the other third put as much water as you think will cover them, boil and skim them; when the fruit is boiled very soft, strain it through a course hair-sieve; and to every quart of this liquor put a pound and a half of sugar, boil it, and skim it very well; then throw in your fruit, just give them a scald; take them off the fire, and when cold, put them into bottles with wide mouths, pour your syrup over them, lay a piece of white paper over them, and cover them with oil.

To make Marmalade.

To two pounds of quinces put three quar­ters of a pound of sugar and a pint of spring-water; then put them over the fire, and boil them till they are tender; then take them up and bruise them; then put them into the liquor, let it boil three quarters of an hour, and then put it into your pots or saucers.

To preserve Mulberries whole.

Set some mulberries▪ over the fire in a [Page 154] skillet or preserving pan; draw from them a pint of juice when it is strained; then take three pounds of sugar beaten very fine, [...] the sugar with the pint of juice, boil up your sugar and skim it, put in two pounds of ripe mulberries, and let them stand in the syrup till they are thoroughly warm, then set them on the fire, and let them boil very gently; do them but half enough, so put them by in the syrup till next day, then boil them gently again: when the syrup is pr [...] ­ty thick, and will stand in round drops when it is cold, they are enough, so put all into a gallipot for use.

To preserve Gooseberries, Damsons, or Plumbs.

Gather them when dry, full grown, and not ripe; pick them one by one, put them into glass bottles that are very clean and dry, and cork them close with new corks; then put a kettle of water on the fire, and put in the bottles with care; wet not the corks, but let the water come up to the neck [...]; make a gentle fire till they are a little coddled and turn white; do not take them up till cold, then pitch the corks all over, or wax them close and thick; then set them in a cool dry cellar.

To preserve Peaches.

Put your peaches i [...] boiling water, just give them a scald, but don't let them boil, take them out, and put them in cold water, then dry them in a sieve, and put them in long wide-mouthed bottles: to half a dozen peaches take a quarter of a pound of sugar, [Page 155] clarify it, pour it over your peaches▪ and fill the bottles with brandy. Stop them close, and keep them in a close place.

To preserve Apricots.

Take your apricots and pare them, then stone what you can whole; give them a light boiling in a pint of water, or according to your quantity of fruit; then take the weight of your apricots in sugar, and take the liquor which you boil them in, and your sugar, and boil it till it comes to a syrup, and give them a light boiling taking off the scum as it rises. When the syrup jellies, it is enough; then take up the apricots, and cover them with the jelly, and put cut paper over them, and lay them down when cold.

To preserve Apricots green.

Take apricots when they are young and tender, coddle them a little, rub them with a coarse cloth to take off the skin, and throw them into water as you do them, and put them in the same water they were coddled in; cover them with vine leaves, a white paper, or some­thing more at the top; the closer you keep them, the sooner they are green; be sure you don't let them boil; when they are green, weigh them▪ and to every pound of apricots, take a pound of loaf-sugar put it into a pan, and to every pound of sugar a jill of water, boil your sugar and water a little, and skim it, then put in your apricots, let them boil together till your fruit looks clear, & your syrup thick, [Page 156] skim it all the time it is boiling, and put them into a pot covered with a paper dipped in brandy.

Or,

Take your plumbs before they have stones in them, which you may know by putting a pin through them, then coddle them in many waters, till they are as green as grass: peel them and coddle them again; you must take the weight of them in sugar and make a syrup; put to your sugar a pint of water; then put them in, set them on the fire to boil slowly, till they be clear, skim­ming them often, and they will be very green. Put them up in glasses, and keep them for use.

To preserve Cherries.

Take two pound of cherries, one pound and a half of sugar, half a pint of fair water, melt your sugar in it; when it is melted, put in your other sugar and your cherries; then boil them softly, till all the sugar be melted; then boil them fast, and skim them; take them off two or three times and shake them, and put them on again, and let them boil fast; and when they are of a good co­lour, and the syrup will stand, they are enough.

To preserve Rasberries.

Chuse rasberries that are not too ripe, and take the weight of them in sugar, wet your sugar with a little water, and put in your berries, and let them boil softly; take heed of breaking them; when they are [Page 157] clear, take them up, and boil the syrup till it be thick enough, then put them in again; and when they are cold, put them up in glasses.

To preserve Currants.

Take the weight of the currants in sugar, pick out the seeds; take to a pound of sugar, half a pint of water; let it melt; then put in your berries, and let them do very leisure­ly, skim them, and take them up, let the syrup boil; then put them on again; and when they are clear, and the syrup thick enough, take them off; and when they are cold, put them up in glasses.

To dry Peaches.

Take the fairest and ripest peaches, p [...]re them into fair water; take their weight in double refined sugar: of one half make a very thin syrup; then put in your peaches, boiling them till they look clear, then split and stone them. Boil them till they are very tender, lay them a-draining, take the other half of the sugar, and boil it almost to a candy; then put in your peaches, and let them lie all night, then lay them on a glass, and set them in a stove, till they are dry. If they are sugar'd too much, wipe them with a wet cloth a little: Let the first syrup be very thin▪ a quart of water to a pound of sugar.

To dry Cherries.

To four pounds of cherries, put one pound of sugar, and just put as much water to the sugar as will wet it; when it is melted, [Page 158] make it boil, stone your cherries, put them in, and make them boil; skim them two or three times, take them off, and let them stand in the syrup two or three days, then boil your syrup, and put it to them again, but don't boil your cherries any more. Let them stand three o [...] [...]our days longer, then take them out, lay them in sieves to dry; when dry, lay them in rows on papers, and so a row of cherries, and a row of white paper in boxes.

To Candy Angelica.

Take it in April, boil it in water till it be tender, then take it up and drain it from the water very well; then scrape the out­side of it, and dry it in a clean cloth, and [...]ay it in the syrup, and let it lie in three or four days, and cover it close: the syrup must be strong of sugar, and keep it hot a good while, but let it not boil; after it is heated a good while, lay it upon a pie plate, and so let it dry; keep it near the fire, le [...]t it dissolve.

CHAP. XVIII. Of PICKLING.

To pickle Asparagus.

GAther your asparagus, and lay them in an earthen pot; make a brine of water and salt strong enough to bear an egg, pour it hot on them, and keep it close covered. When you use them hot, lay them in cold water two hours, then boil and butter them [Page 159] for table. If you use them as a pickle, boil them and lay them in vinegar.

To pickle Nasturtium Buds or Seeds.

Take the seeds new off the plant, when they are pretty large, but before they grow hard, and throw them into the best white wine vinegar that has been boiled up with what spice you please. Keep them close stopped in a bottle. They are fit for use in eight days.

To pickle or make Mangos of Melons.

Take green Melons, as many as you please, and make a brine strong enough to bear an egg; then pour it boiling hot on the melons, keeping them down under the brine; let them stand five or six days; then take them out, slit them down on one side, take out all the seeds, scrape them well in the inside, and wash them clean with cold water; then take a clove of garlick, a little ginger and nutmeg sliced, and a little whole pepper; put all these propor­tionably into the melons, filling them up with mustard-seeds; then lay them in an earthen pot with the slit upwards, and take one part of mustard and two parts of vinegar, enough to cover them, pouring it upon them scalding hot, and keep them close stopped.

To pickle Mushrooms white.

Cut the stem of your small buttons at the bottom; wash them in two or three waters [...]th a piece of flannel. Have in readiness a [...]ew-pan on the fire, with some spring water that has had a handful of common salt thrown [Page 160] into it; and as soon as it boils, put in your buttons. When they have boiled about three or four minutes, take them off the fire, and throw them into a cullender; from thence spread them as quick as you can upon a lin­nen cloth, & cover them with another. Have ready several wide mouthed bottles; and as you put in the mushrooms, now and then mix a blade or two of mace, and some nutmeg sli­ced amongst them; then fill your bottle with distilled vinegar. If you pour over them some melted mutton fat, that has been well strained, it will keep them better than oil itself would.

To pickle Barberries.

Take of white wine vinegar and water of each an equal quantity: to every quart of this liquor, put in half a pound of sixpenny sugar, then pick the worst of your barberries and put into this liquor, and the best into glasses; then boil your pickle with the worst of your barberries, and skim it very clean. Boil it till it looks of a fine colour, then let it stand to be cold, before you strain it; then strain it through a cloth, wringing it to get all the colour you can from the barberries. Let it stand to cool and settle, then pour it clear into the glasses. In a little of the pickle boil a little fennel; when cold, put a little bit at the top of the pot or glass, and cover it close with a bladder and leather. To every half pound of sugar, put a quarter of a pound of white salt.

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To pickle Raddish-Pods.

Make a strong pickle, with cold spring-water and bay-salt, strong enough to bear an egg, then put your pods in, and lay a thin board on them, to keep them under water. Let them stand ten days, then drain them in a sieve, and lay them on a cloth to dry; then take white wine vinegar, as much [...]s you think will cover them, boil it, and put your pods in a jar, with ginger, mace, cloves, and Jamaica pepper. Pour your vi­negar boiling hot on, cover them with a coarse cloth, three or four times double, that the steam may come through a little, and let them stand two days. Repeat this two or three times; when it is cold put in a pint of mustard seed, and some horse-raddish; [...]over it close.

To pickle Samphire.

Lay what quantity you think proper of such samphire as is green in a clean pan, and (after you have thrown two or three hand­fuls of salt over it) cover it with spring wa­ter. When it has lain four and twenty hours, put it into a brass sauce-pan, that has been well cleaned; and when you have thrown into it one handful only of salt, co­ver it with the best vinegar. Cover your sauce-pan close, and set it over a gentle fire; let it stand no longer than till it is just crisp and green, for it would be utterly spoiled should it stand till it be soft. As soon as you have taken it off the fire, pour it into [Page 162] your pickling pot, and take care to cover it close.

To pickle Onions.

Take small onions, lay them in salt and water a day, and shift them in that time once; then dry them in a cloth, and take some white wine vinegar, cloves, mace, and a little pepper; boil this pickle and pour over them, and when it is cold, cover them close.

Or,

Take small white onions, lay them in water and salt, and put to them a pickle of vinegar and spice.

To pickle Cabbage.

Take a large fine cabbage, and cut it in thin slices, season some vinegar with what spice you think fit, then pour it on scalding hot, two or three times.

To pickle French-Beans.

Gather them before they have strings, and put them in a very strong brine of water and salt for nine days; then drain them from the brine; and put boiling hot vinegar to them, and stop them close twenty-four hours; do so four or five days following, and they will turn green; then put to a peck of beans half an ounce of cloves and mace, as much pepper, a handful of dill and fennel, and two or three bay-leaves. You may do broom buds, and purs [...]ne-stalks the same way, only let them lie twenty-four hours; and no longer; if they do not turn green, you may set them on the fire in the pickle, and [Page 163] let them stand close covered and just warm them; for if they boil, they are spoiled.

To pickle Cucumbers.

Let your cucumbers be small, fresh gather­ed, and free from spots; then make a pickle of salt and water, strong enough to bear an egg; boil the pickle and skim it well, and then pour it upon your cucumbers, and stive them down for twenty-four hours; then strain them out into a cullender, and dry them well with a cloth, and take the best white wine vi­negar, with cloves, sliced mace, nutmeg, white pepper corns, long pepper, and races of gin­ger, (as much as you please) boil them up to­gether, and then clap the cucumbers in, with a few vine-leaves, and a little salt, and as soon as they begin to turn their colour, put them into jars, stive them down close, and when cold, tie on a bladder and leather.

Of MADE WINES.

To make Gooseberry Wine.

TAKE goosberries when they are just beginning to turn ripe, bruise them well, but not so as to break their stones, pour to every eight pound of pulp a gallon of spring water, and let them stand in the vessel covered, in a cool place, twenty-four hours▪ then put them into a strong canvas or hair bag, and press out all the juice that will run from them, and to every quart of it put twelve ounces of loaf sugar, stirring it about till it be melted; then put it up [Page 164] into a well seasoned cask, and set it in a cool place; when it has purged and settled about twenty or thirty days, fill the vessel full, and bung it down close.

When it is well worked and settled, draw it off into bottles, and keep them in a cool place.

To make Currant Wine.

Gather your currants, when the weather is dry, and they are full ripe, strip them care­fully from the stalks; put them into a pan, and bruise them with a wooden pestle; then let it stand about twenty hours, after which strain it through a sieve. Add three pounds of fine powder-sugar to every four quarts of the liquor; and then shaking or stirring it well, fill your vessel, and put about a quart of brandy to every seven gallons: As soon as it is fine, bottle it off.

To make Raisin Wine.

Put two hundred weight of raisins, with the stalks, into a hogshead, and fill it almost full with spring water; let them steep about twelve days, frequently stirring them about, and after pouring the juice off, press the raisins, Put all the liquor together in a very clean vessel. You will find it hiss for some time, and when the noise ceases, it must be stopped close, and stand for six or seven months; and then if it proves fine and clear, rack it off into another vessel; stop it up, and let it remain twelve or fourteen weeks longer; then bottle it off.

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To make Rasberry Wine.

Take red rasberries when they are nearly [...]ipe; clear the husks and stalks from them, soak them in fair water, that has been boiled and sweetened with loaf sugar, a pound and a half to a gallon; when they have soaked about twelve hours, take them out, put them into a fine linen pressing bag press out the juice into the water, then boil them up together, and scum them well twice or thrice over a gentle fire; take off the vessel, and let the liquor cool, and when the scum arises take off all that you can, and pour off the liquor into a well seasoned cask, or earthen vessel; then boil an ounce of mace, in a pint of white wine, till the third part be consumed; strain it, and add it to the liquor; when it has well settled and fermented, draw it off into a cask, or bottles, and keep it in a cool place.

To make Morella Wine.

Take two gallons of white wine, and twenty pounds of Morella cherries; take away the stalks, and so bruise them that the stones may be broken: press the juice into the wine; and add of mace, cin­namon, and nutmeg, an ounce of each, tied in a bag grosly bruised, and hang it in the wine when you have put it up in a cask.

To make Elder Wine.

When the elder-berries are ripe, pick them, and put them into a stone jar; set them in boiling water, or in a slack oven, [Page 166] 'till the jar is as warm as you can well bear to touch it with your hand; then strain the fruit through a coarse cloth, squeezing them hard, and pour the liquor into a kettle. Put it on the fire, let it boil, and to every quart of liquor add a pound of Lisbon sugar, and scum it often. Then let it settle, and pour it off into a jar, and cover it close.

To make Cowslip Wine.

Take five pounds of loaf-sugar, and four gallons of water, simmer them half an hour, to dissolve the sugar▪ when it is cold, put in half a peck of cowslip flowers, picked and gently bruised; then add two spoonfuls of yeast, and beat it up with a pint of syrup of lemons, and a lemon-peel or two. Pour the whole into a cask, let them stand close stop­ped for three days, that they may ferment; then put in some juice of cowslips, and give it room to work; when it has stood a month draw it off into bottles, putting a little lump of loaf sugar into each.

To make Mead.

To thirteen gallons of water, put thirty pounds of honey, boil and scum it well, then take rosemary, thyme, bay-leaves, and sweet-briar, one handful all together, boil it an hour; put it into a tub, with a little ground malt; stir it till it is new-milk warm; strain it through a cloth, and put it into the tub again; cut a toast, and spread it over with good yeast, and put it [Page 167] into the tub also; and when the liquor is co­vered over with yeast, put it up in a barrel; then take of cloves, mace, and nutmegs, an ounce and a half; of ginger sliced, an ounce; bruise the spice, tie it up in a rag, and hang it in the vessel; stopping it up close for use.

To make Balm Wine.

Take a peck of balm leaves, put them in a tub or large pot, heat four gallons of water scalding hot, ready to boil, then pour it upon the leaves, so let it stand all night; in the morning strain them through a hair sieve; put to every gallon of water two pounds of fine sugar, & stir it very well; take the whites of four or five eggs, beat them very well, put them into a pan, and whisk it very well before it be over hot; when the skim begins to rise take it off, and keep it skimming all the while it is boiling; let it boil three quarters of an hour, and then put it into the tub; when it is cold put a little new yeast upon it, and beat it in every two hours, that it may head the better; so work it for two days, then put it into a sweet vessel, bung it up close, and when it is fine bottle it.

To make Birch Wine.

Take your birch water and boil it, and clear it with whites of eggs; to every gallon of water take two pounds and a half of fine sugar; boil it three quarters of an hour, and when it is almost cold, put in a little yeast; work it two or three days, then put it into [Page 168] the barrel, and to every five gallons put in a quart of brandy, and half a pound of stoned raisins. Before you put up your wine burn a brimstone match in the barrel.

To make Orange Wine.

Take six gallons of water, fifteen pounds of powder-sugar, and the whites of six eggs well beaten; boil them three quarters of an hour, and skim them while any scum will rise; when it is cold enough for working, put to it six ounces of the syrup of citron or le­mons, and six spoonfuls of yeast; beat the sy­rup and yeast well together, and put in the peel and juice of fifty oranges; work it two days and a night; then turn it up into a bar­rel, and bottle it at three or four Months old.

FINIS.

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