EXCELLENT OBSERVATIONS AND NOTES, Concerning the Royall Navy and Sea-Service.

WRITTEN By Sir Walter Rawleigh and by him Dedicated to the most Noble and Il­lustrious Prince HENRY Prince of WALES.

LONDON, Printed by T. W. for Humphrey Moseley, and are to be Sold at his Shop at the Signe of the Princes Arms in St. Pauls Church-yard. 1650.

Excellent Observa­tions and Notes, concer­ning the Royall Na­vy and Sea-service.

HAving former­ly (most ex­cellent Prince) discoursed of a Maritimall voy­age, and the pas­sages and incidents therein, I thinke it not impertinent nor differing from my purpose, to second the same with some ne­cessary relations concerning the Royall Navy, with the Servi­ces and Offices thereto belong­ing. For, as the perfection and [Page 2] excellency of our Shipping is great and remarkeable, so the imperfections and defects of the same by use and experience of late years, have been found to be divers and inconvenient, as it falls out many times in the circumstances of Land service by the charige of Armes, diver­sities of Fortifications, and al­teration of Discipline. And therefore for the due reforma­tion, many things are necessa­rily and particularly to be spo­ken and considered of in their Order. In regard whereof, I will first begin with the Offi­cers, and therein crave pardon (if in speaking plainly and tru­ly in a matter of so great im­portance) I doe set aside all private respects and partiality. For in that which concerns the service and benefit of my [Page 3] Prince and Country, I will say with Cicero, Nil mihi melius, nil mihi Charius. And there­fore not justly to be taxed with any presumption for medling with matters wherein I have no dealings nor charge. For that in the affaires of this nature, every good Subject is deeply interes­sed, and bound in Conscience and duty both to say and doe his best.

Of the Officers of the Navy.

FIrst therefore, it were to be wished, that the Chiefe Officers under the Lord Admi­rall (as Vice-Admirall,Officers under the Lo: Admi­rall to bee men of the best experi­ence in Sea-ser­vice. Trea­surer, Controller, Surveyor; and the rest) should be men of the best experience in Sea-ser­vice, aswell as of judgement and practise in the utinsells and ne­cessaries belonging to shipping, [Page 4] even from the Batts end to the very Kilson of a Ship. And that no kind of people should be preserred to any of these offices, but such as have been through­ly practised, and be very judi­ciall in either kind of the above named services; but we see it oftentimes to fall our other­wise. For sometimes by the speciall favour of Princes, and many times by the mediation of great men for the preferment of their servants, and now and then by vertue of the purse, and such like means, some people very raw and ignorant, are very unworthily and unfitly nomi­nated to those places, when men of desert and ability are held back and unpreferr'd, to the great hinderance of his Maje­sties service, to the prejudice of the Navy, and to the no little [Page 5] discouragement of ancient and noble able servitors, when fa­vour or partiality shall eat out knowledge and sufficiency, in matters so neerly concerning the service and safety of the Kingdome, wherein all private respects should be laid apart, and vertue truly regarded for it selfe.

Of the building of Ships.

SEcondly, it were no lesse behoovefull for his Maje­sties service, and for the strength of the Navy,No Ships to be buil­ded by the great. that no Ships should be builded by the great, as divers of them have been; For by daily experience they are found be the most weake, im­perfect, and unserviceable Ships of all the rest. And it is not otherwise to be presumed, But [Page 6] as the Officers would bee thought to be very frugall for his Majesty in driving a bar­gaine by the great at a neere rate with the Shipwright, So likewise the Shipwright on his part will be as carefull to gaine by his labour, or at least to save himselfe harmlesse, and there­fore suite his worke slightly ac­cording to a slight price. Out of the which present sparing and untimely thrift, there grows many future inconveni­ences and continuall Charge in repayring and reedifying such imperfect slight built Vessells. The proofe and experience whereof hath been often found in new Shipps built at those rates, but so weakly, as that in their voyages, they have been ready to founder in the Seas with every Extraordinary [Page 7] storme, and at their returne been enforced to be new built. But seeing the Officers of the Admiralty doe hold (by the grace of his Majestie) places of so good Credit and benesit, it is their parts therefore (being well waged and rewarded for the same) exactly to look into the sound building of Ships,Officers of the Ad­miraltie exactly to look into the sound building of Ships, &c. and to imploy their care and travell aswell in the over sight thereof, as to provide that all things else belonging to the Navy be good and well conditioned: For the strong and true building of a Ship is not to be left barely to the fidelity of a Marchanticall Artificer (the chiefe end of whose worke in his owne Ac­compt is his profit and gaine) but some Superior Officer ought to have a further regard in that businesse, if he be such a [Page 8] one as hath more judgement in the building and conditioning of a Ship, then devotion to his owne ease and profit.

Moreover if any decayed Ship be intended to be new made, it is more fit and profi­table to make her a size lesse then she was, then bigger; For then her beams which were laid over-thwart from side to side, will serve againe, and most of her Tymbers and other parts will say well to the building of a new ship. But if she should be made a size bigger, the Tym­ber of the old will be unprofi­table for that purpose; we find by experience, that the greatest ships are least serviceable,The greatest Ships least ser­viceable. goe very deep to water and of mar­vellous Charge and fearefull Cumber, our Channells de­caying every year. Besides, they [Page 9] are lesse nimble, lesse maine­able, and very seldome imploy­ed.The Spa­niards phrase. Grande Navio grande fati­ca, saith the Spaniard, a ship of 600 Tuns will carry as good Ordnance, as a ship of 1200. Tuns, and though the greater have double her number, the lesser will turne her broad sides twice, before the greater can wend once, and so no advan­tage in that overplus of Ord­nance. And in the building of all ships, these six things are principally required.

1. First, that she be strong built.

2. Secondly, that shee bee swift.

3. Thirdly, that she be stout sided.

4. Fourthly, that she carry out her Guns all weather.

5. Fifthly, that she hull and [Page 10] try well, which we call a good Sea-ship.

6. Sixthly, that shee stay well, when bourding and tur­ning on a wind is required.

1. To make her strong con­sisteth in the truth of the Workeman, and the care of the Officers.

2. To make her sayle well is to give a long run forward, and so afterward done by Art and just proportion. For as in laying out of her bows before and quarters behind, she neither sinck into, nor hang in the wa­ter,A caution for Ship­wrights. but lye cleare off and above it, And that the Shipwrights be not deceived herein (as for the most part they have ever been) they must be sure, that the Ship sinck no deeper into the water, then they promise, for other wise the bow and quarter [Page 11] will utterly spoile her say­ling.

3. That she bee stout, the same is provided and perfor­med by a long bearing Floore, and by sharing off above water even from the lower edge of the Ports.

4. To carry out her Ord­nance all weather, This long bearing Floore, and sharing off from above the Ports is a chiefe Cause, Provided alwayes, that your lowest Tyre of Ordnance must lye foure foot cleare a­bove water when all loading is in, or else those your best pie­ces will be of small use at the Sea in any growne weather that makes the Billoe to rise, for then you shall be enforced to take in all your lower Ports, or else hazard the Ship.Mary Rose in 11. 8. time. As be­fell to the Mary Rose (a goodly [Page 12] vessell) which in the days of King Hen. 8. being before the Isle of Wight with the rest of the Royall Navy, to encounter the French Fleet, with a suddain puff of wind stooped her side, and tooke in water at her Ports in such abundance, as that she instantly sunck downeright and many gallant men in her. The Captaine of her was Sir George Carew Knight, who al­so perished among the rest.

5. To make her a good Sea­ship, that is to hull and trye well, there are two things spe­cially to be observed, the one that she have a good draught of water, the other that she be not overcharged, which common­ly the Kings Ships are, and therefore in them we are for­ced to lye at trye with our maine Course and Missen, [Page 13] which with a deep keel and standing streake she will per­forme.

6. The hinderance to stay well is the extreame length of a Ship, especially if she be floaty and want sharpnesse of way forwards, and it is most true, that those over long Ships are fitter for our Seas, then for the Ocean, but one hundred Foot long and five and thirty Foot broad, is a good propor­tion for a great ship.

It is a speciall Observation,Speciall observa­tion. that all ships sharpe before, that want a long Floore, will fall roughly into the Sea and take in water over head and Ears.The high charging of Ships a principall cause that brings them all ill quali­ties.

So will all narrow quartered ships sinck after the Tayle. The high charging of ships is it that brings them all ill qualities, makes them extreame Leeward [Page 14] makes them sinck deep into the water, makes them labour and makes them overset.

Men may not expect the ease of many.Ease of many Cabbins and safety at once in Sea-ser­vice not to be ex­pected. Cabbins and safety at once in Sea-service. Two Decks and a half is sufficient to yield shelter and lodging for men and Marriners and no more charging at all higher, but on­ly one low Cabbin for the Ma­ster. But our Marriners will say, that a Ship will beare more charging aloft for Cabbins, and that is true, if none but ordi­nary Marryners were to serve in them, who are able to en­dure, and are used to the tum­bling and rowling of ships from side to side when the Sea is never so little growne. But men of better sort and better breeding would be glad to find more steadinesse and lesse tor­tering [Page 15] Cadge worke. And albe­it the Marriners doe covet store of Cabbins, yet indeed they are but sluttish Dens that breed sicknesse in peace, serving to cover stealths, and in Fight are dangerous to teare men with their splinters.

Of harbouring and placing the Navy.

THere are also many and great reasons why all his Majesties Navy should not in such sort be pen'd up as they are in Rochester-water, His Ma­jesties Navy (in such sort as they are) not to bee pend up in Roche­ster-water, &c. but only in respect of the ease and commo­dity of the Officers, which is en­countred with sundry Incon­veniences for the Sea-service, the dificulty being very great to bring them in or out at times of need through so many Flats [Page 16] and sands, if wind and weather be not very favourable. Besides, they must have sundry winds to bring them to the Lands end, and to put them to the Seas, which oftentimes failes, and causeth delay when hast is most needfull. For if any service be to be done upon the South parts of England, Wight, Ports­mouth, Garnsey and lersey, Devonshire Cornwall, Wales, or Ireland. as the Wight, Portsmouth, the I slands of Garn­sey and Jersey, or Westward towards Devon-shire or Corn­wall, or towards Wales or Ire­land, It is so long ere his Maje­sties shipping can be brought about to recover any of these places, as that much mischiefe may be done the while. For the same winds that bring in the Enemy, binds in our shipping in such sort, as that oftentimes in a months space they are not able to recover the neerest of [Page 17] any of these above named Coasts. But how perillous a course it is, is easily discerned, and as casily remedyed, seeing there are besides so many safe and good harbours to disperse and bestow some of the Navy in, where they may ever lye fit for all services,Ports­mouth, Dart­mouth, Plymouth, Falmouth, Milford and di­vers o­thers, Harbours very ca­pable and conveni­ent for Shipping▪ As Portsmouth; Dartmouth, Plymouth, Falmouth, Milford and divers others, All of them being harbours very capable and convenient for shipping. But perhaps it will be alleadged, that they cannot ride in any of these so safe from e­nemies as in Rochester-water, be­cause it reacheth far within the Land, and is under the prote­ction of some Blockhouses. To which I answer this, That with very easie care and provision, they may in most of these pla­ces ride sufficiently secure from [Page 18] any forraine practises. And I doe not meane that all the whole Navy should be subdivi­ded into all these Ports, but that some halfe dozen or eight of the midling ships,Halfe a dozen or eight of milding Ships and ships and some Pyn­naces to lye in the West, &c. and some Pynnaces should lye in the West, and yet not in any Port so neere the Sea, as that in a darke night they may be endan­gered by enemies with fire or otherwise, but in some such places as Ashwater is by Ply­mouth, Ash-water by Ply­mouth. where an Enemy must run up a fresh River, a dozen miles after he hath passed the Forts of the Island, and the A­larum given, before he can come where they lye at Anchor. In which River the greatest Charack of Portugall may ride a Float ten miles within the Forts. But if regard be only had of their safe keeping, and not [Page 19] also of their readinesse and fit­nesse for service, then let them never be sent abroad to be ha­zarded against the Enemies for­ces; for therein they shall be more subject to casualitie and danger, then by lying in any of these harbours above specified. But certaien it is, that these Ships are purposely to serve his Majesty, and to defend the King­dom from danger, and not to be so penn'd up from Casualitie, as that they should be the lesse able or serviceable in times of need. And therefore that ob­jection savours not of good rea­son, but rather of selfe respect in the Officers, who are all for the most part well seated neer about Rochester. But the ser­vice of his Majesty, and the safety of the Realme (in my poore opinion) ought to pre­vaile [Page 20] beyond all other respects whatsoever: and to him that casts thoseneedlesse doubts, it may well be said, pereat qui ti­met umbras.

Of the needfull expence in manning the Navy and other inconveniences by placing all the Fleet in Roche­ster-water.

IF the service of the Ship­ping lying for any of these places above named,Nota. or for Spaine, or for the Islands, they are enforced of very necessity to presse the best and greatest part of their men out of the West Countries, which is no small charge in bringing them so far as between that and Ro­chester, and then when they are [Page 21] imbraqued at Rochester, their charge is againe redoubled in their pay and expence of victu­alls, before the Ships can reco­ver so farre as Plymouth, which many times is long a doing, for they doe ever usually touch at Plymouth in all Southerene voy­ages, for the furnishing many Sea-necessaries, which that Country doth afford. And therefore for so many Ships as should be there resident, the Charges of Conduct Money for Marryners,Charges of Con­duct mo­ney for Marri­ners well saved, &c. of wages and of victualls, would be well savd for all that time, which is spent betwixt Rochester and Plymouth. Besides, it were to be presumed, that Enemies would not be so troublesome to the Westerne Coasts, nor that Country it self would be so often dismay­ed with Alarums as they have [Page 22] of late years been, if some of his Majesties good. Ships were resident in those parts. If there­fore in his Majesties wisdome it should appeare fit, to bestow some of his Shipping in any of these Horbours aforenamed, it shall be very needfull likewise that there be a Magazin of allA Maga­zin of all manner of neces­sary pro­visions, &c. manner of necessary provisions and Munitions in the same pla­ces, according to the proporti­on of the Shipping that there shall be resident, whereby such defects as by accident may fall out, shall upon any occasion be readily supplyed without de­lays or hindrance of service: And that withall in the same places, some Officers belonging to the Admiralty be there al­wayes attendant, otherwise it would be found very inconve­nient to be enforced ever to at-attend [Page 23] such helps and supplies as must come so far off as Lon­don, when it may more easily and with lesse charge be ef­fected in places where they ride.

Of great Ordnance.

IT was also very behoove­full,His Maje­sties ships not to be overchar­ged and pestered with great Ord­nance as they are. that his Majesties Ships were not so overpestred and clogged with great Ordnance as they are, whereof there is such superfluity, as that much of it serves to no better use, but only to labour and overcharge the Ships sides in any growne Seas and foule weather. Be­sides many of the ships that are allowed but twenty Gunners, have forty piece of barsse pie­ces, whereas every piece at least requires foure Gunners to at­tend [Page 24] it, And so that proporti­on of Ordnance to so few Gun­ners, very preposterous: For when a Ship seels or roules in foule weather, the breaking loose of Ordnance is a thing very dangerous, which the Gun­ners can hardly prevent or well looke into, they being so few, the Gunnes so many; withall we doe see, that twenty or thir­ty good brasse pieces, as Can­non, Demicannon, Culverin, and Demiculverin, is a Royall Batterie for a Prince to bring before any Towne or strong Fortresse.Royall Batterie for a Prince. And why should not we aswell thinke the same to be a very large proportion for one Ship to batter another withall? which if it be, then may his Ma­jesty ratably save a great part of the Ordnance throughout e­very Ship, and make the Navy [Page 25] the more sufficient and service­able, and thereby also save a great deale of needlesse expence in superfluous powder and shot,Needlesse expence of super­fluous powder and shot, &c. that is now prerended to be delivered out according to this huge and excessive propor­tion of Artillery, whereof if many had not been stricken downe into Holt in many voy­ages and (especially in this last journey to the Islands) divers of the Ships, weight, Heaft, and Charge thereof, would have foundered in the Sea: wherein I report me to such as have ser­ved in them, and saw the proofe thereof. For this journey to the Islands,The jour­ney to the Islands. did most of all others, discover unto us these experin­ces and tryalls in the Royall Navy, for that it was the longest Navigation that ever was made out of our Realme, with so [Page 26] many of the Princes Ships, and tarrying out so late in the year, whereby both the winds and Seas had power and time throughly to search and exa­mine them. Besides many times, there is no proportio of shot and powder allowed ratea­bly by that quātity of the great Ordnance, as was seen in the Sea-Battaile with the Spani­ards in the yeare 88. when it so neerly concerned the defenceSpaniards Armado in 88. and preservation of the King­dome. So as then many of those great Guns wanting powder and shot, stood but as Cyphers and Scarcrowes, not unlike to the Easterling hulkes,Easter­ling Hulkes. who were wont to plant great red Port-holes in their broad sides, where they carryed no Ord­nance at all.

Of Calking and sheathing his Majesties Ships.

THere is a great error committed in the man­nerGreat er­ror com­mitted in manner of Cal­king his Majesties ships with rotten O­cum. of Calking his Ma­jesties Ships, which being done with rotten Ocum, is the cause they are Leaky, and the reason is this, for that they make their Ocum wherewith they Calke the seams of the Ships, of old seere and weather­beaten ropes, when they are overspent and growne so rot­ten, as they serve for no othe use but to make rotten Ocum, which moulders and washes a­way with every Sea, as the Ships labour and are rossed, whereas indeed of all other things, the most speicall & best choice would be made of that [Page 28] stuffe to have it both new and good, for that sparing to im­ploy old rotten Ropes, is a great defect either in the building of new Ships, or in the repairing of old, and is the cause why af­ter every journey they must be new Calked. And therefore it were much to be wished, as a thing fit for his Majesties ser­vice, profitable for the Navy, and happy for those that shall serve in them, that the whole Navy throughout were all sheathed, as some of them are. The benefit and good whereof for Sea-service is manifold, and no lesse frugall for his Majesty in making his Ships as strong and lasting thereby, as they are otherwise good of sayle. And then shall they never need (scarcely once in ten years) this new Calking and repayr­ing [Page 29] which now almost every yeare they have.Censure taken of the best Seamen of Eng­land. And hereof let the censure be taken of the best Seamen of England, and they will not vary from this o­pinion.

Of Victualling.

AS his Majesties due al­lowanceHis Maje­sties al­lowance for victu­alling Ships ve­ry large and ho­nourable, for Victualling of ships is very large and ho­nourable, and would be great­ly to the incouragement and strengthning of the Marriners and Souldiers that serve in them, if it were faithfully di­stributed, the Sea-service (in­deed) being very miserable and painfull, So againe as it is abu­sed and purloyned, it is very scant and dishonourable to the great slander of the Navy, to the discouragement of all them [Page 30] that are prest thereunto, and to the hinderance of his Majesties service. For that many times they goe with a great grudging to serve in his Majesties Ships, as if it were to be slaves in the Gallyes. So much doe they stand in feare of penurie and hunger; The case being cleane contrary in all Merchants ships, and therefore the Pur­veyors and Victuallers are much to be condemned, as not a little faulty in that behalfe, who make no little profit of those polings which is cause very lamentable, that such as sit in ease at home, should so raise a benefit out of their hunger and thirst, that serve their Prince and Country painfully abroad, whereof there hath a long time been great complai­ning, but small reformation.

Of Beere Caskes.

THere is also daily proofe made,Great in­conveni­ence by bad Caske used in his Maje­sties ships what great inconveniences growes by the bad Caske which is used in his Ma­jesties ships being commonly so ill seasoned and Conditio­ned, as that a great part of the Beere is ever lost and cast away, or (if for necessity it be used) it breeds Infection, and Cor­rupts all those that drinke thereof. For the Victuallers for cheapnesse will buy stale Caske that hath been used for Herring, Traine Oyle, Fish, and other such unsavory things, and thereinto fill the beere that is provided for the Kings Ships. Besides the Caske is common­ly so ill hooped, as that there is [Page 32] wast and leaking made of the fourth part of all the drinke were it never so good, which is a great expence to his Majesty, a hinderance of ser­vice, and a hazard of mens lives, when the provision failes so much and answers not the Accompt. The which might easily be redressed, if the Caske for his Majesties Shipping, were purposely hooped in such sort as Wine Caske is, or else hooped with Iron, which would ever serve and save that continuall provision of new Caske, which now falls out e­very voyage. But this course were more profitable for his Majesty then for his Officers, and therefore unpleasing to be spoken of, But yet such as serve in the Ships have good cause to wish the reformation thereof.

Of the Cookroomes in his Ma­jesties Ships.

ANd whereas now theThe great Inconve­niences of the Cook­rooms in all his Majesties Ships made be­low in hold in the wast. Cookroomes in all of his Majesties Ships are made be­low in hold in the wast, the inconveniences thereof are found many wayes by daily use and experience. For first it is a great spoile and annoyance to all the drinke and victualls which are bestowed in the hold, by the heat that comes from the Cookroome. Besides, it is very dangerous for fire, and very offensive with the smoake and unsavory smells which it sends from thence. Moreover it is a great weakening to a ship to have so much weight and charge at both the ends, and nothing in the Mid-Ship, [Page 34] which causeth them to warpe, and (in the Sea-phrase;Sea-phrase. and with Marriners) is tearmed Camberkeeld: whereas if the Cookroomes were made in the Forecastle (as very fitly they might be) all those Inconveni­ences above specified, would be avoyded, and then also would there be more roome for stow­age of victualls, or any other ne­cessary provisions, whereof there is now daily found great want. And the Commoditie of this new Cookroome the Merchants have found to be so great, as that in all their Ships (for the most part) the Cook­roomes are built in their Fore-Castles, contrary to that which hath been anciently used. In which change notwithstan­ding, they have found no incon­venience to their dressing of [Page 35] meat in foule weather, but ra­ther a great ease, howbeit their Ships goe as long voyages as a­ny, and are for their burdens aswell mann'd. For if any stormes arise, or the Sea grow so high as that the Kettle can­not Boyle in the Forecastles, yet having with their Beere and Bisket, Butter and Cheese, and with their pickled Herrings, Oyle, Vineger and Onions, or with their red Herrings and dry Sprats, Oyle and Mustard, and other like provisions that needs no fire, these supply and varie­ties of victualls, will very suf­ficiently content and nourish men for a time, until the storme be over blowne that kept the Kettle from boyling.

Of Mustering and pressing able Marriners.

AS concerning the MustersMusters and Pres­ses for sufficient marriners to serve in his Ma­jesties Ships the care there­in very little, or the bribe­ry very great. and Presses for sufficient Marriners to serve in his Ma­jesties Ships, either the care therein is very little, or the bri­bery very great, so that of all other shipping, his Majesties are ever the worst manned, and at such times as the Commis­sioners Commissions come out for the pressing of Marriners, the Officers doe set out the most needy and unable men, and (for Considerations to themselves best knowne) doe discharge the better sort, a mat­ter so commonly used, as that it is growne into a Proverbe a­mongst the Saylers, That the Mustermasters doe carry the [Page 37] best and ablest men in their Pockets, a Custome very evill and dangerous.The Say­lers Pro­verbe. where the ser­vice and use of men should come in tryall. For many of those poore Fishermen and I­dlers, that are cōmonly presen­ted to his Majesties Ships, are so ignorant in Sea-service, as that they know not the name of a Rope, and therefore insuffici­ent for such labour. The which might easily bee redressed; if the Vice-Admirall of the Shire where men are mustered, and two Justices had directions given, to joyn with the Muster­masters for the pressing of the best men whom they well know, and would not suffer the service of their Prince and Country to be bought and sold, as a private Muster master would doe. Besides, the Cap­tains [Page 38] tains themselves of the Ships, if they bee bare and needy (though pitty it were that men of such condition should have such charge committed unto them) wil oftentimes for Com­modity Chop and change away their good men, and therefore it were sitly provided to bridle such odd Captains, that neither they themselves, nor any of their men, should receive his Majesties pay but by the pole, and according as they were set downe in the Officers books when they were delivered with­out changing of any names, ex­cept to supply such men as are wanting by death or sicknesse, upon good testimonie under the hands of the Master, the Boat swayne, the Master Gun­ner, the Purser and other Of­ficers of the ship. For it neer­ly [Page 39] concerns them to looke well thereunto, having daily use of them.

Of Arms and Munition.

IT were a course very Com­fortable, defensive and ho­nourable, that there were for al his Majesties ships a proportion of Swords,A propor­tion of Swords Targets of proofe and the like al­lowed; and set downe for every Ship ac­cording to his bur­then, &c. Targets of proof, Moryons, and Curatts of proofe, allowed and set downe for every ship according to his burthen, as a thing both Warlike, and used in the King of Spains ships, the want where­of as it is a great discourage­ment to men if they come to any neere fight or landing, so would the use thereof be a great annoyance and tertifying to the enemy. And herein should his Majesty need to be at no extra­ordinary [Page 40] expence: For the aba­ting of the superfluous great picces in every Ship, with their allowance for Powder, Match and Shot, would supply the cost of this provision in very ample mannet.

Of Captains to serve in his Majesties Ships.

AT al such times as his Ma­jest. ships are imployed in service, it were very convenient that such Gentlemen as are his Majesties owne sworne ser­vnats,His Ma­jesties owne sworne Servants to be pre­ferred to the charge of his Ma­jesties Ships. should be preferred to the charge of his Majesties Ships, Choice being made of men of valour, and Capacitie; rather then to imploy other mens men, And that other of his Majesties servants should be dispersed privately in those services to [Page 41] gaine experience, and to make themselves able to take charge. By the which means his Maje­stie should ever have Gentle­men of good accompt his owne servants, Captains of his owne Ships, instead of pettie Com­panions and other mens ser­vants, who are often imployed, being (indeed) a great indigni­ty to his Majesty, to his ship­ping and to his owne Gentle­men. For that in times past, it hath been reputed a great grace to any man of the best sort, to have the Charge of the Princes ship cōmitted unto him, and by this means there would ever be true report made unto the Pr. what proceedings are used in the service, which these mea­ner sort of Captains dare not doe, for feare of displeasing the Lords their Masters, by whom [Page 42] they are preferred, or being of an inferiour quality, have no good accesse to the Presence of the Prince, whereby to have fit opportunity to make relation accordingly.

But now forasmuch as I doubt not, but that some con­trary spirits may or will object this as a sufficient reason to in­firme all those points that IObjecti­on. have have formerly spoken of, and say unto me, why should his Majesty and the State bee troubled with this needlesse Charge of keeping and main­taining so great a Navy in such exquisite perfection, and readi­nesse? the times being now peaceable, and little use of Armes or Ships of Warre, ei­ther at home or abroad, but all safe and secure, aswell by the uniting of the two Nations, as [Page 43] by the peace which we hold with Spaine, and all other Christian Princes. To this I answer, that this (indeed) may stand (at the first sight) for a prettie supersi­ciall argument to bleare our eys, and lull us asleep in secu­rity, and make us negligent and carelesse of those causes from whence the effects of peace grows, and by the vertue where­of it must be maintained. But we must not flatter and deceive our selves, to thinke that this Calme and Concord proceeds either from a setled immutable tranquillity in the world (which is full of alterations and various humours) or from the good affections of our late enemies, who have tasted too many disgraces, repulses, and losses, by our forces and ship­ping, to wish our State so much [Page 44] felicity as a happy and peace­able government, if otherwise they had power to hinder it. And therefore though the sword be put into the Sheath, we must not suffer it there to rust, or stick so fast, as that we shall not be able to draw it rea­dily when need requires. For albeit our enemies have of late years sought peace with us, yet yet hath it proceeded out of the former tryall of our forces in times of war and Enmity. And therefore we may well say of them as Anneus (Pretor of the Latines) said of the Roman Ambassadours, who seemed cu­rious and carefull to have the League maintained betweene them (which the Roman estate was not accustomed to seeke at their neighbours hands) and thereupon saith this Anneus, [Page 45] unde haec illis tanta modestia nisi ex cognitione virium & nostra­rum & suarum. For with the like consideration and respect have our late enemies sought to renew the ancient friendship and peace with us. And well we may be assured, that if those powerfull means whereby we reduced them to that modesty and curtesie as to seeke us, were utterly laid aside and neglected, so as we could not againe upon occasion readily assume the use and benefit of them, as we have done, those proud mastering spirits, finding us at such advan­tage, would be more ready and willing to shake us by the ears as enemies, then to take us by the hands as friends. And there­fore far be it from our hearts to trust more to that friendship of strangers, that is but dissembled [Page 46] upon policy and necessity, then to the strength of our owne for­ces, which hath been experi­enced with so happy successe. I confesse that peace is a great blessing of God, and blessed are the Peacemakers, and there­fore doubtlesse blessed are those means whereby peace is gained and maintained. For well we know that God worketh all things here amongst us medi­atly by a secondary means, The which meanes of our defence and safety being ship­ping, and Sea-Forces, are to be esteemed as his guifts, and then only availeable and beneficiall, when he withall vouchsafeth his grace to use them aright.

FINIS.

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