TWO DISCOURSES CONCERNING The Soul of Brutes, Which is that of the Vital and Sensitive of Man.

The First is PHYSIOLOGICAL, shewing the NATURE, PARTS, POWERS, and AFFECTIONS of the same.

The Other is PATHOLOGICAL, which unfolds the DISEASES which Affect it and its Primary Seat; to wit, The BRAIN and NERVOUS STOCK, And Treats of their CURES: With Copper Cuts.

By THOMAS WILLIS Doctor in PHYSICK, Professor of Natural Philosophy in OXFORD, and also one of the Royal So­ciety, and of the renowned College of Physicians in LONDON.

Englished By S. PORDAGE, Student in PHYSICK.

LONDON, Printed for Thomas Dring at the Harrow near Chancery-Lane End in Fleet­street, Ch. Harper at the Flower-de-Luce against St. Dunstan's Church in Fleet-street, and Iohn Leigh at Stationers-Hall. 1683.

To the most Reverend Father in God GILBERT (By Divine Providence) Arch-Bishop of Canterbury, Primate and Metropolitan of all ENGLAND, and one of the Privy Council to His Sacred Majesty CHARLES the Second, King of Great Britain, France, and Ireland, &c.

Most Renowned Prelate,

IN that I still become troublesom to your greater Cares, by this Kind of often repeated Duty, I must also repeat my former Excuse. For that these my VVritings, with those formerly Published, for the most part consist of those things which I have delivered in my Academical Read­ings, by a necessitated Duty belong to you, for that I recei­ved them from your Favours; and indeed, neither these had ever seen the Light, nor perhaps my self had ever been in the number of Authors, unless I had been made at first your Sidlie Professor at Oxford; yours I say, both for the ancient Honour with which you had advanced me, and also for the more fresh magnificent Liberality, which has ob­liged the whole Academy, and all its Gowned Company. All the Schools partake of what is imputed to your Thea­tre; and moreover all the Professors, whil'st every one of their private Patrons are acknowledged, Celebrate Sheldon; who exceeds, by your gifts that of other Macaenatuses, and Crowns the whole.

But as these Disquisitions are indebted to your Munisi­cence, so they require your Patronage, and we offer them not more in Duty to your Grace, than for the Cause of your [Page] Tutelage. Concerning the Soul, I have enter'd upon a great and difficult thing, and full of hazard; where we may equally fear the Censures of the Church, as the Schools. For that I assert a Man (as the Mad-man in the Gospel possess't with a Legion) to be indued with many distinct Souls, and design sometimes a legitimate Subordination of them, and sometimes wicked Combinations, troublesom Con­tests, and more than Civil Wars; yea, and in that I im­portunately describe, the Manners and Affections, the Mutual Exaltations, Dejections, and Productions of either, and their state after Separation: These, I say, some not on­ly Philosophers, but Theologists perhaps may find fault with. And althô I have a place of Safety, in that the Arguments and Reasons fight on my Side, and that I have got the Suffrages of the ancient Philosophers, and the holy Fathers (and especially of St. Hierome and Augustine, and among the Moderns of Gassendus and our Hammond) yet suffer your Grace for my greater Safety, to extend your help to me, and grant that I may profess in the Entrance to this Dis­course, that I am

Your Graces Most humble and devoted Servant Tho. Willis.

To the Most LEARNED and WORSHIPFUL By me ever Respected The Vice-Chancellor, Doctors, and Masters, who diligently Profess, greatly Adorn, and happily Promote good Letters in the most Famous University of Oxford, Health.

EXcuse me, Learned Men, if you, who were once my Au­ditors, I now desire to be my Readers, and you whom I ever found Propitious and Favourable, that I therefore wish you may be my Judges and Patrons. Your singular Hu­manity hath formerly enflamed my Industry, in this Physiolo­gical Undertaking, and given me Life and Strength; so that if that any thing of Praise be due to me, it ought to be im­puted and referred to you. I know indeed how great diffe­rence there is, betwixt the flying words of Speakers, and those impress'd upon lasting Papers; but it seems of great Authority, that they have not been displeasing to your most Curious Judg­ments, in their utterance, and I hope they may now pass any Examen, having already passed your Critical Ears. It there­fore belongs to you to defend, if not these my Endeavours, yet at least your own Judgments; and if perchance, the lit­terate Thrasoe's of this Age, who are wholly ignorant in Philo­sophy, every where wandring about, attempt to overthrow me with their Clamors, which is their chief Eloquence, to oppose your Authority against them, by which, if they are not put to Silence, it will be however an high Confidence and inviolable Security to

Honored Sirs, the Admirer of you all, THO. WILLIS.

THE PREFACE TO THE READER.

Courteous Reader,

I Have here given you what I had long promised, the Pathology of the Brain and Nervous Stock, and with it the previous Physical Meditations of the Soul of the Brutes, which is that inferior one of Man. This difficult task, when at first denied leisure and retirement, it could not be performed; after the Death of my Dear Wife, being lonely, with frequent and unseasonable Studies, that I might the less think on my Grief, I have at last finished this, according to my flender Capacity. But indeed in these Disquisitions (which the Anatomy of the Brain, and its Appendixes, hath lately and more exactly shown) as we have enter'd into a by-way, and not before trodden, there was a necessity to lead thee, thorow some sharp and stony ways, beset with bushes and thorns, which might offend thee. And indeed I know not, whether it will be pleasing to all, that instituting the something Para­doxical Doctrine of the Animal Soul, that I should assign to that Soul, by which the Brutes as well as Men live, feel, move, not only Extension, but Members, and as it were Organical Parts, yea peculiar Diseases, and proper means or methods of Curing them; and that moreover, I should form this, which is meerly Vital, and different from the Rational, and subordinate to it, and so Man, a Two-soul'd Ani­mal, and as it were a manifold Geryon.

That I may remove out of the way these little rubs, I do not at all doubt to over­come them, and evince the Corporeity of the Soul, by Reasons not to be contemned, and also by the full suffrage, both of the Ancients and the Moderns; and besides, that it is Bipart or Twofold, I have already, in another place, by a necessary Con­sequence deduced, from the Life of the Blood, as it were a flame, and from the exi­stency of the Animal Spirits, and as it were lucid or aetherial Hypostasis, asserted and proved. For granting to the Soul, one Vital Portion living in the Blood, to be a certain inkindling of it, and another Sensitive, to be only an heap of Animal Spi­rits every where diffused thorow the Brain and Nervous Stock; it follows from hence, that Brutes have a Soul Co-extended to the whole Body, and Parts not only many and distinct, but after a manner dissimilar. But that some object, that the Soul of the Beast; because it perceives, or knows that it feels, to be immaterial, for that Matter seems to be incapable of Perception, that indeed, had been likely, if that Perception should pass beyond the limits of Material things; or higher, than what inspires them, which things are usually attributed to Natural Instinct, or Idio­crasie or peculiar Temperaments, that I may omit Sympathies and Antipathies. But who should be the Betrother? I profess the great God, as the only Work-man, so also as the first Mover, and auspiciously present, every where, was he not able to impress strength, Powers, and Faculties to Matter, fitted to the offices of a Sensitive Life? The Pen in the hand of the Writer, Disputes, Intreats, gives Relations of things, and is in the mid'st between things past and things to come; and why should we not believe that greater things than any of these, may be done, when the Skill [Page] of the Deity is present? Lastly, If any one shall affirm, that most subtle Substance, and wholly Etherial, which serves for the Vital Oeconomy or Government to be im­material, for that it enters upon the sluggish Disposition of inanimate Bodies, let him remember to be indulgent to me, if by chance I call it material, for that it subsists very much below the Prerogatives of Reason.

But I shall not stand upon these things, for truly I have prepared a far other­gates defence; to wit, I speak not from the Tripos like an Oracle, nor from the Chair, but as one of a low form: I play not the Prophet, or Dictator, but the Phi­losopher, neither do I plant an Opinion, but propose an Hypothesis, and open my Iudgment. Geometry has its Demonstrations in it self; we are Skill'd in that part of Philosophy, where it aboundantly suffices to have brought Logical Proofs: Surely he only certainly pronounces, who professes his Errors, and whil'st he Philosophizes a­bout Man, remembers himself that he is a Man.

But that according to the Adage, that I should declare some to be rather sick in Soul, yea first, and chiefly than in Body; otherways than the Schools of Physicians, which refer the Primary Seats of all Diseases, into solid Parts, Humors, and Vital Spirits, or innate Heat: I say from our Hypothesis, to wit, that this Soul hath a material Subsistence, extended equally with the Body, and pecul [...]ar Parts, Powers, and Affections; may be concluded, that it is found obnoxious also to preternatural Diseases, and not seldom wants Medical help.

Moreover, That the Corporeal Soul doth extend its Sicknesses, not only to the Body, but to the Mind or rational Soul, which is of an higher linage, and that it often-times involves it with its sailings and faults, I think is clear enough in our Pa­thology or Method of Curing. Further, for the proving these two distinct Souls, to be together and subordinately in Man, as much as Authority and the force of Rea­sons can, I think is there proved; which Opinion is so far from that I need to fear it should be censured for Pernicious or Heretical; that on the contrary, we hope it is altogether Orthodox, and appears agreeable to a good Life, and Pious Institution: from hence the Wars and Strivings between our two Appetites, or between the Flesh and Spirit, both Morally and Theologically inculcated to us, are also Physically un­derstood; for that, I see and approve the better things, and follow the worser; and this, The Flesh lusts against the Spirit, and the Spirit against the Flesh. So generally comes to pass in us, for as much as the Corporeal Soul adhering to the Flesh, inclines Man to Sensual Pleasures, whil'st in the mean time, the Rational Soul, be­ing help'd by Ethical Rules, or Divine favours, invites it to good Manners, and the works of Piety. Further, from hence, the chief Arguments is brought against Epi­curism, and Atheism, for that it is moved by the force of Reasons, our Sensitive Soul even as that of the Brutes, miscarrying, the other perpetually survives; for truly being perswaded of an after and Eternal State, why doth it not make it its whole business, that it may live more happily in it, or at least not miserably?

But also, that it may be objected, that there cannot be therefore two Souls in Man, because many forms cannot actuate at once the same Matter; It may be answer'd: that the Supream form of the same Subject, doth sometimes subordinately include many others, but specifies it only a Compound. Also, the Corporeal Soul being sub­ordinate to the Rational, subsists immediately in the Humane Body, and this Supe­rior is in the same, that mediating. It would be a much more difficult solution of this hard Business, if the Inferior Soul of Man, common to that with the Brutes, should be also affirmed to be immaterial; for by what knitting together, can two independent Souls subsist in the same Body; being from thence separated and Combined, by no common Bone, into what place can they depart severally? Certainly as to reason, it is more probable, and to the Humane government more agreeable, to affirm that one most subtilly Corporal Soul, is joyned immediately to the Body, and is intimately united, and that by the intervention of this Soul, another immaterial, residing in its Bosom, inhabits the Body, and is the supream and principal form of the whole Man: But that after Death, the Corporeal Soul being extinct, this survives and is Immortal.

[Page]That the Corporeal, Flameous, and lucid Nature of this Soul, and its Parts and Affections, may be the better known, I have thought it necessary to describe the Vi­tal Organs, both of all Kinds of living Creatures, by the Action of which the Lamp of Light is maintain'd; and also to shew plainly laid open, even to their intimate re­cesses, and least and secret Passages, the Brains, both of the more perfect Brutes, and also of Man. The Anatomy of which being manifold; not being able to perform it only with my own hand, and Skill, being also almost continually interrupted by my Practice, the Famous and Skilful Anatomist and Physician Dr. Edmond King was much helpful to me, by his assiduous and notable assistance and labour. Also that learned Man, and my most intimate Friend, Dr. John Masters, Skilful in Physick and Anatomy, imployed much of his Labour and Diligence in the same Business. Out of his various Zootomie or Anatomy of the more perfect Beasts and many-flower'd dissection, the wonderful things of God are very much made known, for as much as in every the smallest and vilest little Animals, not only the Face and Mem­bers, but also the inward Parts, as it were the Hearths and Altars for the conti­nuing the Vital Fire, shew them to be of a most Elegant and Artificial and plainly Divine Structure.

As to our Pathology or Method of Cure, I must confess, that in delivering the Theory of Diseases, leaving the old way, I have almost every where brought forth new Hypotheses: but what being founded upon Anatomical Observations, and firmly stablished, better solve all the Phoenomena of the Sick, (viz.) They declare more aptly the Causes of the Symptoms, and shew the Reasons of Curing, more accommodate to every Disease. But as to the Remedies and Therapeutic Method, althô we follow not exactly, after the manner of others, the Ancients, we have nevertheless rejected nothing ratified by grave Authority, or approved by daily Experience; and be­sides, we have added many things found out Emperically and Analogically by the Moderns; Althô it is neither our Hope or Ambition that these should be pleasing to all; yet (what is my last wish) I doubt not, but that this may be an help to many for the illustrating the Medical Science, and for the more happy Curing of Cephalick Diseases. Farewel.

OF The Soul of the Brutes, The First Part PHYSIOLOGICAL, SHEWING, Its NATURE, PARTS, POWERS, and AFFECTIONS.

CHAP. 1.

The Opinions of Authors both Ancient and Modern are recounted.

WIth what Pleasures,The Contempla­tion of the Soul pleasant but dif­ficult. and with what Delight, beyond other things, the Contemplation of the Soul hath drawn to it self the Wits of Men, and most profoundly Exercised them, appears even from hence, that al­most none of the Philosophers, of whatsoever Sect they were, and of every Age, who have not laboured in the search of it: But in­deed, how hard and abstruse it is, and with what dark Blackness, not less than the shades of Hell it self, this Knowledge of the Soul is over-shadowed, may be gathered from this; because they are opposite and uncertain, concerning it; yea, almost as many Men as there are, so many several Opinions have they Published; that truly 'tis no unjust Complaint of the Soul, that she understands all things but her Self. Nevertheless, in this Age, most fruitful of Inventions, when that so many Admirable things not before thought on, as it were another Ancient World unknown, are discovered, about the building of the Animal Body, when new Creeks are daily found out, new humours spring up, and altogether another Doctrine than what hath been delivered by the Ancients, concerning the use of many of the Parts, hath been instituted; why may we not also hope, that there may be yet shewn a new disquisition concerning the Soul, and with bet­ter luck than hitherto? Therefore, however the thing may be performed, I shall attempt to Philosophise concerning that Soul at least, which is Common to Brute Animals with Man, and which seems to depend altogether on the Body, to be born and dye with it, to actuate all its Parts, to be extended thorow them, and to be plainly Corporeal; and that chiefly,It Conduces to the knowing of the Manners of Men, and the Diseases of the Soul. because, by the Nature, Subsistence, Parts, and Affections of this Corporeal Soul rightly unfolded, the Ingenuity, Temperament, and Manners of every Man may be thence the better known; as also the Causes, and formal Reasons of many Diseases, as of the Phrensie, Lethargy, Vertigo, Madness, Melancholy, and others, belonging rather to the Soul than to the Body, as yet hidden, may in some part be discovered: Then Secondly, because the ends and bounds of the aforesaid Corporeal Soul being de­fined, the Rational Soul, Superior and Immaterial, may be sufficiently differenced from it; nor is that Argument admitted so easily, confounding them together, whereby some deserving very ill of themselves, have affirmed the Souls of Man and the Beasts only to differ in degrees of Perfection; and so that either alike must be either Mortal or Immor­tal, and alike propagated ex traduce or from the Parent.It distinguishes the Rational Soul of Man, from that other of the Brute. Wherefore that the Dignity, Order, and Immortality of the Rational Soul, discriminated from the Corporeal, may be vindicated, and likewise that we may make a way to the remaining Pathology, or Method of Curing of the Brain and Nervous Stock, in which not only Parts of the Body, but often the animal Spirits, yea, sometimes the whole sensitive Soul, seems to be affe­cted, (altho we have formerly unfolded according to our slender Ability, not after this manner, the Descriptions and Uses of the Brain and Nerves,) Therefore at present, we [Page 2] shall endeavour to deliver a certain Doctrine of the Soul, previous to the shewing the Doctrine of the Diseases of those Parts. But here it will be first expedient to rehearse the Opinions of others, or at least the chiefest and most noted among them: From which, being put together, if not what the Soul truly is, may be made known; yet what many considering it have thought of it; and from thence a little more certain search of it, we may enterprize.

And indeed if we would grow wise concerning the Soul only out of the Pleas of Au­thors, and the Writings of Philosophers of every Age, we should be intangled in a Laby­rinth of Opinions, following for truth mere Phantasms, and for the genuine Idea of the Soul, as it were the Apparitions of divers Specters. But that we may reduce the various Opinions, whatever have been declared, both of the Ancients and Moderns, to some certain Heads; it will be fit that we observe, some did affirm it to be Corporeal, others Incorporeal. In either Kind we meet with great diversity of Opinions. For first of all, among those who thought it Incorporeal,Some have af­firmed the Soul of the Beast to be an Incorpo­real Substance; to wit, the Pla­tonists, and the Pythagoreans. some affirmed it to be a Substance existing of it self and immortal, others without Substance having only an accidental form. Those who believed the Soul an Incorporeal and Immortal Substance, differed also among them­selves. The Platonists and Pythagoreans said, the Souls of all living Creatures, to be a certain Part of the Universal Soul of the World, and that they were depressed or immer­ged in this lower Body, as in a Sepulcher; and therefore, the Soul, when the Animal received Life, was not born but dyed; for as much as by this inferior Birth, it was divi­ded from the simple and undivided fountain of Nature. Further they thought, that the same Soul so demersed, did wander from one Body being dead, to another, and so by a various Metampseuchosis, did inhabit or was a guest sometimes in the Bodies of Men, and sometimes of Beasts. The Manichees asserted, That all Souls being taken out of the Substance it self of God, did actuate Terrestrial Bodies, and going from hence again, returned into God himself. The Origenists different from either, taught that Souls were Created from the beginning of the World, and at first to subsist of themselves, then as occasion serv'd, that Bodies being formed, they enter'd into them being begun, and actuated them during Life, and that at length they returned to their private or sin­gular Substances. The state of which Souls, tho some attributed it only to Humane Souls; yet there were others, who granted the like Immortality to the Souls of the Brutes, yea and of Plants.

Cap. 2. de Nat. Hom.On the contrary, Nemesius (but untruly) saith, That Aristotle affirmed the Soul to be Incorporeal, but without Perfection and Mortal, when he had designed the Entelechia or Perfection of every living thing; as to wit, She as it were arising up of her own ac­cord, from Power only of matter rightly disposed,Others an In­corporeal form as the Peripate­ticks. understands nothing else, but its own Crasis or Temperament, resulting from the mixture; which as it adds nothing substan­tial to the praeexisting Matter, the Soul it self seems to be from thence a mere Ens of Reason, and only an extrinsical denomination. Further, when the Peripateticks, from the Soul raised up out of the Grave of Matter (which they affirmed to be a simple form, without Extension and divisibility) do contend that the Members of the same Body, do perceive many things at once and together, they have introduced into the Schools that Plea or rather Riddle, to wit, That it is whole in the whole, and whole in every part. To this Opinion thus unfolded, that of Dicaearchus was a-Kin, who said the Soul was Harmo­ny, and also that of Galen, who call'd it a Temperament.

Others affirm the Soul to be Corporeal, and either something out of the Ele­ments or the Blood, &c.Nor do we meet with a less diversity of Opinions, among the Philosophers of every Age, delivering that all Souls, or all others, the rational excepted, are Corporeal. To pass by those who have affirmed the Soul to be either Fire, or Air, or Water, or some­thing made out of many of these Elements; some, as Critias and Empedocles have said, that it was Blood. Which Opinion the Sacred Scriptures in some places plainly favour, where the eating of Blood is forbidden, because it is the Life or the Soul: Moreover, there are not Reasons and Arguments wanting, which conclude this to be very near, or very like to Truth; as shall be shewn anon.

The Opinion of Epicurus, that the Soul is made out of Atoms.To these may be added, the Opinion of Epicurus delivered of old, and of late revived in our Age, which introduces the Soul plainly Corporeal, and made out of a knitting to­gether of subtil Atoms, and asserts, citing Laertius, [...], &c. which according to the mind of Gassendus, is as much as to say, That the Animal is as it were the Loom, in which the Yarn is the Body, and the Woof the Soul. From thence Laertius describing more fully its Corporeity, saith, [...], &c. which is, that the Soul is Composed of most light Atoms, and round, not much different from those out of which fire is. Other Epicureans de­scribing the Nature of the Soul, otherways, depaint it as from something hot, flatuous, and airy, we need not to unfold any further this Opinion, nor shew out of Laertius and Lucretius, by what Rite the Assertors of the Epicurean Philosophy, do accommodate such an Atomical Composition of the Soul, to all the Actions and Affections of the Function, or Animal Government, which are to be performed.

[Page 3]Upon this Hypothesis of the Epicureans, The late fol­lowers of the Philosopher Epicurus have affirmed the Soul to be made of Atoms. as it were its basis, the Philosophers of this latter Age have built all their doctrines of the Soul, tho very divers, and I may almost say opposite. For as the soul of the Brutes, is affirmed by most of them, to be Corpo­real and divisible, yet she is by some of them deprived of all Knowledg, Sense, and Appe­tite; in the mean time, not only Sense, Memory, and Phantasie is granted to her by others, but the use of a certain inferior Reason. And what is more to be wonder'd at, the same end of their Assertion is proposed by either Sect; to wit, That the Soul of the Brutes, both as it may be deprived of its gifts, and also as it is most notably adorned by them, may be very much distinguish'd, or (that I may use the Idiom of the Schools) di­versified from the humane Soul.

The first Assertor of the former Opinion was Gometius Pereira, Others of them deny it to have Sense and Per­ception, as Gometius Pereira. who affirmed that Beasts wanted all Knowledg or Perception; whom in our latter Age, the Famous Men Cartesius and Digby, with others Exactly followed; who endeavouring as much as they could, to discriminate the Souls of Beasts from the humane, affirmed them, to be not only Corporeal and Divisible, but also meerly passive; that is, that they were not all moved, unless that they were moved by other Bodies, striking some part of the Soul; from whence it followed, that every action of the Brute Consisted in it, as it were an artificial Motion of a Mechanical Engine, to wit, that first some sensible thing affecting the animal spirits, and Converting them inwards, stirs up sense; from which by and by; the same spirits being moved, as it were by a reflected undulation or wavering, return back again, and being determined for the fitted order of the organs and parts of the Fabrick it self, in certain Nerves and Muscles, they perform the respective motions of the Mem­ber [...]: For otherwise, if Cognition be granted to the Brutes, you must yield to them also Conscience, yea and deliberation and Election, and a Knowledge of universal things, and lastly an incorporeal and rational soul.

Whilst these famous Philosophers suppose Brute Animals to be only certain Machines wonderful made by a Divine Workmanship; to wit, which without any Knowledg, Sense, or Appetite, perform only Corporeal Motions, and the Acts of their Faculties, ac­cording to the fitted structure of parts, and the precise direction of the spirits, within Certain measures or bounds of the Animals; yet some of them differ in their Opinions, about the structure and model of the Machine or moving Engine; to wit, for as much as the figure and properties of the Atoms, out of which the same is supposed to be made, are assigned one way by these, and after a divers way by those. The most illustrious Cartesius, Cartesius. unfolding all things by matter and motion, asserting the Souls of Brutes to con­sist altogether of round and highly moveable Atoms, which he Calls the Elements of the first Kind; affirms, That nothing else is requisite for all its acts to be performed, than that the fibres and nervous parts being struck by a stroke of a sensible thing, they receive a motion after this or that kind of manner, and transfer it by a Continued affection of the sensitive parts, as it were by a Certain undulation or wavering, into the respective parts:Digby and Others. But our Digby supposing mobility of the particulars of this kind, out of which the Soul is made, adds further, That certain most thin Effluvia's, falling away from the sensible Body, do not only affect the Exterior sensories, but entring into the more in­terior recesses, mix themselves with the spirits, and moving them into Various fluctua­tions, do produce sense, and divers sorts of local motions: Moreover, that out of these Extrinsical Atoms, so entring into the nervous parts, and the Brain it self, do proceed not only Extempory Actions; but out of those left in the feeling body, and retaining the former Configurations, are Constituted the remaining Idea's, in the memory of things formerly done. It would be too prolix a business to recount particularly what appertains to the aforesaid Hypothesis, concerning the souls of Brutes, or animal Acti­ons; or to Examine the Reasons of each; also to shew by what manner of Solutions of that Kind, those operations of the Brutes, which seem to be made by a Certain Judg­ment and Ratiocination, are wont to be unfoulded.

But indeed these Solutions of difficult Phaenomena's, and the Reasons for the mechani­cal provision of living Creatures, and their Souls, tho artificially formed by these Au­thors, seem not to satisfie a Mind desirous of Truth:Others attri­bute to the Corporeal Souls sence and Perception; and further, the use of an inferior Rea­son; as And whilst every one expounds so the Works of the Creation, according to the model of his Wit, they seem to say, That God is not able to make any thing beyond what Man is able to Conceive or Imagine. Wherefore others, also renowned Philosophers, both Ancient and Modern, professing themselves no less adverse to Atheism than the former, Challenge in the behalf of the Beasts, not only the operations of an external and internal Sense, with Perception, Ap­petite, and spontaneous motions; but besides, grant to them a certain use of Judgment, Deliberation, and Ratiocination.

Nemesius an ancient Philosopher,Nemesius. discoursing of the Cognation or Propinquity of all Created things, after he had shewed from Minerals, that some things came near towards [Page 4] the natures of Vegitables,De Nat. Hom. Cap. 1. and some of Plants, and Animals, [...] (saith he) [...], &c. which is, The Common Architect passing from irrational Creatures to that rational Animal Man, hath not effected this suddenly, but first has referred certain natural Know­ledges, and Artifices, and Subtilties to other Animals, so that they appear near to ra­tional Creatures.

Phys. Sect. 3. Membr. post Lib. 8. Cap. 4. Peter Gassendus, a most Skilful and Cause-Expressing Man, in his late Experimental Philosophy, when he had enumerated very many Instances, by which the Cunning and Wonderful Sagacity of brute Animals were declared; and also the Epithets, whereby these kind of Animals are noted by Philosophers, to wit, that some are called Excelling in Knowledg; others Artificial, these Dexterous and Compleat, or Crafty and Wise, at length the Author adds, that, These things could not deservedly be attributed to them, unless they granted them a certain kind of Reason. However it be, we may seem at least to be able to distinguish, by a ready way, that as Commonly a two-fold Memory, To wit, a Sensitive and In­tellective, is distinguished, so nothing forbids to Call Reason Sensitive and Intellectual. And truly, as we understand by the Name of Reason, the faculty or beginning of Ratiocination, and that to Reason is nothing else, than to understand one thing by the Knowledg of another thing, there is nothing more Easily to be observed, than that Brutes do Collect one thing out of another, or what is the same thing, do reckon or recount, and therefore are indued with Reason. From these we may easily understand, what dignity, and beyond the powers of any Machine, causing its Efficacy, he affirms to be in the Souls of Beasts. But in the mean time, if it be marqu'd, what Hypostasis, or formal Idea, he hath assigned them; it doth not so Easily appear, how that such Choyce Priviledges, do agree with those Souls, so slenderly gifted, as to their Substances.Who asserts the Soul, to be a little flame, or a Certain fire. For when from the Opinion of Epicurus he had shewn these to be Corporeal, and their Bodies to be made up of most light and round Atoms, out of which sort fire and heat is Created; at length he Concludes; The Soul therefore to be a Certain Flame, or a Species of most thin fire, which as long as it lives, or remains inkindled, so long the Animal lives; when it no longer lives or is Extinguished, the Animal dyes. But indeed, con­cerning his Hypothesis, he ought to have unfolded, by what means this Fire Intelligent and Artificial (to speak like the Stoicks) could be; or how a flame within certain bounds and Organs of the Body, however framed with the most excellent artificie, being inkindled and dilated, can be able to produce the Acts of the animal Faculty; This I say, most dif­ficult Problem, this most Learned Man came to, and pass'd over its Knot as it were pur­posely in that place.

CHAP. II.

The Opinion of the Author Concerning the Soul in General, That the Soul of the Brute is Corporeal and Fiery.

AFter having thus recited the chief Opinions of others, It now remains that we pro­pose our own Opinion, or rather Conjecture, in so hard a matter. Where in the first place, I am not easily led to believe, That the Soul of the Beast is an Incorporeal Substance,Why the Soul of the Beast seems not to be an incorporeal, and immortal substance. or Form: For as to what relates to that Platonick Fiction, con­cerning the Soul of the World, that, and also the Heresie of the Manichees, hath al­ready been refuted and clearly exploded, both by the Ancient and Modern both Philoso­phers and Theologists, that there remains no further dispute about it. Further, neither can I Consent to those Origenists, who have affirmed the Souls of all Living Creatures to be immaterial, and also to subsist before and after their Bodies. For, tho I should be little solicitous, for the almost infinite multitude of the more perfect Beasts, which have liv'd, and do live, yet where do so many Myriads of Souls, even innumerable, of Insects and Fishes, which are dayly produced, subsist, and what do they? The Bodies of very many of these serve only for Food to other Creatures. And for that the Souls to these Bodies, serve chiefly to preserve them only for a little time, and as it were pickle them to keep them from putrefaction, there is no need that these should be therefore immaterial and immortal. Besides, when of old, Egypt was infested by Divine Punishment, with Swarms of Fleas, Flyes, and other Various Kinds of innumerable Insects, and that the same also abounded every where, it is not easily to be Conceived, from whence so many Souls were so suddenly Called, and into what places, the same being by and by separa­ted, could be placed. Moreover, as Heaven, the Kingly Palace of the Great God, chal­lenges for it self Angels, Gen. 2. and pure Souls, free from all spot, to be its Inhabitants: [Page 5] but the Earth, as it were a Certain sink, draws forth and extracts the feces of things, and from its bulk, ruinous Bodies; it seems more agreeable to the fitted Oeconomie of the World, that all immaterial things (with the humane Soul, which we have noted to be placed in the Confines of Nature, that it might be the fastning and knitting of either System) should be ascribed to the Air; but the other Animals, Condemned to the belly, and prone to the Earth, to this Glebe; so that the Souls of those, may be said to be born and dye with their Bodies, and to be altogether Corporeal. Yea if that Reasons and Arguments of greater weight, fight for this Opinion, than those we have seen on the opposite side; wherefore should we not rather follow this, and pass farther on into its parts?

And indeed,It is shown that it is Ma­terial and Co­extended with the Body. that the Soul of the Brute, even as the inferior of Man, Is material and divisible, yea Co-extended with the whole Body, seems to appear from many things; both first, because we perceive many and divers animal Acts, to arise at once, from di­vers members and parts of the Body: For Examples sake; in the same instant, that the Eye sees, the Ear hears, the Nose smells, the Tongue tasts, and all the Exterior mem­bers Exercise the sense of feeling and motion, and in the mean time, all the Inwards and the Praecordia perform their offices. Wherefore, since there is no medium between the Body and the Soul, but that the members and parts of the Body, are the Organs of the Soul; what can we think else, or affirm, but that many and distinct portions of the same Extended Soul, actuate the several members, and parts of this Body? Besides, it is seen in several living Creatures, whose Liquors, both the Vital and Animal (in which the Soul as to all its parts immediately subsists) are viscous, and less dissipable, that the Soul is also divided with the Body, and exercises its Faculties, to wit, of Motion and Sense, in every one of the divided members, layd apart by themselves. So Worms, Eeles, and Vi­pers, being cut into pieces, move themselves for a time, and being pricked will wrinkle up themselves together.

But that we have affirmed the Soul of the Brute to be not only Corporeal,The Suffrages and Reasons of very many Au­thors, perswade that the Soul of the Brute, is not only Cor­poreal, but Fiery. and Ex­tended, but that it is of a certain fiery nature, and its Act or Substance is either a Flame or a Breath, neer to, or a-Kin to Flame, besides the large Testimonies of Authors, both Ancient and Modern, Reasons and Arguments almost demonstrative, have also induced me to it. Some of the Chief of these, we have of late Exposed in the Treatise concern­ing the Inkindling of the Blood; there remains many others of no light moment to be added hereafter. As to what appertains to the suffrages of others, that I may not seem to stand upon the Authority of one Gassendus, who has maintained this Hypothesis; I shall here Cite many both Ancient Physicians and Philosophers.The more An­cient Philoso­phers and Phy­sicians have so affirmed. For not to mention Democritus, Epicurus, Laertius, Lucretius, and their followers; Hippocrates, Plato, Pytha­goras, Aristotle, Galen, with many others, tho disagreeing about other things, in this Opinion, to wit, That the Soul was either a Fire, or something analogical to it, they all shook hands; to whom also have joyned themselves of the Moderns, Fernelius, Heur­nius, Cartesius, Also many Mo­derns of great Note. Hon. Faber. Tract. de Plantis et ge­ner. anim. &c. Hogelandus, and others: and lately Honoratus Faber, hath delivered in Express words, That the Soul of the Brute is Corporeal, and its Substance Fire it self: But indeed he far otherwayes Explicates his saying, than is propounded in our Hypothesis. For having shewn this Soul to be material, and supposed all sublunary matter to be no­thing else but the four Elements, he therefore Concludes the Soul of the Brute, because it is not seen to be any thing Compounded out of the rest of the simple Elements, or of many of them, That it is mere Fire, Tract. 2. l. 2. pr. 33. ad 38. I shall take notice of one or two of our Countrymen. The most noble Verulam, chiefly distinguishes animals from inanimals, in this respect, for that the spirits of those are otherways inflamed and inkindled, than the spirits of these. Natur. Histor. Cent. 7. The most Learned and Fa­mous Physician George Ent, in his Apology against Parisanus, That Blood even as Fire, desires two things, to wit, Food and Ventilation, hath most clearly demonstrated. Wherefore,Arguments and Reasons per­swade the same thing. after so many Learned Men, it will be no Paradox to affirm, That the Soul lying hid in the Blood, or Vital Liquor, is a certain fire or flame; which Opinion agrees well enough with right Reason, as appears by what follows.

Indeed if Fire and Flame are to be defined or unfoulded, not by those External acci­dents of burning, glowing, and of heat, (which are not its proper Passions) but by in­trinsic Causes;The diffinition of Fire and Flame by its Causes and Essences, agrees also with the Soul of the Brute. we conceive very easily, the substances of them to be even as the Souls of the Brutes, or altogether of the same sort. For truly, Fire, if we would describe it according to its Essence, it signifies an heap of most subtil Contiguous particles, and existing in a swift motion, and with a continued generation of some, renewed by the fal­ling off of others; which indeed Conserves both its motion and substance; for that its Food, on which it continually feeds, is perpetually supply'd from the subject matter, which is Sulphur or some other nitrous thing in the Air, that Compasses it about; for from thence, out of the Food of either, the Particles being most minutely resolved, and agi­tated [Page 6] with a most rapid motion, the forms of Fire and Flame (which differ only in more or less) result. Since we have in another place discoursed largely enough of these things, it will not be needful to add any more here.

The Souls of all Brutes after the manner of Fire, want a two-fold Food, to wit, a Sul­phureous and Nitrous.What if we should in like manner say, That the Souls of Brutes, are an heap of these sorts of most subtle Atoms, heaped up together, and extreamly moveable? To wit, which being stirred up with Life into motion, as it were an infiring, Continue the same, and likewise its subsistance, so long as Nutriment, out of the apposite matter, which is by degrees Consumed, within Sulphureous, and without Nitrous, from the ambient me­dium, is granted to it. For that we say, That the Souls of all Brutes, so long as they live, and flourish after the manner of fire, do want Constantly either kind of aliment; to wit, Sulphureous and Nitrous: That this is true, is shewed hereafter, as well con­cerning Insects and other bloodless Creatures; also concerning Fishes, and the more fri­gid bloody Creatures, as well as in the more hot and perfect Creatures, that have blood: Which Conditions however, are required to the Act and Subsistance of no subject be­sides. But no motion, either of Fermentation, Ebullition, Vegitation, or of any other thing, (besides Life and Fire) is immediately supprest, by reason of the taking away of the Air.

There are three things to be Consider'd of Concerning the Soul of the Brute. Its Subsistance or Hypostasis.Concerning the Corporeal Soul in general, these Three things first fall under our Con­sideration: viz. First, What kind of Subsistence or Hypostasis it is of. Secondly, In what its Life or Act consists: And Thirdly, What are its primary Offices or Opera­tions.

As to the first, we may believe, That the Brutal Soul doth consist of Particles of the same matter, out of which the organical Body is formed, but that they are choyce, most subtle, and highly active, which, as a flower arising out of the grosser mass, do mutual­ly come together, and do constitute fit passages, which they produce thorow the whole frame of the Body, having got one continued Hypostasis, to wit, very thin, and as it were Spirituous, and equal, and extended to the whole. For indeed, so soon as any mat­ter is disposed towards Animation, by the Law of Creation (and not by a Fortuitous Concourse of Atoms) at once, the Soul, which is the form of the thing, and the Body, which which is called Matter, begin to be formed under a certain Species or Kind, according to the Model or Form impressed upon them. Wherefore, the more nimble and Spirituous Particles, rowling away from the rest, heap themselves together, and by leasure grow Tur­gid. These being thus moved, stir up others more thick, and dispose them into destina­ted places, where they ought to stay and to increase, and so they frame the Body, ac­cording to its destinated Species. In the mean time, this heap of subtle Particles, or the Soul, which explicating it self more largely, and insinuating its Particles into other more thick, and weaving them together, frames the Body, and is exactly formed accord­ing to the dimension and figure of that Body, is Co-extended with it, and fitted exactly, as to a little Box or Sheath, actuates, inlivens, and inspires the whole, and all its parts: Further, on the other side, the same Soul, being apt presently to be dissolved from it self, and to vanish away into Air, is Conserved by the Containing Body in its Sub­sistance and Act.

So indeed, the Soul, altho most thin, yet Corporeal, seems to be as it were the Spe­cter, or the shadowy hag of the Body: Further, this arising together with the Body, out of matter rightly disposed, receives its Hypostasis or Subsistence, no less than the Body, according to the Idea or Pattern fore-ordained to it, by the Law of Nature; But altho intimately united to the Body, and is as its prop or stay, Yet being made of a most subtil texture, and as it were of a most slender thrid, it cannot be perceived by our Senses, but is only known by its Effects, and Operations. Moreover, when as by reason of hurt hapning to it, or to the Body, that the Life of the Soul perishes is destroy'd, presently its Particles being snatched away from the Concretion, or its mutual adhesion, they are altogether dissipated, without any footsteps or marks left: In the mean time, the Body being made exanimat or Soul-less, by and by tends to Corruption, but indeed, if it be more gross and more Compact, its Principles waisting or unrolling themselves leisurely and by degrees, it is not Corrupted but of a long time.

In its Life or Act.2. The Existency of the Corporeal Soul, depends altogether on its Act or Life; and in this respect it seems most like to Common Flame, and only like it; to wit, for as much as the substance of either, as soon as it Ceaseth from all motion, it is no more, and can by no means be made whole again in the same number. Wherefore, the Essence of this begins altogether from Life, as it were the infiring of a Certain subtil matter; to wit, when many active, and chiefly spirituous, and sulphureous Particles, with some other sal [...]e, being praedisposed to Animality or Life, come together, in a fit Furnace or fire-place, take Life, sometimes being as it were inkindled by another Soul, sometimes of their own accord, which, from thence being supplyed, constantly (as we have said) by a [Page 7] sulphureous food within, and a nitrous without, Endures for some time; until at length, by the defect of Either of these, or by reason of some Violence or Injury hapning out­wardly, the same as it were being Extinct, perisheth quite. The Act of the Corporeal Soul, or the inkindling of the Vital matter, in the more perfect Brutes, being indued with an hot Blood, appears so clearly and openly by noted heat, by the Exhalation of its fumes or sut, with other Accidents and Effects proper to the Kitching flame, that any one Considering or weighing them, may well believe that the blood doth truly flame forth, and that Life is not so like to flame, but even a flame it self, as we have formerly shew'd at large: But indeed in others less perfect or frigid Animals, altho we do not say the Soul is properly flame; yet (which is next to it) we say it is a most thin heap of subtil Particles, and as it were fiery, to wit, a certain spirituous breath; this being shut up in the Body, agitates its thick bulk, actuates all its members, and arteries, and in some with wonderful agility, goes thorow and inspires the same, more than in the more per­fect animates, as appears in some Reptils and Insects. Further, that there is a firey Vi­gor in these Kind of Souls, may be even Collected from hence, because, whilst they live and do not lye asleep, they have no less need of Food and access of Air, than the more hot living Creatures; as shall be declared anon.

3. As to the Operations in General of the Corporeal Soul,In its Offices and Operati­ons. we say, That as soon as it Exists in Act, that it performs chiefly these two offices; viz. First, to frame the Body as it were its domicil or little house, and then that Body being wholly made, to render it apt and fitted to all the Uses necessary both to the Kind, and to the Individuum: for which Uses it is furnished with a manifold Guard or Company of Faculties or Powers; also according to the Various instincts and suggestions of Nature, it exerts or puts forth as it were predestinatedly the Acts of a Various Kind, altho almost after the same man­ner. It will not be an easy matter here to rehearse, all the natural Powers and Habits with which all Corporeal Souls are wont to be gifted, to wit, because they are not in all after the same manner; But as living Creatures are more or less perfect, some than others, also according as they being destinated for the Various Scene of this worldly Theatre are diversly figured, and ought to live, their Souls also are furnished by a divers manner of provision of Faculties: The speculation of these things, tho very pleasant and profita­ble, is too copious and large for us to divert our selves within this place; But for the il­lustrating of our Psychelogie or Doctrine of the Soul, it may not be amiss to recite the chief Kinds of Living Creatures, and to reduce them as it were into certain Classes or Forms, and then to describe their Chief Species, together with the Various degrees of the Souls, that inhabit them.

CHAP. III.

The Various Kinds of Brutes, together with their respective Souls, and the chief Species of each of them, are rehearsed and described.

FOr as much as the Brutal Soul ought to be proportionate to the Organical Body, it easily follows, that as there are Various kinds of Bodies, in the divers Habitacles of this world, and offices of those Bodies destinated to life, so also Various Souls, by which they are actuated, do exist, and are indued with a Divers Gift of Faculties. If we would consider the perfect Sense of these, it were first needful to write the History of all Animals, and to deliver the Anatomy of each of them. But as that will be a busi­ness of an immense and tedious labour, it seems much more to the purpose, to reduce here, all the Bruits to certain Kinds, according to some certain affections in many of them, and thence to describe some chief Species of those Kinds, and their Various Compositions and Structures,Animals are reduced into Classes either according to the Organs of Respiration, Or according to the Vital Humour; and they are either without Blood, or of frigid Blood, or hot Blood. in respect of the Vital parts.

Living Creatures may be distinguished or reduced into certain Classes, either First, according to their Various Organs of Respiration, which in some are numerous Bran­chiae or Gills, and these dispersed thorow the whole Body, as in many Infects, or they are appropriated Branchiae or Gills, in Fishes; or lastly, Lungs, common besides to divers a­nimals, with Man. Or secondly, the rehearsal of the Brutes may be made according to the Various Constitution of the vital Humour, in which respect, they are either First, with­out Blood, or Secondly, of a less perfect or frigid Blood, or Thirdly, of a more per­fect or hot Blood: And to this partition, as the more Known, insisting here, we shall run thorow the several members of it in Order, and briefly Notifie in them the Fabricks of [Page 8] the chief Vital parts of the Body, and the Constitutions of the Souls, Inhabiting them.

Bloodless Crea­tures are either of the Earth or Water.First, Bloodless Creatures, are either belonging to the Earth, in which number are very many Insects; or belonging to the water, of which Kind, besides some certain Kinds of Insects, are also found various Fishes, which are wont to be divided into Soft, of which sort are the Cuttle Fish, the Sea Woolf, &c. Shelly, as Oysters and Cockles, &c. And Pargated or other thinner shell'd Creatures, as the Lobster and Crab: We will examine in either sort, some chief Species of these Bloodless Creatures, as to the States of their vital Parts, and their Souls.

First, Therefore in earthly Insects, altho indued with a small bulk that they have great Souls, their Actions testifie, which indeed are performed by some of them, as the Silk-worm, the Bee,It appears that Insects have fiery Souls, because they want Sulphu­rous and Ni­trous food. the Ant, or Emmet, the Spider, to admiration: Further, That the Souls of these are of a certain fiery nature, no less than those of the more hot and perfect Brutes; we from hence deservedly suspect; because they stand in need of a Copious Food, after the manner of an inkindled Flame, and of the access of much Air. The first appears by common Observation, for as much as Insects often devour all the Corn, and Leaves of Plants, and so take away the grateful greenness of the Summer. Besides, it appears from hence, that their Lives require a constant afflux of Air, because as it hath been experienced by our noble Mr. Boyle, Insects being put into a glassy Globe, quickly dye,Malpigius de Bombyce, p. 28. after the Air is suckt out. This the Learned Malpigius hath more fully declared in his most ingenious Tract of the Silk-Worm: where he Observes, That Insects have not only Lungs, but so abound in them, that every little ring or section of them is indued with two, yea and that every part also of the Viscera or Inwards, delight in the derived Lungs. For as in the sides of Insects, the whole length of the Body on both sides, black spots or pricks appear, he hath found, that these were indeed tunnels or breathing holes, leading from so many Wind-pipes or asper Arteries, which by and by, being branched forth into the Heart, Ventricle, Spinal Marrow, and all the other Inwards, and Internal parts, carry in and out air to and from them all.These have Lungs, or nu­merous wind-pipes, the Ori­fices of which, if stopped up by Oyl, presently death follows. Moreover▪ if these orifices be all smeared over with Oyl, or Hony, the Worm presently dyes; but if only a part of those breathing holes be so stopped, the neighbouring parts being by Convulsed, and then resolv'd or loos­ned, sink down or flag, the rest keeping their motion: But if the orifices of the Trachea or Wind-pipe be untouched, and that the Head, Mouth, Belly, or any other parts be sprinkled with Oyl, neither death nor any trouble of the Sense will be induced; and what is yet more wonderful, the Insects that have oyl or the like poured into their Wind-pipes, so suddenly dye, that tho the Heart keep a motion for some space, yet they can never be revived. These Phaenomena happen alike not only in the Silk-Worm, but in Wasps, Bees, Grass-hoppers, Locusts, Caterpillers, and other the like Insects, which cer­tainly, I believe, gives very much Light concerning the use of Lungs, in every Animal: But first let us inspect some other Parts of Insects, described by a most accurate Anatomy.

The Heart of the Silk-Worm is long, un­equal and stretch'd forth thorow the whole Body.Therefore he says in the Silk-Worm, and the like in others, That the heart is placed all along the Back, between the Muscles and the Lungs, here and there appending, and that it is stretched forth from the top of the Head to the extreme part of the Body; This consisting of their Membranes, as appears as it were one Tube or Pipe, but unequal, to wit, sometimes broader sometimes narrower, continuing from the Tail to the Head, so that for their inequalities, they seem as so many Eggs, or little Hearts, one laid by another▪ and continued by one passage. These little Hearts, or the aforesaid parts of the Heart, do gently drive forward, not at once but successively and slowly (after the manner of their membranes) being bound and dilated from heart to heart sometimes up­ward, sometimes downward, the contained vital humour, which is limpid or clear, and so (as we may believe) a certain portion of the vital humour, being squeezed forth into the Arteries (which are so small and few, that they cannot be seen) is agitated by the Circulation of the rest, contained almost only within the oblong Cavity of the Heart.

The Brain is wanting, the Spinal Mar­row being suffi­ciently large.As to the head, this most diligent searcher observed, that Insects had no Brain with­in the Skull, its Cavity being filled with the Muscles of the Eyes, and some others, but its spinal Marrow sufficiently large, and divaricated in many places, for the going out of the Nerves, and as it were protuberated with knots, is extended from the Head to the Tail; and what is worthy to be noted, in the whole passage, branches of the Trachaea or Lungs were superinduced to this spinal Rope, and inserted to it in very many places. I omit what he most learnedly discourses of the members, ventricle, and other Inwards of In­sects, lest it should seem impertinent, or too much Plagiarism: But that the discourses may be the better understood, concerning the vital parts of Insects, it will be conveni­ent here to borrow the draughts of the heart of the Silk-Worm; and of the Trachaea or Wind-Pipes, both of that and of the Grass-hopper, and Locust (in which the Tra­chaea [Page 9] or Wind-pipes are like to other Insects) most diligently delineated by Malpigius; which shall be added at the end of this Chapter, with other Figures of other Animals; but these the first Table shews. Further, as to what belongs to the Doctrine of the Soul, we may with the Authors lieve Philosophize, or at least conjecture, concerning the Phaenomena of the Heart and Lungs by him described.

Therefore,The Vse of the Parts is ex­posed. for that Insects first having such copious Lungs dispersed thorow all the Viscera or Inwards, Heart, and spinal Marrow, to which that each might come distinct­ly, they have many distinct Trachaeas or Wind-pipes, with so many gaping orifices, on the superficies of the Body, it appears from hence, that the use of the Lungs in these little Animals, is not for the refrigeration of the Blood, or its exact mistion, nor for the suscitating the motion of the Heart; because, neither the Vessels carrying the Blood or Vital Humour, accompany the Trachaea or Wind-Pipes, nor is such a humour to be rapidly Circulated, but seems to be only carryed and placed gently into all the parts.

But that the orifices of the Wind-pipes being stopped,Why such nu­merous Wind-pipes. presently Life is extinguished in these (as also in a glassy Globe empty of Air) what can one imagine else, but that this access of Air, is required for the sustaining of the Vital Flame, as it is wont to be for that of the Chimney? Wherefore, because the vital humour (which is not at all or only slowly Circulated) cannot be carried all quickly to one Fire-place of accension, as in more perfect Creatures, therefore very many Lungs gaping every where outward­ly, and dispersed every where inwardly, are framed for the bringing of Air to the se­veral portions of the vital humour, planted on all sides; for that not only the Heart, but also the Ventricle, Genitals, spinal marrow, and all the other parts of the Soul dispersed, growing with a kind of silent Fire, are inspired with the admitted Air, to every one a part.

Besides,Wherefore the Heart is so long. when as the vital humour cannot be Circulated into all the other parts, and from these into that, with a rapid motion therefore, instead of a Conick Muscle, which receiving the watering juyce, may be able to explode it presently, and to cast it forth a great way on every side, a Tube or as it were a membranaceous Sack or Bag is made, to wit, which by a long tract stretching it self nigh to all the parts, and to which it might by degrees bestow what might suffice, and in the mean time gently moving the provision chiefly contained in it self, preserves from stagnation or putrefaction. Fur­ther, the little Branches of the Trachaea, deeply inserted into the Membranes or Coats of this, inspire or rather inkindle the humour contained with vitality.

As to the aquatick bloodless Creatures of the other kind,Bloodless Crea­tures belonging to the Water. viz. some soft Fishes, also many, perhaps all shelly and crusty Fishes; I have not yet happened to see the former, but Severinus being my Author, the Sepia or Cuttle Fish is made with an heart and gills, and the Polypus or many feet with it and Lungs: what is to be met with that is more curious in the framing of them shall be omitted.Soft Fishes. Concerning the other two Fishes, to wit, the shelly and crusty, we shall add some Anatomical Observations, such as we have search'd out in their vital parts, and other beginnings, truly weighed, and what the souls are of these sort of bloodless Creatures.

Of the testaceous or shelly,The Anatomy of the Oyster. though it hath been dissected by many, we shall make choice of the Oyster. The body of this Fish, though it seems rude and wholy without shape, yet it hath all its Viscera and parts, and especially the Praecordia, for, as it were the hearth and Tunnel of the Vital Fire, most curiously framed. As we shall describe some of the chief of these, we will begin with the shells, which are born with them, from Eggs,The Muscles opening and shutting the shells. and are first soft, and as they encrease in bulk they are by degrees hardned: A robust Muscle being implanted in the middle of the Oyster, grows by its tendons to ei­ther shell. The moving Fibres of these (which seem as it were a little bundle of Chords or Strings) ascending rightly, whil'st they are drawn together, strictly shut up the shells; but being relaxed, they suffer them to be opened and lifted up; to which Office of opening the shells, another Muscle adjoyned to this, is required. Besides these upright Muscles, and perpendicular to the planes of the shells, there are two Circular, stretched forth by the brims of either shell; which in the same place com­prehending in themselves Gills, serve chiefly for their motion; as we shall shew by and by.

On the top of the Oyster,Circular Muscles moving the Gills. the Circular Muscles being united, make a thing as it were a Vail for the covering of the head; then being a little divided below, they include four superiour Gills:The Mouth of the Oyster. In the middle of which, a gaping chink leads by an oblique pro­cess to the mouth of the Oyster. From the Mouth there is a short and strait passage to the Ventricle.The Ventricle of the Oyster. The Cavity of this large enough, is endued with little holes, leading into darkish bodies, fixed on either side of it. These bodies seem to be in the stead of the Mesentery and Liver,The Liver and Mesentery. and to perform their offices; to wit, for that they receive [Page 10] the more pure part of the Chyle, by and by from the Ventricle, and deliver it, being made clear from dreggs, to the vital humour. The like is in crustaceous Fishes, and perhaps in some Brutes; to wit, in such as a simple and only Intestine, without folds and Meseraick or milky Vessels, is produced from the Pylorus to the great Gut or Ars-hole.

The Intestine.For so in the Oyster, the Intestine beginning from the bottom of the Ventricle, de­scends with a plain and equal Tube, towards the right Angle of the streight Muscle, where being rolled and retorted in it self, it ascends again towards the Ventricle and Liver; being from thence demersed, and bending back towards the left side, goes towards the border of the strait Muscle, till it ends in the great Gut or Ars-hole: After this manner in the Oyster, a simple and only Intestine is carryed about, with a most long compass, more than in many other Animals, by which indeed they may be able the longer to retain their Dung; to wit, lest that when they are dry, that being more importunely put forth should polute (by mixing with it) the water, for the food of life, included in the shell.

An Intestine in an Intestine. Which perhaps is the Spinal Marrow.This intestine being dissected and opened longways, in the bottom of it arises an hardish and almost round body, which ascending from the Arse to the Ventricle arises there, and stretches under the Oesophagus towards the Head: The like to this is found in a Worm, which hollowness in it we think to be in the place of the Mesentery and milky Vessels: but otherwise in the Oyster, this hard and compacted body be­ing less apt for such an office, seems not unlike to the spinal Marrow: But we shall shew the Chyliferous passages do supply the darkish bodies, hanging to the Ventricle.

Its Pericardi­um with the Heart and Vessels.Below the Ventricle, the Pericardium is placed, including the Heart, being whitish with a large black ear, which being opened, that is beheld to beat, and at every Diastole to admit the vital humour, our of the hollow vein, into the little ear; then at every Systole, to drive the same forward into the Aorta, placed on the con­trary side; then by tripartite branches of this Vessel, a certain part of this humour tends upwards, towards the Head, Liver and Stomach; also a certain portion is re­flected into the strait Muscle; in the mean time a great part of it being delated from the great Trunk of the Artery, to the Branchiae or Gills, it is there unfolded, within most small and numerous passages,The Gills. as it were little Rivers, that it might enjoy, according to all its parts, little nitrous bodies inspired from the water. And that this may be the more plentifully done, we observe that the water, as in bloody Fishes, did not only wash the outward superficies of the Gills; but that it every where did enter all the more intimate recesses,The Description and use of them. and deeper passages; yea these Gills expansed largely thorow the Hemisphere of the Oyster, exceed in bulk, all the other Viscera, also almost the parts. So that in Fishes, because they breath but little in the water, it is so provided that in many places together, the food of re­spiration should be afforded them.

There are Four hairy tufts of Gills, and as it were two Lobes of either of them; to wit, the upper more broad and thicker, and the lower which is thinner and a little more contracted; in all the passages of them, every one is two-fold, and contains two series of little Finns, seen to grow together; to the several Gills be­long two Vessels, the Artery and the vein; which being deposited in the heaps of the hairy tufts, dispose the small shoots of either kind thorow all the borders. But besides these Four orders of Vessels, there are found also so many series of little breathing holes, lying between these Vessels; which also by manifest passages open in the places between the Finns: and from thence they deduce the waters sup'd up by the inferiour mixture or joyning of the Circular Muscles: The like is in cru­staceous Fishes, as we shall shew by and by.

The motion of the Gills depends upon the Circu­lar Muscles.As to the motion of the Gills, it is clear by ocular Inspection, that the Circular Muscles, which are knit to either shell, for the shutting them, when relaxed, do reach to the extream brims of the shells; whereby at that instant, also the Gills being re­laxed, they imbibe the Waters, and together from them draw the nitrous food; and by and by being contracted, they are drawn inwardly, and together compel the Gills, to the pressing forth the Waters newly admitted.

Shelly and cru­sty Fishes, con­tain waters in their whole bo­dies, to wit, whereby they may be able to live out of the Waters.If the Reason is asked, why shelly Fishes (which also holds with the crustaceous, as we shall shew anon) have besides the Vessels carrying about the vital humour, also Passages or open Chanels, by which the Waters are carried to their most intimate re­cesses; it seems to be because both these sorts of Animals, though they reside at the bottom of the Sea, yet oftentimes they happen to remain dry, therefore that they might then breath (the most wise Creator so providing) they contain plenty of wa­ter within their own frame, as it were reposed in Wombs; by the during provision of [Page 11] which, they live as well in the open Air, as in the Waters; But these Waters being taken away, shed, or evaporated by heat, both these sort of Fishes quickly dye: By reason of these Waters, these live longer then others out of the Waters. Further, as the Noble Mr. Boyle hath observ'd, the Oyster and the Sea-Crab, being put into a Glassy Globe, after the Air was suck't forth, did not presently expire like many other Ani­mals; to wit, because part of the Intestine Water being ratified, quickly supplyed the defect of the exhausted Air; at least, that being detained within the proper frame of the Fish, affords an inkindling or matter for respiration. It is sufficiently known, that the Oyster, when it is taken out of the Waters, hath a great quan­tity of Waters shut up within its shells: as also the Lobster (which we intend to consider of among the crusty Fishes) doth the same thing, as shall be declared. In the mean time, for the illustration of this our Anatomy of the Oyster, Tab. 2d, shews the Figures of its parts aptly represented.

The Lobster and other Fishes a-Kin to it,The parts and Viscera of Fi­shes swiming backwards are inversed. viz. the Crab, Sea Creevish, Shrimps, &c. As they retrograde, or rather swiming backwards, so their parts and Viscera in re­spect of other Animals, seem to be inverse or opposite: For as to the members and moving parts, the bones are not covered with flesh, but the flesh with bones: where­fore, almost all the Muscles of the Feet, Arms, Head, Back, Tail, and other parts, either moveable or moving (excepting those that are temporal) are shut up every where with a crusty covering: Indeed it is so ordained by Divine Providence, that as these Animals inhabit among Rocks and sharp Stones, lest they should be in danger of being dashed too hard by the force of the Tides, they are fortified with Bones, plant­ed outwardly, as it were with Armour: Moreover, lest that the crusty Covering should more sharply compress the Membranes, or the Flesh underneath, or should rub against them, the same is every where covered within with a thick Purple Muck or Stuff, as it were lined with a soft cloath: I do believe this purpuling in crusty Fishes, otherwise than in soft (who also are besmeared with muck) to happen through the greater plenty of Sulphur.

As their Bones and Flesh, so their Praecordia and Viscera, are observed to be Histeron Proteron, topsie turvie; for the Liver, Stomach, and Womb is placed above, and the Heart below, yea contiguous to the Back: yea, and the spinal Marrow lyes not close to the Back, and above the Viscera, but under them, and to the prone part of the Body, in its whole passage; and is included in the bones or jointings of the Sternon, or meeting of the Breast.

But that the Parts and Viscera of the Lobster may the better be beheld,The Brain of the Lobster. let the arm­ed coat with the red Muck and Membrane lying under it, be taken away; then in the top of the head, appears the Brain but meanly large, of a greenish colour, and as it were two-fold;The Nerves and spinal Marrow. from which the mammillary Processes, and the Optick Nerves ascend, and two shanks of the oblong Marrow descend into the spinal Marrow, and in its whole process, they are sometimes divided, and sometimes placed togethe [...], now united, and then again seperated one from another.

The Oesophagus tends from a two-fold mouth,The Oesophagus. by a strait and short passage, into the Ventricle, this large indued with a thick and strong Membrane, has three Teeth with­in its Cavity, by which its aliments are chawed or bruised: further, for the work of Chaw­ing and brusing, two pair of muscles are framed, in the neighbouring parts, to wit, one temporal or belonging to the Temples,The Ventricle from which there is a pas­sage into the Liver and Messentery. and another hanging to the sides of the Stomach; from the sides of the Stomach or Ventricle, grow too glandulous Bodies, stuffed with many Vessels and various passages, as it were certain little thin Intestines, and from thence being by degrees sharpened with two Lobes, they descend into the lowest Trunk of the Body; from the Stomach into these Bodies, on either side, passages lye open, so that wind being blown into it by a Pipe, presently it runs into these and makes them swell up: These parts in crusty Fishes (as also in the shelly) are commonly called the Liver, and indeed they seem to perform the Offices both of the Liver and Messentery; to wit, for as much as they receive the more pure portion of the Chyle fresh digested in the Ventricle, and commit that by and by, being made purer, to the vital humour.De Bombie. p. 40. Malpigius observes in the Silk-Worm, and in other Insects, that certain diversified Vessels, analogical to these Bodies, are stretch'd out through the back of the Ventricle, and from thence to reach lower upon the Intestine; which (as he probably thinks) receive the more thin portion of the meat already macerated and loosned in the Ventricle; and deliver it, the juyces perhaps being not much chang­ed, to the Heart,Things answer­able to the Li­ver and Mes­sentery in In­sects. or at least to the Skin and other parts of the Body. Truly by observation, after what manner these parts which supply the place of the Liver and Messentery, in some Fishes and Insects are made; something may be thence gathered concerning the uses of the Liver, and of the Vessels both Miseraick and Milky, in bloody Brutes.

[Page 12] Spermatick Bodies.In the Male Lobster, above the beginnings of the aforesaid parts, on either side, from the sides of the Oesophagus, the spermatick Bodies begin, which being sent down towards the bottom of the Trunk, and there being more compacted and made smoother, after the likeness of the Epididimis or thin covering of the Testicles,Two Yards in the Male. are terminated in two Yards; the Tops of which have their going out thorow holes forged in the last little feet but one. In like manner in the Female Lobster, two nests of Eggs on either side of the sides of the Oesophagus and Ventricle are placed, and pass into two Wombs planted in the lowest Trunk of the Body, and into those, thorow the holes forged in the last little Feet but one, there lyes a passage to the genital Members, also a passage from the Womb for the laying of Eggs:Two Wombs in the Female. so that it appears how these living Creatures are most fruitful, with a multiplyed Issue, when as nature seems to be careful and industrious about their genital parts, being double and greater than in many other Brutes; to wit, that as they being both at once double, they might produce both by the works of Generation, Conception, and bringing forth not only always Twynns, but almost Miriads of Twynns.

The Pericardi­um and Heart.Below the Ventricle, yea and lower also then the beginnings of the other Viscera, the Pericardium, in which the beating heart is included, is placed in the bottom of the Back; the Systole and Diastole of the heart are strong and swift, as in Creatures of Blood; this appearing of a whitish Colour, is indeed a Conick Muscle, whose Cavity being sufficiently large is framed with Fibres or Columns, also with many strong and various little Furrows:The Aorta. The Aorta going forth from its top, is cleft presently into two Branches, which go towards the Gills; The venae cavae, one ascending, the other de­scending, meet together from the bottom of the Heart, and there enter into its little ear. The Heart whilst it is relaxed, receives the vital humour from the vein, and by and by when it is contracted, drives it forward into the Aorta.

The Gills.The crusty Fishes, even as the shelly altho without Blood, are indued with numerous and large Gills, which are instead of Lungs; to which, that all the Vital humour may be frequently carried, therefore not as in earthy Insects, are they dispersed tho­row the whole Body, but on either side, under the brim of the armed coat, and being gathered together in one place, are made into certain little bundles: The inferiour and utmost part of the Gills, which are broad and obtuse, is fixed to the Sternon or meeting of the Breast, with hanging little feet; the upper part ascending under the Coat is loose and free, and by degrees grows sharp; otherwise than in Fishes with Blood, whose Gills are tyed together, being solid at either end.

The Gills of the Lobster have three Bosoms.In all the Gills of the Lobster, Three Bosoms are found, of which two seem to be made for the carrying in and out of the vital humour; because a black Liquor being injected into the heart, passes to the Gills, and there passing first thorow one Bosom, returns by and by thorow the other. We will speak by and by of the third: from these Bosoms appear productions of small Vessels, as if it were feathery, arising on every side, thick set and short, like jagged welts or fringes; which being spongy, sup up the Waters continually flowing to them,Two of these carry about the Vital Humour. at every turn of the Diastole, and press them forth by Systole: to wit, for the end, that whilst it is there unfolded within the small passages, the food for the vital humour may be inspired. The Third Bosom being carried from the top of every Gill, to its Basis ends in the common Channel, in all the Gills of the same side, which nigh to the insertion of the highest Gill (which beats perpetually) gapes with a large gap; Any one may easily perceive this, in a live Lobster,The third re­ceives, and casts out the Waters flowing to it. whilst it breathes out of the water; for in every Systole or pulse of this supream Gill, one may see a bubble of water break forth out of that hole. Further, if into that hole a black Liquor be injected, by and by entring under that Common pas­sage, it passes thorow from thence, both into all the Gills, and the small and feathery Bosoms of them, and also into the Arms, and all the little feet (the Cavities of which the Muscles do not fully stuff) yea, and into the Cavity of the Body. In like manner wind being blown into that hole, all the aforesaid parts will be inflated or blown up.

Shelly and Cru­sty Fishes re­ceive the Wa­ters, that when they remain dry, they may be able to live.From hence we may guess, that hole, with the common channel, and the three bo­somes of Gills, to be a certain Trachea or Wind-pipe, into which plenty of water en­tring at every Diastole, is returned back at the next Systole: In the mean time, these waters in this passage, do not only Communicate with the Vital Humour, abounding between the Gills, but besides, are laid up between the Cavities of the Members and the Trunk, that they may supply these Fishes, whilst they are kept dry with matter for respiration; and therefore, they not only longer subsist in the open air, but also live for some time in a place void of all air.

In Crusty Fishes, for that, for the agitating the Gills as it were with Lungs, the Ribs belonging to the Sides, the Muscles of the Breast, and other things are either wanting, [Page 13] or by reason of the stiffness of the neighbouring parts, are made unable; it is performed by an admirable artifice,The Gills of Crusty Fishes, hanging from the Sides or Ribs, are mo­ved as it were by shaking Pen­dulums. as whilst the Gills, for the most part being loose, and are left easily moveable, the several little bundles of them, about the basis of the bony little Foot, being included with the Muscles, within their Cavities, as it were so many hanging Ribs, are fixed, being drawn forth far beyond the Trunk of the Body; which, as so many distinct Pendulums, by the help of the Muscles, which they include, being almost conti­nually shaken, cause also continual Systoles and Diastoles, for the inspiring and exspiring of the Gills.

But it may well be doubted,Whether there be fiery souls in bloodless Crea­tures. whether we ought to assign Souls of the nature of fire, to these bloodless Creatures inhabiting the waters; because they rejoyce in an Element that is deadly to fire it self, and to the Lives of more perfect Brutes: But this Problem shall be satisfied by and by, when we have first discours'd of the Use of the Gills in Bloody Fishes, as also concerning the Praecordia of these, and others, of a more frigid blood: In the mean time, the Third Table shews the Figures, representing to the Life the parts of the Lobster.

Secondly,From whence the vital hu­mour becomes bloody. After the bloodless Brutes, their second Class, and of a little higher de­gree, is that of the more cold bloody Creatures; in which for that the vital Humour or Liquor, being dyed with a reddish tincture becomes bloody, it seems to proceed from a greater plenty of Sulphur, and chiefly destinated for living Creatures, for the increasing their bulk and strength: For where blood is, though in a mean Plenty, their Muscles, Inwards, Praecordia, Brain and more strong and compleat Organs of the senses exist. We have observed it otherwise among most Insects, whose little Bodies being ordained to subtle and small actions only, are made up of very little Sulphur, as their Analysis or the unfolding them shews, but of plenty of Spirit and of volatile Salt.

But that among the Bloody Brutes,Why the bloody Brutes, are some of them more hot Animals, o­thers more cold. some are hot in Act, and others are frigid or cold, the reason may be, both from the quantity of Sulphur, to wit, with which they are only meanly or very much imbued, also from the Kind of life which they live, either in the Air, or in the Waters, or within the Earth: Wherefore, the Inhabitants of the latter Regions do not grow hot in the Act, yea 'tis scarce possible they should; for how, or which way should heat subsist, where it is in danger to be damped or over­thrown by a more potent Cold? Wherefore, the blood of Animals destinated to these places, is tempered with little Sulphur, lest otherwise growing hot above measure, it should be forthwith suffocated; yea and we suspect the Souls of these, tho of a firy nature, to have not a flamy Hypostasis, but a breathy, to wit, which consisting in Va­pour, hardly or not at all inkindled, like an ignis fatuus or false fire, is destitute of sen­sible heat.

The more Cold bloody Creatures,Why some are indued with an heart, with a twofold Belly, & Lungs; others with one Belly, and Gills, or Wind-pipes dis­persed. altho all of them have a Conic Heart, very fibrous and thick, to wit, that being strongly Contracted, it might drive forward the Vital Liquor, by a certain Circulation, into all the parts, and from them into it self: yet this Heart in some is two bellied, and to it always the Lungs are hung; in others it hath but one belly; and in many, in the place of Lungs are Gills, but in some there are nu­merous Wind-pipes, and dispersed thorow the whole Body: We shall consider the dif­ferent ways and buildings in each of these.

Among the Brutes of Cold blood, The Earth-Worm, tho of the lowest order, may be rightly placed;Description of an Earth-Worm. for that its humour appears by occular inspection to be bloody: This little living Creature, tho it be esteemed Vile and Contemptible, hath allotted to it vital organs, as also other Viscera and Members, made most admirably by a Divine Workmanship; the frame of the whole Body (even as of many bloodless Insects) is a chain of ringie Muscles, the orbicular fibres of which being Contracted, render every Ring first large and dilated,Its local moti­on. and then more narrow and longer. For then, when the superior portion of the Body being made long and stretched forth, is extended to a further space, and is there affixed to the plane, the inferior portion of the Body, being relaxed and abbreviated,The little Feet. is easily drawn to it, as to its Centre. A four-fold series or rowes of little feet are placed thorow the whole length of the Worm; with these, as it were with so many hooks or claws,Its Snout. he fixes now this part, now that, to the plane or super­ficies, whilst he stretches forth the other, or draws it after him. Above the opening of the Mouth, he is indued with a snout, with which he diggs thorow and thrusts up the Earth.

The Earth-Worm, being laid on its back, and fixed with Bodkins to a Table, let it be cut up long ways,It's Brain. then the Sides being layd apart, its parts from the head to the tail easily shew themselves to your view. Above the opening of the Mouth, the Brain ap­pears in a very little Bulk, and whitish like a bubble: Then a little lower, the Oeso­phagus being placed with the Muscles,Oesophagus. descends thence with a streight passage to the Ventricle.

[Page 14] Pericardium and Heart.Nigh to the top of the Oesophagus, the Heart beating is placed, having reciprocal turns of Systole and Diastole or pulses, as in more perfect Brutes: from either side of the heart, and from thence a little lower, are framed whitish Bodies, and some­thing globous or round, and on either side distinguished as it were into Three Lobes. The Two superiour of these, shine more bright and are smaller; the lowest little Globe,White Globes which are Sper­matick Bodies. greater in a double measure then either of the other, is long and like a Saw­sage; between these whitish Bodies, and more backward, other lesser little Globes as they were small and little yellowish whelks, are placeed in a two-fold series, to wit, on either side, now Four, now Five, or more. Noted Blood-carrying passages go thorow the midst of these Bodies, and in them a notable pulsation, as it were in the neigh­bourhood of the heart, is beheld.

By what names I should call the aforesaid parts, and for what uses they served, I was a long time in doubt, because in the dissection, or by blowing them up with a Pipe, I could find no Cavity in them; but some of the little globes being opened and squeesed, there dropt out of them a milky humour, from whence I presently suspected, that they were spermatick Bodies; which seemed likely, because these parts were not formed after the same manner in all the Earth-Worms. Further, it was sufficiently obvious, that Earth-Worms Coupling together, do not strain themselves as most of the other Brutes, by a direct planting of either Sex about the Tails, but on the contrary, by mutual embraces about the Head. At length, after I had often and narrowly inquired into the matter, it appeared past doubt: For by chance dissecting a certain bigg-bellied Worm, I found the greater white shining Bodies, and the longish like a Pudding or Sausage, stuffed with very many Eggs: Moreover on the other side of these Bodies, in the Breast of the Earth-Worm, appeared two white shining little Paps, with holes, which seemed to be the privy members of the Earth-Worm. Malpigius hath observed, in some Insects, The like to these in other Insects. and especially in the Beetle and Imperatus's Mole, certain little whitish Globes about the Ventricle (like as it seems to these in the Earth-Worms) to be found, and a portion of it, to be incompassed with plenty of them: It is very likely that these Bodies are also spermati­cal in them.

The Ventricle, of which there are three Bellies &c. The Intestine.Below these whitish shining Bodies, the Ventricle, of a noted bulk, is placed, indued with a large Cavity, and divided into three Regions or Bellys. From the lowest of these, the Intestinum proceeding, is carried by a streight and long passage, even to the Tail, and in the whole space is so compressed, by the several interspaces of the anulary Muscles, that it appears like the Colon or Arse-Gut in perfect Animals, divided as it were into very many little Cells. This Intestine being dissected long ways, and the dung removed, in its bottom was placed a vessel, in its whole passage, of a yellowish Colour, from the Tail even to the Ventricle; but in the same place arising up, and creeping thorow the walls of the Stomach, is stretched forth even to the Head: This Vessel is in truth a Tube, which being blown up by a Pipe, shew'd an ample Cavity; and that which Malpigius noted to be stretched forth upon the Ventricle and Intestines of Insects,An Intestine in an Intestine, which is in the place of the Li­ver and Mesen­tery. seems answerable to these passages and vessels, and we may well suspect it to be in the place of the Liver and Mesenterie. In some Earth-Worms about the Tail, on either side of the Intestine, we found sometimes very many Eggs, ready to be lay'd, which indeed were seen to have descended thither, from the genital parts, and were cast out by the Passages lying open into the Arse.

The holes in the back of the Earth-Worm, which seem to be Wind-Pipes.So much concerning the internal parts of the Earth-Worm, opened with its Belly up­wards: If the same be held down with its Belly downwards, on the top of the Back, near the brim of every Ringlet, little holes are continued; almost in the whole Passage, from the Head to the Tail; into which, if you blow with a Pipe, presently the under­lying parts swell up, the dung of the Intestine being driven up and down here and there, backward and forward: From these holes, if they are pressed, a white, viscous, and sometimes a milky Humour drops forth, which seems to be muck or stuff be­smearing those Cavities, and fortifying them against the inclemency of the Air.

Without doubt these little holes are so many Wind-Pipes, which as in bloodless In­sects, being numerous and dispersed thorow the whole Body, supply the place of Lungs, and draw in the nitrous Air for the inspiring the Vital Liquor, and by and by sends it forth being spent. But against this it may be objected, That little and sometimes al­most no respiration serves the Earth-Worms. Because they sometimes lye hid in the depth of the Earth, for above three Months, and are able so to ly and to live; yea, if the holes of the Wind-Pipes be smeared over with Oyl, they do not presently dy like the bloodless Insects; but being immersed in Oyl they swim in it unhurt, and live a long while; but if you apply heat to them, tho moderate, they dy presently: The same thing we have observed almost of Fishes, and especially of the Shelly and Crusty, who bear the defect of Air or Water, better than the presence of Fire, or Heat.

[Page 15]The reason of this (that we may defend our Hypothesis) we shall indeavour to shew; we have shewn in a late Tract, That altho Fire and Flame necessarily require, besides Sulphureous food from the matter of the Subject, something nitrous from the Air, which being denyed or withdrawn, they are suddenly extinguished; yet, if that the matter be inkindled of Sulphur and Nitre (as is wont to be in Gun-Powder) together mixed with the Concrete, that Fire or Flame will burn in the midst of the Waters, or in a place Empty of Air; to wit, because either food being contained within, they do not pre­sently desire supplyes from without. In like manner we suppose it may be concerning the Hypostases and accensions of Brutal Souls: For altho many of these being inkindled in their vital humour, draw in altogether from the ambient Air, a Nitrous, and from within a Sulphureous Food; Yet in the blood of some of them, which are destinated to the Waters or to the Earth,Earth-Worms and Fishes, a­bound in nitrous Salt, being al­most wholy de­stitute of a fix­ed and Volatile Salt. much of Sulphur thick and Earthy, with little of Nitre, and very little only of spirit and volatile Salt, may be so temper'd that it being inkindled into Life, may burn with a silent and almost suppressed fire; neither requires from with­out the access, either of much or continued nitrous Food, but, as it hath a certain in­testine task, its burning is more securely performed in the Earth or Waters, than in the open Air: For that indeed from this, there is danger of too much inkindling the sulphureous Particles, and so quickly of overturning the Crasis or disposition of the Soul: Wherefore, these kind of Animals greatly abhor fire or external heat, which may make the internal Sulphur to work, and too much to burn. However, altho the Souls of these are not contented with fire, and it sometimes as it were hid in the Ashes, suffers them to be nummed or stiff; yet notwithstanding, Organs of Respiration are given to them all, for the continuing it as long as it pleases, and as occasion serves for the increasing or re­pressing it. And indeed the Creatures of a more frigid blood, appear to be constituted or imbued with plenty of Sulphur, tho sparingly inkindled, because Earth-Worms and Fishes, quickly putrifying, yield a most stinking smell; and the putrified flesh of some of these, by reason of the very many Effluvia's of Sulphur, shine in the dark like a live Coal. More­over, it hence appears, that the saline Particles, which make up the temperament of these, are for the most part nitrous, and bestowed for the food of Life; because from the bo­dies of these, dissolved by Chymical operation, you can neither draw a Volatile Salt, as out of all Other Animals, nor a Fixed. The Images of the Earth-Worms, shewing their Anatomy, are described in the Fourth Table.

In the next degree of the more frigid bloody Creatures,In the next de­gree of the more frigid bloody Creatures are Fishes. above Earth-Worms, Fishes are placed, indued with one belly'd Heart and Gills. If indeed Lungs be wanting to these, the other bosom of the Heart were superfluous. But most Fishes want Lungs, both for as much as living in the Waters (whose medium is not fit for sounds) they have neither voyce,They are indued with an one Bellyed Heart and Gills. nor make a noyse, and chiefly, because the water ought not to be emitted thorow the Wind-pipe, into all the Cavities of the Lungs, if they had them; for that by watering them, or overflowing them, it would presently overthrow them, and fill them to a stiffness: But as in Brutes with Lungs, the Air being admitted within it, slides thorow all the blood-carrying Passages every where; that entring the little mouths of the Vessels, every where gaping, it inspires the Blood with nitrous food; so the Gills in Fishes, which are substituted as so many Lungs, or rather inverted, are so placed without the Cavity of the Thorax, that the Waters continually flowing to the Passages of the Vessels, and their little Mouths being outwardly planted, whilst the Gills are inlarged, they inspire something nitrous, or what is like it, to them; the remains of which, being by and by spent, the Gills being contracted, is sent away again; and so by Continued reciprocations of Inspiration and Expiration as in hot Animals, the Life or the Flame of the Blood is Conserved.

We have not much to say concerning the structure of the Gills,The Structure and use of the Gills. they being already sufficiently describ'd by several: As to their fabrick, they are bony semi-circles, planted on both sides of the bottom of the Mouth, nigh to the opening of the Gill holes, which are made hollow quite thorow, with little ditches, as it were quilly, that they may re­ceive the Vessels sent to them and much branched forth, and defend them against in­juries.

The Vessels belonging to the Gills, are Arteries, and Veins; which in the Sturgion, Salmon, and Cod, are found to be made after this manner: The Aorta going forth of the Heart, and ascending towards the Chin, or end of the lower Jaw, sends forth branches to the right and the left; some of these presently growing forked, accommodate an Artery to two Gills of the same side, which by and by being again divided, puts tho­row two arterous shoots, thorow the Bow of every Gill, near to the bony Basis; then from them, others smaller thick set shoots, tend into the sides and midst of every Come-like Finn: After the Gills being passed thorow, all the arterous Branches meet toge­ther again, and Constitute the same Trunk, which being by and by reflected, has a [Page 16] prospect to all the other parts. The Trunk of the Vena Cava or hollow Vein descend­ing, applyes it self and enters near into the Aorta ascending into the Gills. Further, in the several Finns of the Gills, lesser shoots, as in the Bows, answer the greater pas­sages of the Venous, with so many Arterous shoots. Besides, from the several parts on both sides the Gills, a veinous branch is inserted into the descending Trunk. This plainly appears, because if you open the branches both veinous and arterous, lying on the Bows of the Gills, there will appear a series or row of holes leading into the Finns; Moreover, a black Liquor being cast into those Arteries, will return by the Veins. Yet I have observed, part only of that injected Liquor to turn aside thorow the holes into the Finns, but another part to pass directly thorow into the Channels, and thence to flow into the descending Trunk of the Aorta, Not all the Blood, but a part only, is carryed thorow between the Gills, at every Circulation. which the Gilly Branches being at length all united do frame: From hence I gather, That the Blood in Fishes, (not as in Brutes with Lungs) is carried at every Circuit, or passes thorow the Vessels, between the organs of respiration, not all, or whole, or is carried from the Arteries into the Veins, whereby the hole might be inspired anew of the Air; but for that they, as we have shewn, enjoy in themselves a nitrous food partly intestine, therefore it suf­fices them, that the blood only be by parts exposed to the External Nitre flowing to it.

Fishes breath by the Gills.From these also it seems to appear, That Fishes do breath by the Gills, or draw what is nitrous from the Waters, and do enjoy it as it were the necessary food of Life; which also many other Reasons do manifestly declare: To wit, for that the Waters where Fishes dwell, standing still a long time, tend to putrefaction; or if by too much Heat or Cold, or other means, by which the nitrous Particles are wont to be driven away or per­verted, they be affected, they Choak their Inhabitants. Further, if Fishes be shut up in little water, or with too strait limits, also if more than should be in the same Fish-Pond, tho large enough, tho they have plenty of food, they will dye for want of the nitrous food, which also argues the Cause of their death, for before they dye, they will shoot forth of the waters, putting forth their mouths and heads, to take in the na­ked Air: so that it may from hence be Concluded, That there are also in these Inha­bitants of the waters firie Souls; to wit, the Hypostases of which are an heap of most subtil Atoms, which being stirred up into motion, by a certain inkindling, do require, for the Continuing of their substance, besides the Sulphureous Aliment within, which they feed on, another nitrous from the ambient Medium.

wherefore Fish­es rejoyce ra­ther in the Wa­ters, than in the Air.But that Fishes rejoyce in the region of the Water instead of the Air, where any one would think that their Flame should be rather extinguished, than inkindled, we gave the reason of it but now, to wit, as certain Animals are destinated to these places, their Souls were so temper'd, that as the matter made up of Sulphur and Nitre mixt toge­ther, they burn or grow hot under the waters, yea they there live more securely; to wit, for as much as there is in them plenty of Sulphur, it is suffer'd to be only sparing­ly inkindled, and to burn forth. Further, altho some nitrous Particles seem to enter into the intrinsick and ordinary food of the vital fire, and lest the flame, by the defect of these, should expire, new suppliments are daily instilled through the Gills: yet in­deed, by reason of the divers Constitutions of Souls, living Creatures do respire after a several manner, and some require this medium more thick, others moderate, and others more thin. And for this Cause, some living Creatures, whilst they remain in the same number, sometimes change their sphere or ambient medium, and sometimes go out of the Waters into the Air, and sometimes from this into them. A certain Insect called the watry Phryganion, Certain Ani­mals change the Regions of the Air and Water. in some places in England a Caddis, at the first of the Spring is cloathed with a Coat of a sprig or small rind of wood, and creeps into the depth of the Rivers, in the shape of a Mite or rather a Maggot; afterwards, when its Soul begins to be sublimed, he gets to the tops of the Bulrushes, and in the Month of May, rising up to the superficies of the water, puts off its Coat, and having wings, flyes into the Air, and there lives during Life. Who knows not that Frogs live at first in the Waters, in the shape of a Tadpole, altogether; then all the Summer do leap about in the Meadows, and that at last in the Autumn, returning to the Waters, do bury themselves in the Mud? After this manner, many more Insects, do not only change the Region, but also vary their Species or Kind, and of Reptils become flying Creatures.

Brutes of a more cold blood, which are fra­med with a Heart with a two-fold Belly, and with Lungs.Thirdly, A little more superior degree of Creatures of a more frigid or cold blood, is those who are gifted with a doubl'd belly'd Heart, and with Lungs; of which sort are Serpents, Lisards, and some Amphibious Creatures, that is such as live on Water and Land, as the Frogs, and some Fishes, to wit, the Polypus, the Sea-Calf, with many others. To these former, Lungs are necessary, because they oftentimes live in the open Air, which always ought to be deeply admitted into the Praecordia themselves; More­over, because they put forth a certain sound, for which a Wind-pipe is required; but [Page 17] for as much as Lungs are granted to them, so also a two-fold belly'd Heart, without which the blood passes not thorow the Lungs. As to what respects the Amphibious Creatures, which at their pleasure now live on the Land, and now in the Waters, tho it appears that these cannot stay always, or very long under the water, yet it is to be wonder'd at, how in the mean time they breath; for if they open the Wind-Pipe, the Waters rushing presently in, would drown the Lungs. Bartholinus easily untyes this doubt, by asserting, That in these Brutes, an Oval hole as in Embrio's, is kept open all their life-time. Cornelius Consentinus affirms it after the same manner to be in Divers, or such as dive under the waters; and he shews the manner whereby some men may be made able to dive; to wit, if whilst they are Infants, they be provoked often to Cry, they are suffered a long time to restrain the spirit, from hence there will be a necessity of casting forth the Blood thorow the oval hole or navil, and for that reason will hin­der its Coalition or Closing up.

But indeed in these Brutes, as to such a Conformation of the Praecordia, the most skil­ful Anatomist Doctor Walter Needham did doubt, and desired to have found it in some of them by an ocular search, after many dissections.

However it is, we are to suppose these living Creatures do not breath, whilst they are under the Waters;On which the faculty of di­ving depends. and from thence the Course of their Blood is by and by made more flow, and smaller: In which Condition it matters little, whether it so growing torpid or sluggish, creeps from the hollow vein into the Aorta, by the navil hole; or whether lying quiet, it creeps forward by a gentle or slow pulse of the Heart; for ei­ther way, there will be a necessity, that the Vital fire, for defect of aerial food, would be presently diminished, and as it were depressed into a halituous or breathy substance: Notwithstanding in the mean time, that it may not wholly Expire or be Extinguished, these two things are done, viz.

First, Because in these Animals (and as in all Fishes) the Vital fire, together with a certain Sulphureous and also Nitrous food within (as we have shewed) is injoy'd; there­fore it is able a long time to want its external supplement from the Air.

Then Secondly, in some of them the Hypostasis it self, or Constitution of the Soul, consisting of less subtle Particles, is not so suddenly dissolved; but that its parts stick together more strictly among themselves: nor are they wont to be dissipated present­ly, by any force, as in more hot Animals. Further, as their Souls, as to the greater part by much, subsist in the Brain and Nervous stock, more than in the Blood, it comes to pass, that however this fire being diminished and almost suppressed, the Animal fa­culties remain still lively enough: and indeed, far otherways than in hot Living Crea­tures, whose blood being obstructed about the Praecordia, presently there follows an Ecclipse of the Animal faculties. Notwithstanding, Frogs, Eeles, and Serpents, after their Hearts are taken forth, will live for some time, and leap about; yea, by reason of the animal spirits being intangled with a viscous matter, and not easily dissipable, retain for a little while motion and sense, after their Bodies are cut in pieces, and the several portions divided, and lay'd apart; as we have shew'd before.

The Third and highest Form of Animals, Is that of Creatures of an hot Blood, all which are framed with a two-Belly'd Heart,In the highest form of Ani­mals are those of an hot Blood. and Lungs. The Anatomy of these being already so accurately performed by many, and commonly known, there needs not any description of the History and Uses of the Vital or Animal parts, in these kind of Creatures or Brutes.

The chief Species of this Kind,They are fur­nished with a two fold belly'd Heart and Lungs. are Fowls and Four-footed Beasts, and in the same Class or Rank, we place with the Souls of the later, also the Inferior or Corporeal Soul of Man; and that rightly, because there is the same Conformity in either of their Prae­cordia, of their Brain, and also of their nervous Appendixes; which notwithstanding differs from that of Fowls or Birds. What kind of difference this is, between those and these, as to their Animal parts, we have formerly declared at large; and now we shall notifie what difference happens between them, as to their Vital parts.

The Lungs of Men and Four-footed Beasts are every where shut in the outmost super­ficies,How the Lungs differ in Birds and four footed Beasts. that the Air entring by the Trachea or Wind-Pipe, and by and by entring into its Chanels, quickly blows up all the Lobes of the Lungs, and distends them, but it goes no further: But in Fowls, the Lungs being full of holes, admit the inbreathed Air into the whole Cavity of the Belly, which by the Muscles of the Abdomen or lower part of the Belly, is exploded thence. The reason of this I suppose to be in some part, that there may be a greater plenty for singing, and (in some) for the longer tuning of the Voyce,For what end the Lungs are perforated in Birds. or for the more strong or longer breathing forth of the Air. Besides, (for that all are not singing Birds) it is so provided for, in these Brutes, that by reason of the Trunk of the Body being filled, and as it were extended with Air, they may the more easily fly, and are more easily held up, by the outward Air, by reason of that within. [Page 18] Indeed Fishes, that they may the more lightly swim in the Waters, have in their Bel­lyes Bladders blown up with Air. In like manner Fowls, by reason of the Trunk of their Body, being full and as it were blown up with Air, whilst they rely on the open Air, become less heavy, and so fly more lightly and faster. Hence it comes to pass, that men being in danger of drowning, whilst they swim, receive great help by restraining the spirit, and inflating the Breast as much as may be: yea Dead Carcasses being drown­ed, after the breath or fumes begotten by the inward putrefaction, and shut up within, blow up the fallen Cavities of the Viscera, and extend them more, rise up again, and swim on the surface of the Water.

If we inquire into the Souls of the more hot Brutes, without doubt, it was at first in respect of these,That the Souls of the more hot Brutes is chiefly Fire. that the Ancients did declare the Soul to be Fire, and the more mo­dern Fire or Flame, these placing it in the Heart, those making it to be inkindled in the Blood: And indeed, since we have granted Souls, as it were fiery, to Bloodless Creatures, and those of a more cold Blood (which also the Lord Bacon grants to Plants) it is not for us to deny the same dignity, in Creatures of a more hot Blood: For besides, that the Souls of those, like Flame, require absolutely either sort of Food; viz. the Sulphureous and the Nitrous, and cannot be a minute without them, the very hot Blood also, is seen, by mere accension (for as much as we cannot shew how it can become so hot after any other way) to boyl up, yea and the Lungs, hanging to the two-bellyed Heart, to be the fire-place, chimny, or breathing hole, of the Flame cherish­ed within them.In Man the Corporeal or fie­ry Soul is sub­ordinate to the Rational. Therefore, as the Soul of the Brute of a more hot Blood, being the perfectest in its Kind, is as it were a Rule or Square, by which others more inferior ought to be measured, and as the same actuating and vivifying the humane body, is sab­ordinate to the Animal, and is the immediate substance of it, (as shall be more fully shown) it remains now, that we inquire into its Nature and Essence, and first of all, that we search into,The parts of the Corporeal Soul. what parts, powers, and affections she has, which shall be the chief Members of our Psycheology or Discourse of the Soul.

The Explanation of the Figures.

The First Table,

Contains certain Figures taken out of Malpigius, in which the Vital Organs of the Silk-Worm and of other Insects are represented.

The First Figure

Shews the Navil-hole, of which two being planted in the sides of every Section or lit­tle Ring (except in the three uppermost) are the Doors or Openings of the Wind-Pipes.

  • A. A. The Extremity of the hole, which being black and a little reflected, is united to the Con­tained Head of the Wind-Pipe.
  • B. B. The Head of the Wind-pipe, filling the Hole, in whose middle is a Cleft. C. To which little fibres, like an hairy space, being brought, draw together the gap, or dilate it, that the Air may go out and in at its pleasure.
The Second Figure

Shews some interior Branchings in the Silk-Worm.

  • A. A. A gaping, where the head of the Wind-pipe opens into the oval hole or Navil.
  • B. B. B. C. C. C. The foldings or ramifications of the Wind-pipe, distributed into the Viscera and other neighbouring parts.
  • D. D. Greater Branches, reaching from the lower and upper head of the Trachea or Wind-pipe, towards the other infoldings.
The Third Figure

Shews the Ramifications of the Trachea or Wind-Pipe in a Grashopper.

  • A. The head of the Wind-Pipe opening outwardly into the Hole, by and by is branched forth inwardly into various shoots.
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  • [Page 19] B. The greater shoots of the Wind-pipe, being extended by degrees into the Ovals, as it were into bladders.
  • C. C. The lesser shoots going from those greater.
The Fourth Figure,

Expresses the Heart of the Silk-Worm, which seems to be made oblong and unequal, as if into many little oval Hearts.

  • A. The upper part of it nigh the Head.
  • B. The lower part nigh the Tail.
  • C. C. The broader part of the Heart.
  • D. D. Its narrow portions.

The Second Table,

Of which The First Figure

Shews the Oyster taken forth and whole from the shell, that his parts may be seen as they are in their natural situation.

  • A. The Head of the Oyster, in the Corners of which,
  • B. B. The Circular Muscles, going about the whole Body are terminated.
  • C. The gaping or Chink leading between the Muscles and Gills to the Mouth.
  • D. The superior portion of the Liver, of a brownish colour, leaning to the Ventricle.
  • E. E. The Oesophagus leading from the Mouth to the Ventricle.
  • F. F. F. F. The Intestine, descending from the Ventricle towards the Corner of the strait muscle, which being from thence bent inward and rolled about, ascends above the Liver, being there hidden, arises again in G: and is terminated in the Arse.
  • H. H. H. The skin with the g [...]andulous flesh and fat hiding and lying between the Viscera.
  • I. The Cavity in which are the Pericardium, Heart and Vessels.
  • K. The strait Muscle, with the perpendicular fibres, opening the shells.
  • L. The other strait Muscle, the Tendons of which growing to either shell shut them.
  • M. The thickness of the same Muscle, and the altitude of the fibres, are denoted.
  • N. N. The Circular Muscles including the Gills from the right side.
  • O. The superior Circular Muscle leaning to the Gills, being rolled out of its sight, that the Gills may be beheld.
  • P. The inferior Circular Muscle lying under the Gills.
  • Q. Q. R. R. The Parts of the same Muscles placed on the left side of the Oyster.
  • S. The Bosome, where both the Circulary Muscles, and their right and left parts coming toge­ther, Constitute the Passage, for the admitting the waters to the Gills, and for the shutting them forth from thence.
  • T.T.T.T. Four inferior Tufts of Gills which are thinner and broader.
  • V.V.V.V. Their superior Tufts thicker and more contracted.
The Second Figure

Represents the Oyster open, and unrolled, that its Viscera and internal parts may be seen.

  • A. A. Two Gills dissected from the uppermost, and removed out of their places, that the Mouth of the Oyster may be plainly seen.
  • B. The Mouth of the Oyster.
  • C. The Veil or Covering of the Mouth.
  • D. D. Two other superior Gills in their proper site with the Creeping Vessels.
  • E. The superior brownish portion of the Liver under whch the Ventricle lies hid.
  • F. The Heart made bare from the Pericardium with the broad and blackish Ear of it.
  • G. The Aorta, by and by from the going forth of it from the Heart, divided into three bran­ches.
  • H. The first Branch ascending towards the Head.
  • I. The second towards the strait Muscles.
  • [Page 20] K. The third Branch tending into the Gills.
  • L. The Trunk of the hollow Vein, entring into the little ear of the Heart.
  • M. M. M. M. The Inferior Gills, with the Circular Muscles, cut off from the Body of the Oyster, where they stuck to it, and spread forth, that their Passages and Cavities might be beheld.
  • N.N.N.N. The yoakings or beginnings of the Gills on which lye the several Vessels, viz. Veins and Arterics, O.O.O.O. and the holes lying between, P.P.P.P.
  • Q.Q.Q Q. The Extremities or fringes of the same Gills.
  • R. R. The Inferior Circular Muscle of the right side, out of its site and inverted, that it may be seen.
  • S. S. A portion of the same by which it sticks to the bottom of the Oyster.
  • T. T. A portion of the same which Compassing the left side of the Oyster-sticks to the portion V.
  • W.W. The upper Circular Muscle of the right side, folded and contracted, that it may not hide the Gills.
  • X. X. A Portion of the same which Compassing about the left side of the Oyster, sticks to the Portion Y.
  • Z. Z. The superficies of the Gills; in which the Finns or streaked Passages, for the ingress and egress of the Vital humour and the waters, appear.
    • 1. The lower border of the Oyster, from which the Yoakings and the Circular Muscles are cut off.
    • 2. A Portion of the Intestine ending in the Arse.
    • 3. The Arse.

The Third Table.

The First Figure

Shews the Lobster open in the back, that the Brain, Viscera, Vital, Genital, and other interior Parts may be seen.

  • A. A. The Brain double, the Hemispheres of which being distinct, are separated one from the other, also a little from the oblong Marrow.
  • B. The Head of the oblong marrow, out of which the optick Nerves b. b. and the Mammillarie Processes under them, proceeds.
  • C. The Cerebell.
  • D. D. Two shanks of the Oblong Marrow, which pass into the Spinal, and as it were two grea­ter Nerves, meet now and then in their descent, and now and then separate, and then again come together.
  • E. The Carotis Arterie.
  • F. F. A portion of the Oesophagus.
  • G. The Opening of the Ventricle.
  • H. The upper Orifice.
  • I. The Bottom and Lower Orifice near which are three Teeth.
  • K. The Temporal Muscles out of their place.
  • L. L. Muscles appendixes of the former.
  • M. M. Bodies stuffed with pipes and Glandula's or little Kernels, into which passages lye open, from the Ventricle, to whose Sides they grow; these seem to be in the place of the Liver and Mesenterie.
  • m. m. m. m. The same Bodies brought lower from either side, and ending in the processes, [...].
  • n. n. Spermatick Bodies arising on both sides of the Ventricle, which descending under the Peri­cardium, are terminated in the processes, n. n.
  • o. o. Processes out of the Spermatick Bodies, like to the Epididymis, from which are two Yards.
  • p. p. Two Yards, in the tops of which, thorow the holes made in the last little feet but one, a passage-lyes open.
  • q. The hole in the little Foot for the going forth of the Yards.
  • R. The Pericardium, with the Heart included.
  • S. The little Ear of the Heart into which the Vena Cava enters.
  • T. T. The ascending Trunk of the Vena Cava.
  • V. The Aorta going out of the Heart, cleft into three branches.
  • W. The first Branch to its Head.
  • X. X. Two other Branches in either Side sent thence to the Gills.
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  • [Page 21] Y. Y. The Tops of some of the Gills in view.
  • 1.2.3.4.5.6. Some portions of the Muscles.
  • [...] Ligaments from the Pericardium to the Muscles of the Breast.
  • [...] The Muscles of the Belly, and Breast.
  • [...] Muscles belonging to the Tail.
  • [...] The Intestine from the Ventricle to the Arse.
  • [...] Tubes or Pipes, within which, the Optick Nerves are brought to the Eyes.
The Second Figure

Shews the Womb of the Lobster, and its Neck, and Privy Member, or aperture made thorow the hole in the last little Foot but one, together with the little Foot it self, and the affixed Gills.

  • A. A portion of the Womb or place of Eggs, full of Eggs.
  • B. The neck of the Womb.
  • C. Its Orifice in the hole of the little Foot.
  • D. The Basis of the little Foot.
  • E. The little Foot, the shaking of which moves the Gills fixed to it.
  • F. F. Two Gills fixed to the basis of the little Foot, with Finns or spongy borders.
  • G. The appendix of the Gills, which like a bladder or membranous bagg, may be blown up and distended.
The Third Figure

Expresses a portion of the Gill cut off, that its three Passages or Cavities may appear.

The Fourth Table.

The First Figure

Shews an Earth-Worm laid with its belly upwards, the greatest part of it dissected and lay'd open, that the Brain, Praecordia, Viscera, and other Parts may be seen.

  • A. The Mouth and Chin of the Worm.
  • B. The Brain, in the superficies of which, an Artery Expansed or stretched out, descends to the Heart, and from thence to the Tail.
  • b.b.b.b. Annulary or ringie Muscles opened and unfolded with their Tendons.
  • C. A portion of the Oesophagus.
  • D. The Heart.
  • E. e.e.e.e. The upper little white shining Globes, both the greater and the lesser.
  • F. F. Two lower Globes, bigg and full with Eggs.
  • G. The Stomach, of which there are three Bellies, 1. 2. 3.
  • H. The Intestine, descending from the Ventricle, which being bound by the Tendons of the ringie Muscles, appears like the Gut Colon in perfect Animals.
  • I. A portion of the same Intestine opened, that the Body included in it, or the Intestine in the Intestine may be seen.
  • K. That interior Body, which seems to be in the place of the Liver, and Mesenterie.
The Second Figure

Expresses a portion of the same Earth-Worm, with the Tail cut off, that the rowes of little Feet, which are 4, to wit, a. a. a. a. may be seen.

The Third Figure

Shews the whole Earth-Worm prone, or with its back uppermost, that the ringie Muscles, and the Wind-Pipes in them, may be seen.

CHAP. IV.

Of the Parts or Members of the Soul of the Brutes.

A double Sub­ject of the bru­tal Soul.THE Corporeal Soul in more perfect Brutes, and common to Man, is extend­ed to the whole organical Body, and vivifies, actuates and irradiates both its several parts and humours, so it seems to subsist in both of them eminently, and to have as it were its imperial seats; But the immediate subject of the Soul, are the Vital Liquor or the Blood,The blood or vital Liquor. Circulated by a perpetual Circulation in the Heart, Arteries, and Veins; and the Animal Liquor or Nervous Juyce, flowing gently within the Brain and its Appendixes:The Nervous juyce or animal Liquor. From hence two parts of the Soul. Flamy and light. The Soul inhabits and graces with its presence both these Provinces; but as it cannot be wholly together at once in both, it actuates them both, as it were divided, and by its parts: For as one part living within its Blood, is of a certain fiery nature (as we have shown) being inkindled like flame, and the other be­ing diffused thorow the animal Liquor, seems as it were Light, or the rayes of Light, flowing from that Flame; which from thence being Excerpted, and manifold ways re­flected and refracted, by the Brain, and Nerves, as it were by Dioptrick Glasses, are diversly figured, for the Exercises of the Animal Faculties.

There are therefore Corporeal Souls, according to its two chief functions in the Or­ganical Body, viz. the Vital and Animal; two distinct parts, to wit, flamie and Iucid, for what belongs to the said natural function, that indeed is involuntary of the Animal, and is performed by the help of the Animal spirits.

But besides these two members of the Soul, fitted to the individual Body, a Certain other portion of it,To which may be added ano­ther the Epi­physis or depen­dence of the whole Soul, viz. the Genital part. taken from both, and as it were the Epitomy of the whole Soul, is placed apart, for the Conservation of its Species: This as it were an Appendix of the vital flame, growing up in the Blood, is for the most part Lucid or Light, and Consists of Animal Spirits: to wit, which being Collected into a certain band, and having got an appropriate humour, viz. the genital, are hidden within the spermatick Bodies; to the end indeed, that, when opportunity shall serve, that Band of spirits, as it were a little Brand not yet inkindled, may be able from thence to be drawn into fit fire, and to be inkindled into another Vital Flame, the formatrix of a new animated Body.

The parts or Members of the Soul.Concerning these three Members of the Corporeal Soul, two, to wit, the Vital and Animal, fiery by Act, and the other, viz. the Genital, lay'd up for a future siring, it should have been particularly and fully here treated on: But since we have already suf­ficiently discoursed of the two former, I shall only add briefly, by way of Suppliment, the Summ of what I have said before, and then we shall also briefly discourse of the be­getting part of this Soul.

The Flamy part of the Soul in the Blood.First, It appears, that the part of the Corporeal Soul rooted in the Blood, is truly flamy, as to which we need only to refer you, to what we have wrote lately in a parti­cular Tract of the Accension of the Blood: For there having shown, the heat of the Blood to be necessarily required, to wit, whereby a greater plenty of spirits may be in­stilled into the Brain, from its frame being very much loosned; by and by we prove, from those three ways, by which all Liquors whatsoever are only made hot, none can agree with the blood, besides accension or inkindling: For neither by heat put to it, nor by reason of Salts and Sulphurs, which are Corrosives of a divers Kind being put toge­ther, can the blood be made to boyl; wherefore it follows, that it is inkindled like the spirit of Wine, and so as it were flames forth and boyls up. Further we shewed, that it is truly inkindled in hot living Creatures, because the proper Passions of Fire and Flame, are found only besides in the Life of the Blood; for in like manner both to this, and to them, there is need constantly of an Internal Sulphureous Food, together with the External nitrous;Which we have shewed to be truly inkindled. yea, and either Flame, alike, to wit, the Kitchin and Vital, whil'st they burn desire Eventilation. To these may be added, that the Life and Flame of the Blood, as to their Various ways of production and extinction, there particularly descri­bed and rehearsed, are wholly after the same manner. Lastly, the analogie or agree­ment of either Flame, being sufficiently unfolded, we have declared, by what beginnings, the Vital Flame arises, by what degrees it increases, and, after its hight, is diminished; Further, we have shew'n reasons, wherefore this is not visible and destructive as the common Flame, but as it is Subordinate to the Corporeal Soul, as to a Superiour Form, it admitting a proper Species, and serving to the uses of Nature, destinated by the Creator, silently burns with a gentle and friendly heat, like a Fire shut up in Balneo Mariae, apart by it self; and as it so destroys not the Blood, but inkindling the Liquor [Page 23] even so its Superficies, wholly dissolves the frame of the whole mixture; it follows thence, that some particles being burnt, others of a various Kind being manumitted or let go, they are Variously imployed in the offices of the others; but of these, those which are chiefly Subtil, as it were Beams of Light sent from a Flame, are, as it were distilled into the Brain and Cerebel. These most subtil particles are called the Animal Spirits, and first of all entring the Cortical Substances of those parts, and from thence flowing into the Meditullia or middle parts of either of them, and into the Oblong and Spinal Marrow, and further into all the Nerves and Nervous Fibres, dispersed thorow the whole Body, Constitute the other and more noble part of the Corporeal Soul, commonly called the Sensitive, by us the Lucid or Etherial; into whose Nature, as also into the ways of its Subsisting, Acting, and Suffering, we shall now in the next place inquire.

Secondly,The sensitive part of the Soul divisible and extensed. The sensitive part of the Soul, even as the Vital, is extensive and divisi­ble; whose Hypostasis when as the Animal Spirits, as to the Integral parts, do Consti­tute, a great and difficult question arises, concerning them; of what sort of substance they are, and from whence they are indued with so notable an Energy or Power? I shall say nothing to those, who wholly deny these Spirits, for that the existencie of which, is almost palpable, and may be proved demonstratively by the effects; nor am I much so­licitous of those, who arguing Contend, that the Senses and Faculties of living Crea­tures, however perceptive,The Animal Spirits consti­tute its Hypo­stasis. cannot be but from an Immaterial and Immortal Substance, and therefore without any necessity, multiply almost to Infinity; and I know not for what end, not only Essences, but also immortal Souls of Brutes, yea, of Fleas, Flys, and of other more vile Insects. Against these Opinions there needs no other Argument, than that any one may consider truly in every Brute or Man, the Organs of the Animal Fa­culties, than which certainly nothing in the whole nature of things, can be made more Mechanically, and with a more neat Artifice. The Brain and Cerebel, the two Roots of the Lucid part of the Soul, or rather the Fountains of the Primary Spirits, are placed in the top itself of the Body, into which, when the Animal Spirits are distilled, from the Blood,The Brain and Cerebel, two roots of the sen­sitive Soul. placed above and round about, as it were by a descent; they from thence flow forth through the Medullary and nervous Appendixes, as it were by Bills or Pe­licans placed here and there, into all the inferiour parts. Either head consists of a double Substance, viz. a Cortical or Barkie, which for the most part serves for the reception of the Spirits; and a Medullary or Marrowy, which serves for their dispensation and exer­cise.

Further,The substance of them two-fold viz. Cor­tical and Me­dullary. as the Animal Spirits, for divers uses of the Animal Faculties, ought to obtain Tendencies or Stretchings-forth of a divers sort, within their distinct and pe­culiar passages, either Medullary part being wonderfully Divaricated, is cut every where into Various tracts of Labyrinths, as it were so many Conclaves and Chambers; all which Medullary tracts, the Cortical part every where lies between and fortifies; From these, as it were Primary Palaces of the Soul, the Oblong and Spinal Marrow, like spacious Courts are stretched forth,To them are be­longing the ob­long Marrow, the spinal Marrow, Nerves, nervous Fibres. which also are furnished, by reason of the Me­dullary substances variously lying between, with many Porticoes and Walks, planted here and there, for the necessary works of the Animal Function: From these Marrows, the Nerves arising, are carried to the several parts of the whole Body, as it were so many distinct paths; then from these many other small Shoots or nervous Fibres, being on eve­ry side sent forth, as it were so many smaller or lesser Paths, are almost innumerable; at the ends of which, others secondary Fibres, Membranaceous and Musculous, are disposed, though thick Series, as it were so many martial Fields, in every one of which is placed a Maniple or Band of Spirits.Both Membra­naceous and Muscular. In this most ample and highly intricate La­byrinth of Cloysters, and Animal passages, the Medullar or Nervous Processes, how small soever, being most thickly set, variously implicating one another, and ordinarily cutting cross one another, yet all of them distinct, and designed to certain offices, all­ways agree mutually between themselves, and intimately conspire together; So that eve­ry Impulse or Instinct, is carried from one end to another presently, yea, from every part to all the rest,A most quick Communication between all these Parts. sooner than in the twink of an eye. Further, from the effects it is demon­strated, that within these several tracts, some subtil particles do flow, and cause Animali­ty or Life in all; which tho they be most thin, invisible, and nimble, we rightly call the Animal Spirits, and the Constitutive parts of the sensitive Soul.

Altho it appears plain, that such like Spirits are the Authors of the Animal Function, and do constitute the Hypostasis of the Soul it self;What the Ani­mal Spirits are. yet what they are according to their proper essence, seems hard to be unfolded; because we can hardly meet with any thing in Nature,They are not well compared to spirits of Wine, Harts-horn, Turpentine, &c. to which they may be compared in all things.

The comparing of these, with the Spirits of Wine, Turpentine, and Harts-Horn, and such like, does not quadrate or agree. For besides, that those Chymical Liquors, neither represent the Images of their Objects, nor are indued with any Elastic Virtue, as [Page 24] the Animal Spirits; those also are less Subtle than these, and less Volatil, for as much as they may be powred forth out of one Vessel into another, or may be distilled; but the Animal Spirits presently vanishing, after life is extinct, leave no Foot-steps of them­selves. Wherefore,Better to the Rays of Light interwoven with the Air, or the Element. it is better, according to our Hypothesis, that we liken these Spirits sent from the Flame of the Blood, to the Rays of Light, at least to them interwo­ven with the Element and the Air. For as Light figures the Impressions of all visible things, and the Air of all audible things; So the Animal Spirits, receive the impressed Images of those, and also of Odors, and tangible qualities, and stay them at the first Sensory. But the Air, or Aerial particles, whilst free and unmixed, create nothing of force or tumult, yet they being more strictly pressed together, shut up in Clouds or In­struments, or imbued with Sulphureous, and other Elastick Bodies, being become pre­sently raging, they often break forth into Meteors, viz. Winds, Hurricanes, and hor­rid Thunder. After the same manner, the Animal Spirits, whilst pure, are carried in the open spaces of the Head, and its Appendixes remain quiet enough; but they being shut up within the Muscles, and there being mixed with Sulphureous Particles from the Blood, and sometimes in other places, with an heterogeneous matter, become very im­petuous, to wit, Elastick, or Spasmodick or Causing Cramps, as we have declared for­merly at large.

The Animal Spirits abound both in an Ob­jective and an Active Virtue.Therefore the Animal Spirits, according to this Analogy, (to wit, which thing of them happens chiefly and almost only with other things) we say are most subtil Bodies, and highly active, instilled from the inkindled Blood into the Brain, and its Appendix, which partly of their own nature, for as much as they are lucid and aerial, and partly from the agreeable furniture of the Organs, for that they are shut up within Passages, as it were Pipes and other Machines, abound with both an objective Virtue, by which many rays of Light promptly meet together in the Images of all sensible things, and effect the sen­sion of every Kind, and also, an Active, by which the loco-motive powers, and also the acts of the Spasmodic Affections, are performed, beyond the forces or Instincts of wind, or any blast shut up in machines.

In Mechanical things, Fire, Air, and Light, are chiefly Energetical, which humane Industry is always wont to use,As Fire and Light in Me­chanical things so in Animals, they are chiefly Energetical. for the greatly stupendious, and no less necessary works. This the Furnaces of Smiths, Chymists, and Glass-men, and of other boylers of several Kinds, Dioptrick Glasses, Musical, Warlike, Mathematical Instruments, with many other Machines, never enough to be admired, do testifie. In like manner we may believe, that the Great Workman, to wit, the Chief Creator, from the Beginning, did make the greatly active, and also the most subtil Souls of Living Creatures, out of their Particles, as the most active; to which he gave also a greater, and as it were a supernatural Vir­tue and Efficacy; from the Excellent structure of the Organs, most Exquisitly laboured, beyond the Workmanship and artificialness of any other Machine.

A two-fold A­ction of the spi­rits in the Brain and its Appendix, 1. Of begetting and dispensation, 2. Of Exercise and Govern­ment.We have described these Parts formerly in Plates, so that we need not here repeat their Anatomy, but only add a few things that were omitted. In the Animal Govern­ment, altho the Spirits are disposed, as it were an Army spread abroad thorow the whole Field, yet we say, that they obtain Orders and Offices, one thing in this part, and some­thing different in that. In every one of these we have noted, as it were a double Aspect or Gesture, in the Provinces in the Medullary shanks of the Head, in the Nerves and also nervous Fibres, to wit, one of Begetting and Dispensing, and another of Exercise and Government.

As to the first, we have shown, that the animal spirits being procreated wholly in the Cortical or Barky substances of the Brain and Cerebel,The reason and manner of the former. do descend by and by into the middle or marrowy parts, and there are kept in great plenty, for the businesses of the Superiour Soul; in the mean time, a sufficient stock of these, gently flowing from this highest Province into the oblong and Spinal Marrow, and thence into the Nerves & Nervous Shoots, actuates all these passages, and blows them up into a certain Tensity. Lastly, a sufficient plenty of Spirits, distilling forth from the ends of the Nerves, enter into the nervous Fibres, planted in the Muscles, Membranes, and Viscera, and so constitute them, the proper and immediate Organs of the Sence and Motion. After this manner, the Region of the whole Sensitive Soul being viewed, if we would describe its Idea or Image, we must altogether represent the same Figure and Dimension, and the whole Head with its System and Appendix; so that as we may behold all these parts, shaddow­ed in the same Image, we ought to frame at once, the Hypostasis of this Soul, adequate and Co-extended to them.

As to the several sorts of Offices and Exercises of the Spirits, so planted in distinct Provinces,The distinct Of­fices of the spi­rits in various Provinces. First, we deservedly attribute to them a two-fold Aspect, to wit, inward for Sense, and outward for Motion: But more particularly, we may conceive the mid­dle or Marrow part of the Brain, as it were the inferiour Chamber of the Soul, glased [Page 25] with dioptric Looking-Glasses;The perception of Sensions in the streaked Bodies. in the Penetralia or inmost parts of which, the Images or Pictures of all sensible things, being sent or intromitted by the Passages of the Nerves, as it were by Pipes or strait holes, pass first of all thorow the streaked Bodyes, as it were an objective Glass, and then they are represented upon the Callous Body, as it were upon a white Wall; and so induce a Perception, and a certain Imagination of the thing felt: Which Images or Pictures there expressed,The Imaginati­on, Phantasie, and Appetite, in the Callous Bo­dy. as often as they import nothing besides the mere Knowledg of the Object, then by and by further progressing, as it were by another waving, from the Callous Body towards the Cortix or shell of the Brain, and entring into its folds, the phantasie vanishing, they Constitute the memory or remembrance of a Thing: But if the sensible species being impressed on the Imagination, promises any thing of Good or Evil,The memory and remembrance of a thing or re­miniscency within the folds of the Brain. presently the spirits being Excited, respect or look back upon the Object, by whose appulse they were moved, and for the sake of embracing or remo­ving it away, by other spirits flowing within the Passages of the Nerves, and successively by others implanted in the Members and moving Parts, they swiftly give their Com­mands of performing the respective motions. So the Sense brings in the Imagination; this the Memory or the Appetite,The series and order of their powers. or both at once, and at length the app [...]it [...] stirs up local motions, performing the prosecution or driving away of the appeari [...]g Good or Evil. For the several Kinds of these sort of Animal Functions, yea for the Various Acts of either Kind to be performed, the Animal Spirits, who are the immediate Instruments of them all, obtain peculiar and distinct tracts or paths; within which, if there be any let or bar to hinder, presently some function is hindred, or some member of the sensitive Soul, being as it were cut off, becomes impotent.

Who can sufficiently admire the innumerable series of nervous Fibres,The tracts or paths of the Spirits, are dis­tinct within the head it self, even as within its nervous Appen­dix. distributed in a most wonderful order thorow the several parts of the whole Body; in which the ani­mal spirits, like Soldiers sent abroad, perpetually running up and down, on this side and on that, perform the offices of Sense and Motion. Further, those who dwell within the Head it self, the superior Legion of the sensitive Soul, altho more freely ranging, yet lye not disorderly or loosely, but its numerous Company, being limited with cer­tain Bounds and Cloysters, as it were within the narrow space of One Chamber, perform infinite Variety of Actions and Passions.

Concerning these, discoursing formerly more fully in our description of the Brain and Nerves, we did distinguish the Seats of all the Faculties, yea we did shew the Commands of the Animal Function voluntary and involuntary, to be divers in themselves, also to belong to divers Governments of the Brain and Cerebel, with their respective appen­dixes of the Nerves.Every where the various Me­dullary tracts, are distinct from the Corti­cal. Further, we shewed that those Spirits, the Authors of either fun­ction, not only within the narrow Channels of the Nerves, but also in the large meet­ing places or Emporiums of the Head, have peculiar paths, to wit, the medullary tracts, as it were intrinsick Nerves, most curiously stretch'd forth here and there. But indeed, because it is objected, that I have not described all, and perhaps not exactly enough; therefore, that those medullary Passages may be the better beheld, we have lately insti­tuted another more accurate anatomy of the Brain;A more exact Anatomy of the Brain, through its Cortication or Shelly part. to wit, by gently scraping with the point of a Pen-knife its parts, we removed every where the softer and brownish sub­stance, a-Kin to the Cortex of the Brain, the whiter and more hard being left; by which means, in several places of the Brain and the Oblong Marrow, many Medullary Chords or Strings, as it were distinct Nerves, wonderfully Communicating among themselves, and with other white or medullary Bodies, were brought into sight. For as much as this Ana­tomical Administration,The Common passages, and the private pathes of the Spirits. render'd the more secret passages of the Spirits, and the motions belonging to the Arcana's of the animal Government, very Conspicuous; we shall here shew a new Figure or two of the Brain rolled forth, and the flesh when taken off in the chief places; in which are plainly beheld, both the Common Passages, and the Private paths of the Spirits, and which carry them backward and forward, immediately thorow the beaten way of the medullary tail, and which lead thorow the by-paths of the Prominences, in­to the streaked Bodies.

Therefore, in the Brain taken out, and rolled abroad according to our Method, let there be a dissection so made,To wit, which thorow the orbi­cular prominen­ces, are the Te­stes and Nates. between the Orbicular Prominences, to wit, between the Testes or Testicles, Nates or Buttocks, that when they being whole, and divided in the middle of the Pinal Glandula, the parts are layed by themselves, the streaked Cavity of either may be lay'd open. (As in the 6th Table, Fig. 1. A. b, E. A. b. c. c. D.) Then it it will easily appear, that the said Prominencies, called the Testes, are marrowy Epiphyses (or additions) of the oblong marrow, which sticking to the tails of the Cerebel, from thence look towards the Brain, and a Commerce is seen to be maintained between this and that.

This last Ephiphysis, passes from the parts of the Brain, into the next natiform (or of the form of a Buttock) B. which is an adjunct, or some Augmentation of that: To this [Page 26] Medullar a.a. in a Sheep, Ox, and many four-footed Beasts, grows a Cortical substance B.B. But otherways in a Man, Dog, Fox, and other more sagacious Creatures, it is marrowy thorow the whole; the reason of the difference, I have shewed in another place.

The description and use of them.This medullary Epiphysis reaching above the Testes and Nates, and going under the Pineal Kernel, tends towards the Chambers of the Optick Nerves; approaching which (F.) by and by it is cleft into two Branches, as it were Nervous, one of which G, is carryed to the Cone of the streaked Body, and the other H. towards its Basis, and in its oblique passage, sends a shoot into the midst of the Border of the streaked Body: this Branch going to the basis of the streaked Body, behind the root of the Fornix, is inserted into an Angle of the streaked Body.

As to the Use of these Parts, we have proposed our Conjectures in our Tract of the Brain;From these; Medullary tracts into the streaked Bo­dies. and truly nothing seems more probable, than that by this side-path of the Pro­minences, and by the Passage of the Medullary Passages, there are Commerces held be­tween the Brain and the Cerebel; for as often as it happens, that Impressions or Instincts meerly natural, follow spontaneous Affections and Motions, or are joyned to them, all that, within those private Tracts, is occupied. See our Anat. of the Brain, p. 176. Further,And wherefore. whereby every such Impression from the Viscera or Precordia, by the media­tion of the Cerebel, are carried from them in the same way forward and backward, into the streaked Bodies, and on the contrary every force and perturbation; The Medul­lary passage, which is for their commerce, enters in three places, viz. In the mid­dle, and at either end, into the streaked Bodyes.

To the orbicular Prominences, succeed the Chambers of the Optick Nerves.To the Prominences which are called Nates and Testes succeed the Chambers of the Optick Nerves E. E. as also above the Medullary Trunk, certain Epiphyses or Additions, serve for a private office viz. only for the visive Function. For as the sight is a most noble faculty, and as the Organ of the eye is highly curious, so it obtains a very spaci­ous Furniture or Porch, and also a very strait, to the common Sensory, viz. the streak­ed Bodies: Because the Optive Nerves coming together, under the Trunk of the oblo­ny Marrow, and being by and by disjoyned, they climb up his sides, where going under the appropriate Protuberances, they go into a numerous company of hairy threads, which are every where interwoven with the cortical Substance.The description of them. Fig. 2. Tab. 6. These Medulla­ry or Nervous structures or bindings, which without doubt the visible Species pass thorow, are all parallels, which being stretched forth Strait, are brought to the streak­ed Bodies, every where, through their whole Compass. Fig. 2. Hence it is probable, the causes of the Sandy drops or Spots,The vse. yea, and of the sight otherways depraved or lost, do lie hid, not only in the Eye and Optick Nerve, but sometimes in these parts; for as much as those Filaments or Nervous threads, being obstructed or bound together, the visible Species are not able to beam themselves to the streaked Bodies. I knew one, be­ing affected, by his Imagination and Memory being grievously hurt, that those diseases vanishing, fell into blindness: The reason of which accident seems to be, that the mor­bifick matter occupying at first the superior frame of the Brain, being slid thence lower by the Cortix,The Mamillary Processes, are carried by a private passage, to the streaked Bodies. at length enter'd into the Optick Chambers.

There remains yet a private passage of another sence, to wit, of the smelling, to the common Sensory, viz. the streaked Bodies; The mamillary Processes being entered in­to the Prominences of the Inferiour Brain, go under its Basis till they come to the border of the streaked Body on both sides, then being a little bent inwards: they proceed by an oblique passage towards its Basis, where they are inserted. Fig. 1 Tab. 6.

The common passage of the Spirits, to the streaked Bo­dies, is made by the shanks of the oblong Mar­row.As to the Impressions of the other Senses, and to the force and Instinct of every Spon­taneous motion, carried up and down, there is a necessity, that all these Kinds of Com­merces, between the streaked Bodies and the Nervous Appendix, should be made by the Shanks of the longish Marrow: The tops of these being large and broad, Stick to the hindermost borders of those, so that from these into those, and so on the Contrary, a going and returning is easily performed. Further, that the many and divers motive and Sensible Forces and Impressions together, may be carried without confusion, by this bea­ten and common way, the whole frame of the Medullary Shanks, appears thorow the whole to be made with Nerves or Medullary strings compacted together; as if they were so many distinct paths, in this common passage of the Animal Spirits, for the in­culcating the Various acts of the Senses and of Motions. The Sixth Table represents these parts to the Life.

An accurate de­scription of the striated or streaked Bo­dies.The chamfer'd or streaked Bodyes, consist of a most exquisite and greatly to be admi­red Fabrick: The figure of either, coming something near the Cone, appears like a Cone reflected and bent inward; the outmost and superior Superficies is round and Barkie, thorow which creep Blood-carrying Vessels, and a portion of the Choroedal Infolding hides it; The middle and Inferior frame of them consists of a Medullary Substance, with a Cortical mixed between. Tab. 8th l. m. The sides or either border of these, both the

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[Page 27] Superior and Inferior, are for the most part Marrowy, and look white like the greater Nerves; n. K. Between these streaks or Marrowy strings, thick set, and of a divers magnitude, being stretched forth like the greater Nerves, Knit together, both the Borders: The anterior Border n. n. is every where knit to the Callous Body; so that whatsoever is to be carried forward and backward by either, viz. from one to another, we suspect they have for it this passage between those Medullary passages. The hinder­most Border of the streaked Body, in its upper part, receives the Medullary Processes sent thither from the round Prominences, and also the Optick Chambers, into its Bosome: In the middle and lowest part, either Border is fixed to the Shanks of the oblong Mar­row; and nigh to the Basis of the Fornix, the inferior Border of one streaked Body, is continued into the other Border; to the end, that these Bodies also might have be­tween themselves a mutual Commerce, which is also observed almost of all the rest of the Parts of the Head, that they are double, and do communicate among themselves, by certain passages; so that if one part should be faulty, its defect might be made up by the other being whole.

As to the Offices and Uses of the streaked Bodies,The use or Offi­ces of the strea­ked Bodies. though we can discern nothing with our eyes, or handle with our hands, of these things that are done within the secret Con­clave or Closset of the Brain; yet, by the effects, and by comparing rationally the Facul­ties, and Acts, with the Workmanship of the Machine, we may at least conjecture, what sort of works of the Animal Function, are performed in these or those, or within some other parts of the Head; especially because it plainly appears, that the Offices of the Interior Motions, and Senses, as well as the Exterior, are acted by the help of the A­nimal Spirits, ordained within certain and distinct Paths, or as it were small little Pipes.

As therefore it appears from what we have said,They receive the Impressions of sensible things: and convey the In­stincts of Mo­tions. that the chamfered or streaked Bodies are so placed, between the Brain and Cerebel, and the whole nervous Appendix, that no­thing can be carried from these into that, or on the contrary be brought back hither, but it must pass thorow these Bodies; and as peculiar passages lead into these most ample Diversories, from the several Organs of Motions, Sense, and the other Functions; and further, as Passages lie open from these into the Callous Body, and into all the Mar­rowy Tracts of the Brain, nothing seems more probable, than that these parts are that common Sensory, that receives and distinguishes the Species, and all Impressions, transferrs them, being ordained into fit Series, to the Callous Body, and represents them to the Imagination there presiding; that also transmitts the Force and Instincts of all spontaneous motions, begun in the Brain, to the Nervous Appendix, to be performed by the motive Organs. By reason of these manifold and divers offices, so many Mar­rowy streakes or internal Nerves are produced within the streaked Bodies, for the Vari­ous Tendences and Beamings forth of the Animal Spirits, it may very well be conclu­ded that the Sensitive Soul, as to all its Powers and Exercises of them, is truly within the Head, as well as in the nervous System, meerly Organical, and so extended, and after a manner Corporeal.

The Explanation of the Figures.

The Fifth Table,

Shews the Figure of the Brain of a Sheep roled forth, and derased, and as it were made bare of the Flesh, in many places, that the Marrowy Tracts may be seen.

  • A. A. The Medullary Protuberances called Testes, which being certain Epiphyses or excrescences of the oblong Marrow, and joyned to the Trunks of the Cerebel look thence towards the Brain.
  • B. B. The Natiform Protuberances, the Substance of which in a Sheep, a Goat, and many others, is partly Cortical, a. a. partly Marrowy, b. b. in a Man, Dog, Fox, and others it is wholly Marrowy.
  • C. The Cavity or Ventricle, lying under the Prominences, which is lay'd open, these being dis­sected and opened.
  • D. D. Two Marrowy Chords or strings of the Medullary Trunk, going strait to the streaked Bodies.
  • E. E. The Chambers of the Optick Nerves.
  • e. e. The parts of the pineal Kirnel, cut thorow the midst, and laid apart.
  • [Page 28] F. F. The Medullar or nervous passage proceeding from the Prominences, which presently be­coming forked, sends forth one branch G. to the Cone of the streaked Body, and the other H. to its Basis.
  • I. A shoot from the medullary Branch, going towards the Basis of the streaked Body, reaching into the midst of its Border.
  • K. The latter border of the streaked Body, receiving the nervous passages, and under the root of the Fornix, united to its like Border of the other side.
  • L. The whole streaked Body with its Vessels creeping thorow its Cortex or shell.
  • M. The other streaked Body, with the shell scraped off, that the Nerves or marrowy Tracts may appear.
  • N. N. The foremost border of both the streaked Bodyes, Conjoyned to the Callous Body.
  • O. The Basis of the Fornix.
  • P. The Trunk of the Fornix Cut off, and with the Brain rolled out, removed at a distance.
  • Q. Q. The two roots of the Fornix.
  • R. R. The interior superficies of the Callous Body, noted with transverse medullary streaks.
  • S. A medullary hedg or mound, dividing the streaks of one side, from those of the other.
  • T. T. Portions of the Brain Cut off and rolled forth, which (as also its whole Frame) ap­pears with a marrowy, and a Cortical substance intermixt.
  • V. V. Portions of the divided Cerebel lay'd apart.
  • W. The Portion of the Oblong Marrow situated beyond the Cerebel.

The Sixth Table,

Shews the Basis of a Sheeps Head, in certain parts of which Derased, and in others Ex­posed naked, the Streaks or Medullary Tracts, as so many Nerves, appear.

  • A. A. The Mamillary Processes carried to the Basis of either Streaked Body, and inserted in­to them.
  • B. B. Some remaining portions of the Brain cut off from it greater bulk.
  • C. C. The streaked Bodies derased, and as it were made bare of flesh, that the Medullary streakes may appear also in its lower parts.
  • D. D. The Chambers of the Optick Nerves, in which the strait and thick-set Medullary streakes, are reached forth, towards the streaked Bodies.
  • E. A Tract leading to the Tunnel of the Brain.
  • F. A Kirnel placed behind the Tunnel, which is twofold in man.
  • G. G. The Trunks of the Optick Nerves divided, and removed, from their joyning together before the Tunnel.
  • H, H. f.f. The Shanks of the oblong Marrow lying under the Orbicular Prominences, in which strait and most thick streakes are also stretched forth towards the chamfer'd Bodies.
  • I. I. I. Transverse Medullary Tracts distinguishing the regions of the oblong Marrow.
  • K. K. Ringy Processes compassing about the oblong Marrow, nigh the Cerebel.
  • L. The extremity of the oblong Marrow going into the Spinal.
  • M. The Top of the Spinal Marrow.

The Seventh Table,

Shews the orbicular Prominences, and the Optick Chambers Erased, and as it were made bare of Flesh that their inward Frames may be beheld.

  • A. A. The Testes, which thorow the whole being Medullar, are marked with strait Fibres.
  • B. The Nates, one of them being Derased, in which the strait and thickest Medullary streakes, are stretched forth towards the Brain.
  • C. The Medullary Hedg or Mound, dividing the Natiform Prominences from the Optick Cham­bers, and from which, one Medullary Process is carried into the Basis of the streaked Body, and the other into its Cone.
  • D. One Optick Chamber scraped, that its straight and most thick-set streakes, stretched forth towards the streaked Body, may appear.
    [Page]
  • [Page] [Page 29] E. The hinder Border of the streaked Body, receiving the Optick Medullar streakes, and other Medullary Processes.
  • F. The streaked Body decreased, whose little Medullary Nerves and Passages, are explained in the 5th. Table.
  • G. The foremost border of the streaked Body.
  • H. The Bosome, leading from the Mamillary Process into the Ventricle of the forepart of the Brain.
  • I.I. The Hemisphear of the Brain opened and seperated by it self.

The rest here described are explained in the former Figures.

CHAP. V.

The Beginnings and Increase of the whole Corporeal Soul; also some Innate Habits and Inclinations of it are noted.

FRom what has been said, concerning the Hypostasis and Members of the Corporeal Soul, or of the more perfect Brutes (which is also the inferiour Soul of Man) it will be easier to trace out the Original, and the Increase of the whole. From hence also we may collect its figure and dimensions, as also the proportion, habits, and inclinati­ons of its parts, in respect of it self, and the members of the Body, together with its Various ways of acting and suffering.

As to the first beginnings or original of the Corporeal Soul; this, (like as a Shell-fish forms and fits its shell to its self) exists something a little sooner,The beginning of the Brutal Soul. and so more nobler than the organical Body; Because a certain heap of animal Spirits, or most subtil A­toms, or a little Soul not yet inkindled, lies hid in the Seminal humour; which ha­ving gotten a fit cherishing or Fire-place, and at length being inkindled from the Soul of the Parent acting, or endeavouring, or leaning to it, as a flame from a flame, begins to shine forth, and to unfold it self, a little before the Foundations, or first ground-work of the body is lay'd:Frames it self before the Body. This orders the web of the conception, agitates and inkindles the applyed matter, disposes, and by degrees forms the Figure, designed by the Archetypal Law of Creation. In this stupendious Fabrick, together with its bodily bulk, being daily increased, and Imaged into the due Species of each animal, the Soul also takes its increase, and still renders it self like to the Body, which it forms. For when as the more thick particles,And increases likewise with it. from matter continually put together, are bestowed in the Corporeal Organs; in the mean time, the more subtil and spirituous being loosned, and more rare­fied, by the burning of the others, they dilate the Hypostasis of the Soul, and together with the Body unfold, and equally extend it. But that after this manner, the Seeds of the Soul being laid, from the beginning, together with those of the Body, do rise up to a due figure and bulk in either, it ought not to be attributed to the fortuitous concourse of Atoms, nor to the proper Energie of the Soul it self; but the beginning of all things, proceeds wholly from divine Providence, directing Generations, to the Ends and Ideas of Forms, according to the original Types primitively ordained by the same.

Secondly, As the Increase of the animated Body, and the first marrying together of the Elements proceed from this Soul,The duration al­so of the Body de­pends upon the Soul. informing and disposing the matter; so the duration and subsistence of the same Soul, is the Bond of its Mixture o [...] Concretion. For the flame of the Soul being extinct, or the inkindling and motion of the subtil particles ceasing, pre­sently the frame of the Body it self begins to be dissolved and loosned, so that in a short time, the Elements being loosned and laxed one from another, fly away, and by degrees break their Concretion: wherefore this Soul, as it were salt or pickle preserves the fleshy bulk of the Body from putrefaction; yea, the [...]ame is almost in an ani­mated Body, as the Flower or Spirit in Wine, which indeed being present, and unfold­ing its spirituous Particles thorow the whole, the Liquor continues still generous and flou­rishing; but as soon as this Spirit of the Wine flies away, forthwith the remaining wa­ter or liquor degenerates into an insipid and dead thing.

Thirdly, So long as this Soul subsists in the Body, according to an ancient saying of Hypocrates, The Soul always Born. It is always Born, even till Death; In which respect also, it seems to be most like flame, or rather the same thing, which is continually renewed almost every moment: Some parts of eithers subsistence, in like manner are consumed by burning, and fly away, and others in the mean time are laid up anew, from the Food continually laid in: For as the [Page 30] more Crass or thick Particles of the nourishing juice, wrought in the Viscera, fill up the losses of the Corporeal bulk, so the more subtil make up the layings forth or wastings of this Soul; which, as they come to the blood, are as it were Oyl to a Lamp, and being perpetually inkindled within its bosom, restore to the Soul both Flame and Light,The Offices of the Organs and Fa­culties, are re­ciprocal to­wards one ano­ther. which would otherways perish. For whilst the purer part of the nourishing Li­quor, cherishes the flame of the Blood, and sustains it, the most spirituous Particles falling off by its burning, are instilled into the concavity of the Head, which there propagate and nourish the other part of the Soul, to wit the Sensitive: So the making of Blood, is owing very much to Chylification, or the making of the Chyle, and Animality or like to this; notwithstanding which offices, the Animal Function payes back to the Vital, and both to the Organs of Chylification; for as much as the Animal Spirits, bestow a pulsifick force to the Heart and Arteries, whereby the Blood may be agitated and carryed about, to the places of accensions or inkindlings: yea, the Viscera of Concoction, receive heat which they want, from the flame of the Blood, and a motive and sensi­tive virtue, which they have need of, for their Offices, from a Constant afflux or flow­ing in of the Animal Spirits; so the Brain is indebted to the Heart, and both of them to the Stomach, yea, and on the other side, this Region to that, and both to the third. To the end that the Hypostasis of the whole Soul might the longer continue, the Tribu­tes of all the Parts are Compensed with mutual Offices one to another, and so at once the members both of the Body and of the Soul being conjoyned, by a Circular necessity, they desire and shew their mutual Labour.

It is natural to the Soul to de­fend it self, and to propagate its species.Fourthly, The Soul of the Brute, as it is Fire, according to Philosophy, has these two innate Dispositions by the Law of Creation, to wit, that it should defend it self, or delay its proper inkindling long, for whose sake it is still careful of taking of food; and also, that it might propagate its Species, or produce other Souls; for which end, it Continually lays up from its provision, an incentive matter, and Continually desires to ex­pose it to an inkindling.

Hence the young one as soon as it is born, seeks for food.It is natural for every Animal, without guide or example, to take its proper food, and to Swallow it down, both that the web of the Body being daily increased, might grow to its due magnitude, and also that the Soul, as it were its woof, being daily supplyed with new plenty of Spirits, may be able to be Coextended or stretched forth equally with the Body, and able to perform lively the Acts of its Functions. Then assoon as the Lineaments, both of the Body and the Soul, being sufficiently drawn forth, and the Compass and Bulk of each Compleated,When the In di­vid [...] is made the genital hu­mor, for the propagating the Species, is lay'd up. some Animal Spirits, superfluous from the indivi­dual work, begin to abound, and so seperate into the genital parts, with a Subtil humour, picked from the whole Body, as it were into a Store-house, destinated for the propagating the Species, and there being lay'd up, forme the Idea of the Animal, which afterwards is transferred into a fit Matrix, for to be perfectly formed.

The genital Humour, is not, as Hippocrates formerly taught, and as now common­ly believed,The Genital Humor, not from the Brain, but from the Blood. carried from the Brain into the Spermatick Vessels; for no peculiar passa­ges lye between that, and these Bodies far remote; but without doubt, the bloody mass it self, sends its most noble part into the Genitals, as well as into the Brain. Wherefore, when as there are no Nerves that reach to the Testicles, and that there are noted Arteries sent, and admirably made thorow wandering Passages and frequent en­graftings of the Veins; to wit for that End, that they may carry the most pure flower of the Blood, as it were thorow the winding Chanels of an Alembick, distilled by a long passage, and so wrought and made most highly subtil, into those parts: what is superflu­ous of this or less clarified, the Veins do not only receive and carry back, but also be­cause from the much Spirit, a great quantity of Serous water (which serves always for its Vehicle) abounds, therefore the Water-Carryers are produced in these parts abundant­ly more than in any others.

why the loss of seed disturbs the Brain and Nerves.But that a great loss of the genital Humor doth hurt very much the Brain and the Nerves, and bring to them a notable debility; the reason is, because the blood as it makes up the losses of the seed, destinated for the propagating its Species, carries thither and bestows whatsoever is most precious of its own; in the mean time, as the Brain is defrau­ded of its due provision, by the great plenty of Spirits being carried into the Spermatic Bodies: yea as the blood is not able sufficiently to impart to the Genitals, out of its pro­per store, it remands or snatches its Tribute from the Brain and other parts, that it might be there bestowed; so that not seldom the strength of the whole Soul and Body is con­sumed, on the mad insatiate fulfilling of Lust or Venus; and in these desires, everyone, or the unskilful, complains of Flames, and feels the blood not only to flame forth, but a greater fire increasing, to make hot the marrow, yea oftentimes it is known to burn up the Flesh, Inwards, and Bones, and to reduce them to a rottenness.

[Page 31]As to that most quick and Intimate Commerce of the brain,From whence is this Wonderful Commerce of the Brain, with the Genital Members. with the genital Members, for as much as the Venerian imagination Causes presently an insurrection in these parts, and on the other side a swelling up of the seminal humor, stirs up the Venerial Imagination, the Cause is, not an Instinct thorow the private passages of the Nerves, (which are wholly wanting) reciprocated from this to that; but, because for the Act of Gene­ration, greatly necessary, and performed with a most vehement Affection, one part of the soul by it self, or one part after another is not moved, but the whole Hypostasis, to­gether, and on a sudden, and is inclined or snatched towards the Genitals; hence e­very most light incentives of Lust, are most swiftly powred forth thorow the universal parts of the Soul,The Soul, like Flame, has in equalities Tre­pidations &c. fiery of themselves, and Extreamly perclive or apt for such fires.

Whilst this Corporeal Soul, being inkindled like flame, in the animated Body, on every side diffuseth Heat and Light, we may take notice of its various tremblings, shake­ings, inequalities, and irregular Commotions; these sorts of Irregularities, to be observed, concerning the phasis or appearance of this Soul, of which we treat, tho they are more perspicuous in Man than in Brute Animals, yet they altogether respect the inferiour Soul of Man, which is Common to him with the Brute Animals. But that we may briefly handle some of these Affections of the Corporeal Soul, first it is to be noted, that its flame does not always flame forth equally: For besides that its food is sometimes affor­ded more plentifully, and too sulphureous, sometimes more thinly and less inflameable, so that the Flame is inlarged or Contracted,The Flame of the Soul is someti­mes enlarged by passions. its accension also, in the praecordia, tho of it self moderate and equal, is wont to be variously shaken, by the fanning of Passions, so that it is carried sorth sometimes into an Excessive burning, as from Anger and Indignation; sometimes this vital flame is in danger to be always blown out, as by sudden Joy, and a­nother time almost suffocated, as by sudden fear or sadness; In like manner the Systasis or Constitution of the Soul, from the rest of the Affections, being exposed as flame to the winds, is diversly changed in its appearance, as will more clearly appear, when we shall speak particularly of its Affections.Sometimes Contracted

Nor do these sorts of Inordinations only proceed from the sudden impulses of Passions, but sometimes, the Vital flame, habitually becomes decayed, weak, and as it is were half exstinct,The same habi­tually is now decayed. as by intemperate Cold, and also as is observed in the phlegmatick disea [...]e, the dropsie, longing of maids, and other diseases; in whom the Blood being too watery, like moist and green wood, sends forth but a small and inconstant flame and almost over­whelm'd with fume and vapour: But sometimes the bloody Liquor being more sulphu­reous than it ought,Now intense or strong. is almost wholy inkindled, as happens in a Choleric Complexion, and in an intemperate Feavor: According to either of these hights, as the inkindling of the vital flame is altered, so the lucid particles, which flow from it, to wit the beamie texture of the Animal spirits,Also the lucid part of the Soul shines diversly. diversly shines, and breaths forths from the decayed or bound up inkindling of the Blood, the sphear of the sensitive soul is seen to be straitned, and to be drawn in, within the limit of the Body, and to be immerged or sunk down so that it doth not sufficiently actuate or illustrate the whole frame of the Brain, and its Appendix: On the Contrary, when the Vital Fire is very strong (so it doth not burn forth too much and feavourishly) the Constitution of the Animal Spirits being made greater in it self, is much inlarged forth far beyond the Compass of the Body,And is altered on the part of the Fame. so that any one exulting for Joy, or blown up with pride, is seen to grow very great, and not be able to be contained within its proper Dimension.

Besides these Kind of Alterations, which the Soul properly sensitive, or the lucid part, receives,Also from the Various affection of the Brain and Nervous stock. from the Vital and flamie, variously changed; many other things happen, which disturb its Systasis or Constitution, and its wonted manner of Order, immediately both from a certain affection of the Brain, and Nervous stock, and also from external Objects because in the night, the Brain it self, from a too great infusion of the nutricious Juce, or from the black darkness, or vapours, is filled, so that the lucid part of the Soul in sleep, is wholly obscured, as it were with darkness; not seldom from a morbi [...]ic matter somewhere gathered together, and as it were obstructing the Spirts, or the ways of their Beams, there arises an Eclipse of some or more of their faculties; sometimes the Animal Spirits themselves are not light or airey enough, but are infected with hetero­geneous effluvia's, to wit, either Saline, Vitriolic, Nitrous, or otherwise Cloudy, which deform the sensible species, change them into some affrightful thing, and excite inordi­nate Motions: Hence it comes sometimes that the whole Soul suffers various Metamor­phoses or Changes, and puts on strange species's; as often happens in Melancholy di [...]ea [...]es, or to mad men.

As to the various gestures of the Soul,Also from the various incur­sions of sensible things. by which for the variety of sensible objects it ex­presses now Joy and Pleasure, by and by loathing and trouble, it is observed, that some­times it is allured more outwardly by the Organ of this or that sense, and as occasion serves almost wholly to wander into the Eye or Ear, Palate or any Sensory meeting with [Page 32] something pleasant; sometimes on the Contrary, for the sake shunning or flying away from some approaching evil, that she retires inwardly, and leaving her watch, hides her head; so that we think or Imagine nothing without being touch'd, but that the whole Soul almost is moved, and trembles at every apprehension of the sensible ob­ject, and its Systasis is variously agitated, as it were the leaves of a Tree, exposed to the blasts of Winds.Alterations of the Flamy part of the Soul im­pressed by the Lucid.

Nor do these sensible Impressions induce Metamorphoses only to the sensitive soul, or the beamy Texture of the Animal spirits; but undulations or waverings being brought to it, presently they go forward, an impress alterations on the vital Soul, lying in the blood, and move about its flame, as [...] were with blasts, driving it hither and thither, and un­equally inkindling it. For as we mentioned before, the same moment, in which an ob­ject carried from the sense or memory, stops at the Imagination, as that Comes under the shew of good or evil, it affects the Animal Spirits destinated to the Motion of the Precordia, and causes the Precordia, by the influx of them, to be variously Contracted or dilated, and for that Cause it is, that the inordinate motions, and inkindling of the Blood, are so performed. But of these there will be a more opportune place of treating, when we shall speak especially of the Affections of the Soul.

CHAP. VI.

Of the Science or Knowledge of Brutes.

WE have hitherto spoken of the Original Nature and manner of the Soul of the Brutes, subsisting in the Body, as also of its various degrees or species, and as it hath in the more perfect Living Creatures Parts or Constitutive Members. Further, the Hypostasis figure; and dimensions of the same Soul, being rightly delineated, we have Considered, how that she is capable of Impressions from outward Objects, also to what passions and alterations besides she is obnoxious: yet from all this furniture of the Corporeal Soul, and of its powers being put together, it doth not plainly appear, what the same is able to do beyond the Virtue or force of any other machine, and to perform by its own proper Virtue or strength.The Soul of the Brute is strong in sense and mo­tion as a Ma­chine. For altho an Impression of an Object driving the Animal spirits inwards, and harmonizing them by a certain peculiar manner, causes sensation; and the same spirits, for as much as they leap back from within outwardly, as it were by a reflected undulation or waving, stir up local motions; yet it is not declared how this Soul, or any part of it, perceives it self to feel, and is driven according to that perception into divers Passions and Actions, directed to the Appetite or desire of this or that Action; and sometimes, as we have generally observed in some Beasts, for the prosecution of the desired thing doth pick out and choose Acts, which seem to flow from Council, or a certain Deliberation. In Man indeed it is obvious to be understood, that the Rational Soul, as it were presiding, be­holds the Images and Impressions represented by the sensitive Soul, as in a looking Glass,But wonderful how by percepti­on. and according to the Conceptions and notions drawn from thence, exercises the Acts of Reason, Judgment, and Will. Yet after what manner in Brutes, Perception, a discerning or discrimination of Objects, Appetite, Memory, and other species or Kinds of Inferiour Reasons as one may say, are performed, seems very hard to be unfolded; therefore, when some could not solve this Knot or difficulty, they attributed to Brutes Immaterial Souls, and subsisting after their Bodies. Which if that were true I Know not why Four footed Beasts should not be indued with reasoning and under­standing as well as man, yea and might learn Sciences and Arts; for as much as in either, besides their immaterial souls alike, there is altogether the same Conformation of the Animal Organs; upon which indeed it appears, that the Rational Soul whilst in the Body,If the Soul of the Brutes be immaterial, it is also rational. hangs or depends as to its acts and habits, because the Organs being hurt, or hin­dred, a privation or an Eclipse of these succeeds: wherefore that the Soul of the Brute using the same Organs as man, can Know nothing clearly, nor rise above the Acts and material Objects, it planly follows, that she is different from the Rational Soul and also that she is much inferiour and Material.

But that it is objected, that all matter whatsoever is not only insensible and sluggish, but also meerly passive, therefore incapable of sense and animal activity, omitting here many instances of aequivocal productions, the Epicureans affirm to be [Page 33] equally stupendious and inexplicable, of which we shall discourse anon; we shall pro­pose as to the former, this one thing, as very Consentaneous to our Hypothesis; to wit, that there is not much more difference between an insensible and a sensible Body, than between a thing uninkindled, and a thing kindled; and yet we ordinarily see, this to be made from that; why therefore in like manner, may we not judge a sensible thing, or Body to be made out of an insensible?A sensible thing or Body, is pro­duced from an insensible, as an inkindled Body from one not kindled. Every matter, as it is not Burnt, so not ani­mated; but being disposed, by either of the active Elements, it behoveth it to be indued with Spirit chiefly, with Sulphur and Salt: Combustible things, as Oyl, Rosin, Wood, and the like, of themselves torpid and sluggish, lye unmoved without fire, heat, or some agitation of the parts or particles: But as soon as they have taken flame, from some incentive being put to it, by and by their Particles being rapidly moved, and as it were animated, produce a shining with Heat and Light; and not only make light all about them, but Create innumerable Images, of all things that are seated near them, and thickly object them on every side: In like manner, the Vital humour in an Egg, remains tor­pid and sluggish in the beginning, and like to unkindled matter; but as soon as it is actuated, from the Soul being raised up, presently like an inkindled fire, it excites Life with Motion and Sense, and in the more perfect Creatures with heat. Further, the Animal Spirits as Rays of Light, proceeding from this Fire, are Configured according to the Impressions of every of their Objects, and what is more, as it were meeting to­gether with reflected irradiations, cause divers manner of motions.

Then what is vulgarly delivered,That matter is not meerly pas­sive. that Matter, out of which Natural things are made, is meerly passive, and cannot be moved, unless it be moved by another thing, is not true; but rather on the contrary, Atoms, which are the matter of sublunary things, are so very active and self-moving, that they never stay long, but ordinarily stray out of one subject into another; or being shut up in the same, they cut forth for themselves Pores and Passages, into which they are Expatiated.

Yet it may be argued,But sometimes too active. That if the Soul of the Brute be Composed out of these, whilst the same is Extended and is Corporeal, it cannot perceive. For it admits the Species of the Object into its whole self, or into some part of it self, not the first, because then neither the Senses would be distinguished one from another, nor any of them by a perception or common sensation of these: But if (as indeed it is) it shall be said, that all the sensible Species being received by appropriated Sensories,The common Sen­sorie is not the whole Soul, but a certain part of it. to a certain part of the Soul, to wit, the first or common Sensory, where they are perceived: Then it may be again objected, That so ma­nifold and divers Species or Images of sensible things, which at once are Conceived, from Objects, cannot be painted forth in a certain small part of the Brain, but that some should obliterate or blot out, or at least Confound others: I say none ought to wonder, who hath beheld the Objects of the whole Hemisphere, admitted thorow an hole into a dark Chamber, and there on a sudden upon Paper exactly drawn forth, as if done by the Pencil of an Artist:This receives all species with­out Confusion. Why then, may not also the Spirits, even as the Rays of light, frame by a swift Configuration, the Images or Forms of things, and exhibit them without any Confusion or Obscuring of the Species?

But yet,How this per­ceives that her self feels or knows. tho it be granted, That the Images of sensible things are represented in a certain part of the Soul, to wit, actuating the Brain it self; to which there happens a most speedy Communication, with the whole, and also with the several Parts: how­ever, we are yet to inquire of what Kind of power that is, which sees and knows such like Images there delineated, and also according to those Impressions there received, chooseth Appetites, and the respective Acts of the other Faculties.

That we may go on to Philosophize concerning this matter, I profess indeed, whilst I consider the Soul and the Body, to wit, either of them by it self and distinct, I cannot readily detect, in this, or in that, or in any material subject, any thing, to which may be attributed such a Power, with a self-moving energy: But indeed, when I consider the animated Body, made by an Excellent and truly Divine Workmanship, for certain Ends and Uses, nothing hinders me from saying, That it is so framed by the Law of Creation, or by the Institution of the most Great God, that from the Soul and Body mixed together, the same Kind of Confluence of the Faculties doth result, by which it is needful for every Animal, to the Ends and Uses destinated to it.

In most Mechanical things, or those made by humane Art, the Workmanship Excels the matter:As in mechani­cal things, so much more in an animated body the work is more excellent than the matter. who would think there could be an Instrument made out of Iron or Brass, being most fixed and sluggish Mettals, whose Orbs like to those of the Celestial, with­out any external Mover, should observe almost continual motions, the Periods of which being renewed at a constant turn or change, should certainly shew the spaces of Time? No Body admires that a rude and simple sound is given by wind, blown into a Pipe; but indeed, by Wind sent into musical Organs, and that being carryed variously thorow manifold openings of Doors, into these or those pipes, that it should create a most grate­ful [Page 34] Harmony, and Composed Measures of every Kind; this I say deservedly amazes us, and we acknowledg this Effect, far to Excel both the matter of the Instrument, and of the hand of the Musitian striking it. Further, altho the Musical Organ very much re­quires the labour of him playing on it, by whose direction, the spirit or wind being admitted, now into these, anon into those, and into other Pipes, causes the manifold harmony, and almost infinite Varieties of Tunes; yet sometimes I have seen such an Instrument so prepared, that without any Musitian directing, the little doors being shut up,A self moving musical Organ. by a certain law and order, by the mere Course of a Water, almost the same harmony is made, and the same tunes, equal with those Composed by Art. And indeed Man, seems like to the former, in which the rational Soul, sustains the part of the Mu­sitian playing on it, which governing and directing the animal spirits, disposes and or­ders at its pleasure, the Faculties of the Inferior Soul: But the Soul of the Brute, be­ing scarce moderatrix of its self,To which the soul of the Brute is like. or of its Faculties, Institutes, for Ends necessary for it self, many series of Actions, but those (as it were tunes of harmony produced by a wa­ter Organ, of another Kind) regularly prescribed by a certain Rule or Law, and almost always determinated to the same thing.

This indeed holds good, concerning the more imperfect Brutes, in whose Souls or Natures are inscribed the types or ways of the Actions to be performed by them, which they rarely or never transgress or go beyond; and that according to the vulgar saying in the Schools, They do not so much act, as are acted: yet in some more perfect Brutes, whose Actions are ordained to many and more noble Uses, there are far more Original Types, and to their Souls there ought to be attributed a certain faculty of Varying their Types, and of Composing them in themselves; for the Brutal Soul it self, being so gifted naturally, as she is Knowing and Active, concerning some things necessary for it; she is taught through Various Accidents, by which she is wont to be daily affected, to know afterwards other things,The more per­fect Brutes are indued with knowledge. and to perform many other, and more intricate Acti­ons: But how all this may be done, (without calling an immaterial Soul into play) to wit, by what helps, whether innate or adventitious, or acquired, the Science of the Brutes is gotten or pollish'd, will be worth our Labour to shew a little more fully: that it may appear at length, what is the utmost thing that living Brutes can know or do, and how far that is below the power of the Rational Soul.

Therefore, that we may seek out as it were the several footsteps, by which all brute Animals are imbued with the Knowledg of things; we ought first to distinguish here, that some of their Knowledg is born with them, as we but now hinted, to wit, for some Uses needful for the lengthning of Life,That is either inbred. being infused by the most high Creator, and impressed like a Character, from their first formation, on the beginnings, or on their very Natures themselves, which is wont commonly to be called Natural Instinct: But others acquired, to wit, which by degrees is learned, by the incursion of sensible things, Imitation,Or acquired. humane Institution, and other ways, and is carryed to a greater degree of Perfection in some than in others; yet in some, this acquired Knowledg, as also Cun­ing, depend wholly on the natural Instinct, and being polished by frequent use and ha­bit, and Carried a little further, seem to be certain additions only.

What natural instinct is.First, As to what regards natural Instincts, it is a great and most ancient Notion, That there is in all Living Creatures, an innate Conservation of themselves, to wit, that every Individual might preserve it self as long as it can: This is a Law of Divine Pro­vidence, inbred in all Creatures, which gathers together the Principles of Life like a Bond, otherways apt to be dissipated and to depart one from another, and on which, as the Basis, the Duration or Continuance of the whole World stands.

What it brings to the Brutes.This being supposed, it necessarily follows, that all Animals ordained for this end, are furnished also with certain fit means, for following the same, wherefore they ought to know by Natural Instinct, whatsoever things are Congruous and benign, and what are incongruous or hurtful to them, and that they should follow these with hatred and aversion; and those with Love and delight. Hence it is, that every one of them are able to choose Food proper for themselves, and to seek it being absent, and remote from their Eyes; And from an implanted disposition of their Nature, are skilful to know and oppose Enemies, to love their Friends, to get a female fit for themselves, and to make ready whatever may conduce to the Procreating and Cherishing their Young; besides many other Kinds of powers and habits, granted to us not without Learning and Study, are originally fixed on the Praecordia of the Beast.

And truly, if we look upon the Ingenuity and Proprieties of all Animals, we shall find these Kind of Effects after a manner in all:Some examples and instances of it. For many of them are no sooner brought to light, but they seek and greedily embrace remedies against hunger and Cold, without any guide or shower; then being somewhat grown up, tho Carefully Kept from all their Companions, yet without any one to shew them, or any example, [Page 35] they of their own accord perform the peculiar Actions of their Kind. A Lamb just brought forth, and scarcely out of the after-birth, presently snatches at and sucks the Duggs of its Dam. A Chicken, as soon as out of the shell, will pick up grains of Corn, hides it self under the wings of the Hen, and flyes from the approach of the Kite. Cattel feeding in the Pastures, are more Skilful than Men, about the Virtues of Herbs;Natural In­stinct dictates to Brutes, what is wholesome and what un­wholesome. for they easily discern at the first tast, what are for food; what for Medicine, yea, what is to be shun'd, being imbued with poyson and death; when we in the mean time, unless taught by experience, are wholy ignorant of their Virtues or poysonous force: so that Pliny Complained, that it was a shame, that all Animals Knew what was healthful for themselves, besides Man.

Neither does what some object otherways determinate this matter, that the means of these Kind of effects, depend only upon the similitude or the dissimilitude of Patricles, which are in the sensible and the Sensory, without any intention of the Beasts, or End of their Acting; because we have observed, that Brute living Creatures, by the Virtue of natural Instinct, perform not only simple actions, stirred up by one Impression of the External agent, as when the heat of the Sun invites to take the Cool of that shade, but they perform and do manifold works, and Continued by a long Series. Birds by reason of the Influence of the Spring, being instigated to the begetting others apply themselves to that business,Leads not only to simple Acti­ons but also to very Complicate Actions. without any other provoker or director, as it were Consultingly and premeditated; for they enter into wedlock, as it were by a solemn manner of Espousals, they choose a fit place for the building their nest or habitation, where they make it most artificially beyond the skill of humane Architecture; then they lay Eggs, and by sitting on them bring forth young ones, and then carefully nourish them with food which they get for them. We might here also take notice of the most admirable Republiques of Bees and Ants, in which, without any written Laws or promulged Right, the most perfect ways of Government are exercised. But as in all these without any Variety, one thing is al­ways and wholy after the same manner administred, it is a sign, that these Kind of prin­ciples or beginnings of the Brutes, are nor stirred up either by external objects, whose Impulse is still various and divers, nor from an internal proposition of the Mind, which is more mutable than the wind; But excited from a more fixed and Certain principle, determinate always to one thing, which can be only Natural Instincts: The World is full of Examples of this sort,But yet those always, and in all, of one Kind only. which testifie the native indowments and implanted Ingeny of Brutes: For in all Animals, there are by Nature a Certain Ingeny and habit born with them, by which they are instigated through a secret impulse and blind power to the performing of Actions, which respect both the Conservation of themselves, and the propagation of their Kind; and these Gifts being originally granted, constitute as it were the first lin [...]aments or groundwork of practical Knowledge, with which the Soul of Brutes are wont to be imbued: then an acquired Cognition being superadded to those rudiments, fills up the vacuities of those things drawn forth, and adds a perfection to the former foundation.

For Secondly,Brutes, in some things, are taught by the Impressions of sensible things. besides the natural Instincts, living Brutes are wont to be taught by sen­sible species, to wit, to profit in the Knowledge of several things, and to acquire certain habits of practice: But this happens not equally to all nor at all times. For in many A­nimals newly brought forth, natural Instinct is of some force, but then the Impressions of sensible things little or nothing affect the sensitive soul: Because, altho the flamy part of the Soul is enough inkindled in the Brain, yet because the Brain and its Appendix, abounds with much humidity, therefore the Spirituous Effluvias, or the lucid part of the Soul which ought to irradiate these Bodies, is very much obscured, as the beam of the Sun passing thorow a thick Cloud: Wherefore at this time, the strokes of sensible things, being not dee­ply fixed, are presently obliterated, and in them local motions hardly follow: yea in some Beasts, in whom the Blood being continually and habitually thick, and who have a less Clear Brain, tho through their whole Life some acts of the Exterior Senses and Motions are performed, yet few Characters are left, of any interiour Knowledg. Where­fore, we shall here inquire only concerning Brutes, that are more docil, to wit, in whom are besides local motions, and the five Exterior Senses, Memory, and Imagination; and in these we may conceive this kind of Introduction, or Method of Institution, concerning the Exquisite Knowledge, by the sense with which they are wont to be imbued.

Therefore,The direct sensi­ble Species crea­tes in them the Phantasie and the Memory. as soon as the Brain in the more pefect Brutes grows Clear, and the Con­stitution of the Animal Spirits becomes sufficiently lucid and defecated, the exterior Ob­jects being brought to the Organs of the Senses, make Impressions, which being from thence transmitted, for the continuing the Series or Order of the Animal Spirits in­wards, towards the streaked Bodies, affect the Common Sensory; and when as a sensible Impulse of the same, like a waving of Waters, is carried further into the Callous Body, [Page 36] and thence into the Cortex or shelly substance of the Brain, a Perception is brought in, concerning the Species of the thing admitted, by the Sense, to which presently succeeds the Imagination,The reflected be Appetite. and marks or prints of its Type being left, constitutes the Memory; But in the mean time, whilst the sensible Impression being brought to the common Sen­sory, effects there the Perception of the thing felt; as some direct Species of it, tending further creates the Imagination and Memory; so other reflected Species of the same Ob­ject, as they appear either Congruous or Incongruous, produce the Appetite, and local motions its Executors; that is, the Animal Spirits looking inwards, for the Act of Sen­sion, being struck back, leap towards the streaked Bodies; and when as these Spirits pre­sently possessing the Beginnings of the Nerves, irritate others, they make a desire of flying from the thing felt, and a motion of this or that member or part, to be stirred up: Then, because this Kind,The Appetite stirs up local Motion. or that Kind of Motion succeeds once or twice, to this or to that Sension, afterwards, for the most part, this Motion follows that Sension as the Effect follows the Cause: and according to this manner, by the admitting the Idea's of sensible things, both the Knowledg of several things, and the habits of things to be done, or of local Motions, are by little and little produced: For indeed, from the beginning, almost every Motion of the animated Body is stirred up by the Contact of the outward Object; to wit, the Animal Spirits residing within the Organ, are driven inward, being strucken by the Object, and so (as we have said) constitute Sension or Feeling; then, like as a Flood sliding along the Banks of the shore, is at last beaten back, so, because this waving or inward turning down of the Animal Spirits, being partly reflected from the Common Sensory, is at last directed outwards, and is partly stretched forth even into the in­most part of the Brain, presently local Motion succeeds the Sension; and at the same time, a Character being affixed on the Brain, by the sense of the thing perceived, it im­presses there, Marks or Vestigia of the same, for the Phantasie and the Memory then affected, and afterwards to be affected; but afterwards, when as the Prints or Marks of very many Acts of this Kind of Sensation and Imagination, as so many Tracts or Ways,Which being of­ten stirred up produce an ha­bit of Acting. are ingraven in the Brain, the Animal Spirits, oftentimes of their own accord, without any other forewarning, and without the presence of an Exterior Object, being stirred up into Motion, for as much, as the Fall into the footsteps before made, repre­sent the Image of the former thing; with which, when the Appetite is affected, it de­siring the thing objected to the Imagination, causes spontaneous Actions, and as it were drawn forth from an inward Principle. As for Examples sake, The Stomach of an Horse, feeding in a barren Ground or fallow Land, being incited by hunger, stirs up and variously agitates the Animal Spirits flowing within the Brain; the Spirits being thus moved by accident, because they run into the footsteps formerly made, they call to mind the former more plentiful Pasture fed on by the Horse, and the Meadows at a great di­stance, then the Imagination of this desirable thing, (which then is cast before it, by no outward Sense, but only from the Memory,) stops at the Appetite: that is, the Spi­rits implanted in the streaked Bodies, are affected by that Motion of the spirits flowing within the middle part or Marrow of the Brain; who from thence presently after their former accustomed manner, enter the origines of the Nerves, and actuating the Nervous System after their wonted▪ manner by the same Series, produce local Mo­tions, by which the hungry Horse is carried from place to place, till he has found out the Imagined Pasture, and indeed enjoyes that good the Image of which was painted in his Brain.

After this manner, the sensible Species being intromitted, by the benefit of the Ex­terior Organs, in the more perfect Brutes, for that they affix their Characters on the Brain, and there leave them, they constitute the Faculties of Phantasie and Memory, as it were Store-houses full of Notions; further, stirring up the Appetite into local Moti­ons, agreeable to the Sensions frequently, they produce an habit of Acting; so that some Beasts being Taught or Instructed for a long time, by the assiduous Incursion of the Objects, are able to know and remember many things, and further learn manifold works; to wit, to perform them by a Complicated and Continued series and succession of very many Actions. Moreover, this Kind of acquired Knowledg of the Brutes, and the Practical habits introduced through the Acts of the Senses,Brutes are also taught by experience. are wont to be promoted by some other means, to a greater degree of perfection.

For in the third place, it happens to these by often Experience that the Beasts are not only made more certain of simple things, but it teaches them to form certain Propo­sitions, and from thence to draw certain Conclusions. Because, draught Beasts, having sometimes found water to be Cooling, they seek it far as a remedy of too much heat; wherefore, when their Precordia grow hot, running to the River they drink of it, and if they are hot in their whole Body they fearlesly lye down in the same. In truth, many Actions which appear admirable in Brutes [Page 37] came to them at first by some accident, which being often repeated by Experience, pass into Habits, which seem to shew very much of Cunning and Sagacity; because, the sensi­tive soul is easily accustomed to every Institution or Performance, and its Actions begun by Chance, and often repeated, pass into a Manner and Custom. So it happens some­times by Chance, among Hounds, that one had caught the prey, not exactly but by following a Shorter way; this Dog afterwards, as if he were much more Cunning than the rest, leaves the Hare making her turnings and windings, and runs directly to meet her another way.

Living Brutes are taught by Example,By Example, Imitation, and Institution also by the Imitation and Institution of others of the same or of a divers Kind, to perform certain more excellent Actions. Hence it is that the Ape so plainly imitates Man, that by some, it is thought a more imperfect Species of him. For this Animal being extreamly mimical, as it is indued with a most Capacious and hot Brain, it imitates to an hair, almost all the Gestures that it happens to see, presently with a ready and expeditious Composing of its Members, and is furnished with a notable Memory, and retains all its tricks which it has once acted very firmly afterwards, and is wont to repeat them at its pleasure. They are very admirable habits, which Horses, Doggs, and Birds get, being carefully instructed by the Discipline of Man; and not only from Men but being taught first by their Companions, they imbibe altogether new and more Excellent Customs: so one Dog ordinarily teaches another to hunt, and one Bird another to compose harmonious notes and various tunes. It were an Easy matter to bring very many Instances of this Kind. But we shall hasten to other things.

Having thus enumerated the Chief Helps from Nature and Art, by which living Brutes do profit in the Knowledg of things,How far it is that Brutes are able to Know. and are instructed by the Habits of Acting, we shall now inquire, to what hight most of them or all of them put together, can arrive.

First, from what we have said 'tis clear, that Living Brutes are directed to all things which belong to the Defence and Conservation of the Individuum, and that are to be done for the propagation of their Kind, by a natural Instinct, as it were a Law or Rule fixed in their Hearts: when as therefore we behold for these ends, ordained by Divine Provi­dence, Brutes to order their matters wisely, and as it were by Council, no man Esteems this the work of Reason, or of any liberal faculty; yea they are led into these enterpri­ses, by a certain Praedestination, rather than by any proper Virtue or Intention.

Secondly,How natural Instinct i [...] wont to be Compa­red with acqui­red Notions. The Natural Instinct of Brutes, happens, not rarely, with notions ac­quired by the sense, and being Complicated with them conduces to the Propositions or Assumptions to be done, Concerning many things, and the Deductions to be drawn from thence. A Dog being by a staff struck, or by the flinging of a stone, perceives the hurt received by the senses, and easily retains the Idea in his Memory, but the Instinct di­ctates to him that the like stroke may be shunned afterwards,With the Im­pressions of sensi­ble things. wherefore, when he sees a staff held out before his eyes, or a stone taken up, fearing thence the like hurt, he hastily flies away.

Thirdly,With Habits learnt from Ex­ample or Insti­tution. sometimes Instincts, and also all other acquired Knowledges, are mixed toge­ther, either with the Example of Habits, or with the general Institution of things learnt: And when as notions so arising from one faculty or power, answer to Actions drawn from another, from thence is produced a certain Kind of Discourse or Ratiocination, and often times it is continued by a certain Series or Thrid of Argumentation. Many ad­mirable Histories are reported, concerning the Subtilties and Craft of the Fox, which he is wont to perform for the getting of his living. This Creature, that he might allure the Hens within the Compass of his Chain, with which he was tyed, lying all along, his legs stretched forth, feigns as if he were dead, then they coming near him, he readily leaps upon them. Moreover, I have heard it told, that a wild Fox, that he might get into his clutches a Turkie Cock roosting in a Tree, running round the Body of the Tree, with a swift Motion, continually beheld the Bird with an intentive Eye, by which Means, as the Turkie still followed the Fox thus running Round with his eye, carrying his head about till being infected with a giddiness, he fell down from the top of the Tree, into the mouth of his Enemy: I say, it was natural to the Fox, that he should desire domestick Fowl, as his prey; but that he should frame these Kind of Snares for them, this he must have by former acquired Knowledges, from Sence, Experi­ence, and Imitation, and complicated with natural Instinct. It is very likely that the Fox had learnt by former Experience,With notions learnt from Ex­perience and Imitation. that the Hens did not fear him lying as dead, which might happen by Chance, when being wearied, or to sleep, he had lay'd himself on the ground: In like manner, perhaps, when he had run about the Tree, seeking some way to get up into it, the Prey might fall down into his mouth; Wherefore afterwards when he would take his prey, he repeated the Series of the same Actions; because, what [Page 38] he had known to be done before, he presumed might be done again. In both Cases, and in others like them, the reason of the whole thing done, or the Endeavour, is resolved into these Propositions; The Fox thinking, now to take the Prey, that is before his eyes, after what manner he may, remembers how he had taken the same formerly, by these or those sort of Cunning ways or Crafts,The Syllogisms of Beasts. found out by some chance; These are the Premises, the former of which is suggested from Nature, and the second from Sense and Experience, from whence a Conclusion follows, Therefore Foxes for the taking of their Prey, use again the same Wiles. According to this sort of Analyzing, the most Intricate Actions of Brutes, which seem to contain Ratiocination, may be explained, and reduced into Competent notions of the sensitive Soul.

CHAP. VII.

The Corporeal Soul, or that of the Brutes, is Compared with the Rational Soul.

FRom what we have said is to be understood, how much it is that Brute Animals are wont to do with the whole furniture of the Corporeal Soul, and to obtain to­wards the use of Reason: But now we shall endeavour to shew, how far they are below it,Three heads of this Discourse viz. 1. It is shown that the Rational Soul far excels the Brutal. and how much less they are able to do than Man, endued with a Rational Soul. The means of observing the difference between these Souls are commonly to be had, being noted by divers Authors both Ancient and Modern and both Philosophers and Theolo­gists, till it is almost worn thread-bare, yet we will take leave to shew you only some few select things, which for Methods sake, we shall reduce to these three Heads: viz. 1st. It is shown, That man using expeditiously and freely the Powers of the Superiour Soul, of the Intellect, Judgment, Discourse, and other Acts of Reason, shews them far excelling any Faculty or Science of the Brute,How both Souls are joyned in Man, and and the whole power of the Corporeal Soul. 2. By what Knitting the Corporeal Soul, and the Rational are joyned together, in the Hu­mane Body, by what means they agree in the same habitation; also what offices they perform each.How they frequently disa­gree among themselves. 3. Shall be declared, for what means, and for what occasions these Souls differ among themselves, yea sometimes are wont to dissent and move more than Civil Wars.

The Priority of the Rational Soul as toThe eminency of the Rational Soul above the Brutal or Corporeal, shines clearly by comparing either, both as to the Objects, and to the chief Acts or Modes of Know­ing. As to the former, when as every Corporeal Faculty is limited to sensible things, and every one of these to certain Kinds of things,The Objects which are E­very Ens. the object of the humane Mind is eve­ry Ens, whether it be above, or sublunary, or below the Moon, Material or Immaterial, true or fictitious, real or Intentional; wherefore Aristotle, who seemed to hesitate some­thing about the Nature of the Rational Soul, hinting its acting Intellect as if it were Im­material and Immortal, doth pronounce it not only separable and without Passion, but also unmixt because it understands all things. Lib. de Animâ 3. Cap. 4.

The Acts of Knowing. The first Act of either Soul is simple Appre­hension.Secondly, The Acts or degrees of Knowledg, Common to either Soul, are Vulgar­ly accounted these three. To wit, simple Apprehension, Enunciation, and Discourse; how much the Power of the Rational, excells the other Corporeal in each, we shall consider:

The power of this in Brutes is Phantasie or Imagination.First, The Knowing Faculty of the Corporeal Soul is Phantasie or Imagination, which being planted in the middle part of the Brain, receives the Sensible Species, first only impressed on the Organs of sense, and from thence by a most quick Irradiation of the spirits delivered inwards, and so apprehends all the several corporeal things, accor­ding to their Exterior Appearances;Which is often deceived. which notwithstanding, as they are perceived only by the sense (which i [...] often deceived) they are admitted under an appearing, and not always under a true Image or Species. For so we Imagine the Sun no bigger than a Bushel, the Horizon of the Heaven and the Sea to meet, and then the Stars not to be far distant from us in the Horizon, and that in respect of us, there are no Antipodes; fur­ther we may think the Image in the Glass, or in a Fountain delineates it self, that the Eccho it self is a Voyce coming from some other place, that the shore moves being on the water, yea and many other things, being received by the Sensories, whilst Phantasie is the only guide seem far otherways than indeed they are:In man it is the Intellect presi­ding or'e the I­magination. But indeed, the Intellect presi­ding o're the Imagination, beholds all the Species deposited in it self, discerns and [Page 39] corrects their obliquities or hypocrisies the Phantasie there drawn forth sublimes, and divesting it from matter formes universal things from singulars;Which discerns the errors of this. moreover, it frames out of these some other more sublime Thoughts, not Competent for the Corporeal Soul: so it speculates or Considers both the nature of every substance, and abstracted from the Individuals of Accident,Sublimates its notions, & di­vests them from Matter. viz: Humanity, Ratiotinality, Temperance, Fortitude, Corporeity, Spirituallity, Whiteness, and the like; besides, being carried higher, it Con­templates God, Angels, It self, Infinity, Eternity, and many other notions, far remote from Sense and Imagination. And so as our Intellect, in these kind of Metaphysical Conceptions, makes things almost wholly naked of matter, or carrying it self beyond every sensible Species, consider or beholds them wholly immaterial, this argues certainly, that the Substance or Nature of the Rational Soul is Immaterial and Immortal:Contemplates immaterial Substances. Because, if this Aptness or Disposition were Corporeal, as it can conceive nothing Incorporeal by Sence, it should suspect there were no such thing in the World.

Secondly,The Second Act of either Soul is Enunciation. It appears clearly, from what was said before, that Phantasie, or the Know­ing facultie of the Corporeal Soul, doth not only apprehend simple things, but also Compose or Divide many things at once, and from thence to make enuntiations: Be­cause living Brutes, in various objects together, which are for food, discern things Con­venient from others Inconvenient or unfit; moreover, they choose out of these, things grateful before others less grat [...]ful, and get them sometimes by Force, sometimes by Cunning, and as it were by stealth. A Dog knows a Man at a great distance; if he be a Friend, he runs to him and fawns on him; If an Enemy and fearful, he barks at him or flies at him, but if armed or threatning him, he flyes away from him. These kind of Propositions the Brutes easily conceive,What and how slender this is in Brutes. for as much as some Species of the sensible thing being newly admitted, meets with Species of one thing or other before laid up in the memory, or being suggested by a Natural Instinct, associates with them or repulses them. But indeed, how little is this, in respect of the humane Intellect? which not only beholds all enunciations conceived by the phantasie, but judges them, whether they be true or false, Congruous or Incongruous; orders and disposes them into Series of Notions, accommodated to speculation or practise: Moreover, it restrains the phan­tasie it self, being too instable and apt to wander through various phantasies; it calls it away from these or those Conceptions,The rational judges, discerns, and directs the propositions of the Phantasie. and directs it to others, yea it keeps it within certain limits at its pleasure, lest it Should expatiate or divert too much from the thing proposed: Which out of doubt is a sign that there is a Superior Soul in Man, that moderates and governs all the faculties and Acts of the Corporeal. But the Intellect, not only eminently Contains every Virtue of the phantasie;It deduces from these others more sublime thoughts. but from the Species per­ceived in it, deduces many other thoughts altogether unknown to the sense, and which the Phantasie of it self could no way Imagine. For Besides, that it conceives the for­mal notions of Corporeal things, abstracted from all matter, and attributes to them prae­dicates meerly Intentional yea and understands axioms or first principles alone, and as it were by a proper Instinct,It beholds it self by a reflect­ed Action. without recourse to Corporeal Species; the humane mind also beholds it self, by a reflected Action, it supposes it self to think, and thence Know­ing a proper existency, not to be perceived neither by Sense nor by Phantasie; when in the mean time, neither Sense nor Imagination (of which no Images are extant) do per­ceive it self to know or imagine:And Contem­plates other things remote from sense, as God &c. Besides these, the Rational Soul comprehends, as it were by its own proper light, God to be Infinite and Eternal, that he ought to be Wor­shipped, that Angels or Spirits do inhabit the World, Heaven, and places beneath the Earth, that there are places of Beatitude, and Punishment, and many other notions meerly Spiritual, by no means to be learnt from Sense or Phantasie.

3. The perogatives of the Rational Soul,The Ratiocina­tion of the Brute, what and how vile. and the differences from the other Sensi­tive or Corporeal, may be yet further noted, by Comparing the Acts of Judgment and Discourse, or Ratiocination, which it puts forth more perfectly, and often time demonstra­tively, when these Kind of Acts, from this power in the Brutes, are drawn forth imper­fectly, and only analogically, we have already declared the utmost that Brutes can do, and how far they can go towards the exercise of Reasoning and Deliberation, through innate faculties,The humane Mind immensly more excellent. and acquired habits; which truly, if the whole be compared with the functions of the humane Intellect, and its Scientifick Habits, it will hardly seem greater than the drop of a Bucket, to the Sea. For to say nothing of that natural Logick, by which any one endoued with a free and perspicacious mind,Is imbued with a natural Lo­gick. probably and sometimes most certainly concludes, Concerning all doubtfull things, or things sought after, if that we mind how much the humane mind being adorned by Learning, and having learnt the Sciences and liberal Arts, is able to work, understand, and search out; it would be thought, tho in an Humane Body, to be rather living with Gods or Angels. For indeed here may be Considered, the whole Encyclopaedia or Circle of Arts and Sciences, which [Page 40] excepting Divinity) hath been the Product or Creature of the Humane Mind, and in­deed argues the Workman if not divine,It hath Crea­ted all Arts & Sciences (except Theologie) at least to be a particle of Divine Breath, to wit, a Spiritual Substance, wonderfully Intelligent, Immaterial, and which therefore for the future is Immortal. It would be tedious here to rehearse the Subtil Wiles of Logick, and the extremely curious web of Notions,Logick. or of the Reason of Essences, or Beings, where the things of Natural Philosophy being unfolded by their Causes,Physick. are dissected as it were to the Life; the most pleasant Speculations, the profound Theorems or rather Cele­stial, of the Metaphysicks or supernatural things;Metaphysicks. yea and the grand Mysteries of other learning first found out by humane Industry. But above the rest, is it not truly ama­zing to see the most certain Demonstrations of the Mathematicks,Mathematicks. and therefore a-Kin and greatly alluding to the Humane Mind, its Problems and Riddles how difficult soever to be extricated, with no labour, yea and many things of it attained, and most glorious Inventions.Algebra. What is it below a Prodigy, that Algebra from one Number or Dimensi­on, which at first was uncertain and unknown, being placed, should find out the quantity of another altogether unknown? What shall I say concerning the Proportions of a Circle, a Triangle, a Quadrangle, and other Figures, and of their Sides or Angles various­ly measurable among themselves, being most exactly computed? what besides, that the Humane Intellect having learnt the Precepts of Geometrie and Astronomie, takes the spaces of inaccessible places,Admirable things of Geo­metry and A­stronomy. and their heights, the floor or breadth of any superficies, and the contents of solids, yea the dimensions of the whole Earthly Globe: measures ex­actly the spaces of hours and days, the times of the year, the Tropicks, by the progress only of a shadow? yea it measures the Orbs, Magnitudes, and Distances of the Sun and Starrs, for a long time to come, Calculates, and exactly Foretells, their risings and set­tings, motions, declinations, and Aspects one to another; we should want time, should we go about to enumerate the several portentous things, either of the practice or specula­tion in the Mathematicks.The humane Mind does wonders in me­chanical Things. Then, if passing over to Mechanical things, We shall consi­der the several Works and Inventions of Workmen, and the artificial Smiths-Works won­derfully made, there will be no place for doubting, but that the humane Soul, which can so famously understand, invent, and find out, and effect, I had almost said, Create things so stupendious, must needs be far above the Brutal, Immaterial and Immortal; especially because Living Brutes obtain only a few and more simple Notions and Intentions of Acting, yea and those always of the same Kind, and not determinated but to one Thing, altogether ignorant of the Causes of things, and know not Rights or Laws of political Society: further, they make no Fires or Houses, nor find out any me­chanical Arts, they put not on cloaths, nor dress their food, yea unless taught by Imita­tion, they know not how to number Three.In respect of Man, how little is it that the Soul of a Brute Can do? When therefore we have plainly detected in Man, besides the Corporeal Soul, such as is Common with Brutes, the prints of ano­ther superiour, meerly spiritual, we shall next seek out by what bond, and by what necessitude, these twins are conjoyned, and intimately come together, in the same Body.

Some of those, who have shew'd the difference, between the Souls of the Brute and of Man, affirming the Irrational or Corporeal peculiar to them, would have the Ratio­nal Soul of Man, to perform not only the Offices of the Intellect and Discourse, but also the other Offices of Sense and Life, yea to do and administer the whole Oeconomy of Nature: To which opinion (however it may have prevailed in our Schools) the opinions of most learned men of every Age has been clearly opposite.That there are two distinct Souls in Man besides many other of latter Time there are for Authors That I may not be tedious, in rehear­sing of many, I shall cite only two Authors (but either of which is worth a Multitude) in the Confutation of this Assertion. One is, that famous Philosopher, Peter Gassendus, who Physic. Sect. 3. lib. 9. Cap. 11. differencing the Mind of Man, as much as he could, from that other Sensitive Power of his, by many and very remarquable notes of discrimi­nation, yea (as 'tis said in the Schools) by Specifick Differences,Gassendus he has (as they say) divided the whole Heaven between: Because when he had shewed this to be Corporeal, Extensive, and also Nascible or that may be born, and Corruptible, he saith that the other was an Incorporeal Substance, and therefore Immortal, which is Created mediately by God, and infused into the Body; which opinion he shews Pythagoras, Plato, Aristotle, and many ancient Philosophers, besides Epicurus, very much to have favoured; excepting how­ever, that they, for as much as they not knowing the beginning of the Soul they judged Immortal, affirmed it, taken from the Soul of the world, to slide into the humane Body, and it to be refunded again either immediately into that Soul of the World, or mediately at length, after a Transmigration thorow other Bodies. The other suffrage concerning this matter is, of the most Learned Divine, our Dr Hammond, who unfolding that Text of St Paul to the Thessalonians, And Hammond. 1 chap. 5. v. 23. The whole Body Soul and Spirit: says, that man is divided into three parts, to wit, First into the body, which is the Flesh and Members: [Page 41] Secondly, Into an Animal Life, which also being Animal and Sensitive, is common to Man with the Brutes; And Thirdly, into Spirit, by which is signified the rational Soul, at first Created by God, which being also Immortal, returns to God, Lib. Annot. on the New Testament, p. 711. He Confirms this his Exposition, by Testimonies taken from Ethnick Authors, also from the Fathers. And truly it is most evidently plain, from what hath been said, That Man is made, as it were an Amphibious Animal, or of a mid­dle Nature and Order, between Angels and Brutes, and doth Communicate with both, with these by the Corporeal Soul, from the Vital Blood, and heap of Animal Spirits, and with those by an intelligent,This also Rea­son dictates. immaterial, and immortal Soul. And indeed, Reason persuades us plainly that 'tis so, to wit, for as much as we find in our selves, as by and by shall be more fully shown, the Strifes and Dissentions of one Soul with another, sometimes this,The Rational Soul does not exercise the A­nimal Faculties. and sometimes that getting the Rule, or being in Subjection. But as it is said, That the Rational Soul doth exercise of it self all the Animal Faculties, is most improbable; because the Acts and Passions of all the Senses, and Animal Motions are Corporeal, being divided and extended to various Parts; to the performing which im­mediately, the incorporeal and indivisible Soul seems unable, so that it would be finite. Then as to what respects that Vulgar Opinion, that the Sensitive Soul is subordinate to the Rational, and is as it were swallow'd up of it, as that which in Brutes is the Soul, is mere Power in Man;Obliterates not the Sensitive Soul by its Com­ing. Nor transmutes it into a mere Power. these are trifles of the Schools. For how should the Sensitive Soul of Man, which subsisting at first in Act, was material and extended, foregoing its Essence at the coming of the Rational Soul, degenerate into a mere Quality? if that it should be asserted, That the Rational Soul by its coming, doth introduce also Life and Sensa­tion, then Man doth not generate an animated Man, but only an inform Body, or a rude lump of Flesh.

Therefore,By what Bond the Rational Soul is united to the Body. supposing that the Rational Soul, doth come to the Body first animated by another Corporeal Soul, we shall inquire, by what Bond or Knitting, since it is pure Spirit, it can be united to it, for as much as it hath not Parts, by which it might be ga­thered to, or cohere with this whole, or any of its Parts. Concerning this, I think we may say,That the Corpo­real Soul is the Subject of the Rational. Gass. Physic. Sect. 3. Memb. Post l. 9. c. 11. with the most Learned Gassendus, That the Corporeal Soul is the immediate Subject of the Rational Soul, of which, as she is the Act, Perfection, Complement, and Form by her self, the Rational Soul also effects the Form, and Acts of the humane Body. But for as much, as it seems not equal nor necessary, that the whole Corporeal Soul, should be employed by the whole Rational; therefore we may affirm, this purely Spiritual, to sit as in its Throne, in the principal Part or Faculty of it, to wit, in the Imagination, made out of an handful of Animal Spirits, most highly subtil, and seated in the Middle or Marrowie part of the Brain: Because, when as the Species, or every sensible Im­pression, of which we are any ways Knowing, being inflicted any where on the Humane Body, is carried to the Imagination or Phantasie, and there all the Appetites or Spon­taneous Conceptions, or Intentions of things to be done, are excited, the Intellect or Humane Mind, presiding in this Imperial seat, easily performs the Government of the whole Man.Gassend. Ibid. For (as Gassendus properly has it) As there is no necessity for a King, to be in his whole Kingdom, but only in his Palace, to which place, are carried whatever happens in the Kingdom; The Seat or Pa­lace of the Hu­mane Mind, is in the Phantasie. so the Phantasie is the Kingly Palace of the Intellect, to which may be brought what­soever are acted Spontaneously and to our Knowledge, in the whole Body. But as to what has relation to the Functions merely Natural, which being done by a constant manner of Oeconomy, as it were by a Law from the Creator, are performed unknown to the Ani­mal, it were not fit, that the Imagination, much less the Intellect, should attend on these lower Offices: althô also, the faults of these, as often as they are amiss, lying hid to the Imagination, the Intellect most often finds them out, and procures them to be amended.The manner by which the Phan­tasms are be­hold by the In­tellect, viz. In­tuition, not Per­culsion. The Rational Soul is inclined to the Body. As to the Mode of the Intellect, by which the Phantasms of all sensible Things being drawn in the Imagination, is beheld, it may be said, That this is done not by perculsion from the Corporeal Species, (for this is repugnant to the Corporeal Faculty) but by an Intuition into it self, expressed in the Phantasie. But as the Rational Soul, will stay and preside in the Court of the Phantasie, there is no need that she should be shut out from thence, or bound by any Bond; because destinated to this by the most high Creator, to wit, that it should be the informing Form of Man; and also her self is very much inclined, to the Inhabiting this House; because, whil'st in the Body, it de­pends very much, as to its Operation, on the Phantasie, without the help of which, it can know or understand nothing.The Intellect de­pends upon the Phantasie. For it draws its first Species and fundamental Idaea's, by which it rears all its manner of Knowledge, from the Imagination; wherefore, that the Mind of one Man understands more, and reasoneth better, than that of ano­ther, it does not thence follow, that Rational Souls are inequal, but every disparity, concerning the Intellect, proceeds immediately from the Phantasie, but mediately and principally from the Brain, being variously disposed. For as this being affected, by an [Page 42] Intemperate or Evil Conformation,By reason of the various Consti­tution of this, and the Brain, Souls seem un­equal. the Spirits being made more dull, or hindred, can­not irradiate and actuate in their due manner; therefore the Phantasms are diffi­cient or distorted, and the Faults or Vices of these infects the Intellect. Hence it very often happens, by reason of some hurt coming to the Brain, that the Faculties or Habits, or Ratiocination or Reasoning, howsoever strong, are diminished or taken away: Be­cause, as the most Skilful Gassendus tell us, That the acquisition and loss of an habit, stands in the Power of the Brain and Phantasie, a subject purely Corporeal; but that the Intellect, as it wants Parts, cannot be wrought upon by Parts, but that it is from the beginning, and of its own Nature, a full and perfect power of understanding; which understands, not more by the coming of any Habit, but is rather it self an Habit, always ready to understand: where­fore he says, How the Ha­bits of Reason­ing are acqui­red and perfor­med. that Aristotle has hit the mark, when he says, that his Agent having its Intel­lect, as it were a Light, had it therefore as it were a certain Habit: to wit, when this Intel­lect, as it were a Light, is ever ready to illustrate; therefore it would have it self like to an Habit, in a Workman or Artist, to whom, when you give an Organ or Instrument, as an Harp to an Harper, he is presently ready to Play; by which it comes to pass, as he says, the Intellect also to come under such a Reason, like as Art comes under Reason, as to Matter: So we may say, As an Harper has in himself the Skill of Playing on the Harp, and if he shews not his Art, there is a defect, not of himself, but by reason of the absence or the depraved disposition of the Harp; Gassendus, Ib. after the same manner, the Intellect is aboundantly In­structed, in its own Nature, that it understands, and uses Phantasies, and if it may not do it, the cause is not in it self, but is either in the absence of the Phantasms, or their Imperfection. For indeed, as the same Author afterwards adds, The chief Function of the Humane Intel­lect seems to be like that of the Angels, that it is of its own Nature, merely Intelligent, that is, Knowing things by a simple Sight, not by Ratiocination; But that darkness is poured on it dwelling in the Body, that it doth not perceive all that it understands, simply, nakedly, and as it were through the means of Intuition; but attains it very much by reasoning, that is, successively, and proceeding as it were by degrees.

From these we may probably Conclude, or at least Conjecture, after what manner the Rational Soul remains in the other Corporeal, and using as it were its Eyes, and other Powers, understands; yea, and this mediating or coming between, she is said to be united to the Body, and to be its informing Form. As to the first yoaking of the one Soul with the other, thô the Rational Soul it self, and this, is altogether ignorant of its Birth, we may affirm notwithstanding,That the Ratio­nal Soul is Cre­ated and poured in [...]o the formed Body. what is Consonant to Holy Faith, right Reason, and to the Authority of Divines, who were of the chiefest note; That this immaterial Soul, for as much as it cannot be born, as soon as all things are rightly disposed for its Recep­tion, in the Humane formation of the Child in the Womb, it is Created immediately of God, and poured into it.

Not propagated Ex traduce.But that some have said, That the Rational Soul is propagated Ex traduce or of its Kind, for as much as oftentimes the Son, in respect of Wit, Temperament, Ingenui­ty, the Affections, and other Animal Faculties, is exactly like the Father, it follows not; because these Gifts and Offices proceed immediately from the Corporeal Soul, which we grant to be begotten by the Father, together with the Body, but not the Rational Soul. In what State this at last exists, being freed from the Body, and what Kind of Understanding and Knowledge it enjoys, is not easie to be determined; but since we shall be like the Angels,Separate States. we may think, that the separated Soul doth see all Ob­jects with a Simple sight, and by no Corporeal Species, and wants no Ratiocination, for the discovering any thing lying hid in them. But this Speculation being let alone, as too airy, we shall further Consider, other Gestures and Manners of the Rational Soul, whil'st it lives in the Body; and as hitherto we have seen the Marrying together of it, with the Corporeal Soul, and the mutual Commerces and Friendships as to the Knowing Faculties of either, we will now consider the Disputes and Wranglings of these,A Plurality of Souls in Man, is manifest by their differen­ces. which in respect of their Powers, often happen: because the Intellect and Imagi­nation, do not agree in so many things; but that it, and the Sensitive appetite, are wont to disagree in more: from which Strifes may further be argued, the distinct means of the aforesaid Souls, both as to their subsisting and working.

In Man a two­fold Knowing Power, and a twofold Appe­tite.3. As there is said to be in Man a twofold Knowing Power, viz. The Intellect and the Imagination, so it is commonly affirmed, that there is a twofold Appetite, viz. The Will, which proceeding from the Intellect, is the Handmaid of the Rational Soul; and the Sen­sitive Appetite, which cleaving to the Imagination, is the Hand or Procuress of the Cor­poreal Soul. Which Opinion, thô it be founded on the Sayings of the Ancient Philo­sophers; for that by Plato and Aristotle, The Will is attributed to the Rational Part, and to the Irrational Lust and Wrath; yet it ought not to be so taken, as if the Rational Soul, for that it is immaterial, and therefore esteemed without Affection, should be obnoxious to the Affections of desires or aversations, from every shaking approach of Good or [Page 43] Evil,The Rational Soul of it self without Affe­ctions; how it g [...]verns and or­ders the Phan­tasie and Affe­ctions. of that being turbulent; for this indeed is repugnant to its incorporeal Nature, and to its Dignity and Prerogative above other Powers. Without doubt, in the Con­templation of Truth and Goodness, and especially of that which is the sum of either, in the doing of good Works, in the Knowl [...]dge of things by their Causes, and in the Exercises of Habits, both Scientifick and Practical, great Complacency happens to this; and on the contrary a certain displeasure for the want of these. Moreover, the Love of God, of Virtue, and of all that is good, and the detestation of Vices, and of wicked Men; yea, and other pure Affections, and such as are Simple, coming without pertur­bation or trouble, belong to the Rational Soul: In the mean time, That she (according to Plato) like the top of Olympus, might enjoy a perpetual Serenity, hath the whole [...]eap of Perturbations below it self, and in the irrational part, placed like Clouds, Winds, and Thunder, in an inferior Region, and under its feet. And truly, all the vehement Affections or Per­turbations of the Mind, by which it is wont to be moved, and inclined hither and thither, for the Prosecuting the Good, or shunning Evil, belong wholly to the Corporeal Soul, and are seen to obtain the same seat with the Phantasie, within the middle or marrowy part of the Brain: (by what means the Passions also affect the Praecordia by consent, shall be declared afterwards) in the mean time, the Intellect, even as it beholds all the Phan­tasms, and Orders and Rules them at its pleasure; so it not only perceives, but whil'st it is its self, governs and moderates, all Concupiscences, and Floods of Passions, that are wont to be moved also within the Phantasie; and so, as it approves these Affe­ctions, and rejects those, now excites others, now quiets them, or directs them to their right ends, the Rational Soul it self is said to exercise certain Acts of the Will or Power, by these kind of Dictates of hers, and that she her self wills or wills not, the same thing, which by her Permission or Command, the Sensitive Appetite desires or hates.

But the Corporeal Soul does not so easily obey the Rational in all things,In things to be Known, the Cor­poreal Soul obeys the Rational, but not in things to be done. The Corporeal Soul inclining her self to the Flesh, not so in things to be desired, as in things to be known: for indeed, she being nearer to the Body, and so bearing a more intimate Kindness or Affinity towards the Flesh, is tied wholly to look to its Profit and Conservation: to the Sedulous Care of which Office, it is very much allured, by various Complacences, exhibited through the Objects of every Sense: Hence she being busied about the Care of the Body, and apt by that pretext, its natural Inclination, and indulging Pleasures, most often grows deaf to Reason, perswading the contrary. Further, the lower Soul, growing weary of the yoak of the Other, if occa­sion serves, frees it self from its Bonds, affecting a License or Dominion; and then there may plainly be seen the Twinns striving in the same Womb, or rather a Man clearly distracted or drawn several ways, by a double Army planted within himself; to wit,

—Where Ensigns Ensigns meet,
Fights against the Rational.
And where with Arms, they one another threat;

This Kind of Intestine Strife, does not truly cease, till this or that Champion becoming Superior, leads the other away clearly Captive. Althô in the mean time, to the Esta­blishing the Empire of the Rational Soul, also for the Vindicating of its Right and Prin­cipality, from the Usurpation of the Sensitive Soul, the Precepts of Philosophers, and Moral Institutes are framed; and when these can do little, Sacred Religion gives far more potent helps, whose Laws and Precepts being rightly observed, are able to carry Man,How it is re­duced to Obe­dience. not only beyond the Brutes, but himself, to wit, above his Natural State; for as much as they subject the Sensitive Soul to the Rational, and both to the most high God. But yet, such a Divine Politie is not erected in Man, without great Contention: Be­cause, whil'st Reason using its proper force, and also Institutes and Sacred Ethicks, en­deavours to draw the Faculties of the Corporeal Soul to its Party, she rising against it, adheres pertinaciously to the Flesh, and is hardly pull'd away from its Blandishments; yea,It often seduces the Mind. what is to be lamented, it seduces in us the Mind or Chief Soul, and snatches it away with it self, to role in the Mud of Sensual Pleasures: So that Man becomes like the Beast, or rather worse; to wit, for as much as Reason becoming Brutal, leads to all manner of Excess. But indeed, 'tis not always so with the Empire of the Mind, but that she returning at length, sometimes on her own accord, or awakened by some occasion, and knowing of its [...]all, arises up against the Sensitive Soul, as against an Enemy or Traitor,Wars are moved between them. casting her out of her Throne, commands her to Servitude; yea, sometimes by reason of some wickedness committed, it compels it to torment it self, and its Lover the Flesh, and so to expiate as much as it may, its faults, by inflicting on it proper Pu­nishments. Indeed,Affections of Conscience nigh to Man. these kind of Acts and Affections of Conscience, near to Man, plainly shews, that there is in him either two Souls subordinately, or at least the Parts of the same are far different; to wit, when one of which oppos [...]s the other, and either strives for the obtaining of Proselytes, it happens that Man is hurried into contrary En­deavours, and is acted little less than like a Daemoniack possess'd with a Legion. But [Page 44] having proposed these things, concerning the Rational Soul, (which we have touch'd only by the by, as besides our purpose) we will return to the Corporeal, and as we have illustrated its Essence, Hypostasis, and Integral Parts, we shall now descend to the Ex­plaining of its Affections, or Passions.

But in the mean time, as we have shewn, by comparing the Corporeal Soul of the Brute, with the Rational of Man, what vast difference there is between them, perhaps it might be to the purpose, to compare the Brains of either, and to observe their diffe­rences. But this Anatomy being elsewhere made, we have noted little or no difference, in the Head of either, as to the Figures and Exterior Conformations of the Parts, the Bulk only excepted; that from hence we concluded, the Soul Common to Man with the Brutes, to be only Corporeal, and immediately to use these Organs. But as we have shewn the description of a Sheeps Brain, dissected within the Cortex, and as it were made bare of Flesh, whereby all the Interior Parts might appear, we shall here also, to Crown the work, give you the Figure of an Humane Brain; so as all the inward Parts may be laid open.

The Eighth Table,

Contains a new Anatomy of the Humane Brain, where, by a Dissection with an Instru­ment made thorow the Bill, the Callous Body, and the Fornix or Arch, and their Parts being taken away and separated; the streaked Bodies, also the Optic and Orbicular Prominences, one side erased, and the other whole and plain, are Ex­hibited.

  • A. A. A. A. The Hemisphear of the Brain divided and separated by themselves.
  • B. B. B. B. Portions of the Callous Body with the Fornix cut off, and removed apart.
  • C. The Basis of the Fornix, with its Roots, which cohered with its Trunk Y Y; divided Por­tions of which, with Cuttings off of the Callous Body, are laid apart on the right and left hand.
  • D. One streaked Body scraped or Erased, that the Medullary streakes or nervous Tracts may appear.
  • E. The formost border of this Body, sticking to the right Hemisphear of the Callous Body.
  • F. G. The Basis and the Cone, of the same Body.
  • H. The hinder Border of the same, in which the Optick streaks, yea and other Medullary Pro­cesses, are sent from the Orbicular Prominences.
  • I. The streaked Body of the left-side plain, with the Vessels creeping thorow them; whose Borders and Ends are made after the same as in the right.
  • K. The right Optick Chamber erased, whose Medullary streaks, being strait and thick set, K.K. are stretch'd forth, into the Border of the streaked Body.
  • L. The right Nati-form Prominence in like manner erased, with streaks stretched forth into the Medullary Process M.
  • M. The Medullary Process, which proceeding from the Testes, and compassing about the Nates, sends from thence other Medullary passages into the streaked Body, as more plainly ap­pears in the left side being whole.
  • N. The Pineal Kirnel in its proper place.
  • O. O. The Orbicular Prominences called Testes, Marrowy thorow the whole.
  • P. The left Nati-form Prominence plain and whole, which is smaller in Man, and for the most part Marrowy.
  • Q. A Medullary Process, Compassing the Nates, from which is sent one Medullary Pipe or passage R. towards the Cone of the streaked Body, and another S. towards its Basis; of which by and by a forked branch goes forth, one r. to the middle of the streaked Body, the other s. to the corner of its Basis.
  • T. A Transvers shoot knitting together the aforesaid Branches.
  • V. The hinder Borders of the streaked Bodies, joyned together among themselves.
  • W. The Gap or Chink leading to the Tunell.
  • X. The Gap or Chink, leading into the Cavity, lying under the Orbicular Prominences.
  • Y. A Medullary Process, leading from the Oblong Marrow, into the Cerebel, which seems to be the root of this.
  • Z. Z. Separated Portions of the Cerebel cut off, that its Tracts both Marrowy, and Cortical or Barkie, may be seen.
  • X. The Cavity or hollowness lying under the Cerebel.

[Page]

[...] 44 Tabula VIII

CHAP. VIII.

Of the Passions of Affections of the Corporeal Soul in General.

THe whole Corporeal Soul,A Twofold state of the Corporeal Soul: Tranquil or Quiet, so long as she is quiet and undisturbed, she is fittted to her proper Body equally, as to a certain Chest or Cabbinet, and waters all its Parts gently, both with little Rivulets of Blood Circulating, and actuates and inspires them every where with a gentle falling down of the Animal Spirits; But it sometimes happens, that the whole Constitution of this same Soul, is so shaken and moved, that both the Blood being interrupted in its equal Circule,And Disturbed. is compelled into irregular Excursions, and Recursions, and various Fluctuations; and also, that the Animal Spirits being snatched hither and thither,In which either part of the Soul is moved. inordinately perform the Acts of their Functions: yea, the Animal Spirits themselves, whil'st being moved irregularly, do shake the Praecordia, and flow into them in an undue manner, cause the Course of the Blood more to be perverted. Fur­ther, from the Corporeal Soul being disturbed, not only the Animal Spirits, and Rivers of the Blood, are driven into disorders, but they induce alterations both to the other Hu­mors, and to very many Parts and Members of the Body, and to the Rational Soul it self, in Man. As there are manifold Examples of these kind of Perturbations, by which, the Corporeal Soul being too much swell'd up, or Contracted, or otherways distorted, it becomes as it were unequal, and not Conformable to the Body, the Chief of them may be referred to these two Heads.And is either too much inlarged, To wit, First, Sometimes this Soul, as it were leaping forth, erects and stretches out it self beyond measure, and so dilating its Hypo­stasis, desires to reach it self beyond the bound of the Body: Hence the Animal Spirits, being respectively moved, in the Brain, enlarge the Sphear of their Irra [...]iation, and as they so shake the Praecordia, by a more full inflowing, they Compel the Blood therefore to be snatched together,Or Contracted. and to be poured forth more freely into all the Parts. Se­condly, Sometimes on the contrary, this Soul being struck, is more narrowly Compressed within it self; so that being drawn inwardly, and sinking down within its wonted Com­pass of Emanation, becomes less than the Body; wherefore, the Animal Faculties won­derfully flagg, and their Acts are either sluggishly or perversly performed: Moreover, the Praecordia also being destitute of their due influx of Spirits, almost sink down, and suffer the Blood to stay too long there, and to stagnate oftentimes. There are besides some other Gestures of the aforesaid Soul, by which the same departing from its equal Expansion, becomes not Congruous to the Body; and in these kind of Cases, chiefly the Sensitive Power, according to the received Impressions, affects a new Species, and brings the Brain and Imagination into its Party:The Trouble of the Soul, im­pressed on the Sensitive Part, by and by is Communicated to the Blood. Then by and by, by the passage of the Nerves, it affects the Praecordia, as it were with a certain stroke, and determinates them after her measure; so that according to the Idea received from the Imagination, the Motion of the Blood is Composed, as it were after the measures of a Dance: we shall add anon Instances and Examples of these, when we shall treat of the Passions parti­cularly.

In the mean time, that we may inquire into the Causes of the Passions in general, it plainly appears from what hath been said, that the Corporeal Soul is found under a two­fold state, to wit, either of Quiet or Commotion: That she is like a Calm Sea, with a smooth Superficies, and squared altogether gentle and serene; or she becomes trou­bled, like water shaken into various Circles, and wavings by the blasts of the Winds, or by some solid things cast into it. The former state of the Soul is perceived, not only in Sleep, when the Spirits are bound up, or lye quiet of themselves; but often in Waking, to wit,The quiet of the Soul happens not only in sleep, but often waking, when pleasing or unhurtful things are met with. On the Contrary when from the Objects, Good or Evil is promi­sed: Then first the Imagination af­terwards the Appetite is m [...] ­ [...]ed. as often as objects or sensible things, being brought from without, or imaginary things conceived within, do import nothing of Good or Evil to us, and that we only know and apprehend them: for so, without any Trouble or Molestation, they pleasantly slide into the common Sensory and Imagination, and thence quickly pass away; but if the object is offer'd under the Species of Good or Evil, presently the Sensitive Soul pre­pares for the embracing or the avoiding it; and not only procures to its Endeavors the Animal Spirits, but also the Blood and Humors; yea, draws the solid Parts to help her. For as soon as the Imagination conceives any thing that is to be embraced or shuned, presently the Appetite is formed by the Spirits inhabiting the Brain, ordered into a Se­ries; then by an impression sent to the Praecordia, as they are either dilated or contracted, the Blood is carried into various Motions of Fluctuations, and then by an instinct of the Appetite transmitted to the proper Nerves, the respective Motions are drawn forth: And upon these kind of Furnitures and Affection of the Spirits and Humors, and of the [Page 46] solid Parts, the Affections or Passions of the Mind wholly depend, we have elsewhere shewed, after what manner, and by what Trajection or Irradiation of the Spirits, with­in the Nervous Processes, such quick Commerces are made, between the Brain and the Praecordia, and between both these and other Motive Parts.

But that we may yet more fully describe the Affections or Passions of the Corporeal Soul, as they are chiefly to be found in Man, it is here to be noted, That not every Spe­cies or Appearance of Good or Evil, does excite these Commotions of the Soul: because we behold undisturbed the prosperous or adverse things of others, not related to us: But further, 'tis requisite that the Goodness or the Malice of the Object belongs properly to a Man, althô what happens to our Friends or Relations, is as if it happened to our selves. Also besides,The Reason of Good and of E­vil, either con­cerns, The Corporeal Soul by it self. Or her united to the Body, Or her subjected to the Rational Soul. Hence Passions are called either Physical, Meta­physical, or Cor­poreal. Good and Evil happen to the same Man after various ways, and under a di­verse reason, both in respect of the Object, and also in respect of the Subject. Concern­ing the former we shall speak anon: As to the other, Good or Evil being brought to Man, either respect the Corporeal Soul by it self, and as it were abstracted from any other Relation; or they respect her as conjoyned to the Body, and intimately dear to her: Or lastly, they respect her, as subdued by the Rational Soul; so indeed, althô the Affe­ction is continually poured into the Corporeal Soul, yet it respects Good or Evil, either of this, or that, or of another Subject, and is excited for the sake of that: And accord­ing to this threefold Relation of the Sensitive Soul, the Passions by which she is affected, are called either Physical, or Metaphysical, or Corporeal or Moral; we shall discourse singly, and a little more plainly of these.

First, Therefore, as to the Passions merely Physical, we say, That the Sympathies and Antipathies of a diverse Kind, which are as it were proper and intimate Affections, seem to belong to the Corporeal Soul by it self, and abstracted from all Relation: Besides, the highly attractive Species of Beauty and Fairness,Passions merely Physical, are Sympathies and Antipathies. by the sight of which this Soul is wont to be insnared, most certainly; so that neglecting the Care of the Body, and laying aside the dictates of Reason, cleaves most closely to her Lover: Also sometimes less fair things which every whole Man would forsake, snatches this Soul, drawn as it were by Witch­craft, and leads it Captive; as indeed, lost Lovers, though they see better things and approve them, yet follow the worse; the reason of which is, that the Sensitive Soul en­ters into Friendships, of which the Affections are not knowing, with certain things in Secret, and inseparably and firmly loves them. Concerning Antipathies we meet with many things to be admired, as some sensible Objects, innocent of themselves, yea and grateful enough to many Men, and sought with delight, become most horrid to some o­thers, and more Killing than the Head of Medusa at the sight only: So some abhor the presence of a Cat,Some Instances of Passions mere­ly Physical. others an Eel, or Toad, and others this or that Dish of meat made ready. Nor do they only fly things by the sight, but also received by the smell, yea, when they lye hid, and are not at all suspected, they suffer Swounings and Fainting of their Spirits, by their secret Influence: These Kind of Affections without doubt, pro­ceed from occult Enmities of the Sensitive Soul; for when it happens this Systasis or Disposition of the Animal Spirits, by the meeting of some Object, to be driven into Confusion, it ever after that abhors the coming of the same, or its Contact by its Effluvia's.

Passions Meta­physical.Secondly, Sometimes the Sensitive Soul receives the Superior Rational Passions, which we call Metaphysical; and solicitously busying it self concerning their Good and Evil, it either draws forth or shortens the Compass of its Expansion. For indeed, the Rational Soul relying on the help and familiarity of the Spirits dwelling in the Brain, aspires to Metaphysical Notions, which having more fully learnt, it not only falls upon higher Speculations, but also exerts a certain Superior Appetite, to wit, the Will, and impli­cates it with certain Affections, as it were inspired of God; the exercise of which sort of Sacred Affections are not performed by the mere Conceptions of the Mind:By these first the Rational Soul. But their Acts being delivered from the Rational Soul into the Sensitive, do first employ the Brain with the Phantasie, then being transmitted from the Brain into the Breast, there, for that they produce in the Heart and Blood variety of Motions,Then the Sensi­tive and San­guineous part of the other are af­fected. receive their Complement or Perfection: Wherefore, in the Worship of God, Piety and Devotion are attributed very much to the Heart: Hence Repentance, the Love of God, and Hate of Sin, Hope of Salvation, Fear of Divine Vengeance, and many other acts of Religion, are wont to be ascribed to the work and endeavour of the Heart. The reason of which seems to be, for as much as the whole Corporeal Soul is Commanded by the Rational Power, that in Adoring God, she should very much bow her self before the Deity, and as it were lye prostrate on the Ground; therefore, presently both Parts of it, viz. both the Sen­sitive and Flamy, do repress themselves, and restrain their wonted Emanations; hence plenty of Animal Spirits being drawn from the Phantasie, for the more full actuating the Organs of the Senses, they bestow the Operations of the Nerves on the Praecordia, [Page 47] which whil'st they are more straitly drawn together, and as it were constrain'd, cause the Blood to stay longer within the bosomes of the Heart; and so inhibit it, lest it should be too much inkindled within the Lungs, and lest being inkindled by the Heart, in the whole Body, and chiefly should be carried rapidly into the Brain. For indeed, the Blood containing Life as a most precious Jewel in it self, is not only heaped up more plentifully about the Praecordia, in all Fear and Danger, and is there lay'd up as it were for defence sake,Wherefore, and how the Prae­cordia are e­steemed the seat of Holy Affe­ctions. that it might better preserve its Flame: But further, in devout Affections, whil'st the Rational Soul orders the Spirits inhabiting the Brain into sacred Conceptions and No­tions; by the Influence of the same Spirits, the Bosomes of the Heart are also so affe­cted, that they cause the Blood to Centre, and to be more fully drawn into them, and there longer retain it, as it were an Holocaust to be offered to God: so as often as we Pray most earnestly, we endeavour nothing less, than that our Life with the Blood, be laid upon the Altar of the Heart. For truely, almost every body experiences in himself that in strong Prayer, the Blood is more and more heaped up in the Bosomes of the swelling Heart: wherefore, that the Vacuities of the Lungs might be supplied, we breath deeply, and so the Air being more fully drawn in, the Muscles of the Breast, and the Diaphragma, are detained almost in a continual Systole, or more often iterated; to wit, for this end, that the Vital Blood, to be offered as it were a Sacrifice to God, should be there kept, nor suffer'd to go from thence, or to be inlarged, till as it were by a long im­molation, together with Prayers, lieve may be had from the Godhead. Yea, 'tis to be observed, that those religiously affected, are apt at all times to call back the Blood to­wards the Praecordia, and to repress it from a more plentiful Excursion, which may give a loose to Delights or Mirth: Because 'tis just, that this Vital Humor should be Conserved, even Holy and Pure for God; and as it is so restrained in the Praecordia, lest it should grow too luxurious, nor be carried towards the Brain with too impetuous a Rapture, the Conceptions also of the Mind, without much heat and distraction of thoughts con­cerning Divine things:What it is to have the Heart hardened. Hence it is, that Drinking of Wine, Banquetting, and every Kind of Dissolute Life, because they render the Blood lawless, and not able to be re­strain'd or bridl'd, are said to make hard the Heart, and to obstruct the Duties of Reli­gion. Further, not only the devout Acts of Religion, and Pious Affections, are attri­buted to the Breast and Praecordia; but also the sober Counsels of Wise men, yea, and the Exercises of Virtues and Moral Habits, are ordinarily ascribed by Philosophers to this Seat or Subject: Hence Wise men are said to be Cordati, Hearty, or sage of Heart; but when one that is unwise or plainly foolish, doth a thing, it is said, That there is nothing leaps in the left part of his Breast:Wherefore the Praecordia are called also the seat of Prudence and Wisdom. The reason of which seems to be, that when as the Animal Spirits (which are the immediate Instruments of thoughts) are procreated alto­gether from the Blood, not only their more excellent disposition, but their right and timely Dispensation, depends chiefly on the Praecordia. For to these are owing, that the Blood be inkindled in its due manner, and also Eventilated, that it may give to the Brain firm and stable Animal Spirits, which however Subtil and Active, yet may not be vola­tile beyond measure; and hence the Solidity of the Mind, and the sharpness of Judgment are produced: When on the contrary, by reason of the Blood more slowly passing tho­row the Praecordia, or more swiftly than it should do, the Animal Spirits become too fixed, or volatile above measure, and therefore either a stupidity or lightness of Mind arises. But in truth, Wisdom is much rather ascribed to the Heart, for as much as from thence r [...]ins are put upon the Blood, apt for fiercenesses and Impetuosities, lest that rush­ing into the Brain, with an inordinate rapture, should not only disturb its serious Co­gitations, but stir up enormous Motions of the Appetite, and mad Lusts. For truely, whil'st the Spirits inhabiting the Brain, are disposed by the Intellect, from thence pre­siding within the Imagination, into Series and Orders of Notions, the Blood about to break forth from the Heart, ought very much to be restrained, lest that growing luxu­rious, it should confound all things by an importune evasion of the Brain, and should agitate the Spirits, called away from this work into Commotions, and various Fluctua­tions; wherefore, from the immoderate drinking of Wine, for as much as by it the Blood is made more head-strong, and will not be repressed or contained by the Heart, Men become not only unable for Exercising the Acts of Judgment and Reason; but are found very prone to all manner of Wickedness and most filthy Desires.

As to the Moral Passions,Three Corporeal or Moral Pas­sions. or by us called Corporeal, we may observe, that the Sensi­tive Soul is more often and easilyer affected, by reason of Good or Evil, which is of its Subject, that is of its Body, which includes its good Habit. Altho also, she hath her proper and occult Loves and Aversations, and is bound to shew due obsequiousness to the Rational Soul; for as much as it is united to the Body, as it were by a Conjugal Compact; therefore, all other relations being lay'd aside, it minds only this; Con­cerning the Care of it 'tis mostly solicitous, and by reason of its prosperous or adverse [Page 48] Affairs, it is wont to be affected with Pleasure or Grief, and other Passions depending on either of these.

For indeed (as we mentioned before) there are two Chief and Primary Gestures of the Sensitive Soul, as often as it is moved from its wonted and Natural State or Condition; to wit, either she stretches forth her self into a greater Compass, by profuse Pleasure, as if it affected to be dilated beyond the bounds of the Body: or be­ing overthrown by Sorrow or Grief, she is contracted more narrowly, and runs her self within the wonted Sphear of her Emanations: from this twofold Affection of the Sen­sitive Soul, all the other Passions take their Origine. For truly Pleasure, or an Elation of the Soul, is its most pleasing Constitution, which desiring to gain for it self by any means, it follows all Objects promising it, with Love, Desire, Hope, Faithfulness, Bold­ness, and other means of getting it;The two Pri­mary Gestures or Affections of the Soul, are Pleasure and Grief. On the contrary, Sadness or a Contraction or De­jection of this Soul, is a Gesture most ungrateful to it; what things then soever threaten or induce it, we endeavour to remove away far, by Fear, Hatred, Anger, Desperation, Shame, Pusillanimity, and other motions of shuning it. In the first place therefore, we will speak briefly of Pleasure and Grief, which are according to Aristotle, as it were a forked measure of the Sensitive Appetite, for the double Ladder of Affections, flowing thence, by which she is carried to this or that.

First, Pleasure and Grief, because they bend or incline the whole Corporeal Soul after a diverse manner; therefore its two roots, to wit, the Brain and Praecordia, are chiefly affected.They affect the two Roots of the Soul, to wit, the the Brain and the Praecordia. When the Soul is stretched forth in Pleasure, and is drawn to its utmost Sphear of Irradiation, the Animal Spirits being carried within the Brain, stir up most pleasant and pleasing Imaginations; and further, they actuating lively the Nervous Sy­stem, Cause the Eyes, Face, Hands, and all the Members to shine, and as it were leap forth; Further, then more fully shaking also the Praecordia, by the Influence of the Brain, delivered by means of the Nerves, they thrust forth the Blood more rapidly, and as a Flame more brightly inkindled, they pour it forth with strength thorow the whole Body. On the contrary in Grief, whil'st the Soul sinks down, contracted into a more narrow space, the Spirits inhabiting the Brain, as it were struck down by flight, and troubled, put on only sad and fearful Imaginations, from whence the Countenance is cast down, the Limbs grow feeble, and the Praecordia being contracted or bound together, by reason of the Nerves carrying the same affection from the Brain, restrain the Blood from its due Excursion, which being therefore heaped up in the same place, with a weight, brings in a troublesome oppression of the Heart, and in the mean time, the Exterior Parts being deprived of its wonted afflux, languish and Contract a paleness.

Grief and Plea­sure first of all arise from the Sense.The aforesaid Affections of Pleasure and Sadness, which is wont, the Imagination be­ing employed, to be poured from thence on the Praecordia, and by and by from that dou­ble Root into the whole Corporeal Soul; as to their first Originals, wholly depend upon the Sense. For from the beginning, Sensible Objects affect the Sensory with a certain sweet­ness or asperity, and there bring to the Spirits a certain Ovation or Triumph, or Confu­sion: from whence presently the Impression, like a waving of Waters, being Commu­nicated to the Brain, excites the Spirits inhabiting it, into a consent either of the delight or trouble; and this Affection, being delivered from the Sensory to the Imagination, if it be short, there ends, and is not carried to the Praecordia: but if the stroke, being car­ried from the Sensible Object, is, like a more strong waving of Waters, impressed more vehemently, it reaches from the Sensory to the Brain, and presently thence to the Breast, that the Motions of the Heart and Blood, are intangled together with the disorder of the Animal Spirits, so as to the first Conceptions of the Affections, as well as Notions, there is nothing in the Imagination, or I may rather say, there is nothing in the Brain or Heart,Afterwards, both from this, and also from the Phantasie, and Memory. that was not first in the Sense: But afterwards, when many Idea's of Pleasures and Griefs, are impressed on the Phantasie and Memory; then very often without any previous Sense, or feeling of Pleasure or Sadness, the Imagination being repeated, is wont to excite a Passion of the pleasant or troublesome thing; for when at any time we con­ceive in our Mind Good or Evil things belonging to us, not only present, but also past, or to come, that Conception employs the Phantasie, and not rarely very much exercises it: Further, being thence transmitted to the Breast, it inordinately either Contracts or Dilates the Breast, and so pours forth the Affection, together with the disturbed Blood, on the whole Body. A Wise and Strong man easily moderates the passions of Pleasure or Grief, lest these being brought, either from the Sensories, or suggested from the Me­mory, should affect the Phantasie and the Praecordia, by too great a waving; For the Brain and Heart,Some are more Pathetical, or moved than others. which are the supports of the Soul, ought not to be moved much, by the more light Objects of the Senses; nor are these principal Powers, at leisure to be pre­sent at every small thing: Hence some have born the torture of the Body, or the cut­ting off a Member, beyond Stoical Patience, undisturbed; whil'st others (in whom the [Page 49] sensible Species, being above measure increased, vehemently shakes the Praecordia) the Skin scarce wounded, swoon away, or fall into fainting Fits. In like manner it is ob­served, that some are carried away by a most light Pleasure of the Senses into softness and Luxury, in the mean time others are scarce moved with any Pomp of Delights, or Ex­quisite Blandishments of Pleasures. It is observ'd in the fruition of a pleasing Object (which also holds of the appulse of a pleasant, or a painful sensible thing) there happens a certain reciprocation, between the Spirits of the Brain, and the Inhabitants of the Sen­sory. We imagine the Drinking of excellent Wine, with a certain Pleasure, then we indulge it; the Imagination of its Pleasure is again sharpned by the taste, and then by a reflected Appetite drinking is repeated: So as it were in a Circle, the Throat or Appe­tite provokes the Sension, and the Sension causes the Appetite to be sharpned, and ite­rated; this Kind of mutual reciprocation of the Animal Spirits from the Brain to the Sensory,How the Affe­ctions are wont to be iterated, also how allay­ed or oblitera­ted. and on the contrary, persists for some time, till the same, like [...]waving of Wa­ter, either leisurely vanishes, or is obliterated, by the exciting of a new waving: So in­deed, Passions and Desires wear out themselves, or are consumed by time, or they are blotted out by the coming of some other Passion. When the Animal Spirits, desiring too much a sensible Delight, do often, and for a long time iterate and intend the Appetite, and Act of the pleasurable Sension, there is need of Reason to come be­tween, whereby they being changed into Sacred and Moral Meditations, may be called away from their Carnal Genius; which Avocation however, they obey not but difficult­ly and unwillingly; for as much as to be expanded, and to enjoy pleasing Objects, is the Recreation and Food of the Spirits; and to be restrained or kept in, and very much to be employed about the works of the Mind, is to them a Labour, and a diffi­cult task.

CHAP. IX.

Of the Passions Particularly.

COncerning the Number of the Passions,The Number of the Passions un­certain. as it hath been variously disputed among Phi­losophers, so in famous Schools, this Division into Eleven Passions, long since grew of use; to wit, the Sensitive Appetite is distinguished into Concupiscible and Irascible, to the first, are counted commonly six Passions viz. Pleasure and Grief, Desire and Aversion, Love and Hatred; but to the latter five, viz. Anger, Boldness, Fear, Hope, and Desperation, are wont to be attributed: But this distribution of the Affections is not only incongruous, for that Hope is but ill referred to the Irascible Appetite, and Hatred and Aversion, seem rather to belong to this, than to the Concupiscible: But it is also very insufficient, because some more noted Affections, as Shame, Pity, Emulation, Envy, and many others, are wholly omitted: Wherefore, the Ancient Philosophers did determinate the Primary to a certain Number, then they placed under their several Kinds, very many indefinite Species. Truely the Sensitive Soul, like a Proteus, is wont to be so diversly disturbed and altered, into manifold Kinds, with the various Fl [...]ctuation, and divers sorts of Inclination of the Animal Spirits, Blood, and other Humors, that a cense or view of all the Passions,Pleasure and what Affections are subordinate to it. Love, Hope, Boldness, &c. can scarce be had; But however, that these, if not all, at least the chief of them, may be in some measure discovered; we will here ordain Pleasure and Grief for the extreams, or the opposite bounds of the Inclinations of the Corporeal Soul, then we will consider, after what manner, the Objects belonging to ei­ther, by what means soever may be applied, and what sorts of Impressions they are wont to fix on the Spirits, Blood, and solid Parts. The Corporeal Soul therefore, affecting Pleasure as the greatest height of its felicity, in which it would acquiesce, is moved at the appearance of any Good: if it be to come, and contrary to opinion, by and by for the getting it, Desire or Love arises; if with Opinion, Hope and Boldness; if Opinion esteems Fruition hopeless, Desperation is raised up; if this Good be past, or should be lost by our default, Shamefacedness or Repentance is brought in; if it be possessed by others, Emulation, and Envy; Love is busied about it being taken absolute, without respect to time or possession. Besides also there are other respects and habitudes of appearing Good, able to excite many other Affections with ease.Grief with the Affections sub­ordinate to it. In like manner on the contrary side, Grief or Trouble, is a Sickness of the Sensitive Soul, and a Disposition very much in­grateful to it; wherefore, at all the Objects apparently threatning its Induction, the Soul [Page 50] variously Contracts her self, and is inclined hither and thither, that she might shun the approaches of the threatning Evils: wherefore there are so many Affections respecting Grief, and Subordinate to it, as there are means by which the Sensitive Soul, or the Disposition of the Spirits, composes her self for the shaking off or the shunning of any Evil.Hatred, Aver­sion, Fear, &c. Hatred is busied about Evil taken absolutely; that being absent, we prosecute with Aversion, by and by about to come with Fear; and unworthily brought, with An­ger; falling upon our selves, we sustain it with sadness; inflicted on our Friends, with Pity. There are besides, many other Appearances of approaching Evil; for the shun­ing of which, the Soul is compelled into many Metamorphoses, and at the same time draws into the like Gestures, as it were Mimical, the Humors and Members of the Body, and oftentimes the Rational Soul it self: As it would be a business very tedious, and of immense Labour, to rehearse all the Kinds of Passions, and to unfold them, we have designed therefore to speak only of the Chief Species of the Passions, with their manner of affecting, in respect both of the Body, and also of the Superior Soul.

Next to Plea­sure and Grief, are Love and Hatred.Love and Hate follow next, and as it were at the back of Pleasure and Grief: because the Sensitive Soul, being greatly prone, as hath been said, to Pleasure, Prosecutes all things apparently Good, without respect to Circumstances, with an Universal and most ample Affection of Love; in like manner, shunning Grief or Trouble; it hates and de­tests all things apparently Evil, which may seem to induce Evil by any manner of way.

The Good exciting Love, is objected after a twofold manner; to wit, either to the Sense,The Objects of these, are Sen­sible or Imagi­nary things. or the Opinion: As to the first, Objects which consist of Particles Congruous and Curiously fitted to the Sensory, so that they stroke gently the Spirits there flowing, and cause them to run and to rejoyce together, these bring forth a desirable Sension, whose Impression being transmitted, by the passage of the Nervous Processes to the Brain, by pleasing there in like manner the Spirits, stirs them up into a pleasant apprehension of the sensible thing, and a desire of it: Hence these Spirits inhabiting the Brain, for the fruition of this Object, try several or manifold Endeavours, viz. Some being reflected towards the Sensory, desire to cleave more closely, and to be united to this Good: in the mean time, others flowing towards the Breast, sometimes dilate and open the Bosoms of the Heart, that they may more plentifully receive the Blood, imbued with a certain Virtue of the Object,By what means desirable things affect the Spi­rits, and the Blood. and enjoy it; and sometimes the Spirits draw together these receptacles of the Heart, and drive outwardly the Blood, as if about to seek something more large­ly of Good, from the Object, with which being filled at last, it is received by the heart, by and by dilated. Further, in this Affection of Love, concerning the sensible Object, if that it be very strong, the whole Sensitive Soul, or the whole Systasis of the Spirits is inclined towards the beloved thing, lifts up to it the whole Nervous System, and to­gether with the solid Parts, draws, and leads the Humours; so, when we are indulged with a fair Aspect or Melody,A Pleasant Sen­sation is descri­bed. the whole Soul seems to go out at the Eye or the Ear, and neglecting the other Sensories, Conspire with their proper Offices into those Acts of Sension.

Love is excited by Opinion.It is somewhat otherways in Love excited through Opinion, because in this, the Spe­cies of the Object being represented by the Imagination, is erected as an Idol in the Brain; about this many Spirits being employed, at first they weigh the noted Beauty, and its various Ornaments, then they worship it; for whatsoever we love, we imagine it fair, profitable, pleasant, and far above what in truth it is; then by reason of these kind of feigned Attributes, we more earnestly fall in love with the thing beloved; Further, the Spirits inhabiting the Brain,The Object of this, is set up, like an Idol, in the Phantasie, invite all the rest, flowing in the whole Nervous stock, to the worship of the Idol erected by themselves: wherefore the Inhabitants of every Sen­sory, watching for the works of the Senses, look hither; here also they wait for the Mo­tions, Executors of the Limbs and Members; but they chiefly inspire the Praecordia with the Love of this Imaginary Good;And Worshipped. wherefore, these being variously dilated, and thrust together, greedily receive, sometimes the Blood imbued as it were with the Character of the thing loved, and as it were imbibe its Influence, sometimes they cast forth that Humor from themselves, towards the Brain, as it were to pick out something from the Image of the Good: This Kind of Image exciting Love, is impressed on the Imagina­tion, either from the Intellect, or from the Memory and Phantasie, to wit, one of them only, or both together; and from thence a Passion of Love is brought in, either Meta­physical, or merely Sensitive, or mixt.

Hatred excited, by the Sensible or Imaginary Species.Much after the same manner as we have said of Love, the evil Appearances also, which excite Hatred or the Aversation of the Soul, are objected to the Sense or Imagination: As to the former, when any incongruous and improportionate Object, is brought to any Sensory, that distracts and drives the Animal Spirits into a certain Confusion; there­fore afterwards, when such an Object comes again to the same Sensory, the Spirits mind­ful [Page 51] of their former hurt, abhor the Contact and approach of this Evil, Contract as much as they can the Organ, and shut up the Passages and Doors; if they are strong they endeavour to remove the Enemy from themselves,How the first of these Affects the Spirits and Blood. by sudden and iterated Excur­sions; but if they are not able for such Assaults, they convey and hide themselves within, and reject the embraces of the hateful thing, by every manner of way. A rejection of the sensible Object happens, when stinking Odors of very unsavoury Meat strike the Pa­late, or Nostrils; and the like when incongruous things are offer'd to the sight, or hear­ing: But especially, when the breaking of the Unity happens to be inflicted by Fire, or a Sword, on the Skin or Flesh. Concerning these repulses of the approaching Object, not only the Spirits flowing in the Sensory, but oftentimes also by the consent of these; others inhabiting the Brain, are irritated into Fury; so that the Imagination conceives a detestation of the thing; and the Praecordia being therefore disturbed, sometimes draws back the Blood, sometimes drives it outward towards the driving away the Evil, and stirs it up to its Expulsion.

When an Object apparently Evil, appears therefore hateful to the Imagination, pre­sently the Phantasie fixes on it a Monstrous and very deformed Image;The Imaginary Evil affects both the Blood, and Spirits. then stirs up all the Spirits, implanted both in the Brain and the Nervous Appendix, into a Detestation of this Imaginary Spectre, from hence the Brows are contracted, the Teeth gnash to­gether, and the Face is writhed; but especially the Praecordia, variously open and shut themselves, that they might Eventilate the Blood, by driving in up and down, and Conserve it free from every Influence or Tincture of this Object.

After this manner, the Passions of Love and Hatred are employed about Good and Evil, taken absolutely, and almost Indifferently; or rather about their Idea's: to wit, the Sensitive Soul, beholding the Image of appearing Good, received from the Sense or the Imagination, and admitting it into it self, presently she embraces it with a certain strictness, as it were with open and infolded Arms, and endeavours to be intimately united to it:Love and Hate, are transitory Passions. But it rests not long in this fruition; for if this Image of Good be only Imaginary, and being embraced, vanishes like a Cloud, taken for Iuno, the Soul, sensi­ble of her Error, quickly lets go her empty Embraces: yea, if that Good were solid, after some time, its fruition brings forth a loathing, and the Complacency of the Ob­ject at first amiable, grows cold, by the enjoyment; and it is esteemed troublesome. For indeed it is so order'd, that we esteem nothing long in this Life, but being always wanting, whatsoever is obtain'd, we esteem less, seeking after new things; wherefore, we are perpetually incited to the desiring of absent Good, and to the flying from Evils hanging over us.Quickly chang­ed into Desire▪ and Aversion. Love or lasting Charity, is a Divine Passion, almost proper only to Heaven, as Hatred, standing and endless, is an Affection merely Diabolical, and ought to be esteemed peculiar to Hell. But in most Mortals, these are presently changed into Desires or Aversions; because the desire of any absent Good, which we seem to want, or the declining of any approaching Evil, obliterate the Idea of any Good or Evil be­fore affixed to the Sensitive Soul, and adhering to it; even as the following waves sup up the former.

In truth the Sensitive Soul is chiefly employed with Desires and Aversions;The Soul is chiefly employed by these. these are perpetually suggested by heaps from our wants, either true or imaginary, and a very infinite Company or Succession of them exist. Concerning our Indigencies, from which these Passions are drawn, it is to be observed, that they proceed either from the Sense, or from the Opinion,Both proceed, either from the Sense, or Opi­nion. and so peculiar Desires or Aversions are excited: As to the former, the Animal Spirits in every Sensory, watch as so many hungry Guests expecting the Ap­proach of an Object congruous to them, as it were food; to the meeting and snatching of which, they are often wont to go as it were to meet it, and be carried quite beyond the Confines of their Subject.The desire of a sensible thing, is excited, either from Natural Instinct, or from Custom. But that the Spirits residing in the Organ of every of the Senses, do greedily Covet after this manner the sensible Object, as their Prey, happens by the mere Instinct of Nature, or is procured by Custom: The former is discerned, when hunger or thirst require the Supplies of Meat and Drink, and when the Coldness of a naked Body requires Cloathing: These sort of Desires, which Necessity puts upon Nature, are easily satisfied, and what are sufficient for the maintaining of Life, and ob­tained after this manner;The former is moderate, and easily satisfied. to wit, the Animal Spirits labouring under a defect, in this or that part, do variously Contract, and so affect with a sense of trouble the Nervous Bodies, in which they flow, which Impression being presently Communicated to the Brain, it stirs up the Spirits inhabiting it into an Appetite or Desire, and then an in­flowing being made into the appropriate Nerves; into a Prosecution of the desired thing; all this is performed without the Image of the Object, increased by the Imagination, also without any Perturbation known in the Praecordia, or the Blood.

[Page 52] Desire got through Custom, despising mode­rate things a­spires to new things.It is much otherwise concerning sensible Desires got by Custom; for when as a Frui­tion once happens to the Spirits inhabiting this or that Sensory, of a more pleasant Ob­ject, having moderate things in Contempt, afterwards desire the same, and being not long Content therewith, still aspire to others more pleasant; so the Palate being ac­customed to more delicate Victuals, loaths every thing unless spiced Aliments, and pre­pared with most exquisite Sawce: In like manner may be observed, concerning the Smel­ling, Sight, Hearing, and other Sensitive Functions; to wit, that the Appetite, proper to any of them, (for as much as it once exceeded what sufficed Nature) is always carried to more excellent Objects, and they for the most part only fresh; the reason of this seems to be, that the chief Pleasure of the Sensitive Soul, consists in a more lively Mo­tion, and larger Expansion of the Spirits implanted in every part; but such a Motion of them, depends very much upon the Excellency, also the Variety, and Change of the Ob­jects. For whatsoever moderate or too familiar thing happens to the Spirits,The reason de­clared, Because the A­gent and Pa­tient, ought to be unlike. it little affects them; for every motion supposes a Superior, and a Virtue of the Object, some­what unlike to the Agent; wherefore, when any Object by daily use obtains a Simili­tude, or Equality with the Spirits, that is less apt to move them: therefore that the Acti­vity, or the lively unfolding of the Spirits (which is the Effectress of Pleasure) may be continued a long time, leaving the Fruition of every old and worn-out Good, it always tends to new and more high things: After this manner, thô every Organ of Sense puts forth Desires, peculiar and proper to themselves, it reiterates them with a perpetual change; but for as much as Objects applied through Corporeal Contact, rather than by Effluvia, affect more vehemently the Sensory; therefore the greatest Company of De­sires, arising from the Sense, are wont to be referred to Luxury, or Lust. The Desires of the Spirits dwelling in the other Sensories,The Desires of sensible things, tend chiefly to Luxury or Lust. for as much as they take only the Spe­cies, or the little Bodies, falling off from sensible things, and less thick Em­braces; therefore they are more temperate, and are often directed to bet­ter uses.

Phantastic De­sires are im­mense.But our wants are chiefly Imaginary, and proceed from Opinion, and from hence a most plentiful Crop of Desires grows up. For indeed, every Man breaths after Felicity, or after a certain Divine State; wherefore, it seeks very much things apparently Good, which are said to Conduce to this State, and endeavours to obtain them; But having followed certain Goods, it finds not the desired Satisfaction in them; therefore it seems to want others, and then again others. So, for as much as Men always tend to the high­est Good, or last end, and that he attains it not in his life-time, there is a Necessity of in­finite Wishes, and Desires concerning the intermediate Goods: Hence it is, that what­soever another has, yea, whatsoever of Good the Phantasie can conceive or feign, pre­sently we believe we have need of it, and therefore we desire it, and wish for it. So, though there is an immense Company of Concupiscible things,But are chiefly carried to Ri­ches or Honors. yet as most Men place their felicity in Riches or Honours, hence the Chief Species of Desires arising from Opi­nion; and therefore not to be satisfied, are Covetousness and Ambition.

Aversion is ex­cited either from the Sense, or from Opinion.As to Aversion, this Passion seems only to be the former inversed, and in like manner, to take its Original, either from a certain Defect, perceived by the Sense, or taken from Opinion; for a Sense or Opinion of want, calls to either, a declination of the same manner of State: Wherefore, when the Animal Spirits in the Sensories, are de­prived of the Enjoyment of a necessary Good, or of what they were before accustomed to, they either conceive, or set before them the approach of its Contrary, and these being very unquiet, let go the Embraces of every present Object, and set themselves to perform, or enter into a new Confederation; until either the Sense or the Opinion, shall detect some apparent Good, to the desire and following of which, the same Spi­rits are busied;This Passion be­ing frail, is soon changed into De­sire. And so Aversion, being for the most part a Passion of it self Vain, and quickly perishable, terminates in the desire of Good, that may supply the Defect so Carefully shun'd.

Having shown after this manner for what Causes, and upon what Preparations or fore Occasions, the Sensitive Soul enters into Passions of Desire and Aversion: Let us now see after what manner or ways of Gesticulations or Gestures, she is Composed in ei­ther Affection.Sensible Desire affects both the Spirits and the Blood. As to Desires begun from the Organs of the Senses, it is observed, that whil'st the Spirits there implanted, are carried towards the absent Object, all frui­tion being left, they, as it were naked and destitute of all helps, like Beggars ask an Alms, which as they most greedily desire, as it were about to take by force that Good, they exceed the limits of their Subject; and oftentimes, when the Desire is vehement, almost the whole Soul is drawn into Parties, and by a certain going out from the Body, wanders towards the desired thing, or at least emits a Portion of it self. That it is so, it plainly appears, in that mad affection of Lust, in which the genital Humor, contain­ing Fragments picked from the whole Soul is poured forth. In like manner, in a [Page 53] pleasant Sight, Sweet Odor, and most pleasing Harmony, the Animal Spirits, as it were lifted up, role together out of the Sensories towards their Objects: but on the contrary in Aversion, they betake themselves inward, and sometimes forsake the Senso­ries themselves.

As to desires excited by reason of the Opinion of want,What Altera­tions Imaginar [...] Desire brings upon them. the Sensitive Soul being im­patient of a Lot so poor, becomes very instable and unquiet, all the acquired Goods of its Body, it neglects and disesteems, also refuses to hearken to the dictates of Reason; yea being altogether precipitate in desires, she always looks outward, and as it were with wings is ready to fly to this or that apparent Good; hence, by the disorder of the Spi­rits, flying hither and thither the Nervous Parts are variously distracted, and Men betray their desires by their Countenance, and going; also the Breast and the Praecordia being moved together, the Blood, like the Sea working with the winds, is compelled into va­rious Fluctuations, that those affected sometimes grow Pale, and sometimes are over-spread with redness; also, from the same Blood, entring inequally and impetuously the Confines of the Brain,The Fluctua­tion of the Mind. succeed inconstancy of Judgment, and frequent Changes of a thing proposed; as sometimes they will do this, anon that, as if ten Minds were together by the Ears in one Man. Pla [...]t. Hope and Fear.

According to the aforesaid Characters or Scheams, the Sensitive Soul is composed, about absent Good and Evil, and not quickly about to come; but when these seem to be at the Doors, the Soul alters her Position, and is respectively urged with Hope or Fear: Concerning which, First it is observed, that these Passions do not as the forementioned proceed equally from the Sense and the Imagination, but are founded only on Opinion; from whence, after entring into the desire of any thing, the Spirits being Solicitous concerning the following of it, and as it were depressed, when they upon some other Occasion, as the Drinking of Wine, are a little elevated with the fruition of another pleasing Object, and they begin to strengthen Opinion, forthwith doubtful desire is changed into a certain Confidence, that we hope shortly to possess the desired Good: In like manner, when as Aversion beholds the absent Evil a long way off, the depression of the Spirits places it near,Succeed to De­sire, and Aver­sion. and by and by Causes a fear of its being about to come upon them. Indeed, Hope and Fear, are very near of Kin to Desire and Aversion, and either of these Symbolical Affections, denote only the more near, or more remote approach of the same Object.

As to what appertains to the Provision and Exercise of Hope,The Provision of Hope. when we desire greatly any absent Good, and that an Opinion arises, that we shall shortly obtain it, presently the Animal Spirits, who first like Soldiers sent before, carefully seek after, and observe the willed thing, forthwith returning towards the Soul, bring News of the Coming of its Guest, and prepare a Reception for it; wherefore the whole Soul is presently brought into an Expectation of its coming; all the Doors of the Senses are opened, that this Good,Its Ob [...]ect, both the Sense, and the Imagination. with all its Train, might enter thorow open Gates: In the mean time, the Spirits inhabiting every Sensory, are prepared to go forth to salute this approaching; the Imagination doth forestall its Entrance; to wit, this frames an Idea of the wish'd for and coming Good, which it places within its Borders, as in a Throne, and confers on it Adornments and Splendor, borrowed from the Phantasie. Moreover, the Praecordia are Careful for a part of its Reception; for they being actuated with a more full Influx of Spirits, send forth the Blood more lively into the Exterior Parts, as it were for the meet­ing of this new Guest; hence, any one being full of Hope, feels in his whole Body, a certain Inflation,Affects both the Spirits and the Blood. with the Spirit and Heat plentifully poured forth: Then, if by any ac­cident, an occasion of fear or doubting is brought in, presently a sudden girding toge­ther in the whole, with a certain putting down of the Spirits, and a sinking of the whole Soul, ensues.

For in the Passion of Fear,A Character of Fear. the Sensitive Soul being first stretched out, being struck by the nearness of the approaching Evil, and being as it were prickt on every side, for as much as she conceiving her self taken by the Enemy, cannot fly away into this or that Part, she enters into her self, and that the Animal Spirits may be pressed together, she is Contracted most strictly; if the Affection be vehement, whil'st the Animal Spirits sud­denly go back, from the Superficies of the Body, they greatly bind up at the same time the Pores and Passages, as it were fastning the Doors, to shut out the Enemy: from this Constriction,How it Affects the Spirits, and all the Facul­ties. the Pores of the Skin being drawn inward, oftentimes succeeds an erection of the hairs, or the hair standing an end; then the same Spirits being acted into Confu­sion, they are inhihited from performing the wonted Offices of their Functions, and not only want the helps of Reason; but sometimes the Locomotive Faculties fail, yea by a resolution or loos'ning of the Nerves, made in the Bowels, oftentimes the Excrements involuntarily flow out. Further, when the Animal Faculty languishes so much, the Mo­tion of the Praecordia is tyred;How the Blood▪ hence the Blood stagnating within the Bosoms of the [Page 54] Heart, oftentimes a swonning follows: and when therefore it is not carried lively enough into the outward Parts, a Coldness and Paleness succeeds in them. In a sudden fear, we feel a certain stiffness, whence 'tis commonly said, that the Blood is curdled in the Body; but this happens, because, whil'st the Nervous Parts compassing about the Blood-carrying Vessels, are suddenly bound together, they at the same time repress the Blood from its Excursion, and so stop or plainly invert its Cir­culation.

It often passes into Despera­tion.In the mid'st of fear, lest the Spirits being driven too much into flight, the Sensitive Soul should be wholly loosned, Reason is wont to interpose something of Hope, and so by degrees to lift up the dejected Spirits, and to animate them to stay, so that this Pas­sion being alleviated by such a remedy, may more easily pass over; but if by the strong Evil falling on one, all means of Hope be cut off, then a greater Affection, to wit, Desperation, comes in the place of Fear, in which for the most part, this Soul yielding her self overcome, wholly sinks down, and being half dead, is drowned in her proper Body, as in a Sepulcher, of if she retains any strength, presently being carried into Confusion, all things being turned upside down, she Contracts, Melancholy, or Madness.

In like manner Hope into Au­daciousness.As Desperation follows Fear, all helps being cut off; so Hope, when it is joyned to more, and more certain, of the same, passes in Audaciousness: And in this Affection, the Sensitive Soul swells up, and opposes her self dauntless to any ensuing Evil; where­fore, the Spirits Guardian, by a more strong Connexion of themselves, every where ex­tend the Muscles, and strengthen them, by a more full Inspiration, to the bearing or resisting any thing; hence the Breast being inlarged, and then strongly bound together, a bigger Voice is sent forth; the Fists being Contracted, the Arms lifted up, the Head erected, the Face grim and threatning, the Neck swollen, and the rising up, or the stretchings forth of other Parts, shew the Animal Spirits in the whole Body, unfolded and prepared for Battel, as if about to enter into Conflict: In the mean time, the Prae­cordia being moved most strongly, by a more full influx of the same Spirits, notably ra­rifie the Blood, and like Lightning, send it forth impetuously, and drive it into the out­ward Parts.

To which An­ger is of Kin.Anger is of some Kin to Boldness, in which the Sensitive Soul, by reason of the Evil unworthily brought to it, at the same time is made sad, and grows hot; wherefore, as she Contracts her self by reason of Sadness, so presently girding her self for Revenge, she is dilated; therefore, as here divers Contractions come together, this Passion is per­formed with a mighty Perturbation of Spirits, and of the Blood: for those affected, at the beginning wax Pale,The Character of Anger. by and by they are overspread with Red; the Forehead is wrinkled, the Lips quiver, the Tongue murmurs, the Countenance is sometimes cast down, sometimes lifted up, and threatning, but the Praecordia are especially agitated, with a notable heat and boyling up of the Blood: which kind of Various, and sometimes Contrary Symptoms, may easily be resolved; to wit, that the Soul at once conceiv­ing Sadness and Indignation, like the Sea working with opposite winds, has Floods excited from every Coast, and striking one against another among themselves.

There are more than Eleven Affections.Besides the Eleven Affections even now recited and unfolded, according to the Vul­gar Opinion, there remains some others, excited according to the other manifold Aff­ections and Gestures of the Corporeal Soul; the chief of which are Pity and Envy, Glory or Boasting, and Shame; which however are very near related to the afore re­cited, or are Composed out of them.Pity, Envy, Boasting, For Pity is made out of Love and Sadness, by reason of the Evils of a Friend: On the contrary, Envy out of Hatred and Sorrow, by reason of the Good things of an Enemy: Glory or Boasting, is a certain kind of Joy and Exultation,Shame, &c. conceived by reason of an Opinion of our Good, had from others; and Shame is a certain Sadness and Consternation of the Soul, by reason of an Opinion of our ills conceived by others.A Character of Shame. Further, Concerning this Passion 'tis observable, that when the Corporeal Soul being abashed, is enforced to repress its Compass, she not­withstanding being desirous, as it were to hide this Affection, drives forth outwardly the Blood, and stirs up a redness in the Cheeks, to wit, the Sensitive part of the Soul, as it were hiding its head, puts before her self a Portion of the Vital or the Bloody Soul, under whose wings somewhat stretched forth, the Confusion might be hid.

Besides we take notice, that the Corporeal Soul is not only affected by Objects, and their Impressions, and compelled into various Gestures, and the aforesaid Passions; but besides, she hath certain innate Dispositions, by reason of which, by the mere instinct of Nature, without any Influence of the Object, she puts forth her self, and is excited into certain Emanations or Spontaneous forces:Innate Affe­ctions. Of which sort are first an amplification or inlarging the Individual Person, and then a Propagation of its Kind. It is Natural for every Animal without example or teaching, to seek for, and swallow down its food, [Page 55] both that the Body may be daily increased to its due Magnitude, and also that the Soul, being daily supplied with a new Score of Spirits,Viz. An Inlarge­ment of the In­dividual, may be co-extended to the Body, and be able lively to perform the Acts of her Functions. Then, as soon as the Lineamen [...]s both of the Body and Soul being sufficiently drawn forth, and the Bulk and Compass of either are Compleated;A begetting of its Kind. some Animal Spirits flowing over from the work of the Indivi­dual, begin to abound, and then being separated into the Genital Parts, with a subtil Hu­mor picked from the whole Body, destinated for the Propagating the Species, as it were in a Store-house, and there layed up, they form there the Idea of a new Animal; which afterward is transferred into a convenient Womb, to be perfectly formed. When the Seeds of a new Animal are so lay'd, the whole Corporeal Soul is drawn with all its Pow­ers into this work of Propagating the Species, more than of the Conserving of the Indi­vidual: wherefore the Blood supplies the Testicles, no less than the Brain, with a most subtil and noble Matter for the store of Animal Spirits: and when after too great Ex­pence, the Spirits are deficient in them, that presently the loss may be made up, often­times the Brain and Nerves are defrauded of their due Pension, and are suffered to lan­guish, that in the mean time the Blood may pour forth more plentifully spirituous Parti­cles into the Spermatic Vessels.Venus an Ene­my to the Brain and Nerves. Yea it is thought, that it doth sometimes snatch the Animal Spirits from the Brain it self, which it bestows on the Genitals, in the Act of Venery: For it appears so, when by immoderate Venery, the Brain presently labours with a want of Spirits; for as much as from thence there is no passage for them, to the Spermatick Vessels, but by the Blood; if that the Animal Spirits superabound with a Prolifick Humour, Swelling up within the Genital Parts, presently the whole Corporeal Soul, as it were incited, to the begetting of a young one, is inclined to Concupiscence or Lust:The madness or fiery of Lust. The Incentives of Lust, even against the Mind, are sought for, and they are lay'd hold on, however brought by any Sense; the Blood boils up, the Marrow in the Back grows hot, the Eyes are inflamed, the Genitals are inflated, so that there wants little (unless Reason coming between recalls her, and Prohibits her from the Beastliness of it) but that the whole Corporeal Soul, on every occasion, should be dissolved in Lust. In these kind of Affections of Concupiscence, may be most clearly discerned the di­stinct Strivings, and contrary Endeavours of two Souls: because, whil'st the Corpo­real Soul being incited to Lust, inclines her self wholly towards the Genital Members, and Compels thither greater floods of the Blood, and greater store of the Animal Spi­rits, the Heart and Brain being left wanting of Provision;Reason suppres­ses its flowing. on the contrary, the Supe­rior Mind, rising up, and shewing the Commands of Reason and Religion, shews a receipt to the other, and Commands that the Animal Spirits return to their tasks, to be performed within the Brain, and also that the raging Blood should be recalled towards the Praecordia, and being there suppressed, might be restrained from disorderly Excur­sions; Hence, the flame of Lust being re-extinct for a time, and the Powers of the In­ferior Soul being reduced into Order, the Acts of Sobriety, Prudence, and of other Sci­ence, and Discipline may be exercised; but if the reins of Reason be let loose, or new in­centives of Lust are brought, the Corporeal Soul, shaking off the yoak, snatches her self again to the like Enormities.

There remain yet some other Affections of the Corporeal Soul, as Sleep and Watch­ing, Grief and Pleasure, excited in private Members; which, for as much as they respect not the whole Soul at once, but this or that Portion of the Body, or Peculiar Powers of it, and chiefly the Sensitive or Locomotive; therefore we shall handle these anon, and shall next proceed to the Sense and its Kinds.

CHAP. X.

Of the Sense in General.

THe Vital or Flamy part of the Corporeal Soul,The Blood is a­nimated, but hardly sensible. being rooted in the Blood, seems not much to know or perceive what things are offer'd outwardly to, or acted inwardly in the Body: So, alth [...] the Blood have life, yet 'tis scarce sensible or knowing, for this which ought to be always employed, with a perpetual Motion, and even inkindling, for the Offices for the sustaining of Life, cannot be at leisure to mind any smaller Matters, or outward Accidents. Indeed great Passions also in some measure disturb the Blood, and pervert and variously drive it from its wonted Course, and like violent Blasts, shake not [Page 56] only the Leaves or Body of the Tree, but also sometimes pull up the Roots out of the Earth: So whatsoever mutations or alterations happen to the Blood, proceed either from the Complexion of its Liquor being changed, or from the impulse or incitation of the containing Bodies.The lucid part of the Soul, feels or perceives the impulse of all Objects, and is moved by them. But the other Sensitive part of this Soul, which being diffused within the Brain and stock of Nerves, is Co-extended or equally stretched forth with the Organical Body, and almost with all its Parts, is affected with every Contact, or with the meeting of other Bodies, she perceives all Impressions either outwardly objected, or raised up within; and as she is moved by these, every where diversly inflicted, she indues according to the various impulse of the Objects, various Gestures and Species in her self, and also draws the Members and Parts of the Body it self, with her wholly into the same Figures and Motions. For indeed it is the Energie or the Act of the Soul it self, from which every Function of the animated Body primarily and chiefly arises. If at any time any Stroke or Impression be inflicted any where to the animated Body, presently a certain Fluctuation or waving is stirred up in the Hypostasis of the whole Soul, or of the struck Member; by which, some Animal Spirits or subtil Particles, shut up in the Organical Parts, as a blast of Wind in a Machine, being struck, run hither and thither, and so produce the Exercises of Sense and Motion in the whole Body, or respective Parts.

Truly, among the various Gestures of the Corporeal Soul, by which, she altering her Species or Hypostasis, brings a change to the containing Body, the Sensitive and Loco­motive Powers obtain the chief place; for as much as they are Common almost to all living Creatures, at least to the more perfect, to which also all the rest of the Faculties may easily be reduced.Sense and Mo­tion, are the chief Advancers of the animated Body. These are the chief Advancers of the animated Body, upon which all the other Wheels of this Self-moving Divine Machine depend.

But the Internal and next efficient Cause, both of Sense and Motion, are the Hypostasis of the Sensitive Soul, or the Animal Spirits, instilled from the inkindled Blood into the Brain,The efficient Cause of either, are the Animal Spirits. and from thence diffused into the Nervous Stock▪ which being distributed from the Brain, as the Fountain thorow the Nerves to the whole Body, imbue, irradiate, and blow up all the Parts, and bring a certain Tensity or stretching forth to each; so that the passages of the Nervous Bodies, like Cords stretched forth straitly on every side, from the Brain and its dependencies, reach forth into all the Exterior Parts, by which, so stretch'd forth, and actuated by a certain Continuity of the Soul, if one end be struck, presently the stroke is perceived through the whole, so that every Intention conceived within the Brain, presently performs the designed work, in every Member or Part; and on the other side, every impulse or stroke, which is inflicted from without to any Mem­ber, or to the Sensitive Body, is communicated instantly to all Parts within the Head.A most swift Communication of them, im­planted within all the Parts. If that an Impression or force tends from the Brain outwards, thorow the Nerves into the moving Parts, Motion is produced; but if they being made outwardly, are directed inwards towards the Brain, Sense arises. But whil'st either of these are performed, it is not so to be understood, (as is commonly asserted) as if the same Spirits make hast, and leap back presently, as it were from one end of the Course or Circuit to the other; but as the Soul is stretched forth, thorow the whole, with a certain Conti­nuity, its Particles, viz. the Spirits contiguous one with another are set like an Army in Array; for they after a Military fashion, whil'st they move not from their station, and keep Order, perform their Offices; and whether they be set in Battel Array, or on the Watch, they perform the Commands carried outward from the Brain, themselves being almost immoveable, and effect Motion, and deliver presently to the Brain the news of any sensible thing impressed,An opposite ten­dency of them, effect both Sense and Motion. whereby Sensation is made. So indeed, the same Ani­mal Spirits, thô with an opposite and inverse tendency, and aspect of them, cause Mo­tion and Sense: But both Faculties, as to the Exercises of their Acts, require something divers Organs; yea, the Animal Spirits planted within the same; for the performing the divers Offices of their Faculties, are ordered with a various Affection, and with a different manner of Orders. That each of these may be the more clearly illustrated, we shall first of all speak of the Sense, and of whatsoever belongs to it both in General and in Special, and then afterwards concerning Motion.

What the Sense is. The approach of the sensible Ob­ject, is made ei­ther by Contact, or by Effluvia's sent forth, or by reflected and re­pe [...]ssed Parti­cles of the Air, Breath, or Light.The Sense, as it is taken in a more strict acceptation (viz. for the proper Function in animated Bodies, and by which they are distinguished from inanimates) is wont to be described after this manner; That it is the faculty of perceiving Sensible objects. Because, the Sensitive soul, as hath been said, being apt to be affected or moved by every Con­tact or Impulse of an exterior Body, forces its constitution to vary in the whole, or in part, according as it is struck: But exterior Bodies, because they consist of Particles, of a various Kind, and diversly figured, therefore, when some are applied to others, their approaches one among another, are not always made after one and the same manner, but after a manifold manner, and with notable variety; to wit, either by Corporeal Con­tacts, [Page 57] or by Effluvia's falling from them, or by Particles, of Air, Breath, or Light, reflected from them, issuing from them on every side like Darts. Further, and to every one of these Kinds, many Species are attributed: Because, not only Concretes, but also various little Bodies of the same Subject, shew and impress manifold Types of their Contacts; several of which, as they are received and so known distinctly, by living Creatures,As these several are made ma­nif [...]ld, they re­qui [...]e divers Sensories. the Sensitive Soul using Corporeal Organs, hath many Sensories, fitted for such variety of Objects, and divers representations of things; in which several, both the Conformation of the Pores, as also the disposition of the Animal Spirits, are pro­portionated to the little Bodies, sent in from the Object, which are only of one Kind, fitly to be received. By this means sensible Impressions, at least that may be of use to any Animal, are perceived, and from this manifold way of Sension, proceeds the Know­ledge of all things,All Knowledge from Sense. according to that of the Philosopher, All Knowledge is made by the Sense; when on the contrary, if Bodies and their Particles, should strike the Systasis of the naked Soul, or part of it, always after one and the same manner, nothing at all would be known, because one thing or parts, from another, or these from those Members, would not be distinguished. Wherefore, that all the chief Objects and their Accidents, might be distinctly noted, it is so provided, that some Particles strike this Organ and not that; so that they affect their several respective Sensories only, the rest being un­touched.

From hence it is clear,In Perfect Ani­mals, there ought to be ma­ny Senses. that 'tis necessary that there should be many Sensories in per­fect Animals; which may perform divers Actions, both for the preserving of Life, and propagating the Kind, and also for the knowing many things, and chiefly for the em­bracing of what things are Congruous to themselves, and for the shunning all incon­gruous things; for this things 'tis needful, that the Sensitive Soul should be affected by the Objects, after a various manner, and so perceive their manifold Influencies. How vile their Condition is, and how hard their Lot, that are gifted with the only sense of the Touch,That one of the Touch or Feel­ing, suffices not. appears from the Life and Operation of the more imperfect Animals, as Oysters and Lympins; then besides, how false is the Opinion of some, who say, That every Sense in all Animals is the feeling only; for althô every Affection is made by Contact, from the Object to the Soul; yet neither is the same thing still employed, nor received after the same manner; but how many types soever of sensible things are to be found, so many Counterfeits remain in the Sensories.

Nevertheless it may here be rightly Quaeried, How it may be? for as much as the whole Hypostasis or Contexture of the Soul, is made up of most subtil and also most highly moveable Particles,How the same Spirits receive sensible Species so very divers. that every one of them wheresoever implanted, are not indifferently moved, by every sensible stroke; when especially the Interior frame of the Soul, which is Common to all the Sensories, receives ths Affections of every one, and so is me­diately affected by every sensible thing: I say, why the Spirits implanted in the Eye, do not equally perceive Sounds and Smells, as they do Colours? for as much as they in­habiting the streaked Bodies, discern both these, and all other sensible things.

For the resolving of this Problem,Than this may be done are re­quired, these two things are to be supposed, to wit, first, That the Structure of every Sensory is so made, according to its Pores and Passages, that Particles only proportionate to them may be admitted in: wherefore as Light, and the Images of things, pass thorow Glass, and clear Bodies; not dark Bodies; so the same are received only by the Eyes,First, a Stru­cture of the Or­gan▪ after a di­verse manner. and not by the other Sensories: The same Reason holds of all the rest. For we may observe, when in the Circumambient Air, or in the At­mosphere, there are Bodies of a various Nature, and of a divers Configuration, that some things affect this, others that Sensory, and so the things which are of a several Kind af­fect the particular Organ of the Sense. As for Example, the Particles of most thin Air or Light, which seem to be of a Sulphureous Nature, being reflected from Bodies, Con­vey (as was said) their Images into the Organs of the Sight or Seeing; the little Bodies of Air which seem to be saline, being repercussed from Solids, shake the Drum of the Ear, by their leaping back; yea, and the same being made clammy by a sweet dew, or moistned, affect the taste; the Particles of the same Air, filled with sweet Exhalations, strike the Nostrils: And lastly, The same stuffed with warm or cold Effluvia's, move the Sense of Feeling: But in the mean time, the Particles of the same Air or Element, which are proportionate to one Sensory, are incommunicable to the rest.

But Secondly,Secondly, a Va­rious Constitu­tion of the Ani­mal Spirits. the Animal Spirits themselves, which reside in the Organs of the Senses, and that are like Watchmen, are furnished for the respective meetings of the Objects, with a certain peculiar Provision, and an appropriate manner of Disposition: for when some Spirituous Particles, more pure than others, and more subtle exist, some more dull or blunt, others notably moveable, these Naked, those smered with Humor, and marked with many other Affections; it is so provided, that as the Naked Spirits, or those less [Page 58] gifted suffice for the Sense of Feeling, these without any farther indowment are disposed every where in the Membranes, and fibrous Flesh; but the most pure Spirits, and as it were Chrystalline for the Sight, flow into the Eyes; those that are highly moveable are fitted for the Hearing, and the more Viscous, which are fused with a requisite Humour, for the Taste, and Smell.

After what manner Sension is made.These things being thus premised, concerning the Multiplicity and Difference of the Senses, and the Organs, we will now inquire into Sension it self; by what means, and after what manner it is performed. Concerning these we thus say in general, that the Object being applied to the Sensory, (whether it be done immediately, or the Particles of the Air or Element coming between) doth impress its Idea or Character on the Spi­rits implanted in that place; and in the same instant, by a continued Series of the Ani­mal Spirits, as it were an Irradiation, the Type of its Impression doth pass from the Sensory to the Head; and whil'st the Spirits actuating the streaked Bodies, are in like manner affected by it, a perception of Sense, begun from the Organ, is formed.

All sensible Im­pressions do beam forth from all the Organs, into the streak­ed Bodies.That Sight is so performed, Dioptrick Experiments do plainly shew, by which, the same Species of any Body, by a Glass artificially placed, may be Carried or Reflected hither or thither, and may be figured and beheld at once in several places: why in like manner, may we not Conceive the Image of the Object represented in the Eye, as in a Glass, to propagate its likeness from thence further to the streaked Bodies? But as to the other Sensories the Business seems more hard to be unfolded, because the sensible Spe­cies, for as much as they are more Corporeal or thicker, cannot be conveyed to the Head with so quick a passage, and almost unperceiveable like Lightning; but as to these, it is to be understood, that althô the Smell, Touch, and Taste, require more near and more Corporeal approaches of the Object, than either the Sight or Hearing; yet the Animal Spirits, which as it were internuncii, are placed within every Organ, and the chief Sen­sory, equally and as easily transmit the stroke or impulse of every Kind: Because as the Spirits are diffused thorow the whole Nervous System, and thorow the Head it self, as it were with a continued beaming, every Impression by the stroke of the Eye gets sooner from one bound to the other; yet the Character of the Object, is conveyed by the like Motion of their Neighbors, and as it were by a certain waving, even to the streaked Bodies.

In every Sension is required, First, That the Species be im­pressed on the Sensory. Secondly, That it be carried thence, by the passage of the Spirits to the Common Sen­sory. How the divers sensible Species are distinctly represented, in the same Com­mon Sensory.Hence it follows, that for the Act of Sension, these two things are required. First, That the sensible Species be expressed, so as it may be impressed on the Sensory: And Secondly, That the Idea of the same Impression, be carried thence, by a like Affection and Motion, by the Spirits flowing in the intermediate passages, to the Common Sensory; for otherwise Sension is not performed, as it appears, when being intent on other things, we take not any notice of any Objects, thô they approach near to the Eyes, or the other Organs.

But here we may have a Cause of Doubting, how the manifold Species of sensible things, for the receiving of which, many Organs, and those diversly framed, are re­quired; do all come together within, and are discerned in the same Common Sensory; For it is a wonderful thing, that the same streaked Body, consisting of a make not much unlike, should admit, and know distinctly in it self, the universal Idea's of Objects. As to this we may say, that the Images of things to be perceived by the Sense, are not di­stinctly painted in the Common Sensory, as on a Table; but every Impression there shown, depends on the Motion, as it were by a certain waving, of some Spirits separate from others, and within these or those peculiar Tracts of them▪ Nor is it irrational to affirm, that some Spiritual Particles are moved within the Hypostasis of the Sensitive Soul, and her the same Portion of it, whil'st others lye quiet, lying between them; for it plainly appears, and which afterwards is more largely shown, that within the Body of the Air,It is shown by an example of the Air, whose divers Parti­cles have divers carryings forth. the lucid Particles are agitated, whil'st the rest lye at ease; yea also, that Sonorifick, yea and odorous little Bodies, and perhaps many others of another Kind, are moved by a distinct and peculiar Agitation apart by themselves, from the other texture of the Air; for both Images pass thorow, Sounds are poured out, Odors flow, warm or cold Effluvia's, and other little Bodies are variously carried; yet notwithstanding, others in the mean time are neither driven by force by some others, nor is the Consi­stency of the whole Air disturbed by some Singulars. Yea, various Impressions, not on­ly pass thorow the Air unchanged,Also by the ex­ample of Water, in which, many wavings be­ing at once made, are all distinct. but also the Superficies of the Water; for we have observed in a River, or a Fish-pond, when many wavings have been stirr'd up, by va­rious and divers strokes together, that all of them, however they meet one another, pass thorow, or cut one another, continue still distinct, and inconfused; why then may we not suppose, that in the Airy Systasis of the Soul, (which is also is founded in a Watry Humor) there are Particles of a various and unlike make, and that manifold Species, by [Page 59] their passing thorow, may be at once brought to the Common Sensory, without Con­fusion? As for Example,The like is in the Airy Hy­posiasis of the Corporeal Soul. Suppose that for seeing most Subtil and as it were Aetherial Particles, others almost Saline and notably moveable for the Hearing, and so for the other Senses, Spirits endowed after this or that manner, to be interwoven together, and every peculiar Sension to be produced, by a particular affection of them; to which it happens, that for the various passing thorow of the Spirits of so diverse a Nature, divers Tracts or Paths are produced, both in the Organ it self, and in the Common Sensory: and so,For the divers Perceptions of which, together, in the Common Sensory, there are many and distinct Tracts produced. when the Animal Spirits are affected, which are of this or that Nature apart from others, which are of another Nature, and as there are beamings forth of several kinds, as it were within various Inlets or Passages; 'tis no wonder, if in divers Organs▪ distinct Acts of Sensions are performed; and that all of them, however different in Kind, and coming together from many ways, are shewn within the same Common Sen­sory, to wit, the streaked Bodies; because in this Marrowy Part, Spirits of every kind abound, and also passages of every sort of Conformation are found; therefore, every Impression impressed on any Organ from without, may be distinctly represented in this same Body. That it is so, it more clearly appears from hence, because both the streaked Bodies, and the way leading to these, consist of many white Ligatures, which seem as so many soft Nerves, or marrowy Tracts, for the divers ways of receiving the Impressions of sensible Species.

When a sensible Impression is brought through the Animal Spirits,Sensible Impres­sions, as they are stronger weak stir up other Powers, either more or fewer. being affected by a continued Series, from the Organ to the Common Sensory, if it be light it is there terminated, and the perception of the External Sense quickly vanishes, without any other Affection; but if (which more often happens) the impulse of the Object be stronger, the Sense excited from thence, like the vehement waving of waters in a Whirl-pool, both partly passes thorow the streaked Bodies, and going forward to the Callous Body, it oftentimes raises up two other Internal Senses, to wit, the Imagination and Memory, either one of both of them; and also is partly reflected from them, and from thence, by a declining of the Spirits, leaping into the Nerves, local Motions are made.

For indeed Impressions of sensible things,All the other Powers of the Soul proceed at first from Sen­sion. from the beginning, furnish both the Ima­gination, with the Memory and Appetite, and induce the first attempts of local Mo­tions. It is first effected, for as much as the sensible Impulse, is often propagated beyond the streaked Body, into the marrowy part of the Brain, or the Cortex, or the extream Confines of it. But local Motions ordinarily succeed to Sension, for as much as the Ani­mal Spirits being struck back from the bolt or stay of the streaked Bodies, spring up out­wardly, and as they enter these or those Nerves, by a certain Consequence, or by chance, they excite fortuitous local Motions, or depending on the previous Sense; for in the re­ciprocal exercise of these Faculties, to wit, of Sense and local Motion, (before Animals are imbued with Phantasie and Memory) almost the whole Animal Function consists; be­cause Brutes or Men, whil'st they as yet know not things, want Spontaneous Appetite. So long therefore, they being destitute of the Internal Principle of Motion, move them­selves or Members, only as they are excited from the impulse of the External Object, and so Sension preceding Motion, is in some manner the Cause of it.

Therefore in every Sension,The Animal Spi­rits pass thorow the sensible Spe­cies; and not the Effluvia of the Object, pe­netrate even to the head. the Animal Spirits are moved; and their Motion being excited, in the utmost Sensory, from the approach of the Object, and harmonised accor­ding to its Impression, turns inwards, and (as hath been said) is conveyed to the first or Common Sensory: wherefore it is not to be thought, that the little Body's sent from the Object, do penetrate deeply, and enter the inward parts of the Brain it self (as some have asserted); but it suffices, that they being cast forth like Darts from the sensible thing, do affect the Spirits placed in the fore-front; and then, they from thence most swiftly pass thorow, by their Irradiation, the impressed Motion. As to the Parts, with­in which the Animal Spirits dwelling, do carry thorow, as it were by Pipes and Dioptrick Glasses, the impressed Species of sensible things; they are the Fibres, Nerves, and the Oblong Marrow,The bounds and passages, by [...], and into which the Spe­cies pass tho­row. and chiefly the tops of it, to wit, the streaked Bodies. The Fibres being stretched forth in every Sensory, as it were Nets spread abroad, take the Particles of the Object, diffused and entring here and there, from which, whil'st the Spirits im­planted in those Fibres, are affected, and are marked with the type of shaddow of the Objected thing, forthwith the same Character being expressed, by a continued Series of Spirits, passes forward, thorow the little Pipes of the Nerves, and the Medullary Trunk, into the streaked Bodies, and is there represented as upon a white well; But the Rational Soul, easily beholds the Image of the thing there painted; or perhaps car­ried forward beyond into the Callous Body, the Imagination and Phantasie being excited, But after what manner Brutes perceive themselves to feel, and by reason of that Sension, they either imprint it in their Memory, or draw forth the Acts of the Appetite, we have shewn elsewhere.

[Page 60] The Number of the Senses is well affirmed to be Five.Concerning the number of the outward Senses, we shall not recede from the vulgar Opinion, affirming them to be Five; for althô in some imperfect Animals, perhaps one Sense or two are only found; and thô it may seem, that the more perfect living Creatures may exercise many more than Five; because it is possible, that the Kinds of sensible things, far exceed that Number; yet it is seen, that those Five Organs of the Senses do abundantly enough supply the wants of all living Creatures: at least it seems good to the great Creator, not to grant to Man more than these, nor perhaps better than brute Beasts have obtained:So many, and not more, are requisite. Hence we may argue, that whereas the first Notions of all Sim­ple things, are acquired only by the showing of the Sense, and that Man, notwithstand­ing, is wont from thence to form Complicated Orations and Discourses, beyond what Brutes are able to do, that this is done by the Virtue and Operation of the Rational Soul in him, of which indeed Beasts are wholly destitute.

As to the Order or Method, by which we should treat of the Senses, particularly to be consider'd, if their worth or dignity be respected, it is confessed by all, that Seeing, and then Hearing should by right have the Prerogative; but indeed, because Knowledge more easily, and always more happily, proceeds from more Known things, to things less Known; therefore, I think to begin with the Touch or Feeling, as the most Com­mon Sense; also for that the formal Reason of which seems to be most easily unfolded.

CHAP. XI.

Of the Senses in Particular, and first of the touch or Feeling.

The Sense of Feeling is more thick, but the most ample or large.THe Touch or Feeling, thô it seems a Faculty of a lower Order, and as it were of a more gross Nature, because it apprehends not the object, unless it be brought near, and as it were pressed with its Arms; yet in some respect, it is more excellent by far than the rest; because this Sense beyond all others, receives and knows the Impressions of many sensible things, and those inflicted with greater variety; and so obtains a most large, and as it were a general Province. For since that the Sensible Qualities so called, are manifold and divers, to wit, Heat and Cold, Moisture and Dryness, Hardness, and Softness, and other Modifications of Bodies, their Make, Motions, Influences and Types, or Figures of Appearance, which in Concretes result from the mixtures and divorces, or the various Transpositions of the Elements, the greatest part of them by much, are the proper Objects of Feeling, and are discerned only by its Judgment, and as it were by its Will.Exhibits Signs of Iudgment to the rest of the Senses. Further 'tis observ'd, That the Touch or Feeling, gives notes of Judgment to all the other Senses concerning uncertain Objects: for when the Sight cannot distinguish a Ghost or Spectre, from a solid Body, by the tryal of Feeling, presently the thing is put out of doubt; so likewise of the Smelling and Taste, which oftentimes put away sen­sible things brought to them, and fear their near Embrace, unless first tryed by handling.

It hath a migh­ty diffusive Sen­sory or Organ.But this Power, as it enjoys great variety, as to its Objects, so it hath a most ample Sensory, and equally extended almost with the whole Body; That indeed few Parts, either within or without, but partake of this Sense. Further, this Faculty, for that 'tis of a general and common use, insinuates it self into the Organs of the other Senses, de­stinated to the private Office of every one: For both the Tongue and Nostrils, also the Eyes and Ears, perceive heat and cold, hardness and Softness, and other tangible quali­ties, no less than their proper Objects. If that we should further inquire, what the im­mediate Organ of Feeling is, in the several Members, or Parts? it may be said, that it is the Nervous Fibres, every where stuffed, and as it were distended with a Company of Animal Spirits;Which are the Nervous Fibres. which as the Strings of a Lute, as often as they are struck by the strokes of Tangible things, propagate the Impulse every where received, by the passages of the Nerves, forthwith to the Common Sensory. For as much Fibres being thickly set, are interwoven in the Skin, the fleshly Pannicle, the Membranes, and Musculous Flesh, yea, and with some of the Inwards, so that the Approaches of outward Tangible things, are not only felt in the Palm of the Hand, or the Superficies of the Body, but as often as sharp Humors are brought within into the Bowels,In all the Parts, both External and Internal. or that Preternatural Contents cause a pulling or hawling; a troublesome Sense of it is felt; wherefore the proper Organ of Feeling, is neither the Skin, nor the Flesh, nor the Membranes, as hath been asserted after this manner by some, and after that manner by others; but the [Page 61] Fibres are that Organ, implanted in the whole frame or make of these or those Parts.

Althô many sensible Fibres are placed every where thorow the whole Body, also, thô there are divers and manifold Tangible qualities;Which Fibres, thô every where of the same Con­formation; yet it is not to be thought that these Fibres, that they may be the better fitted for those qualities, are of a different Kind or Conformation; for neither are there some Fibres, by which heat, or others▪ by which cold, or others different from either, by which other Tangible things are perceived; but the same Fibres, are every where alike, and receive and distinctly carry the approa­ches of every Object, for neither do the sensible Fibres, planted in divers places or parts, acquire a diversity of Office, so that one Member should be the Index of heat, another of cold, or another of a several Tangible thing, but every one indifferently feel almost all Tangible things,Yet Exhibit va­rious Species, according to the various approa­ches of tangible things. from every Fibrous Part. The reason of the difference is, because the Fibres, thô of the same nature and frame, enter into divers ways of Con­tractions or wrinklings, from the various strokes of sensible things; even as the strings of an Harp, from the various strokes of the Musitian, give forth different Sounds; so also, the Fibres, which are the Instruments of Touching, are affected after a different manner, by the various impulse of Tangible things. For it seems, that these are irri­tated or provoked one way, with heat, and another way with cold, and so from the rest of the Qualities, after a manifold manner; therefore, the Animal Spirits implanted in them, enter into a peculiar way of Gyration or turning round, or of undulation or waving, according to which, the Spirits being harmonized, which flow within the pas­sage of the Nerve belonging to those Fibres, do propagate the same Figure or Type of their carrying forth, to the Medullary Stock, and by its means, to the Common Sensory.

The Tangible Species being impressed after this manner,Tangible Species immediately carried either to the Cerebel, or to the streaked Bodies. on the Nervous Fibres, or the outward Organ of the Touch, are not always carried from thence, or at least not immediately to the same Common Sensory; for we have shewed elsewhere, that some Nerves spring from the Parts of the Brain, and others from those of the Cerebel; where­fore, when they direct the Impulse, hap'ning outwardly immediately to the striated or streaked Bodies, these latter convey the Sension from the Fibres, which are planted some­where more inwards about the Viscera to the Cerebel; from which (without Knowledge of the Animal) oftentimes involuntary Motions are retorted: as when Vomiting follows upon an Emetick Medicine, unknown, and against our Minds. If that this private Sen­sion belonging to the Cerebel be a little stronger, and vehement passing thorow the same Cerebel, goes further even to the streaked Bodies; as when Medicines provoking the Stomach, more sharply, induce a Sension or trouble about the Heart, or otherways mole­stious, which they plainly give notice of.

Further,And from thence goes forward, sometimes to the other Faculties, Viz. the Imagi­nation, Memory, and Appetite. when the Tangible Impression arrives first and immediately at the streaked Bodies, if the same be light, it is there terminated, and the sensible Species presently vanishes; but if the Impulse of the Object be somewhat stronger, it passes further to the Callous Body, and oftentimes to the Shell of the Brain; and therefore their Affections, Imagination, and sometimes Memory, gather'd from the touch of the thing, succeed: and when, the sensible Species being also dilated to the Common Sensory, a divergency or bending down of the Spirits, from thence is reflected into the same Nerve, or others related to it, so it stirs up local Motions. These sort of Effects are sufficiently known by the Common Proverb, Where the Pain is, there the Finger will be: for it is implanted by Nature in every Animal, to rub or press the place with its finger or foot, where any sense of Trouble or Pain is.

As to the Kinds and Differences of Feeling,The Kinds and Differences of Feeling, are ei­ther, In respect of the Object; both are taken, either from the Objects, or from the various affection of the Sensory: the ways or means of the former, are so manifold, that they cannot easily be recounted; for hither ought to be referred (as we said but now) the universal Tangible Qualities; By Tangible Qualities we understand here, the various habitudes of Natural Bodies, which arise from the Crasis and Dispo­sition of the Elements, of which they are made; as also from their Intestine Motion, or Effluvia's variously appearing in themselves; which kind of Modifications of Bodies, the Sense of Feeling chiefly finds out, and makes their knowledge or marks so certain, that when we do not believe the Scrutiny of the other Senses, we are wont to rest satisfied with the Examination of this.

Concerning the Species of Feeling,In respect of the Sensory. Constituted in respect of the Sensory, we shewed even now, that the sensible Impression was immediately derived from the External Or­gan, either to the streaked Bodies, or to the Cerebel: Therefore, for that Reason, Sen­sion is either manifest,And so it is ei­ther manifest or private. and knows plainly every thing; or private of which the Animal is scarce knowing: but the Consequence declares this Kind of Sension to have been stir­red up: for a Motion being made in any inward unseen, argues a previous sense of it to [Page 62] have been; as from the change of the Pulse, or a failure of Spirits, shews a certain Malig­nity to have affected the Praecordia, or the Cerebel.

Pleasant or Sad.In either of the aforesaid Kinds of Sension, to wit, whether the same be manifest or private, the Tangible Impression, either coming pleasantly to the Fibres, gathers toge­ther the Spirits implanted in them, and more nearly delights them, and strokes them with a soft and gentle rubbing, whence pleasure arises; or the Impulse of the same, pulling and wrinkling the Fibres, distracts and dissipates the Spirits one from another, and so Grief, Pain, or Trouble Succeeds: But concerning these Affections, viz. Grief and Pleasure, we shall have hereafter a more fit place to speak of them; so that it next remains, for us to proceed, from the Sense of Feeling, to its nearest Neighbor and Re­lation the Taste.

CHAP. XII.

Of the Taste.

The Taste a Kin to Feeling.THe Taste is so like to the Sense of Feeling, that it seems to be a certain Species of it; and certainly the Object, in either Organ, ought to be brought near, and laid upon it; yea in tasting, to be admitted more deeply within the Pores and its passa­ges. Upon this Sense,The Sensory of the Tast discerns its Objects, and is delighted with those things that are Convenient. depends chiefly both the Life and Vegetation of Animals; for this chooses and takes in Juice for nourishment convenient, and that by this Office it might be constantly and rightly performed, it is furnished with a faculty, or a certain implanted Judgment, whereby some wholesome and agreeable Aliments, fit for every Individual, are discerned from those that are disagreeable and hurtful; also further, as it were in reward of its work, it is delighted after a notable manner, with the Exercise of its Function; For unless convenient agreeable things, [...]it to be Eaten, move Spittle, and as it were prickle them with a most grateful pleasantness of Taste, the appetite of desiring or taking of Food is quickly extinguished,Venus or Plea­sure is necessary for the preserv­ing of the Indi­vidual. with oblivion or tediousness; so for the preserving the Individual, no less than the Species, Desire and Pleasure ought to be had.

The Sensory of the Taste is not so diffusive, and almost Co-extended with the whole Body, as that of Feeling, but is limitted to one part only: yea, and its Sensible is of one Kind only, to wit, a Savoury thing, nor does it include, as the Tangible Quality, the Subjects of many Catagorical things. Indeed the chief and almost only Organ of the Taste is the Tongue; to which, after a manner, but obscurely, do consent the Pa­late and the Upper part of the Throat; But in all of them, the Nervous Fibres are the immediate Instruments of Sension;The Organ of the Taste, is the Tongue, with the Palate, and Throat. wherefore 'tis observed, that the Tongue is notedly more Fibrous than any other part, also consists of a very porous Contexture; for this end, that the savory Particles of the thing, might be more plentifully, and more deep­ly admitted, into the passages of the Sensory, and so meeting at once with many Fi­bres, might excite a more acute Sension: yea, it may be suspected, that whil'st the subtil Particles of the savory Humor are imbibed so deeply by the Tongue,Eating is a cer­tain Solution; the Animal Spirits do in some measure snatch the same, for their nourishment, and convey them inwardly, by the passages of the Nerves, towards the Brain; for it plainly appears, that in great Fastings or want of Food, and swouning or failure of Spirits, that a refreshment of them immediately follows, upon the first tasting of any noble Liquor.

Eating is a certain Kind of Solution, whereby the savory Particles may be the better taken in,Wherefore one savour, often­times excludes another. from the Food by the Sensory: Because, whil'st solid eatable things are redu­ced into bits, by Chawing, the Tongue, and other parts of the Mouth, and Throat, pour forth as it were a certain Menstruum, which washing and as it were Elixivating the savory little Bodies, carries them into the Sensory, and insinuates them into the Pores of the Tongue: Further, The savory Particles, because so impacted in the Sen­sory, do employ its passages, hence it comes to pass, that one savour not rarely ex­cludes another; so sweet things being tasted, because they are clammy, and very ob­structing, hinder or pervert the more exact taste of Wine; wherefore, that the hindred Faculty might be again restored, salt or sharp things are eaten, which may open the Pores of the Tongue, and clear away the sticking Viscousness.

[Page 63]As to the Nerves,The Nerves sent to the Organs of the Taste, proceed partly from the Fifth pair. which serve to the Fibres of the Tongue, thickly interwoven with it, and which carry the Impressions of Savours, to the chief Sensory, it seems, that they are of a double Kind: for as Nerves are inserted in the Tongue from both the Fifth, and the Ninth pair, and are every where distributed thorow its whole frame, with a most thick Series of shoots, it is very likely, that they are both Sensitive. Concerning the Nerves sent hither from the Fifth pair, the thing is out of doubt; and as from the same pair, other shoots are sent into the Nostrils, hence we may say, the reason is, of that Consent, which is between both these Sensories; but indeed, as to the Nerves bestowed also on the Tongue, from the Ninth pair, it may be something doubted, because it is commonly believed, that the Office of these serve to the Motion of the Tongue, and to Speech;Partly from the Ninth also, which serve for the Motions of the Tongue. wherefore, from the same pair are sent certain branches into the Muscles of the Tongue, and of the Bone called Hyoides, which without doubt are destinated for their Motion: Nevertheless, th [...] it be granted, that the Nerves of the Tongue and its Appendix, inserted from the Ninth pair, do bestow on them the moving Power (which indeed is necessary to this Part, as well for Tastings as for speaking; to wit, as the Tongue is very versatile, it takes in with delight the Savours from every corner or recess of the Mouth) yet what hinders,It is in like manner observ­ed of the Touch, that the same Nerves serve both for Sense, and Motion. that however the same Nerves should not serve for both, to wit, Motion and Sense? For it appears, that many Nerves which serve for the Sense of Feeling, do in like manner serve for the performing of the Motions of those Parts to which they belong. Wherefore, as Tasting is a certain Species of Feeling, it is pro­bable, that it enters in some measure through the moving Nerves of the Tongue it self; neither does it appear otherwayes, for what end Branches of the Nerves, derived from the Ninth pair into the Tongue, disperse such thick-set shoots into its whole frame, un­less they should serve for the receiving of the Particles of Savours, coming from every Part. But for as much as after this manner, two Nerves of a distinct Original belong to the Tongue,Wherefore from the Taste of a pleasant thing, the Imagination and the Prae­cordia, are wont to be affected. and one of them arises from the Parts of the Brain, and the other from the Cerebel: Hence a Sension being carried inwards by the same, it is stay'd from either at the Common Sensory, and so according to the diverse Nature of the Object, a pleasant and delectable fruition, or an ingrateful and sad Aversion, at once in either Govern­ment the Imagination and the Praecordia are affected.

There is a sufficient indulgement to the Taste, for a reward of its necessary work, to wit, Eating; therefore its Objects are sought far and near, through the Regions of the whole World, yea and all the Elements are imployed. Further, as to its Ministry, all the rest of the Senses serve to this,The rest of the Senses, wait up­on the Taste. for nothing pleases the Palate unless the Sight, and Hearing, Smell, and Touch approve it. 'Tis fit it should be so, for this Sensory, by which Food is conveyed for Humane Life, and that it might enjoy great variety, for the shunning of nauseous things; and use a guard upon the rest, for Discrimination; lest instead of Food, it might unawares take Poison.

The Speculation of Savours,Savours the Ob­ject of Tasting. Simple or Com­pound: A Threefold Con­sideration of them, to wit, which are, 1. Whose Origi­nal are natural.2. Artificial.3. The Altera­tion or Abolition of either. (which are the next Object of Taste) contains in it self very many Pleasant, and no less Profitable things; wherefore I think it will not be from the Matter, to turn aside here a little into this Theory; and as we shall divide all Sa­vours into Simple and Compound: First, we shall rehearse what Nature suggests of that Kind particularly, according to their several differences, both of themselves, and of the Subjects in which they are; Then secondly, we shall add the Parallels, by what means, and by what service of Art, the same Savours in Subjects are produced anew, in which they are not by Nature; Thirdly, After what manner Savours both Natural and Artificial, are any way altered and changed in their Subjects, or wholly perish. It will be worth our while to discourse briefly concerning these, and lastly, somewhat of Compounded Savours.

Savours called Simple,Nine Simple Savours. are commonly counted to be Nine, viz. Sharp, Bitter, Salt, Acid or Tart, Astringent or Biting, Sowre, Sweet, Oyly, insipid or without Taste.

The first is sharp or biting Savour,Sharp Savour. such as is felt in Pepper or Pellitory, being chewed; which probably arises, as often as the Particles of any Body are smooth, and sharpned, and after that manner figured, like the stings of Nettles, that they may prick and very much dig into the Sensory. In Subjects indued with a sharp biting Savour, a volatile Salt, or an Alchalisat, or suffering a Flux from Fire, very much exceeds other Elements.

First,Which are sharp or biting of their own Na­ture. Concretes, which have by Nature Particles, so figured, are accounted among Vegetables Hearts-ease, or Trinity-Herb, Pepper, Aron, Country-Mustard, Sea-Lettice, or Milk-thistle, Mustardseed, Pellitory, Ranunculus, &c. Of Minerals Arsneck, Sanda­ra [...]h, &c. Among Animals it is scarcely met with, nor among their Parts, a savour of this Kind, unless perhaps some Insects, as Cantharides, &c.

Secondly,Which are so produced by Art. Sharp biting Bodies produced by the help of Art, are Mercury Sublimate, Butter of Antimony, Strong-Waters, and Causticks, the fixed Salts of Herbs, made by burning to Ashes, Calcined Vitriol, the Rust of Brass, &c. The oftner things suffer [Page 64] Calcination, and Fusion in the Fire, the more biting sharp they are made; because, by this means, the Pricks and Spears of the Particles are sharpned. An Example is in the fixed Salts of Herbs, calcined Vitriol, the Infernal Stone, &c. Bodies which are biting sharp, and Corrosives mixt together, and committed to the Fire, acquire a most sharp force of burning. An example is in Mercury Sublimate, and Stygian Waters, the rea­son of which is, because Salts of a like Kind, being mixed together, joyn their forces or edges, and are at the same time very much sharp'ned by the fire. It happens otherwise to Salts of a divers Kind, as are Spirits of Vitriol, and Salt of Tartar, mixed together; Sugar and Honey subjected to distillation, exhale a Caustick Water; also the Spirit of Wine highly rectified becomes biting sharp, and burning; because the Saline or Spiri­tuous Particles, in both Substances being deprived of the sweetness of the others, put forth their Spears and Pricks.

By what means the biting sharpness is wont to be ta­ken away, or al­tered.Thirdly, Which was the Third Proposition, the biting sharpness in Bodies, both Natural and Artificial is put away or altered after various wayes. Mercury Sublimate highly Corrosive, if another quantity of live Mercury be added and sublimed, it takes away all acritude or biting sharpness, and it becomes insipid or without taste. The reason of which is, that when the Particles of the added Mercury, do grow to the little Spears of the Salts, they do thereby become more thick and obtuse. The Spirit of Vitriol and Salt of Tartar, being melted (which two are biting sharp and corrosive of them­selves apart) if they be put together, lose all acritude; to wit, these Salts being of a divers Kind, viz. Fluid and Alchalisat; being put together, work mutually one upon another, by which means, the little Spears and Pricks of both are broken; even as if the edge of one Knife, should be rubbed against the edge of another. Plants and Herbs, which are naturally biting sharp, if they be macerated in White-wine, (or perhaps in any other Liquor) put away all their sharpness; and yet the Liquor becomes not at all sharp. In these sort of Concretes, all the acritude depends upon the volatile Salt, which being loosned, by the mixture, presently flyes away. For the same Reason, these sort of Herbs, being subjected to distillation, exhale almost an insipid water, and the dreggs of the Herbs remaining after distillation, is also insipid: Hence also some Herbs, which being green, abound with a sharp biting juice, being dryed, lose very much of their acritude; as Scurvy-grass, Water-cresses, and Brooklime, &c.

Bitter Sa­vour.Secondly, The bitter Savour or Taste, such as is principally in Gall and Wormwood, seems to be made, for as much as the Particles of its Body are planted with forked Pricks, which digging into the Sensory, not deeply, but only on the Superficies, cause a sad or sorrowful Sense; just as if the sharp-pointed fruit of the Teasle, should be sharply hand­led with ones hands. In Subjects indued with a bitter Savour, Salt, associated with Sul­phur, and suffering an Adustion with it, Predominates.

Which are bitter of their own Nature.First, Subjects which exhibit this kind of Savour naturally, among Vegetables, are Wormwood, Southernwood, Centaury, Colocynthida, Agaric, Fumitary, and almost all Herbs which grow in dry and mountany places; then G [...]mms, and Concrete juices, as Myrrh, Aloes, Opium, Ammoniac, &c. Among Minerals they are not easily met with. The Excrements of living Creatures, as the Gall, and Dung, the Liquor contained in the Bladder of the Gall; and so the Skins of some Birds are bitter.

After what manner, the bitterness may be produced anew.Secondly, As to the second, Things which draw bitterness anew, they are Compound­ed Liquors; if in Cooking they are burnt, or are made too thick by Evaporation; hence Soot is bitter, and whatever things suffer adustion or burning. Sugared Aliments and sweet things are most easily Corrupted in the Stomach, and degenerate into a most high­ly bitter Humor.

By what means it is wont to be taken a­way, or altered.Thirdly, As to the Third, a bitter Savour is most difficulty taken away, without the Destruction of the Subject, in which it is; as appears in Aloes, and Colocynthida, and Medicines prepared out of them. Yet New Beer, being something bitterish, by the boyling of Hops in it, grows sweet by clearing and a long fermentation: the reason of this we have shewed elsewhere. Further, Liquors, which grow bitter by reason of their Contracting an Empyreuma or burning to, if they be exposed for a long while in a moist Air, or distilled over again, mixed with Calcined Salt, they will partly lose their Empyreu­ma, or smatch of Fire, and bitterness.

Salt Savour.3. Because Experience shews, that Salts for the most part do grow together, into many pointed, and diversly corner'd Figures, it is most likely, that the Salt savour is produced, when Particles of any Body, pointed with many Angles and Edges on all sides, do as it were cut into the Sensory, like as if little bits of broken Glass be strictly pressed in ones hand. In these Kind of Subjects, the Saline Principle excells the other Elements.

Salt things na­turally.First, Bodies naturally Salt, are scarce met with in the family of Vegetables, althô Plants and Herbs, almost all, owe their rise and growth to Salt. It is seen however [Page 65] that Sea Scurvigrass, and Capers have something of a salt Savour. Salt obtains the chief place among Minerals, and salsitude or saltness is chiefly eminent in Sea-Salt, in Salt that is dug up, Nitre, and Sal Gemmae. The Excrements of Animals, to wit, the Dung, the Sweet, the Serum, are Salt; Blood also participates something of the Nature of Saltishness.

Secondly,Things which are so made by Art. Those Salts which are made by an artificial means, are the fixed Salts of Herbs, made by incineration or burning to Ashes: Compounded Salts, to wit, Borax, Sal Ammoniac. A volatile Salt is drawn forth of Amber, Bones, Horns, and also out of the Blood of Animals, by Sublimation,

Thirdly,By what means saltness is want to be taken away or altered. As to the Third, all natural Salts, if they be distilled often over again, pass into acetous or tart Liquors: The reason of which is, because these kind of Con­cretes suffer a divorce of the other Principles, by the fire, and so come more near to the Simple and Elementary Nature of Salt. Volatile Salts, at first white, if exposed to the Moisture of the Air, do melt into a reddish Liquor, not very Salt, and besides smelling like the stink of smoak or soot; because the mixture being loosned by the moist Air, the Saline Particles, for that they are volatile, many of them fly away, but in the mean time, the Sulphureous Particles, before subjugated, get the Do­minion.

Fourthly,The Acid or tart savour. The Acid, or sour, or tart Savour or Taste, seems to be made, when the Particles of any Body are four pointed or corner'd (to wit, which appear with a smooth and acute point, and with a sharp Body, like a wedge made into a bigger bulk) so that which way soever applyed to the Sensory, they prick it, and by pressing it, something bind it up; and therefore they leave in it larger Incisions than any other Savour. This Kind of Savour, for the most part depends upon a fixed Salt, carried forth into a Flux.

First,Natural A­cids. Bodies naturally acid or sower, are among Vegetables, Pomecitrons, Oringes, Lemons, Berberries, Sorrel, Tamarinds, &c. Among Minerals scarce any to be met with, as I remember, nor is it easily to be found among Animals, unless perhaps the Melancholly Juice, the ferments of the Stomach, and Spleen, the Pancratic Juice, and also the fasting spittle of a Man, may be said to be something Acid.

Secondly,Made Acids. Made Acids, are Vinegar, and the Spirit of it, or the Liquor distilled: The Melanchollic Humor preternaturally begotten in the Body, which often like the Spirit of Vitriol, becomes Acid, and almost Corrosive. Vitriol, Salt, and Sulphur, be­ing whole, and tasted in their solid substance, shew no kind of acidity, if they be made subject to Chymical Operation, send forth a Liquor highly acid; the reason of which was shewed but now.

Thirdly,By what means an Acid savour is wont to be taken a­way, or altered. As to the Third, Chymists say, that acetous Spirits, to wit, of Sulphur, Salt, Vitriol, &c. by a long Digestion and Circulation, do grow sweet. All acetous Mineral Spirits, also distilled Vinegar, and the juice of Vegetables; if they dissolve any Body, by knawing or corroding it, as Corals, Pearls, or any Precious Stones, put away their acidness; because the Particles of the fluid Salt, in the acid Stagma or Menstruum, are fixed to the Alchali Salt in the mixture. Moreover, these Kinds of Spirits, and ace­tous Liquors, if they are mixed, either with Oil of Tartar, or with the fixed Salts of Herbs, loosed by Deliquium, loose their acidity. The Spirit of Vinegar being poured upon Salt of Tartar, and drawn off by distillation, becomes insipid. Spirit of Vitriol poured upon Quick-silver, and drawn off by distillation, putting away its acidity, acquires a taste like Allum; and if we may believe Helmont, passes by Coagulation into true Alum. Distilled Vinegar impregnated with the solution of Minium, or red Lead, grows wonderfully sweet.

5. The Sower,Austere or sower Taste. austere, or binding or astringent Savour, arises in Bodies, whose Particles are stuffed with very many little Spears and Hooks, which in chewing, being rolled upon the Sensory, are fixed to it, and greatly draw together, and pull its Fibres; not much unlike, as if a Comb, which Cards Wool, should be drawn up and down upon the hands. In substances indued with an austere savour, a fixed Salt, enwrapped with the Particles of the earthy Element, predominates.

First,Naturally austere things. Bodies naturally austere, among Vegetables, are the Fruit of the Medlar-Tree, of the Dog-Bryer, of the Cypress-Tree, Flowers of Pomegranat, Galls, Slows, Sumach, &c. Among Minerals Alum, Iron, Vitriol. Among living Creatures, or among their Parts, there is not as I remember, any austere savour to be met with.

Secondly,Made au­stere savours. Bodies Artificially produced, which have an austere, sower or rough sa­vour, are all made Vitriols, to wit, the Vitriol of Silver, of Steel, of Tin, of Cop­per, &c. The reason of which is, because in these Minerals, the Saline Particles, are very much intangled with Terrene, and they continue in the same state, when they are [Page 66] drawn forth from their Substances, by the soluted Mixtion. Spirit of Vitriol being drawn from Mercury, by frequent Cohobations, acquires a Pontick or Aluminous Savour.

By what means an au­stere or rough Taste, is wont to be taken away, or altered.Thirdly, As to the Instances, by which an austere, sower, or rough taste, may be taken away out of all Substances, it is to be observed, that Vitriol of every Kind, by long distillation and circulation with the Spirit made of Wine, grows sweet, and loses its astringent force. If waters impregnated with Vitriol, be poured into Oil of Tar­tar, there will be precipitated a certain thickish Matter wonderfully sweet. Steel, Tin, or Lead, being dissolved in Vinegar, and Coagulated by Evaporation, go into sweet Salts. Further, it is a common Experiment: If having before tasted Vitriol, you take the fume of Tobacco at your Mouth, the austere taste at first impressed on the Sense, is changed into a plainly honied sweetness; the reason of which is, because the Sea-salt Particles, such as are in Vitriol, being mingled with the Sulphureous, out of the burnt Tobacco, create a sweet Savour: from whence also we may Collect, that Sugar and Honey, are of a Sulphureous-saline Nature; which also clearly appears, by their distillation, for as much as they, like Salt Minerals, yield an Acid and very Corrosive Stagma.

A sower Taste.6. Of Kin to be the austere, is the acerb or sower taste, the Particles of whose subject, are indued with little Tenters or Hooks, or Claws, but which are more dull and blunt, and with which they strike the Sensory, and stop up its little Pores, and being once fixed, they are not easily removed; whence a stupor or numness in the Teeth and Palat is caused; not unlike Burdocks, which being fixed to the Skin, become troublesome, and are not easily shaken off. In acerb or sower biting Bodies, a fluid Salt, implicated with an earthy Matter, excells.

Bodies na­turally acerb or sower.First, Bodies naturally sower among Vegetables, are unripe Fruits; as Grapes, Pears, and Apples, and most of all Wildings, Crabs, or wild Apples, thô kept till they are mellow: also sower Herbs: Among Minerals, or Animals, there is nothing easily to be met with, that has a sower Taste.

Secondly, Bodies that are made sower anew, are chiefly Wine and Beer, degenerating into a deadness,Made sower things. through Age or Thunder; also Leaven, or Bread too much leavened. Broths and Milk-meats, if they Contract a settlement and hoariness, become sower: because in all those Concretes disposed to Corruption, the Saline Particles being ex­alted, and tending towards a Flux, carry forth also earthy Particles involved with themselves.

Thirdly, As to the taking away of this Taste, we have observed, That sower Fruits do grow sweet,By what means to sower Taste, is wont to be taken a­way, or altered. either by the goodness of the Air, and Sun; in sower Fruits brought to maturity: or by the goodness of the Ground or Soil, as when wild Apples translated to a good Soil grow sweet; the reason of either is, because the Spirituous and Sulphu­reous Particles before subjugated, at length Predominate over the Saline. If Wine de­generated into deadness, is impregnated with new Lees of Tartar, it shall recover its Vigor: The like happens, if a Can of good Wine be poured into a Vessel of sower Beer or Ale. Wine growing dead, if it be distilled, often yields a sweet Spirits, and in no less quantity, that if the Wine had been in its full strength: because the Spirits be­fore subjugated in that Mixture, recover their Dominion by distillation.

The sweet savour.Seventhly, The sweet savour seems to be made, for as much as the Particles of any Body are so figured, into soft prickles, that they tickle the Sensory, with a soft rub­bing, and from thence stir up a delightful Sense of Pleasure; like as if feathers were applyed to the Sides, or the Soles of the Feet. In these the Saline Principle seems to be associated, with Sulphureous and Spirituous, and when they are, in like manner are carried forth.

First, Those which are naturally sweet, are among Vegetables, first Sugar, and Man­na; then Cassia,What are na­turally sweet. ripe Fruits, Grapes, Raisons, some Roots, as Parsnips, &c. Among Animals, some ascribe Honey, but others more rightly, say that is swet out of Plants, and gathered by Bees. Among Minerals nothing (that I know) hath naturally a sweet Savour.

Secondly, The things which have a sweet Taste, and are made by Art, are the Sugar of Lead,Sweets pre­pared by Art. Salt of Steel, Lythargites, yea, and out of many other Bodies, Vinegar extracts a sweet Salt. Tasting Vitriol before-hand (as was said) and then taking a Pipe of To­bacco, the smoke grows sweet like Honey. In this, and in the former instances, whil'st the Saline little darts grow to the Sulphureous Particles, or Saline of another Kind, both of them become more blunt. An Alchalisat Spirit, and the fixed Salt of any Body, being mixed, and circulated by a long digestion, acquire a sweetness. Barley soaked in Water, when it begins to sprout, and dried with a gentle fire, grows exceeding sweet: And Wheat in like manner also, if being wet, it sprouts yields a wonderfully [Page 67] sweet Meal; the reason of which is, because by that Artifice, the Sulphureous and Spi­rituous Particles, overthrown by the Earthy, get their Liberty.

Thirdly,By what means sweetness is taken away, or altered. There are many Instances, by which sweetness is abolished; for all sweet things too much boiled, grow bitter. Sugar or Honey, by distillation, yield at first an insipid Phlegm, then sharp and burning Spirits; In the dead Head remaining after di­stillation, is a burning Salt, and an insipid Earth, and whatever is sweet perishes. Fur­ther, Sugar or Honey being mixed with a great quantity of Common Water, and di­stilled through a Bladder, yield a burning Water, like the Lees of Wine distilled after the same fashion. In both these, and in the following Instance, the additional sweet­nesses are bruised, by the saline little darts, Sugar of Lead being fused by the fire, melts into meer Lead; if it be distilled in a Retort, if we may believe Beguinus, it will produce a burning and sweet smelling Spirit.

8. The unctuous or oyly savour,An Oyly Taste. seems to be produced, when the Particles of any Bo­dy are very Spherical and round, which neither hawl, prick, nor tickle the Sensory, but only stroke it with a gentle and soft coming to it. In these, the Sulphureous Principle predominates.

First,In which it is by Nature. Bodies naturally Unctuous or oyly, among Vegetables, are ripe Olives, the Turpentine-Tree. The Larix, and some sweet smelling Gums naturally sweating forth. Among Minerals, Asphaltum, Bitumen, Amber, Sperma Ceti, and some fat Earths, and Ochers: Of Animals, and their Parts, the Sewet, Marrow, and Fat.

Secondly,In [...] things it is wont to be produced by Art. Unctuous things prepared by Art, are Butter, Cream, Oyls, press'd out of Fruits and Seeds, as Oyl of Nuts, of sweet Almonds, also Oyls drawn out of Seeds, Woods, Gums, and Refines by distillation.

Thirdly,How it is ta­ken away or al­ter'd. Althô unctuosity is most difficulty taken away from the Subjects, yet it is wont to be lessen'd: for so Unctuous Bodies, if they grow stale, or are too much boiled, or otherways grow hot by shaking, losing their smoothness, become rank, and prick and dig the Sensory. Further, Sewet and Fat, if they be long exposed to a moist Air, contract a settlement, and become hoary, and then are resolved into Water, or a cor­rupt Earth. In this, and in the former instance, whil'st the mixture of the Body is re­solved, some Sulphureous Particles fly away, in the mean time the remaining lose their Dominion.

9. An insipid Savour or Taste,An insipid Savour. seems to be made, when the Particles of any Body, are indued with superficial little Darts, not at all sharp, but smooth and discharged; which enter not into the Pores of the Sensory, and no ways dig or hawl it. In these, the Principle either of Water, or Earth, predominate over the rest.

First,In what things it is by Nature. Bodies naturally insipid or tastless, are Common Water, especially Rain Wa­ter, some cold Herbs, the raw white of an Egg, &c. Althô in the whole world, there is nothing insipid simply, yet Speech is wont to apply it to them things, in which some one of those Savours, are not eminently, which we have before recounted.

Secondly, That Savory things may become Unsavory, the more acute Particles ought wholly to fly away,How it is wont to be pro­duced. or be very much broken. Herbs long kept, also many more things, if they be distilled by a moderate heat, yield almost an insipid Liquor.

Thirdly,By what means it is ta­ken away. Insipidness it self, sometimes is taken away; for insipid Water, if it stand long, that it putrifie, acquires a stink and mouldy Savour: The white of an Egg boiled hard, has something a sharp taste. In these kind of Instances, some active Elements, be­ing before subjugated, get strength.

Besides these Kinds of simple Savours, which are as it were the Elements of the rest, there remain yet many Complications of these simple ones,Compounded Savours. as the Savours rehearsed are conjoyned one among another: And for as much as by the Wisdom of Nature, to satis­fie all Palates, and by the Luxury of Art, that she might please the Throats of some, ma­nifold mixtures of Savours have been produced, that almost nothing to be eaten, is found simple and without Sawce or Condiment. The several Compositions of these, is a thing almost impossible to enumerate; it shall suffice for the present, that we note some of the more noted Conjugations, and their Affections, as they are grateful or ingrateful to the Palate.

The first Conjugation,Compositions of Savours, which are more or less grateful. and that most grateful to the Palate, is of acid and sweet, of which sort are generous Wine, Confections prepared out of Citron, Wood-Sorrel, Berberries, &c. Sugar'd things, and sharp things pickl'd, with Sugar. Secondly, Sweet and Astringent, as also sweet and sower, are well Consociated: as in Marmalade of Quinces, Candied Bulloes, Cyder drunk with Sugar, &c. Thirdly, Sweet and oyly yield a grateful Savour to the Palate, but that brings a nauseousness to the Stomach, as in Milk-meats, Sugar'd-meats, and Pasty-crust, &c. Fourthly, Sweet agrees not with biting, bitter, or salt Savour. Fifthly, nor doth a bitter Savour of it self, agree with any other: it is grateful to the Palate, well-tempered with the sweet. Sixthly, Salt-savour [Page 88] best agrees with the biting sharp, as in flesh seasoned with Salt and Pepper, it is an ingrateful Sawce with the oyly. Seventhly, The Acid, Astringent and Sower, are well associated with the sweet, not with the rest.

There are more Kinds of some other Compounded Savours, which we have no time now to recount. But there are in respect of the Taste, as the Compounded Tunes of Harmony in respect of Hearing, in both sensible not simple Species of one Kind, but are carried manifold, and variously Complicated to the Sensory. It now remains for us to pass from the Taste, the Object of which we have largely handled, to the other Species of the Senses.

CHAP. XIII.

Of the Sense of Smelling.

IT seems that the Smell is a more Excellent, and a little more Sublime Faculty, than either Tasting, or Touching; to wit, because its Object is more subtle, and comes to the Sensory, with a thinner Consistency: for there is no need to put upon the Or­gan, the more thick substance of the mixture; but it suffices, that the Effluvia's or Breath, sent from odorous Bodies, thô at something a remote distance, be inspired into the Nostrils, together with the Air.

Living Creatures are furnished with the Sense of Smelling for this end, to wit, that agreeable and wholesom Aliments may be known, and discerned from disagreeable and hurtful;The use of the Smell, to discern Aliments at a distance. for because it were an incongruous and dangerous thing, to take in pre­sently into the Mouth, all things offered to be eaten, and to be examined by the Taste, lest perchance Venomous and Stinking things, carelesly taken in by the Palate, should bring loathing or hurt to it, the Smell examines first the thing at a distance, and refuses those rotten things, or guilty of any other very infestous quality, without receiving any hurt by the Contagion.

This Kind of Primary use is seen more excellently in brute Animals, than in Man; for they by this Index only,This is more ex­cellent in Brutes than in Man. most certainly know the Virtues of Herbs, and of other Bodies, before unknown, yea hunt out, and easily find their absent Food, thô hidden from them, by the Smell. But that the Noses of Men are less quick or sagacious, it ought not (as some would have it) to be ascribed to the abuse of the Faculty, but the Cause lyes in the defect of the Organ it self; for this is not so accurately required for the distinction of Humane Food, where Reason and the Intellect are present: For that Reason the inferior Powers in Man, exist less perfect by Nature, that there might be a place left, for the exercise and dressing of the more superior.

The Organ of the Smell de­scribed.As to what belongs to the Organ of Smelling, we have largely enough unfolded it in our Discourse of the Nerves; to wit, we have shewed, that within the Caverns of the Nostrils, are placed tubulated Membranes or like Pipes, which contain sensible Fibres, most thickly interwoven. Into these Membranes, very many small Nerves are sent from either Mamillary Process, passing thorow the holes of the Seive-like Bones; but those Mamillary Processes, as they are plainly soft Nerves, arise in the Medullary Trunk, nigh the streaked Bodies; wherefore, when the odorous steams, strike upon the Fibrous, and very sensible Membranes, forthwith an impression of the sensible thing, is carried by the passage of the Nerves into the Mamillary Processes, and from thence into the streaked Bodies.

Further, We have formerly declared, why the Smelling Nerves, divided without the Skull are harder, but united within it are not only softer, but also tubulated or like Pipes, and for the most part in Brutes, filled with clear Water: There is no need to repeat it here again, nor what we have declared there, concerning other Nerves, coming from the Fifth pair, and inserted also into the Organ of Smelling: Of which certainly the Office is, to cause a certain Sympathy and consent of action, between the Smell and Taste, and something also between the Sight and it.

Nerves of a se­veral Kind, serve for Smel­ling.I know some attribute the office of Smelling altogether to these Nerves, arising from the Fifth pair, denying it to the Mamillary Processes, and from hence they render a rea­son, not only of that consent, between the Nose and the Palate, from whence it comes to pass, that the same Objects are embraced or refused, but also, wherefore it happens, that one Sense being lost, that oftentimes the other perishes; to wit the Cause of this [Page 89] they say is nothing else, than that both Sensories do borrow the branches of their Nerves, from the same Trunk of the Fifth pair. But this Objection is easily overthrown, be­cause the Nerves of a twofold Original, are bestowed not only on the Sensory of the Smell, but also of the Taste. For the Tongue receives more and greater Branches from the Ninth pair, than from the Maxillary Trunk of the Fifth pair: to wit, that if the Nerves of one Kind be obstructed, the Animal Function may be performed, by those of the other Kind. Concerning this then we may say, that the Principle Nerves serving to the Organ of Smelling, are derived from either Mamillary Process, also, that the Nerves on which the Sense of Tasting chiefly depends, are sent from the Ninth pair: Nevertheless, some secondary Nerves, or that are as it were taken in, are distributed to either Sensory, (as also to the Eye) far fetch'd from the Fifth pair: for this end, that there might be an affinity or mutual respect, between the Taste and the Smell, and be­tween both and the Sight: hence therefore the Taste almost admits of no Object, unless that the Smell first approves of it: but both Faculties do require, that sensible things do first stand to the examination of the Eyes.

But that the loss of one of them,Hence the reason is had, of that Consent, between the Smell and the Taste. oftentimes brings in the defect of the other, as it is sometimes observed in a Pose, or Stopping of the Head, that losing the Smell, the Taste is lost also: the reason of it is, because either Sensory, being planted near, are both at once overthrown by the same serous Matter, poured forth from the Blood, and apt to be too much stopped: for both the tubulated Membranes of the Nose, and the frame or substance of the Tongue it self, are made of a very rare, and as it were spongy Tex­ture: wherefore,Why one being wanting, the o­ther for the most part is Defe­ctive. the Pores and Passages of either Organ, are wont to be overflown by the serous flood, and the sensible Fibres in both, in like manner to be obstructed, which happens, because when as the Nostrils and Tongue ought to be moistned, with a conti­nual Humor, either of them are punished more grievously than other Parts, by the shower of the Serum issuing forth, so both on every light Cause, become obnoxious to the same Evil.

CHAP. XIV.

Of the Sense of Hearing.

AFter the Smell and Taste,The Excellency of Hearing, as to Vse and Acti­vity. of which we have already treated, we shall next speak of Hearing; which as to the use, is far more Excellent than the other Senses; for as much as by its help chiefly, Sciences and Learning are acquired, also by whose in­stinct, the Passions are excited; yea, and are wont to be governed and allayed; further as to Activity, this Sense is much more Efficacious, because having got a larger Sphear, perceives its Objects at a great distance, and admits not the sensible Species, unless brought in a more thin consistency: For that it is the Interest of living Creatures, to know some remote things by Contact, and often placed out of Sight, because they may be timely prevented, if they should be inimical and disagreeable, but if thought ami­cable, that they may be come to, and apprehended; the Hearing serves for either Intention, and by its sign, the Marks and Symbols of approaching Bodies are received afar off.

Because the Hearing is always performed at a distance,Is performed at a distance, by reason of the Activity of the Medium. and a sound comes often far­ther than the Effluvia's of a sounding Body, can be admitted; therefore, this Sense is supposed to be made even as Sight, by reason of a certain activity of the Medium it self, or by a Motion, and as it were a certain waving of little Bodies, which flow in it; so as the sounding Body, moves by its Vibration or shaking the Particles diffused in the inter­mediate space, and they being moved, at length affect the Sensory; but they conceive a certain Figure of their carrying forth, according to the Particles first agitated, and they propagate the same in others, and then in others, or move forward, as it were by undu­lation, and so the sound, still retaining the Character or Type of the first Impression, is continued even to the Ear.

Althô by the consent of all,The Medium carrying sounds in the Air, but not the whole frame of it. the Air is said to be the Medium, that carries the sounds, yet this ought not to be understood of the whole Atmosphear of the Air, and Breaths; for neither is the audible Species poured forth, by the Motion of this most fluid Body, as it were by a waving of Waters; because this much sooner runs thorow, than the Bo­dy or Consistency of the whole Air is wont to be moved, and propagate its Fluctuation, [Page 70] as may be discerned plainly by the successive blowing of the Winds, and bending of Trees, and the tops of Corn, which happens, because any sound, whether great or small, whether it comes with or against the wind, is carried to a certain place, always with an equal time; which would be otherwise if it obey'd the waving of the whole Air, or should depend upon that: Further, That the whole frame of the Air doth not wave, by reason of the transmission of the sound, appears by this; because, if a Lamp be held in a little Bell, whil'st many other Bells being struck together, yield a mighty sound, its flame will hardly shake, much less will it be moved up and down hither and thither, by the moved Air.

The Sonorifick Particles seem to be Saline lit­tle Bodies, in­terwoven with the Air.Hence it follows, that some Sonorifick Particles, or Causing sounds, are diffused tho­row the Air, and as they are more subtil than the little Bodies of the Air, and are in­dued with a more rapid Motion, the Transmission or Propagation of the sound, depends upon the peculiar motion and waving of these, made apart from the inclination of the whole Air. We have elsewhere shewn, in the texture of the Atoms of the Air, that there are contained Luminous or Nitrous Particles, by the inkindling, and by the most swift trajection, and reflection of these, Light, the appearances of Colours, and the Images of all things are produced. And besides these most thin and moveable Bodies, which seem to be of a certain fiery Nature, and interwoven with the Air, and by the private waving of which, the visible Objects are carried to the Organ, it is likely, that certain other Particles of another Kind, and those perhaps Saline, are diffused thorow the rare and most fluid Constitution of the Air, by which, whil'st they are strucken and swiftly mo­ved, and apt to be figured, according to the Idea's of Sounds, the Organ of the Hearing is also affected, and by this means receives the Impressions of sensible things. For it seems, that the Sound-causing little Bodies swimming in the Air, and interwoven with a certain Continuity in its Pores, and thickly set in its passages, are placed after that manner, that when a Motion is impressed, in any Portion of them, by the striking against a solid Body, they being agitated according to the Character of the Impressed Motion, move or shake others planted round about, and they again others, which are next to them, and so, when the same Motion is propagated round on every side, by a successive affection of the same Particles, (as when a Stone being cast into a smooth water, many little Circles begin­ing after one another, and unfolding themselves, create an Impression of the first stroke in every part) lesser types of the sound, and almost innumerable, take the place one of another, or fill up the room of the first Prototype sound, excited according to the solid Body, and from thence on every side waved, according to the Symbolical Particles successively moved; even after the same manner, as when the rayes of Light are reflected from an Opacous or shaddowy Body;The Prototype of a sound, by and by stirs up innu­merable Ec­ [...]ypes. for as much as they being sent at hand from every part of the Object, do meet together in a most thick Series of Cones, in every place, and so create infinite Images of the same thing, visible in all pla­ces: In like manner also, whil'st the Sonorific Particles leap back from a solid Body, they cause the audible Species to be every where represented, according to the stroke there made upon them, in the whole Sphear of Vibration, whether by a like Contortion, or Gyration, or any other ways of Conformation in Motion, of the symbolar Particles.

But althô there are found Sonorific little Bodies something like the luminous, they are differenced notwithstanding in many things;How the Sonori­fick Particles, differ from the luminous. for first of all, their Motion is much more slow than the luminous, which clearly appears from a Gun being discharged at a di­stance, for it is sometime after the flash reaches the Sight, that the report comes to the Ears. But the luminous Particles, thô they easily pass thorow the more solid Dia­phanous Bodies, yet not thorow thick shaddowy or Opacous Bodies, thô they are made of a more thin or rare texture; or stick in the chinks: On the contrary the waving of a sound,These are car­ried only in strait-lines, those in all. does not so easily pass thorow Glass, but the same is often heard within a Cham­ber, that is impervious of Light, or where Light cannot enter. Hence it may be con­jectur'd, that the rayes or beams of Light, how subtil and thin soever they be, are car­ried only in strait Lines; for whether they at first stream forth, or are broken in the altered Medium, or are reflected from an objected Body, they every where pass for­ward, and observe the Line or direction, and pass thorow the oblique and winding pas­sages, not with a turning passage or going thorow; but the sounding Particles, being excited into Motion, insinuate themselves within the bending pores and blind holes, like the flowing of Waters; but these Kind of little Bodies, which are the Vehicles of sounds,Why they seem to be Saline. I suspect to be of a Saline Nature, for this reason; because the Particles of this Element, are most of all Moveable and Active, next to the fiery and Nitrous Sulphure­ous; for it is seen, that Glass, and Metallick Bodies, which abound with very much Salt, being struck, yield a sound excelling all others: Also it makes for it, for as much as in a great Winter Frost, when the Atmosphear of the Air abounds with Saline Particles, a sound becomes more clear, and is carried farther.

[Page 71]So much concerning the Sonorifick Particles, as much as we are able to get by Conje­cture; concerning their Nature, Subsistence, and wayes of carrying forth, or of wav­ing. As to these, what at first was propounded, concerning the Sense of Hearing it self, there remains yet to be unfolded, by what means, and for what occasions, these Particles interwoven with the aerial Body, are stirred up by a sounding Body into Act; then how the same being moved affect the Sensory.

As to the former,By what mean Sonorifick Par­ticles are stir­red up into Act. there are infinite ways, whereby the aforesaid Particles are stirred up into Act, or by which sounds are wont to be produced; whatsoever percussion of a solid Body, yea and almost every vehement Compulsion of the Air, when resisted, yields a sound. There are very many Varieties of these, but the Universal, or at least the chief Causes of sounds, may be not improperly reduced to two ways of being u [...]de [...]; to wit, either that a solid Body being struck, and so affected with a Vibration or shaking, drives together the Air, and with it the Sonorific Particles, and the [...]r [...]ke being most swiftly repeated, causes them to shake or to wave; Or secondly the Air, and with it the Sonorific Particles, being driven into a more narrow space, whil'st they go forth by Compression, are struck against the solid Body, and are driven by it into a vibration or shaking.Or how sound is caused, and stop'd. By reason of the former way, all solid Bodies, struck by solids, yea and hollow Metallick Bodies, a Drum, the strings of an Harp, and other Musical Instruments, fur­nished with strings, when they are stroke, yield a sound; in all which, a vibration be­ing excited from the stroke and shaking Body, and impressed on the Sonorific Particles, is the whole Cause of every produced sound, or of long Continuance, and also thô but of a minutes durance or sounding. For both Metals, also Stones, and Wood, and other solids, being struck, make the Air to tremble and yield vibrations or shakings, in some measure like Bells, and the strings of an Harp: Wherefore, when by the Finger or any soft Body being lay'd upon them, that shaking is stopt, presently the sound is intercepted. In the latter Rank, to wit, where the Air is compelled or strained, whil'st it strives for liberty, striking against the solid Body, produces a sound, ought to be placed sounds, which are excited by speaking, wind Instruments, letting off of Guns, and the passage of winds thorow strait places.

As it thus appears,The Motions▪ o [...] spreadings of an excited sound. by what means the Sonorific Particles are stirred up into act, there remains a no less difficulty, concerning the way, whereby they affect the Organ of Hear­ing, that by it a Feeling or Sension is produced. We shewed before, that by reason of the aforesaid Particles being interwoven with the Air, and successively moved with a continued Series, the Impression of a sound is diffused every where, into a Round or Orb; Further, we Note, that if their waving promotion meet with any stop, the same being thereby reflected, or forced by another thing, it in like manner affects other Particles, wherever met with, and so is still broken into more sounds, which are carried hither and thither into every part; which is the reason that sounds climb over Houses, being sent forth at hand, return back, enter into every hole and chink, and easily propagate them­selves into secret places and recesses, where light cannot enter: In the mean time, all sounds, both direct and reflected, and which are diverted aside, and which become less and numerous, from greater refracted and divided sounds, and variously result, exactly bear the Character of the Prototype of the same sound: Hence it comes to pass. that the Hearing being planted in every place, it receives the same sound in specie, and oftentimes articulate.

But as to the second Proposition,The Organ of [...] Hearing de­scribed. for the manner of doing, whereby by the Sense of Hearing is performed, we think that first of all, the Structure of the Organ it self ought to be considered; in which, that which being utmost receives the first strokes of the sound is the Ear: This part being largely spread, by degrees grows narrow, till the hole made more narrow,The Ear and its uses. leads inward to the den of the Ear. The use of the Ear is to gather to­gether the Sonorific Particles, coming to it spread abroad and dispersed, and so many; that the Impression may be made more sensible, to direct it inwards towards the Sensory. In imitation of this natural Instrument, are wont to be made the Artificial whispering Instruments, which like a Pipe or Trumpet, by introducing many Sonorifick Particles, supplies the defect of Hearing. The Ears in most Beasts are moveable, that they might be turned every way, to any noise, and might receive a more certain notice of the sound, otherways uncertain; yea, it is probable, that mens Ears are moveable by Nature, because they have hanging Muscles, but that by the continual use of the Head-bands, which they make use of in Infants, this faculty is taken from them.

After the Ears,The Den of the Ear and its uses. follows the Cave or Den of the Ear, leading obliquely towards the inward Parts. Whil'st the Sonorifick Particles pass thorow the turning and winding passages of this, the same, by reason of the frequent strikings and refractions against the sides, encrease the sensible Species; after the same manner, as is seen in Cornets, and wreathed Instruments, by which the sound is very much strengthen'd. Also this [Page 72] further appears, for that the Hollows or Cloysters in some Walls, are wont to be so ar­tificially made, that a low Voice whisper'd, being transmitted by the same, may be heard at a great distance. Moreover, the aforesaid Den of the Ear ought to be oblique and turning, that its more inward parts mought be defended from the easie meeting with of Injuries; and for this reason, there is there placed a bitter Wax, sweat forth from the little Arteries; so that if any little living Creatures, should by chance creep into the Ear, they might be there entangled, or at least driven away by the Bitterness, as Worms by Gall. This yellow stuff without doubt is of the same Nature with that which is desti­nated for the Bladder of the Gall.

The Drum.Nigh to the most intimate recess of this Den, a thin Membrane is placed, with a Cir­cular Bone, fitted to the same, which wholly shuts up the Cavity of the Ear, and distin­guishes the Interior Cloyster from the Exterior; so that the Impulse of the sound, shaking this Membrane like a Drum, delivers the Impression to the Sonorifick Particles planted beyond, and they being moved, affect the Fibres, with the Auditory or Hearing Nerve.

Three little Bones about the Drum, with the Muscle and Li­gament. The Hammer.About this Membrane, three little Bones, with a Muscle and Ligament, and some other Parts, are placed; from which being thorowly view'd, and truly consider'd, the Use and Offices of the Drum, and its whole Appendix, are clearly learnt. The first of these is a little smooth Bone, lying upon the more inward part of the Drum, and stick­ing to it, this is commonly called the Hammer, either from its figure, or rather because it is thought to strike and knock against the Drum; when indeed, this Bone affixed to the Boss or Shield of the Membrane, strikes not against it, but bends inward, and draws it with it. Also, besides this little Bone, is united with many other little Bodies, for the Tendon of the Muscle, which lifts it up, and bends it inward, is inserted into its sharp Process, and the other more blunt extremity of the Hammer, is ingrafted with the Anvil, so that the Hammer may be able to move round about upon the Anvil. This Anvil is a Bone almost round,The Anvil. which leaning into the Cavity, hath two proper Shanks, one whereof being fixed to the Cartilage, is fastned by the same to the stony Bone; but the other shank of the Anvil is joyned by the Cartilage to a third Bone, called the Stir­rop; so that the Anvil being joyned by the Cartilage to the Stirrop,The Stirrop. is also moveable; and the two shanks of the Stirrop are affixed to the Ligament, and by it stick to the stony Bone.The Muscle. As to the Muscle, which lifts up the Hammer, (althô at first sight only its Ten­don appears) if it be farther searched, it is seen to be big enough and round, planted in its proper Cavity, the Tendon of which is inserted into the sharp process of the Ham­mer, and lifting it up, and drawing it inwards, bends and distends the Drum within; notwithstanding,The Ligament. lest this Muscle (if it should happen to be pulled) should be brought too near to the Drum, a smooth a transverse Ligament, is placed before the acute pro­cess of the Hammer, which strictly leans on the Hammer, and binds it; and lest it should be drawn beyond measure, by the Muscle, contains it in its due site.

The use of the Drum.From these it is easily to be understood, what use these Parts are for, which we descri­bed: For it is seen, that the Drum is the Preliminary, and as it were Preparatory Instru­ment of Hearing, which receiving the first Impression of the sound, or sensible Species, directs them in due proportion, and apt conformity towards the Sensory, which is placed more inward: It performs the like office in respect of the Hearing, as the Coats of the Eye, constituting the Pupel or Apple, in respect of the Sight; either Membrane break and as it were soften the sensible Species, and deliver them to the Sensory in proportion, to which if they should come naked, they might hurt or destroy easily its more thin Con­stitution. Indeed the Drum does not hear,The Drum hears not. but contributes to the better and safer hearing. If this Part should be destroyed, the Sense may be still continued for a while, thô after a rude manner: because it appeared by an Experiment made in a Dog, that having boared both the Drums of his Ears, Hearing remained still for a time, which af­ter three Months wholly ceased, to wit, after the Constitution or Crasis of the Sensory, suffering by outward Injuries, was overturned.

The use of the little Bones, as also of the Mus­cle, and Liga­ment.But that the Drum might truly perform this sort of office of a Porter about the Hear­ing, its stretching forth ought to be bound or loosned, as occasion serves, to wit, as the Pupil of the Eye is wont, as the matter requires, to be either contracted or dilated. Wherefore, certain Machines or Braces, like to a Drum of War, are appointed for the Drum of the Ear, which render its Superficies sometimes more stiff, and sometimes more loose: For this, the three aforesaid little Bones, with the Muscle and Ligament, effect. The Muscle lifting up the Hammer, whil'st it Contracts it self, the Drum is distended, when it remits its endeavour, that is suffer'd to be loosned; but the Ligament moderates the action of the Muscle, and hinders, lest the Hammer being too much drawn up, should distend the Drum till it break: But that the Rod or Beam (which is a part of the ham­mer) affixed to the Membrane, and drawing it to the Motion of the Muscle, is not [Page 73] one Bone, but three little Bones joynted in one another; the reason is, both that the drawing of the Membrane be not too hard and stiff, but with a certain ceasing and flexi­bility of the Beam, without which the Drum, for that it is a most thin little skin, would be in danger to be broken; also, that by so many joyntings of the Beam, the motion of drawing might be determined, as occasion serves, into various parts, hither and thither: This part hath almost the same use as the Hyodes Bone, which is made of many little Bones joynted together.

As to the Action of the Muscle lifting up the Hammer,The involuntary Action of this Muscle. it seems that it is chiefly invo­luntary, and that 'tis acted by the instinct of Nature, according to the indigencies of the Bone; for when a sound too vehement strikes the Ears, this Muscle remits its indea­vour, that the sensible thing might strike more strongly the soos [...]ed Drum; but if a smaller or duller sound enters, the Muscle being contracted, distends the Drum, that the Impression otherwayes obscure may become more sensible: If that many voices and confused sounds approach the Ears, it is probable, that the Drum disposes the Species brought to it, after a diverse manner of Action, and as it were admits them in, with a certain Choice.

Althô Hearing is not made by the Drum,Deafness some­times proceeds from the loosness of the Drum. as the proper Organ of Sense, yet this so much depends upon that, that oftentimes the Action of the Drum being hurt or hinder'd, a privation or a diminution of that Sense follows. For we meet with a certain kind of Deafness, in which those affected, seem wholly to want the Sense of Hearing, yet as soon as a great noise, as of great Guns, Bells, or Drums, is made near to the Ears, they distinctly understand the speeches of the by-standers, but this great noise ceasing, they presently grow deaf again. I heard from a Credible Person, that he once knew a Woman, thô she were Deaf, yet so long as a Drum was beaten within her Chamber, she heard every word perfectly; wherefore her Husband kept a Drummer on purpose for his Servant, that by that means he might have some converse with his Wife. Also I was told of another Deaf Person, who living near a Ring of Bells, as often as they all rung out, he could easily hear any word, and not else. Without doubt the reason of these is, that the Drum of it self being continually loose, by the impulse of a more vehe­ment sound, is compelled to its due tensity or stretching forth, by which it might in some measure be able to perform its office. But we will proceed in Order, to the other Parts of the auditory Organ.

Behind the [...]um,The Cavern con­taining the Air, placed behind the Drum. the Den or Cavity subsists, in which the Ancients placed the in­planted Air, which received the impressed sound from the Drum: which thing indeed is not unlikely; for, because the waving of the sound ought to be conveyed still further towards the Sensory, it seems that the Sonorifick Particles, which are their Vehicle, are contained within this Den;From this Den a Passage into the Palate. and because it is needful, that the Sonorific Particles, in­cluded in this Den, should be in some measure consumed; therefore from this hidden place, there lyes an open passage into the Palate; but yet after that manner, that little doors being placed in its upper part, it admits the Air fetch'd from [...]he Palate, as often as there is need; but the same being admitted into the Den of the Ear, its passage out by the same way is hindred. By reason of this Channel, it is, that the sound becomes rather sen­sible to the Palate of some deaf People, than to their Ears; to wit, when the office of the Drum is spoiled, the sensible Impression is carried, in some measure, to the Sensory, by this other way.

But from the aforesaid Den,Another Pas­sage from this Den (called the Navel hole, or the Window) leading into the Shell. placed behind the Drum, another passage leads towards that part, which is properly the Organ of Hearing; to wit, in the extream side of that Cavern, before-mentioned, there is a door, or certain round hole, covered with a thin Membrane, commonly called the Window, and beyond that hole, to wit, in the end or sharp process of the stony Bone, is the Shell contained: from whence we may think very well, that the impression of the sound brought through its next Chamber from the Drum, is from thence propagated, by an impulse made above the Window, into the Shell.

But the Body of the Shell is an admirable Structure,The Description of the Shell. which being framed in a peculiar recess of the stony Bone, is called by some the Labyrinth, by others the Shell; because its passage or hollowness, after the manner of a Snails shell, is carried about with a turning or spiral Convolution. There are two parts of this, or rather there are two Shells, the former being nigh the chief Oval hole, is less'ned by degrees, from the Spire or more broad Capacity, and ends in a very little one, then from the end of this, another Shell, beginning with a very small spire, is inlarged by degrees, in its progress, and its extremity opens with a greater aperture, into another Den or Chamber, placed beyond, with an open mouth; this is without any Membrane covering it.

As to the Shell,The Use of it. the use of it seems to be, that the audible Species being brought tho­row such turning and winding Labyrinths, and so receiving an augmentation by reflection, and manifold refraction, it may become more clear and sensible; then further, that every [Page 74] Impression, carried about by this winding and very narrow way, may come more distinct to the Sensory: because by this means, care is taken, that many confused Species together, may not be brought in. After the example and similitude of this Shell, artificial Caverns, and arch'd Meanders, are wont to be framed by Architects, for the increasing of sounds, and for the distinct propagating of them to a wonderful distance. Further, there is another use of the Shell, no less noted, to wit, that the audible Species may be impressed on the Fibres and the ends of the sensible Nerves, inserted in this place, not at once or at large, but by little and little, and as it were in a just proportion and dimension.

The auditory Nerves.We have elsewhere discoursed concerning the Hearing Nerves, which receive the sen­sible Species, and carry it towards the Common Sensory, and we shewed, that the softer process of either of the seventh pair, is destinated to this office; wherefore the end of this Nerve is terminated in the nearest Chamber of the Shell, whence it is manifest, that the sensible Impression, being disposed from the Shell into this Chamber, is conveyed thence towards the Head,Two Processes of the softer audi­tory Nerve, one tends into the next Chamber of the Shell. by the passage of this Nerve. But moreover (which we took not notice of before) it is observ'd, that this softer auditory processe is cleft into two branches: one whereof is inserted after the manner we have here described, into the afore­said Chamber; but the other, no less noted branch, is implanted in the Shell it self, about the mid'st of it, or nigh to the meeting of either Labyrinth; so that this branch seems to receive the Depositum of the foremost Shell, and the other aforesaid of the latter Shell.

The other into the Shell it self.The extremity of either auditory Nerve, which are implanted about the end of either Shell, ending in slender thrids, seems to cover over the places of Insertions, every where with Nervous Fibres spread abroad, as it were into a certain little Membrane; whence it follows, that towards the end of either shell, the proper Sensory of Hearing ought to be placed; for there is the Sense, where the Nerve receiving the Idea of Sension, is im­planted; but as the Shell is twofold, and that in like manner there is a double insertion of the forked auditory Nerve, it follows, that in either Ear, there is a twofold Organ of Hearing: but for what use this is so made, does not plainly appear.

For what Vses it is so made.That we may give our Conjecture concerning these, perhaps there is need for the audi­ble Species, to be carried toward the common Sensory, that its passage may be the more certain, and that the perception of the sensible thing, may be put out of doubt; but we rather think, that this Sensory is made double, that when oftentimes the Idea's of sounds ought to be heard and perceived together, some might pass this way, and others that way, without Confusion. For it is observ'd, that the Hearing, not only as the other Senses, receives many objects together; and by and by whether united or confused, compre­hends them, by the same act of the Sense; but moreover, this faculty in the time of Hearing, so distinguishes things, often divers, admitted together at the Ears, that it seems to hear one after another: It ordinarily happen'd, that in a confused multitude of voices and sounds, that I have my self taken notice to have heard the peculiar voice of a certain Man, and then a little after, I have known that I have heard, at the same time, some other words o [...] another Man, that I did not perceive before; the reason of which is, that this sound, being received together with that, reached not at the same instant to the Common Sensory: wherefore, we may believe, that the sensible Species of the former sound, passing thorow only one Shell, is by and by conveyed, by the first branch of the auditory Nerve, sooner to the Sensory, but the other sensible Species, because it could not be carried with it together by the same Nerve; therefore it is carried by a winding about thorow the second Shell, and at length to the second branch of the audi­tory Nerve, and so coming later to the Common Sensory, is afterwards perceived.

A rehearsal of the Parts, which serve for Hear­ing.Thus much concerning the Instrument of Hearing, and its parts, both Preparitory, and chiefly Organical; of the first sort are the Ear, the outward Den, the Drum, and what be­longs to it, the interior Den, and its two doors; to wit, one admitting inward thorow the door from the palate, the other emitting thorow the oval hole: Of the latter sort are, The twofold Shell, with both the Branches of the auditory or hearing Nerves. Both the Parts, for the most part, are of like make in all Animals; the greatest mark of difference is, as to their Ears, which are variously figured, partly for ornament sake, and partly for a diverse use in respect of the inward Den, placed behind the Drum: for this is fra­med in a Calf, Sheep, and perhaps some other Animals, of spongy Bones, and long Ca­verns, having recesses in themselves; In Man, and in Doggs, and perhaps in many others, who are indued with a more acute Hearing,How they differ in Man, and in some four-footed Beasts. this Cavity is shut up with a round Bone, having a plain Superficies within, whence the sound is reflected more strongly into the Shell; but in a Calf, and Sheep, the sound seems to be much broken and debilitated, in these bony Caverns; wherefore, these Animals are said to have slow Ears; for it is not expe­dient, for such destinated for to be fatted for Food, to hear acutely, that they might be affrighted and provoked by every Noise.

CHAP. XV.

Of the Sight.

IF there be any strife for Dignity among the Senses,The Sight is the most noble Sense. the Palm is given, almost by the consent of all, to Seeing, as the most noble Power; because this faculty apprehends things at a great distance, under a most subtil Figure, by a most clear perception, and with great delight; so this Sense acts, that is next in virtue to the Eternal and Immaterial Soul: To wit, it views and measures both Heaven and Earth in a Moment, and brings within its embraces whatever Bodies are situated in either, and that are far remote from our touch.

'Tis needful that Seeing should be so performed at a distance,It acts at a di­stance by reason of the Species of visible things diffused afar off. that visible things might diffuse, and every where propagate themselves by their Images far and wide; so that where-ever the Eye is stop'd, the Images of some Bodies objected are met with. But after what manner this is done, and by what means the sensible Species is received by the Organ, ought a little more deeply to be inquired into.

As to the first,Light, Colours, and Images, are the same sub­stance. althô Light, Colours, and Images, are wont to be moved from place to place, and by the help of Glasses to be transferred hither and thither, and indeed af­fect the Eye with their Motion, yet it is manifest, that they are not meer Qualities, but certain Bodies, or consist of most thin little Bodies. These three are very much of Kin among themselves, and differ little or nothing one from another, as to their Essence; for indeed, the same Effluvia's or little Bodies, for as much as they proceed from a lucid Body, are called Light, for that they are reflected from an opacous or shaddowy Body, under a certain placing and meeting together, cause the Image of the Object; and for as much as it happens, the same rays of Light, in their reflection, are broken or turned in, from a dark or opacous Body, after this or that manner, they cause the Appearance of this or that Colour to be represented.

As to the Rays themselves,What the Rays are, which cause the visible Spe­cies. or the passing thorow of little Bodies, the irradiation or beaming forth of which, shews the Representations either of Light, Colour, or Images, it is much disputed; whether they are only Effluvia's, darted from a lucid Body, and re­percussed in their going forth, and reflected variously here and there, as is asserted by Gassendus, Whether they are Particles, streaming from a lucid Body. and some others; or whether Particles being sent forth from a lucid Body, move other the like Particles, implanted in the Air, and as it were by inkindling them render them luminous, and these at length others, and so a diffusion on every side of Light, or Images, is propagated as it were by a certain waving.

Against the former Opinion 'tis objected, that it seems impossible, that the Effluvia's of flame or fire, should be able to be unfolded so suddenly, and dilated or spread abroad to an immensity: for when a Candle being lighted, immediately the whole Chamber is illuminated, it can scarce be conceived, that the fiery little Bodies of that flame, should break forth so suddenly and so thick, that they should fill, in the twink of an Eye, so vast a space.Or rather, whe­ther inkindled Particles of Ni­tro-sulphureous Air. For indeed, the new Motions and Increase of an inkindled flame, are more slow and perceivable to the Sight it self; how therefore can we imagine, the motion or dilatation of Light, for that this is but only a thinner flame, to be so incredibly swift? Besides, when in the same instant, in which a Light placed in an eminent place is inkind­led, it is beheld at many Miles distance, none can think, that these Particles sent forth from it, can be able to be carried so long a space, at least in so short a time; but truly, how should it be supposed, that these Effluvia's streaming from a small Light, should presently possess the whole Hemisphear? Because the light enkindled in the whole Re­gion round about, meets with the Eye where-ever placed. Besides, when from a Glow-worm, a certain kind of Light or fire shines in the dark, and is perceived at a distance, if this apparition should be made by reason of the fiery little Bodies streaming from this little Creature, whence I pray is so much fiery Tinder supplied? From these and some other Reasons, we are led to believe, that when the Medium is so soon inlightned, be­sides the Effluvia darted from the lucid Body, others also interwoven with, and implanted in the Air, being moved by those Effluvia's, and as it were inkindled, contribute to illu­mination.

For the Explanation of this,Which Opinion, seems most like­ly. hither ought to be referred what hath formerly been said concerning the Nature of fire and flame; to wit, we have shewed, that with the Sulphu­reous Particles, breaking forth from an inflameable Body, others Nitrous do come from the Air, and are inkindled with them, and so do not constitute fire or flame, unless both [Page 76] are joyntly inkindled. The like reason may be given of Light, and consequently of Ima­ges, and Colours,The differences of flame, and light. most swiftly produced from Flame and Light: to wit, some Sulphu­reous Particles being carried beyond the compass of the Flame, joyn together with others Nitrous, and easily inkindled, and so produce a most thin Flame, viz. Light. For in­deed, from an inkindled fire, many sulphureous Particles presently streaming forth thick­ly, lay hold on more, or at least the like Nitrous, and so constitute a more thick and al­most dark Flame; this, for that it is fat and thick, passes not thorow the Pores of Glass, and thô it is apt of its own Nature, to be carried in direct lines, yet it is wont to be bent hither and thither, and to be made crooked by the blasts of Wind, yea to be carried within Tubes or hollow Pipes very crooked. But Light is made of fewer and more sub­til sulphureous Particles, which passing beyond the first inkindling, fly away round about far and wide, and so meeting every where with many Nitrous, constitute a most thin white Flame, and without heat; this easily passes thorow Glass, and all clear Bodies▪ Its beams, for as much as they consist of more Nitrous than Sulphureous little Bodies, are carried only in strait lines, so that thô they are wont ordinarily to be broken or reflected, yet they cannot be made crooked.

Lucid Bodies, are either Coe­lestial,Subjects emitting fiery and luciferous Particles, among the Coelestials are the Sun, and Stars; but among the Sublunaries, whatsoever are filled with Sulphur, are apt to flame forth. Concerning the Sun we note, that wherever it may be seen in the Earth, it diffu­ses a clear Light, so do not the fixed Stars, because they are at too great a distance from the Globe of the Earth.Or Sublunary; in the light of which, we ob­serve three mea­sures. As to the Subluminary Lights, we shall observe, as it were three Stadia or measures, in which they have their Beams after a diverse way; to wit, in the first place, the Flame consists within the compass of a lucid Body, which is both hot, and disperses heat every where round about, to what is near, not only by the open Air, but also by all Bodies, to wit, both diaphanous and dark, solid or rare. Secondly, In the extream Border of the Flame succeeds the Sphear of Light, which being more il­lustrious near the Flame, is by degrees attenuated, till it ends in plain darkness. Be­yond the bound of the Light, the lucid Body propagates its Image or likeness a great way; for a Candle being inkindled, is beheld for many Miles in the dark: The trajection of which seems to be made, by reason of the Impression made on the Nitrous Particles, diffu­sed thorow the Air; wherefore when the accension ends, about the border of Light, yet from thence it at a long distance transmits every way an Idea of the Flame or Light, by a most swift undulation or waving of them being moved.

Wherefore light, either reflected, or refracted, goes forward only in strait lines.The trajection or the passing thorow of the Rays of Light, whether the same be direct, or reflected, or broken, goes forward (as we hinted but now) only in strait lines, and not in oblique, or turning about: the reason of which is, because the fiery or light-carrying Particles, how subtil or active soever they be, most easily pass thorow, and without any impediment, the Pores and Passages of the Air, and follow not its Course or Torrent. Further, as the fiery Particles (as it seems) are only of a Spherical Figure, and of a very small bulk, their irradiation or beaming forth, is made only in direct or strait lines: to wit, because, when the little Globes breaking forth from any fire, stream thickly forth on every side, and that the former are joyned to the latter, it is necessary, that they should be driven forward to the side, still without any declination: for as much as if Pricks be driven one from another, their progress create a strait line.

Light can pass thorow a Cham­ber in the mean time, not to be perceived.But hence it happens, that Light does not as a Sound or Odors, pass thorow winding chinks, or passages of holes; yea, neither do we perceive the Sun or Stars, nor the Beams of a Sublunary Light, unless the same meet the Eye direct, or reflected, or refracted; for it may be made, that an handful of the Beams of Light, may pass thorow a Chamber whole, that in the mean time the Eye, placed in it, may perceive nothing of brightness. For Example, Let there be bored in one end of the Chamber a small hole, and in the other opposite a greater, in the space then without the less hole; if a Light or Lamp be placed, it shall illuminate that space placed without the greater hole, in the mean time, the Chamber between which the Beams of the same Light passes thorow, shall be seen dark: The reason of which is, because the Beams, passing thorow, for that they neither unfold themselves abroad, nor are reflected, meet not the Eye placed without the line, and therefore create no appearance of Light: also, for that reason it is, that when we look up from the bottom of a Pit, at Noon day, it is as if it were quite night, and we behold clearly the Stars themselves, without any appearance of Light.

Light Primary, or Secondary.But althô Light is devolved into every Part round about, not by a waving fluctuation, but proceeds with only strait rays or strokes, yet these rays stream forth so thickly, and being reflected from Bodies after a manifold way, meet one another, mutually joyn, and are sent together, with so thick a Series, that not rarely almost the whole Pores or Pas­sages of the Air, are possessed by them, either direct, or refracted, or reflected. Where­fore [Page 77] Light is wont to be distinguished, either that which is Primary, which proceeds im­mediately from Light; Or Secondary, which is reflected from Objects, which sort of re­flection of it, is wont to be many time reiterated.

Concerning the Primary Light we observe,The differences of these. that its Beams, from whatever Light they proceed, either Coelestial or Sublunary, are almost the same; hence it is, when many of a diverse Original are mixed together, they are not easily known asunder, because the lesser Light is always obscured by the greater: But the Secondary Light, or Beams re­flected from solid Bodies, that besides, by redoubling the illumination, they render the Medium more clear; also, according as they are variously modified from Objects, in their being reflected, they create the appearances of Images and Colours.

Concerning the Nature of Colours and Images,The reasons of Colours and I­mages unfolded. as the Philosophers of every Age, have disputed it, and that divers Opinions are delivered, by several Authors, none as I think has discours'd more ingeniously, or more like to Truth about this, than the famous Gassendus; wherefore, if it may be lawful to Plow with his Heifer, we will add the whole Matter in a short summary.

Every visible thing or Body is lucid,According to Gassendus, Every Body is either lucid, or illustrated. or illustrated from Light; That, is beheld by its proper Light, and by direct Rays; This by another, and by reflected Beams; but the Medium is not seen purely perspicuous, because it emits not proper Beams, nor reflects others, by reason of its thinness. Concerning a lucid Body we observe, that this shining clearly and without any Impediment, appears under a bright form; wherefore Light in a fountain,The Colour of a Light Body is white. Which is vari­ously altered, by reason of inter­spersed Clouds. is of a white shining Colour, but that it alters its Colour, it is nothing else than the intermixture made in its Beams, of shaddows or darknesses; but this is made either by reason of little Bodies, being between in the Medium, which avert some Beams: So the Sun seems red in the Horizon, by reason of Vapours which intercept many Beams, or the whiteness of a lucid Body degenerates, by reason of Particles, not lucid, interspersed within its Body, and with the Beams themselves; so when Soot and Smoke stream forth with the inkindled Light, the Light becomes more red or darkish.

As a lucid, [...]o also an illustrated Body, appears not pure, but altered, under the form of whiteness;An illustrated Body, as it is ei­ther smooth or rough, reflects Beams various­ly, and therefore produces vari­ous Colours. for because the Rays are not all reflected, but by reason of the in­equallities of the Superficies, some are wholly immerged, and others averted, therefore not a pure whiteness, but another Colour is seen in it. Indeed, as an illustrated Body is more smooth and polite, that it may reflect many Beams, the more bright and shining it appears, as is manifest by a Looking-Glass; but the more rough and rugged the Su­perficies is, that it hides many Beams, or averts them, the more the form of whiteness degenerates.

Concerning the unequal Superficies of illustrated Bodies, two as it were extream disposi­tions are to be observed, by which the proper whiteness of reflected Light is very much altered; for either the Superficies of a Body is render'd unequal, by many Swellings up, as it were little hills or bubbles thick set, by which, thô many Rays are turned aside, yet by the divers faces of the little hills or risings, Beams are reflected in a more thick heap, than from a smoothed plane, therefore there is made a white Colour, com­ing near to the whiteness it self of Light. Or Secondly, The Superficies of an illustra­ted Body, gapes with very many Ditches or Pits, as it were Dens, in which the Rays entring, are wholly drowned, and are not reflected at all, from whence comes the black Colour, or a privation of white: after this manner, the two extream kinds of Colours, to wit, white and black, seem to be produced.

But as to the other intermediate Colours,The variety of Colours also de­pends, upon the refraction of Beams. besides the Light, being reflected with little shaddows, and variously intermixt with darkness, we ought to suppose, the divers man­ner of refraction of its Beams, to be partly also the Cause; of which there is a certain sign, for that in a Triangular Glass called the Prism, the Beams being refracted diversly, falling upon this or that Angle, are wont to shew Green, or Purple, or Yellow, or a Colour of some other Kind: In like manner we may believe, that also the Rays of Light being variously broken and turned inwards, in their reflection from an illustrated Body, and so cut and mixt together among themselves, do produce all manner of differences of Colours. This is not a place here to treat of the particular Splendor of every Colour, and the manner of their Production, but it may suffice, that we have mentioned in ge­neral the reason of their appearances.

But these things concerning the Nature of a visible Object▪ A Burning-glass placed before a dark Chamber, declares how Sight is made. and the manner of its trajection, being thus premised, it behoves us next to shew, after what way Sight or Seeing performed, by reason of the sensible Species being so sent from the Object, and received by the Organ. This commonly, and not improperly, is wont to be de­clared by the example of a Burning-Glass, which like a little Window is fixed before an hole made in the Wall of a shut up and dark Chamber; Because, from the Bodies every [Page 78] where brought before that hole, the Rays of Light being reflected, meet together in the Glass, and in that passage cutting one another, spread themselves at last within the Cham­ber, and so upon a white Wall within, represent a Landschap of the whole visible He­misphear. The Conformation of the Eye it self is much after the same manner, for in it may be discovered, both the shut up Chamber, and humors as it were Dioptric Glasses, which gather together the Beams, and break them after a manifold way, all artificially disposed; and lastly, as it were a whited wall, viz. the Retine Coat, or the Membrane of the Eye, on which the Images of visible things are Impressed.

The Organs of the Sight, are the Eyes, and the Optick Nerves.Indeed the Eyes, and Optick Nerves belonging to them, perform the whole Act of Seeing; within the Cloysters of these, the Images of all visible things are formally paint­ed, and by the passage of these, to wit, the Nerves, the perception of the Images there drawn is conveyed to the common Sensory: It now remains, that we consider both the Fabrick in either Organ, and the particular uses of the several Parts.

How the frame of the Eye, is fitted for See­ing.As to the Frame and offices of the Eye, for the performing of which its Fabrick seems to be made, we shall take notice chiefly of three things to be done by it. To wit, In the first place, That the visible Species, or Rays of Light, sent from a lucid or from an illustrated Body, are intromitted by the Pupill, as it were thorow an hole. Se­condly, The Rays so admitted being refracted, and artificially collected, through a fit Medium, are disposed according to the best Dioptrick Rules. Thirdly, That the Ima­ges of things, resulting from the due refraction and Coalition of the Beams, may be aptly represented, the interior Den of the Eye is formed, like a black Chamber with a white Wall, susceptible of the Images.

The Anatomy of the Eye, neces­sary for the Ex­plication of See­ing.If it should be further demanded, what kind of Fabrick it is of the Eye it self, and af­ter what manner its parts are disposed, by which all its offices are performed, it will not be from the Matter, to shew here a perfect description of the Eye and its Appen­dix, together with the offices and uses of its parts, truly lay'd down. For truly, if any part of the whole Animal Body deserves a peculiar Anatomy, it is chiefly due to the Eye, which thô made of a very small bulk, contains in its Structure many admirable things, and is of most noble use.

But in delivering the Anatomy of this Member, many Authors, both Physicians and Mathematicians have already labour'd so exactly, that hardly any thing can be added in this business: but because, thorough the frequent Observations from others, made of the same thing, and then again from others, an easier apprehension, and more of cer­tainty, yea, and a more accurate Knowledge is wont to be made; therefore it may be lawful for us, to subjoyn here our description of the Eye, not taken from the Writings of others, but by our own ocular Inspection, and observation of the Eye and its parts.

Why the Eyes are two.We need not here mention that the Eyes are two, that there may be an help provi­ded by one, against the loss of the other; also that the impression of the Object may be made more strong, and the more certain, which notwithstanding does not become dou­ble, being prevented by the Coalition of the Optick Nerves, before they are carried to the Common Sensory: nor is it behoveful to play the Rhetorician, by telling that the Eyes are placed like Watchmen, in an high place, and well fortified, from whence they may be able to move themselves hither and thither, with notable volubility, for the re­ceiving from every part the met with Species,The Parts of the Eye are ei­ther Exterior. and to direct its Sight every where about: But that we may go about to describe the Fabrick of the Eye, without any Circumlocu­tion; The Parts which belong to it are either Exterior, and as an Orchyard, which serve for Ornament,The Bone, Eye­lids, Hairs of the Eye-lids, Eye-brows, &c. Defence, or Commodity of Action; of which sort, besides the round Bone, are the Eye-lids, with the hairs of the Eye-lids, and the Eye-brows, also the Glandulae or Kirnels, with the Vessels, and Excretory passages; or its parts are Intrin­sick, to wit, constituting the Globe it self of the Eye; which are again disposed, either about its Compass,Or Interior, the Muscles, Vessels, Coates, Hu­mors, &c. as are the Muscles, and Vessels, with the fat lying between; or more intimate, which make up its Penetralia or inmost parts, to wit, the Coates, and Humours: In each of these, we shall note what is chiefly worth noting.

Among the outward parts of the Eye, first is mentioned the Eye-lids, which are like a Membranous Vail or Covering,For what use the Eye-lids serve. and cover or expose the Eye as there is occasion: as often as any injury is coming, these most swiftly hiding their Tenants, defend them; al­so when a relaxation is required from work, and that rest indulges the Animal Spirits, presently the Eye-lids shut their Windows, like an officious Servant; but when the Spi­rits are called back to watching, these Vails being again opened, the Impressions of visi­ble things are admitted.

They are two in Number.The Eye-lids are two, to wit, the Upper and the Lower; the motion of this is ei­ther none, or very obscure; yea, it is as it were fixed to the mound Bone, with which the other Upper Eye-lid meeting, causes the shutting of the Eye to be more firm. The [Page 79] Upper Eye-lid,There are two Muscles of the Vpper. for the double Motion of opening and shutting, is furnished with two Muscles, to wit, one strait, which arising near the Optick Nerve, with a broad and very thin Tendon, is inserted into the Margin of the Upper Eye-lid; this Muscle with its contracted Fibres, lifts up the Eye-lid: The other Muscle is Circular, which arising about the greater corner of the Eye, and from thence encompassing the lower Eye-lid, reaches to the Upper Eye-lid, nigh the other corner of the Eye, and coming under it, returns towards its beginning, this Muscle thus brought about, as it were into an Orb, draws down the Eye-lid, and so shuts up the Eye.

As to the Nerves which are inserted into the Muscles of the Eye-lids,With what Nerves they are furnished. we have shown elsewhere, that they are of a twofold Kind, to wit, some arising from the fifth Pair, others from the seventh; by virtue of these it comes to pass, that the motion of the Eye-lids accords with the Soul, and fitly answers to all the Passions; and that not only in opening and shutting the Eyes, for Sleeping and Waking, but in variously turn­ing about, and composing the Eye-lids themselves, as is to be seen in Weeping, Anger, Joy, Sadness, Shame, and other Perturbations; which Kind of Pathetick mo­tions of the Eye-lids, are for the most part involuntary, or are perform'd at least un­thought of.

By reason of the Nerves of the seventh Pair inserted also into the Eye-lids, it may be known, wherefore we suddenly shut, or open, or any other way role about our Eye-lids, at any unaccustomed Sound, coming suddenly to the Ears. It is shewed elsewhere, why the Eye-lids being affected at the approach of Sleep, with a kind of heaviness or weight, desire to be closed whether we will or no, or thô we strive against it; where we treat particularly of Sleeping and Waking.

There is nothing to be observed but what is Common,The hairs of the Eye-lids and the Eye-brows. concerning the Hairs of the Eye-lids, and Eye-brows; to wit, these hairy Walls or Mounds, like Ramparts, are constituted with a double Series or row of noted Pallizadoes, for the defence of the Eyes, by which care is taken before-hand, lest any troublesom things should una­wares fall into the Eyes, or lest that any thing should slide into them from the Head.

We will pass from the Eye-lids to the Glandula's or Kirnels of the Eye,The Kirnels are two. which indeed stick to their Back, and put forth the Humour belonging to the Eye, thorow proper Passages, which lye open within the interior Superficies of the Eye-lids; if that a super-abounding serous Humor is poured forth, more than it ought into the Eye, that falling down into a Cavity like a Bason, nigh the greater corner, enters there two little holes, from which going out into a singular passage, is carried even to the end of the Nose, where it is sent forth of Doors at an open passage; besides, the serous Humour in a Man, being plentifully heaped up, nigh to the Opthalmick Kirnels, drops forth in Tears.

Indeed,Their Vse. the Eye leans on these two Kirnels, as it were soft stays laid under its round Cushion; one of these sited nigh the greater corner of the Eye, is wont to be called commonly the Lachrymal Kirnel,The Lachrymal Kirnel is de­scribed with the excretory Pas­sages. thô the other better deserves the Name; To this be­long Arteries, Veins, and Nerves, also excretory Vessels, which are of two sorts, to wit, out of this Kirnel, open two or three water-carriers; into the inward Superficies of the Eye-lid; out of which the watry Humor drops forth upon the Ball of the Eye; besides, two passages also open into the Ditch of the inner Corner, which carry not thither the Water as some think, but sends forth what is there deposited, and superfluous, from the excretory Vessels, and received by them, and then it is carried forth of Doors by one Channel,Its use is [...]int­ed at. which going thorow the Bone of the Nose, passes thorow its passage. This Channel was first found out by Nicholas Stenon, who has ingeniously described its make and Use.

This little Channel, stretched forth from the Kirnels of the Eye, thorow the passage of the Nostril, even to its end, is like a Sink, which sends forth of doors the serous filth, apt to be too much poured forth on the Eye, by a secret passage: Hence is to be noted, that not only in Weeping, excited thorow Grief, but as often as Tears are pressed forth from the Eyes, by any thing bitingly pulling them, an humidity distils from the Nose.The Lachryma [...] Vessels. But as to the Vessels, which are properly Lachrymal, it is observ'd, that three or four Lymphaeducts or water-carriers, reaching from this Kirnel into the Eye-lid, one of them opens into the Margent of the Upper Eye-lid, another into the Margent of the Lower Eye-lid, with a little Dam raised in either, and send forth the water in Tears or Weeping between the hairs of the Eye-lids themselves. I have sometimes seen in an Ulcerous disposition of this Kirnel, a filthy Matter to have dropt forth, by Compression, from those two Lachrymal Puncts.

The other Kirnel of the Eye,A nameless Kir­nel rather to be called the La­chrymal. (commonly nameless, but deserves chiefly to be called Lachrymal) beginning at the lesser corner of the Eye, leaning on the back of the Eye, under the Upper Eye-lid, is carried forward, almost to the inner corner. As to its [Page 80] Figure, it is cleft into many Lobes, distinguished by various distances between; from every one of which, water-pipes ascend into the Eye-lids, and opening thorow the La­chrymal Puncts, within its inward Superficies, pour forth water requisite for the water­ing the Eye, both for its Motion, and for Weeping: The most Learned Doctor Ste­non, has clearly and sufficiently described this Kirnel also, with the Lachrymal Vessels, and express'd them with apt Figures; whatsoever of superfluous Serum sweats forth through the Lachrymal Vessels of this Kernel, slides into the greater corner, for that it is seated in a sleep place, and from thence is sent away, through the same excretory Vessels of the other Kirnel, as it were by a common Sink.

The Vessels of the Kirnels.Besides these Vessels, carrying the water from the Kirnels into the Eye, and the excre­tory of its superfluous Humor through the Nose; there belong to the Kirnels of the Eye some others designed for other uses, to wit, Arteries, Veins, and Nerves. From the Carotid Artery, gotten within the Skull, and about to ascend towards the Brain, a noted branch being sent into the Compass of the Eye, imparts shoots to either Kirnel, carrying Blood to them plentifully: To this Artery (which besides the Kirnels of the Eye, re­spects also the chief parts of the upper Jaw) is adjoyned a Vein, which reduces the Blood from them; yea, and to both these a Nerve is added for a Companion, to wit, the Ophthalmick Arm of the fifth Pair, which variously binds about and knits the sanguife­rous Vessels, with many shoots, sent forth in its whole Progress, and also distributes ma­ny little shoots into the Kirnels themselves.

The Matter of Tears.From these we may easily gather, that from the Blood carried thorow the Arteries to either Glandula or Kirnel, a watry Humor, requisit both for the perpetual watering of the Eye, and also occasionally for the matter of Tears, is sifted forth, and there heaped up, for the aforesaid uses. As to the former, these Kirnels, even as others implanted elsewhere, imbibe the Serum carried to them for constant food; to wit, because the Ar­teries carry the Blood thither more copiously, than the Reins are presently able to sup back; wherefore what is watery is imbibed by the substance of the Kirnel, as it were a Spunge, the bloody Humor being sent away by the Veins. For this reason, because the Nerves bind these Vessels, therefore as often as the Serum abounds too much in the Blood, destinated for the Brain, these Arteries being provoked by the Nerves, and bound together, it is separated or bolted forth, and carried more plentifully than it was wont, towards these Kirnels.

The Causes of Weeping, and the manner of its being made de­scribed.But as to Tears, oftentimes poured forth in great plenty from these Kirnels of the Eye, that it may the better appear, by what means, and for what Causes this is done, it seems very opportune, to discourse concerning Weeping and Crying, and of the Causes and manner of its being made, which yet shall be done briefly and succinctly, because the more full Consideration of these, properly belong to the Doctrine of the Passions. In the first place therefore, concerning Weeping, we observe that it doth chiefly and almost only follow upon great Passions of the Mind, to wit, great Grief, Sadness, Pity, sudden Joy, and the like; to wit, whensoever the sensitive Soul, being struck by either a dis­agreeable or unaccustomed Object, is as it were compelled inwardly to shake, or to con­tract more near together its Systasis, or Constitution; so care is taken, that a greater company of Spirits, yea and a more plentiful flux of Blood, are compelled to the prin­cipal Parts, viz. The Heart and Brain, as it were the stays of Life: The Animal Spi­rits of their own accord leap forward to these places, as to the two fountains of Life, yea and the Blood is more fully heaped up in either; for as much as the blood-carrying Vessels, being bound together straitly by the Tract of the Nerves, drive forward swift­ly to these places its Latex, and take it away, more sparingly from thence; therefore, whil'st an occasion is offer'd of Weeping, presently the Bosoms of the Heart, with the whole Neighborhood, swell up and are hugely inflated, by the Blood there heaped together, and (for as much as it is suffused with abundance of Serum) very much boil­ing; hence, both the Lungs are stuffed up that they can yield but a sobbing respiration; and the Diaphragma, that it might give place to their swelling, is depressed lower, with a stronger and more often repeated Systole, which is the Cause of Sobbing; in the mean time, for as much as the Air is hardly blown into the Windpipe, the Lungs and the Diaphragma being so distended, and at last hardly returned, that mournful sound in Crying or Lamenting is effected. The parts of the Face and Mouth, composed in­to a mournful Aspect, aptly answer to this Affection of the Praecordia; the reason of which we have shewed elsewhere; because the Nerves which Contract the Praecordia, are intimate Relations, and rejoyce in a mutual Sympathy, with those, which patheti­cally Compose the Face, in Laughing and Weeping. But whil'st these things are acted in the Praecordia and Countenance,Wherefore a be­wailing, is often­times joyned, Weeping. the business is carried no less tumultuously in the Brain; for here the Spirits being acted in Confusion, all things are upside down, and the Brain, by the too great influx of the Blood, is in danger to be either over­turned, [Page 81] or drowned; which that it might not come to pass, and that madness follow not upon any Passion, the Nerves binding about the Truncks of the Arteries in many places, bind them strongly, and so repress the flowing of the Blood; and its Liquor be­ing at first notably rarified, is thickned suddenly, and as it were melted, wherefore its Serosities running forth like a Flood, are disposed into the Kirnels of the Eye, desti­nated for this business by Nature: Then, because these Kirnels are pulled by the Pathe­tick Nerves, which are of the same stock, with those of the Face and Praecordia, and are strictly bound together, the serous Humors, by reason of these Passions of the Mind, be­ing imbibed by the Kirnels of the Eye, are as it were stroked out from thence, and so distil in showers of Tears.

From hence a reason may be had,Wherefore Weep­ing comes upon sudden Ioy. why Tears are wont to break forth in some, after a sudden Joy, because in great Joy, joyned with admiration, the sensitive Soul enlar­ges it self very much, and diffuses most amply its Systasis or Constitution; then as it were fearing a Dissolution, it again Contracts it self; wherefore, in such an Affection, the Blood flowing forth plentifully into the Brain, blows up all the Vessels, and by rea­son of its fulness distends them; then after its Channel being thus intumefied, the same Vessels being presently bound hard together, suffers a Flux, and as it were growing li­quid, plentifully deposes its Serosities into the aforesaid Kirnels.

There remains another Consideration about Weeping,Why Mankind only or chiefly Weep. why Men or Man Kind only, or chiefly in bewailing, are wont to weep, or to shed tears? even for the same reason, which is given for Man's being a visible Creature, makes him fit for Weeping: To wit, Man is more fitly made for all Affections, and chiefly for the conceiving of Joy and Sadness, than Brute Animals; and as he is a sociable Creature, he ought to Communicate those sociable things, some signs naturally implanted in him, to wit, Laughing and Weeping: But as to the Organs, which perform these Kind of Affections, we have elsewhere ob­served, that there happens in Man, otherways than in Brutes, a wonderful consent be­tween the Praecordia, and the parts of the Mouth and Face, by reason of the Conforma­tion of the intercostal Nerve; so that as soon as sadness possesses the Breast, presently the Aspect of the Face, corresponds with the same Perturbation.

Thus much for the Kirnels of the Eye,The Muscles of the Eyes and their uses de­scribed. and their Use and Action: Among the intrin­secal Parts of this Member, next follow the Muscles, concerning which, there is scarcely any thing rare to be met with, or that has not been already taken notice of by others. It is obvious for any to conceive, that so many Muscles ought to be constituted, as there are Kinds of spreading abroad, by which this Globe may be moved, as it hangs within the Compass of the Bone; for this is made after a fourfold way or manner; to wit, on that side and this side, upward and downward, and two ways obliquely, viz. By bring­ing it about both towards the outward, and inward corner.

For these several Kinds of Motions are constituted so many distinct Muscles, which are found almost in all perfect Animals,Four strait, two oblique. and are easily seen in the dissection. Four strait Muscles are inserted into the Cardinal spaces of the Eye, to wit, the Muscle lifting it up, and pressing it down, its Zenith and Nadir, and drawing to, and putting from, as it were possessing the opposite points of the Horizon, to wit, East and West; the oblique Muscles compass it about like a Sphear, towards the Exterior and the Interior corner. I pass by here, that the Muscles of the Eye, do change their Names, according to the Passions of which they are Marks; wherefore, that lifting up, is called Superb or Proud, because that in Pride, it holds the Eye elate or lifted up, which however is more true of the Eye­lid, and that Muscle deserves rather the Name of Holy and Devout, because it greatly lifts up the Eye in strong Prayer; wherefore it is the manner of Hypocrites, who affect the Habit of Sanctity, so to role the Eyes about, that they hide the Pupil of the Eye, and turn up the white to be seen: The depressing Muscle, by its action shews the mark of an humble, abject, and often of a Pious Mind also; that drawing inward, may not be improperly called Drunken, because Drunkards drawing their Eyes towards the inward corner, are wont to look asquint; and when one Eye is drawn in more than the other, for that by this means the Pole of the Sight is varied, they behold things as if they were double. I knew a young Man, obnoxious to the Palsie, when the drawing in Muscle was strongly drawn, the other Muscles of the left Eye being loose, by reason of the Eye being thus distorted, every object appeared double, nor could he distinguish the true one. The Muscle drawing from or outward, may be well enough called the Indignator, to wit, because in such an Affection, we bend our Eyes outwardly, with a certain aversion. The oblique Muscles may be called Amatory, because Lovers behold one another obliquely or side-ways, and as it were fearing the direct Sight of one another, they role about their Eyes like those of Cattel; hither and thither.

[Page 82] A Consent, and Sympathy, be­tween them all.That the Eye might rightly perform the Act of Seeing, there is required a Consent or Harmonious acting, between all its Muscles; to wit, that all acting together, may keep and continue its Globe, like the Tube of an Optic Glass, in a just Position for Seeing; for if any Muscle overcoming its Antagonist, acts more strongly than it ought, and draws the Eye too much to its part, presently the Sight becomes distorted; and by this means it is, to wit, by reason of overmuch strength of some one Muscle, whether it so happens by a Disease, by Nature, or by an evil Custom, that some are goggle-eyed, or have them distorted or squinting;Whence squint­ing comes. For squinting is wont to be caused by the fault of any one of the aforesaid Muscles; but especially the Muscle going about to the inward corner would indanger the bringing in of this Vice, by its exorbitances, unless prevented by Na­ture; for as divers visible Species, being sent from Objects at a great distance, are recei­ved together by the Organ, every one is apt to turn about their Eyes, bending them for­ward: wherefore Infants, when many things at once are held before their Eyes, easily are brought to squinting: But lest this Muscle, inordinately rolled about, should cause in many this Evil, it is prevented with a wonderful Artifice, that its Motion may be still kept within just limits; because, near the root of the Nose is hung a certain handle, like a Pully, which this Muscle passing thorow, there is a necessity for it to perform its traje­ction at a certain Angle, and as it were within a determinate compass.

Some Brutes are furnished with other two Mus­cles.Besides these six Muscles which Man enjoys and no more, and which are common to other perfect Animals, as well as him, some Brutes are furnished with two others for their peculiar uses. It is observed, that four-footed Beasts, who carry their Eyes prone or hanging down towards the Earth, have a peculiar Muscle, which holds up the Globe of the Eye, and which sustains it, lest by its weight it should be apt to slip beyond the compass of the Bone: with this Muscle are indued Kine, Horses, Sheep, Hares, Swine, and perhaps many other Animals, also a Dog is furnished with this, but has it made after another manner; but to many who have the aforesaid hanging Muscle of the Eye, is granted another Membranous Muscle, which being placed nigh the inward corner of the Eye, when it is lifted up, hides almost the whole Globe of the Eye. The use of this seems to be, that when Beasts thrust their heads to feed among high Grass and Herbs, this Muscle hides the Pupil of the Eye, lest any thing should hurt it. The former Muscle is wont to be called the Seventh of Brutes, and this, that by which Brutes twinkle their Eyes.

The Globe of the Eye, with the Optic Nerve.After that all the Muscles, with the Kirnels and the fat lying between, are separated from the Eye, its Globe remains naked, with the Optic Nerve inserted about its bottom: This Conformation, as we have formerly observed of the Brain, is after one manner in Man, and four-footed Beasts; and after another in Birds and Fishes: for in these the whole compass of the Eye is not round, but depressed nigh to the more outward, and the posterior Superficies; and almost like to a Platter or Shield rather; but in the others, being perfectly round, it imitates the System it self of the World: The reason of the difference is easily known, by the divers framing of the Eye, which we shall show anon.

Its Figure in some is round, in others depressed.We meet also with another notable difference in the Eyes of divers Animals, about the insertion of the Optic Nerve, for in Man, a Dog, and other more sagacious Crea­tures, the end of the Optic Nerve is placed directly before the Pupil, or is inserted to the Pole of the Eye it self: for the Beam, or the Optic Pole, passing thorow the Pupil or Apple of the Eye, and its middle Cavity, falls into the insertion of the Optic Nerve; but in a Sheep, a Calf, and many other four-footed Beasts, and besides in all Birds and Fishes, the insertion of the Optic Nerve being made in the Den of the most inward circular Cave, or side of the Hemisphear, is at a distance from its Pole, even as the Pole of the Zodiac, The Insertion of the Optic Nerve, is after a divers manner, in di­vers Animals. from the other of the Equator. This difference Dr. Scheinerus not per­ceiving, when he had found the Optic Nerve to be inserted into the side, in the Eyes of great Cattel, Oxen, and Swine, two soon concluded, that it was so also in Man, and in all Creatures besides; for he says in his Third Book, Fundam. Optic. p. 11. That the Optic Pole does not fall into the Optic Nerve, with any Proportion, the error of which Assertion, the Anatomy of a Man's, or a Dog's Eye, easily discovers.

It is placed ei­ther in the Pole, or at the Side of the Eye.If the reason of this diverse Kind of Conformation be demanded, we say, that the Primary Organ of the Sight, to wit, in which the Image or visible Species stays, and from whence it is delivered to the first Sensory, is not the Optic Nerve, but the Retina, netty Coat, or fifth Membrane of the Eye, on every side spread out, by the Insertion of the Optic Nerve.The reason of the divers Con­formation in­quired into. Further, the Image projected within the bottom of the Eye, does not consist in the small Punct, neither is it determinated to the same individual space, but being variously drawn forth, is painted now bigger, now smaller, upon the Retina, or fifth Coat of the Eye; yet so, as being placed nigh to the insertion of the Optic Nerve, it may presently be carried by it to the Common Sensory; when as therefore [Page 83] the Optick Nerve is placed in the Pole of the Eye, the Images disposed round about up­on the Retina, from every part of it, do fill the whole Circle of the painted Scene. But when the insertion of this Nerve, declines from the Pole, to the side of the Eye, the apparition of the Objects stands only below, and not at all above that Punct, and so the whole apparition of visible things, is concluded within a Semi-circle. This is clear to any thinking Person, that it is fit for some Animals, that they receive many Objects at once, at one view, and that others but a few only; therefore the Optic Nerve, for the former, ought to be inserted about the middle of the Eye, and for these latter towards its side. Man, a Dog, an Horse, and perhaps some other Ani­mals, wont to be employed with various Matters, ought to behold all things in the whole Neighbour-hood placed together: but a Sheep, Ox, Hog, and many other four-footed Beasts, and universally Fowls and Fishes, to wit, such whose chiefest task is to get their Victuals, and to defend themselves from Enemies, have no need to behold the whole Horizon, but only things placed near on the right and left hand; althô perhaps in some of these, the paucity of the Objects, is compensated with the sharp­ness of the Sight.

There is observed another no less noted difference in several Animals,The Pupil of the Eye in some round, in other longish. about the Pu­pil of the Eye; for this is round or spherical in Man, a Dog, and in many other four-footed Beasts, in all Fowls and Fishes; but in an Ox, great Cattel, a Goat, and some others, it is oblong, like a great cleft; the reason of this difference seems to be, because that by a Man that is upright, and other Animals that are wont to lift up their heads, and to look round about on every side, many Objects, coming from both above and be­neath, and from either side, out of the whole Hemisphear, are received by the Sight; wherefore the Pupil of the Eye ought to be round,The reason of this inquired into. that the visible Species sent in from every side, might be admitted in a round form: But Oxen, Cattel, and other Animals, almost always carrying their Heads prone, and hanging down, need only to behold such things as are presented before them, or a little of one side: wherefore, the Pupil of the Eye is depressed, and somewhat long, for the receiving the visible Species, that are only shown at hand.The Colour of the Pupil in some black, in others gray, red­dish, or other­ways Coloured. Further, another difference is noted, about the colour of the Ball or Pupil it self, which in Man, and in all Fowls and Fishes is perpetually black, but in four-footed Beasts, it is either grey, or blewish, like the Sky, or of a shining red, or of some other Kind, which colour notwithstanding being fixed, not in the Horney part, but in the Concave of the Crocoideos, shines thorow all the Humors into the Pupil. Concerning the reason of this, we may believe, that those indued with a black Pupil, see more clearly by day-light,The reason of this shown. because indeed the Image is rendred most perspicuous to the Eye, as it were in a Chamber wholly dark, but by Night they discern little or nothing at all of any Objects; on the contrary, we have observed, those furnished with a blewish, or grey, reddish, or some other shining Pupil, not to see so clearly in the day time, but much better in the night than the former; to wit, because that shining Colour of the Pupil, illuminates something the Cloyster or Optic Chamber of the Eye, that fewer Beams being there gathered together from the darkness they might constitute the visible Image.

These things concerning the Fabrick of the Eye,The Parts of the Eye, are the Coats and Hu­mors. and its divers manner of furniture, in various Animals, being thus premised, it now remains, that we shew its Anatomy, and that we unfold its several Parts, and the uses of the Parts. We have already mentioned, what also is known to common Observation, that the Eye consists of Coats, and Humors. The Coats or Membranes are as the containing Bodies, and constitute the walls of the dark Chamber, with the little Window, and the Paper for the re­ceiving the Images; but the Humors, are as Dioptrick Glasses, so placed within the hole of the dark Chamber, that they aptly break, and gather together, the Beams exhibit­ing the Images.

The Coats of the Eye,The Coats grea­ter or lesser. like the Sphears of a Globe, are either Greater, which are stretched forth thorow the whole Compass, or its greatest part; or Lesser, which con­tain, or include the particular Humors.

The greater Coats of the Eye are three;The greater are three. which seem in some measure to arise from a threefold Substance of the Optick Nerve; for in the Trunk of the Optic Nerve, may be found an Exterior Coat, arising from the Dura Mater, with which it is included as with a sheath; Another more inward, cloathing the Membrane, lyeth under this, arising from the Pia Mater; and within these Coats are found very many Fibrous Nerves, gathered together into one bundle. But this Nerve, being continued, to the Compass of the Eye, its Exterior Coat being much inlarged, and stretch'd out into a round inclosure, consti­tutes the outmost Wall of the Eye:The Sclerotick. This Coat, by reason of its hardness, (because it is strong, and is in the place of a defence against Injuries) is called the Sclerotick: The hinder part in most Animals is thick, and spacious, except that in a Dog, and perhaps in [Page 84] some others, it is thinner, and in some measure clear; but the Anterior part of this Mem­brane, that it may transmit the visible Species, is transparent and shining in all. But lest this should admit more forms than it ought, (by having a too broad, and too large a transparent opening) and so too confused together; another Coat, arising from the Pericranium grows to it, and covers it; excepting a hole left for the Pupil: This, from its Colour,The Albugine grows to this. is called the Albugina or the White, for besides that it determines the aper­ture of the Cornea, or horny or third Pannicle of the Eye, it firmly ties the Eye also to the sides of the bony Compass. The additional Coat, or the white Tunicle, besides the proper Membrane, is made up also of Tendons of Muscles, spread into a most thin Net; there­fore, also it becomes white, because, when many diaphanous Membranes are thrust toge­ther, like thin cakes, they cause a shaddowing, and with it a whiteness, as may be per­ceived in the Bones and Horns of living Creatures, made up of a Pellucid Glew, also in the white of an Egg made hard by Boyling.

The Figure of the Sclerotic Coat, is proportionate to the quality and disposition of the Humors,The Sclerotic Coat, is in some round, and in others depressed. which are contained in the Eye; wherefore, in some (as we hinted before) it is round, in others press'd down, but in most its Anterior Part swells up, above the remaining Part of the Ocular Globe, by reason of the Watry Humor underneath, as it were a Portion of the outward Sphear, to wit, for this end, That the Compass of the whole visible Hemisphear, may be received together, by the Eye, as it were by a Convex Glass.

The Vessels of this Coat.As to the Vessels which are inserted into this Coat, besides the shoots of the Nerves, sent from the fifth Pair, after they have bound about the Trunk of the Optic Nerve, they are bestowed on the bottom of the Sclerotic, whose Use or Office seems to be, variously to carry the Optic Nerve, with this outmost Chest or closure of the Eye, and to Com­pose it for the receiving the Species; there are also granted to this, noted Arteries, from the Trunks of the Carotides, before they reach to the Brain. It is observed, that the Ar­tery destinated for this, falling in, [...]igh to the Trunk of the Optic Nerve, imparts to the same, in its whole progress, some small Shoots, which are certainly sufficient for Heat and Nourishment; then this Artery, spread forth at the bottom of the Eye, is divided into six Branches, like so many little Rivers, all which being brought upon the Sclerotic, towards the Cornea, divide the Exterior Globe of the Eye into so many equal and distinct Regions; from these, many little shoots, going thorow the Sclerotic, are inserted into the Vvea, and after a sort knit this to the other: The Arterous branches and shoots, are every where accompanied with Veins, by which the Blood is reduced towards the wonderful Net, and at length into the Trunk of the hollow Vein.

The Coat Choro­coeides.Within the Sclerotic Coat, or the outmost Coat of the Eye, follows the Chorocoeides, and is almost thorow the whole, Contiguous with it, and coheres to it, by some Fi­bres, and blood-carrying Vessels; this being perforated in the fore-part, leaves an open­ing for the Pupil of the Eye, which notwithstanding, as occasion requires, is wont to be either contracted or dilated.Is black in most Animals but not in all. This Coat, being black in most Animals, is covered in the Superficies or Convex, or Concave, as it were with a black Paint, which is also fixed to the other contiguous Coat; the reason of this is, that it might render the inward Cham­ber of the Eye black or dark: But in some Animals, to wit, in most four-footed Beasts, a certain Interior Portion of the Chorocoeides, A Portion of this, in most Brutes, is of a diversified Co­lour, otherwise than in Man. The reason of this is shown. which is turned over the Pupil, shines with a diversified Colour, like the Rainbow, and according to this, the Pupil of the Eye seems to be coloured: but as this is wanting to Man, his Pupil is always black, according to the whole Picture of the Chorococides: But it appears otherways in a Dog, and otherways in a Cat, Ox, and the rest. In those also that have the Pupil round, this Signature is expanded round; those who have the Pupil stretched forth at length, like a chink, this Picture being as it were double, stands on either side of the Optic Nerve: The uses of this (as we said but now) is to illuminate the Pupil of the Eye, as it were with an inward Beam, that it may be able to behold things by Night, and placed in the dark; wherefore it is very shining in a Cat, but is wholly wanting to a Man, Birds, and Fishes.

The Rainbow of the Eye is de­scribed, and its use declared.Nigh to the opening of the Coat Chorocoeides, stands the Rainbow of the Eye, that is, nigh to the outmost border of this Coat, where the opening is for the Pupil, a certain Fringe, made up of Nervous Fibres, diversly coloured and disposed, covers it: These Fibres are called the Ciliare Processes, which like brows of hairs, being carried from the Pupil of the Eye, like rays from a luminous Body, are disposed into an Orb; These Fibres being placed in a thick row, are noted with a variegated or diversified Colour, outwardly, where they stick to the Corneous or horney Coat; in the mean time, where they are Contiguous to the brim of the Chrystalline Humour, and also to the border of the Retine Coat, they always appear black: These Ciliare Processes, do not only dilate and contract the Pupil of the Eye, but also they thrust forward, or draw backward the [Page 85] Chrystalline humour,The strength and irradiation of the Eye from the Rainbow. and bend it hither and thither into the view of the Objects. Fur­ther, there is in these Coloured hairs, or the Rainbow of the Eye, a certain vigor, and mighty conflux of Animal Spirits, by the Exertion of which, the Eye seems to beam forth, and to cast forth outwardly certain darts like Lightning, according to the Instinct of the Passions: yea, hence we suppose Light to be diffused, and to illuminate the Me­dium; for which reason, Men discern in some measure Objects in the dark. I knew a certain Man, indued with an hot Brain, who after a plentiful Drinking of Wine, was able to read distinctly,The Animal Spi­rits actuate it very much. in a very dark Night; the reason of which seems to be, be­cause the Animal Spirits, bein [...] as it were inflamed, and so beaming forth from this Rainbow, did illuminate the Medium, with an implanted Beam. Moreover, when by any stroke on the Eye, an apparition of flame, or shining appears; surely this proceeds from a sudden Concussion, and Explosion of the Spirits, lying within the Ciliar or hai­ry Processes. If it be demanded, by what passages the Animal Spirits run into these Fi­bres, we say; That from the Nerves of the sixth Pair, which bind about the Optic Trunk, certain shoots, entring the Sclerotick, and the Corocoeidal Coat, come also to these Parts; besides, the Retine Coat, which is wholly Nervous, sticks to this Rainbow.

Within the Chorocoeides or the Vvea, The Retine Coat. another Coat follows, whose Compass as it is less, so it is shorter in breadth; for its Border, subsisting about the lower brim of the Chrystalline Humor, is Contiguous to the lower Border of the Rainbow, and in some part sticks to it: This Coat, as it is white, so it is Medullary, and said to proceed from the Medullous and Fibrous Substance of the Optic Nerve, so that what is there of Ner­vous Fibres collected into a little bundle, is here like a Veil stretch'd forth of a Net-like form. Indeed, if the whole Eye may be taken for the Flower which grows in the Brain, thorow the Optic Nerve as its stalk; The Retine Coat is the Flower it self, and the two former,Its description and use. but the Stalk and Cup. The Retine Coat therefore being spread forth within the Chamber of the Eye, or its inmost Conclave, is like a white Wall, which receives and represents the visible Species, admitted thorow the hole of the dark Cham­ber; for doubtless this part, however Medullary and Fibrous, and so greatly akin to the Brain, and to the Optick Nerve it self, is the proper Organ of Seeing; to wit, on which the sensible Species is impressed, and from which the same is communicated to the chief Sensory; which shall more plainly be manifested anon, after we have unfolded the Humors of the Eye.

Agreeable to the three Coats of the Eye,The Humors of the Eye Three. there are so many Humors of it, to wit, the Watery, Chrystalline, and Glassy: The Chrystalline Humor supplies the place of the Burning-Glass, placed within the whole of the dark Chamber, and the two other Humors, constitute and fitly determine, the spaces only, or places between, which ought to come between the first approaches of the beams into the Eye, and the place or Organ of Sight, wherefore this is put behind, the other before the Chrystalline Humor.

But this Chrystalline Humor it self,Chrystalline. within the aperture or opening of the Vvea Coat, like a Glass placed before the hole, gathers together, and breaks the Beams coming thi­ther on every side: The Substance of this is very shining, like glew, or the Gum of a Tree, and is indued with a Consistence like melted wax, yet if pressed it will not wil­lingly flow forth. Its Figure in Man, and most four-footed Beasts, comes near to the shape of a Lentil, whose utmost Superficies is more plain, and the innermost more gibbous or bunching out; but in Fowls and Fishes, its Figure comes near to a Sphe­rical shape;Its description and uses. In these later, where the Chrystalline Humor is round, the whole Figure of the Eye is depressed in either; But in the other, where the Chrystalline Humor is of a depressed Figure, the Eye is found to be plainly Spherical. A reason of the Conformation of either, shall be shown afterwards: The Chrystalline Humor, thô not apt to flow forth, yet is included with a proper little Membrane, for the Light­ness of it, called the Cobweb.

In Man,The watery Hu­mor, and its uses described. and in four-footed Beasts, thô the Chrystalline Humor be of the form of a Lentil, it doth not bear out enough, so as it might receive the Beams of the whole Hemisphear, therefore the watery Humor is lay'd to it, as an addition, which thrust­ing forth the Cornea, or horny Coat, and rendring it more bunching out, encreases outwardly the Convexity or bending forth of the Eye, which is indeed, that the vi­sible Species might be from this place, and from that, and on every side more plentiful­ly admitted into it, as into a Window, made forth or butting out beyond the plane of the Wall. Further, the watery Humor swelling forth with the horny Coat, breaks a little the oblique Beams falling towards the Perpendicular; and so compelling them nearer together, directs more together into the Convexity of the Chrystalline swelling. There is yet another use of this watery Humor, to wit, to temperate the Beams passing [Page 86] thorow it, being sometimes somewhat fiery, and so to render them more proportionate to the Sensory.

The glassy Hu­mor.On the other side of the Chrystalline Humor, to wit, on the back of it, the glassy Humor stands, like to fused Glass; this, much more plentiful than both the other, possesses the greatest part of the Optic Chamber; also, being less Compact in it self, is apt somewhat to flow out, and is included with a most thin little Membrane: this lyes upon the Retine Coat, and contains the Chrystalline within its Bosom. Its Primary use is to separate the Retine Coat in a just space from the Chrystalline Humor,Its uses. that after the Beams have past thorow this, as it were thorow the Burning-Glass, with a due Re­fraction, they may have in that, placed at a just distance, their habitation: Hence, in those who have the Chrystalline Humor in the form of a Lentil, and so the Beams pas­sing thorow, can't come together but at a greater distance, have great plenty of this glassy Humor, and its plenitude causes the Spherical Figure of the Eye; But in those, who have the Chrystalline swelling round,The plenty of the glassy Hu­mor varies; ac­cording to the Figure of the Chrystalline Hu­mor. that the Beams passing thorow, are more crooked, and have a dwelling or nest at a less distance, the quantity of the glassy Hu­mor is found less; and its defect causes the depressed Figure of the Eye, or of the form of a Cheese. Further, the glassy Humor, according to Scheinerus, being somewhat a more thin Medium, than the Chrystalline Humor, breaks a little the Beams passing thorow, from the Perpendicular, and therefore somewhat enlarges or draws forth the Picture of the visible thing, otherwise more contracted, and shews the same more conspicuous in the Retina. Thus much concerning Seeing, and of all the Senses; in the next Chap­ter, we should speak of the other Power, to wit, the Locomotive: but being we have formerly largely discoursed concerning that; we shall handle in the following, cer­tain Affections, belonging to the Corporeal Soul, as to the Exercise of the Motions and the Senses, to wit, Sleep and Waking.

CHAP. XVI.

Of Sleeping and Waking.

Sleep Necessary for all Animals.SUch is the weak and instable Nature of all living Creatures, that they are not able, nei­ther to Live perpetually, nor to Act and Labour continually; but that there is a Necessity for them (even as once, and at last to dye so) daily to repeat frequent turns of Sleep, as it were so many previous Monitors of Death. Though we have not experien­ced it, we easily know what it is to dye; to wit, when the vital Flame, like a Lamp, is either by degrees consumed, or violently extinguished, presently Heat and Light, and what flow from them, both all the Vital and Animal faculties, are abolished. But what is the formal Reason, Essence and Causes of Sleep, which we suffer, and daily experience, is almost wholly unknown. Concerning this, there are various Opinions, both of An­cients and Moderns, but they rather seem Dreams, than satisfactory Reason: To wit, whil'st some affirm Sleep to be mere Privation,What it is un­known, or great­ly Controverted. others a Bond of all the Functions; these place for its Cause a retraction, or introcession of Heat, those an assent of Vapours from the Stomach to the Head. Some assign for the subject the Brain, others the Heart, others the Stomach, and Spleen; and some again the Soul, others the Body by it self; and last­ly, others both together, to wit, the whole Animal Body.

The Opinion of Schneiderus. Among the latter Writers, Conradus Schneiderus hath of late been Eminent, who reje­cting the Opinions almost of all others, and asserting Sleep not to be produced from Va­pours, nor from any material Cause; nor to depend, either upon any affection of the Brain,He affirms Sleep to be an inorganical fa­culty of the Soul. or of any other part; affirms it to be, and Waking also, mere faculties of the Soul; to wit, innate, or born in it, and wholly inorganical. Also he saith, that the formal Reasons of either are, that the Soul, or its animadversive Faculty, sometimes with­draws, and as it were hides it self; and sometimes puts forth, and expunds it self. This Opinion, thô in some part it seems likely, does not easily deserve our assent, because, notwithstanding he asserts Sleep and Waking to be proper Faculties of the Soul, and these inorganical and independing of the Body, he further supposes, other chief Powers of the Soul, to wit, common Sense, Memory, and Appetite, not to be performed from the divers Organs within the Brain, nor to be distinguished by their Seats, but to be diffused thorow the whole Body.

[Page 87]Therefore, that we may the more rightly Philosophize concerning Sleep, we ought to consider, what are its Subject, formal Reason, Causes, Differences, and Effects.

First,The Subject of Sleep, not the whole Body. As to the first it clearly appears, that Sleep is not extended neither to the whole Soul, nor to the whole Body: for the Praecurdia, and Organs of respiration, are exer­cised with a perpetual Systole and Diastole, the Viscera, dedicated for Concoction, perform their Offices more, and better in Sleep than in Waking: Further, when as the aforesaid Parts are wont to alter their actions, according to the urgencies of evident Causes, (as may be argued by the Pulse and respiration variously changed, also from Vomiting, and sometimes a sudden loosning of the Belly) the exercises of the sensitive Power, as well as the Motive, ought to be granted to them in Sleep: But the Blood is circulated, and flames forth in quiet, the nourishing and Nervous Humors are dispensed, yea, and the superfluous, and what is excrementitious, are best separated or put forth: Hence, as it appears, perpetual watches are kept about the midst, or inmost part of the Animal Body. In the mean time it is observed, that Sleep urging, all the External Senses are shut up, also that all Spontaneous Motions whatsoever cease; so that the Bodies being wholly subjected to ease, lye as they were dead. Further, the Internal Powers, related to these, such as are the Common Sense, Phantasie, Memory, Appetite, conspire toge­ther with these External Powers, and either wholly omit their Acts, or exercise them but obscurely and confusedly.

From these it may be plainly gathered,The Animal Spirits are the immediate Sub­ject of Sleep. that the Animal Spirits, which are the next or efficient Instrument of Sense and Motion, are also the immediate Subject of Sleep; but, not all of them, but some Bands, as it were of a Superior Order, at those times keep Holy-day; but others, whose task is more assiduously required, for the Preservation of Life, are wholly inhibited.

Concerning these,All the Spirits enjoy rest, but not in Sleep. that the reason of the difference may appear, and that the bounds of Sleep may be defined, we must note, that there is need for all the Animal Spirits (which constituting the Hypostasis of the Corporeal Soul, perform all its Functions) be­cause they cannot incessantly exercise, or ever continue their Acts, to have frequent in­termission; by which, being worn out and tyred, they might be refreshed: notwith­standing there is not granted a Vacation or rest to the Spirits of every Regiment, after the same manner, nor in the like dimension.

For the Animal Spirits,The Spirits on­ly arising from the Brain, and who are the Authors of volun­tary Functions enjoy Sleep. which being born within the Brain, there constitute the chief Faculties of the Soul, and from thence flow into the Nervous stock, for the performing of the Spontaneous Acts of Sense and Motion, and effect the more hard and laborious tasks, are not tyed to the continual performance of them, but are permitted, after hard labours, to lay aside their work, and as it were to be idle; so that the Privilege of Sleep properly pertains only to these. But as to the Animal Spirits of the other Kind, which being procreated within the Cerebel, and there receive and emit the Instincts, and forces of Sense and Motion, merely Natural; and from thence flowing into the Praecordia and Viscera, perform the more assiduous Offices of the Vital and Nutritive Function; I say, that the Labours of these are more easie,Not those Pro­created in the Cerebel. and less laborious; but as they are absolutely necessary for the preserving of Life, that they ought not almost at any time to lye still, therefore the aforesaid Spirits, being busied about these Offices, are not suffered to keep Holy-day long, and to indulge themselves with Sleep, but it is sufficient for them, to intermit their tasks for a short space, and presently to resume them, and so to have, in stead of a longer Vacation, some broken times from their Labours: as chiefly ap­pears from the pulse, and breathing, in which the times of motion and of rest, are reciprocal, and almost equal. Indeed the Spirits performing these tasks, seem as if condemned to the Stone of Sisyphus; to wit, that they still lift up the same bur­then, then resting whil'st it slides down again, they presently, and so perpetually, repeat their Labour. Further, whil'st that the Animal Spirits influencing the Viscera of Concoction, propagate the Acts of Vermiculation, from Part to Part, receive and give place to motion, and rest mutually in themselves; which also is more amply performed when we Sleep soundly; in so much, that sometimes the work of more difficult Concoction, is not to be done but in Sleep. Therefore the Empire of Sleep chiefly and almost only belongs to the Animal Spirits, inhabiting the Brain, and the Executors of the Animal Function there, (of whose Acts we are knowing) and in the Appendix both Medullary and Nervous. If those Spirits arising from the Cerebel, as influencing some Pathetick Nerves, to wit, of the fifth and sixth Pair, seem to participate of Sleep, that happens by a consent, deliver'd from the Brain; to wit, by which the Commands, as of Motion, so of rest are conveyed to them.

We affirm,T [...]e immediate Subject of Sleep, is the Knowing Part of the sen­sitive Soul. That the immediate Subject of Sleep, is the greater Portion of the sensi­tive Soul, which being rooted in the Brain, and thence diffused into many Parts of the Body, is the Author of every Spontaneous Motion: But the Mediat, the Brain it self, [Page 88] and all the sensible and moving Parts, which Communicate with it. Also, on the con­trary, the other lesser part of the sensitive Soul, which being rooted in the Cerebel, and thence stretched forth into the Praecordia, The Mediate are the Bodies containing it. Viscera, and some other Bodies, is the Parent of the Vital and merely Natural Function, to wit, of whose Acts the Animal is not con­scious, is freed from the Bonds of Sleep.

The formal rea­son of Sleep.From these, that we may proceed to deliver the formal Reason of Sleep, let us conceive, that this greater portion of the sensitive Soul (the Animal Sleeping) doth lay aside its expansion like a Veil, sinks within it self, and hiding its head, as it were within its own Bosom, sees nor cares for nothing, that is without; so that both the E­manation of the Spirits into the globous Part of the Brain, and also their irradiation, in­to the Nervous stock, ceasing; the Act of spontaneous Sense and Motion, both outward­ly and inwardly, is suppressed.

The beginning of Sleep, is in the Cortical part of the Brain, which is also the seat of the Memory.If it be demanded, in what Part or Region these Spirits dwell, who first of all possess Sleep, and begin to be indulged with rest, before any others, it may be well supposed, that the Spirits first Sleeping, are those, which flowing within the globous part of the Brain, create the Acts of the Fantasie and Memory. To wit, these, either of their own accord, or by reason of the incourse of Strangers, falling down from the Pores of the Exterior Brain, in which they were wont to expatiate, convey themselves into its more deep Matrows, or middle Parts, where as it were lying down idely, intice the Spirits there implanted to the like slothfulness; and from thence flowing into the Nervous stock, recall others from their Efflux, and solicite them to idleness. Indeed, the Spirits irra­diating the outer Brain, do first of all grow stupified, and begin Sleep in their recess, as appears from hence, because there is a Necessity, for these sometimes to be repressed from their expansion, and to be driven inwards, that there may be a place left, for the instilling the Nervous juice, or matter for new bands of Spirits, into the Brain; where­fore, those veterane, or old ones, being not only wearied, go from their Station, but being as it were drowned by the Humor, plentifully rushing in, are compelled from their watches.

The Causes of Sleep: First, what the final is.From these things it will not be difficult to assign the Causes of Sleep; and first, that we may begin with the Final; (which is always the Key to the rest) If it should be de­manded, for what end, the Animal Spirits going out of the globous part of the Brain, into its middle or marrowy Parts, are bound up with chains of Sleep, and so after a so­lemn manner, alter the vicissitudes, as of Exercise, so of Rest; this easily occurs; that the Animal Spirits (at least those who are wont to be more strongly exercised) lest they being wholly loosned should perish, and break the Hypostasis of the Soul, want for the sustaining of themselves a twofold prop, to wit, Rest and Food; by the former care is taken, lest the Spirits, for that they are highly volatile, should be very much drawn asun­der, by too much Occupation, and acted into Confusion: wherefore, after that they have long and much laboured, they desire to rest, and be at quiet of their own accord; then by the other, to wit Food, the wastings both of themselves, and of the spirituous Liquor, with which they are washed, are repaired; therefore needful for them: But both these benefits,To wit, a refe­ction and quiet­ing of the Spirits. requisit for the Spirits, to wit, their sedation and refreshment, are granted (and almost only) to Animals in Sleep. For althô in Waking, pleasant sensible Objects do something please the Spirits, and that the nourishing Liquor, supplied from Aliments newly received in, may something cherish them, yet a fuller refreshment, and quieting, by which they are sufficiently fortified, for the lively performing the Animal Functions, are not obtained but in Sleep; for then the Spirits being at leisure for some time, from Motion, get to themselves new stores; and in the mean time the Brain, like a dry Sponge, imbibing most greedily the nutritious Liquor, takes it for Provision for it self; which after a little space, it dispenses to the several Parts, both of its proper Regiment, and also of its Appendix; yea, plenty of the Spirits, and their food, being somewhat exhausted, the Brain, as it were another Stomach, seems to be hungry after Sleep, greatly to desire it, and not to be satisfied, unless it daily enjoys it, and that in its wonted measure: for in the space of every Night, there is a certain Necessity of Sleeping for so many hours, as we have formerly accustomed our selves to; if at other times, as after Eating, an evil Custom indulges Sleep, we afterwards more hardly want it, than our Dinner; for the privation of due Sleep, or what often accustomed to, is as it were a fasting to the Brain, by which, if long affected, that, and its Nervous Appendix, languish as it were for hunger.

The formal Cause of Sleep, consists in the Rest of the Spirits, and in the watering of the contain­ing Parts.Therefore, for the taking of Sleep, by which the Brain may be filled, with the Nu­tricious Humor, and the Spirits, wearied or exhausted by Motion, may be refreshed, a certain Law of Nature, or Necessity is incumbent upon us, and calls it upon us often­times against our Minds: But this kind of Disposition being innate to most Animals, and chiefly to Man, whose Spirits are most of all employed, is the Final or Procatartick, or more remote Cause of Sleep; but its formal or Conjunct Cause, consists in these two [Page 89] things, viz. in the Vacation or Rest of the Spirits, and in the Irrigation or watering the Parts containing them; by which (as common to either Affection) a relaxation follows, from a Tensity or Inflation of the Brain, and Nervous Parts.

As to the evident Causes or occasions,The evident Causes. by which Sleep is wont to be introduced, first we must distinguish concerning Sleep; That it is either Natural or Ordinary, which every one enjoys daily, for so many set hours, and its accession and duration depends upon either Conjunct Cause existing together in Act,Sleep either Na­tural, or not Natural, or Pre­ [...]ernatural. viz. at the same time, the Spirits remitting their tasks, sink down, and the nourishing Humour flows into the Brain; then this being sufficiently watered, and they refreshed, Waking returns: Or Sleep is not Natural or Extraordinary, which for some occasions follows in an undue measure, and inconvenient time. Concerning preternatural Sleep, we shall speak more properly of it in another place; when we shall treat of Soporiferous or Sleepy Diseases. But as to the Non-natural,Sleep not Na­tural, sometimes begins, from the Spirits be­ing brought low. we have observed; that it is of a double Kind, according to the Complica­tion of the Conjunct Cause; For either the Spirits first lye down, and so the Brain imbibes more copiously the apposite Liquor; or first the Brain is too much moistned with Humor, and so the Spirits being as it were drowned, are forced from their watches. For when the Blood every where washes the Cortex of the Brain, by almost innumerable Ramifi­cations of Vessels, a certain spirituous Water from these bloody Rivulets, always stands at the Door, and is ready to be instilled into the Medullar Substance of the Brain; which, for as much as it is copiously received within, presently overwhelms the Spirits, and obstructs their passages, and so Sleep being call'd upon, every Animal Function ceases for a time;Sometimes from the Cortex of the Brain being too much wa­tered. yet, lest this should be too frequently and untimely done, the Animal Spirits, so long as they are lively and active, inflate the Substance of the Brain, and keep it ex­tended, so that the Spirituous Liquor, which is also Soporiferous, is not admitted, but only in a small quantity, such as may suffice for the exciting of Sleep. But if either the Spirits being weary lye down of their own accord, or are compelled by the boyling Blood coming impetuously to the borders of the Brain, to give place to it, the aforesaid Liquor, rushing in on heaps, produces almost invincible Sleep. Wherefore, according to which, either the Animal Spirits open the doors of the Brain of their own accord, or the Ner­vous Liquor besieging them, impetuously breaks thorow; The Prophases, or evident Causes of Sleep, are of this or that rank: there are many Kindes of both of these, and ways of being done, the chief of which we shall briefly touch upon.

First,For what Cau­ses the Spirits lye down of their own accord. The force of Custom. In the first place therefore, there are many Cau­ses, for which the Animal Spi­rits begin of their own accord to keep Holy-day, among which, the force or power of Custom obtains the chief place. For when we have accustomed our selves to Sleep at certain set hours, the Spirits about the same time, as it were dismissing the force of their Motion, leaving presently all work, and External Commerce, retire inward, and indulge themselves with Rest: The reason of which is, because the sensitive Soul, for as much as it is void of all Science, and proper direction, determinates this or that thing to be done, by outward Accidents and Circumstances; wherefore, the Animal Spirits, in what path they are once led, unless they be hinder'd, will repeat to an hair their former tracts. Hence it is, that we both Sleep, and also Awake, at set and wonted hours, also we ex­pect and hardly can pass by, the same times of Dinner and Supper. So solemn the man­ner of Nature is to do the same thing which it did before, and till being taught new things, it is the manner of its Government, constantly and exactly to observe the old. An Example of this Kind of Natural assiduity is admirable, which was told me for cer­tain, of a Fool living some years in our Neighborhood; who, thô he were silly and foolish,A notable Ex­ample of Natu­ral Custom or Ass [...]duity. yet did he know exactly, without any sign, the interspaces of the Hours, and as often as the space of an whole Hour was elapsed, as if he had been a living Clock, he would presently personate the like Number of the Hour, with so many hoarse founds, and no business or employ about any other occupation, could make him omit this Task. He at the beginning was wont to imitate aloud, by making a noise, every stroke of the sounding Clock; and as often as he heard the sounding of the Bell of the Clock, pre­sently he cry'd, One, Two, Three, &c. repeating successively the several Pulsations; hence it hapned afterwards, that the Animal Spirits, by daily imitation, being accustomed to be stirred up, to such a Motion, according to the set spaces of Time, at length they were able to distinguish the same Periods of their own accord, nothing directing, as if the sliding spaces of time, had been measured out by the wheels of a Clock.

Secondly,The Spirits being weary, lye down on their own accord. The Animal Spirits being wearied by the hard labour of the Body, or too serious intention of the Mind, indulge themselves with Sleep of their own accord: For when after immoderate exercise, by reason of Heat and Sweat flowing forth, the Spirits plentifully exhale, and those which are left being as it were poured forth and di­stracted one from another, as soon as those have left them, they presently lay aside all work, that they may Concentre themselves within, and recollect their forces; for the [Page 90] like reason, after vehement study, or long Contention of the Mind, by reason that the Animal Spirits become very much tyred, we grow Sleepy; yea, sometimes serious Me­ditation, and when imployed with Hearing (chiefly of Sacred things,) and great Atten­tion, procures an invincible Sleep; the reason of which is, not that the Spirits are so much consumed or wearied, but because they are gathered together in two great heaps in the Brain; and so with them too great plenty of the Nervous Humor is poured in, whereby the Brain is overflowed: Hence also it is, that if presently after Eating, Read­ing or Philosophical Lectures be attended to, they shall cause Sleep sooner than an Opiat; to wit, because these more grave Exercises of the Mind, both convey more plentifully to the Head, the Blood; and at the same time the Spirits Concentre together on eve­ry side towards the middle Part of the Brain; wherefore, from the Blood coming to its border, a mighty heap of Nervous juice is admitted in; by which the Spirits are present­ly overturned, and their spaces stuffed up; the contrary happens, as often as any one after a full Banquet shall go to the Theatres, to see Plays, for the Spirits being stretched forth by delectation, blow up and distend the Brain, so that the coming in of the Sleepy Humor, thô heaped up at the Door, is kept out.

The pleasing of the Senses, and the Phantasie, cause Sleep.Thirdly, We may observe, that the Animal Spirits, when delighted with a soft Har­mony, are invited inwards from the Organs of the Senses, and being there recreated, slide into Sleep. So a certain Musical and soft modulation of the Voice, the gentle murmur of Waters, the soft whispering of the Wind, also pleasant Fancies, as when we Imagine our selves to be in a green Meadow, or splendid Houses, because by this means, the Spi­rits gently Concentre together, Sleep is wont to creep upon one.

The Spirits are Compelled into Sleep, by Nar­coticks.Fourthly, There remains another manner of introducing Sleep, to wit, when the Ani­mal Spirits are oppressed by Narcoticks or Opiats taken inwardly, or applied outwardly, and so are inhibited the exercise of their Function. For Opiats, because they Poison the Spirits, extinguish their forces, as Water poured upon Fire, or Sulphur laid on the Kitchin Fire, and cause a Torpor or Numness; wherefore, if they are more largely ta­ken, that they cannot be overcome by the Spirits put to flight, who by little and lit­tle being recollected, renew the Systasis of the Soul, a deadly or perpetual Sleep follows.

Their Penury or want perswades to Sleep.Fifthly, To this rank ought to be referred the Penury or evil Constitution of the Ani­mal Spirits; for when they are either deficient in Plenty, or are dull and Torpid, that they can neither tolerate daily or hard Exercises, nor actuate the Brain, nor defend it against the Inundations of the serous Humors, from thence are wont to be induced a Torpor or Numness, and frequent Sleepiness of the Animal Faculty; as is to be ob­served in Dropsical and Scorbutical People: but the Consideration of this Kind of Tor­por, we shall refer to another place, where we speak of Soporiferous Diseases.

By what, and how many ways Sleep begins from the Brain, first affected.2. Another Kind of evident Causes, by which Sleep is introduced, consists in this, that the Brain is first affected; then by its Consent, the Animal Spirits being half over­thrown, betake themselves to rest; these Kind of Effects are chiefly brought in when an heap of Serum is poured in upon the Brain from the Blood too much stuffed with a wa­tery Humor, which watering it with too much moisture, rushes overs its Pores and Pas­sages,When its Com­pass it over­flow'd, by the Serum coming to it. and as it were drowes the Animal Spirits flowing in them. Such an Inundation of Spirits is produced, either from a too great taking in of Food, whence the Blood swelling up above measure, with the nourishing Humor, too much puts down upon the Brain the plentiful provision of Nervous Juyce; wherefore, presently after a more full feeding or drinking, men become Sleepy; or also, the Blood, as to its Temper, being made more watery,To which may be added, the i [...]cilli [...]y of the Brain, and loosness of the Pores. moistens the Brain, as it were with a perpetual shower, and so renders those af­fected continually Sleepy; as is wont to come to pass ordinarily in Dropical and Scorbu­tical People. To these may be added, and oftentimes is partly the Cause, the imbecillity or weakness of the Brain, and the loosness of its Pores, so that, they gaping too much, most easily admit the serous heap, whereby Sleepiness is brought in. For it is observed, That Drunkards, especially such as drink Wine, fall asleep with it, on the least occa­sion, and not only become Drunk, but also Drowsie or Sleepy. The reason of which is, that when the passages of the Brain, are more often and untimely unlocked, with the Particles of the Wine, at length become so feeble, that the Blood growing hot above measure, pours forth its Recrements upon the Brain, and so causes from thence a torpor or stupidness therein.

Sleep not from fu [...]s or va­po [...]s.These are the chief means, whereby Sleep is effected, when it is excited, by reason of the overflowing of the Nervous juyce, and as it were the over-turning of the Animal Spirits. But as to these, it hath been far otherways taught, by the Opinion of the Vul­gar, to wit, that fumes and vapors are raised up from the Chyle, or Humors growing hot within the Viscera of Concoction, which cloud the Brain, and so cause a Numness. But this Opinion easily falls, since the Circulation of the Blood, and the more plentiful Suffufion of it on the Brain, have been known; and that the rather, because a passage [Page 91] from the Stomach into the Head, thorow so many Inwards, and bony Cloysters, like stops,The Matter of Sleep, conveyed only by the Ar­teries. seem impervious, or not passable for the sending up of fumes. Without doubt, much the greatest part of the Humor, with which the Brain is watered, and the Spirits inhabiting it, over-turned, during Sleep, is carried by the Arteries, and distilled in im­mediately from the Mass of Blood. But althô we deny vapors elevated from the Stomach to the Head, to cause Sleep, yet by reason of some affections of the Ventricle, it ma­nifestly appears, that Sleepiness is induced; for as much as Opiats being taken, they be­gin to operate oftentimes presently, and before the virtue or any of their Particles can come to the Brain,Why raw and indigested meats induce Sleepiness. by the passage of the Blood. This also appears, because we become Sleepy from more gross Meats, and of ill Digestion, which stay long in the Stomach, and burthen it. The reason of which seems to be, because, when as the Corporeal Soul, or a principle portion of it, is the immediate Subject of Sleep, and she entertains it, for as much as being restrained from Expansion, and as it were drawing a Curtain, she enters into her self, and sinks down on every side, towards the middle of the Brain; we say, that such a subsiding of the Soul, or its chiefest part, thô done in the Brain, is often­times excited, by reason of the Cause lying hid in the Stomach; because there is a mighty Sympathy,That happens by reason of the Consent, which is between the Stomach and the Brain, and which it has with the whole Soul besides. between this and that; or rather, the Animal Spirits, inhabiting the Ven­tricle, althô arising from the Cerebel, conspire so intimately with the desiring or know­ing Soul (which is the Inhabitant of the Brain) that they are able to bend, exalt, de­press it every way. The Appetite of necessary or delicate food, snatches it from any other proposition or desire. The frustrated longing of big-belly'd Women, causes an Abortion, or a Monstrous Birth. At the first taste of a draught of Wine, before the Li­quor can be carried into the Blood, it lifts up and wonderfully chears the drooping Soul. In like manner on the contrary, Opiats or Sleeping Medicines, because they stupifie or mortifie the Animal Spirits,How Opiats Cause Sleep, whilst they ope­rate in the Ven­tricle. implanted in the Stomach, bring presently a Torpor to the Knowing part of the Soul, and sometimes an extinction to its whole Hypostasis, both flamy and lucid: For the same reason, undigested Aliments, because they fix and bur­then the Spirits inhabiting the Ventricle, render the others Presiding in the Brain, for some time, Dull and Torpid.

But sleep seems to begin not only from the Ventricle,How Sleep seems to begin in the Eyes. but for the most part from the Eyes; for when about to Sleep of our own accord, we our selves first of all shut our Eyes, & our Eyes being made heavy, and dull, Sleep creeping upon us whether we will or no, love to be closed; yea, if we would watch longer, we rub our forehead, and Eye-lids, and open them with a certain force, as if about to cast off Sleep chiefly there arising. Con­cerning these, we may say, that rest, being about to be indulged to Animals, may be the less disturbed, Divine Providence hath so provided, that the Windows being present­ly shut, the meeting with External Objects may be hindred. The Eyes ought to per­form this Office especially, as the most noble Sensory; also that they may more cer­tainly perform it; whil'st the Knowing Soul withdraws it self, and Contract its Com­pass, the Spirits being recalled towards the middle of the Brain; the Sight, as the Organs of the other Senses, are destitute, and left flaccid and apt to fall down; and this hap­pens chiefly and more certainly to the Eyes, because Sleep coming on, the Brain becom­ing full and swell'd with the flowing in of the Nervous juyce, at that time more ube­rous or plentifully abounding, very much presses upon the Optic Nerves, and those moving the Eyes, lying under its basis with a long passage, (different from any others) and so hinders the wonted inflowing of the Spirits into the Sensory of Sight.

Thus much for the Nature,Of the Effects of Sleep. Causes, and the various ways of inducing of Sleep; there yet remains for us to consider of the chief Effects and Alterations of it, which it is wont to bring to Soul and Body,Towards the Vital or Flamey part of the Soul. and their Parts and Humors, and first, what it brings to the Vital or Flamey part of the Soul, radicated in the Blood.

Concerning this, first of all we shall note, That the Blood is more inkindled, and much more plentifully burns forth in Sleep,The Blood is more inkindled, and inflamed in Sleep, than in Waking. than in Waking: the Truth of this is plain, from the standing Observations of such as have given it for Law, that Men Sleeping, ex­hale or breath forth a departure of a far greater weight, than Men Waking, thô they use Exercise and Sweat. Moreover, Reason and Experience dictate the same thing, for as a Combustible Matter, being placed near the Centre of inkindling, and heaped about it, burns more than if the same being divided into parts, smoaking and half inkindled, should be drawn out and planted here and there in various places; in like manner, it may be judged of the Blood, which being quiet in Sleep, being called aside or disturbed with no Passions, nor with the impulses of the Muscles out of the Praecordia, or detained out of doors, enters the Lungs with a more full Flood, and there more slowly passes thorow the Centre or place of accension;Wherefore those that Sleep, are apt to be Cold outwardly. whence, there is a Necessity, that it should then be more plentifully inkindled, and burn with a greater flame, than if touch'd only with a more light burning, it should hastily pass thorow those places. But every one doth know [Page 92] by Experience in himself, that in Sleeping, the Praecordia grow very hot, and the Ex­ternal Parts are apt to be cold; wherefore, there is need of covering them with Bed-Cloaths, whereby the Effluvia, deteined about the Compass of the Body, might warm it, whil'st in the mean time there is a Burning in the Breast, and from the Flame and Soot ascending from thence, the Tongue and Parts about the Mouth, as if roasted, are white: Hence in the Day-time those Sleeping in the open Air, or any where else, un­less well defended with Cloaths, take Cold: for by reason of the Heat being drawn back, the Cold little Bodies of the Air compassing them, enter into the Pores, and stop them up; but on the other side, Asthmatical People, and such as have their Lungs stuffed or bound together, or are otherways difficult to be moved, hardly Sleep within the Bed, because the ambient Heat so greatly increases the Flame, inkindled in the Praecor­dia, that for the eventilating it, and conveying it thorow the Arteries, the Lungs being weak, and growing tyred in the Motion, are scarce, nay, not at all sufficient.

Sleep allays the disorders of the Blood.2. For as much as the Blood is more inkindled during Sleep, therefore then chiefly its disorders are allayed. But these are of a twofold Kind: to wit, either the Blood is variously agitated hither and thither by the impulses of the Conteining and Neigh­bouring Bodies, as in violent Passions, and Commotions both of the Body and of the Soul: Or it grows turgid, or swells up by its proper rage, after the manner of fer­menting Wine, from the Heterogene, and heating Particles being mixed with it. As to the First, so long as we are Waking, the Course of the Blood being very much disturb­ed, is continually agitated as it were with certain winds: because the Fantasie, more strong Meditation, the Appetite, and the several Passions, drive the Blood sometimes more swiftly, sometimes repress it by their Influence, snatch it impetuously sometimes into these, sometimes into those Parts, and thence again repel it. Besides these Floods, stirred up by the Mind,Whither they are induced by the conteining Bodies. also the Motions of the Body and Members, render its Course yet more troubled and dangerous; because the Sanguiferous Vessels, being variously pressed, by the Motive Parts, and by and by released; they variously transfer, and call back the Blood, and by and by snatch it elsewhere; hence, its Humour, so long as it ra­pidly runs from place to place, evaporates less, and so heaps together a greater stock of Excrementitious Matter, which being suppressed within, stirs up Preternatural Heat, and renders the Flame of the Blood unequal, more smoaky, and troubled, yea sharp and biting, and so troublesom to the Heart and Brain, and also to several Viscera, and sometimes to the whole Nervous Kind, all which notwithstanding Sleep allays; yea whil'st the Animal Spirits lye quiet, like allayed winds, the Sea of the Blood presently becomes Calm.

The Internal boyling up of the Blood, is also al­layed by Sleep.Nor is the Blood, disturbed by reason of its proper Effervescency, less quieted by Sleep: for when it grows hot from such a Cause, it flames not forth with a clear and bright Flame, but fumes up with Smoak and Soot, and therefore being less eventilated, diffuseth a very troublesom and sharp heat: which also is more infestous, because the Recrements of the Blood, to wit, the Serum, and adust, and otherways viscous Par­ticles, being involved with its smoaking Latex, cannot be separated and carried away. But in Sleep, the Blood is soon quieted, and passes more slowly thorow the place of in­kindling, to wit, the Lungs; wherefore being there first more inkindled, it burns with a clearer Flame, and also more mildly, and so the smoak presently ceasing, and some Heterogenious Particles being burnt, all the rest extricating themselves from Confusion, what are profitable are imployed in their designed Offices, and what are unprofitable, are bolted or sifted forth, partly by Breathing, Transpiration, or Sweat, and partly thorow the other Emunctories.

The Blood per­forms its Offi­ces, (which are the generation of the Animal Spirits, and the nourishing of the Parts) bet­ter in Sleep.3. The Blood burning forth more clearly and plentifully in Sleep, at that time also performs better, yea chiefly, or almost only its Offices, the chief of which are, the Stil­ling forth of the Animal Spirits, and the Nutrition of the solid Parts. And first, it Prepares best of all Matter for both these, to wit, it well subdues, dresses, and ripens the Chyme, infused into its Mass: then it instills the more pure and more subtil Part into the Shell of the Brain, from which, the veterane Spirits, during Sleep depart, for the end that a way may be open, for the Nervous or Spirituous Liquor to restore their Stores; and in the mean time, the other part of the Chyme, is conveyed every way by the Arteries, to the solid Parts, and whil'st they are quiet, it is best of all put upon them, and suffered to grow to them; otherwise, by their too great Motion and Agitation (as in Waking) it is apt to be shaken and wiped off.

Sleep is not to be yielded to, presently after Eating.But that Nutrition, and the Production of Animal Spirits may be rightly performed, in Sleep, it is not to be presently indulged after Eating; for so the aforesaid Offices are wont, not only to be hindred, but perverted into Evil: because if any one Sleep with his Belly full, the Chyle as yet Crude, is snatched into the Blood: then before it can be there broken small, and mixed with the Blood exactly, it is exposed to a more full inkindling within the Lungs; that from thence the Lungs themselves not rarely draw, [Page 93] as from Juyces and Vapours there sent forth,Such Sleep burts the Lungs and Brain. Makes the Spi­rits more dull and gives evil nourishments. from the Crude inkindled Matter (as it were from green Wood) an Evil: which thing indeed is observed of many, falling into the Phthisis or Consumption of the Lungs. Thirdly, At length from the Chyme so evilly prepared, neither pure Spirits are dispensed to the Brain, nor laudible nourishment to the solid Parts; yea, that is obscured and made dull by Fumes and Vapours, and these are disposed into a Cachexie or Atrophie.

So much concerning the Effects and Alterations of Sleep,What Sleep af­fords to the lu­cid part of the Soul. which indeed are wont to be more immediately impressed on the Flamey part of the Soul, rooted in the Blood, but mediately on the Parts of the Body depending upon it: Now let us see next, what this Passion brings to the other Part of the Soul, viz. the Lucid; and its Subjects, to wit, the Brain and Nervous Stock; Concerning these, we will shew what Sleep contri­butes to the dispensation of the Nervous Liquor, and to the generation of Spirits out of it, we shall also further Consider, what sort of influence it has on their Exercises and Government.

As to these,It refreshes the wearied Spirits inhabiting the Brain. First, It is to be noted, which we before-mentioned, to wit, that the Spirits of the Regiment of the Brain, the Executors of every Spontaneous Function, are employed only Waking; and that others arising from the Cerebel, both Waking and in Sleep: There is need for Sleep only for the former, whil'st they are well, that their Expences or consumed Stores might be by it repaired: yea, and that the lan­guishing or weariness of those remaining might be refreshed. This every one experi­ences in himself,And allays them, being out of order. and feels that there is no farther need of explaining it: But if the same Spirits, by some Morbifick Cause, being provoked, are moved into disorder, that they become irregular about the Acts of Motions, or of the Senses, whether Interior or Exterior, and stir up a Delirium, Convulsions, or Pains, Sleep, like a Charm, fully quiets these Spirits, how mad and devilish soever they be: wherefore if it comes not of it self, in these Cases it ought to be fetch'd with Opiats.

But as to the Spirits,The Spirits in­habiting the Ce­rebel, are di­sturbed, in Wa­king, with the Spirits of the other Regiment. the inhabitants of the Cerebel, because, in Waking they are di­sturbed by the business and tumult of the Spontaneous Functions, and being called away from their Labours are hindred; therefore, they perform their tasks better in the rest and deep silence of the others: Hence the Concoction and the distribution of the Food, and the Separation of the Excrements, yea, and the Oeconomy of the whole Animal Fun­ction, is best performed by reason of Sleep: Hence, if at any time, too much Meat, or more gross than is wont, being eaten, molests the Stomach, and inducing fulness, nau­seousness, or bitter and acid belching to it, approaching Sleep, for the most Parts takes away these Evils, and facilitating the Concoction of the Chyle, clears it from its sharp­ness, foulness,Why those being disturbed, do perform their Offices better, whil'st these lye quiet in Sleep. and bitterness. The reason of which is, because the Animal Spirits, which actuating the Fibres of the Stomach, serve for Digestion, whil'st awake; being forced to bear its manner or guise towards the Brain, and its Parts, are distracted here and there, and are called away from their proper work, so that the Meat being as it were unfermented, and undigested, stays in the Ventricle. This every one plainly experien­ces in himself, if presently he sits down after feeding to Study, or serious Reading, for then the Brain being full and disturbed, the ponderous and heavy Chyle in the Stomach, is deprived of Digestion:Other benefits of Sleep are noted. But in Sleep, the Spirits inhabiting the Ventricle, being freed from the Businesses of the Brain, do best of all perform their task, and rightly digest and exalt by Fermentation, the Chyle in the Stomach, like an Elixir in a Furnace, with an equal and convenient heat.Hence Chy [...]ifi­cation, and other functions mere­ly Natural, are performed best of all in Sleep. I might here enumerate other benefits of Sleep, for as much as it refreshes the whole Faculties of the Soul, renews the vigour of the Intellect or Wit, sharpens the Senses, stops the tumults of Passions, recollects the forces of the Co­gitations, as often as they are either wholly enervated, or distracted by immoderate Stu­dy, or long Waking, allays and quiets all things, and heals the weak Brain, and the languishments of its Parts, yea, and of all other Parts and Powers, by giving to them new forces or strength, as it were Food to such as want.

The Nature, Causes, and Effects of Sleep, being unfolded after this manner, before we wholly leave its Consideration, it will not be from the Matter, to subjoyn something of Dreams, we shall here purposely pass over what manner of Signification they have, both Natural, as they indicate the intemperance of the Brain, and also fatidical, as if they were inspired by a Daemon, Of Dreams. and are affirmed to Prophesie things to come: we shall only inquire by what Motion, and agitation of the Animal Spirits, Dreams are produced in the Brain. We say therefore, that the Animal Spirits, although they affect naturally alternate times of Motion and Rest, and whil'st they indulge Rest, instilling fresh Ner­vous Humor to the Brain, they suffer themselves to be bound together with Embra­ces, as it were with Chains, that they may not enter into Motion; yet it for the most part happens, that some Spirits easily cast off this Bond, and love to wander hither and [...]hither,What they are. in the deep silence of the Rest. And indeed Dreams are only the Excursions of [Page 94] some Spirits in the Brain, from their bond or tye, which, whil'st the rest are strictly bound together, wander about, without any Guide or Ruler; and repeat the types or shaddows of Motions, as it were Dances before learnt; and are wont to represent the Cogitations of things,They are some­times excited by the Spirits in­habiting the Brain. though after a very confused manner. The Spirits which being got loose, variously run about, whil'st the rest are bound together, gain the Liberty of Motion, by a twofold means. To wit, some Spirits, fly from the Captivity of Sleep, for the most part, by reason of the Heat and Agitation of the Brain, as by Drinking of Wine, the fume of Tobacco, immoderate Exercise, as also by the Passions, and more hard study, is wont to arise: for by these means, the Spirits are stirred up, by a cer­tain Stimulation or Provokement, and are driven as it were into rage, that, though Sleep creep upon them, all of them will not be bound or restrained, but that some of them will walk about the Sepulchers of the rest, like Spectres in a Church-yard, and Cause stupendious Apparitions of things.Sometimes by Spirits inhabit­ing other Parts, to wit, the Sto­mach, Spleen, Genitals. Another Exsuscitation of some Spirits in the Brain, whereby Dreams are produced, is made by reason of some Spirits being disturbed in other Parts, as in the Praecordia, Stomach, Spleen, Genitals, &c. By which, whil'st the same Perturbation is Communicated by the Nerves to the Brain, perhaps one or two Handfuls or Bands of Spirits, there stirred up, causes various Phantasies to be repre­sented. In the Disease called the Incubus or Night-Mare, when the Praecordia are stop'd in their Motion, or otherwise hindred, by reason of the Nerves being bound together, we Dream some Animal or heavy weight lying upon the Breast, stops our Breathing. The Genital Humor growing turgid or swelling up in the Vessels, and irritating them, produces immodest Dreams. Undigested and gross Meats, eaten at Supper, because they aggravate or lye heavy in the Ventricle, and trouble it, render Sleep also troubled, and infested with terrible and affrightful Phantasies; in like manner we might easily shew, that it is the same with many other Parts.

Whil'st as it were private Troops of Spirits, being excited in the Brain, carrying themselves hither and thither, exercise the Phantasie, their Divergency or Excursions happen sometimes regularly,Dreams some­times stir up lo­cal Mocions. sometimes inordinately: and therefore Dreams, represent either the Series of things before acted, or only Chimera's, or Notions altogether incon­gruous and disagreeing. Further, whil'st the Animal Spirits, being agitated by this means, within the Brain, produce Dreams or the Images of Cogitations, do often leap back, into the Nervous Stock, and there stirring up other Spirits, produce divers sorts of local Motions: wherefore some Men also, when they Sleep soundly, are wont to rise out of their Bed, to walk here and there, to remove the Houshold-stuff from place to place, oftentimes to put on their Cloaths, to open the Doors, go up Stairs, and to pass over Rocky places, which they could scarce go over when Awake; in the mean time if they meet with any Obstacle in their Progress, they either advisedly pass by it, or re­move it out of the way. I knew a certain Man, who was wont after this manner to walk a-Nights like a Spectre, and to speak to others whom he met being Awake, would take them by the hand, and often-times strike them, then, unless he being roughly hand­led did Awake; returning to his Bed, and after Awaking of his own accord, knew no­thing at all of what he had done. Yea, it is observed of most of these Night-walkers like Spirits, that being awakned, they scarce remember any thing of what they did, or acted in their Sleep; as if they suffer'd something that was different from other Drea­mers; for these think that they perform local Motions, when indeed there is no such thing, but the others move from place to place, and yet know nothing of it. In Drea­mers, the Spirits being stirred up, spread or are carried wholly inwards, towards the Callous Body, and affect only the Imagination and Memory: but in those walking in their Sleep, some handfuls or bands of them, being awakned, direct their tendency on­ly outwards, towards the moving Parts, in the mean time, the Common Sense, Imagi­nation, and Memory are not at all affected. It is wonderful, what ordinarily happens to Witches, or Wise-women; to wit, they, whil'st they lye Buried in a profound Sleep imagine that they are in very far and remote places, and that they have seen the Specta­cles of Seas and Lands, and things wholly unknown to them, and shall exactly describe them; which without doubt is, because the Devil brings the Idea's of these things be­fore the Phantasie, and so strongly impresses them, that they for a certain believe, that they had been in them: On the contrary, Walkers in their Sleep, wander about the whole House, and its Precincts, and truly perform divers Actions, of which, when they are Awake, they are wholly ignorant. If the reason of this Kind of Passion be inquired into, this first of all occurs; that those so affected, freely exercise, at that time, the Faculties, both Sensitive and Locomotive; because, they not only move their Feet and Arms, as it were in certain Measures and Numbers, as a Machine furnished with wheels and force is wont to do; but moreover, they hear with their Ears, see with their Eyes, and with a certain discretion vary their local Motions, according to the Impressions [Page 95] made from sensible things. Wherefore, from hence we may lawfully conclude, that some Animal Spirits, being stirred up inordinately, within the hinder Part of the middle of the Brain, perhaps about the streaked Bodies, do strike upon the little heads of the Nerves, and so raise up other Spirits, implanted by a long Series, within the nervous Passages, and the moving Parts, and drive them into Motions before accustomed to; hence the divers movings of the Body and Members, are produced. But, because the tenden­cy of the Spirits excited is made only outwards, and is not at all reflected inwards in­to the streaked and Callous Bodies; therefore, for that the Common Sensory nor the Ima­gination are affected, they neither perceive nor remember the Actions they had done▪ If it should be demanded, (for as much as the Common Sense at this time is stupified or asleep) by what instinct the Animal Spirits are determined, according to the Impressions of Sensible Things, for the performing of local Motions of this or that Kind; It may be said, That this reciprocation of Sense and Motion, depends chiefly upon Custom, viz. The Spirits being before accustomed to be ordered after this or that manner, and having gotten the Liberty of Action in Sleep, compose themselves of their own accord, for the performing of their wonted Measures; even as when an Harper, whil'st he is thinking of some other thing, his Fingers being before taught the N [...]mbers of the Tune, exactly strike the Strings, with wonderful agility and discretion.

Therefore, the Cause of walking in Sleep, seems to consist in this, viz. That the Ani­mal Spirits are too fierce and unquiet, and will not all lye down together, but that some of them, more fierce than the rest, leap forth of their own accord, and enter into Mo­tion, like as perhaps one or two Dogs, starting out without government, leave the com­pany of the rest and fall to Hunting: For that Cause also, the Spirits so apt to wander and roam about for Excursion, obtain their more free spaces in the Oblong Marrow, nigh the Nervous Original, rather than in the Brain or in its middle or marrowie Part. For it seems, that during Sleep, the Pores and Passages in the globous frame of the Brain, are stuffed up so, that the Spirits there, like to water frozen, are thrust in hard toge­ther; in the mean time, the Substance within the Medullar Processes of the Brain, and the Oblong Marrow, which lead towards the Nervous Original, is more loose, and pos­sessed less with an adventitious Humour; that the Spirits there being ready for Motion, easily make way for themselves to go forth, and entring the little heads of the Nerves, produce local Motions, of which the Common Sense, and the Superior Faculties of the Soul are utterly ignorant. For such a Disposition of the Brain and its Appendix, which inclines to wandring by Night, as if it depended upon a certain peculiar Conformation of the Organ, is proper to some Men from their Birth; nor does it indifferently happen to all Men, or is ever contracted by the reason of inordinate Living. I have known in a certain Family, where both the Father, and all his Children were obnoxious to this Affe­ction, the Brothers would often run up and down in the Night, in their Sleep, sometimes meet and lay hold upon one another, and so awake one another. But others, who had not this Evil impress'd upon them from their Birth, have fallen into this Distemper, with­out any fore-warning or manifest Occasion.

Thus much concerning Sleep, and by the by of Dreams: we have largely handled thus the Nature of it, because this Speculation very much Conduces to the illustrating the Affections of the Brain,Of Waking. A double Consi­deration of it. 1. As it follows upon Sleep. Waking is ei­ther Natural or Violent. and the Nervous Stock. It behoves us next, that we consider of the Aurora of Sleep, to wit, Waking; but this may be considered under a twofold re­spect; either First, for as much as it succeeds Sleep, it is its bound; or Secondly, accor­ding to its proper Essence. As to the former, we Awake, or Sleep is shaken off, either because it ends of its own accord, or because it is interrupted. That it may end of its own accord, two things are requisite, to wit, that the Animal Spirits, being enough re­freshed, rise up of their own accord, and return to their wonted watches; which indeed, they for the most part do, at a set-time, unless hinder'd: Secondly, That what ever is superfluous of the serous Humor, by whose Embraces the Spirits are bound, be evapora­ted: for after Banquetting, or often Drinking, by which a greater plenty of the serous and spirituous Latex is carried to the Brain, we Sleep longer; so that there is need that Sleep be longer protracted, that it may suffice to spew forth the untamed Wine. But Rest is very much interrupted by a violent Sensation; to wit, some Spirits dwelling about the Extremities of the Nerves, being awakned by the impulse of some strong object, awake others in the Common Sensory, whereby Sensation is performed, and then the stroke be­ing further continued, all, being as it were at a Sign given, called to Arms, awake sud­denly, and fall to their watches. This kind of troublesom Sensation, which awakes the Animal Spirits from Sleep, is not only brought in from an outward sensible thing, as when a great sound, or stroke made on the Flesh, shakes off Sleep; but sometimes the Nervous Parts are pulled by a sharp Humor, Physick, Worms, and other Internal Distempers, and so a Convulsion or Pain arising, the Spirits are compelled into Motion, and for that rea­son, [Page 96] we are excited from Sleep. As often as Sleep is broken off sooner than it ought, often yawning, and reatching, for the most part follows: the reason of which is, be­cause the Spirits being awakned, strive by contracting and extending those Parts, to shake off the Dewie Humor, not sufficiently evaporated from the Brain and Nervous Parts. Fur­ther, If we are forced to awake, before the Spirits are refreshed with their wonted Pro­vision, they from thence become dull and heavy, and less ready for the exercise of the Animal Function.

The Essence or formal Reason of Waking.As to the Essence or formal Reason of Waking, it consists in the liberty and expansion of the Animal Spirits, in the Brain, and the whole Nervous Stock. For these, like standing Souldi­ers, desire to watch, both to meet the sensible Object, also by reason of their obedience towards the Superior Powers of the Soul, so long as they are fit for this work: But that the Animal Spirits may be able to perform their watches in a just time, and with their whole strength it is required, that they should be free without any Impediments; to wit, that they be not irritated with any gross, or otherways Excrementitious Humor, nor drowned with a serous heap, but that being free from all burthen, they might remain ready, and still nimble for the swiftest Motions. Then Secondly, That the Spirits may rightly perform their watches, there is need, that they should be only intangled in mo­derate Affairs. Being fitted by these Kind of defences, they lively accomplish their Task, and daily for so many hours, continue their Motion, like the Wheels of a Clock, and then, the time being expired, they go to Rest of their own accord.

The End of the First Part.

THE SECOND PART PATHOLOGICAL: OR Of the DISEASES which belong to the Corporeal Soul and its Subjects, viz. The Brain and the Nervous Stock.

CHAP. I.

Of the Headach.

THE pain of the Head is wont to be accounted the chiefest of the Dis­eases of the Head,The Pain of the Head the chief­est and most common affecti­on among Dis­eases. and as it were to lead the troops of the other Af­fections of that part; for that it is the most common and most fre­quent symptom, to which indeed there is none but is sometimes ob­noxious, so that it is become a Proverb, as a sign of a more rare and admirable thing, That his Head did never ake.

The Headach, though it be a most frequent Distemper, hath so various, uncer­tain, and often a contrary original, that it seems most difficult to deliver an exact Theorie of its appearance, containing the solutions of so manifold, and often opposite things.The Causes of it manifold, and very diverse, that they [...] be metho­dically recited. Hence it is, that its Cure is often instituted E [...] ­pirically. This Disease being constant to no temperament, constitution, or manner of living, nor to no kind of evident or adjoyning causes; ordinarily falls upon cold and hot, sober and intemperate, the empty and the full bellied, the fat and the lean, the young and old, yea upon Men and Women of every age, state, or condition. Hence, because they cannot satisfie any one sick with this Distemper, with the causes of it, most commonly they say, they all proceed from Vapours. Further, the Cure of this Disease is more happily instituted, not so much by certain Indications, as by trying various things, and at length, by collecting an Extempory method of Healing, from things helping and hurting. Wherefore, if I should go about to untye this hard knot, by drawing forth the matter more deeply and more accurately, I must ask for pardon, if I am carried, by a long compass, thorow the various Series and Complication of Causes: and if at length, by any means, the Aeriology or the Reason of this Disease may be fully detected, a more certain way to its Cure may be opened.

Therefore,What things be­long to its Pa­thology. that we may go on more fully to institute this Pathology, or shewing the Causes or symptoms of this Disease, we ought first of all to unfold the Subject, and the formal reason of this Disease, together with the Causes and differences; then to sub­joyn the Curatory method, and to illustrate it with some more rare Cases and Ob­servations.

As to the former, as all pain is a hurt or violated Action, or a troublesome sension or feeling, depending on a Convulsion, or a Corrugation of the Nerves, the Subject of the Headach are the most nervous parts of the Head, that is, the Nerves them­selves, as also the Fibres and Membranes, and such as are more and most sensible, seated both without and within the skull.The Subject of this Disease. But the parts of this kind, which are af­fected with pain, are first the two Meninges, and their various processes, the Coats of [Page 106] the Nerves, the Pericranium (or skin compassing the skull) and other thin skinny Mem­branes, the fleshy Panicle of the Muscle, and lastly the skin it self. As to the Brain and Cerebel, and their Medullary dependences, we affirm, That these Bodies are free from pains,The formal Rea­son of it. because they want sensible Fibres, apt to be wrinkled and distended: the same, for the like reason, may be said of the Skull.

2. But whensoever pain is excited any where about the nervous parts of the Head, its formal reason consists in this, That the Animal Spirits being drawn one from ano­ther, and put to flight, cause the containing Bodies to be pulled together and wrinkled, and so stir up a troublesome sension or feeling: But that which so distracts the Spirits, that from thence a troublesome feeling arises, is some improportionate thing, rushing upon the Spirits themselves, or on the Bodies containing them, which entring the Pores of, and spaces between, the Fibres, pulls them one from another, and so drives the spirits dwelling there into disorder.

The differences and kinds.3. As to the differences of the Headach, the common distinction is, That the pain of the Head is either without the Skull, or within its cavity: The former is a more rare and a more gentle disease,Pain is either without, or within the Skull; because the parts above the Skull are not so sensible as the interior Meninges; nor are they watered with so plentiful a flood of Blood, that by its sudden and vehement incursion, they may be easily distended, or inflamed above measure. Secondly, The other kind of Headach, to wit, within the Skull, is more frequent, and much more cruel, because the Membranes, cloathing the Brain, are very sensible, and the Blood is poured upon them by a manifold passage, and by many and greater Arteries. Further, because the Blood or its Serum, sometimes passing thorow all the Arteries at once, both the Carotides and the Vertebrals, and sometimes apart, thorow these or those, on the one side or the opposite, bring hurt to the Me­ninges, hence the pain is caused that is interior;Or universal, or particular. which is either universal, infesting the whole Head or its greatest part; or particular, which is limited to some private region;This either be­fore, behind, or on the side. and sometimes produces a Meagrim on the side, sometimes in the forepart, and sometimes in the hinder part of the Head.

There are many other differences of this Disease, to wit, That the Pain is either light or vehement,Many other dif­ferences of it no­ted; sharp or dull, short or of continuance, continual or intermitting; its approaches sometimes periodical and exact, sometimes wandring and uncertain. Also by reason of the Conjunct Cause, which (as shall be declared by and by) some­times is the Blood, sometimes certain excrements of it, as either the Serum, or nourish­ing juice, or vapours, or wind; sometimes it is the nervous liquor, sometimes a con­gression or striving of it with the bloody liquor: The Headach may be called, either bloody, and that either simple, or else serous, vaporous, or otherways excrementiti­ous; or else Convulsive, from the humor watering the nervous Fibres, and irritating them into painful Corrugations.

Of which the chiefest is, that it is either oc­casional, or ha­bitual.Concerning these, that we may proceed methodically, we shall rehearse in a certain order, the various kinds of this Disease, with their Causes; and it seems good, that we distinguish the Pain of the Head to be either accidental, or occasional and habitual: The former is wont to be excited without any foregoing cause, or previous disposition, by the solitary evident cause▪ as when an Headach happens almost to all men after the drinking of Wine.The reason of the former un­folded. Surfetting, lying in the Sun, or vehement exercise, also in the fitts of Feavours; to wit, forasmuch as the Blood being incited, more than it was wont, and boiling up immoderately, very much blows up and distends the Membranes it passes thorow;The habitual Pain of the Head hath al­ways a more re­mote Cause, be­sides the evident Cause. The evils, or the weak Constitu­tion of the affe­cted part, and the easie flowing in of the morbi­fic matter, con­cur to this more remote cause. The Parts of the Head predispo­sed, and their vices, viz. an evil or weak conformation are noted. yea the Serum and Vapors, copiously sent forth, from it, then grow­ing hot, and rushing on the Membranes, pull and provoke the nervous Fibres.

Secondly, The habitual pain of the Head, hath some procatartick or more remote Cause fixed somewhere, by reason of which it is troubled, either constantly or often; so that though it sometimes intermits, yet it often returns of its own accord, and is excited also upon every light occasion: but this, whether it be continual or intermit­ting, hath neither always, nor only, the Suffusions or too great Evaporations of the Blood or Serum, for the Conjunct Cause, (although these are often present, where notwithstanding they are rather instead of the Evident Cause, than the Conjunct) but beside, an evil procatarxis, or a certain predisposition, is always affixed to the part affected, or wont to be distemper'd; by reason of which, the aforesaid Causes, also the inordinations of the Nervous Liquor, and the meeting and growing hot of it with the bloody Serum, or the Nutritious Juice, raise up the fits of pains.

Although the more remote Cause of the Headach be manifold and diverse, so that its several kinds can scarcely be number'd, yet for the constituting it, these two, to wit, either one or both of them, do chiefly or for the most part lead the way, viz. First, The evil or weak Constitution of the affected part. Secondly, Then, because of the more easie and ready heaping up of the Morbi [...]ic matter in it.

[Page 107]As to the former, the parts of the Head obnoxious to pains, are the Nervous Fi­bres, belonging to the Membranes, Tendons, the Musculous flesh, and other sensible Bodies; the Morbid provision of which consists in their evil conformation or de­bility.

Of these,The former often times is innate and hereditary; that the former is sometimes innate and hereditary, appears from hence, because the Disease is often delivered from the Parents to the Children: and seems to be done chiefly by this means: because the covering of the Head being made more thick, or more close than it ought, neither the humors, nor the vapours do easily pass thorow; wherefore being by these restrained, and hindred in their Motion, and so heaped up, the Meninges, Pericranium, and other sensible parts, being too much stuff­ed, or inflated, or hauled, receive pains: to which happens, that sometimes, by rea­son of the original intemperance of the Brain, the Humors or Vapours about the parts, hanging like an arch over it, are variously heaped up together.

2. But it more often comes to pass,But more often is contracted a­new: that the Vices of an evil Conformation, by which these or those parts of the Head are disposed to the Headach, are contracted a­new, and that by a various kind of production: for sometimes by Cold taken, by rea­son of the Northern winds, Snow, or Rain, the Pores of the skin in some region of the Head, yea and the nervous Fibres themselves, are so closed up, or otherwise perverted or weakned,And chiefly from Cold, that they are not able to bear the outward air, nor the agita­tions of the Blood or Humors, but presently the Headach arises.

Nor is the predisposition of the Headach less rarely produced,Also by reason of the inordinati­ons in the six non naturals. in the disorderly use­ing the six not natural things. For the Blood being stirred up above measure, upon any cause whatsoever, impresses by its boyling up, or by the insinuation of the Serum or Vapours, a breaking of the unity in some nervous parts, or some other sort of hurt; for which reason, as there is a present Headach, by and by stirred up, so after­wards there is a disposition to the same,By accident. upon every light occasion. But oftentimes a disposition to the Headach not easily blotted out, is induced by a vehement Passion, Surfeit, Drunkenness, also by a blow, wound, or contusion of the Head: so that either the proper or excrementitious humors being heaped up, and standing in those parts,From internal Corrections. being afterwards moved of themselves, or growing hot with other inflowing juices, stir up inflations, or painful haulings or pullings. Yea, I have known Inflamma­tions, Imposthumes, Whelks, Scirrhous tumors growing to the Meninges with the Skull, and other Diseases of an evil conformation, excited in the Membranes of the Brain; by which, at first for a long time, frequent Headaches, and most cruel, and then afterwards a sleepy and deadly distemper hath been induced; the cause of the Disease not detected, but after death by Anatomy; and indeed it is to be suspected, that inveterate and pertinacious pains in the Head, which return, and dayly become more tormentive, in spight of all Remedies, depend upon some such invincible cause.

2. Not only an evil conformation,The debility of the distem­per'd part is al­so a more remote cause of the Headach; which outward accidents and errors in feed­ing and other Distempers, are wont to produce. The other part of the more remote Cause, secondary and moveable, consi [...]ting in the flowing i [...] of the morcific mat­ter. This matter is ei­ther the Blood, or its [...], or the nutritio [...]s, or nervous [...]. Which some­times alone, sometimes [...] ­ing together, [...] the [...]. or the breach of unity, but also sometimes a meer weakness or enervation, renders some parts of the Head obnoxious to the Head­ach; for when as the Fibres are somewhere so infirm, that they are neither able of themselves to rule the proper humor, nor to resist the incursions of a strange humor; the part so disposed, by reason of any light occasion, is moved into painful wrinklings: These kind of debilities of the Fibres, sometimes external accidents, as the excess of cold or heat; sometimes also errors in Dyet or living, as Surfeit, Drunkenness, and especially sleeping at noon; moreover great Catarrhs, and a long lodging of a sharp Serum are wont to bring in.

So much for the primary more remote cause of the Headach, which is also fixed and rooted: The other cause of it, secondary and moveable, consists in a ready and easie heaping up of the Morbific matter about the predisposed parts, from which come the fits of pains, and their approaches: But as the matter is manifold, it is wont to be heaped up after a diverse manner, and to excite pains which affect after a diverse sort: This, as we have said, is either the Blood, or its Serum, or the nourish­ing Juice, or the nervous Liquor. Every of these being variously disposed, or imbued with feculences or dregs, are by degrees heaped up about the predisposed parts of the Head, sometimes before the fit; and sometimes, that coming, they are plentifully cast down. But sometimes one only humour with its plenitude and acrimony, distends or provokes the sensible Fibres; sometimes more meeting together, by their mutual growing hot, pull or haule the Fibres, and so stir up painful Convulsions. We shall briefly take notice of the several kinds of these, with their signs, and the manner of their being made. When therefore a part of the Head, as chiefly the Meninges, or some re­gion of the Pericranium, is predisposed, by reason of an evil conformation or debility, to the Headach; the approaches or fits of the Disease are wont to be excited, by rea­son [Page 108] of the various incursions or coming together of the following humors, sometimes of this, sometimes of that humor, and sometimes of many together.

How the Blood excites the Headach.1. Sometimes the Blood it self being incited into a more rapid motion, and boiling up into the Head, is straitned or stopp'd in its passage about the predisposed places, and from thence, being by and by heaped up there, distends the Vessels, greatly blows up the Membranes, and pulls the nervous Fibres one from another, and so brings to them painful corrugations or wrinklings. For this reason those obnoxi­ous to the Headach, are forced to shun all occasions by which the Blood should grow hot above measure, as drinking of Wine, Exercise, Baths, &c.

How the Serum.2. The Serum being more copiously heaped up in the bloody Mass, oftentimes conceives a sudden Flux, either of its own accord through meer fulness, or stirred up by an evident cause, and so presently running forth from the Blood doth not only rush into the Lungs, but very often into the Head, and being poured upon its Mem­branes or Muscles, is copiously heaped up about the parts predisposed to the Head­ach, and there induces painful Corrugations and Inflations. Further, the Serum car­ries with it infestous Recrements, as sulphureous, saline, sharp, acid, bilous, or me­lancholic, or of some other kind, and fixes them to the nervous Fibres, which cause an acute or dull, a shorter or a longer pain. The Headaches arising by reason of this kind of remote cause, infest more grievously in the Winter time, in a moist Air, and in a Southern Wind: Moreover, Catarrhs of the Face, Mouth, Larynx, and of other parts, oftentimes accompany this Disease.

How the nu­tritious Iuice.3. The nourishing Juice, or fresh Chyme, being carried from the Blood to the so­lid parts, and laid upon them, by reason it becomes improportionate to some parts of the Head evilly disposed, is wont to excite periodical fits of the Headach. For this provision being laid up near some nervous Fibres, because it cannot be assimilated, begins to trouble them or burthen them, after some stay, and at length provokes them into wrinklings to expulse that which troubles them. An Headach proceeding from such a cause, as I have observed in many, doth dayly come at so many hours af­ter eating, and continues a like space of time; yea the times alter according to the manner of taking their repast, both as to the quality and quantity, and so also the fits of the pains are wont to vary.

How the ner­vous Liquor is a cause of this Disease.4. The nervous Liquor, is a cause of pains, by its inordination, as oftentimes in other parts, so also not seldom in the Head; for this either degenerating from its temper, or being imbued with dregs or filthiness, does not pass thorow so freely the nervous Fibers, but is apt to stagnate, and to be heaped up in them to an irritative fulness: and that chiefly within the Fibres made weak beforehand, or of an evil con­formation (such as are sometimes the Membranes of the Head) because in these pre­disposed, the watering Liquor being hindred in Motion, easily arises to an aggrava­ting or provoking fulness;The Headach a­rising from the fault of the ner­vous Liquor in­fests chiefly in the Morning. so that the Fibres being so filled, like the stomach too much crammed, enter into Convulsions and painful wrinklings, for the putting away their contents, nor do they cease from them, till they are freed of their burthen; which notwithstanding, afterwards being heaped up again, sometimes sooner and sometimes later, cause from thence others, and so again other fits of pains. The Headach ari­sing from such a cause, springs oftentimes without any notable turgescency of the Blood, and gently and as it were of its own accord, without any errors in dyet or living; yet sometimes it may sooner arise by reason of disorders in the non-naturals, and other accidents: This is wont to come more often in the Morning, and after long sleeping, when the nervous Fibres have drunk in this humor more largely.

How many humors meeting together, and mutually grow­ing hot, stir up Headaches.In the aforesaid Headaches, the Morbifick matter is made up for the most part of one singular humor, and so the fits of the pains are something more gentle, and often­times sooner pass over. But there is another Cause of this Disease, when two humors (like divers kinds of Salts) meet together, and grow mutually hot, and so from the strife of dissimilar particles, the Fibres are very much pulled, and moved into very acute and cutting pains, and are most commonly longer infested with them. In this case one of the champions is always the nervous liquor, but the other, either the se­rous water or the nourishing juice. We exempt the Blood, because it only washes the passages of the Nerves, and does not enter them deeply; but the nervous humor, by reason of the vices but now recited, sometimes of it self, pulls the containing Fibres, and provokes them into painful Convulsions. If that another humor, either the Nu­tritious or Serous, (for both of them are wont to be guilty) being little of kin, be plenti­fully poured upon this so predisposed, and copiously heaped up within the Fibres; pre­sently all the particles being raised up, strive among themselves, and so by a mutual ef­fervency, notably distend and haule the Fibres, that from hence from their being long and greatly wrinkled, most sharp and long remaining pains are induced. Whether it be [Page 109] this or that humor, meeting with the nervous juice, that causes the Headach, may be easily known from the proper irregularities, above described, of either peccant humor by it self.

By what means,The habitual Headach de­pends chiefly up­on the fault of the nervous ha­mor. and for what more remote causes, the humors, either Nutritious or Serous, offend, as often as meeting with the Nervous humour, contained within the Fibres, move the fits of pains, shall be declared anon: in the mean time, I think it suffici­ently appears, that the more frequent and habitual Headaches are produced chiefly by the fault of the nervous liquor, because this is most intimate both with the Fibres themselves, which are wrinkled, and the Spirits which are moved into painful distra­ctions; also because the pains of the Head sometimes arise without any disorder or tu­mult of the Blood, Serum, or nourishing Juice, and these being emptied or allayed, after what manner soever, oftentimes the Headach most pertinaciously continues.

But concerning the nervous Liquor,The fault of the nervous liquor is either univer­sal, or particu­lar, proper to the place distemper­ed. when it is the cause of the Headach, we observe that its fault is sometimes universal, and sometimes private: for sometimes it doth acquire its evil from the distempered part: to wit, forasmuch as being constrained to subsist or stagnate within the Fibres, hurt by their conformation, it is so perverted that at length being infested, fermenting either by it self, or with some other humor, it irritates them into painful Corrugations: Yet sometimes, and especially in the more grievous Headaches, we may suppose that the whole Mass of the nervous Liquor is in fault, but the nervous parts of the Head partake of its evil, before any others in the whole Body; because these are the chief and nearest springs of the nervous Liquor, and are also highly sensible: wherefore, the nervous Liquor, when ever it is vicious, either swelling up of its own accord, or growing hot by another humour being poured unto it, within the Meninges and other Membranes of the Head, more than in the other parts of the Body, becomes painful. The thing appears to be so, because a long and grievous Headach is wont to be Cured, not so much by Remedies applyed or pro­per for the Head, as by those which restore the Crasis or Constitution of the nervous Juice, and the bloody Mass; and such are Chalybeats, or Steel Medicines, and Antiscorbu­ticks, or Medicines against the Scurvy. Which certainly argues that the nervous Li­quor, where-ever it is in fault thorow the whole Body, chiefly punishes the parts of the Head.

Thus much for the causes of the Headach,The more remote or evident Cau­ses of the Head­ach are noted. both the procatartick or foregoing, and the Conjunct: there yet remain others more remote, called Evident, which raise up the former, and provoke them into act, or the painful means of affecting. But they are of a various kind, and of a divers operation: to wit, Whatever things are apt, first,Of which sort are, first, those which move the morbific matter flowing from a­nother place, to wit, either the Blood, or Serum, or nourishing juice, and stir it up within the places affected of the Head. to transfer the Morbific matter from another place into the part affected; or secondly, to move it before lodging in it; or thirdly, and lastly, which impress on the Fibres themselves, predisposed to painful Convulsions, this Distemper, by the consent of the other parts afar off, they belong to this rank.

As to the former, the Blood and its inmate humors, to wit, the Serous and nu­tritious; also the bilous, acid, and otherwise vicious recrements, are apt to be moved from various Causes, and to be transferred into the Membranes of the Head, viz. many accidents from without ordinarily effect this, as great and sudden mutations of the Air, or the season of the year, excess of heat or cold, or of moisture, plentiful feed­ing, drinking of Wine, Bathing, immoderate Venus, violent passions; yea many other occasions sufficiently known, and to be avoided by all subject to Headaches. Fur­ther, these humors sometimes swell up of their own accord,The Blood and its contents, in Headaches are sometimes the means of the Conjunct, some­times of the E­vident Cause. and without any exter­nal Cause, or other ways evident, being moved, drive themselves forward into the Head: in which place, when they come, and settle upon the Fibres before indisposed, though they constitute a part of the Conjunct Cause, yet they, when they are first in mo­tion or flux, become the means of the Evident Cause. Wherefore, when we have first unfolded, by what means the Blood, with its contents, being carried to the distempered Membranes, stir up Headaches; we shall then shew by what means, and upon what occasions, the same humors are wont to be moved, and to be snatched in­to the Membranes.

And first the Blood growing hot of its own accord,For what Cau­ses the Blood is wont to be mo­ved, and to bring [...] to the distempered Head. and by reason of the strife, and intestine motions of its particles, imparts its trouble to the Head: Its frequent and wandring turgency or boiling up, happens not only in the fits of Feavours, but also without any cause or suspicion of disease, which in others scarce perceiveable, those obnoxious to the Headach sufficiently take notice of and feel; neither doth the blood only bestow the hurt to the Head, from its own proper provision, but re­ceiving it elsewhere, sends it thither. Oftentimes the Blood receives the incon­gruous matter from the Stomach, Spleen, Mesentery, Liver, and other parts, or In­wards, infestous to it self or nervous Stock; which growing hot a little time after, [Page 110] that it might extrude or thrust it forth;The Blood deli­vers to the head the morbific matter received from any other part. A Flux of the Serum sometimes from meer full­ness. it pours it upon the Membranes of the Head, and so produces the Headach, commonly called Sympathetick, viz. by a consent ex­cited in other parts; which kind of Distemper being transmitted from other parts to the Head, sometimes also it happens after another manner, as shall be by and by de­clared.

When the Mass of Blood abounds with Serum, it is sometimes excited to the put­ting it off by meer fulness, wherefore it conceives a flux, or as it were a certain melt­ing, to wit, by which the thin and watery part may be separated from the thick and bloody. Then, because the Blood becomes more diluted in its swelling up, and passes more swiftly and more copiously thorow the Arteries, than can be carried back by the Veins, almost all that is serous is sent away by the spaces between the Vessels, being poured sometimes on these parts, and sometimes on those, as falling down in many places, it causes tumors or Catharrs, so lying on the Membranes of the Head, it stirs up fits of pains.

Sometimes from other Causes.But the serous heap, from many other causes sweating forth from the Blood suffer­ing a flux, rushes on the Meninges and the Pericranium, and causes in them most trou­blesome Headaches. A sudden Constipation or closing of the Pores by Cold or Wet, almost constantly produces such a Distemper in most, obnoxious to this Disease. Sharp and thin Wines, Cyder, yea and Beer, that by reason of its soureness is apt to ferment, because they fuse the Blood, and precipitate its serosities, are forbid to those troubled with Headaches, as so much poyson: And lastly, whatever is wont to cause a Flux in those troubled with the Gout, the same also for the like reason causes it in these, for the rising Serum, in either, flows to the distemper'd part, where it oftentimes grows hot with the nervous humor.

Sometimes the watry humor suffering a flux offends the Head.Further, not only the meer and simple Serum of the Blood, dropping forth upon the Membranes of the Head, stirs up pains, but sometimes other humors joyning toge­ther, and by this passage being admitted to the distemper'd part, encrease the tragedy of the Disease; it often happens, that a thin and watery humor doth suddenly flow forth from the Lymphic Vessels, the Glandula's, and perhaps from the Passages and Pores of the solid parts (in which it is gathered together) and is poured forth into the Blood in the Veins; from whence presently passing thorow the bosom of the Heart, and being confused with the Arterious Blood, and by that soon separated, is cast back by any way it can find; therefore, being partly sent away by the Reins, it causes a flowing down of a clear and copious Urine, also sometimes partly redounding on the Brain or Nervous Originals,Hence in those that have the Headach, as in Convulsive Dis­eases, there is of­ten a clear and copious Vrine. The recrements of other parts, often carried violently to the head with the Serum. produces Sleepy or Convulsive Distempers, as we have elsewhere shown. Yea sometimes, a certain part of the same limpid humor, be­ing snatched with the Serum into the Membranes of the Head, raises up fits of a most cruel Headach: For indeed, I have observed in many, a watry and very plentiful Urine, either to precede or accompany the fits of this Disease.

But we may believe other manner of recrements, of the other parts, viz. bile from the Liver, black bilary feculencies from the Spleen, and perhaps incongruous humors from the Stomach, Reins, Pancrace, &c. are supped up by the Serum of the Blood, and deeply boiled with it, by which, whilst it is infected, it more readily conceives Effervescencies, and so rushing impetuously into the Cephalick Vessels, and there fermen­ting with the nervous Liquor, brings forth Convulsions, and painful and very trouble­some pullings or haulings.

The evacuation of the Serum thorow its right ways, being suppressed, brings its flux to the Head.The serous heap, whether it be simple, or as we have shown, complicated, is suffi­ciently infestous to the Head, whenever its usual evacuation, thorow its due and ac­customed ways, is hindred: viz. whether if the Pores being bound up, transpiration be inhibited, or by reason of the evil distemper of the Reins, an Evacuation by Urine is not copiously performed; either defect greatly punishes those subject to Headaches. Further, the Membranes of the Head are oppressed, by reason of the passages of the Blood being obstructed in other places: for if the lower or middle parts of the Belly, and especially the Liver and Lungs, are troubled with an obstruction, so that the Blood can scarce pass thorow in those places, its more full torrent is directed into other parts, and especially towards the Head; so that for this Cause, I have known to have followed, not only Headaches, but also soporiferors or sleepy, and sometimes deadly distempers.

The nutriti­ous juice some­times the cause of the Headach, either,3. As the Serum in the bosom of the Blood, so the nourishing Juice, that is the fresh Chyme made out of the Aliments, lodges there too, and is circulated with it, and for­ced to follow its inexorbitances, being as it were in the current of the same River. Wherefore, when the Blood, presently after eating, is carried impetuously or inordi­nately to the Head,Because it is carried with the Blood into the Head. and the nourishing Juice being half Concocted or depraved, is fixed there to the Membranaceous Fibres, it causes painful pullings or haulings to follow; [Page 111] for hence it is, that exercise, bathing, violent passions, reading, or any serious in­tention of the Mind, upon a full stomach, hurt those troubled with Headaches.

Sometimes the nutritious Juice is not presently or easily mixed with the Blood,Because not being agreeable to the blood, it stirs up its ef­fervescency. but being carried fresh to it, by and by stirs up a turgency, so that many, constantly after eating, are troubled with an high Colour, and oftentimes also with an Headach. This commonly, but amiss, is imputed to the obstruction of the Liver, when indeed it proceeds from an evil disposition of the Blood, hardly bearing the mixture of the fresh Chyme. Wherefore, such a distemper, follows for the most part dangerous Fea­vours, and especially the Small Pox, and sometimes great Surfeits.

4. There yet remains another sort of Evident Causes,Sometimes the evident causes of the Headach are Convulsions somewhere be­gun and conti­nued by the pas­sage of the nerves, into the Head. (to wit, by which the leading Causes, or predispositions to the Headach are actuated) plainly different from the for­mer irregularities of the Blood, Serum, and nourishing juice; to wit, when Headaches very often most terrible, follow, by reason of Convulsions, begun in other parts, and from them continued to the Head. 'Tis an usual thing for a certain sense, or feel­ing, of a Formication, or little pricking, to creep forward from the Hypochondria, as also from the region of the Stomach, Mesentery, Womb, yea sometimes from the Members or outward parts, to the Head, and by and by sometime after to excite a pain that will last for a good while. This kind of Distemper, which is wont oftentimes to be the forerunner of the Vertigo, also of the Epilepsie, or the Apoplexie, is commonly believed to be the ascent of Vapours; when indeed it is only a Convulsion, begun in the extremity of some Nerve, which creeping upward towards its original, and then coming to the Skull, for as much as it either is communicated to the parts within the Head, or to the Meninges, either one or both of them, it stirs up Convulsions or pains. Which passions notwithstanding,Convulsions be­ginning after off, are some­times signs of an Headach short­ly to follow. follow this Formication or tingling, brought from elsewhere, sometimes as a sign, and sometimes as the cause. We have in another place largely enough unfolded the reason of the former, to wit, it being shown, that when the Morbifick matter possesses the beginnings of the Nerves, or the nearest parts to them in the Head, a Convulsion oftentimes beginning from the ends of the same Nerves, being carried thence upwards towards the places first distemper'd, ascends as it were by a creeping forward: wherefore not only upon the Vertigo, but upon the Headach, a Vomiting comes very frequently.

But further,Sometimes also the cause of it. an Irritation in some distant Member or Viscera, is sometimes the occa­sion, and in a sort the cause of the Headach; to wit, when the Morbifick matter is heaped up, even to a fulness of Turgency in the part of the Head already disaffected, there is need only of a light Vellication or pulling of the Containing Fibres, that this matter being stirred, should cause a fit of the Disease; to which movement, it often suffices, that by intimate concent of some distant Inward, as the Ventricle, Spleen, or Womb, with the Head, the nervous Fibres should be pulled or hauled; for pre­sently from thence, the trouble being communicated by the Nerves, some Membrana­ceous Fibres of the Head, being evilly disposed, and burthened with the Morbific Mat­ter, begin to be strained and wrinkled, and so when the Mine of the Disease is moved from its moved Particles, the Fibres are urged into grievous and continual Corruga­tions.

Headaches that seem to begin after this manner from the Viscera,Co [...]vni [...]e Headaches seem to arise so from the Vi [...]era, not from Vapours. and commonly cal­led Sympathetic, are wont to be ascribed to Vapors, viz. by supposing a Mine of the noxious humor to lye hid in some Inward, from which being moved, whilst the Effluvia ascend into the Head, and there sharply pierce thorow and p [...]ll the nervous Fibres, pains are excited. We have already so plainly refuted this doctrine, that there is no need here to bring any other reasons to oppose it. But in the mean time, let us in­quire whether pains of the Head do not arise also by other means, besides a Convul­sive communication thorow the Nerves, by reason of the Morbific Cause lodging in the Stomach, Spleen, and other places.

Concerning this, we may suppose, that Matter oftentimes degenerate, is heaped up in remote parts, which carries its hurt to the Head, by the passage or Circulation of the Blood.But this sympa­thetick Distem­per per [...]ps pro­ceeds el [...]ewhere, by reason of an evil ferment, communicated to the blood. 'Tis a usual thing for Corrupt humors, viz. sometimes sharp, sometimes acid or austere, to be heaped up in the Ventricle; Bile in the Liver, atrabilary or me­lancholic dregs about the Spleen, yea and other sort of degenerate Matter about the Mesentery, Womb, or other parts: from which being heaped up to a fulness of swel­ling up, a Fermentative Miasm or Infection is fixed to the Blood; from which, that, being as it were imbued with rage, impetuously grows hot, and partly by its swelling up, and partly by transferring what is incongruous into the Membranes of the Head, stirs up fierce and cruel fits of pains.

As to the Ventricle,So sometimes it seems to be cau­sed from the Ven­tricle. that it is so, some obnoxious to this Disease have plain ex­perience. Because some of them, after the Bile or Choler flowing in the Stomach, [Page 112] and others after a noted soureness, and ravenous hunger, most certainly expectia fit of the Headach. The reason of which seems partly to be, that those contents of the Ventricle being supped up by the Blood, make it hot, and stir up in the same a Cephalic Tur­gency or swelling up; moreover, from this kind of sharp Vitriolick, or otherways infestous matter, being heaped up and moved within the Stomach, a Convulsion, or Corrugation very troublesome, is impressed on the Fibres and the extremities of the Nerves there inserted, which immediately being continued into the Head, by the pas­sages of the same Nerves of the eighth pair, and of the Intercostal, is communicated to the Membranes, and the nervous Fibres, predisposed to painful wrinklings.

The Head and the Stomach in­timately con­spire, and mu­tually affect one another.By reason of the same Reciprocal Communication, between the Stomach and the Head, a nauseousness and Vomiting, as we said but now, follows upon the Headach, viz. the Membranes being stirred up into painful wrinklings, by the Morbifick matter (even as is wont by a blow or wound) and transferring the evil by the passage of the Nerves to the Ventricle, guiltless of it self, a vain endeavour of Vomiting sometimes arises, nothing remaining within the Ventricle, that should be cast forth: yet some­times, from a cruel shaking of the Inwards, in striving to Vomit, the Gallish or Pan­creatick humor, either one or both of them, being thrust forth into the Duodenum, and cast forth by Vomit, is ignorantly taken for the Cephalick matter.

How the Head-ach seems to arise from the Spleen.2. The pains of the Head are wont to be imputed no less to the Spleen, than the Ventricle; and indeed 'tis ordinarily observed in Hypochondriacks, obnoxious also to this Disease, when a Pain, Inflation, a Rumbling, or some other Perturbation of the distemper'd Spleen, happens in the left-side, that the Headach, as if raised up by it, by and by frequently suceeds; hence, presently 'tis the voice of the people, that these Va­pours being sent forth from the disturbed Spleen, stir up the pain of the Head: But in­deed, we may grant that the Headach arises sometimes from the default of the Spleen, yet reject this opinion, that it ought for this cause to be imputed to Vapors, but indeed either to an evil Ferment, transmitted into the Blood from the Spleen, or from a Con­vulsion, from thence communicated to the Head, by the Nerves: because in the Spleen evilly affected, the Melancholic humor being degenerate, sometimes into a Vitriolic Nature, sometimes a biting, sometimes a sharp, or otherways infestous, is oftentimes heaped up, which of its own accord being shaken forth, by reason of plenitude, or occasionally by reason of some perturbation, and being confused with the Blood, im­presses a Fermentation upon it, by which its Liquor rushing by it self on the Membranes of the Head, or growing hot with the nervous Liquor, causes painful pullings or haul­ings. Further, it is no less probable, that sometimes a Convulsion being excited in the nervous Fibres, which are very much disposed about the Spleen, brought thence by the passages of the Nerves of the wandring and Intercostal pair, and continued to the Head, impresses the like Distemper to the Membranes predisposed to it.

The like reason is for this Dis­ease, arising from the Liver, Mesentery, or Womb.3. A reason may be also rendred, according to the same Pathology, to wit, either from an evil Transmission of the Ferment, or a continuation of the Convulsion, for Headaches which are said to be raised up by consent, from the Liver, Mesentery, the Womb, and other parts.

The habitual Headach, the Aetiology, or the Reason of which, we have already sufficiently handled,The kinds of ha­bitual Headach are noted. It is either, is yet divided into certain kinds, to wit, it is either Continual, or Intermitting; but the periods of this are sometimes determined to a certain time, and are sometimes wandring and uncertain: we shall speak briefly of each of these.

Continual,1. Sometimes therefore it happens, that some are afflicted with a Continual pain of the Head, to wit, for many days or months, little intermitting, unless when sleep helps; in which case we suppose, that there is not only present a Procatartick or lead­ing cause, but also a Conjunct, somewhere fixed and constant. For besides that the parts affected, or that are wont to be affected, are weak, and their watering liquor much depraved, is apt to stagnate, or to grow hot with other humors; there is moreover oftentimes excited in them, a breaking of the unity, to wit, an Inflammation, a red and painful swelling, a Scirrhous tumor, or Imposthum, or of some such kind; about which, whilst the humors of divers kinds do meet together, and are heaped up, there arise almost perpetual pains, by reason of the nervous Fibres being continually pulled or hauled. These kinds of Headaches, do not rarely end in sleepy distempers, and at length deadly; for when I have opened the Heads of many dead of these Diseases, the signs or footsteps, declaring the aforesaid kinds of Morbific causes, have appeared; some examples of these shall be added hereafter.

[...] Intermitting.2. The habitual Headach, is for the most part Intermitting, whose sits, as they are certain and Periodical, or coming at a set period of time, are wont often to return in the space of half a day and night, or once in twelve hours. Some more rare cases I have known, which exactly repeating the Fits, came every other day, yea once in a [Page 113] week, or a month. It is an usual thing, for Headaches, that seem to be driven away, to return again about the Equinoxes or Solstices; to wit, because at these times, the Blood and Humors conceive greater Turgences or risings up, than are wont, and therefore are more apt to grow hot with the watering Liquor of the nervous parts of the Head,The Fits of the intermitting, either periodi­cal, or certain; and to renew the wonted fits of pains. But when about these times of the year, Headaches return, they are not prorogued by a longer accession for a great while, but for the most part, having gotten subordinate periods, they are wont to infest at some certain standing hours, for the space of twelve hours.

When therefore a Periodical Headach hath its daily fits, for the most part the rea­son of these, as of Intermitting Feavors, ought to be sought from the fault of the Mor­bifick Matter, arising to a plenitude at a set time, and then growing hot. For it may be supposed, that the proper Liquor is perverted somewhere about the Membranes of the Head, and the nervous Fibres evilly disposed, or doth not well pass thorow them; wherefore, when the nourishing Juice, placed also on the same parts from the Blood, is not presently assimilated, nor doth well agree with the other humor; at length, from both of them heaped up together and disagreeing, a mutual growing hot arises, and from thence a painful pulling of the Fibres: but for that the fits of the pains, are not always at the same distance after Eating, but arise in some sooner, and in others later, and sometimes before sleep, and sometimes after; the cause is, that partly the offices of Concoction, and distribution of the Aliments, are performed sometimes sooner, sometimes later; and partly, because in these the nervous Liquor, and in those the nutritious Juice, is most in fault: wherefore, as the fulness of this happens sooner, and of that later, so the times of the fit vary: we shall illustrate these afterwards, with observations made concerning the cases of sick persons.

3. When the fits of the intermitting Headach are wandring and uncertain, [...] i [...]certain, and wandring. the Pro­catarxis, or foregoing cause of the Disease, is neither great nor constant, nor is the Evident Cause continual: Wherefore, when that either cause is oftentimes absent, and one of them often wanting, the fits of the Disease are not tyed to certain times, but in some, they are as it were by chance and accidental, in others, in whom a predis­position to this Distemper is a little more firmly rooted: the pains of the Head more frequently molest, and are ordinarily excited, by reason of various occasions, yea and for some, they are wont to be most certainly expected. The reasons of the fits so variously happening appear clearly above, from the Aetiology delivered of this Disease; besides, the whole business shall be illustrated anon, by examples.

CHAP. II.

The Prognostick and Cure of the Headach.

SO much for the Causes of the Headach,The prognostick of the [...] is [...]asie or diffi [...]lt to secured; also, which being so various and diverse, and their Series so perplex'd and intricate, it will not seem easie to keep one Method concerning all cases of the Sick, whereby we may be led presently to the true knowledge and Cure of this Disease; nor is there less difficulty concerning its Prognostick: But common experience affords some observations, from which it may be gathered,the [...] of the Disease safe or dangerous. that the Cure of this Sickness is sometimes easie, sometimes dif­ficult, or scarce possible; so that from thence it may be lawful to declare the event of the Disease, either safe, or very dangerous, or wholely uncertain.

Truly,By what signs we may pro­nounce it safe, and easie to be cured. if any one enjoying formerly a perfect Health, should fall into something a cruel Headach, and of some long standing, by reason of a more strong Evident Cause, as drinking of Wine, Surfeit, Venus, immoderate Exercise, or such like; for­asmuch as the fore leading Morbid Cause is not as yet firmly laid, we may pronounce such a Distemper to be safe enough, and not pertinacious

But if the Morbific disposition should be inveterate, so that for many years the fits repeat often of their own accord, and upon every light occasion, this, though not dangerously sick,By what diffi­cult. yet we predict it not easie to be Cured. Further, the Cure will be yet more difficult, if Hypochondriack or Hysterical Distempers, oftentimes trouble­some, are oft wont to excite the Headach at every turn, or if the taint of an inveterate Venereal Disease be rooted in any distemper'd part.

If that the pain of the Head shall be not only inveterate,By what scarce possi [...]le. but almost continual, that we might suspect it to arise from an Inflammation, or a Scirrhous Tumour, an hot Swel­ling, [Page 114] an Imposthum, or Worms, there is none or very little hope of Cure; especial­ly because the sick will refuse great remedies, as Salivation, or opening the Skull; which if they be made use of perhaps at any time with any fruit or success, yet the for­mer and this two for the most part are wont to be tedious to the sick, before they can effect any thing worth the trouble and expectation.

By what, dange­rous.The pain of the Head either Continual or Periodical, if it be great, and hath joyn­ed with it a Vertigo, Vomitting, or other Convulsive or Soporiferous Distempers, shews a suspicion of great danger: even which often passes into a deadly Apoplexie, and not seldom into an Epilepsie, Palsie, Blindness, Deafness, and other funestous and incurable Diseases.

The Curatory method of the Headach comprehends many Indications, and those of a various kind, according to the manifold Species, Causes, and differences of this Disease, which will not be an easie thing here to set down, and rehearse in order.

Accidental Headach easily cured.The accidental Pain of the Head, with the remote Evident Cause, and its conse­quences, ceases for the most part of its own accord, or at least is taken away by letting of Blood, Rest, and Sweat.

The habitual af­fords more indi­cations.The habitual Pain, by reason of the diversity of Causes, viz. both the Procatartick and also the Conjunct, suggests also different intentions of Healing; we shall here briefly touch upon the chief of these, and to which all the rest may be placed.

Two chief scopes of Cure.In every habitual Headach, whether Continual or Intermitting, there are two chief scopes or intentions of Cure to be met with; to which all the other Curatory intentions ought to be aimed, and by which we should provide against either Cause of the Morbid Procatarxis.

To cut in two the Bed [...] Root of the Dis­ease.1. To wit, in the first place, that all the Tinder or inkindling of the Disease be cut off, you must endeavour, that both the matter flowing to the distempered places of the Head, or those evilly disposed, or apt from thence to flow to them, be supprest, or called from thence to another place; then moreover, that Convulsions in other places excited, and that are wont to be propagated from thence into the Head, be pre­vented.

To root out the Conjunct Cause.2. Then secondly, it must be indeavoured (if it may be done) that the Disease it self, or its Conjunct Cause may be rooted out, that the places of the Head predispo­sed to Headaches, (whether they be only enfeebled or hurt in their Conformation) whilst they are defended from the frequent Excursions of the infestous matter, may re­cover their former state and vigour. Which kind of Indication, though it be very seldom suddenly or wholely performed, yet sometimes the Cure is by degrees laboured out, by diligence and care, however fixed and rooted the Morbid matter be.

The [...]st or Tin­der of the Dis­ease, the blood, serum, nourish­ing juice, ner­vous Liquor, and the Recre­ments caried thorow the Blood.As to what appertains to the first scope of healing, which is first and especi­ally to be regarded; we said, that the Matter or Humours, which are wont to be gathered together about the parts of the Head predisposed to the Headach, and to excite the fits of the Disease, are either the Blood or the Serum, or the nourishing or nervous Juice, or Liquor. Moreover, with every one of these Vapours and Efflu­via's, as also Recrements, sometimes Bilous, sometimes Melancholic, sometimes Acid, Salt, Sulphureous, and of some others of a various kind, taken into the Blood, from the Viscera, sometimes from those, and sometimes from these, we have shewed to be transferred by its passages into the Head [...] against the force and incursion of all these, Medicinal fortifications are to be instituted.

How the inordi­nations of the Blood may be ta­ken away and prevented.1. And in the first place, if the leading cause to pains, or a disposition thereto, lye about the Membranes of the Head, for that the Blood being hot, and apt to rise up, rushes by heaps into the Membranes of the Head, and when it cannot easily pass thorow them, distending the Vessels above measure, and pulling the nervous Fibres, excites the fits of this Disease (whose signs are a Sanguine temperament, heat, and a flushing or redness about the head and face, also an high pulse, and shaking, with veins di­stended with Blood) presently it must be endeavoured, both that the Blood be made more sedate, that it may not be so readily moved into rage or swelling up; as also that it be not incited, and boiling up may not be carried with a greater tendency or inclination into the Head, than into other parts, nor in like manner be compelled to stag­nate, by reason of the bosomes of the Meninges being too full. Wherefore, if the fit infests long, let blood in the Arm, or the Jugular Vein: out of the fit, sometimes it is expedient to take Blood from the Sedal Veins, with Leeches; to wit, by this means, that the Blood by chance boiling up, may be brought down towards that place, to which it often tends of its own accord. Let there be Medicines of Vinegar, Rosecakes, and Nutmeg, or some other Epithems or Medicines of the same nature applyed to the Head: Also give to drink Iuleps, Emulsions, or Decoctions, which allay the fervour or madness of the Blood. Let the Belly be cooled and kept soluble by the use of [Page 115] Clysters. Moreover, for prevention, use at times Whey, or Spaw-waters; also drink­ing of Water, a thin and a cooling diet help; the shunning of Wine, spiced Meats, Baths, Venus, violent motions of the mind or body, yea and of all hot things is to be ordered. Then for the fixing of the Blood, its Effervescencies or growing hot must be prevented, for which, Distilled Waters, Juices of Herbs, or Decoctions, Electuaries, Powders, and especially Crystal Mineral, are in frequent use. There is no need here to add a me­thod or particular forms of Medicines, when in this case, almost every body labouring, is wont to be his own Physician, being taught by frequent experience, from things hurt­ing or helping.

2. It is rarely,The pain of the Head from the serous heap, [...]ow to be cured. that the Blood alone or only by it self is in the fault; more often other humors, being carried by its passage to the Head, and there disposed, cause the hurt: Therefore, when ever the Serous Colluvies, or heap, goes out from the Blood (as was shown but now) it causes Headaches frequently, (the signs of which are Catarrhs about other parts, viz. the Nose, Mouth, or Throat, being infested with them) then abstinency and rest is to be ordered, and that the belly be emptied by a Clyster, for the allaying the flux of the Serum, and that the matter be suffered to evaporate from the Membranes of the Head; if these do not succeed, and that the Headach ceases not quickly,Phlebotomy. and of its own accord, oftentimes in a more hot Constitution, Phleboto­my is convenient; to wit, because the Vessels being emptied of Blood, sup up the ex­travasated Serum: But in frigid tempers, Vesicatories or Blisters are of notable use, applied to the hinder-part of the Head, or nigh the Ears. Then after the Belly is emptied by a Clyster, the Flux may be allayed, by the use of Anodynes, or more gentle opiats: that being allayed it may be convenient to exhibit a gentle Purge, then Me­dicines, which either move by Urine or Sweat,Purges. or by both together, that so they may gently evacuate the superfluous Serosities.

Medicines fit for this purpose may be every where found in Books: which not­withstanding are not to be made use of by Empericks rashly, and without distinction; but ought to be designed according to the judgment and skill of a prudent Physician, always having a respect to the Constitution, the temperament, and proper disposition of the Patient, and to other accidents and circumstances, and to be compounded or altered according as the matter requires; yea sometimes to be prescribed extempore. Wherefore, since it will be altogether needless, here to heap up many Receipts, and a great pile of Medicines, it shall be sufficient to propose in this place, one or two forms only, of every sort of Medicines, respecting the chief intentions.

Take Pills of Amber half a dram,Pills. Resine of Ialap four grains, of Peruvian Balsam what will suffice to make four Pills, let three be taken when the Patient goes to sleep, and the other in the morning, if they work not enough.

Or Take of sulphurated Scammony half a scruple,Purging Pow­ders. of the Ceruse of Antimony fifteen grains, of the Cream of Tartar eight grains; make a Powder, to be taken in a spoon­ful of Grewel, early in the morning.

Take of the Sulphur of Antimony four grains,An emetick Powder. of the Refine of Ialap five grains, of the Cream of Tartar six grains, bruise them together, and with what will suffice of the Conserve of Violets, make a Bolus, to be taken early in the morning with care, or by government.

Take of the Roots of Butchers-Broom,An Apozem. Burdocks, Cherefoil, Avens, each one ounce; of pre­serv'd Eryngo an ounce and an half, of the Florentine Iris three drams, of the lesser Ga­langal a dram and an half, of the Seeds of Burdock three drams, of the dryed leaves of Betony, Sage, Vervine, female Betony, each half an handful; of Raisins of the Sun stoned two ounces; boil these in four pints of fair water, till a third part be consumed, then add to it of white Wine half a pound, strain it, and sweeten it (if need be) with sy­rup of the Five Roots two ounces; take of this six ounces warm, twice or thrice in a day, a good while after meals.

For such as are indued with a more Cold and Phlegmatick Constitution,A decoction of woods. the like Decoction of the Wood of Guaicum, Sasafrass, Sarsaparilla, with the addition of the aforesaid Ingredients,A Cephalick Decoction im­preg [...]ated with the Tincture of Coffee. T [...]e Headach from other ba­rious mixt with the serum, how to be cu­red. make an Apozem, of which take six or eight Ounces, twice or thrice in a day warm.

For the poor, and oftentimes with good success for the rich, I was wont to prescribe a Decoction of the dry'd leaves sometimes of Sage or Betony, Vervine, or Rosemary, made of Spring-water, and impregnated with the tincture of the Powder of the Berries of Coffee, taken warm twice a day, about six or eight Ounces.

3. If that with the running out Serum, Saline, Acid, Bilous, or otherways In­festous particles, received either wholely from the Mass of Blood, or by its means from [Page 116] the Viscera, are carried into the Membranes of the Head, and being there fixed, bring forth great, acute, and continual pains, then it will be convenient to iterate spare­ingly, the taking away of Blood, yea and sometime a gentle Purge, to apply cooling Medicines, Anodynes, and sweetners to the distemper'd places; so oftentimes also to exhibite more gentle Hypnoticks, or Medicines causing sleep, at every turn; also Apo­zems, and the Juices of Herbs pressed forth, which allay the fervour of Choler, carry it forth gently by Stool or Urine, and are of known use: but in the mean time more sharp Medicines, or the more strong, whether they be purgative, working by Sweat or Urine, helping it, for that they too much fuse and shake the Blood and Hu­mors, are carefully to be shunned. I have frequently observed in those labouring with an acute and pertinacious pain in the Head, the Serum swimming in the Blood being let forth, to be dyed with a yellowness, or Bilous Recrements being boiled in it; also in this case, let Phlebotomy be sparingly but often celebrated, and the drinking Whey, or Spaw-waters plentifully, have helped before any thing else.

The Headach a­rising from any Inward, how to be cured.4. Further, by the fault of any Inward, as the Stomach, Liver, Spleen, or Womb, or of any other (by reason of the transmission of an evil Ferment) the parts of the Head suffer, then in the Cure of the Disease, Remedies for the Spleen are to be given, with Cephalicks, or such as are proper to the Head: Hence the Stomach being also in the fault, these often times are helpful to such as are troubled with Headaches, Elixir Proprietatis, the Elixir of Vitriol of Mynsich, the sacred Tincture, Vitriol of Steel, the Powder of Aron Compound, and others ordinarily had for the Stomach; for others whose heads partake of the evils of the Spleen, Chalybeats, or Medicines made of Steel often yield help. Some Women troubled with Headaches have felt ease from Hysterical Remedies. In like manner, when the vices of other parts contribute to the Head­ach, let there be joyned with the former shown you, things to be taken for those parts.

Rais'd up from the fault of the nourishing Iuice, how to he handled.5. Sometimes the nourishing Juice (as we showed already) is the cause of the pe­riodical Headach, viz. forasmuch as this being poured on the Blood, and not rightly assimilated, by reason of disagreeing particles, causes a swelling up in it, so that the Blood boiling up into the Head, carries its leavings or superfluities into the Meninges, or into some of their predisposed parts, and by this means stir up the Fibres into painful Convulsions. I have known many for this cause, to have been obnoxious to dayly Headaches, whose Mass of Blood hath been vitiated after the Small Pox, Mea­sels, and other Feavours,Frequently fol­lows the Small Pox and Mea­sles. and sicknesses: viz. so many hours after eating, sometimes sooner and sometimes later, first a flushing of redness in the Face, then a fullness in the Head, and a pain would infest them, and especially after drinking of Wine, or eating of Meats apt to swell up, they would be more vexed. The coming of the Disease is wont to keep its distance, according as Meats are taken more or less, as the Chyme begins to swell up, either a little after its first entring into the Blood, or af­ter a little stay in it.

Easily cured.This Distemper is free from danger, and for the most part is easily enough Cured. After a provision of the whole, a gentle Purge, and sometimes Blood-letting being ordered, Remedies profit most which restore the Complexion of the Blood, such chiefly are Antiscorbuticks and Chalybeates.

An Electuary. Take of the Conserve of Fumitory, of Tansie, and Wood-Sorrel, each two ounces; of the Powder of Aron Compound three drams, of Ivory, Crabs-Eyes, Coral prepared, each one dram; Powder of yellow Saunders, and Lignum Aloes, each half a dram; of the Vitriol of Steel one dram, of the Salt of Wormwood a dram and a half, of the Syrup of the Five Roots what will suffice to make an Electuary. Take of it in the morning, and at five a clock in the afternoon the quantity of a Chesnut, drinking after it three ounces of the following liquor.

A Iulep. Ta [...]e of the water of the leaves of Aron, of Vervine, of Elderflowers, each six ounces; of the Water of Snails, and the Magisterial of Earth-worms, each two ounces; of Su­gar one ounce: Mingle them.

Antiscorbutick Remedies good for it.Hither may be brought various Remedies, that are wont to be made use of against the Scorbutick Dyscrasie, or evil disposition of the Blood, and may be given with good success: For Headaches, which are so familiar in the Scurvy, oftentimes proceed from the vice of the Blood perverting the nutritious Humor, and carrying its Recre­ments to the Membranes of the Head: Wherefore Remedies against that Distemper, in another place noted by me, may be used here.

The Headach raised up from the vice of the nervous humour, how to be cured.6. There yet remains another humor, to wit, the nervous Liquor, which being heaped up within the Fibres of the Meninges, and of other parts of the Head, some­times [Page 117] becomes improportionate, by its proper incongruity, to the Fibres, because sharp or otherways degenerate, sometimes pulls the containing parts, and provokes them into painful Convulsions, or Distentions, because it grows hot with some other Humor flowing thither, to wit, the Nutritious or the Serous.

The Nervous Humor,Its fault either private or par­ticular, when it is so Morbific or faulty in its whole Mass, carries its evil to the predisposed Head, or if of it self innocent, is perverted within the distem­per'd Fibres, and so secondarily becomes Morbific or Diseased; then the Cure of it depends upon the restitution of the containing parts; to wit, if the Debilities, or the hurt Conformation of the Fibres may be mended, presently the Humor watering them will be free from fault. We shall tell you by and by, by what Remedies the vices of the parts predisposed to Headaches may be taken away.

In the mean time,Or universal; and then letting of blood, or stronger Purges, are not conve­nient. if the nervous humor, being degenerate in the whole Mass, im­parts its evil to the Head prepared for pain, those kind of Medicines, and method are to be made use of, by which it being reduced to its due Constitution, passing thorow those Fibres, it little or nothing provokes them. For which end, neither letting of Blood, nor yet strong Purges are at all convenient, because those things which shake the Blood and Humors, and lessen strength, impress by that means a greater sharp­ness and rage to the faulty Nerve. But gentle Solutives, and a sparing taking of Blood, sometimes may be useful, whereby the Inwards may be cleansed, and the bloody Mass somewhat purged, and a way made for other Medicines, that may better succeed.

But Medicines,Remedies called Cephalicks pro­per here. which render the nervous Liquor more friendly and benigne to the Membranes of the Head, that are wont to be troubled by it, are of that sort commonly called Cephalicks, whose particles being active, thin, and subtil, pass thorow the Blood without trouble or tumult; then insinuating themselves with the nervous Li­quor, gently move it, and so cause the nervous passages to be unfolded, so that the Animal Spirits,Of which sort are these, more freely beam forth thorow all the Bodies, both sensible and mo­tive, and inspire them without any lessening, Convulsions, or irregular distenti­ons.

These kind of Remedies,which are con­venient in Dis­ [...]ases of the Brain, and in these kind of Headaches. although they are not always effectual, yet they often­times take away some Headaches not much inveterate, and in some, help sometimes how pertinacious soever they be. Further, the same which are prescribed with good success for the pains of the Head, are also for the distempers of the Brain and Ner­vous Stock; and so on the contrary, what are used for these, also for those; to wit, the virtues of those being unfolded within the Head, against the Apoplexy, Palsie, Lethargy, and other Diseases a-kin to them, help also within the moving Fibres, a­gainst Convulsions and Convulsive Motions; besides, putting forth their virtues with­in the sensible Fibres, they often give help to pains.

A very large field of these Medicines are opened in physical Books,A great many of these every where to be found in Physi­cal Books. yet so, that the poorness of them, and their abundance, bring confusion to the Method of heal­ing; for oftentimes among so many various and different Remedies, heaped up to­gether, lye hid or obscured, what may be of great use, but even as Wheat among Chaff, harder to be separated than that to be thorowly sifted out from the husks.

Therefore in this case, a provision of the whole being made, and applyed, and things given which by Dyet or Medicine, restrain the Inordinations of the Blood, and immediately allay them; Medicines called Cephalicks, or such as take away the disorders of the nervous Juice, are prescribed to be carefully taken. I shall add some few forms of these.

Take of the Conserve of the Flowers of Betony,An Electuary. of Clove-gilliflowers, each three ounces; of the Powder of the Root of the male Poeony half an ounce, of Cretick Dittanny one dram; of the wood Aloes, and yellow Sanders, each one dram; of red Coral pre­pared, of Pearl, of Ivory, each one dram and a half; of the Salt of Vervine one dram and a half, of the Syrup of the Flowers of Poeony, what will suffice: make an Opiat, take of it to the quantity of a Chesnut, drinking after it of the following Iulep three ounces.

Take of simple black Cherry water, and of Walnuts, and of Vervine, each four ounces;Iulep. of Cowslip Flowers three ounces, of Poeony Compound two ounces, of Sugar-Candy six drams.

Take of the Flowers of Vervine,A distilled Wa­ter. Misleto Berries, each ten handfuls; of the male Poeony Roots two pound, of Mace and Nutmegs, each half an ounce; of Coriander Seeds one ounce, cut and bruise them and put to them eight pints of new-milk (or else seven pints of Milk and one pint of Malago) Distil them in a common Still, and mix all the liquor together: Take of it three ounces at a time.

[Page 118] Tablets. Take of the Powder of the Root of the male Poeony half an ounce, of red Coral prepared two drams, of Ivory and Pearls prepared, each one dram; make of them all a very fine Powder, add to it of Sugar what will suffice; boil them to the consistence of Tablets with six ounces of black Cherry-water, of the Tincture of Coral one dram; make of them Tablets according to Art, to the weight of half a dram: Eat three or four in the Morning, and at five of the Clock in the Afternoon, drinking after them a draught of Tea.

Tinctures. Or Take of the Tincture of Coral one ounce; take of it from fifteen to twenty drops twice in a day, in a little draught of Iulep, or of the distilled water.

Spirits.They who are of a Phlegmatick or more Cold temper may take a Dose twice a day, either of the Tincture of Antimony, or of the Spirits of Armoniac, impregnated with Amber of Coral, or of Spirits of Harts horn, or of Sut, in a proper Vehicle.

The use of mille­pedes notably helps. The other part of the conjunct Cause, consisting in the weakness or evil confor­mation of the distempered part, how to be handled. We are not to de­spair of the Cure.We ought not to omit, or postpone the use of Millepedes or Woodlice, for that the Juice of them, wrung forth, with the distilled Water, also a Powder of them pre­pared, oftentimes bring notable help, for the Curing of old and pertinacious Head­aches. I might here propose divers other kinds of Medicines; yea all those which I have formerly heaped up, against Convulsive Distempers, may be brought hither. But yet the most difficult knot of the Cure of the Headach, remains to be untied, to wit, how the conjunct Cause of this Disease, and fixed, consisting in the weakness, or hurt Conformation of the Fibres, may be healed or taken away

Although this is sometimes incurable, to wit, when as a Scirrhous, or Callous Tu­mor, or some other old and fixed swelling, has possest the Meninges; yet, for that the knowledge of this is uncertain, and that the leading Cause, how cruel soever it seems, is sometimes overcome by a long course of Physick; therefore in every Head­ach, so long as the Patient will admit of Remedies, let it not seem troublesome to the Physician, to prescribe those things which seem most convenient.

Here those Me­dicines are only profitable, that cut off the in­kindling or root of the Dis­ease. Chyrurgical Re­medies chiefly help here; of which are, 1. Plasters.Therefore, first of all, which we hinted before, you must carefully endeavour that the nest, or feeding of the Disease be cut off or intercepted, and that the frequent coming of the fits be hindred; for so the indisposed Fibres, so long as they are no more affected only by the means of Nature, will recover health.

In this case the helps of the Medical Art, are rather to be sought from the Chirurgical part, than from Physick: for whatsoever is taken at the mouth, going about by long turnings and windings, spends all the vertue before it comes to the Membranes of the Head.

Among Chirurgical Remedies, first Topicks are met with, and among these, Plasters are of most profitable use, and oftentimes give the greatest benefit: Let not these be very hot, which may rather draw the humors to the distemper'd place, but moderate­ly discussing and strengthening. I was wont to prescribe Plasters of Red-Lead, and of Sope, with double of the proportion of the Plaster of Paracelsus, to be applied to the part, it being first shaven, and to be let remain there for some time The An­tients frequently administred Plasters made of Mustard, and such as raised wheals or whelks over the parts,Medicines rai­sing Whelks and Blisters. and it is a daily practice to apply sometimes to all the hinder part of the Head, and sometimes to the former, Vesicatories or blistering Plasters, against most cruel Headaches: when ease is got from these more hot Topicks, it is be­cause by these administrations, plenty of the more sharp Serum is drawn away from the disaffected part.

Liniments, Fo­mentations and Bathings, help not.Liniments of Oyls and Oyntments, though often made use of, effect little; because (as I think) if they should penetrate deeply into the tones of the Fibres, they would loosen them more; so that they would more easily lye open to the Incursions of the Morbifick matter: Further, they stop up the Pores of the skin, whereby the Effluvia's do less evaporate. Almost for the same reason, as hot stupes or Fomentations made of boiled Spices, or other Cephalicks, oftner hurt than profit; forasmuch as they draw the humors towards the distemper'd parts, and also open the Pores and passages, whereby they are more readily admitted;An Embrocati­on, or a dip­ping of the head in cold water, oftentimes helps. it is that a Bathing of the Head, or an Em­brocation or washing of the Head, at the pumps in hot Baths, is used with no better success for Headaches: When on the contrary, it hath been beneficial to many, to pour cold water every Morning and Evening on the temples, forehead, and forepart of the Head: yea to wash or pump the whole Head, every Morning with cold water, or at least to dip it into a Bucket or Pit of water.

Issues.Another Chirurgical help, especially for an inveterate and cruel Headach, and much cry'd up, is wont to be the burning or cutting of Issues, in several parts of the Body. It is without doubt, that these being made in the Arms or Legs, are both less trouble­some, and do bring something of help: because they draw away the feeding of the [Page 119] Disease in part, and call it away far from the distemper'd part. Besides, Issues in the nape of the Neck, and a Seaton in the hinder part of the Neck, behind the Ear, or near it; also a piece of the root of wild Hellebore, being put into an hole made in the Ear, because they evacuate much serosity, and draw it to other Emunctuaries, to wit,Issues made upon or near the di­stempered place, help little. the Glandulas, are oftentimes administred with benefit. But indeed, there hath been a talk, and much expectation from Cauteries, made on the grieved place, or near it, and so large Issues have been made on the top of the Head, or nigh to the joyning of the Sutures. If we should measure this practice by the fruit or success, it will ap­pear to be rarely beneficial, but more often unlucky. For I never knew any healed, but many troubled with Headaches, to be much the worse for it. And truly, reason plainly tells us, that where a Fontinel is made, thither the Serous Humor flows, from the whole bloody Mass, and by consequence from the whole body, and often­times is there heaped up more copiously than can constantly be put forth by that Emis­sary: wherefore, there ordinarily arise about Issues, a red swelling, pustles, and various humors. Why should I not then believe, that a Cautery made nigh to the grieved part of the Head, should rather cause the Morbific matter to be there heap­ed up?

There is yet another Chirurgical operation cry'd up by many for a pertinacious Headach,The opening of the Skull cry'd up by many, but rarely or never attempted. but by none (that I know of) yet attempted, to wit, an opening of the Skull, near the grieved place, with a Trypaning Iron. This our most ingenious Harvey en­deavoured to persuade a Noble Lady, labouring with a most grievous and inveterate Headach, promising a Cure from thence; but neither she, nor any other would ad­mit that administration. Indeed, it did not appear to me, that there could be any thing of certainly expected from the opening of the Skull where it was pained; if an Imposthum lay hid there, this had been the only way of Cure; but that would rather have caused sleepy distempers, or deadly Convulsions than the Headach. If that a red swelling, or pustles, or a burning boil, should be in the enfoldings of the Head, I know not if those Tumors, exposed to the open Air, would more easily evaporate, or whether Remedies applyed to those naked places, would effect any thing or not; because, if the pains arise by reason of the Meninges being beset with little whelks, a Scirrhous or a Callous Tumor, I think the opening of the Skull will profit little or nothing.

But letting this alone till it is practised, we shall pass over to other things; and now in the next place, we shall consider, whether Salivation for the Curing old and confirmed Headaches is to be administred.Whether saliva­tion in invete­rate Headaches, without any sus­picion of the Venereal Dis­ease, ought to be administred. Indeed, if the pains of the Head arise from the Venereal Disease, no doubt but that evil Remedy ought to be applyed to that evil Distemper: But having tryed that kind of remedy in Headaches arising from other Causes, I found not the harvest worth the pains, and I confess some exam­ples in those kind of cases, have terrified me from that method. A certain noble Lady (whose sickness is below described) for the Curing of a cruel and continual Headach, un­derwent a plentiful Salivation three times, viz. the first by a Mercurial Oyntment, by the counsel of Sir Theodore Mayern, and afterwards twice by taking the lately famous Powder of Charles Huis, without any help, I wish not with some detriment: for af­terwards for many years, even to this day, the disease being by degrees increased, she suffer'd under its heavy tyranny. It happened somewhat worse, so that noted man Doctor G. D. to whom a Mercurial Oyntment was applied for his akeing Head, for the Cure of an old Headach, by which a Salivation being excited, and the Dis­ease not Cured, he fell into blindness. Indeed these kind of effects from Quicksilver, rashly given, every one, rightly weighing its operation on an humane body, ought to fear. For the Mercury, I shall not say is malignant or wholely venomous, because it brings little or no hurt, its particles being united, so that oftentimes a great quantity may be taken safely enough; yet the Mercurial little bodies, being divided and separated one from another, (whether it be done by Chymical Salts, as in the Mercury sublimate, and precipitate, or by straining thorow the Pores of the Skin when they are anointed) immediately become fierce and untameable, and stir up, be­fore any other Medicines,The means and manner of sali­vation by Mer­cury, unfolded. great perturbations in the humane body: They sometimes bring trouble, first to the nervous parts, whereby oftentimes happen, (by reason of the Fibres of the Ventricle, Intestines, and other Viscera's, being pulled or hauled) Torments, horrid Vomitings, sharp and frequently Bloody-stools, Heart-burnings, Swoonings, and other most terrible Distempers, a little after the Medicine is given. Yet sometimes the particles of the Mercury, when they are not presently dissolved, go forth without any great hurt to the Bowels, and before their strength be deduced into the bloody Mass. Therefore they easily enter into this, being highly active, and unfolding themselves on every side, and immediately infecting the whole, [Page 120] shake it, and frequently (when fully dissolved) stir it up into a great burning. Then the Blood, that it might put away from it self, the incongruous little bodies, Fer­menting, delivers the same which way it can, and boils it with the humors, contain­ed within its bosom, to wit, the Serum and the nourishing Juice, and so endeavours, with those imbued with that preternatural mixture, to put it off. But this succeeds not plentifully enough by Urine and Sweat, because the meltings of the Blood, by the particles of the Mercury boiled in it, like the ladder of a Wash-Ball, become more clammy and thick, so that they cannot pass thorow the fine strainers of the Reins and the Skin, but oftentimes breaking forth (unless hindred) into the Caeliac Arteries, go forth, by exciting a Diarrhoea or Dysentery; but by that the intent of Salivation is hindred or frustrated: but more often, the Liquor imbued with the Mercury, remaining within the Blood, in a manner also infected, is carried about with it, hither and thither, impetuously thorow the Arteries and Veins, and is separated into various parts, and either breaks forth what way it can, or is forced upon the Bowels, Membranes, and other parts, oftentimes with great hurt. Also it is seen that some Mercurial parti­cles do penetrate the Brain, and insinuating themselves into the nervous Juice, are diffused, not only into the whole Head, but into all the nervous parts, and so in some measure ferment the nervous Liquor.

But in the mean time the Mercurial Serosities, residing in the Blood, are laid up for the greatest part into the Glandula's, which are the nearest Emunctuaries of the Arteries: wherefore, when the Glandula's about the parts of the Mouth (by which great plenty of Serum is destinated for spittle) being both many and great, are there placed, and that from these passages lye open, by the Excretory Vessels, into the cavity of the Mouth; surely by this most certain way, the invenom'd li­quor of the Blood, finds a passage forth, when it cannot easily elsewhere. Where­fore, a spitting at the Mouth being excited, the Blood long Fermenting, casts forth whatsoever is extraneous, and not agreeable, either that lyes in its bosom, or that it licks up elsewhere from the Bowels, or receives from the solid parts, or from other humors, like working Ale or Wine, thorow the Salival passages, and innumerable pipes opening every where into the Mouth. Further, it is most likely, as the purg­ings of the Blood, so also of the liquor watering the Head, and the nervous Appen­dix, being excited by the Mercury entering therein, are also put forth by this way, to wit, by the Salival passages.

Therefore, a Salivation induced by Mercury, if by chance it succeeds rightly, it sometimes takes away difficult and untameable Diseases, not to be dealt with by any other Remedies; because this operation thorowly purges the Blood and nervous Juice, and other humors, by a long purgation, destroys all exotick Ferments, over­comes the enormities of the Salts and Sulphures; yea, and shakes, and oftentimes carries forth the Morbific matter, where-ever remaining or impacted.

Salivation not always safe, wherefore to be suspected in Headaches.But this Medicine is not without danger, forasmuch as the Mercury becoming en­ormous, and carrying with it abundance of most sharp, and as it were poisonous Se­rum, rushing on the noble parts, and especially the Head, with the Medullary and nervous appendixes, or on the Lungs, and parts about the Heart, brings to them an incurable and sometimes a deadly evil. Wherefore in a more grievous and old Headach, there is danger lest the indisposed Fibres should be more irritated, by the Mercury going thorow them, with much, and corrosive Serum, and should move them into more painful Convulsions and wrinklings; further, lest it should invade the Brain, by a great falling of the Humors upon the Head, by which means, as it often happens to the Brain, sleepy and Convulsive distempers are caused. I should have said many things more concerning this, but that we expect shortly to be made publick, by the Learned Physician Doctor Needham, an exact method of Saliva­tion, and a full account of it, as to its measures and effects, and its benefits and hurt.

What the cutting of the Artery may profit in this Disease.There is yet a celebrated Remedy remaining among Chirurgical helps, viz. a cut­ting or opening an Artery. This was of great esteem among the Ancients, and some of the Moderns make use of it, and very much cry it up. But it appears to our ob­servation, that this so cry'd up success most often fails. Nor no wonder, because rea­son holds not at all, on which the Ancients depended, that the Arterious Blood was different from the Venous, or that of the Veins, and was in greater fault and more rageing, and therefore to be let forth. Nor indeed is there any reason wherefore the Blood being drawn from the Artery, rather than from the Vein, near the pained place, should bring ease; but rather on the contrary, more help ought to be expect­ed from opening of the Vein; because, the Artery being emptied, receives and draws nothing from the distemper'd part; but the Vein being opened, draws from [Page 121] the place of the effused Blood, and from its whole neighbourhood, and oftentimes sups back, and renders to a Circulation the Blood, and other Humors, heaped up and stagnating near the nest of the Disease. But however, that we may not recede too much from the practice of the Ancients, we shall grant, that sometimes it may be helpful, though attributing nothing to the section of the Artery, and not immediate­ly, yet causally,Nevertheless in this Distemper it is often help­ful, and by what means, is shown. and only by consequence and by accident: to wit, forasmuch as the ends of the Artery being cut, grow fast together, so that the passage of the Blood by that way is shut up for the future; from hence when as a lesser provision of Blood is carried by the Artery towards the place: and the like still carried away from it by the Veins, it therefore sometimes happens, that the nest of the Morbific Matter some­times lessened, and its mine is by degrees consumed. For this reason, this administra­tion oftentimes succeeds happily in diseases of the Eyes.Farriers use the like practice. Further, Farriers make use of the like practice for the Curing of evil tumors in the Legs of Horses; to wit, they take and bind the Artery, by which the Matter flows to the distemper'd part, and in the mean time, that which was impacted, partly evaporates, and is partly supped up by the Vein. And I have heard, that the same has been try'd by our Harvey, and not without success,And perhaps it may be conveni­ent for the cu­ring of strumous or running hu­mours, such as the Kings Evil. for the Curing also of Strumous and Scirrhous Tumors in the humane body. I might here subjoyn many other kinds of Remedies, yea also the pre­scriptions and forms of Medicines, which are wont to be administer'd for the Curing of Headaches, both by Physicians and by Empericks: but enough of these are to be had in Physical Books. It will be to our purpose, that after the delivering the Aetiology, or the reason of this Disease so confusedly shown, and its Therapeutic or Curatory part sufficiently shadowed, for the more clear illustrating of these things, that we add some more rare cases of sick persons, and examples of a continual and most grievous Headach, which also for an invincible cause was oftentimes deadly.

A Woman of about fifty years of age,The History of a continual and a deadly Head­ach. after she had labour'd for about six months with a most grievous pain in the Head, troubling her almost perpetually, under the Sagittal Suture (or the seam that goes thorow the length of the Skull, dividing it in­to two parts) yielding to no Medicines, or method, at length fell into a Lethargy, with a partial resolution of her members; from which notwithstanding, being short­ly recovered by timely Remedies, she awaked with the Headach, as cruel as before; moreover,A continual and inveterate Headach passing into a Lethargy. within two or three weeks after, relapsing into the sleepy distemper, she de­parted this life. Her skull being opened, there grew from the side of the third bosom, to the Membranes, a Scirrhous Tumor three fingers broad, by the coming between of which, both the Dura mater for a little space was grown to the Pia mater, and the sanguiferous Vessels, which should open there into the cavity of the bosom, were stopped up. Further, the cranklings or turnings in of the Brain, both the exterior and the inward cavity, was filled with a clear water. From these things being ob­served, the invincible and at length deadly cause most clearly appeared: to wit, the most sensible Fibres of the Meninges being continually pulled and torn, partly by rea­son of the breaking of the unity, and partly from the humor belonging to the Nerves, being there heaped up and stagnating, together with others flowing thither, and grow­ing hot with it, were provoked into Convulsions perpetually, or painful Distentions: Afterwards, when the Blood being for a long time hindred in its circulation, by rea­son of that Tumor, or that at least it could not pass thorow it, by any means, sent copiously away from it self the Serous Water (as its manner is whereever it finds an hindrance) and at length a Dropsie in the Brain was raised, which was the cause of the deadly Lethargy. I remember I have seen the like case in another, whom I have opened. Further, as I think, the disease in many troubled with Headaches, doth de­pend on the like invincible cause; I will however describe one example yet living, of this kind of Distemper.

Some years since,A second Histo­ry of an incu­rable Headach, in a most noble Lady labouring with it for twenty years. I was sent for to visit a most noble Lady, for above twenty years sick with almost a continual Headach, at first intermitting: She was of a most beau­tiful form, and a great wit, so that she was skilled in the Liberal Arts, and in all sorts of Literature, beyond the condition of her sex; and as if it were thought too much by Nature, for her to enjoy so great endowments, without some detriment, she was extreamly punished with this Disease. Growing well of a Feavour before she was twelve years old, she became obnoxious to pains in the Head, which were wont to arise, sometimes of their own accord, and more often upon every light occasion. This sickness being limited to no one place of the Head, troubled her sometimes on one side, sometimes on the other, and often thorow the whole compass of the Head. During the fit (which rarely ended under a day and a nights space, and often held for two, three, or four days) she was impatient of light, speaking, noise, or of any moti­on, sitting upright in her Bed, the Chamber made dark, she would talk to no body, nor [Page 122] take any sleep, or sustenance. At length about the declination of the fit, she was wont to lye down with an heavy and disturbed sleep, from which awaking, she found her self better, and so by degrees grew well, and continued indifferently well till the time of the intermission. Formerly, the fits came not but occasionally, and seldom under twenty days or a month, but afterwards they came more often: and lately, she was seldom free. Moreover, upon sundry occasions, or evident causes (such as the change of the Air, or the year, the great Aspects of the Sun and Moon, violent passions, and er­rors in diet) she was more cruelly tormented with them. But although this Distem­per most grievously afflicting this noble Lady, above twenty years (when I saw her) having pitched its tents near the confines of the Brain, had so long besieged its re­gal tower, yet it had not taken it: for the sick Lady, being free from a Vertigo, swimming in the Head, Convulsive Distempers, and any Soporiferous symptom, found the chief faculties of her soul sound enough.

Remedies of e­very kind for the curing this Headach, try'd in vain.For the obtaining a Cure, or rather for a tryal, very many Remedies were admi­nistred, thorow the whole progress of the Disease, by the most skilful Physicians, both of our own Nation, and the prescriptions of others beyond Seas, without any success or ease; also great Remedies of every kind and form she tryed, but still in vain. Some years before, she had endured from an oyntment of Quicksilver, a long and troublesome Salivation, so that she ran the hazard of her life. Afterwards twice a Cure was attempted (though in vain) by a Flux at the Mouth, from a Mercurial Powder, which the noted Emperick Charles Hues ordinarily gave: with the like suc­cess with the rest she tryed the Baths, and the Spaw-waters, almost of every kind and nature: she admitted of frequent Blood-letting, and also once the opening of an Artery; she had also made about her several Issues, sometimes in the hinder part of her Head, and sometimes in the forepart, and in other parts. She also took the Air of several Countries besides her own native Air, she went into Ireland and into France: There was no kind of Medicines both Cephalicks, Antiscorbuticks, Hysterical, all fa­mous Specificks, which she took not, both from the Learned and the unlearned, from Quacks, and old Women; and yet notwithstanding she professed, that she had re­ceived from no Remedy, or method of Curing, any thing of Cure or Ease, but that the contumacious and rebellious Disease, refused to be tamed, being deaf to the charms of every Medicine. Further, this so long possessing the out-parts of the Head, though it could not invade the cloysters of the Brain; yet, when I visited her, un­folding its ends in some other parts of the nervous kind, it had begun to stir up most cruel pains in her members, and also in her Loins, and bottom of her Belly, as is wont to be in the Rheumatism, and in the Scorbutick Colick.

Conjectures con­cerning the rea­son of this cruel Disease.If we should inquire into the Aetiology or the Causes of this inveterate Disease, we can suspect nothing less than that the Meninges of the Brain, being from the begin­ning more lightly touched, had afterwards contracted an habitual and indelible vice. It appears by the History, that the distemper at first arose from a Morbific matter, which was translated into the Head, after an ill cured Feavour. Then perchance, by reason of some hurt brought to the Membranes, the tone of the Fibres was so much endamaged, that afterwards, the Humors flowing in them, both the nervous and o­thers, being heaped up to a fulness, or growing hot by mere aggravation, raised up the fits of the Headach. But at length the diseased cause growing worse, by reason of the frequent fits, it seems that the unity of those Fibres, were so much broken, that from thence little Tumors, or Scirrhous knots or swellings, being riased up in all the exterior Meninge, or in a great part of it, produced pains almost continual, and those apt to be made worse or imbitter'd upon every light occassion: Certainly it seems most likely, that the invincible and permanent cause of so long, and yet not deadly Headach, proceeds from some such thing, viz. a Scirrhous Distemper of the Dura mater, the Pia mater being in the mean time safe. For from any other cause, if there had beee a conflict of Nature and Medicine with the Disease, either a quick death or a joyful victory had far sooner been obtained.

A third History of a deadly con­tinual Headach.A noted Gentleman of about forty years of Age, strong and healthy, going a jour­ney for a whole day in a continual rain, the wet beating on the hinder part of his Head, caught cold, and the next day he began to feel a pain in that part; which in a short time after becoming very bitter, afflicted him night and day, and kept him al­most continually without sleep. For the Cure of this Distemper, Phlebotomy, Purg­ing, Glisters, Blisterings, and Remedies to cause rest; yea and many others of every kind, though diligently applyed, by the Counsel also of many Physicians, helpt lit­tle or nothing. When the Disease notwithstanding these, grew every day worse, af­ter a fortnights time, preternatural swell'd kernels and painful arose all about his Neck, the pain in his Head nothing remitting: Further, the Tendons of his Neck [Page 123] being very much distended and stiff, became very troublesome to him; to which, in a short time, succeeded Convulsive motions, and a sudden leaping of the Tendons, in several parts, with a delirium, and at length, the sick person worn out with pains and watching, yielded to death.

Though we had not leave for the dissecting the dead body,A conjecture concerning the reason of the Disease. yet it may be suspected, that both the Pericranium, and the Meninges in the hinder part of the Head, cloathing the Cerebel, where they are more thick and very nappy, were first affected; and then from thence the evil was afterwards communicated to the whole Head, and wandered into all the nervous stock: when as in those Membranes, transpiration was hindred, from the cold and the wet, and also the tone of the Fibres very much hurt, it is proba­ble, that the nervous Liquor watering them, being then hindred in its motion, and stagnating, did burthen the containing bodies; then that being depraved in its Com­plexion, grew hot with other humors flowing thither, and being at length coagulated with them, grew together into Scirrhous and Strumous Tumors, and so laid the copi­ous seed-plot of a most grievous Headach: Then afterwards, when through watching and perpetual pains, a great inordination of the Spirits, and a great Discrasie of the Juice watering the Head, were produced; for that reason, the knotty Concretions in the Neck, the stifness of the Tendons, and at length Convulsions and Convulsive Mo­tions followed in the Brain, and in the whole nervous Stock: and so, when as the ani­mal oeconomy or regiment was much decayed, and that the motion of the Praecordia could not be continued, the vital flame expired.

Sometimes deadly and incurable Headaches are no less raised up from a fiery swel­ling and Imposthum,A fourth Histo­ry of an Head­ach, excited from a fiery Swelling, or an Inflammation of the Meninges. than from these kind of knots, and little pimples of the Meninges. Sometime since, a young man of the University, whenas he had complained for a fort­night of a most grievous pain in the Head, incessantly afflicting him, it was at length increased by a Feavour, and afterwads, waking, Convulsive motions, and talking idly followed; at which time a Physician being sent for, letting blood, Clysters, Plasters, Revulsives, Blistrings, also internal Remedies which call away the Flux of the Blood and Humors from the Head, being carefully administred, profited nothing; so that death soon followed. His Skull being opened, the Vessels leading to the Meninges were full of Blood, and very much distended, as if the whole Mass of Blood had flowed thither, so that the bosoms being dissected and opened, the Blood presently rushing forth, flow'd to the weight of several ounces above half a pint: Further, the Mem­branes themselves being distemper'd thorow the whole, with a fiery Tumor, appear­ed discoloured: These coverings being taken away, all the infoldings of the Brain, and of its Ventricle, were full of a clear water, and its substance being too much wa­tred, was wet, and not firm. Without doubt in this case, the incursion of the heat­ed blood into the Meninges, and the heaping of it up there, exciting the Phlgemon or fiery swelling, was the cause of the Headach, and of the following Delirium: Then the Blood being accumulated there, when it could not circulate, flung from it self plenty of Serum, by which the whole inward part of the Head was over-flowed; so that the Disease, at first perhaps curable by Phlebotomy, from thence afterwards became mortal.

I remember another Academick, An History of an Headach raised up from an Impost [...]ume in the Menin­ges. who after a long Headach, under the temporal Suture, tormenting him perpetually for three weeks together, immediately fell in­to a deadly Apoplexie. His Head being opened, a fiery swelling had grown in the Meninges, near the place where the pain was, from which, being ripened and broke, the filthy bloody matter falling on the Brain, had distemper'd its substance with a rottenness and blackness. Besides, these invincible causes, detected by Anatomy, I observed more chances after the same manner, as of other sick people; by which we may conclude its Aetiology, to be the same, or very near of kin, with the signs and symptoms of the like nature, and but now described.

But although a continual Headach (especially if it be without intermissions for ma­ny weeks) is not without danger:A continual Headach, we always to be accounted in­curable. yet we ought not therefore to despair of its Cure, because the cause of this, how fixed and immoveable soever it seem, oftentimes by the long use of Medicines, and sometimes without them, is helped by Nature and time: however, in a case almost desperate, there is need of some Medicines, lest the present Distemper should pass into a worse, to wit, a Soporiferous or Convul­sive. Thus much for a Continual Headach: it now remains, that we should pro­pose some more rare examples and instances of the Intermitting. An intermit­ting Headach, whose Fits are uncertain, are so frequent that we need shew no instances of it.

Therefore, that we may let alone here, the Headaches, whose fits being wandring and uncertain, proceed from the Blood or Serum rushing on the distemper'd places, as cases very well known, and commonly seen; we shall now shew you now some select Observations of this Disease, either periodical, or caused by the consent of some [Page 124] Inward: As to the first, we have shown the periodical fits of the pains of the Head, to be produced by the nutritious Humor, or by the nervous Juice: we shall now shew you Examples of either.

The sixth Histo­ry of a periodi­cal intermit­ting Headach.A venerable Matron of about forty five years of Age, of a lean habit of Body, and indued with a Cholerick Temper, after she had lived for a long time obnoxious to Headaches, wont to be caused occasionally, she began about the beginning of Au­tumn, to be troubled with a periodical pain of the Head: This Distemper invading her about four of the Clock in the Afternoon, was wont to continue till midnight, when being wearied with pain and watching, she was compelled to sleep; then af­terwards awaking out of a profound sleep, she found her self well again. She being sick after this manner for three weeks, suffered the daily fits of this Disease, and forbore to take any Medicine, which she greatly abhorr'd; but at length her Ap­petite being lost, and her strength worn out, being forced to seek for Cure; after letting blood and a gentle Purge, she took twice a day for a week or two, the quan­tity of a Chestnut of the following Electuary, and grew perfectly well.

The Cure of the same.
Take of the Conserve of the Flowers of Succory and Fumitory, each three ounces; of the Powder of the Root of Aron Compound two drams and a half, of Ivory one dram and a half, of yellow Sanders, and of Lignum Aloes, each half a dram; of the Salt of Wormwood one dram and a half, of Vitrial of Steel one dram, of the Syrup of the Five Roots what will suffice to make an Electuary.

The reason of this Case un­folded.In this Case, that after a disposition to the Headach, the fits of the Disease became at length periodical, after the manner of intermitting Feavours, the cause without doubt was, the assimilation of the Chyme, or nourishing Humor, into Blood, being hindred: because, when its provision being received into the Mass of Blood, could not be overcome, it was wont after a little stay to disagree, and with its particles, to grow hot; therefore presently the Blood swelling up, that it might shake off the incongru­ous mixture, laid aside its recrements, as in other parts, so especially and with a greater sense of trouble into the before weak Fibres of the Meninges, or hurt in their conformation: This Matter being poured on the Head, or rushing of it self thorow the sensible Fibres, or growing hot with the Juice watering them, raised up the fit of the pain but now described; which continued until the heterogeneous par­ticles growing hot, with their mutual coming together, were either subdued or ex­haled.

The seventh Hi­story of the same Distemper, ex­cited by the de­fault of the nervous Liquor.A very comely Woman, tall and slender, being for a long time grievously obnoxi­ous to distempers of the Head, was wont sometimes to be troubled for many days, yea weeks, every day as soon as she awaked in the Morning, with a most Cruel Head­ach, afflicting her for three or four hours: and in the mean time, she was vexed with a weight of her whole Head, a numness of her sences, and a dulness of mind: which kind of Distemper, together with the pain, like discussed Clouds, vanished before noon, and left her quiet and calm: Then again the next morning, it possessed her Head like a dark Cloud.The Cure of it. For the Curing of it I prescribed the use of Purging Pills, Phleboto­my sparingly, besides a Blistering, and Spirits of Harts-horn, or of Sut, with Cephalic Juleps or Waters.

The reason of the Case unfolded.That in this Lady, otherways than in the other sick Lady, the pains of the Head rather followed after sleep, than were healed by it, the reason seems to be, because in this morning Headach, the Morbific Matter resided in the nervous Juice, whose more notable crudity, and fuller aggestion about the Head, happen immediately after sleep, as we have elsewhere shown at large: But the other Evening fits of this Dis­ease, depended upon the fulness and swelling up of the nourishing Liquor within the bloody Mass, and therefore happening so many hours after dinner, was not allayed but by sleep, which quiets the disorders of the Blood.

An Instance of an intermitting Headach, which seem'd to be ex­cited from the womb.It doth no less clearly appear, that the fits of the Headach do arise, sometimes by consent from other parts, viz. the Womb, Spleen, Stomach, &c. and though the complaints, and the experience of the sick, declare it to arise from Vapors, yet from the Histories of them, and their appearances rightly weighed, 'tis most clear, that this proceeds from another reason, than from Vapors carried to the Head from the distempered inward. And in the first place, as to the pains of the Head, that seem to arise from the Womb, there is nothing more frequent than that upon the suppres­sion of the Monthly Flowers, or the Lochia after being brought to bed, or (as they call it) the flooding, for cruel Headaches to succeed. Further, although the Terms do rightly flow, yet some at the instant of its flowing, others at the stopping of the same, are wont to be troubled with a cruel pain of the Head. But indeed, [Page 125] though at the same time, as the Head, the Womb also is distemper'd: however it doth not follow, that the evil is transferred from hence, thither immediately: but the Blood it self, which fixes the Morbific Matter to the Head, carries it, sometimes begotten in its proper bosom, and destinated to the Womb, wrongfully into the Memin­ges of the Brain; and sometimes snatching it from the parts of the Womb, delivers it with greater malice to the Head. This same reason may also serve for the Headach, commonly attributed to the Stomach, Spleen, and other parts.

A beautiful and young Woman,The eighth Hi­story of an in­termitting Headach, seem­ing to a [...]ise from the Sto­mach. indued with a slender habit of body, and an hot Blood, being obnoxious to an hereditary Headach, was wont to be afflicted with fre­quent and wandring fits of it, to wit, some upon every light occasion, and some of their own accord; that is, arising without any evident cause. On the day before the coming of the spontaneous fit of this Disease, growing very hungry in the Even­ing, she eat a most plentiful Supper, with an hungry, I may say greedy appetite; presaging by this sign, that the pain of the Head would most certainly follow the next Morning; and the event never failed this Augury. For as soon as she awaked, being afflicted by a most sharp torment, thorow the whole forepart of her Head, she was troubled also with Vomiting, sometimes of an Acid, and as it were a Vitriolick, Humor, and sometimes of a Cholerick and highly bitterish: hence according to this sign, this Headach is thought to arise from the vice of the Stomach.

That I may render a reason of this, first it appears, that a Vomiting will succeed a hurt upon the Head, to wit, after a blow, or wound, or a fall; yet a pain of the Head rarely or never follows, upon Vomiting, the pain of the Heart, or the Sto­mach, any otherways labouring,A reason of this Case delivered. unless the Blood comes between. Wherefore in the aforesaid case of the sick person, as it appears plainly that the Meninges of the Brain were before disposed to Headaches, its fits were stirred up by every agitation of the Blood; hence it is obvious to be conceived, when the heterogeneous particles are heaped up together to a fulness, in the bloody Mass, by reason of the vice of the Chyle, presently a flux of it arising, for the expulsion of the trouble, those being but evilly match'd, being separated by the Blood, and partly poured forth out of the Arteries into the Ventricle,The like reason is for other Headaches, seeming to arise from the Spleen, Liver, Mesen­tery, &c. do raise up its Ferment, and so produce hun­ger; and partly rushing into the predisposed Meninges of the Head do there dispose the tinder, or rather incentive of the Headach about to follow. This sick Gentle­woman, averse to all Physick, when she would undergo no method of Medicine, at length became obnoxious also to Paralytick, and Convulsive distempers. Out of these it will be easie to design the reason of every other Headach, viz. of the Hy­pochondriac, Hepatic, or otherways Sympathetical, so that there need not here to be added any more Histories or Observations.

CHAP. III.

Of the Lethargy.

THUS far we have described, by what Disease chiefly, and after what sort, the out-skirts of the Head, or the coverings of that enclosed within the Skull, are wont to be affected;The Seat of the Lethargy is the same with that of Sleep and Memory; to wit, about the Shell of the Brain. and now descending to its more internal part, and which lyes next to the Cortical or shelly substance, we shall see to what distem­pers this part is found to be chiefly obnoxious. We have shew'd at large in ano­ther place, that the Cortex or shelly part of the Brain is the seat of the Memory, and the porch of sleep: wherefore, we rightly referr the Disease, which is wont to cause an excess of sleep, and an eclipse or defect of memory, to wit, the Lethargy, to that Cortical part of the Brain.

The word Lethargy is wont to signifie two sorts of Distempers,By this name both the Fits of the Lethargy are called, which are as it were the act and the disposition of this Disease; for those who are said to labour with this Disease, or are sick of its great assaults, are overwhelmed with so great sleepiness, that they can scarce be excited by any impression of a sensible object, yea if by chance being prick't or pinch't, they open their Eyes, or move their members, presently they let them fall again, and become insensible; and oftentimes when left to themselves indulging a perpetual sleep, by an easie transition, they pass into death it self, whose type this Disease is; which kind of fits, have often a Feavour joyned with them, which when the sick awake, and return perfectly to themselves, for the most [Page 126] part ceases of its own accord.And also the so­poriferous dispo­sition, or Slee­piness; Or secondly, they are accounted Lethargical, who being oppressed with an immoderate torpor or numness of the senses, are found to be almost ever prone to sleep; so that in the midst of a journey, yea at dinner, or though busied about any thing, they presently fall into a drousieness. But as there are di­verse degrees,Of which there are various kinds: The continual Sleepiness, the Coma, &c. In every Lethar­gick Distemper there is an ex­cess of Sleep, and a defect of Memory. and various manners of this sleepy distemper, so also they constitute the various kinds of this Lethargick disposition. We shall for the present speak first of the former Lethargy, and properly so called, and afterwards of continual Sleepi­ness also of the Coma, Caro, and other soporiferous Diseases akin to it, and likewise of Continual Waking.

In the mean time, it is to be noted, that almost in every kind of Lethargy, there is always as its Pathognomick sign, a Torpor or Sleepiness, and oblivion or forgetfulness. Those who suffer the more grievous fits of this Disease, if they are awakened by any force in their declination, forget all things, nor are they able to remember their own, nor the names of their Friends: also, those who have drunk more sparingly of this forgetful cup, as much as they are proclive to Sleep, so much are they deficient in Memory; so that they forget late actions, and oftentimes repeat things done, and very often ask the same questions: As to the other faculties, as Reason, Phantasie, the sensitive and loco-motive powers, the failings or defects of them, are proportionate according to the enormities of Sleep and Memory. Wherefore, that the formal reason, and the causes of the Lethargy, may be the beter known, we should here first of all discourse concerning sleep and oblivion, and for what causes they are ex­cited.

The essence and causes of natural and non-natural Sleep, rehearsed.But having already discoursed concerning the former of these, we shewed that the es­sence of Sleep did consist in the corporeal souls withdrawing it self by little and little, and contracting the sphere of its irradiation, left destitute and as it were shut forth of doors, the outmost compass of the Brain, or its shelly part, and so the exterior, and all the organs of sense and motion, from the emanation of the spirits; so that they for refreshment sake, being called inward, lye down and give themselves to rest; in the mean time, the Pores and passages of the outward part of the Brain, being free and empty from the excursions of the spirits, are prepared for the coming of the nervous Liquor, stilled forth from the Blood, for a new provision of Spirits. In ac­customed and natural Sleep, these two causes, conspire and happen together, as it were out of a certain mutual compact of Nature; viz. at the same time, the Spirits give place, the nervous Humor enters: but in unnatural sleep, or that which is ex­traordinary, sometimes this cause, and sometimes that is the former; for the Spirits being wearied or called away, first withdraw themselves, and so offer an entrance to the nervous humor heaped up before the doors; or else the nervous humor driving to those places more plentifully, and as it were making its way by force, repels the Spirits, and entring into their passages, does as it were drown them: we have parti­cularly assigned the various occasions of either of these, and after what manner they come to pass. Concerning the eclipse or desect of the Memory, we need not speak much here, because it is wholely from the same cause, as immoderate Sleep, to wit, the exclusion, and an interdiction for a time, of the passing up and down of the Ani­mal Spirits, from the exterior passages of the Brain, full of some humor.

The causes of preternatural Sleep are,Preternatural Sleep, or an insatiable sleepiness (which is the chief symptom in the Lethargy, and sleepy Diseases) seems to arise wholely from the same causes as non-natural Sleep, carried forth only with greater force or energy; to wit, either the Animal Spirits, being first distemper'd, leave the outward compass of the Brain, and give an entrance,An infartion or obstruction of the outward part of the Brain, and a recess of the Spirits from thence: Sometimes this, sometimes that, is the cause. The Lethargy of­tentimes from the serous heap overflowing the outward part of the Brain: And sometimes from a Dropsi [...] of the whole Brain. not only to the nervous, but to the serous, and some other vicious Humor; or else, the superfluous and excrementitious humors, together with the nervous, break thorow the cortical doors of the Brain, and as it were overflowing its Pores and passages, drive thence and repel the Spirits; sometimes this is chiefly the cause, sometimes the former, and sometimes both together. We shall first speak of that which is the more frequent cause of the Lethargy, to wit, the eruption of either too much, or too incongruous humor, upon the confines of the Brain, and then afterwards of the departure of the Spirits from the affected part.

I have often found by Anatomical observation, that the Lethargy doth arise from the Serous heap rushing into the outward infoldings of the Brain, and entering into its Pores and Cortical passages; for in many dead of this Disease, I found the spaces between the foldings of the Brain, full of clear water, yea and its outmost substance soft and infirm, from too much wet; moreover in some I found the interior cavities swelled with water, and the whole frame of the Brain overflowed with a Dropsie, or rather a flood. When therefore in a great and mortal Lethargy, it hath appeared that it has been after this manner, we may well suspect in a lesser and cureable sleepi­ness, [Page 127] that the out-borders of the Brain, are at least too much watered with humor, and the tracts of the Spirits overflowed; especially if there appear any signs of water or of Serum, abounding about other parts of the Head.

A grievous sleepiness is wont to be excited,Not only a plenty of humour, but the malignity, often causes this Disease. not only from the Serum being too much, or from the over plenty of any other Morbific humor, but sometimes from its malignity: for it often happens, that a certain infestous and virulent matter is in­stilled from the Flood into the Brain, which entering the Pores of the Cortical sub­stance, profligates the Spirits, and either extinguishing them, or driving them away inwards, so that this region being left destitute of them, a sleepiness and forgetful­ness succeeds. There is none almost who hath not taken notice, that this often happens in malignant and ill handled Feavours: also in the Scorbutick Cachexie, the Yellow Iaundice, and certain other Chronical Diseases, oftentimes a sluggish and vapid or tastless water is sent in, instead of the subtil and spirituous nervous Juice, that is the parent of forgetfulness, and of sleepiness.

This Conjunct Cause of the Lethargy, The pro [...]atar­ctick causes of the Lethargy. In what respect they are in fault; to wit, the heaping up of too much Humor, or too incongruous, within the shelly part of the Brain, depends upon other Causes, to wit, more remote leading causes, and also evident causes. As to the former, they are wont to be in fault, both when the Blood supplies the distemper'd part with Mor­bific matter, and also because that the Brain it self too easily admits it.

For indeed,Both the Blood begetting evil humours, and sending them to the Brain; the Blood transfers to the Head in some, a great quantity of a wa­tery humor, and in others of a salt or scorbutical humor, also again in others excre­mentitious humors, and deadly to the animal government, sometimes taken from these bowels, and sometimes from those; and as occasion serves, instills them toge­ther with the nervous Juice, out of the Arteries on the outer borders of the Brain, and there by little and little insinuating this kind of Morbific Matter, by a long con­gestion, causes a dark cloud, or else by a sudden transportation of it, overflows at once all the outward part of the Brain, and drives away the inhabiting Spirits, like a Sea breaking in, and compels them to run more inwardly.

But indeed the Morbific Matter,and the Brain too easily recei­ving them. how copiously or infestous soever it be, and poured on the Head, doth not induce the Lethargic Distemper, unless the very weak or vici­ous, constitution of the Brain be also in fault: for if this be strong and of good tem­per, it easily resists the assaults of all those; yea it bears, without hurt, the errors and enormities in th [...] six non-naturals.Vpon what oc­casions the Brain is prone to the Lethargy. Those who have this part too humid, or too cold, as Children and old Men; also, those distempered with Cacochymical Humors, the Dropsie, Scurvy, or Humors gathered about the mouth of the Stomach, are very prone to sleep, and sometimes, fall from a stronger Evident Cause, into a continual drowsiness. Besides, those who have a weak Brain, and their Pores too lax or open, that by that means the feculencies obtruded from the Blood find a more easie passage, often become obnoxious to sleepiness, yea and to the Lethargy: for such as are given to Surfeiting and Drunkenness, are wont presently after to fall asleep, which weakens the tone of the Brain, and fill, and too much open its Pores, with a crude and filthy Juice; so that when it hath been for a long time accustomed, by reason of these occa­sions, to admit into them the Serous superfluities, it afterwards refuses nothing brought to it, but that its passages, like a course or wide strainer, suffers all the grosser par­ticles, both Saline, watery, and earthy, easily to pass thorow them.

Besides these more remote leading causes (which become the act of the stirred up Morbific) there are more strong Evident Causes,The evident cau­ses of this Dis­ease. for so great danger does not hang over the Brain, as that its whole compass should be invaded, from every morbid pro­vision, nor upon every light occasion, But there are many and diverse occasions, by which the sleepy assaults are seen to be incited: the chief of these are great Sur­feits, Drunkenness, especially of Wine, or the Drinking immoderately of Strong-waters, then after such excess to lye all night, or sleep in the open Air: further, an evacuation of the Serum, by otherways, after having been long suppressed; also if Spaw-waters being drunk in a larger quantity, and not again render'd presently by Urine, threaten a Lethargy. And so also do recrements of other Diseases, either not well or not at all Cured, being translated to the Head; so as a continual sleepiness of­ten happens after acute Feavours, or such as continue long, and other Chronical Dis­eases, and especially the Headach, Frensie, Empyema, or collection of gross Humors upon the Lungs and the Colick.

Thus much of the Lethargy, Another con­junct cause of the Lethargy consists in the af­flicting the Spi­rits with some narcotick. whose assault proceeds from the Cortex or shelly part of the Brain, being affected; to which succeed either an eclipse or an exclusion of the Spirits there inhabiting, with a sleepiness and oblivion. But as non-natural sleep, so sometimes what is preternatural, begins from the Spirits being first dejected; and which is usual to succeed another Cause. It is obvious to any one, that this ordi­narily [Page 128] happens from more strong Opiates, without any previous flood or stopping of the cortical part of the Brain: for it is not probable that Narcoticks stir up the Humors, and send them to the Brain, when it plainly appears, that all the effervescen­ces and flowings of these, are allayed by them. But if it should be asked after what manner, and by what means, Opiates cause sleep, and sometimes a deadly Torpor or sleepiness, we say; That this Medicine is a certain kind of poison, beating down or extinguishing the Animal Spirits, by its blasting; the Blood and solid parts in the mean time being almost untouch'd:How opiates causes Sleep. Wherefore, when the Animal Spirits become raging, and as it were struck with madness, running hither and thither, and will not be quieted and allayed, Opiates being administer'd, like water flung upon a flame, de­story some of the outmost bands of them, so that the rest being lessened, and flying inwards, quietly lye down. We have at large discoursed of these things in a parti­cular Tract, Of the Operations of Medicines on the Humane Body: For the present we shall note (which is to the purpose) that Narcoticks (or Medicines causing rest) being taken at the mouth, do put forth their powers partly in the Ventricle, and indeed immediately, and partly in the Brain, both that and the Mass of Blood mediating. By what means Narcoticks do operate, whilst in the Ventricle, and provoke sleep, we have shewn, Chap. XV. When they are moderate, in either province, they gently intoxicate some unquiet Spirits, and so immediately quiet the rest; but if any one takes Opiates in too large a Dose, he shall presently feel hurt both in the Ventricle and in the Brain, and a little after being insensible, shall suffer a greater evil in either: to wit,How they ope­rate in the Ven­tricle, [...] what mea [...] in the Brain. a mighty heaviness, and as it were an immoveable weight in the Stomach, which seems to opress both it and the neighbouring parts; indeed by this sign, the Fibres of this place (the Spirits which before actuated them being broken) become without life, and as it were dead; then by reason of the Opiate, particles being carried about with the Blood, to the frame or compass of the Brain, and in­stilled into its Cortical or shelly part, the Spirits being driven away from thence or extinguished, an irresistable, and oftentimes a deadly sleep follows: yea, I have sometimes known, from a more grievous hurt inflicted on the Ventricle, only by the use of a more strong Narcotic, Death it self to have followed before sleep could creep upon them,The History of one presently kill'd by taking too large a Dose of Opium. coming by a long way about. A strong man vexed with a most cruel Colick, for ease sake (whilst a Physician was sent for) took rashly a great quantity of Opium; a little after he had taken it, he complained of a great burthen oppressing, and mightily weighing down the Ventricle: His Friends and the by-standers gave him Cordial waters, Wine, and Strong-Waters, but without any ease: This oppressi­on creeping wider ahout the Precordia, raised up pains and swoonings; but still being awake, and constant in mind, he cryed out, that his spirits more and more failed him; till about three hours after, complaining that his sight was gone, he presently dyed.

Sometimes a Lethargy arises from Narcotick Particles begot­ten in the Body;But that we may return to the Lethargy, as it is a Disease and not the effects of Opium, whence we digressed; concerning which we are yet to enquire, whether it may arise from a Narcotick Humor begotten in us, as some Chymists assert? We shall tell you our conjecture, that we think this 'tis sufficiently plain, that there are other sorts of Morbific particles produced in our Bodies, than those commonly called Ele­mentary and Humoral, and that they do affect after a various manner, viz. besides the Watery, Earthly, Bilous, Phlegmatick, or Melancholic, we may find others Vi­triolick, Nitro-sulphureous, and others participating of enormous Sulphurs and Salts, and active to our evil. The Convulsive Pathology can by no other means be delivered and explained, unless by supposing that some extraneous little bodies, and as it were Nitro-sulphureous, which sticking to the Spirits, and at last cast off by them, stir up the Explosive,Even as Con­vulsions from a nitro-sulphure­ous, or explo­sive matter. that is Convulsive force: In like manner we may think, that others of another nature may perhaps be begotten, such as are of a Sulphureous, Vitriolick, or Narcotick nature, which when they creep into the Brain and nervous Stock, fall up­on some Animal Spirits, which they by chance do meet, with extinguishing and fixing them, ordinarily induce their losses and eclipses, such as happen in the Vertigo, Apo­plexy, or Palsie, as we shall more fully shew hereafter. In like manner, in a great fit of the Lethargy, though it be improbable, that these kind of Narcotick particles should be in heaps derived from the Blood into the Brain, in so great a quantity, that they should at once overturn the spirits dwelling in its whole precincts, and fix them; yet we may believe, that this may be some part of the Cause. Wherefore, in every long sleepiness, or Lethargick disposition, we do suspect the Animal Spirits, to be burthened with such a Lethaean Copula, and that we should direct the darts of every Medicine against it.

[Page 129]Thus much concerning the formal reason,What things be­long to the The­ory of the Le­thargy. subject, and causes of the Lethargy, pro­perly so called, the summ of all which is, That the Animal Spirits, the inhabitants of the exterior Brain, being hindred from their wonted motion and emanation, lye down in a profound and inextricable sleep: but they are hindred either by the pro­per vice of themselves, because having taken or being distemper'd by some Narco­tick, they are as it were coagulated and become immoveable; or because their ex­terior tracts or paths in the Brain, are obstructed and possessed by some strange guest, so that there is no fit space granted them for their expansion.

The symptoms of this Disease,Its symptoms. which now come in order to be explained, the chief are Sleep, and forgetfulness, or a cessation of every other knowing or sponta­neous function, unequal and slow breathing, a Feavour, and oftentimes, the distem­per growing worse, Convulsions, a leaping of the Tendons, and at length universal and deadly Cramps or Convulsions.

As to the too former of these,The chief of which are, a sleepiness, and oblivion. we mentioned before, that Memory is deficient alto­gether for the same reason, as Sleep exceeds; to wit, forasmuch as the Spirits inha­biting the outward part of the Brain, being either bound up or expulsed from their tracts, do not irradiate or beam forth from the Callous Body, into the Cortex or shelly part of the Brain, by which imagination or waking is made; nor do they, be­ing carried inwards, and repeating their former footsteps, represent the Ideas or Images of things before acted. Indeed, Sleep, Watching, and Memory, are affecti­ons of the same parts and places: of which it is no light sign, and which vulgarly appears by experience, that Opiate Medicines, by which Sleep is provoked, being of­ten given, hurt the Memory. Yea I my self knew one, having taken a strong Hyp­notick, or Medicine to cause sleep, after being sick with a Feavour, lived many nights and days without sleep, and almost wholely lost his Memory, especially as to any thing long past.

As to what respects the other faculties of the Corporeal Soul,By what means the other facul­ties of the Soul, to wit, the knowing, de­siring and loco­motive, are af­fected. to wit, the Imagi­nation, Appetite or desire, Sense, and Motion, although no Narcortick or sleepy chains are cast upon the Spirits destinated to these offices, and that the Pores and pas­sages of the interior Brain, within which they are wont to expatiate, are seen to be open enough, yet these Spirits, because during the fit, they are denied their com­merce with the others bound up, of themselves lye down, and are overcome by Sleep. For as a continual sleepiness beginning about the root of the sensitive Soul, to wit, the Cortex or shelly part of the Brain, immediately its whole province is obscured, as it were with a veil, to wit, the knowing, desiring, and self-moving part of the Soul, and also the intellect it self, its windows being every where shut up, hardly speculates, or beholds any thing.

Further,The evil of the Disease reaches also to the Cere­bel. the power or force of this Disease, is seen to be extended to the other part of the sensitive Soul, presiding o're the Cerebel and its Regiment; wherefore, during the fit of the Lethargy, the respiration and Pulse are altered: for that be­comes unequal and slow, sometimes drawing the breath deep and long, sometimes short, repeated, and as it were double: and this being great and swift, diffuseth a feavourish heat thorow the whole body.

The reason of the former,Hence breathing is often hurt, or altered. if I am not deceived, is this, to wit, that the same Mor­bific Cause, which infects the outward part of the Brain, and its inhabitants, in­fects also in part the Cerebel, and the Spirits there serving for the motions of the Precordia; which being by that means disturbed and hindred, though they omit not thir tasks, yet they perform them difficultly, and with interruption; hence the Dia­phragma and Muscles of the Thorax, do not so easily and swiftly as before, perform their Systoles, but laboriously and with a longer straining or endeavour, and some­times with repeated tryals or forces. This kind of unequal, long, and difficult breath­ing, frequently happens also in a Phrensie; wherefore, some judge the cause both of this and that,This proceeds not from the Inflammation of the Midriff. From whence the Lethargick Feaver. to be from the inflammation of the Midriff or Diaphragma, but amiss, because the symptom in both these Cephalick Diseases depends on the Cerebel, partici­pating the hurt of the Brain, grievously distemper'd.

As to the Feavour of one troubled with a Lethargy, to be known by the great and quick Pulse, hot breathing, with a burning of the Tongue and Mouth, without any heat in the extream parts, some deduce this from the same cause as the Lethargy, to wit, either from Phlegm putrefying in the Brain, or from a cold inflammation of the Brain Others on the contrary, affirm the Feavour to be the primary effect, and thence the Morbific Matter to be carried into the Head, from the burning Blood.

Concerning these,Not from Phlegm putrify­ing in the Brain. we grant, that a Lethargy comes often after a Feavour, but we can say nothing of the Phlegm putrefying in the Brain, or of its frigid Inflammation, which is as much as to say, icy fire; for if this be malignant, or of evil custom, hap­pening [Page 130] also to Children, old Men, and other Phlegmatick, Scorbutick, or very Cae­cochymical persons, or such as are full of ill humors, about the height of a Disease, not well Cured, oftentimes in the place of a Crisis, the feavourish matter being snatch'd into the Head,Nor is the for­mer always the cause of it in the Lethargy. Lib. de Morb. Convuls. Cap. viij. p. 96. induces a cruel and oftentimes a deadly Torpor or sleepiness; which notwithstanding ought not to be esteemed the symptom of the Disease, but of that Feavour. After this manner I have often observed, and elsewhere have particu­larly described, that Soporiferous Feavours, and as it were marked with a certain sleepiness, have raged and become Epidemical, at sometimes, by reason of the evil constitution of the year.

But it is no less usual when a Lethargy is the principal distemper, for a Feavour to follow, and to owe to it as much its original, as its Cure; for a Feavour beginning after a continual sleepiness, that being shaken off or discussed, ceases soon of it self; such a Feavour we think to arise,More often the effect of this Disease not from the Blood growing hot by reason of the strife of intestine particles, but because of the impulse of the containing and neigh­bouring bodies, variously altering and disturbing its course. For indeed the right tem­per of the Blood very much depends, not only on its particles being truly mixt and overcome, but also upon the motion impressed on the Heart and the Vessels, or the Organical Circulation;proceeds from the Organical Circulation of the Blood, be­ing hindred or altered. to wit, that its Liquor may every where flow with an equal and alike flowing and ebbing; which, if finding any where a stop or Remora, it be retarded, its motion is made more impetuous, and with a Feavourish tumult in the whole channel besides. This manifestly appears in violent passions, acute pains, a breaking of the unity, in all, which the Blood being obstructed in one place, or strait­ned, it is snatched more vehemently in others, and conceives a Feavourish heat; for this cause, to wit, lest the thread of its circulation should be broken, on which life necessarily depends;How none dyes without a Fea­ver. wherefore as the Proverb says, None dyes without a Feavour: For how poor or deficient soever the Blood is, and that the strength of all the move­ing parts are weak, yet in the instant agony of Death, by the mere impulse of Na­ture, they either pursue their functions, or the nervous Fibres every where erect them­selves, and put forth their utmost endeavours, that they might drive forward the Blood flowing in them, and Circulate it with a rapid motion. I once visited an il­lustrious Lady, who for some time had been miserably afflicted with Colick and Convulsive distempers, and quite worn out, and at length fell suddenly into a dead­ly Lethargy. When I perceived her Pulse to beat strongly, I prescribed that four ounces of Blood should be taken out of the jugular Vein, which immediately leap'd from the opened Vessel, with such force that, I believe, if it had been suffered, the whole Mass of Blood would have flowed thence: for the next day after, her dead body being opened, I found scarce four ounces more of Blood in her whole Body, and yet she dyed thus in a Feavour. The reason of the Lethargick Feavour is whole­ly the same, which is seen to arise only from the Vital Organs, being very much incited by labouring Nature, and therefore vehemently driving about the Blood.

The Prognostick of the Lethar­gy.The prognostick of the Lethargy is shut within a strait limit; for the fit of the Dis­ease being for the most part acute, is soon terminated either in Death or health, and for the most part it is wont to give more of fear, than of hope. If it comes up­on a malignant Feavour or hard to be cured,When the Dis­ease is desperate. or if it comes upon other Cephalick or Convulsive Diseases, as the Headach, Phrensie, Madness, Epilepsie, or also upon a long and grievous Colick, or Gout, the Physician can predict nothing but evil: nor is it less to be feared if it happen in a Body full of evil Humors, or one long sick, or in an old Man.

When it is only so.In like manner it is an evil omen, if the sick, being presently overwhelmed with a great Torpor or stupidness, and almost Apoplectick, cannot be awakened, and if he breaths unequally, and slowly, or with a great snorting, then the Disease increasing, and the sick troubled with tremblings, Cramps, leapings of the Tendons, and at length with Convulsive Motions, it is to be esteemed desperate or without hope.

When some hope may be concei­ved.But if the Distemper be excited, without any great foregoing Cause, with an on­ly Evident Cause, as a Surfeit, Drunkenness, or by the use of Narcoticks, a blow on the Head, or some not deadly stroke, we may expect the event to be less deadly or mortal.

From whence more hope may be had.Then if the Distemper, arising from such occasions, happens to a Body before whole and strong; if it does not wholly take away the Sense and Memory at the first assault, and after a short time the symptoms begin to remit a little, of such a sick person you ought not to despair.

Whence more of hope than of fear.In every Lethargy, if any Cause of the Disease is seen to be cut off and removed, so that if by the help of Medicines, or the instinct of Nature, copious and helpful evacuations by Sweat, Urine, or by Stool do follow, with ease or help, or if by ap­plying [Page 131] of Blistering Plasters a great deal of water flows forth, if a swelling or great whelks or pustles break out behind the Ears, or in the Neck, if frequent sneezing happens, or water flow from the Eyes or Nose, thence a certain hope of health may be expected.

Hippocrates l. Coac. c. 145. mentions a Cure of the Lethargy, A red Swelling coming upon a Lethargy some­times cures it. to be often made by the distemper of the Thorax; saying, That many Lethargicks that are stuffed with Phlegm have recovered: Which words are wonderfully wrested by Interpreters. Mercurialis understands by suppuration, the putrified matter of the Disease, to be evacuated by the Ears and Nostrils. Prosper Martianus will have Hippocrates to be understood in the word Lethargy, not the disease of the Head, but of the Breast. But where­fore are all these subterfuges? when it often happens that the Morbific matter, at first fixed in the Head, and stirring up a continual sleepiness, or Lethargy; the same being thence supped up by the Blood, and deposited in the breast, doth produce an Empyema, Lib. 9. of Con­vulsive Diseases. or a spitting like those whose Lungs are wasted. In the description of a Soporiferous Epidemical Feavour, which raged in the year 1661. we noted the same to have happened to many.

Concerning the Cure of this Disease,The Cure of the Lethargy. for that it has no respite or truces, it is not to be deliberated on: after a sharp Clyster being given, let a Vein be opened pre­sently, for the Vessels being emptied of Blood, they are more apt to sup up the Se­rum, or other Humors deposited in the Brain.Phlebotomy al­most always ne­cessary. Further, in this case, I advise ra­ther to open the Vein in the Neck, than that in the Arm. Because by this means, the Blood being very much heaped up, within the bosoms of the Head, and per­haps standing still, is more easily reduced to an equal Circulation.

Letting blood being performed,Outward Ad­ministrations. immediately other remedies of every kind are to be made use of: Let Vesicatories or blistering Plasters be applied largely to the Neck and Legs; anoint the Temples and Face with Oyl of Amber, or Cephalick Balsoms; lay over all the Feet a Cataplasm or Poultis, made of Rue, Crowfoot, and Pepper­wort, with black Sope and Bay-salt; use hard frictions or rubbings to the Members, frequently apply to the Nostrils Salt of Urine, or Spirits of Sal Armoniac.

Then let there be administred Cephalick Remedies.Internal Reme­medies.

Take of the Water of Poeony Flowers,Iulep. of black Cherries, Rue, and of Walnuts, simple, each three ounces; of the Water of Poeony Compound two ounces, of Castor tyed up in a rag and hung in the glass two drams, of Sugar three drams; mix them and make a Iulep,Spirits. let it be given about four or five sponfuls every three or four hours; also with every Dose of this, give twelve or fifteen drops of the Spirits of Amber, or of Sal Ar­moniac, or a paper of the following Powder.

Take of the Powder of the Root of Poeony the male,A Powder. of a Mans Skull, of the Root of Vir­ginian Serpentworth or Snakeweed, of Contrayerva, each one dram; Bezoar, and of Pearl, each half a dram; of Coral prepared one dram, make a Powder, and divide it into twelve parts.

Further,A Vomit or Purge. here it is to be considered, whether an evacuation, either by Vomit or Stool, should not be made. I know that this is variously controverted among Au­thors, and I have also known it performed with various success: which being weigh­ed and laid together, I shall briefly propose my opinion.

If the Lethargy should arise upon a Surfeit,How they are indicated. or a late Drinking, or if from taking some disagreeable things, or Narcoticks; presently let a Vomit be given; where­fore, you may give Salt of Vitriol, with Wine and Oxymel of Squills; or in strong bodies an Infusion of Crocus Metallorum, or of Mercurius Vitae, with black Cherry wa­ter. Let it be given, and if it doth not work of it self, provoke Vomiting with a Feather thrust down the Throat.

But if the fit of the Disease comes upon a Feavour,When to be a­voided. or any other Cephalick Di­stempers, or if it be raised up primarily, or of it self, by reason of some foregoing cause before lying in the Blood or Brain, then a Vomit or Purge being given at the beginning, when the matter is flowing, doth oftentimes more hurt than good; because the Humors whilst in motion, are more shaken and agitated, and when they cannot be subdued and brought away, they drive them into the distempered part.

On the second day,Starification. if the numness doth not remit, let Phlebotomy be repeated, if the Pulse shew it fitting; or else instead thereof, take forth blood from the Shoulders, after Scarification by Cupping Glasses; then a little after (if nothing hin­ders) let a Vomit or Purge be administred.

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Catharticks. Take of the Sulphur of Antimony five grains, of Scammony sulphurated eight grains, of the Cream of Tartar six grains; mingle them, make a Powder; let it be given in a spoonful of the afore prescribed Iulep.

Or Take of Scammony sulphurated twelve grains, of the Cream of Tartar fifteen grains, of Castor three grains; make a Powder, and let it be given after the same manner. In the mean time, let altering Medicines, or such as derive the matter from the place, the same or such like, be still continued.

Erthines, Snee­zing Powders, and Apophleg­matisms, &c.On the third day, and afterwards ought to be applied such things, which are forbid at the beginning of the Disease, for fear of a new Fluxion, viz. Errhines, or things that Purge the Head at the Nose, Sneezing Medicines or Powders, Apophlegmatisms, or Medicines which draw the Humors from the head by the mouth. Further, it is then sometimes expedient to apply the warm intrails of some animal new killed, to the forepart of the Head, after the hair is clipped or shaven off, and often changed: also sometimes to foment those places with a Discussing and Cephalick Decoction, or Fo­mentation: but before all other Topicks, A Blistering applyed to the Forepart of the Head very much helps. I have known great help brought from a large Vesicatory or Blistering, with many running sores made all over the compass of the Head. I saw two sick with the Lethargy, after the Disease held long, and that not only the Memory, but almost all knowledge was lost, Cured chiefly by this Remedy: for in both of them, the [...]eyed places, when they could not be easily covered, poured forth great plenty of thin matter, about half a pint every day. It will not be need­ful to set down any more Medicines of this nature, being commonly and every where to be had; it now remains, that we illustrate what we have said, with some Histories of sick people, which I shall here add.

The first History.A Country-man about thirty years old, of a Phlegmatick Complexion, something in­clining to Sanguine, being a long time obnoxious to frequent Headaches, about the beginning of Winter, became sleepy and very stupid; and one day, whilst he was following the Plow in the Fields, lying down on the ground, he fell into a profound sleep, and when he could not be awakened by his servant and others calling him, he was carried home and put to bed; his Friends in the mean time expecting that after he had finished his sleep, he would awake of himself. After the space of twelve hours being past, when he could not be awakened by pulling, thumping, noise, and other means, they sent for me; as soon as I came, I applied Blistering Plasters, large ones, all about the hinder part of the Neck, then taking from him about sixteen ounces of Blood, I caused him to take a strong Clyster, and his Face and Temples to be a­nointed with Oyl of Amber, and Frictions and painful Ligatures to be applied to his Legs. Also I prescribed him to take oftentimes in a day, Spirit of Sut, with a Cephalick Julep. Notwithstanding he lay all that day stupid, without any sense; and if being provoked by some strong or hard pulling, he lifted up himself a little, and opened his Eyes, presently falling down again, and shutting them, he fell into his continual sleep again. About Evening I took care to have Cupping Glasses, with a great flame to be applied to his shoulders, which done, he began a little to awake; and about that time he had a great stool, and very much Serum flowed forth from the Blisters, the Plasters being taken off, then we had great hopes of his health. And therefore at every turn, remedies being applied that night; awaking in the morn­ing following he knew his Friends, and answered aptly to those who interrogated him: But as yet the whole cloud was not vanished, but that being sleepy, he remained several days oblivious, till at length, being purged twice, he perfectly grew well.

The reason of this.This case has the exact type of the Lethargy, properly so called, where for the con­junct Cause, it had an heaping up of abundance of Serum about the compass of the Brain, and then a breaking in of it into its infoldings: and when by a timely use of Remedies, the flowing in of new matter was hindered, and that which lay up­on the part was partly supped up into the Blood, and partly being rarified into Va­pours and Effluvia's, was shaken off, the Cure of the Disease quickly and wholely followed.

A second Histo­ry.An Oxford Gardiner being sick of a Feavour, about the height of the Disease, in­stead of a Crisis he fell into a continual Sleep, and lay drowned in it for three or four days, so that he could not be awakened by the use of any Remedies: But at length, his Head being shaven, Blistering Plasters were applied all over his Head, and many running sores left open, and awakening he recovered the use of his senses a little: But his Memory being almost wholely lost, he became so stupid, that he remembered the name of no Man, nor their words, and remained like a Bruit. When he had thus remained foolish for the space of almost two months, and still very sleepy, the [Page 133] cloud began a little to be dispelled: and at length, he returning to his wonted la­bour, was in indifferent good health; but he never had afterwards the same vigor of mind and wit, as he had before this Disease. In this case you have an example of a Lethargy coming upon an ill Cured Feavour, in which the Morbific Matter, by a sudden translation of it into the outward part of the Brain, had for a little while filled, not only all the Pores and passages, but also had so hurt their Conformation, that the Spirits being for some time excluded, and at length freed, they could not re­cover their former paths, or wonted tracts, till of a long time after.

I remember very well,The third Hi­story. the example of a Lethargy, arising from the use of Opi­ates, in a Country Village where I lodged by chance one night, by reason of the foulness of the weather. For being about to go to bed, mine Host asked me if I would visit two poor people his Neighbours, distemper'd after a wonderful and miserable manner. When I shewed my self ready to do the office, not only out of Charity, but led also by curiosity, I was carried willingly into a small and poor Cottage, where I found the Father an old Man, and his Son, both of them in two Beds in one and the same Chamber, overwhelmed with a most profound Sleep, which had oppressed them the day before, after they had eaten some roots, which they had dug up in the Garden, being it seems Henbane, which they took for Parsnips.

After they had both Oyl and Oxymel poured down their throats,The Cure descri­bed. and a Feather thrust down a great way, that made them vomit, I prescribed for them tincture of Castor, with a spoonful of Treacle-water (which Remedies I had then about me) to be given them at every turn all night: besides, that they should anoint their Nostrils and Temples with the same Tincture; and if it might be done, that a strong Clyster should be given them: the following day the old Man first, and afterwards the Son awaking, returned to themselves, the sleepiness being almost wholely shaken off. In these distemper'd, after the reliques of the Narcotick were cast out by Vomit, left they should do further hurt, there was only need, that by fit Medicines (among which Castor deservedly is esteemed to be contrary to the venom of Opiates) the Spirits being excited, should be set free from the sleepy poison afflicting them.

CHAP. IV.

Of some other sleepy Distempers, viz. a continual Somnolency, the Coma, or heavy Sleeping; and the Caros, or a deprivation of the Senses.

IN the former Chapter, we have fully shown what doth belong to the knowledge, prognostick, and Cure of the Lethargy, properly so called. But we did not only therefore affirm, that the seat of this Disease was in the unequal compass, the cranklings, or infoldings of the outward part of the Brain, because we had there as­signed the repository of the Memory, and the porch of Sleep, (although we might from hence conclude it;) but besides, because it hath appeared so to me from Anato­mical observations very often,Sleepy Diseases do not arise by reason of the Ventricles of the Brain being filled with wa­ter. that the Lethargy does not arise (as is commonly thought) from the interior Ventricles of the Brain being distemper'd: for we have known, these to be frequently overflown with water, and sometimes distended with ex­travasated Blood, and yet the sick whilst they lived, were free from the Coma, or any great stupidity. I must confess, that sometimes the Dropsie of the whole Brain causes the continual sleepiness: but in this case not only the internal Cavity, but also the Intersitia, or the spaces between the outward Infoldings, are filled with a flood of wa­ters.

The Lethargy therefore being confined to the outmost borders of the Brain,The ends or li­mits of the Li­thargy, as to the places distem­pered, are con­stituted. Some sleepy Di­stempers lesser than that, viz. Sleepiness, and the Coma: The Caros is greater than it. we so constitute its limits, that those circlings about, being almost wholely possessed, together with the interspersed Marrow, perpetual and inexplicable Sleep, or hard to be rid of, with oblivion or forgetfulness, is induced; in the mean time, the middle part of the Brain, or the Callous body, from whence the Animal Spirits irradiate, or beam forth, into all parts both sensible and motional, being almost unhurt; for the total eclipse of this causes the Apoplexy, as shall be shewed hereafter. But indeed on either sides of these ends or limits, other soporiferous distempers are ordinarily found, which though of kin to the Lethargy, yet some of them are lesser than it, as Somno­lency or continual sleeping, and the Coma; only one is greater, as the Caros. There­fore [Page 134] we shall now, and in order, speak briefly of every one of these, as also of some opposite passions, viz. thorow waking, and the waking Coma: and first of Continual Sleepiness.

Continual Slee­piness described.Most Authors call this not a Disease, but an evil habit, or a sleepy disposition, for the distemper'd, as to other things, are well enough; they eat and drink well, go abroad, take care well enough of their domestick affairs; yet whilst talking, or walk­ing, or eating, yea their mouths being full of meat, they shall nod, and unless rouz­ed up by others, fall fast asleep: and thus they sleep continually almost, not only some days or months, but (as it is said of Epemenides) many years; wherefore we ought to believe this a Disease, and worthy of Cure, which defrauds one of more than half his life.

Its Seat assign­ed.The seat of sleepiness, as that of the Lethargy, is to be placed in the outward part of the Brain; but with this difference; that the material or conjunct Cause of this Distemper, though it vexes, or troubles always without doors, yet it penetrates less deeply than the Lethargy; yea it disturbs or affects almost the whole superficies of the Brain, or the mere Cortical substances of the infoldings, the included marrow be­ing almost untouch'd:In what respect it differs both from the Le­thargy and the Coma. in which respect, it differs not only from the Lethargy, but the Coma also; for in the Distempers which we described, though continual sleep presses on them, yet 'tis easily broken off; then besides, being fully awakened they remember many things, and converse with their Friends, though immediately prone again to sleep: whence it appears, that the cause of this Disease sticks only in the outer border of the Brain, nor does it enter deep into its compass, as other sleepy distempers do.

The conjunct cause of Slee­piness.But indeed it may be suspected, that while the Blood every where washing the border of the Brain, with thick rivulets, and instils every where into it a subtil wa­ter, for the matter of Spirits, oftentimes a great plenty of water flowing thither with it, and entering together the Cortex, and remaining there, mightily fills it, and (like an Anasarca in the Body) swells it up: But this Cortical or shelly part being swelled up after this manner, and as it were dropical, so presses the Medullary infold­ings, every where lying under it, that the expansion of the Spirits being hindred, by reason of the Pores of the exterior part of the Brain being something bound up,What the deluge or Anasarca of the Cortical part of the Brain is. sleepiness is induced; to which it happens, that the Blood, that by reason of the Cortex of the Brain being intumefied with water, as it were between the Skin, Cir­culates less expeditiously, thorow all the neighbouring parts, and so is apt to fill the Vessels and bosoms, and to stagnate in them; by which means it comes to pass, that the exterior border is yet more compressed,To which hap­pen an heaping up, or as it were a stagna­tion of the Blood, about the compass of the Brain. and so the spaces requisite for the emanation of the Spirits, are also more streightned. Indeed this appears to be part of the cause, from hence, because this kind of sleepiness, by reason of the Blood not freely circulating in the Head, and therefore apt to stagnate, is wont to make red the Face, with a certain blueness and blackness: Further, whilst the subtil Liquor, which is for the matter of Spirits, passing thorow this pond or deluge heaped toge­ther in the Cortex of the Brain, goes forward into the Marrow lying under, it is probable, that with it do creep thorow some extraneous, and as it were very small Narcotick particles,Also a Torpor or Sleepiness of the Spirits. which growing to the Spirits immediately render them torpid or stupid, and prone to sloth of their own accord.

This Distemper, as I have observed in many, is not very dangerous, for as it of­ten happens, it is wholely Cured, or at least remaining for many years, without the Carus or Apoplexy (which is wont to be feared) it doth not become mortal or terrible. The Cure of this Disease often happens, the seat of it being changed, to wit, when clearing the Brain, the Morbific Matter is transferred to the Cerebel, which coming thither, produces tremblings of the Heart, the Asthma, loss of Spirits, and other troublesome Symptoms, commonly taken for Hypochondriacal,

The Cure of Somnolency.The Curatory Method suggests chiefly these intentions, to wit, that after a pro­vision or foresight of the whole, that (where it is convenient) Phlebotomy be per­formed, and a Purge given; then those Remedies to be diligently administred, by which the Blood and the Brain may be freed from the watery deluge, and this lat­ter may be strengthened, whereby it may for the future receive and retain the Se­rous superfluities. For those ends, once or twice a week, may be given Pills of Amber, or of Cochiae, with the Refine of Ialap; at other times, let there be taken daily Morning and Evening, a Dose of a Cephalick Electuary, or Spirits of Tincture of Sal Armoniack, Amber, Sut, with a Cephalick Julep: the forms of which may be picked out of those above described. At eight of the Clock in the Morning, and at five in the Afternoon, let them drink a draught of Coffee, or the Liquor prepa­red of that Berry, first boiling in it, the leaves of Sage or Rosemary, till it has got a [Page 135] greenish Tincture. Let them drink for their ordinary drink, a Decoction of Lignum Sanctum, adding towards the end, the leaves of Sage or Betony, or other Cephalicks. Further, it is expedient that two large Issues be made between the Shoulders, and also frequent Blistering Plasters be applied about the Neck. The hair being cut off, let a quilted thing of Cephalicks and Spices be worn under the Cap. Let them also hold their noise often over a Vessel fill'd with Salt of Urine, or the Spirit of Sal Armoniack; let care be taken that they keep to an exact order of diet, and that those attending the sick, do not only rouse them from sleep, but daily at some set hours keep them waking.

A certain Gentleman of a Sanguine Complexion, and when he was young, of a sharp and cunning wit,An History. but afterwards growing aged, being given to idleness and drunkenness, became dull and stupid, and also Dropsical, with a great paunch, and his thighs and legs swelled. Yet from these Diseases (which he frequently fell into) when he abstained at any time from drinking, and took Physick, he oftentimes quickly grew well. But at length, though he was freed from the Dropsie, he was oppressed with so heavy a sleepiness, and that almost perpetually, that in what place soever he was, or what ever he was doing he would sleep; then being awakened by his Servants or Friends, his mind appeared well enough, and for a few minutes he would discourse of any thing well enough, then immediately fall again to sleep. To this man I prescribed, after he had taken in vain several Medicines,The [...] Sick [...] that every Morning and Evening he should take of the Powder of the Leaves of Betony dryed in the Sun, and kept in a Glass, a spoonful in a draught of the distilled water of Lavender Flowers. By which Re­medy finding ease, after a few days, he was perfectly Cured within a month, and enjoyed perfect health for four years after: Afterwards by reason of his evil manner of living, the same returned again, but the same Remedy found not the same success; yea there was need of other Medicines besides; sometimes he took the Spirits of Harts-horn, or of Sut, with an appropriate Julep; sometimes Cephalick Conserves and Powders, to which sometimes Steel was added. When he would indulge him­self by Drinking, instead of Wine or Beer, he drunk Coffee; but for his ordinary drink, he had sometimes Ale, with the leaves of Scurvigrass, Sage, and Spices infused in it; and sometimes with Woods, Spices, and Cephalick Herbs boiled with it: He lived thus for many years after, almost always intemperate, and full of gross humors, yet free from the Lethargy; at length a Cachexy or evil state of Body inva­ding him, and wasting with a Cough and Asthma, by degrees, he dyed.

The next sleeepy Distemper before spoken of,The sleepy Coma. greater than this last, and yet lesser than the Lethargy, is that which is commonly called the sleepy Coma. Those trou­bled with this, are for the most part oppressed with an heavy sleep, which they almost still indulge, and lye with their mouth gaping, and their lower Jaw fallen down, more like dead than living persons; being rouzed up by some strong pulling or pinching, they look about, speak to those standing by, answer their questions, but immediately sleeping again; they are much troubled to be hinderd or disturbed from sleep so pleas­ingly creeping on them. And thus indisposed after this manner, they continue for many days, yea sometimes months, sleeping without any Feavour accompanying, or follow­ing it, nor have their breathing hurt, and not very forgetful, in which it differs from the Lethargy: Again, they differ from those sick of the Distemper but now de­scribed no less; because, those sick of this Coma, are for the most part fixed to their Bed or Chair, and walk not abroad as the others, nor take any care of their houshold affairs. They answer to any short questions properly, but they cannot dis­course, or deliberate about doing any business.

Without doubt,The reason of it. the Cause of this is of the same nature as the former, but of a middle degree between those two but now described; for indeed, it may be well su­spected in this Distemper, that the Morbific Matter doth penetrate the Brain a lit­tle larger than in a Continual Sleepiness: to wit, the turning cranklings, or Corti­cal infoldings, together with the small Rivulets of the included Marrow are invaded: But yet they reach not to the greater bosoms of the Marrow, within the Callous Body, that are wont to be possessed in the Lethargy.

The Coma sometimes beginning first and of it self,The Coma is ei­ther a primary Disease, or it comes after o­ther Distempers. like the Lethargy, proceeds either from a Serous deluge poured forth from the Blood into the Cortex of the Brain; or else from a Narcosis, or a sleepy stupidness inflicted on the spirits dwelling there; and then, by how much this Distemper is lesser than the Lethargy, by so much it is esteemed less dangerous. But this Disease more frequently comes upon other Chro­nical or acute Diseases, to wit, the Headach, Convulsions, and frequently ill-judged Feavours, especially in Children, old Men and Women, and Phlegmatick people. Some time since, I observed in the Epidemical Feavour of the Nerves, (which I have else­where [Page 136] described) as some were Lethargical, so many were troubled with this Sleepy Coma; of whom many grew well, the Morbific matter being translated from the Head into the Breast. Further, in other cases, this Distemper of a doubtful event, between hope and fear, requires the careful pains of a prudent Physician.

The Cure of it when it is a Disease of it self.In the primary Coma, the Curatory Method suggests almost the same intentions of healing as in the Lethargy: as to the Morbific Matter, indeavour must be had, both that a new flowing into the Brain may be prevented; and also that what is already impacted, may be discussed or taken away. Further, the Animal Spirits ought to be rouzed up, or excited, and all sleepiness or stupidity shaken from them. For this end, ought to be applied Purging, Blood-letting, Cupping-glasses, Blistering Plasters, repelling and discussing Topicks, and Cephalick Medicines to be given, and chiefly such as are impregnated with a Volatile Salt, and many other means of administrati­ons already recited.

The Cure of the Coma as it is the symptom of another Disease.But if this Disease coming upon other Distempers, happens to a person, whose Body is already much worn out, the Blood vitiated, or greatly depauperated, you must seriously deliberate before taking away of Blood, or Purging: yea, also ab­stain very much from them. Yet sometimes that the Conjunct Cause, or matter of the Disease impacted in the Brain, may be put into motion, it may be expedient, to take away Blood moderately, either from the Forehead or Temples, by Leeches, or from between the Shoulders by Cupping-glasses and Scarification. Here Blistering Plasters are in chief esteem, to be applied not only to the hinder part of the Neck, or Head, but to the Legs and Arms, and other parts of the body, by turns. Further, let there be given frequently the Spirits of Harts-horn, of Sut, of Sal Ar­moniack, Amber, or a Mans Scull, Coral, and others, impregnated with other Ce­phalicks, with a Iulep, or any other proper Liquor. The forms or Receipts of these, and of other Remedies,In Lib. Of Con­vulsive Diseases Chap. viij. used in these cases, together with the Histories of the sick, and examples of Cures, are extant in the description of the aforesaid soporiferous Feavor; so that there is no need to inculcate here again, the same, or such like.

Of the Ca­ros.There yet remains an other sleepy Distemper, or kind of Lethargy or continual sleeping, commonly called Carus, which is greater than the Lethargy, and somewhat lesser than the Apoplexy, and is so near akin to this, that it often passes into it; but yet it is wont to be differenced from either: For those sick with the Carus, breath well for the most part, and when they are strongly pulled, they move their Mem­bers, sometimes lift themselves up,How it differs from the Lethar­gy and the Apo­plexy. open their Eyes, and often speak, which Apople­ctical persons do not; yet the same, though excited or moved, do scarcely understand any thing, or plainly discern, in which respect they are distinguished from such as have the Lethargy.

The Seat of the Caros is a little deeper in the Brain than that of the Lethargy.From these it appears, that the Conjunct Cause of the Carus, doth penetrate deep­er towards the middle part of the Brain, and hath its seat in the outmost border at least of the Callous Body; wherefore the Animal Spirits, being restrained from their wonted expansion, within this Emporium, the acts of the Imagination and Me­mory cease, and although the Species being impressed from a more strong sensible, is directed inwards, and oftentimes the local motion is retorted to it, yet because this impression reaches not to the Callous Body, by reason the Spirits are there a­mazed or stupefied, the sick know nothing what they feel or do.

Its Conjunct Cause.The Conjunct Cause of this Disease therefore, is very often the same, but some­what more strong, than that of the Somnolency, Coma, and Lethargy: The Morbific Matter is seen to possess both the Cortex of the Brain, and the Marrow lying under, and being carried forward, some greater bosoms of the middle part, and the upper borders of the Callous body; yea sometimes, as this matter is partly carried forward by degrees, these Diseases arise, and every next is but the augmentation of the former.

The Caros is ei­ther a primary Disease, or it cometh upon o­ther Distempers.But sometimes the Morbific Cause; without any gradual progress thorow these parts, affects the middle part of the Brain at the first assault, and there (as it is more lightly or more deeply placed) causes the Carus or the Apoplexy. In which case, it is not to be thought, that the whole compass of the Callous Body, like the Cor­tical part of the Brain, should be possessed by the soporiferous matter: because it is sufficient, this matter rushing into any one place, and invading some part of the middle Marrow, that presently for that reason, an Eclipse, or at least a beating down of the Spirits follows, in all that region. After this manner it is wont to be, when the Carus comes upon a malignant or ill handled Feavour, or upon the Headach, or some Convulsive Distempers, or when it is excited by a blow on the Head, or by a fall, or by reason of an Imposthum broken in the Meninges: for by reason of these accidents, the interior Marrow of the Brain is wont to be so pressed together, shaken, [Page 137] or otherways altered, that presently the tracts or paths of the Spirits are oblite­rated or blotted out.

The prognostick of the Carus for the most part is but evil,The Prognostick of the Carus. especially if this Dis­ease comes upon a malignant, or a long continued, a gentle and not Cured Feavour, or on a Woman in Childbed, no less danger is also threatned, if it follows after other Cephalick Diseases, or is excited by reason of a Wound in the Head: but yet in these cases, all hope of Cure is not presently to be cast off; for I my self have observed, some sick after this manner, and esteemed desperate or past all hope, to have reco­vered.

The event of this Disease is wont to be various,The event of this Disease is vari­ous, sometimes it passes into an Apoplexy: either in Death or in health. The Carus passes not rarely into a soon killing Apoplexy, that after first the animadvertive faculty being lost, with a short breathing, and without motion, then by reason of the evil being transmitted to the Cerebel, there follow alterations of breathing and the Pulse, and quickly death it self.

But sometimes the Morbific Matter setling more deeply,Sometimes into the Palsie. and falling from the Callous Body, into the streaked Body, one or both together, the Brain clears up a little, so that the sick look about them, talk, and know things, yet in the whole body besides, a Palsie, or Dead-Palsie on one side follows: but so, that life is not out of danger: for oftentimes, when the Brain begins to be restored, the Cerebel grows worse, that for that cause the Spirits there being evilly disposed or affected, which perform the offices of the vital function, and merely natural, either Convulsions are stirred up in the Bowels, and Precordia, or deadly impediments of the Pulse and respiration; yet sometimes when the Morbific matter is not so plentiful, nor very malignant, it is partly supped up into the Blood, and partly shook off, so that the sick grow perfectly well again.

The Curatory Method suggests the same intentions of Healing,Its Care is the same with the Lethargy and the Apoplexy. and requires wholly the same Remedies, as those which are wont to be administred in the Lethargy and the Apoplexy. Wherefore, there will be no need to add here a company of Indications, nor to heap together a great pile of Medicines. But what seems more to the pur­pose, that I give you one or two Histories of sick people, of which I have many by me.

A known person of about forty years of Age,The first History. who having through Intempernace lost his health, took I know not what Medicines, prescribed by an Emperick, and fell into the Carus; perchance it was because the Morbific Matter being moved and agi­tated by the Medicine, it rushed into the Head. Visiting this Man on the second day, I found him buried in a profound sleep, and almost insensible; for although he opened his Eyes, moved his Members, when prick'd or strongly pull'd, yet presently sleep­ing again, he perceived nothing of what he did or suffer'd. Though in this case, I could prognosticate nothing but what was sad, however I did not desist from giving him my Medicinal help: abstaining from letting of blood, his strength being worn out, and his Blood depauperated, I took care for a large Blistering Plaster to be applied to the hinder part of the Neck, and a strong Clyster as soon as I could, to be given him, made of a Decoction of Briony Roots, with Carminative Flowers and Seeds, adding thereto of the Species of Hiera two drams: his Nose and Temples were a­nointed with Balsoms. Cataplasms of Rue, and the Roots of Bryony were laid all over his Feet. Besides, every other, or every third hour, I order'd him to drink a Dose of the Spirits of Harts-horn, with a Cephalick Iulep; yea, and I took care to have ad­ministred several other administrations, used in this case. By which, when the Dis­ease did not wholly give place on the following day, I prescribed a Purge of pre­pared Scammony to be taken in a spoonful of Broth; by which, when he had gone often and plentifully to Stool, he began to open his Eyes, speak to, and to know those standing about him, and a little after returning to himself, he fully awaked. This Disease therefore (as I think) was easily and quickly Cured beyond hope, be­cause that cloud, being by chance sent into the Brain by Physick, might the better be deduced thence by the help of other Physick.

A noble person about fifty,Another History. fat in body, and in time past obnoxious to the Vertigo, and to Asthmatical Distempers, using for two years Physick every spring and fall, having also a large Issue between his shoulders, lived in indifferent health: The Sum­mer coming on, and he living in the Country, neglected his Issue for several weeks, so that the recrements there, flowed much less than they were wont; yet he was still well, till about the Solstice (or middle of Iune) when one morning chearfully talking with his Friends, sitting in the Porch of his House, rising suddenly he complained, that he was not well; and going into the House, sitting down in a Chair, immediately leaning backward, fell into a profound sleep, and lay so buried in it, that all that [Page 138] day he could not be awakened. Coming to him in the Evening, I took care to have Phle­botomy administred, and also a Clyster, a Vesicatory, and many other Remedies, proper in such a Case. On the next day, his Brain began a little to grow clear, so that he looked about him, and spake a few words; he seem'd to know his Friends, but could not utter the name of any; but by reason of this matter sinking down more deep­ly into the Brain, a Palsie seized his whole right side. Further, when as yet his great sleepiness continued, that day Blood was taken out of the other Arm, and also other Remedies as the former, were continued: On the third day, being less stupid, he knew many, and could tell the names of some of them, he perceived then his own sickness, and began to be careful for the taking of Remedis. But in­deed, whilst his Brain grew better, the evil spread it self on the Cerebel, and the nervous Stock; for on the fourth day, his breathing became unequal, and more labo­rious, his Pulse weaker, and his whole body troubled with a stifness, and Convulsive shakings: On the fifty day, more cruel Convulsions and Cramps did more often infest him; then his Pulse by degrees lessening; on the sixth day, though more freed from his sleeping, he dyed. In this case, and in others like it, 'tis probable that the Morbific matter did at once invade the Brain and the Cerebel, but whilst it stuck in the Cortex of this latter (contrary to what happens in the Brain) it caused no sensible hurt, because this part, which was hurt, was neither the seat of Sleep nor of the Memory; but afterwards, perhaps on the fourth or fifth day, the matter sinking down from thence, to the middle parts of the Cerebel, whilst as to the other Distemper the sick grew better, the vi­tal function, by reason of the spirits destinated to it being oppressed in their foun­tain, began to faint, and afterwards suddenly declining, took away unexpectedly all hope of recovery, which before seemed favourable.

CHAP. V.

Of thorow or long Waking, and of the Waking Coma.

EVEN as Light and Darkness, so Sleep and Waking, being placed nigh toge­ther, best illustrate the natures of one another; so that it will be to the pur­pose, after the Sleepy Distempers, to discourse here of preternatural Watch­ing, or Waking; to wit, forasmuch as it exceeding its limits, and hurting some functions, is both a Disease, and requires Cure. In this rank there are commonly two Distempers, to wit, thorow or long Waking, and the Waking Coma; of both which we will now speak in order.

Long Waking is either the symp­tom of other Dis­eases, or else is a Disease of it self.Concerning thorow Waking, we must here first distinguish, to wit, that it is a symptom coming upon some other Disease, as a Feavour, Phrensie, Madness, the Co­lick, Gout, or such like; then the Cure and consideration of it belongs to that distem­per, whose issue it is: or else immoderate Waking, arising of it self, without any notable sickness, is seen to be a Disease almost solitary or alone of it self. So I have known some, free from any Feavour or pain, well in their Stomach, and fit enough for their business, being in Bed, could take no more Sleep than the Dragon of the Hespcrides. Some troubled with this kind of Waking, though destitute of Sleep, scarce seem to want it it; for their Spirits appear neither sluggish, or weary, or ex­hausted: but others hardly bearing watching, become from thence languishing, and without Appetite, and are forced to fly to Opiates, which sometimes they use daily, and in a large Dose unhurt.

The cause of na­tural Waking consists in the restlessness of the Spirits, and the openness of the Cortical part of the Brain.We have before hinted, that the Cause of Natural Waking, which is interlaced with Sleep, consists in these two things, either in one of them, or both together; to wit, first that the Animal Spirits being sufficiently refreshed, and freed from the stocks of the nervous Liquor, do come forth lively, and are on every side streamed forth, and chiefly from the middle part of the Brain into its circumference; then secondly, although they obtain every where an open sp [...]ce, and especially in the ex­terior compass of the Brain, then freed from the incursions of the nervous Juice, yet lest this expansion of Spirits (which is waking) should be protracted to their loss, lon­ger than is fit, the Spirits by it being wearied, become faint, and as it were lye down of their own accord, and at the same time, the nervous Liquor being poured into the Cortex of the Brain, stops or shuts up their passages. Hence it follows, that pre­ternatural [Page 139] Waking,In like man­ner also preter­natural Watch­ing depends up­on one or both. or that which is immoderate depends upon these two, either on one or both together; for either they being grown too outragious, and as it were struck with a fury, will not lye down of themselves, or the nervous Liquor doth not so fill and stop up the Pores of the outward part of the Brain, that from thence the Spirits may be compelled inward to rest: Examples of both of these are ordinarily to be met withal.

And first of all we shall take notice,The former means descri­bed, by shewing how many ways the unquiet or elastick Spirits stir up long wa­king. that the Animal Spirits, sometimes becoming outrageous and so Elastick or shooting forth, or otherways enormous, that they will not only not lye down and be quieted, but scarce be contained within the proper sphere of their emanation; wherefore, being spread abroad in continual waking, so fill the Brain, and keep it extended, that the nervous Juice though it lyes heaped up at their doors, cannot be admitted; but if it enters of it self, and the Spirits are called back inwards, from the Cortex of the Brain, presently they being forced thither, or tumultuating within the middle part of the Brain, raise up many, and often most horrid phantasies, whereby sleep is driven away; or directing thence their declination further, into the nervous Stock, there stir up great disorders, which continually drive away, and break off Sleep, though it seems ready to creep upon them.

As to the former of these,First, Because being recalled for Sleep into the middle part of the Brain, they grow tu­multuous. Secondly, Be­cause being cal­led back into the nervous Stock, they im­petuously leap forth. I have often observed, that some being disturbed with waking, were afraid to sleep, though desiredly coming upon them; for as soon as they shut their eyes to sleep, presently leaping up, they would cry out they should grow mad, with a multitude of confused phantasms, so that they were necessitated to ab­stain from sleep.

Secondly, whilst the Spirits become more outrageous, and are for sleep sake re­called towards the interior compass of the Brain, sometimes they convert their rage into the nervous Stock, and then tumultuarily rushing in upon the Nerves, desti­nated for the Precordia, or the Inwards, raise up inordinations in the respective parts: hence in those thus distemper'd, as often as they shut their eyes to invite sleep, either tremblings, leapings, and binding up of the heart, with loss of Spirits, and breathing stopped, or inflations, and rising up of the Bowels, with a sense of choaking, and other symptoms commonly called or taken to be Hysterical, And so, either into the in­terior Nerves, serving the Prae­cordia and Vis­cera; Or, into the Spinal Marrow, and the exterior Nerves. follow: or else second­ly, the Spirits being recalled from their watches, and turning on the nervous Stock, transfer their rage sometimes on the spinal Marrow, and the Nerves reaching from thence into all the exterior Members: Wherefore, in some, whilst they would in­dulge sleep, in their beds, immediately follow leapings up of the Tendons, in their Arms and Legs, with Cramps, and such unquietness and flying about of their members, that the sick can no more sleep, than those on the Rack. Once I was consulted with for a noble Woman, who was in the day-time cruelly tormented with the pain about the heart, and Vomiting, but in the night she was hindred from sleep, though it seemed to approach, by reason of these kind of Convulsive Distempers invading her, with it; nor indeed could she sleep all the night, unless she had before taken a large Dose of Lau­danum; wherefore, this Medicine at first being permitted her, only twice a week, af­terwards she took it daily for three whole months, contracting by it no hurt, either in her Brain, or about any other function; and when in the mean time, by the use of other Remedies, the Dyscrasies of the Blood and the nervous Juice were amended, and the Animal Spirits were made more benign and gentle, she having after that wholly left off her Opium,The causes of the aforesaid Di­stempers assign­ed. could sleep indifferently well. These kind of sleep-destroying Distempers, stirred up either within the middle part of the Brain, or within the ner­vous Stock, either more inward or more outward, do depend wholly on the evil con­stitution of the Animal Spirits: for those who ought to be gentle, clear, and bright, and to actuate gently the containing bodies, and to influence them with a benign in­fluence, become sharp and fierce, and like Effluvia's sent from Stygian Waters, unable to be restrained, do distend them too much, and refuse to be governed by the command of the will, and to be quieted by sleep; yea being restrained in one place, they immedi­ately grow tumultuous in another. Such a constitution of the Animal Spirits pro­ceeds from the acid, and oftentimes as it were Vitriolick Dyscrasies of the Blood be­getting it, and of the nervous Juice cherishing and increasing it: as shall be more ful­ly shewed hereafter, when we speak of madness.

In the mean time,The Cure of them declared. as to what belongs to the Cure of thorow or long waking, (which we but now described) because it cannot be long tolerated, therefore those things, which may bring present ease, ought first to be administred; for this end, those things which sooth the Spirits, and gently moderate their disorders, are con­venient, as those commonly called Anodynes, viz. Distilled Waters, Decoctions, Sy­rups, and Conserves of the Flowers of Water-Lilies, Cowslips, Mallows, Violets, [Page 140] Hearts-ease, of the leaves of Willow, Lettice, Purslain, also Emulsions, or Juicy ex­pressions. If that the unquiet Spirits will not be allayed by gentle flatteries, you must compel them into quietness, as it were with bonds and strokes: plenty of them ought to be diminished, and the places also to be inlarged, in which they may expand them­selves in freedom, and without tumult, and quitted from the intanglements of other Humors, to wit, of the Blood and Serum: For which ends, sometimes the opening of a Vein is convenient, and Blisterings are always to be made use of; also Diacodium, and Laudanum, if it be convenient, are frequently given; and in the mean time, whilst that Opiates give some truce to the Disease, the cause of it ought carefully to be root­ed out by the use of other Remedies, as much as may be; wherefore, such as take away the sharpness of the Blood and nervous Juice, and render a sweetness to them, are to be administred, day after day, in Physical hours: In which rank are shelly Pow­ders, Apozems, and Distilled Waters; Alterers, made out of temperate Antiscorbu­ticks; the more gentle prepared Chalybeats, Spirits of Harts-horn, and of Sut, and almost before all other things, the Tincture of Antimony is much esteemed.

The second sort of thorow or long waking, ari­sing both from the too much o­penness of the Brain, and from the unqui­etness of the Spi­rits;There remains another sort of thorow or long Waking, the cause of which in some, if not in the greatest part, consists in almost a continual openness, or too much gaping of the Pores, or passages in the Cortex of the Brain: For besides, that the Animal Spirits becoming sharp, and somewhat outragious, refuse to lye down of their own accord, and to indulge rest; moreover, no stop or yoke is imposed upon them from the nervous Liquor, entring into the Pores of the Brain, but being free and quitted of all burthens, they are also expanded within the exterior spaces of the Brain, every where open: wherefore, for this cause, those troubled with long Waking, feel no sleepiness or heaviness in the fore part of their head, no desire or approach of Sleep. I have known some distemper'd after this manner, who, when they had lived for ma­ny nights continually without Sleep, seemed still chearful, active, strong in their stomach,its foreleading Cause. and ready for business, and not to want Sleep. The cause of this without doubt is, because the burnt and melancholy Blood, supplies the exterior part of the Brain with a nervous Juice, that is not soft and favourable, but too much parched, and stuffed with adust particles, which, for that reason, is apt neither to stay long within the Pores of the Brain, nor gently to embrace and hold the Animal Spirits. Further, the Spirits themselves, procreated out of it, become of their own nature too Elastick, and unquiet, so that they are not easily setled, or are prone of their own accord to Sleep: But these more fixed, do not readily fly away, nor being wearied, do sud­denly grow faint, but indure for a long time, without any great refection, and yet remain lively.Which also cau­ses waking in Melancholick People. Concerning this waking disposition of the Animal Spirits, as it is the same in Melancholicks, we shall have an opportunity of speaking of it more large­ly hereafter. We may also here take notice, that for the same reason (to wit, that the adust Particles of the Melancholick and torrid Blood, being poured into the Brain,For the same reason Coffee causes waking. together with the nervous Juice, causes waking) the drinking of Coffee also, (in use formerly among the Arabians and Turks) which is drunk by our Country Men, either Physically or out of wantonness, all sleepiness being driven away, doth pro­duce unwonted waking, and an unwearied exercise of the Animal faculty; that some having a necessity to study late in the night, or presently after drinking, or a full meal, by drinking a due quantity of this Liquor become still waking, and perform any hard task of the mind, without sleepiness. Surely the cause of this is, because this drink insinuates adust particles (of which it is full, as may be perceived both by the smell and taste) immediately into the Blood, and then into the nervous Juice; which still detain the pores of the Brain open, by their agility and inquietude, and add to the Spirits, all sleepiness being shaken off, certain provocatives, and madness, by which they are excited to a longer performance of their offices. Further, we shall deliver afterwards, where we speak of Melancholy, those things which belong to the preven­tive Cure of this long waking, or the removing of the Morbific cause: In the mean time, for the taking away immediately this symptom, as often as it is grievously trouble­some, we noted that Opiates were little profitable; for a bare Dose being given, doth rarely cause sleep, and render the sick more weak and languishing: It often better suc­ceeds, if they go to bed, and take some soft and pleasing Liquor, as our own Ale, clear and mild, or Posset-drink with Cowslip Flowers boiled in it, or an Emulsion of Me­lon Seeds, and Almonds in a great quantity, to wit, two or three pints.

An History shewing an ex­ample of this Disease.I was some times past consulted with about an old Hypochondriacal person, who be­sides other Symptoms usual in that case, was for many years obnoxious to frequent, very troublesome, and noisie belchings: he was wont every day, two or three times, for about two hours, continually to belch, with such a noise, that he might be heard far and near, at a great distance: But sometimes for a week or two, and sometimes [Page 141] for a month, this belching would be changed into a long waking, for having that Di­stemper much remitted, this Gentleman was kept without sleep almost whole nights; and when he had thus been for three days, and sometimes more, perfectly wa­king, he seemed not to want sleep, and complained not of sleepiness, dulness, or languor of spirits. And when Narcoticks rarely brought to him any help, he took sometimes in the evening a Posset made of Ale and Canary Wine; and night com­ing on, he sometimes drunk Distilled Waters, by the use of which, oftentimes he got some sleep; then afterwards, his waking perfectly vanishing by degrees; his belching returned: Hence it appears, there was but one cause for either, to wit, the adust particles, and irritative, being poured forth from the bloody Mass, some­times into the coats of the Ventricle, and sometimes into the Cortical part of the Brain.

Secondly, besides these distinct Distempers of Sleep and Waking, or their inordi­nations, there remain other conjunct, or complicated irregularities of them, in which, the acts of either function are prevaricated together. Which indeed is ob­servable in that Distemper or affection called the Waking Coma; of which we shall now speak briefly.

Those sick with the Waking Coma, A description of the waking Co­ma. although they are continually prone to Sleep, yet they can scarce sleep at all, but after the manner of Tantalus, up to the chin in the Lethaean River, to tast which as soon as he stoops down, the water slides away from him and sinks lower. For they feel a cruel heaviness in their Heads, with a sleepiness or numness of all their senses, and faculties, that they hardly endure to turn themselves in their Bed, or to be disturbed by the by-standers with talking, and expect they shall presently fall into a sweet sleep; but when they would indulge it, and endeavour strongly to embrace it, various phantasms rolling about in their mind, keep them still waking; neither are they suffered to take any sleep at all, which seems to them to be still at hand. Upon this, not seldom follows a Delirium, that whilst the sick lye with their eyes shut, they perpetually talk absurd and senseless things, and fling a­bout hither and thither their Arms and Legs excessively, and being raised up, they look about them doggedly. It is an usual thing for those sick of Feavours, to remain a whole night as it were drowned in sleep; and in the mean time are scarce silent a minute of an hour, but murmur various things to themselves; also sometimes cry out,The cause of this Distemper shewn. houl, and leap out of Bed. If the reason of these be inquired after, we may say, that the Pores and passages in the Brain, which are the walking places of the Spirits, are very much possessed with a thick and so periferous matter, poured forth from the Mass of the Blood, that the Spirits being very much hindred from their wonted expan­sion, and mutual commerce, an heavy and invincible sleep seems to hang over them; but because some sharp and highly active particles, like so many goads, cleave to these Spirits, they are perpetually incited into motion; and so some of them break thorow the ways, howsoever fast shut and stopped with mounds, and run forth either directly or obliquely as they can; and thus such motions of theirs, however confused and di­verted, by reason of impediments, and not able to exercise compleatly the Animal function, yet they easily drive away or hinder its cessation and rest; for this reason indeed, such who are distemper'd with this Disease, are like those living under the Pole, who only see (when the Sun is in the Equinox) the light on the Horizon, and have neither perfect night, nor perfect day; so these only enjoy a kind of twilight betwixt sleep and waking.

The Waking Coma is rarely a Disease of it self,It is more often a symptom of o­ther Distempers than a Disease of it self. but for the most part it is a symptom coming upon other Diseases, as the Feavour, Phrensie, Lethargy, and the like; wherefore it requires not a Curatory Method peculiarly, but there is only need, that to the Remedies prescribed for the first or primary Disease, there should be added other Cephalicks, which may dispel these clouds and meteors of the Brain; or if both will not be expelled together, the same Medicine which cherishes the parts of the one, getting the better, will immediately overcome the other: so in the Wa­king Somnolency, it is convenient to procure either perfect sleep, or perfect waking, and in this case I have often given Narcoticks with good success.

CHAP. VI.

Of the Incubus, or Night-Mare.

THUS much concerning the morbid exorbitancies of irregular sleep and wa­king; which are almost proper, and as it were of the region of the Brain, and affect not the Cerebel but rarely,The Seat of the Incubus is in the Cerebel. and that secondarily and collaterally, as hath been shown. But there remains a distemper, commonly called the Night-Mare, in Latine the Incubus, which is both peculiar to this Region, and also seems in some measure analogical to the sleepy diseases; forasmuch as its fits arise, for the most part from sleep, by reason of the Animal Spirits being bound in the Cerebel or suppressed; their eclipse or interruption (though short) about the exercise of the vi­tal function, is induced.

A Description of it.That the subject, nature, and causes of this Disease may be the better known, we shall first consider its Phaenomena, or the appearance of it. The fits of the Incubus, or Night-Mare, for the most part, and indeed only falling on one in sleep, are used to be excited mostly after the stomach is loaded with undigested meats, and lying on the back in Bed. They who labour with it, seem to feel the hurt chiefly in the Breast, and about the Praecordia, for respiration being suppressed, and very much hindred, they think that a certain weight lying heavily upon their Breast, doth oppress them, which weight mocks their imaginations with the Image of some spectre or other; and this, whilst they think to shake off, or put away, by the moving of their Body or members, they are not able to stir themselves any way: But after a long space, and sometimes till they are almost dead, they at last awake with a strugling about their heart, and being more fully rouzed from sleep, the imaginary weight suddenly vanishes, and the motive force of the body is restored, but for the most part a trem­bling of the heart remains, and frequently a swift and violent beating of the Dia­phragma. Then the fit being over, the deception of the phantasie, conceiving the horrid image of the Incubus or spectre, is perceived.

It most often proceeds from natural causes.The common people superstitiously believe, that this passion is indeed caused by the Devil, and that the evil spirits lying on them, procures that weight and oppres­sion upon their heart. Though indeed we do grant, such a thing may be, but we suppose that this symptom proceeds oftenest from mere natural causes; though what they are, and in what place the Morbific matter doth subsist, is not agreed on among Authors, nor indeed is it easily to be assigned.

The Seat of this is falsly placed in the Brain.Because the imagination is deceived, and the error being propagated further into the senses themselves, so imposes on the sight and feeling, that they believe they plainly see and feel a monster of this or that shape or figure lying upon them; and for that the loco-motive faculty of the whole body is hindred, in the mean time; some have placed the seat of this Disease wholly in the Brain, and would have the oppression of the breast to be merely phantastical: But although we grant the monstrous shape of the Incubus (which is conceived) to be a mere dream; the Precordia to be truly affected, is apparent, and the motion of the Pulse and breathing is suppressed or hindred; for that the heavy weight of the breast is plainly felt by most, in their waking; yea, and when thorowly fresh awaked,The Praecordia truly labour. and when that is removed, the tremblings of the Heart and Diaphragma, and inordinate motions follow: whence it follows that these parts labour and suffer a real hurt.

The cause doth not stick partly in the Brain, and partly in the Breast.Wherefore others, that they might the more easily unloose this knot, dividing the Morbific Cause, assign a portion of it to the Brain, and another to the Breast; for they say, that the motion of the Lungs are hindred, by a viscous and very gross hu­mor impacted about them, and that doth excite as it were the oppression of a bulk ly­ing on them, with want of breathing; then Vapors being raised to the Head, do fill the principal Nerves, and so hinder the loco-motive force: which opinion (no more likely than the conceptions of those troubled with the Night-Mare) deserves not to be assented to; because there are not any signs of this humor heaped up about the Prae­cordia, which appear before or after the fit, yea when this region is very much bur­thened, as in the Phthisis, Asthma, or Dropsie of the Breast, the Incubus does not therefore infest more frequently or more grievously: Further it appears not, how the matter heaped up in the Praecordia, should be only troublesome in sleep, or by what passage or way, the Vapours from thence so suddenly inducing want of motion, should [Page 143] be elevated to the Head▪ Wherefore, the Reason or Aetiology of this Distemper, I think to be taken or judged of far otherwise.

Therefore this heavy weight or load lying on the breast,The next cause of this is, the hin­drance of the in­flowing of the Spirits to the Praecordia. seems indeed to be left, because the motion of the Heart, and the organs serving for breathing, is hindred; for from the motion of the heart ceasing, or being hardly performed, the Blood in its bosoms, and in the breathing or Pneumonick Vessels statgnating, and being there very much streightned, a sense of as it were a weight opresses the region of the breast: which also seems therefore the more grievous, because the Lungs, Diaphragma, and Muscles of the Thorax, being hindred in their motions, and as it were bound together, at the same time with the heart, do labour with a great endeavour, to exercise or to put forth themselves. But the most hard question yet is, concerning the Cause, by rea­son of which the motion or action of the Praecordia is suppressed, or hindred. This seems impossible to be done by matter impacted in the organs themselves,This not in the Parts affected; of which indeed, there must be a very great deal, to suffice for the hindrance of so many parts, and some signs of it at least would appear somewhat out of the fit; wherefore, it seems that we may rather say, that the action of those parts are hindred, because the influx of the animal spirits are hindred or suppressed. This is frequently done in Con­vulsive Distempers, as we have elsewhere declared, and have clearly shewed by Ana­tomical Experiment,Nor in the Nerves them­selves: to wit, by tying the trunk of the Nerves of the eighth pair, in a living Dog: But in those distemper'd by the Incubus or Night-Mare, the obstruction of the Spirits, seems to be excited neither in the organs themselves, nor in their Nerves; for such a cause happening to those awake as well as to those sleeping, doth not be­come presently moveable, but is fixed and permanent.

Wherefore,But happens in the Cerebel, where the first Spring of the Spirits is. we think the fit of the Night-Mare to be induced, for that in sleeping, a certain incongruous matter is instilled into the Cerebel, together with the nervous Juice, which causing a certain torpor or benummedness in the first spring of the spirits, compells them immediately, by little and little, to cease from the offices of their functions; so that as it were another Lethargy being excited within the Cerebel, the vital actions suffer a short eclipse; during which, partly from a strife of the obstructed or bound together Praecordia, From whence the sense of the Weight proceeds. and partly from the blood very much heaped up and stagnating in them, that weight, or a sense as it were of a great bulk lying on them, is caused; then, because all the rest of the faculties depend upon the motion of the heart,Whence loss of motion proceeds. therefore this being suppressed and hindred, presently those eclipses or disor­ders of them follow; but especially because the flowing of the Blood into the Brain, for the making of Animal Spirits, is interrupted, therefore immediately the flow­ing forth of these into the nervous System is suppressed, so that the sick, whilst they endeavour to shake off the imaginary load of the breast, are not able to move their Body, or any member; to wit, because the irradiation of the Spirits, (whilst they are destitute of the flowing in of the Blood) is kept from the moving parts: In the mean time, those which reside in the Brain, being spread abroad here and there, con­ceive confused phantasms, and from the trouble impressed from the Praecordia, horrid dreams of spectres.

The fit of the Incubus is soon ended,Wherefore the fit being so grie­vous, is so soon ended, without leaving any e­vil. because the matter, rarely or never entring deep­ly into the Cerebel, is easily shaken off, or is supt back again into the Blood: for after the spirits became free from its embrace, and having got the liberty of motion within their wonted spaces, they repeat the exercises of their functions: wherefore, the afflux of the Blood then presently returning to the Brain, immediately the afflux or flowing forth, and emanation of the Spirits, are restored, like a light new kindled, both in its middle or marrowy part, and also in the nervous Stock: whence they be­ing awakened, the motive force returns, and the error of the imagination is per­ceived. But that there follow in the Heart and Diaphragma tremblings and most swift beatings,Whence after the Fit, the trem­blings of the Heart and the Praecordia. the reason is, because these Bodies, so long as they were hindred from their motions labouring with an endeavour of exercising, or putting forth themselves, are not able to contain themselves within their just limits, as soon as they are restored, but putting forth at once all their strength, and being too active, exceed due per­formance of their duty: even as a wand, being held a while bent, being afterwards let go, recovering it self with a certain force, enters into a motion of trembling or shaking.

After this manner, the fit of the Night-Mare, because it immediately stops the vital function,The Incubus of it self rarely dan­gerous. as it were the first moving wheel in the animal Machine, compels forth­wi [...]h all the other faculties to cease, yea the whole corporeal soul (more than the more grievous fits of the Apoplexy or the Lethargy) to shake, and as it were to suffer an eclipse. Notwithstanding, little danger is threatned from this Distemper, because the Morbific matter being poured forth from the Blood, into the compass of the [Page 144] Cerebel, is not suffer'd to penetrate deeply; because the Spirits of that province, being always in a readiness and watchful, most swiftly run to meet the enemy, and oppose his entrance strongly, though the offices of the vital function be omitted in the mean time; further, the Animal Spirits which are in the region of the Brain, being awakened, fly presently to assist those of the labouring Cerebel: For those sick of the Incubus, if by chance they be awakened by any one lying with them, they sooner come out of the fit.

The Prognostick of the Incubus.But although it is rare, that any one dyes of this Disease only; yet those often ob­noxious to it, if they are taken with other Cephalick Distempers, as the Lethargy, Carus, Apoplexy, or the Epilepsie, are in far greater danger: because the Morbific matter, being poured forth from the Blood into the Brain, easily invades the Cerebel so predisposed; so that the sick therefore suffering at once an eclipse of the vital and the animal function, are brought into greater danger of their Life. Hence 'tis a vulgar observation, that those who frequently are troubled with the Night-Mare, fall into the Apoplexy.

The Event of it is shewn.There is wont to be another event of the Incubus, less dangerous, that leads often into the Cardiack passion, and other affections, commonly taken to be Hypochondriack. I knew several while young, grievously afflicted with the Night-Mare, who being freed from it in their riper Age, were troubled with the trembling and palpitation of the Heart, and other pains about the Praecordia, and Hypochondria; and also with Convulsions in those parts. We think the cause of this morbid commutation to be, because the Morbific matter, after it was wont so often to besiege the region of the Cerebel, at length an impression being made, it did penetrate more deeply into some private place, and passing thorow its frame, became impacted on the Nerves destinated to the Praecordia.

Its Cure.As to the Cure of this Disease, there needs no help for the fits, because they pass away quickly of themselves. The method of Cure after a considering the whole, suggests Blood-letting, (where it is convenient) and a gentle Purge, and chiefly the use of Remedies, which are commonly called Cephalicks. Therefore, here Powders of Amber, Coral, and Pearls, with the Roots of the Male Poeony, Cretick, Dittany, Contrayerva; also Electuaries, Tablets, and Distilled Waters, Tinctures, Elixirs, and other things that are wont to be prescribed in the Lethargy and Apoplexy, have the chief place; but especially a right course of dyet being ordered, let gross and ill di­gested meats be shunned, Pulse and Summer-fruits; nor let sleep, study, or reading be presently yielded to after eating: late and large Suppers, and lying on the back, are to be forbidden.

Infants and Boys obnoxious to this Disease, how they ought to be handled.Because Children and Youths, are often sick of this Disease (the sign of which is, that they are shaken in their sleeping, and waking cruelly cry out) and more often suffer its fits, which oftentimes bring them to Convulsive passions, therefore a method of healing them ought to be administered, as soon as they are seen to be distemper'd: you ought to inquire into the milk they suck, whether it be of it self pure and lan­dable, and truly convenient for the Stomach: let them not sleep presently after they have sucked their fill: The Nurse using a good dyet, let her take also Morning and Evening a Dose of Cephalick Powder, or Electuary, drinking after it a draught of Pos­set drink, with the leaves of Sage or Betony, or the Roots or Seeds of Poeony boiled in it: Let the Infant take twice a day, a spoonful of proper Distilled Water. Let him have an Issue made in the nape of the Neck, and let it lye sometimes on one side, and sometimes on the other, and rarely or never on its back. If a Neck-lace of Coral, or little balls of the Seeds or Roots of the male Poeony be worn about the Neck, or at the pit of the Stomach, it is not altogether useless; if that in sleep be­ing often and grievously shaken, they are seen to be more dangerously troubled with this Distemper, let Blisters be raised in the hinder part of the Neck, or behind the Ears; also Evening and Morning let there be daily given a Dose of the Powder of Ammoniacum, or other proper Dose, in a spoonful of Distilled Water or Iulep.

CHAP. VII. Of the Vertigo, or a turning round in the Head.

HAving viewed the exterior compass of either part of the Head,The Stat of the Vertigo. and detected, the Diseases which beset the sensitive soul, about the first beginnings, and last springs of the Animal Spirits; we shall next descend to the middle part of the Brain, where the phantasie and common sense reside, and behold what kind of passions these parts are obnoxious to. Concerning this in the first place we shall note, that sometimes troops or rather mighty armies of Spirits, inhabiting these places, are affected, and sometimes also small handfuls or bands: then again many of them are affected together, or else only a few at a time; or they become Elastick from an heterogeneous Copula, and so are compelled into inordinate motions, or as it were explosive or shooting off, as in the Epileptick fit; or suffering an eclipse, as in the Apoplexy, are deprived of all motion. Concerning the former disposition of the Spirits, we have formerly treated largely enough, and the astonishing Disease we shall han­dle afterwards. But in this place, we shall speak of a certain Passion or distemper belonging to these parts, viz. the Vertigo, in which a certain band or handful of the Spirits are affected, and their motions are seen to be partly perverted, and partly suppressed.

Being but little solicitous about the names by which the Vertigo is wont to be known,A Description of it. we shall describe the nature, or formal reason of it after this manner, viz. ‘The Vertigo is an Affection or Distemper, in which the visible objects seem to turn round, and the sick feel a perturbation, or confusion of the Animal Spirits in the Brain that they do not rightly flow into the Nerves: Wherefore the visive, and the loco-motive faculties, do often in some measure fail, that those labouring with it fall, and oftentimes are covered with darkness.’

In this fit it is observed, that the imagination and the common sense are in a manner deceived, whilst they believe, the quiet objects to be moved, but the rational judgment remains; for we understand our error, and we presently ascribe this fallacy to the inordination of the Animal Spirits; for that we plainly know that the spirits flowing within the Brain do decline from their wonted irradiation or beaming forth, and do not rightly perform the offices of motion and sensation, during the fit.

That we may find out the Morbific Cause,The Causes and the Manner of the non-natural Vertigo. and the preternatural manner of the Vertigo, we shall inquire after what manner this same affection or Distemper, how ex­tempory or sudden soever it be, is wont to be excited from non-natural things; for men ordinarily become Vertiginous (or have a turning in their head) with a long turning round of the body, looking down from an high place, passing over Bridges, Sail­ing, and by Drunkenness, and many other ways. It will be worth our while to con­sider a little further, the means of affecting, by which these exterior actions stir up this turning or rolling about, from whence it will the better appear, what kind of in­trinsick causes [...]ay be able to excite this passion. In the first place therefore, when men are fo [...] [...]ome time turned about, both in that motion all things seem to be turned a­bout, and also they ceasing from turning about, that still continues in the phantasie; so that the affected oftentimes fall to the ground; further, though they shut their eyes, they still perceive as it were a turning round, like the turning about of a Mill, in the Brain.

The reason of these is not,The Reasons of them shewn. that the deception of the sight is first brought to the eyes, and afterwards continued for some time; because this affection is caused by the turning round of the body, whether they look with, or shut their eyes: But indeed the cause of this apparition wholly depends upon the fluid substance of the animal spirits. For that the spirits flowing within the Brain, are even like to water, or a thick heap of Vapors, inclu­ded in a Phial, which being shaken round about, together with the Vessel, and made so to turn about, continues for a time that motion, though the Vessel stands still; in like manner also, when the body of a man is turned round about, the spirits inhabiting the Brain, from that turning about of the Head, like the containing Vessel, are agitated in­to spiral or round motions; and when therefore they cannot irradiate the Nerves with their wonted influx and direct beams, from hence oftentimes a Scotomy or dizzness, and a failing of the feet, together with a rotation or whirling about of visible objects, are induced. The visible Hemisphere seems to turn round, because as the sensible impres­sion [Page 146] is received by the means of the recipient, so the objects, as the spirits, seem to be moved round about.

Why looking down from on high, and pas­sing over Brid­ges, cause a turning round in the Head.Secondly, looking from on high, and passing over Bridges, stir up a Vertigo or giddiness in the Head, for that there is a terror cast on the imagination from unac­customed objects, as also from the site of the body, or going in danger, whence that be­ing very solicitous, how it should rightly order and more firmly direct the spirits into the bodies of the Nerves, calls them back into the middle part of the Brain, and so perverts them from their wonted afflux and irradiation; and whilst it indeavours to set their battel in better array, and to direct them more surely, by too great a care, drives them into a certain confusion and irregular motion. Wherefore 'tis observed, that drunken men, and very bold, because they are not careful or solicitous concern­ing the guiding of the animal spirits, suffer no such thing. Sailing, or riding in a Coach, causes a turning in the Head by the like reason, as the turning round of the Body; because, the very fluid spirits being too much agitated, like water shaken in a Glass, leap hither and thither disorderly. Further, it is wholly for the same rea­son, why many going by Ship, or by Coach, are subject also to cruel Vomiting; to wit, because the spirits being snatched into disorder, by too great a motion, and confused fluctuation, run inordinately into the heads of the Nerves of the wan­dring pair, and for that reason stir up Convulsions and Convulsive motions in the Bowels.

How Drunken­ness.Thirdly, 'Tis observed, that the Vertigo comes upon Drunkenness, as a known symptom; and that to those unaccustomed, the drinking, though moderately, of Wine or strong Ale, also the taking of Tabaco, easily induces the same affection; the rea­son of which is, because from the Liquor, or vapour so taken, certain fierce particles, and untameable, are carried into the Brain, by the passages of the Blood and nervous Juice; which being improportionate, and incongruous to the Animal Spirits, drive them hither and thither from their wonted tracks of flowing and reflowing or eb­bing, and so move them into whirlings, and turnings about.

These are the chief occasions, or solitary evident causes, which do use to bring the Vertigo, or turning round in the Head to some men, how sound of constitution soever they be: which kind of effect, these occasions produce, forasmuch as the Ani­mal Spirits, being disturbed beyond their set courses, and orders, are moved inor­dinately, fluctuating here and there, both within the passages of the Brain, and also some of them, like a thred broken off, from their wonted irradiation, into the ner­vous Stock.A perturbation of the Spirits in the Brain, and a revocation of them from their flowing into the Nerves, depend mutually on one another. For these being always reciprocal, depend mutually one of another, to wit, a perturbation of the Spirits within the middle part of the Brain, and their flowing forth into the nervous Stock being hindered; for from what ever cause either effect is induced, the other immediately follows. A turning round of the body, going in a Coach, or in a Boat or Ship, also Drunkenness, and the unaccustomed fume of Tabaco, compel the spirits in the Brain to fluctuate and shake disorderly, which, for that cause, are presently inhibited from their wonted flowing into the Nerves, that those so affected, can hardly go or stand; in like manner, on the contrary, looking from on high, passing over Bridges, a languishment or syncope falling on them, re­cal the spirits from their wonted emanation, who, for that cause tumultuating with­in the Brain, or being moved inordinately, cause a Scotomy or dizziness, or a turn­ing round of the objects.

From what cau­ses the preterna­tural Vertigo is wont to be excited.These things being thus premised, concerning the Vertigo, raised up by reason of an outward accident, or from a solitary evident and non-natural cause; we shall next inquire, how and by what means, it is wont to be induced, from an intrinsick and preternatural cause.

Concerning these take notice, that the Vertigo is sometimes a symptom depending upon some other Distemper, placed sometimes within the Brain, and sometimes without it: but sometimes this is a Disease of it self, which being raised up within the middle part of the Brain, becomes very troublesome, and often terrible, and ve­ry hard to be Cured.

Sometimes the Vertigo is a symptom of other Cephalick Dis­eases.As to the former, many Cephalick Diseases (or such as belong to the Head) viz. Acute pain, the Lethargy, Epilepsie, Carus, Apoplexy, with many others, do often ac­company the Vertigo; to wit, because the equal expansion of the Spirits in the Brain, and therefore their irradiation into the nervous Stock, from such like various Mor­bific causes, are easily hindred or disturbed; as shall hereafter appear, when we de­liver the Aetiology or reason of the Vertigo, as it is a Disease of the Brain.

Sometimes it is excited by rea­son of the Di­stemper of other distant parts, viz. from the stomach, spleen, &c. and so by two means: 1. Either by rea­son of the Flood of the Blood be­ing kept back.But sometimes this symptom is wont to be produced, by reason of other Distempers, placed a long way from the Brain, and that chiefly by two ways or means. For first it is usual for a dizziness to arise, by reason of the flowing of the Blood being sud­denly [Page 147] called away from the Brain, as in a Syncope or Swooning, great want coming near it, wicked hard labour great Haemorrhagies or expence of blood, long fasting, in passions of violent sadness and fear; yea by reason of other occasions, when the motion of the blood is deficient or fails in the heart; so that the affected are proclive to faint­ings and swooning away; presently, because the tribute of the vital liquor is with­drawn, the animal Spirits growing deficient in the Brain, withdraw their radiation from the nervous Stock; for when their spring is cut off, those that remain, leaping back from their emanation, wander about confusedly in the Brain, and very often stir up the Vertiginous Distemper.

Secondly,Or by reason of an inordi­nate recourse, or flowing back of the Spirits to­wards the Brain. an inordinate recourse or flowing back of the Animal Spirits, from some inward, or from some outward member, often causes the Vertigo: forasmuch as the Spirits being disturbed from the affected part, by a long series, thorow the pas­sages of the Nerves, at length disturb others inhabiting the middle part of the Brain, and drive them into the like disorders; for this cause it is, that sharp humors gnawing or pulling the Fibres of the Ventricle, because the infestous and irritative matter being moved in the Spleen, Pancreas, or Intestines, causes light dizzinesses in the Brain. I have known from an accute pain, an Ulcer, or a mortified Inflammation in the Foot or Arm, frequent tremblings and failings, though short, in the Brain, to have been in­duced. Whilst that the conceived inordination of the spirits, is transferred from the distemper'd part, thorow the Nerves into the Brain, a certain Formication or tingling, or as it were the ascent of a cold air, is seen and perceived; wherefore the cause of this Distemper is commonly ascribed to Vapours, arising up to the Head: which error we have elsewhere sufficiently confuted. Further, many are wont, when they have fasted, or stayed long beyond their hour of dineing, to have a dimness before their eyes, and their heads to have a turning, and then afterwards those clouds vanish, having eaten a little; this does not so happen (according to the vogue of the people) for that wind or vapours ascend to the Head, from the empty Stomach, which the aliments being taken in,Not by reason of vapours, eleva­ted from these parts is it ex­cited. do immediately suppress; but because the Fibres of the Ventricle, and the nervous Filaments or little strings, being destitute of the nervous Juice, with which they desire to be watered, are wont to enter into corrugations or wrinklings, and light Convulsions, which kind of Convulsions and disorders of Spirits, for that they are continued thorow the passages of the Nerves, into the Brain, produce the Vertiginous Distemper; which, as soon as the Fibres of the Stomach remit their wrinklings, ceases of its own accord. For this reason I have known some, by a Vomit being given, tearing the coats of the Ventricle, to have been taken with a cruel Vertigo: yea I do suspect, that this Distemper does sometimes arise from meats of ill digestion, and ungrateful to the stomach.

But the Vertigo is not only a symptom, but sometimes a primary Disease of it self; whose nature, that we may the better search into, we ought to inquire into its subject, the formal reasons, and causes of it; and then these being found out, and truly un­folded, we will proceed to its prognostick and Cure.

Without doubt the immediate subject of the Vertigo are the Animal Spirits,The immediate Subject of the Vertigo is the Animal Spirits. which every one labouring with this Disease finds to be greatly disturbed, and wandring up and down; but the mediate subject are those parts of the Brain, in which the Ima­gination and common sense reside, and whence the next way lies into the nervous Stock. These are the Callous and streaked bodies.

For indeed,The mediate the Callous Body. the Animal Spirits love to expatiate themselves, and to he expanded or stretched forth on every side, within these medullary places, as in a most ample Field, and pleasant Garden; wherefore like beams of light, with a full and streight ray, they pass thorow all the Pores and most thick passages of the marrow: hence it is, that whilst they gently flow in one line, from the outmost border of the Callous body (to wit, from the streaked bodies, and turnings and windings of the Brain) towards its middle part, they represent pleasant imaginations and phantasies; and whilst in another line they flow forth, perhaps thorow other passages from the middle of the Callous body, into the infoldings or windings about of the Brain, they transferr thi­ther signets or marks of notions for the Memory; and then, whilst they tend into the streaked bodies, and the beginnings of the Nerves, they actuate all the moving parts, and carry to them, as often as there is occasion, the instincts of the motions they are to perform.

But in the Vertigo, Its formal rea­son. these equal emanations of the Spirits, as it were rays of light, seem to be intercepted, and diversly perverted in various places; because some bands or handfuls of the Spirits are obscured, others are bended another way, and moved hither and thither into turnings round and whirling about, and oftentimes snatched trans­verse, or cross one another. Wherefore, confused phantasms, wandring and incon­stant [Page 148] images, or actions of sensible things are represented, in the Brain, by reason of the Spirits so disturbed: Then forasmuch as the irradiation into the nervous stock is lessened or hindred, a dizziness and failing of the motive function follows.

If that we should yet further inquire into what hinders or obstructs the ways, whereby the Spirits are compelled thus to go aside, or tumultuate within the Brain; it seems probable, that these inordinations of theirs do depend upon a two sold cause, viz. first,Its Conjunct Cause. that certain fierce and extraneous Particles, being entred deeply into the Brain, together with the nervous Juice, stick close to the spirits, and move them in­to enormous motions; but this, as appears from common experience, happens to eve­ry one, on the immoderate drinking of Wine or Strong-waters, or the unaccustomed taking of Tobacco, by the eating of some Vegetables, or being anointed with Mercury; for that some Heterogeneous bodies and infestous to the Spirits,From the per­turbation of the Spirits. follow them, and are snatched with them, even to the middle part of the Brain: why may not such kind of Morbific particles and Vertiginous be supplied from the Blood, and other humors very much vitiated, and insinuated into the inmost conclave of the Brain? Then secondly,From their ways or passages being obstructed. we may suspect, that when the serous foulness doth by degrees creep forward with the nervous Juice, and at length penetrated deeply, that it doth contaminate these pure marrows, and greatly stuff up its Pores, so that the Animal Spirits do not shine or beam forth with a clear and full light, but with a weak, broken, and as it were with many shadows mingled or interspersed with it.

This is seen by things helpful and hurtful.In an habitual Vertigo, and inveterate, it seems to be plain, that the Conjunct Cause doth contain both these, from the proof, and that not light, taken from things that are hurtful and helpful: For I have observed in many, that this affection or Distem­per hath been altered, much for the worse or for the better, upon two occasions; for whatsoever things being inwardly taken, that beget turgid particles, and apt to grow too hot and rageing, as Wine, Strong-waters, spiced, pepper'd, and flatulous or windy food, always hurt those troubled with the Vertigo: and for the same occa­sions, no less hurtful are those things, by which the brain is filled, and more stuffed, as Surfeits, sleeping at Noon, or overlong in the Morning, the Southern wind, a cloudy, thick, and moist air, a low and watry habitation; on the contrary, the same persons are much helped, as they easily perceive, by a slender and light dyet, also by a clear air, and an open soil, where the wind has a thorow passage.

The more remote foregoing cause of the Vertigo consists both in the vice of the Bloud, and of the Brain.Thus much concerning the subject, the formal reason, and the conjunct cause of the Vertigo; now in the next place, let us inquire into its Procatartick, or more remote leading cause; by reason of whose morbid provision or predisposition, these two evils are wont to be induced on the spirits inhabiting the middle part of the Brain: But here we apprehend both the Brain it self, with the watering Liquor, and also the Blood with its infected humors to be in fault.

The Reason of the former explain­ed.The vice of this is most often, that it turns from its right temper, into a sour, acid, and otherways vicious disposition, and being degenerate, perverts the nourish­ing Juice; and also gathers in its bosom a Serum, and filthiness of diverse kinds, which it is ready to pour forth into the Head. But there are many evident causes, to wit, an evil dyet, and errors in the non-naturals, also the Scurvy, a long or ma­lignant Feavour, and other Diseases going before, by reason of which the Blood be­comes so full of ill humors, and so hurtful to the Head.

The vices of the Brain noted.In the mean time, the crime of the Brain is, for that its temper is humid and weak, its frame loose and infirm, with its Pores too much open and gapeing, more than they ought, so that all the heterogeneous, strange, and elastick Particles, toge­ther with the serous, or otherways diseased recrements, being poured forth from the Blood into the Head, are easily admitted into the Brain, together with the nervous Juice; and because of its more open Pores, fall down without any let or stop into the middle part, viz. the Callous and streaked Bodies. This kind of too dissolute or loose habit of the brain, is in some innate and originally; further, those who are of a tender constitution, to wit, delicate, soft, and luxurious Men and Women, whose spirits are not able to suffer any thing strongly, easily contract a Vertiginons Distem­per, or rather increase it; to wit, because when the spirits of the Brain cannot resist the incursions of strangers, they give way to every matter that is drove to them: but in others, though strong, inordinate feeding, a sedentary life, frequent surfeiting, also intemperate sleep, and study, an inveterate Scurvey, evil gross humors, a long [...]eavour, and other diseases of the Head, do very often cause this kind of evil disposition of the Brain.

The differences of this Disease.From what hath been said, the differences of this Disease are easily gathered; for that I may pass by what we but now mentioned, that it was either a primary Di­stemper [Page 149] of it self, or secondary arising or depending upon others: further we noted, that the primary Vertigo, so it were light and not deeply rooted, was only trouble­some with fits excited from an evident cause; so that oftentimes the distemper'd are well enough, but by reason of their evil manner of living, or other accidents they become Vertiginous; but sometimes this Distemper becoming habitual, they are found to be obnoxious to it almost at all times. Secondly, As to the feat of this Disease there is a notable difference; for this is sometimes more outward as is seen happening in the Callous body, and hath almost only the tumults and failings of the Spirits, and the wandring, inconstant, and often confused acts of notions and sense, in the forepart of the Head; but sometimes the Morbific matter falling down more backward, about the streaked bodies, stirs up the Scotomy, or turning of the Head, and a loss or failing of the motive function, that oftentimes the Eyes are darkened, and they reel or stumble, and their Legs fail them.

As to the prognostick of this Disease,Its Prognostick the symptomatick or accidental Vertigo, yea almost all the others, while fresh, are free from much danger, and are easily to be Cured.

But the habitual, and almost continual, although great danger and suddenly to fall is rarely threatned; yet because it admits of only a difficult and long Cure, it so tires out both the Patient and the Physician, that before the Disease can be Cured, they both become weary of one another.

The primary Vertigo being placed before, or more outward, which hath scarce a dark­ness or falling accompanying it, is more safe, and healable, but is often changed in­to an inveterate Headach, and sometimes also it is cured of it self, by an Haemorrhage, or bleeding at the nose, or by a flowing down of the Haemorrhoids; it is also often­times taken away by Medicine.

The Vertiginous Distemper, arising behind, and intercepting the beamings forth of the Spirits into the Nerves, is far more dangerous, and oftentimes passes into an Apoplexy, or a Palsie, or into Convulsive Diseases.

There does not properly belong to the symptomatick Vertigo any Curatory Method.The Cure of the Vertigo. There it is only needful to joyn some Cephalick Remedies, discussing the clouds of the Brain, and quieting the disorders of the Spirits, to those other primary indica­tions; or rather that we may speak to the capacity of the vulgar (which ought to be done sometimes, though feignedly) let some Medicines contrary to Vapors be added.

The accidental Vertigo, or any other fresh or newly taken, may be healed with Phlebotomy, and a gentle Purge, and sometimes iterated: but that the Disease may be more certainly extirpated, let there be besides administer'd carefully Cephalick Re­medies, such as are anon described.

For the Cure of an habitual Vertigo, There are three chief intentions of healing; and become inveterate, there ought to be in­stituted almost the like method, as is against most other Cephalick Diseases, which suggests these three chief intentions of healing, viz. in the first place must be endeavour­ed that the root or nest of the Disease may be cut off, and that the brain may remain free from any new flowings in of the Morbific matter; for which end a right order of dyet be­ing commanded, sometimes letting of blood, and most often a gentle Purge in the inter­vals are convenient.To take a­way the root or feeding of the Disease. Let a dry and open air be chosen, let immoderate and untime­ly sleep and study be shunned, let morning and evening draughts be wholly abstained from; in the place of the former, let a draught of Tea or Coffee, with Sage leaves boiled in it, be given. Let an Issue be made in the Leg or Arm, and sometimes let the Hemorrhoidal Vessels be kept open with Leeches; let the distemper'd rise early in the morning, and wash every day the fore-part of his Head with water, and also his Temples, and rub them with a course cloth.

Secondly,To remove the procatartick causes. The second curatory intention is, to take away the Procatartick or more remote foregoing causes; wherefore, endeavour that both the Dyscrasie or evil dispo­sition of the Blood may be removed, and also that the weak and too loose constitution of the Brain may be mended: For the former, altering remedies chiefly are conveni­ent, as temperate Antiscorbuticks, and sometimes Spaw Waters, or Whey. To which always may be added for the latter indication, Cephalick Medicines, to wit, such as are prepared of Coral, Amber, humane Skull, the root of the male Poeony, Misleto, the dung of a Peacock, and the like, the forms of which we shall shew you by and by.

The third Intention,To take a­way the Con­junct Cause. which is properly curatory, endeavours to take away the Conjunct Cause of this Disease; which however the Procatartick Causes being re­moved, for the most part ceases of it self: for if the coming of every extraneous Matter into the Brain be cut off, there will remain nothing but pure and clear Spirits, and they having gotten open and free spaces, within the Callous Body, will from [Page 150] thence flow forth on every side: However, for the scope of healing this, you must prosecute it with the former; with Medicines indued with a volatile salt, whose par­ticles being very subtil and active, do refresh the Animal Spirits, of which sort are chiefly Spirits of Harts-Horn, Sut, of Sal Armoniack &c. impregnated with Amber, and humane Skull, Tinctures of Coral, Amber, Antimony, Elixir of Poeony, &c.

The Curatory Method as shewn.These things being premised, concerning the Vertigo in general, it will seem to the purpose, to draw or shadow forth the Curatory Method particularly, and as it were to direct you by a thred: and in the first place is shewn what is to be done for the Cure in the fit, and what out of it, for prevention.

1. As to the first, although the invasion of the Vertigo seem cruel, it is for the most part without danger, and easily passes over of its own accord; In such a case, if the Pulse shews it, let Phlebotomy be made use of, after having given a Glyster; but because the sick think themselves dying, and expect medicinal help, in that case let there be Blisters made in the Neck, and stinking things held to the Nose, as Ca­stor, the Spirits or Salt of Harts-horn, or Urine, or of Sal Armoniack. Further, let these Spirits be given twice or thrice a day with a convenient Dose of Cephalick Iu­lep: going to sleep, let them take a Bolus of Mithridate, with the Powder of Castor: let them take the next day, if the Distemper doth not yet vanish, a light Purge, or if the sick be prone or easie to Vomit, an Emetick, than which a better Remedy can scarce be taken.

Take Pills of Amber twenty five grains, of the Resine of Ialap six grains, of Tartar Vi­triolated seven grains, of the Balsom of Peru what will suffice to make four Pills, to be taken going to bed, or early in the morning.

Or Take of the Sulphur of Antimony five grains, of the Cream of Tartar half a scru­ple, of Castor seven grains; make a Powder: Let it be taken with care, expecting to Vomit.

Why vomiting Medicines are so much noted in this, and other Diseases of the Head.That Vomiting Medicines do oftenest help in the Vertigo, besides the testimony of Authors, appears plain enough also from common observation; and besides, since those troubled with the Vertigo do often Vomit of their own accord, many have been of the opinion, that the cause of this Disease most commonly lyes hid in the stomach; but it is much otherways, and as we have elsewhere shewed; Vomiting frequently fol­lows upon the Spirits being disturbed in the Brain: But that Vomits help much in this Disease, the reason is, because this kind of Physick causes a great revulsion of the humors from the Brain, and very much restrains the Spirits tumultuating in it. When the Membranes and Fibres of the Ventricle, and Viscera planted nigh them, are pul­led; various humors, viz. the nervous, serous, watery, pancratick, and cholerick are drawn into those parts, and so squeesed forth, so that the Head being freed from their flowing to it, doth easily shake off from it many impacted there before: then as to the Animal Spirits, we have shewed somewhere, that there is a most intimate commerce, and agreement between those inhabiting the stomach, and those dwelling in the Brain; to wit, that therefore the grateful or ingrateful affection of the Ven­tricle, from things taken into it, might bring rejoycing or dejection to the Spirits dwelling in the Brain. Opiates whilst they lye in the stomach cause sleep; in like manner, it doth not a little help in the Vertigo, and other Cephalick Diseases, where­by the Spirits of the Brain wandring up and down, and agitated enormously may be repressed, and returned into order; if their Companions or Kindred be striken down, by the working of the Medicine; because whilst many are called forth from the Brain, to their assistance; the others remaining, remitting their disorders, resume their wonted offices or functions: without doubt it is for this reason chiefly, Emeticks bring so often help in the Distemper of madness; so that Empericks do almost only use them.

What is to be done out of the Fit, for preven­tion sake.2. But to return from our digression, let us consider what is to be done for the Curing of an inveterate and almost continual Vertigo, out of the fit. Therefore, first a method being instituted concerning bleeding, and purging, according to the constitution and strength of the Patient, and after rest, to be repeated; let a Vomit also, by my advice, be taken once a month (if nothing to the contrary hinders it) for which end let there be given to the weaker, after the stomach is filled with slippery Meats, Wine, and Oxymel of Squils, to about two or three ounces, and after it let a great quantity of Posset-drink be drunk, with Carduus boiled in it, that the Patient may vomit of himself, or by provocation. To others may be given an Emetick of the Salt of Vitriol, or the Sulphur of Antimony, or of the infusion of Crocus Metal­lorum: [Page 151] as concerning Issues, Blisterings, the bleeding at the Hemorrhoidal Veins, Pla­sters, or quilted Caps to be worn upon the Head, or other Topicks to be applied to the soals of the Feet, or to the wrists, for revulsion or derivation sake, let the Phy­sician deliberate.

Take of the Conserve of the Flowers [...]f the male Poeony fix ounces,Electuary. of the Powder of its Root one ounce, of the Seeds of Poeony powder'd two drams, of Amber, Coral, Pearls powder'd, of each two drams and a half; of the Salt of Coral one dram, of the Syrup of Coral, what will suffice to make an Electuary: the Dose is one dram and an half, or two drams, Evening and Morning; drinking after it of the following di­stilled water three ounces.

Take of the fresh leaves of Misleto six handfuls,A distilled Wa­ter. of the root of the male Poeony, and of Angellico, each one pound and an half; of the whitest dung of the Peacock two pound, of Cardamoms bruised two ounces, of Cast [...]r three drams: all being cut small and mixt together, pour to them eight pints either of White Wine, or Whey, made of it: Let them be distilled in fit Stills, and the whole liquor mixed together.

Take of the Powder of the Root of the male Poeony half an ounce,Tablets. of red Coral prepared, of Species Diambrae, each one dram and a half; of the Powder of the Flowers of the male Poeony fresh bruised and dryed in the Sun, one dram: make a Powder, to which add of the whitest Sugar, dissolved in the water of Poeony, and boiled to the consist­ence of Tablets ten ounces: of this make Lozenges according to art, each weighing half a dram; eat one or two of them often in a day.

Because all things are not convenient to all Men, and that the Physician ought to try diverse Medicines, and institute various methods, and to try now this, now that, therefore we shall here add some other forms of another kind.

Take of our Syrup of Steel six ounces,Chalybeats or Steel-Medicines and drink a spoonful of it in the Morning, and at five in the Evening, with the distilled water, but now described, or any other Ce­phalick, to the quantity of three ounces; or take of our Tincture of Steel, from fifteen to twenty drops, in a draught of the same distilled water, twice in a day. I have known this to have given notable help to many.

Let there be given daily after the same manner,Spirits. Doses, sometimes of the Spirit of Sut, Harts-born, or of Sal Armoniack, impregnated with Coral, Amber, or the Skull of a Man: or of the Tincture of Antimony, Amber or Coral.

Take of the Powder of the Root of the male Poeony one ounce and an half,Powders. of the Seeds of Poeony, Coral prepared, and of the whitest Amber, each three drams; of Pearls prepared, of the Powder of the Flowers of the male Poeony, fresh bruised and dryed in the Sun, of each two drams; of Sugar-Candy one ounce: make a Powder, and take one dram twice in a day with a draught of Tea or Coffee, or a Decoction of Sage or Rosemary.

For poor people may be prescribed, Powder of the leaves of the Apple-tree, Misleto, dryed in the Sun, and powder'd, to the quantity of a dram, to be taken twice in a day. Or take of the whitest Peacocks dung six ounces, of the Powder of the Flowers of the male Poeony one ounce, of Sugar two ounces: make a Powder, of which let them take a spoonful twice in a day, in some convenient liquor.

Let those troubled with the Vertigo drink for their ordinary drink, small Ale, with leaves of the Orchard Misleto boiled in it instead of Hops, and in the Vessel holding about four gallons, let a little bag be hanged, in which put half a pint of Peacocks dung, and three drams of Cloves bruised.

Examples of those labouring with the Vertigo are so frequently met withal and almost daily,Cases and Ex­amples of the Sick. that there seems no need to add here any; but however, that the image or type of this Disease may be known, I shall only mention some few and more rare cases.

A Divine about sixty years of age, after he had been troubled for about three months with a light Vertigo, The first History. or as it were a frequent coruscation or brandishing of the Spirits, in the fore part of the Head, at length the Disease growing worse, he became ready to fall, and with a darkness before his eyes; in so much, that in walk­ing he sometimes would fall flat on the ground. Being sent for to Cure him, I pre­scribed Phlebotomy, with a gentle Purge, and after a little respite, to be repeated a­gain; further, I took care to have the Electuary, and mixtures given him, such as we noted above, with Blistering Plasters, and other administrations not to be neglected: A fortnight after, no ease following from these, I gave him a Vomit of the Salt of Vi­triol, and the infusion of Crocus Metallorum, by which when he had easily vomited ten times, he began to find himself better, and by using further altering Cephalicks, for [Page 152] about a fortnight more, he became perfectly well, and from that time, for six years, he took yearly spring and fall a Vomit, with some other Medicines; though he conti­nued in perfect health.

The second Hi­story.A certain Gentleman about sixty six years of Age, when he had lived for a long time obnoxious to a light Vertigo, and that was wont to be excited only occasionally, about the end of the last Autumn, labouring more grievously with this Distemper, he also became forgetful. Being sent for to visit this Man, after he had been sick about three weeks, I found him very much changed in his looks and countenance, the vigor of both being diminished. Seeing that he was daily distemper'd towards evening with a small Feavour, his Pulse beating high and vehemently: I first caused blood to be taken out of his Arm, and after six or seven days, out of the Hemorrhoidal Veins; and then I took care for Blisters to be made behind the Ears and hind part of the Neck, and two large Issues between the shoulders: Inwardly, at physical hours, he took dai­ly Cephalick Medicines, almost of every kind. Within a months space he seem'd to recover, and began to walk abroad, and to take care of his houshold affairs, and other businesses: but in the beginning of the Winter, taking cold by going daily a­broad, he fell into a little Feavour, with a greater perturbation of the spirits within his Head: for becoming every evening delirous, he hardly knew what he said or did. But within seven or eight days, blood being taken away, and a slender dyet used, the Feavour vanished, but the distemper of the Brain was changed from its former state. For the Vertigo wholly ceasing, he became very forgetful, and Paraly­tick, in all his right side. As to his Head, being asked, whether it was clear, and free from the dizziness and confused Phantasms; he answered, that as to those things, he never was better in his life: For he well understood his infirmity, knew his Friends and Relations, and others who came to visit him, but could hardly remember the names of any of them; and when he began to talk of any thing, he wanted words to express his mind: Then as to his Distemper in his side, in his right Arm and Leg; there was not only a [...]oosning wholly, and a want of motion, but in either there grew a great white waterish Tumor, in so much that not only the Cure, but his life was despaired of, to be long prolonged; yea, the Magistracy and Offices which he held, were sought for by others.

However I did not desist from my curatory work, the most skilful Physician Doctor Wharton being called to my assistance. Carefully administring to the sick by our joint counsels, we prescribed solutive Pills to be taken at times, and in Medicinal hours on other days Cephalick, Antiscorbutick and Antiparalytick Remedies: His head be­ing shaven, we ordered a Plaster of Gumms and Balsoms to be laid upon it, and the loosened parts to be anointed with Oyls and Balsoms, and to be strongly rubbed. Whilst these things were doing, with some success as to the greater clearness of his intellect, I know not from what cause, he fell into a Feavour, in the midst of the Winter, so that for several days and nights, he grew extreamly hot, with burning, great thirst, and interrupted sleep; his tongue being scorch'd, and having a white scurf, his Pulse was high, his Urine red, and full of contents. We abstained from Phlebotomy, by reason of his Age and Palsie, and especially because of the Dropsie begun in the distemper'd side: but with a slender dyet prepared of Barly Broths, and Grewel, we order'd him day by day Iuleps, Apozems, and other Remedies moving Sweat and Urine; and when about this time the Issues between his shoulders flowed very much, the sick man began to grow better as to his Memory, and Palsie, and from thence pro­fiting daily, and by degrees growing well, of both his distempers, together with his Feavour, he was restored to perfect health within a fortnight, and is still living in health.

The Reason of the Case described.In this sick man there was a notable motion, and a various change or translation of the Morbifick matter; for what was at first in the middle part of the Brain, viz. sitting on the Callous Body, stirred up the cruel Vertigo; the same afterwards increas­ed, and (as it is probable) being further diffused into the infoldings of the Brain, brought forgetfulness or oblivion to the former Distemper: Then forasmuch as the same mat­ter being moved by the Feavour, and a little discussed, falling partly on one of the streaked bodies, brought the Palsie of one side, and being partly expulsed into the compass of the Brain, almost took away the Memory, the Callous Body in the mean time obtaining a clearness; and lastly, it was not without the help of the other Fea­vour, that the Morbifick matter being discussed from these two last nests, was wholly carried away, the sick being restored to health.

The third Hi­story.Lately being tired out with the continual complaints of a certain man, troubled with the Vertigo, after many other Remedies tried in vain, I prescribed at length, that for the space of a month, he should take daily, twice a day, about a spoonful of [Page 153] the following Powder, drinking after it a draught of the Decoction of Sage or Rosemary, impregnated with the Tincture of Coffee.

Take of the Powder of the Roots of the male Poeony two ounces, of the Flowers of the same bruised and dryed in the Sun one ounce, of the whitest dung of the Peacock half a pound, of white Sugar two ounces; make a Powder.

It is scarce credible how much help he received from this Remedy; visiting me after a month, he seem'd a new and another man; being freed of the Vertigo, he not only confidently walked about, but was able to take care of his houshold affairs, and to meddle with any hard business, which he was not able to do before.

CHAP. VIII.

Of the Apoplexy.

As the seat of the Vertigo, The Seat of the Apoplexy. so also of the Apoplexy, seems to be within the same more inward cloyster of the Brain, viz. the Callous Body; to wit, because in either Distemper, although in a far different degree, the imagination and the common sense are affected, viz. in the first, the irradiation of the Spirits is wont to be obscured in some places, and as it were broken with interspersed shades; but in the latter, the same is wholly darkened, and suffers a full eclipse.

The word Apoplexy denotes percussion,A Description of the Disease. and by reason of the stupendous nature of the Disease, containing as it were something divine, it is called a Sideration or Blast­ing; for those taken with it, being as it were Planet struck, or with an invisible Nu­men, fall suddenly to the ground, and being deprived of sense and motion, and the whole animal function ceasing (unless that they breath) they lye a long time as if dead, and sometimes yield to death; But if they revive, oftentimes they are taken with an universal Palsie, or else of one side.

The immediate subject of the Apoplexy, Its Subject. and the nearest, are the Animal Spirits inhabiting that region of the Brain where the principle faculties of the knowing or understanding soul reside; to wit, the Callous Body: but we conclude the mediate subject, to be the middle part of the Brain; because from hence, the instincts of all spontaneous motions proceed, and in this, the perceptions of all sensible things are terminated: by what means the Cerebel and Praecordia, and all the other parts both Animal and Vital, are secundarily affected, we shall shew anon, when the symptoms of this Disease and their reasons are delivered. Upon the coming of the Apoplectick fit, all the acts of every spontaneous and knowing function (to wit, which depend upon the brain it self) are forthwith hindred and cease; the reason of which is, be­cause the Animal Spirits being suppressed in their chief place of meeting, to wit, the Callous Body, both their next motion of expansion in that place, as also their flowing forth into the nervous appendix,The spontaneous Functions only deficient in the Apoplexy. is wholly defective: For therefore, by reason of such an eclipse of them in that place, an immediate and an universal darkness is caused in the whole animal region, which is under this government: yet in the mean time, the Pulse and respiration, as also the motion of the Ventricle and Intestines, are after a sort performed, either perfectly and freely, or at least interruptedly and with pain; forasmuch as their actions proceed wholly from the Cerebel, which is not at all, or but little hurt by the Morbifick matter.

But it will seem difficult to be explained, after what manner, and from what causes, the Animal Spirits are so suddenly, and all at once suppressed, and as it were ex­tinguished, about their first spring of emanation; so that all sense and motion de­pending thereon ceases every where.The opinions of others concern­ing this Disease. Concerning this, there are many and diverse opinions of Authors; whilst some place the cause of the Apoplexy in the Heart, and others in the Brain; then some lay the fault on the intemperance of that, and others on the evil conformation of this. Further, the obstruction of the Brain is said by some to cause the Apoplexy in the greater Ventricles, by others in its Pores or lesser pas­sages: then the obstruction being taken for the cause of the Disease, and wholly binding up the lesser Pores of the Brain, is said to excite the fit, either because the afflux of the blood, for the begetting of Spirits is hindred from those parts; or be­cause, [Page 154] the flowing forth or emanation from thence, of the Animal spirits is kept back. It would be a tedious thing to examine the opinions of every one, and to con­sider the weight of their reasons.

The Theory of this Disease seems to be very exactly delivered by the famous Web­ferus; for in the first place, for the finding out of its so abstruse and hidden causes, he brings Histories or Anatomical observations,The Theory of this Disease is best shewn by the famous Dr. Webfer. in which the Phaenomena are declared in many dead Carcases of those dying of this Disease; to wit, in three struck or blasted, he had found the blood extravasated or out of the Vessels here and there in great clodders, and had largely marked the substance of the Brain; in another the Se­rous Colluvies had overflowed the whole head, both without and within the Skull. From these footsteps of this most hidden▪ Disease thus detected, the Author concludes, ‘That the principal places affected are not the greater Ventricles, but the middle mar­rowy substance of the Brain and Cerebel, which is every where porous, and indued with very small passages, both that the vital spirits may flow in thither from the blood, and that the animal may flow forth: But indeed he affirms, That the whole cause of every Apoplexy doth consist in these two, viz. either in one of them, or both of them toge­ther: to wit, either because the flowing of the blood thorow the Arteries to the Brain is deny'd, or else by reason that the flowing forth of the Animal Spirit from the Brain and Cerebel, thorow the Nerves and Spinal Marrow, is prohibited; or for both these causes together. As to the former, he proposes a threefold means, whereby the blood may be hindred; viz. First, Either by reason of the obstruction of the inner Carotid Arteries, and of the Vertebrals, to wit, which happens in the greater Vessels, and chiefly about the ascent of the Brain, from the blood concreted into cloddery pieces; or in the lesser Vessels, which pass thorow the brain from a Viscous Mat­ter planted in them: Or, Secondly, the flowing in of the blood is detained from the brain, by reason of the compression of those Vessels, which sometimes happens, be­cause the Paristhmia, or Kirnels of the hinder part of the Neck, do so swell up, from a Serous heap of watry Humors, that by pressing together the Arteries passing thorow, shuts forth the passage of blood to the Head. Or, Thirdly, The bloody flood may be hindred, because a Vessel being preternaturally opened within the Skull, great quantity of blood is poured forth, which should otherways go to the benefit of the brain. As to the other cause of the astonishing Disease, viz. from the flowing forth of the Spirits being hindred, he affirms that may be caused by two ways; to wit, either by reason of the obstruction of the beginning of all the Nerves, caused by a serous inundation, or by a sudden compression of the same; which is caused either by an heaping up of too much blood in the Meninges, or in some parts of the brain it self, or in its Ventricles; or else by a disposition of the Phlegmonodes.

Another Reason given by the Author.These most ingenious reasons indeed seem to challenge our assent, for that more probable or more likely are not easily to be brought; but because we think some of these are to be altered, and others to be added, therefore we shall here institute, though not a different, yet somewhat another reason of this Disease.

The Exclusion of the Blood from the Brain does not easily hap­pen;And in the first place, though we grant that the flowing in of the blood, may be sometimes denyed to the Brain; yet we do not believe, that it only happens after the aforesaid ways, nor that, for that reason, the Apoplexy doth arise. We have else­where shewed, that the Cephalick Arteries, viz. the Carotides, and the Vertebrals, do so communicate one with another, and all of them in several places, are so ingraffed one in another mutually, that if it happen, that many of them should be stopped or pressed together at once, yet the blood being admitted to the Head, by the passage of one Artery only, either the Carotid or the Vertebral, it would presently pass thorow all those parts both exterior and interior: which indeed we have sufficiently proved by an experiment, for that Ink being squirted in the trunk of one Vessel, quickly filled all the sanguiferous passages,Because all the Arteries com­municate one with another, and some of them supply the defects of the o­thers. and every where stained the Brain it self. I once o­pened the dead carcase of one wasted away, in which the right Arteries, both the Carotid and the Vertebral, within the Skull, were become bony and impervious, and did shut forth the blood from that side, notwithstanding the sick person was not trou­bled with the astonishing Disease; wherefore, it may be doubted, whether the blood excluded from the Brain, by reason of some Arteries being obstructed or compressed, doth bring forth this Disease. Certainly there is more of danger, that the cause of the Apoplexy, should be from its too great incursion and extravasation within the Brain, as it was in the three Apoplectick people, cited by the Author; and that not only, because the marrowie substance of the Brain was deprived of the Blood coming to its use, (for such a defect might have been supplied by the other Vessels, extend­ing their branches every where) but rather, because by the extravasated Blood, and [Page 155] not seldom being concreted into an hard and mighty bulk, the marrow of the Brain is pressed together, the passages of the Spirits being by that means shut up.

But indeed,A total Exclu­sion of the blood from the Brain sometimes hap­ning, causes a terrible Syncopy. though we deny this to the afflux of the blood into the Brain, being hindred in any part only, yet it may be granted to its total exclusion, for therefore we have often noted, a want of all motion to be caused: which Distemper however hath been rarely taken for the astonishing disease, but rather is wont to be called a Syncopy, or Swooning away, or the Hysterical Passion: If at any time the motion of the Heart be wholly suppressed, presently, the Blood being retained without the Brain, the Animal Spirits fall down, even as the light vanishes when the flame is put out.

The action of the Heart is stopped or hindred,This depends of­tenest on the motion of the heart, being hindred, and so either because of the Cardiack Nerves being bound together; either by reason of the improporti­onate flowing in of the Blood, as in the violent passions of fear or sadness, or by reason of the Animal Spirits, which serve for its motion, being denyed by the Cere­bel. This we think to happen sometimes, because of the Cardiack Nerves being Di­stemper'd with a Convulsion, or otherways bound together, after which manner it is usual in Convulsive and Hysterical Passions; sometimes for the outward parts, as the Arms and Legs, and sometimes the Inward, to wit, the Praecordia and Viscera, one after another to be affected: but a want of motion follows the inordinations of these, in which the sick lie for some time without motion or sense, with a small or seldom beating Pulse as if dead. Which indeed so seems to come to pass, by reason of the Cardiack Nerves being contracted at that time, and so the Spirits which were about to flow being suspended; though we believe such a want of motion sometimes to be produced by the mere confusion of the Spirits within the Brain, but in this case, the heart it self is lively enough moved, and the Pulse is also strong and landable.

But besides,Or, By reason of the Spirits in the Cerebel, be­ing hindred from their flow­ing into the Nerves. it seems most likely, that the motion of the Heart is ofen suppressed or inhibited, by reason of the Animal Spirits, destinated to the vital function, being suppressed in the fountain it self; to wit, within the Cerebel. We have mentioned this to be done in the Distemper of the Incubus: but without doubt it ought to be attributed to this cause, for that I have observed in some, a failing of the Spirits, with a sudden privation of all the Animal functions to follow, upon a great weight in the hinder-part of the Head, in which the sick become senseless and immoveable, with the Pulse and breathing very much lessened, and scarce perceivable, and lye quite cold for many hours; yea oftentimes, a day or two, more like dead than living per­sons. I have known sometimes those distemper'd, to be stiff and cold, Pulse and breathing to be thought quite gone; and to be indeed esteemed quite dead, and put into their Coffin, yet after two or three days to have reviv'd again: but whoever awakes out of this fit, whether it be of short or long continuance, does not for that reason fall into a Palsie, or half Palsie of one side, as those for the most part do, who are distemper'd with the Apoplexy. Further, no doubt but that many die from such a Morbific cause, whose death wrongfully hath been ascribed, either to the mortal Syncopy, or to the Apoplexy properly so called. Truly the case afterwards described, can only have the like reason given for it.Hence there is a twofold Apo­plexy, one in the Brain, the other proper to the Cerebel. Wherefore, though it may seem a Para­dox, yet it is not incongruous to reason, that we affirm, that there is a twofold Apo­plexy, one in the Cerebel, which we but now described; the other seated in the mid­dle of the Brain, into the causes of which, and the manner of it, we shall now in­quire.

But here in the first place we must distinguish concerning the various assault or fit of this Disease,The Theory of the former deli­vered. This Disease ei­ther accidental, or habitual. to wit, forasmuch as sometimes being excited, without any previous disposition, or Procatarxis, from a sudden and solitary cause, it is often invincible, and for the most part mortal; against this there can be no preventive method of healing, or preservatories instituted; and the Curatory method which is wont to be ta­ken, proves very oft ineffectual. Or, Secondly, the Apoplectick fit having an antece­dent cause, or previous Procatarxis, is brought into act by reason of various occasions, or evident causes.

As to what belongs to the blasting,The cause of the former is, either a great breach of the unity in or near the mid­dle of the Brain; or being stricken, of the former kind, to wit, suddenly and unthought of, its conjunct or next cause is, either a great solution or breach of the unity, happening some where within or near the middle of the Brain, by reason of which its Pores and passages being obstructed or pressed together, the whole emanation of the Spirits is suppressed: or else it is an huge and sudden profli­gation of the Spirits, or an extinction of those dwelling in the Brain. We shall shew the formal reasons of both of them particularly,Or a sudden stu­pefaction or ex­tinction of the Spirits. and the several ways of their being affected.

Extravasated Blood, the breaking of an Imposthum, and a great flood of Serous humor plentifully flowing forth, are wont to effect the greater breach of the unity within the Brain.

[Page 156] A Solution of the unity, ei­ther from blood let forth of the Vessels; Or,From Blood effused or extravasated within the Brain, and there either growing together in clodders, or striking on the affected places, doth often times cause mor­tal Apoplectick fits, as I my self have proved by Anatomical inspection in some o­thers, besides the instances brought by the famous Webfer; but such Morbific extra­vasations of the Blood within the Brain, proceed either from an external cause, as a fall from on high, or by a blow on the Head, or by hitting it against some hard thing, and the like; or from an inward cause, to wit, for that the Blood being sharp and thin, and the little mouths of the Vessels, and the places between being too loose, it growing more than ordinarily hot, either of its own accord or occasionally, and flowing forth thorow these, easily breaks into the soft and yielding substance of the Brain. Further, although we have assigned the seat of this Disease in the Callous Body, yet the blood, because effused somewhere nigh or above it; because it com­presses the underlying Marrow, by intumifying the distemper'd places, causes the Apo­plectick fit.

From an Im­posthume, or the breaking of an Vlcer; Or,Secondly, An Imposthum or Ulcer is rarely wont to be excited within the Brain, but often in the Meninges, and almost for the same occasions, by which the extrava­sation of the blood happens: while it is ripening, it causes only an Headach or hea­viness, but when it is broke, the filthy stuff flowing from it, into the shelly part of the Brain, gnaws and putr [...]ies it, and then by degrees instilling its putrid particles, and very infe [...]tous to the Spirits, into the middle or marrowie part of the Brain, raises up at las [...] the fit of the astonishing disease.

From a De­luge of the Se­rum.Thirdly, The Serous heap or deluge being poured forth from the blood, into the Head, though rarely or never of it self, yet sometimes by reason of more strong evi­dent causes, runs so suddenly into the Brain, that filling and stuffing soon all its Mar­rowie Pores, causes astonishment or deprivation of sense and motion: And this I have known to happen to some, from drinking of sharp thin Wine, or Spaw-waters, and sleeping upon it; and I have observed the like effect, from a long and total sup­pression of Urine, also in Haemorrhages (or fluxes of blood) being suddenly stopped: And lastly, the Serous Recrements in malignant Feavours, being translated to the Head, by a critical transposition, often causes a mortal senselessness, or becoming speechless.

An extinction of the Spirits from Opiates, or from immode­rate Drinking of hot Waters.Another kind of evident causes, from which sudden blasting or being smitten is wont to be caused, consists in the sudden profligation or extinction of the Spirits, which indeed doth not seldom or rarely happen, from strong Narcoticks, or Medi­cines causing sleep, and also from the immoderate drinking of hot waters.

Though we have already discoursed concerning the use and effects of Opiates, I can­not however pass over their way of affecting, assigned by that most famous Doctor Webfer. The operation of Opiates, as it is assigned by the famous Webfer. This Learned Man affirms, That Narcoticks only do too much open and di­late the Pores and passages of the Brain, and as it were open the doors of it, before fast shut, whereby every extraneous and incongruous thing is admitted into the Cham­ber or sleeping place of the Spirits, together with the subtil liquor poured forth from the blood; and so by a violent incursion, dissipates their ranks and orders. But indeed it appears from what hath been above said, that Narcoticks do not only or al­ways operate so; for we have shewn that whilst they are yet within the Ventricle, they often cause sleep, and sometimes death it self: Besides, it should follow from thence, that Opiates being often given should bring still a greater evil, because by dilating more and more the Pores of the Brain, they cause a much more easie entrance to all manner of impurities; but truly it is clear enough, that Narcoticks are most hurtful at the first time being taken, and afterwards being often taken do little hurt, so that some accustomed to Opium, will devour a great quantity of it without hurt; which is certainly a sign, that this doth not so much alter the conformation of the Brain as that it doth immediately agitate or work upon the Animal Spirits; whom at first (because so very improportionate to them) it slays with a mere blast; then afterwards there being a certain familiarity between them, and this Medicine, it di­sturbs them not.

The formal rea­son of the habi­tual Apoplexy.Thus much concerning the causes of the accidental and sudden Apoplexy, which falls indifferently upon all men, though not at all predisposed: for which also there can be no preventive Medicines instituted, and it is rarely that it is cured. But besides, we observe, that this Disease is sometimes habitual, and that it remains as a constant disposition in some men, by reason of which, at first they are exercised only with light skirmishes, but after some time they become more grievous, and of which at last for the most part they dye. Concerning this therefore, we shall inquire, 1. what the Conjunct Cause of this Disease may be, and the formal reason of it. 2. In what the Apoplectick Disposition or Procatarxis of the Disease consists: Then 3. What Evident Causes it hath.

[Page 157]1. As to the first,What its Conjunct Cause is. we may suppose, upon the coming of the Apoplectick fit, that a certain matter before heaped up, and dispersed in the compass of the Brain, at length doth descend into its middle or marrowie part, and there doth assault all the Spirits, and suppress and beat them down in the very fountain of their emanation: Although it doth not plainly appear, whether they effect it either by stuffing only the Pores of the Marrow, or by driving away the Spirits themselves, or by inflicting on them a numness; notwithstanding it is likely, that it may be done by either of the ways. And indeed we say the medullary Pores of the Brain, may be somewhat stopped or obstructed, because the same matter, which at first setling on the Callous Body, caused senselesness, being sliden down from thence lower into the Callous Body, and then stuffing its Pores, is wont to excite the Palsie of one side. But yet we may not con­clude, that the sideration or being struck, doth arise only from the Pores of the Brain being stopped, because then the fit would oftentimes creep on them gently, and by little and little; forasmuch as all the Pores cannot be possessed by the inflowing matter at once,It consists in the Pores of the cal­lous Body, be­ing suddenly stop'd, and the Spirits being driven away, by the contact of malignant mat­ter. but successively, and some after others: But when as this Distemper leaps upon one suddenly, and like lightning, what can we conceive less, than that the Spirits are struck down as it were by a blast, from the malignant contact of the mat­ter rushing upon them? For it seems, that its particles descending on every side from the compass of the Brain, into its middle part or the Callous Body, and entring it from every part, do presently fill the passages how strait so ever they be, and drive to flight hither and thither the Spirits, and compel them into a close place, who being then beset and reduced to a strait corner, when they can neither resist long, or are able to penetrate into other Pores possessed by the Morbifick matter, at length are struck flat down, letting go every function of the knowing soul; but then they do not easily nor quickly rise up again, because they are not able to quit themselves from the embraces, or bonds of the malignant matter, nor pass any where into empty or open places; wherefore, they lie long suppressed, till at length sometimes per­haps that matter, though leasurely, is dss [...]pated, or supped up into the Blood, or issuing forth from the little Pores of the Marrow, slides forward into the Ventricles of the Brain; or at length, that matter sliding a little lower, and being impacted on the Streaked Bodies, either one or both of them, causes the Hemiplegia, or half Pal­sie, or the Palsie: In the mean time, as the Spirits, within the Callous Body grow free, and getting wider spaces, they resume their wonted offices; which they indeed execute, until new matter springing again in the compass of the Brain, and being by degrees increased, descending into the Callous Body, brings on another fit; out of which, if the Spirits get not, by either of the aforesaid ways, being wholly discom­fited, they perish by degrees.

If you should ask after the nature or disposition of this Morbific matter;What the nature or disposition of the morbifick matter is. it may be suspected, that the Animal Spirits in the Apoplexy are plainly affected after ano­ther manner, than in Convulsive passions; to wit, those obnoxious to this blasting ob­tain a Copula contrary to the explosive, that is, Vitriolick, rather than Nitro-sulphureous; and so by it their spiritous-saline particles are wholly fixed, and are hindred from en­tring into any motions or explosions, even as when the Vitriolick particles being bea­ten and combined with the fulminating gold, they quite take away its explosive or letting off virtue, and congeal and render immoveable all other active particles, like the blowing of a freezing air. The Animal Spirits seem to be not unlike the same, and their Copula's have divers sorts of adjuncts, some of which induce an E­lastick and very explosive virtue, as in the Convulsive Distempers, and others a stu­por, numness, or immobility, as in the sleepy Diseases, and also in the Apoplexy and Palsie.

Thus much concerning the Conjunct Cause,The procatarctic Cause of the ha­bitual Apoplexy. and formal reason of the Apoplexy; as to its Procatartick or fore-leading Causes, they are much after the same manner as in most other Cephalick Distempers; to wit, both the Blood is in fault, for that it affords to the Head extraneous particles, and very contrary, or as it were destructive to the Texture or constitution of the Animal Spirits, either begotten in it self, or taken from some other place: and then the Brain is in fault, for that being weak in its disposition, and so its Pores and passages too dissolute and lax, so that it always and easily admits without impediment, the Morbific matter poured forth from the Blood. There is no need that we should here reherse or unfold particularly the peculiar reasons of either, and the various ways by which it is done; but we shall ra­ther referr you to what we have already said very largely, concerning the foreleading causes of the inveterate Headach, and also of the Lethargy. Further, the like or the same evident causes, which were noted in those Distempers, and in other sleepy Dis­eases, ought here to be taken notice of, to be shunned carefully by Apoplectick people.

[Page 158] The differences of this Disease.From what hath been said, the differences of this Disease may be easily known: 1. What we mentioned but now; The Apoplexy is either accidental, which is sud­denly, and at once excited, without any foregoing cause, and almost indifferently in all, from some strong evident cause; or it is wont to be esteemed habitual, which de­pending upon a previous disposition, hath frequent fits, by reason of several occasi­ons: 2. From the reason of the subject, this Disease is said to be proper, either to the Brain or Cerebel, or common to both: previous and frequent Scotomies or dizzi­ness with mists before the eyes, and the Distemper of the Vertigo, denote the Brain more obnoxious to this Disease: A frequent Night-Mare, intermitting Pulse, of­ten Swooning and failing of the Spirits, argue the Cerebel to be evilly disposed.

3. In respect of magnitude, it is either universal, every function, both merely na­tural and the spontaneous ceasing; or it is partial, this or that part being affected by it self, then for that the faculties of either, now all, now many only, yet none except­ed suffer an eclipse; for in either regiment, the morbific matter descending to the middle or marrowie part, possesses sometimes all its whole substance, sometimes part of it, to wit, the fore part, hinder, or middle part. 4. In respect of the antece­dent cause, the Apoplectical disposition is either hereditary or innate; or acquired by means of an evil dyet, or other accidents.

Its PrognosticksThe prognostick or fore-judging of this Disease is always denounced deadly or du­bious; for the Apoplexy is never without present or future danger. But it is worst of all, in which, besides the abolition of all the spontaneous functions, the Pulse and breathing also are either deficient, or are performed laboriously; and then for the most part it happens, with a foam at the mouth, and snorting; upon which comes a sweat, which is often like melted greace, and indicates a very sudden death to be at hand.

Those who are blasted or strucken, and are presently deprived of Pulse and breath­ing, and a little after growing cold, and seem dead or without any life, are not pre­sently to be had from bed, or left destitute of Medicinal helps: further, though there be no hopes of life, they ought not to be buried under three or four days; because such do sometimes revive again, either of their own accord, or by the use of Reme­medies: which certainly comes to pass, not because a vital heat is at last stirred up in the heart (for it is not there extinguished altogether;) but because the Morbific mat­ter being discussed, or evaporated from the Cerebel, the motion of the heart is re­stored, like a Clock when the weights are put on.

In the Apoplectical fit, if any help follows upon letting of Blood, there is hope of health. But if after this and other Remedies, the Distemper continues without intermission, above the space of a night or a day, or grows worse, the case is de­sparate.

If after the first speechless fit being over, the sick person becomes more nummed and duller, and distemper'd with a Scotomy, and frequent Vertigo, it is a sign that he will be obnoxious to more fits of this astonishing Disease: for the aforesaid distem­pers proceed from the Morbific matter, already laid up in the compass of the Brain, and there flowing sprinklingly, and thence descending thorow the very small Pores only, into the middle part: which matter whether Vitriolick or Narcotick, grow­ing to a greater fulness, calls on this blasting or being suddenly smitten.

The Curatory Method.The Therapeutick Method, is either Curatory, for the taking away the fit, when it is upon one; or preservatory to prevent it, that it may not return: the former be­longs to every Apoplexy, the other only to the habitual.

The assault or fit of this Disease being come, (if it proceeds not from some out­ward or vehement hurt of the head) although it is not known, whether it be excited or no from an invincible cause,What is to be done in the Fit. such as the Blood being let forth of the Vessels, or the breaking of an Imposthum in the Brain, yet we ought carefully to endeavour the Cure of it. And because the blood being too hot or swelling up, is wont some­times to bring in the Morbific cause, or at least to increase it, and the same sinking down, and becoming more setled, sometimes carries it away; therefore in the first place, you ought to deliberate, concerning the moderating its course. And h [...]re a question arises, concerning the placing of the Patient, to wit, whether he ought pre­sently to be put to bed, or to be detained out of it for some time: some religiously observe the latter,In what position the Sick ought to be kept. and that not without reason; to wit, because in Bed there is a grea­ter propensity to sleep, and the blood growing hot, and flaming forth more plentiful­ly, by reason of the heat of the Bed-cloaths, pours forth still more recrementitious matter into the distemper'd Brain: on the contrary, whilst the sick is thinly cloath­ed, and placed in a Chair, the blood flows more slowly, and the sinking Vessels seem more apt rather to sup back the humors out of the Head, than to send them thither. [Page 159] Wherefore, if the Patient be strong enough, it will be expedient perhaps to let him stay out of bed for six or eight hours, till the f [...]ux of the Morbific Matter passes over, and the course of the Blood be made more quiet by Phlebotomy, and other Remedies carefully administred: but the weak, and who are of a tender constitution, let them be put to bed as soon as they are smitten. But let not the sick, whether in bed or up, lye upon his back, but with his head somewhat upright, and inclining either to one side or the other.

Phlebotomy, Phlebotomy. necessary almost in all Apoplectical persons, is not to be deferred: but the Blood is copiously drawn back by a strong Clyster. In the Clyster may be dis­solved the Species of Hierae Diacolycinthia, and a troubled Infusion of Crocus Metallorum. Let a large Blistering Plaster be applied to the hinder part of the Head,Other ways of Administration noted. and other drawing Cataplasms to the Legs and Feet: Let the Temples and Nostrils be anointed with proper Oyls and Bal [...]oms, and let painful rubbings be used almost to the whole Body: In the mean time, let things that stir up the Animal Spirits, and help them out of their bonds be given them; viz. Spirits of Harts-horn, Sut, and the like, with a Cephalick Iulep.

After this the sick being placed in the bed (if he be able and doth easily Vomit) let an Emetick be given him,Vomiting Me­dicines. of the Salt of Vitriol, Oxymel of Squills, or an Infusion of Crocus Metallorum, and then with a Feather put down the throat, provoke vo­miting four or five times, drinking between whiles Posset-drink.

Vomiting being over,Comforters. let there be given Comforters, as the Elixir Vitae of Quer­citan, Spirits of Lavender, or Camphorated Treacle, Tincture of Poeony, or of Amber, or of Coral, with Apoplectical Water, or other appropriate Waters in a convenient Dose, and repeated as the business requires.

On the second day,Cupping-glasses. the same Remedies being still continued, let dry Cupping-Glasses, or with Scarification, be applied between the shoulders, or to the hinder part of the Neck; or if more blood ought to be taken away, let the jugular Vein be opened; the Clyster repeated; apply to the Nose Spirit of Sal Armoniack, or a fume of Galbanum boiled in strong Vinegar. Besides, let Errhines or Sneezing Powders, and things to chew in the mouth to draw away Rheum be used. Then in the Even­ing let a Purge be ordered of Pil. Rudii, or a Solutive Electuary of Roses, dissolved in some liquor.

None of these things helping,Hot or glowing Iron. though there be small or no hope, the top of the Head being shaven, let glowing Iron be held over it, or a large Blister made upon it; and let the other part, especially the Forehead, and forepart of the Head, be bathed with Bez [...]ardick Vinegar; let Leeches be set to the Temples, or behind the Ears; let also a large Dose of Spirits of Harts-horn, or of Sut, be often poured down the throat; these and other the like administrations, are to be used till you see death at hand; which (as Celsus faith) these sort of Remedies only defer, but some times hasten life.

The Prophylactick or preventive Method,The preservatory Method. respects both those who have been trou­bled with one or more fits, and also those who are seen to be prone to it, as those who are born of Apoplectick Parents, or are frequently obnoxious to the Vertigo, the Incubus, or Swooning away; also such who have short and brawny Necks.

Let Purging and Bleeding be ordered Spring and Fall,Purging and Bleeding Spring and Fall. where it is convenient; as to the former, those who are easie to vomit, let them first take an Emetick, of the infusion of Crocus Metallorum, with the Salt of Vitriol, or of the Sulphur of Antimony; and then after three or four days, let there be given a Dose of Pil. Rudii, or of Amber; and after a due distance between, let it be repeated three or four times: Let two large Issues be made between the shoulders; or if that place doth not please some, let them be made, in one of the Arms, and in the opposite Leg.

On other days,Cephalick Re­medies. free from purging, let altering and Cephalick Medicines be taken twice a day.

Take of the Conserves of the Flowers of the Lilies of the valley (or of the male Poeony) six ounces,An Electuary. of the Powder of the Root of the male Poeony half an ounce, of humane Skull prepared three drams, of the Seeds and the Flowers of the male Poeony powdered, each two drams; of red Coral prepared, of Pearls, and of the whitest Amber, each one dram; of the Salt of Coral four scruples, of the Syrup of the Flowers of the male Poeony, what will suffice to make an Electuary: The Dose two drams morning and evening, drinking after it two or three ounces of the following Water.

Take of the Roots of the male Poeony,A distilled Wa­ter. of Imperatorian Angelica, each half a pound; of the Root of Zedoary, of the lesser Galangal, each one ounce; of the leaves of the Orchard Mifleto, of Rue, Sage, and Betony, each four handfuls; of the outer rind [Page 160] of ten Orenges, and eight Lemons, of Cardomums, Cloves, Nutmegs, each half an ounce; all being cut and bruised, pour to them of white Wine (in which two pints of the dung of the Peacok hath been infused for a day) ten pints: let them infuse, close shut for three days; then distil it according to art, and let the whole liquor be mixed together.

Lozenges. Take of the Species of Diambrae two drams, of the Powder of the Root of the male Poeony, of Zedoary picked, each one dram and a half; of Pearl one dram, of the Oyl of the purest Amber half a dram, of the whitest Sugar half a dram, being dissolved in six ounces of the water of Poeony, and boiled up to a consistence: make Lozenges accord­ing to art, each weighing half a dram: Let the Patient eat one or two often in a day, at his pleasure.

Spirits and Tin­ctures.Within the fifteenth or twentieth day, that the Remedies may not be irksome, and may profit the better, let them be changed: therefore, instead of the Electuary let there be substituted for two or three weeks, sometimes the Spirit of Sal Armoniack, with Amber or Coral, or else impregnated with humane Skull or Castor; sometimes Elixir of Poeony, or Tincture of Amber or Coral, or Elixir Vitae of Querci­tan, or the simple mixture: also instead of it, may be drunk compounded Waters, or Water of black Cherries, or Walnuts; or the simple Waters of Rosemary, or Lavender; sometimes a draught of Posset-drink, with Flowers of the male Poeony or the Lilies of the valley boiled in it;Tea, Coffee, and Chocolate prepared, how or a draught of Tea or Coffee in the morning, (let the water of which it is prepared have such ingredients first boiled in it) or let Chocolate be prepared after this same manner.

to be made and taken. Take of the Powder of the Root of the male Poeony, of humane Skull prepared, each half an ounce; of the Species of Diambrae two drams, make a Powder; to every paper add of the Kirnels of the Cocoe Nuts one pound, of Sugar what will suffice; of this make Chocolate: take of it half an ounce or six drams every Morning in a draught of the Decoction of Sage, or of the Flowers of Poeony, or such like.

A Powder. Take of the Powder of the Root of the male Poeony, of humane Skull prepared, each one ounce and a half; of the pick'd Root of Zedoary, Cretick Dittany, Angelica, Con­trayerva, each two drams; make a fine Powder of them all, add to it of the yellow of Orenges and Lemons Candied, each two ounces; let all be beaten to a Powder: take about half a dram, or a dram an hour before and after meals.

For ordinary drink, let a Vessel of four gallons be filled with ordinary Ale, in which six handfuls of white Horehound dryed had been boiled, of Anacardine and Cardo­mums cut and beaten, each one ounce and a half; of it make a bag to hang in it.

Medical A [...].First of all, a very strict dyet ought to be ordered; let a temperate, dry and open air be chosen; let good and wholesome meats be eaten, and slender meals. Let sup­pers be sparingly taken, or none at all: Let noon-sleeps, drinking bouts, and other customary things about the non-naturals be shunned.

Examples.I could here propose many Histories of Apoplectical persons, to wit, of some who were once or twice touch'd, and yet living; and of others who have dyed at the first assault, or in the second or third fit. The most Reverend Father in God the Lord Gilbert Archbishop of Canterbury, recovered of a grievous Apoplectical Fit, six years ago, (God prospering our medicinal help, to whom we render eternal thanks) and from that time, though he sometimes suffer'd some light skirmishes of the Disease, yet he never fell, or became speechless or senseless. But we shall not stay upon this or other examples to unfold them largely, because there is nothing in them very rare, that may illustrate the Aetiology of this Disease. Some of their dead Carcases I have dissected, but only of such as the cause of death was from some former great hurt of the head, as some blow, or by means of some blast; in all which the extravasated Blood, or an Imposthum was the cause of their death: We have been prohibited often by their Friends, from opening those dying of an habitual Apoplexy, who expecting to have them revive again, held it as a deadly thing, and so wholly forbid Anatomy: But I shall here relate a notable Anatomical observation taken about five years since at Oxford.

A very rare Hi­story.An ancient Divine, an honest and a godly Man, indued with a fat body, a short and brawny Neck, being long unhealthy, and living a sedentary life, contracted a very Scorbutick evil disposition: being troubled with a difficult and laborious breathing, with an heaviness of the Head, and unwonted numness, was scarce able to endure a­ny thing of labour or exercise, more than that he daily went and came from his Cham­ber to the Chapel and Hall: one Morning he came to the Chapel a little before Prayers begun, and while he was on his knees, he was suddenly struck, and immedi­ately [Page 161] became speechless and senseless, and fell on the ground; but being carried thence, and his cloaths taken off, he was put into a warm Bed. I and other Physicians being presently sent for, and coming as soon as we could possibly, we found him not only without. Pulse, sense, and breathing, but all his Body cold and quite stiff; nor could he be recalled to life or heat, by any Remedies or ways of administrations, though used for some time: by which we suspected, that the Pulse of his heart was wholly hindred at the first stroke, and that its flame being put out, presently all motion of the Blood was suppressed.

The next day,An Anatomical Observation. seeing the Carcase dead enough, and stiff, we opened it, nothing doubting but that the Distemper so suddenly mortal, would shew clear marks of it within the Head. But there, or in any other part, was not the least shadow of this most cruel Disease: The Vessels watering the Meninges were moderately filled with Blood, without any Inflammation or Extravasation: The Brain, the Cerebel, and the oblong Marrow, with all their processes and prominences, appeared every where thoroughout firm, and well coloured, both without and within: nor was there any Serum or Blood poured forth any where, within the Pores or passages, nor yet with­in the greater Ventricles, nor heaped up; yea the Choroeidal Infoldings placed both within the cavity of the Brain, and behind the Cerebel, seem'd free from all fault; so that the Morbific matter, equally thin and subtil like the Animal Spirits, whom it affected, remained wholly invisible, and we could only argue its presence by the effect.

But lest this should lye hid some where without the Head, after the contents of the head were diligently inspected, we came to the Breast: where the discoloured Lungs being through the whole stuffed with a frothy matter, manifestly shewed the cause of the short and difficult breathing. But the Heart was sound and firm e­nough, free from any obstruction or fleshy Concretions. Further, neither in the neigh­bouring parts, or in others about the Viscera, was found any Imposthum or Ulcer, by whose contact or stink, the Heart could be suddenly oppressed, or the Vital Spi­rits (if this be possible) might be choaked.

Wherefore in this case, nothing could be suspected else, but that the Animal Spi­rits implanted within the middle of the Cerebel, were put to flight, and as it were extinguished suddenly, by some malignant, or narcotick, or otherways deadly Par­ticles, so that the motion of the Heart presently failing, like the first moving wheel in a Clock or Watch, immediately all the other functions, their impulses being taken away, wholly ceased.

CHAP. IX.

Of the Palsie.

THE middle of the Brain,The middle of the Brain, which is the Seat of the A­poplexy is also the Seat of the Epilepsy. or the Callous Body, to which we have assigned the seat of the Vertigo and Apoplexy, seems also to be the primary distemper'd place in the Epilepsie: Concerning which, as also concerning Convulsie Dis­eases, since we have elsewhere largely treated, we shall therefore here pass over pur­posely in this part of the Diseases belonging to the Head, and according to our wonted method, descend yet lower, to the other regions of the Brain, and its depen­dences; and now we shall endeavour next to describe the Distempers which belong to the Streaked Bodies, Oblong Marrow, and also to the Nerves, and nervous Fibres.

We have formerly shewed,The streaked Bodies, the Me­dullar Trunks, and the Nerves, are the Seat of the Palsy. that these parts do perform all the functions belonging to motion and sense; wherefore, the failing or the enormities of these, are the af­fections of those Bodies, or of the Spirits inhabiting them. But indeed sense and mo­tion are hurt chiefly after two manner of ways: to wit, either is wont to be per­verted or hindred; when Motion is perverted, Cramps and Convulsions; when Sense, pain arises; when either function or both together is hindred or abolished, the Di­stemper is thence stirred up called the Palsie; which we are at present about to han­dle. Concerning Convulsion and Pain we have already treated.

The Palsie is described after this manner, to wit, That it is a resolution, loosening, or relaxation of the nervous parts, what the Palsie is. from their due tensity or stiffness; by which means Mo­tion [Page 162] and Sense, to wit, either one only, or both together, in the whole Body, or in some parts, cannot be exercised after their due manner.

Its Conjunct Causes are, Ob­struction of the passages, and the Impotency of the Spirits.The nervous pats are loosened, because the Animal Spirits do not sufficiently ir­radiate them, nor blow them up, nor actuate them with vigor. The cause of which defect is, either an obstruction of the ways, by which their trajection or passage is hindred; or the impotency of the Animal Spirits, for that they are distemper'd with a numness, or that being but few in number they do not lively enough unfold them­selves. By reason of these various means of being affected, there arise diverse kinds of Palsies. For in the first place, as to motion by it self, this spontaneous faculty (which is chiefly and almost only lyable to the Palsie) is sometimes taken away in the whole, or altogether in some parts; but sometimes this, being only hindred, is lesse­ned or depraved.In the Palsie ei­ther motion, or sense only, or both together, is hurt. Secondly, In like manner also one sense only by it self, or more to­gether, is sometimes wholly taken away, and sometimes only much diminished or vi­tiated. Thirdly, Sometimes it happens that both powers are hurt at once. We shall speak of each of these in their order; and first of the Palsie, in which spontaneous motion is abolished; which we say is excited from two causes chiefly; to wit, the ways being obstructed, and the Animal Spirits being touched with a numness, or as it were with a certain malignant blast.

Spontaneous motion is abo­lished by rea­son of the ways being obstruct­ed, either in their begin­nings, or the middle passages, or about the ends.As to the former, an interception of the Spirits from the loosned parts, by reason of their passages being obstructed, that always existing above them, is wont to be caused in various places, and for divers causes; but chiefly it happens in the first sensory, viz. in the Streaked Bodies, or some where about the Medullar Trunks, or lastly in the Nerves themselves; and so, either in their beginnings, or middle processes, or in their extreme ends, (i. e.) the nervous Fibres. When the evil or hurt is brought to the Streaked Bodies, or the oblong, or spinal Marrow, it either ob­structs the whole Medullar thread or rope, from whence arises an universal Palsie be­low the distemper'd part; or one moiety of it, whence comes the Hemiplegia or Pal­sie of one side; or it affects in one side, or in both at once, the little heads of some Nerves, whence loosnings or resolutions are caused in this or that member apart from the others.

The ways are obstructed by Impletion, or Compression, or by a breaking of the Vnity.There are many means whereby the ways or passages of the Animal Spirits are ob­structed in the aforesaid bodies. First, Either their passages are filled by an extra­neous matter impacted in them: Or, Secondly, They are pressed together by Blood flowing out of the Vessels, a Serous deluge, or some Tumor lying upon them: Or, Thirdly and lastly, the unity or continuity is broken, as by a stroke, or wound, or bruise, also by excess of cold or heat. According as these several places are distem­per'd, and the several means of their being affected, we shall run thorow the chief cases of the Palsie, together with the Aetiology, or reason thereof, with the ma­nifold appearances of Symptoms in them; and in the first place we will speak of the Palsie arising from an hurt brought to the common Sensory, to wit, the Streaked Bodies.

An obstruction in the streaked Bodies causes the Vniversal Pal­sie, or the Palsie of one side.And indeed, that it so comes to pass, I have proved by ocular inspection, and shall be plainly demonstrated anon by Anatomical observation. Further, as often as an universal or an half Palsie follows, (as it is often wont to do) upon a Lethargy the Carus, or Apoplexy, any one may conceive, that such a change of the Disease, hap­pens from a translation of the Morbific matter; for that this at length going out of the Pores and passages of the Callous Body, which it at first possest, and sinking down a little lower, runs into the Medullary tracks of one: of the Streaked Bodies or perhaps both of them. And so, when the Animal Spirits are hindred from their wonted out-flowing, or irradiation into the nervous Stock, the motive faculty on­ly, or (if the obstruction be very great) both this, together with the sensitive, is hindred.

I have sometimes observed in a Palsie, coming after a grievous fit of some other Disease, that all the moving parts, of either side, have been loosened after a more light manner: For though they were not able to perform the more strong motive en­deavours, yet for the most part they could extend, bend, yea and move their mem­bers hither and thither, to wit, because the Morbific matter being diffused abroad, thorow both the Streaked Bodies, had not so closely filled every where all the pas­sages: Moreover, on the contrary, I have known in a Palsie of one side, so suddenly excited, that there has been a far greater resolution, so that they so struck, were not able to move any way hand or foot, nor any other member on the distemper'd side. Further, sometimes it happens, from the Morbific matter being copiously fallen down, and obstructing closely all the Medullary tracts of one of the Streaked Bodies, that all the respective parts, have not only been destitute of motion, but some of [Page 163] them also of sense; so that some members felt not any painful impression, how vehe­ment so ever it was. Such a Distemper happening in a lesser degree, is wont to ex­cite a sense of numness, or pricking or tingling, such as in members lean'd or lain upon.

If it be demanded,Why sense is not hindred as well as motion in e­very Palsie. why sense is not always hindred as well as motion in every Pal­sie, since as it seems either is performed by the same Nerves and Fibres, within the same Medullary tracts, so that one faculty is only the inversion of the other? as to this we may say, that as light beams thorow glass, when wind is excluded, so also sense being safe, oftentimes motion is lost. Besides, sense is only a passion, and a sensible impression, which is propagated from the organ, by a continuity of the ner­vous process, to the common sensory, without any endeavour or labour of the Spi­rits; which may be done, though the common sensory be in some measure obstruct­ed, and the Spirits inhabiting it benummed: But motion is a difficult and laborious action, to which is required, that the Spirits expand or stretch out themselves lively, and not only put forth as it were explosive endeavours in the moving organs, but chiefly about the parts, where the beginning of the motion and its first force is, and from thence, in the whole passage thorow the nervous parts. Wherefore, as but a few Spirits and bound, suffice for sense; many, free, and expeditious as to their expansi­ons, are required for motion.

But that the Morbific matter being slid down into the Streaked Body,In an universal Palsie why all the Muscles of the Eyes and Face are not loos [...]ed. the Muscles of the Eyes, Mouth, and Face, do still retain their motions; it is because that some of them, about the beginning of the Spinal Marrow, below all the Nerves, arising from the oblong Marrow, have their place of obstruction; I say, that it is so, because the Nerves destinated to the aforesaid Muscles, (the motions of which are stirred up by natural instincts) and brought from the fifth and sixth pair, even as the Nerves serving the Praecordia and Viscera, derive chiefly the influences of the Animal Spirits from the Cerebel; whose regiment, though the Streaked Body be distemper'd, remains often unhurt.

Not only an obstruction of the Streaked Body,A Compression of the streaked Body sometimes stirs up the Pal­sie. but also a compression sometimes causes the Palsie, as shall be shewed by and by from Anatomical observation; to wit, when the blood is extravasated, and growing cloddery within the inferior cavity of the Brain (and perhaps a Serous deluge is there heaped up) and doth lie heavily up­on the Streaked Body, and press it together, so that for that reason, the Medullary tracts being bound together, are hindred from the Spirits flowing into them.

Next after the Streaked Bodies,A Paralytick obstruction doth sometimes hap­pen in the Ob­long and Spi­nal Marrow. the seat of the Morbific Cause is in the oblong and spinal Marrow; also sometimes in these, though rarely an obstruction, but more often a compression, or a solution of the unity, excite the Palsie.

As to the former, it is not probable, that great plenty of Morbific matter should be sent from the Brain, into this or that part together and in heaps; for such a great and sudden flux hardly happens beyond the streaked Bodies. But it may be suspected, that Narcotick or otherways deadly Particles, being forthwith poured forth into the Brain, and from thence thrust forth into its appendix, doth at first stick within the more narrow spaces of the Medullary Trunk, and then by degrees being heaped up, causes the Paralytick obstruction, whilst these Particles are carried in the Brain here and there, in the Callous or Streaked Bodies they stir up frequent Vertigoes, and mists before the eyes, and sometimes in the motive parts short numnesses; but these being by degrees heaped up together within the Trunk of the oblong Marrow, or the spinal, foras­much as they possess all or part of its passage, and by that means either obstruct all the Pores of the Spirits at once, or some ranks or orders of them, they bring forth either an half Palsie, or a loosening of some members, sometimes the superior, some­times the inferior.

I have observed in many,A Palsie often succeeds stupi­dity, or becom­ing foolish. that when, the Brain being first indisposed, they have been distemper'd with a dullness of mind, and forgetfulness, and afterwards with a stupidity and foolishness, after that, have fallen into a Palsie, which I often did pre­dict; to wit, the Morbific matter being by degrees fallen down, and at length being heaped up some where within the Medullar Trunk, (where the Marrowy Tracts are more straitned than in the Streaked Body) to a stopping fulness. For according as the places obstructed are more or less large, so either an universal Palsie, or an half Palsie of one side, or else some partial resolutions of members happen.

But in either Marrow,A Palsie some­times from the pressing together of the Marrowy Cord. and especially the Spinal, an interception or inhibition of the Spirits, creating a Palsie, most often happens from a compression, or a break­ing of the unity: The extravasated Blood, or the Corruption flowing from the bro­ken Imposthum, and perhaps a Serous deluge being deposited within the hollowness of the Back-bone; yea also an hard Tumor, being risen somewhere in it, by pressing [Page 164] together the marrowy rope, shuts up the ways of the Spirits. Further, either a stroke, wound, or bruise of the Head, or spine; yea and a distortion of this latter, do of­ten pervert or break off the Marrowy Tracts;Sometimes from the unity being broke. yea an excess of cold taken in Frost and Snow, straitens and stops up the passages of the Spirits. Those kind of cases, and instances, being obvious enough to common observation, there will not be any need here to speak of them particularly, or to unfold them more largely.

The Seat of the Palsie sometimes in the Nerves themselves, which are ei­ther obstructed, or compressed, or the unity bro­ken.Thirdly, The Morbific cause being sometimes planted lower, possesses either the greater Trunks, or the lesser shoots of the Nerves themselves; and that likewise is either an obstruction or a compression, or a breaking of the unity, by reason of any of these ways, and according to the like means of affecting, within the nervous pas­sages, as in the marrowy, it is wont to be excited.

The oppilative or stopping Particles being fallen down, from the Brain, and carri­ed forward into the oblong Marrow, enter into the Nerves, destinated to the Mus­cles of some parts of the Face, and by obstructing the ways of the Spirits in them, bring forth the Palsie in the Tongue,An Obstru­ction. Sometimes in the beginning of the Nerves. and sometimes a loosening in these or those Muscles of the Eyes, Eye-lids, Lips, and of other parts; and then by reason of the con­trary Muscles being contracted beyond measure, they stir up a Cramp or Convulsion in the opposite part.

Nor is it less usual, for the same Particles, for that they are fewer, to be carried yet further, without any great hurt into the Spinal Marrow; and lastly going forth from it, to run sometimes into the several Trunks of the Nerves, and sometimes into some handfuls of them; and for that reason, to induce the Palsie to the several Muscles or members, or in some of them only. As often as for this cause, the Mus­cles of one side of the Neck are resolved, or loosened, the other opposite being too much contracted, render the Neck twisted or awry. It ordinarily happens, by rea­son of some private Nerves being so obstructed, for some Fingers of the Hand, or Toes of the Feet to be loosened. But if many handfuls of Nerves together happen to be stopped, a Palsie follows, oftentimes in the whole Arm or Thigh. It would be too tedious to mention every case here, by which the Nerves are wont to be stopped, about their beginnings, middle processes, or utmost ends, to wit, the Membranaceous or Musculous Fibres,Sometimes in the middle. by reason of compression, or breaking of the continuity, and so deny the exercise of the moving faculty to the respective parts: The reasons of these kind of Distempers are so clear and manifest,Or in their utmost processes. The other con­junct cause of the Palsie, to wit, the impo­tency of the Spirits; and so commonly known, that it would be superfluous to insist on the opening them any longer. But we shall ra­ther pass to the other conjunct cause of the Palsie, which more immediately affecting the Animal Spirits, and sometimes striking down, and as it were extinguishing them, by mere contact, or as it were by a malignant blast, brings in a resolution or loosening in the respective parts.

Often arises from narcotick or vitriolick Particles, by which the Spi­rits are put to flight.What we before affirmed in the Apoplexy, we now again do the same in the Palsie, that there are deadly Particles, not only oppilative or stopping, but sometimes Nar­cotick or Stupefactive, and as it were extinguishers of the Spirits; which kind of af­fection, if it be strong, causes sometime Paralytick Symptoms, without any great ob­struction of the ways. The breath or steams of Antimony, Mercury, or Auripig­ment, often causes weaknesses, tremblings, and loosening of the Members, in such as are long conversant among the Furnaces of Chymists, and of Metals. We may in like manner believe, that in some Scorbutick and very Cacochymical people, heteroge­neous Particles, and as it seems of a Vitriolick nature (passing thorow the Brain, and its marrowy appendix) do enter into the nervous passages, together with their watering Juice, and cast down some handfuls of the Spirits in them, or suppress their motion. Hence suddenly arise stupors, numness, or looseness in the Members, or Muscles, sometimes in these, sometimes in those, and soon after vanishing in one place, presently spring up again in another: But at length, when these sort of Particles be­ing abundantly poured forth into the Nerves, and laid up in heaps, they become variously fixed here and there; and moreover, shut up the ways of the Spirits, and so cause a fixed and permanant Palsie. In every Palsie the matter is not so thick or cold, as it is vitriolick or o­ther ways infe­stous to the Spirits. And indeed, in every Palsie, made by obstru­ction, the Morbific matter is not thick and cold Phlegm, (as Galen and many other Physicians have asserted) for such doth not pass thorow the Brain, much less the nervous passages; but it seems to consist of most subtil and very active Particles, though in­festous or deadly to the animal regiment: But indeed the Palsie happens in Men, no otherwise than the blasting, or burning, or withering in Trees; because some winds being indued with very frigid or cold blasts, to wit, with a Nitrous or a Vitriolick Spiri [...] when they blow upon the green and tender sprigs of trees,The blasting or withering in Trees like the Palsie. cause them sudden­ly to wither, for that the tender stalks like Nerves every where inter-woven with the sprigs and leaves, are bound together by the blast of the malignant air so fully, [Page 165] that they receive not any more the Juice sent from the Trunk or Root, by reason of which defect they wither. Much after the same manner, extraneous Particles, and as it were Vitriolick, being admitted within the organs of sense and motion, for that they at once bind up the Pores, or cast down or suppress from motion the Animal Spirits, cause in the respective parts, as it were a withering or drying up. But this is not so caused by mere Phlegm, or a Serous [...]ood, as plainly appears, because those indued with a moist and cold Brain, have always their Nose and Eyes moist, with the distillation of a snotty or watry humor; yea those who are troubled with a Drop­sical Brain, in which the Brain, and the tops of either Marrow do as it were swim in water, are not for that reason disposed to the Palsie, unless by the pressing toge­ther of the Marrow.

We have hitherto described the various cases of the Palsie, The more re­mote foregoing causes of the Palsy, which are two: and the means by which it is caused, together with their [...]everal formal reasons, and conjunct causes. As to what belongs to the other causes of this Disease we must first distinguish, that it is either accidental or habitual: The former happens to some, from a solitary evident cause, such as a stroke, wound, bruise, and excess of either heat or cold, without any pre­vious disposition; and besides this, and the conjunct cause, which for the most part is a compression, or breach of the unity, it hath none: The habitual Palsie depends upon a Procatartick cause, which is always an extraneous, and as it were a Vitriolick matter begotten somewhere before, and heaped up, which being from thence suffused into the organs of sense and motion, for that it stops up the marrowy or nervous Tracts or sometimes profligates the Spirits by mere contact, or effects both together, brings forth loosenings in the respective parts, by reason of the influence of the Spirits be­ing deny'd them.

This kind of Procatarxis or foregoing Cause,More remote, to wit, a vici­ous Blood, and for that reason pouring forth a deadly matter upon the head. depends upon a twofold antecedent or secret leading cause, to wit, one remote, which is a vicious Blood, carrying to the Head a Morbific matter, either begotten in it self, or taken from the Bowels, or some other place; and the other more near, which is an indisposed Brain, to wit, weak, and too lax or loose, or otherways evilly made, and so easily admitting heteroge­neous, or strange and deadly Particles.

The Morbific matter being brought to the Brain,Nearer, to wit, a weak and loose Brain, admiting the evil Particles. The Palsy is ei­ther a primary Distemper, and a Disease of it self; sometimes induces the Palsie primarily, but more often secondarily, and not but after other Diseases first ex­cited.

The reason of the former, (to wit, that the habitual Palsie be a primary Disease, and by it self) requires these two things, viz. That the heterogeneous Particles be disposed chiefly for the causing or stirring up the Palsie; then that they be admitted by degrees, and but in small quantity, for if they enter in great heaps, they would first cause the Carus or Apoplexy: and if they be not of a plain Vitriolick nature or qua­lity, when having passed thorow the Brain, they come to enter into the organs of Sense and Motion, they would first occasion in them Convulsive and painful Di­stempers, yea sometimes the Colick, Gout, or Scurvy first, and then at length, the Palsie.

2. The secondary Palsie often succeeds Distempers for the most part Chronical, Or secondarily, viz. Coming up­on or succeeding other Diseases▪ after the natural and vital faculties being by them very much hurt: a slow and long Feavour, strength being at length worn out, causes oftentimes enervations or resolutions of the whole Body, or of some Members. Long and immoderate sadness, a Consumpti­on, a Scorbutick Atrophy or wasting, being long fixed in Bed, unhealthy old Age; yea and many other passions, after a notable evil first brought to the Brain, and ner­vous Stock, at length brings on the Palsie. But indeed this Disease more frequently comes upon some other Distempers, either of the Brain, as chiefly the