An ACCOUNT of the CHURCHES, OR Places of Assembly, OF THE PRIMITIVE CHRISTIANS; From the Churches of

  • Tyre,
  • Jerusalem, and
  • Constantinople.

Described by EƲSEBIƲS.

AND Ocular Observations of Several very Ancient Edifices of CHURCHES yet Extant in those Parts.

WITH A Seasonable Application.

By Sir GEORGE WHELER, Preb. of Durham.

LONDON, Printed by S. Roycroft, for R. Clavell at the Peacock, at the West-End of S. Pauls, 1689.

To the Reverend Dr. GEORGE HICKS, DEAN of Worcester.

Dear and Honoured Sir,

I Send You this to express my hearty Wishes, That You may enjoy a Happy Christmass and New-Year. And also to let You know, That the kind Letter You writ me long since (wherein You desire me to consider the Descrip­tion of the Church of Tyre, of the Holy Sepulchre, and of the Apostles at Constantinople, men­tioned and described by Eusebius, in his Ecclesiastical History, &c.) came again lately to my Hands, with some imperfect Essays of [Page] Schemes, that I then drew of those Noble Structures. These I have now again review'd and fi­nished, and have added a short Discourse to them, containing some general Considerations on the An­cient Churches, or Publick places of God's Worship; as an Intro­duction to my Observations on these Magnificent Structures.

For the more clear Illustration of all which, I have added a Plane of the Ancient Greek Church; according to my own Observations of Several very An­cient Structures, with an Explica­tion of the use of Each part: And then I may Conclude with an Application, relating to our Own Religious Assemblies; which may be useful to those who shall come to Consider of proper Mediums, to Reconcile the Small Differences that are between the Dissenters and Ʋs, concerning these Matters. For by these things, it is most manifest; That the Primitive [Page] Christians did endeavour to per­form the Publick Worship of GOD, with as great External Reverence and Magnificence, as possible; joyned to the Internal Truth, Fervency of Spirit and Mind.

I wish You could have seen these Papers before I Publisht them; either to Alter, Correct, or Amend what You may find Amiss, or less to the Purpose. For You are a Person upon whose Judgment, I shall ever Entirely Rely; knowing the Great Candour, Perspicuity, Learning and Faithfulness of it. But since I cannot easily have that Satisfaction, I shall present You with them as I may; as a Token of the Great Respect and Value I have for You, upon many Ac­counts; Especially the Education I had under You, and the Friend­ship You have ever Expressed towards me.

If it be a Thing that may prove Acceptable to You, and useful to the Publick, as You intimate; I [Page] shall be highly pleased with the Ʋndertaking; as I shall be always to shew the Value I have for You, in any thing You Recommend to my Studies within the Capacity of

Your Most Obedient Pupil, Most Affectionate Friend, and Most Humble Servant, G. WHELER.


PAge 2. line 1. read acknowledged, p. 6. l. 1. Mary's. p. 22. l. 5. [...], l. 17. [...]. p. 30. Ca­techumenoi, p. 31. l. 17. Bishops his, p. 32. Marg. [...], ib [...], p. 44. l. 10. Capitels, p. 46. l. 10. as Zozomen, p. 66. l. 3. [...], p. 67. Marg. [...], p. 74. l. 1. [...], p. 75. Marg. [...], p. 76. penult. [...], p. 86. l. 12. Vessels, p. 89. Marg. [...], p. 97. antepenult. Fronte, p. 119. l. 12. dele to.

These are the most material Errors, that I have observed to escape the Printers and Correctors Notice.

CHAP. I. Concerning the Primitive Churches, or Places of God's Worship.
The Introduction.

TO give a just Account of the Publick Places of God's Worship in the Christian Church, it will be fit to begin our Observations from the Practice of the first Author and Ministers of Christianity.

For thô it be manifest, that GOD is Omnipresent, and the Heaven of Heavens cannot contain him; because he contains both them and the Infinite Abyss of Space; yet, that he appointed the Separation and Consecration of a Peculiar Place, to place his Name there; to be Worshipped and Glorified therein, by those that [Page 2] acknowledged his infinite Power and Authority over them, is so manifest, that it needs not to be more than mentioned.

That This in the time of their Travel to their Promised Country, and whilst their unsettled State of Warfare lasted, was like themselves, moveable and unfixt also.

But so soon as They were arri­ved to a settled State, and to the glory and happiness of the highest Pitch of Empire, They began im­mediately to resolve, to give all possible Glory to GOD, by establishing the Place of His Pub­lick Worship with the greatest Magnificence they were able.

This David made the Subject of his Zeal and Vows, and his Son Solomon, whom he made sole Suc­cessor to his Throne and Piety, accomplished it.

When again this most Glorious Edifice suffered Destruction and Desolation in the Punishment of the King and People for their Sins, [Page 3] it was again Rebuilt by Prophesy, and was honoured with the Glory and Presence of the Eternal High-Priest himself.

Who always performed his Publick and Stated Devotions to his Father and our Father, To his God and our God, There.

And when at last he had offered up the only true and real Propi­tiatory Sacrifice of himself, and was entred into the Real Holy of Holies, with his own Blood, ever to make Intercession for us; Those that he left to be his Successors in the Ministry of Holy things, did not desist from doing their Devo­tions there, so long as It and They continued on Earth.

Besides this, it is observable, That our Saviour and his Apo­stles never forsook the Synagogues, but ever joyned in the External Worship of God, Doctrine and Discipline of their Country, and as oft as occasion offered, taught the People there.

[Page 4] And when afterward (by God's Appointment and the Persecution of their own Countrymen) they were dispersed into all Nations, They still Repaired to the Syna­gogues and Oratories of the Jews, and there first Preached the Gospel.

And when they were no longer suffered to continue their Assem­blies with them,Act. 19. 9. then only we find that they separated the Bre­thren, and taught them in another Place.

Indeed there is no doubt, but in such Cases they still made pro­vision for some other Places, as those Times and Conveniency would permit.

And that There they did their Peculiar Devotions as Christians, to wit, the Celebration of the Lord's Supper.

For we read in the 2d of the Acts, that they which believed were Baptized, continued stedfastly in the Apostles Doctrine, Fellowship, Breaking Bread, and Prayers.

[Page 5] Thô they continued daily in the Temple with one Accord, yet they Brake Bread [...], at Home, or every one at his House; or Domatim in each others House by Turns.

But we find them soon in great Assemblies, which must take up great and large Places. For in the 4th of the Acts, we find them Return from the Council to their own Company; which were As­sembled at a certain Place, which was Shaken upon their Prayer, by the Holy Spirit of God.

And in the 21st of the Acts we find, that such Places were Capa­cious enough to receive the whole Multitude, who (as St Peter tells St. Paul) must needs come together.

Their Assemblies at Troas seem to be at a Stated Place,Act. 20. as well as a Stated Time.

This Place was generally at the House of the Chief and most Pious of the Faithful Believers.

[Page 6] As at James and Mary's at Jerusalem; at the House of Aquila and Priscilla at Philippia. So the Church in Nympha's House at Colossea; and in Philemon's House: Not that their Family was the whole Church of those Places; but that their Houses were the Stated Places of the Meeting of the Congregation of that City.

Whether they set apart any particular Part of those Houses, to the Worship of God and Ser­vice of his Church, the Scripture is silent.

Thô the Recording of Christ's Correction and Correption for the Prophanation of the Temple; His Direction how men ought to Approach to offer their Gifts at God's Altar;1 Cor. 10. 18, 21. And the Apostles opposing the Table of the Lord and the Altar they had,Heb. 13. 10. both to the Jewish and Gentil Altars, doth strongly suppose, That they either had or should have such Separate Places; when they were in Cir­cumstances [Page 7] to do it, where this Table of the Lord or Christian Altar was kept.

St. Paul is the most plain con­cerning the Place in 1 Cor. 11. where in the 18th Verse he seems very plainly to have respect to the Place.

[...], When ye come together in the Church. For first otherwise, it would be a Redundancy in words; When you come together, would be enough▪ And next he himself interprets that by the Place, ver. 20. [...], When ye come toge­ther therefore in one Place, or rather In that, or the same Place, with Relation to [...], for so the Particle [...], Therefore, doth joyn them.

And in the 22th Verse he oppo­seth Private Houses to the Church of God which may most properly be interpreted of the Place of the [Page 8] Assembly; because he there men­tions the People Assembled, or at least part of them in the same Period. And so the opposition of Private Houses (in which they had the Liberty to eat and drink any thing at their pleasure, and not in the Church or House of God) is most clear and perspi­cuous.

And thus it is most plain, That these Places set apart for Sacred use, ought not to be profaned by any Vile or Common use.

What, have ye not houses to Eat and to Drink in? or despise ye the Church of God, and shame them that have not?

In the Succeeding Ages imme­diately after the Gospel, there is nothing more plain, than that they had their Certain, Stated and Appointed Places to worship God in.

S. Clemens, who Lived in the Apostles time, and whose Epistle to the Corinthians was anciently [Page 9] Read in the Churches, as part of the Scriptures, tells us plainly, That Christ appointed both the Times when, the Persons by whom, and the Places where God should be solemnly worshiped.

Lucian, thô a Heathen, and what he writes is to expose Chri­stianity; yet we are behold­ing to him for this, That he describes the Christians met in an upper Room, adorned and guilt with Gold.

Justin Martyr lived immediately Succeeding these Times: And he describes, Great Meetings in one place Every Sunday, Apol. 2. from all the Neighbouring Countries to the great Towns and Cities; which must needs suppose a known and usual Place.

It is Evident, That as it was naturally Necessary, that they must needs Meet in some Place, and that known; so it cannot be doubted, but that they were as Great, and as Decent as their Cir­cumstances [Page 10] and the continual Per­secutions they were in would permit.

For Eusebius informs us, That in the beginning of the Reign of the Emperour Dioclesian, That the Concourse to the Churches was so great, that in every City they were not content with their Old Edifices, but built New ones, and greater from the Foundations.

And the Beginning of the Per­secution in this Emperor's Reign, entred with the Destruction of their Churches.

But when Constantine Entred upon the Government, they soon recovered themselves, and then it is hard to describe the Glory, Splendor, and Magnificence, where with he caused the Churches or Houses of God to be Rebuilt, En­dowed and Adorned every where.

Eusebius gives us a Specimen of some of them, which he doubts not to compare with the Temple at Jerusalem.

[Page 11] At the Dedication of that at Tyre, he was present, and made an Oration in Praise of It and Paulinus the Bishop its Founder; and had the Superintendency of the Building of that over the Holy Sepulchre at Jerusalem. Of both which I shall draw you the most exact Platform I can, both from those Lines he hath left us, and what by others I have ob­served.

CHAP. II. The Description of the Church of Tyre, Described by Eu­sebius, Lib. 10. Cap. 4.

WHen our Present and most Worthy Zerobabel un­derstood by his accurate Wisdom and Divine Judgment, that it should come to pass, that those Places, which for Gods sake were made Desert, should in a short time Enjoy those Blessings according as it was foretold: He did not in the least neglect this Dead Carkass, after this sharp and grievous Captivity, and Abomination of Desolation. But when first of all with Sup­plications and Prayers, by your mutual Assistance and Suffrages, he had made Attonement to God the Father, and had gained [Page] [Page]

The Plane of the Church of Tyre.

[Page 13] the help of him who only raiseth the Dead unto Life, He again reared this fallen Taber­nacle. And so soon as he had cleansed and healed it from all Evil, he invested it again▪ not with the Old Robe, but so as he had been taught by the Di­vine Oracles, speaking expresly to this purpose.

And the Glory of this LatterHagg. 2. 9. House shall far exceed the Former.

Therefore taking a far larger compass of Ground, [...] he Walled it; B both to be the Outward Court encompassing the whole Work, and to be its sure Defence.

Then towards the Sun-Rising he raised a most magnificent Porch or Gate; [...] vastly great and C high; giving a Prospect of those things within, to those who stand far off, without the Sa­cred Place, in the Outward Court: And not only to them, but also to those who were Strangers to the Faith. And at the [Page 14] first Entrance cast their Eyes upon it: Insomuch, that if any one do but pass by in the Street, he may be astonished both at the Remembrance of the past Ruin, and the Glory of the present Marvellous Work; and so he hoped to draw them to Enter in, to see what is within by that Glorious Prospect from with­out.

But when you are Entred within these Gates, our wise Architect suffered not every one presently with unsanctified and unwashed Feet, to Rush in unto the Holy things within: But leaving a large Space, as be­tween the first Entrance and the Temple, he Enclosed and Beau­tified it with a Portico or Cloy­ster on the Four Sides, [...] supported D with Pillars in a Quadrangular form. And the Spaces between each Pillar he fenced with Lattice of Wood, Net-work Fashion, of a Moderate and Convenient height.

[Page 15] He left the middle Space of this Quadrangle open to the view of Heaven, to let in the cool Air, and to be adorned with the resplendent Rays of the Sun.

In this he placed the Sacred Symbols of holy Cleansing; is e. Two Fountains opposite to EE each other, before the Front of the Temple; whose copious Sources yielded Water plentifully for cleansing of those, who are to go further to the Sacred things within.

This is the first place, that presents it self to those that enter, every way most Splendid and Beautiful to behold. And is a proper Mansion either to those that have need of Institution or are admitted to Prayers.

Being past this Spectacle, by several other more inward Por­tico's he made the Entrances into the Temple; which again towards the Sun-Rising is by [Page 16] Three Doors on the same one side. FFF

Of which that in the middle is by far the greatest both for height and widness, and Adorned with Brass Plates, engraven with various Figures, and bound on with Iron; to which the other two seem joyned as Royal At­tendants.

In like manner ordering the same number of Porches to the Cloysters, on each side of the DDDD whole Temple, he contriv'd ano­ther on high above these; with Windows letting in much Light into the Temple, Adorning them with Lattice of curious Work in various Figures.

But he built the Royal House it self with far Richer and more precious Matter, [...]. sparing no Cost nor Magnificence.

It seems superfluous to de­scribe the Length and Breadth of the Building, and this resplendent Beauty and Grandure, a Sight [Page 17] beyond expression; who can describe the dazling Variety of each Work, whose Roofs mount up to Heaven; and upon all these the most precious Cedars of Libanus? Of which even the Divine Oracles have not been silent: In which it is said, The Trees of the Lord shall Rejoyce, even the Cedars of Libanus, which he hath planted.

To what purpose is it now to speak of the admirable Art and most wise Composure of the whole, and further to discourse of the surprizing Convenience and Beauty of each part: Espe­cially when Ocular Testimony excludes any thing that can be perceived by the Ears?

Furthermore, when he had thus finish'd the Temple, and adorn'd it with Thrones, which GGGG The Thrones. he erected in the highest or chiefest Place in honour of the Presidents, and also with lower [Page 18] Seats, placed in Decent Order all over the Temple.

He at last placed the Holy of Holies, to wit, the Altar, in the H Middle, which he made every I way inaccessible to the Multi­tude, by a Separation of Net­work of Wood wrought and Carved with such acurate Skill and Art, as makes as wonderful a Spectacle as Eyes can be­hold.

Nor did he neglect the Floor, but Adorn'd and Paved it in a sumptuous manner with Marble; and then to conclude, returning to those things without the Temple, [...]. he built Large Apart­ments K and Houses on each side of the Temple, most excellently Contrived; joyned together at one End to the Sides of the Royal House, and to the En­trances of the Middle Building or Court on the other.

[Page 19] Which Buildings our Truly Peaceful Solomon, the Founder of this Temple, built for the sake of those who had need of Expiation and Purgation by Water and the Holy Spirit. Insomuch that, that Heavenly Prediction we formerly men­tioned, subsists no longer in bare words, but now is verified and accomplished indeed. For now it is truly come to pass, That the Glory of the latter House excels the former.

CHAP. III. Observations on Eusebius his Description of the Church of Tyre.

[...], &c. The Outward Court, in the midst of which the Temple stood. This I suppose was Square or Oblong, according to the form of the rest of the Temple. Whether it was open or to shut, with an Outward Gate or Gates joyned to the Wall, Euse­bius does not mention; but un­doubtedly it was adorned with Entrances proper to the Place, and proportionable to the Magnificence of so great a Work; and was either so Low, or with such open Work, as might give a Prospect of the Front to all that passed by it; i. e. By the Street or High-way; [Page 21] as Eusebius affirms, [...]. Passing by the former Entrances; which the Translator not observing seems to confound them with the Magni­ficent [...], Vestibulum or Porch he speaks of.

[...], &c. This undoubtedly was a Great, High and Magnificent Build­ing, and a considerable distance from the outward Entrance; be­cause he saith expresly, That not only those that were standing afar off might by it behold what was within, but also those that cast but their Eyes that way, as they run by the first Entrances. So there­fore I shall place it in the Scheme or Plane of it, I am to delineate. But with what kind or manner of Architecture it was Built, Beauti­fied and Adorned, Eusebius hath left scope for Phantasie to work, but no Pattern for the present De­scriber to Copy. But as to the Situ­ation [Page 22] it was towards the Sun-Rising, as I take it, to him going towards it.

[...]. But taking a Large Space, as be­tween the Temple and first Entrance. This again the Translator does not express exactly as it should, but by missing [...], and [...], renders the whole ob­scure, and seems to confound the [...], and this inward Cloyster enclosed with a Portico, as fol­lows:

[...]. The Perimeter of which he Adorned Transversis Porticibus, i. e. ad se invicem trans­versis, with Portico's built Cross­ways to each other, so as to enclose the Place in the form of a Square. That is, This Square Court was enclosed at the four Sides with covered Walks, we call a Cloyster.

[Page 23] [...], Inter columnia, as the Translator rightly translateth it; i. e. The Spaces between the Pillars were enclosed with Wood, of a proportionable height, wrought in the form of a Net. That is, a kind of Latice-work to look through into the Court, to have a sight of what was there, without entring into the Place.

[...], &c. Fountains opposite to each other towards the Front of the Temple. These I suppose were two Fonts for Baptism; and were placed at each hand in the open Court, enclosed with the Cloyster, one on the Right hand, and the other on the Left; as one went through the Vestibulum into that Court, to­wards the Church or Temple it self; which must needs look very stately. There are two very fine Fountains placed in this manner in the Court before St. Peter's Church at Rome.

[Page 24] [...]. Pluribus aliis adhuc Porticibus interioribus aditus ad Templum fecit. He made the Entrances into the Tem­ple with yet more inward Porches. I suppose this Cloyster met up to the Front of the Temple, which was Adorn'd, Beautified and En­larged with several other Ranks of Pillars between it and the Doors of the Temple. As that of San­cta Sophia at Constantinople is; and indeed every considerable Church among the Ancients had such a Porch or Pronaos, or [...]. As that at Corfu, built by the Em­peror Jovian: That at Troas, if it was a Church, and at the Covent of St. Luke under the Helicon, built by the Emperor Romanus. Thô they seem to be much lesser than this of Tyre, by Eusebius's Pompous description.

[Page 25] This therefore as I have ob­served it in Ancient Buildings, I shall accommodate to Eusebius his Description.

[...], &c. To this Porch Eusebius joyns three Doors on the same side; one great one in the middle, and two lesser on each hand. This exactly agrees with that great Building at Troy; which has three great Arches remaining at the Front of the Building. That in the middle is much bigger, than those that are on each hand. These three Doors led into three Divi­sions of the Church, made by the two Ranks of Pillars, or four great Supporters of the Cupalo in the midst.

[...], &c. If I understand this right, there were three Cloysters, if not four to this Temple; One in the Front, which he had before described, and two others, at each side of the Temple one. Which must needs make the [Page 26] whole very Magnificent and Glo­rious; yet [...], seem to me more than on both sides of the Temple. I should rather translate it, On each side of the whole Temple. And then there must be also one at the East end; and so the Symetry is full. But this would make an extraordinary difference in the Scheme from other Churches, that are now extant. For if so, it might probably have four Doors at East, West, North and South; which none of those Ancient Churches, I ever saw yet extant, will permit me to be posi­tive in.

[...], &c. On high above these Portico's he contrived several Windows, to let in much Light into the House, &c.

This shews that these Portico's were of a moderate height; so that Windows might be made above them, and also that they [Page 27] were on one side contiguous to the Sides of the Temple.

[...], &c. Ipsam verò aedem Regiam, The Royal Edifice, i. e. The Church: For so we shall find the Famous Churches (Cathedrals especially) often named by Eusebius and others.

Ensebius gives us not a perfect Platform of this; so that we must be forced to Collect from others to make up this Defect. Eusebius leaves us at the Entrance of the three great Doors, which were it seems at three sides, if not four. If at four sides, then the Platform must be an exact Square, with a great Cupalo, or Dome in the middle, sustained by four great Pilasters, as that of Jovian at Corfu; which to my best Remembrance hath but four Pilasters sustaining the Cu­palo; and I think Sancta Sophia, at Constantinople hath no more. But if it was an oblong Square, [Page 28] then I suppose there were more Pillars between those that held up the Cupalo and the great Doors. I shall suppose this to be an exact Square; because of the equal Number of Cloysters and Doors at each side.

[...], With Thrones on high, or in the highest or chiefest place. Where, or how these Thrones were placed in this Church, Eusebius his Rhetorical Style renders difficult to deter­mine. If he means in the Highest or Chiefest place, it must be at the Eastern-side of the Church, under the half Cupalo making a Semi-circle. As there are several in Greece, remaining to this Day. As at Athens, in the Temple of Minerva: At Prossia, in the great Church turn'd into a Mosque: And as Monsieur Grelot describes it in Sancta Sophia at Constantinople. But if there were Doors and Cloy­sters on each of the four Sides, [Page 29] this could not be. And he must only mean Altissimis Thronis, as the Translator understands it▪ If so they must be placed under the Circle of the great Cupalo, which was separated from the rest of the Church with Latice work of Wood, wrought most curiously with va­rious Figures.See Dr. Be­veridg. An­not. in Can. Nicen. XI. sec. 14. For this [...], Synthronon (as it was also called) was placed within the Sacred Place towards the Eastern End, against the Wall. But here it was placed probably only near the Latice Se­paration, which kept off the Peo­ple every way, and was placed in the middle.

[...], &c

At last he placed the Holy of Holies, the Altar in the middle; which he made every way inaccessible to the Multitude, by a Separation of Wood, &c.

[Page 30] So that if he means by the Middle, the middle of the whole Church, the [...] must be about it. And, as I believe▪ in a Semicircular form, as I have seen it; only with this difference, That in those it is against the Wall at the East End; but here a Space was left between it and the East Wall without it, as between it and the South, North and Western Entrances, for the [...]ate [...]umenoi to come and hear the Word of God; Either at the several great Doors, or a little within them.

So I shall place the Altar in the Middle, under the great Cupalo; which I conceive was separated from the rest of the Church by Cancelli, or open work of Wood, curiously carved and wrought in various Figures and Flowers. And and at the Eastern side of this Circle I shall place the Thrones, or the Synthronon; because it was the General use of the Primitive [Page 31] Christians to Worship God towards the East: And in figure like that remaining at Athens, which is thus: Three large Degrees or Steps of White Marble, one above ano­ther, in a Semicircular form; high enough to sit upon, and broad enough for the Feet of those sit­ting above, and for the Seat of those sitting thereon beneath. Upon the uppermost Step, is a large Chair of beautiful White Marble▪ in the middle of the Seg­ment, alone against the Window, which I suppose was for the Arch­bishop. The uppermost Step, I suppose, was for the Bishop's Collegues, when they met upon Consecrations of Bishops, Synods, &c. as the Ancient Canons ordain; and the next for the Presbyters: For that they use to sit with the Bishops is evident from Zonaras, on the LVIII. Apostolick Canon. [...], &c

[Page 32] For this Reason it is Ordained, [...]. That the Bishop sit on a Seat on High in the Holy Place, to shew the Duty of his Office, to look down upon the People committed to their Charge from above, and narrowly to watch, observe and over­see them

[...], &c,

There also the Presbyters are commanded to assist the Bishop, and fit with him, that they also from these High Seats may be induced with Prudence to inspect the People, and to instruct them, as given to be Fellow Labourers to the Bishop.

From whence we learn not on­ly, That the Bishop and Presbyters sate together on High Seats or Thrones; but also that this was placed within the Holy Place, he calls [...], which plainly in this place signifies not the Altar, [Page 33] or Holy Table; but the Place where it stood: Thô sometime it signifieth no more.

And so [...] in Eusebius may (for ought I see) be understood. And if so, then the placing of it in the Middle of this Church becomes necessary: But it must be acknowledged, that this place and the Holy Table are indifferently called by the same Name [...] in such places as the sence distinguisheth them.See Dr. Be­veridg. ibid. N. 12. And this Holy Place was called also [...], either from the Steps ascending to it, or the De­grees that were placed in it; And was ordinarily the most remote place and part of the Church to­wards the East, as I shall shew afterwards. But in this Famous Church of Tyre, it seems to be placed in the Middle of the Church under the great Cupolo also, by its being [...], [Page 34] every way separate from the Vulgar by Latice of Wood.

From this Passage of Zonaras we are also inform'd, that from hence the Bishop and Presbyters use to Preach and instruct the People; which may also be proved by several others as great, if not greater Authorities. And so the pla­cing of it here in the Middle was most convenient for a great Multi­tude of Auditors, to stand round about him; the Faithful nearest, and the Katechumenoi and Penitents next to them. So therefore I will place it in this Scheme of the Church of Tyre.


What these Exhedrae and great Edifices were, I find the Learned Valetius is at a stand to deter­mine: He supposeth they were the Baptistory, or place where they used to Baptize; or Secretarium, [Page 35] the Vestery; Salutatorium, or the Place to keep the Sick in, an Hospital. Indeed in several Anci­ent Western Churches, I have seen the Baptistory by it self a distance from the Churches, as at Piza and Spalato; but I never saw it in the Eastern. Besides Eusebius speaks of them, as the two Fountains in the Inner-Court or Cloyster; which he calls [...], the Symbols of holy Cleansing or Purifying. He also assigns the use of them, to wit, for Mansions for those who have need of Baptism, and those that have need of Expi­ation; to wit, the Katechumenoi, who staid there for to Study and to have Instruction; and the Penitents, who staid there, to intreat the Church for Absolution, and to do the Penance appointed by the Canons of the Church.

But some of these Buildings indeed might be assigned for Hos­pitals for the Poor and Sick; and [Page 36] especially for Ancient Widows for whom the Ancient Church had all the Care and Veneration ima­ginable.

I do not doubt, but among these also were Apartments for the Ministers attending the Divine Service and Prayers Night and Day; if not for the Bishop him­self: Such as are mentioned by Eusebius, to be annexed to the Portico about the Church of the Apostles at Constantinople; to wit, Palaces Baths, Lodgins for Stran­gers; and several other Necessary places, for the use of those that kept the Temple; that is, the Ministers thereof, which were built to the Cloysters.

The Placing of these (as near as I can guess) was parallel to the Great Vestibulum or Porch on each side; and from thence in a single Row, or in two Quadrangles, to joyn up to the Basilico or inward Temple. For so he makes them on the one part to be joyned to [Page 37] the Basilico, [...]. And at the other to the Gates of the Middle Edifice: [...]. I have made them therefore to fill up the vacant Angles, between the Courts on each hand; so that they might have Doors into the several Cloysters, or Portico's to the Tem­ple; as Eusebius seems to intimate before, when he saith, Those Cloy­sters were a convenient Habitation, for those that yet had need of the first Institution or Instruction.

Whether the other two Spaces at the East End were filled up with Buildings, is not certain; but to fill up the Beauteous Symetry, he every where expresseth, I am apt to believe, they were either for Houses for the Ministers, or Hospi­tals for the Poor, Sick and Wi­dows.

[Page 38] And now I think every one must needs confess, That they never saw any thing more Beauti­ful, Magnificent and Uniform than this Primitive Cathedral of Tyre; which was built immediately, as soon as they had either Capacity or Liberty to do it. And we read of no Murmurers, that envyed the costly Devotion of those Pious Bishops and People bestowed on GOD their Saviour and Mighty Redeemer: Nor were they by any charged with Superstition (either upon that or any other account) in that Glorious Age of the Church.


The Plane of the Church of the Holy Sepulcher.



CHAP. IV. Of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre.

THIS by the Piety of the Emperour Constantine, was built over the Place where the Body of our Saviour was laid, from the time of his Death to his Resurrection.

This Place (as the most Emi­nent Monument of the Truth of the Christian Religion,) the Hea­thens had defiled, covered it all over with Rubbish and Earth, and then built a Temple to their most un­clean Goddess Venus.

But the Memory of it being preserved by the Christians, this Prophane Temple was demolished, and the whole unsanctified Mate­rials quite carried away, and clean­sed to the Rock, by the Command of the Emperour; where they [Page 40] found that Venerable Monument entire and perfect after so many years.

Which gave great Joy to the whole Church, and especially the Pious Emperour; who resolved there to erect a Glorious Church, beyond any extant in any City in the World; to be a Triumphant Trophy of the Glorious Victory of Christ over Death, the World, and the Devil.

And to that end wrote Letters to Macarius the Bishop of Jeru­salem, to consult about the Matter and Form of it. And to all the Presidents and Governours of those Parts, to be assistant with things Necessary, and with all the most Precious Materials, and ablest Ar­chitects and Workmen. And this Eusebius describes at length by the Epistle it self; and then in the 33d Chapter of his Third Book, goes on thus:

[Page 41]

Those things the Emperour wrote,Euseb. lib. 3. De vita Const. c. 33. How the New Jeru­salem, and the Church of Our Sa­viour was built. and the effect followed immediately after his words: for in the very place of our Saviour's Sufferings was built the New Jerusalem, over against the Old Famous City. Which after the Impious Murther of our LORD, suffered the ut­most Desolation, for the sake of its wicked Inhabitants. The Emperour right over against it, Erected the Trophy of Our SAVIOUR's Victory over Death, adorned with Riches and Beauty. And perhaps this was that New Jerusalem spoken of by the Prophets, which the Blessed Words in many places in the Spirit of God doth cele­brate.

First he Adorned the Holy Cave as the Chief Head and Principal part of the whole Work; to wit, the Divine Mo­nument, beside which the Angel cloathed with Celestial Light, [Page 42] declared the Glad Tidings of Regeneration by our SAVIOUR to all the World.

This I say, as the Chief of the whole Work,Cap. 34. Of the Building of the Holy Sepulchre. His Imperial Majesty adorned with wonder­ful Pillars, with admirable Beau­ty, and with all kind of Orna­ments. A

Thence you pass into a vast Cap. 35. The Descri­ption of the Court and Por­tico's. great Court open to the pure Air; curiously Paved with Beau­tiful Stones, encompassed at three Sides with long Portico's. B. C.

Because the Royal Temple was joyned to that side▪ towards the Sun-Rising,Cap. 36. opposite to the Sepulchre: A wonderful Work,The Descri­ption of Walls, &c. raised to an immense height,D and spread out to a proportio­nable Length and Breadth; whose Inside was imbelished with Planks of divers coloured Marble, and the Outside with a Polite kind of Stone curiously joyned together, with a Beauty nothing inferiour to Marble. [Page 43] He covered the Roof on the Outside with Lead to keep out the Winter Rains: The Inside he adorned with Carved Work, and with Planches curiously joyned together, that it repre­sented a Great Sea spread all over the Temple, and so covered all over with Gold, that it makes the whole Church shine with incomparable Splen­dor.

About both sides also of the Temple were two Rows of double Portico's, Cap. 37. containing an upper and a Lower Story;The Descri­ption of the double Portico, &c. which extended themselves the length of the whole Temple,E whose Arches were gilded with Gold: Of which those near the Front of the Building were su­stained with vast large Pillars; Those that were within those at the Front, were raised upon Pedestals made very Beautiful without: Three Gates well placed towards the Sun-Rising,F received [Page 44] the Entring Crowd of Peo­ple.

Opposite to those Gates was the Hemisphere or Cupolo, Cap. 38. which is the Chief of the whole Work,The Descri­ption of the Hemisphere &c. raised up to the highest part of the Church:G These Twelve Pil­lars do Encircle, Equal to the Number of the Twelve Apostles; whose Capit [...]ls are adorned with large Fret-work of Silver; which the Emperour dedicated to be a most Beautiful Offering to God.

Thence going forward,Cap. 39. to­wards those Entrances placed before the Temple,Description of the Courts, &c. there is an Open H Court between. There were in these on both sides, and in the I Outward Court K L Por­ticoe's, and beyond the Court-Gates M, and beyond those in the middle of the Street a Mar­ket properly and Beautifully adjoyned to the Outward Gate N of the whole; yielding to those walking without an Amazing [Page 45] Prospect of those things that are to be seen within.

This Temple the Emperour built to be a Salutiferous Testi­mony of the Resurrection;Cap. 40. which he adorned with Furniture very Magnificent and Princely.Of the Number of the Offer­ings. It is not to be expressed with what Gifts and Offerings he Enrich'd it, of Silver and Gold, and Pre­cious Stones. Of which Time will not permit particularly to describe the Curiosity of the Work; and the singular Great­ness, and Number, and Variety of them.

CHAP. V. Observations on the Church of the Sepulchre.

[...],Cap. 34. Eximiis Co­lumnis. What Figure this Magnificent Structure was built in, Eusebius leaves us to find out some where else; only he saith, It was adorned with fine Pillars.

If the present Building be the same that was built by Constantine (as Eusebius, or by his Mother Helena a [...] Zozomene, and as in all likelyhood this part is, thô not the whole) then it was thus, ac­cording to Mr. Sands's Figure:Sands's Trav. lib. 3. p. 162.

Upon a Circular Foundation is raised a very large and wide Cupolo, with a double Portico or Gallery sustained by many Marble Pillars surrounding it within, with upper and lower Story.

[Page 47] The number of the Pillars, ac­cording to his Platform, is Sixteen, besides those that support a Great Door entring into the Body of the Church.

Between the Upper Story and the Roof is a Border of Niches, containing Figures of Saints in Mosaick Work; which we may suppose of later Date.

The Roof shuts up in a Cupolo, covered within with Beams con­taining whole Bodies of Cedars, so as to leave a Round Hole in the Center on the Top, that lets in both Light and Air; Just under which is the Holy Monument.

[...],Cap. 35. &c. Thence you pass into a vast Great place into the open Air, i. e. Eastward; as he goes on with his Description.

At the East-side there is a great Gate, but now it opens only into the Body of the Church: But in Eusebius's Time it seems there was a great Court between, encom­passed [Page 48] on Three sides with Porti­co's, or Cloysters sustained with Pillars. And the Fourth towards the East, and opposite to the Se­pulchre, was the Front of the Basilica or Church; which accord­ing to his Description was a vast Great Church:Cap. 36. But now must be either much. Bigger than it was then, or it must have been built further Eastwards; but the Rock of Mount Calvary, to the Foot of which this Temple reaches, seems to hinder this: So that where the present Body of the Church is built, I take to be the place where that great Court or Cloyster was.

[...],Cap. 36. &c. Towards the Sun-Rising; i. e. East­ward from the Sepulchre, on the opposite side of the Court was the Church; which he calls here, [...], The Kingly or Royal Temple.

[Page 49] [...],Cap. 37. &c. About both sides of the Temple were two rows of double Por­tico's, containing an upper and a lower Story or Gallery; to wit, One Row or Gallery even with the Pavement of the Church, and another above that. Like that now about the Sepulchre: And so is Sancta Sophia, and St Lukes.

But I do not know, but that by double Portico's, he may mean below as well as above; like that which Mr Sands describes at Beth­lem, Lib. 3. p. 178. which has two Rows of Beautiful Marble Pillars of one piece, on each side of the Body of the Church: But here is no upper Portico at present.

[...], &c. Three Doors towards the Sun-Rising. I suppose he means in the Front, as they went from the Sepulchre Eastwards by what follows; thô that there were also Doors at the East-End will be manifest by and by.

[Page 50] [...]. Opposite to these, i. e. The Doors and the Portico's, was the Hemi­sphere; i. e. that the Italians call a Cupolo, and the French a Dome.

[...]. Valesius seems much out in this matter, thinking that Eusebius calls this improperly so; and would rather have it a Hemicyclus, or rather a Hemi­cylender: For Eusebius means not that sort of a Quadrant of a Sphere, as is to be seen at the East-End in some Churches; as Sancta Sophia, &c. where the Altar was pla­ced in such Churches; but properly a Cupolo, which is a Hemisphere and was here sustained by Twelve Pil­lars; under it indeed I suppose was the Altar placed in the Center of the Circle; as at that of Tyre: But more plain here, for at the East-End were also Doors to this Church, more evidently than that of Tyre. And in Reality here is yet a great Cupolo standing, as [Page 51] Mr. Sands's Draft describes it, and may be the same Eusebius speaks of, for ought I know. Thô there seem to be many other Alterations now from the Ancient Church.

There is indeed a Semicircle below; but Eusebius speaks of its reaching up to the Summit of the Building, where I doubt not but it was properly a Hemisphere. But I do not think with him, that it was the furthest Eastern part of the Church; but so that there was place to go about it without side, where the two double Portico's met, as the Figure I have made of it, or as it is on the East-End of Westminster-Abby: For,

[...], &c. Thence going forward to the Entrance before the Temple, he placed an open Court.

Thence going forward, shews plainly, That there were Eastern-Gates or Passages that led into a great Court, or Cloyster; which [Page 52] led to outward Gates, and so to the Street and Market in a con­tinued Series. Therefore I take it to be plain. That the Altar was here placed under the Cupolo, but more toward the Eastern-End, than that I described at Tyre; but so with a Semicircle at the bottom, as the Synthronon might there be placed. And by a Walk under the double Portico (on each hand) was a Space both about it, and between it and the Eastern Wall, and there Doors to go out into the Eastern-Cloyster, Gates and Street. The present Platform doth not altogether answer this; for all the Cloysters and Courts are gon, and the Entrance now is only South.

[...], The first Court. I take this to be the same that he calls [...], in the 10th Book of his Description of the Church of Tyre, [...], with a Wall about [Page 53] the whole Circuit of Ground, to be the Fence of the whole; which it seems was also Beautified here with covered Walks or Cloysters, sustained with Pillars, as well as the Inner Courts, he calls here [...], and in the Title [...], as Valesius observes.

[...], Exedrarum. It seems by this Title, there were also Out-houses and Buildings to this as well as to that of the Church of Tyre; thô he describes them not; and we may suppose joyned to the [...], or Out­ward Court; or else to the Out­sides of the other Courts. Things are now so transposed and blended here by the Little Fables, Legends and Superstitions of the Romans, that there is now but a Little of the Ancient Glory, Beauty and Splendor of this Magnificent Edi­fice remaining.

CHAP. VI. Of the Building of the Mar­tyrium of the Apostles at Constantinople. Eusebius de vitâ Constant. Lib. 4. Cap. 58, 59.

AFTER this the Emperor
Fig. 3.
began to build the Mar­tyrium in Memory of the Apo­stles, in the City called by his own Name. And when he had built the Temple up to an im­mense Height, he rendred it most Splendid with various sorts of Stone, Casing it all over from the Bottom to the Roof therewith. The Roof Within-side he adorned with fine small Work, embelish'd all over with Gold. The Roof Without-side he covered with Brass instead of Tiles, to secure the whole

The Plane of the Church of the Apostles at Constantinople.

[Page 55]

Building from the Rains; which also he made shine with Gold, insomuch that it dazelled the Eyes of them that beheld it afar off, by the Repercussion of the Sun-Beams from it. The circu­lar Chancel or Cupolo was en­closed about with Net-work of Brass, gilded with Gold.

And this Temple by the Emperor's Great and Pious Care,Cap. 59. was yet Adorned after this manner: About it was a Great open Court, letting in the fresh Air:B About which was on the four Sides, joyning to each other,C Portico's making a Cloyster, en­compassing the Court and Tem­ple in the Middle.D Adjoyning to these Portico's, E he built Pa­laces,F Baths and Mansions,G with many other Conveniences, for the Use of those that kept the Place.

There he placed Twelve Cases,Cap. 60. as it were Sacred Pillars in Me­mory of the Apostles,H and placed his own Monument in the mid­dle.I

CHAP. VII. Observations on the Temple of the Apostles.

WHat Form or Figure this was built of, Eusebius, gives us no account; only that it was plac'd in the midst of a large Square and open Court, adorn'd and accommodated with a Cloyster on the four Sides, to which were joyned Palaces, Baths, Places to Lodge Strangers, and other Conveniences. But Valesius out of Gregory Nazianzen (In Car­mine de Insomnio Anastatiae) shews us, That the Temple it self was built in form of a Cross.


[Page 57] And the Magnificent Temple of Christ's Disciples, divided in four Parts, with Sides in Form of a Cross.

That is, I suppose, Square without, and Divided within into four Parts, in Form of a Cross; as most of the Ancient Churches I have seen in Greece, and now extant, remain to this day: As that of Sancta Sophia, at Constan­tinople; Jovianus at Corfu; of Romanus at S. Luke's Convent un­der the Helicon; that at Hera­clea, &c. Which have a Cupolo raised in the middle; with half Cupolo's joyned to the East, West, North and South; and small Cu­polo's filling up each Corner. Which being covered with Brass, and Gilt with Gold, must needs make a most Splendid show to all that beheld it afar off, and near at hand.

Indeed Mr. Sands gives us a Platform of One built by the same Emperor, or his Mother Helena, [Page 58] much Longer than Broad, and so more like our Western Form of the Cross.

[...]. This Valesius thinks was either the Cupolo, or place for the Altar. I take it to be both, that is, the whole Chancel, from the Top to the Bottom; which was of a Circular Figure, [...], or as I think it should be written [...], Circulari formâ, to wit, a Circle at the Bot­tom, and covered with a Cupolo or Hemisphere on the Top.

[...]. This Net­work round about the [...] was made of Brass and Gold, i. e. Brass gilded. This I take to be the Cancelli, or Separation of the Holy Place or Chancel from the rest of the Church. Of which Net-work Separation he hath spoken in the Church of Tyre, and elsewhere.

[Page 59] [...]. The Perimeter, Round or on every Side, or every way about. This intimates that the Chancel was not against the Eastern-Wall, but had a Space between; as those of Tyre and Ierusalem.

[...], Capsas, quasi sacras Columnas. These Monumental Pillars, I suppose, were such as that of the Emperor Marcianus, remaining now at Constantinople, with a Vessel or Urn on the Top; unless they were the Pillars sustaining the VestiBulum.

In what part of the Church this was placed, Eusebius gives no Ac­count. One would think they were in the Middle under the Great Cupolo, by the placing of Constantine in the Middle, but perhaps in the Body of the Church; because he saith, they were placed six on the one side, and six on the other. [Page 60] Thô S. Chrysostom saith,Chrysost. Hom. 26. in Ep. 2 ad Cor. 7. p. 41 That Constantine was Buried, In Vesti­bulo aedis Apostolorum, quasi Eorum Janitorem, In the Porch of the Church of the Apostles, as their Door-Keeper. If so, then these Monumental Pillars must be pla­ced there also, according to Euse­bius his Description. That which Valesius brings out of Zonaras to reconcile Eusebius and S. Chry­sostom, only proves in my Opi­nion, That this Part of the Church that Constantine built, both for the Memory of the Apostles and his own Monument, was the Vesti­bulum of the Church.

[...]. This I Translate Palaces; because it is in the Plural Number, and because they were joyned to the other Conveniencs of the Place, for those that had the Care and Government of it. For there is no likelyhood that there were more Churches than One, which [Page 61] was the Famous great Building he is describing, Dedicated to the Remembrance of the Apostles, and which in the beginning of the Chapter he calls [...]. Thô in the Singular Number it is generally used for a Chief Church, to wit, a Cathedral, or some Great and Magnificent Building.

These Accommodations in this Church were joyned to the Peri­bolus, or Outward Court, and the Cloysters about it. And I believe were Houses for the Bishop, Pres­byters, and the other Clergy that had the Government of the Church of Constantinople.

CHAP. VIII. A Description of the Ancient Churches and Assemblies of the Primitive Christians.

FRom these several Particulars, and my own Observations of several Ancient Buildings, I think I may now venture to make a General Description of the Ancient Church. Of which I shall first Present you with a Scheme of the Prospect and Plat­form of it,Fig. 4, & 5. and then descend to the Particulars.

The Church Yard.

The Ancients usually built their Churches in the midst of a Large piece of Ground, which BB [...] they called [...], or the Court or Yard that encompassed the [Page]

A Plane of the Primitive Churches. Fig: IIII.

A Prof [...]ect of the Ancient Church. Fig: V.

[Page 63] Whole, The Outward Court, in allusion to that of the Old Tem­ple of Jerusalem. This we find belonged to all these Three Mag­nificent Structures, we have out of Eusebius described: Nor was this particular to the Jews and Christians, but was also usual among the Pagans about their most Famous Buildings; to wit, their Temples and Gymnasiums; as Pausanias, Vitruvius, Paus. Attic. Temple. Jovis. Vitruvius Lib. 5. c. 11. Wheeler's Trav. in Attic. & Corinth. Euseb. de vit. Const. Lib. 3. c. 39. and An­cient Inscriptions inform us. This is called [...], The first Court, by Eusebius, in his Descri­ption of the Church at Jerusalem. These we may suppose were the same that sometimes they called their Martyria, the places where their Martyrs were Buried, and where they often Met to celebrate the Memory of their Famous Martyrs,Aug. Lib. 8. De Civit. Dei. thô their Churches were Demolished: And there they Buried their Dead. And being Walled about, as Eusebius de­scribes [Page 64] it, was to secure it from the Profanation of Man or Beast.

This Wall had sometimes a Cloyster about it; as the Church B [...] of the Apostles of Constantinople. And to these Cloysters were built Apartments for Various Occasions of those that appertained to the Church; as Houses for the Bishop and Presbyters, for the Poor, Wi­dows, &c.

[...], or [...].

From the Entrances of this Out­ward Court, you went strait for­ward C to the Porch, or Portico of the Church, which the Greeks called [...], or [...], which un­doubtedly were very Magnificent; both by Eusebius's Description, and the Remains and Ancient Ruines of many I have seen. That of the Emperor Jovian at Corfu is su­stained by Corinthian Pillars of [Page 65] Marble; That at Troy with vast Pillars of Marble, with all the parts of most Beautiful Archite­cture to accompany it: That of Sancta Sophia at Constantinople is double, but seems somewhat En­combred with Modern Buildings of a Little Brick Steeple, and others unproportioned to the Magnificence of the rest of the Fabrick. The inward Roofs of them are Arched and Encrusted with Mosaick Work in divers Figures, and the Ground-work gilded.

The Reverend and Learned Dr. Beveridge seems to make this distinct from the Three parts, that the Ancient Church was divided into; according to Simeon Thessalonicensis, cited by him: And for another Reason the Divine Temple is divided into Three parts. To those without or before the Temple; the Temple; and the Bema, or Chancel [...]. Sym. Thess. de Templ.. But [...], [Page 66] seems manifestly to me▪ to point out the same thing with [...], the Porch or Gate of the TempleSee Pau­sanias Boe­ot. p. 557. Ed. Han. [...]. Schol. in Sophoclen. That in the Front of the Temple. Virtuvius, Lib. 4. c. 4.: So [...] was used by the Ancient Greeks, to signifie the Porch or Entrance into their Temples, and not as a Part within their Temples; but the first part at the Entrance. This Symeons Periphrasis of it makes manifest; [...], Those without, or before the Temple. The same also that Zonaras makes [...], Without the Church; and [...], Without the Church-Yard; and interprets [...], by [...], in the 46th Canon of Carthage, Balsomon makes to be [...], upon the 87th. Can. in Trullo.

Besides I see no part of the Ancient Buildings accommodated to make them distinct, no more [Page 67] than the present: So that I can no longer doubt, but that they were the same. Whether there were any other Separation within or no made of Wood, I cannot deter­mine, perhaps in Lesser Churches, where there was no Portico, it was divided into Three parts within the Doors, as Dr. Beveridge has designed it.

From this Portico, the En­trance DDD The Church Doors. into the Church was by Three large Doors; the biggest of which was in the middle. These were those (I suppose) that were called [...], The Great Doors; and sometimes [...], [...]. Cod. de Ob. Cur. Const. aut cap. 15. The Beautiful Gates. But I suspect the Moderns con­found those often with those of the [...], or Chancel, which are sometimes called by that name. These Doors at the Entrance of the Church, Eusebius speaks of in his Church of Tyre; and [Page 68] compares the middle Door to a Queen, [...]. Euseb. Lib. 10. cap. 4. with her two Royal At­tendants on each hand.

These Three Doors led into three General parts of the Church; extended in Length from West to East: The great Middle Door leads into the Body or Nave of the ChurchEFG., and the two Lesser ones (at each Hand) into the IlesN G..

And now you are entred into the NAOS,NAOS. or CHƲRCH, properly so called; which was variously divi­ded into diversity of Stations, according to the different Sex, Qualities, [...]. In Eu­cholog. in Ablutione Sacrae men­sae. and Degrees of the Assembly. The Men in the Mid­dle or Body of the Church, and the Women (as to this day) on each Hand, in the [...], or Iles: The Married Women on one hand, and the Virgins on the other. And in some places in Galleries over those Iles, sepa­rated from the View of the Men [Page 69] by a Latice. That the Men were Anciently separated from the Women; and the Men again Subdivided in the Latin Church also, is manifest from that Frag­ment of an Inscription found at Rome, and mentioned by Dr. Cave.


This Division of the Church appears in all the Ancient Churches I have seen.

That the Ancient Churches were also divided into diversity of Stations, according to the different Christian Qualities, or Ecclesia­stical Degrees of the Persons, is also manifest; thô to place each particular Order exactly, there is some difficulty. I have not ob­served any Separation in Ancient Churches, between the Great Doors and the [...], or Chancel, but those Doors that let into the Chancel. Thô [Page 70] undoubtedly, as there was a Sepa­ration by Cancelli, or Open work, between the Stations of the Cler­gy and their holy Ministry from the Laity; being the Station of the [...], or Faithful: So likewise there was a Separation between the Station of the Faithful, and the Penitents and Learners.

And this we find plain, That the Penitents and Learners were placed next to the Door; the Faithful next to them, Eastward; and the Clergy in the [...], or Chancel, in the most Eastern part of the Church.

Eusebius makes none, but the Faithful to enter within the Doors, and assigns his Portico's and Cloysters for the Learners and Penitents. But that some of them, if not all, were likewise permitted to come within the Church-Doors, is also evident by that Passage of Gregory Thauma­turgus [...], &c. Greg. Thau­maturg. Can. 11.: The Place of the Hearers [Page 71] is within the Gates in the Narthex.

But Balsamon permits them not to come into the [...], [...]. Bals. Syn. Ancyr. Can. 17. or The Gates of Salvation; yet still places them in the Narthex. So that either there must be some Separation of Wood between the Station of the Faithful and the Great Doors: Or by Narthex must be meant the same with [...] and [...].

Perhaps in Lesser Churches, where they had not these Outward Porches, they made use of some Separation of Wood within in­stead thereof: The Space between which and the Outward Doors they called [...]. And there probably sometimes they placed the Font or Columbethra: Thô Eu­sebius places it in the Quadrangle of his Cloyster in the open Air. It was in the Porch at Athens; and in the Court of Sancta Sophia.

[Page 72] There are some Passages in their Liturgies and Pontificals, [...]. Eucholog. [...]. Euchol. in Ord. S. Minist. which seem to make the whole Body of the Church, between the Great Doors and the Chancel, to have been called the Narthex, as their often coming out of the Holy Doors, i. e. from the [...] into the [...], does imply.

But I doubt not but this Va­riety ariseth from more Modern Custom; since they retain not those several Stations they had in Old time; all Men now mixing together in the Body of the Church, and the Women on each side in the Iles.

But however that was, this is evident, that the [...], or Learners, and the several De­grees of Penitents, had their Sta­tion at the Entrance of the Church, [Page 73] nearer to the Doors than the Faithful, and in this order; accord­ing to the several Degrees of the Penitents; which were Four:

First, Those who began their Penance, or came first to do their Penanco, desiring Pardon of God and his Church; who were called [...], or those that Wept without the Church, and were not yet permitted into any part of it.

The next Degree were the [...], Those who had done a certain prescribed time of Pe­nance by the Canons; and so were permitted to come and hear the Scriptures.

The Third Degree were called [...], or Substrati, Those who were Humbled, and had performed their Penance a Degree of time longer, and were per­mitted to stand within the Church some part of Divine Service.

[Page 74] The Fourth, [...], were permitted to stay and partake of the Prayers with the Faithful▪ but, not to Communicate with them.

Each of these had a proper Place assigned them.

The [...] were mani­festly without the [...], or [...], if not without the [...], or Outward Court; which was not accounted so Holy as the [...] or [...], as Balsamon observes [...]Bals. in Dionys. Alex. cap. 2. That [...]. and [...], were the same, is plain by Eusebius, in his Description of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre.. So then the [...], or Porch, must remain to some others; who we find were either the [...], or Learn­ers, and the [...], or those Possessed with Evil Spirits Vid. Church of Tyre. Euseb..

[Page 75] Then the [...], and the [...], or Substrati: For in this Order we find them gene­rally numbred [...] Eccl. Hierarch. cap. 3. Dionys. Areop. [...]. Ibid.. So that counting backward from the [...], who were next to the Faithful, behind the Pulpit [...]. Bals. In Schol. ad 15. Can. Laodic. it is evident that the [...] were next to them; and next to them the [...]; and then the [...]; who probably stood as near each other, and to the Sta­tion of the Faithful, to hear the Scriptures, &c. as the Number of them would permit; but so as without confusion either of Sex, [Page 76] or of their own Rank. So that those that were Women, stood in the Station of Women; and Men in the Station of Men: And so that upon the Notice of the Dea­con, each of them might go out without Disorder to the rest▪ when their Respective Services and Prayers were performed, accord­ing to the 19th Canon of the Council of Laodicea.

Between the [...] and the Faithful, [...]. stood the AMBO, or Reading Desk [...]. Blast. in. lit. M. Schol. Hermen.. It stood op­posite to the Holy Doors of the Chancel [...]. Sym. Thess. de Sacram., and the Beautiful Gates of the Entrance: So we may sup­pose, it stood about the Middle of the Church; and either by some Steps or Separation of Wood distinguisht the Station of the Penitents from the Station of the Faithful; viz. the [...]; [Page 77] whose Station was behind; that is, Westward.

This Pulpit, or Desk, had a double Ascent to it; one towards the [...], and the other towards the Entrance [...], Cod. de Off. Cur. Const. c. 17.; and therein some­times the Emperour had a Place.

I have seen no Marks of this, either in the Ancient or Modern Greek Churches; for the Ambo is now placed on the North-side of the Nave of the Church, nearer to the Outward Gates than the Bema; as I observed in the Tem­ple of Minerva, at Athens, one yet remaining of white Marble curiously wrought; which seems to stand so in the middle of the whole Church that it is as near to the [...] or Portico, as to the Bema or Chancel. Therefore it may be supposed to stand near the [Page 78] Entrance of the Station of the Faithful.

The principal use of this Ambo was, to Read the Scriptures to the People; especially the Epistles and Gospels. They Read the Gospel there yet, and not at the Altar. The Singers also were pla­ced there, to begin and lead the Tunes of the Psalms. St. Chry­sostom was the first, that Preached to the People from thence, as I before observed, by reason of the great Number of People that crouded to hear him.

On the oher side of the Pulpit was the Station of the Faithful, FFFF which took not only that Space between the Pulpit and Chancel, in the middle or Body of the Church, which was for the Men; but also on eachside, in the North and South [...], or Sides for the Women.

[Page 79] Eusebius, seems to hint. That E [...] this was adorned with Seats or Benches in Order all over the Church; as the Bema or Chancel was with Thrones, for the Bishops and Presbyters. But now the Body of the Church among the Greeks is accommodated with Stalls, and a Throne for the Bishop at the Right hand, at a little di­stance from the Bema; much resembling our Quiers with Doors on each hand into the Iles: But the Bishop and Clergy sit, or rather stand next to the Bema, to Sing and Officiate; and in the rest, the Laity of better Sort; and in the middle the rest; as I observed at the Catholicon at Athens, as they now call their Cathedral Churches. But in the Ancient Church, this was the Station of those only who lived a Godly, Righteous and Sober Life; and therefore were called the Faithful. And those who had so long persevered in Repentance, that they were raised [Page 80] again to that degree of Holiness, required by the Word of God and the Church; thô they were some time Longer proved, before they were permitted to participate of the most Sacred Symbols, being in their last degree of Penitence. From their admission into the Assembly of the Faithful, [...] Greg. Thau. Can. 9. they were called [...], or [...], and staid and were partakers of the Prayers of the Faithful, but did not Communicate of the Holy Sacrament with them.

The Station of the Faithful was divided into several Parts, as I hinted before; and is evident from that old Fragment of an Inscription before mentioned,


So that there were Stations for the Men on the Right hand, and on the Left. And that the Station of the Men is mentioned, it shews [Page 81] evidently there was a distinct Station, or Stations, for the Wo­men. For the Virgins also had a distinct Station from the Married Women,Orig. Tract. 26. In Mat­thaeum. as Origen shews. Which were undoubtedly either the Iles on either hand, or the Galleries over them, or both; as it is in the Greek Church to this day. Which seems not only very decent, but now adays (since Wickedness so much abounds) highly neces­sary: For the General mixture of Men and Women in the Latin Church is notoriously Scancialous; and Little less is their Sitting to­gether in the same Pews in our London Churches.

These Parts of the Church the Pious and Learned Dr. Beveridge shews were called [...], out of the Euchologium or Greek Ri­tual. And [...] Eusebius calls them [...], or Porches, both the Upper and Under, in the Church of the Sepulchre at Ierusalem. The Latin [Page 82] Church called them Alae, Wings thence the French, Les-Ailes; and we more cor [...]uptly, Iles, from their resemblance of the Church to a Dove.

Next to the Station of the Faithful is the [...], [...]. or that we call CHANCEL, thô dif­fering very much from Ours in Bigness, being much Less than HK Ours in proportion to the rest of the Church: For this being appropriated only to the Sacred Ministry, is very short from East to West, thô it takes up the whole Breadth of the Church, together with the Diaconicon, or Prothesis, and the Apothesis, from North to South. It's proportion is about the same with the Altar? within the Rails in Our Church.

This was ever esteemed the Most Sacred Place of the whole Church; being appropriated to the Most Holy Mysteries, Ministry and Function of the Christian [Page 83] Religion: And therefore is cal­led [...], or Chancel, [...]. The Holy of Holies by the Anci­ents, with respect to the Temple at Jerusalem The Holy [...], or Place of Sacrifice or Altar: The [...], The Mercy Seat: [...], The Tribunal: [...], The Throne of Christ, and Altar of God; according to the diversity of Respects and Ministerial Functi­ons performed therein; as the Greeks Typically interpret it. [...].

This was divided from the rest of the Church by Open-work of Wood; as Eusebius describes it, [...], With Nets or Net-work made of Wood; which only kept off the Croud, but hindered not the Sight, nor Voice from being distinctly heard.

This Separation in the Temple of Minerva at Athens, was made of Jasper and Serpentine, and other curious Coloured Marble [Page 84] Pillars, Small, and at a convenient distance from each other: And at Prussia also, it is divided with Small Pillars.

They called this Separation [...],Greg. Naz. Orat. ad 150. Episc. Eucholog. and [...]; which the Western-Church called Cancelli; whence we take our word Chancel.

This has usually now Three Doors, to go into the [...], as it is divided into Three Parts. The Three Doors are commonly called together, [...], The Holy Doors: And I believe in Latter days the [...], The Beau­tiful Gates. For that of the Eucho­logium seems plainly to me, [...]. Euchol. in Ord. S. Minist. to be coming out of the [...], by the Beautiful Gates, and returning again by them into the [...]; because he is there to Perfume [Page 85] the Brethren with Incense; whose Station is from the Choir-Doors, or Step downwards towards the Great Doors. And so I take the Modern signification of Nar­thex, to be in general the Nave or Body of the Church; there being no Separation now between that and the Three Doors that go out into the Porch.

This Separation now is made of Boards and Wenscot, instead of the Net-work of the Ancients; and is Painted with the Pictures of our Saviour, and Blessed Vir­gin, and the Apostles; absolutely against the Practice and Precepts of the Primitive Church: As that famous Act of Epiphanius, of Renting a Painted Cloth-hanging, only as a Curtain over the Door, makes manifest. Nevertheless, the Middle Door into the [...] is so large now, that it discovers whatsoever is done within, thô not so well as when it had only [Page 86] Open-work of Wood. It is much larger than the other Two; and I believe it is that which is called the [...] in the Typicon, [...]. In Typ. The Royal or Kingly Door. This leads into the Holy of Holies, the [...], or Thusiasterion, peculiarly so called; for the other Doors lead into two other small Apart­ments on each Hand, for the Preparing the Sacrament, and Laying up the Ve [...]ls and Gar­ments.

This is now; and I believe also many times Anciently, was placed at the farthest Eastern-side of the Church, under a Concave or half-Cupolo, like a great Nich; being a half-Sylender, Semicircular at the Bottom, and covered with a quarter of the Sphere at the Top, and there joyned to the Great Cupolo by an Arch; just below the Hemisphere of the Cupolo; ta­king up the whole Breadth of the Nave of the Church; being usu­ally [Page 87] of the same Diameter with the Cupolo.

But that this was otherwise in some Churches Anciently, is ma­nifest from those we have de­scribed out of Eusebius; espe­cially that of Jerusalem, where there are both Eastern and We­stern Doors into the Church: Therefore most probably the [...] was there placed, under the Great Cupolo, as he saith expresly in the middle; which when they Preached from thence, was mani­festly the most commodious for the HearersIt is ob­servable, That that of Troy, where the [...] was at the fur­thest Ea­stern side, that the Length from East to West, is but half so much as it is from North to South, un­doubtedly for the sake of Hearing..

I have seen this in some Churches raised up from the Plane of the Church by one single Step, and in others Equal to it; whence some have thought it to be called Bema, or Step.

But This, as far as it was without the Separation, was called [...], or Solium, or Throne; be­cause the Emperour had there his [Page 88] Seat or Throne; as the Worthy Dr. Beveridge most probably Con­jectures.

The first thing that presents it self within this Sacred place, is the Holy Table of the Lords Sup­per; which they call generally [...], The Holy Table; and sometimes [...], The Altar: From whence the whole place was also Anciently so called, and that most fre­quently.

It is generally of Stone, sustain­ed H sometimes by four Small Pil­lars, and sometimes by one in the Middle. And it is placed in the middle of this Holy Place, as distant, or rather more distant from the Eastern-Wall, than the Door. That at Athens seems to be placed something without this Concave, according to the Scheme I then took of it: So that there are two Rows of Pillars; one on [Page 89] the Western, and the other on the Southern side of it.

This had (I know not whether very Anciently or no) a Canopy over it, sustained by four Pillars. At Athens, it was sustained by four Beautiful Pillars of Porphyry, with Corinthian Capitals of White Mar­ble, which were very stately.

This Canopy was in the shape of a Cupolo or Hemisphere; and therefore the Mystiologists compa­red it to the Heaven, and the Table to the Earth in the midst of it, figuring our Saviour's De­scent and Ascent from Heaven.

The Ʋnity of the Altar was Sacred in the Primitive Church, and is so to this day in the present Greek Church. They never had any more than one Altar in one Church, [...]. Ign. Ep. ad Phil. no more than more Bi­shops than one; as S. Ignatius says: [Page 90] As there is one Body of the Lord, [...], &c. Ign. Ep. ad Magnes. and One Cup for the Ʋnion of his Blood; so there is One Altar and One Bishop. They never Cram­med their Churches with Altars against every Pillar and Post and in every Corner of the Church, dedicated to every Saint and Angel in Heaven and Earth; as the Romans do now.

Beyond this was the Holy Throne, [...], together with the I [...], or Consistory; as I think I may call it. This was placed against the Wall of the Semicircular Concave, consisting of several Steps or Degrees Semi­circular also. I remember they are in number Three, and of White Marble in that of Athens and Prussia; which are so High and Large, that they are fit both to sit on; and for those that sit a Degree higher, to place their Feet on.

[Page 91] These Degrees were the [...]. Greg. Naz. Orat. ad 150. Ep. [...]; KK on the Top of which was placed a single Seat, which was the [...], The Throne [...]. Balsam. in 2. Can. Syn. Constantinop..

This might well be called also [...], from the Degrees or Steps; but most properly as [...] signifies a Tribunal or Judgment Seat [...]. Dio. Lib. 44.. It signifies also Surgestum, or a Pulpit, whence Orators use to plead, as Monsieur Goar observes out of Demosthenes, who speaks of himself [...], as going up into the [...], or Pulpit, to speak an Oration.

Upon such a high Tribunal or Scaffold we often see the Emperor standing, and sometimes sitting in Medals and Ancient Bass-Relieves; both in Adlocutions to the Army. and in distributing their Bounty [Page 92] to the People: But these are of a different Figure from those in the Church; for those were Square, and these Semicircular.

This was lookt upon in the Christian Church as the Tribunal or Throne of Christ and his Apo­stles, and as the Mercy Seat of God in the Temple; and there­fore was also called [...], [...]. Typ. Sab. cap. 5. The Mercy Seat.

Codinus informs us, [...]. Cod. That the Emperour Justinian covered this with Gold, Thô not, as he saith, for the Priests to stand upon to Reverence the Table: But piously to Adorn the [...], or Throne as the Chair of Christ, and his Apo­stles; In opposition to the Chair of Moses, and conformable to that Glorious Throne, or Mercy-Seat. erected in the Temple, Adorned with Cherubims on each hand; as Seraphick Attendants thereon▪ And [Page 93] not to be Worshipped, as the late rather Subtil, than Ignorant Bishop of Oxon would Insinuate to the World.

On this Throne, and so on the High Seat, was placed the Written Word of God, or Bible; as Mr. Goar, by the Connexion of his Discourse, seems to intimate out of Symeon Thessalonicensis. Sym. Thess. de Temp. And so indeed it was placed in the Holy Council of Nice, on a Throne; intimating, That that was the Law of God, whence all true Judgment, concern­ing either Faith or Manners, must be taken: And according to that, we must both be judged by Christ, and as his Ministers, Judge in the Church of God for Edification, and not Destruction.

On this Throne and Synthronon, both the Bishop and his Presbyters use to sit together; and that very Anciently as S. Ignatius intimates in almost all his Epistles: Where he compares the Bishop in the Church to Christ, and the Pres­byters [Page 94] to the Apostles. And Euse­bius tells us, That the Chair of S. James of Jerusalem (wherein he Taught the People) was kept till his time.

But whether the Bishop did always sit in the Highest Seat, or Throne, or in the middle of the Synthronon may be questioned, from that of Balsamon; [...]. Bal­sam. in 2. Can. Const. [...]. in his Commentary upon the 2d Canon of the Council of Constantinople: Wherein he saith, It was granted to some Bishops, even to sit upon the Throne, in the Holy [...] of the Church committed to his Charge. But that They did sit on the [...] together, is evident from the LVI. Canon of the Council of Laodicea.

But this was not in Ancient times, to make a Vain glorious and Pompous show in the Church; [Page 95] but besides the Representation of Christ's Judgment. Seat, to put the People in mind of the Great Judgment to come, it was the Chair of Christ and Seat of the Elders; from whence the Bishops and Priests use to Preach to the People, in the Name, and by the Authority that Christ committed to them.

So Zonaras tells us, [...]. Zonar. in Can. Apost. 58. That the Bishop was placed in a Seat on high, in the [...], or Holy Place; signi [...]ying, That he ought (according as the Canon prescribes) to take care of the Clergy, and teach the People Piety; to inspect, and dili­gently to observe the People under him from that Sublime place.—

—And that there also the Presbyters are commanded to assist, and sit together with the Bishop; [Page 96] that they also may be admonished from that High Seat, to Teach and Instruct the People in holy Life and Conversation, as they are given to be Fellow Labourers to the Bi­shop.

Socrates also and Zozomen in­form us▪ Socrat. Lib. 6. c. 5. Zozom. Lib. 8. c. 5. That this was the Ancient Custom; shewing, That S. John Chrysostom was the first that Preached in the Ambo, or Reading Desk of the Church, by Reason of the Multitude of Peo­ple, that Crouded up to Hear him. On which Valesius brings us an old Constitution or Law of King Childebert, importing the same thing;Baron. An. 407. n. 17. [...]. Greg. Nazian. Orat. 32. ad CL. Ep. and then sends us to Baronius; who shews us. That Gregory Nazianzen Preached with­in the Bema in the same Church that Chrysostom Preached in the [Page 97] Ambo, or Pulpit. The place he mentions is at the Latter end of his Epistle to the 150 Bishops; where he bids all his Church, his People, and every thing in it. Adieu.

Adieu, O my Chair! This En­vied Height, and this Dangerous Council or Consistory of Chief Priests: Priests become Honourable as well by Reverence, as by Age. And you, whoever you be, about the Holy Table in any other Ministry of God, and coming nigh to God, who in near at hand—

And a little after:

Adieu, ye Lovers of my Ser­mons, and you who run and concur with me; and you both Publick and Private Writers; and thou Oppres­sed Chancel, by those that Croud about the Word of God.

Those Verses of Prudentius prove also the same thing:Prudent. Peristeph. hym. 11. de S. Hyp­polyr.

Fonte sub adversa Gradibus sub­lime Tribunal
Tollitur, Antistes praedicat unde Deum.

[Page 98] This manner of Sitting toge­ther, and both Preaching to the People; and I believe Judging, and pronouncing the Church-Censures from thence; was also the Reason that the Assembly, or consistory of the Bishop and his Presbyters, was calledMath. 26. 59. Mar. 14. 55. [...], and [...] 1 Tim. 4. 14., mentioned in the Scripure, and often in S. Ignatius's Epistles, and here by S. Gregory; as if they were Suc­cessors of the [...], or Coun­cil of the Chief Priests and El­ders among the Children of Israel.

On each hand of this [...], or Tribunal, or Chancel; viz. to L.M. the North and South; are two other small Apartments, about half the Bigness of the [...], covered usually at the Top with a small Cupolo; as there is in like manner over the four Corners of the Temple; which makes the [Page 99] whole Symetry of the Roof of it most Beautiful and Uniform. Each of these have Two Doors; one to Enter in from the Iles, and another into the [...]. That to­wards the North was called [...]; as the Reverend Dr. Beveridge shews at large; but it is now called [...] by the present Greeks▪ and in the present Rubricks both of S. Chrysostoms and S. Basils Liturgies. There is usually a little Table in it, and a Nich in the Wall; where they lay up the Bread that is offered by the People, or brought in for the Sacrament. There also they pre­pare the Sacrament with some Ceremonies, before they carry it solemnly in to the Altar; and thither they carry it again, to Eat and Drink up the Remains, when the Liturgy is finish'd. Which Table they call [...], as well as the Bread, [Page 100] [...]; and thence it is they carry it solemnly into the [...], coming first out by the the Door towards the Ilo; and thence enter in by the Great Door in the Middle. The other on the South side they at present call [...]; which is commonly furnished with Shelves one above another; whereon they lay their Books, their Vestments, and holy Vessels, in such places as they dare keep them in the Church.

I have observed these Places in very Ancient Churches; as at St. Luca and Corfu. And those vast Ruins of Troy seem much to have been a Christian Church, from this conformity of two Lesser Concaves on either hand of the Great one in the Middle.

[Page 101] The Material Church of the Ancients was thus Prepared and Adorned, for the Solemn and Publick Worship of Almighty God. And thus Contrived for the Ac­commodation of every Class of the Spiritual Building, to the Edification of the whole in Faith and Love; according to the Mea­sure of Grace that every one had received from the Lord. Here you see Magnificence without Gaudiness; Splendor and Gra­vity mixt together; Comliness and Beauty, with Order and Re­verence: And all far from Fop­pery and Superstition. The Edi­fication of the whole in Love, was the chief Concern of those truly Great and Zealous Pastors. Thô they neglected not the External Reverence, Decency and Order in their Assemblies; yet it was with Regard to the Purifying the Flock of Christ; even as he had given them Precepts and Examples [Page 102] to be Pure; knowing this, that without Holiness (in Christ) no man should see the Lord. And this They zealously pursued, with­out looking for the Recompence of Reward that Man should give them; but that Crown of Immortal Glory, that the Righteous Judge should give them in that Day.

CHAP. IX. The Order the Christian Assem­blies were held in.

AS Their CHURCHES were Grave, and yet Mag­nificent: so was the ORDER of their Assemblies managed with great Simplicity, and yet with great Authority and Spiritual Vi­gor; with great Order, yet with useful Plainness. Their Ritual seems to be but short; yet much better than the Great Volumes of Cere­monies, the World has since seen in both the Eastern and Western Churches. The Order of their Assemblies seem to be comprized in that short, but excellent Canon of the Council of Laodicea, Can. 19.

[Page 104] That Men ought first to performConc. Laod. Can. 19. [...] their own Devotions privately, alone, or by himself; After that the Ho­milies of the Bishops, and the Prayers of the Catechists is to be performed: And after the going out of the Catechists, the Prayer of the Penitents is to be performed; and after these are Ministred to, and departed, thus shall the Three Prayers of the Faithful be made: One, to wit, The first in Silence; but the second and third shall be performed with a Loud Voice. After which, thus shall the Peace be given: After the Presbyters have given the Peace to the Bishop, the Laicks shall give the Peace; and so the Holy Offering or Sacrament to be celebrated. And it is fit that only the Clergy should enter in unto the Altar, and there to Communicate.

[Page 105] Justin Martyr describes the Christian Assemblies to be held in much the same manner; only he mentions the Reading the Scrip­tures before the Sermon.

On the Day which is called Sun­day, Just. Apol. 2. there is a Meeting together in one place, of all that remain in the Cities and Countries: And there they Read both out of the Apostles, and out of the Writings of the Prophets, so much as is sufficient for the time. Then when the Reader leaves off, the Bishop or President Preaches a Sermon, Exhorting them to the Imitation of those Good things. After which, we usually all stand up and pour forth Prayers: And (as I said before) when we desist from Praying, Bread and Wine, and Water is offered, and the Bishop according to his ability offers Prayers and Thanksgiving, and the People with a chearful Voice say, Amen. Then follows the Giving and Receiving of the Eucharist to Every one; And to those that are [Page 106] not present, it is sent by the Dea­cons. Those that are Rich, and wil­ling, every one, according to his own Pleasure, gives what he pleaseth. What is Collected, is deposited with the Bishop or President, and he dis­spenceth it to the Orphans and Wi­dows, Sick, or those who upon any Account are in want, &c.

This Order seems very natural, proper, and most useful; espe­cially for those Times, when the World was to be taught, and not forced (as by the Romans) to pro­fess what they either cannot un­derstand; or the more they do, they see it to be Error, Nonsense, and Contradiction.

And concerning the Truth it self, Children may; but Men will not be forced to learn. Therefore truly, since so great a Part of Mankind are, and ever will be, either Ignorant, Prejudiced, or Invincibly Obstinate, and so very much incapable of Instruction; [Page 107] or at least, being so perfectly Instructed in the highest Myste­ries, that they will be hardly Reconciled to what even their true Spiritual Guides and Superiours judge most Agreeable to the Glory of GOD in His Worship, and fittest for their Edification.

Therefore, I say, it would certainly be very happy for the Christian World, That some such Rational Method were Ordered, as may with more Ease Lead them into Christ's Flock, rather than Drive them. For Mankind was ever naturally averse to Force and Violence. It is only Force of Argument, that can convince the Rational Soul.

And what better ORDER can be Invented, than this Ancient Tryed Method; By which the World was overcome, and be­came Christian? For thô we have not the same sorts of Men in all points now-adays, now the [Page 108] World is Professedly Christian; yet in some sort all are so, who are not Reconciled, or do not consent to the Universal Doctrine and Practice of Christ in Ʋnity and Charity; who have not at­tained to the Perfect Building up in the most Holy Faith. Yet so far as they have obtained, I am perswaded that this Method would be the best to Incite them to such a Ʋnity, as so far to Walk all by the Same, if such a Rule.

CHAP. X. The Application to the Church of England.

THis ORDER might with as much Ease be Accom­modated to Our Church, as it was to the Primitive; since it is so happily Restored to the Purity of the Primitive Doctrine and Government; and not a little Ad­vanced towards the Ancient Disci­pline.

For, Blessed be God, we have an Orthodox and Learned Clergy; consisting of Bishops, Presbyters and Deacons: And to these adhere as Pious, Noble, and Well-informed; not to say as Learned a Laity, as any Age of the World can boast of, and few Equal.

Who both Delight and Rejoyce in the Regular Reformation of [Page 110] Our Catholick, I mean Orthodox Church; who in a Pure Consci­ence, and Upright Sincerity, em­brace Her Reverend Form of Wor­ship, Appointed and Ordained by the Church and State, after ma­ture Deliberation in divers Synods and Parliaments. That admire the Prudence, Moderation and Tem­per of Our Reformers, and so fervently Love to perform their Devotions in Sincerity and Truth, accompanied with that Beauty of Holiness that She directs; for the setting forth the Glory of God, and setting forward the Salvation of All Men. These ought to be look'd on as the [...], or [...], the Faithful, and Perfect of the Ancients; of whom the Scripture speaks, and the Ancients are not silent.

But there are some, who thô they are well Instructed, and Believe well, and Externally con­form to the Rules of the Church; [Page 111] yet are highly wanting in the Practice of Holiness of Life and Conversation. These ought (in great Compassion to their Souls) to be made sensible of their Dan­ger; and for their Recovery ought to be Considered and Intreated as Penitents.

There are yet Others, who acknowledg the same Orthodox Faith that We do, and are (as far as we know) Pious and De­vout; yet Divide from Us upon the Account of Discipline, and Form of Worship: Who having been Misinformed concerning Us, have thereupon forsaken Our Communion in Prayers and Sa­craments: Yet I know they would be contented to hear Ser­mons, and the Holy Scriptures, Read with Us. Therefore why should we not have Our Sermons at such a Convenient time of the Service, as may Invite Them to come and be Our Auditors, for their further Instruction, concern­ing [Page 112] both Themselves and Us? Which might in time Reconcile them Entirely to Us; being the Thing We so much wish and de­sire. This requires but the Alte­ration of One Indifferent Rule, and no Substantial part of the Liturgy.

And what more Convenient Time than the Beginning, either before Morning or Communion-Service, when Mens Senses are fresh, and open for Instruction?

After These are several Others, as Quakers, &c. who want Instru­ction; and thô Aged, yet are Children in the Knowledge and Grace of Jesus Christ. These are truly Catechumeni, and are by all means, to be Invited to hear Reason and Religion, and to be instructed in their Dissenting Ar­ticles of Faith and Good Manners: For whom Sermons and Cateche­tical Discourses (such as are usu­ally discoursed to Children, and are most plain and easie) are most [Page 113] Proper. For to such all Sorts of Mankind might properly come, who may not be Admitted to Holy Mysteries, nor Devotions, without Impiety and Profanation of them. Yet such ought, and perhaps would be willing to hear the Holy Scriptures a Sermon or Catechizing; which might prove for their Edification, and in time their Effectual Conversion. So that if I were worthy to be heard, That Rubrick, and that Part of the Act of Ʋniformity (concerning Sermons) should be the first that I would beseech the Church to alter; as the only ab­solutely Necessary one, I know, to be Altered in our present Cir­cumstances; whereby all that are not Reconciled, so as to be in Communion with Us, might have the Liberty orderly to leave the Congregation, when the Sermon or Catechetical Discourse is ended. As to Penitents, They might be Assigned another Time, as the [Page 114] Synod (with Respect to this Ca­non, and our Liturgy) might Ad­vise

But because the mixture of the Assembly makes great Disorder and Confusion in their Leaving the Congregation; therefore it would yet be more commodious, if Dissenters had a particular Place assigned them for that Rea­son.

It would not be a matter of any great Difficulty, or Charge, to Accommodate Our Churches ac­cording to the Manner of the Primitive Church: Especially the Cathedrals, where they have Space enough to do this many ways: They being neither Encumbred with Pues, nor otherwise straitned. It is but Removing their Shrines or rather Screens in most of them. And the Holy Table stands where it Anciently did; and setting a Reverend Pulpit, Adorned with the Commandments, in the place of the Throne.

[Page 115] Thus within the Choirs would be sufficiently Capacious for the Faithful, and within the Rails for the Clergy and other Ministers: And then there would be sufficient Place for Dissenters of all Sorts in the Iles, with Liberty to come and go when they think sit; or rather by the Admonition of the Mi­nister.

Or as it is in some Churches yet: The Sermon might be first Preached in the Body of the Church, according to S. Chrysostom's Way: which prevailed in After-Ages; and then the Clergy and Faithful might retire thence to their Devotions: First to the Choirs for Morning-Service; and then at last within the Chancel, or Rails for the Communion.

The Church of Canterbury (till within this two or three years) had the Morning Prayers at Seven or Eight of the Clock in the Morning; the Sermon at Ten in the Audit house; and then the rest [Page 116] of the Communion-Service, and Communion, in the Choir.

At Worcester the Morning-Prayer is yet Early; also the Litany at Ten of the Clock, and then, fol­lows the Communion Service; and then the Sermon in the Body of the Church, whence they Return to the Communion in the Choir.

Parish Churches might also (without any great Difficulty or Charge) be in like manner thus Accommodated. The Complaint is now with some Reason. Thar the Choirs are so long and so distant from the Bodies of the Churches, that when the Communion-Service is Celebrated there, it cannot be well heard. Thô indeed for this there is a Remedy provided by the Rubrick; to wit, that the Holy Table shall stand either in the Body of the Church, or in the Chancel: So that no New Rule need be made for this. And in many Churches the Pulpit is alrea­dy thus placed, at the Upper-End [Page 117] of the Body of the Church: So that there only needs a Decent Place, with a Rail to be before it, to place the Communion Table in.

As this is agreeable to the most Ancient manner; so hath it also Modern Example to warrant it: For this was the Form of most of the Protestant Churches beyond the Seas. The Great French Church of Charenton, had the Pulpit (which they properly call the Chaise, or Chair, it being the Chair of Christ, in opposition to that of Moses) placed about a fourth part of the whole Length of the Temple from the East-End, with a Large Square place before it; fenced in by a Low Wenscot, accommodated with Seats about it within for the Mi­nisters, and whole Consistory.

The Cathedral at Geneva is just so accommodated (to the best of my Remembrance;) which perhaps was the very same manner with the Ancients, till they had the [Page 118] Magnificence of the Empire, to accommodate them with Richer Materials, and greater Splendor.

In some of their Churches, I have observed their Communion-Table kept within this; especially at Blois; and, as I am since In­formed, in several Places. There­fore, I wonder that their Learned Monsieur Colomiés, Parallele de la Pra­ctique de l' Esglise Ancienne, & de celle des Prote­stans de France, &c. should make this a matter of Reproach to them, as therein to dissent from all An­tiquity. I must needs avow with all the Respect I ought, that that whole first Chapter is a great Mistake: For the French Churches have this Separation from the rest of the Church, for the Ministers and Consistory, which are their Clergy. And Women and Men do not sit promiscuously together, but on Benches by themselves: And in many Churches, in a Part of the Temple by themselves; as at Blois (I remember) the Women sat in the Middle of the Church, and the Men as their Guard round [Page 119] about them, nearer to the Walls. But he makes the best Amends he can now make, by confessing his Error, and the Juvenility of the Treatise.

I believe this Division of Sex was formerly in our Churches: For in many Country Churches (where the Grandees have not de­formed them, by making some High and some Low, to be Tene­ments to their whole Families) is yet to be seen not only Dextra & Sinistra Pars virorum; but also the Right and Left-hand Seats for the Women. The Seats for the Men being next to the Chancel, and the Seats for the Women, next from the Middle-Doors to the Bel­fery; with an Alley up to the Middle of the Church, and ano­ther Cross that to the North and South-Doors.

There is also a Rubrick, Re­quiring the Men decently to Place themselves at the Right-hand, and the Women at the Left, at the [Page 120] Celebration of the Lord's Supper, in the first Common-Prayer Book of King Edward the Sixth.

But the General Mixture of all Ages and Sexes, as in most of the London and Westminster Churches, is very Indecent; not to say (as some say, and others make it) Scandalous.

I think it may not be imper­tinent here to give a Specimen, to shew how Our Liturgy might be Accommodated to the Ancient Manner, as it is already to the Ancient Matter of Divine Ser­vice.

For the Week-Days, when only the Assembly of the Faithful, or Penitents of our Communion are Expected, I see no just Reason to Alter any thing in Matter or Order, in Morning or Evening Prayer: Only the Penitents, by the Admonition of the Deacon, might Leave the Congregation, if any there, after the Belief. [Page 121] On Sundays also, when they say the Morning Prayer. Early, between Six and Nine the same Order might well still continue.

But when the Assembly of the whole Congregation is expected, it might well be done in the An­cient Order, with these few Alte­rations:

At the Appointed Hour, whilst the Congregation is coming toge­ther, might be Sung a Psalm in Metre; either out of those al­ready in use, or rather another better Edition, set forth by Au­thority, collected out of the best of the Several Editions of them; done by several Hands. As I do not doubt, but there was Autho­rity for those in use, when first set forth. For not only that at the Front of them testifies as much, in the oldest Editions; but also there is a Form of Prayer and Thanksgiving set forth by Queen Elizabeth, and Her Council, [Page 122] wherein one of those Psalms are ordered to be Sung, not long after that Edition, in the same Reign in which they came forth.

After this might follow a Les­son out of the Old Testament, as Appointed; and then the Epistle and Gospel as Appointed; either from the Pulpit, Reading-Desk, or as in Cathedral Churches.

Then might follow the Ser­mon.

After this, the Minister might Conclude with some such Sentence as This:

He that cometh to God, must Believe that he is; and that he is a Rewarder of all them that dili­gently seek him.

With the Heart man believeth unto Righteousness, and with the Mouth confession is made unto Sal­vation.

Let us therefore make Confession of our Christian Faith.

[Page 123] Then might follow one of the Creeds, either to be said or sung distinctly.

Then might follow the Com­mandments, after some such Sen­tence of Scripture as this:

Ye say,Jam. 2. 19, you believe there is One God; ye do well:

The Devils also believe and Tremble; ver. 26. as the Apostle S. James assures us. And that,

As the Body without the Spirit is dead, so Faith without Works is dead also.

Let us therefore also keep God's Covenant,Psal. 103. ver. 18. and consider his Com­mandments to do them.

Which are the same which God spake in the Twentieth Chapter of Exodus; Saying,

I am the Lord thy God &c.

1. Thou shalt have no other Gods but me.

Answ. Lord have mercy, &c.

The Sum of all which is Love.

[Page 124] Let us therefore Love the Lord, our God, with all our Hearts, with all our Souls, with all our Powers, and with all our Strengths.

And, Let us love our Neighbours as our selves; by doing unto all men, as we would they should do unto us: For on these two depend the whole Law and the Prophets.

Then might follow an Admoni­tion for those that are thus minded to Stay; and for those that are otherwise minded, to Depart and Leave the Congregation in Peace.

Then might follow the Litany in the Morning; and Dearly be­loved Brethren, Confession and Ab­solution in the Afternoon.

After the Litany, all under Censure might be admonished to Depart.

Then the Exhortation for the Communion. Then when there is, and where there ought to be a Communion, may follow the [Page 125] Sentences, Collection and Offer­ing, &c. as Appointed. When there is none; after the Offertory, the Lord's Prayer, the General Prayer, Collects, and General Thanksgiving.

Then to Conclude with, ‘The Peace of God, &c.’

At Evening: After a Psalm, as before; or the Psalms, as Ap­pointed; or both; might follow the Lessons out of the Old and New Testament, as Appointed; the Catechism, and then the Ser­mon.

Then the Belief, and Com­mandments, as before; or instead of the Commandments the Com­mination, as in the 27 th Chapter of Deuteronomy.

Then the Dissenters to De­part.

And then one or more of the Sentences of Scripture for Re­pentance. Then the Exhortation, Confession, and Absolution.

[Page 126] Then the Penitents admonished to Depart; And then the Salu­tation of Peace.

The Lord be with you.

Answ. And with thy Spirit.

Then the rest as follows, and according as it is Appointed.

So you see that the Primitive Order of Divine-Service, might be adapted to our Present Liturgy without altering any thing of the Matter, and not very much of the Manner of it.

Now that such things, for the Glory of God, and the Peace of his Church, may (by the Law­ful Authority of the Church and State) be Altered, and otherwise Established, Our Church acknow­ledges in that excellent Preface to the Common-Prayer Book, Con­cerning Ceremonies; why some be Abolished, and why some are Retained. Which is so Pious, [Page 127] Discreet, and Rational an Account of those things, that it seems wonderful, that it did not satisfie all Men of either Piety, Learning, or Reason.

And indeed, I see no Reason why Men should fall out at all about Innocent Ceremonies, since we find the Earliest Times of the Universal Church, did not con­cern themselves about such small Differences in Indifferent Practices of divers particular Churches. As is manifest from that Excel­lent and Pious Epistle written by S. Irenaeus to Victor Bishop ofEuseb. Eccl. Hist. lib. 5. c. 24. Rome, touching the Observation of Easter. Wherein he shews va­rious Uses of divers Provincial Churches, in Fasts, PrayersSocrates, Lib. cap 22. p. 287. D., Building of Churches, Worshiping of God in them, and keeping Easter it self. And yet they did not fall out about that, nor make a Schism in the Church upon such Frivolous Accounts.

[Page 128] I wish our Dissenting Brethren would be followers of that Excel­lent Example and Temper; and not Divide their own Church upon such Accounts, but strive toge­ther with Us to keep the Ʋnity [...] the Spirit in Bonds of Peace.

Now lest I should grow Te­dious about Small Matters, at a time when such great and weighty Concerns are under Consideration in Church and State I will come to a Conclusion; hoping that I shall not be overmuch censured with Impertinency, for spending so much of my own, and the Readers time, on this Subject: Since it was so wise a Man that said,

He that despiseth Small things shall fall by little and little.

Those that consider, that it is about such small things, if the Reverend and Decent Worship of God may be so called, that a very Great part of our Nation have [Page 129] Separated themselves from the National Church, will be of ano­ther mind. For if Mediums might be found out, to bring us to such a Right understanding with each other, as would bring us to Agree [...] Worship God together, in Ʋnity of the Spirit; in the Bonds of Peace; in Reverence and Godly Fear; in the same Spirit with Truth, without excluding Decency and Comly Order. Certainly, as there is nothing more desirable in this World; so nothing should be more earnestly Endeavoured by those that have the Weighty Charge of Christ's Sheep and Lambs, com­mitted to their Charge, than to bring them into Christ's Fold; to be at perfect Unity in Faith, and Charity in Doctrine and Pra­ctice. And I must profess my Ignorance to all the World, of any more Effectual Means, than the Laying before the World, the Pra­ctice of the Apostolical and Primi­tive Christians, next to the Scrip­tures, [Page 130] concerning these Things, to bring this to pass.

Those certainly are the Aliquod tertium, in which if we could (as we ought) Agree, we might have hopes in a short time to Agree with one another.

Which I beseech God of His Infinite Mercy to grant, for the Healing of Schism, and Preventing of Vain-jangling, Heresie, and the Effusion of Christian Blood in all Lands; through the Merits and Mediation of Jesus Christ, Our Lord and only Saviour.


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