Mysterium & Medulla Bibliorum.

THE Mysterie and Marrow of the BIBLE: VIZ. God's Covenants WITH MAN, In the First Adam, before the Fall: and In the Last Adam IESVS CHRIST, After the Fall; From the Beginning to the End of the World;

Unfolded & Illustrated In Positive Aphorisms & their Explanations.

WHEREIN The General Nature, Several Kinds, Gradual Discoveries, Sancti­ons and Administrations of all Gods Holy COVENANTS, From First to Last, throughout the whole Scriptures; together with their peculiar Terms, Occasi­ons, Author, Foederates, Matter, Form, End, Properties, Agreements, Disagreements, and many other their noted Excellencies are largely and Familiarly expounded: The blessed Person and Office of IESUS CHRIST, the Soul of all the Covenants of Faith, and sole Mediator of the NEW COVENANT, is Described: Many choice Fundamental points of Christianity, are Explained: Sundry Practical Questions, or Cases of Conscience, are Resolved: Divers puzzling Controversies about the present Truths are positively Stated and Determined: Many Obscure and Difficult Scriptures are occasionally Elucidated: And, in all, The Great supernatural MYSTERIE of the whole Sacred BIBLE, touching Gods most Wise, Gracious, Merciful, Righteous, Plenary, Wonderful, and Eternal Salvation of Sinners by IESUS CHRIST through Faith, sweetly Couched and Gradually Revealed in his Covenant-Expressures in all Ages of the Church, is Disclosed and Un-veiled.

By FRANCIS ROBERTS, M. A. Pastor of the Church at Wrington, in the County of Sommerset.

THIS is THE COVENANT that I will make with the House of Israel after those Daies, saith the LORD; I will give my Laws into their mind, and write them in their Hearts. And I will be to them a God; and they shall be to me a people, &c.
Heb. 8. 10, 11, 12. Jer. 31. 33, 34.
But ye are come unto Mount Sion,—and to IESUS the Mediator of the NEW COVENANT,
Heb. 12. 22, 24.
August. in lib. de Spirit. & Litera, cap. 22. Tom. 3.
Ero, inquit, illis in Deum: & ipsi erunt mihi in Populum. Quid hoc bono melius! Quid hac Faelicitate Faelicius!

London, Printed by R. W. for George Calvert, and are to be sold at his shop at the sign of the Half-Moon in Pauls Church-yard. 1657.


Nec non NOBILISSIMIS AMPLISSIMISQUE HEROINIS, ELIZABETHAE DOMINAE CAPELL Matri ejus Pientissimae, ET DOMINAE ELIZABETHAE CAPELL Consorti ejus conjunctissimae; HOC Mysterium & Medullam Bibliorum, VIZ.

Elucidationes hasce Theologicas De Sacrosanctis Salutiferis (que) Dei Optimi Maximi, Fidelissimi & Mentiri nescii cum Homine initis FOEDERIBUS: Tam FOEDERE OPERUM Naturali, ante Lapsum illum miserrimum, in ADAMO primo; Quam FOEDERE FIDEI Supernaturali, post Lapsum, in ADAMO postremo IESU CHRISTO, [...], Per universas temporum Revolutiones, Primariasque Ecclesiae vicissi­tudines, inde à jactis Mundi Fundamentis us (que) ad Consummationem Seculi;

Beatitates FOEDERUM infra Patefactas, at Maximè [...],

Summae Gratitudinis, observantiae & Honoris Ergo, [...] D. D. D.

Franciscus Roberts.

To the Churches, Ministers, and Members of JESUS CHRIST, in England, Scotland, Ire­land and other the annexed Dominions, Grace, Mer­cy and Peace from God our Father and the Lord JE­SUS CHRIST our Mediator, and from the Holy Spirit the Comforter.

Highly Honoured, and entirely beloved in the LORD;

THE Luke 1. 72. Sacred COVENANTS of God with Man, Gen. 2. 16, 17. before Gen. 3. 14, 15 & 6. 18, &c. & 9. 8, 9, &c. & 12. 1, 2 3. & 15. 18, [...]s c. & 17. 1, 2, &c. Deut. 5. 2, &c, with Exod. 24. 4. to 9. Psal. 89. 3, &c. Ezek. 37. 26. &c. Heb. 8 6 to 13. and since his fall, That profound Mysterie and Marrow of the Bible, are a Subject so Sublime, Spiritual, Comprehensive, Transcendent, and every way excellent, in it self; so Necessary, Profitable, Comfortable, and every way desirable, to us: that it is most worthy of all acceptation, by all that are, or desire to be, Acts 26. 28, 29. altogether CHRISTI­ANS. See all these seven Particulars abundantly cleared in all Gods Foederal Expressures unfolded in the ensuing Treatise. For; 1. The Author of these COVENANTS; is the LORD, the most High and only wise God. 2. The Original Foun­tain and Impulsives of them; the glorious Riches of Divine Grace. 3. The Confoederates or Foederate-Parties to them; God, and Man either as in the First Adam before the fall, or as in the Last Adam, Je­sus Christ since the Fall. 4. The Foundation of all the COVE­NANTS OF FAITH from First to Last; JESUS CHRIST, God-man, our only Mediator and Hope, either as Promised, or as Per­formed. 5. The Matters of Gods Covenants, are; From God, All manner of Blessings Temporal, Spiritual, and Eternal, which the whole Scriptures Promise: From Man, all manner of Duties Natural in the First Adam, or supernatural in the Last Adam, which the whole Scrip­tures require. 6. The Form of them; More Inwardly, The Foederates Reciprocal and Mutual obligation: More Outwardly, The various Ma­nifestations, Confirmations and Administrations of Gods several Cove­nants according to the Mysterious Contrivances and Counsels of his bles­sed Will. 7. Finally, The intended Scope or Ends of them all, are; Subordinately, The Happiness of man in his Foederal enjoyment of the [Page] LORD as his Covenant God both in this and the world to come, which is absolutely the height of all possible Felicity: Ultimately, The Glory of God in his matchless Wisdom, Goodness, Free-Grace, Mercy, Love, Truth, Faithfulness, Iustice, Holiness, Happiness, &c. all which are rendered in and through JESUS CHRIST most illustrious and Glori­ous.

This Transcendent and most excellent Mysterie, THE COVE­NANTS OF GOD, I have endeavoured (according to the mea­sure of the gift of Christ Received) to Explicate and Illustrate in the en­suing Treatise. A Work (I acknowledge) of vast Extent, great Difficulty, much Labour, and Long Time. 1. Of Vast Extent. Comprizing in it; All the Methods of Divine Dispensations to the Church in all ages; All the Conditions of the Church under those Dispen­sations; All the greatest and precious Promises, of the Life that now is, and of that which is to come; All Sorts of Blessings Promised by God to man: All Sorts of Duties Re-promised by man to God; All the gradual Discoveries of JESUS CHRIST, [...]he only Mediator, and Sa­viour of Sinners; The whole Mysterie of all true Religion from the Be­ginning to the end of the world; and which as a Continued thred of gold(f) [...] runs through the whole Series of all the Holy Scriptures. 2. Of great Difficulty. Things excellent are difficult. This work is Difficult: Partly, through the Profound Mysteriousness of the Covenants themselves: Partly, through the obscurity and seeming repug [...]ancy óf some Scriptures wherein the Covenants are mentioned and Revealed: Partly, through the great diversity of Gods Covenant Discoveries: Partly, through the many intricate Knots, Doubts and Perplexing Controversies that all sorts of Adversaries to the Truth, have cast in the way. By reason of all which this precious Truth lyes, like silver, very deep, and sometimes hard to come by, and must be laboriously digged out from amongst the ve ry Rocks. [...] 3 Of much Labour. Being of such vast Extent and great Difficulty, it must needs be very laborious. Gods Covenants are many, occasioning many Doubts, Questions, Cases of Conscience, &c. and the Nature of some of them especially so involved in intricate Diffi­culties and perplexities; that I confess, it hath cost me no small pains and study to give my self and others Satisfaction therein. It can be no easie task to take so long a journey, and of times to travel through such deep wayes and unbeaten paths, yea sometimes to pass through such stony and Rocky places. But because, I have set my heart exceedingly to the COVE­NANTS OF my GOD, which (in my judgement) are an universal Ba­sis or Foundation to all true Religion and Happiness, I have shunned no Di­ligence; Industry or Endeavours, that to me seemed requisite for the Pro­fitable unveiling of them. 4. Finally, This is a work of a long time. This I have proved by much experience, far beyond my expectation. For in the Treatise following is comprized the Substance of all my I began in my weekly Lectures, to treat of Gods Covenants on Septemb. 2. An. Dom. 165 [...]. and have per­sisted therein till the very Publication of this Book in May, An. Dom. 1657. Week­ly Lectures for the Space of almost six years Compleat: Besides much of be New Covenant, which was never preached at all. During which time, when I had brought on the work almost to the End of Gods Cove­nant [Page] with his Captives as it were in their Ezek. 37. 11, 12, 13, 14. Graves in Babylon, my self was for certain weeks together so Captivated by a Putrid Fea­ver that I was almost brought to the brink of the Grave. And this was a deep aggravation of mine Affliction, that now the work was like to be left imperfect, and little or nothing spoken to the NEW COVE­NANT, which is the Glory of all Gods Covenants. But Isa. 38. 20 the LORD my God was ready to save me, both In Affliction, and From Affliction. (1) In Affliction; By witholding my disease from Annoying mine Animals, and from assaulting much my Vitals, Though it had brough my Naturals almost as low as the dust. By which dispensati­on I comforted my self: that the LORD in sparing mine Animals and Intellectuals intended to reserve them for some further Service to himself and his Church: (2) From Affliction; By Isa. 38. 17. loving my Soul from the pit of Corruption, casting all my sins behind his back, and Restoring a New Life unto me that I might exalt his glorious Name in Explication of his New Covenant. For which complexive Mercy I desire unfeignedly to render all possible Praises to the God of my sal­vation.

Now therefore, Having Enterprized, and (through the good hand of my most gracious God) at last Accomplished this Long, Laborious, Difficult and Comprehensive work; I most humbly lay it at the feet of JESUS CHRIST my Lord and Saviour, sincerely devoting and Consecrating it, First to his Honour, Next to the Service, Edi­fication and Consolation of his Church and all his genuine Members with­in these Ilands. And 1 Pet. 5. 10. the God of all Grace, who hath given 1 Cor. 12. 7, &c. the Manifestation of the Spirit to every man to profit withal, and who can actuate the Doctrine of Truth, whether Preached with lively voice, or Printed in a Book to the saving Benefit of his peoples Souls; So Accept, Bless, go forth with and Prosper these poor labours of his most unworthy Servant, by his Spirits sacred Influences and effectual co-opera­tions, that thereby, Some ignorant Souls may be illuminated, Some Gainsayers to the Truth, and opposers of Religion may be convinced, Some Aliens to Christ may be Converted; Some weak doubting and trem­bling Christians may be resolved, strengthned and established, Some dejected, disconsolate, Afflicted, Tempted or Deserted Saints may be re­freshed and comforted, and that in some fort or other, whosoever shall read the Soul-saving Mysteries of Gods Holy Covenants hereafter unfolded, may have his heart even burn within him towards God, Iesus Christ, his Covenants, and a true New-Covenant state with God in Christ, that the flames of that heavenly fire within his breast may be unquenchable.

And in order to the more fruitful perusal of this Treatise, and for the more speedy fixing of Right Notions and Apprehensions in the Readers Minds touching the COVENANTS OF GOD; I premise and earnestly recommend these few General Considerations, viz.

I. That, The LORD, the only true God, Father, Son and Holy-Ghost, though eternally and infinitely happy in himself alone, yet is pleased to Communicate of his Happiness to his intel­lectual [Page] Creatures, Angels and Men: but especially to Men, by vouchsafing them a blessed Fellowship or Communion with him­self, both Natural, Spiritual, and Coelestial. In this Consideration I comprize four things, viz. 1. That, The Gen. 2. 4, 5, 6, &c. The LORD God. Iohn 17. 3. Mat. 28. 19. 1 Iohn 5. 7. LORD the only true God is Father, Son, and Holy Ghost. A Trinity of Persons, or Personal Subsistences in Unity of essence. 2. That, The LORD God is Eternally and infinitely Happy in himself: For, Before all time, and Psal. 90. 2. Before the world or any Creature was, from Eternity to Eternity, he was God. And being eternally God, he was Eternally Happy in himself: 1 Tim. 6. 15. The Blessed and only Potentate. Yea being the Psal. 147. 5. In finite and boundless of God, he was, is and will be Infinitely Happy in himself. Perfect Happiness consists in enjoyment of Perfect goodness, of a confluence of all goodness. Now God is all goodness; God is his own goodness. Mat. 19. 27. There is none good, save one, that is, God, viz. There is none good as God is good, Essentially, Independantly, Infinitely, Immutably, Eternally, &c. And therefore God is his own Happiness eternally: when nothing was, but God. The Father, Son and Holy Ghost having eternal and infinite fulness of Satisfaction, Complacency and acquiescence in themselves alone. And whatsoever goodness or Happiness is in any creature since the creation, all that is wholly put into, and heaped upon the Creature by God alone, as drops out of his Ocean, as grains out of his Mountain, as Littles out of his All. 3. That, God notwithstanding is pleased to communicate of his own happiness to his intellectual creatures, Angels and men, but especially to men. As the Sun, full of light, communicates his light and glory to all the world: or as the Sea, full of water, imparts his streams to all the earth. And yet the Happiness of God is not at all diminished, by imparting of his Happiness to men and Angels: As the light of the Sun is not all at less­ned by his Diffusion and Emanation of light to all the world. Neverthe­less Man, being brought neerest to God in Iohn 1. 14. 1 Tim. 3. 16. Heb. 2. 16. Eph. 1. 20, 21, 22. Phil. 2. 9, 10, 11. the Person and office of Iesus Christ, hath the primary impartment of the divine felicity. 4. That, God Communicates his happiness to man, by vouchsafing him Blessed Communion with himself, both Natural, Spiritual, and Coelesti­al. God so communicates his Happiness to Man, as that man must re­ciprocate some Homage to God out of that which he hath received from God. God gives of his own to man, and expects again of his own from man: and herein in the General stands that blissfull and sweet Communion betwixt God and man. And this Communion is threefold, viz. (1) Na­tural, By Creation, which Gen. 2. 7. to the end. was betwixt God and Adam in Paradise before the Fall. (2) Spiritual, by 2 Cor. 5. 17. 1 Iohn 1. 3. 2 Cor 13. 14. New Creation, which is be­twixt God and all the Elect in Iesus Christ the Second Adam, since the Fall. (3) Coelestial, by Glorification, which shall be betwixt God and all the Elect in Christ in the highest heavens, in the Mat. 5. 8. 1 Iohn 3. 2, 3. Iohn 17. 24. be atifi­cal vision and fruition of God in Iesus Christ face to face immediately, fully and eternally.

II. That. The LORD God brings man into Communion with himself, by that sweet Familiar way of COVENANT, in all ages, from the Foundation to the Consummation of the [Page] world. God might have dealt with man in a More Absolute Lordly and Majestical way, peremptorily Commanding and requiring from man his Duty and Allegiance: but he hath pleased to Condescend to a More Relative familiar Covenant way; And this 1 Chron. 17. 17. with 2 Sam. 7 19. See the Origi­n [...]l [...], See also p. 1008. after the manner of man, viz. familiarly, sweetly, and condescendingly dealing with man by Covenant, as one man with another. God by his Covenants Reveals, Applies, Confirms, and Increaseth this sweet Communion betwixt himself and his People in all ages and generation of the world, from the Creation to the judgement day. 1. Into Natural Communion. God brought In­nocent man by the Gen. 2. 16, 17. Covenant of works. 2 Into Spiritual Commu­nion, God brings lapsed man by the Gen. 3. 14, 15. & 6. 18, &c. & 12. 1, 2, 3, &c. Deut. 5. 2, &c. with Exod. 24. 4. to 9. Psal. 89. 3, &c. Ezek. 37. 26, &c. Heb. 8. 6. to the end. Covenant of Faith, gradually more and more Revealed unto perfection, in all the seven Periods and Discoveries of it: witness Adam, Noah, Abraham, Israel, David, The Captives, and Jews and Gentiles of all Nations, thus brought in­to, and established in Communion with God by his Covenant. 3. Into Coelestial Communion also they are brought by the same Covenant of Faith, assuring by many Heb. 8. 10, &c Mark 16. 16. Iohn 3. 16. 1 Iohn 3. 2. 1 Tim. 4. 8. Promises of a Glorious life and Compleat happiness in Heaven for evermore.

III. That, Gods COVENANT with man is of two kinds: viz. 1. Gen. 2. 16, 17. Eccles 7. 29. Leut. 27. 26. Gal. 3. 10. Rom. 6. 23. A COVENANT OF WORKS, with man upright in the First Adam before the Fall, Promising the Continuance of Life and Happiness to him upon Terms of Perfect and Perpetual Personal Obedience, But threatning Death and Misery upon the least [...]ayling therein. Which Covenant being Gen. 3. throughout. Rom. 5. 12, &c. 19. broken by A­dams Disobedience in Eating the forbidden fruit, was in Specie utterly irreparable. (See in this Treatise, this In p. 19, &c. Govenants Ex­plication) 2. Dr. An­drews stiles it, A Covenant of Obedience, and a Covenant of Faith. In his Expos. of the Moral Law. p. 72. A COVENANT OF FAITH, with man lapsed, in JESUS CHRIST, The last Adam, Re­vealing and Promising lapsed Sinners Recovery from Sin and Death to Righteousness and Life, upon Terms of unfeigned Faith in Iesus Christ to that end. This Distinction of Gods Covenant, in­to a Covenant of Works and of Faith, is Most proper and agreeable to Scripture. The In Book I. ch. 2. Aph. 3. p. 16, 17, &c. & Book II. ch. 2. p. 61. to p. 191. Nature whereof, and of the Covenant of Faith in General, is hereafter at large unfolded.

IV. That, Gods COVENANT OF FAITH in Christ the Last Adam, (Inchoate in the Earthly, but Consummate in the Hea­venly Paradise) Hath a twofold respect to IESUS CHRIST; viz. 1. As Promised, and to be Revealed afterward; 2. As Perform­ed, Exhibited and actually Revealed already: And hereupon it is Sub­d [...]stinguished into, 1. The Eph. 2. 12. COVENANTS OF PROMISE in Christ only Promised: Wherein are fix gradual Discoveries of Christ and Covenant Mercies, still proceeding from the less to the more Perfect: 2. The COVENANT OF PERFORMANCE, in Christ Performed and actually Manifested in the Flesh, viz. The Ier. 31. 31, &c. Heb. 8. 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13. NEW COVENANT, the most perfect and compleat Expressure of all the Covenants of Faith, Commencing from Christs Death, and Continuing till the end of the world. The Covenants of Promise [...]ere more Dark, [Page] Imperfect, Inneffectual and Restrained to one sort of People; The New Covenant is more Clear, Perfect, Efficacious and Universally extended to all sorts and Nations of People in he whole world. This Distinction of the Covenant of Faith, See In Book II. ch. 2. Aph. 3. p. 184. to 191 hereafter Explicated and confirmed.

V. That, The Mysterie and chief Matter of all the Covenants of Faith, whether Covenants of Promise or New Covenant, though for Accidents and Circumstances it be very variously repre­sented, yet for essence and Substance it is only one and the same, viz. The Recovery of lapsed Sinners from Sin and Death, to Righ­teousness and life by IESUS CHRIST alone through Faith. The same CHRIST, the same Faith, The same Recovery of lapsed sinners by Christ through Faith is Revealed in all the Covenants of Faith, but in every of them diversly. As,

1. The same Christ is Revealed in all the Covenants since the Fall. They are as many Cabinets one within another: but Christ the Iewell within them All. All their Promises lead to him, and Center in in him, All their Commandments refer to him, All their Threats drive to him, All their Ceremonies Typifie him, All their Sacraments signfie him, All their Ordinances magnifie him, &c. But in every of them how differently is the same Christ represented! As the Gen. 3. 14. 15. Seed of the woman bruising the Serpents Head; in the First: As the true Gen 6. 18, &c. 1 Pet. 3. 20, 21. Noah saving an Elect Remnant by water by his blood, in the Ark of the Church; in the Second: As the Gen. 22. 18. Acts 3. 25, 26 Gal. 3. 13, 14. Seed of Abraham in whom all the Nations of the earth should be blessed▪ in then third: As the Deut. 18. 18, 19. Acts 3. 32 & 7. 37. Prophet like Moses raised up from among the People Israel, to be hearkned unto in all things, under severest Penalty: in the Fourth: As the Royall Psal. 132. 11, &c. Luke 1. 31, 32, 33. Seed of David, that should sit upon his Throne, ru­ling the House of Iacob, The Church of God, for evermore; in the Fifth: As the true Ezek. 37. 21. to the end. DAVID, Shepheard, Prince and King of the Re­deemed Captives for ever; in the Sixth; And, as 1 Tim. 3. 16. God manifested in the Flesh, Crucified, Dead, Buried, Risen, Ascended, and Set down on the Right hand of God, For the actual accomplishment of his Elects Redemption; in the Seventh. Or thus: In the three First Covenants is represented the Person of Christ, God-man: His Manhood, As the Seed of the woman, The Seed of Noah, The Seed of Abraham; His God-head, As being able To bruise the Serpents Head, To save his Elect Remnant by water, and To bless all the Nations of the Earth. In the two next Covenants is set forth his triple Mediato­ry office: His Prophecy, under the Type of Moses; His Priesthood under the Type of Aaron: and His Kingship under the Type of Da­vid. In the sixth Covenant with the Captives is set forth some No­table efficacy of his office, in Redeeming, Cleansing and Sanctifying his enthralled guilty and polluted People. But in the New Covenant Christ is represented both in his Person, Offices and Efficacy of his Offices, both towards Iews and Gentiles more clearly fully and gloriously then in all the fore-going Covenants, And yet, It is Heb. 13. 8. IESUS CHRIST yesterday, and to day, and for ever the same.

[Page]2. The same Faith is revealed in all the Covenants before Christ, as in the New Covenant after Christ. 1. The Catalogue of the Heb. 11. Ancient believers. 2 The Iustification of Noah, Abraham, &c. by Heb. 11. 7. Gen. 156. Faith. 3. The Description of the righteousness of Faith by Deut. 30. 12, &c. with Rom. 10. 6, &c Moses and Psal. 4. 6, 7, &c. David, and Hab. 2 4. with Gal. 3. 11. Heb. 10. 38. Habakkuk, &c. are clear indications that in all time before Christ, Sinners were Recovered and saved by Iesus Christ through Faith. But before Christ Faith was revealed very darkly, ob­scurely and imperfectly; in Comparison of the Revelation of Faith since Christ, which is more clear, pers [...]icuous and compleat. Hence comparative­ly Gal. 3. 22, 23. Faith is said, not to come, till the New-Covenant▪ times.

3. The same Recovery of lapsed sinners by Christ through Faith was revealed proportionably under all former Covenants: but ne­ver so clearly, extensively and efficaciously as now under the New Covenant. Then under Redemption from Egypt and Reduction from Babylon. Their eternal Redemption from Sin and Death was sha­dowed out; Then under the Sprinkling of blood, their Iustification, and under divers washings and Levitical Purifications, Their Sanctification, &c. was represented: but now all th [...]se Spirituals in Christ are repre­sented 2 Cor. 3. 5. to the end. without veil with open face.

VI. That, Consequently whatsoever Accidentals or Circum­stantials of foregoing Covenants of Faith from time to time were abolished upon the Commencing of more perfect Foederal Admi­nistrations, yet all the essentials and Substantials of them still re­main, the Former being still confirmed by, yea comprized in the later, as more compleat and perfect. God proceeds in all his Cove­nants, from first to last, from the more imperfect to the more Perfect, till at last he had brought in the most perfect New Covenant. As Eze­kiels Ezek. 1. 16. wheels, were a wheel within a wheel; or as the Coelestial Orbs are supposed to be Orb within Orb from the lowest to the highest: So Gods Covenants are, as it were, Covenant within Covenant, from the least to the greatest; the later being still fuller and larger then the former. Iesus Christ was represented, In the First Covenant, as the Seed of the woman; In the Second, as the true Noah; In the Third, as the Seed of Abraham; In the Fourth, as the Seed of Israel; In the Fifth, as the Seed of David; In The Sixth, as the true David; In the Seventh, which is the New Covenant, as actually God-man, Im­manuel, God-with-us. In the first Covenant God promised that Gen. 3. 14, 15. this Seed of the woman should bruise the Serpents head; In the second, that this true Gen. 6. 18, &c. Noah should save an elect Remnant; In the third, that this Gen. 22. 8, & 14. 18, &c. Seed of Abraham should bless all Nations, and be a Priest like Melchizedeck; In the fourth, that this Deut. 18. 15. to 20. Seed of Israel should bless and guide Israel, and be their Great Prophet like Moses; In the fifth, that this Psal 132. 11. Luke 1. 32, 33. Seed of David should reign over the house of Jacob, the Church, for evermore; In the sixth, that this true Ezek. 37. 20 to the end. DA­VID should Redeem his Captives, re-unite them into one Kingdom, and be their Shepheard, Prince and King for ever: and In the seventh, that this Gal. 3. 13, 14. Mat. 28. 18, 19, 20. Eph. 3. 6, &c. Heb. 8. 30, 11, 12. God-man Iesus Christ actually exhibited, should bless all Nati­ons [Page] as well as the Iews, Discipling them, and incorporating them into the same Church-body with them, writing his Laws in their hearts, &c. In all these Covenants before the New Covenant there were cer­tain accidentals and circumstantials belonging to the outward Form of Administration peculiar to those times and people, which were vanishing and are done away: as Sacrifices, Circumcision, Passover, and the four extraordinary Sacraments, with all the Levitical Ordinances, Rites, Cere­monies and Administrations under the Old Covenant: But yet the Sub­stantials of all these Covenants still remain and have their chief ac­complishment in the New Covenant, as the Scriptures abundantly Testi­fie of all these Covenants s [...]verally. Compare (1) Gen. 3. 14, 15. with Heb. 2. 14, 15. Col. 2. 14, 15. Rom. 16. 20. (2) And Gen. 6. 18, &c. with 1 Pet. 3. 20, 21. Heb. 11. 7. (3) And Gen. 22. 18. & 12. 3. with Acts 3. 25, 26. Gal 3. 13. 14. (4) And Deut. 5. 2, &c. & 18. 15. to 20. with Heb. 8. 10. Acts 2. 20, 21, 22, &c. (5) And Psal. 132. 11. with Acts 2. 30. Luke 1. 31, 32, 33. (6) And Ezek. 36. 25, 26, &c. Ier. 24. 5, 6, 7. with Heb. 8. 10, 11, 12. And this will abundantly appear by comparing the Matter of all these six Covenants with the Matter of the New Covenant hereafter explicated. Divers useful Consectaries hence result. As,

1. Hence, The Substantial Promises of Mercies in all foregoing Covenants of Faith do as truly belong to us, and may be as Conso­latory to us, now under the New Covenant, as to any of Gods peo­ple to whom they were first and immediately propounded under any former Covenants. Thus we may, from the first Covenant, Gen. 3. 14, 15. ex­pect victory over the Serpent, as well as Adam. We may, from the Second Covenant, expect the Gen. 8. 21, 22. worlds absolute Security from be­ing universally drowned with a stood for ever, as also the constant course and revolution of Seed time and harvest, and cold and heat, and sum­mer and winter, and day and night while the earth remaineth, as well as Noah. We may, from the third Covenant, assure our selves that we (being Abrahams spiritual children Rom. 4. 12, 16, 17. Gal. 3, 7. by Faith) Gen. 12. 3. & 22. 17, 18. & 17. 7, 8. with Gal. 3. 9, 13, 14 Luk. 1. 71, 74. Gal. 3. 26, 27, 29. shall be blessed with faithful Abraham, though we be Gentiles: shall have victory over our Enemies, Espeiaclly our Spiritual enemies: shall have the true coelestial Canaan for an everlasting inheritance: and shall enjoy the LORD for our Covenant God: &c. as well as Abrahams and his Natural Seed. The like is to be said of all the other Covenants with Israel, David, and with the Captives. The Substantials of all Cove­nants of Faith being one and the same, we may apply and extract com­fort from the Substantial Promises of them all, as well as from the New Covenant under which we live. Herein we have an admirable advan­tage above all the Foederates of former Covenants; in that we have the benefit of the Promises of all the Covenants of Promise, which they had; and of the New Covenant, which they had not Here is much wisdom required, here is high Priviledge vouchsafed, for the skilfull and comfortable applying and improving of Gods Promises in all Cove­nants of Faith throughout the Bible.

[Page]2. Hence, All the Substantial commands explicit or implicit of former Covenants of Faith, are as obligatory and binding to us now under the New Covenant, as formerly they were to Gods people under any Covenant on whom they were first imposed. As former Promises are still Consolatory to us in regard of Covenant-Mercies from God: So former Commands Explicit or Implicit are obligatory to us in regard of Covenant-Duties to God. The Analogy and proportion be­twixt these two is evident. Are not we as strongly obliged now under the New Covenant; 1. To fight Gen. 3. 14. 15. against the Serpent, that in Christ we may bruise his head; as well as Adam? 2 ▪ To Gen. 6. with Heb 11. 9. believe Gods word and warnings, and be Obedient to him in most difficult underta­kings: as well as Noah? 3. To Gen 17. 1, 2, 9, 10, &c. Walk be [...]ore God in Faith and Obedience, To be perfect, To initiate our infant Children in the first initiating Token of the present Covenant of God, &c. as well as Abraham? 4. To observe Deut. 5. Exod. 30. all the ten Commandm [...]nts of the Moral Law; as well as the People Israel? 5. To Psal. 132. 12. keep Gods Co­venant and Testimony; as well as David and his seed? 6. To Ezek. 36. 31. 27, 28. re­member our own evil wayes and doings which were not good, and loath our selves in our own sight for our iniquities, and for our Abo­minations; To walk in Gods Statutes, &c. To be Gods Covenant-people, &c. as well as Gods Captives in Babylon? Doubtless these and like Command of the Substance of former Covenants, reach us, con­cern us▪ oblige [...]us non: as well as Gods people of old: for they were never abrogated, but rather most strongly re-inforced and confirmed under the New Covenant.

3. Hence, We under the New Covenant have strongest Con­solation from such Promises, and greatest obligation by such Com­mands of all Covenants of Faith fore-going. Inasmuch as the Sub­stance of all those Covenants doth still remain of force and vertue; and the vigor of them is afresh revived and continued under the New Cove­nant. And a sevenfold cord is not easily broken.

4. Hence, This excellently directs us in the Reading, Applying and Improving of the Holy Scriptures with Iudgement. Wisely Dis [...]inguish we Substantials for Circumstantials, Essentials from Ac­cidentals, in the Promises, Precepts and Covenants of God: and then we shall plainly See the due portion and allotment which appertains to us.

5. Hence, The Necessity and utility of the Books of the Old Te­stament, as well as of the New, unto all New-Covenant Foederates is evinced and Described. The Substantials, of all Promised Mercies and of all commanded restipulated Duties, under all former Covenants still remaining of force and vertue, do both evince the Necessity, and Delineate the Utility of the Books of Old Testament. This is the Compass and Pole-star to sail by in this Scripture-Sea: This is the Golden Clew and thread to be followed in this Scripture-Laberynth. What Doubts, Knots, Difficulties, &c. will not this one thing re­solve and Unty about the diligent and fruitfull perusal of the Scrip­tures!

VII. That, The COVENANTS OF GOD, in their latitude, viz. his Covenants of Works and of Faith, are so capacious and Comprehensive, that they inclose and comprize within themselves the grand Mysterie and very Marrow of all the Holy Scriptures. This is very clear: For, I. The whole Scriptures are a meer Supernatural Revelation [...] Tim. 3. 16, 17. by Divine Inspiration. II. The grand Mysterie and very Marrow of the whole Scriptures, is; Mans Happiness in the enjoyment of God in the First Adam, before the Fall, comprized in the Covenant of Works; And Mans Recovery from Sin and Death to Righteousness and Life, after the Fall, by JESUS CHRIST the Last Adam, through Faith, Comprized in the Co­venant of Faith and all the gradual Discoveries thereof from age to age. III. Now these two sorts of the Covenants of God are so Complexive, that they clearly fadom and conclude within themselves, as within their Arms, this grand Mysterie, Soul and Marrow of all the Holy Bible. For, 1. All the Doctrines of Scripture, come under these Covenants; are as so many Divine truths of them, are to be referred to them as their chief Heads, and are to be tryd by them as their common standard or Touchstone. The clearest This will the more easily appear, by considering How many Fundamentals of Faith have inavoidably come to be unfolded in this Treatise in handling the Covenants of God. extraction of all fundamental Truths in Religion, is from these Covenants: and the most solid Decisi­on of all sorts of Controversies and Refutation of all sorts of errors is to be derived from the true state of these Covenants. Gods Cove­nants are the best Umpires in all controversal Divinity; and the best Hammers for all Errors and Heresies against the Truth. As might easily be demonstrated, if need were, in both Cases. 2. All Promises and Prophecies in the whole Scripture, from the beginning of Genesis to the end of the Revelation, do flow as so many streams from these foun­tains of Gods Covenants, and meet as so many lines in these Covenant-Centers. The Promises are but Gods Covenants in their Branches; The Covenants are Gods Promises in the root. And were I to treat of Gods [...],— [...] Pet. 1. 4. greatest and precious Promises (as sometimes I had resolved) I should count it the most clear, exact and proper way, to Rank all the Promises in the whole Bible under their Peculiar Covenants, & Foederal Expressures, both for the plainest explication, and for the safest and sweetest Application of them to the Spirits of believers. 3. Consequently, all the Threats in Scripture come under Gods Covenants, with the Promises. Threats and Promises are Relatives, and ri [...]e both from the same spring-head of the Covenants, though upon different Considerations. Promises chiefly are pro­pounded upon Terms of such or such Covenant-Performances: threatnings chiefly are denounced in case of failing in performance of such or such Co­venant-Duties. 4. All Types in Scripture come under Gods Cove­nants, as Figures or shadows of Covenant-Blessings, especially of IESUS CHRIST in his Person, Offices, Effects of his offices, Body mystical, Mem­bers, &c. One way or other Col. 2. 16, 17. Heb 9. 9. & 10. 1. Christ is the Substance, Body, Soul, and End of them all. They are all Christ veyled. 5. All Histories in Scrip­ture come under these Covenants: declaring the Antecedents, con­comitants or consequents of these Covenants; and one way or other sub­serving [Page] to illustrate these Covenants Manifestation, Confirmation, or Administration. 6. All Commands in Scripture come under Gods Covenants in one regard or other, but especially as Impositions or Explanations of the Covenant-Duties restipulated and required from man to God. 7. Finally, All the Ordinances of God in Old or New Testament touching Doctrine, Worship, Church-Government and Practise of Gods People come under Gods Covenants: and principally under the external Forms of those Covenants respective­ly. And therefore from all this its very evident, how just cause I had to intitle this Treatise, Mysterium & Medulla Bibliorum, THE MYSTERIE and MARROW OF THE BIBLE, viz. GODS COVENANTS WITH MAN, &c. For, Gods Covenants are the Peculiar Display of the Grand Scrip­ture Mysterie, and so are the very Sinew and Marrow of all the blessed BIBLE. Oh! what a Subject, what a Secret, what a Treasure, what a Conflux of Grace, Wisdom, Goodness, Iustice and Mercy are the COVENANTS OF GOD!

VIII. That, Without the Solid knowledge of Gods Co­venants, The Depth of Holy Scriptures, The Secrets of true Religion, and Gods Mysterious Contrivances of Sinners salvation can never be judiciously understood. This evi­dently results from the former Consideration, and needs no further il­lustration.

IX. That, All the People of the world, are so far mise­rable or Happy, as they are without, or within the Cove­nants of God. For, The whole Mysterie of Mans Natural Happiness was comprized in his being in Covenant with God, ac­cording to the Covenant of Works in the First Adam; And the whole Mysterie of Mans supernatural Happiness is comprehend­ed in Mans being in Covenant with God, according to the Co­venant of Faith in Iesus Christ the last Adam, The Covenant of works requiring Perfect, and perpetual Personal Obedience, be­ing broken by the First Adam, and by all his ordinary posterity in him, cannot afford lapsed man any Happiness any more, foras­much as lapsed man cannot any more enjoy God in that Covenant. The Covenant of Faith hath provided a Remedy in Iesus Christ, as the Sinners Heb. 8. 6. 1 Tim. 2. 5, 6. Mediator and Surety, Satisfying by his Death for mans Debt, and exactly fulfilling the Law (the Sub­stance of the Covenant of works) by his obedience for mans accep­tation: So that whosoever shall by Faith unfeigned accept this Re­medy provided, viz. Iesus Christ, his Death and Obedience, shall thereby be acquitted from Sin and Death, Restored to Righteousness and Happiness in the enjoyment of God in Iesus Christ. They therefore that are effectually within this Covenant of Faith, are so far truly Happy: but they that are without this Covenant-state, are so far utterly miserable, being Eph. 2. 12. without Christ, without Hope, and without God in the world.

[Page]And therefore, Having first Preached in my weekly Lectures upon this comfortable, comprehensive, intricate, but Necessary Subject of Gods sacred Covenants, At the importunity of many I have been induced to Publish the same; 1. For the 2 Cor. 3. 3, &c. Helping of poor souls out of their miserable Covenantless-state, into an happy Cove­nant-Condition with God in Iesus Christ. 2. For the Assist­ing of Gods weakest doubting, yet sincere Foederatees to discern their inward, effectual and saving interest in the Covenant of God. 3. For the displaying of their matchless and transcendent Psal, 144. 15. Felicities, who not only are savingly in Covenant with God, but also have well-grounded evidence of that their good Covenant-state. 4. For Inciting, (1) Both of all Gods faithfull Ministers, (who are 2 Cor. 3. 6. Ministers of the New Testament) to frequent Totum Del verbum à primario Sub­jecto appella­tionem suam accepit, ut Di­catur, Foedus vetus & N [...] ­vum. Hinc Olevianus se appellavit, Concionator [...]m Foederis: quod in omni­bus Conscio­nibus hoc Foedus Del gratuitum sibi urgendum esse v [...]deret, &c. H. Alsted. in Theolog. Catech. §. 1. c. 2. p. 26. Preaching of Gods Covenants, with all Prudence and diligence; (2) And of all his sincere Foederates, to an answerable and worthy walking with their God in Christ as his Covenant-people; according to his Covenants-Directions, Encouragements and Obligations. 5. For Satisfaction to mine own heart and Spirit about this Profound, myste­rious, aud important Subject. 6. For Edification of my hear­ers the more abundantly by my Weekly Lectures upon so Noble and Profitable a Theam. 7. For more clear Illustration of those Sweetest saving Truths which as precious Iewels are laid up for Gods People in these rich Cabinets of Gods Covenants. And, 8. For the high advancement of the glory of the blessed God and Iesus Christ our only Lord in all. For attainment of which high and excellent Ends, I have (to my best judgement) taken the most probable and Promising way in the unfolding of Gods Covenant-Ex­pressures in this ensuing TREATISE. For,

1. Herein I have Treated of GODS COVENANTS, First More Generally: Then More Specially; viz. of the CO­VENANT OF WORKS before the Fall in the first Adam▪ And of the COVENANT OF FAITH after the Fall in CHRIST the last Adam; and that in Christ, 1. As Pro mised in all the Eph. 2. [...]2. COVENANTS OF PROMISE Re­vealed in six noted Periods of Time especially, 2. As Performed in the Heb. 8. 6. to the end. NEW COVENANT. This method of handling Gods Covenants, being most proper and clear in it self, and most con­gruous to the Scriptures. Consequently the Reading of this whole Treatise, and not only some part, is requisite to the Right Notion of Gods Covenants.

2. Herein I have digested the whole Doctrine of GODS COVENANTS into, 1. Certain distinct Theses, Positions or Compendious Assertions, which I call APHORISMS; com­prizing in Brief the sum of all: 2. The Explanations and Con­firmations of those Aphorisms, as the Nature of them requires. 3. Such Consectaries or Inferences as properly result from them. And this Course I have purposely embraced. Partly, That both my self [Page] and others may have the more distinct and clear apprehension about all Gods Covenant-Mysteries. Partly, that every thing may be the more obvious in the Treatise, and the better fixed in the Memory. Partly, that the whole may hereupon be more acceptable and profitable to all sorts of Readers.

3. Herein I have (so far as possible with safety to the Truth) pur­posely waved Polemical Dissertations and Disputes, chiefly bending my self unto Doctrinals and Practicals: wherein, A very Considerable part of the Body of Divinity is unfolded, Many Practical Questions or Cases of Conscience are Resolved, Divers Doubts and Difficulties both about Doctrine and Practise are removed, And all according to the Nature of particulars advantagiously Applyed. And where I have been forced, for vindication of the Truth, to touch upon points Con­troversal (Disputings 1 Tim. 1. 5, 6, 7. & 6. 3, 4▪ 5. wranglings and vain janglings about Religion being the Epidemical and pernicious disease of these times, whence very many have disputed away both Truth, Religion and a good Conscience from themselves:) I have stated the Questions, confirm­ed the Truth by Arguments, and Refelled the Contrary Objecti­ons which seemed Material, 2 Tim. 2. 16. 1 Tim. 6. 3, 4, 5. sollicitously declining all Logo­machies, Personal reflections, and other Extravagancies, as unavaylable to Truth or Godliness.

4. Herein I have very frequently throughout the whole Treatise insisted upon Scripture-Tryals, Evidences and Discoveries of Mens Covenant-Condition, Spiritual State, Hearts, Graces, Dispo­sitions, Actions, &c. towards God. That Hypocrites and carnal men may not think better of themselves then they have cause, and so run Headlong to Destruction in a Golden Dream; and That the true Israelites indeed, though most weak and unexperienced, may not think worse of themselves then they ought, but may be instru­cted how to 2 Pet. 1. 10 make their Calling and Election sure, and at last come sweetly to discover by the Spirit of God 1 Cor. 2. 12. the things that are freely given them of God.

And in all this great Work I have most seriously and (if I know mine own heart) sincerely desired the Furtherance of the Knowledge, Faith, Assurance, Comfort, Ioy, Holiness, Hea­venliness, and all the Spirituals of such as are Acts 13. 48. ordained to eter­nal Life, and especially of all mine endeared Relations, Not on­ly Natural, but also Spiritual, that ever received any Convert­ing, Confirming, Supporting or Edifying benefit by my Mini­stry. And I beseech the LORD of the Covenant to make these my weak and unworthy Labours advantagiously speak and Preach to them and others, when I shall sleep in IESUS, and be silent in the Grave. The volume, I confess, hath sweld too much under my hand: But I have this Apology, The vast Comprehensiveness, great Variety, and Frequent Difficulties of the Subject-Matter; As also mine earnest endeavours after Pra­cticalness and Dum brevis esse la­boro, obscurus [...]io. Perspicuity therein to the meanest Capacities, [Page] have occasioned this Prolixity. And yet I hope the judicious Read­er, upon perusal of the whole, will acknowledge such a brief Pro­lixity, or Prolix Brevity therein, that very little could have been conveniently omitted. I say therefore, (As once Videor mihi debitum ingentis hujus operis, adju­vante Domino, reddidisse. Quibus pa­rum, vel qui­bus nimium est, mihi ignoscant; Quibus autem satis est, non mihi sed Domino mecum, gratias congratulantes agunt, Amen. Aug. de Civit. Dei, l. 22. c. 30. Tom. 5. Augustine of his Work of the City of God) Let such as think it too little or too much, hold me excused: But let them who think it is enough, give congratulating thanks, not to me, but to the LORD with me.

X. That, Finally, the Churches Ministers, and Members of Christ should with all possible Iudgement, Zeal, Affection and Constancy, interest and exercise themselves in the Covenants of God, but especially in the Covenants of Faith whereby alone Sin­ners Hope and comfort in Christ are provided for by God since the Fall, The Top-excellency, perfection and glory of all which Co­venants is the New COVENANT. Therefore,

O all ye true Churches of Christ, look upon the COVENANTS OF GOD, as the Grand Mysterie and very Marrow of all the Holy Scriptures. All The Scripture-Doctrines, Promises, Threats, Types, Histories, Commands and Ordinances, are fully Deducible from, and re­ducible to the Covenants of God: Consequently all your Information, Consolation, Caution, Instruction, Exhortation and Edification depends upon Gods Covenants. Mind and meditate upon them diligently. These will Preserve you in the Truth, against Error: These will di­rect you in Purity of worship, Government and all the Ordinances of Christ; without pollution or corruption: These will Restore you unto, and Preserve you in the sweet Eph. 4. 1, 2, 3. Unity of the Spirit in the bond of Peace, against Distractions and Divisions; These will engage you in the Eph. 4. 18. Life of God, and 2 Tim. 3. 5. power of Godliness effectually, against all Prophaness, Formality, and Hypocrisie: These will endear you unto God, Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, in all heavenly Soul-Ravishing 1 Iohn 1. 3. 2 Cor. 13. ult. Com­munion, that Spiritual Paradise and Heaven upon Earth.

O ye faithfull Ministers of Christ, Study and Preach the COVE­NANTS of GOD with all Prudence and Diligence to the Flocks of God whereof the Lord hath made you overseers. Ye are by Calling and Office 2 Cor. 3. 6.Ministers of the New Covenant, (the Lord of the Covenant make us all able Ministers of the New Covenant, of the Spirit and not of the Letter, that the People may be through divine Grace, 2 Cor. 3. 3, 4, 5, &c. the Epistle of Christ, Ministred by us, written not with Ink, but with the Spirit of the living God; not in Tables of stone, but in the fleshly Tables of the Heart:) Oh strive exceedingly to Display the riches of divine Grace, and the Fulness of Iesus Christ, as wrapped up in the Covenants, to the hearts and spirits of poor Sinnere; Oh let all the chief tendencies of your Doctrine be subservient hereunto. Hereby you [Page] shall most sweetly revive and bind up the bruised Souls of broken-heart­ed Sinners, and most happily Espouse them as a chaste virgin unto Christ.

Finally, O▪all ye Members of Christ, Come and See, Trade and traffique daily in this Spiritual Mart of Gods Covenants. Here are the greatest gains and richest Treasures to be had in all the world. If Ho­liness or Righteousness; if Conversion, Confirmation, or Consummation; If Pardon, Adoption, Sanctification or Communion with God: if Grace or Glory: If Iesus Christ, the only Mediator, or the only Al-suffi­cient God, with all the Mysteries or Treasures of Scripture, &c be worth the having: Come close with the sacred Covenants of God, wherein you shall abundantly find all these. This ensuing Treatise is offered to you for your assistance and encouragement in this Glorious Employment. The Lord God and Iesus Christ the only Mediator of the New Covenant make it usefull and effectually Instrumental by his Spirit to bring Ali­ens into Covenant, and establish Foederates in Covenant with God in Ie­sus Christ to all Eternity. Amen. So prayeth

Your humble and Faithfull Servant in the Gospel of our Lord Iesus Christ, Fran. Roberts.

I. A METHODICAL TABLE Of the principal Matters in these four Books of God's Covenants, according to the Method and Order wherein they are unfolded.

BOOK I. Of Gods Covenants, their Names, Natures, Sorts and Benefits; More Generally.
  • Chap. 1.
    • THE Method of handling Gods Covenants in all the four Books following, Propounded, p. 1, 2, 3.
    • Aphorism 1. That, God in all ages, from the beginning to the End of the world, is pleased to deal with his Church and People by way of COVE­NANT, p. 3. to 6.
    • Aphorism 2. That, God in all ages pleaseth to deal with his Church and people by way of Covenant, for divers weighty Causes and excellent Ends. Corollaries. p. 6. to 10.
    Chap. 2.
    • APhorism 1. Of the Names given to Gods Covenants, viz. [...] Berith, and [...] Diatheke; and Of 1. Their Notation. 2. Their various Acceptations in Scripture, p. 10. to 14.
    • Aphorism 2. Gods Covenant (in the general notion of it) is his Gratuitous. Agreement with his people, Promising them Eternal Happiness, and all Subordinate Good: and Requiring from them all due dependance upon God, and Obedience to him, in Order to his glory, p. 14, 15, 16.
    • Aphorism 3. Gods Covenant with his People is not only one, but divers: and it is divers both for Kind, Dègree and Circumstances. The Distribution of Gods Covenant, p. 16, 17, 18.
BOOK II. Of Gods COUENANTS; More Particularly.
  • [Page]
    Chap. 1.
    • I. OF Gods Covenant of Works with the first Adam, and his Natural Seed, be­fore the fall.
    • Aphorism 1. God was pleased to Enter into Covenant with the first Adam, before his Fall, p. 19. to 23.
    • Aphorism 2. Gods entering into Covenant with Adam before his Fall, was an Act of Divine Grace and Favour, not of debt, p. 23.
    • Aphorism 3. God entering into Covenant with the first Adam before his Fall, did in and with him enter into the same Covenant with all his Posterity, p. 23, 24.
    • Aphorism 4. Gods Covenant with the first Adam and his Posterity before the Fall, (vari­ously denominated) Is Gods gracious Agreement with Adam, and with his Posterity in him, To give them Eternal life and happiness, upon condition of Perfect Personal Obedience, p. 24. to 33.
      • Here; 1. The Blessing Promised, and Curse Threatned. Wherein Note,
        • 1. What life Adam enjoyed in innocency, p. 26.
        • 2. What life God further promised to Adam upon his Obedience, p. 27.
        • 3. What Death God threatned to Adam in case of Disobedience, p. 27, 28.
        • 4. How Gods threatning was fulfilled, seeing Adam did not presently dye, p. 29.
      • 2. The duty restipulated. Where note,
        • 1. How it may appear that God required and Adam restipulated perfect and per­petual Personal Obedience, p. 30.
        • 2. What was the Law, Rule or Measure of Adams Obedience? p. 31, 32, 33.
    • Aphorism 5. When God entred into this Covenant of Works with the first Adam, he was com­pleatly able in his own Person to keep this Covenant in every point, p. 33. to 36.
    • Aphorism 6. This Covenant of Works Adam utterly brake, by Disobedience. How? When? How hainous this breach of Covenant. Corollaries, p. 36. to 59.
    • Aphorism 7. The breach of the Covenant of Works by the Disobodience of the first Adam, did wonderfully make way for the Establishment of the Covenant of Faith by the Obedience of the second Adam, p. 59, 60.
    Chap. 2.
    • II. OF Gods Covenant of faith with the last Adam and his Seed after the fall, More Generally.
    • Aphorism 1. The Covenant of Works being broken in the first Adam, The Lord God was pleased to reveal a Covenant of Faith in IESUS CHRIST the last Adam, p. 62. to 69.
    • Aphorism 2. The Covenant of Faith is Gods gracious Compact or Agreement, &c. Here,
      • 1. The Efficient Cause, or Author of the Covenant of Faith, is God, p. 69, 70, 71.
      • 2. The Par [...]ies to this Covenant of Faith, are; 1. God, on the one hand. 2. Christ the last Adam, and in him all his Seed, on the other hand, p. 71. to 79.
      • 3. The Matter of this Covenant of of Faith, consists of things agreed upon, 1. Be­twixt God and Jesus Christ. 2. Betwixt God and the seed of Christ in him.
        • I. Betwixt God, and Iesus Christ the last Adam. Here,
          • 1. God the Father, in Order to the Recovery of his Seed, Promiseth to Christ,
            • 1. To invest Christ with a Mediatory Office, of Priest, Prophet and King, p. 79. to 82.
            • [Page]2. To Accept Christ in his Office, p. 82.
            • 3. To assist, support, encourage and protect Christ in the execution of his office, p. 82.
            • 4. To exalt Christ gloriously, after al his abasement by reason of his office, p. 83.
            • 5. To prosper and Crown Christ with full success in Recovering all his Seed, p. 84.
          • 2. JESUS CHRIST the last Adam, Re-promiseth to the Father,
            • 1. To accept, undertake and discharge this Mediatory Office chearfully and faithfully, p. 85.
            • 2. To Rely fully upon his heavenly Father for Acceptance, Assistance and Protection in Execution of his Office, against all Difficulties, &c. p. 86.
        • II. Betwixt God and Christs Seed in Christ the Last Adam. Here,
          • 1. God promiseth, in Christ, on his part,
            • 1. What he in Christ will do for Christs Seed, viz. He will Recover them from a state of sin and death, to a state of righteousness and life, p. 87, 88.
            • 2. What he will be to Christs Seed, viz. He will be a God to them, p. 89, 90.
          • 2. Christs Seed Re-promise in Christ, on their part,
            • 1. What they will do. 1. They will accept Christ, and Covenanted Mercies by Faith. 2. They will walk worthy of Christ and those Mercies, p. 91, 92, 93.
            • 2. What they will be. They will become Gods people in Christ. In 1. All they are: 2. All they have: 3 All they can do: 4. All they can endure, p. 94. to 97.
      • 4. The Form of this Covenant of Faith. 1. Inward. 2. Outward, Consisting in (1) Gradual Discoveries: (2) Various Administrations: (3) Testamentary Disposition: (4) Large and Liberal Tender: (5) Visible Advantages, though but outwardly embraced, p. 97. to 102.
      • 5. Corollaries or Consectaries resulting from the Covenant of Faith, Generally con­sidered,
        • I. The Covenant of Faith is a Profound Supernatural Mysterie, p. 102. to 105.
        • II. The Covenant of Faith is a wonderful Compound and Contrivance of meer Grace, p. 105. to 108.
        • III. Jesus Christ is the very Marrow and Kernel of the Covenant of Faith, p. 108. to 111.
        • IV. The Covenant of Faith may in a right and sound sense be acknowledged Con­ditional. Here, at large, 1. The true state of the Question about the Condi­ditionality of the Covenant of faith is laid down. 2. The Conditionality of the Covenant, so stated, is confirmed. 3. Contrary Objections are refelled, p. 111. to 132.
        • V. The Covenant of Faith is a sweet Paradise of Believers union to, and Communi­on with God in Jesus Christ, p. 132, 133.
        • VI. The Matters of this Covenant of Faith are most High and Great, &c. p. 134.
        • VII. The Properties and Perfections of this Covenant of Faith are divers and ex­cellent. It is,
          • 1. Holy. And that in five regards, p. 135. to 137.
          • 2. Gratuitous, p. 137.
          • 3. Ordered in all things. In four respects, p. 137. to 139.
          • ☞ 4. Sure. This sureness is abundantly demonstrated, 1. From the Nature, Pro­perties and Perfections of the Covenant-making God. 2. From Gods manifold Methods for establishing of it. 3. From Gods accomplishment of his Covenant most punctually in all ages. 4. From removal of all imaginable corrumpent causes that might render it unfaithful. 5. From the everlasting Nature of the Covenant it self, p. 139. to 158.
          • 5. Comfortable. Here, 1. That it is Comfortable. 2. To whom. 3. How, and [Page] in what respects, at large, p. 158. to 170.
          • 6. Everlasting, and in what sense, p. 170. to 173.
        • VIII. The Agreement and Difference betwixt the Covenant of Works, and the Covenant of Faith is notably conspicuous, &c. p. 173, &c.
          • 1. Their Agreements, p. 174.
          • 2. Their Differences in many Particulars, p. 175. to 181.
          • 3. Divers results from these Agreements and Disagreements, p. 181. to 184.
    • Aphorism 3. The Covenant of Faith may be sub-distinguished or distributed into two Branches, viz. 1. Gods Covenant of Promise, with one peculiar sort of people only before Christ. 2. Gods Co­venant of Performance, or the NEW COVENANT with all sorts of people since Christ, p. 184. to 191.
BOOK III. Of Gods COVENANTS OF PROMISE, before Christ, in VI. Remarkable expressures.
  • Chap. 1.
    • I. OF the Discovery of the Covenants of Promise, in the I. Remarkable Period of time, from Adam, till Noah:in that First Gospel, Gen. 3. 14, 15. Here note,
      • 1. The Occasion of the words, p. 192.
      • 2. The meaning of the words; in Resolving these Questions, viz.
        • 1. What Serpent is here meant? Three Opinions, p. 193, &c.
        • 2. What woman is here intended? Here three Opinions, p. 194.
        • 3. What is meant by these two Seeds, The Serpents Seed, and the womans Seed? p. 195, 196.
        • 4. What Punishments they are which are here pronounced upon the Serpent; upon the visible Serpent four, and upon the invisible Serpent other four, p. 197, 198.
        • 5. The Benefits Promised for the woman and her Seed, p. 199, 200.
      • 3. Aphorisms resulting from the words unfolded, viz.
  • Aphorism 1. Immediately upon Adams Fall, God revealed a gracious Promise touching Mans recovery. Cleared. Six Corollaries thereupon, p. 201. to 207.
  • Aphorism 2. This Promise of Mans Recovery was revealed very imperfectly and obs [...]urely, p. 207. to 210.
  • Aphorism 3. This First Promise of lapsed mans Recovery, was Revealed in CHRIST, the womans Seed. 1. That it was so revealed. 2. What it implyes to be so revealed. 3. Why it was revealed in Christ? 4. Corollaries. p. 210. to 217.
  • Aphorism 4. This First Promise in Christ, Revealed lapsed mans Recovery, in the enmity threatned betwixt the woman and the Serpent, betwixt her Seed and his Seed, and in the events of that Enmity. Here note,
    • 1. That, in Gods explicit Threatnings against the Serpent, are implicit Promises for sin­ners Recovery, p. 217.
    • 2. What Degree of Sinners Recovery is Promised under this enmity Threatned, p. 218.
    • 3. What are the Events of this enmity, &c.
      • 1. The Bruising of the Serpents Head by the Seed of the woman, CHRIST;
        • 1. In his own Person. By seven Degrees, p. 219, 220.
        • 2. In the Persons of his Elect, through his power. By six Degrees, p. 221, 222.
      • 2. The bruising of the Heel of the womans Seed by the Serpent, p. 223.
        • 1. The Heel of Christ, the Primary Seed is bruised. 1. God Permits it three [Page] waies. 2. God limits it six waies. 3. God orders it for good, p. 224. to 227.
        • 2. The Heel of them that are Christs is also bruised by Satan. This Bruising is, 1. Permitted in three particulars. 2. Limited in six regards. 3. Over-ruled in three respects for their good and Satans ruine, p. 227. to 232.
    • 4. Corollar [...]es. Hence,
      • I. Gods Threatnings are to be duly weighed even by Gods People, p 232.
      • II. Behold the riches of Gods love, &c. to lapsed man, Revealing the mysterie of mans Recovery from his Fall, before he Sentence him for his Fall, p. 233.
      • III. How notably is the depth of lapsed mans misery hereby intimated! four waies, p. 233.
      • IV. This First Promise, though very dark and obscure, yet comprehended in it much Gospel in a few words, p. 234, 235.
      • V. Then lapsed Sinners are actually in a state of Recovery, when this enmity against the Serpent and his Seed, and the fruits of this enmity, &c. are effectually im­planted in them, wrought by them, or belonging to them, p. 235
        • 1. That we have true Enmity against the Serpent: Three signs, p. 235, 236.
        • 2. That we have, and do bruise the Serpents Head. Five Evidences, p. 237.
        • 3. That Satan, at worst, doth but bruise our Heel. Five Indications, p. 238.
      • VI. These Threatnings were not so terrible to the Serpent and his Seed: but they were as comfortable to the woman and her Seed, p. 239.
      • VII. This First Promise obligeth poor sinners to all possible Gratitude, p. 240.
  • Aphorism 5 This First Promise revealed in Christ the Seed of the woman, though it had not the Name and compleat Formality of a Covenant, yet had it the Nature, Substance and Re­ality of a Covenant, and that the Covenant of Faith. The 1. Author, 2. Foederate Parties, 3. The Matter, 4. The Form of this Promise, being for Substance the same with those of the Covenant of faith, p. 241. to 248.
Chap. 2.
  • II. OF the Discovery of the Covenant [...] of Promise in the II. Remarkable Period of time, viz▪ From Noah till Abraham.
  • Aphorism 1. The Lord God having determined to destroy the Old world for its extream wickedness, established his Covenant with righteous Noah, To save him, his Family, and a Seed of living creatures in the Ark, from the common Distruction, p. 248, 249.
    • 1. Confirmation of this Aphorism, p. 249.
    • 2. Explication of it, p. 249.
      • 1. What this word COVENANT meaneth, p. 249.
      • 2. How God stablished his Covenant with Noah, p. 250.
      • 3. Who were Parties; God and Noah. Noah described by his 1. Pedegree. 2. Name. 3. Religion. 4. Priviledges, p. 250, 251.
      • 4. The Matters Covenanted, on Gods part, and on 'Noah's, p. 252.
      • 5. The Occasion, and End of Gods making this Covenant with Noah, p. 252, 253.
    • 3. Application of it, in seven Corollaries or Inferences, p. 254, 255.
  • Aphorism 2. The LORD God having destroyed the wicked old world by a flood of waters, not only resolved with himself, but also Covenanted with Noah, with his Seed, and with the creatures, never to destroy the earth any more by a flood: Annexing the Rain-bow for a Token of the Covenant. Here, this Aphorism is
    • 1. Confirmed, in the chief branches of it, by Scriptures, p. 256.
    • 2. Explained. Here note,
      • 1. The Causes and Occasion of this Covenant, p. 257.
      • 2. The Parties Covenanting, p. 257. to 259.
      • [Page]3. The Matters Covenanted, on Gods part, and on Noahs, his Sons and their Seed, p. 259.
      • 4. The Token of the Covenant, the Bow in the Cloud. 1. What it is. 2. When it was set there. 3. What manner of Token it was, p. 260, 261.
    • 3. Applyed in four Corollaries. p. 262.
  • Aphorism 3. These two Covenants of God, established with Noah, before and after the Flood, &c. were a Renewed Discovery and Administration of the Covenant of Faith, touching Sin­ners Salvation by Iesus Christ. Here,
    • 1. That these two Covenants of God with Noah, &c. were A Renewed Discovery of the Covenant of Faith touching Sinners Salvation by Christ: is proved at large by six sorts of Arguments. One being that, Noah was a Type of Christ: The Ark of the Church: The saving of Noah and his house in the Ark, of Gods saving his Houshold in the Church, p. 263, to 277.
    • 2. What the Spiritual Meaning of these Covenants of God with Noah as a Covenant of Faith, is, In regard of 1. Author, 2. Parties, 3. Matter, and 4. Form thereof, p. 277. to 281.
    • 3. What Additionals were annexed to this Covenant-expressure, more then to the former, and consequently their Agreements and Differences in many particulars, p. 281. to 283.
    • 4. Corollaries, p. 283. to 285.
Chap. 3.
  • III. OF the Discovery of the Covenants of Promise, in the III. Noted Period of time, viz. From Abraham, till Moses, p. 285, &c.
  • Aphorism 1. God having called Abram from his own kindred and Native Countrey, Ur of the Chaldees, into the land of Canaan, established the Covenant of Faith with him in Christ. Here note three Propositions.
    • 1. God called Abram from his own kindred and Native Countrey, Ur of the Chal­dees, into▪ the land of Canaan. Here are explained,
      • 1. Who Abram was before his Calling, For 1. Descent. 2. Name. 3. Religion, p. 287, 288.
      • 2. What his Native Countrey, Ur of the Chaldees, was, p. 288.
      • ☞ 3. What the land of CANAAN was, whereto he was called. Ca [...]aan is here Described by its 1. Situation. 2. Denominations. 3. Scripture Com­mendations. And 4. Mystical Signification, p. 289, 290.
      • 4. What manner of Call this was, whereby Abram was called, p. 290, 291.
      • 5. When God did thus call Abram, p. 291, 292.
    • 2. God having thus called Abram from his kindred and Native Countrey into the land of Canaan, established a Covenant with him. And why? p. 292. to 295.
    • 3. The Covenant which God established with Abram, thus called, was the Cove­nant of Faith touching Sinners recovery by Jesus Christ, Proved by six Argu­ments, p. 295, to 299: Corollaries or Inferences hence, seven, p. 299. to 304.
  • Aphorism 2. God not onely established his Covenant with Abram, but also with his Seed after him in their Generations. Here is cleared,
    • 1. That God stablished his Covenant with Abraham, and with his Seed in their Ge­nerations, p. 304, 305.
    • 2. What this Seed of Abraham was: His three sorts of Seeds with which the Cove­nant was made, p. 305. to 309.
    • 3. How God established his Covenant with this Seed of Abraham. viz. 1. As with One. 2. This one, onely Christ. 3. This Christ, Primarily, Iesus Christ the Me­diatour, Secondarily, His mystical body of Jews and Gentiles. 4. With this Seed, Christ mystical for ever, p. 309, 310, &c.
    • [Page]4. Why God established his Covenant thus with Abraham's Seed, &c. p. 311, 312.
    • 5. Corollaries, or Inferences. Hence,
      • I. All Abraham's Seed were joynt-parties with Abraham, in this Covenant which God established with him. In what notion, God, Abraham, and his Seed were Foederates, p. 312, 313.
      • II. Gods Covenant established with Abraham and with his Seed, is the Inheri­tance of Abraham, and of his Seed. Here three Questions resolved, viz.
        • 1. What are the Hereditary Benefits of this Covenant-Inheritance? p. 314. to 319.
        • 2. Whether Abraham and his Seed, Jewish and Gentilish, equally share herein? p. 319, 320.
        • 3. To how many Generations of Abraham's Seed this Covenant-inheritance extends? p. 320. to 323.
      • III. They that can make it appear to themselves that they are Abraham's Seed, may conclude that Gods Covenant with Abraham, with all the Benefits hereof, of Common Concernment, are theirs as well as Abrahams, p. 323, &c. We may discern that we are Abraham's Seed and children,
        • 1. By our Being Christs. And that five wayes, p. 323.
        • 2. By our walking in the steps of Abraham's Faith. Here seven steps, p. 323. to 326.
        • 3. By our doing the works of Abraham. His works in six particulars, p. 326. to 330.
      • IV. What a strong Obligation of Duty rests upon all Abraham's Covenant-Seed, Jewish and Christian, both in respect of themselves and their Posterity? p. 330, &c.
      • V. What singular comfort may this afford to all Abraham's Seed, p. 331, 332.
  • Aphorism 3. The Substance or Matter of Gods Covenant with Abraham and his Seed, consisted of many eminent Mercies promised on Gods part to Abraham and his Seed; and of divers notable Duties required of them, and restipulated on their part to God, p. 332, &c.
    • I. Mercies Promised on Gods part to Abraham, &c:
      • 1. What God will do for Abraham and his Seed. Here God Promiseth six Mercies, viz.
        • 1. Divine Benediction, viz.
          • 1. That he will Bless Abraham and Sarah. 1. What the word [Bless] im­ports. 2. Wherein God Blessed Abraham in many Particulars, p. 334 to 338.
          • 2. That Abraham should be a Blessing. How, p. 338, 339.
          • 3. That he would bless his Blessers, and curse his Cursers. Why? Inferences, p. 339. to 344.
          • 4. That in him and in his Seed All Nations and Families of the Earth should be blessed. Here note,
            • 1. What Blessing this is? 1. All Spirituals. 2. All Temporals, &c. p. 344, to 347.
            • 2. In, or through whom this Blessing is to be Performed, p. 347.
            • 3. How all Nations and Families share in this Blessing through Christ, ex­plained, 1. Negatively. 2. Affirmatively, p. 347. to 349.
            • 4. Inferences seven, Hence resulting, p. 349. to 352.
        • 2. An exceeding Numerous Seed. Here God promised,
          • 1. To give Abraham A Son to be his heir, which should come out of his own Bowels, p. 352, 353.
          • 2. To multiply him and his Seed exceedingly, p. 353, 354.
          • 3. To propagate even Kings of People from Abraham and Sarah, p. 355, &c.
          • 4. To make Abraham a great and mighty Nation. p. 356, &c.
          • 5. To make Nations of Abraham, p. 356.
          • 6. To make him an high Father of many Nations. How? Five Inferences, p. 356, to 361.
          • [Page]7. To raise up Jesus Christ of him, as his Primary Seed according to the flesh, p. 361, 362.
        • 3. Eminency of Name. Here note,
          • 1. Wherein true Renown of Name consists. 1. Negatively. 2. Affirmatively, p. 363. to 366.
          • 2. How this Greatness of Name was made good to Abraham. Inferences. p. 366. to 368.
        • 4. His Seeds victoriousness over their enemies. How? Inferences. p. 368. to 371.
        • 5. The Inheritance of Canaan to him and his Seed. Here note,
          • 1. How God Revealed his Promise of Canaan to Abraham. Six waies, p. 371. to 373.
          • 2. How he Performed this Promise of Canaan to Abraham and his Seed. Five waies, p. 373. to 377.
          • 3. Whether under Canaan Promised, some further Mysteries were not intend­ed? And what those Mysteries are? 1. Heir-ship of the world. 2. Heir-ship of Heaven, Canaan being many waies a Type of Heaven, p. 377. to 382.
          • 4. Inferences hence, six, p. 382. to 389.
        • 6. The closing up of Abrahams daies in a good old age in Peace. Inferences, p. 389. to 392.
  • 2. What the Lord will be to Abraham and his Seed.
    • 1. His Shield. Here note,
      • 1. Who it is that will be his Shield, p. 392, 393.
      • 2. What God will be, in being his Shield, p. 394.
      • 3. Against what God will be his Shield, p. 394.
      • 4. How God will be his Shield. Many waies. Four Inferences, p. 394. to 398.
    • 2. His exceeding great Reward. Here note,
      • 1. What is meant by Reward. Various acceptations of it, p. 398, 399.
      • 2. How God was Abrahams vehemently great Reward, viz. 1. Effectively, many waies. 2 Objectively. 3. Exclusively. Inferences, p. 399. to 405.
    • 3. A GOD in Covenant to Abraham and his Seed for ever. Here note,
      • 1. What is meant by the word GOD, p. 405, 406.
      • 2. What this phrase, of Being a GOD to Abraham and his Seed, implyes;
        • 1. More Generally. According to the judgements of the Learned, p. 406. to 409.
        • 2. More Particularly,
          • 1. To whom he will be a God. To Abraham and his Seed, p. 409.
          • 2. What he will be to them, in being a God to them, viz.
            • 1. Whatsoever he is, as God. Two waies, p. 409. to 411.
            • 2. Whatsoever he hath, as God, p. 411.
            • 3. Whatsoever he doth for his people, as God. In thirteen particulars, p. 411. to 417.
          • 3. How he will be such a God to Abraham and his Seed, viz. By an ever­lasting Covenant of his own establishing, &c. p. 417. to 422.
        • 3. Inferences hence resulting, viz.
          • I. Gods Covenant bounty to Abraham and to his Seed was most admirable, p. 422, &c.
          • II. Abraham and his Seed are by Gods Covenant▪ priviledged above all people in the world, p. 423, 424.
          • III. Abraham and his true Seed are Gods Covenant-people. 1. What a Dignity! 2. What an Advantage! 3. What a Duty! p. 424. to 427.
          • IV. Abraham and his Seed can want neither Promises nor Mercies: The Lord promising to be their God by an Everlasting Covenant, p. 427.
          • [Page]V. They that neglect or despise Gods Covenant with Abraham and his Seed, therein they neglect and despise God, Jesus Christ, and all Hap­piness, p. 427, 428.
          • VI. They that are Abrahams true Covenant-Seed, have the Lord to be their God: and they that have the Lord to be their God, are Abra­hams true Seed, p. 429.
          • VII. Strive to be Abrahams true Seed, so the Lord shall be your Cove­nant-God, viz. 1. Become Christs. 2. Believe with Abraham. 3. Do Abrahams works, p 429. to 434.
          • VIII. How comfortable this Covenant to all Abrahams true Seed, &c. p. 434, &c.
  • II. Duties Restipulated on the part of Abraham and his Seed, to God, p. 436, &c.
    • 1. To walk before God. Here consider,
      • 1. What is meant by walking before God. The word explained. Various Accepta­tions of the phrase. Analogy between a Religious course and walking: in eight things, p. 437. to 439.
        • Walking before God in Faith. Therein five things, p. 440. to 444.
        • Walking before God in Love, Obedience, Good-works. In six particulars, p. 444. to 457.
      • 2. Why Abraham and his Seed were thus to walk before God, in this Covenant. Seven Reasons, p. 457, &c.
      • 3. That Abraham and his Seed did thus walk before God, p. 460. to 464.
      • 4. Inferences. Hence,
        • 1. Gods Covenant with Abraham and his Seed, required conditions on their part, as well as promised Benefits on Gods part, p. 464, 465.
        • 2. The Covenant conditions imposed on Abraham and his Seed were not impos­sibilities, p. 466.
        • 3. Not only Covenant-mercies Promised, but also Covenant-Duties imposed, were the Advantages of Abraham, and his Seed. In five Particulars, p. 466. to 469.
        • 4. God required such a Condition, as should be the way of their Justification, p. 469, 470.
        • 5. Those that walk not in Faith and Obedience before God, have no sound Evi­dence in themselves that they are in Covenant with God. Nine notes of such, p. 471. to 473.
        • 6. All that walk before God in true Faith and Obedience, are in Covenant with God, and keep Covenant with him. Notes of such, p. 473, 474.
        • 7. All that would comfortably share in Covenant-Mercy from God, must sin­cerely perform Covenant-Duty to God. Directions. Seven Motives, p. 474, 475.
    • 2. To be Perfect. Here note,
      • 1. What is meant by being Perfect, &c. p. 475, &c.
        • 1. What is meant by Being Perfect, viz.
          • 1. The Meaning of divers words in Scripture, rendred Perfect, p. 476, 477.
          • 2. The thing intended by Perfect. Here, many sorts of Perfection, p. 477.
          • 3. Parallel Synonymous expressions used in Scriptures, viz.
            • 1. Truth, p. 481, 482.
            • 2. Uprightness, p. 482, 483.
            • 3. Purity, or Pureness, p. 483, 484.
            • 4. Simplicity, or singleness, p. 484, 485.
            • 5. Sincerity, p. 485, 486.
          • 2. Why Abraham and his Seed are obliged by Gods Covenant thus to be perfect. Four Reasons, p. 487, to 493.
          • 3. Inferences. Hence,
          • [Page]
            • 1. All such as are truly Perfect and Sincere before God, are Qualified according to Gods Covenant, to be Covenanters with God. Many Notes of Integrity, p. 493. to 500.
            • 2. No dissembling Hypocrites, devoid of this Covenant Integrity, can walk in Covenant-Duty before God, or be in Covenant-state with God. Sorts of Hypocrites. Many Characters and Discoveries of Hypocrites, p. 500. to 506.
            • 3. All such as would approve themselves the true Seed of Abraham and Cove­nant-people of God, must be Foederally Perfect before God in Heart and Way, p. 506, &c.
              • 1. Helps to integrity, nine, p. 507, 508.
              • 2. Inducements to integrity, six, p. 508. to 513.
          • 3. To be Gods Covenant-People, p. 513, 514.
      • Aphorism 4. The Form of Gods Covenant with Abraham and his Seed, consisted; Inwardly, In the mutual Covenant-Obligation betwixt the Foederates, viz. God on the one part, Abraham and his Seed on the other: Outwardly, In the manner of this Covenants Administration or Confirmation.
        • 1. The Inward Form, and more Essential, p. 514, 515.
        • 2. The Outward Form, and more Accidental,
          • 1. Of Dispensation of Gods Covenant, viz.
            • 1. As with Abraham; To whom God manifested his Covenant: often and variously, p. 516. to 523.
            • 2. As with Abrahams Seed, 1. Isaac; 2 Iacob; 3. Iacobs posterity, p. 523. to 532.
          • 2. Of Confirmation of this Covenant to Abraham and his Seed. Here are shewed four things;
            • 1. That God confirmed this Covenant with Abraham and his Seed, p. 532, 533.
            • 2. How God confirmed this Covenant: Eight waies, viz.
              • 1. By his Promises, p. 533. to 537.
              • 2. By Abrahams entry upon, and survey of Canaan, p. 537.
              • 3. By Melchizedecks typical Blessing of Abraham returning, &c. p. 537. to 540.
              • 4. By his own Sacred and Inviolable Oath, p. 540.
              • 5. By his Solemn Symbolical Form of striking Covenant with Abraham, p. 541.
              • 6. By the two Ordinary standing Sacraments, Circumcision, and Passover.
                • [...]. Circumcision. Touching which is shewed,
                  • 1. What it was: by the 1. Efficient; 2 Matter; 3. Form; and 4. End, p. 542. to 545.
                  • 2. How it confirmed Gods Covenant with Abraham, p. 545, 546.
                • 2. The Passover. Touching which note,
                  • 1. The Nature of it: By the 1. Efficient; 2. Matter; 3. Form; and 4. End, p. 546. to 550.
                  • 2. How it confirmed Gods Covenant with Abraham, p. 550.
                • 7. By the four extraordinary Itinerant Sacraments. Here note,
                  • 1. The Natures of them, viz.
                    • 1. Of the Cloudy and Fiery Pillar, p. 550. to 553.
                    • 2. Of the Red Sea, and Israels safe passing through it, p. 553.
                    • 3. Mannah, p. 554, &c.
                    • 4. Water out of the Rock, p. 555, &c.
                  • 2. Their Confirmation of Gods Covenant with Abraham and his Seed, p. 556. to 559.
                • 8. By the sufferings and death of IESUS CHRIST, Implyed and Ty­pified in this Foederal Administration many waies, p. 559. to 562.
              • 3. Why God these many waies confirmed his Covenant to Abraham and his Seed, p. 562. to 564.
              • [Page]4. Inferences seven hence resulting, p. 564. to 570.
          • Apherism 5. The End of Gods Establishing this Covenant with Abraham and his Seed in Christ, was, Ultimately, His own glory; Subordinately, the true Happiness of Abraham and his Seed, Iewish and Gentilish, both in this and the world to come.
            • 1. Ultimately, God intends in this Covenant his own glory, viz. The Glory of his 1. Free Grace: 2. Bounteous Goodness: 3. Wise Providence: 4. Great Power: 5. Constant Faithfulness, p. 571. to 574.
            • 2. Subordinately, The Happiness of Abraham, and his Seed. In their 1. Redemption. 2. Participation of the Spirit. 3. Conversion. 4. Adoption. 5. Justification. 6. Co­venant-Relation. And 7. Glorification. Of which formerly: But now more fully of Iustific [...]tion by Faith, as being here in this Covenant. First of all expresly mention­ed in Scripture, p. 574, 575, &c. Iustification by Faith, explained from Gen. 15. 6. He believed in the LORD, and He-imputed-that to him Righteousness. Or, Unto Righteousness. Here note,
            • I. What is meant by, Believing in the LORD.
              • 1. The sense of the word, Believe, p 576.
              • 2. The sense of the phrase, Believing in the LORD, p. 576, 577.
              • 3. The Description of Iustifying Faith, confirmed and explained, p. 577, &c.
                • 1. The General Nature of Faith, p. 577.
                • 2. The efficient cause of it; Principal, and Instrumental, p. 578.
                • 3. The subject recipient, p. 578.
                • 4. The Object of this Faith, p. 578, 579.
                • 5. The Final Cause, or End of it: Ultimate, and Subordinate, p. 579, 580.
                • 6. The Acts of Faith to these Ends. Which are, 1. Direct: 2 Re­flexive.
                  • 1. Direct Acts of Faith, are either,
                    • 1. The First, and Primary. As, 1. Knowing; 2. Assenting; 3. Applying, p. 580. to 584.
                    • 2. Those that arise from the First, Secondary: which are seven, p. 584, 585.
                  • 2. Reflect Act of Faith, p. 586.
            • II. What is here meant by Iustice or Righteousness. Humane Righteousness is here, 1. Described. 2. Distributed, p. 586. to 589.
            • III. What is meant by Counting, or Imputing. Here, 1. Of the various significa­tions of the Word. 2. The several sorts of Imputation, p. 589. to 592.
            • IV. What it was which was Imputed to Abraham unto Righteousness, and How?
              • 1. Believing, or Faith, was imputed to him for Righteousness. p. 592, 593.
              • 2. How Believing was Imputed to him for Righteousness. Four Interpretations.
                • 1. Interpretation. As an Efficient and Meritorious Cause. Rejected, p. 594, 595.
                • 2. Interpretation. That the very Act of believing, the [...] credere, is imputed for righteousness; and that in a proper sense, not Metonymically. Rejected, p. 596. to 607.
                • 3. Interpretation. That Faith as a Condition of the Covenant performed by us, justifieth; or is imputed to us for righteousness. Rejected. p. 607, 608.
                • 4. Interpretation. That Faith is imputed unto righteousness, As an Organ, In­strument, Instrumental Cause o [...] Mean, by the help of the Spirit, receiving and apprehending Christs Righteousness offered in the Gospel. The Unanimous Con­sent of Reformed Churches, and sound writers herein, p. 608. to 612.
                  • 1. Faith is imputed unto Righteousness only as an Instrument. Proved at large by seven Arguments, p. 612. to 618.
                  • 2. How Faith is imputed unto Righteousness as an Instrument, &c. is ex­plained three waies by Orthodox writers. And what we may judge of them, p. 618 to 622.
          • [Page]V. Whether in some sense Abraham was not justified by Works, as well as by Faith: and How the Apostle Iames is to be understood in this point; and reconciled with Paul. Here are laid down six Solutions: and which is to be preferred, p. 622. to 627.
          • VI. Whether all Abrahams believing Seed of Jews and Gentiles were not justified in the same way and manner, as Abraham was? This is Affirmed and Proved by five Arguments, p. 627, 628.
          • VII. Wherein the Nature of that Iustification of man before God consists, which from age to age is revealed in the Covenant of Faith. Iustification described, p. 629.
          • In which Description are explained,
            • 1. The sense of the word, Iustification, p. 630.
            • 2. The Proper Subject of Iustification, p. 630, 631.
            • 3. The Causes of Justification, 1. Efficient, Principal and Instrumental; 2. Ma­terial; 3. Formal; and 4. Final, p. 631. to 635.
          • Aphorism 6. From all that hath been said, 1. This Covenants Properties or Perfections; Additional Excellencies, &c. viz.
          • General Inferences from the whole of this Covenant. Hence,
            • 1. The Properties or Perfections of this Covenant are observable. Eight are explained, p. 635. to 640.
            • 2. The Additional Excellencies of this Foederal Dispensation, beyond those of the two former Covenants are divers, Eight are expressed, p. 640, 641.
            • 3. This Covenant with Abraham and his Seed, Agrees with, and Differs from the two former Dispensations in divers regards. Agrees in seven things. Differs in seven things, p. 642. to 645.
            • 4. The wonderful wisdom of God, in the several Periods of his Covenant-Dispensati­ons and their Gradual out-breakings, is very observable, p. 645, 646.
            • 5. How highly was Abraham advanced by Admission into this Covenant with God, beyond his former Un-Covenant condition, p. 646.
            • 6. Abraham and his Seed are made the only Happy people in the world, for all future time and succeeding ages, p. 647.
            • 7. The same Gospel was preached, the same blessed Messiah was in that Gospel Re­vealed, and the same Justification and Salvation of Sinners by Faith in that Mes­siah was tendred, in those former as well as in these latter ages of the world, p. 647, 648.
      Chap. 4.
      • IV. OF the Discovery of the Covenants of Promise, in the IV. Observable Period of time; viz. From Moses till David; yea from Moses till CHRIST, THE DAVID.
      • An Introduction to the Explication of the SINAI-COVENANT. Wherein note,
        • 1. The Bounds and time of this Sinai-Covenants Administration, p. 649, 650.
        • 2. The Excellency of this Foederal Administration. In ten particulars, p. 651, 652.
        • 3. The Method propounded for handling of it, p. 653.
        • Aphorism 1. The LORD God having brought his People Israel out of Egypt, into the Wilderness, to go to possess the Promised Land of Canaan, gave the Law to Israel by Moses on Mount Sinai 430. years precisely after his Promise to Abraham, p. 653, &c.
        • Here are explained eight Particulars, viz.
          • 1. That the LORD did then and there give his Law, &c. Proved four waies, p. 654, 655.
          • [Page]2. What Law that was which God gave to Israel at Mount Sinai. Here note,
            • 1. The Notation of the word Law, out of the Hebrew and Greek, p. 656, 657.
            • 2. The various Theological Acceptations of the word, LAW, p. 657. to 661.
            • 3. The Distribution of Gods Laws into 1. Moral. 2. Ceremonial. 3. Iudicial. Here note,
              • 1. That this common Distinction hath its foundation in Scripture, p. 661, 662.
              • 2. What the Nature of these three sorts of Laws was, viz.
                • 1. The Moral Law,
                  • 1. Excels both the other in five regards, p. 662, 663.
                  • 2. Hath divers Denominations. Ten are mentioned, p. 663.
                  • 3. May be distributed three wayes; viz.
                    • 1. Into two Tables, p. 664.
                    • 2. Into Ten Words, or Ten Commandments, p. 664, 665.
                    • 3. Into two Great Commandments; 1. Love to God. 2. Love to our Neighbour.
                      • A Scheme of the Ten Commandments ranked under these two General Heads, p. 665, 666.
              • 2. The Ceremonial Law,
                • 1. Was imposed on the Jews till Christ, for six Causes, p. 667.
                • 2. Hath various Denominations, Hebrew, Greek and Latin, p. 667, 668.
                • 3. Admits of divers Distributions. Ceremonials were,
                  • 1. Of more publike Concernment; Touching Sacred 1. Places. 2. Uten­sils for those places. 3. Persons. 4. Things. 5. Times, p. 668. to 673.
                  • 2. Of More Private Concernment; Touching 1. Food. 2. Rayment. 3. Defilements. And 4. Husbandry, p. 673, 674.
            • 3. The Iudicial Law, Regulating the Jews Commonwealth,
              • 1. Hath various Denominations, p. 674, 675.
              • 2. May be diversly Distributed, p. 675.
              • 3. Was imposed, Not on Gentiles, but on Jews, for six Causes, p. 676.
        • 3. That All these three sorts of Laws were delivered by God to Moses on Mount Si­nai for Israel. Proved three wayes, p. 676, 677.
      • 3. How, or In what manner God gave this Law to Israel In eight particulars, p. 677, 678.
      • 4. Why God gave this Law to Israel at that time. For three Causes: eight ends, p. 678. to 683.
      • 5. Whether Gods People had not the Law before God published it at Mount Sinai, p. 683. to 686.
      • 6. Whether the Law given on Mount Sinai, was not the same with the Law of Nature written in Adams heart before the Fall, and in some measure remaining there still since the Fall. It differs four wayes from the Law of Nature, p. 686. to 689.
      • 7. Whether the Law of God given by Moses on Mount Sinai to Israel, be abroughted to us now under the New Testament, or no? And how far it concerns or obligeth us, if not abrogated? This is resolved in four Positions, p. 689, &c.
        • 1. Posit. The Iudgements, or Iudicial Laws, were peculiarly given to the Jewish Commonwealth, and expired with it, &c. p. 689.
        • 2. Posit. The Statutes, or Ceremonial Laws, were given only to Israel as an Infant-Church, obliging them onely till the death of Christ, p. 689, 690.
        • 3. Posit. The Moral Law, or Ten Commandments, In some sence are Abrogated, In some sence Remains still of Force. Here are three Opinions, p. 690, 691.
        • For unfolding and clearing of this Point: Note,
          • 1. Certain Distinctions for the Right stating of the Question, p. 691, 692.
          • 2. The Moral Law is now Abrogated in four Respects. Proved, p. 692. to 695.
          • 3. The Moral Law is not now Abrogated under the New Covenant, but obligeth still, in three Respects. Which is proved by eight Arguments, p. 695. to 701.
        • [Page]4. Posit. The Moral Law given on Mount Sinai, so far as not Abrogated, is of mani­fold Excellent and Necessary use Now under the New Testament. And this,
          • 1. More Generally, to all forts, Regenerate and Unregenerate, that shall come to the knowledge of it: Not for Justification, But seven other wayes, p. 701. to 705.
          • 2. More Specially and Peculiarly,
            • 1. To carnal and unregenerate Persons, it is of Use five ways, p. 705. to 708.
            • 2. To Spiritual and Regenerate Persons, seven wayes, p. 708. to 712.
    • 8. Inferences from this whole Aphorism thus Explained. Hence,
      • I. God singularly manifested the Glory of his own Perfections, and highly magnified the goodness of his Dispensations to Israel, in giving them his Law on Mount Sinai. His Glory seven wayes. His Goodness of Dispensations many wayes, p. 712. to 714.
      • II. The Fall of Adam and of all mankind in him miserably defaced the Law of Nature, p. 714.
      • III. The Fathers and Church before Moses had a much more imperfect Rule of Religi­on, and Righteousness, then the Fathers and Church had under Moses, p. 714, 715.
      • IV. As the Church of God is the chief of all Societies on Earth: so the Laws of this Society are the chief of all Laws. In four respects, p. 715.
      • V. Gods Church and Covenant-People must be a Composed, Regular and Orderly people, guided and governed by the exactest Laws. To this End here are,
        • 1. Gospel-Directions, for Christian right Observing, Performing and Walking ac­cording to the Moral Law. In eight particulars, p. 716. to 721.
        • 2. Gospel- [...]rounds or Motives, inciting to this observance of the Moral Law, p. 721. to 726.
      • VI. All lawless, loose, licentious People, that reject the Moral Law of God are deeply to be condemned. As,
        • 1. Antinomians in Opinion. Eight Scriptures, wrested by them, vindicated, p. 726. to 733.
        • 2. Antinomians in Practice. Upon four grounds blame-worthy, p. 733.
  • Aphorism 2. God gave the Law by Moses to Israel, from Mount Sinai, as a Covenant: and that, Not as a Covenant of works; Nor as a Mixt Covenant of Works and Grace: Nor as a Covenant Subservient to the Covenant of Grace: But as a Covenant of Faith, p. 734, &c. Here consider four things for clearing this; viz.
    • 1. That the Law given on Mount Sinai, was given as a Covenant to Israel, For,
      • 1. The Name of Covenant is often given to that Law, p. 734, 735.
      • 2. The Nature of a Covenant, was in that Law, as then Dispensed, p. 736, 737.
    • 2. What Law it was, which was given as a Covenant at Mount Sinai, p. 737, 738.
    • 3. What sort of Covenant this Law was. Four Opinions, p. 738. &c.
      • 1. Not as a Covenant of Works. For seven Reasons, p. 739. to 745.
      • 2. Not as a Mixt Covenant, Partly of Works; Partly of Grace, p. 745. to 748.
      • 3. Not as a Subservient Covenant to the Covenant of Grace. Many Exceptions, More Ge­neral, and More Particular, opposing this Opinion, p. 748. to 753.
      • 4. But as a Covenant of Grace or Faith, though dispensed in an Unusual Way, p. 753, &c. Here note,
        • 1. That, this Sinai-Covenant was Dispensed most unusually, In ten respects, p. 754, 755.
        • 2. That this Unusual way, was most Fit to that Time and people: and this in seven respects, p. 755. to 757.
        • 3. That notwithstanding, This Covenant was given as a Covenant of Faith. Seven Arguments, p. 757. to 764.
        • 4. Seven grand Objections to the Contrary, Answered. p. 764, to 779.
      • 4. The LORD gave this Covenant-Law from Mount Sinai by Moses to Israel, p. 779.
      • 5. Inferences. Hence,
      • [Page]I. Gods giving of his Law to Israel at Mount Sinai, was an act of his singular grace and favour towards Israel, p. 780.
      • II. The Sinai-Covenant, being a Covenant of Faith, not only Revealed Christ, but discovered him with some further Manifestation then did the fore-going Covenants: In his 1. Decent. 2. Person. 3. Office. 4. States wherein he executed his Office, p. 781. to 784.
      • III. Gods Israel of old was saved by the same CHRIST under the Sinai-Cove­nant, whereby the Israel of God is now saved under the Sion Covenant, p. 784, 785.
      • IV. The Sinai-Covenant intended not sinners Justification in the sight of God by Works: but only by Faith in Jesus Christ. p. 786. to 788.
      • V. The Sinai-Law was Israels Gospel, p. 788.
      • VI. The many misapprehensions about this Sinai-Administration, especially that it should be given as a Covenant of Works, are justly to be condemned, p. 789.
      • VII. They that would rightly understand the Sinai-Covenant, must look upon it with an Evangelical eye, p. 789.
  • Aphorism 3. The Confederates, or Foederate Parties to this Sinai-Covenant, were, God and Israel with their Posterity, &c. Here note,
    • 1. That, God, and Israel, with their Posterity, were Foederates in this Covenant, p. 790, 791.
    • 2. These were Confederates in these Notions, viz.
      • 1. God,
        • 1. As IEHOVAH. What this implyes, p. 792, 793.
        • 2. As Israels Covenant-God, p. 793, 794.
        • 3. As Israels Redeemer, p. 794.
        • 4. As Israels Law-giver, p. 795.
        • 5. As Israels endeared Husband, p. 795, 796.
      • 2. Israel with their Posterity,
        • 1. As Abrahams Seed in Covenant with God, p. 796.
        • 2. As the Lords Redeemed, p. 797.
        • 3. As Gods espoused People, p. 797.
        • 4. As heirs of Gods Promises, though under age, and going on to receive some part of the Promised Inheritance, p. 798.
      • 3. Inferences seven from the whole of this Aphorism, p. 798, 799.
    • Aphorism 4. The Subject-Matter, or Substance of this Sinai-Covenant, agreed upon by God and Israel, the Parties to this Covenant, were, 1. On Gods part, certain Covenant Mer­cies Promised, &c. 2. On Israels part, certain Covenant Duties required and restipulated, &c. p. 800.
      • I. God on his part promised these great things especially, viz.
        • 1. To be a God to them and to their Posterity. Here; 1. That God Promised this to them. 2. In whom he would be their God. 3. What it implyes, To be a God to them. 4. Why he promised to be their God. 5. Inferences, p. 800. to 805.
        • 2. To raise up to Israel CHRIST a Mediator and Saviour. 1. That, &c. 2. Why. And 3. Inferences, seven thereupon, p. 805. to 808.
        • 3. To give them the Spirit of God and of CHRIST. Here, 1. That God promised his Spirit: is proved by five Reasons. 2. That in Iohn 7. 37, 38, 39. is reconciled. And 3. Inferences four deduced, p. 808. to 812.
        • 4. To bestow upon them many Temporal Outward Mercies. Here, 1. That, &c. 2. Why God promised such Temporals. Five Reasons. 3. In what Notion such Temporals were promised: As Temporals, or as Types of Spirituals and Eternals. Inferences, p. 812. to 815.
        • 5. To confer upon them many spiritual Blessing; in Christ; viz. these seven espe­cially;
          • 1. Gods special Acceptation of them above all people:
          • [Page]
            • 1. As his Segullah, or Peculiar-Treasure, in ten respects, p. 815. to 820.
            • 2. As a Kingdom of Priests to God. How? p. 820.
            • 3. As an Holy Nation: Three waies, p. 821.
            • True Believers also are,
              • 1. Kings to God: in nine regards, p. 822.
              • 2. Priests to God: in six respects, p. 822.
              • 3. An Holy Nation: seven waies, p. 823.
              • 4. A Peculiar-Treasure to God above all people: in twelve respects, p. 823. to 825.
        • 2. Gods Sanctification of the People Israel, under Heart-Circumcision: in seven Particulars resembling corporal Circumcision, p. 825. to 828.
        • 3. Gods Justification of Israel by Faith in Jesus Christ Promised four waies, p. 828. to 831.
        • 4. Gods furnishing of Israel with ability to observe and keep his Covenant, p. 831, 832.
        • 5. Gods chusing out a Place for his name, and publike worship in Canaan, &c. p. 832. to 834.
        • 6. Gods glorious Presence and Habitation among them in his Tabernacle and Temple: which implyed seven excellent Blessings, p. 834. to 837.
        • 7. God promised to furnish them with eminency of Church enjoyments above all other People. Seven Inferences from these Promises of Spirituals, p. 837. to 841.
      • 6. To crown Israel at last with Eternals. Proved by six Arguments. Two Inferences, p. 841. to 846.
    • II. Israel, &c. on their Part Restipulated certain Covenant-Duties. As, these three, viz.
      • 1. To be a Covenant-People to God. Here note,
        • 1. That God required this, and Israel Restipulated it: Proved five waies, p. 846, 847, &c.
        • 2. What it implyes; To be a Covenant-People to God, viz.
          • 1. To be his Covenant-People solely and only▪ 1. Not sins. 2. Not the worlds. 3. Not Satans. 4. Not their own, p. 848. to 850.
          • 2. To be his by Foederal Profession and Denomination, p. 850, &c.
          • 3. To be his Covenant-people in CHRIST, p. 851.
          • 4. To be his Covenant-people in all Covenant-Relations, p. 851.
          • 5. To be his Covenant-people wholly, according to all Covenant-obligations to himself. 1. In all we are. 2. In all we have. 3. In all we can do, or pro­cure. 4. In all we can undergo or endure; for God, p. 852. to 857.
        • 3. Why it was requisite Israel should be such a Covenant-people to God. Six Rea­sons, p. 857. to 859.
        • 4. Inferences. Hence,
          • 1. How great Dignity, Advantage and Duty did God cast upon Israel, in bringing them into Covenant with himself at Mount Sinai! p. 859, 860.
          • 2. Its very plain, That a great part of Israel came utterly short of their Cove­nant-Duty towards God, p. 860.
          • 3. The same great Covenant-Duty laid on old Israel by the Sinai-Covenant, is imposed also upon the New Israel by the New Covenant, p. 861.
          • 4. One special way to discover whether a People be in Covenant with God, is to examine and try whether they be the Covenant-People of God inwardly and savingly. Here twelve Evidences of being such, p. 861, 862.
          • 5. Let all that would approve themselves to be in Covenant with God, strive to become the People of God in Christ by believing, p. 862.
        • 2. To Keep and Perform this Covenant of God entirely, p. 862, 863.
          • 1. By True Faith in Jesus Christ. Here note,
          • [Page]
            • 1. What true Faith in Iesus Christ is, p. 863, 864.
            • 2. That true Faith in Christ was required of Israel by God for the keeping and per­formance of this Covenant. This is evidenced by seven Arguments, p. 864. to 868.
            • 3. How true Faith in Christ was required in this Sinai-Covenant, p. 868, 869.
            • 4. Seven Inferences hence. Where, How the Law is not of Faith, p. 869. to 872.
          • 2. By sincere, entire, constant Obedience. Here note,
            • 1. What is meant by such Obedience, p. 872.
            • 2. That God required, and Israel Restipulated such sincere, entire and constant obedience in all good works. Proved five waies, p. 872, 873.
            • 3. How, and in what Notion such sincere, entire and constant obedience was re­quired in this Sinai-Covenant. Resolved, 1. Generally. 2. Particularly, in five particulars, p. 874, 875.
            • 4. What Rule God gave Israel for Regulating, Guiding, Bounding and Ordering of their Obedience, which he conditioned for in this Covenant, viz. The whole Covenant it self, especially The X. Commandments was their Rule, p. 876.
            • Now here are at large laid down and explicated,
            • ☞ xvii. General Rules for the right understanding and keeping of The X. Com­mandments. To be diligently considered, p. 877. to 891.
            • In the second of which Rules is shewed, How many waies we are in danger of having Fellowship with others in their sins, 1. Before; 2. In; 3. After their Acts of sinning, p. 881, 882.
            • 5. Inferences seven from this their Duty of restipulated Obedience, p. 891. to 896.
          • 3. To repent and return again to the Lord their God in case of any failing, either in being his Covenant-people, Or in keeping his Covenant by true Faith and Obedience. Here note,
            • 1. What Repentance is. Here, 1. The Sorts. 2. The Nature of it, p. 896, 897.
            • 2. That God in this Sinai-Covenant, explicitly, or at least implicitly, conditioned with Israel, their R [...]pentance and returning again unto him, in case of any failings or offences against his Covenant. Evinced by seven particulars, p. 897. to 900.
            • 3. Inferences seven from this particular Duty of Repentance, p. 900, 901.
        • Aphorism 5. The Form of Gods Covenant with Israel and their Seed at Mount Sinai, con­sisted, More Inwardly and Essentially, in the mutual Covenant Agreement and Obligation be­twixt the Foederates, God and Israel: More Outwardly and Accidentally, In the manner of this Sinai-Covenants first Manifestation, Establishment, and After-Administration, p. 902, &c.
          • 1. The More Inward and Essential Form, in the Foederates mutual Agreement, &c. p. 902, 903.
          • 2. The More Outward and Accidental Form: is considered,
            • 1. More Generally. Where nine things very observable, p. 903. to 905.
            • 2. More Particularly, Here
              • ☞ 1. The Form of Gods first manifestation of this Sinai-Covenant to, and establish­ment of it with Israel, is represented according to the plain Series and Order of the History, in VIII. Particulars at large, laying open most evidently the Na­ture of this Sinai-Covenant, p. 905. to 921.
              • Inferences hence,
                • 1. The Law-giver is most glorious, p. 922.
                • 2. The Law, the Moral Law, is most excellent, in 1. Authority, 2. Purity, 3. Equity, 4. Extent, 5. Spiritualness, 6. Durableness, and 7. Out­ward Glory, p. 922, 923.
                • 3. Lapsed sinners are not able to endure the voice of God in his [Page] Law immediately, p. 923, 924.
                • 4. The Law was so given from God on Mount Sinai, as might best set forth the Necessity and Sufficiency of Christ, and bring Sinners to him, p. 924, &c.
                • 5. The Lord is well pleased, when sinners, sensible of their own inability to endure God and his Law immediately, do flie out of themselves to a Me­diator, p. 925.
                • 6. The Law promulged on Mount Sinai, was given to Israel as a Covenant, p. 925.
                • 7. The Law on Mount Sinai, though seemingly given as a Covenant of Works, yet was really given and intended as a Covenant of Faith, p. 925, 926.
                • 8. The Sinai-Law and Covenant was dispensed far otherwise then the New Covenant, &c. p. 927.
                • 9. Lapsed sinners, though brought into a Covenant of Faith, yet of them­selves are not able to keep that Covenant, by Faith and Obedience, &c. p. 927.
                • 10. Though Gods Covenant-people sometimes fail on their part in Cove­nant-Performances, yet upon their Repentance God for the Mediators sake pardoneth their sins graciously, and reneweth his Covenant with them, p. 927.
              • 2. The Form or Manner of this Sinai-Covenants ensuing Administration, after it was Manifested and established; was,
                • 1. With much External glory: Manifested six waies, p. 928, 929.
                • 2. With Great Darkness and Obscurity upon all this Outward Glory, p. 929.
                • 3. With a servile and burdensom Paedagogy. In eight Particulars, p. 929. to 932.
                • 4. With a visible Ministry, &c. 1. Ordinary. 2. Extraordinary, p. 932, 933.
                • 5. With Universal Reference to the whole National Church of the Jews, &c. p. 933, 934.
                • 6. With a Distinctive differencing of the Jewish Church from all other peo­ple and Societies on earth, p. 934.
                • 7. With Israel as Gods peculiar Common-wealth also, as well as his peculiar and only Church, p. 935.
                • Inferences seven from this form of Administration, briefly, p. 935. to 937.
        • Aphorism 6. The End or intended Scope of Gods Covenant, with Israel and their Seed, from Mount Sinai, was Gods fuller Revealing of IESUS CHRIST the Promised Saviour of sinners, for the greater furtherance of Israels present and future happiness, and of his own wonderful glory, p. 937, &c.
          • 1. The more immediate End, The fuller Revealing of Jesus Christ, &c. Proved five waies, p. 938. to 940.
          • 2. The more mediate End, 1. Less principal, Israels Happiness. 2. Principal, Gods glory in his 1. Free-grace, 2. Goodness, 3. Wisdom, 4. Providence, 5. Truth, 6. Patience, and 7. Power. Seven Inferences from all, p. 940. to 945.
        • Aphorism 7. From this whole fore-going Discourse touching this Sinai-Covenant, we may eas [...]ly discern and conclude, &c. p. 945, 946, &c.
        • General Corollaries or Inferences from this whole Discourse about the Sinai-Covenant. Hence,
          • I. The Law given at Mount Sinai, was given to Israel as a Covenant; and that, not a Covenant of Works, but of Faith, p. 946, &c.
          • II. This Covenant from Mount Sinai, was at first Manifested, and after­wards Administred, very Mysteriously, and somewhat Extraordinarily, p. 947, 948.
          • [Page]III. Gods Covenant of Works hath its eminent accomplishment in the Covenant of Faith, p. 948.
          • IV. The Properties of this Sinai-Covenant. It is, 1. Evangelical. 2. Spiritual. 3. Political. 4. Distinctive. 5. Preceptive. 6. Testamentary. 7. Obscure. 8. Ser­vile. 9. Holy. 10. Just. 11. Good. 12. Wise. 13. Exact and Perfect. 14. Sure and Faithfull. 15. Comfortable. 16. Perpetuall, p. 949. to 954.
          • V. This Sinai-Covenant, in many things Agrees with, in many other things Dis­agrees from, and in some things excells, All the former Covenants.
            • 1. Agrees with the three former Covenants, in seven respects, p. 954, &c.
            • 2. Differs from these three fore-going Covenants, in seven other regards, p. 955. to 960.
            • 3. Excels them all three in regard of Additionals annexed, seven waies, p. 960. to 964.
          • VI. This Sinai-Covenant was Israels eminent Priviledge, although they were con­stantly held under it in a very servile condition. Their Priviledge six waies, p. 964, &c.
          • VII. This Sinai-Covenant was full of CHRIST, therein eminently revealed. As is evident by 1. The Introduction to it; 2. Preface of this Covenant; 3. Com­mandments, the summe of the Covenant; 4. Mercies Promised; 5. Promulga­tion of it; 6. Sanction and Dedication of it; 7. Gods gracious Renewing of it, and of the Tables; 8. And Additionals annexed, especially the whole body of the Ceremonials, of which Jesus Christ was the Truth, and principal intended my­sterie, p. 966. to 969.
          • ☞ Here at large is evidenced, How the whole Body of CEREMONIALS, viz. Sacred 1. Places; 2. Utensils; 3. Persons; 4. Things; 5. Times; were, every of them in many respects, Types of Christ, and full of CHRIST, p. 969. to 987.
          • VIII. This Sinai-Covenant, the Old Testament, was pure Gospel, as well as the New: For substance revealing (though with different circumstances) to lapsed sinners, one and the self same way of Eternal Life and Salvation, by Iesus CHRIST through Faith, p. 987.
          • IX. The diligent study and solid understanding of the Old Testament, as well as of the New, is very necessary and advantagious to all Christians, p. 987, 988.
        Chap. 5.
        • V. OF the Discovery, &c. of the Covenants of Promise, in the V. Noted Period of Time: viz. From David, till the Babylonish Captivity.
        • Introductory Position. When God was pleased to change Israels civil Rules from Iudges to Kings, and from Kings to Governors (the Old-Testament administration still standing in force,) he notably Amplified this Sinai-Covenant, or Old Testament, by other two Covenants of Pro­mise in CHRIST, viz. 1. His Covenant with David and his seed. 2. His Covenant with the Iews under the Babylonish captivity. This Position is Explained and Confirmed in five branches of it. With five Inferences, p. 989, to 995.
        • Aphorism 1. The Covenant which God made with DAVID and his SEED, was a Covenant of Faith in Iesus Christ promised. Here note,
          • 1. Who this David was with whom this Covenant was made. David is at large Descri­bed, by his 1. Name. 2. Descent. 3. Qualifications. 4. Offices, Regal and Pro­phetical. 5. Renowned Acts. 6. Failings or Miscarriages. 7. Penitential Recove­ries. 8. Afflictions. And 9. Death, p. 995. to 1000.
          • [Page]2. That, God made a Cavenant with this David and his Seed. Proved three wayes, p. 1000.
          • 3. That this Covenant made with David and his Seed, was a Covenant of faith in IE­SUS CHRIST Promised. Evidenced four wayes. Three Inferences, p. 1001, &c.
        • Aphor [...]sm 2. The Foederates or Parties to this Covenant were, On the one hand God, As, &c. On the other hand David and his Seed, &c.
          • 1. God was the chief Foederate, 1. As the LORD of Hoas [...]s. 2. As the God of Israel, an [...] Rock of Israel. 3. As a Father to David and his Seed. 4. As a God to David, 5. As the Rock of Davids Salvation, p. 1004. to 1006.
          • 2. David and his Seed, the Secondary Foederates. God Covenanted,
            • 1. With David: As 1. A Mighty one; 2. Gods Elect; 3. Gods Servant; 4. Gods Annoynted King; 5. His First-born: in all which Five Christ is chiefly typed out, p. 1006, &c.
            • 2. With Davids Seed: As, 1. Gods Son, 2. Gods King for ever. Chiefly intending Christ, p. 1007, &c.
            • Inferences three. Hence, p. 1008, &c.
        • Aphorism 3. The Impulsive Cause moving God to make this Covenant with David and his Seed, was his Rich Grace and Mercy in IESUS CHRIST; upon Occasion of Gods changing Israels Governours from Iudges to Kings, and of King Davids holy Purposes of building an House or Temple for the Lord his God at Jerusalem. Here note,
          • 1. The Impulsive or Moving Cause of this Covenant, was twofold; viz.
            • 1. Inward. Gods own Rich Grace and Mercy, p. 1010.
            • 2. Outward. IESUS CHRIST and his merit, p. 1011, 1012.
          • 2. The Occasion of this Covenant, 1. Mediate; Gods changing Israels Governours, &c. 2. Immediate; Davids Purpose, &c. Three Inferences from all, p. 1012, to 1015.
        • Aphorism 4. The Substance or Subject-Matter of Gods Covenant with David and his Seed, consisted; 1. On Gods part, In many eminent Mercies and Blessings Promised, &c. 2. On the part of David and his Seed, In the Covenant Duties conditioned and restipulated, &c. p. 1015, &c.
          • 1. Mercies or Blessings Promised on Gods part, were of three Concernments; viz.
            • 1. Concerning DAVID himself. As,
              • 1. Gods subduing all his Enemies, clothing them with Shame and Confusion. This was Promised and Performed, 1. Literally to David. 2. Spiritually to Christ, p. 1016, 1017.
              • 2. Gods establishing and strengthening David in his Kingdom, that his foes might be brought under. Accomplished, 1. In David. 2. In Christ, p. 1017.
              • 3. Gods Increasing and Enlargement of Davids Glory, Prosperity, Power, and Dominion Accomplished; 1. Much in David. 2. More in Solomon. 3. Most in Christ, p. 1018. to 1020.
              • 4. Gods sweet Covenant-Relations to David. Viz. That he would be,
                • 1. Davids Father. This implyed 1. Seven Blessings from God to David. 2. Se­ven Duties from David to God, p. 1020. to 1023.
                • 2. Davids God, p. 1023, &c.
                • 3. Davids Rock of Salvation. 1. God saves three wayes. 2. David answerably de­meaned himself towards God four wayes, p. 1024.
              • 5. Gods fulfilling of Davids Dayes. Long-life a Mercy three wayes, p. 1024, &c.
              • 6. Gods Building David an House, making it powerful and prosperous, especially by raising up his Seed to sit upon his Throne for ever. This an High mercy. Accomplished, 1. Immediately, in Davids ordinary seed. 2. Mediately and chiefly in his Extraordinary Seed, IESUS CHRIST. This was Davids Great Comfort, as in his last words is evident, p. 1025. to 1030.
              • 7. The Perpetuity and Stability of Gods Covenant and Foederal Mercy to David, p. 1030, 1031.
            • 2. Concerning Davids Seed. As these four, All which had their special Accomplish­ment in Christ, viz.
            • [Page]
              • 1. That God would be a Father to Davids Seed, & he should be his Son, p. 1031, 1032.
              • 2. That Davids Seed should build God an House. The Temple a Type of the Church and of Believers, in six Particulars, p. 1032. to 1035.
              • 3. That God would Establish his Seed after him in his Kingdom and Throne for ever, p. 1035, &c.
              • 4. That God would not utterly take away his Covenant-Faithfulness and loving kindness from his Seed, no not in case of their iniquity, but chastize their sin­full miscarriages with the Rod of men. Here five Eminent Advantages to Gods people by his [...] are unfolded, p. 1037. to 1043.
            • 3. Concerning the People of Israel, the Subjects of King David and of his Royal Seed. As,
              • 1. Gods Habitation in Sion for ever. For clearing of this blessing note,
                • 1. The Connexion of this Promise with the Promise fore-going, p. 1043, 1044.
                • 2. What place is intended by Sion: Literally, and Mystically, p. 1044.
                • 3. How God did dwell in Sion. Gods Presence and Habitation is threefold. Here are disclosed eight sweet Priviledges of Gods Presence and Residence, p. 1045, 1046.
                • 4. Why God would thus dwell in Sion, p. 1046.
                • 5. In what sense God said of Sion, This is my Rest for ever; He having long since thence removed his Habitation for the Sins of the Jews. Here ten Sorts of sins which provoke God to Depart from a People, p. 1046. to 1048.
              • 2. The Peaceable and Secure Establishment of Israel, the Subjects of King David, and of his Royal Seed, in the Land of Canaan. This hath three branches, p. 1048. to 1050.
              • 3. Their Singular Prosperity both in Temporals and Spirituals, p. 1050. to 1052.
          • 2. Duties Conditioned, Required and Restipulated from David and his Seed to God, were of two sorts especially, viz.
            • 1. Their Keeping of Gods Covenant and Testimony, &c. in sive Particulars, p. 1052. to 1055.
            • 2. Their being just in their Dominion and Royal Government, Ruling also piously and religiously, p. 1055.
              • 1. David and his Seed must Rule over Israel Righteously. They must be,
                • 1. Just in their Persons. And this in seven respects, p. 1055, 1056.
                • 2. Just in their office of Ruling, viz. 1. Justly Acquiring it. 2. Justly Executing it: Partly in Protection of Subjects. Partly in Actual Government. And both several wayes, p. 1056, 1057.
              • 2. David and his Seed must Rule Religiously, in the Fear of God. 1. The Fear of God denotes five things. 2. To Rule in the Fear of God comprizeth many excel­lent things: most requisite to all good Rulers, p. 1058. to 1060.
          • Reasons for their Ruling thus, Righteously and Religiously, p. 1060.
          • Ruling Righteously and Religiously how it was Performed by 1. David, 2. Solomon, And 3. Christ. With seven Inferences from the whole, p. 1060. to 1065.
        • Aphorism 5. The Form of Gods Covenant with David and his Seed, was either; Inward and essential in the Mutual Obligation between the Foederates: Or Outward and Accidental, In the Manifestation, Confirmation and Administration of this Covenant, p. 1065, &c.
          • 1. The Inward essential Form, stands in the Foederates reciprocal obligation, p. 1065.
          • 2. The Outward Accidental Form, consists in three things, viz. Gods,
            • 1. Manifestation of this Covenant by vision. Here of visions, Their Sorts and seve­ral Acceptations in Scripture, p. 1065, 1066.
            • 2. Confirmation of this Covenant, by 1. Ratifying Promises. 2. His Sacred Oath. 3. Explanatory Repetitions. 4. Actual Accomplishments, p. 1066, 1067.
            • 3. Administration of this Covenant. In effect the same with that of the Sinai-Cove­nant: yet with four Perfective Alterations, Four Inferences from all, p. 1067, 1068.
        • Aphorism 6. The End or intended Scope of God in this Covenant was: Immediately, Some [Page] more Peculiar Revelation of Iesus Christ. Mediately, The furtherance of the Happiness of David, of his Seed, and of their subjects in Christ; as also the singular Advancement of the Glory of God. This is briefly explained: with three Inferences, p. 1069. to 1071.
        • Aphorism 7. From this whole Discourse about Gods Covenant with David and his seed, These General Inferences result, viz.
          • I. That Gods Covenant with David and his Seed was a very Princely and Royal Cove­nant, p. 1071, &c.
          • II. That King David and his Royal Seed, especially Solomon, were eminent Types of IE­SUS CHRIST, p. 1072. &c.
            • 1. DAVID was a Type of Christ: 1. In his person three waies. 2. In his office many waies. 3. In his condition and state seven waies. 4. In his Acts or Works done by him seven waies, p. 1073. to 1076.
            • 2. SOLOMON was also a Type of CHRIST: 1. In his Person three waies. 2. In his office, Prophetical, and Kingly, divers waies. 3. In his condition, three waies. 4. In his Acts three waies, p. 1076. to 1078.
          • III. Hence, we may clearly take notice, what the Properties of this Covenant are, viz. It is, 1. Gratuitous. 2. Evangelical. 3. Mixt. 4. Ordered in all things. 5. Sure and Faithful. 6. Everlasting. 7. Comfortable, p. 1078. to 1081.
          • IV. Hence, See what Agreement or Disagreement this Covenant hath, with, or from all former Covenants. 1. Agrees in seven Particulars. 2. Differs in four things, p. 1081, &c.
          • V. Hence, Its evident, That in this Covenant much of CHRIST was revealed to Da­vid and his Seed: Yea so much, that both David and Solomon knew and spake much of Christ in their Sacred writings. Many Particulars, p. 1083. to 1086.
        Chap. 6.
        • VI. OF the Discovery, &c. of Gods Covenants of Promise in the VI. Noted Period of Time, viz. From the Babylonish captivity till the Death of the blessed MESSIAH Iesus Christ.
        • The Preface. 1. Of this Covenants Duration. 2. Of the Difference thereof from Davids, in seven particulars. 3. The Order of handling it, p. 1086. to 1088.
        • Aphorism 1. Upon Occasion of Gods own Peoples sad captivity in Babylon, the LORD graciously renewed his Coevenant with them, even his Covenant of Faith in the Promised Mes­siah. In this Aphorism are five Particulars considerable, p. 1088, &c.
          • 1. The Author of this Covenant, was the LORD God. By three Prophets, p. 1089, &c.
          • 2. the Occasion of this Covenant was the sad captivity of Gods People of Iudah and Ie­rusalem, in Babylon. Here,
            • 1. What Babylon this was wherein they were captivated. Babylon is distributed, p. 1090, 1091.
            • 2. When, and How long they were captivated there, p. 1092.
            • 3. What were the causes of this their sad captivity there. 1. Provoking causes seven. 2. Final cause, their good, p. 1092.
            • 4. Whilest they were under this captivity, God took occasion to reveal this Cove­nant to them. And why? viz. chiefly for seven causes, p. 1093. to 1096.
          • 3. The Impulsive causes of this Covenant, Gods meer Grace in Jesus Christ, p. 1096.
          • 4. The Foederates, I. God, 1. As the LORD God. 2. As the LORD the God of Israel. 3. As their Redeemer. II. The Captives of Iudah and Ierusalem, &c. p. 1096, 1097.
          • 5. The Nature of this Covenant of God with his afflicted Captives. It was,
            • 1. A Covenant of Faith in Christ, not of Works. Proved four waies, p. 1097, 1098.
            • [Page]2. A Covenant of Promise, in Christ Promised, and as then not exhibited, p. 1098, 1099.
          Inferences. Hence,
          • 1. This Covenant is 1. Divine: 2. Gratuitous: 3. Faithful: And 4. Holy, p. 1099, &c.
          • 2. How great the condescention of the Creator, how high the exaltation of the crea­ture, when the God of heaven and his Captives, &c. become Confederates! p. 1100.
          • 3. Jesus Christ and the Gospel of sinners salvation in him through Faith, was preached to the Jews in their captivity, p. 1101.
          • 4. God neither forsakes nor forgets his Covenant-people in their deepest distresses, p. 1101.
          • 5. In greatest extremities of Tribulation, Gods Covenant of Faith in Christ yields sweetest consolation, p. 1102, 1103.
          • 6. Though Gods People by their sins turn their Mercies into Miseries: yet God alone of his wisdom and goodness turns those Miseries into Mercies, p. 1103.
          • 7. Gods Covenant with his Captive-Jews, is useful to Gods people now under the New Covenant, p. 1103.
        • Aphorism 2. The Subject-matter or substance of Gods Covenant with his captive people in Babylon, consisted; 1. In many excellent Covenant-Mercies or Blessings Promised to them, on Gods part, &c. 2. In sundry Covenant-Duties required and restipulated from them to God, on their part, &c. p. 1104, &c.
          • I. Mercies Promised to them on Gods Part, viz.
            • 1. His raising up the MESSIAH, viz. IESUS CHRIST unto them:
              • 1. As their Covenant-Redeemer, p. 1105, 1106.
              • 2. As the Sure Mercies of David, whereon Gods everlasting Covenant is founded, p. 1107, &c.
              • 3. As a Branch of Righteousness growing up to David, and a plant of Renown, &c. p. 1108.
              • 4. As DAVID their Shepherd, Prince and King for ever, p. 1109, 1110.
            • 2. His Redeeming them out of Babylons Captivity, and bringing them into their own Land. Here note four things, p. 1110, &c.
              • 1. The variety of Promised Mercies appertaining to this eminent Mercy, viz.
                • 1. To Remove impediments that might hinder their Return, p. 1112.
                • 2. To Plant them firmly in their own Land, &c. p. 1113.
                • 3. To make them dwell safely and securely in their own Land, p. 1113.
                • 4. To unite them into one Nation and Kingdom in their Land after their return, p. 1113, &c.
                • 5. To multiply them in the Land of Canaan, wherein he would place them, p. 1115.
                • 6. To bless and crown with a confluence of Prosperity and Glory, Temporal and Spiritual, p. 1116, &c.
                • 7. To cause them to dwell in their own Land under DAVID their Prince for ever, p. 1118.
              • 2. The ten Arguments whereby God perswades the Captives of their certain Re­turn, p. 1118, 1119.
              • 3. The exact accomplishment of this great Mercy, p. 1120, 1121.
              • 4. The Mysterie of Gods Spiritual Redemption of his Elect, &c. under this their Temporal Redemption from Babylon. Evinced seven waies, p. 1121. to 1125.
            • 3. His cleansing of them, when Redeemed out of Babylon from all their Spiritual De­filements: from all their Idols, Detestable things, and Transgressions, p. 1125, &c.
            • 4. His Putting his Spirit within them, for new framing and spiritualizing their Heart. Here consider,
              • 1. More Generally,
              • [Page]
                • 1. What is meant by Gods Spirit. Various Acceptations, p. 1129, 1130.
                • 2. Whether the Jews had not the Spirit till after their Return, &c. p. 1130.
              • 2. More Particularly. Seven Influences, Fruits or Effects of the Spirit, viz.
                • 1. Newness of Heart and Spirit. For clearing this, note,
                  • 1. What is meant by Heart and Spirit, p. 1131, &c.
                  • 2. What is meant by a New Heart, and New Spirit. 1. A thing is in Scri­pture stiled New, five waies. 2. Newness of Heart, &c. implyes, Gene­rally five things: Particularly six things, p. 1132. to 1136.
                  • 3. Whether God alone give this New heart, and put this New Spirit into his People. Resolved in three Positions, and the grounds thereof, p. 1136. to 1141.
                  • 4. Why the Lord Promiseth to give this New Heart, &c. Four Reasons, p. 1141.
                  • 5. How this New Heart, &c. may be Discovered. Seven waies, p. 1141, 1142.
                • 2. An Heart knowing the LORD. Here, 1. The Author. 2. Nature of it, p. 1142. to 1145.
                • 3. Fleshiness or Tenderness of Heart, instead of Stonnyness of Heart, p. 1145, &c.
                  • 1. What the Heart of stone is. In seven Particulars. Here, of the Nature and several sorts of Hardness of Heart, p. 1147. to 1151.
                  • 2. What the Heart of Flesh is. In seven particulars. Here also of the several sorts of Softness or Tenderness of Heart. And of the Excellency of Tenderness of Heart; in seven respects, p. 1151. to 1154.
                  • 3. Whether none but God can take away the Heart of stone, &c. p. 1154.
                  • 4. How God takes away the Heart of stone, and gives the Heart of flesh, viz. 1. Divers waies. 2. By sundry gradual Acts: seven are mentioned, p. 1154, 1155.
                  • 5. How a man may know whether God have removed from him the Heart of stone, and bestowed on him this Heart of flesh. Five waies, &c. p. 1156, &c.
                • 4. Penitentialness of Heart, p. 1157. to 1159.
                • 5. Oneness of heart and way. For opening hereof, are explained;
                  • 1. What is here meant by Heart and way, p. 1159, &c.
                  • 2. What Oneness of heart and way this is: and wherein it consists. 1. One­ness of Heart consists in Oneness of Mind, Will and Affection. 2. One­ness of way, in eight things, p. 1160. to 1166.
                  • 3. How choice and excellent a Blessing this Oneness of Heart and way is. Re­presented at large under six Heads: One whereof is, the manifold mis­chief of the opposite Divisions, in nine particulars, p. 1166. to 1175.
                  • ☞ 4. Directions and Helps for the best Gaining and Retaining of this Oneness of Heart and way among Gods people. Laid down at large under X. Heads, most useful for the Church and people of God amongst us in these present times, p. 1175. to 1191.
                • 6. The constant Fear of God. The Excellency hereof in six respects, p. 1191, 1192.
                • 7. Obedientialness towards God, p. 1193, &c.
              • 5. His Presence and Residence in his Sanctuary and Tabernacle among his people, by his Spirit, Word and Publick Ministry for ever. Here consider, p. 1194, &c.
                • 1. The Greatness and Excellency of this Mercy. 1. Of Gods Tabernacle. 2. Of Gods Spirit in his Church, seven waies. 3. Of the Word, eight waies. 4. Of the Publick Ministry of the Word and Ordinances, seven waies, p. 1195, 1196.
                • 2. How this Promise was accomplished, seeing all these have been long since [Page] taken away from the Jews, p. 1197, 1198.
              • 6. Gods greatest Covenant-Relation betwixt himself and them, viz. That he would be their God, and they should be his People, p. 1198, &c.
              • 7. The mutual Covenant-constancy betwixt God and them in this Everlasting Covenant: He would not turn from them, and they should not depart from him, p. 1199, 1200.
          • II. Duties restipulated to God, on their Part, viz.
            • 1. Faith, in the MESSIAH Promised, viz. 1. To accept these Promises and the Messiah therein by Faith. 2. To live by this Faith, under their Afflictions: laid down in twelve particulars, p. 1201. to 1204.
            • 2. Repentance from all their former sins and iniquities, p. 1204.
            • 3. True Obedience unto God, p. 1204, &c.
            • 4. Becoming Gods Covenant-People, p. 1205.
            • 5. Enquirng of God, for doing all his Covenanted Mercies unto them, p. 1205.
          • III. Inferences from the whole matter of this Covenant. Hence
            • 1. IESUS CHRIST was promised in this Covenant, with special reference to David, &c. p. 1206.
            • 2. Christ alone was the Covenant-Redeemer of Gods Captives from Babylon, &c. p. 1206, &c.
            • 3. The Captives Redemption from Babylon, typed Christs Redemption of Captive-sin­ners, &c. p. 1207.
            • 4. No Difficulties or seeming impossibilities whatsoever can hinder the Accomplish­ments of Gods Covenants and Promises, p. 1207.
            • 5. Christs Redeemed People, become his cleansed People, p. 1208.
            • 6. That the Iews (who extreamly do [...]ed upon Idolatry) were weaned from Idola­try, is meerly to be ascribed to the Grace and Covenant of God, p. 1208.
            • 7. Gods Spirit was Promised and Performed under the Old Testament, p. 1208.
            • 8. When Gods Spirit is put within the Heart, he brings many sacred endowments and blessed Influences with himself into that Heart, p. 1209.
            • 9. The Lord delights to afford his Special Presence among his Covenant-People, p. 1209.
            • 10. Gods Covenant with a People advanceth them to the highest Covenant-Relation with God, p. 1209.
            • 11. God so requires Covenant-Duties from us, That he undertakes all our Covenant-Performances for us, p. 1210.
            • 12. Gods Covenant in Christ is an Everlasting Covenant, &c. p. 1210.
            • 13. We may clearly take notice of many eminent points of Christian Religion, which are Revealed in and under this Covenant. Nine points instanced, p. 1211, 1212.
        • Aphorism 3. The Form of Gods Covenant with his Captive people the Iews, was; Inwardly, The mutual Obligation of the Foederates one to another. Outwardly, The manner of this Cove­nants Manifestation, Confirmation, and Administration.
          • 1. Inward Form, &c. p. 1212.
          • 2. Outward Form. Consisting in this Covenants
            • 1. Manifestation to the Captives, by three Prophets. Why by men: three Reasons, p. 1212, &c.
            • 2. Confirmation, 1. By Exegetical Repetitions of it. 2. By divers Illustrating Symboles. 3. By ratifying Promises. 4. By Gods Sacred Oath, p. 1213, 1214.
            • 3. Administration. For substance the same with that of the Sinai Covenant: but Raised above it by five Perfective Alterations, p. 1214, 1215.
            • Inferences six from this Aphorism, p. 1216.
        • Aphorism 4. Gods End and intended Scope in this Covenant, &c. was, More Immediate­ly, a Further Discovery of the Promised Messiah Iesus Christ: More Mediately, The pro­moting of their present Consolation and future Salvation; and the Advancement of Gods glory in all, p. 1217, &c.
        • [Page]
          • 1. Immediately; Christ is discovered here more fully in his 1. Person. 2. Office. 3. Ap­pearing in Humane flesh, p. 1217, 1218.
          • 2. Mediately. 1. Their present Consolation, and future Salvation. 2. Gods glory five waies. Here four Inferences from this Aphorism, p. 1218. to 1221.
        • Aphorism 5. From all that hath been proved concerning this Covenant with the Captive-Iews, these things are evident, &c. General Inferences.
          • I. This Covenant with the Captives was a Covenant of Faith, not of Works, p. 1221.
          • II. The substance of Gods Covenants of Faith was but one, though circumstances divers, p. 1222.
          • III. God may change the Outward condition of his People, and yet not change the Sub­stance of his Covenant with his People, p. 1222.
          • IV. Davids Royal Seed and Diadem chiefly had their Continuance and Perpetuity in Christ, p. 1222.
          • V. As Gods Covenant with David was peculiarly the Royal Covenant: so this with the Captives was the Redeeming or Uncaptivating Covenant, p. 1223.
          • VI. Gods sweetest Consolations are usually showred on his People in their sharpest Tribu­lations, p. 1223, &c.
          • VII. Hence it is very evident what the Properties and Excellent Perfections of this Covenant are. Ten are mentioned, and explained, p. 1224, 1225.
          • VIII. The Agreement and Disagreement of this, with, or from, foregoing Covenants, p. 1225.
          • IX. The Preheminencies of this, beyond the former Covenants. Seven waies, p. 1225, 1226.
          • X. This Covenant and the Promises thereof approach most near (as in time, so in their excellent, clear, full, heavenly, spiritual Nature) to the New Covenant, and the Pro­mises thereof, p. 1226, 1227.
      BOOK IV. Of Gods COVENANT OF PERFORMANCE, in IE­SUS CHRIST, actually Performed and [...]xhibited, viz. THE NEW COVENANT.
      • Chap. 1.
        • OF the Discovery and Administration of the New Covenant in the VII. and last most noted Period of Time, viz. from the Death of Iesus Christ, till the End of the world.
        • Here, 1. The words of the New Covenant. 2. The Order propounded in handling it, p. 1229. to 1232.
        • Aphorism 1. The Terms, Bounds or Limits of time for and during which the New Covenant became, and remains of force, are especially from the Death of our Lord and only Saviour IESUS CHRIST, until the End of the world. This is,
          • 1. Explained, As to the beginning of the New Covenant. p. 1232. to 1234.
          • 2. Confirmed, As to both the Term from which, and to which, viz.
            • 1. That the New Covenant Properly Began at and about the Death of Jesus Christ. Evinced by four grounds, p. 1234, &c.
            • 2. That the New Covenant shall continue in force till the End of the world. Five Rea­sons, p. 1235. to 1237.
          Inferences. Hence,
          • [Page]I. The 1. Inchoation, 2. Duration, and 3. Determination of the New Covenant, was, is, and shall be of all other most excellent and illustrious. Evidenced in many par­ticulars, p. 1237. to 1239.
          • II. None can certainly define or punctually determine how long the space for the New Covenants Duration shall be, p. 1239, 1240.
          • III. The New Covenant is far better then the Old, as in other respects, so in regard of the Date, Duration and Determination thereof, p. 1240.
          • IV. Believers under the New Covenant, are, in regard of the terms thereof, much more happy, then Believers that lived under any former Covenant-Dispensations, p. 1240, &c.
          • V. How comfortable may this be both to our selves and all our Christian Posterity, that both we and they from Generation to Generation shall still live under the New Covenant, p. 1241.
          • VI. In these last times of the world, 1. No Doctrine should be taught, 2. No worship or Practise should be entertained, 3. No future Events, Occurrents or change of things should be expected in the Church of God, which are inconsistent with the New Covenant-Administration, p. 1241 to 1243.
        • Aphorism 2. The Interval Space or Revolution of time, from the Death of Iesus Christ till the End of the world, during which the New Covenant-Administration continues, is of all other Revolutions or intervals of time, &c. most considerable and [...]emarkable, p. 1243, &c.
          • 1. Hath most Eminent Terms and bounds for its Beginning and Ending. It
            • 1. Began with the Death of Christ. Most Eminent, 1. In Solemnity; seven wayes. 2. In Dignity. 3. In Efficacy, seven wayes, p. 1244. to 1246.
            • 2. Shall End at the Day of Iudgement. That most eminent, eight wayes, p. 1246.
          • 2. Hath already had the largest Prolongation, p. 1246.
          • 3. Comprizeth in the Circuit and Compass of its Time, the most admirable Events and Occurrents by Divine Dispensation in and to the Church of God. Here, twenty one unparalleld Occurrents are instanced in, p. 1246. to 1251.
          • 4. This Revolution of the New Covenants Continuance approacheth neerest in 1. Con­tiguity of time, 2. Excellency of Covenant-Administration, and . Churches condition under it, unto the supream coelestial Perfection of the Church Triumphant in glory. Two Inferences, p. 1251. to 1253.
      Chap. 2.
      • OF the Names and General Nature of the NEW COVENANT.
      • Aphorism 1. In Divers respects and Considerations this Covenant is represented to us in Holy Scriptures under variety of Names: Being Denominated,
        • 1. A NEW COVENANT. For seven Reasons laid down at large, p. 1253. to 1260.
        • 2. A NEW TESTAMENT. 1. A Testament, in seven respects. 2. New Test [...]ment also for the same Reasons why its called a New Covenant, p. 1260. to 1263.
        • 3. The Second Covenant. In what sense, p. 1263, 1264.
        • 4. A Better Covenant, or Better Testament. For six Reasons, p. 1264, &c.
        • 5. The Everlasting Covenant or Testament, p. 1265.
        • 6. The Ministration far surpassing the Ministration of the Old Testament: and this in nine regards. p. 1265, 1266.
      • Aphorism 2. The Nature of the New Covenant considered more Generally, may be com­prized in this or the like Description, viz. The NEW COVENANT is Gods last and most excellent Expressure of the Covenant of Faith, &c.
      • The Nature of the New Covenant, according to this Description, stands in seven particu­lars, p. 1267. to 1269.
    Chap. 3.
    • [Page]OF the Author, Occasion and Impulsive Causes of this New Covenant.
    • Aphorism 1. The LORD God, viz. God the Father, in the Son IESUS CHRIST, by the Holy Ghost, is the sole Efficient Cause or Author of this New Covenant: Promising it of of old, Establishing it in fulness of time, and Applying it in due time to his called People, p. 1269, &c.
      • 1. That God the Father, in the Son Jesus Christ, by the Holy Ghost, is sole Author of the New Covenant: is proved by five sorts of Arguments, p. 1270. to 1273.
      • 2. That, Father, Son and Holy Ghost do Act to the Effecting of it three wayes, p. 1273. to 1275.
    • Aphorism 2. The LORD God, Father, Son and Holy Ghost, took Occasion from 1. His own Peoples Afflicted Condition, 2. The Old Testaments Insufficiency, and 3. The Greatness of Mans misery, To Promise, Establish and Apply this New Covenant to them that are Called. 1. Of his meer Grace, 2. In and for the Merit of Iesus Christ. Here,
      • 1. The Occasion is threefold. 1. His own Peoples Afflicted Condition, &c. p. 1275. to 1278.
      • 2. The Impulsive or Moving Causes. Nothing in Jew or Gentile; But,
        • 1. Inwardly, Gods meer Grace, p. 1278. to 1281.
        • 2. Outwardly, The Meritorious Mediation of Jesus Christ. Proved three wayes, p. 1281, &c.
    • Inferences. Hence,
      • I. The New Covenant thus Authorized and erected, Thus Promised, Established and Ap­plyed by God, Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, must needs be an exceeding 1. Wise, 2. Holy, 3. Faithful, 4 Gratuitous, and 5. Righteous Covenant, p. 1282, 1283.
      • II. The New Covenant is an excellent Antidote against the greatest Adversities & Afflicti­ons of Gods Covenant-People. And this in seven regards, notably, p. 1283. to 1289.
      • III. The New Covenant Administration far excels that of the old, &c. p. 1289, &c.
    Chap. 4.
    • OF the Federates, or Parties to this New Covenant, p 1290, 1291.
    • Aphorism 1. The Confoederates or Foederate Parties to the NEW COVE­NANT, are on the one hand God the LORD, or God, as IEHOVAH, the Princi­pal Party; On the other hand, The House of Israel, and the House of Judah, in CHRIST, the less Principal Party; That is, The Iews, Israel and Judah united, and their Seed; as also the Gentiles that shall be called and their Seed. Here,
      • 1. The Principal Foederate; God as IEHOVAH, p. 1292.
      • 2. The less Principal Foederate Party, The House of Israel and House of Iudah. Israel, what it imports. House of Israel, and House of Judah, How used in Scripture. These phrases denote, 1. The Jews united; 2. The Gentiles called; 3. The Posterity of both: to be Foederates with God in this New Covenant, p. 1292. to 1294.
        • 1. Position. That Israel and Iudah, or the House of Israel and Iudah; that is, The whole body of the Iews or Iewish Church, united in CHRIST, were first and immediately intended to be Foederates with God in this New Covenant. Proved by seven Arguments, p. 1294. to 1298.
        • 2. Posit. That the Gentiles whom afterwards God should call and incorporate into one Church-body with the Jews by Christ, were next intended to be joynt-Foede­rates with the Jews in this New Covenant with God. Evinced by seven other Argu­ments, p. 1298. to 1303.
        • 3. Posit. That, The Posterity, Seed or Children, both of believing Jews and called Gentiles, are with their Parents, Foederates in this New Covenant. This Position is for the greater strength and clearness, evinced by six Arguments at large laid [Page] down in Syllogistical Form, p. 1303. to 1321.
  • Aphorism 2. Hence, 1. The New Covenant is most sure and faithful; 2 Most compleat and comprehensive, &c.
  • Inferences. Hence,
    • I. The New Covenant is most sure and faithful, p. 1321.
    • II. The New Covenant is beyond all other Covenants most compleat, comprehensive and extensive, p. 1321, &c.
    • III. The New Covenant is to Gods Church and People the most Uniting and Consolidat­ing Covenant of all other. 1. In respect of Israel and Iudah. 2. In respect of Jews and Gentiles, p. 1322. to 1324.
    • IV. The New Covenant beyond all other Covenant-Dispensations is greatest matter of Consolation, Joy and Thankfulness, to the Gentiles, p. 1324.
    • V. All the Infant-children of New Covenant-Foederates, professed Believing Jews and Gentiles, being in Covenant with God as well as their Parents, ought to be signed and marked with the First New Covenant-Token, Baptism, as well as their Parents. This Inference is at large confirmed by seven Arguments syllogistically propounded, p. 1324. to 1339.
Chap. 5.
  • OF the Matter, or Substance of the New Covenant. Where note,
    • I. The Analytical Explication of the words of the New Covenant laid down by the Apostle, p. 1339. to 1345.
    • II. Certain Generals to be noted touching the Matter of the New Covenant, as laid down by the Prophet Ieremiah, chap. 31. 31, &c. and the Apostle Paul in Heb. 8. 8, &c. viz.
      • 1. That, the matter of the New Covenant is here set forth very compendiously in words, but most comprehensively in sense. In seven particulars, p. 1345, 1346.
      • 2. That, The whole matter of the New Covenant is represented here only in Pro­mises. Hence five Inferences, p. 1346. to 1349.
      • 3. That, All these New Covenant Promises, in their express terms, run only upon Spirituals. Hence, two Inferences, p. 1349. to 1351.
      • 4. That, These New Covenant-Promises have a sweet Harmony and Correspon­dency with the Priesthood, Prophecy and Kingship of Christs Mediatory office: In actual Performance of which Promises to us, we also are made unto God, Priests, Prophets and Kings by Jesus Christ. Hence, two Inferences, p. 1351. to 1353.
      • 5. That, The Matter of the New Covenant is so contrived in these Promises, as it may most sweetly and sufficiently remove all the Principal Doubts, Discourage­ments and Objections, which either a bleeding Heart-wounded sinner, or a di­stressed Saint, may make against his own salvation. Hence seven Principal Doubts and Obiections, about 1. Sin; 2. The wrath of God; 3. Gross Ignorance; 4. The Deadness, Hardness, Deceitfulness and manifold Vileness of their Hearts; 5. The want of Spiritual Abilities, Excellencies and Duties, &c. 6. The Great Distance betwixt them and God, them and Christ; 7. Difficulty and seeming im­possibility of Assurance: Are all Removed by consideration of the matter of this New Covenant, as here laid down, p. 1353. to 1365.
      • 6. That, These New Covenant-Promises are so exprest, as virtually to contain in them, The Agreement and Difference betwixt the Old and New Covenant, yea the Preheminencies of the New above the Old, p. 1365, 1366.
      • 7. That, All these New Covenant-Promises are wholly grounded upon the meer [Page] grace and good pleasure of Gods will in Jesus Christ alone, p. 1366, &c.
    • III. The Particular Explication of the Matter of the New Covenant: Consisting, 1. In certain Mercies expresly Promised on Gods part. 2. In certain Duties implicit­ly Required from, and Restipulated by, the New Covenant-Foederates unto God, p. 1367, 1368.
  • Aphorism 1. The Matter of the New Covenant, on Gods part, consists in certain New Co­venant-Mercies or Blessings promised by him to his Foederates, viz. In four great Articles of Agreement in this New Covenant, &c▪
    • I. Article. Of Gods writing his Laws in their Mind and Hearts. Here note,
      • 1. What is here meant by Mind and Hearts. In three branches, p. 1369, 1370.
      • 2. What Laws of God are here intended and promised to be written in their Mind and Heart. Especially his Moral Laws. And that for four Reasons, p. 1370. to 1372.
      • 3. What sort of writing this is, whereby God writes his Laws in his Foederates Mind and Hearts: and how he writes his Laws therein. Here is declared,
        • 1. That Gods giving and writing, &c. are two expressions to the same effect, p. 1372, &c.
        • 2. That God under his New Covenant intends a far more excellent writing of his Laws then ever formerly. Three sorts of Gods writing it, p. 1373, &c.
        • 3. That Gods writing his Laws in their Mind and Hearts, hath in it three things, viz.
          • 1. Gods Preparing the Mind and Heart for this writing, as Tables. 1. By Hewing them. 2. By Razing them. 3. By Mollifying them, p. 1374. to 1376.
          • 2. Gods manner of writing his Laws in Mind and Hearts thus Prepared, four waies, p. 1376, &c.
          • 3. The consequents and effects of Gods writing his Laws in Mind and Hearts. Here seven are very considerable, p. 1378. to 1383.
        • 4. Whether Gods Laws were not written in his Peoples Minds and Hearts, be­fore the time of this New Covenant. Resolved, 1. That there was some writ­ing thereof before. But 2. Not such as under this New Covenant, p. 1383. to 1386.
        • 5. Why the Lord will under the New Covenant thus write his Laws in the Minds and Hearts of his Foederates. Five Reasons, p. 1386. to 1388.
        • 6. How we may know, whether God hath thus written his Laws in our Minds and Hearts. By the 1. Antecedents, 2. Manner, and 3. Consequents: in sun­dry particulars, p. 1388. to 1391.
    • Inferences. Hence,
      • 1. Gods Moral Law, is the Law of CHRIST, p. 1392.
      • 2. Gods Moral Law is not abolished, but establshed by his New Covenant, p. 1392, 1393.
      • 3. The New Covenant Agrees with the Old in substance, though they differ in circum­stance, &c. p. 1393, &c.
      • 4. The Moral Law is a most excellent Law, p. 1394.
      • 5. Naturally, since and by the Fall of Adam, the Laws of God are obliterated or blotted o [...]t of mens Minds and Hearts, p. 1394, 1395.
      • 6. The Renewing of the Mind and Heart, even of the whole soul according to Gods image, &c. Is not a Natural, but a meer Supernatural work; is not at all from man, but wholly from God alone, p. 1395, 1396.
      • 7. God first gives his Laws into the Mind, and then writes them in the Heart, p. 1396.
      • 8. Gods Giving his Laws into our Minds, and writing them in our Hearts, is an eminent and manifold Priviledge. Evidenced in six particulars, and in sundry others under them, p. 1396. to 1398.
      • [Page]9. All such as would know, whether they be Gods New Covenant-people indeed, &c. should examine whether God hath given his Laws into their Minds, and written them upon their Hearts, p. 1398.
      • 10. Gods sincere New Covenant-people, have above all other People in the world greatest cause to live and walk according to the Moral Laws of God: In that the LORD hath more Excellently and Obligatorily given and written his Laws for them, then for any other. Here, 1. Directions. 2. Motives, p. 1399, 1400.
    • II. Article. Of Gods Foederates more Excellent and more Universal Knowledge of the Lord, then under the Old Covenant. Here are unfolded,
      • 1. Wherein the Nature of this New Covenant-knowledge more especially consists, viz.
        • 1. In the Excellency of it. Being 1. More Divine; 2. More Spiritual; 3. More Clear; 4. More Evidential; 5. More Compleat; 6. More Effica­cious; 7. More Glorious: Then the Old-Covenant-knowledge, p. 1401. to 1410.
        • 2. In the Extensiveness of it. Yet here are three limitations, p. 1410, 1411.
      • 2. How, and in what way God furnisheth his New Covenant-people with such a knowledge of himself, viz. 1. In the Face of IESUS CHRIST. 2. By his Spirit, and the New Covenant-Ministry. 3. Gradually, in a continual Pro­gress, p. 1412. to 1415.
      • 3. Whether All Gods New Covenant-people attain to this promised Knowledge of God. Here,
        • 1. That, under the New Covenant many in visible Churches remain grosly ig­norant of God and of his waies. Seven grounds or causes of this ignorance, p. 1415, 1416.
        • 2. That, notwithstanding this Promise, All shall know the Lord, hath its due and intended accomplishment. For clearing this, four Distinctions are Pre­mised. And four Conclusions determined upon, p. 1416. to 1419.
        • 3. That this Extensiveness is to be understood with some Cautions and Limita­tions, p. 1419.
      • 4. Whether God by this Promise intended to take away and make void all Humane Teaching, Private and Publick, as altogether needless now under the New Cove­nant.
        • 1. Some of unsound judgements have thought so in these times, p. 1419, 1420.
        • 2. But God never intended hereby any such thing. Proved three waies, p. 1420. to 1422.
        • 3. Four Scriptures, wrested about this matter, are vindicated, p. 1422. to 1429.
      • 5. Why God hath Promised in his New Covenant, That all shall know him from the least of them to the greatest. Five Reasons propounded, and explained, p. 1429. to 1433.
      • 6. How we may Discover, That we so know the Lord, as God here intends in this his New Covenant-promise. Especially four waies, p. 1433. to 1435.
  • Inferences. Hence,
    • 1. The Old and New Covenant Essentially and Substantially Agree, Though Acci­dentally and Circumstantially they differ, about the Knowledge of the Lord, p. 1435.
    • 2. The chief Perfection of Knowledge, is to know God aright. Cleared three waies, p. 1436.
    • 3. The right and saving knowledge of God is a very great and eminent Mercy, p. 1436.
    • 4. All true saving Knowledge of God, is only from God, p. 1437.
    • 5. A [...] the greatest ought not to despise, so the least need not despair of the true Know­ledge [Page] of God now under the New Covenant, p. 1437.
    • 6. Gods Foederates now under the New Covenant should not content themselves to know only Fundamentals and first Principles touching God and his waies, p. 1438.
    • 7. All such waies and means of Knowledge as God hath Ordained under his New Co­venant, ought to be made use of in Subserviency to, and for accomplishment of this Promise of knowing the Lord in his New Covenant, p. 1438, &c.
    • 8. So long as men remain grosly ignorant of God, and of the things of God now under the New Covenant, so long they are without the saving Benefit of the New Covenant, p. 1439.
    • 9. As we desire to approve our selves to be Gods New Govenant-People, so we should strive to have and to evidence to our selves that we have this New Covenant Know­ledge of the Lord, p. 1439, &c.
    • 10. The better we know the LORD, and the things of God now under the New Co­venant, the more the Glory of Christ and of his New Covenant are exalted and magnified in us, p. 1440.
  • III. Article. Of Gods Mercy and Propitiousness to his Foederates in his Utter Remission and Oblivion, forgiving and forgetting, of All their sins for ever, p. 1440, &c.
  • This Article is Resolved into two Propositions, viz.
    • 1. Proposition. That, Under the New Covenant the LORD God, in and through Iesus Christ, will freely, fully and utterly Remit all his true Federates sins whatsoever. The Deduction of this Proposition cleared, by five Particulars, p 1442, 1443.
  • Here for the more clear discovering of the Nature of Remission of sins, these four Par­ticulars are Resolved, viz.
    • 1. What the Nature of sin is, which is the subject of Remission. Here are ex­plained,
      • 1. The D [...]nominations of sin, Hebrew and Greek, in this New Covenant-Promise, p. 1443. to 1445.
      • 2. The Description of sin, p. 1445.
      • 3. The Particulars considerable in sin, viz. seven in number, and which of them are properly remedyed by Remission, p. 1445. to 1448.
    • 2. What the Remission of sin is, which is here Covenanted. Here set forth two waies, viz.
      • 1. By the Expressions or Phrases used for it in Scripture. The Originals of which are here explicated. It is stiled,
        • 1. Remission, Pardon, or Forgiveness, p. 1449.
        • 2. Free-forgiveness, Gratuitous-Pardon, p. 1449, &c.
        • 3. Propitiousness, or Propitious-mercifulness upon pacification for sin, p. 1450, &c.
        • 4. Not Remembring of sin any more, p. 1451, &c.
        • 5. Not imputing of sin to the sinner, p. 1452.
        • 6. Covering of sin, Hiding it, or Hiding Gods face from it, p. 1452, 1453.
        • 7. Taking away sin, Removing it, &c. p. 1453.
        • 8. Blotting out, wiping out, or Razing out, &c. of sin, p. 1454.
        • 9. Casting it behind Gods back, p. 1454.
        • 10. Removing our sins from us as far as the East is from the West, p. 1454, &c.
        • 11. Finally, Its set forth in a bundle of sweet Expressions, Mic. 7. 18, 19. p. 1455. to 1457.
      • 2. By the Nature of Remission of sins: laid down in these xiv. ensuing Positi­ons, viz.
        • 1. That, Remission of sins here Promised in the New Covenant, is not intend­ed of any Humane Remission, Fraternal or Ministerial: But of Divine Remission of sins, and that not Particular, but Universal. Ex­plained, [Page] p. 1457, 1458.
        • 2. That, Remission of sins is a distinct Blessing and Grace, from Mortificati­on of sin, and not to be confounded therewith, p. 1458.
        • 3. That, Remission of sins, strictly and properly taken, is not the All, but only a Part of our Justification before God; But more largely and im­properly it is All, p. 1458, 1459.
        • 4. That, Remission of sins, strictly taken, doth most properly and especial­ly consist in Removal of the offence done to God; and in Acquittal or Ab­solution of the sinner from the guilt of sin; that is, from his Obligation or being bound to endure the Punishment of Death, due for such offence, p. 1459. to 1461.
        • 5. That, God alone Remits sin. Proved by six Arguments, p. 1461. to 1463.
        • 6. That, God Pardons sin freely of his own meer grace, without any the least merit or desert of the Pardoned sinner. Proved four waies, p. 1463, &c.
        • 7. That, God remits sin, only upon and for the satisfaction made to his Justice for sin by the Obedience and Death of Iesus CHRIST. This cleared by four Considerations. Hence, Popish Satisfaction is rejected, p. 1464. to 1466.
        • 8. That, God actually Remits Sin to all truly Believing and Repenting sin­ners: and (in his Ordinary Dispensation) to them only. Here, 1. The Necessity of Faith and Repentance unto Pardon. 2. Six Consectaries, p. 1466. to 1470.
        • 9. That, When God actually and savingly pardons sin to the Believing and Repenting Sinner, He pardons Fully and Finally all his sins past and pre­sent, but not his sins to come, viz.
          • 1. He Pardons all sin Past and Present fully and absolutely without excep­tion, p. 1470, &c.
          • 2. He Pardons all such sins finally and utterly for ever without Revocati­on, p. 1472.
          • 3. Yet he Pardons not any sin to come, by way of Anticipation, p. 1473.
        • 10. That, Gods Elect, whose sins are Pardoned, do daily need renewed Pardons for future and renewed sins. Proved by three Reasons, p. 1473, 1474.
        • 11. That, Pardon of sin, though full without exception, and final without Revocation, yet is not compleat and consummate in this present life, till the very day of judgement, p. 1474, &c.
        • 12. That, In persons savingly Pardoned sin may remain, yet those persons are in the account of God, no longer sinners, but righteous, p. 1475.
        • 13. That, sometimes sin may be universally and savingly pardoned, when yet the sense of that pardon may be suspended, and the sense of Gods dis­pleasure continued, p. 1475, &c.
        • 14. That, wheresoever God remits sin, not imputing it to the sinner unto condemnation: there he accepts the Person as righteous, imputing Christs righteousness to him unto Iustification, p. 1476, &c.
      • 3. Whether those that have their Sins remitted, may know that they are remitted: and How this may be known. This is Resolved in four Particulars, viz.
        • 1. That, Its a most excellent, comfortable and Desirable Mercy, To know that our sins are forgiven. For five Reasons, p. 1477, &c.
        • 2. That, Its a difficult Attainment, to know our sins are forgiven, p. 1478, &c.
        • 3. That, Though it be difficult, yet its possible to know this, p. 1479.
        • 4. That, Those that are pardoned come to know they are forgiven. 1. Extra­ordinarily. [Page] 2. Ordinarily, and that five waies, p. 1479. to 1481.
      • 4. Wherein Gods Remission of sins under the New Covenant, differs from, and excels the Remission of sins that was under the Old Covenant. This Resolved,
        • 1. By way of concession, p. 1481.
        • 2. By way of caution and limitation. Two waies, p. 1481, 1482.
        • 3. By way of Explication. It differs, and excels in 1. Spiritualness. 2. Clear­ness. 3. Perfectness. 4. Extensiveness, p. 1483. to 1485.
      • 2. Proposition. That God will therefore bestow upon his sincere Federates all other the Promised Benefits of the New Covenant: because he will so freely, fully and ut­terly Remit all their sins in and for the satisfaction of Iesus Christ. Three Eviden­ces hereof, p. 1485. to 1488.
        • Inferences X. briefly laid down from the whole of Remission of sins, in the tenth whereof, the Comfort and Priviledge of Remission of sins is set forth in eight par­ticulars, p. 1488. to 1492.
    • IV. Article. Of the Grand New Covenant-Relation, Interest and Communion mutually betwixt God and his sincere Foederates.—I will be to them a God, and they shall be to me a People. Highly magnified, p. 1492, 1493.
      • 1. By way of Explication, is shewed, How this Grand Promise is Explicated al­ready;
        • 1. More Generally. Three waies, p. 1493, 1494.
        • 2. More Particularly, in the 1. First branch, in five Particulars. 2. Second branch, in four Particulars, p. 1494, 1495.
      • 2. By way of Application, are Propounded and Explained four In [...]erences, viz.
        • I. Here's excellent and manifold matter for Information. It informs
          • 1. Of the fulness of the New Covenant, p. 1495, &c.
          • 2. Of the Goodness and Bountifulness of God to his Foederates, p. 1496.
          • 3. Of the Happiness of all Gods sincere Foederates, 1496, &c.
          • 4. Of the fewness of Gods sincere Foederates even under this New Covenant, p. 1497.
          • 5. Of the wretchedness of all Non-Foederates whatsoever, p. 1497.
        • II. Here's notable matter for Probation and Examination of our true New Cove­nant-Condition.
          • 1. Is the LORD become our God in Covenant? This may be discovered,
            • 1. By his Foederal Impressions and Operations upon us, as our Covenant-God. And these in seven Particulars, subdivided, p. 1498. to 1500.
            • 2. By our Covenant-Relation unto God. Here are eight Adjuncts or Proper­ties of Gods New Covenant-people, largely explicated, p. 1500. to 1504.
            • 3. By our Deportment and carriage towards him as our God in Covenant.
              • 1. Do we esteem the LORD as our God? p. 1504, &c.
              • 2. Do we love him as our God? 1. Wholly. 2. Only, p. 1505, &c.
              • 3. Do we trust in him as in our God? p. 1506, &c.
              • 4. Do we fear him as our God? p. 1507, &c.
              • 5. Do we serve him, as our God? Discovered seven waies, p. 1508. to 1510.
          • 2. Are we become Gods People in Covenant? Evidenced three waies, p. 1510, 1511.
        • III. Here's singular matter for Exhortation;
          • 1. To all in the visible Church that are strangers to a saving New Covenant-Con­dition. In four Particulars, p. 1511, 1512.
          • 2. To all Gods sincere Foederates within this New Cevenant: three waies, viz.
            • 1. Live upon this Promise, p. 1512. to 1514.
            • 2. Live up unto this Promise, p. 1514, &c.
            • 3. Engage and interest all your Relations in this Promise, p. 1515.
          • 3. To the faithful Ministers of the New Covenant, &c. p. 1515.
        • [Page]IV. Here's wonderful matter for Consolation to all Gods true Covenant-people.
          • 1. Against all reliques of inherent Sin and Corruption. Three waies, p. 1516, &c.
          • 2. Against all fears or dangers of Apostacy. Four waies, p. 1517, &c.
          • 3. Against all Outward and Inward wants. Many waies, p. 1518. to 1523.
          • 4. Against all strong and violent Temptations, of the flesh, the world, or the Devil. Ten waies, with seven Advantages by Temptations, p. 1523. to 1527.
          • 5. Against deep and dismaying Desertions. Here consider,
            • 1. The Nature, Sorts, and Waies of Divine Desertions, p. 1527. to 1531.
            • 2. The Comfort which Gods people may have against all Desertions from this, The Lord is their God by his Everlasting New Covenant, is manifold, under five Principal Heads. p. 1531. to 1536.
          • 6. Against sharpest afflictions and persecutions. Seven waies, p. 1536. to 1548.
          • 7. Finally, Against the terrours and pangs even of Death itself. This Covenant-Relation affords a fivefold comfort. Subdivided, p. 1548. to 1555.
  • Aphorism 2. The Matter of this New Covenant, on the part of Gods New Covenant-Foe­derates, consists in certain New Covenant-Duties, Implicitly here required from, and restipulat­ed by his New Covenant-people, viz.
    • 1. Knowledge. That an excellent knowledge is required: is evidenced five waies, p. 1555, 1556.
    • 2. Faith. More required under the New Covenant, then [...]ormerly. Proved four waies, p. 1557, 1558.
    • 3. Repentance. That its required under the New Covenant: Proved four waies, p. 1559.
    • 4. Conformity to Gods Laws in heart and life, in inward Constitution and outward conversa­tion. That this is required under the New Covenant: is evinced six waies, p. 1560, 1561.
    • 5. Entire self-denying, self-resignation unto God. This also is required. Here seven points of Self-Denyal are mentioned. Three Inferences from this Aphorism, p. 1561, 1562.
Chap. 6.
  • OF the Blessed MESSIAH our Lord IESUS CHRIST, God [...]man; the only Mediator, Testator and Surety of the New Covenant betwixt God and man.
  • The Method propounded for Treating of the Mediator, in four branches. And the excel­lency of this subject, p. 1563, 1564.
  • Aphorism 1. That, A True, Fit and Sufficient Mediator of the New Covenant was most necessary betwixt God and man. Here are explicated two things, viz.
    • 1. How and in what sense a Mediator may be said to be necessary betwixt God and man. Not, Absolutely, or Naturally: but Hypothetically, upon supposition of divers things, &c. p. 1565, 1566.
    • 2. Why, and in what respect such a Mediator of the New Covenant was necessary be­twixt God and man in this sense, viz. In six regards, set forth in other particulars, p. 1566. to 1570.
  • Aphorism 2. That, IESUS the only Son of God, as also the Son of the Virgin Mary, God and Man in one Person, The CHRIST and Promised Messiah, is, as God-man, the only True, Fit and Sufficient Mediator, Testator and Surety of the New Covenant betwixt God and Man. This cleared in four Positions, p. 1570, &c.
    • 1. Position. That IESUS, the only Son of God, and the Son of the Virgin Mary, is, God and man in one Person. Here note,
      • 1. What the name IESUS imports. Five Reasons of the Name. How he saves. [Page] 1. Only. 2. Universally, all the Elect. 3. Variously. 4. Sufficiently, p. 1571, 1572.
      • 2. That this Jesus is the only Son of God. 1. Explained, in what sense. 2. Pro­ved by Scriptures seven waies, p. 1572. to 1574.
      • 3. That this Jesus the only begotten Son of God, was also Son of the Virgin Ma­ry. Here,
        • 1. Whence the Uirgin Mary Descended, viz. Of David, &c. Proved three wayes, p. 1574, 1575.
        • 2. That Iesus was the Son of the Virgin Mary, Proved three wayes, p. 1575.
        • 3. How Iesus was the Son of the Virgin Mary. 1. Extraordinarily. 2. Truly. 3. Compleatly, p. 1575, 1576.
        • 4. Denominations hereupon given in Scripture unto IESUS, p. 1576, &c.
      • 4. That this IESUS son of God and of the Virgin Mary, is God and Man in one Person. For clearing this Mysterie, these five things are Evidenced, viz.
        • 1. The Fitness of the Son of God to become the Son of man, the Son of the Virgin. Seven wayes, p. 1577, 1578.
        • 2. The Nature of the Union betwixt his Divinity and Humanity. It is, 1. Per­sonal. 2. Indivisible. 3. Of Natures remaining distinct, p. 1578.
        • 3. The Unity or Oneness of his Person, though consisting of two distinct Na­tures. Proved three wayes. And the Necessity of his being God and man, that he might be a True, Fit and sufficient Mediator: Evidenced five wayes, p. 1578, to 1580.
        • 4. The six Similitudes used for illustrating this Union of God and Man in one Per­son. And which is to be preferred as Fittest, p. 1580, 1581.
        • 5. The Consequents resulting from this Personal Union, p. 1581, &c.
    • 2. Position. That, this IESUS God-man, is the CHRIST, the Promised Messiah, and he alone. Here note,
      • 1. The Explanation of these two words: MESSIAH, and CHRIST, p. 1582, 1583.
      • 2. The Confirmation of this Position.
        • 1. From Gods Eternal Decree, p. 1583, 1584.
        • 2. From Gods Promises and Prophetical Predictions. Many wayes, p. 1584, 1585.
        • 3. From Christs Lineal Descent, p. 1584.
        • 4. From the compleat and exact accomplishment of the Scriptures, p. 1585.
        • 5. From Iacobs Prophecy, and the Accomplishment thereof, p. 1585, &c.
        • 6. From Daniels Weeks, p. 1586.
        • 7. From the General Agreement of all the Types to this IESUS, &c. p. 1586, 1587.
        • 8. From the Testimony of Iohn the Baptist, p. 1587.
        • 9. From Gods Authorizing, Constituting, Ordaining and Establishing this Iesus to be the CHRIST, p. 1587, 1588.
        • 10. From the Testimony of 1. Father, 2. Son, 3. the Holy Ghost, p. 1588, &c.
    • 3. [...]osition. That IESUS CHRIST, God and man, is the onely True, Fit and Sufficient Mediator, Testator, and Surety of the New Covenant betwixt God and man.
      • 1. Iesus Christ is Mediator, Surety and Testator of the New Covenant.
        • 1. Mediator of the New Covenant. Proved four wayes, p. 1589, 1590.
        • 2. Testator of the New Testament. Evinced seven wayes, p. 1590, &c.
        • 3. Surety of the New Covenant. And what this implies, p. 1591, &c.
      • 2. Iesus Christ is the onely True, Fit, and Sufficient Mediator. This Position is, 1. Stated. 2. Confirmed three wayes, p. 1592, 1593.
    • 4. [...]osition. That IESUS CHRIST is Mediator, Surety and Testator of the New Covenant betwixt God and man, as he is God-man. Here note two things, viz.
      • 1. The Sense of this Position, p. 1593, &c.
      • 2. The Grounds of this Position, viz.
        • 1. The Holy Scriptures do frequently ascribe the Acts of Christs Mediation to his [Page] Divine, as well as to his Humane Nature. Evidenced six wayes, p. 1594. to 1596.
        • 2. The Scope, End or Intent of the Personal Union of the Divine and Humane Na­tures in one Christ, was that he might act and execute his Mediatory Office com­pleatly according to both those Natures. Christs God-head is the immediate, proper and formal beginning of divers Mediatory Acts. Seven instances, p. 1596, &c.
        • 3. The Nature of the Mediatory Office is such, that it could not be compleatly ex­ecuted and fulfilled, if Christ God-man should not act therein both as God and man. Evidenced divers wayes, in his Prophecy, Priesthood and Kingship, p. 1597.
    • This Position is concluded with Testimonies of some learned, p. 1597, 1598.
  • Aphorism 3. That IESUS CHRIST, God-man, Executeth his Mediatory of­fice in a Prophetical, Priestly, and Kingly way; Or, as Prophet, Priest, and King: both in his State of Humiliation and Exaltation. For clearing this, three things explained, viz.
    • 1. Whence it may be Evinced, That Christ Executes his Mediatory Office in a Prophetical, Priestly and Kingly way. This is done six wayes, viz. p. 1599, &c.
      • 1. From the Condition of lapsed man without Christ: and his necessity of Restaurati­on by Christ, p. 1599, &c.
      • 2. From the Types of Old, prefiguring these three Functions in Christ. Three In­stances, p. 1600.
      • 3. From the Order of Conferring Salvation upon us. Three wayes, p. 1601.
      • 4. From the Reality of Christs Unction hereunto, p. 1601.
      • 5. From the Sufficient Enumeration of Christs benefits, and his way of Procuring them for us. His benefits of three Sorts. Procured three wayes, p. 1601, 1602.
      • 6. From Christs many Denominations given to him in Scriptures, which are eminently reducible to these three Functions. p. 1602.
    • 2. Wherein the Nature of Christs Prophecy, Priesthood and Kingship consists.
      • I. Christs Prophecy consists in his Primary and Plenary teaching of his Church, viz.
        • 1. By Revealing of his Doctrine. This he doth variously, p. 1603. to 1605.
        • 2. By Illuminating his Peoples Minds to receive the same, p. 1605.
      • II. Christs Priesthood, Typified notably of old many wayes, chiefly consists,
        • 1. In his Satisfaction. Here are shewed four things, viz.
          • 1. That Jesus Christ by his Obedience and Death hath made a true, real, proper, and full Satisfaction to God for his Peoples Sins. For,
            • 1. Christ is the Surety of the better Covenant, the New Covenant: substituted, and substituting himself for us. Evidenced three wayes, p. 1607. to 1609.
            • 2. Christ is said often in Scripture, to redeem us, to buy us, or purchase us with a Price, to give himself a Ransome, &c. which imports Satisfaction, p. 1609, &c.
            • 3. Christ is said to Reconcile us to God, and to be our propitiation by his blood, p. 1610, &c.
            • 4. Christ is Mediator, not only by Teaching and Ruling: but also by Sacri­ficing and Interceding for us, p. 1611.
            • 5. The Expiatory Sacrifices under the Law, purging away Sin Typically: shadowed forth Christ, who by the Sacrifice of himself purged away sins Truly. And therefore made Satisfaction for them, p. 1611, &c.
            • 6. The Perfection, Fulness and Compleatness of Christs Satisfaction for Sin, and Expiation of Sin by his Obedience, Death and Blood, is evident many wayes. Six wayes are Explained, p. 1613, 1614.
          • 2. What are the branches or chief Parts of Christs Satisfaction, p. 1614, 1615.
          • 3. What are the Fruits and Effects of Christ Death and Satisfaction. Many and must considerable. Nine Especially, p. 1615, 1616.
          • [Page]4. For whom Christ made this his Proper and Plenary Satisfaction by his Obedi­ence and Death. These are described by seven Denominations, p. 1616. to 1618.
        • 2. In his Intercession. Here consider,
          • 1. That Jesus Christ is our Intercessor, interceding with God for us, p. 1618.
          • 2. The Nature of Christs Intercession. Discovered,
            • 1. In his Execution of it Inchoatively. Perfectively, p. 1618, 1619.
            • 2. In seven matchless Perfections and Excellencies of it, p. 1619.
          • 3. The Difference of Christs Intercession, from his Satisfaction, six waies: and from his Spirits Intercession, three waies, p. 1620, 1621.
          • 4. The many and precious Fruits, Effects and Benefits of Christs Intercession. Ten are particularly laid down, p. 1621. to 1623.
      • III. Christs Kingly Office. For clearing hereof six things are Eividenced, viz.
        • 1. That Jesus Christ our Mediator is King. Proved four waies, p. 1623, 1624.
        • 2. The Nature of Christs Kingdom. Essential and Personal, and this General or Special; and how they are managed, p. 1624. to 1626.
        • 3. Christs Regalities. Which are very Majestical. As,
          • 1. His Unction. With the Holy Ghost and with Power, p. 1626.
          • 2. His Inauguration. Especially at his Ascension and sitting down on the right hand of God. Which implyes seven things, p. 1626. to 1629.
          • 3. His Throne, p. 1629.
          • 4. His Crown, p. 1629.
          • 5. His Scepter, viz. His Word and Spirit, sent out of Sion, p. 1629, &c.
          • 6. His Laws, p. 1630.
          • 7. His Prerogatives. Seven whereof are instanced, p. 1630, &c.
        • 4. Christs Actual Administration of his Kingly office, as Mediator, viz.
          • 1. Of his General Mediatory Kingdom, by seven Royal Acts, p. 1631, &c.
          • 2. Of his Special Mediatory Kingdom. 1. In this world, by five Acts. 2. At the End of this world, by six Acts. 3. In the world to come, by two Acts. p. 1632, 1633.
        • 5. The Benefits of Christs Kingdom, p. 1633.
        • 6. The Continuance of Christs Royal office, p. 1633, 1634.
  • 3. What are those two states of Christs Humil [...]ation and Exaltation, wherein he exe­cuteth his Prophe [...]ical, Priestly, and Kingly Office, viz.
    • 1. Christs state of Humiltation consisted;
      • 1. In his Conception. Wherein he was humbled two waies, p. 1634.
      • 2. In his Birth. Wherein he was abased two waies, p. 1634, &c.
      • 3. In his Life. Wherein he humbled himself four waies, p. 1635.
      • 4. In his Death. Wherein he humbled himself ten waies, p. 1635, &c.
      • 5. In his Burial. Wherein he was abased two waies, p. 1636.
      • 6. In his Continuance in the state of the dead, and under the Dominion of death for three daies current, wherein he was humbled three waies. This some think to be intended by that Article in the Apostles Creed; He Descended into Hell. This clause was not in the Creed antiently according to divers writers. Four Interpretations of it, and which is to be preferred, p. 1636. to 1638.
    • 2. Christs state of Exaltation, consisted;
      • 1. In his Reviving. Wherein he was exalted three waies, p. 1638.
      • 2. In his Resurrection from the dead. Wherein he was exalted four waies, p. 1639, &c.
      • 3. In his Ascending into Heaven. Wherein he was exalted three waies, p. 1640.
      • 4. In his Session at Gods right hand, p. 1640.
      • 5. In his coming at last to judge the whole world, p. 1640.
  • Aphorism 4. That, IESUS CHRIST, by vertue of his Prophetical, Priestly and Kingly Mediation, Surety-ship and Testator-ship, hath established his NEW COVE­NANT for ever: And is continually bringing all those whom the Father hath given him [Page] into this New Covenant with God, To partake all the Mercies, and Perform all the Duties thereof. Here,
    • 1. Jesus Christ hath established his New Covenant for ever, 1. As Mediator, three waies. 2. As Surety, three waies. 3. As Testator, p. 1640. to 1643.
    • 2. Jesus Christ brings men into this New Cevenant, by Calling them thereinto. Here note,
      • 1. That, Christ brings men into this New Covenant with God, by Calling: proved three waies, p. 1643, 1644.
      • 2. What this Calling is, whereby men are brought into Covenant with God: De­scribed by the 1. Author, 2. Instrumental Means, 3. Matter, 4. Terms, . Form, and 6. End thereof, p. 1644. to 1647.
    • Inferences, From the whole touching Iesus Christ the MEDIATOR. Hence,
      • I. Behold and admire the infinite Severity and Goodness of God, in giving so ne­cessary and sufficient a Mediator betwixt God and Man, as Iesus Christ, God­man, p. 1647, &c.
      • II. Iesus, the Son of God, and of the Virgin Mary, the Mediator, Surety and Testator of the New Testament, is the only true CHRIST, and promised Messiah, p. 1648, &c.
      • III. Iesus Christ is indeed The Wonderful: and the Great Mysterie of Godliness, both in his Person and Office, p. 1649, &c.
      • IV. As Gods Covenants are the Marrow of Holy Scriptures, and the New Cove­nant the flower and Spirits of the Covenants: So Jesus Christ our Mediator is the Life and Soul of the New Covenant, p. 1650.
      • V. The New Covenant far excells the Old and all other Covenants, in having Je­sus Christ actually exhibited, to be Mediator, Surety and Testator thereof▪ p. 1650, &c.
      • VI. Iesus Christ God-man, Mediator, &c. of the New Covenant, is an All-suffici­ent Saviour of Sinners, p. 1651▪
      • VII. Iesus Christ, Mediator, &c. is the only Hope and Refuge of bruised sin­ners, and compleatest consolation of believing Saints, p. 1651, 1652.
      • VIII. The New Covenants Dedication was most bitter to Christ; although the New Covenants Application be most sweet to Christians, p. 1652, &c.
      • IX. Let all that long to know that they are within this New Covenant savingly, examine with all Diligence whether they be brought into it, by being Called to Christ, and made Christs Effectually. Hereby we may know, whe­ther we be Christs.
        • 1. Have we Christs Spirit dwelling in us? Five Notes of Christs Spirit, p. 1653, &c.
        • 2. Are we New Creatures? 1. In condition. 2. In constitution. 3. In conversation, p. 1654. to 1656.
        • 3. Are we one with Christ, by Faith and Love? p. 1656, &c▪
        • 4. Have we crucified and mortified our corruptions? A Parallel betwixt the Crucifying of Christ, and our crucifying of the flesh, in five Branches▪ p. 1657, 1658▪
        • 5. Do we walk after the Spirit, not after the flesh? p. 1658▪
      • X. Let all who are convinced they are Christ-less and Covenant-less Persons, and yet thirst after a New Covenant-state, sincerely accept Christ tendred: And let all that find they are in New Covenant with God in Christ, walk worthy of Christ accepted. Here,
        • ☞ 1. The Acceptance of Christ, is vehemently urged by seven Pressing Consi­derations, p. 1659. to 1668▪
        • 2. Walking worthy of Christ, is Regulated, by nine Scripture-Directions▪ p. 1668. to 1671▪
Chap. 7.
  • [Page]OF the Form of the New Covenant.
  • Aphorism. The Form of this New Covenant consists: Inwardly, In the mutual Ob­ligation betwixt God and his New Covenant-Foederates in Iesus Christ the Mediator thereof. Outwardly, in the way and manner of this New Covenants Manifestation, Confirmation and Administration.
    • I. The Inward Form of the New Covenant, &c. stands chiefly in the Foederates recipro­cal Obligation. How God obliged to us: or becomes our Debtor, p. 1671, 1672.
    • II. The Outward Form consists in,
      • 1. The Manifestation of the New Covenant. 1. By the Promissory Revelation of it. 2. By the Preparatory Inchoation of it, two waies, p. 1672, &c.
      • 2. The Confirmation of it.
        • 1. By the choicest Promises of God. Here, 1. That the New Covenants Promises are Better Promises, in five regards. 2. How the New Covenant is established upon these Promises, Materially, and Relatively, p. 1673. to 1676.
        • 2. By Gods inviolable Oath; for three Reasons, p. 1676.
        • 3. By Christs irrevocable Death and Blood. As Mediator, Surety and Testator: three waies, p. 1677, &c.
        • 4. By the best Foederal Tokens Baptism and the LORD's Supper. Here,
          • 1. That Baptism and the Lords Supper confirm the New Covenant, is proved di­vers waies, severally, p. 1679, &c.
          • 2. Wherein the Nature of Baptism and the Lords Supper consists. Here, six things noted in all Sacraments. The Original Rise of these two Sacraments. The Nature of Baptism described by the Author, Ma [...]ter, Form, and End thereof. The Nature also of the Lords Supper, p. 1680. to 1684.
          • 3. How Baptism and the Lords-Supper confirm the New Covenant, many waies, p. 1684, &c.
      • 3. The Administration of the New Covenant.
        • 1. With universal reference to all Nations, p. 1686.
        • 2. By Preaching the New Covenant Doctrine in Christ exhibited. 1. Clearly. 2. Fully. 3. Efficaciously, p. 1686, &c.
        • 3. By Ordinances of Publick New Covenant-worship for all Nations, p. 1687.
        • 4. By New Covenant Church-Government. In five Acts, p. 1687, &c.
        • 5. By a successive New Covenant-Ministry and Officers, p. 1688.
        • 6. By Plenary effusions of the Spirit, p. 1688.
        • 7. With more perfect, filial, Christian liberty, p. 1688.
        • 8. With more glory then under the Old. In five respects, p. 1689.
      • Inferences seven from the Form of this New Covenant, p. 1689, 1690.
Chap. 8.
  • [Page]OF the End, or intended Scope of the New Covenant.
  • Aphorism. The intended Scope or End of God and Iesus Christ our Mediator in this New Testamental Covenant, is, &c.
    • 1. More Immediate, To represent Christ, Actually Exhibited, 1. In his Person. 2. In his Offices. 3. In his Benefits. And this 1. Fully. 2. Ultimately, p. 1690. to 1693.
    • 2. More Mediate, 1. Subordinately, To extend the Church to all Nations. To ad­vance the Church to highest Perfections. 2. Ultimately, To exalt the glory of God in all transcendently. vii. Inferences, p. 1693. to 1695.
Chap. 9.
  • GEneral Inferences from the whole of the New Covenant.
  • Aphorism. From the whole Mysterie of the New Covenant, thus disclosed, these things are evident, &c. viz.
    • I. The New Covenant is the Covenent of Covenants. Surpassing all, seven waies, p. 1696, &c.
    • II. The Properties of the New Covenant. It is 1. Divine. 2. Gratuitous. 3. Evan­gelical. 4. Wise in two respects. 5. Holy in six regards. 6. Promissory. 7. Spiri­tual. 8. Testamental. 9. Clear and Glorious. 10. Full. 11. Free, upon three grounds. 12. Efficacious, five waies. 13. Sure and Faithful, in five regards. 14. Consolatory, many waies. 15. Extensive. 16. Everlasting, p. 1697. to 1703.
    • III. The Agreement and Differences betwixt the Old and New Covenant, &c. Here,
      • 1. The Agreement betwixt them is represented in eleven particulars, p. 1703. to 1706.
      • 2. The Differences, &c. Here, 1. Seven pretended, but unfound Differences are re­jected. 2. Twelve true Differences betwixt Old and New Covenant are asserted, p. 1708. to 171 [...]
    • IV. The Additional Excellencies and Preheminencies of the New Covenant, beyond those of the Old, and of all other Covenants. In nine particulars, p. 1713, 1714.
    • V. How great are the Priviledges of Gods New Covenant-people, above all others in ma­ny regards, p. 1714. to 1716.
    • VI. By this New Covenant we may sweetly assure our selves that we are Gods New Co­venant-people. Especially five wayes, p. 1716, &c.
    • VII. How much it concerns All, Especially us Gentiles upon many considerations, To Esteem, Embrace, Rest upon, Conform to, and Triumph in this blessed New Covenant, p. 1717, 1718.
    • [Page]VIII. Gods New Covenant-People (answerably to this New, Better and more Illustri­ous Covenant,) should approve themselves, as a New, Better and more Excellent People, both in their Persons and Conversations, p. 1718. to 1720.
    • IX. All Bruised, Distressed and Disconsolate souls should in an especial manner have re­course to this blessed New Covenant for their sweetest and fullest Consolations. The Comfortableness of the New Covenant fourteen waies, p. 1720.
    • X. Finally, This New Testamental Covenant approacheth nearest, as in contiguity of time, so in excellency of Nature, unto the Coelestial Glory. p. 1720.

II. A General SYNOPSIS of the Subject-Matters in all these IV. Books.

GOD's Covenants with Man, are unfold­ed in these IV. Books
  • BOOK I.
    • 1. More Gene­nerally. where,
        • 1. That, God in all ages deals with his Church and People by way of Covenant. And why, p. 3. to 10.
        • 2. Of the Names, General Nature, and Distribution of Gods COVENANT, p. 10. to 19.
    BOOK II.
    • 2. More Par­ticularly. Where,
        • 1. Of Gods Covenant of Works with the First Adam and his Natural Seed, before the Fall. Here,
          • 1. That God entred into Covenant with the First Adam and his Posterity, &c. p. 19. to 24.
          • 2. The Names, Author, Parties, Form, and Matter of this Covenant are described, p. 24. to 33.
          • 3. Adam had compleat Ability to keep this Covenant in every point, p. 33. to 36.
          • 4. Adam brake the Covenant of works by isobedience, p. 36. to 59.
          • 5 The Breach of the Covenant of works made way for the Covenant of Faith, p. 59. 60.
        • 2. Of Gods COVENANT OF FAITH with the Last Adam IESUS CHRIST and his Supernatural Seed:
          • 1. More Generally. Here are shewed,
            • 1 That the Covenant of works being broken in the First Adam, The Covenant of Faith was Revealed in IESUS CHRIST the Last Adam. And why, p. 61. to 69.
            • 2. What the Covenant of Faith is. The 1. Efficient, 2. Parties, 3. Matter, and 4. Form of it. Many Inferences: Wherein of the conditionality of the Covenant, p. 69. to 184.
            • 3. The Distribution of the Covenant of Faith, p. 184. to 191.
      • 2. More Particularly, viz. Of 1. The Covenants of Promise. 2. The New Covenant.
        • I. Of the COVENANT of PROMISE; in vi. remarkable Periods of time, viz.
          • 1. From Adam till Noah. In that Mother-Promise, Gen. 3. 14, 15. Here, That this Pro­mise
            • 1. Was Revealed immediately after the Fall, p. 191. to 207.
            • 2. Was Revealed very imperfectly and obscurely, p. 207. to 210.
            • 3 Was Revealed in CHRIST the womans chief seed, p. 210. to 217.
            • 4. Reavealed mans Recovery in the Enmity betwixt the woman, &c. p. 217. to 241.
            • 5. Had in it, though not the Name and Formality, yet the Nature and Reality of a Covenant, p. 241. to 248.
          • 2. From Noah till Abraham. Here are shewed,
            • 1. That God determining to drown the world, &c. Covenanted to save Noah, &c. p. 248 to 256.
            • 2. That, God, having drowned the world, Covenanted never to drown it again, p. 256. to 263.
            • 3. That, These two Covenants were a Renewed Discovery of the Covenant of Faith, p. 263. to 285.
          • 3. From Abraham till Moses. Here, of
            • 1. The Foederates, viz. God: Abraham and his Seed, especially CHRIST, p. 285, to 332.
            • 2. The Matter of the Covenant, 1. Promised Mercies; 2. Repromised Duties, p. 332. to 514.
            • 3. The Form of it. 1. Inward. 2. Outward, p. 514. to 570.
            • 4. The End of it. And vii. Inferences from the whole, p. 570. to 649.
          • 4 From Moses till DAVID; yea till CHRIST, THE DAVID. Here,
            • 1. Of the Law given to Israel at Mount Sinai, more Absolutely, p. 649. to 734.
            • 2. Of the Law given then as A COVENANT, not of works, but of Faith, p. 734. to 790.
              • 1. The Foederates. God and Israel, p. 790. to 800.
              • 2. The Matter of it. Mercies promised; Duties re [...]tipulated, p. 800. to 902.
              • 3. The Form of it. 1 Inward. 2 Outward, p. 902. to 937.
              • 4. The End of it. And IX. General Corollaries, p. 937. to 989.
          • 5. From David till the Captivity in Babylon. Here, Of this Covenants 1. Duration. 2. Author and Nature. 3. Foederates. 4. Impulsive Causes and Occasions. 5. Matter. 6. Form. 7. End, And 8. General Inferen­ces. p. 989. to 1086.
          • 6. From the Captivity till CHRIST. Here, of The 1. Duration. 2. Author, Occasion, Impulsives, Foederates and Nature. 3. Mat­ter. 4. Form. And 5. End of this Covenant. General Inferences, p. 1086. to 1229.
    BOOK IV.
      • II. Of the COVENANT of PERFORMANCE, vz. The NEW COVENANT. Here are represented,
        • 1. The Bounds or limits of its Duration, of all other most observable, p. 1229. to 1253.
        • 2. The Names, and General Nature of it, p. 1253. to 1269.
        • 3. The Author, Occasion, and Impulsive or Moving Causes of it, p. 1269 to 1290.
        • 4. The Foederate-Parties to it, p. 1290. to 1339.
        • 5. The Matter of it. 1 Blessings Promised. 2 Duties Re-promised, p. 1339. to 1563.
        • 6. The Mediator, Surety and Testator of it, IESUS CHRIST, p. 1563. to 1671.
        • 7. The Form of it. 1 Inward, and 2 Outward, p. 1671. to 1690.
        • 8. The End of it. 1 Immediate, 2 Mediate, p. 1690. to 1695.
        • 9. General Inferences from the whole of the New Covenant, p. 1695. to the end.

BOOK I. OF Gods Covenants, Their Names, Natures, Sorts, and Benefits; more Generally.

CHAP. I. 1. Of Gods dealing with his Church, in all times and Ages, by way of Covenant.

GOD, Rom. 9. 5. & 1. 25. 2 Cor. 11. 31. over all blessed for ever, [...]s the Center where all Mat. 14. 61. 1 Tim. 6. 15. Happiiness meets, and the foun­tain whence all Mat. 5. 8. Act 3. 25. 26. with Gal 3. 16. Happiness flows. Man, P [...]al. 8. 6 under whose feet God hath put all things here below, is only so far happy as he Psal. 144. 15. Ephes. 2. 12. enjoys the LORD to be his God. On Earth, Man en­joys the LORD to be his God, Either More Immediately, or more Mediately. 1. More Immediately, before Adams Fall, by Conformity both of mans Eccl. 7. 29. upright Nature unto God, through Gen. 1. 26, 27. Gods Image in which he was Created; And of man [...], life, to Gods will, through Gen. 2. 16, 17. Personal Obedience, whereunto he was fully enabled. 2. More Mediately, after the Fall, by 1 Tim. 1. 5. 1 Cor. 6. 15, 17. Ephes. 5. 30, 31, 32. Iohn 17. 21, 22, 23. Mystical union unto the Mediator Jesus Christ, Heb. 1. 3. the express Cha­racter of the Fathers Person, and Iohn 14 6. onely way unto God. Mans enjoyment of God, by Natural Conformity to his will before the Fall, and by supernatural union to Christ since the Fall, are instru­mentally [Page 2] established and effected by Gods COVENANTS with man: That, by his Gen. 2. 10, 17. Covenant of Works, This, By his Rom. 3. 20, to 29. with Gal. 3. 16, 17. & Gen. 17. 7, 8. Ezek. 36. 28. Heb. 8. 10. Covenant of Faith. So then, Gods COVENANT is the Scripture-star, which leads man unto Christ: Christ is the Heavenly Way, that brings man unto God: And God is Heaven it self; in whom man finds and enjoys all satisfying Happiness.

In this Treatise (subdivided into IIII. distinct BOOKS,) the unfolding of Gods precious and mysterious Covenant with man is undertaken, That Christians happiness may be promoted by enjoy­ing of God: That they may enjoy God by their union to Christ: That they may be United to Christ, by accepting Gods Covenant: And that they may be allured to accept Gods Covenant, by a famili­ar Knowledge and apprehension of it.

For the more clear representing of this Subject to the weakest Capacity, Gods COVENANT shall here be laid open;

First, More Generally; in Book I. And here shall be evidenced. 1. That God hath pleased in all ages to deal with his Church and people by way of Covenant. 2. What Gods Covenant is, for Name and Thing gene­rally considered. 3. Into what Kinds or Sorts Gods Covenant is to be Di­stributed.

Secondly, More Particularly; in Book II. And here 1. Of Gods COVENANT of WORKS with the first Adam, and in him with all his Natural Seed, before the Fall. 2. Of Gods COVENANT of FAITH with Christ the last Adam, and in him with all his Super­natural Seed, after the Fall. And this both In General: And In Par­ticular.

In General shall be shewed, 1. That, the Covenant of works being broken in the first Adam, God pleased to Reveal a Covenant of Faith in Christ the last Adam. 2. When and how soon God did first Reveal this Covenant of Faith. 3. Why God Revealed this Covenant. 4. What this COVENANT of FAITH is. 5. How this Covenant of Faith is to be distributed.

In Particular shall be Opened,

1. The Ephes. 2. 12. Covenants of Promise, made and confirmed in Christ only Promised and to be exhibited in our flesh afterwards. And how the LORD God did gradually disclose these Covenants in Christ most obscurely at first, but afterwards still more and more clearly, till they were accomplished in Christ in the fulness of time: but most remarkably in Certain Periods of time, viz. 1 From Adam, till Noah. 2. From Noah, till Abraham. 3. From Abraham, till Moses. 4. From Moses till David. 5. From David, till the Babylonish Captivity. 6. Finally, From the Babylonish Captivity, till Christ: and all this in Book III.

2. The Ier. 31. 31. with Heb. 8. 8. New-Covenant made and confirmed in Christ actually Per­formed & exhibited in our flesh already. And how this New Covenant is Substantially one and the same with the Covenants of Promise, yet Accidentally far different in administration: the N. Cov. notably sur­passing [Page 3] all foregoing Ministrations, in Ext [...]nt Spiritual Priviledges, Efficacy, and Evangelical Glory. In Book IIII. Now in these four distinct Books all these things shall be laid down orderly in cer­tain succinct Positions or Aphorisms (Summarily comprizing much [...] in a little compass, for the help of both understanding and memory) together with the Explanations of them: through the direction and assistance of the Covenant-making and Covenant-keeping God, who hath said; Psal. 25. 12. 14. The secret of the LORD is with them that fear him, and he will shew them his Covenant.


GOd is pleased in all times and ages, from the beginning to the end of the world, to deal with his Church and People by way of COVENANT.

For clearing of this Aphorism something is to be spoken touching 1. God, who thus deals. 2. His Church and People, with whom he thus deals. 3. Gods dealing thus with his Church in a Covenant way.

I. Touching God, thus in brief conceive of him. The Psal. 83. 18. Exod. 3. 14. Rev. 1. 8. Rom. 11. 36. Acts 17. 28. Su­preme Being of Beings, Rom. 8. 29, 30. Hos. 2. 21, 22. with Acts 17. 24, 25. Cause of Causes, and most Spiritual Iohn 4. 24. 2 Cor. 3. 17. Heb. 12. 9. Spirit, The Deut. 6. 4. 1 Cor. 8. 4, 6. Iohn. 17. 3. one onely true GOD, Mat. 28. 18. 1 Ioh. 5. 7. 1 Cor. 8. 6. Ioh. 1. 1. Acts 5. 3. 4. FAT HER SON and HOLY-GHOST, is most absolutely 1 Iohn 1. 5. Simple, Gen. 17. 1. Acts 17. 25. Rom. 11. 35, 36. Al-suffici­ent, Mal. 3. 16. Iames 1. 17. Immutable, Psal. 147. 5. & 145. 3. Iob 11. 7, 8. Infinite, 1 Kings 8. 27. Iob 11. 7, 8. Immense, and Deut. 33. 17. 1 Tim. 1. 17. Psal. 90. 2. & 102. 25, 26, 27. Eternal in his P [...]al. 42. 2. Heb. 10. 31. Iohn 5. 26. Life, Psal. 147. 5. Acts 15. 18. P [...]al. 139. 1, 2, 3, &c. Understanding, Deut. 32. 4. Truth, Ephes. 1. 5. Will, Exod. 33. 19. & 34. 6. Luke 18. 19. Goodness, Exod. 34. 6. Psal. 103. 8. Gra­ciousness, 1 Iohn 4. 16. Love, Exod. 34. 6. 7. Psal. 103. 8, 9, &c. Mercy, [...] Pet. 3. 9. Exod. 34. 6. Psal. 103. 8. Long-suffering, Deut. 32. 4. P [...]al. 92. 15. & 145. 17. Iustice, Exod. 15 11. Psal. 22. 3. Isa. 6. 3. Holiness, Mat. 6. 13. Rev. 19. 6. Power, Dan 4. 3. 22. 34. Iude ver. 25. Dominion, Mat. 5. 48. Iob 35. 7, 8. Perfection, Amos 8. 7. Exod. 15. 11. Excel­lency, Mark 14. 61. Rom. 9. 5. Blessedness, and 1 Cor. 2. 8. Exod. 15. 11. Isa. 33. 21. Gloriousness.

II. Touching Gods Church and People, with whom God deals in a Covenant-way, thus briefly apprehend. The Self-satisfying All-sufficient and All-perfect God hath not onely P [...]ov. 16. 4. Rom. 11. 36. created the whole world with all things therein, and more especially the intellectual Crea­tures, Angels and men, for his own self. But also in all times and ages of the world prevideth himself a Church here on Earth among the children of men.

For evidencing hereof, two things especially are to be noted; viz. 1. That God in all ages hath his Church (a people Deut. 7. 6, 7 & 10. 15. Exod. 19 5, 6. Tit. 2. 14. 1 Pet. 2. 5. 1 Cor. 1. 2. separated to [Page 4] himself peculiarly) in this world, though not at all times of like equal extent. It was at first onely Domestical, confined within the narrow compass of Particular pious Families, as ofGen. 2. 16. 17. &. 3. 15. & 4. 3, 4, 5. Adam, Luke 3. 34. to the end. Gen. 4. 26. Seth, Gen. 5. 22, 24. Enoch, Gen. 6. 9. & 7. 1. Noah, Gen. 9. 27. Luke 3. 36. Shem, Gen. 17. 7, 8. Heb. 11. 8, 9. Abraham, Isaac, Iacob, &c. Afterwards it grew up and became National, extending it self to the Families of all the [...]am. 1. 1. Rom. 9. 4. Psal. 147. 19, 20. twelve Tribes, even the whole Jewish Nation; which, presently after the Redemption out of Aegypt, was fashioned and digested by God into an Ecclesiastical Politie, calledActs 7. 38. The Church in the Wil­derness. But at last, when Christ the Blessed Seed came, Gen 12. 3. Acts 3. 25, 26. Gal. 3. 8. in whom all the Nations and Families of the Earth should be blessed, The Church began to be planted even among otherActs 13. 46, 47, 48. Nations besides that of the Jews, and so spread from Nation to Nation, that it became Oe­cumenical or Universal: Not limited any longer to that one Nation of the Jews onely, but diffused without restraint to theMat. 28. 18. Ephes. 3. 6. Nations of the Gentiles. From Adam till Moses, it was Domestical: From Moses till Christ, National: and from Christ till the end of the world, Oecumenical: And this triple Period comprehends all times and ages. Thus the Church, likeMat. 13. 33. Leaven, spreads; likeMat. 13. 31, 32. Mustardseed, grows: like theEzek. 47. 1. to 6. Waters of the Sanctuary, swels and increaseth from smallest beginnings to greater and greater perfection.

2. Why God in all ages thus provides himself a Church amongst men. viz. 1. From the exceeding Riches of hisExod. 33. 19. Ephes. 1. 4. to 11. Tit. 3. 4, 5. Free grace and love to mankinde. This the impulsive or inward Moving Cause why God hath (1.) Elected eternallyEph. 1. 4, 5, 6. Deut. 7. 6, 7. 8. in Christ a certain select number out of mankind, to be his own peculiar people; (2.) Re­deemed in fulness of time this his Church and people (lapsed in Adam) by his ownEph. 1 7. Acts 20. 18. 1 Pet. 1. 18. 19. blood; And (3.) Actually Tit. 3.. 4, 5, 6. 2 Tim. 1. 9. applyed this Redemption to his people by Calling them effectually out of the world unto himself in Christ. Remarkably saith Wisdom, (the Son of God,) of himself;Prov. 8. 30, 31. I was daily his delight, rejoycing always before him: rejoycing in the habitable parts of his Earth, and my delights were with the Sons of men. 2. That God might com­municate himself and his fulness more sweetly, familiarly and com­pleatly to his Church, then to all other Societies and created Be­ings in the world. For, to his Church and People God peculiarly unveyls theMat. 11. 25, 26, 27. Eph. 3. 3, 4 5, 6. 1 Cor. 2. 8. to the end. Psal. 147. 19, 20. mysteries of his kingdom, the hidden Secrets of his Wisdom, Goodness, Free Grace, Mercy, Loving-kindness, Ho­liness, Justice, &c.2 Cor. 6. 17, 18. He dwels and walks among them; and is a God and Father unto them, they becoming sons and daughters to the Lord Al­mighty. 3. That in and by the Church the glory of all Gods Per­fections and Dispensations might be spread abroad both in Heaven and Earth to his everlasting praise.Psal. 29. 9. In his Temple every one speaketh of his glory. And,Eph. 3. 10, 11. [...]y the Church Gods excellencies and the wise mysterious disposals of his Grace are made known; not one­ly unto the Sons of men on Earth, but also unto the Principalities and powers in Heavenly places.

III. Finally, Touching Gods Covenant-way of dealing [Page 5] with his Church and people; It is evident by their continued expe­rience of his Dispensations, both Before, and After Adams Fall, That God pleaseth in all times and ages to deal with his Church and peo­ple by way of Covenant. For,

1. Before the Fall, God dealt with the First Adam, and in him with all his Seed, then in state of innocency and integrity, by way of Co­venant, and that a Covenant of Works. For, besides that God had engraven in his heart the Substance of the Moral Law, certainRom. 2. 14, 15. reliques whereof remain in the hearts of Pagans since the Fall, who have not the law written; God also gave Adam a Positive Law, Permitting him to eat of the Trees of the Garden; Commanding him not to eat of the Tree of knowledge of good and evil; Threatning him, in case he should eat, with present Death; and consequently promising him life in case of Obedience.Gen. 2. 16, 17. And the LORD God com­manded the man, saying, Of every tree of the Garden thou mayst freely eat: But of the Tree of the knowledge of Good and evil, thou shalt not eat of it; For in the day that thou eatest thereof thou shalt surely dye. Now all this amounts to a Covenant, asSee Book 11. Chap. 1. [...] 1. after shall more fully be evi­denced in the Particular handling of the Covenant of Works.

2. After the Fall God deales with his Church and People also by way of Covenant; and that the COVENANT of FAITH in Iesus Christ the last Adam. This is very observable in several eminent Intervals or Periods of time, wherein God Revealed his Covenant more and more clearly by degrees, till it came to a full and compleat discovery in these daies of the New Testament. As, God dealt by way of COVENANT, 1. With Adam presently after the Fall, and with the Fathers before the Flood till the time of Noah: Promising theGen. 3. 15. Seed of the woman, to bruise the Serpents head. 2. With Noah, Gen. 6. 18, &c. with 1 Pet. 3. 20, 21. & Heb. 11. 7. establishing his Covenant with him, to save him, and his family, and a seed of the Creatures, in the Ark, from perishing by the waters of the Flood, when the whole world should be drowned. Under these two dispensations of the Cove­nant, together with the Promises and other Appurtenances thereof, did the Fathers and Church live till the daies of Abraham. 3. With Abraham and his seed, Gen. 17. 1. to 15. w [...]th Act. 3. 25, 26. Gal. 3. 8. Rom. 4. 13. Covenanting and Promising to be a God to them, to give them the land of Canaan, and make them heirs of the world, and in his seed to make all the Nations and families of the Earth blessed; Annexing Circumcision as a Confirming sign and to­ken of the Covenant. And under this and the former federal dispen­sations, was the Church and the holy Patriarchs trained up till the daies of Moses. 4. With Israel; Jer. [...]1. 32. Heb. 8. 9. led and brought by the hand out of the land of Egypt, At Mount Sinai in the daies of Moses; Deut. 4. 13. 14. & 5. 2, 3, 4, 5, 6. w [...]th Exod. 20. to chap. 32 weigh well the series and order of the [...]. De­claring his Covenant unto them, even ten Commandments written on two Tables of stone, which he commanded them to perform, together with the Ceremonial and Iudicial Laws which he required them to observe. Under this and the former Administrations of the Covenant, the Church was nurtured up, till the time of David. 5. With David [Page 6] and his Seed God2 Sam. 23. 5. Psal. 89. throughout. 2 Sam. 7. 5. to 17. made an everlasting Covenant ordered in all things and Sure, Psal. 89. 3, 4, 35, 56, 37. & 132. 11. Promising with an Oath, To establish his seed for ever, and build up his Throne to all generations, &c. which Covenant had its fullest accomplishment inAct. 2. 30, 31. Christ, of the Seed of David, and in his Spiritual Kingdom. Christ being the trueEzek. 37. 21, 22, 24, 26. Hos. 3. 5. Iohn 10. 16. & 11. 51, 52. Eph. 1. 10. David, And King of his Church, gathering both Jews and Gentiles into one body un­der his Government, andPsal. 110. 1. 1 Cor. 15. 24, 25, 26. subduing finally and totally all the enemies of his Kingdom. Under this and former dispensations of the Covenant, the Church of God continued from Davids daies till the Babylonish Captivity. 6. With the people of the Iews under the Babylonish Captivity, Ier. 32. 37. to the end. Ezek. 11. 16. to 21. & 36. 22. to the end of the Chapt. God Covenanted to return their Cap­tivity and restore them into their own land, the land of Canaan; to take away their stony heart, and to give them an heart of flesh; To cleanse them from all their filthiness and Idols, &c. promising that they shall be his people, and he will be their God. And under this, with the foregoing ministrations of the Covenant, The Church of God was nursed up from the time of the Babylonish Captivity, till the very coming of Christ in our flesh. 7. Finally, with the Church and people of God under the New Testament, after Christs Incar­nation, God makes aHeb. 8. 8. to the end, with Ier. 31. 31. to 35. New Covenant in Christ: New, not so much for substance, as for Circumstance and manner of Administration (all the former Ministrations being laid aside as waxing old and wear­ing away;) And New, for Continuation, in that this dispensation of the Covenant should not wax old as did all the former, but should continue still fresh New and unaltered to the very end of the world. And under this Covenant, the Promises and Appendixes thereof, the Church of Christ is and shall be continued, built up, and perfect­ed, From the First till the Second coming of Jesus Christ.

Thus it is clear, That in all ages and times, from the beginning to the end of the world, God pleaseth to deal with his Church and people in a COVENANT-way.


GOD in all ages pleaseth to deal with his Church and peo­ple by way of Covenant for divers weighty Causes, and Excellent Ends. And these are worthy to be inquired into, and heedfully observed, by all theAct. 3. 25. children of the Covenant, andGal. 3. 29. heirs according to the Promise. Now the Lord seems to deal with his Church in a Covenant-way.

1. Of his meer Grace and love to his Church. God takes not this course by reason of any law or tye of Necessity lying upon him: He is the most free unlimited Agent, above all laws, andPsal. 135. 4, 5, 6. doth what­soever he pleaseth both in heaven and earth. He could have dealt with man, both before and since the fall, in an Absolute Supreme way of [Page 7] Lordship, Dominion and Soveraignty, as a Creator with his Crea­ture, as a Potter with his clay, Commanding what Duty he plea­sed from him, without any Covenant-Obligation of himself in any respect unto man: being no way debt bound to the Creature, but ab­solutely free. Nor can any thing be imagined in his Church or people, which in the least degree could invite God, into Covenant with them: because, betwixt God and them there are no terms ofPsal. 147. 5. with Gen. 18. 27. [...]ob 11. 7. to 1 [...]. Isa. 40. 12. to 18. equality or proportion, for a Basis or remote foundation of a Covenant. For, 1. In their innocent state the Distance betwixt them is greater then betwixt Heaven and Earth, then betwixt highest An­gels and basest worms: even as great as betwixt Finite and Psal. 147. 5. Infi­nite. Now betwixt Finite and Infinite there can be no proportion. 2. In their lapsed state, Sin hath infinitely widened the distance, and rendred them altogetherRom. 3. 9. to 19. Tit 1. 15, 16. unlovely and abominable in them­selves before God. Yea, Sin hath extreamly aggravated the Distance, and turned it into Opposition andCol. 1. 21. Rom 8. 7. Luke 19. 14, 27. Enmity betwixt God and them. So that nothing but meer Grace the meer good [...] of his will, meer love and mercy, could possibly move or incline God to embrace them in a Covenant-way. Hence God tels Israel,Deut. 7. 7, 8. That he set his love upon them, because he loved them. And Jerusa­lem; ThatEzek. 16. 2. to 9, &c. when her Nativity was of the land of Canaan, her father an Amorite, her mother an Hittite, She in her birth wretched, unpitied, polluted in her blood, and cast out to the loathing of her person: even then be spread his skirt over her, covered her nakedness, sware unto her, En­tred into Covenant with her, and she became his.

2. Because the Lord would deal familiarly with his people, therefore he deals with them by way of Covenant. A Covenant-way is a familiar way, as betwixt man and man that are agreed. This David intimates in Gods Covenant with him2 Sam. 7. 19. [...] And is this the manner of man, O Lord God? Or, as Iunius renders it; And that after the manner of men, O Lord GOD. That is, Thou in Covenanting dealest famili­arly with me, as man with man, as friend with friend. And, in that pa­rallel place1 Chron. 17. 17. And hast regarded me, according to the state of a man of High degree, O LORD God: It may be rendred; And thou hast provi­ded for me this excellency according to the manner of men, O LORD God. Or; Thou hast provided for me, according to the manner of men, concerning this excellency O LORD God. That is, Thou hast made a familiar provision for me. Now the distance is so vast betwixt Majesty and meanness, Glory and baseness, God and us most despi­cable dust and ashes, that there cannot be a familiar reciprocal dea­ling betwixt God and us but by way of Covenant: wherein the most High God condescends and stoops down to us, and we base worms ascend up to God, and so meet one another friendly and famili­arly.

3. That Gods people might more clearly and certainly know, what Good they may confidently expect from God, whatsoever be their present condi­tion. For all Good Covenanted by God, whether Temporal, Spiritual [Page 8] or Eternal, is clear and sure, as Gods Covenant is clear and sure. Hence David; 2 Sam. 23. 5. with 7. 5 to 17. Psalm 89. Although mine House be not so with God (that is, flourishing, and without clouds) yet he hath made with me an everlasting Covenant, ordered in all things, and sure: for this is all my Salvation, and all my desire, although he make it not to grow.

4. That the Church and people of God may be the more endeared unto God, and enlivened unto all free cheerful obedience. Gods loving kind­ness to us so wonderfully appears, both in his condescending to such a sweet familiar Covenant-way with us, and in his storing his Co­venant with such rich provisions for us: that duely considered, it snatches our hearts and affections (as once2 Sam. 7. 18, 19, 20. Davids) vehement­ly unto him, even ravishing us with him. Besides, Gods ample Re­wards and Benefits covenanted, are as oyl to the wheels of ourIer. 31. 33. with Psal. 40. 8. Ezek. 11. 18, 19, 20. obedience, making them run smoothly in all Gods paths with de­light and alacrity.

5. Finally, That Gods Covenant with his Church and people may be a distinctive and discriminating character betiwixt them and all other people in the world. To the ChurchRom. 9. 4. pertain the Covenants: whilst all others areEph. 1. 12. strangers to the Covenants of Promise.

Corollaries resulting from the whole. Hence,

1. Gods condescension to his Creatures is wonderful. He stoops so low as to accept man, dust and ashes, sinful dust and ashes, in Cove­nant with himself infinitely transcending all created beings.

2. Mans Ascension and advancement is admirable. Man is brought from so low a state, and at such distance from God, to such an height of dignity and nearness unto God: yea from utter Enmi­ty, to perfect Amity with God, by Covenant; that he may cry out,Psal. 8. 4. Lord, what is man that thou art thus mindful of him, and the son man that thou thus visitest him! Every one in Covenant with God may say with thankful David; 2 Sam. 7. 18. who am I, O LORD God? and what is my house, that thou hast brought me hitherto? &c.

3. We can never understand the mysterie of Gods dealing with his people, unless we know the mysterie of Gods Covenant. Study therefore Gods Covenant diligently, be expert therein. For, 1. This is the Compendious Abstract, or Epitome of Gods gracious dispensati­ons to his Church in all Ages. Here may be seen; How God dealt with his people in Innocency, Gen. 2. 16, 17. Covenanting to give them continued life, upon condition of exact personal Obedience: How he [...] with his Church lapsed Gal. 3. 16, 17, 22. Rom. 3. 21. to 28. Covenanting to restore life unto her, upon Condition of faith in Christs Obedience. And how God applies him­self herein to his Churches Capacity: In her Infancy he gives her the A B C of the Covenant, teaching her to spell his Grace, in the pro­misedGen. 3. [...]5. seed of the woman: and inGen. 6. 18. 1 Pet. 3. 20, 21. 2 Pet. 2. 5. saving a remnant in the Ark by water from perishing with the world of the wicked. In her youth and non-age he trains her up under a more rigid and severe disci­pline of Mosaical administrations, as underGal. 4. 1. &c. Tutors and Gover­nours, yet in hopes of after-freedom. In her full age [...]e invests her [Page 9] with New-covenant Liberties and enjoyments in Christ revealed,Gal. 5. 1. &c. delivering her from all her former bondage. 2. This is that Golden Clew which leads into that inmost Mysterie of Jesus Christ: The Son of God being the Kernel and Marrow of Gods Covenant. For, In the Covenant of works before the Fall, upon Con­dition of perfect Personal obedience, life is promised to be continued to Adam (thinkPolan. Partit. Theol. l. 1. p. 17▪ 171. Edit. 1623 some learned) by the Son of God,John 1. 4. 9. in whom was life, & that life was the light of men (lightning every man) naturally more or less) that cometh into the world. And In the Covenant of faith after the Fall, Christ as1 Tim. 3. 16. God-man,1 Tim. 2. 5. Mediator betwixt God and sinners, is theGal. 3. 16, 17, 19. Foundation of the Covenant, as revealed toGen. 3. 15. Adam, Gen. 6. 18. 1 Pet. 3. 20, 21. Noah, Gen. 17. 2. &c. Abraham, Deut. 4. 13. &. 5. 2. &c. Moses, 2 Sam. 23. 5. Psa. 89. David, Ezek. 36. 22. &c. The Jews, and to bothHeb. 8. 8 &c. Jews and Gentiles. At first Christ is revealed more dimly and obscurely: at last most cleerly and evidently with open face & Glory. 3. Finally, This Covenant of God is the Key that unlocks the whole Scriptures. Holy Scriptures do especially scope at Revealing Gods Covenant, in several ages, severally. Gods Covenant-administrati­ons like a thred of Gold running through the Books both of Old and New Testament. Yea Gods Covenant is such a primary Subject of the whole Scripture, that the whole word of God re­ceives its Denomination from Gods Covenant, being stiled The Old and New Testament; Or, The Old and New Covenant. And surely no Context of Holy Scripture can be solidly explicated, No Common Place of Divinity can be rightly handled, No Polemical or Controversal point can be dextrously descided, No Case of Conscience or Practical Questi­on can be accurately resolved, No Christian Duty can be skilfully ur­ged or advised, without due respect and Scope had to the COVE­NANT of GOD. Hereupon it isH. Alsted. in Theolog. Catc­chet. Sect. 1. cap. 2. p. 26. Hanov. 1622. reported of Olevianus, that he stiled himself, Concionatorem Faederis; That is, A Preacher of the Covenant. And so should every faithful and skilful Minister have it principally in Design, To be a Preacher of Gods Covenant; and every prudent Christian to be an Hearer and Practitioner of Gods Co­nant: Gods Covenant Calling for most int [...]ntive respect from them both. So that whilst we are ignorant of the mysteries of Gods Cove­nant; we are Ignorant of Scriptures, of Christ, and of all Gods gra­cious Administrations to his Church.

4. Gods Covenant is a notable Character or Mark of Gods Church and people. For with them God deals peculiarly by way of Covenant, and not with others. Therefore the way to discover whether we be members of Gods Church, and among the number of his people, is to try whether God hath dealt with us by way of Covenant. Are we in Covenant with God? They that are only outwardly in Co­venant with God, are only outwardly his people: they that are also inwardly in Covenant with God, are inwardly his people also. They that were1 Pet. 2. 20, 21. within the Ark only were saved, whilst those that did cling to the [...]utside of the Ark, as well as those that came not neer the Ark, were drowned.

CHAP. II. 2. Of the Name, General Nature, and Distribution of Gods Covenant.


THe Names given to Gods Covenant with his Church in Scripture, are principally two, viz. Gen. 6. 18. & 9. 12. & 17. 2, 4, 7, 9, 10, 11, 13, 14, 19, 21. Deut. 29. 1. 2 Sam. 23. 5. Ier. 32. 40. & 31. 31, 32, 33. [...] Berith in the Hebrew Original of the Old Testament: and Luke 1. 72. Rom. 9. 4. Gal. 4. 24. Ephes. 2. 12. Heb. 8. 6, 8, 9, 10. [...] Diatheke, in the Greek Original of the New Testament: The true mean­ing and use of which two names will somewhat conduce to the understanding of Gods Covenant. To this end Consider, 1. The Notation of these two names. 2. The various Acceptation of them in Scrip­ture.

I. The Notation of these two Names take thus briefly. I. The Hebrew Name [...] Berith A Covenant; is by learned men derived from several Roots. 1. Some derive it from [...] Bara To Create: because Gods Covenant hath been with his people even ever since the Crea­tion. But this seems too far fetcht asD. Pare­us in Gen. 6. 18. Pareus thinks. 2. Some derive it from [...] Mercer. in P [...]gnin. Lexic. ad verb. [...] Synops. Pur. Theol. D [...]sp. 23. Barar To purifie, make-clear, &c. Because by Covenants open and clear amity is confirmed, and faithfulness is clearly declared and ratified without Sophistication betwixt Co­venanters. And things are made plain and cleare▪ betwixt them. 3. Some derive it from [...] Berath, which importsDictio ve­ro, Berith, 1. Pactum, à fi [...]mitate no­men sortitur: und; Beroth nomen arboris firmae & fortu. Cant. 1. Oleaster. in Pentat. sup. Gen. 6. 18. Compare also Pagnin. in Le [...]. ad▪ verb [...]. firmness, (whence [...] Beroth, is the name of firm and strong tree [...] Cant. 1. 17. as the Ash, Cypress or Fi [...]rtree) because Covenants are firm and sure, and things are confirmed by them. 4. Some derive it from [...] Ba­rah, As it signifies,Bux [...]orf. Lex. in verb. [...]. To choose. Because in making Covenants, there is a choise made of Persons betwixt whom, and of things or Conditions about which there is Covenanting. Or, from [...]. Ba­rah, as it signifies To M. [...]. Ball in h [...]s Treat. of the Covenant. p. 1. eat, because they usually had a Feast at making of Covenants. 5. Some derive it from [...] Bara, or [...] Barah, To smite, strike, cut or divide, (as both these words signifie,) because in making Covenants commonly Sacrifices were stricken and slain for confirmation and solemnity. This last is the Common opinion about the original of this Name, thinks that learnedAnd. Rivet. Exer­oil. 53. in Genes. V [...]. Ri­vet: and doubtless to be preferred before all the former. So this word [...] Berith, Covenant. seems to sound as much, as [...] Kerith, A smiting or striking; because of Sacrifices slain in Cove­nanting. Hence the word Covenant is often joyned with [...] Karath, [Page 11] which signifies striking of Covenant. An example of this beyond all exception (saithAnd Ri­vet. in Gen. 31. Exercitat. 135. Rivet) is in that Sacrifice, wherein God by Moses made a Covenant with all the people of Israel, and bound them to obey his Law. The description of it is Exod. 24. For when Moses had built an Altar at the bottom of Mount Sinai, and had erected twelve pillars according to the twelve Tribes, He caused the young men to sacri­fice burnt-offerings and peace-offerings, and he took half of the blood, and put it in Basons, and half of the blood he sprinkled on the Altar. And he took the Book of the Covenant, and read in the audience of the people: And they said, All that the LORD hath said, will we do, and be obedient. And Moses took the blood, and sprinkled it on the people, and said, Behold the blood of the Covenant, which the LORD hath made with you concerning all these words. And sometimes the Sacrifices slain in Covenanting were cut in twain, and the parties covenanting passed between the Parts for Confirmation of the Covenant, as Gen. 15. 9, 10, 17, &c. Ier. 34. 18, 19, 20. And the Heathen in their Covenanting used Sacrifices and divided them, passing between the parts, as learned men have observ'd; and, probably in imitation of Gods people. And that Phrase,Numb. 18. 19. 2 Chron. 13. 5. A Co­venant of Salt, denoting a Perpetual Covenant, is thought hence to have taken its rise: Not because Salt resisting Putrefaction preserves things; But because Salt by a Perpetual law was to be used in all Sacrifices, and Sacrifices were still used in Covenanting; AsOleast. in Pentat. ad Num. 18. Oleaster, and after himAnd. Ri­vet. in Gen. 31 Exerc. 135▪ Rivet, and after them both,M. Ball of the Cove­nant. chap. 1. M. Ball hath well observed. II. The Greek name [...] Diatheke, A Co­venant, or A Testament; is the word by which, not only the LXXII Greek Translators of the Old Testament do generally, yea everywhere (except only in Deut. 9. 15.) render the Hebrew Name [...] Berith, asIn Synops. Purior. Theo­log. Disp. 23. Thes. 2. some learned men observe: But also up­on diligent search I find that this is theHeb. 8. 8, 9, 10. & 10. 16. only word by which the Apostles and Holy Penmen in the New Testament render the Hebrew word Berith. And this Greek word being translated some­times Covenant, sometimes Testament, is the only word that is used in the whole new Testament for Covenant and Testament: whereso­ever either of these are mentioned, it is still Diatheke. viz. For Co­venant in Luke 1. 72. Acts 3. 25. & 7. 8. Rom. 9. 4. & 11. 27. Gal. 3. 15, 17. 4. 24. Ephes. 2. 12. Heb. 8, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10. & 9. 1, 4. & 10. 16. & 12. 24. & 13. 20. For Testament in Mat. 26. 28. Mark 14. 24. Luke 22. 20. 1 Cor. 11. 25. 2 Cor. 3. 6, 14. Heb. 7. 22. & 9. 15, 16, 17, 18. Revel. 11. 19. And I finde it not used at all in any other places of the New Testament. So that it concerns us much to understand the meaning of this word aright. Now [...] Diatheke, being derived from [...], Diati­themai, signifying, to Dispose, compose, constitute, or make; Syno [...]s. Pur. Theol. Disp. 23. Thes. 2. And. Rivet. in Gen VI. [...] - 53. pag. 271 Lugdun. 1633. Generally it signifies a Disposition or a Disposal, but yet such a Dis­posal wherein a Promise is contained Expresly or Implicitly. And Particularly it signifies either such a Disposal as is meerly fae­deral, viz. A Compact betwixt the living: or such a Disposal as is [Page 12] Testamentary, viz. A last will or Testament of one dying whereby he disposeth of his goods and affairs by Word or Writing. This is to be noted against Papists, who much mistake the Genuine significati­on of the Greek word, Diatheke, restraining it only to a Testamenta­ry disposition. And in the New Testament it is used for a Heb. 8. 8, 9, 10. & 10 16. & 13. 20 Foede­ral Disposition, as well as for a Heb. 9. 15, 16, 17, 18. Mat. 26. 28. Testamental, as our Translatours have well rendered it both ways. And Gods Covenant expressed by it (think H. Ains­worth Annotat. on Gen. 6. 18. Synops. Pur. Theol. Disp. 23. Thes. 3. 4. some) is mixed of the Properties of both Covenant and of Testament, as the Apostle sheweth in Heb. 9. 16, 17. &c. and of both may be named, A Testamental Covenant, or a Covenanting Testa­ment, whereby the disposing of Gods favours and good things to us his children is declared.

II. The various acceptation and use of these two Names in Old and N. Testament is also considerable for the opening of the Covenant.

1. The Hebrew [...] Berith, is used in the New Testament for Compacts or Agreements, 1. Religious. 2. Civil. 3. Sinful.

1. For Religious Compacts or Agreements, 1. Of God with his Church and People. 2. Of Gods People with God.

  • 1. Of God with his Church & People: which is
    • 1. More Ge­nerall, with his whole Church. So Gods Cove­nant is used
      • 1. Properly
        • 1. For Gods Gracious Agreement with his people in Christ, for their happiness and Salvation. Thus the word is used in Gen. 6. 18. & 17. 4. 11. Ex­od. 34. 28. Ier. 31. 31, 32. Heb. 8. 6, 7, 8, 9. And in this sense its used most frequently.
        • 2. For some Branch or Additional only to that A­greement: By a Synechdoche of the part for the whole. As Covenant for not drowning the world, Gen. 9. 9. to 18. For continuing Day and Night, &c. Ier. 33. 20, 25 with Gen. 8. 21, 22. For Earthly blessings, Hos. 2. 18. to 23. Against the particular sin of Idolatry, as Gods Covenant with Israel in the Land of Moab, Deut. 29. 1.
      • 2. Improperly.
        • 1. For Christ, The Mediator of the Covenant. By a Me­tonymy. As Isa. 42. 6. & 49. 8.
        • 2. For Circumcision, The Token and Seal of the Cove­nant. By a Metonymy of the Sign for the thing signi­fied, Gen. 17. 13.
    • 2. More special and peculiar, with some particular persons, or sorts of persons only. Thus the word is used for Gods Covenant-Agreement with
      • 1. Priests and Levites, about their of­fice and maintenance, Numb. 18. 19. Neh. 13. 29. Mal. 2. 4, 5, 8.
      • 2. Phineahs, for an everlasting Priest­hood, Numb. 25. 12, 13.
      • 3. David, for a perpetual Kingdom, 2 Chron 13. 5.
  • 2. Of Gods people with God, engaging them­selves to Duty. And this either
    • 1. More Solemnly in publique Covenants for Reformation. As Iosh. 24. 25. 2 Kings 11. 17. & 23 3. 2 Chron. 15. 12. & 20. 10. Ezra 10. 3.
    • 2. More Secretly in private Resolutions and promises touching points of Sanctification, Iob 31. 1.
  • 2. For Civil Compacts or Agree­ments.
    • 1. Of Man and Woman in Marriage, Mal. 2. 19. Prov. 2. 17.
    • 2. Of particular persons, Societies or States about other se­cular affairs, Gen. 21. 27, 32. Exod. 23. 32. 1 Sam. 18. 3. and 20. 16.
  • 3. For Sinful Compacts or Agree­ments.
    • 1. With Idols: by Idolatry. Metaphorically, Isa. 57. 8.
    • 2. With Death and Hell; by Security. Metaphorically. Isa. 28. 15, 18.

[Page 13]These are the several Acceptations of the Hebrew word Berith, Covenant in the Old Testament, and I finde not any other. Now here the word is Considered in the first sense, as it denoteth a Reli­gious Compact and Agreement of God with his People, more Generally, in order to their Happiness and Salvation.

2. The Greek Name [...], Diatheke, is used also in the New Testament, 1. In a Religious; 2. In a Civil sense.

  • 1. In a Reli­gious use, this Name Diatheke is taken
    • 1. More Pro­perly, and that some­times
      • 1. In a larger Sense, for Gods Covenant of Faith. As Act. 3. 25. Gal. 3. 17. Heb. 8. 6. &c. & 9. 1. &c.
      • 2. In a stricter Sense, for Gods Testament, or for Gods Covenant as it is Testa­mentary, and ratified by the death and blood of a Testator. By Typical blood of Sacrifices: So it denotes the Old Testament. Heb. 9. 18, 19, 20. By Anti-typical or true blood of Christ, the Anti-type: So it denotes the New Testament in his blood, Mat. 26. 28. Luke 22. 20. Heb. 9. 15.
    • 2. More Improperly and Metonymically, for Circumci­sion. By a Metonymy of the Sign. As Act. 7. 8.

2. In a Civil use, this Name [...], Diatheke, in the New Testa­ment, is applyed to signifie A mans Will or Testament whereby he disposeth of his outward Estate, how it shall be bestowed or imploy­ed after his decease. Gal. 3. 15. Heb. 9. 16, 17.

Here, treating of Gods Covenant, we are not to consider the word [...] Covenant or Testament, in a Civil, but in a Religious Sense: And that, as it more Properly signifies, Gods Covenant, in a larger: or Gods Testament, in a stricter Acceptation.

Thus of the Names given to Gods Covenant in Scripture, both in respect of their Grammatical Notation, and of their various Theolo­gical Acceptations. As for the English word Covenant seems to be so called from the Latin Conventio, a Convening, or coming toge­ther: because in making Covenants, men come together not only into one place, but especially into one agreement, &c. League, seems to be derived either from the Latin Lego, To send, because Ambassages or Messages use to be sent about making of Leagues. Or from Ligo, To binde: Leagues being binding to them that enter into them. Covenant, or League: and the Latine words Au­son. Popma de verb. different. lib. 2. in verb. Foedus. Cooks Instit. Part. 1. l. 3. c. 10. Sect. 586. Foedus, Pactum, Testamentum, I insist not upon them, because they are not in the Scripture-Origi­nals. Now to the thing it self.


GOds Covenant (in the General notion of it) is his Gratu­itous Agreement with his people, Promising them Eter­nal Happiness and all subordinate Good: and requiring from them all due dependance upon God, and obedience unto him, in order to his glory.

This Description of Gods Covenant (Generally considered) is of such latitude as to comprehend in it the Nature of all Gods Covenants with his people, though most variously administred to them in their greatest varieties of Conditions, both before and after the Fall. This will best appear, if we view it in the particulars. In this Description note, 1. The general Nature of Gods Covenants. 2. The special Difference of them from all other Covenants.

I. The general Nature of Gods Covenants with his People, it is An Agreement. All Covenants, Divine and Humane, consist in some Agreement. Amos 3. 3. Can two walk together, except they be Agreed? Con­cord is the foundation of all Contracts. Now Gods Agreement with his People is twofold; 1. Implicite only. So Gods Agreement with Adam was implied, Partly by the Compare Gen. 1. 27. & Eccles. 7. 29. with Rom. 2. 14, 15. Inscription of his Law, and Covenant in his heart, which Adam was to perform. Partly by Threatning his Gen. 2. 17. disobedience with death, under which was im­plyed a Promise of life upon his Obedience. 2. Explicite; wherein God plainly Expresseth his Agreement with his people. This he Doth Exod. 34. 28. & 24. 7. Sometimes by word only, As to Gen. 6. 18. & 17. 7. 9. &c. Abraham and the Fa­thers before Moses, before any Scripture was written. (2) Some­times by writing also, As to Exod. 34. 28. & 24. 7. Israel by Moses, and afterwards. Hence such frequent mention of the Tables of the Covenant, and of The Book of the Covenant.

II. The Special Difference betwixt Gods Covenants and all other Co­venants, is contained in the residue of the Description. Chiefly in the 1. Efficient. 2. Matter. 3. Form. And 4. End of Gods Cove­nant.

1. The Efficient Cause or Author of this Covenant is God. It is Gods gratious Agreement. In humane Covenants, where there is some Proportion and Equality betwixt the parties Covenanting, they joyntly are Con-causes, or joynt Authors of their Covenants mutually agreed upon. But betwixt the Most-high God and man, finite and infinite, there being no equality or proportion at all, God alone is the Author of the Covenant betwixt him and his People. And they-must accept what Covenant, and upon what terms, God will please to propound, or none at all. Hence the Covenants be­twixt God and his people, are seldom referred to the people as their Covenants (though in some sense they may be stiled Mal. 2. 10. theirs, viz. As they are parties to them, and obliged to perform the Conditions [Page 15] of them) But generally they are all still in Scripture referred to God, Counted Gen. 6. 18 & 9. 9. & 17. 9 [...]er. 22. 9. & 31. 32. & osten. his Covenants, and said to be made Gen 6. 28. & 17. 7. Deut. 5. 2. & 29. 1. 2 [...]am. 23. 5. Heb 8. 7, 8. 9. &c. by him with them. Thus God alone is the Author of the Covenant: And his free-grace or favour, is the only Inward Impulsive, or Moving Cause why he makes a Covenant with his people. Its his gratuitous Agree­ment with them, God is a most free Agent, and Eph. 1. 5. 7, 9, 11. works all things according to the Counsel and good-pleasure of his own will. It is an Act of his grace and mercy to make Covenant with his people: but having made a Covenant with them, it is an Act of his Justice, Truth and faithfulness to make good and perform Covenant. God freely makes himself our debtor, by Covenanting; God faithfully and justly paies his debt in performing Covenant with us.

2. The Matter of Gods Covenant with his People, is, On Gods part, Eternal happiness and all Subordinate good, Promised to them: On his peoples Part, All due dependance upon God and obedience to him, required of them, and restipulated by them. 1. That Eternal Happiness is the Subject matter in all Gods Cove­nants after the Fall, is evident by the Tenour of them (as will after appear particularly) And in Gods Covenant also before the Fall it cannot be justly doubted. For, when Gen. 2. 17. with Rom. 6. 23. Death, not only corporal and spiritual, but also eternal was threatned and inflicted upon diso­bedience: Consequently not only a Corporal and Spiritual, but also Eternal life was promised and should have been performed upon Obedience. Now where Eternal happiness is promised, all lesser and subordinate good must needs be included, as leading thereunto. And this is clear in all Gods Covenants if exactly considered; which are bundles of Promises touching the life that now is, and that which is to come. 2. And reciprocally Gods peoples due dependance upon God, and obe­dience unto him, is expressed or implied in all Gods Covenants with them. Adam must depend upon God for life; and be exactly obe­dient unto God, not only in keeping the Law moral writ in his heart, but in observing the Gen. 2. 17. Law of trial touching the forbidden fruit. Noah Gen. 6. 14. to the end. Heb. 11. 7. must depend upon God, for preservation from the flood: and also be duely obedient to God in making an Ark for his pre­servation. Abraham Gen. 17. 1, 2. &c. must depend upon God for Canaan Co­venanted, and for the blessedness of all Nations in his seed promi­sed; And he must also duly obey God, in walking before God, in being perfect, and in circumcising all his Males. And the like may be said of all Gods Covenants with his people.

3. The Form of Gods Covenant, Consists in Gods Promising to his people, and his peoples restipulation to God. Promise and Restipulation betwixt federates▪ make up the formality of federal Obligation. Gods Promise is not alwaies Expressed, but sometimes necessarily and by Consequence implyed. As the Promise of life is implyed in the Gen. 2. 17. threatning of death to Adam. And Gods peoples Restipulation is sometimes only implyed; As in Gods Covenant with Adam after the Fall, God expresly Promiseth that the Gen. 3. 15. Seed of the woman shall [Page 16] bruise the Serpents Head; And Adam implicitly restipulateth by faith to accept this Seed of the woman, Christ.

4 The End of Gods Covenant with his People, is his Own Glory. In all things God seeks his own glory, and so should we seek his Glory above all. God by, his Covenant displaies his Glory most Gloriously. Herein shines, The glory of his free Grace in willing it; The Glory of his wisdom in contriving it; The Glory of his goodness mercy and loving-kindness in condescending and stooping to mean man, and that so familiarly in a Covenant-way; The glory of his Liberty, in accepting whom, when, where, and upon what terms he pleaseth, into Covenant with himself, and rejecting also at his pleasure; The Glory of his Iustice and Faithfulness in performing exactly all the Promises and Threats of his Covenant in their Season; And the glory of his Power in Enabling his People accept­ably to perform Covenant with him unto the End.


GOds Covenant with his People is not only one, but di­vers: And it is divers both for Kind, Degree, and Circum­stances. It may be thus distributed or distinguished. Gods Co­venant is, I. Of Gen. 2. 17. Works, in the first Adam, before the fall. II. Of Rom. 3. 20▪ to the end of the ch. Faith, in the second Adam, after the Fall. This Co­venant of Faith is subdistinguished gradually and Accidentally, in respect of the Promise, and Performance, of Christ the second Adam, into 1. The Eph. 2. 12. Covenants of Promise, under the Old Testa­ment; (1) with Gen. 3. 15. Adam; (2) with Gen. 6. 17, 18. &c. Noah; (3) with Gen. 15. 18. & 17. 1. 2. &c. Abraham: (4) with Exod. 24. 1. to 9. Deut. 5. 2, 3, 6. &c. Israel at Sinai: (5) with 2 Sam. 7. 5. to 17. & 23. 5. Psal. 89. David: (6) with the Ier. 32. 37. to the end. Iews about their Return from Babylon. 2. The Ier. 31. 31. to 35. Heb. 8. 8. &c. New Covenant, under the New Testament both with Jews and Gentiles. As in the ensuing Scheme;

Gods Co­venant is two-fold.
  • 1. A Covenant of works, in the first Adam, before the Fall.
  • 2. A Cove­nant of faith in the se­cond Adam, after the Fall; com­prehending
    • 1. The Cove­nants of Pro­mise, under the Old Te­stament.
    • 2. The Covenant of Performance, or the New Covenant, under the New Testa­ment.
  • 1. With Adam.
  • 2. With Noah.
  • 3. With Abraham.
  • 4. With Israel in Mount Sinai.
  • 5. With David.
  • 6. With the Iews about their return from Baby­lon.

[Page 17]This distribution of Gods Covenant, I like best to follow, as con­triving it (without prejudice to any mans judgement) most clear, ful and unexceptionable. For explaining the branches of it, Consider,

1. Gods Covenant is First distributed into 1 A Covenant of works, and 2 A Covenant of faith. This is a Division of Gods Covenant, into its several Species or Kinds, whch are directly opposite to each other. For the Covenant of works, and the Covenant of Faith are two opposite Kinds of Covenants. This upon the Matter seems to be the Apostles distribution; Rom. 3. [...]7. Where is boasting then? It is excluded. By what Law? Of work [...]? Nay: but by the Law of Faith. Here the Apostle is treating of Gods free justification of us in Christ, the way to Eternal Happiness, which God Covenants with his people: and he shews that Gods justification is such, as all boasting is excluded. How? Not by the Law of works, but by the Law of Faith. These amount to as much as the Covenant of works, and the Covenant of Faith. And again it is said, Rom. 4. 13. The Promise that he should be the heir of the world, was not to Abraham or to his seed, through the Law (i. e. the works of the Law) but through the righteousness of Faith. Which intimates thus much, That Gods Covenant with Abraham and his seed to make him heir of the world, was not a Covenant of works, but of Faith. Again, This Distribution Ariseth, from the Opposite Sti­pulations required, works and Faith; from the Opposite foundations of the Covenants, The first Adam, and the second Adam; and from the Opposite States of mankind when these Covenants were made, viz. Before the fall, and After the fall: and therefore it seems very clear.

And inasmumch as all covenants of God with his people, may be referred to one of these two heads, viz. works in the first Adam be­fore the fall, or Faith in the second Adam since the fall, it seems very full.

Hence we may the better see what to judge of other distinctions of Gods Covenant. 1. Some distinguish Gods Covenant, into the Polan. in Partit. Theol. lib. 1. pag. 108. 109. Edit. 1623. Covenant of works, and Covenant of Grace: But the members of this Distinction are not Opposite; for it was an Act of Gods Grace and favour, that he would enter into a Covenant of works with Adam, before as well as after the fall. 2. Some, into the M. Edw. Leigh in his Treat. of Pro­mises. l. 2. c. 1. Le­gal and Evangelical Covenant: But if by Legal Covenant, they un­derstand the Law and Covenant as Published on Mount Sinai, &c. (as usually men do) that seems a great mistake; for that was a publica­tion Evangelical of the Covenant of faith, not of works. If by Legal, they mean Gods Covenant with Adam before the fall, Then the Le­gal and Evangelical Covenant, is for substance the same with the Cove­nant of works and of Faith. 3. Some, into Ioh. Cam­eron in Thes. de 3. Fede­re. Thes. 7. &c. p. 544. &c. in fol. Ge­nev. 1642. The Covenant of Nature, of Grace, and Subservient to the Covenant of Grace. The first was made with Adam in his natural integrity; The second with Adam, Abraham; &c. after the fall, through Christ; The third with Israel at Mount Si­nai which is calld the Old Testament. But (though this be the Distinction of a learned Author, probably devised to avoid some [Page 18] difficulties about the Covenant of Faith, as published on Mount Sinai, yet) it is not without its inconveniencies. For, Gods Covenant with Adam in innocency was not so Natural, but that it was also Gratuitous, and of divine favour, that God would deal so familiarly with Adam as by way of Covenant, from whom as his Creature he might have exacted obedience by an Absolute Command. And this Covenant on Mount Sinai, called Subservient to the Covenant of Grace, is not a distinct Species or Kind of Covenant from the Cove­nant of faith, or Grace, but a distinct publication of the same Covenant, the Manner of Administration being single [...] and the Degree of ma­nifestation clearer then of all before: in respect of which Degree and Manner, it was subservient indeed to the Covenant of Grace, viz. for clearing the foregoing publications, and for preparing to the following publications, Especially to that of the New Covenant.

2 Gods Covenant of Faith, in the second Adam, after the Fall, is Subdistinguished into, 1. The Covenants of Promise. 2. The New Covenant. This Distinction is grounded upon Christ the only Me­diator and foundation of the Covenant of Faith, and upon his dif­ferent Representation in this Covenant. Christ is represented herein, 1. As Promised and to come afterwards, to work our Redemption. And so he is set forth in the Covenants of Promise, To Adam, Noah, &c. 2. As Performed, incarnate, and having suffered already: and so he is set forth in the New Covenant or new Testament solemnly established by his death. Now The Covenants of Promise, and The New Cove­nant are Essentially one and the same Covenant of Faith. Therefore I say, The Covenant of faith Comprehends them: but they differ only Gradually and Accidentally, as after in due place will appear.

3. In The Covenants of Promise, I find no writers observing above five Eminent Gradual steps or Administrations; Gods Covenant with Noah, being generally (but I think, causelesly) omitted by them. Therefore Adding that, I produce six. And why Gods Covenant with Noah is to be ranked among the Eminent Discoveries of the Covenant of Faith, shall be evidenced in handling of that Particular.

BOOK II. OF Gods Covenant, More Particularly.

CHAP I. 1. Of Gods Covenant of works, with the First Adam, and his Na­tural Seed before the Fall.


GOD was pleased to Enter into Covenant with the First Adam, before his Fall. Under the term, See Gen. 1. 26, 27. with Gen. 5. 1, 2. Adam, Scripture sometimes Comprehends both sexes, both Adam and his Wife. And if any shall Contend that God entred into Covenant with both Adam and we at once, as the Compleat Root of mankind, I shall not much gainsay: and yet this will not so easily be proved, nor know I any inconvenience that would follow, should it be denyed, the woman coming of Adam as well as any of his posteri­ty. Nor am I ignorant that August. de Genesi ad Literam. lib. 8. ca [...]. 17. Tom. 3. some are of opinion, that Adam re­ceived the Covenant alone, and was to teach it, and did teach it to his Wife, which Opinion hath the more weight, because when God

[Page 20] Gen. 2. 16, 17. forbids the Eating of the tree of knowledge under pain of Death, (wherein the Promise of life contrariwise is implied,) he speaks only in the Singular number, viz. To Adam only.

But how may it be evidenced, That God entred into Covenent with the first Adam, even into a Covenant of Works, before the Fall? Answ. Though it be not Positively and plainly said in Scripture, That God gave Adam a Covenant of Works, before his fall: and though the cha­racters and footsteps of this Covenant are not so expresly discovered in Holy Writ, as of some others; yet notwithstanding, upon sundry Scripture-grounds and Considerations, it may be evinced suffici­ently. As,

1. From the Inscription of the Covenant of Works in Adam's heart. Before the Fall God wrote the Covenant of Works, viz. The Sub­stance of the Moral Law, perfectly in Adam's heart; and in so doing, Entred into Covenant with him. Here are three thing in this Posi­tion to be cleared; viz. 1. That the Moral Law is the Covenant of Works. 2. That this Moral Law was perfectly written in Adams heart be­fore the Fall. 3. That God in writing the Moral Law in his heart, Entred into Covenant of Works with him. 1. That the Moral Law (abstractly and precisely in its self considered, without the additionals, viz. The Preface, Ceremonial Law, &c. Exod. 20. 2, 3, &c. with 24. 18. & 25. 1, 2 &c. joyntly promulged with it in Horeb) is the Covenant of Works, is manifest; (1) Because, the Moral Law Rom. 3. 20. (by which is the knowledge of Sin, and Rom. 4. 15. which worketh wrath) is stiled by the Apostle Rom. 3. 27. with Gal. 3. 18. The Law of works▪ and is set in Opposition to The Law of Faith. Now this Law of Works, and Law of Faith, amount in effect to as much as the Covenant of works, and Covenant of Faith. (2) Because Gal. 3. 21, 22. Righteousness and life were at first by the Moral Law, and should have been so still, had not the Law become unable to give Righteousness and life, in that it was Rom. 8. 3. weak through the flesh, Man through Sin being unable to keep it. Now the Law, re­quiring obedience, and promising life upon that Condition, must needs be a Covenant, and that a Covenant of Works: Works be­ing the proper Condition of it. 2. That this Moral Law for Substance was perfectly written in Adams heart before the Fall, is certain; (1) Be­cause, Man was made in Gen. 1. 26, 27. Gods image Eccles. 7. 29. upright, and perfect. And consequently was throughly furnished with all accomplish­ments of upright and perfect Humane nature: and particularly with the Moral Law, that Law of Nature; The Substance whereof was Engraven Both in his mind, by natural light, knowing it; and in his will, by natural integrity conforming unto it. (2) Because, The Rom. 2. 14, 15. Work of the Law remains imperfectly written in some dim cha­racters in the very hearts of Pagans and Heathens since the Fall; They doing by Nature the things contained in the Law, and being a Law unto themselves, without the Law of God written. Whence we may strongly Conclude That much more before the Fall the Moral Law was perfectly written in Adam's heart, there being in him no sin to deface it in the least degree. 3. That, God, in writing the Moral Law [Page 21] in Adam's heart, entred into Covenant of Works with him. viz. By Real Impressions upon his Heart: though not by Verbal Expressions to the ear. For by this Law written in Adam's heart, he had laid before him, what obedience was required and assented to on Adams part: And what recompence should be performed on Gods part. And [...] this was at least an Implicit, if not an Explicit, Covenanting.

2. From Gods express prescription of a Positive Law unto Adam in his innocent State. Gods Positive Law is laid down in these words, Gen. 2. 16, 17. And the LORD God commanded the man, saying, Of every Tree of the Garden thou mayst freely eat: But of the Tree of the Knowledge of good and evil, thou shalt not eat of it; for in the day that thou eatest there­of thou shalt surely die. Here are Parties Covenanting, and agreeing up­on terms, viz. God and Adam: Here are also terms agreed upon and matters Covenanted reciprocally by these parties; Adam on his part was to be obedient to God, in forbearing to Eat of the Tree of Knowledge onely: God on his part, for present, Permits Adam to eat of all other Trees of the Garden; And for future (in his explicit threatning of Death in case of disobedience,) implicitly promiseth life in case of Obedience herein. Now where there are Parties Covenanting and agreeing upon terms: And terms mutually agreed up­on by those parties, as here; There's the Substance of an Express Covenant, though it be not formally and in express words called a Covenant:

3. From the intention and use of the two Eminent Trees, viz. Gen. 29. The Tree of Life in the midst of the Garden, and the Tree of Knowledge of good and evil. The intended use of these two Trees in Paradise, was Sacramental. Hence they are called Symbolical Trees, and Sacramental Trees. The Tree of life, signifying to Adam, that if he continued in his obedience, and did eat of that Tree, he should have life continued to him for ever. Gods speech, after the fall of Adam, seems to im­ply thus much; Gen. 3. 22. And now lest he put forth his hand, and take also of the Tree of Life, and eat, and live for ever. And Ioh. Cal­vin. Com. in Gen. 2 9. Some are of opi­nion that this Tree signified Christ the Son of God, in whom Ioh. 1. 3, 4 5. was life, and that life the light of men: and that, by the Son of God (but not as God-man, nor as Mediatour) this everlasting life was to have been confirmed, according to the Sacramental signification of this Tree of Life. The Why so called, See hereafter in this Ch [...]pt. A [...]hor. 4. in the Duty test [...]pu­lated. Quest. 2. Doubt. 1. Tree of Knowledge▪ of good and evil, signifying al­so to Adam contrariwife, Gen. 2. 16, 17. That if he should become disobedient, and eat of that Tree, in that very day he should certainly Die. The former was a Sacrament of life, this of Death: That for Confirmation [...] Obedience, this for Exploration of Obedience, and Caution against disobedience. And learned Writers both Ancient and Modern, Count these Trees Symbolical, and Sacramental. Augustine saith, Erat ergo & lignum vi [...] quemadmodum petra Christus: nec sine mysteriis rerum spiritualium corporaliter praelentatis voluit hominem Deus in Paradiso vivere. Exat ei ergo in lignis caeteris Alime [...]tum, in illo autem Sacramentum, &c. August. de Genesi [...]d literam l. 8. c. 4. Tom. 3. Ba­sil. 169. There was a Tree of life, as the Rock was Christ: Nor would God [Page 22] have man to live in Paradise without mysteries of Spiritual things corpo­rally represented. He had therefore in the other Trees, nourishment; but in that Tree, A Sacrament. B. Hall said wittily B. Hall in his Contempla­tions. lib. 1. Of Paradise. p. 816. in fol. Neither did these Trees afford him onely action for his hands, but instruction to his heart: For here he saw Gods Sacraments grow before him. All other Trees had a Na­tural use; these two in the midst of the Garden a Spiritual.—The one Tree was for confirmation; the other for Tryal. One shewed him what life he should have; The other what knowledge he should not desire to have. Alas, he that Knew all other things, knew not this one thing, that he knew enough, &c. M. Perkins more solidly; M. W. Perkins in his Exposit. of the Creed. p. 152. A. Volum. 1. London 1626. and in his Or­der of Causes, &c. p. 17, 18. ibid. Now for Adam's Sacraments, they were two; The Tree of life, and the Tree of the Knowledge of good and evil: These did serve to exercise Adam in obedience unto God. The Tree of Life was to signifie assurance of life for ever, if he did keep Gods Commandments: The Tree of Knowledge of good and evil, was a Sacra­ment to shew unto him, that if he did transgress Gods Commandments, he should dye: and it was so called, because it did Signifie, that if he did trans­gress this Law, he should have experience both of good and evil in himself. To like effect, Iohn Cal­vin. Com. in Gen. 2. 6.—D. Pareus. in Gen. 2. 9.—H. Ainsworth in his Annot. on Gen. 2. 6.—Polan. Partit. Theolog. lib. 1. p. 170. &c. Edit. 1623. many other Authors express themselves. Now if these two Trees, were two Sacraments, assuring of life in case of Obedi­ence, and of Death in case of Disobedience; then hence we may col­lect, That God not only entred into a Covenant of works with the first Adam, but also Gave him this Covenant under Sacramental Signs and Seals.

4. Finally, From the sad event and fruit of the first Adams Fall, to all his ordinary Posterity, even all mankind: viz. Guilt of Sin and Death. The Apostle faith, That in one man (that is, Adam) all sinned; and 1 Cor. 15. 22. That, in Adam all dye. Rom. 5. 12. See also all the Context following to the end of the chap. As by one man sin entred into the world, and Death by sin: Even so Death passed upon all men (viz. by that one man,) in whom all have sinned. Thus the words are best translated, as some Ludovic. de Dieu in A­nimadvers. ad Rom. 5. 12. M. Anthony Burges of Iust­fication▪ Lect. 21. p. 185. learned men have well observed. So then in one Adams sin­ning, all sinned: and in one Adam's dying all dyed; As the Apostle at large shewes in that fift to the Romans. But how did all mankin [...] sin in Adam? Answ. Not only by Imitation of Adam as an evil example: for Death feized on them that have not so finned, not actually sinned, Rom. 5. 14. Nor meerly by Propagation, as [...]rom a corrupt Root or foun­tain. For the Apostle doth not parallel Adam and Christ as two com­mon Roots only, but also as two common publike or universal Per­sons. For our immediate parents are Corrupted roots, & we corrupted by them, yet their Actual Sins are not made ours, as Adams is. But in Adams first Sin, we all became Sinners, by Imputation: Adam being an universal Person, and all mankinde one in him by Gods Covenant of works (as after will appear.) Omnes ille unus homo suerunt. Au­gust. All were that one man, as Augustine saith; viz. by federal Consociation. God covenanted with Adam, and in him with all his Posterity: and therefore Adams breach of Cove­nant fell not only upon him, but upon all his Posterity.


GOds Entring into Covenant with Adam before his fall, was an Act of Divine Grace and favour, not of debt.

For, 1. God the Creator of Adam and of all things, hath an absolute Supremacy over all, and as absolute a liberty to dispose, as he will, of all. He might as Creator have dealt only in a Supream way of Com­mand, requiring duty from Adam without any Promise of Reward: But he condescends to Adam, Enters into a Covenant and Promise with him of his meer good pleasure, being no way Necessitated or Obliged thereunto. And that was meer Grace. 2. Adam though perfect and upright, and though perfectly persevering in that integrity, could merit no reward, nor any Promise of Reward. For when he had done all he could, he should have been an unprofitable servant, ha­ving done nothing but what was duty. And though Adam had walk­ed in perfect Obedience with God, yet might not God (without any wrong to Adam) for the Manifesting of his Soveraignty, power and liberty, have brought him to nothing as he made him of no­thing?

Hence; 1. Adam had great Cause, before his fall, to serve the Lord most freely and cheerfully in all obedience. God creates him: therefore Adam owed him all. God Covenants with him: therefore he ows him (if it were possible) more then all. By bonds of Nature, Adam was obliged to be dutiful: by obligation of Covenant-favour, to be double dutiful. For his Being he owed him much: for his wel being, he owed him more. 2. The more divine favour shined in Gods Covenant with Adam; the more Haynous and inexcusable was Adams breach of Covenant with God. Gods Kindness heightens and aggravates Adams unkindness. 3. If Gods Covenant with the First Adam, in his integrity, was an Act of Divine Grace: Then Gods Covenant with lapsed man, in Christ the second Adam, is an Act of superabounding and Tanscen­dent Grace. If Adam, whilst he was without Sin, and able not to Sin, could deserve nothing from God: what can we deserve or chal­lenge from God, who [...]re nothing but lumps of sin, and can do no­thing but sin?


GOd Entring into Covenant with the first Adam before his Fall▪ did, in and with him, Enter into the same Cove­nant with all his Posterity.

This is Evident; 1. By the Miserable Event of Adams breach [Page 24] of this Covenant upon all his Posterity. In Adams Sinning, all his Posterity Sinned: and in Adams dying they all dyed. Rom 5. 12. As by one man sin entered into the world, and death by sin: and so death passed upon all men, for that all have sinned. Or as the Greek will well bear it; In whom all have sinned. Or (as a Lud. de Dieu in A i­madvers. in Ep. ad Rom. 5. 12. Learned Critick hath well ob­served, whom in this particular I rather follow) This verse may best be rendered thus; As by one man sin entered into the world, and by sin Death; even so death passed upon all men, for that all have sinned. Here's no forcing of the Text; and thus the sense runs clear. But, How have all men sinned, and so death passed upon them? All have not sinned. Rom. 5. 14. Actually, as Adam sinned: for many dye before they are Capable of Actual sinning. How then? All are sinners Originally, by reason of the Psal. 51. 5. Ioh. 3. 6. Corruption of Nature. True; yet the Apostle reacheth farther, saying, Rom. 5. 18. [...]. By the offence of one (or, by one offence) judgement came upon all men unto condemnation. There­fore by Adams one offence, all men are condemned: and that before they actually Sin, or are originally unclean. How can this be, but in reference to the Covenant, wherein Adam and all his posterity, were one party, as God the other? 2. By the Analogy Or Proportion of Gods dealing in all other Covenants. His usual course is to take in Head and members, Root and branches. As, Gen 3. 15. Christ the last Adam and his posterity; Gen. 6. 18. Noah, and his family, Gen. 17. 7. 8. Abraham, 2 Sam. 7. 16. Psal. 89. Da­vid Acts 2. 39. with Isa. 59. 21. Israel, and their Seed, and their Seeds Seed. In like man­ner here God deals with Adam and his Posterity Proportionably; God took them all into Covenant with Adam the Common Head, and Root of them all.


THe Covenant which God made with the First Adam and his Posterity before the Fall, hath upon several respects divers Names or Denominations put upon it; but for the Nature of it, It is Gods gratious Agreement with Adam, and with his Poste­rity, in him, To give them Eternal life and happiness, upon condition of Perfect and Personal obedience. For opening the Names and Nature of this Covenant particularly, consider;

I. The Names or Denominations which learned men attribute to this Covenant, are divers, and that upon divers Notions and Considerations. As, 1. A M. Ioh. Ball of the Co­venant. ch: 2. Covenant of Amity, or Friendship. Because the parties to this Covenant, God and Adam with his Posterity, were in perfect Amity, when this Covenant was made: there was no Enmity or Discord at all betwixt them. Adam (as Innocens erat, & Deo de proximo amicus, & Paradisi colo­nus. Tertul. de Patient. lib. p. 130. 10. Fran [...]ker. 1597. Tertulli­an expresseth it) was innocent, a most near friend to God, and inhabitant of Paradise, 2. A Ioh. Camer. de Federe Thes 7. 8. 9. Covenant of Nature. Because founded upon [Page 25] Creation, and the integrity of mans Nature; and requiring only a natural righteousness. 3. A See the lesser Catech. Advised by the Assemb. of Di­vines. Covenant of Life. In respect of that happy Life which God implicitly promised to Adam therein. For, under the threatning of death, expressed in case of disobedience, The Promise of life is implyed in case of obedience. 4. A Legal Covenant, or Covenant of Works, In respect of Adams Restipulation of Exact obedience required of God; Legal works in all points perfect being the Condition of this Covenant. This last denomination, unto me seems fittest, for Reasons See before. in B [...]ok I. ch. 2. Aphor. 3. formerly mentioned.

II. The Nature of this Covenant is in this Description repre­sented by 1. The Author; 2. Parties; 3. Form; and 4. Matter of it.

1. The Author of it, is God. Adam even in innocency stood not upon Equal terms with God, but infinitely below him, as a Crea­ture below his Creator. Therefore it concerned him, not to Capi­tulate or indent with God about the Covenant, but humbly and thankfully to accept what Covenant the righteous God would im­pose. Now God became the Author of this Covenant of works with Adam two waies, viz. 1. By giving Adam the substance, Law and Rule of this Covenant, both Inwardly, and Outwardly. Inwardly, in his engraving the Substance of the Moral-law upon his heart: Some dim Characters whereof remain still even Rom. 2. 14, 15. upon the hearts of Pagans that have not Gods written Law. Outwardly, in that Express Positive Law about the Tree of Knowledge, Gen. 2. 16, 17. forbidding to eat thereof under penalty of present Death: but implicitly pro­mising life in case of not eating, in case of obedience: This former was the General Rule for his direction in obedience: This Latter was the special Touchstone for Exploration & Detection of his Obedience. 2. By annexing two Tokens or Sacramental Signs to this Covenant, viz. Gen. 2. 9, 17. & 3 22. The Tree of Life, To assure Adam of the certainty of life promi­sed, in Case of perfect Obedience: And the Tree of Knowledge, to assure him of the Certainty of Death, in case of Disobedience. Aug st. de Genesi. ad Liter. lib 8. c. 4. Tom. 3. D. Pareus in Comment. in Genes. 2. 9. Learned men are of opinion, that these two trees were Sacramental Trees.

2. The Parties to this Covenant of works, are God, and Adam toge­ther with Adams Posteritie in him. God, As a Creator, wel-pleased with Adam, Covenants with Adam as his Creature, fashioned accor­ding to his own image, and perfectly upright without all spot of Sin. In this Notion, they were Parties to this Covenant of works; but in a far other notion afterwards to the Covenant of Faith.

3. The Form of this Covenant consists in the Agreement betwixt God and Adam; viz. Compare and well weigh Gen. 1. 26, 27. & 2. 16, 17. Eccles. 7. 29. with Gal 3. 10. That Adam in his own Person should yield perfect and perpetual obedience unto God, and Particularly should discover his obedience in forbearing to eat of the tree of Knowledge: and in so doing he should live happily, otherwise dye presently. This the sum of the Agreement. God propounds it; Annexes two Sa­cramental Trees for confirming it: Adam Accepts it.

Now that God should engage himself by Promise and Covenant to give Adam Life in case of obedience, and should also annex two [Page 26] Signs or Tokens to this Covenant: These were Acts of meer fa­vour and Grace from God. Adam could in no respect challenge or expect the one or the other, though he had been never so obedient. Hence it may well be stiled Gods Gracious Agreement with Adam.

4. The Matter of this Covenant was principally twofold. viz. 1. The blessing Promised, and curse threatned on Gods part. 2. The Duty Resti­pulated on Adams part.

(1) The Blessing promised and Curse threatned, is the mat­ter of the Covenant on Gods Part, Gen. 2. 17. For, in the day that thou eatest thereof, thou shalt surely dye. Contrariwise he implied; Till the day that thou eatest thereof, thou shalt surely live. For clearing this, divers Doubts or Questions hereunto appertaining, are to be resolved. As; 1. What Life Adam had in his innocency? 2. What Life it was which God farther Promised him, upon his persisting in obedience? 3. What death it was which God threatned in case of Disobedience? 4. How Gods threatning of Death was fulfilled, Seeing Adam did not dye in the self-same day; that he did eat of the tree of Knowledge, but Gen. 5. 5. lived 930 years after?

Quest. 1. What life it was which Adam Enioyed in innocen­cy? Answ. It is not here the Question; whether Adam's Life in Innocency was Natural, or Supernatural? And I suppose it will easily be Granted, That, as Gods Law written in Adams heart, as the Rule of his life, was Natural: And as Gods Image, wherein A­dam was Created, As the Principle of his obedience and of his living to God, was Natural: and as every thing in Adams primitive Created state was Natural: So his life that he lived in innocency with God & to God, was Natural. But the Question here is; whether Adam had a Mortal or Immortal life in Innocency? If Mortal; How could it be ren­dred immortal? If Immortal: Then the Promise of life seems needless.

For resolution herein, Consider; (As Andr. Rivet. in Gen. 2. Exercit. 19, 20, 21. D. Pareus in Gen. 2. 7. learned men well ob­serve.) A thing may be said to be Immortal several waies. 1. When it is simply, absolutely and every way incorruptible: ha­ving no possible cause of corruption, Inward or Outward. Thus, God 1 Tim. 6. 16. only hath immortality. 2. When it hath, by reason of the Per­fection of its Nature, no inward matter or caus of corruption, though it may be destroyed from without; as from God. Thus Angels and Math. 10. 28. Souls of men are Immortal. And so Adams soul had an immor­tal life in innocency; yea and every mans soul even since the fall re­mains still immortal in this Sense. 3. When it is in its own Nature corruptible; but yet, by the power, or Grace, or Justice of God, is pre­served that it neither is nor can be corrupted. Thus the Spiritualized Bodies of the Saints in Heaven; The bodies of Reprobates in Hell; The New Heavens and New Earth, &c. shall be Immortal. 4. When it hath a power not to dye, from some gift of the Creator, or from some other supposition: yet in its own Nature it is Corruptible. Thus, Adam was immortal in innocency; not by an inability of Dy­ing, but by an ability of not dying. Which ability of not dying, Adam and his posterity should still have retained, according to Gods [Page 27] Covenant and Promise if he had not fallen: And Gods power, grace and justice would have preserved him still in this immortal life, upon supposition of his perfect obedience. Adam then before the Fall had an immortal life; His Soul being inwardly, and in it self immortal: and his body being (though inwardly and in it self corruptible, yet) outwardly and from God rendred incorruptible. It had a remote capacity of dying: and yet an immediate ability of not dying: So that; Adam in innocency had a possibility of not dying, if he sinned not: Saints in glory shall have an impossibility of both sinning and of dy­ing. And though before the Fall Adam had a Mortality, or remote ca­pacity of dying: yet since the fall both he, and all his, have an actual necessity of dying.

Quest. 2. What life it was which God further promised Adam▪ upon his persisting in Obedience? Answ. 1. It seems clear, that not only a temporary life, only for some limited time, was pro­mised Adam; but even an Eternal life, without end, in case of perfect obedience. Forasmuch as not only Temporal, but also Compare Gen. 2. 17. with Rom. 5. 12, 16, 18. Mat. 25. ult Rom. 6. ult. Eternal Death was threatned to Adam, and inflicted on his Posterity, for disobedience. 2. But whether Adam should have enjoyed this Eter­nal life still in the Earthly Paradise, or should after some certain time have been translated and taken up to the Heavenly Paradise: that is by some Disputed. Yet, (1) Seeing Scripture is silent touching any such Translation, and (2) Seeing the giving of the Heavenly Para­dise is the Prerogative of Christ the Last Adam, the Heavenly Adam, as the Earthly Paradise came by the First and the Earthly Adam; it would argue too much temerity to determine upon it. This is cer­tain, His everlasting life would have been a most sweet and happy life with God.

Quest. 3. What death it was which God threatned Adam in case of disobedience? Answ. Whatsoever comes under the Name and Notion of Death, was threatned to Adam, in that phrase, Gen. 2. 17. Thou shalt surely dye; or in dying thou shalt dye as the Hebrew Phrase affords it. And the doubling of the Hebrew word seems to imply thus much, As some learned Hebrews are of opinion. Now Death is the Privation of Life: and this, by Separation of that which lives, from the Principle or Fountain of its living. Life consists in union: Death in dis-union, or Separation. This, the Nature of death in gene­ral. Hence particularly there is a manifold Death. I. A Death temporal, viz. A Death for a time only. 1. Of the soul, when by sin its separated from God, from his image, and from the Eph. 4. 18. Life of God. Eph. 2. 1, 5. Dead in trespasses and sins.1 Tim. 5. 6. She that liveth in pleasure, is Dead while she liveth.Luke 9. 60. Let the dead bury their dead. 2. Of the Body, (1) When its separated from the Soul by Natures dissolution. And this, the most common acceptation of Death. Thus, Iohn 11. 14. Lazarus is Dead. Ioh. 8. 52. Abraham is dead, and the Prophets. (2) When it is gradually in any measure disposed or prepared for such a Separation, by afflicti­ons, pains, diseases, infirmities, &c. Hence such afflictions, &c. are [Page 28] called Death, because they are Death's Harbingers, and steps thereto. As not the running out of the last sand, but also of all that went be­fore, empties the Hour-glass: not the last stroke, but also the fore-going blows, fell the tree.—Exod. 10. 17. Take from me this Death only.2 Kings 4. 40. There is Death in the Pot.1 Cor. 15. 31. I dy daily.2 Cor. 11. 23. In deaths often. II. A Death eternal of both body and soul, when by damnation particular or universal they shall be separated from the glorious fruition of God and his favour for evermore. This is called Rev. 20. 14. the second Death, Mat. 25. 46. Everlasting Punishment, &c. These are se­veral sorts of Death mentioned in Scripture. Now all these were Threatned to Adam in case of disobedience. viz.

Death Eternal both of Body and Soul. For, 1. Death Eternal is the most full adequate proportionable Rom. 6. 23. wages of sin, as the Apostle intimates in opposing there eternal life to Death. And the due wages of sin was threatned to Adam. 2. The Threatning limits not Death; therefore no death can be excluded, consequently not eternal Death. 3. Guilt of Eternal Death and Condemnation comes upon all Adams posterity by his fall, as Rom. 5. 12, 16, 18. with Mat. 25. ult. the Apostle intimates; and the Actual execution of it shall come upon Reprobates, as Christ implies: therefore in the threatning God intended Eternal Death.

Temporal Death of the Soul in Sin. For Sin Eph. 4. 17, 18. Col. 1. 21. Rom. 8. 7. in its own Nature alienates and separates from God and his favour, which is the Spiritual Death of the Soul, for so long time, till the Soul be reconciled to God.

Temporal Death of the Body, in separation of it from the Soul, was al­so threatned to Adam in a special manner. For, 1. Death and Dying, in their most usual and proper acceptation import the dissolution of Soul and Body: and the most usual and proper Sense of the words should here especially be taken. 2. The Sentence of Corporal Death was denounced by God upon Adam after his Fall. Gen. 3. 19. In the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat bread, till thou return unto the ground: For out of it wast thou taken; For dust thou art, and unto dust thou shalt return. Therefore Death corporal was threatned to Adam before the Fall. 3. The Apostle doth partly interpret this Death inflicted upon Rom. 5. 12, 14. all men for Adam's sin, to be the Death of the Body. For all men do not dy Eternally.

Finally, under the name of Death, were threatned to Adam, all manner of Evils and afflictions, whether in the Soul, as grief, fear, hor­ror, &c. Or in the Body, hunger, thirst, pains, diseases, &c. Even all in-lets, Preparatories and Harbingers of Death. For, 1. All these are as so many Gradual and Partial Deaths. Hence Scripture Exod. 10 17. [...] Kings 4. 10. 1 Cor. 15. 31. [...] Cor. 11. 23. of­ten cals them by the name of Death. 2. In inflicting the Death threat­ned upon Adam and Eve, and their posterity, God lays on them these afflictions, of Gen. 3, 16, 17, 18, 19. sorrow, sweating, toyl, &c. therefore in threatning Death, he intended all such afflictions. By all this it appears it was no small matter that God threatned to Adam under the Name of Death, in case of his Disobedience.

[Page 29] Quest. 4. But How was Gods Threatning truly fulfi [...]ed, Seeing Adam in the day that he did eat of the forbidden Tree, did not dy: but lived many hundreds of years after? Gen 5. 5. Answ. For clearing of this doubt, I. Some say, That Adam dying within a thousand years after his Fall, dyed the same day he fell: be­cause 2 Pet. 3. 8. with the Lord a thousand years are but as one day, and one day as a thousand years. But this is rejected, as too much forced. In Histori­cal Books, as this of Genesis, the word [Day] being alwaies taken in its proper Signification. And this is a very needless shift. II. Some of the Hebrews were of Opinion, That this Speech of God was not Peremptorily Definitive and determinatory, but only Minatory, like that pronounced against the Ion. 3. 4. Ninevites. And that Adam re­penting, he did not presently dy, as otherwise he would have done. But Adam presently repented not till God extorted it from him: but rather did Gen. 3. 10, 11, 12. excuse and extenuate his fault. And though Adam repented, yet he dyed, and that presently, in some sense, as after will appear. This therefore satisfies not. III. Some re­fer this word [in the day] in the Threatning, to Adams Eating, not to his Dying: and take those words absolutely, [Thou shalt sure­ly dy.] As if God had intimated, There was no day, no time ex­cepted, but if they did eat any day whatsoever, They should dy; but he tels them not when they shall so dye. But this Resolution seems too dilute, more witty then solid, and too much to force the text. IIII. Others joyning the Circumstance of the Day with the Threatning of Death, conceive that in the self-same day that Adam Sinned, he did dy the Death; And that the threatning was presently fulfilled upon his sinning. And this, as it is the commonest, so it is the best Resolution. But let us see how Adam dyed, in the same day wherein he sinned. 1. In his Soul he was presently Gen. 3. 7, 8, 10. sepa­rated from God by sin, and dyed Spiritually. Sin, in the inward Na­ture of it, carries death in it. Eph. 2. 1. Dead in trespasses and sins. Adam had no sooner sinned, but he was dead in sin: being immediately de­prived of the Image of God, of the Favour of God, and of Commu­nion with God, which was the life of his Soul. 2. In his Body he dyed also in the same day wherein he sinned. But how? Not Actu­ally; For God intending Acts 17. 26. to make of one blood, all Nations of men, did respite the actual execution of bodily Death on Adam, till he had a considerable posterity. But in his body he died the same day, (1) In respect of the Guilt of Death Corporal; He according to his desert, was presently condemned, and under Sentence of Death, though re­prieved for a time. Now we count a condemned man, a dead man. (2) In respect of the inevitable Necessity of Death Corporal, which he contracted upon himself. He became presently Mortal: though he did not presently dy. He that before his fall had an ability of not dying, after his fall brought upon himself an impossibility of not dy­ing. Hence Hierome commends Symmachus his version, who instead of [Thou shalt dy,] renders it, [Thou shalt be mortal:] as And. Ri­vet. in Gen. 2. Exercit [...]. 11. Ri­vet [Page 30] observes. So then Adam in Paradise before his Fall, had a Posse non mori, an ability of not dying: After the Fall, a non posse non mori, an impossibility of not dying: In heaven he shall have, a non posse mori, An impossibility of dying any more. (3) In respect of the Experi­mental beginnings, Symptomes, Signs, and Harbingers of Death Corporal. Adam presently begun to feel, heat, cold, weariness, &c. His natural heat and radical moisture began to consume one another, and so went on, till the accomplishment of Death. So that as a wounded man cries out, I am a dead man: so Adam, beginning to be wounded with afflictions, might cry out, I am a dead man. 3. In both his Soul and Body, Adam was presently liable to Rom. 6. 23. Adam non quidem è vesti­gio mori [...]batur morte corpora­li; statim ta­men fic [...]at mortalis, paulatim mo­riebatur; & mox [...]rat mortuus morte aeterna. D. Zach. Ursin. in Ex­plicat. Cate­chet. part. [...]. Quest. 40. eternal death, the proper wages of Sin, & under the arrest of Gods wrath & Curse.

Thus of the Blessing Promised, and Curse threatned, the Matter of the Covenant of works on Gods part.

(2.) The Duty restipulated▪ the Matter of the Covenant on Adams part, was Perfect and Perpetual Personal Obedience. For clear­ing of this, two Questions are to be resolved. 1. How it may appear That such obedience was required of Adam, and restipulated. 2. What was the Law Rule or Measure of Adams Obedience?

Quest. 1. How it may appear, that God required of Adam in this Covenant such Perfect and Perpetual Personal obedi­ence, and that Adam restipulated such obedience? Answ. That Perfect and Perpetual Personal Obedience was required by God, and re­stipulated on Adams part, is evident divers waies. As 1. From the Manner of Gods threatning. He threatens present Death upon the least single Act of Adams Personal disobedience: Gen. 2. 17. In the day that thou eatest thereof thou shalt surely dye. Consequently God Covenanted with Adam for such Personal Obedience, as should be both Perfect and constant. The least Act of disobedience destroys both the per­fection and constancy of Obedience. 2. From the Nature of the Covenant of works, which requires all exactness of personal obedi­ence both for kind, degree and duration, under a Curse. Gal. 3. 10. with Deut. 27. 26. Cursed is every one that continueth not in all things, which are written in the Book of the Law to do them. Here's Obedience, Personal Obedience, Perfect Obedience, and Perpetual Obedience required by the Legal Cove­nant of works. And the Law was never given as a Covenant of works, but only to Adam in innocency. 3. From Gods process in judgement with Adam and his Posterity upon one Act of Disobedi­ence. He brought the threatned Rom. 5. 12, 18. Death upon them, as hath been explained. Which God would not have done, had he not Covenant­ed with Adam, for perfect and perpetual Personal Obedience. 4. From Gods mysterious method in Repairing the First Adams Breach of the Covenant of works through disobedience: by the Last Adams exact fulfilling and satisfying of the Covenant of works through obedience. Now the last Adam Jesus Christ God-man exact­ly fulfilled and satisfied the Covenant of works through obedience, Passively, and Actively. Passively, whilest Christ, as our Surety, [Page 31] humbled himself Phil. 2. 8. and became obedient to the Death, even the Death up­on the Cross; and Gal. 3. 10. 13. so became a Curse for us, to redeem us from the Curse of the Law, or Covenant of works, by satisfying Divine justice to the full for our Breach of Covenant in Adam. Actively, whilest Christ as our Mediator Gal. 4. 4, 5. Mat. 3. 15. actually kept and fulfilled the whole Law, or Covenant of works in every kind, degree, and circumstance of Duty for us, who of our selves are no way able to keep it. That so the Rom. [...]. 18, 19. & 10. 4. whole obedience and righteousness of Christ may be through faith imputed to us: Rom. 8. 3, 4. that the righteousness of the Law might be fulfilled in us, who walk not after the flesh, but after the Spirit So then, the Covenant of works must be fulfilled and made good. The first Adam could not do it, because he had broken it: the Last Adam is therefore brought in, to fulfil all righteousness, and satisfie for all our unrighteousness. If then the Breach of the Covenant was made up again by the Last Adams Perfect and Constant personal obedience: sure that breach was made by the First Adams failing in such Obedience. Therefore Perfect and Constant personal obedience was required of the First Adam therein.

Quest. 2 What was the Law Rule or Measure of Adams Obedience? Answ. The Law or Rule for Adams Obedience was 1. More Generally the whole Covenant of works. 2. More Particularly the two sorts of Laws Comprehended in the Covenant of works, viz. I. The Moral Law written in Adams heart. For, why was it written there, but to be an inward Rule and Principle of his Obedi­ence? And that it was written in Adams heart before the fall, is evident, because even Rom. 2. 14, 15. Pagans which have not the written Law, yet have the work of the Law written in their hearts, doing by Na­ture the things contained in the Law, after the fall. II. The positive Law of Gen. 2. 17. not eating of the tree of Knowledge under pain of Death. I call it A Positive Law, because it meerly depended upon the will of the imposer: the not eating of that Tree was not engraven in Nature, but meerly imposed at the pleasure of the Law-giver. The subject­matter of the Law, viz. The Eating or not Eating of the tree of Knowledge, was not bad or good in it self, more then of other Trees; but only in respect of Gods Prohibition, it became bad and unlawful to eat of it. This Positive Law some call a Symbolical Precept, because Adams Obedience thereto was to have been a Symbol or outward Te­stimony of his Obedience and service to God; His Homage-penny, &c. Some call it A Precept of Exploration, because it was given as a Special Law for Tryal & discovery of Adams Obedience. Doubt. 1. But why is this forbidden Tree called The Tree of knowledge of Good and Evil? Answ. This Tree was so called, I. Not from any in­ward vertue in it, to confer the use of Reason to our first Parents, who are imagined to be created like Infants without the use of Reason, as some Vid. And. Rivet. in Gen. 2. Exercitat. xviii. Hebrews think; but erroneously. For, 1. Why should God prescribe to them such a Law with a Capital penalty, who had not the use of Reason? 2. Adam had such use of Reason, that upon [Page 32] the first sight he could Gen. 2. 19, 20. Name the creatures according to their Natures. And understoood that the woman, brought to him Gen. 2. 22, 23, 24. was bone of his bone, and flesh of his flesh, &c. II. Not from any effect or phy­sical efficacy of it, for increasing of Knowledge either by working it immediately upon the Soul: or immediately upon the animal spirits, re­freshing and awaking them, and so mediately upon the soul: As Ioseph. Iud. Antiq. lib. 1. some think, but falsly. For, 1. The Material fruit could not im­mediately act upon the immaterial Soul, to improve knowledge. 2. All the Trees of the Garden tended to refresh and enliven the Spirits, being good for food: and upon that account should all of them be cal­led Trees of Knowledge. 3. Could this [...]ree have increased Adams Knowledge, can it be imagined God would have forbid him a Tree so advantagious, and envyed him so much good? 4. Then Adams eat­ing of that Tree was not such an Aggravation of his Sin, The mat­ter of the Prohibition being not small, as Learned writers unanimous­ly judge, and aggravate his sin thereby; but great, and that Tree of more Consequence then all the other Trees of the Garden for im­provement of Knowledge, and Consequently Adams strength in Abstinence from it must needs be the more. III. Nor Finally was this Tree called The Tree of Knowledge from the Serpents Suggesti­on in his Temptation,—Gen. 3. 5. ye shall be as Gods knowing good and evil, as Rupert. Tostatus. Pererius in Gon. 2. Popish writers fancy. For, can we probably imagine, that God would denominate this the Tree of Knowledge from the devils im­pudent Lye in the Serpent? IV. But it was called The Tree of Know­ledge, That is, of Experimental Knowledge, by way of Prolepsis, from the Event that would ensue upon eating thereon. For then Adam should experimentally know, to his sorrow, from how much good he had lapsed, and how much evil he had contracted upon himself. As its usual in As in Gen. 21. 14, 31. Numb. 13. 23. Scripture by way of Prolepsis or Anticipation to give denominations unto things. And this the best, and most Arbor illa apellata est scienti [...] dig­noscendi boni & malis, non quia inde ta­lia quasi poma pendebant, sed quicquid esset a [...]bor illa, cu­jusl [...]bet pomi, cujus [...] bet fru­ctus esset, ideo sic vocata est; Quia bomo qui nollet bo­num à malo discernere per praeceptum, di­screturus erat per experimentum, ut tangendo vetitum inveniret supplicium. Aug. de Verb. Dom. Serm. 34. Tom. 10. Andr. Ri­vet. in Gea. 2. Exercitat. 18. D. Pareus in Gen. [...]. 9. recei­ved opinion about this Denomination. Doubt. 2. But why did God besides the Natural Law engraven in Adams heart, impose this Positive Law, forbidding that which was not in it self morally and intrinsecally evil? Ans. The Lord seems to have done this, 1. For the more clear discovery of his own absolute power and do­minion over man. Whilst God commands or forbids things which in themselves are consonant or dissonant to humane Reason, as good or bad: Gods supremacy over man is not so evident, such commands leaning and being founded upon mans Reason and Conscience. But when God commands or forbids, that which in its own Nature is morally neither good nor bad, but only becomes good or bad from the meer will of God commanding or forbidding, nor can any other reason thereof be given but Gods will and pleasure; then the abso­lute supremacy and soveraignty of God is notably manifested, As in this Positive Law. 2. For the more evident Tryal and manifestation [Page 33] of Mans subjection and obedience to God. For this is pure obedience and subjection indeed, when a man is subject and obedient meerly to the will of the Law-giver, though the matter required or forbidden, be in it self neither morally good nor evil. I likeSi aliquid mali esset sig­num illud unde probibuit homi­nem Deus, ejus ipsius mali na­tura ven [...]natus videretur ad mortem. Quia vero ligna om­nia in Paradi­so bona planta­taverat, qui secit omnia bo­na valde, nec ulla ibi natu­ra mali erat: quia nusquam est mali ulla natura:Ab eo ligno quod ma­lum non erat prohibitus est, ut ipsa per se praecepti conser­vatio bonum illi esset, & transgressio malum. Nec potuit melius & diligentius commendari, quantum malum sit sela inobedientia, cum ideo reus iniquitatis factus est bomo, quia eam rem [...]etigit, contra prohibitio [...]em, quam si non probibitus tetigisset, non uti (que) peccasset. Nam qui di­cit, verbi gratia, noli tangere hanc herbam, si sorte venenosa est, mortem (que) pr [...]nunciat, si tetigerit, sequitur quidem mors contemptorem pr [...]cepti, sed etiam si nemo pro [...]ibuisset, at (que) ille tetigisses, nihi [...]ominus uti (que) moreretur. Illa quippe res contraria s [...]luti vitae (que) ejus esset, sive inde vetaretur, sive non veteratur. Item cum quis (que) prohibet eam rem tangi, quae non quidem tangenti, sed illi qui prohibuit obesset: velut si quisquom in alienam p [...]cuniam mi­sisset manum, prohibitus ab eo cujus erat pecunia illa▪ ideo esset prohibito peccatum, quia prohibenti poterat esse damnosum. Cum vero illud tangitur, quod nec tangenti obesset si non prohibere [...]ir, nec cuiquam alteri quamlibet tangeretur, quare prohibitum est, nisi ut ipsius per se bonum obedientiae, & ipsius per se malum inobedientiae monstrare­tur? August. de Genesi ad Literam. Lib. 8. cap. 13. Tom. 3. Augustines illustrati­on well; If a man be charged not to touch a poysonous herb, because it will be hurtful to him that toucheth it; or not to touch another mans money, because it will be evil to the owner; This is no such trial of obedience, be­cause the evil of the thing forbidden restrains, and not only the authority of him that commands or forbids. But when a man forbears, what is for­bidden: which had it not been forbidden, he needed not at all to have for­born. God therefore forbids a tree in itself lawful and good for food, thereby to try how purely Adam would obey his meer command, without any other motive or consideration. It was expedient Adam should know himself to be under God. And (as the same Quid est illa Arbor? Si [...]ona est, quare non tango? Si mala est, quid fecit in Paradiso? Prorsus ideo est in Paradiso quia bona est, sed nolo eam tangas: Quare non tango? Quia obedientem te volo, non contradicentem. Serve audi, adhuc serve: sed noli male serve. Serve audi prius Domini jussum, & tunc [...]ubentis disce consilium. Bona est arbor, nolo tangos. Quare? Quia dominus sum, & tu servus. Haec tota causa est. Si parva est dedig­naris esse servus? Quid autem tibi expédit nisi esse sub Domino? Quomodo eris sub Domino, nisi fueris sub Prae­ [...]cepto? August. de verb. Dom. Serm. 34. Tom. 10. Au­gustine) how shall he be under God, if not under his command? 3. For the Greater Aggravation of Adams sin, in case he should disobey. Partly, in that, if he offended, he should offend in so small a matter and so easie to be observed, especially God having granted him liberty to eat of all the trees in the Garden besides. Partly, in that he by dis­obeying should so directly reject Gods dominion and authority, by doing that which meerly was to be forborn, because God had forbid­den it. Which were meer disobedience, meer rebellion against Gods Dominion. Hence the Apostle charges Disobedience upon Adam as his proper sin, Rom. 5. 19.


WHen God Entred into this Covenant of Works with the first Adam, he was compleatly able in his own Person to keep this Covenant in every point. Herein God required no­thing, but Adam was able to perform it: God forbad nothing, but Adam was able to forbear it.

I. That Adam had Compleat ability to keep this Covenant of Works, is evident; 1. From removal of all causes of disability from Adam at that time. Then there was nothing in Adam that might impede or disable Adam, from compleat keeping the Covenant of works. The only disabling impediment, is sin. The only Cause why Adams posterity since the fall cannot keep the Covenant of works; nor Consequently be justified thereby, is their sin. Rom. 8. 3. The law is weak through the flesh. Now Adam had no sin in him at all, neither Origi­nal nor Actual, when God entred into Covenant with him. Rom. 5. 12. 19. Gen. 3. Sin entered after, by his disobedience in eating the forbidden fruit: And with Sin, Gen. 2. 25. & 3. 7. 10, 11. Rom. 6. 21. Shame and Death, the inseparable attendants upon sin. 2. From Position and Presence of all necessary and sufficient Causes of Ability in Adam: At that time Adam had; ( [...]) The perfection of Gods image in him. Gen. 1. 26, 27. God created man in his own image, in the image of God created he him, wherein this image consisted, I now dis­pute not. But this is clear, Adam Eccles. 7. 29. was made upright. [...] Iashar, there rendered [upright] signifies one Right, Equal, and who bends to neither part: AsIn Pagn. Lexico. ad verb. [...]. Mercerus hath observed. So that Adam was even, equal, declining to no part or extream: thus he was created. Hence he had all necessary inward ability to perform Gods will. A Know­ing mind, a pure Conscience, An obedient and dutiful will, A loving heart, A tractable and obsequious body, All upright. (2) The Inscription of Gods Covenant in his heart, the Moral Law, This he had engraven upon his heart, (as See be­fore, in Apho. iiii. of this cha. formerly was shewed) (3) The Expression of the Positive Law, about the Tree of Know­ledge. This was made known to him by word of Mouth. Hence Adam had a perfect Rule both Inward and Outward for steering his Obedience. Adam therefore having so Perfect a Principle, and so exact a Rule for Obedience, must needs be compleatly able to fulfil this Covenant of works with God. 3. From absurdities that other­wise upon denyal of Adams ability would ensue. For (1) Then God should have required impossibilities of Adam. (2) Then the Penal­ty of Death in case of disobedience, should have been unjust: because God never gave Adam compleat ability for Obedience.

II. Hence these things result by way of Corollary,

1. That, Adam before he brake this Covenant of works, neither had, nor needed a Mediator of Reconciliation. He needed not the Mediation of Jesus Christ the second or last Adam; Either for Satisfaction, for he had no way sinned: Or for Intercession, for Adam wanted nothing, and was compleatly acceptable to God in his person: Or for Impu­tation of Christs righteousness and obedience to him, for Adam was perfectly upright and obedient in himself. O what a difference be­twixt Adam then, and Adams posterity now! He needed no Christ, we need nothing more, &c. Ob. But the Tree of Life seems to be a Type of Christ, especially if we consider that passage in the Rev. 22. 2. Revelati­on. Answ. The Tree of Life in Eden was Sacramental, but not Ty­pical. Sacramental, to assure Adam of the continuance of his life, if [Page 35] he had continued his obedience and eaten thereof: but not Typical, to set out a Mediatour. That Passage in the Revelation alludes to this Tree of Life in Eden: An Allusion is one thing, An interpretation another. And Possunt h [...]c etiam in Ecclesia intelli­g [...] ut ea melius accipiamus tanquam pro­phetica indici [...] Pr [...]cedentia futurorum. Paradisum scilicet ips [...]m Ecclesiam, sicut etiam legitur in Cantico Canticorum; quotuor aut [...]m Paradi­si flumina, quatu [...]r Evangelia; ligna fructifera Sanctos; Fructus autem eorum, opera corum; [...]guum vitae, San­ctum Sanctorum, uti (que) Christum; lignum Scientiae boni & mati, proprium voluntatis arbitrium. August. de Ci­vitat. Dei; lib. 13. Cap. 21. Tom. 5. some have turned it into an Allegory, interpreting Paradise to be the Church: The four Rivers therein, the four Gospels: The Fruit-Trees, the Saints: Their fruits, good-works: The Tree of Life, The Holy of Holyes, Even Christ: The Tree of Knowledge of Good and Evil, The Proper Freedom of Will. This is devised wittily, not solidly.

2. That, Adam, before breach of Covenant, as he neither had, nor needed a Mediatour, so he neither had, nor needed Faith in a Mediatour. Adam had a Faith in God, whereby he was able, Both to believe whatso­ever God revealed, and to depend upon God and his promises, as also to perform in love whatsoever God prescribed. And so in Adam's Faith, there was a remote Capacity of believing any particular Re­velation God should make touching a Mediatour, but no particular acting of Faith on a Mediatour. Adam's Faith under the Covenant of works, differs much from ours under the Covenant of Faith. 1. In respect of their Rise and manner of Conveyance. Adam's Faith was naturally implanted in him by God, ours supernaturally. 2. In re­spect of their foundation wherein they lean. Adam's Faith leaned on the Title of perfect, upright Nature: ours upon the faithful and free Promises of God in Christ. 3. In respect of their Fruit. Adams Faith produced a changeable righteousness in himself a mutable per­son: ours an unchangeable righteousness from Christ and the Spirit which are unchangeable. 4. In respect of their Actings. Adams Faith acted towards God without any Consideration of a Mediatour: ours acteth towards God by Christ the Mediatour. 5. In respect of their associates, or Companions. Faith in Adam was without Repentance, because he was sinless: Faith in us is always accompanied with re­pentance, because we are sinful.

3. That, Adams Breach of Covenant is without all Excuse. Adam was fully able to keep Covenant: Therefore Adam is left without all A­pology for his breach of Covenant. He must needs justifie God, and condemn himself under severest penalties for breach of Covenant: for God gave him power Compleatly to keep it. And what is here said of Adam, is to be understood also of all Adam's Posterity in him.

APHORISM VI. This Covenant of works Adam utterly brake, by disobedi­ence.

For clearing of this, Consider 1. That Adam thus brake the Cove­nant of works. 2. How Adam broke this Covenant. 3. When and how soon he brake it. 4. How grievous and hainous this Breach. 5. Corollaryes.

I. That Adam utterly brake the Covenant of works by disobedience, is evident. 1. By Scripture-Testimonies, both of Old and New Testa­ment. In the Old Testament, is the Narration of this Covenant-breach, How Gen. 3. 1. to 7. the woman seduced by the Devil in the Serpent, did eat of the Tree of Knowledge, and how she gave unto Adam her hus [...]and, and he did eat. And Gen. 3. 7. to the end of the chap. what sad effects followed there­upon to them both; viz. Shame; Fear; Hiding themselves from God; Translation of their fault, the man to his wife, and She to the Serpent; Enmity betwixt the seed of the woman and Serpent; The multiplica­tion of the womans sorrows, and aggravation of her subjection to her husband; The curse upon the earth; The toil, sorrows, and Morta­lity of Adam; The Expulsion of Adam out of Eden; And the effectual abstention of Adam, by Cherubims and a flaming sword turning every way, from the Tree of life. In the New Testament is an Explication of Adam's breach of Covenant, how all his Posterity sinned and broke Covenant in him. Rom. 5. 12. By one man sin entred into the world,—in whom all have sinned. Rom. 5. 19.By one mans disobedience many were made sinners. And this breach of Covenant is set forth by divers Deno­minations, viz. Rom. 5. 12, 14, 18, 19. Sin; Adam's Transgression; The offence of one; One mans disobedience: all tending to describe the Nature of it. 2. By the sad Experience which all Adams Posterity have had of the woful effect of Adam's breach of Covenant to this day: Rom. 5. 12, 18, 19. All be­ing thereby involved in Sin, Death, and Condemnation. Therefore All Adams ordinary Seed, were in Covenant with him, Broke Co­venant in him, and smart under Covenant-breach by him. 3. By the Manner of Gods Administration. After Adams Disobedience God utterly laid aside the Covenant of works, and never set it on foot more: but instead thereof advanced The Covenant of Faith in Christ the second Adam. Thereby notifying to us that, the Covenant of works was utterly broken and dissolved by the First Adam's sin.

II. How Adam brake this Covenant of works? Answ. I. Adam brake the Covenant of works by Gen 2. 17. with Gen. 3. 6, 7. Eating of the Tree of Know­ledge, contrary to Gods Positive Symbolical Precept imposed upon Adam for Tryal of his Obedience. This Act of Adam did compleat his Fall, and Covenant-breach. II. This Co­venant-breach was brought on, not all at once, but by certain steps and degrees. 1. The woman Gen. 3. 1, 2. hearkens to the Ser­pent, that is, to the Devil in the Serpent, Tempting. 2. She Mis-re­ports [Page 37] Gods command, Partly, Adding thereto; Gen. 3. 3. with 2. 16, 17. neither shall ye touch it. For God had not forbidden the Touching of it, but only the eating of it. Partly, Taking thence from, detracting from the fidelity of it. For what God spoke peremptorily, Gen. 2. 17. In the day thou eatest thereof, dying thou shalt dye: she alledges doubtfully, Gen 3. 3. lest peradven­ture ye dye; as the Hebrew phrase properly Signifies. 3. She so far credits the Serpent, as to Gen. 3. 6. behold, or eye the Tree of Knowledge with desire and affectation: Conceiving the Tree to be 1. Good for Food; 2. Pleasant to the eye, 3. And desirable to make one wise. As 1 Iohn 2. 16. Iohn ranks all that is in and of the world, and not of the Fa­ther, under these three heads, The lust of the Flesh, the lust of the Eye, and the Pride of Life. 4. She Gen. 3. 6. took of the fruit of the Tree and did Eat. 5. She Gen. 3. 6. gave unto her husband, and he did eat. Hence we may understand that of the Apostle, 1 Tim. 2. 14. Adam was not deceived, (that is, not by the Serpent) but the woman being deceived was in the Transgression (that is, was first in the Transgression before Adam.) This sin was brought upon Adam by degrees. (1) Suggestion: (2) A­version from Good. (3) Delightful Inclination to Evil. (4) to Execution or acting of Sin inclined and Consented to. (5) Propagation or Derivation of sin to others. Thus Adam sinned, and brake Covenant with God. III. The Causes of Adam's sin and Covenant-breach, thus brought to pass, were divers. The Instrumental Cause Remote, was the Ser­pent, and the Devil in him: Immediate, was the woman, Adam's wife. The Efficient Cause of Adam's sin, is hard to be found out. Properly Adams sin had no Efficient Cause at all, but rather a Deficient Cause. God neither Directly nor indirectly could be any Cause of it at all: For, Eccles. 7. 29. God made man upright, and God, as Iam. 1. 13. he cannot be tempted with evil, so he tempteth no man to evil. But Adam being created mu­table, though upright: and having a Will flexible to good or to evil, and not being confirmed and stablished immovably in Good, but left to his own power and liberty, (for God was not bound to con­firm, and uphold him,) he declined unto evil, and became like the beasts that perish.

III. When, and how soon Adam brake this Covenant of works? Answ. In the History of Adams Fall, the Circumstance of time is not expresly described: and other Scriptures are very silent. Hence, They that have written about this Question, both Jewish Doctors, Ancient Fathers, School-men and Modern Authors, have been of divers opinions herein, and somewhat unsatisfied. Omitting the diver­sity of others Opinions, I shall briefly declare herein what to me seems most probable and Consentaneous to Scripture without preju­dice to others judgements.

1. It is Evident that Adam continued in Paradise in his Concreated in­tegrity for a certain Considerable Season, before he fell. For, before the Fal, 1. Adam Gen. 2. 20. gave names to all living Creatures which God brought before him. 2. The Gen. 2. 21, 22. Woman was made of one of Adam's ribs, taken out of his side, Adam▪ meanwhile being cast into a deep sleep. 3. God [Page 38] Gen. 2. 22, 23, 24. brought the Woman to Adam, gave her to him to wife, and Adam so accepted her. 4. God Gen. 1. 28. blessed them with the blessing of Fruit­fulness, and Dominion over the Earth, and over all the Creatures therein. 5. God Gen. 1. 29. gave them every herb and every fruit-bearing Tree for food. 6. Adam was Gen 2. 8. to 16. placed in the Garden of Eden to dress it, and to keep it. 7. God Gen 2. 16, 17. permitting them to eat of all the other Trees of the Garden, Gave command under pain of present Death not to eat of the Tree of Knowledge. All this was orderly done before Adams Fall. And all this required some considerable time.

2. It is not likely that Adam continued any long time in his innocency before his Fall. For, 1. Then, Adam in all probability would have Eaten of the Tree of Life, and have been confirmed in life against falling, as that phrase intimateth, Gen. 3. 23. which he did not. 2. Then, probably Eve should have conceived a pure and spotless seed from Adam. The Gen. 1. 28. blessing of Generation and Fruitfulness being already bestowed upon them: and no Curse of barreness in­flicted. That was the Fruit of the Fall. And Consequently such Seed should not have been begotten in Adams own likeness, sinful. 3. After the Historical Narration of these seven Particulars foremen­tioned (which would not require any long time to be effected in) Compare Gen 1. & 2. with 3. 1, &c. presently the story of Adams Fall is related, which seems to inti­mate, that the Fall was not long after Adam's creation. Hence Cal­vin modestly, Movetur etiam à nonnul­tis Quaestio De lapsus vel poti­u [...] rui [...]ae tem­pore. Opinio haec passim re­cept [...] suit, eo­dem quo condi­ti fuerant die, excidisse; id [...]o Augustinus scribit, Stetisse tantum per sex horas. Quod alii con [...]iciunt, dilatam fuisse in Diem Sabbati tentationem à Satana, ut Sanctum diem profanaret, nimis infirmum est. Et certe his documen­tis monentur pii omnes ut in [...] speculationibus sibi p [...]rcius indulgea [...]t. Ego ut de tempore quod asseram non ha­beo, ita ex Mosis Narratione [...] posse arbitror, non diu retinuisse quam acceperant dignitatem. Nam simulac conditos fuisse dixit, nulla alterius rei facta mentione transit ad defectionem. Si vel modico temporis spacio habi­tasset Adam ab uxore, non inanis certe fuisset Dei benedictio in propaganda sobole: sed Moses Dei beneficiis priva­tos fuisse significat, antequam uti consuescere [...]t. Facile igitur Augustini Exclamationi subscribo, O miserum libe­rum arbitrium quod adhuc incolume tam parum habuit firmitatis! Atque ut tacea [...] us de brevitate Temporis, illa Bernardi admonitio [...] digna est; Quum tam horribile pr [...]cipitium in Paradiso accidisse legamus, quid nos facturi sumus in sterquilinio? Io. Calvin. Comment. in Gen. 3. 6. As I have not what to assert touching the time, so I think it may be gathered from Moses his Narration, that they did not long retain the integrity which they had; for assoon as he had spoke of their Creation, without mention of any other thing, he passeth to their Defection, &c. And Augustine thinks Cur ergo non [...] nisi cum exiis [...]ent de Para [...]iso. Cito re [...]ponderi potest, quia mox creata [...]uliere pri­usquam coierunt, facta est illa transgressio, cujus merito in mortem destinati, etiam de l [...]co illius [...]oelicitatis exierunt. Aug. de Genesi ad Liter. lib. 9. c. 4. Tom. 3. the Transgression presently fol­lowed the Creation.

3. It is Probable, That Adam continued in Paradise neither years, moneths, weeks, nor dayes: but sinned and lost Paradise in the self-same day in which he was created. That he was Created and Corrupted; formed and deformed; made and marr'd; alive and dead; an inha­bitant in, and an exile from Paradise, in one and the self-same day. For, 1. There is nothing in the Text intimating that Adam stood longer then that one day in which he was created: but rather that he fell on the same day. We finde not that he kept one Sabbath in Paradise. [Page 39] We finde that Gen. 1. 24. to the end of the chap. Adam and his wife were created on the sixth day, after the Beast of the Earth, Cattel and creeping things had been on the same day created. So that Adam was not created in the begin­ning of the sixth day. And those seven Particular occurrents ensu­ing Adams Creation, which were forementioned, might all of them easily be dispatched in a few hours of the same sixth day. Besides, Gen. 3. 1. to 8. the Serpents Temptation and seducing of the woman, The wo­mans eating of the Tree of Knowledge, and giving thereof to her husband, Their shame upon their fall, and sewing fig-leaves to cover their shame, might all without difficulty be effected on the same day. And after this the very next thing mentioned, is Gen. 3. 8. &c. the voice of God (whereby Adam was called to account for his sin) walking in the Garden in the cool of the day. Hebr. in the wind of the Day. Hierome renders it, In the wind after mid-day. The Greek, In the Evening. Ioh. Chrysost. in Gen. 3. Homil. 17. Tom. 2. Chrysostome, Afternoon, Iren. ad­vers. Heres. lib. 5. cap. 15. ad fin. Irenaeus, In the Eventide. Hence, saith Ioh. Cal­vin. in Gen. 3. 8. Calvin, that Opini­on hath prevayled, That Adam sinned about Noon, and was brought into judgement for it about Sun-set. Now its very observable that This is the first Evening mentioned after Adam's Creation, and the Covenant made with him. And the phrase of Gods voice walking in the Garden in the Cool of the day, seems so to be brought in, the Context being well considered, as if it related to the close of the day of Adams Crea­tion. 2. When the Serpent began to Tempt the woman, Gen. 3. 1, 2. The words of the Serpent and woman to one another are such, and in the future tenses, as they imply that as yet Adam and his wife had not eat­en of any Tree at all in the Garden. And it is very improbable they would have continue [...] a whole Day in the Garden, in the midst of all that delicious fruit, and not have eaten of some. And if of any, then of that which was most excellent and desirable, The Tree of Life. But they tasted not of the Tree of Life, for then Gen. 3. 22. they had been confirmed in eternal life; and had not fallen. Therefore eating of none at all, they seem not to have continued one day in their inno­cent state. 3. Christ saith Ioh. 8. 44. The Devil was a murderer from the beginning, and abode not in the Truth.—A lyar, and the father of it. A murtherer of whom? Of our first parents and their Posterity. From what beginning? Not from the beginning of the worlds Creation, which at the least was six daies before Adam was murdered by him: but from the beginning of Mans Creation and being, which most pro­perly and precisely implies the sixth day wherein man was made. Then it was that the devil deceived our first parents by Lying, and Murdered them. Consequently they fell the first day of their Crea­tion. 4. Christ the second Adam, incarnate in fulness of time, was put to Death for mans sin on Joh. 19. 31, 42. the sixth day of the week, which was the Preparation before the Passover or Sabbath. He was crucified Compare Ioh. 19. 14, 15, 16. with Math. 27. 46, 50. about the sixth hour, that is, our twelve of the clock; and he yielded up the Ghost about the ninth hour, that is, about our three of the clock afternoon. Probably therefore the First Adam (the Rom. 5. 14. figure of him that was to come, and that in respect of this point) [Page 40] fell into his Sin on the sixth day in the afternoon. And so Gods Threatning to Adam Gen. 2. 17. In the day thou eatest thereof thou shalt surely dye, was most notably fulfilled in Adams Surety Christ, then dying corporally, and tasting of the second Death remarkably, for sin. 5. That passage of the Psalmist is observable to this Purpose. viz. Psal. 49. 12. Adam being in Honour, lodged-not-a-night, but is likened to beasts that are silenced. That which in our Translation is [Man] in the Hebrew is [Adam] And Ainsworth saith well, H. Ains­worth in his Annot. on Psal. 49. 12. This may be mind­ed both for the first man Adam, who Continued not in his dignity, and so for all his children. And the word [ [...] Bal-jalin] which we render, [abideth-not,] most Properly signifieth, [Lodgeth-not-a-night] as in Gen. 28. 11. Exod. 23. 18. & 34. 25. Deut. 16. 4. 2 Sam. 17. 8. & 19: 8. Psal. 30. 5. Iosh. 8. 9. And this the learned in the Hebrew tongue acknowledge. Though therefore I will not restrain the sense of this place only to the first Adam, but extend it also to his posterity for denoting the mutability and momentariness of their ho­nour: yet it seems singularly to point out Adams sudden fall from the top-excellency of his dignity, not enjoying it one night. 6. Learn­ed men both Antient and Modern have much inclined upon form­er Considerations to this Opinion of Adams fall in the same day he was framed. Augustine thinks Adam stood only six hours, as Ioh. Cal­vin. in Gen. 3. 6. ut supra. Mercer. in Gen. 6. 8. Calvin and Mercerus vouch him. Iedu. ad­vers. Haeres. lib. 5. cap. 15. Iedudus inclines to Adams fall in the Afternoon. And the Annotations there upon Irenaeus alledge Cyril, Epiphanius, Diodorus Tresensis, and others, who held that Adam was cast out of Paradise in the same day in which he was Created. Rachi saith, That Adam and Eve rebelled about the tenth hour, that is, two hours before Sun-set: as Lud. de Dieu Animad­vers. in Gen. 3. 8. Lud. de Dieu hath noted. Latter writers also hold, that in one and the same day Adam was Formed and Deformed: As that accurate H. Broughton in his H. Brough­ton Con. of Script. at the beginning. Concent of Scripture shows upon divers grounds; As also in his The Ge­neral view of Script. p. 24, 25, 26. Edit. 2. London, 1640. General view of Scriptures, (for that Book published again with enlargements by Tho. Hayne, was at first Penned by H. Broughton, as one of his Hearers informed me, and as the Book it self seems plainly to witness.) And as that learn­ed M. G. Walker in his Doctrine of the Sabbath. Ch. 1. Mr. G. Walker in his Doctrine of the Sabbath, insisting in Broughtons steps, more fully declares.

Hence then 1. Adam kept not one Sabbath in Paradise, nor did he see one Sabbath in his innocency. 2. The happiness of Adam and of all his posterity, whilst it was in their own keeping, and bottom­ed upon mutable Nature, though upright, stood upon a very tickle foundation. Its well for Christians that now their happiness is in Christs keeping, not in their own: grounded not upon mutable Nature, but immutable Grace. 3. Mans Corruption is almost as ancient as Mans Creation. How soon was God dishonoured: and how long hath God been provoked by mankind! 4. Adams sin must needs be the Greater, that he so speedily forgot and forfeited all Gods greatest favours. 5. Satan is deservedly branded for Ioh. 8. 44. A Murderer from the beginning, and stiled Rev. 20. 2. that old Serpent the Devil: [Page 41] His subtilty deceiving, and his cruelty murdering mankind from the the first day of their Being.

IV. How grievous and Haynous was Adams Breach of Covenant? Answ. Adams Sin and breach of Covenant with God was haynous beyond our expression or Conception. Who can sufficiently Enu­merate or aggravate the Aggravations thereof? Some few exagge­rations I shall touch upon. viz. in respect of the 1. Person who sinned. 2. Condition and state, wherein. 3. Place, where. 4. Time, when. 5. Law, against which. 6. Objects, against whom. 7. The many and great evils of sin and punishment attending upon Adams sin.

1. The person who sinned, was Adam. Not an ordinary, but an ex­traordinary Person: Consequently his, not an ordinary but an extra­ordinary sin. For, 1. Adam was an innocent Person, without all sin, Gen. 1. 26, 27. Eccles. 7. 29. perfect and upright in the image of God without any defect. Therefore his mind was most clear, bright, and apprehensive, to have detected the darkness and evil both of Sin and of the Temptati­on thereunto. His conscience also was pure and active, under God, to warn him against sin, and all occasions thereof. His will free, and able to have withstood all sin, and all seducements thereunto, most easily. Never meer man since Adam, had such perfection of mind, Conscience, will, and of the whole man: being habitually prone to no evil, but propense to all good. Now that Adam every way able not to sin, should have this mind blinded, this Conscience corrupted, this free-will enslaved by [...]in: how grievous was his sin­ning! He sinned Knowingly, he sinned willingly; therefore he sin­ned more haynously. Sin the more willingly it is admitted, the more wickedly it is committed. No wonder if a carnal man, who hath nothing but sin in him, can act nothing but sin; or if a Christian, that hath much Corruption mingled with his Grace, mix also in­firmities with best performances: but for Adam to sin, who had no sinful inclination in him, how strange is it and inexcusable! 2. Adam was a publike person, a complexive person; all mankind were in him, and all in Covenant with God with him. He standing, all stood: he falling, all fell. Never man, by one sin, made so many sinners. By one sin, he made himself and Rom. 5▪ 12. 19. all his posterity sinners from the beginning to the end of the world. Hence learned Au­gustine well observes, Andr. Rivet. in Gen. 3. exercit. 31. that though some other sins, as the unpar­donable sin against the Holy-Ghost, may be greater then this sin of Adam, Intensively; yet Adams sin is the very greatest and most grie­vous sin in the world, extensively considered.

2. The condition and state wherin he sinned, was most happy. For, Gods image, was his beauty▪ Gods Covenant of works, his charter for Eternal life: All Gods Creatures on Earth, his servants and under his Dominion: The whole Earth, his Possession: Paradise, his Habitation: All the fruits of Paradise, except of the Tree of Know­ledge, his food: And familiar Communion with God there, the Paradise of Paradise. In a word, so blisful his Condition, as the absence of all [Page 42] evil, and presence of all good, could render it. We may therefore with the Psalmist burst out into Admiration; Lord, Psal. 8. 4, 5, 6. what is man, that thou art mindful of him? and the son of man that thou visitest him? For thou hast made him a little lower then the Angels; and hast crowned him with glory and honour. Thou madest him to have dominion [...]ver the works of thy hands: thou hast put all things under his feet. Ele­gantly Augustine delineates Adams Paradise-felicity; Vivebat ita (que) hom [...] in Paradiso sicut vol [...]bat, quam­diu volebat quod deus jus­serat: vivebat [...] deo, ex quo bono erat bonus: vivebat sine ulla egesta­te, ita sem­per vivere [...] in potesta­te. Cibus ade­rat, ne esuri­riret: potus, ne sitiret: lig­num vitae, ne illud senecta dissolveret, &c. Aug. de civit. Dei lib. 14. c. 26. Tom. 5. Man in Paradise lived as he lifted, as long as he willed what God had commanded: he lived enjoying God, from whom most good he was good. He lived with­out any penury, having power so to live perpetually. Meat was at hand, left he should hunger: drink, lest he should thirst: The Tree of Life, lest age should dissolve him: No corruption in his body, or out of his body, brought any trouble to any of his senses. No disease within, no blow was feared from without. In his flesh greatest soundness: in his spirit entire calmness. As in Paradise was neither Heat nor Cold: so in its inhabitant there was no offence to his good will, by desire or fear. There was nothing at all grie­vous, nothing vainly joyous: true joy was perpetuated from God, towards whom love did flame out of a pure heart and a good conscience, and faith unfained. And a faithful conjugal society from an honest love, An har­monious vigilancy of mind and body, and an unlaborious custody of the Command, &c. Thus and thus happy was Adams state, in which he sinned. Therefore he offended against all Gods benefits wherewith he had loaded him: against all the bonds of love, wherewith▪ God had obliged him: against all the dignities and Priviledges wherewith God had crowned him, when he broke Gods Command in such Condition. The greater Gods loving­kindness to Adam: the deeper Adams unkindness to God. Did Gods favours to David so 2 Sam. 12. 7, 8, 9. aggravate Davids sin? And Gods mer­cies to Israel so Isa. 1. 2, 3. heighten Israels offences? how much more did Gods superabounding blessings to Adam, beyond measure exagge­rate Adams disobedience? Hear O heavens, and give Ear O Earth! God on every side surrounded Adam with happiness: And this Adam rebelled against the Lord.

3. The place where Adam sinned, was Paradise▪ A place most unfit for sinning in. There God Gen. 2. 15, 16, 17. familiarly conversed with Adam: To sin there, was to sin in the presence of God. There God Gen. 2. 16, 17. entred into the Covenant of works with Adam: To sin there, was to be extreamly unmindful of, and unfaithful in Gods Cove­nant. There was the Gen. 2. 9. & 3. 22. Tree of Life, to confirm him in Obedience, and the Gen. 2. 9. 17. Tree of Knowledge to caution him against disobedience: To Sin there, was to sin against Gods Antidotes and Preservatives. There Gen. 2. 9. grew every Tree pleasant to the sight, and good for food, all pointing at their maker, and inciting Adam to admire his wisdom, adore his power, and extol his goodness; To sin there, was to sin against multitudes of mercies. All the Trees and fruits of Paradise would aggravate that ingratitude. In a word, Paradise was a place wherein was no sin, nor sorrow: Therefore to sin there, was to pollute [Page 43] Paradise, and to transform the Eden of pleasure into an Achor of trouble and Perplexity.

4. The Time when Adam sinned, was quickly after his Cre [...]tion. Probably he was corrupted, (as I have shewed) the self-same day he was Created. What? was Adam Created such a compleat souldier, and armed so perfectly with Gods image, that he had power to conquer all his spiritual Enemies, and that continually: and is he utterly foy­led at the very first on [...]et? was he made so skilful a Pilot, able to cross all Seas of danger in safety: and is he shipwrackt in the very harbour? was he able to Persevere for ever in obedience: and is he turned aside the very first day to disobedience? was he created, and corrupted: formed, and deformed: Alive, and dead: blessed, and cursed: Happy, and miserable: Gods freeman, and Satans bond-man: The child of God, and the child of the devil: &c. all in one day? This renders Adams sin exceeding grievous. If this aggravated Israels sin, that after Gods Covenant renewed in Mount Sinai, Exod. 32. 7, 8. Deut. 9. 12. They turned aside quickly out of the way which God Commanded them: much more must it aggravate Adams sin that he turned aside more quickly from Gods way: they being corrupt, Adam innocent; They being of themselves unable to persevere, Adam fully able; They turning aside after almost fourty daies, Adam the very first day.

5. The Law against which Adam sinned, was such, that it nota­bly greatned Adams sin. Gen. 2. 16, 17. And the LORD God Commanded the man, saying, of every Tree Of the Garden thou mayest freely eat: but of the Tree of the Knowledge of good and evil, thou shalt not eat of it: for in the Day that thou eatest thereof, thou shalt surely dye. Here Consider, 1. The greatness of the Law-giver, The LORD God. He who created Adam, and all the world by his word: whose dominion is absolute. Of whom alone Adam had his be­ing, well-being and whole dependance. Was it a small thing to sin against so great a God? 2. The meaness of him on whom the Law was imposed. The man. Our first parent, A finite creature: in his original Gen. 2. 7. & 3. 19. despicable dust and ashes. Adam, Red-earth. And shall dust and ashes rebel against the command of the mighty God? 3. The weight and importance of the Command. It was of greatest importance and concernment, both as an Original Cove­nant, and as an Original Law. (1) As an Original Covenant. This (though it had not the name, yet) had the Nature of a Covenant: As hath been shewed. It was a Covenant of works. The first Co­venant that ever was in the world. Wherein God and All man­kind in Adam were parties. To sin against this Command then, was to break Covenant, and to make himself and all mankind as Cove­nant-breakers guilty of Death. (2) As an Original Law. For, as In hac enim lege Adae data, omnia praecepta con­dita recognosci­mus, quae post­ea pullulave­runt data per Mosen, id est, diliges domi­num deum tuum de toto corde tuo, & ex tota anima tua, & di­liges proxi­mum tibi tan­quam te, & non occides, non m [...]chabe­ris, non fra [...] ­daveris, falsum testimonium non dices. Honora p [...]rtem tuum & matrem, & alienum non Concupisces. Primordialis lex est enim data Ad [...] & Eva in Paradiso quasi Matrix omnium Praeceptorum dei. Denique si Dominum deum suum dilexissent, contra praeceptum ejus non fecissent; si proximum diligerent, id est; semetipsos, persuasioni Serpentis non credidissent; [...]t (que) ita in semet­ipsos homicidium non commisissent, excidendo de immortalitate, faciendo contra Dei praeceptum, &c. Tert. l [...]. Advers. Iudeos. cap. 2. Ter­tullian [Page 44] well observes, This Law being given, all Laws were given, which were afterwards published by Moses. That is, Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thine heart, and with all thy sou [...]: and thou shalt love thy neighbour as thy self, &c. For it was an Original Law which was given to Adam and Eve in Paradise, as it were The Womb of all Gods Pre­cepts. If they had loved the Lord their God, they had not done against his Precept: if they had loved their neighbour and themselves, they had not believed the Serpents perswasion, nor had committed murder against them­selves, by falling from immortality, &c. Now to transgress a law of such Consequence, which was Gods Faederal Law with mankind; And so Comprehensive a Law containing as it were all other Laws in its fruitful womb, must needs be the deeper transgression. 4. The Pe­nalty of the Breach of this law was dreadful, viz. Present Death; and that both Spiritual, Corporal, and Eternal, as hath been explained. Death (said the Heathen) is [...], of Terribles the most terrible. Death, (saith the Scripture) is Iob. 18. 14. the King of Terrours: And there­fore (as Ubi mag­na est ino­bedientiae poe­na proposita; & res à creatore facilis imperata; quisnam satis explicet quan­tum malum sit, non obedire in re faciti, & Tantae potesta­tis imperio, & tanto terrenti supplicio? Aug. de Ci­vit. Del. l. 14. c. 15. Tom. 5. Augustine well noteth) how great an evil was this, to sin against such a Terrifying punishment! 5. The Promise implyed consequently to the keeping of this law, was most sweet and desi­rable. viz. Perpetual life; and that in Paradise, or in a Paradise-Con­dition; or in Heaven which is best of all. Who would not have obey­ed to the utmost ability for the eternizing of such a life? life is most precious Iob 2. 4. All that a man hath will he give for his life. And eternal life in Paradise, would have been a double life: the life of life. Oh how deep­ly did Adam & we in him fin against our own life, by violating this law of life! And its most unnatural to sin against a mans own life. 6. Finally, Consider with what great Ease and Facility Adam, and we in him, might have kept this Command. Might not Adam easily have for­born one Tree, when all other Trees in Eden besides were allowed him? And the more easie it was to keep it, the more hainous it was to break it. Augustine said excellently, Hoc ita (que) de uno cibi ge­nere non ed [...]n­do, ubi aliorum tanta Copia subjacebat, tam leve praeceptum ad observan­dum, tam bre­ve ad memoriâ retinendum; ubi praesertim nondum vo­luntati Cupidi­tas resistebat, quod de poena transgressionis postea subsecutum est, tanto majore injustitia violatum est, quanto faciliore possit observantia custodiri. Aug. De Civit. De [...]. lib. 14. c. 12. Tom. 5. This of not eating one sort of meat, when of others there was such plenty, was so light a precept for observance, so short for remembrance, (especially where concupiscence did not as yet resist the will, which afterwards ensued as a punishment,) that it was with so much greater injustice violated, by how much more easie observance it might have been performed. And yet elswhere more Excellently; Desertor aternae vita, etiam aeterna (nisi gratia liberaret) morte damnatus. Si quis hujus­modi damnationem vel nimiam vel injustam putat, metiri profecto nescit, quanta fuerit iniquitas in peccando, ubi tanta erat non peccandi facilitas. Sicut enim Abrahae non immerito magna obedientia praedicatur, quia ut occiderat fili­um, res difficillima est imperata: ita et in Paradiso tanto maior inobedientia fuit, quanto id quod praeceptum est, nul­lius difficultatis fuit. Et sicut obedientia secundi Hominis eo praedicabilior, qua factus est obediens usque ad mortem: ita inobedientia primi hominis eo detestabilior, qua factus est inobediens usque ad mortem. Aug. de Civ. Dei l. 14. To. 5. c. 15. The forsaker of eternal life, if grace had not delivered, was damned with eternal Death. If any think this judgement to be too much or unjust, surely he knows not how to measure, how great the iniquity was in sinning, where there was so great facility of not sinning. For as Abraham's obedience [Page 45] was deservedly proclaimed great, because the thing commanded was most difficult, to kill his son: so in Paradise the disobedience was so much great­er, because that which was commanded was of no difficulty. And as the obe­dience of the second man was therein the more honourable, in that he was obedient even to death; so the disobedience of the first man was therein the more detestable, in that he became disobedient even to death.

6. The Objects against whom Adam sinned, do also render Adams sin more grievous. He sin'd against God, Himself, and All Man­kind. 1. Against God, rebelliously breaking his Command, per­fidiously violating his Covenant, ingratefully rendering Evil unto God for all the multitudes of Blessings shewed upon him, and most abominably believing the lying Suggestions of Satan Iob. 8. 44. the Father of Lyes, rather then the infallible word of the Deut. 32. 4. God of Truth, the Tit. 1. 2. God that cannot lye, Either in his Promise or Threatning. Now thus to sin against God, is to sin against an infinite Majesty, against an infinite glory. And what finite creature can sufficiently com­prehend, how infinitely it aggravates Sin, to sin against such infinite­ness! 2. Against himself. Adam sinned against himself many ways; viz. Against his Soul, in disrobing it of Gods image in which it was created, and defiling it with Satan's image wherewith it was corrupted. Against his body; in embasing it in the Service of Sin and Satan, that should have been only imployed in uprightness and puri­ty: in clothing it with confusion and Gen. 3. 7. with 2. 25. shame, that before was adorned with nothing but beauty and honour: and in exposing it to Gen. 3. 17, 18, 19. Sorrows, wearisomness, toylsomness, and thousands of infirmi­ties and miseries, which before was utterly unacquainted with all mi­sery and sorrow. Against his Person, in involving himself in Mor­tality and Death, in depriving himself of all his Paradise-felicities, of his Primitive integrity, of his dominion over the Creatures, and of his Communion with the blessed God transcending all. Against his Name, filling it with ignominy and reproach, that was Psal. 8▪ 5. crowned with glory and honour: for Prov. 14. 34. sin is a reproach to any people, most of all to him that was totally free from sin, and fully able so to keep himself free. Finally, Against his Outward Estate, in forfeiting both Gen. 3. 23, 24. Paradise and all the possessions, comforts and Priviledges which he had on Earth, and bringing a Gen. 3▪ 17, 18. Curse and a Rom. 8. 20, 21, 22. bondage of Corruption upon the whole Creature, under which it even groaneth and travaileth in pain together until now. Thus Adam sinned against himself in respect of Soul, Body, Person, Name, and State: How unnatural, horrid and cruel was it for Adam so to sin against himself! 3. Against all Mankind, Even his whole ordinary Poste­rity from the beginning to the End of the world, who Rom. 5. 12. to the e [...]d. all were stained in him, in respect of Soul, Body, Person, Name and State, as Adam was. At once all mankind were polluted and defiled by sin: spoyled and robbed of all their happiness: plung'd and drown'd in all sorts of misery: murder'd and swallow'd up of death. Extensively considered, there was never such a sin, such a Contagion, such a [Page 46] spoil, such a Murder since the world stood; nor can be till the Worlds end.

7. The Manifold and great Evils both of Sin and Punishment At­tending upon Adam's eating of the Tree of Knowledge, Extream­ly aggravate his sin, and manifest it to be out of measure sinful.

(1.) Evd of sin attending upon Adam's Eating of this forbidden Tree, is manifold. Especially it is Antecedent, Concomitant, or Consequent thereunto. I. Antecedent Evds of sin, repugnant, Partly to the Moral Law, written in Adam's heart; Partly to the Positive Law, given for his Tryal: gradually foregoing his and Eves eating of the forbidden fruit, were divers. viz. 1. Idleness. In that the woman seems not to be so diligently employ'd about the dressing and keeping of the Garden, in assistance of her husband as she ought, Gen. 2. 15. according to Gods appointment: when Satan came to tempt. Idleness is a Temptation to Satan to tempt us; where as it is the Devils work to tempt others, its the idle-mans business to tempt the Devil. 2. Pre­sumptuous Curiosity, or Curious Presumption. In that the woman, being 1 Pet 3. 7. the weaker vessel, durst entertain so dangerous a conflict with the Serpent, in her husbands absence. For, its most likely that at the be­ginning of the Serpents onset, Adam was at some distance from Eve: And the subtile Serpent took that advantage. 3. Inconsiderateness, and heedless forgetfulness of Gods most strict command, which appears in her mis-recital of it two ways. Partly, In adding to it, Gen. 3 3. Neither shall ye touch it: whereas the Gen. 2. 17. Command only forbad the Eating, not at all the touching of the Tree of Knowledge. Partly by Detract­ing from it. For God said, Gen. 2. 17. In the day thou eatest thereof, dying thou shalt dye. i. e. thou shalt surely dye, and that presently ipso facto. But she omits both the Peremptoriness of the threatning, and saith, Gen. 3. 3. [...] ne forte Pagnln. lest ye dye; or, lest perhaps ye dye, as the Hebrew word intimates. What God threatned peremptorily, she recites with a perhaps or a per­adventure: And she also omits the present suddenness of death threatned in the day of Sinning, Gen. 2. 17. with 3. 3. For in the day that thou eatest thereof, &c. And by this forgetful mis-recital of Gods Command, She gives Satan ad­vantage against her self both to perswade her Gen 3. 4, 5. they should not dy, and to accuse God of a kinde of envy at their happiness. 4. Unhelief to­wards God. In that she did not so fully as she ought credit Gods perem­ptory Threatning of Death Expressed, in case of disobedience: nor his Contrary Promise of Life implyed, in case of obedience. 5. Rash and headlong Credulity of the Serpent, and of Satan in him; though he both Gen. 3. 4, 5. contradicted Gods Command, and accused God of Envy at their happy state, and falsely suggested that by Eating they should become as Gods, knowing good and evil. How abominable and idola­trous to believe Satan Iohn 8. 44. the Father of Lyes: before the De [...]t. 32▪ 4. Tit. 1. 2. God of Truth, who cannot lye! 6. Discontenting dislike with their present Condi­tion wherein God had so happily set them. 7. Ambitious proud aspiring above their pitch Gen. 3. 5, 6. to be as Gods knowing good and evil. 8. Inordinate affection and evil concupiscence. In desiring Gen. 3. 6. an object unlawful, [Page 47] the fruit prohibited. 9. Irregularity of will. In chusing rather to harken to the Serpents Suggestion, then to Gods Command. 10. Lust of the eyes. In that she fixed a Longing Gen. 3. 6. look upon the forbidden fruit; and by looking on it▪ liked it, and designed to eat it. 11. Incontinence of hands. In that she refrains not from Gen. 3. 6. taking the forbidden fruit. 12. Intemperance of taste and Palate; In that she Gen. 3 Eats the fruit, taken; and so her Sin was compleated and fi­nished. II. Concomitant Evils of Sin, accompanying the Eating of the forbidden fruit, are also divers. viz. 1. Eves Tempting her husband, both Gen. 3. 17. 6. by word and Action, to Eat of the Tree of Knowledge: Thereby, with her self undoing her husband, to whom she was given for Gen. 2. 20. a meet help. 2. Adams inconsiderate Gen. 3. 17. hark­ning to the voice of his wife, who was made for him: rather then to the voice of God, for whom himself was made. 3. Deep ingratitude against God, who had crowned Adam with so many and excellent Priviledges in Paradise. Ingratum dixeris, omnia dixeris. What worse then to be challenged for Ingratitude? How was God displeased with 2 Chron. 32. 24, 25. Hezekiah, Iudah, and Ierusalem, for not rendring again according to the benefits done unto him? But Adam had benefits done to him, incomparably transcending those of Hezekiah: yet he so far from rendring according to the benefit done to him, that he rendred evil for good which is the worst point of ingratitude. Reddere bo­num pro bono, [...]umanum; reddere bonum pro malo, Di­vinum: sed reddere malum pro bono, Dia­bolicum. To render good for good, is man-like: To render good for evil, is God-like; But to render evil for good, is Devil-like. 4. Direct Rom. 5. 19. Gen. 2. 17. disobedience to Gods express Command. And its no small crime to be disobedient: as we may see in the Aggravations of King Sauls 1 Sam. 15. 19, 22, 23. disobedience. Disobedience, is a rejecting of the word of the LORD, yea it is Stubborness, which is as iniquity and Idolatry: yea it is rebellion, which is as the Sin of witch-craft. 5. Covenant-breaking with God most perfidiously, being able to keep it. 6 Woful Apostacy, from a sin-less and happy state, to a sinful and miserable Condition: from God blessed for ever, and his blisful ser­vice, to the Devil damned for ever, and his cursed slavery. None of the sons of men ever Apostatized from such Eminency, to such Extremity. III. Consequent Evils of Sin, ensuing upon the Eating of the forbidden fruit; were finally various and grievous. As, 1. An evil Conscience filled with guilt, and Gen. 3. 7, 10. filling them with shame and terrour in respect of God. 2. Flight Gen. 3. 8, 9, 10. from God and his presence, which before were so sweet and comfortable. 3. Hypocrisie in Gen. 3. 7, 12, 13. hiding their nakedness with figleaves, and in extenuating their sin by translating it from themselves, the man to the woman, and the woman to the Serpent. 4. Most cruel Gen. 2. 16, 17. Rom. 5. 12. to the end. Ephes. 2. 1. &c. Mur­der both of themselves, and of all mankind at once, both in body and soul from the beginning to the end of the world; and of the Son of God, Jesus Christ, in some respect also. Themselves they murdered actually, in themselves all mankind virtually and inter­pretatively, and Jesus Christ himself the Lord of glory Occasionally; The first Adams sin Rom. 5. 19. occasioning the second Adams Death. [Page 48] There was never such an haynous horrid cruel murder as this com­mitted in the world by any of the sons of men. 5. The universal Rom. 3, 9. 10. to 20. Eph. 2. 1, 2, 3. Corruption of the whole Nature of Man-kind. Whereby Every per­son descending from Adam by ordinary propagation, is in soul and body utterly Rom. 5. 6. & 8. 8. 2 Cor. 3. 5. Phil. 2. 13. unable, indisposed, yea Rom. 8. 7. Gal. 5. 17. opposite to all spiritual good: and Gen. 6. 5. Rom. 7. 18. totally evil, and only inclined to evil, and that con­tinually. Which Corruption of Nature is Commonly called Origi­nal Sin, As being the Original spawn and spring-head of All Actual sins: and it is Joh. 3. 6. Psal. 51. 5. Job 14. 4. & 15. 14. propagated by natural generation from our first parents to all their ordinary posterity. 6. All the Actuall sins that have been, are, or shall be in this world from the First Adams fall, till the Second Adams coming to judgement; together with all the Kinds, Degrees, sinful Circumstances and horrid Aggravations thereof, which are utterly beyond mans numbering, measuring or compre­hending: All these have taken their rise from Adams disobedience in eating the forbidden fruit. For, Iam. 1. 14, 15. Rom. 7. 17. Math. 15. 19. All Actual sins flow imme­diately from Original: and Original sin from Adams sin. Hence is that school-distinction of Original sin, into Original Sin Origi­nated, and Original Sin Originating. That, is the Corruption of Nature, the immediate Original of all Actuals; This, is Adams sin, the im­mediate Original of the Corruption of Nature. Never Sin in this world had such a black train of innumerable and intolerable sins following it at the heels, as this sin of Adam had. They seem to parallel the stars of Heaven, the sands of the Sea shore, the dust of the Earth, the grass-piles upon the ground, and the motes in Sun, for multitude. Oh how grievous was Adams sin, that was attended with such Antecedent, Concomitant, and Consequent Evils of sin! An hor­rid Hydra of many monstrous heads. A complexive, complicated sin indeed. Hereat Heaven and Earth might stand astonished. O ye holy Angels, how were ye offended, to see Adam and all the Elect in him (of whom ye had such special charge, Psal. 91. 11, 12. Heb. 1. 14.) so quickly transformed into such transgressors! O ye celestial Lights, Sun, Moon and Stars, did not ye blush, and veil your brightest faces with Sables, beholding Adam such a Sinner? O ye fowls of the air, and ye beasts of the Field, were not ye filled with horrour, when man, your earthly Lord, disrobed himself of his Honour by disobedience, and became like the beasts that perish, Psal. 49. 12. O ye streams of Pa­radise, were not ye congealed within your banks, when such a deluge of sin overflowed mankind? O ye Tres of Eden, did not ye sweat out your moisture: and ye pleasant fruits of the Garden, did not ye all pre­sently fade and fall to the Earth, when Adam the dresser of the Gar­den, by disobedient tasting of the Tree of Knowledge, fell so fowly from uprightness to unrighteousness, Eccles. 7. 29. from God to the Devil, from heaven to hell? Surely the whole Creation groaneth and travelleth in pain together until now under the tedious bondage of this corruption, most earnestly longing for compleat deliverance, Rom. 8. 19, 23.

[Page 49](2) Evil of punishment ensuing upon Adams disobedience was also various and grievous. And this both in respect of himself, of his wife, and of all their common posterity. As, 1. The obliteration and defacing of Gods image. Eccles. 7. 29. Compared with Col. 3. 9, 10. & Eph. [...]. 22, 23, 24. God made man upright; but they have sought out many inventions. No sooner did Adam sin, but he blotted out of his soul thereby the beauteous image of God, and thereon Satan stamped his own odious image instead thereof: So that na­turally all are the Iob 8. 44. 1 Ioh. 3. 12. children of the Devil. 2. Shame. Before they finned, Gen. 2. 25. Adam and his wife (though naked) were not ashamed. But as soon as they had defiled themselves with sin, they were covered with shame: Gen. 3. 6. 7. and they sewed figleaves together, and made themselves aprons, to hide their shame. R [...]m. 6. 21. Shame attends upon sin, as inseparably as the shadow upon the Body. 3. Horrour of a guilty self-accusing and self-condemning Conscience. Therefore after their fall, they presently Gen. 3. 8, 9, 10. were afraid at the presence of God; and hid themselves, because they were naked. And being examined of God, they confess not, but excuse their sin; As Augustine notes; Et dixit Adam, mulier q [...]am dedisti mecum, haec mihi dedit a ligno, & edi. Nunquid dix­it, peccavi? Superbia habet confusionis de­formitatem, & non habet con­fessionis humi­litatem. Aug. de Gen. ad liter. l. 11. c. 35. Tom. 3. Did Adam say I have sinned? No; his pride had the deformity of Confusion, not the humility of Confession. 4. Inability to stand in judgement, when God arraigned them at his bar. And therefore both of them labour to Gen. 3. 11, 12, 13. excuse and translate their fault: Adam to his wife, and she to the Serpent. It is the misery of unrighteous persons, that they are Psal. 1. 5. not able to stand, but fall in judgement. 5. The Peculiar Punishments of the female Sex. The Hebrews observe, as Ioan. Me [...] ­cer. in Prae­l [...]ction. in Gen. 3. 16. Mercerus noteth, five Degrees of Eves sin: and answerably five degrees of her, and womens Punishment. She sinned, (1.) By entertaining the Serpents Temptation, believing him rather then God, contrary to God. (2) By being lifted up with ambitious desire to be as God. (3) By beholding the Tree of knowledge with a longing look. (4) By taking and eating of it. (5) By giving also to her husband, so that he did eat. So she and women in her, were punished five waies: viz. (1) By their many Sorrows in general. (2) By their sorrows in Conception. (3) By their sorrows and pains in bringing forth of children. (4) By their ardent desires after their husbands notwithstanding. (5) By their subjection to their husbands. But the Gen. 3. 16 Vid. Ioh. Calv. Com. Ibid. Text seems to refer the Punishments of the female sex to two Heads; viz. Multiplied sorrows, and Aggravated subjection, (1) Multiplied sorrows: Partly, In the womans Conceiving with child. Wherein understand all her sorrows, during the time she is with child, till she be delivered: viz. Her weakness and nauseousness of stomach, rejection of food, distempered appetite after unwholesome and unfit nourishment, weakness, dulness, weari­someness, frowardness, longings, faintings, swounings, and much sickliness, with manifold fears. Partly, in the womans bringing forth of children, which usually is with such exquisite pains and sharp tor­tures, as that Scripture is wont thereby to represent The churches Isa. 26. 17, 18. [...]er. 4. [...]1. extream afflictions; The Psal. 116. 3. Acts 2. [...]9. pangs of Death; The terrours [Page 50] 1 Thes. 5. 3. of the day of judgement; and the very Luke 16. 23, 24, 25. torments of Hell; the same word for substance being used to signifie all these. And sometimes these pains of child-bearing prove mortal. Now under Bringing forth, we may understand also the Bringing up of children, as the phrase is Gen. 50. 23. elsewhere used. And in both, what multitudes of cares, fears, griefs, watchings, toylsome troubles, torments, vexations, &c. flow in upon them! (2) An aggravated subjection to their husbands; Gen. 3. 16. Their desire must be subject to their husbands, and they must rule over them. By the law of Nature and Creation, the woman being made after and for the man, was to be subject unto man, though they had never sinned. But that subjection would have been sweet, plea­sant and delightful; and the husbands Rule loving, as over a Second-self: whereas now since the fall, the husbands Rule over his wife seems to be somewhat augmented, and her subjection is become painful, tedious, irksome, and grievous to her. These the Punish­ments peculiar to women-kind. 6. Gods curse upon the Gen. 3. 17, 18, 19. Earth. By Earth, seems to be implyed, the whole Psal. 115. 16. 2 Pet. 3. 7. visible world, made for mans use and Comfort: in the Curse whereof, man (whose subsistence was to be on and from the earth) is cursed and punished. By Gods Curse, the Earth, and visible world proportionally, are smitten with Barrenness, Toilsomeness, and vanity. (1) With Barrenness; Partly in Gen. 3. 17. & 4. 12. not yielding their strength of influence and fruitfulness, as before the fall they did abundantly and freely. Partly in bringing forth weeds, Gen. 3. 17, 18. thorns and thistles, in stead of good fruits; which before the fall it did not bring forth. (2) With Gen. 3. 17, 18, 19. Toylsomeness. The Curse and barrenness of the Earth being in toylsomeness and laborious wearisome travel with the Earth, to improve it unto fruit­fulness. Eccles. 1. 8. All things are full of labour, man cannot utter it. (3) With vanity. Eccles. 1 [...] 2. Vanity of vanities, saith the Preacher, vanity of vanities, all is vanity. All sublunaries are vanity; Partly in respect of their Empti­ness. There's no satisfaction in any sublunary enjoyment. Eccles. 1. 8. The eye is not satisfied with seeing: nor the ear filled with hearing. Eccles. 5. 10. Hee that loveth silver shall not be satisfied with silver; nor he that loveth abundance, with increase; This is also vanity. Partly in respect of their Perishableness. Psal. 102, 25, 26. Of old hath God laid the foundation of the earth: and the heavens are the works of thy hands. They shall perish, but thou shalt endure; yea all of them shall wax old like a garment: as a vesture shalt thou change them, and they shall be changed. Hence Paul saith, That Rom. 8. 21, 22. the Creation is made subject to vanity,—and is under the bondage of Corruption, as it were waiting for a state of glorious liberty. There­fore the whole Creation groaneth, and travelleth in pain together untill now. And Peter tels us expresly, That 2 Pet. 3 10, 13. in the day of the Lord, The hea­vens shall pass away with a great noise, and the Elements shall melt with fervent heat, the earth also and the works that are therein shall be burnt up.—Nevertheless we look for New Heavens and New Earth. Oh, mans sin hath in a sort so deeply stained the beauty and glory of this visible world, that the old universal deluge of waters could not wash [Page 51] it, but the fire of the last day must purifie it. Heaven and Earth groa [...] and travel-in-pangs under the Curse of mans sin: and shall not man much more groan and be in pain for his own sin? This is the curse upon the Creature. 7. Gods actual dooming of Adam, and of mankind in him, To an ignonimious Provision, Miserable life, and Certain Death after all. (1) His ignonimious Provision of Sustenance: In that he Gen. 3. 18. must eat the herb of the field. Before the fall he had for food the liberal and delicate fruits of Eden: but since, his allowance was both shorter, and courser. As he made himself Psal. 49. 12. like the beasts that perish: so he must as well as the beasts eat the herb of the field, a more ignoble nourishment. (2) His miserable life: in regard of the Continual Sorrows, and laborious painful wearisome toyl in providing food and other necessaries all the daies of his life. Gen. 3. 17, 19. In sorrow shalt thou eat all the daies of thy life.—In the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat bread, till thou return unto the ground. Hence man is ne­cessitated, Psal. 127. 2. To rise up early, to set up late, to eat the bread of sorrows. This sweat the Vid. [...]an. Merceri Praelect. in Gen. 3. 19. Hebrews refer to the many laborious works and waies of preparing bread; As manuring the ground, Plowing it, Sowing it, Harrowing it, Breaking the clods, Weeding the Corn, Reaping it, In-gathering it, Thrashing it, Winnowing it, Grinding it, Dressing it, Kneading it, Baking it in the Oven. O how many toylsome tyring imployments is man Obnoxious to in providing food and rai­ment for himself and family! (3) His certain Death as the Period of all.—Gen. 3. 19. Till thou return unto the ground: for out of it wast thou taken: for Dust thou art, and unto Dust thou shalt return. Here man is not only sentenced to Death, but also to the Grave. Under which under­stand, all Sicknesses, Diseases, Causes, Occasions, Harbingers or inlets to Death, as harmful influence of the Heavens, infectiousness of the air, unwholsomeness of the Earth, &c. 8. Expulsion of man Gen. 3. 22, 23, 24. out of Paradise, and Guarding it and the Tree of life, with Cherubims and a flaming sword turning every way, to keep the way of the Tree of life: That Adam might not fondly delude himself with vain hopes of life by the Sacrament of the Covenant of works, when he had broken the Covenant it self. These, these were the woful Evils of Punishment, that like a Torrent burst in upon our First Parents presently upon their fall, and in them upon all mankind. To speak nothing of the miseries of man in this world in respect of his Goods, Relations, Name, Body and Soul, which are innumerable: Nor of his endless Calamities in the world to come, which (without Christ) are inevitable and intolerable.

Hitherto hath been evidenced at large, 1. That Adam brake the Covenant of works. 2. How Adam brake this Covenant by disobedience. 3. When and how soon he brake it. 4. How grievous and hainous this his Breach of Covenant was. Now in the last place, 5. Certain Corol­laries, flowing from all are to be Considered.

V. Corollaries, resulting from this Aphorism, and the Explanati­on of it, are divers. As, [Page 52] 1. Hence; Not only Adam, but all mankind in Adam were Cove­nant-Breakers with God. It hath See Apho­rism 3. of this chapt. formerly been cleared, tha [...] not only Adam but all his Posterity were Parties to this Covenant with God: Consequently, in Adams Covenant-breaking, they all became Covenant-breakers with God. Its dangerous to be Covenant-breakers with man: dreadful to be Covenant-breakers with God. Here seriously consider, 1. That Covenant-keeping is most acceptable to God. For, 1▪ God Gen. 17. 9, 10. Deut. 29. 9. commands us to keep Covenant with himself. 2. Gods Promises are to them that keep Covenant with him. To Da­vid, Psal. 132, 12. that if his children would keep his Covenant, they should sit upon his Throne for evermore. To all the Godly, Psal. 103. 17, 18. That the mercy of the Lord is from everlasting to everlasting upon them that fear him; and his righte­ousness unto childrens children: To such as keep his Covenant, and to those that remember his Commandments to do them. 3. Covenant-keeping makes us like God, and notably resemble him, Deut. 7. 9. 1 Kings 8. 23. N [...]h. 1. 5. & 9. 32. who is the faithful God, which keepeth Covenant and mercy with them that love him, and keep his Commandments to a thousand generations. And the more we resemble God, the more acceptable we are unto God. 4. Covenant-keeping with God, obtains rich recompence from God. Levi, for Deut. 33. 9, 10, 11. observing Gods word and keeping his Covenant, is stablished and accepted in his office, and divinely blessed. Yea Psal. 25. 10. All the paths of the Lord are mercy and truth unto such as keep his Covenant and his Testimo­nies. II. That contrariwise Covenant-breaking is most abominable to God. For 1. Covenant-breaking is Compare Rom. 1. 31. with 2 Tim▪ 3. 3. ranked by the Holy Ghost amongst the worst of Sins, & Covenant-breakers among the vilest of Sinners. And God Psal. 50. 16, 17, &c. cannot abide that such should any way so much as profess, name, or meddle with his Covenant. 2. Covenant-breaking is Exposed to many Gen. 17. 14. Ier. 22. 7, 8, 9. Hos. 8. 1. Threatnings. 3. Covenant-breaking puls down upon mens heads many severe and heavy Judgements. How was Hos. 10. 4. &c. Ier. 34. 18. &c. Israel plagued, for dealing falsly in Gods Covenant, again and again? yea How hath God taken vengeance even upon them that have broke their Covenants with men! Ioshuah and Israel made a Covenant with the Compare Iosh. 9. 3. with 1 Sam. 13. 2 Sam. 21. 1. to 10. Gibeonites, that they should live peaceably with them: King Saul contrary thereunto slew some of them; whereupon the Philistins slew him and his sons, and many of the Is­raelites; and the whole land was plagued with a three years famine, till seven of Sauls sons were hanged at the request of the Gibeonites. 2 Chron. 36. 13. &c. 2 Kings 25. 4, 5, 6, 7. [...]. 17. 12. to 22. Zedekiah brake Covenant with Nebuchadnezzar, and God de­livered him into the hands of his Enemies, who slew his sons before his eyes, and then put out his eyes. Now if they that brake Cove­nant with man are thus plagued: where shall they appear that have broke Covenant with the living God, and that in Paradise?

2. Hence, Adam's first Sin, his Covenant-breaking Sin, and ours in him, was not small, but extreamly sinful. The Act of eating of the fruit of the Tree of Knowledge, seems to be a small matter: where­upon some have seemed to excuse and extenuate his sin. But how ig­norantly, how inconsiderately! Can that sin be small, thats clothed [Page 53] with such and so many unparalleld Aggravations, as have been alrea­dy unfolded?

3. Hence The Covenant of Works being broken by the first Adam, and by all mankind in him: He and all his Posterity lie wofully involved under the Curse and Penalty of it, even Death it self. This Corollary is of great Importance, and most seriously to be considered. For opening of it, Note 1. Why Adam and all his Posterity, upon breach of the Cove­nant of works lie involved under the Curse and Penalty of it, Death. 2. What Death it is under which they lie involved, and How they are so in­volved. 3. What are the Aggravations of this their sad condition under Death for sin.

(1) Adam and all his Posterity upon breach of the Covenant of works lie involved under the Curse and Penalty of it, Death it self. 1. Because God in making Covenant with Adam and his Posterity Gen. 2. 16, 17. threatned present and certain Death, in Case of breach thereof by disobedience in eating the forbidden fruit. The Covenant therefore being broken, it concerned God in point both of Justice and Truth, wherein he is incomparable, to inflict upon them the punishment threatned. Otherwise God had not been True and Just in his words and ways. 2. Because Death is the Proper Rom. 6. 23. wages of Sin, and eternal Death the most adequate and proportionable re­compence thereof. Hence the Apostle saith Rom. 5. 12. By one man sin entred into the world, and Death by Sin: and so death passed upon all men by that one man, in whom all have sinned. And again, Rom. 5. 18. By the offence of one, judgement came upon all men [...]o Condemnation. 3. Be­cause God made his Covenant not only with Adam, but with all his Posterity in him, as See before in this first Chap. Aphor. 3. hath been already shewed: and therefore when Adam fell from his integrity, he fell not alone, nor brought the Curse and Penalty of the Covenant upon himself alone, but all his ordinary Posterity fell in him, were involved under the Penalty of Death with him. 4. Because The Covenant of Works in the Nature of it, under pain of the Curse and Death, requires perfect and perpetual Personal obedience: According to that of the Apostle, Gal. 3. 10. Deut. 27. 26. As many as are of the works of the Law, are under the Curse, (pre­supposing mans Fall, and consequently his inability to keep it): For it is written, Cursed is every one that that continueth not in all things which are written in the Book of the Law to do them. The Covenant of works therefore affords no mercy to the Transgressors thereof: but inflicts Death and the Curse for the least delinquency. Iam. 2. 10. For whosoever shall keeep the whole Law, and yet offend in one point, he is guilty of all.

(2) What Death it is under which Adam and all his Poste­rity lie involved: and how they are so involved under Death, though Adam did not presently dye; hath before In Book II. Chap. 1. Aphorism 4. Quest. 3. &. 4 been declared. Only here I add, touching Corporal Death, That we may consider three things, viz. The Commination, Sentence, and execution of it. 1. The Commination or Threatning of Death Corporal, as well as Spiritual [Page 54] or Eternal, in case of disobedience, was Gen. 2. 17. Propounded to Adam in innocency, to keep him in due obedience. 2. The Sentence of Corporal Death was pronounced upon Adam presently upon his dis­obedience in the Gen. 3. 6, 7, 8, 19. same Day that he did eat of the forbidden fruit, in these words; Dust thou art, and unto dust shalt thou return. So that Adam was now as A condemned malefactor: Dead in Law, Civilly Dead; to be executed at the Judges pleasure. 3. The Execution of Corporal Death upon Adam and his Posterity was respited a while. See the Hist. of Gene­sis throughout. The Death of Adam, and so of the Fathers before the Flood was respited for about 900 years: so long God reprieved them in the First world, from Adam to Noah. In the second world from Noah to Abraham, Mans Life, or mans Reprieve from death, is shortned half in half, and brought to about 450. years. In the third world, from Abraham to Moses, Mans Life was contracted to 100 and some odd years. Yea Moses himself saith, Psal. 90. 1. 10. The days of our years are threescore years and ten, and if by reason of strength they be fourscore years, yet is their strength labour and sorrow: for it is soon cut off and we fly away. To this short scantling of 70 or 80 years, are our lives reduced, few reach to 100. Thus the Sentence of Death Cor­poral is executed upon all mankind, by degrees, to this day, and so will be to the end of the world.

(3) The Aggravations of this sad Condition of Adam and his Posterity under the Penalty of the Covenant of works broken, are dreadful. For clearing hereof we are to consider Adam and his Posterity after breach of the Covenant of works, as in a fourfold estate, viz. As Covenantless; As Carnal; As Gracious; As Glorious. I. In a Co­venantless estate, were Adam and all his Posterity in the interval, of space betwixt the breach of the Covenant of works and the Making known the Covenant of Faith in Christ. From the Gen. 3., 6, 7, 15. Fall, till the Promise of the Seed of the woman, Adam and all his Posterity were Covenantless, without all Covenant with God. They had not the Covenant of works, for that was Broken: Nor the Covenant of of Faith in Christ, for that was not yet revealed. Hence, In this Co­venantless Condition, Adam and all his Posterity were involved un­der the penalty of Death, 1. Without all Remedy. For Christ, Acts 4. 12. Rom. 8. 2, 3. 1 Cor. 15. 55, 56, 57. the only Remedy against Sin and Death, was not as yet Promised or Revealed at all. 2. Without all Hope. For whence could Adam have any Hope of life? Not from his own fulfilling of the Covenant of works, for that he had utterly broken: not from Faith in Christ ful­filling it for him, and satisfying for his breach thereof; for the Myste­rie of Christ, and of the Covenant of Faith in him, was not as yet made known to Adam; nor could such a Remedy ever have come into Adams thoughts. Therefore in this interval of time betwixt the Fall, and the Promise of Christ, Adam and all Mankinde in him were in the most remediless hopeless darksom valley of the Shadow of Death, that ever was or shall be on Earth from the Creation, till the judgement Day. II. In a Iohn 3. 5, 6. Rom. 8. 7, 8. Psal. 51. 4. Carnal fleshly sinful State, [Page 55] are all Adams Posterity, by Nature, since the Fall and promise of Christ, From their Conception, till their Actual Receiving of Christ by Faith for Life. During this Carnal Condition Mankind are not so Remedilessly and Hopelessly miserable as in the former Covenantless State; Because Jesus Christ the Remedy against sin and Death, and the Fundamental Hope of life, is already Revealed to the world, which was not then: yet notwithstanding herein all mankind are wofully miserable in divers regards. 1. In that during this carnal State they are wholly under the Curse and Penalty of the Covenant of works, viz. Death. Every Carnal man is, Spiritually [...]ph. 2. 1. 5. dead in Sin, yea Rom. 8. 6. death it self: Corporally dying every day, by gradual decays of Life; and by afflictions which are petty deaths: and as [...]ph. 2. 3. Rom. 9. 22. children of wrath every moment liable to eternal Death, being [...]. 3. 18▪ 36. condemned al­ready, and having the wrath of God abiding on them. 2. In that, during their carnal State, they are extreamly insensible of this their dead and cursed Condition: and vainly flatter themselves therein with imaginations and dreams that they are alive and in a good spiri­tual Condition towards God. As Luke 18. 9. to 11. the Pharisee, that went into the Temple to pray: Paul Rom. 7. 9, 10. before Conviction and Conversion, and the Revel. 3. 17. Laodicean Angel. Now Norunt Medici [...]gro­tantem, & non sentientem, pe­riculosius labo­rare. Physicians say, that they are more dangerously sick, that being diseased are insensible of their disease. They are double miserable, that being in their carnal Condition are not sensible of their misery, but rather count their misery happiness. 3. In that, during their carnal state, they are Rom. 5. 6. & 8. 8. Ioh. 1. 12, 13. & 3. 3, 5, 6. 8. & 6. 44. &. 15. 5. utterly unable to help themselves in any degree out of their miserable thraldom of Sin and Death, without Gods Supernatural Grace. So that, in the first part of Conversion, viz. the infusing of Principles and Habits of Grace into the Heart, they are meerly Passive. 4. Finally, In that, During their carnal Condition, They are not only extreamly miserable, Senseless of their Misery, and in respect of themselves ut­terly Helpless under their misery, but also they are most prone to Ioh. 1. 11. Heb. 2. 2, 3. Neglect, despise and Luke 19. 14. Ioh. 15. 18, 24, 25. & 7. 7. hate Jesus Christ the only Remedy. These are the Aggravations of a Carnal mans misery. III. In a gracious State are all they that are by effectual calling trans­planted out of the first Adam into Iesus Christ the second Adam. During this their Gracious State, though they be not totally freed from Death, yet they are wholly Gal. 3. 13. delivered from the Curse of it, through Christ. From Ioh. 11. 26. & 6, 50, 51. Rom. 8. 1. Death Eternal they are fully deliver­ed, that (though they deserve it, yet) it shall never befal them. From Death Spiritual they are inchoatively and gradually delivered by the Rom. 8. 2. Power of the Spirit of Life in Christ: and shall be compleatly when Eph. 5. 26 27. neither spot nor wrinkle, nor any such thing shall remain upon them. From Death Corporal, together with all the inlets and harbingers thereof, they are delivered in respect of the 1 Cor. 15. 55, 56, 57. Heb. 2. 14, 15. Gal. 3. 13. Sting, Terror, and Curse thereof, though not in respect of the 1 Thes. 4. 14. state thereof. The Saints are afflicted and dye as well as Carnal men: But to the Saints Afflictions and Death are not Enemies, but 1 Cor 3. 22. Friends; [Page 56] not Losses, but Phil. 1. 21, 23. Gains; not Miseries, but Psal. 119. 75. Heb. 12. 6. Mercies; not Punish­ments, but Heb. 12. 5. to 12. fatherly Chastisements; not Curses, but Luke 6. 22, 23. Jam. 1. 2. blessings; whilst unto Carnal men they are altogether Contrary. IV. In a glorious state, are Heb. 12. 23. the spirits of just men made perfect, and shall be both 1 Thes. 4. 16 17. spirits and bodies of all the Elect after the judge­ment day. And then no Sin, Death, Curse, Affliction, Sorrow, or any shadow thereof shall ever trouble them or come neer them any more to all eternity: but 1 Cor. 15. 25, 26, 54. &c. all shall be swallowed up in victory. And thus we are to conceive of the penalty of the Covenant of works, Death: and how Adam and all his Posterity are, by their first Sin, therein involved.

4. Hence, All Adams Posterity from the beginning to the end of the world, have great Cause deeply to lament and be humbled for Adams first Sin. For, Not only Adam, but Rom. 5. 12. all his posterity sinned in Adams first sin: That First Sin was extreamly sinful: That First sin involved not only Adam but all his Posterity under the Curse and Penalty of Death. Was ever sin, all things considered, parallel to this sin? was ever sin such Matter of lamentation and Humiliation? If Adams Posterity had no other sin, Original or Actual, to Mourn for, but this one sin alone, they had cause enough to lament it while this world Continues, if it were possible, with Rivers of tears, and those tears of blood. How comes it to pass then that we can mourn for Actuals, and Originals; but mourn least of all, for Adams and our First Sin to be bewayled most of all! When we Mourn for Actuals, lets with Psal. 51. David also mourn for Original Sin, The Nursery of Actuals: And when we mourn for them, lets Mourn likewise for Adams First Sin, the Mother of them all.

5. Hence, we may see How unsafe it is for mutable man to have his Life and Happiness in his own Keeping. Adam was made Eccles. 7. 29. Gen. 1. 27. upright, and that in the Image of God, but Mutable. His Life and Happiness was put into his own Keeping, and depended upon his own personal performance of the Covenant of works, which he had full power to keep; but being left to the liberty of his own Will, Temptation al­luring, how quickly did he and we in him lose all! How much better hath the Lord provided for his Elect in Christ the second Adam! Not they, but Christ is betrusted with their Life and Happiness. [...]oh. 10. 28, 29. My sheep hear my voice (saith Christ) and I know them, and they follow me. And I give unto them Eternal life, and they shall never perish, neither shall any man pluck them out of my hand. 1 Pet. 1. 5. [...]. They are kept-as-in-garison by the power of God through Faith unto Salvati­on. 1. The Rom. 8. 35. to the end. love of God in Jesus Christ clasps and embraceth them inseparably: 2. The Ioh. 6. 37. faithful Constancy of Christ retains them immoveably: 3. The 1 Pet. 1. 23. 1 [...]oh. 3. 9. incorruptible Seed of Christs word and Grace abides in them, and makes them abide in Christ perpetual­ly; and 4. The Ioh. 10. 28, [...]9. Omnipotent hand of God and Christ, who are stronger then all▪ protect, preserve and hold them inviolably. There­fore they can never totally nor finally fall.

[Page 57] 6. Hence; Seeing Adam utterly brake the Covenant of works by diso­bedience, This Covenant-breach is absolutely irreparable by the First Adam, and by all his ordinary Posterity. It is so wide and desperate a breach, that its absolutely past all the power and skill of meer mankind, or Creature, to close up and repair the same. This is evident, 1. From the Nature and Tenor of the Covenant of works. It giveth life upon no other▪ Terms then upon Perfect and perpetual Personal Obedi­ence: and inf [...]icteth death upon the least failing in any one particular. This the tenor and current of the Covenant. Adam failed in one particular, not obeying the Symbolical Law about the Tree of Know­ledge: By this one failing the Tenor of the Covenant is utterly overthrown: It being impossible that Adam should yield continual Obedience: his obedience being discontinued and broken off by his Disobedience. Therefore, As Virginity once lost, can never be recovered; so the Covenant of works once violated, can never be repaired. 2. From the requisits, Necessary to compleat Repuration of the broken Covenant of works. There are three things principally requisite to such a Reparation; viz. Full Satisfaction of the breach Past. Full personal Conformity to the Covenant for Present. And com­pleat fulfilling of the Covenant, for the Future. (1) There must be full Satisfaction of Divine Iustice and Truth for the Breach of Covenant al­ready Past, by undergoing the Death threatned, and deserved. Now no meer finite Creature is able to undergo death Corporal, Spiritual and Eternal, so as fully to satisfie Gods infinite justice, but would be utterly and eternally lost and swallowed up therein. And infinite justice offended, requires infinite satisfaction, which finite Beings can never perform. (2) There must be a full Personal Conformity to the Covenant for the present. Otherwise it were absolutely impossible either Passively to Satisfie for breaches past, or Actively to keep the Covenant perfectly for time to come. A­dam in integrity had not been able to keep the Covenant: had not his person then been fully conform to the Covenant. Now since Adams breach of the Covenant of works, Nor he nor any of his ordinary posterity are fully Conform to the Covenant, but natu­rally all are most Rom. 8. 7. contrary thereunto. (3) There must be, finally, a Compleat fulfilling of the Covenant of works for the future. But that none of the Ordinary posterity of lapsed Adam can perform, because Gal. 3. 22. The Scripture hath concluded all under sin. 3. From the utter inability of Adam and all mankind since the fall to fulfil the Covenant of works. All being Eph. 2. 1. dead in sin; Rom. 5. 6. without strength, and so the Rom. 8. 3. Law weak through the flesh; Rom. 8. 7. Enmity against God and the Law of God; and Gen. 6. 5. every imagination of the thoughts of mans heart being only▪ evil Continually.

7. Finally, Hence; The Covenant of works being utterly broken by Adams disobedience, Nor Adam nor Any of his Posterity, since the fall can ever be justified before God by the Covenant of works, or by the works of the Law. Why? 1. Because Adam, and Compare Gal. 3. 22. Rom. 5. 12, 19. with Rom. 8. 3. & Tit. 1. 15, 16. all mankind in him, [Page 58] are under sin, by reason of Adams disobedience. And therefore being wholly unable to all good works, they cannot be justified by good-works. Yea are so far from any possibility of being Justi­fied by good works: that, without pardoning mercy, they are lia­ble to be condemned eternally for their sins. And this is the Apostles grand Argument against Iustification by the works of the Law, where he purposely treats of this Subject of Iustification, viz. Nor Jew nor Gentile can be justified by the works of the Law: be­cause all of them are under sin. See for clearing this, my Key of the Bible, on Rom. §. IV. The Series of his Argumentati­on, See in Rom. 1. 17. to Rom. 3. 21. and observe it accurately, 2. Because, As by Adams disobedience all are concluded under sin: so by the law of works Comes the Knowledge of Sin. How? Chiefly two waies, viz. (1) Directly, By discovering what is sin, not only in Deeds and words, but in thoughts and imaginations. Rom. 7. 7. I had not known sin (saith Paul.) but by the Law: for I had not known lust, except the law had said, Thou shalt not Covet. Hence Christ shews in his Commentary upon the Law, Math. 5. 21, 22, 27, 28, 29, 38, 39, 40, 43. 44. that the Law discovers and condemns, not only Outward gross sins of life, but also inward close sins of the Heart. (2) Indirectly and Occasionally, By irritating and provoking sin: through the prohibition and restraint of it, to appear more extreamly sinful. As a fierce Torrent dam'd up, swels and ra­geth more furiously. So Paul; Rom. 7. 6. to 14. Sin taking occasion by the Command­ment, wrought in me all manner of Concupiscence. For without the Law sin was dead.—Thus, Sin by the Commandment became exceeding sinful. Now the Covenant or law of works, thus bringing in the knowledge of Sin, since the Fall, and not the knowledge of any our righteousness at all, is altogether unable to justifie us. Hence the Apostle thus concludes; Rom. 3. 20. Therefore by the deeds of the Law, there shall no flesh be justified in his sight: for by the Law is the Knowledge of sin. 3. Be­cause, Since the Fall, The Law of works curseth and condemneth all for not continuing in Obedience: and therefore it can justifie none. Gal. 3. 10. For as many as are of the works of the Law, are under the Curse: For it is written, Cursed is every one that continueth not in all things which are written in the Book of the Law to do them. Now the same Law cannot both bless and curse at once, both justifie and condemn at once, all mankind.


FInally, The breach of the Covenant of works by the Diso­bedience of the First Adam, did wonderfully make way for the establishment of the Covenant of Faith by the Obedience of the Second Adam. For, its very observable, Compare Gen. 3. 6. 7, 8. w [...]th ver. 15. That Adam had no sooner broke the Covenant of works: but presently on the self­same-day, God promiseth Christ the Seed of the woman to heal this breach, and so sets on foot the Covenant of Faith in Christ. Adam, almost as soon as made, made haste to destroy mankind, by his Sin: God, almost as soon as they were ruined, made haste to save mankind by his Son. Here's no small mysterie in this Divine dis­pensation. For unfolding it, Consider briefly these two Particu­lars, viz.

1. God before the foundation of the world, purposing to glorifie himself more peculiarly, by mankind, Eph. 1. 4, 5, 6. Elected some out of man­kind unto the adoption of children in Iesus Christ, according to the good­pleasure of his will.

2. God, in the beginning of the world, 1. Created man in his own image, wholly upright, but mutable. 2. Brings man into a Covenant of works with himself, Promising continuance of life upon condi­tion of Continued obedience, but threatning present death to diso­bedience. 3. Leaves man to himself and permits him to fall from his integrity, by breaking this Covenant, into a miserable state of sin and death. And all this in order to the accomplishment and execution of his eternal Decree.

3. God takes occasion, upon mans miserable state of Sin and Death through breach of the Covenant of works, to open to him a door of hope for life and happiness in Christ Jesus, by the Covenant of Faith. The breach of the Covenant of works wonderfully making way for the Erecting of the Covenant of Faith: And this in divers respects: viz. 1. In respect of God; the breach of Covenant giving him the clearest and fittest opportunity in the world, of manifesting the infinite riches of his free-grace, love, mercy, &c. in Jesus Christ to mankind now in deepest misery. Mans extremity is Gods opportunity. Now was Gods only time to exalt himself, and his Grace on high, when man had debased himself so low. In extremity of misery, to shew Mercy, is double mercy. 2. In respect of man; the breach of Covenant bringing him into the greatest necessity of a Mediator of Divine Grace and pardoning mercy in him, and of a Covenant of faith revealing this Mediator and this Grace unto him. Till the fall, Adam needed neither Covenant of faith nor pardoning mercy, no Media­tor: But after his fall he so needs them all, that without them he dyes eternally. This extream necessity and undone state of man, made excellent way for the replenishing bounty of God. When Pain is bitterest, ease is sweetest; When the heart is most sick, revi­ving [Page 60] Cordials are most welcome. 3. In respect of the Covenant of Faith itself; the breach of the Covenant of works represents to the Covenant-breaker nothing but Death: The Covenant of Faith is brought in, Proclaims a Reprieve, yea a free Pardon, in the Seed of the woman, Christ, to all that by faith will accept him. O sweet Co­venant of Faith, that Opens a door of Hope and Mercy, even then when the broken Covenant of works knows no mercy! O blessed tidings, That an apostate Sinner may have an al-sufficient Saviour! That the breach of the Covenant of works grounded on mutable Na­ture, should be repaired by the Covenant of Faith in Christ, founded upon immutable Grace!

Come, and see; See, and admire; Admire, and adore, The Seve­rity, The Goodness, and The wisdom of God. 1. His Severity; in that Sin shall be rewarded with death, at least in the Sinners Surety and Mediator Promised. 2. His Goodness; in that the condemned Sinner shall be restored to life, by a Covenant of Reconciliation. 3. His Wis­dom; in that he could Improve, Reduce and Dispose Mans sinful fall to so great advantage both for his own Glory, and Mans Good. Who, but the most high God, could have extracted such a reviving Me­dicine, out of such a deadly Poyson: could have brought such clear light, out of such extream darkness; such supernatural life, out of such preternatural Death; such celestial good, out of such infernal evil? As Augustine, excellently; Ne (que) enim De­us omnipotens quod etiam in­fideles faten­tur, rerum cui summa potestas, cum summe bonus sit, ullo modo sineret mali esse aliquid in ope­ribus suis, nisi us (que) adeo esset omnipotens & bonus, ut bene­faceret etiam de malo. Aug in [...]. ad Lau­rentium. cap. 11. Tom. 3. The omnipotent God, who is chiefly Good, would by no means suffer any evil to be among his works, were he not so omnipotent and good, that he could bring good even out of evil. If the First Covenant had not been marred; the second and more excellent Covenant had not been made. If the first earthly Adam had not been ruined; the second heavenly Adam Christ had not been promised. If One sin in Adam had not been so grievous: Gods superabounding grace in Christ had not appeared so glorious. O foelix culpa mea, ad quam diluendam dum ille charitate trabitur, ipsa quo (que) e [...]us charitas mihi eam de si­deranti & eam totis praecordiis concupiscenti aperitur! Nunquam tam bene dilectionem ejus agnoscerem, nisi in tantis [...]ericulis expertus eam suissem. O quam [...]eliciter cecidi, qui post lapsum felicius resurrex [...]! August in meditat. lib. cap. 6. Tom. 9. Oh my happy fault, (said Augustine) which while God is drawn by love to wipe away, that love of his also is opened unto me, desiring and Coveting it from my heart root! I could never so well have acknowledged his love, unless I had tryed it in so great perils. Oh how happily did I fall, that af­ter my fall did more happily rise again!

Hitherto of Gods Covenant of works with and in the First Adam before the Fall. Next of Gods Covenant of Faith with and in the Last Adam after the Fall.

CHAP. II. 2. Of Gods COVENANT OF FAITH with the last Adam and his Seed after the fall; more Generally Considered.

THE COVENANT of FAITH, That sweet and admirable mysterie of Divine dispensation, comes next to be unfolded. Though usually it be called The Cove­nant of Grace; yet I chuse rather to stile it The CO­VENANT of FAITH; 1. Because, The Covenant of works, and the Covenant of Faith, are Denominations nearest to the Scriptures own Expressions, viz. The Law of works, and The Law of Faith. Rom. 3. 27. which for sense and substance, what are they else, but the Covenant of works, and the Covenant of Faith? 2. Because the distribution of Gods Covenant into The Covenant of works and The Covenant of Faith, seems most proper: These being most distinct and opposite members; Works being the Condition of that, Faith the Condition of this Covenant, and both on mans part. 3. Because that Denomination of The Covenant of Grace, is rather Co-incident with the Covenant of works, which (as hath been shewed) was a Covenant made with Adam of meer Grace and favour, as well as this; God being no way obliged, debt-bound or necessitated to either: This is noted once for all, that none be offended at the Phrase of The COVENANT of FAITH here used.

Now in the unfolding of this COVENANT of FAITH, I shall, for the greater perspicuity, Treat of it,

I. More Generally, Shewing, 1. That The Covenant of Works being broken in the First Adam, The Lord pleased to Reveal a Covenant of Faith in Christ the Last Adam. 2. What this Covenant of Faith is. 3. How this Covenant of Faith is to be distinguished and distributed into its several sorts and branches.

II. More Particularly, descending to the Particular opening of it, in the several Periods of its Discovery, and Forms of its Admi­nistration.


THe COVENANT of WORKS being broken in the First Adam; The Lord God was pleased to Reveal A COVENANT of FAITH in Iesus Christ the Last Adam. For more clear unfolding hereof, these things are to be evidenced. viz. 1. That God upon Adams breach of the Covenant of works, revealed The Covenant of Faith. 2. When God Revealed this Co­venant of Faith. 3. Why he Revealed the Covenant of Faith.

I. That, upon breach of the Covenant of Works in the First Adam, God was pleased to Reveal a Covenant of Faith in Iesus Christ; the Last Adam, will appear, by conferring some few Scriptures together. For,

1. One Scripture testifieth, that Jesus Christ is the Last Adam; 1 Cor. 15. 45, 47. The First man Adam was made a living Soul: The Last Adam was made a quickning Spirit.—Again, The first man is of the Ear [...]h Ear­thy: The Second man is the Lord from Heaven. Here are two Adams opposite one to the other: and the Lord Christ is the Second or Last of these two Adams.

2. Another Scripture witnesseth, That Consider well that whole Context, viz. Rom. 5. 12. to the end of the chapt. the First Adam in respect of the effect of his disobedience, was the Figure or Type of him that was to come, viz. of Christ, in respect of the effect of his Obedi­dience. For, As by the First Adams Disobedience, all his posterity were brought into a state of Sin and Death; So by the Last Adams Obedience, all his Posterity (which are many, even all the Elect) shall be most freely Restored to a state of righteousness and eternal life. Hence its evident, That these two Adams in this parallel, stand in reference to their respective Posterities not only as two Roots whence their Posterities flow, but also as two Representatives, or two Universal and Publike Persons representing their several Seeds. A­dam represented and sustained the person of his Seed, all mankind; in his Disobedience all mankind disobeyed; in his Death for dis­obedience all mankind dyed also: In like manner Christ represented and sustained the person of his Seed, all the Elect; in his obedience all the Elect obeyed, and in his justification upon his Obedience all the Elect partake justification of Life. So then, The First Adam disobeyed; What? The Covenant of works; and so condemned all mankind: Christ the Last Adam obeyed: What? the same Cove­nant of works, the Law, and so saved all the Elect. How? According to the tenor of the Covenant of Faith: making him a representative Surety for all his Elect.

3. Finally another Scripture sheweth, That all mankind being concluded under sin (viz. by reason of Adams breach of the Co­venant of works) they could not have life by the Law or Covenant of works, sin disabling them to keep it: and thereupon God hath [Page 63] given a Covenant of Faith in Christ, to them that believe, viz. to all his Elect, Ioh 10. 26. they alone being able truely to believe. Gal. 3. 21, 22. If there had been a Law given which could have given life, verily righteousness should have been by the Law. But the Scripture hath concluded all under sin, That the Promise by faith of Iesus Christ might be given to them that believe.

Now lay all this together; 1. Jesus Christ is the Last Adam; 2. The First Adam having condemned all his Seed under sin and death by his disobedience, the Last Adam restores all his Elect unto justi­fication of life by his obedience. 3. The Law being unable by rea­son of sin to give righteousness and life, The Covenant or Promise by Faith in Christ is given instead thereof; And it is clear, That the Covenant of works being broken by the first Adam, the Lord hath reveal­ed a Covenant of Faith in Christ the last Adam.

II. When did God Reveal the COVENANT of FAITH in Christ the last Adam? Answ. God was pleased to Reveal the Co­vant of Faith in Christ, not only Heb. 8. 8, &c. Ier. 31. 31. to 35. under the New Testament since Christ, but also under the Old Testament long before Christ. And that not only to the Ier. 32. 37. to the end. Iews about the time of their return from the Babylonish Captivity: but also to 2 Sam. 23. 5. & 7. 5. to 17. with Psal. 89. throughout. David long before that time: And to Deut. 5. 2, 3, 4, 5, 6. Ier. 31. 32. Moses and Israel at Sinai long before Davids time: And to Gen. 17. 7, 8, 10, 11. Abraham long before the dayes of Moses: And to Gen. 6. 18. Noah long before the dayes of Abraham: yea and to Adam himself long before the dayes of Noah. For, in the self-same day wherein Adam by dis­obedience broke the Covenant of works, in that very day, before God either drove the man out of Paradise, or pronounced Sentence upon him or the woman for their sin, even whilest he was passing Sentence upon the Serpent (which probably was not many hours after the Fall,) Gen. 3. 6. to the end of the chapt. God revealed this Covenant of Faith in Christ, The seed of the woman, that should bruise the Serpents head. Nota­bly to this effect said Hierom; Deus autem noster contra omnem spem, contra omnem pene fidem, ex divitiis misericordi▪e su [...]e in malo bonum nactus, in iracundia gene [...]ans con­fi [...]mansque pi­etatem, Pec­candi Semen, in fructum voluit ev [...]dere miserandi: & qui nos propter transgressionem perdere debuisset, propter suam misericordiam reparaturum se esse promisit. Et illo tempore quo supplicia merebamur, argumentum Salvatio­nis ostendit: ut intelligere possemus, quantum valeret [...] non Iaesus, qui tantum donaret iratus. I [...] primo ergo homine ut loqueb [...]tur, statim nobis iudiciarium spospondit auxilium; statim de [...]ono thesauro bona produxit 3 statim ignotum ipsis Angelis Sacramentum, quod implendum esset in novissimo tempore, publicavi [...], & terreno Adae Adam pro [...]isit e coelo. Hieronym. ad Amic. aegrot. de viro perfect. p. 46, 47. Tom. 4. Basil. 1553. Our God against all hope, almost against all faith, having out of the riches of his mercy found good in evil, begetting and confirming kindness in wrath, would have the Seed of sin­ing to pass on into the fruit of commiserating: and he who should have destroyed us for our transgression, promised to repair us for his own mercy And at that time wherein we deserved punishments, he shews matter of Salvation: That we might understand, how much he was able to perform▪ being un-offended, that would bestow so much while he was displeased. Therefore in the first man he presently promised us judiciary Help, He pre­sently brought forth good things out of his good treasury, He presently pub­lished [Page 64] the mysteries unknown to Angels themselves, which was to be ful­filled in the last time; And unto the Adam on Earth, he promi­sedan Adam from Heaven. Thus he, elegantly.

III. Why did God Reveal The Covenant of Faith in Christ the last Adam, the Covenant of works being broke by the first Adam? Answ. We may Conceive that the Lord did this, 1. Out of meer Grace, Love and Mercy to Mankind. 2. That Gods purpose according to Election might stand 3. That Gods Covenant and Promise might be sure to all the Elect. 4 To advance the Glory of his Goodness and Severity in Iesus Christ.

1. Out of the superabounding riches of his meer Grace, Love and Mercy to mankind. These were the only inward Impulsives, or moving Causes, whereupon the Lord inclined to Reveal a Covenant of faith in Christ, after the Covenant of works was broken by Adam: and not any thing at all in man. viz 1. His meer Grace or free favour to man in lapsed State. What the Apostle [...]aith of Gods Covenant and Promise to Abraham, Rom. 4. 16. It is of Faith, that it might be by Grace; holds also in all the periods and administrations of the Covenant of Faith; after Adams Fall. Rom. 4. 4. To him that worketh, the reward is not reckoned of Grace, but of debt▪ [...]aith the Apostle. But lapsed man could not work, could not fulfill the works of the Law, and so have the reward of life, as a debt due by Gods promise in the Covenant of works: therefore this Covenant of Faith God made with him of the riches of his meer Grace. 2. His meer love moved him to make this Covenant of Faith, and that not only without, but contrary to all grounds of Love in lapsed man. For man having broken the Covenant of works, became a most wretched Rom. 5. 12. 19. Sinner. As a Sinner he had lost the image of God, and all his Beauty, Amiableness, Loveliness, &c. being whol­ly deformed, defiled and unlovely through the image of Satan. Therefore, As God singularly Rom. 5. 8. commended his love to us, in that whilest we were yet sinners, Christ dyed for us: so he singularly com­mended the same Love to us, in that whilest we were yet sinners, Gen. 3. 15. Christ was freely Promised to us. 3. His meer mercy. By mercy God is disposed to favour his creatures in misery. Man having broken the Covenant of works, was a meer map of misery. And, all things considered, mankind was never so extreamly and hopelesly miserable in this world since the Creation, as betwixt his breach of the Cove­nant of works, and Gods Revealing of the Covenant of Faith. For at that time he had no foundation of hope, nor shadow thereof left him. He had no Covenant or Promise to lean upon: the Covenant of works being broken, and the Covenant of Faith not Revealed. He had no righteousness to depend upon: not his own, for he had lost it; not Christs, for it was not yet made known. He had no attribute of God to comfort himself with: for he had made himself an utter enemy to God. No creature would relieve him: because no meer creature could reconcile him to God. Only Death was before him ready to swallow him up. Now in this utmost extremity of mans misery on earth, God proclaims A Covenant of Faith in Christ. Here was a [Page 65] miracle of Tit. 3. 4, 5, 6. Mercy indeed, Meer misery is embraced in the arms of meer mercy.

2. That Gods gracious purpose according to Election might stand firm, and not be overthrown: All mankind, in Adams breach of the Cove­nant of works, being plunged into a state of sin and death, God re­vealed a Covenant of Faith for Recovery of his Elect among man­kind out of that lost estate. Here note, 1. That, God hath elected or Eph. 1. 4, 5, 6, chosen some out of mankind, in Iesus Christ before the founda­tion of the world, to be holy and without blame before him in love, having predestinated them unto the Adoption of children by Iesus Christ to him­self, according to the good pleasure of his will. These are called, Rom. 9. 22, 23. ves­sels of mercy, afore prepared unto glory: all others, vessels of wrath fit­ted to destruction. These are called, Ioh. 10. 26. to 30. Mat. 25. 32, 3 [...]. Christs sheep, given him of the Father: others, not of his sheep, but goats. 2. That, Gods Coun­sel according to Election is most sure, unalterable, unchangable. 2 Tim. 2. 19. with Rom. 9. 11. The foundation of God standeth sure, having this Seal, The Lord knoweth them that are his. And every one that God Predestinateth, he Rom. 8. 29, 30. glorifieth. 3. That, Adam's breach of the Covenant of works, involved Rom. 5. 12, 18. all mankind, elect as well as reprobates, in a state of sin and death. By which state of sin and death, Gods Electi­on seems wholly to be crossed and overthrown. 4. That Gods re­vealing his Covenant of Faith in Christ, for restoring his elect out of this lapsed state, removes that grand obstruction and impediment to the execution and fulfilling of Gods Election. For, by this Co­venant of Faith, The Rom. 8. 29, 30. Predestinated in Christ, are called to him, that they may be justified and glorified by him, according to the Ele­ction.

3. That Gods Covenant and Promise might be sure to all Gods Elect. The Covenant of works, founded upon Adams perfect and perpetu­al personal obedience, though sure in respect of God, Tit. 1. 2. who cannot lye; yet was not sure in respect of Adam, who (though Eccles. 7. 29. upright,) was but a mutable Creature, and so utterly broke it. Therefore God re­vealed a Covenant of Faith, founded upon Christ and his perfect obedience, who is perfectly unchangable, Heb. 13. 8. the same yesterday, and to day, and for ever: that so the Covenant might be inviolably sure to all that will believe in him. Hence the Apostle saith of the Promise of the inheritance to Abraham, Rom. 4. 16. Therefore it is of faith, that it might be by Grace, to the end the Promise might be sure to all the seed.

4. Finally, The Covenant of works being broken by the first Adam, God Revealed the Covenant of Faith in Christ the last Adam, that there­by he might wonderfully advance the glory of his Goodness, and Severity, in Iesus Christ. 1. The glory of his Goodness towards his Elect. In devising life, for them when Dead: Righteousness, for them when Sinners: And a sure Covenant of Faith, for them when Covenant-breakers of the Covenant of works. Here's the valley of Achor, of Trouble; turned into a door of Hope: The midnight of misery, into [Page 66] the day-break of mercy. Oh how glorious is this Divine goodness in the eys of all the Elect! They shall ever extoll, admire and adore it, both in this and the world to come. 2. The glory of his Severity, both to Satan, and to all Reprobates. (1.) To Satan, that old Ser­pent the Devil, Gods Severity is published in the Covenant of faith, which brings tidings of Christ the Gen. 3. 15. with Heb. 2. 14, 15. Col. 2. 15. & 1 Ioh. 3. 8. Seed of the woman that should bruise the Serpents head, utterly conquer the Devil, and destroy his works. Gen. 3. 12, 13. Satan in the Serpent had ruined man by the woman. And therefore God hath devised to ruine Gen 3. 14, 15. Satan, and the Serpent by the Promised seed of the woman. Man fell through Satans Temptation from without himself, and found Mercy: Satan Iude 6. fell, having no temptation but from within himself, and being fallen, maliciously overthrows mankind, and therefore finds no mercy. Man is pushed down by Satan, and mercy promiseth him a Christ to save him: Satan pushed down himself and mankinde with himself, and Severity threat­neth him the same Christ to damn him. How severely! How myste­riously! (2.) To Reprobates, the Seed of the Serpent, God magnifies also his justice and Severity, by the Covenant of faith. For, this Co­venant establisheth an Gen. 3. 15. enmity betwixt the Seed of the woman, Christ; and the Seed of the Serpent, reprobates. And shews that Christ shall bruise the head both of the Serpent, and of his Seed. O How terri­ble is this Severity! If Christ be an enemy to reprobates, who shall be their friend? If Christ bruise them, who shall heal them? If Christ damn them, who shall save them?

What this Covenant of faith in Christ the last Adam is: And how it is to be distributed: Shall be declared in the two next Aphorisms. Mean while consider these Corollaryes resulting from this Aphorism.

Corollaryes. Seeing upon Breach of the Covenant of works by the first Adam, God was pleased to reveal a Covenant of faith in Christ the last Adam: Hence note,

1. That, Gods Covenant-Administrations are most wisely contrived for the greatest advantage of his own glory. Prov. 16. 4. God hath made all things for himself: and orders Rom. 11. 36. all things to himself. Especially his Covenant-administrations render him eminently glorious. He gives Adam a Covenant of works, which he was able to keep: and so glorifies his Goodness and Power. He leaves Adam to himself, being mutable, per­mitting him to Fall: and so glorifies his Freedom. Adam having broke the Covenant of works, He reveals a Covenant of Faith in Christ: and so glorifies his goodness and Severity, as hath been shewed. He permits man to become a sinner: that he may proclaim Christ to be a Saviour. He permits man to lose his own righteousness, which was mutable: that he may be clothed with Gods righteousness which is im­mutable. He permits man to be involved in misery: that he may be embraced with the greater mercy. He permits man to be deceived by the Serpent: that the Seed of the woman may destroy the Serpent. He permits man to be wounded to the Death: that he may more illu­striously discover the Necessity and Efficacy of Iesus Christ for [Page 67] Healing and for Life. He permits man to lose Eden: that in Christ he may gain Heaven. Thus the Almighty brings light out of dark­ness, strength out of weakness, gains out of losses, health out of sick­ness, victory out of Captivity, liberty out of bondage, happiness out of misery, life out of death, good out of evil, and Heaven out of Hell. Rom. 11. 33. Oh the dept [...] of the riches both of the wisdom and knowledge of God! How hath he out-shot Satan in his own bow! How hath he raised his glory over all, by that which seemed to debase his glory most of all!

2. That, God hath from the beginning been infinitely more carefull of mans Happiness, then man of his own happiness. God makes man happy; placeth this happiness in his own keeping; gives him ability to keep it; and Covenanteth to continue it to him upon his perfect obedience: but man breaks the Covenant, and disrobes himself of all his happiness, regardless of his felicity. Hereupon God erects a Covenant of faith, Opens a door of hope touching a greater happi­ness, placeth it in Christs keeping, offers it to all that will accept Christ by believing. Here's Gods double care of mans happiness; that bestowed not a single care upon his own happiness. O how God thirsts after mans felicity! He is more willing to save man, then man is willing to be saved by him, otherwise man should never have been saved.

3. That, The Revelation of the mysterie of the Gospel is of great An­tiquity, having been even from the beginning of the world. They that think there is no Gospel, but in the New Testament; and that no Gospel was revealed, till Christs Incarnation▪ do greatly err, be­cause they know not the Scriptures, nor the Grace of God. For, what is the Gospel, But The glad tidings of Gods gracious pleasure to save lap­sed Sinners by [...] Christ? This Gospel is preached by the Law and the Prophets. This Gal. 3. 8. 17. Gospel was preached unto Abraham, 430. years before the Law was given: And to Adam presently after the Fall in the very beginning of the world in that Promise of the Gen. 3. 15. seed of the woman to bruise the Serpents head. And since that Pro­mise; it is evident that the whole Scripture Scopes at the proclaiming and displaying of this Gospel in one respect or other.

4. That, All the Godly under the Old Testament from the Fa [...]l of the first Adam till the incarnation of the last Adam, were saved in the self­same way for substance, that the faithful are under the New Testament since Christs coming in the flesh. For, They had for Substance the same Covenant of faith, that we; though more imperfectly and ob­scurely revealed. The same God: The same Mediator Iesus Christ, Heb. 13. 8. Gen. 3. 15. the same yesterday, and to day, and for ever; though then revealed under types, shadows and promises, now exhibited with open face: They had the same Spirit of Christ, that we: They Heb. 11. throughout. lived by the same justifying faith, that we: The same Religion and 1 Cor. 10. 1, 2, 3, &c. Col. 2. 11, 12. Sacraments for Substance, that we: and expected the same glorious reward eter­nally in Heaven, that we expect. But here is the eminent dif­ference, [Page 68] The Church and people of God under the Old Testament were in their spiritual Infancy, and as a child under age, were put under Tutors and Governors, viz. under a more servile manner of the Covenants administration: but now under the New Testament they are come to their Spiritual Maturity, like an heir come to age, and are spiritually a more free and willing p [...]ople under a more free Covenant-dispensation.

5 That, God having revealed A Covenant of Faith, upon breach of the Covenant of Works, hath antiquated, and in some sort abolished the Co­venant of Works. If in the same Covenant of Faith, Gods erecting of a Heb. 8. 13. New Covenant, (new not for substance, but for Administration) makes the former administration of the Covenant old: much more Gods publishing of a New kind of Covenant, makes the former kind old. I say, God by setting up a Covenant of Faith, hath in some [...]ort abolished the Covenant of works: viz. 1. In respect of affording Life, righteousness and Iustification, as a Covenant. Thus it is abo­lished Generally unto all; for as much as no man since the fall Compare Rom. 3. 20, 21, 22, 27, 28. with Rom. 10. 3, 4. Gal. 3. 11. 21, 22. can be justified by works, but only by Faith in Christ. 2. In respect of inflicting Condemnation for the breach of the Covenant of Works. So it is abolished to all true believers, that accept the Covenant of Faith and Christ therein: for Rom. 8. 1. there's no Condemnation to them that are in Christ Iesus. Whether in other respects the Covenant of works be abolished; How far; How far not; and of what use it may still be in the Church of God: may be more opportunely con­sidered in Treating of the Sinai-Covenant.

6. That, If any persons in the Church perish since Adams fall, under the Curse and Penalty of the Covenant of works, they perish because they accept not Gods Covenant of Faith. For, the Covenant of works, being unable to give life to any after the fall, because none can keep it in their own persons: God hath published his Covenant of Faith, that they might have life in another; even in Jesus Christ, who should fully keep it. So that Faith in Christ according to the second Covenant, is a remedy against disobedience to the First Covenant. To all in the Church this Covenant of Faith is tendered. They therefore shall not so much be condemned for disobedience as for [...]nbelief, the Joh. 16. 9, 10, 11. great Sin of Sins: and may thank themselves, not at all blame God, for their own destruction.


THe COVENANT of FAITH is Gods Gratious Com­pact or Agreement with Iesus Christ the Last Adam, and in him with all his Seed, after the Fall; Touching their Recovery out of the state of Sin and Death, into a state of Righteousness and eternal life, by Christ, That in him the Lord may be their God, and they his people: They accepting Christ and these covenanted mercies by true Faith, and walking worthy of them according to the Gospel.

For plainness sake I express the Nature of the Covenant of Faith thus largely: and it may be farther opened and Confirmed, as fol­loweth. In this description note, 1. The Genus, or General Na­ture of it. 2. The differentiam specificam, or special Difference of it.

I. The General Nature of the COVENANT of FAITH, is contained in these words; It is A Compact or Agreement. Herein generally all Covenants Divine and Humane, and amongst Divine, both of Works and Faith do concur, That they are Compacts or Agree­ments. Of which hath been spoken sufficiently See in [...] I. [...]. II. [...]. 2. heretofore.

II. The Special Difference of this Covenant of Faith, distin­guishing it not only from Covenants Humane, but even from Gods Covenant of works, formerly laid open, is comprised in the rest of the Description. And more particularly in the 1. Efficient. 2. Parties. 3. Matter. And, 4. Form of this Covenant. These shall be unfolded in 4. particular Sections. To which a fifth Section may be added, comprising certain Corollaries resulting from the whole.


THe Efficient cause, or Author of the Covenant of Faith is God. It is Gods Gracio [...]s compact or Agreement. Here is to be shewed; 1. That God is the Efficient cause of this Covenant of Faith. 2. How, and in what different notion God is the Author of it, so as he was not of the Covenant of works. 3. What impulsive or Mo [...]ing Cause inclined God to Devise and set up this Covenant.

1. That, God is the Efficient Cause, or Author of this COVENANT of FAITH; is most clear. For, 1. The Scriptures speaking of this Covenant, and of the Gradual discoveries of it, do still ascribe it to Gen. 3. 14, 15. & 6. 18. & 17. 1, 2, 4. 7, 9, 10, 13, 14, 19, 21. Exod. 24. 8. Deut. 5. 2, [...]. & 4. 13. 2 Sam. 23. 5. Psal. 89. 3, 34. Ier. 32. 40. Heb. 8. [...], 9, 10. [...] [...]. [...]. God alone, as his Covenant, as devised and made by him with his people. 2. Only God could dispence with the penalty of that Covenant of Works, Death; which Adam, and in him all mankind had [...] to themselves. And consequently none but God could erect the Covenant of Faith; which by way of Remedy against [Page 70] the breach of the Covenant of Works, both Relieves the Sinner that he should not be condemned, and provides for Gods Justice, Truth and Glory, that they should not be impeached. 3. The Lord God, and he alone could devise and Contrive this Covenant of Faith: and having devised it, bring it into actual execution. All the An­gels in Heaven, and men on Earth could not have inve [...]ted the myste­rie of this Covenant: had not God, infinitely and unsearchably wise, invented it and revealed it to them. For, it is evident, that after God had revealed this Covenant in many degrees under the Old Testament, yet Angels themselves did not [...]o fully understand it till the times of the New Testament, Eph. 3. 10. the manifold wisdom of God being made known by the Church unto Principalities and powers in hea­venly places. And these are such abstruse things, that (as 1 Pet. 1. 12. Pe­ter intimateth) The Angels still desire to look and pry into, for further Satisfaction. And if Angels do not so fully comprehend the myste­ries of this Covenant, being already Devised and Revealed: how much less can man fadom it? 1 Cor. 2. 9. Eye hath not seen, ear hath not heard, nor have entred into the Heart of man; the things which God hath prepared for them that love him. And Eph. 3. 18, 19. the love of Christ passeth Knowledge. Now if nor men, nor Angels can fully comprehend this mysterie, much less could they have Contrived it, but least of all have brought it to A­ctual execution. How could they have brought the Son of God to be Mediator of this Covenant, & to that end to become man, to dye, &c?

2. How and in what Sense, God is the Author of the Covenant of Faith. Answ. God was the Author of both Covenant of Works and of Faith: And herein they agree. But he is Author of these two Covenants in a far different Sense and Notion: and herein they disagree. Of the Covenant of Works God was Author, As a loving wel-pleased Creator, dealing immediately without a Mediator with man his perfect and upright Creature: but of the Covenant of Faith God is Author as a most gracious and merciful Redeemer, dealing mediately in and by a Mediator Jesus Christ, with lapsed man, a mi­serable Sinner. Hence, The Covenant of Works is deservedly sti­led Faedus Amicitiae, A Covenant of Amity, or Friendship; because God and man, at the making thereof were upon terms of perfect friendship with each other: But the Covenant of Faith is called Faedus Reconci­liationis; A Covenant of Reconcilement, because at making thereof, God and man were upon terms of enmity against each other by rea­son of the fall, and now to be Reconciled.

3. The Impulsive, or Moving Cause, inclining God to Contrive and Erect this Covenant of Faith; Nor was, nor could be any thing at all in man, with­out God. Neither mans Merit, nor his Misery: neither mans Goodness nor his Badness could move God hereunto. Not Mans merit or goodness: for whilst man was. Innocent, he could Merit nothing from God, much less after he became Nocent and Sinful. Sinful man could merit nothing from God, but Rom. 6. [...]3. Death the due [...] Sin. Nor Mans Misery or Badness; for then, why should not the misery and [Page 71] badness of lapsed Angels (which was as great as mans) have moved God to have Covenanted with Angels? What then? The only Moving Cause hereof, was in God himself. viz. The meer riches of his Free-Grace, and Compassionate yernings of his bowels of Mer­cies moved him. Hereupon the Spirit of God, by the virgin Mary and Zacharias, Speaking of the accomplishment of this Covenant of Faith to Abraham and his Seed, declares the rise and ground of this Cove­nant and Promise to have been Luke 1. 54, 55. 72, 73, 77. 78. Divine Mercy, and bowels of mercy of our God. And Moses having recited Gods Covenant with Israel in Ho­reb, and the many Covenanted blessings bestowed upon them by God: he intimates that Gods meer love, not any thing at all in them, was the moving Cause of all. Deut. 7. 7, 8. & 10. 15. well com­pared with the series of the context from Deut 5. 1, 2. &c. The LORD did not set his love upon you, nor choose you, because ye were mo in number then any people (for ye were the fewest of any people) But because the LORD loved you.—Only the LORD had a delight in thy fathers to love them, & he chose their Seed after them, even you above all people. Yea the Lord by Ezekiel, having respect to his Covenant with them in Horeb, tels them (under the Allegory of a new-born infant, wretched and un-pitied) that Ezek. 16. 4. [...]o 9. When their Navel was not cut, nor they washed with water, nor salted at all, nor swadled at all, none eye pitying them, when God saw them cast out, loathed and polluted in their own blood, when they were utterly without merit or amiableness: even then God said unto them live, and their time was as the time of love, he spread his skirt over her, covered her nakedness, sware unto her, entred into a Covenant with her, and she became his. Now unto this Cove­nant nothing could move or incline God but riches of meer Grace. Finally, when God renewed his Covenant-Promises to the Jews in Babylon, he tels them plainly Ezek. 36. 22, 32. compared with the context. I do not this for your sakes, O house of Israel, but for mine holy names sake.—Not for your sakes do I this, saith the Lord GOD, be it known unto you: be ashamed and confounded for your own waies, O house of Israel.


THe Parties to this Covenant of Faith are two. viz. 1. God, on the one hand: 2. Christ the Last Adam, and in him all his Seed, on the other hand. Here will arise farther difference between this and the Covenant of works, in regard of the Parties Covenanting. For,

God is here one Party to this Covenant, not as a Bountiful Creator, covenanting with his innocent and upright Creature, as in the Cove­nant of works; but as a most Merciful Restorer of his lapsed & misera­ble Creature. This is so clear, it needs no demonstration or illustration.

Christ the Last Adam, and in him all his Seed, are the other party. The First Adam, and in him his Seed or Posterity, were the Party with whom God Covenanted in the Covenant of works: but Christ the last Adam, and in him all his Seed, are the Party with whom God Covenanteth in the Covenant of Faith. This discovers a [Page 72] vast difference betwixt these Covenants. And this leads us to con­sider of an Excellent Mysterie, and of singular importance for the Comfort of all believers; viz. How Christ the last Adam and his seed, are a joynt-Party to this Covenant of Faith. Very few that Treat of the Covenant, speak to this point: and they that do speak of it, rather point at it obscurely, then handle it distinctly. That therefore we may have a more clear Notion and apprehension of this Mysterie; Let us diligently Consider the Ensuing Parallel, betwixt Gods dealing with the first Adam, and in him with his Seed, in the Covenant of Works: and his dealing with the Last Adam▪ Christ, and his Seed in the Covenant of Faith; together with the Grounds thereof. The Parallel stands chiefly in these four Branches, viz.

I. As the first man of the earth earthy, is called the First Adam: so the second man, Iesus Christ, The Lord from Heaven, is stiled the last Adam. 1 Cor. [...]5. 45, 47. The First man Adam was made a Living Soul: The Last Adam was made a quickning Spirit.—The first man is of the Earth, Earthy: The Se­cond man is the Lord from heaven. Christ is stiled the Second man; not because he was the second man that was brought into the world; that was Gen. 4. 1. Cain: but because he was the Second publick man, the root and Representative of his posterity, as the First man of his. And he is stiled the last Adam, Partly because as there was no other such publick person from the First Adam before Christ: so there should be no other such publick person after Christ. Partly, because the First Adam was a figure or [...] Rom. 5. 14. Type of Christ, and that in divers respects, as Compare Rom 5. 14. to the end with 1 Cor. 15. 21. 22 45, 46, 47. Paul shews to the Romans and Corinthians.

II. As the First Adam had his Natural Seed and Posterity, all Mankinde: So the Last Adam Iesus Christ hath his Su­pernatural Seed, and Spiritual Posterity, all the Elect. (1) That the First Adam had all mankind for his Natural Seed, is evident; Partly, In that all mankind originally descended from him, God having Act. 17. 26. made of one blood all Nations of men: yea even Gen. 2. Eve her self being taken out of Adam. Partly, In that Rom. 5. 12. &c. all mankind Sinned in him, and dyed in him, in his Fall. (2) That the last Adam also hath his supernatural Seed, and Spiritual Posterity, even all the Elect, is as Evident. For Isaiah prophecying of Christs Passion, saith; Isa. 53. 10, 11. It pleased the Lord to bruise him, he hath put him to grief; when thou shalt make his Soul an offering for Sin, he shall see his Seed. And David long before him prophecying of Christs Kingdom and Dominion, said, Psal. 22. 30. A Seed shall serve him: It shall be accounted to the LORD for a generation. And again elsewhere; Psal. 110. 3. Thy people shall be willing in the day of thy power, in the beauties of holiness, from the womb of the morning, thou hast the dew of thy youth. That is, Thus Ainsworth. in Anno [...]. & Mr. Ed. Rey­nolds in Ex­posit. upon Ps. 110. [...]. Thy youth (thy young, or New-born people) shall be to thee as the morning dew, which falleth secretly and plentifully from heaven, and abundantly covereth the earth. So that, as the dew is born out of the cool morning air, as out of a womb, distilling [Page 73] thence in innumerable drops upon the Earth: so thine Elect shall be born unto thee, by the preaching of thy word and first approach of thy heavenly light, in innumerable armies. Now, who are this Seed of Christ? All those that the father hath Ioh. 17. 2. 6. 24. given Christ by his De­cree of Eternal Election, even Ioh. 10. 15, 16, 27, 28, 29. with Ioh 17. 20. & Isa. 49. 6. all his Sheep given him by the fa­ther; for whom Christ the good shepherd laid down his life; who hear the Shepherds voice, and believe in him, whether they be Jews or Gentiles. These alone are Christs Spiritual Seed; and that, 1. By Decree, being [...]ph. 1. 4, 5. Elected in Christ: 2. By Generation, being begotten again by Christ the Isa. 9. 6. everlasting Father. viz. Meri­toriously, by his Isa. 53. 10, 11. Death, and 1 Pet. 1. 3. Resurrection: Efficaciously, by his 1 Pet. 1. 23. Word and Ioh. 3. 3, 5. Rom. 8. 2. 11. Spirit. So that they become his Children, and are counted to him for a generation. 3. By conformity to Christ, as children to a Father. They bear his image, and go like him: espe­cially, In Ioh. 1. 14, 16. Grace; In 1 Ioh. 2. 6. godly life; In Rom. 8. 15, 16, 17, 29. sufferings; and In Phil 3. 20, 21. 1 Cor. 15. 48, 49. Glory. 4. By filial affection and Psal. 22. 30. & 110. 3. service to him: as children love and serve their parents. And all Christs Posterity shall be most chearful voluntiers herein. 5. By Participation with Christ in his Spi­rituals and Eternals. Mens posterity share with them in their states and inheritances: and Christs Seed partake with him in his Ioh. 1. 16. & 17. 2. 24. Spiritu­al Priviledges and Eternal enjoyments.

III. As God made the Covenant of works with the First Adam, and in him (as hath been shewed) with all his Natural Seed: So God made the COVENANT of FAITH with Christ the Last Adam, and in him with all his Supernatural Seed. And if God made the Covenant of Faith with Christ the Last Adam, and in him with all his Supernatural Seed; then, as God is one party to this Covenant, Christ his Seed must needs be the other. Let us see therefore how this may be cleared, That, God made the Covenant of Faith with Christ the Last Adam, and in him with all his Supernatural Seed. In this branch of the parallel consists the greatest difficulty: which may be facilitated by these Positions following. viz. 1. Christless persons are meer strangers to the Covenant of Faith, and to all the Promises thereof. 2. They that are Christs have the Covenant of Faith, and all the Promises thereof as theirs. 3. They that are Christs have the Covenant of Faith, and the Promises thereof theirs only in Christ. 4. Gods Covenant of Faith and Promises thereof, are first made to Christ and then to his Seed, to them that are Christs, in him.

(1) Christless Persons are meer strangers to Gods Covenant of Faith and to all the Promises thereof. This may be proved divers waies; As, 1. From Testimony of Scripture. Paul describing to the Ephesians their Carnal state before they believed the Gospel, saith; Eph. 2. 12. At that time ye were without Christ; Aliens from the Common-wealth of Israel, and Strangers from the Covenants of Promise, having no hope, and without God in the world. Mark the Connexion and Consequence in these particulars. First they were without Christ. This the foundation of all their ensuing misery: Christ being (as Z [...]nch. Com. in loc. Zanchy well notes) [Page 74] the gate and door to the possession of all good things, of the present and future life. Then they were Aliens to the Common-wealth of Isra­el. Having no union to Christ the Head, they consequently had no communion with the Church, his Mystical body. Thirdly, From both the former, They were Strangers from the Covenants of Promise. Why? Because 2 Cor. 1. 20. Christ is the foundation of the Covenant and Promises: And his Church 1 Tim. 3. 15. The pillar and ground of Truth, the Receptal and keeper of Gods Covenants, wherein they were pub­lished and tendered. Therefore having no union to Christ, the Head; nor Communion with the Church, his body; they had no part in the Covenants o [...] Promise, appertaining to both. Hence its evident, that Christless persons are Covenantless and Promiseless persons. 2. From the Nature of a Christless state. A Christless state, is a Con­dition of meer Rom. 8. 8. Gen. 6. 5. Eph. 2. 1. Sinfulness and utter Col. 1. 21. Rom 8. 7. Enmity against God, wholly under the Gal. 3. 10. Ge [...] 2. 17 Curse and Eph. 2. 3. wrath of God: and this without Gods Remedy, Christ. And therefore it cannot stand with the Truth and exact Justice of God, to spare such persons from Death (much less to give them Life by Covenant or Promise) without full Satisfaction. So that Christless persons, as such, have neither Actu­al interest in Gods Covenant of Faith and the Promises thereof: nor can make any good claim or Title thereunto: nor have any imme­diate Capacity thereof; wanting both Christ, the foundation of them; and Faith for Application of them. 3. From the Nature of the Covenant of Faith and of the Promises thereof. They are peculi­ar indications of Gods fatherly love and favour to us in Christ. For, as Ioh. Calv. Com. in 2 Cor. 1. 20. Calvin well observeth, God is not a propitious father to us, but onely in Christ: and his Promises are Testimonies of his paternal benevo­lence towards us: consequently they are fulfilled through him alone. The Promises, [...] say, are Testimonies of Divine Grace: for though God be bene­ficent even to the unworthy, yet when Promises are added to his Benefits, it is a special reason that there he declares himself a Father. So here. Now Gods fatherly Love, the Acts and Testification thereof, are peculiar to Gods own people. Psal. 106. 4. Beneplacitum populi, passive sumitur pro di [...]ectione qua deus Electos gratis amplecti­ [...]ur Calv. in loc. Remember me O LORD (saith David) with the favour (or, favourable-acceptation) of thy people. That is with the special love and free favour wherewith God em­braceth the Elect alone, above all other people. Therefore Gods Covenant and Promises cannot belong to such as are without the bounds of Gods peculiar fatherly love.

(2) They that are Christs have the Covenant of Faith, and all the Pro­mises thereof, as theirs. This is eivdent by divers Sctiptures. Gal. 3. 29. If ye be Christs, then are ye Abraham's Seed, and heirs according to the Promise. Then, The Promise of heirship, not of Canaan, but of this world, and of Heaven, is theirs, that are Christs. 2 Pet. 1. 1. 4. with Gal. 3. 22. & Heb. 9. 15. Peter writing to them that had obtaind like precious faith with the Apostles, saith; Exceeding great and precious Promises are given to us. Not to all; but to us, to the faithful. But Paul more fully; 1 Tim. 4. 8. Godliness is profitable unto all things, having Promise of the Life that now is, and of that which is to come. [Page 75] That is, All the Promises are peculiarly annexed to, and entailed upon Godliness: For there is no promise, but either of the life pre­sent or future.

(3) They that are Christs have the Covenant of Faith, and Promises thereof theirs, only in Christ. Of the Covenant, as it was renewed to Abraham, Paul Gal. 3. 17. saith, that it was confirmed of God in Christ. How Confirmed in Christ? Answ. Divers waies; especially three waies (as D. Pare­us in Com▪ ad Gal. 3. 17. Pareus well expounds it) viz. 1. In that, it should at last be ratified by the Death of Christ as Testator. Heb. 9. 15. 2. In that, the blessings Promised to Abraham and his Seed could not be ob­taind without the Merit of Christs Death intervening: by reason of Gods justice, that admits not of a Covenant of Grace with Sinners, without Satisfaction first for sin. 3. In that, The benefits Promised, Adoption, Justification, Sanctification, the inheritance of eternal life, should not be given to Abraham and his Seed, but by Faith in Christ, then to be exhibited afterwards, now exhibited already. And of the Promises, the same Paul elswhere affirmeth, That 2 Cor. 1 20. All the Promises of God, in him are yea, and in him Amen. Gods Promises are all yea and Amen: that is, not yea and nay; not one while true, and another while false: but yea and Amen, alwaies true. In whom? In him;] that is, in Christ Jesus, as the series of the Context carries it. How are all the Promises yea and Amen in Christ? Ioh. Cal­vin. Com. in 2 Cor. 1. 20. Calvin thus Resolves; 1. Promises are Testimonies of fatherly love: now God is not a gracious Father to us but in Christ. 2. We are not fit to partake Gods Promises, till we obtain remission of Sins, which we compass only by Christ. 3. The Promise of Adoption, which is the greatest of all, is only made in Christ the root of our Adoption. So he. I add farther: what if we say all Gods Promises are yea and Amen, Certainty and Truth in Christ, Forasmuch as they are, 1. Accomplished principally in Christs Person, the chief Center of them all? For all the Promises are like the wise-mens Star, that one way or other lead to Christ. 2. Established by his Passion. Heb. 9. 16. 17. &c. Christ as Testator confirming his Will and Testament together with all the Promises and Bequests thereof by his blood. 3. Communicated only to persons in union to Christ. For as all mankind were united in Adam, when God made the Covenant of works with them: So all the Elect broken and scattered by Adams fall, are looked upon as re-united and gathered together again in one in Christ the Last Adam, when God makes his Covenant of Faith with them. (1) That in Christ all are gathe­red together in one, is evident;—Eph. 1. 10. That in the dispensation of the fulness of times, he might gather together in one, all things in Christ, both which are in Heaven, and which are on Earth, even in him. To this effect, it is said again; Gal. 3. 28. There is neither Iew nor Greek, there is neither bond nor free, there is neither male nor female: for ye are all one in Christ Iesus. Yea such is this union or Oneness, that Christs Church and body mystical is called Christ, Head and members but one Christ; 1 Cor. 12 12. For as the body is one, and hath many members; and all the members [Page 76] of that one body, being many, are one body: so also is Christ. That is, Christ Mystical, not Christ Personal. (2) And, that when God makes his Covenant of Faith and his promises with his people, he looks upon them all as one in Christ, either Intentionally by Election, or Actually by vocation, and so Covenants with them; is as evident;—Gal. 3. 16, 17. Now to Abraham and his Seed were the Promises made. He saith not, and to Seeds as of many; but as of one, And to thy Seed, which is Christ. And this I say, that the Covenant that was confirmed before of God in Christ, &c. Here the Apostles shews that the Covenant and Promises were made, not to many, but only to one Seed: and that this one Seed, is Christ. Understand here the word, Christ, not distributively, as in­tending only Christs Person; but collectively, as comprehending Christs mystical body, Head and members: Eminently and primari­ly, Christ the Head; Secondarily, his Church the body. Thus, they that are Christs have the Covenant of Faith, and Promises thereof theirs, only in Christ.

(4) Gods Covenant of Faith and Promises thereof are first made to Christ, and then to his Seed in him. This must needs be so; For, 1. Seeing the Covenant and Promises are made to them that are Christs, only in Christ, and for his sake: consequently they are first made to Christ, and that both in respect of Order, Nature, and Cau­sality, and then afterwards unto them. For, the effect must needs Succeed the cause in these respects. 2. Gods Decree of Election, and his Execution of that Decree in all the branches of it, have first respect to Christ, and then secondarily in him to all his Seed: and therefore proportionably Gods Covenant and Promises, being one branch of this Execution of Gods Decree, must first respect Christ, then Christs Seed. Consider well; If we look at Gods Decree, Is not Christ as Head and Mediator, first of all 1 Pet. 1. 20. with Eph. 1. 4, 5. Elected: and then his Seed in him? If we look at the Execution of Gods Decree, Is not Christ first Math. 3. 17. with Eph. 1. 5, 6. Accepted as Gods only beloved son: and then his Seed Adopted in him? Is not Christ first Joh. 16. 10. 1 [...]im. 3. 16. Rom. 8. 3, 4. & 4. 25. & 5. 1. Justified, that is, ac­quitted from the guilt of all the sins of his people imputed to him: & then they Justified by Faith in him? Is not Christ first Ioh. 10. 36. & 3, 4. & 1. 14, 16. 1 Cor. 1. 30. Sanctified, filled with the Spirit, made full of Grace and Truth, having all ful ness dwelling in him: and then all his Seed Sanctified in him, re­ceiving of his Spirit, and of his fulness, even Grace for Grace? Is not Christ first made Heb. 1. 2. [...]al. 4. 7. Rom. 8. 16, 17. 29. Heir of all things; and then his Seed co­heirs with him? Did not Christ as a Isal. 53. 4, 5, 6. &c. Heb. 9. 12. to 16. 26, 28. publick person first dye: and then all his Seed dye, and suffer in him? Did not Christ 1 Cor. 15. 20, 21, 22, 23. Joh. 14. 2, 3. & 17. 24. Heb. 8. 1. with Rev. 3. 21. first Rise from the Dead, Ascend into Heaven, and sit on Gods right hand: and then afterwards all that are Christs Rise again, Ascend in­to Heaven, and sit on Gods right-hand, in and with Christ? Shall not Christ first Math. 25. 31, 3 [...]. &c. Iude 14, 15. 1 Cor. 6. 2, 3, 4. Rev. 2. 26, 27. come to judge the world: and then they that are Christs shall judge the world with him? why then should it be thought strange that the Covenant and Promises should first be made to Christ, and then in Christ to all his Seed? 3. The Scrip­tures [Page 77] plainly testifie, That the Covenant of Faith and Promises are made unto Christ, as well as to his Seed. This is evident, in divers Periods of this Federal Administration. As; (1) In that Grand Mother Promise, That First Promise after Adams fall; Gen. 3. 15. I will put Enmity be­tween thee and the woman, and between thy Seed and her Seed: it shall bruise thy Head, & thou shalt bruise his heel. Here the womans Seed, collectively comprehends Christ, and all his Elect: The Serpents Seed, all the chil­dren of Satan. But to whom was this First Promise made? Not to the Serpent, or Satan: for though it was immediately spoken to the Ser­pent, yet it was directed to him, As a Threatning, not as a Promise. Not to Adam, nor to his wife: for herein God directs not his Speech to them at all, but only to the Serpent; Gen. 3. 16. to 20. They are severally spo­ken to afterwards, as is clear to him that heedfully observes the Text: And as yet they were uncapable of the Promise of Grace, no Course being taken as yet for satisfaction of Divine Justice for their Sins. To whom then could this Promise be made; But unto Christ, and to his Elect in him? (2) In the Lords Renewing of Covenant with Abraham, the Covenant and Promises were made to Christ, As the Apostle te­stifies plainly, Gal. 3. 16, 17. Now to Abraham and his Seed were the Promises made. He saith not, And to seeds, as of many; but as of one, And to thy Seed, which is Christ. And this I say, That, the Covenant which was confirmed before of God in Christ. The Greek hath it, [...], viz. unto Christ; or, towards Christ; which we translate, in Christ. That is, the Covenant made with Abraham, tends to Christ, carries and leads us to Christ alone, as in whom the spiritual Seed of Abraham should be gathered into one, both out of Jews and Gentiles; as Be [...]. in Annot. ad Gal. 3. 17. Beza excellently interprets it. And Paul saith further; Gal. 3. 19. The Law was added because of Transgressions, till the Seed should come, to whom the Promise was made. (3) In the daies of David and the Prophets, many eminent Promises of the Covenant of Faith are made and directed by God to Christ so personally, and individually, and that in the Second person, that it puts this whole matter quite out of Question. As, Promises touching Christs Priesthood; Psal. 110. 4. The LORD hath sworn, and will not repent, Thou art a Priest for ever after the order of Melchisedech. Promises touching his King­ship, Psal. 110. 1, 2, 3. The LORD said unto my Lord, sit thou at my right hand, till I make thine enemies thy foot-stool. The Lord shall send the rod of thy strength out of Sion: Rule thou in the mids of thine enemies. Thy people shall be willing in the day of thy Power, in the beauties of Holiness, from the womb of the morning: thou hast the dew of thy youth. Promises touching the Calling of the Gentiles, &c. Psal. 2. 7, 8, 9. I will declare the Decree, the LORD hath said unto me, Thou art my Son, this day have I begotten thee. Ask of me, and I shall give thee the heathen for thine inheritance, and the uttermost parts of the earth for thy posession. &c.—Isa. 42. 6, 7. I the LORD have called thee in righteousness, and will hold thine hand, and will keep thee, and will give thee for a Covenant of the people, for a light of the Gentiles: To open the blind eyes, to bring out the Prisoners from the prison, [Page 78] and them that sit in darkness out of the Prison house.I [...]a 49. 6, 7, 8, 9. And he said, It is a light thing that thou shouldst be my servant to raise up the Tribes of Jacob, and to restore the preserved of Israel: I will also give thee for a light to the Gentiles, that thou maist be my Salvation to the end of the Earth.—In an acceptable time have I heard thee, and in a day of Salvation have I helped thee: And I will preserve thee, and give thee for a Covenant of the people, to Establish the Earth, to cause to inherite the desolate heritages. By these, and like particulars its evident, That the Covenant of Faith and Promises are personally directed and made to Christ himself, as well as to his Seed. How then are they made unto Christ? they are either made to him Primarily, be­fore them: or Secondarily, after them: or Equally with them. Not secondarily, After them; for that were to prefer the Body before the Head. Not equally, with them; for that were to equalize the bo­dy to the Head. Both which are extreamly absurd: The head Christ, so incomparably transcending his mystical Body. Therefore its remains clear, That the Covenant of Faith and Promises thereof are made Primarily to Christ, Secondarily to his Seed in him. 4. Fi­nally, To this Truth; That, the Covenant and Promises are first made to Christ, and then to his Seed in him; the judgements of pious and learned men subscribe. And though this be not so gene­rally spoken to; yet so many and considerable Authors express them­selves clearly in it, that we are not to look upon it as an odd, singu­lar, novel Opinion. As It is here to be ob­served, That the Promises made to Abraham, Are first made to Christ, and then in Christ to all that believe in him, be they Iews or Gentiles. This Conclusion is of Great use. First, by it we learn the difference of the Promises of the Law and the Gospel. The Promises of the Law are directed and made to the person of every man particularly; The promises of the Gospel are first directed and made to Christ, and then by consequent unto them that are by faith ingrafted into Christ. Secondly, by this we learn to acknowledge the Communion that is be­tween Christ and us. Christ as Mediator is fi [...]st of all elected, and we in him: Christ is first justified, that is acquit of our sins, and we justified in him: He is heir of the world, and we heirs in him; He dyed upon the Cross, not as a private person, but as a publick person representing all the Elect; and all the Elect dyed in him and with him. In the same manner they rise with him to life, and sit at the right hand of God with him in glory. Thirdly, Here we see the ground of the certainty of perseverance of all them that are the true children of God. For, The office of Christ, to which he is set apart, is to receive the promise of God for us, and to apply it unto us. And this work is done by Christ without impediment, and without repentance on his part.—Lastly, here is comfort against the Consideration of our unworthiness. Thou sayest, thou art unworthy of the mercy of God, and therefore hast no hope. And I say again▪ Lost thou truly exercise thy self in the Spiritu­al Exercises of faith, invocation, Repentance▪ Be not discouraged; Thou must not receive the promise imme­diately of God, but Christ must do it for the [...], &c. Mr. W. Perkins on Galat. 3, 16. It is said, The promise is made to the Seed; yet the promise is made to us; and yet again, The Covenant is made with Abraham: How can all these stand together? Answ. The promises that are made to the Seed, that is, To Christ himself, those are these promises: Thou sh [...]ll be a Priest for ever; And I will give [...]hee [...]he Kingdom of David; Thou shalt sit on that Throne; Thou shalt be a Prince of Peace, and the Government shall be upon thy shoulders. Likewise, Thou shalt be a Prophet to my people, thou shalt open the Prison to the Captive, Thou shalt be annointed, &c, and thou shalt go and preach to them. These are the Promises that are made unto the Seed. The Promises that are made to us, though they be of the same Covenant, yet they differ in this: The Active part is committed to the Messiah, to the seed it self; but the Passive part, those are Promises that are made to us: you shall be taught, you shall be made Prophets; likewise, you shall have your sins forgiven, you shall have the effect of his Pries [...]hood made good unto you; you shall be subject to his▪ Government by an [...] righ­teousness that he shal [...] work in you, for you shall be made Kings. So the promise is made to us. How is the promise made to Abraham? For it is said, In thee all the Nations of the Earth shall be blessed. The meaning of it is, They are Derivative Promises; The Primitive and Original was made to Iesus Christ.—There was none that ever was partaker of the promises, but the children of Abraham; and therefore they were derived from Abraham to all the men in the world besides, that ever have been since. D. Preston of the New Cove­ [...]ant. p. 387, 388. Lond. 1634. Promises are the efficient causes of our purification as they are the Rayes and Beams of Christ the Sun of Righteousness, in whom they are all founded and established. They are All in him yea, and in him Amen. 2 [...] or. 1. 20. Every Promise by faith apprehended carries a man to Christ, and to the Consideration of our uni [...]y with him, in the right whereof we have claim to the promises; even as every line in a circumference, though there never so distant from others, doth, being pursued, c [...]rry a man at last to one and the same C [...]nter, common unto them all. For the promises are not made for any thing in us, nor have their stability in us; but they are made in and for Christ unto us; Unto Christ in our behalf, and unto us onely so far forth as we are members of Christ. For they were not made to Seeds, as many; but to Seed, namely, to Christ, in aggre­gat [...], as comprehending the Head and the members in the unity of one Body. Gal. 3. 16. Caput & Corpus [...]nus est Christus. Aug. Mr. Reynolds in his Sinfulness of Sin. pag. 345. Lond. 1631. Particular writers: And the whole Q. W [...]th whom was the Covenant of Grace made? A. The Covenant of Grace was made with Christ, as the Second Adam; and, in him, with all the Elect as his Seed. Gal. 3. 16. Rom. 5. 15. to the end. Isa. 50. 10, 11. So the Assembly, in the Larger Catechism. p. 8. in Quarto. Nationall Assembly of Divines.

[Page 79] IIII. As the Covenant-breaking disobedience of the first Adam involved all his Seed with himself in Sin and Death: So the Covenant-keeping obedience of the last Adam, Resto­red all his Seed with himself to righteousness and Life. This the Apostle demonstrates at large in Rom. 5. Especially in these words; Rom 5. 18, 19. As by the offence of one judgement came upon all men to Condemnation: even so by the righteousness of one, the free gift came up­on all men to Iustification of life. For, as by one mans disobedience many were made Sinners: so by the obedience of One shall many be made righte­ous. Here Adams All, are called his Many: and Christs Many, are called his All. And though there be some similitude betwixt the Event and Efficacy of Adams disobedience, unto his Seed; and of Christs obedience, unto his: yet there is also much Dissimilitude. For, the weigh well Rom. 5. 15, 16, 17. efficacy of Christs Obedience, incomparably tran­scends and surpasseth the efficacy of Adams disobedience. Partly, In that Christs Obedience Saves; Adams disobedience condemns. Now a thousand fold more efficacy is required to Saving, then to Damning. Partly, In that the sin of Adam, condemning his Po­sterity, was but one: but the Free-gift of righteousness by Christ, ju­stifying his posterity, absolves them from many offences, and not only from that one Sin of Adam. And this is much more.

Thus it is evident, That as Adam, and in him all his Natural Seed, were a joint-party to the Covenant of Works, before the Fall: So Iesus Christ, and in him all his Supernatural Seed, are a joynt-party to the Covenant of Faith, after the Fall.


THe matter of this COUENANT of FAITH, comes next to be considered. Which is; The Recovery of Christs Seed from the state of sin and Death into the state of righteousness and eternal life by Christ, that in him the LORD may be their God, and they his people; They accepting him and these Covenanted mercies by true faith, and walking worthy of them according to the Gospel. This is the Sub­stance and Matter of this Covenant, touching which Gods makes Agreement with Christ the last Adam, and in him with all his Seed.

[Page 80]For the more distinct unfolding of this excellent Mysterie, Observe, (1.) That, in General, the matter of this Covenant, is The Reco­very or Restauration of Christs Seed, the Elect, after their Fall in Adam. (2.) That, in Particular, touching this Recovery and in order to the effecting thereof, The matters Agreed upon and Covenanted are of two sorts; viz. 1. Matters agreed upon and Covenanted betwixt God and Iesus Christ the last Adam. 2. Matters agreed upon and Covenanted betwixt God and the seed of Christ in him.

I. Matters Covenanted and agreed upon in that blessed & heavenly Trans­action betwixt God the Father, and Iesus Christ the last Adam, touching the Recovery of his seed; are in Order of Nature Antecedaneous to the other betwixt God and his Seed, as the Foundation thereof; And therefore are first to be cleared. And they are either, 1. Matters Cove­nanted and promised to Christ, on the part of God the Father. 2. Mat­ters restipulated to God the Father, on the part of Iesus Christ. Formerly hath been shewed, That God Covenanteth with Christ, and in him onely with his Seed, as a joynt-party; Now is to be declared, What God Covenanteth with Christ, as well as with his seed; and Christ with God. Writers are generally silent about this mysterious trans­action: but Scriptures are very pregnant and evident.

I. God the Father, on his part, Covenanteth and promiseth to Iesus Christ the last Adam, in order to the Recovery of his seed, many things, yea all things requisite thereunto. To enumerate all, how impossible! yet take a Taste in these 5. Particulars following. viz. God the Father promiseth to Christ the last Adam, in order to the Recovery of his Seed; 1. To invest him with a Mediatory office to that end. 2. To accept him in his office. 3. To assist, support, encourage and protect him in the Execution of his office. 4. To exalt him most gloriously, after all his abasement undergone by reason of his office. 5. To prosper and crown him with full success in Recovering all his seed.

1. To invest Christ with a Mediatory office, whereby he should Me­diate with God for his Seed and their Recovery; 1. As a Priest, 2 As a Prophet, 3. As a King.

As a Priest. For, God saith to Christ; Psal 110. 4. The Lord hath sworn, and will not repent; Thou art a Priest for ever after the Order of Mel­chizedech. Here God Promiseth to Christ an excellent and Eternal Priesthood. Object. The word (art) is of the present, not future tense; and therefore promiseth not what Christ should be for fu­ture, but onely Declares what Christ is for present. Answ. This Objection no way evinceth this to be no promise. For, 1. This word [art] is not in the Hebrew original, and therefore its printed in a distinct character. The Hebrew is, Thou a Priest, &c. that is, Thou shalt be a Priest for ever. It being the manner of the Hebrew tongue, sometimes for brevity sake to leave out a word, which is to be un­derstood, and supplyed. 2. Though the word (art) were in the Original, yet this passage were a Promise; because the matter spoken of, was (de bono futuro) not fulfilled then at present, but to be fulfil­led [Page 81] for future. And, when future Good is assured though in words of the present tense, it is a Promise. This then is Gods Sure and Irrevo­cable Promise to Christ touching that excellent and eternal Priest­hood, whereby the recovery of his Seed was to be meritoriously ob­taind. The chief Acts of the Priests office, and so of Christs functi­on as Priest, are, 1. Oblation, and 2. Intercession. Heb. 9. 14 & 10. 12. to 19. Christ offered himself without spot to God, for purging away the sins of his Elect once for all: obtaining perfect remission of them for ever. And as he Heb. 9. 2 [...]. prayed for his Seed while he was on earth, so Heb. 7. 25. he ever liveth (n) Ioh. 17. 20. to the end. to make intercession for them in heaven (appearing in the presence of God for them, as their Heb. 9. 2 [...]. advocate with the Father. This Priest­ly office of Christ is, . Sure; because Heb. 7. 20, 21. confirmed with Gods oath as well as his Promise. The Promise makes it Sure: The Oath(q) 1 Ioh. 2. 1. double Sure. Irrevocable; The LORD will never repent of this Promise and Oath. 3. Excellent: far surpassing Aaron's order, even of Mel­chisedechs order, Heb. 7. 1, 2, 3. &c. who being King of righteousness, and then King of Salem, that is, King of Peace, was also Priest of the most high God, and so had a Royal Priesthood. 4. Everlasting; A Priest for ever Heb. 7. 16, 17, 24, 25. ha­ving (as Melchisedech) an everlasting and unchangeable Priesthood: And therefore being able to save to the uttermost, them that come unto God by him.

As a Prophet. For, the LORD Promiseth thus to Christ; Isa. 42. 6, 7. I the LORD have called thee in righteousness, and will hold thine hand, and will keep thee, and will give thee for a Covenant of the People, for a light of the Gentiles: To open the blind eyes, to bring out the Prisoners from the prison, and them that sit in darkness out of the prison-house. Thus God promiseth to invest him with a Prophetick office, for opening the eyes of the blind. Christ as a Priest purchaseth and obtaineth for his Seed, Recovery wanted: Christ as Prophet Revea­leth to his Seed, Recovery purchased. This he doth, 1. Instru­mentally by his word proclaiming this mystery to them: 2. Efficaci­ously by his Spirit opening and enlightning their minds and hearts to comprehend it. And Christ by the Prophet acknowledgeth this, Isa. 50. 4. The Lord GOD hath given me the tongue of the learned, that I should know how to speak a word in season to him that is weary▪ he wakeneth mor­ning by morning: he wakeneth mine ear to hear as the learned.

As a King. For, thus the Father Promiseth to Christ; Psal. 2. 6, 7, 8, 9. with Rev. 2. 26, 27. & 19. 15. Yet have I set my King upon my holy Hill of Sion. I will declare the Decree: The LORD hath said unto me, Thou art my son, this day have I begotten thee. Ask of me, and I shall give thee the heathen for thine inheritance, and the uttermost parts of the Earth for thy possession. Thou shalt break them with a rod of iron, thou shalt dash them in pieces like a potters vessel. In these words See, how the Lord in a Promissory way, 1. Annoints Christ as Sions King, his Churches King, in despite of all his ene­mies rage and opposition 2. Approves and establisheth this King by firm-Decree, 3. Extends his Dominion to the Gentiles. 4. De­clares the power of this Government against his enemies, whom his [Page 82] iron rod shall incurably break and dash in pieces like a Potters vessel. And elswhere; Psal. 110. 1, 2, 3, 5, 6. The LORD said unto my Lord, Sit thou at my right hand, until I make thine enemies thy footstool. The LORD shall send the rod of thy strength out of Sion: Rule thou in the midst of thine enemies. Thy people shall be willing in the day of thy power.—The Lord at thy right hand shall strike through Kings in the day of his wrath. He shall judge among the Heathen, he shall fill the places with dead bodies: he shall wound the Heads over many Countries. Here the Father promiseth to Christ, in reference to his Kingly office, 1. Most glorious enthronement (viz. after his Resurrection) at his right hand. 2. Continued Reign there, till all his enemies be utterly subdued. 3. A strong Scepter, to be sent out of Sion, viz. Christs powerful word and Spirit, wherewith he shall exercise his Regal Dominion. 4. The effect of this his Kingly Rule, Subduing his own to willing obedience: But crushing his Enemies, even the greatest Heads and Rulers in the world that oppose him, with utter destruction. Thus, Christ meritoriously purchaseth Recovery for his Seed, as a Priest: Clearly Revealeth this Recovery purchased, as a Prophet: And effectually applyeth to his Seed, this Re­covery purchased and revealed, as a King. Thus the Father Cove­nanteth with Christ to invest him with a Mediatory office, of Priest, Pro­phet, and King, for the Recovery of his Seed.

2. To accept Christ in this his Mediatory office; According to that of Isaiah. Isa. 49. 7, 8. Thus saith the LORD the Redeemer of Israel, and his holy one, to him whom man despiseth▪ to him whom the Nation abhorreth, to a servant of Rulers, Kings shall see and arise, Princes also shall worship, be­cause of the LORD that is faithful, and the Holy one of Israel, and he shall choose thee. Thus saith the LORD, In an acceptable time have I heard thee, and in a day of salvation have I helped thee; and I will preserve thee and give thee for a Covenant of the people, to establish the Earth, and to cause to inherit the desolate heritages. Yea Christ in his office is so acceptable to God, that he promiseth his Soul shall de­light in him, and consequently in his Seed for his sake; Isa. 42. 1. Behold my servant whom I uphold, mine Elect in whom my Soul delighteth: I have put my Spirit upon him, he shall bring forth judgement to the Gentiles.Luke 3. 21, 22. It came to pass, that Iesus being baptized, and Praying, The Heaven was opened; And the Holy Ghost descended in a bodily shape like a Dove upon him; And a voice came from heaven, which said, I hou art my beloved son, in thee I am well pleased.

3. To assist, Support, Comfort and Protect Iesus Christ in the Executi­on and fulfilling of his office, for the Recovery of his Seed: And that especially three waies▪ viz. 1. Against the utmost Extremity of all his Sufferings, that should be inflicted upon him for all the Sins of his Seed: which sufferings were most numerous and grievous. Isa. 42. 5, 6, 7. Thus saith God the LORD, he that created the Heavens, and stretched them out; He that spread forth the earth, and that which cometh out of it; he that giveth breath unto the people upon it, and spirit to them that walk therein: I the LORD have called thee in righteousness, and [Page 83] will hold thine hand, and will keep thee, and will give thee for a Cove­nant of the people, for a light of the Gentiles, &c. Here God assureth Christ, from his wonderful Creation, Preservation and Government of all things, that he will strengthen, preserve and stand by him in all his Mediatory administrations, for Recovery of his Seed, whether Jews or Gentiles, from the darkness and bondage of Sin and Death. And Christ himself is brought in, by the Prophet, acknowledging thus much, saying; Isa. 49. 1, 2, 3. Listen O Isles unto me, and hearken ye people from far; The LORD hath called me from the womb, from the bowels of my mother hath he made mention of my name. And he hath made my mouth like a sharp sword. In the shadow of his band hath he hid me, and made me a polished shaft, in his Quiver hath he hid me; And said unto me, Thou art my servant O Israel, in whom I will be glorified. 2. Against all Oppositions and Enemies. To this effect God promiseth to Christ Psal. 2. to 10. with Acts 4. 25, 26, 27, 28. that he will set up his kingdom in Sion, and extend it even to the Gentiles, notwithstanding all the rage, plots, insurrecti­ons, and combinations of Gentiles, Jews, Kings of the earth and Ru­lers against him. The Lord meanwhile deriding them, and threat­ning to destroy them. 3. Against all his deepest discouragements, which he should meet with in the discharge of his function. As, Isa. 49. 4, 5. 6. Then I said, I have laboured in vain, I have spent my strength for nought, and in vain: yet surely my judgement is with the LORD, and and my work with my God. And now saith the LORD that formed me from the womb to be his servant, to bring Jacob again to him, Though Israel be not gathered, yet shall I be glorious in the eyes of the LORD, and my God shall be my strength. And he said, it is a light thing that thou shouldst be my servant to raise up the Tribes of Jacob, and to restore the preserved of Israel: I will also give thee for a light to the Gentiles, that thou maist be my salvation to the end of the Earth. Here Christ is brought in lamenting and complaining of the Jews Contumacy and obstinacy, refusing to be gathered, and as it were rendering his office vain. And against this great discouragement, he is supported, (1) From the Testimony of his own Conscience in the sight of God, that he hath faithfully discharged his office. (2) From Gods acceptance promised him notwithstanding; what ever the world may judge, he should be glorious in the eyes of the LORD. (3) From Gods power and vertue which notwithstanding should be manifest in him. And, (4) From the Surpassing success of his office promi­sed for gathering and gaining even of the Gentiles.

4. To exalt Christ gloriously, after he had been debased ignominiously: His Mediatory office being put in execution both in his Humiliation and Exaltation. Now God the father Covenanteth with Christ, to exalt him gloriously in his, 1. Resurrection from the Dead; 2. Ascen­tion into Heaven; 3. Session at Gods right hand.

In h s Resurrection from the Dead; Psal. 2. 7. I will declare the Decree, The LORD hath said unto me; Thou art my Son, this day have I begot­ten thee. Which Scripture the Apostle Paul interpreteth as a pro­mise [Page 84] of Christs Resurrection, saying;Acts 13. 32, 33. God hath fulfilled the same unto us their children, in that he hath raised up Iesus again, as it is also written in the second Psalm, Thou art my Son, this day have I begotten thee. Christ in his Resurrection was begotten and brought forth of the womb of the Earth. And ChristPsal. 16. 8, 9, 10, 11. Compared with Acts 2. 25. to 32. & 13. 35, 36, 37. elsewhere Singularly comforts himself against Death & Grave, by Gods Promise of his Resurrection.

In his Ascention into Heaven after his Resurrection. For thus God speaketh to Christ by his spirit, touching his Ascention;Psal. 68. 18. Thou hast ascended up on high; thou hast led Captivity Captive; Thou hast received gifts for men; yea for the rebellious also, that the LORD God might dwell among them. This the ApostleEph. 4. 7, 8, 9, 10 11, 12. &c. Paul expoun­deth peculiarly of Christs Ascention into Heaven, and of the bene­fits of that his Ascention to his Church.

In his Session or sitting on Gods right hand in the highest Hea­vens, after his Ascention. For thus the father promiseth to Christ:Psal. 110. 1. The LORD said unto my Lord, Sit thou at my Right hand, untill I make thine Enemies thy footstool. That is, Thou shalt sit on my right hand till then. Its Gods promise, not to David, but to Christ, Da­vids Lord: asActs 2. 34, 35. Peter in his Sermon on the day of Pentecost testi­fieth. Thus God promised to Christ, glorious exaltation in these three eminent degrees of his Resurrection, Ascention, and sitting at Gods right hand: All which tended much to the Compleating of his Elects Recovery: For asRom. 4. 25. Christ dyed for their sins; so he Rose again for their Iustification; Ascended that he mightEph. 4. 7; 8, 9. Captivate Captivity, give gifts to men: Act. 2. 33. pour forth his spirit upon them, andJoh. 14. 2, 3. prepare a place for them: and he sits at Gods right hand that he mayHeb. 7. 25. & 9. 24. continually intercede and appear for his people,Psal. 110. 1, 2, 3. gather and govern all his Seed, andPsal. 110. 1. 1 Cor. 15. 24, 25, 26. utterly destroy all his and their enemies.

5. To prosper Christ in his office, and crown him with full success there­in, for the Recovering of all his seed, whether among Iews or Gen­tiles.Psal. 110. 2, 3. The Lord shall send the Rod of thy strength out of Sion; (Here's his office, exercised by the powerful Scepter of his Word and Spirit sent from Sion, abroad into the world:) Rule thou in the midst of thine enemies. Thy people shall be willing in the day of thy power, in the beauties of holiness, from the womb of the morning: thou hast the dew of thy youth. Here's the success of his office promised, both in his victorious subduing of his enemies, in the chearful willingness of his subjects, and in the wonderful numerousness of his people won un­to him, even like the innumerable drops of the morning Dew. Again, the Lord said to him;Psal. 2. 7, 8, 9. Thou art my son, this day have I begotten thee. Ask of me, and I shall give thee the Heathen for thine inheritance, and the uttermost parts of the Earth for thy possession. Thou shalt break them with a rod of iron, thou shalt dash them in pieces like a potters vessel. Here the Father promiseth to the Son, upon his Resurrection and in­tercession, the Gentiles for his spiritual inheritance and possession: and that his enemies amongst them shall be broken and destroyed by him. And yet more fully;Isa. 42. 5, 6, 7, 8. I the LORD have called thee in [Page 85] righteousness, and will hold thine hand and keep thee, and give thee for a Covenant of the people, for a light of the Gentiles. To open the blind eyes, to bring out the prisoners from the prison, and them that sit in darkness out of the prison-house. Is. 49 6. to 14. Upon this Text Calvin speaks excel­lently; laterea vero quod sub icit Propheta, Dabo te in f [...]dus, nomini alteri quam Christo conve­nit. Quomo­do haec tater se concillabinus [...] Nempe si consi­deremus Chri­stum non tam esse suum quam nostrum, quia nec venit, nec mortuus est, nec resurrexit sibi.—Itaq [...] promittit Deus universo Ec­clesiae corpori. Christus qui veluti sponsor intermedius est, recipit has promissio­nes: nec fibi privatim sti­pulatur, sed toti Ecclesiae, in cujus salu­tem missus est.And he said, It is a light thing that thou shouldst be my servant to raise up the tribes of Iacob, and to re­store the preserved of Israel: I will also give thee for a light to the Gen­tiles, that thou mayest be my salvation to the end of the Earth. Thus saith the LORD, the Redeèmer of Israel, and his holy one, to him whom man despiseth, to him whom the nation abhorreth, to a servant of Rulers, Kings shall see and arise, Princes also shall worship, because of the LORD that is faithful, and the holy one of Israel, and he shall choose thee. Thus saith the Lord, In an acceptable time have I heard thee, and in the day of salvation have I helped thee; and I will preserve thee, and give thee for a Covenant of the people, to establish the Earth, to cause to inherit the desolate heritages; That thou mayest say to the prisoners, Go forth: To them that are in darkness, shew your selves: They shall feed in the wayes, and their pastures shall be in all high places: They shall not hunger nor thirst, neither shall the heat nor Sun smite them: For he that hath mercy on them shall lead them, even by the Springs of water shall he guide them. And I will make all my mountains a way, and my high-waies shall be ex­alted. Behold these shall come from farre: and lo, these from the North and from the West: and these from the Land of Sinim. Sing O heavens, and be joyful O Earth, and break forth into singing O Mountains: For God hath comforted his people, and will have mercy upon his afflicted. Thus the Father promised Compleat Success to Christ in his Medi­atory office for Recovery of his Seed, according to that,Isa. 53. 10, 11, 12. When thou shalt make his Soul an offering for sin, he shall see his seed, he shall prolong his dayes, and the pleasure of the LORD shall prosper in his hand. He shall see of the travel of his soul, and shall be satisfied: By his know­ledge shall my righteous servant justifie many: for he shall bear their iniquities.

These things God the Father Covenanteth and promiseth on his part to Iesus Christ the last Adam.

II. Iesus Christ the last Adam Restipulateth and re-promiseth on his part to God the Father divers things, especially these two, viz.

1. Chearfully and faithfully to accept, undertake and dis­charge this Mediatory office imposed upon him by the Father, in order to the Recovery of his Seed, the Elect.Compare Psal. 40. 6. to 11. with Heb. 10. 5. to 11. Wherefore, when he cometh into the world he saith; Sacrifice and offering thou didst not desire, mines ears hast thou opened: (or as the Apostle; But a body hast thou prepared me:) Burnt-offering and sin-offering hast thou not required. Then said I, lo, I come: In the volume of the Book it is written of me: I de­light to do thy will O my God: yea, thy Law is within my heart. I have preached righteousness in the great Congregation: lo, I have not refrain­ed my lips, O LORD, thou knowest. I have not hid thy righteousness with­in mine heart, I have declared thy faithfulness and thy salvation: I have not concealed thy loving kindness and thy truth from the great Congrega­tion. [Page 86] Here Christ restipulateth cheerfully to accept and execute His Priestly office, in offering himself up a Sacrifice once for all, to take away his Peoples sins, as the Apostle plainly expoundeth it; And his Prophetick office, in preaching Gods righteousness, faithfulness, salvation, loving-kindness and Truth to his Church. And elswhere Christ declares this his acceptance of his office, saying;Isa. 61. 1, 2, 3. with Luke 4 18, 19, 20, 21. The Spi­rit of the Lord GOD is upon me, because the LORD hath annointed me to preach good tidings unto the meek, He hath sent me to binde up the broken-hearted, to proclaim liberty to the Captives, and the opening of the prison to them that are bound: To proclaim the acceptable year of the LORD, and the day of vengeance of our God, to comfort all that mourn: To appoint unto them that mourn in Sion, to give unto them beauty for ashes, the oyle of joy for mourning, the garment of praise for the spirit of heaviness, That they might be called the trees of righteousness, the plan­ting of the LORD, that he might be glorified. Iesus Christ reading this Scripture on a Sabbath-day in the Synagogue of Nazareth, when he he had closed the Book, began to say unto them, This day is this Scripture fulfilled in your ears.

2. Fully to depend and rely upon his heavenly Father for Accep­tance, Assistance and Protection in the Execution of his office, not­withstanding extreamest oppositions, deepest difficulties and di­stresses. To this effect, Christ, in the Prophet, saith;Isa. 50. 5, 6, 7, 8, 9. The Lord GOD hath opened mine ear, and I was not rebellious, neither turned away back. I gave my back to the smiters, and my cheeks to them that plucked off the hair: I hid not my face from shame and spitting. For the Lord GOD will help me, therefore shall I not be confounded: therefore have I set my face like a flint, and I know that I shall not be ashamed. He is neer that justifieth me, who will contend with me? Let us stand together; who is mine adversary? let him come neer to me. Behold the Lord GOD will help me, who is he that shall condemn me? Lo they all shall wax old as a garment: The moth shall eat them up. Thus Christ declares his confidence in Gods assistance and acceptance even in his sharpest sufferings. And elsewhere he is brought in as it were victoriously triumphing against Death it self, through his Hope of Resurrection and Glory.Psal. 16. 8, 9, 10, 11. compared with Act. 2 25, 26, 27, 28, &c. I have set the LORD alwayes before me: because he is at my right hand, I shall not be moved. Therefore my heart is glad, and my glory rejoyceth: my flesh also shall rest in hope. For thou wilt not leave my soul in Hell; neither wilt thou suffer thine holy One to see corruption. Thou wilt shew me the path of life: In thy presence is ful­ness of joy, at thy right hand are pleasures for evermore.

This is that blessed Transaction betwixt God the Father and Iesus Christ, and these are a taste of those precious Matters Covenanted and agreed upon betwixt them, in order to the Recovery of Christs Seed.

II. Matters Covenanted and agreed upon, betwixt God and Christs Seed in Christ the last Adam, fall next into Consideration. And they are either, 1. Covenanted and promised by God. Or, 2. Required of and Restipulated by Christs seed in him.

[Page 87]I. God on his part Covenanteth and Promiseth to Christs Seed in him, divers admirable Sublime and transcendent Benefits. But espe­cially, 1. What God will do in Christ, for Christs Seed, viz. Recover them out of a state of Sin and Death, into a state of Righteousness and eternal Life. 2. What God will be in Christ, to Christs Seed; viz. He will be to them a God.

(1) The Lord Covenanteth what he will do for Christs Seed. He will Recover them, &c. Herein note, 1. The benefit or mercy Pro­mised. 2. The Object to whom this mercy is peculiarly intended.

1. The mercy itself Promised, Recovery, &c. may be considered, 1. More Generally. 2. More Particularly.

More Generally, thus conceive of Gods Recovery of Christs Seed from Sin and Death to Righteousness and Life. The Elect of Christ, through Adams disobedience and breach of the Covenant of Works, are plunged into a State of Sin and Death, as well as others: as hath been shewed. But God, that his Election might stand inviolably, upon Adams Fall publisheth his Covenant of Faith, wherein he de­clares his Gracious will and pleasure, to Restore his Elect from Sin and Death, to Righteousness and eternal Life. Sin and Death comprehend in them Mans whole Natural misery, and are the Term from which: Righteousness and Life eternal comprize in them Mans whole superna­tural Remedy, and are the Term to which, God will Restore his Elecm Christs Seed. 1. That God Covenanteth to Recover them from Sin to Righteousness, is clear. For, This is the Covenant that I will make with them after those daies, saith the Lord: I will put my laws into their hearts, and in their minds will I write them: and their sins and ini­quities will I remember no more. Now where remission of these is, there is no more offering for sin. Heb. 10. 16, 17, 18. So that, when God remembers Sins no more, he remits them: where God remits Sins, there needs no more offerings to expiate and purge them away; God is fully satisfied for such, and so accepts and justifies them. And again it is promised, That As by one mans disobedience many were made Sinners: So by the obedience of one shall many be made righteous, Rom. 5. 10. Here's Recovery promised from guilt of sin, to imputed Righteousness by Iustification. God further Covenanteth; I will give them one heart, and I will put a new Spirit within you: And I will take the stony heart out of their flesh, and will give them an heart of flesh; That they may walk in my statutes, and keep mine ordinances, and do them, Ezek. 11. 19, 20. and 36. 25, 26, 27. Here's Recovery promised from the filth and power of Sin to inherent Righteousness, by Sanctification. 2. That God also Covenanteth to recover Christs Seed from Death to eternal Life, is as clear. For he saith; If by one mans offence, death reigned by one: much more they which receive abundance of Grace, and of the gift of righteousness, shall reign in life by one, Iesus Christ. Rom. 5. 17. 21.—That as Sin hath reigned unto death; even so might Grace reign through righteousness unto eternal life, by Iesus Christ our Lord. This Recovery of Christs Seed from the miserable state of Sin and [Page 88] Death, to the happy state of righteousness and eternal life, seems as it were Typically to be shadowed out and promised, under Israels Recovery from Egypts miserable bondage, to Canaan. Gen. 15. 13, 14, 18. Deut. 5. 2, 3. 6. And the Jews return from their woful Captivity in Babylon, unto Sion. Ier. 24. 5, 6, 7.

More Particularly, Gods Recovery of Christs Seed from Sin and Death to Righteousness and Life, being a most large Comprehen­sive benefit, comprizeth in it many excellent Spiritural blessings. Partly, in respect of the Impetration of it, for Christs Seed: Partly, in regard of the Application of it, to Christs Seed. I. The Impetration, or obtaining of this Recovery for Christs Seed, was by ReDEMPTI­ON. Redemption is a Recovery of Christs Seed from the bondage of Sin, Satan, Death and the wrath of God, into the contrary spiritual li­berty: by the payment of a just and Satisfactory price. Hence those phrases: ye are bought with a price, 1 Cor 6. 20.—1 Pet. 1. 18, 19. ye were not redeemed with corruptible things, as silver and gold from your vain Con­versation,—but with the precious blood of Christ.Tit. 2. 14. who gave himself for us, that he might Redeem us from all iniquity.Gal. 3. 13. Christ hath Redeemed us from the Curse of the Law, being made a Curse for us. In this work of Redemption are considerable, 1, The1 Tim. 2. 5. Mediation of the Redeemer Christ, betwixt God and his Seed. 2. The [...] Rom. 3. 25. Eph. 5. 2. Heb. 9. 13, 14. & 10. 11. to 15. [...] Satisfaction of this Mediator, made to Gods Justice, by his Death, for the Sins of all his Seed. 3. The Meritorious2 Cor. 5. 19, 20. Rom. 5. 10. Dan. 9. 24. Re­conciliation of all his Seed unto God by this full Satisfaction. II. The Application of this Recovery thus obtaind to Christs Seed, is effected especially by these several steps, or degrees. viz. 1. By conviction. Christs Seed being throughlyJoh. 16. 8, 9, 10, 11. Convinced both of their own sin and misery, by nature: and of the sufficient Remedy thereof in Christ by Grace. 2. By couversion. When theyAct. 26. 18. Math. 18. 3. are turned from darkness to light, and from the power of Satan unto God. This Conversion, in respect of several notions and Considerations, is expressed in Scrip­ture by divers Names, which for substance import one and the same thing. It is stiled (1) In regard of the newness of Condition where­into they are brought,Tit. 3. 5. Rom. 12. 2. Renovation or Renewing. (2) In regard of Natures inability, and of the Necessity of Divine Power, to bring them unto this new condition,2 Cor. 5. 17. Eph. 2. 10. New-Creation. (3) In regard of Gods way of bringing them into this New state, Outwardly by the call of his word as the instrument: Inwardly by the call of his spirit as the efficient thereof,Rom. 8. 30. 1 Cor. 1. 2, 26 Vocation, or Calling. (4) In regard of the resemblance that this Conversion hath with mans Natural generation and birth, its stiledTit. 3. 5. Ioh. 3. 3, 5, 6, 7, 8. & 1. 13. Regeneration, New-birth, or Being born from above. (5) In respect of their separation from Sin, un­to Holiness of Person and Conversation,1 Pet. 1, 2. 1 Cor. 6. 11. 1 Thes. 5. 23. Sanctification. (6) In regard of Divine Principles, Habits and gratious Qualifications in­fused, the2 Per. 1. 4 Participation of the Divine Nature. (7) Finally to mention no more in regard of their spiritual Motion from misery to happiness, its stiled A1 Ioh. 3. 14. Transition, or Passing from Death to Life. All these [Page 89] for Substance being but Conversion. 3. By Adoption. Christs Convert Seed being admitted and accepted as theGal. 4. 4, 5. Ioh. 1. 12. Rom. 8. 15. Eph. 1. 5. Adopted sons of God by Grace, through Christ the only son of God by Na­ture. In and with which adoption they receive the Priviledges of Sons; viz. Gal. 4. 6. Rom. 8. 15, 16. The Spirit of adoption, both crying Abba Father, and Attesting their Sonship.Gal. 4. 7. & 5. 1. Ioh. 8. 36. Son-like liberty and freedome.Gal. 4. 7. Rom. 8. 17. Heirship to God. Co-heirship to Christ. 4. By Iustification. When GodRom. 3. 24, 25, 26. & 4, 5, 6, 7, 8. 2 Cor. 5. 20. 21. Rom. 5. 16. 17, 18, 19. & 4. 5, 6, 7, 8, 23, 24, 25. freely remits all their unrighteousness, and accounts their persons righteous, meerly for the meritorious and Satisfactory obedience of Christ, imputed to them of meer grace, through Faith only. 5. By Donation of divers spiritual Priviledges, as Consequen­tial fruits of Conversion, Adoption and Justification: especially these, viz. Rom. 5. 1. Peace with God in Christ.Rom. 14. 17. Joy in the Holy Ghost.Rom. 5. 5. Diffusion or shedding abroad of Gods love in the Heart.Rom. 8. 16. Eph. 1. 13, 14. 2 Cor. 13. 5. 1 Ioh. 3. 24. Heb. 6. 10. & 10. 22. As­surance of a Good spiritual state towards God, in Christ.2 Pet. 3. 18. 2 Thes. 1. 3. [...]ph. 4. 15, 16. Pro­gress and Growth in Grace. AndRev. 2 10. 1 Pet. 1. 5. Ioh. 10. 27, 28, 29. Rom. 8. 38, 39. faithful Perseverance, or Final Constancy in this gracious Christian state unto the Death. 6. Fi­nally, By Glorification, God compleats this Recovery of his elect from Sin and Death to righteousness and life;Acts 7. 59. Heb. 12. 23. Luke 2. 3. 43. Phil. 1. 23. Receiving their Spirits made perfect, into glory, immediately upon Death: And at the Last day,1 Thes. 4. 16. 1 Cor. 15. 42, 43, 44. Raising up their bodies in glorious state to be re­united with their Spirits, That so both bodies and souls may1 Thes. 4. 17. meet the Lord coming to judgement, may beMath. 25. 32. to the end. open y acquitted when the whole world besides shall be condemned, may with Christ1 Cor. 6. 2, 3. judge both men and Angels, & afterwards may ascend with Christ into the higest Heavens,1 Cor. 13. 12. Math. 5. 8. 1 Ioh. 3. 2. 1 Cor. 15. 28 1 Thes 4. 17. there to have full immediate uninterru­pted vision & fruition of God in Christ face to face unto all eternity.

Thus of the Benefits Covenanted which God will do for Christs Seed; He will Recover them, &c.

2. The object to whom these Grand Benefits are intended in Christ, is only Christs Seed, The Elect. For, 1. They, and they alone were before the foundation of the world, in Christ eternallyEph. 1. 4, 5. Rom. 8. 29. elect­ed and predestinated to these benefits. 2. They, and they alone are the Persons for whom Christ in fulness of time intentionally shed his blood and laid down his life, that he might purchase and procure these mercies for them. Even; forRom. 8. 33, 34. Gods Elect: forIoh 11. 51, 52. the children of God. ForHeb. 2. 13, 14, 15. the children which God had given him: forEph. 5. 25. Acts 20. 28. his Church: forMath. 1. 21. his people: forIoh. 10. 11, 15. his sheep. 3. They, and they alone are the persons to whom these Benefits and Mercies are in due timeRom. 8. 29, 30. Eph. 1. 3, 4, 5. Ioh. 10. 26. & 17. 2. & 6. 37, 39. Act. 13. 48. actually and effectually applyed and bestowed in Jesus Christ through the operation of the Spirit. Consequently they alone that are Christs Seed, the Elect, are the Object to whom these Benefits and Mercies are intended in Christ.

(2) The Lord Covenanteth, what he will be to Christs Seed: viz. He will be to them a God. That thus God Covenanteth, is clear [Page 90] in the Tenour of the Covenant of Faith, as Renewed to Abraham, Israel, David, The Iews, and in the New Covenant. 1. To Abra­ham God saith;Gen. 17. 7, 8. I will establish my Covenant between me and thee, and thy Seed after thee, in their Generations, for an everlasting Covenant: To be a God unto thee, and to thy Seed after thee. And I will give unto thee, and to thy Seed after thee, the Land wherein thou art a stranger, all the Land of Canaan, for an Everlasting possession: And I will be their God. 2. To Israel at Horeb, Deut 5. 2, 3, 6. Exod. 29. 45. I am the Lord thy God, &c. 3. To David God promiseth, in reference to his Seed;Psal. 89. 26, 33, 34. He shall cry unto me, Thou art my Father, my God, and the Rock of my Salvation. 4. To the Jews, Captived in Chaldea, the Lord Promiseth frequently by his Prophets;Ier. 24. 7. & 30. 22. & 32. 38, 40. Ezek. 11. 20. & 36. 28. They shall be my people, and I will be their God. 5. Finally, This is the Grand blessing Promised under the New Covenant;Heb. 8. 10. Ier. 31. 33. I will put my laws into their mind, and write them in their hearts: And I will be to them a God, and they shall be to me a peo­ple. Thus the Lord Covenanteth what he will be to his people, to the Seed of Christ: He will be to them a God. And what could God say more? For, of all Federal Clauses and Promises in Gods Book, this is the Highest, Fullest, Surest, and Sweetest. I. The High­est. For the blessing herein promised is the Gen. 14. 18, 19, 20, 22. Most-High God, the Supreme Good, theLuke 18. 19. only Good: from whose goodness every Good thing flows. It was much that God said to Abraham, being about to Enter into Covenant with him;Gen. 15. 1, 18. Fear not, Abraham: I am thy shield, and thy exceeding great reward. A Shield; A Reward: A great Reward; An exceeding great Reward; And all this, to Abraham. What Security, what Sufficiency is here for Abraham? It was much more, that God, Covenanting with David, Promised to his Seed;2 Sam. 7. 14. I will be his Father, and he shall be my son. But it is most of all that the Lord saith: I will be to them a God. God is higher then Heaven, or Earth: then Grace, or Glory: then things present, or to come: then Men, Angels, or Seraphims: and therefore when God promiseth Himself, he promiseth the Highest Good Promiseable. The whole Covenant is a rich Ring of Gold, or chain of Pearl: but this Promise is as the highest Diamond in the Ring, and most precious Jewel in the Chain. It is the very Crown and top-excel­lency of all the Promises. II. The fullest. No Promise in Scripture is so Compleat and Comprehensive as this promise. When God is Promi­sed: what is not promised? 1. All that's in God, is promised: His wisdom, for Direction: His Power, for Protection: His Grace, for acceptation; His Mercy, for Commiseration: His Justice, for Remuneration, &c. 2. All that is Gods, is Promised: His Creatures on Earth, to serve us: His Angels in Heaven, to guard us. His Ordinances, in this world, to make us holy: His recompences in the world to come, to make us happy: His comforts, to support us: His Graces, to adorn us: His Glory, to crown us, &c. all these are Promised: yea all things are Promised, when God is Promised. God is All in All. Therefore this Promise of God is the Center where all the Promises meet: The Sea whereinto all the Pro­mises [Page 91] Empty themselves. III. The Surest. For, when God hath made divers other Promises to his People, he is wont to close them up with this: (i) and I will be your God. This he adds as a strong(l) Levit. 26. 3. to 13. particularly See ver. 12. [...]zek. 11. 16, 17, 18, 19. Bond, or firm Seal unto his other Promises. And no wonder: For, if God will perform this greatest of all blessings: he will never deny, or withold, any lesser inferiour blessing. If he give that which im­plies all good, which is the fountain of all good: surely he can count no good thing too dear for us. He that spares not his own dearest self, how shall he not with himself freely give us all things? IV. Fi­nally, This is the Sweetest of all Gods Promises: and of all his Covenant-Agreements. viz. I will be to them a God. For, 1. This gives the Sweetest Right and Property. It gives us Right to, and Property in the Sweetest God. God is1 Ioh. 1. 5. Light without obscurity: How sweet is such light to the Mind! God is1 Tim. 6. 17. Life, without Morta­lity: How sweet is such Life unto the Soul! God isRom. 16. 20. Peace, with­out perplexity: How sweet is such Peace unto the Conscience! God is1 Ioh. 4. 16. Rom. 8. 38, 39 Love, without mutability: How sweet is such Love unto the Heart! Yea God is all Sweetnesses. And whatsoever sweetness is among the Creatures, it originally flows from this uncreated sweetness of God. Oh therefore how incomparable sweet is it to have Property in this God, To have this God for our God! 2. This stablisheth the sweetest Relation betwixt God and us: That he should be ours, and we his. No Relation on Earth, of Master and Servant, of Parent and child, or of husband and wife, can be in any degree Compared to this Relation. They are but shadows, butSolus tu esjocunditas; amaritudine plenus est mundus. August. in Psal. 85. p. 940. D. Tom. 8. Basil. 1569. bitter­ness, in comparison of this sweetness. 3. This yields the fullest and sweetest Satisfaction. No Creature can satisfie, or fill the Soul: But God fils the soul, satisfies the heart abundantly. Mans heart is made capable of God, and therefore is restless till it Center itself in God. Beyond God, the heart can desire nothing: therefore to have God must needs be sweetest of all. 4. Finally, This Promise is an Antidote against all Gall and bitterness, bringing God to be thine. For then, The Bitterness of wrath is Past: for God is thine, to Love thee. The bitterness of sin is Past: for God is thine freely to Pardon and Justifie thee, fully to purge and Sanctifie thee from all Sin. The bitterness of Death is Past; for God is thine, to arm thee against death, to pluck out the sting of Death, and at last totally to redeem thee from the state of Death and from all Possibility of Dying any more. Oh how infinitly sweet is that God, that thus sweetens all our bitterness! how sweet that Promise, that makes this God ours! Thus God Covenants what he will be to Christs Seed; He will be their God. And these are the Benefits and mercies which God on his part Covenanteth and Promiseth in Christ to his Seed.

II. Christs Seed on their part, do in like sort reciprocally promise, restipulate and Covenant with God in Christ, The Performance of divers Federal Duties. viz. 1. What they will do. 1. They will Ac­cept Christ by true Faith; and in Christ, all Gods Covenanted Mercies: [Page 92] And 2. They will walk worthy of him and them, according to the Gospel. 2. What they will be. They will become Gods people, in Christ. Oh how much is here implied in a few words!

1. What they will do. And here they restipulate two things espe­cially; viz.

1. To accept Christ by Faith unfained, and in him all Gods Covenanted Benefits and Mercies. That they restipulate thus to accept Christ and the Covenanted mercies by true Faith, wil appear upon due Conside­ration of these Particulars. viz. 1. That, Acceptance of Christ by true Faith is required, in order to the actuall participation of these Covenanted Mercies; Recovery from Sin to righteousness, from Death to life, and having God to be their God. Christ saith, Iohn 6. 28, 29 This is the work of God, that ye believe on him whom he hath sent. Iohn saith, 1 Iohn 3. 23, 24. This is his Commandment, that we should believe on the name of his son Iesus Christ, and love one another, as he gave us Com­mandment. And he that keepeth his Commandments, (whereof this believing in Christ is the chief,) dwelleth in him and he in him. And therefore hath God to be his God, and hath righteousness and life from God in Christ. Thus Paul and Silas command the Jaylor to believe in order to his Salvation; Act. 16. 31. Believe on the Lord Iesus Christ, and thou shalt be saved, and thine house. 2. That, The Not-believing in Christ, is condemned, and threatned with Death and damnation. Condemned, as that Iohn 16. 8, 9. Sin of Sins, whereof the Spirit of Christ chiefly convinceth and reproveth the world. Threatned; Mark 16. 16. He that believed not shall be damned. Iohn. 3. 18, 36.He that believeth not, is condemn­ed already, because he hath not believed on the name of the only begotten son of God.—He that believeth not the son, shall not see life: but the wrath of God abideth on him. 1 Ioh. 5. 11, 12. This is the Record, That God hath given to us Eternal life; and this life is in his Son. He that hath the Son hath life: and he hath not the son of God hath not life. 3. That, the Cove­nanted Benefits are promised peculiarly to believing in Christ, and accepting of him by Faith▪ As, ( [...]) Recovery from Sin to Righte­ousness; Acts 10. 43. with 13. 39. & Rom. 10. 4. & 4. 5. To him give all the Prophets witness, That through his name whosoever believeth in him, shall receive remission of Sins. Isa. 53. 11. By his knowledge (viz. The Knowledge of Christ by Faith) shall my righteous servant justifie many; for he shall bear their iniquities. (2) Recovery also from death to eternal life; Rom 10. 11. 1 Pet. 2. 6 with Isa. 28. 16. whosoever believeth on him shall not be ashamed: or, as Peter hath it, shall not be Confounded. Ye, Mark 16. 16. He that believeth shall be saved. Ioh. 3. 16. God so loved the world, that he gave his only begotten son: That whosoever believeth in him, should not perish, but have Everlasting life. Ioh. 6. 35. And Iesus said unto them; I am the bread of life: He that cometh to me shall never hunger; and he that believeth on me shall never thirst. Ioh. 11. 25, 26.Iesus said unto her; I am the Resurrection, and the life: He that believeth in me, though he were dead, yet shall he live; And whosoever liveth and believeth in me shall never dye. 4. Finally, That the Cove­nanted Mercies are actually bestowed upon them that accept Jesus [Page 93] Christ by Faith unfained. Abraham Rom. 4. th [...]oughout. believed, and is justified with the righteousness of Faith, and thereby is made also heir of the world: and this is written, To let us know, that in like manner we shall be justified, and be made heirs, if we believe as Abraham did. Ioh. 1. 12. As many as received him, (that is, Christ,) To them he gave power to be­come the sons of God, even to them that believe on his name. And the Apostle declares, Gal. 3. 6, 7, 8, 9. That they which are of the seed of Abraham, are blessed with faithful Abraham▪ And That Gal. 3. 21, 22. if there had been a Law given which could have given life, verily righteousness should have been by the law. But the Scripture hath concluded all under sin, That the Promise by Faith of Iesus Christ might be given to them that believe. And Rom. 5. 1, 2. ▪ That by Christ, we have access by Faith into this Grace, wherein we stand. Now lay all this together, and it is evident, that it is required of Christs Seed, that they accept Christ by true Faith; and in Christ, righte­ousness, eternal life, and God to be their God: And when they close with God in this Covenant, thus they Promise to accept him.

2. To walk worthy of Christ, and of all these Covenanted Mercies, ac­cording to the Gospel. This Eph. 4. 1. 1 Thes. 2. 12. 2 Thes. 1. 5. 11. Worthy-walking is frequently pressed in the Gospel; not as implying any Meritoriousness therein, but one­ly an Harmonious suitableness of course and life becoming them that partake such an high favour from God in Christ. Especially, Paul, Col. 1 [...] 10, 11, 12, 13, 14. Giving thanks unto the Father, which hath made us meet to be made partakers of the inheritance of the Saints in light: who hath delivered us from the power of darkness, and hath translated us into the Kingdom of the son of his Love: prayes for the Colossians, That they might walk worthy of the Lord unto all pleasing, being fruitful in every good work, and increasing in the knowledge of God; strengthened with all might according to his glorious power, unto all patience and long-suffering with joyfulness. And herein it is that the Gospel placeth walking worthy of the Lord.

This walking worthy of Christ, and of Covenant-Mercies in him, The Tenour of the Covenant it self requireth, and reduceth chiefly to two Heads; viz. True Repentance, and New Obedience. 1. True Re­pentance, (which is a sanctified change of the Person, and Conversa­tion, from Sin to Righteousness,) The Covenant of Faith requires, saying; [...]zek. 36. 25, 26, 29, 31. Then will I sprinkle clean water upon you, and you shall be clean: from all your filthiness, and from all your idols will I cleanse you. A new heart also will I give you, and a New spirit will I put within you, and I will take away the stony heart out of your flesh, and I will give you an heart of fles [...].—I will also save you from all your uncleanesses.—Then shall ye remember your own evil way [...], and your doings that were not good, and shall loath your selves in your own sight, for your iniqui­ties, and for your ab [...]minations. Here's true Repentance compri­zing the holy change both of person and Conversation. 2. New obedience also, Evangelically (which the Apostle calls walking in [Page 94] Newness of life, Rom. 6. 4.) The Covenant of Faith cals for of all Christs Seed accepting this Covenant. As, (1) From Abraham; Gen. 17. 1, 2. I am the almighty God, Walk before me and be thou perfect: And I will make my Covenant between me and thee, &c. (2) From Israel entring into Covenant with God in Horeb; unto whom God said; Deut. 5. 2. &c. with 29. 32. Oh that there were such a heart in them, that they would fear me, and keep all my Commandments always!Ye shall observe therefore to do all that the Lord your God hath Commanded you: you shall not turn aside to the right hand or to the left. And Israel said; Exod. 24 3, 7. Deut. 5. 27. All that the Lord hath said will we do, and be obedient. (3) From Psal. 89. 30, 31, 32. & 13 2, 12. David and his Seed. And (4) From the Captive Jews, the Lord in his Covenant required obedience, saying; Ezek. 36. 27. And I will put my Spirit within you, and cause you to walk in my Statutes, and ye shall keep my judgements, and do them. And when Gods people upon several occasions renewed their Covenant with God, they were wont to renew their Iosh. 24. 24, 25. 2 Chron. 15. 12, 13, 14. 2 Kings 23. 3. with 2 Chron. 34. 31, 32. N [...]h. 9, 38. with 10. 28, 29▪ &c. restipulation of sincere, cordial, universal and Constant Obedience unto the Lord: as holding themselves by ver­tue of Gods Covenant obliged so to do. Thus Christs Seed to in him restipulate, what they will do.

2. What they will be. viz. They will become Gods people in Christ. This restipulation God eminently requires of them in the Tenour of this Covenant, Ier. 24. 7. & 30. 22. & 31. 1. & 31, 33. & 32. 38. Ezek 11. 20. & 14 11. & 36. 28. & 37, 27. Heb. 8. 10. That they shall be his people. And this which they Covenant to be, is beyond all that they Covenant to do. For, As when God promiseth to be their God, he promiseth the Highest of all Mercies▪ so when they promise to be Gods people, they promise the greatest of all Duties. What could God say more to them? What could they say more to God? By this Restipulation, 1. All they are: 2. All they have: 3. All they can do: 4. And, All they can endure; are promised unto God.

1. All they are, is hereby promised to God. When Christs Seed truly strike Covenant with God in Christ, They remain no longer Sin's, nor Satan's, nor the world's; no, nor their own; but they become Gods. 1 Cor. 6. 19, 20. & 3. 16, 17. What, know ye not that your body is the Temple of the Holy Ghost in you, which ye have of God, and ye are not your own? For ye are bought with a price. Therefore glorifie God in your body, and in your Spirit, which are Gods. Rom. 14. 7, 8, 9. For none of us liveth to himself, and no man dieth to himself. For whether we live, we live unto the Lord: and whe­ther we dye, we dye unto the Lord: whether we live therefore or dye, we are the Lords. Their Souls and Bodies are Spiritual 1 Cor. 3. 16, 17. Temples and Rom. 12. 1. Sa­crifices. Their Minds his; to know him, and his will, and to meditate sweetly upon him: Their Consciences his; to accuse or excuse them ac­cording to his pleasure, in all their well, or ill-doings: Their Memories his: to retain him, his Counsels, his Promises, his Comforts, & all the dear Experiments of his love and grace, in continual remembrance; Theirs Wils his; self-denyingly to Conform, subscribe and submit unto his will in all things: Their Hearts and affections his▪ To Love him entirely above all Amiables; To hate sin extreamly, being most [Page 95] Contrary to him, as most detestable: To desire him intensively, above all desirables: To fly from sin exceedingly, as most abomi­nable▪ To joy and delight in him most contentedly, above all de­lectables: And to grieve most mournfully at that which displeaseth him, or divides from him, as most lamentable. Their Eyes his, to behold the beauty of his works: Their Ears, his, to hear the melody of his word: Their Senses his, to be Casements & inlets to his goodness: Their Tongues his, to trumpet out his Glory: Their Members his▪ to be weapons of righteousness unto holiness: Their Breath his, Melo­diously to warble out his praises: Their Being his, to be only for him: And their wel-being his, as onely from him and in him, and to him.

2. All they have, is herein Consequently promised to God. All their Honours, Pleasures, Riches and Earthly Possessions, Liberties, Priviledges, Times, Opportunities, Artificial habits, Natural Relati­ons, and supernatural Qualifications, they are all Homagers unto God, and must be prostrated to his Service.

3. All they can do for God, is also promised to God. As, Publish­ing and maintaining his Truth: Promoting his Worship: Propa­gating his Gospel: Protecting his Church: Defending his Cause: Supporting his People: Maintaining his Ordinances: Advancing his Kingdom and glory: And fulfilling his will in all the Evangelical acts of Faith and Love.

4. Finally, All they can endure for him and his Truth, must be duly un­dergone and devoted to his glory. They must be [...]ph. 6. 15. shod with the preparation of the Gospel of peace; That they may Heb. 13. 13. bear Christs re­proach, and persecution for righteousness sake; That they may undergo Heb. 13. 36, 37, 38. Trials of cruel mockings and scourgings, of bonds and imprisoment; That if need be they may endure, To be stoned, sawn asunder, Tempted, slain with the Sword. To wander about in sheep-skins and goat-skins, in deserts and in mountains, and in dens and caves of the earth, being desti­tute, afflicted and tormented; That they may Heb. 12. 4. resist even unto blood, striving against Sin: And that they may Luke 9. 23. take up their Cross daily, following Christ, Acts 20. 24. not counting their blood or lives precious for his sake, Rev. 1. 5. Gal. 5 20. who so loved them as to wash them from their sins in his own blood.

O how great a task do Christs elect undertake, when they resti­pulate with God To be his people! And without his singular assistance, who can be sufficient for these things! Thus Christs Seed Covenant what they will be.

Doubt. But these Conditions required on the part of Christs Seed in this Covenant, (viz. of unfained Faith, worthy walking, especially by Repentance and New Obedience, and of becoming Gods people,) seem repugnant to that free Grace whereupon this Covenant is founded, and consequently ecclipse the Glory of this Covenant, rendring it herein like the Covenant of works, which Conditioned for Perfect personal Obedience.

Answ. Not so. For resolving of this Doubt therefore Consider, I. That In this Covenant of Faith, as well as in the Covenant of works, [Page 96] God requires Conditions to be restipulated to him by them that are federates with him. This hath been cleared by evident Testimonies. And it is not formally and properly a Covenant, but rather a bare Pro­mise, where there is not a mutual Agreement and stipulation be­twixt Parties Covenanting for performance of certain terms or Con­ditions to each other reciprocally. II. That the Conditions required of Christs seed in the Covenant of faith, are quite different from the Conditions required of Adam and his Seed in the Covenant of works. They differ especially in their Matter, Original, and End. 1. In their Matter. The Matter Conditioned in the Covenant of Works, was Perfect and Perpetual Personal Obedience. But the Mat­ter Conditioned in the Covenant of faith, is Faith in Christ, Repen­tance, New-obedience, and becoming Gods people in Christ. None of these were or could be Conditions of the Covenant of works. Not faith in Christ; because Man in innocency needed not Christ, nor Faith in him; nor did the Covenant of works reveal or admit of a Mediator. Adam had faith in God the Creator; not in God the Re­deemer. Not Repentance; for before the Fall there was no sin; and therefore no need of Repentance. And after the Fall the Covenant of works leaves no place for repentance, but denounceth Death with­out mercy. Not New-obedience, or Newness of life; for Newness of life, or New-obedience Rom. 6. 3▪ 4, 5. 6, 7, 8. with 2 Pet. 1. 9. presupposeth the old man, and oldness of disobedience and sin. But Adam, had neither old man, nor old sins in him, or in his life, when God entred into Covenant with him. Nor becoming Gods people in Christ; For, Adam, and in him his poste­rity were Gods people immediately by their own concreated personal integrity, and perfect conformity to God and his will, when God made the Covenant of works with them: Not needing Iesus Christ as a Mediator of Reconciliation to make them Gods people. So that the Conditions of this Covenant of faith, wholly differ from those of the Covenant of works, In their Matter. 2. In their Ori­ginal and foundation. The Original of Adams obedience conditio­ned in the Covenant of works, was within himself, even his Natural Con-created Eccles. 7 29. Gen. 1. 26, 27. uprightness in Gods image: But the Original of these Conditions required of Christs Seed in the Covenant of faith, is without them, above them, viz. not any Natural Principle, but meer supernatural Grace and Mercy. Faith and Repentance are Eph. 2. 8. 2 Tim. 2. 25. not of themselves, but are the gift of God: New-obedience, not of themselves, but they Eph 2. 10. Ezek. 36. 27. are created thereunto in Christ. Nor become they Gods people of themselves, but God of meer grace Ezek. 36. 26, 27, 28 Heb 8. 10. pro­miseth to make them such, and 1 Pet. 2. 3, 4▪ 7, 9, 10. makes them such according to his promise. 3. Finally, The Conditions of these two Cove­nants differ exceedingly In their End, why they are required in them respectively. For, Personal Obedience perfect and perpetual was required, as the very Gen. 2. 17. with Gal. 3. 12. Matter of Adams righteousness and Justi­fication, and as the only procuring cause of his Life, under the Co­venant of works. But the case is far otherwise in the Covenant of [Page 97] Faith; Here the very Ier. 23. 6. 1 Cor. 1. 30. Rom. 5. 12. to the end. Matter of our Righteousness is Christ and his perfect obedience, and he thereby is the onely Meritorious procuring cause of our eternal life. Faith is not the Efficient, nor Material, but onely the Compare Ioh. 1. 12. with Rom. 3. 22, 25, 26, 27, 28. Instrumental cause of our Righteousness and life, as it accepts and receives Christ to that end. Repentance and New-obedience are required▪ as Conditions of true justifying faith: True justifying faith must be both Penitential and Obediential. Penitential, Act. 15. 9. 1 Ioh. 3. 3. purifying our persons and lives from sin and impuri­ty: Obediential, Gal. 5. 6. Rom. 13. 8, 9, 10. Iam. 2. 14. to the end. working by Love, which fulfils the Law; and shewing it self by good works, and so justifying us Declaratively be­fore men; And yet this faith justifies us not, as it is Penitential, or as it is Obediential, in the Court of God: but onely as it is Instru­mental to apply Christ for righteousness. Faith is the Instrumental Cause of Justification Covenanted; Repentance is the Qualification of the person capable of life and Salvation; and New-obedience is Via Reg­ [...]i, non causa Regnandi. the way to, not the cause of glorification. III. That, Conse­quently, These Conditions required in the Covenant of faith, 1. Are so far from rendring the Covenant of Faith like the Covenant of works: that they contrariwise notably increase and evidence the dif­ference betwixt them. 2. Are so far from opposing the Free­grace of this Covenant of faith: that they heighten and illustrate the Free-grace of the Covenant so much the more: All these con­ditions originally springing meerly from the riches of Free-grace. 3. And finally, these Conditions are so far from ecclipsing the glo­ry of this Covenant, that they contribute much to the Splendor of its Glory.

Hitherto of the Matters Covenanted, both betwixt God and Christ the last Adam; As also betwixt God and Christs Seed in him, reciprocally, and respectively.


THe form of this COVENANT of FAITH, comes now in the last place briefly to be inquired into. And it is twofold, viz. 1. Inward, and more Essential. 2. Outward, and more Accidental.

I. The Inward and Essential Form of this Covenant, is That Mu­tuall Stipulation herein betwixt the Parties Covenanting, viz. Both betwixt God and Christ the last Adam; And also betwixt God and all Christs Spiritual Seed in him. This reciprocall Stipulation, either Explicit or at least Implicit, is so necessary to the Constitution and making up of the essence and being of this Covenant, that properly, formally and compleatly it cannot be a Covenant without it. For, otherwise there's no mutual engaging and obliging of the federates one to another: which the proper nature of a Covenant requires.

II. The Outward and Accidental Form of this Covenant, consists especially in its 1. Graduall Discoveries; 2. Various Administrations; [Page 98] 3. Testamentary Disposition; 4. Large and liberal Tender; and 5 visible Advantages, though it be but outwardly embraced.

1. The Discoveries of this Covenant of Faith were Graduall. The Covenant of works seems to be discovered all at once to Adam in the self-same day in which he was Created: But this Covenant of Faith was not unfolded all at once, but at sundry times, and by seve­ral steps and degrees. As the beauty of the year increaseth to per­fection by degrees; viz. From Winters nakedness and deformity to the buds of herbs and trees, from buds to fragrant flowers and blos­soms, from flowers and blossoms to green growing and ripe fruit. Or, As the light of the Day groweth by degrees to its perfect glory; First, it is Day-break, day dawning, or the peering of the morning: Then it is clear Day light: Then Sun rise. Then brighter and brigh­ter Day: At last brightest Noon-day.

Thus Gods Covenant of Faith was (1.) Most obscurely and imperfectly discovered presently after the Fall, In the Gen. 3. 15. Promise of the Seed of the woman that should bruise the Serpents head, which is not so much as called a Covenant. This was the Covenants Day-break, or first Dawning of it to mankind▪ (2.) Then somewhat more clearly to Noah; where its first stiled a Gen. 6. 18. Covenant; and under Noah's delive­rance in the Ark by waters from the general deluge that drowned the whole world, is represented the Churches deliverance and salva­tion by Christ from the General deluge of sin and wrath, that had overwhelmed all mankind. This was as the Covenants day-light. (3.) More clearly and fully after this, To Abraham; God Gen. 17. 7. Cove­nanting to be his God, and the God of his seed, to Gen. 15. 13. to the eńd of the Chapter. & 17. 8. with Rom. 4. 13. deliver his seed out of Egypt and bring them to Canaan, a Type of Heaven, to make him heir of the world, and that Gen. 22. 18. Act 3. 25. Gal. 3. 8. in his seed all the Nations of the Earth should be blessed: Annexing Gen. 17. 10, 11. Rom. 4. 11. Circumcision for confir­mation of the Covenant to him. This was as the Covenants orient Sun­rise: Now it began to shine out with bright and beauteous rayes of Grace. (4.) More fully and perfectly after this, at Mount Sinai; There, Deut. 5. 2, 3, 5, 6. God Covenants with Israel, and Exod. 24. 3. to 9. Israel restipulates with God, Deut. 5. 5, 27, 28, 29, &c. Exod. 20. 19. Moses himself coming between them as a Typical Me­diator. There, the Lord so dispensed his Covenant to Israel, as to Convince, Terrifie, and Direct them thereby. To Gal. 3. 19. convince them of their Sin and misery in themselves, by the Moral Law, that they might despair of Iustification by any self-righteousness: To Heb. 12. 18, 19, 20, 21. Exod. 20. 18, &c. terri­fie them and fright them out of themselves, and their carnal state, by the terror of the Lord in most dreadful manner promulgating this Covenant: And To Gal. 3. 24. Direct them to Christ and his righteousness as the only Remedy against sin and misery, and this by the Exod. 24, & 25, &c. being well con­sidered. Cere­monies and Types of Christ, annexed. (5.) More clearly and fully after this, to King David, 2 Sam. 23. 5. with whom God made an everlasting Covenant, ordered in all things, and sure: confirmed by Gods sacred Act. 2. 30. Psa. 132. 11. & 89. 3, 4, &c. Oath. Wherein, amongst other things, God Covenanted 2 Sam. 7. 12, 13, 16. with Psa. 89. throughout. To set up his seed after him, which should build an house to Gods Name▪ [Page 99] and to establish his Kingdome for ever. Which was notably fulfilled both in King Solomon, who built Gods Material Temple, and therein was a Type of Christ: and especially in Iesus Christ the Anti-type, Psal. 1. 32. 11. with Act. 2. 30, 31. of the fruit of his loyns according to the flesh, raised up to sit upon Davids throne spiritually, who builds Gods Spiritual Temple, his Church, therein to Reign for evermore Psa. 110. 1. 1 Cor. 15. 24, 25, 26. till he hath put all his enemies under his feet. (6.) More clearly and fully after this, to the Iews in the Babylonish Captivity; with whom God Covenanted, Ezek 37. 12, 13, 14, & 11. 17. To open their graves, and bring them out of their Graves, even out of their desperate Babylonish Captivity into their own Land; Ezek. 36. 25, &c. & 37. 23. & 11. 18. To cleanse them thoroughly from all their idols and detestable things; Ezek. 36. 26. & 11. 29. To take away their stony hearts and give them hearts of flesh; Ezek. 36. 27. To put his spirit within them, and cause them to walk in his statutes; Ezek. 37. 19, 21, 22, 24, 25. To unite them so sweetly, that they shall no more be two Nations, or two Kingdoms, but be closely conjoyned in one under David their King, viz. Iesus Christ the Spiritual David; And Ezek. 37. 26, 27. To set his Tabernacle and Sanctuary in the midst of them for evermore, He being their God, and they his people. These gradual discoveries of Gods Covenant at Mount Sinai, To David, and to the Captive Iews, were as the brighter and brighter Day. Finally, (7.) After all these the Ier. 31. 31. to 35. Heb. 8. 6, 8, &c. New Covenant breaks forth most clearly and compleatly, being founded upon Christ already exhibited and incarnate, and upon far better promises in Christ, &c. And this was the Covenants Noon-tide brightness, or Perfect day.

But why was the Covenant of Faith in Christ discovered gradual­ly, by these steps and degrees, and not fully all at once? Answ. The Lord seems to have taken this gradual Course of Discovering his Covenant, 1. Because of the surpassing greatness of this my­sterie of Saving lapsed Sinners by Iesus Christ through Faith; Re­vealed in this Covenant of Faith, both under the Old and New Testament. This is a mysterie of mysteries, wherein many abstruse secrets and mysteries meet, as is declared in the Mat. 13. 11. 1 Cor. 4. 1. 1 Tim 3. 9. 16. Eph. 6. 19. & 3. 4. Col. 4. 3. 1 Cor. 2. 7. Eph. 5. 32. & 1. 9. & 3. 3, 9. Col. 1. 26, 27. & 2. 2. Scriptures. And therefore it was a Matter too high and transcendent to be re­vealed all at once unto the world. 2. Because of the incapacity and weakness of the Church in her primordial state. The Church and people of God under the Old Testament till Christs coming, Gal. 4. 1, 2, 3, 4. were as a child under age, in Minority; too weak and rude to fadom and comprehend the full Discoveries of Divine grace and wisdome in the Covenant; God therefore according to their capacity made known his Covenant; not according to what he was able to Re­veal, but according to what they were able to receive. At first in their infancy he disclosed but the A B C of the Covenant, till the time of Abraham: Then he learns them to spell it, from Abraham till Moses: Afterwards he taught them to read it more perfectly from Moses till Christ: and lastly he makes them fully to understand it since the incarnation of Christ. Thus as the Church grew riper and riper, the Covenant of faith shined forth clearer and clearer. 3. That the graces of the Church, Faith, Hope, Patience, &c. might [Page 100] be gradually exercised and improved more and more in waiting and longing for the accomplishment of this Covenant in the exhibition of Christ. Hence, Ioh. 8. 56. Abraham rejoyced to see Christs day; and he saw it, and was glad. Gen. 49. 10, 18. Iacob expected the coming of Shiloh, to whom the gathering of the people should be: and saith, I have waited for thy Salvation, O LORD. Moses said to Israel, Act. 7 37. Deut. 18. 15. A Prophet shall the Lord your God raise up unto you of your brethren, like unto me, him shall ye hear. The Church breaths out her longing desires after Christ in the flesh, saying, Cant. 1. 2. Let him kiss me with the kisses of his mouth, for thy love is better than wine. The Patriarchs of old, Heb. 11. 13. not having re­ceived the promises, saw them afar off, were perswaded of them, and em­braced them. And Luk. 2. 25. to 33. & ver. 36, 37, 38. & 1. 42, 43, 44, 45, 46. to 56. 68. to 80. how were they, that waited for the Consolation of Israel, ravished and transported with joy when Christ, the kernel of the Covenant, was exhibited! 4. Finally, That by these gra­dual discoveries of the Covenant, God might gradually advance the excellency of his glory to the very Highest: Every additional discovery of his Covenant, proportionably augmenting the glory of his free grace, love, mercy and goodness to his elect.

2. The Administrations of this Covenant of Faith were various, as the Discoveries of it were graduall. The 2 Cor. 3. 7, 8, 9. Ministration was different: but the Substance thereof still the same. The various Condition and capacity of the Church, occasioned this variety. Before Christ, Heb. 12. 18 19, 20, 21. compared with 2 Cor. 3. Heb. 8. 9, 10. chapters. 1 Cor. 10. 1, &c. Col. 2. 11, 12. Rom. 4. 11 The Ministration of this Covenant was more obscure, carnal and servile, by Promises, Prophecies, Sacrifices, Circumcision, Passover, Priesthood, a worldly Sanctuary, with other ceremonial and typical Ordinances of Divine service, all shadowing out Christ which was tò come afterwards: The Church at time being as an heir in Mino­rity under Tutors and Governours. But since Christ, the Church be­ing as an heir come to age, Heb. 12. 22. to 25. 2 Cor. 3. Mat. 28. 18, 19, 20. & 1 Cor. 11. 20, 23, 24, 25. 1 Pet. 2. 5. Ioh. 4. 23. The Ministration of the Covenant was more clear, Spiritual, Filial, and effectual, by Preaching the word to all Nations, Gentiles as well as Iews; Baptism, the Lords Sup­per, and other spiritual Sacrifices. Ordinances and Acts of worship: all representing Christ as come already.

3. The Disposition or Disposall of this Covenant of Faith is Testa­mentary, as well as Federal. It is a Federal Testament, or a Testamen­tary Covenant: as was See Book I. Chap. II. Aphorism 1 formerly observed. As a Covenant, it is a convention, or an Agreement betwixt divers parties living: As a Testament it is the last will or Disposal of one dying, or Dead. It is often stiled a Heb. 7. 22. 2 Cor. 3. 14. Luk. 22. 20. 1 Cor. 11. 25. Heb. 9. 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20. Testament in Scripture; The first Testament, or Old Testament; and the New Testament. And both in reference to Christ and his Death, Typically represented by the Death and blood of Sacrifices under the Old: Truly exhibited under the New.

The Testamentary Nature of this Covenant of faith will best ap­pear in the resemblance that it hath to a Man's last will or Testament, wherein he disposeth of his estate Real or Personal▪ to his Posterity. In a Mans Testament are considerable, 1. A Testator; 2. A finall and unalterable disposal of some estate or inheritance; 3. Posterity or friends to [Page 101] whom such estate or inheritance is bequeathed; 4 Publication of the Testa­ment by word or writing; and 5. Ratification of it by the Testators Seal annexed, especially by his Death ensuing. Such things proportionably are to be found in this Testamentary Covenant of Faith: viz. 1. A Heb. 9. 14. to 18. Testator, Iesus Christ, who also is Heb. 8. 6. & 9. 15. Mediator and Heb. 7. 22. Sure­ty of the Testament. 2. A finall and unalterable disposal of the ever­lasting inheritance, together with all the appurtenances thereof. The Legacies and estate bequeathed is Heb. 9 15. the eternal inheritance, and all things thereunto belonging. The disposal of this inheritance is finall and Gal. 3. 15. unalterable; This being Christs last and Heb. 13. 20. ever­lasting will, which is still to stand in force, without Addition thereto, Detraction thencefrom, or Alteration thereof. 3. A Posterity to whom this eternal inheritance, &c. is bequeathed, even the Elect of God, Christs spiritual seed, who are made Rom. 8. 17. Gal. 4. 7. 1 Cor. 3. 22, 23. Heirs and Co-heirs in Christ, the grand Heb. 1. 2. Heir of all things for their good. 4. Publication of this Testament, by written word, the Holy Scriptures, given to the Rom. 15. 4. 1 Tim. 3. 15. 2 Tim. 3. 16, 17. Ioh. 5. 39. Church for this end. Scriptures are Gods Testamentary Rolls: His Book of the Covenant. 5. Ratification of this Testament; In­strumentally, by the Sacraments, Mat. 28. 19. Baptism and Luk. 22▪ 20. 1 Cor. 11. 25. The Lords Sup­per: Fundamentally, by Heb. 9. 15, 16, 17, 18. the Death of Iesus Christ the Testator.

4. The tender of this Covenant of Faith is very large and liberal. The Covenant and the Grace thereof, is not onely tendered, published and offered to Christs Seed, by Election given to him: but also to the Rom. 10. 8, &c. 16, 17, 18 &c. whole visible Church, wherein are more Tares then Wheat; yea even [...]nto them that are out of the visible Church, viz. Pagans, and Infidels. For the Act. 13. 46, 47, 48. Iews rejecting the tender of the Gospel and Covenant, and thereby counting themselves unworthy of eternal life, the Apostles turned to the Gentiles, to preach to them. And so Rom. 10. 20. God was found of them that sought him not: he was made manifest to them that asked not after him. But why is this Covenant of Faith so largely tendered? Answ. 1. That, the Elect seed of Christ may be effectually Rom. 8. 30. called and gathered, from among the corrupt mass of mankind. For, both among Iews and Gentiles, both within and without the Church, Gods elect are Rom. 9. 6, 27. Mat. 25. 1. to 13, 32, 33, &c. & 13. 24, 25, &c. & ver. 47, 48. 2 Cor. 6. 16, 17, 18. & 7. 1. mingled among Re­probates, as sheep among Goats, Wheat among Tares, good among bad fish: Now the Covenant-Tender doth segregate and call them out from among them. 2. That, Reprobates who neglect so great Sal­vation tendered, may be left without excuse: and their Condemna­tion more justly aggravated. 3. That, God, and the free tender of the riches of his grace so largely in his Covenant may be magnified and glorified. As it fell out among the Gentiles, who perceiving that the Gospel should be offered to them as well as to the Iews, Act. 13. 47, 48. were glad, and glorified the word of the Lord: and as many as were or­dained to eternal life believed.

5. Finally, The visible advantages attending upon this tender of Gods Covenant, though it be but outwardly embraced, are divers and very considerable. As▪ 1. An holy Vocation and Profession. They [Page 102] are 2 Tim. 1. 9. called with a holy calling, whereby they are outwardly 2 Cor. 6. 17. se­parated from Infidels, and make an holy Profession of Christ and of faith in him. Upon which outward calling and Profession, The Scripture stiles them Act. 8. 13. Luk. 8. 13. Believers; 1 Cor. 1. 2. Heb. 10. 29. Sanctified, Rom. 1. 7. 1 Cor. 1. 2. Saints by cal­ling; Deut. 7. 6. The people of God, &c. 2. Implantation, not onely of themselves, but also of their Act. 2. 39. & 3. 25. children and Seed after them into the visible body of Christ. So that they and theirs become visible Mem­bers of Christs mystical Body, and are [...]. Cor. 7. 14. federally holy and exter­nally within Covenant, till they break themselves off again. True faith makes men members of Christs invisible Body: Profession of true faith makes them members of his visible. 3. Participation of Gods precious Psal. 147. 19, 20. Rom. 3. 1, 2. & 9. 4. Act. 2. 38, 39. Tit. 2. 10, 11. Ordinances and means of Grace, which may prove through Gods spirit effectuall to their eternal glory, wherein however they are highly preferred and priviledged before all Hea­thens and Infidels, to whom Salvation of Sinners by Christ is not so much as tendered by the glorious Covenant of Faith.

Thus of the Nature of the Covenant of Faith described and un­folded in respect of The Author of it▪ Parties to it, Matters Covenanted, and form of the Covenant.

SECTION V. Of certain COROLLARIES, or Consectaries, resulting from the Na­ture of the COVENANT of FAITH, Generally Considered.

FRom the Nature of the COVENANT of FAITH, Generally thus described and considered in the last Aphorism of the fore­going Chapter, These Corollaries or Consectaries seem naturally to result by way of Application: (Every Corollary being as a Conse­quentiall Aphorism, from the general Description of the Covenant:) viz.


I. HEnce, The Covenant of Faith is a most profound Su­pernatural Mysterie. It is▪ 1. A Mysterie; 2. A Profound Myste­rie; 3. A Supernatural Mysterie.

1. The Covenant of Faith is a Mysterie. A Mysterie (in Scripture sense) is a sacred Secret, having an hidden understanding. Such a mysterie this Covenant, it is not obvious to vulgar Capacities: but a Divine Se­cret, wonderfully hidden from them. It is a Comprehensive Myste­rie, A mysterie of mysteries, containing many mysteries folded to­gether in it. For, 1. Here in this Covenant is set forth the Doctrine & way of Sinners Salvation by Christ, and this is called Eph. 6. 19. The Mysterie of the Gospel; 1 Tim. 3. 9. The mysterie of Faith; Col. 2, 2. The mysterie of God, and of the [Page 103] Father, and of Christ. 2. Here is described to us the Person and office of Iesus Christ Mediator of this Covenant, and a joynt-party with his Seed to this Covenant. And this is called 1 Tim. 3. 16. The great mysterie of godliness, God manifest in the flesh, justified in the Spirit, seen of An­gels, preached unto the Gentiles, believed on in the world, received up in­to Glory. In one Christ are many mysteries: And Christ is the ker­nel of this Covenant. 3. Here is discovered, how Christs Seed, the Church, are united closely to Christ by Covenant through faith, and in Christ unto God. And this intimate union of the Church, Christs Seed, unto Christ, as Members of his body, of his flesh, and of his bones, (adumbrated in marriage-union betwixt man and wife,) is stiled a Eph. 5. 29, to 33. Great mysterie. 4. Here is Revealed Gods singular good will unto the Gentiles, touching their conversion and incorporation into his Church; That the Gentiles should be fellow-heirs, and of the same body, and partakers of his promise in Christ, by the Gospel. And this was so great a Secret, and so hidden from the Church of the Iews, that the Apostle cals it, not only, Eph. 3. 3, to 10. Rom. 16. 25, 26. The mysterie: and The mysterie of Christ, which in other ages was not made known to the sons of men, as it is now revealed unto his holy Apostles and Prophets by the Spirit: But also, The fellowship of the Mysterie, which from the be­ginning of the world hath been hid in God. 5. Here is disclosed Gods most wise and gracious contrivance, for Re-collecting and Re­uniting all things both in Heaven and Earth, gathering them toge­ther in one in Christ the last Adam, as they were shattered, broken and dissipated in the first Adam. And this is called, Eph. 1. 9, 10. The mysterie of Gods will, according to his good pleasure which he hath purposed in him­self. 6. Here is declared, in and with what Ordinances this Co­venant of faith is Administred from time to time. And these Ordi­nances are called 1 Cor. 4, 1. The Mysteries of God: and the Ministers of Christ intrusted with the Dispensation of these Ordinances, are sti­led Stewards of these mysteries. 7. Finally, Here is promissorily and prophetically foretold, how at the great day Christ will deal with all the Saints that shall be found alive at his second coming, viz. They shall be changed in a Moment, in the twinckling of an eye, at the last Trump. And of this change the Apostle saith 1 Cor. 15. 51, 52. with 1 Thes. 4. 16, 17. Behold, I shew you a mysterie. And by this mysterious change the surviving Saints shall be throughly fitted for their covenanted Glory.

2. The Covenant of Faith is a Profound Mysterie, A great Deep. For, Behold herein, (1.) What a Deep of Free-grace! that when all man­kind were by the first Adams disobedience implunged in a state of Sin and Death, yea and Christs Seed according to Election, as sin­ful dead and worthless as any of the rest: yet these alone out of the common corrupt mass of mankind should be Recovered by the Obedience of Christ the last Adam to righteousness and life, all the rest being passed by and neglected in their misery. (2.) What a deep of mercy and loving-kindness! That wretched worthless loveless Sinners, who had not obtained mercy, who were not a people, [Page 104] should be so embraced in arms of Divine love and mercy as to obtain Christ the mercy of mercies, and in Christ to obtain Righteousness against Sin, Life against Death, Freedom against Bondage, Happi­ness against Misery, Salvation against Condemnation, yea the most high God to be their God, and themselves to be his people. (3) What a deep of Power! That Sinners should be justified, That Dead crea­tures should be quickened, That Enmity against God should be re­conciled, and That extreamest baseness should be so highly exalted. (4) What a deep of Iustice! That Sin should be ruined, and yet the Sinner be Recovered. That 2 Cor. 5. 21. he who knew no Sin, should be made Sin, and condemned: and they who knew nothing but Sin, should be made the righteousness of God, and eternally saved. (5) Finally, What a deep of Wisdom! That in this Recovery of Christs Seed, Innocency should be condemned, and the Sinner justified: Liberty should be imprisoned, and Captivity released: Light should be Ec­clipsed, and Obscurity enlightned: Strength should be weakned, and Weakness strengthened: Peace should be perplexed, and Perplexity pacified: Love should be hated, and Enmity should be loved: That Life should dye, and Death should live. And all this was fulfilled when Christ became a Surety and Sacrifice for his Seed according to this Covenant. Yea how profound this mysterie of Gods wisdom, contriving that the same Sinners, should at once, both dye the Death threatned in the Covenant of works, and so Gods Truth and ju­stice be fulfilled; and yet not dye▪ but live, according to the Cove­nant of Faith, and so Gods Election, Love and Mercy be expressed. Oh how hath God Eph. 1. 7, 8. abounded towards us in all wisdome and pru­dence in these mysterious Dispensations! To this effectM. Lu­ther in his Comment. on Galat. 2. 19. Luther saith most Elegantly and Spiritually; Christ, with most sweet names, is called my Law, my Sin, my Death; against the Law, against Sin, against Death: whereas in very deed he is nothing else but meer liberty, righteous­ness, Life and everlasting Salvation. And for this cause he is made the Law of the Law, The Sin of Sin, the Death of Death: that he might re­deem me from the curse of the Law, justifie me, and quicken me. So then whiles Christ is the Law, he is also Liberty: whiles he is Sin, he is Righ­teousness: and whiles he is Death, he is Life. For in that he suffered the Law to accuse him, Sin to condemn him, and Death to devour him: he abolished the Law, he condemned Sin, he destroyed Death, he justified and saved me. So is Christ the poyson of the Law, Sin and Death: and the re­medy for obtaining of liberty, righteousness and everlasting life.—Thus in Christ we may behold this joyful conflict: to wit, The Law fighting against the Law, that it may be to me liberty: Sin against Sin, that it may be to me righteousness: Death against Death, that I may obtain life: Christ fighting against the Devil, that I may be the child of God: and destroy­ing Hell, that I may enjoy the Kingdom of Heaven.

3. The Covenant of Faith is a Supernatural Mysterie. There are my­steries in the Creatures in Heaven and Earth, which Natural under­standing may discover and comprehend. And there are mysteries in [Page 105] God the Creator and Governour of all in Heaven and Earth, viz. Rom. 1. 18, 19, 20, 21. his invisible Godhead, Power, wisdom, with other Attributes, &c. Which Angels and men by meer Natural light may find out and wade into. But this mysterie of the Covenant of Faith, viz. That Sinners in state of Death should be Restored to righteousness and Life; And that by a Surety, to whom their sins should be impu­ted, and on whom their Death should be inflicted; And this Surety Jesus Christ, God-man descending from the fathers bosom, who knew no sin, deserved no Death; That as sinners sins are imputed to, and their Death inflicted on Christ: So Christs Righteousness through Faith, should be imputed to, and his life bestowed upon Sinners; And that all this should be Revealed in a Covenant of Faith of meer Grace when the broken Covenant of works knew no place for lapsed Sinners Recovery; This mysterie, I say, is wholly Supernatural. No Natural light of Reason and understanding of men and Angels could have devised or imagined such a Recovery of Sinners as this, from Sin and Death, to righteousness and life; Such a Recoverer as this, Jesus Christ God-man in Person, reconciling God and man by his Office; And such a Covenant as this betwixt God and man revealing this Recovery: had not God infinitely wise pleased, as to Devise, so to disclose and reveal these mysteries unto us. This is 1 Cor. 2. 6, 7, 8, 9, 10. not the wisdom of this world, but the wisdom of God in a Mysterie, even the hidden wis­dom which God ordained before the world unto our Glory. Which none of the Princes of this world knew: for had they known it, they would not have crucified the Lord of Glory. But as it is written, Eye hath not seen, nor ear heard, neither have entred into the heart of man, the things which God hath prepared for them that love him. But God hath revealed them unto us by his Spirit. And by this Divine Revelation we become—Eph. 3. 18, 19. Able to comprehend with all Saints, what is the breadth, and length, and depth, and heighth: And to know the love of Christ, which passeth Knowledge, that we may be filled with all the fulness of God.


II. HEnce The Covenant of Faith is a wonderful Com­pound and Contrivance of meer Grace. Let us under­stand, 1. What [Grace] in Scripture-language implies. 2. What a Composition of Grace this Covenant of Faith is.

1. Grace in Scripture-phrase hath manifold acceptations. Its needless here to touch upon all, but only upon such as are pertinent to the present purpose. Grace therefore imports, 1. Primarily and most frequently, Gods free favour wherewith he respects his Creatures, and whence all blessings and Benefits originally flow to his Crea­tures. Rom. 11. 5▪ There is a remnant according to the Election of grace. Now this fountain Grace, this spring-head of all good to the Creatures, [Page 106] looks upon the Creatures two waies Ioh. Cameron in Praelect. de Ecclesia. page 240. in fol. Genev. 1642. as Cameron well noteth; viz. (1) As Creatures no way deserving Gods favour, or any fruits thereof. For, Creatures, as Creatures, can deserve nothing from the Crea­tor, having nothing but what they had from him. (2) As Creatures miserable through Sin; deserving the Contrary, nothing but ill from the Creator. The former is the Eph. 1. 5, 6. Grace of Benevolence or good will: The latter the Luke 1. 78. Psal. 51. 1. Exod. 34. 6. Grace of Commiseration or bowels of mercy. According to the former, Adam and we in him had Paradise, Communion with God, See be­fore in Book I. chap II. Aphorism 3. Covenant of works, &c. before the fall: According to the latter, the Elect obtain Eph. 1. 7. Redemption, Rom. 3. 24. Justification, &c. after the fall. 2. Secondarily and less principally, Grace imports The fruits and effects of Gods favour. These are called Grace, because originally they flow only from Divine Grace. As, The Doctrine of the Gospel and Covenant, is called Grace; Tit. 2. 11. The grace of God which bringeth Salvation.—Habits of Sanctification are stiled Grace, 2 Pet. 3. 18. But grow in grace.—exercise of these Habits, as Distribution to the Saints Necessities is stiled Grace; 2 Cor. 8. 6. So he would finish in you the same grace also, &c.

2. The Covenant of Faith now, is a Compound of meer Grace. viz. It is an effect of Divine Grace and favour, wholly and meerly Gra­tuitous: Man not only, not deserving any thing at all therein, but most justly and altogether deserving the Contrary. The Covenant of works, with the First Adam, as his Creature, was gratuitous, Adam not deserving it from God: But the Covenant of Faith with us as sin­ful Creatures, in Christ the Last Adam, is double gratuitous, we de­serving the Contrary evil of punishments from God. And in this sense probably some stile this The Covenant of grace; Not so much by way of Contrariety to the Covenant of works, which also is Gra­tuitous, viz. in respect of the Grace of benevolence: but rather by way of supereminency, this Covenant being Gratuitous both accor­ding to the Grace of Benevolence, and of Commiseration. More Particularly, I. Gods making of this Covenant of Faith with man since the Fall, is of meer Grace. Grace the only impulsive or mo­ving Cause inclining God thereunto, as In Book II. Chap. 2. Aphorism 2. Section 1. hath been shewed. II. Jesus Christ the Heb. 7. 22. Surety and Heb. 8. 6. Mediator of this Cove­nant of Faith, is only of meer Grace. 1. Of meer Grace he was Eph. 1. 5, 6. eternally elected for his Seed, and they elected in him. 2. Of meer Grace he was Promised to his Seed from the beginning of the world. He is the Luk. 1. 72. Mercy promised to our Fathers. All the Promises both of Christ, and in Christ, which are exceeding great and precious, are 2 Pet. 1. 4. given to us. And gift is free. 3. Of meer Grace he in fulness of time was exhibited and delivered for his Seed. Hence he is stiled, Ioh. 4. 10. The gift of God.Isa. 9. 6. with Ioh. 3. 16. A son given to us.—God so loved the world, that he gave his only begotten son.—He is also said, Heb. 2. 9. To taste death by the grace of God, &c. 4. Of meer Grace Christ and his benefits are tendered and offered unto his Seed. Is [...]. 55. 1. Ho every one that thirsteth, come ye to the waters, and he that hath [Page 107] no money; Come ye, buy and eat, yea Come, buy wine and milk without money, and without price. And again; Rev. 22. 17. Let him that is athirst, Come. And whosoever will, Let him take the water of Life freely. III. The Matters Covenanted are of meer Grace; whether on Gods Part promised, or on Our part Restipulated.

On Gods part, The Recovery of Christs Seed from the State of Sin and Death to a state of Righteousness and Life, is of Meer Grace. Eph. 2. 5. 8. By Grace ye are saved;—not of works, lest any man should boast. 1. The Impetration or obtaining of this Recovery by Redemption is of meer Grace; Eph. 1. 7. In whom we have Redemption through his Blood the forgiveness of Sins: According to the riches of his Grace. 2. The Application of this Recovery gradually, is of meer Grace▪ viz. (1) Conviction effectual of our Misery, and the remedy thereof is of Grace; Tit. 2. 11. The Grace of God which bringeth Sal­vation hath appeared to all men, &c.—Math. 13. 11, Luke 8. 10. To you its given to know the mysteries of the Kingdom.—(2) Conversion is of meer Grace; whether it be stiled Regeneration, or Renewing; Tit. 3. 5. Not by works of righteousness which we have done, but according to his Mercy he saved us, by the washing of Regeneration, and Renewing of the Holy Ghost. Or Repentance; 2 Tim. 2. 25. If God peradventure will give them Repentance.Acts 5. 31. Him hath God exalted with his right hand, to be a Prince and a Saviour, for to give Repentance to Israel.—Or calling; 2 Tim. 1. 9. 1 Cor. 1. 26, 27, 28, 29. who hath saved us, and Called us with an holy calling, not according to our works, but according to his own purpose and Grace which was given us in Christ Iesus before the world began. (3) Adoption is of meer Grace; Eph. 1. 5, 6.. Ha­ving predestinated us unto the Adoption of Children by Iesus Christ to himself, according to the good pleasure of his will: To the praise of the glory of his Grace. (4) Justification is of meer Grace; Rom. 3. 23, 24. Tit. 3. 7. All have sinned and come short of the glory of God, being justified freely by his grace. (5) Sanctification is of meer Grace; Eph. 2. 4, 5, 6, 7. but God who is rich in mercy, for his great love wherewith he loved [...]s, Even when we were dead in Sins, hath quickned us together with Christ, (by grace ye are saved) and hath raised us up together, and made us sit together in heavenly places in Christ Iesus. That in the ages to come he might shew the exceeding riches of his Grace, in his kindness towards us, through Christ Iesus. (6) Finally, Glorification is of meer Grace also; Rom. 6. 23. But the gift of God is eternal life through Iesus Christ our Lord. Rom. 5. 21. That as sin hath reigned unto Death, even so might grace reign through righteousness unto eternal life by Iesus Christ our Lord.

On the part of Christs Seed, The Conditions required and restipula­ted, are in like sort of meer Grace, viz. 1. Faith; Phil. 1. 29. unto you it is given, in the behalf of Christ, not only to believe on him. And again; Eph. 2. 8. By grace are ye saved through Faith, and that not of your selves, it is the gift of God. So that, though God in this Covenant Condition with Christs Seed for believing: yet God freely enables them to perform this Condition, giving them Faith whereby they do believe. 2. Walking worthy of Christ and Covenanted Mercies, is also of [Page 108] meer Grace;Eph. 2. 10. with 2 Cor. 3. 5. & Phil. 2. 13. For we are his workmanship, created in Christ Iesus unto good works, which God hath before ordained that we should walk in them.—Not that we are sufficient of our selves to think any thing as of our selves: but our sufficiency is of God.—who worketh in us both to will, and to do, of his good pleasure.

Thus this Covenant of Faith is a meer Compound of Free-Grace, wherein the exceeding riches of the Glory of Divine Grace are dis­plaid, That no flesh in the point of Salvation and Recovery by Jesus Christ may have the lest colour or shadow of boasting and glorying in itself: but that he that gloryeth, might only glory in the Lord, and in the transcendent treasures of his loving-kindnesses, tender Mercies, and Free-Grace.


III. HEnce, Iesus Christ is the very Marrow and Kernel of the Covenant of Faith. This Covenant is as a Ce­lestial Orb; and Christ is as the radiant Sun in this Orb. This Cove­nant is a blessed Circle and Circumference of Grace: and Christ the ve­ry Center of this Circle. This Covenant is as a Golden Cabinet: Christ as the most precious Diamond or Iewel in this Cabinet: and all other the rich treasures of Righteousness, life, &c. therein, as the appen­dants, ornaments and Garnish of this Jewel. Amongst them Christ stands as once the Tree of life among the Trees in the midst of Eden. How can we cast our eyes upon this Covenant, which is so full of Christ, and not observe therein much of Christ? Did the wise men soMath. 2, 9, 10. rejoyce with exceeding great joy, when they Saw the star that con­ducted them to Christ on Earth? How much more should Christians rejoyce when they look into this Covenant which conducts them to the same Christ, not only as heretofore on Earth, but as now also in Heaven! The Angel after Christs Resurrection said of his Sepulcher,Mark. 16. 6. He is not here, behold the place where they laid him. But of this Covenant we may say▪ Christ is here, Come see the place where the Lord lies. For, 1. Christ is the ancient, yea the eternal foundation of this Covenant. 2. Christ is chief party to this Covenant with God. 3. Christ is the only Mediator of this Covenant. 4. Christ is the precious Mattter of this Covenant. Come and See.

1. Christ is the ancient, yea the eternal foundation of this Covenant. 1. Christ is the Ancient foundation of this Covenant. For, God Re­vealing thisDeut. 5. 2. &c. Covenant at Mount Sinai, founded it upon Christ the substance of those Types and Ceremonies digested into that Fe­deral Ministration. And before that, God Revealing thisGen. 17. 1, 2. &c. & 12. 3. Acts 3. 25, 26. Cove­nant to Abraham, grounded it upon Christ Abrahams Seed, in whom all the families of the earth should be blessed. And before both, God revealing thisGen 3. 15 Covenant even in Paradise presently after the fall, bottomed it upon Christ The Seed of the woman. And this is very [Page 109] ancient indeed, almost as ancient as the world itself, probably within a few daies. 2. Yea Christ is the Eternal foundation of this Cove­nant. For, God Covenanted and promised nothing in Christ, in time; but what he had decreed and purposed in Christ before all time. GodEph. 1. 4. &c. hath chosen us in Christ before the foundation of the world, that we should be holy and without blame before him in love. Consequently God (foreseeing our fall [...] in Adam) decreed to Recover us by Christ, that we might be thus holy and blameless: and to make known this his purpose to us in this Covenant. Hence our Salvati­on and vocation are said to be given us of God in Christ before the world began;2 Tim. 1. 9. who hath saved us, and called us with an holy calling, not according to our works, but according to his own purpose and Grace which was given us in Christ Iesus before the world began. Yea eternal life is said to be promised before the world began;Tit. 1. 2. In hope of eternal life, which God, that cannot lye, promised before the world began. How could Salvation and vocation be given us, and eternal life be promised before the world began? viz. They were given and Pro­mised in Gods Decree in Christ, that is, Decreed eternally to be given, and to be promised in him. For, All things and times, are alwaies present with God: AsBeza. Annot. in Tit. 1. 2. & 2 Tim. 1. 9. Beza well observeth. Unless we may say, God before the foundation of the world promised to Christ (in his eternal Councel and trans-action with him) eternal life for his Seed. In some sense therefore Gods promise and Covenant in Christ, was before the world began. Therefore this Covenant in reference to the foundation of it, is Free Sure, and Everlasting. Free, because be­fore all works: Sure, because before all Sin: Everlasting, because be­fore all time.

2. Christ is chief party to this Covenant, with God. For, as God is A party on the one hand: So Christ and his Seed are a joynt party on the other. God deals not with Christs Seed separately and distinctly by themselves alone, for so they are not capable of Confederation with God: but he deals with them joyntly with Christ and in Christ. As he dealt with the First Adam and his Seed in the Covenant of works: So he deals with Christ the Last Adam and his Seed in the Covenant of Faith. Now this is our great advantage. For, as theMath. 8. 23. to 28. Disciples were safe a [...] Sea against greatest storms and Tempests, when Christ was in the ship: so Christs Seed are safe spiritually against greatest▪ Tempests of Sin, Wrath, Death, and Temptation, when Christ is imbarqued in the same Covenant with them. Though they be foolish, Christ is wise: though they be weak, Christ is strong: though they be faithless, Christ is faithful: though they be sinners, Christ is righteous and separate from sinners: though they be ene­mies, Christ is their Reconciler: though they be cursed, Christ is blessed, and the Blesser of all his Seed: Though they be Death, Christ is Life: though they be condemnation, Christ is Salvation: though they be nothing; Christ is All. Whatsoever therefore is wanting in Christs Seed, is abounding in Christ compleatly to bear [Page 110] up one side of this Covenant with and for his Seed: as the blessed God the other for himself.

3. Christ is the Only Heb. 8. 6. & 9. 15. 1 [...]im 2. 5. Mediatour of this Covenant of Faith. For, Christ alone is The Mediatour of Reconciliation, Heb. 9. 14, 15, &c. wa [...] 2 Cor. 5. 19, 20, 21. [...]om. [...]. 10. recovering his Seed meritoriously by his blood from Sin and Death to righte­ousness and life, and reconciling them to God. Hence he is called theHeb. 7. 22. & 9. 16, &c. Surety, and the Testatour of this Covenant, Engaging himself under our debt, and ratifying this Testament by his Death. 2. Christ alone is the meritorious Mediatour of 1 Iohn 2. 1, 2. Heb. 7. 25. & 9. 24▪ intercession, by whom we haveHeb. 4. 15 26. access unto God with boldness, andRev. 8. 3, 4. [...] 14. 13, 14. acceptance with God in all our Prayers and Suits made according to his will. 3. Christ alone is the Mediatour of all Revelation, Instruction and Doctrine. He be­ing that eternal wisdom and word of God by whom the Father still madeIohn 1. 1, 2. 4, 18. Prov. 8. throughout. 1 Cor. 1. 30. known himself and his will to mankind from the begin­ning of the world since the Fall. Hence, its observable, when God spake of old to the Fathers, he spake by Christ, yea when God gave theGal. 3. 19. Law, the Covenant on Sinai, it was ordained by Angels in the hand of a Mediatour. That is, God dispensed it not only by the Ministry of Angels, but also of the Mediatour. What Mediatour? No [...] Moses, asBez. [...]. in Gal. 3. 19. Beza, andPiscat. in Schol. ad Gal. 3. 19. Io. Drodate in his Annot. on Gal. 3. 19. others after him interpret: but Christ, asHieronym. Comment. in E­pist. ad Gal. c. 3. 19. Tom. 9.—D Ambros. om. in Ep. ad Gal. 3. 19. Tom. 5.—Ioan. Chrysost. in c. 3. Epi [...]. ad Gal. Com.Oecumen. Comment. in [...]pist. ad Gal—Ioan. Calvin. in Epist. ad Gal. 3. 10.—David Pareus in Ep. ad Gal. 3. 19. Hierome, Ambrose, Chrysostom, Oecumen, Calvin, Pareus, and others do well expound it.

4. Finally, Christ is the Precious matter of this Covenant. All the Matters Covenanted from God to Christs Seed, or restipulated from them to God; are either Christ himself, or Mysteries in Christ. 1. TheMat. 1. 21. T [...]c. 2 13, 14. Recoverer and Restorer of Christs Seed, is Christ. 2. TheMat. 6. 33. 2 Cor. 5. 21. 1 Cor. 1. 30. 1 Ioh. 5 11, 12. Righteousness and eternal life whereunto they are Reco­vered; is the Righteousness and life of Christ. 3. The Covenant-Relation betwixt God and them, He being their God, and they his people; is [...]al. 3 26 founded in Christ. 4. The Faith accepting those Be­nefits, is TheGal. 2. [...]0. Faith of the Son of God, Iesus Christ. 5. The wor­thy walking consequentially required, is that▪ Eph. 2. 10. whereunto they are created in Christ. Thus Christ one way or another, is the very Matter of the Covenant. We cannot intentively behold the Cove­nant▪ but there we may discern Jesus Christ engraven upon every Promise, every Benefit, and upon every Duty of the Covenant.

Thus Christ is The Foundation, Party, Mediatour, and Matter of this Covenant of Faith. How excellently! The Covenant of Faith is the Marrow of the whole Scriptures, the whole Bible since the Fall tending to Reveal this Mysterie: and Christ is the Marrow of the Covenant of Faith, the whole Covenant being as a heavenly womb [...]ll of this blessed babe.M. Luther in [...] Com­ment. on Gal▪ 2. 21. Mine eyes (said Luther) shall behold no­thing [Page 111] else but this inestimable prize, my Lord and Saviour Christ. He ought to be such a treasure unto me, that all other things should be but dung in comparison of him. He ought to be such a light to me, that when I have apprehended him by Faith, I should not know whether there be any law, any sin, any righteousness, or any unrighteousness in the world. For what are all things which are in heaven and Earth in comparison of the Son of God, Iesus Christ, my Lord and Saviour, who loved me, and gave himself for me?


IV. HEnce, The COVENANT of FAITH may in a right and sound sense be acknowledged Conditio­nal. It is not repugnnt to, or inconsistent with, the Nature of the Covenant of Faith, to be CONDITIONAL: As God on his part promiseth, 1. What he will do for Christs Seed, 2. What he will be to Christs Seed: So Christs Seed on their part re­promise, restipulate and re-oblige themselves; 1. What they will do, viz. They will Accept Christ and all covenanted mercies in him by Faith, And they will walk worthy of him and them in all well­pleasing, according to the Gospel: 2. What they will be, viz. They will become Gods Covenant-people in Iesus Christ. And all this God Conditioneth with them, and requires from them. So that This Co­venant is Conditional, God therein imposing terms and Conditions upon Christs seed.

And here it may be opportune and useful, to take a little into Consideration that troublesome Question; Whether the Cove­nant of Faith (or Grace) be Conditional or no? Whether God makes itThe Ab­soluteness of the Covenant of Grace, without condition, is asserted by D. Crisp; In this Covenant of Grace to wit the New Covenant, it is far otherwise; There is not any condition in this Cove­nant.—I say the New Covenant is without any Conditions whatsoever on mans part. Man is tyed to no Condition that he must perform, that If he do not perform, the Covenant is made void by him. Christ alone exalted, Se [...]m 6. p. 159. The whole performance of the Covenant lies only upon God himself, and that there is not one bond or obligation upon man to the fulfilling of the Covenant, or partaking in the benefits of the Covenant. page 161, 162. Again; All the tye lies upon Gods part, to do every thing that is mentioned in the Covenant.—I say only in way of Condition of the Covenant you must do nothing. p. 164, 165. And afterwards; I must needs tell you directly and according to the Truth, That Faith is not the Condition of the Covenant. Same Sermon, p. 166. By M. Saltmarsh, Whatso­ever Promise hath a Condition in it, is ours in Christ, who only is the conditioned person for all Promises. Free Grace, page 105.—All the Conditions were on Christs part, none on o [...]ts. There, p. 126.—In the New-Covenant God gives himself freely in Christ, undertaking all both with the Father and the Soul, nothing being required on mans part. There. p. 153. Those Ministers who press Repentance and Faith, do over-heat the wine of the Gospel with Conditions and Qualifications; So the poor Souls can­not taste it. In his Occasional word. By sundry others also, who incline in whole or in part to the An­tinomian misapprehensions. Absolutely without all Conditions on Mans part, as some are of opinion; or Conditionally The Conditionalness of the Covenant of Faith (or Grace) is on the contrary maintained by very many Eminently godly, learned, and judicious; yea the General current of sound Writers, both Ancient and Modern, and these both Forrain and Domestical, runs this way most unanimously: As shall [...]ereafter particularly appear. upon certain terms and Conditions required from him, as others judge. For more clear [Page 112] Resolution and Satisfaction to this Question, I shall do three things, viz. 1. Lay down the true State of the Question. 2. Assert and con­firm that which shall be resolved upon as Truth by sundry Argu­ments. 3. Refute and answer such objections as are made, with any colour of strength, to the Contrary. And all this I shall endea­vour with what brevity and perspicuity I can, as being more desi­rous to treat of this subject of the Covenant Doctrinally and Practi­cally, then Polemically or Controversally.

1. As for the true state of the Question. viz. Whether the Cove­nant of Faith (usually stiled the Covenant of grace) be Conditio­nal, or no? I offer these three things briefly to be considered for clearing of it, that so we may see wherein the very knot and point of difference lies, viz. 1. The Notation of the word [Conditional] or [Condition] 2. The Distinction or Distribution of [Conditions] into several sorts. 3. The particular Declaration and Signification there­upon in certain distinct Positions or Conclusions, wherein the true state of the Question consists. Hereby the Truth shall be more distinctively manifested, and more easily confirmed; as also all Objections to the contrary more readily and satisfactorily Answered.

First, As for the Notation of the word [Conditional] or [Condi­tion,] I shall not stay much upon it. Conditional, is that which hath some Condition annexed or adjoyned to it. Condition is a Latin word, derived from Condere propriè e [...]t in unum & in­teriorem lo [...]um dare ad custo­diam facilio­rem; Consc [...]i­bere, [...]acere, componere, & struere. Fest. Fran. Holy-Okes Dictio­nary. in verb. Cond [...] & Con­ditio. Condo, to lay up safe, to build, to found, to com­pose, to make up, to prescribe, &c. Hence [Condition] noteth, 1. Properly, The Action of making, framing or composing any thing. 2. Then The Passion in being made or composed, &c. 3. The Quality by which one frameth any thing, or whereby any thing is framed, &c. 4. Hence, its used for the State which is made by framing any thing. And hereupon for any State which any person, or thing, or Cause hath or receiveth any way. As, a man abounding with honour, wealth, &c. is said to be a man of a good Conditi­on; viz. in respect of his outward State. So an house well builded, A Castle well defended, victualled, &c. A cause well set forth and ma­naged, &c. are said to be in a good Condition. But none of these no­tions or Significations of a Condition so fitly agree to this present Question. 5. Condition is in a peculiar manner used to note, The Moderation, Circumscription, limitation or restriction of any thing: As by certain Exceptions, Provisoes, Terms, Qualifications, &c. propounded or imposed. Hence, Conditional is opposed to Absolute, Simple, &c. because A Condition is accounted amongst the ways, man­ners, or means, whereby any thing may be framed, obtained or com­passed. And in this last sense chiefly the term Condition is to be un­derstood in the Question in hand; Whether the Covenant of Faith be Conditional, or no? that is, whether God hath so framed and propounded in his word the Covenant of Faith to man, in and through Christ, as that he hath moderated, circumscribed, limited, restrained it with certain Terms, Proviso's, Obligations, Qualifications, yes▪ and Duties imposed & requir'd of [Page 113] them that shall joyn in this Covenant with God: Or whether this Covenant be not laid down absolutely and simply, without any limitation or imposition of Qualifications, Terms, Tythes or Duties at all upon these that enter into this Covenant with God? But enough touching the Notation of the word [Conditional] or [Condition.]

Secondly, Come we to the Distribution or Distinguishing of Condi­tions thus taken, into their several sorts: And all with special refe­rence had therein to Gods Covenants▪ Conditions, in reference to Gods Covenants, may be Considered, 1. Most largely. 2. More Re­strictively. 3. Most Strictly.

1. Most largely. So, Conditions imply to us, Any Qualifications, Dispositions, Terms, Tyes, Duties or Performances whatsoever, in any sort imposed upon us, or required from us by God, in reference to his Covenant: whether these conditions be, 1. [...], or Going before; 2. Concom [...]tant, or accompanying; 3. Consequent, or following Our entring into, or joyning in Covenant with God, in order to Justification, or Salvation.

(1) Conditions Antecedent, or Going before Gods Covenant­ing with man, especially before his Conversion, Regeneration and Justification wherein the Covenant is effectually and savingly struck betwixt God and man, Are asserted variously. And such Conditions may be referred chiefly to these three heads. viz. 1. Meritori [...]us. 2. Impulsive. 3. Preparatory.

Meritorious Conditions the Papists in effect assert. As Bellarmine their grand champion saith; Potest ho­mo nondum re conciliatus per opera poeniten­tiae impetrare, & mereri ex congruo grati­am, ustificatio­nis, ut in pri­mo libro de­monstratum est our igitur non poterit idem ipse, dum est justus & ami­cus Dei. impe­trare & mereri ex congruo r [...] ­parationem, si sortè lab [...]tur? Bellar. Tom. 4. l. 5. de Iusti­ficat. cap 22. A man not reconciled may by works of re­pentance, impetrate, and of congruity merit, the Grace of justification, as was demonstrated in the first Book; why may not therefore the self-same man, when he is just and the friend of God, impetrate, and of Congruity merit re­paration, if perhaps he shall fall? This his congruous merit by works of repentance in a person unreconciled, he makes an Antecedent Meritorious Cause or Condition of Justification, and consequently of Covenanting with God whereby justification is actually applyed. But we deny all merit in man: much more all Meritorious Conditions or dis­posit [...]ons in unreconciled man to Gods Covenant of Faith or Justi­fication. Acknowledging only Christs pre-ordained merit, to be the sole Antecedent Meritorious Cause or Condition of our Covenanting with God, Justification and Salvation.

Impulsive Conditions Moving and inclining God to work Faith in one rather then in another, and to regenerate one rather then ano­ther (and consequently to bring one into Covenant with God effectu­ally rather then another) the Arminians seem to maintain. One said; Pa [...]vita­tem & humili­tatem ut Con­ditionem prae­requiri à Deo, ad hoc, ut Pau­lo potius quam Caiphae sidem velit ingenera­re Nicol. Grevinch. pag. 117. littleness & humility is pre-required of God as a Condition, unto this, that he will beget Fa [...]th in Paul rather in Caiaphas. Another said; Resipiscentiam, fidem, & mandatorum etiam praestationem, praerequiri ad hoc, ut par­ticeps quis [...] saederis novi, inter qu [...] est regeneratio. Episcop. in Thes. privat. Disp. 3 & 40. Vid. etiam D. Ames. Coron. in Ar [...]ic. 3. de Causa fidei, Thes. 3. Videatur etiam Armin. in Articul▪ nonnul. viz. In Artic. d [...] voca [...]ione peccatorum ad Communionem cum Christo, &c. page 782. 783. Ed [...]t. 1631. That [Page 114] Repentance, Faith, and even the performance of the Commandments are pre-required, unto this, that any one become partaker of the pro­mises of the New-Covenant, among which is Regeneration. But all such I [...]pulsive or moving▪ Causes or Conditions in the Creature, inclining God to bring man into Covenant of Faith with himself, or to give him the justifying or saving graces of the Covenant, we utterly reject and deny, as having no ground in Scripture: knowing that Gods meer Grace and [...], is the sole Antecedent Impulsive or moving Cause of his bringing one man rather then another into Covenant with himself, and into the grace of the Covenant, Rom. 3. 24. & 4. 16. & 5. 15, 16, 17, 18, 20, 21. & 9. 15, 16, 18. Eph. 1. 4, 5, 7, 9, 11.

Preparatory Conditions fitting and disposing, both for Entring into the Covenant of Faith with God, & for Regeneration and justification, the benefits of that Covenant, are divers: yet all given of God to us as well as required by God from us. As, 1. Hearing Gods Cove­nant Promulged, or preached. Thus Gen. 6. 18, &c. Noah, [...]en. 12. 1, 2, 3. & 15. 1. 5, 6, 18. &c. & 17. 2. &c. Abraham Exod. 19. & 20 with 24 Is­rael at Mount Sinai, and Rom 10. 6. to 18. Men now under the New Testament, First heard, and hear the Covenant published to them, before they actually oyn with God in that Covenant. Till they hear it, they cannot know it: till they know it, they cannot actually and expresly consent to it. 2. Conviction of the necessity of such a Covenant-state, for Remedy of their Sin and misery. As, Israel terrifyed by pro­mulgation of the Sinai-Covenant, discovering so much sin and wrath, were Exod. 20. 18. 19. wi [...]h Deut 5. 22. to 30. Convinced of the Necessity of a Mediator in whom they might Enter into Covenant with God. Peters Acts 2. 37. 38, 39. 40 41, 42. hearers were for their Sins first pricked in their hearts; and then they came to close with the Covenant and promises by believing. 3. Effectual calling is (in Acts 2. 38, 39. order of Nature, if not in time) an Antecedent preparatory Condi­tion which God works in men in order to their closing with him in his Covenant. Not only the outward call by the word, but also the inward Call by the Spirit, principling the heart with supernatural habits of Grace, as Self-denial, Faith, Repentance, &c. (in which work the heart is meerly Passive) is a Necessary Preparation to actual entring into Covenant with God. For, by the actual exercise of true Faith, Assenting and applying, we actually accept Gods Covenant, and Justification: Now the Habit in order of Nature and Causality, must go before the Act; we must have Faith, self-denial, Repentance, &c. before we can use or exercise Faith, or any of them Paul makes Vo­cation preparatory to Justification; Rom. 8. 3 [...]. whom he predestinated them he called: whom he called them he Iustified. First called: then justified. Thus God Gen. 12 1, 2, 3 & 15. 5, 6, 18 &c & 17. 2. &c. Rom 4. first called Abraham from his idolatrous and ungodly Condition: and then brought him into Covenant with himself & justi­fied him. His Calling was a Preparatory Condition or Qualification in order to his Covenanting with God and justification. These and like Antecedent Preparatory Conditions or Qualifications rendring the sub­ject capable and more immediately fit for Entring into Covenant with [Page 115] God in Christ, God requires of us, and works in us. But as for any Antecedent Preparator [...]es, as in and from our selves, by any power of Free-will, Disposing to accept Grace tendered, or to perse­vere in Grace received, or to merit Grace or Glory; such Prepara­tions we utterly deny and disallow, as impossible to the corrupt state of man, and as utterly inconsistent with the riches of the Grace of God.

Here also it may be noted, how Intelligere te oportet, &c. Thou must understand that the pro­mises of God are, Either concerning the end itself, viz. Mans enjoyment of God in eternal happiness, and the Salvation of our souls; Or such as Concern the way and means unto that End. Now those which do concern the end, are indeed Conditional, that no profane person should dare to stretch forth his hand to the [...]ree of Life. But lest there should be none to whom these Promises may appertain, for we all come short of the Condition, he hath made promises of the Conditions themselves, and made them pure, free, simple, absolute, nullis conditionum [...] circumscriptas, not circum­scribed with any Articles of Conditions at all. Abbots in Thoms. Diat. page 148. Some distinguish (and not amiss) of the Promises of the Covenant of Grace; That some of them are Conditional, viz. those that concern the end itself, enjoyment of God in Heaven, Salvation, &c. That others are absolute, viz. those that concern the way and means, to the end, which God promiseth absolutely to give.

(2) Conditions Concomitant, or Accompanying Gods Entring in­to Covenant with man, are, the Acting, Actual exercising, using or putting forth of such Preparatory Habits of Grace as are already Re­ceived, to close with God Actually in his Covenant, according as the Nature of his Covenant requires. Thus God requires of them that joyn in Covenant with him,

The Acting of self-denyal, by an holy self-resignation and self-re­nouncing: As in Gen. 12. 1, 2, 3, 4, with Gal. 3. 16, 17. Abraham; when God Covenanted with him, he must actually deny, and depart from his Country, kindred and Fa­thers house. Paul Phil. 3. 4. to 12. actually denyed all self-righteousness, and self­excellencies, as loss and dung, for the excellency of the Knowledge of Christ, and for Christs righteousness by Faith. Christ Luke 9. 23. requires all that come to him to deny themselves. The Tit. 2. 11, 12. Grace of God, the Gospel, teaches all that would walk with God according to his Covenant, to deny all ungodliness and worldly lusts.

The Acting of Repentance. Thus Christ began to preach the Gospel, or Covenant of God; Mark 1. 15. Repentye, and believe the Gospel. Thus Peter directs his heart-wounded Hearers; Acts 2. 38, 39. Repent.—for the promise is to you and to your children, and to all that are afar off, even as many as the Lord our God shall call.

The Acting of Faith: Taking the Lord for their God, and Con­senting thereby to be his people. In the Sinai-Covenant's Exod. 24. 6, 7, 8. wit [...] [...]. 9. 18, 19, 20. so­lemn Sanction, Moses with a bunch of Hysop actually sprinckled one half of the blood of the sacrifices on the People, as the other half on the Altar: Hereby teaching them actually to apply by Faith the blood of Christ to themselves in whom God accepted them as his Covenant-people. Christ preached; Mark. 1. 15. Believe the Gospel. The Apostle Paul and Silas preached the New Covenant thus to the [Page 116] Jaylor trembling, and saying, Sirs, what must I do to be saved? Acts 16. 29, 30, 31, 32.Believe on the Lord Iesus Christ, and thou shalt be saved, and thy house. No one Duty is more pressed thenRom. 10. 6. to 18. Believing actually, to them that would close actually in Covenant with God.

The Acting of Love. The Sinai-Covenant, the Old Testament, wasIer. 31. 31, 32. Ezek. 16. 8. a Marriage-Covenant betwixt God and Israel. And this Marri­age-Covenant, in the Nature of it, required the mutual Acting and exercising of their love to God: This therefore was the great Com­mandment conditioned in the Sinai-Covenant;Deut. 5. 6, 7. & 6. 4, 5. Mat. 22. 37. Thou shalt love the LORD thy God with all thine heart, with all thy Soul, and with all thy might.

(3) Conditions Consequent, or Following Gods taking man into Covenant with himself, are such Duties or Performances, as God re­quires from a people in Covenant with him, and which flow from a true Covenant-state, as the proper Fruits, Effects and Consequents thereof. As,

Sincere universal and Constant Evangelical Obedience to God according to the mandatory part of his Covenant. Thus, GodGen. 6. 17, 18, &c. Co­venants with Noah to save him and his family in an Ark by water from the General deluge; but Noah, after this Covenant, must be obedient fully to God, in making, entring into and Continuing in the Ark. God Covenants with Abraham, Gen. 12▪ 2, 3 & 15. 18. with 17. 1, 2▪ 9. to 15. that in his Seed all the families of the Earth should be blessed, &c. but after this, Abraham must walk before God (viz. in all true Faith and obedience) and be per­fect. And particularly, himself and all his males must be Circumci­sed throughout their generations, in token of this Covenant. God Covenants with Israel at Mount Sinai, Exod. 20. 2, 3. Deut. 5. 6, 7. to be their God, to raise them up Christ a Prophet and Mediatour from among themselves, &c. but after this, Israel must walk in all upright obedience to all Gods Laws and Commandments in an Evangelical sense.Deut. 5. 29, 32, 33. & 6. 1, 2, 3 4. to 10. 17, 18. & 8. 1, 6. and often. O that there were such an heart in them, that they would fear me, and keep all my Commandments always, that it might be well with them and their children for ever. God Covenants with the Babylonish Captives, [...]zek. 37. 24, 25, 26, 27. to give them a New heart and spirit, &c. but after this they must walk in his Statutes, and keep his judgements, and do them. The like be said of all expressions of the Covenant of Faith.

Renewing Covenant with God by renewed Repentance, in case of Covenant-breaches or backslidings. Thus God tels Israel; [...]eut. 30. 1. to 9. with 29. 24. to the end. if they shall forsake the Covenant of the LORD God, to serve other Gods, so that the Lord thereupon shall root them out of Canaan, and disperse them into strange Countries, yet if they shall Return unto the Lord their God, and obey his voice according to all that he commanded them, then he would gather them again, &c. promising to Circum­cise their heart to this effect.—And thou shalt return and obey the voice of the LORD. Of them that slip aside and transgress the Covenant, God calleth for and commandeth repentance, that is, It is his will and Com­mand, that they bethink themselves of their evil-doings, confess their iniquities, and turn un to the Lord. The frequent and earnest exhortations of the Prophets made to backsliding and rebellious Israel, that she should acknowledge her wickedness and return unto the Lord (Ier. 3. 7. 22. & 4. 1, 2.) is a full Commentary▪ of that which God required of them in this Covenant, in case they should turn away from the Holy Commandment. The Lord protesteth by his Prophet Ezekiel, That he hath no pleasure in the death of him that dyeth, but rather that he should repent and live. Ezek. 18. 27, 28, 31, 32. & 33. 11, 12. And the same for substance he made known to Israel in the Covenant which he stroke with them▪ viz. That if they transgress and go astray, he doth Admit, will accept and approve, nay Command their unfained repentance, and coming home unto the Lord. that they might live. Mr. Io. Ball. Treat. of the Covenant, chap. 8. page 133. Lord. 1645. God commands renewing of Repentance, in [Page 117] case of all failings against the Covenant, promising re-acceptance of his people thereupon.

Thus of Conditions in reference to Gods Covenant, Considered most largely.

2. More Restrictively, So, The Condition of the Covenant of Faith doth more peculiarly and singularly import to us, That special Instrumental Cause, or Mean whereby we accept or Receive the Fede­ral Benefits promised, which is only true Faith. AndRom. 3. 27. & 10. 5. to 14. by this Condition of Faith, The Covenant of Faith or Grace is most direct­ly opposed and contradistinguished from the Covenant of Works; the special Condition whereof was Works, done by a mans own ability. This Faith is so singular and eminent a Condition of this Covenant, that both Covenant, Federal benefits, and Federal parties in Covenant with God, receive their Denominations from Faith. The Covenant is stiledRom. 3. 27. The Law of Faith: The Fe­deral righteousness of it,Rom. 10. 6. [...]. 3. 9. Heb. 11. 7. The righteousness of Faith: and The Fe­derates with God,Gal. 3. 9, They which be of Faith. In this senseMr▪ Ier. Burroughs in Moses Self-Den. p. 188. one said well; Faith hath the greatest honour above all other Graces, to be the Condition of the Covenant. And to this effectMr. Io. Ball in his Treat. of the Covenant. chap. 3. pag. 17, 18, 19, 20. Lond. 16 [...]5. another said much better then he; The stipulation required, is, That we take God to be our God: that is, that we repent of our iniquities, believe the Promises of mercy and embrace them with the whole heart, and yield love, fea, reve­rence, worship and obedience unto him according to the prescript rule of his word. Repentance is called for in this Covenant, as it setteth forth the subject capable of Salvation by Faith; but is it self only an acknowledge­ment of sin, no healing of our wound or cause of our accquittance.—By Repentance we know our selves, we feel our sickness, we hunger and thirst after grace: But the hand which we stretch forth to receive it, is Faith alone; without which Repentance is nothing but darkness and despair. Repentance is the Condition of Faith, and the Qualification of a person capable of Salvation: But faith alone is the Cause of Iustification and Salvation on our part required▪ It is a penitent and petitioning Faith whereby we receive the Promises of mercy: but we are not justified partly by Prayer, partly by Repentance, and partly by Faith; but by that Faith which stirreth up godly sorrow for Sin, and enforceth us to pray for pardon and Salvation. Faith is a necessary and lively Instrument of Iustificati­on, which is amongst the number of true Causes, not being a Cause without which the thing is not done, but a Cause whereby it is done, &c. After which discourse he thus winds it up towards a Conclusion;—If then, when we speak of the Conditions of the Covenant of Grace, by Con­ditions [Page 118] we understand what is required on our part, as Precedent, Conco­mitant, or Subsequent to Iustification, Repentance, Faith and Obedience are all Conditions: but if by Condition we understand what is required on our part, as the Cause of the good promised, though only Instrumental, Faith or Belief in the Promises of free Mercy is THE ONLY CON­DITION.

3. Most strictly, A Condition of a Covenant may import such a Restipulation from man to God, as God requires to be perfectly in all parts and degrees, and constantly performed by him in his own person, without the least failer or default: otherwise the Covenant to be broken. Now [Condition] taken in this extremity of strict­ness and rigour, without any terms of Moderation or Mercy at all, in case of the least default, was the Condition of the Cove­nant of works. According to that;Gal. 3. 10. D [...]ut. 27, 26. Cursed is every one that continueth not in all things which are written in the Book of the Law to do them. Wherein, 1 ▪ Perfect, and 2. Perpetual, 3 Personal obe­dience, is the rigorous Condition required: without which the Curse could not be avoided.

Thirdly, These things thus Premised, The true State of the Questi­on may be declared in these few Positions following, Touching the CONDITIONALITY of the Covenant of Faith. viz.

1. No Condition (taken in the Most strict & rigorous sense) is imposed or required by God upon, or from his People in any dispensation of the Cove­nant of Faith, so as the least Gradual fayling of that compleat exactness should utterly dissolve and break the Covenant. Such an exact rigorous obedience was the Condition of the Covenant of Works, imposed on Adam in innocency: whose failing in one act, utterly brake and dis­solved the Covenant of works, so that it became totally impossible both for him, and all his sinful posterity, ever to keep, or to be justi­fied by the Covenant of works any more. But no Condition, nei­ther of Faith, nor of repentance, nor of obedience, &c. is in such ri­gorous sense required or imposed in the Covenant of Faith, in any expressure of it: but every Condition is Evangelically lenified and sweetned with the adjunct of Integrity and Sincerity.1 Tim. 1. 5. Unfained faith is accepted; though attended with some gradual weakness and imperfection:Psal 19. 12. 1 [...]. & 119. 6. sincere, upright uniform obedience is accepted: though accompanied with sundry defects and infirmities. In this Co­venant God requires strict, exact and perfect obedience: but accepts sincere, uniform, impartial obedience. Cals for exactness: accepts uprightness. If exactness were not required: gradual failings and other infirmities would not be reputed sins, mourned for, and striven against. If uprightness were not accepted, no flesh could be justified or saved.

2. No [...] Conditions, in, or from man, as Impulsive or Meritori­ous to his Covenant-state, are required or admitted at all in this Covenant of [...]aith. In man, out of Covenant with God, there can be no Antece­dent Can [...]e or Condition either Meriting from God, of Condignity or of [Page 119] Congruity, to be brought into Covenant with him, or to be par­taker of justification, or any other saving benefit of the Covenant from him: Or Moving and inclining God to bring him into Covenant with himself. All suchTrue it is the Promises run upon this Condition; If ye ob [...]y m [...] voice, and do my Command­ments; But Conditions are of two sorts, Ante­cedent▪ or Cons [...]quent. Antecedent, when the Condition is the cause of the thing promised or given, as in all Civil cont [...]acts of justice, where one thing is given for another. Consequent, when the Condition is annex­ed to the Promise, as a Qualification in the Subi [...]ct, or an Adjunct that must attend the thing Promised. And in this later s [...]nse, [...]bedience to the Commandments, was a Condition of the Promise: Not a cause why the thing Promised wa [...] vouchsafed; but a Qualification of the Subiect capable, or a Consequence of such great me [...]cy [...]reely conferred. Mr. Io. B [...]ll in his Treat. of the Covenant, chap. 8. pag. 132, 133. Lond. 1645. Antecedent Conditions we utterly disclaim, as wholly inconsistent with this gratuitous Gospel-Covenant of Faith. Antecedent Impulsives or Motives in man, we leave to the Re­monstrants and Papists: Antecedent Merits to the Papists. The Per­fectest believers cannot properly merit, at all: much less unbelievers. See Romans 11. 35, 36. Iob. 22. 2. & 35. 4, 5. Rom. 3. 12. Luke 17. 10.

3. In the restrictive Sense, unfained Faith, and that alone, is the Condi­tion of the Covenant of Faith. Faith alone being that supernatural Instru­ment whereby a man actually on his part (through the grace of God) accepts the Covenant, and the Promised Mercies of the Cove­nant.

4. If we understand Conditions most largely. So the Covenant of Faith admits of, and requires many supernatural Conditions, Both Ante­cedent, for Preparing supernaturally for the Covenant; And Concomi­tant, for closing with the Covenant; and Consequent, for suitable walk­ing according to the Covenant afterwards. As hath been explained.

And according to these two last Positions only, we Assert and Maintain, that The Covenant of Faith, or Grace is Conditional.

II. For Confirmation of this Assertion of the Conditionality of the Co­venant of Faith, thus stated, (as the Plain and evident Truth,) I offer these few Arguments or Reasons briefly.

1. The very Nature of all Gods Covenants with man, doth ne­cessarily imply and require therein, Conditions, Terms, Restipulati­ons, Re-promissions, Re-engagements from man to God: without which, nothing can properly and exactly be called a Covenant. God (among other wayes) expresseth his will to man, by Pro­mise, by Threats, by Command, by Covenant. Every of these, in the Nature of the thing, have a precise and peculiar propriety of es­sence, differencing and distinguishing them one from another. By Promise, God declares what Good he will do for man: By Threat­ning, he declares what evil he will inflict upon man: By Command, he declares what Duty and Performance he expects from man: But by Covenant, he declares, both what Mercies and Blessings he will on his part perform to man; and what Duties man should on his part perform reflexively▪ towards God. This is the proper Nature of a Covenant. It comprieth in it, mutual Consent and Agreement of the Federates about some mutual performances, and reciprocal obligati­ons. [Page 120] A bare naked Promise holds forth Mercy from God, but not any Duty from man: A bare naked Command holds forth Duty from man, but not any Mercy or Blessing from God: But A Covenant wherein God and man Convene and agree, holds forth, both Mercy from God, and Duty from man. So that, A Promise, or a Com­mand, in the precise nature thereof, may be without mutual obliga­tion: but a Covenant hath in it always a mutual obligation betwixt God and man, the Federal parties. To speak therefore of a Covenant of God with man without Conditions required on Mans part, is a Contradiction in the Adject. Whatsoever Promise hath in it the Pro­per Nature of a Covenant; is Conditional, expresly or implicitly: and whatsoever Promise is Conditional, hath in it the Nature of a Covenant. All Gods Covenants with man, are either Of works, or of Faith. In the Covenant of works before the Fall, God Promised perpetual Life to man in Paradise: butGen. 2. 9. 16, 17. conditioned with man to perform perfect and perpetual obedience to God in his own per­son, otherwise he should dy the Death. In the Covenant of Faith since the Fall, God promiseth lapsed mans Restauration by Jesus Christ: butRom 10. 6. &c. Iohn 3. 15, 16, 18, 36. Mark 16. 16. conditioneth with man to believe in Iesus Christ, otherwise he should not share in that Restauration.

2. God hath expresly or implicitly imposed upon his Covenant-people such Conditions and terms as these, by the Covenant of Faith in all the observable Expressures, and Discoveries thereof. Such Re-stipulations, Re-Performances, Re-promissions, &c. God still requires and conditions from them, that will lay hold of his Co­venant, and mean to approve themselves his true Covenant-people. And therefore his Covenant of Faith must needs be Conditional. The Consequence is undeniable. The Antecedent also is easily cleared by Induction of Particulars. For, 1. In the first Expressure of the Cove­nant of Faith from Adam to Noah, God Promised ExplicitlyGen. 3. 1 [...]. to put an enmity betwixt the Seed of the woman (viz. Primarily, Christ, Secondarily, his Members) and the Serpent and his Seed; that is, Satan and the wicked: and that The Womans Seed should bruise the Serpents Head. But withal God conditioned implicitly with the woman's Seed Christ and his Members, That Christ should fight against, and subdue the Devil and his Seed Efficaciously and meritoriously; and that all his Members should renounce the Serpent and his Seed, and fight against them by Gospel-faith and obedience in Christ that they might bruise his Head. 2. In the second Expressure of the Cove­nant, from Noah till Abraham, God promisedGen. 6 18, c. with 1 Pet. 3. 20, 21. to save Noah and his Family in the Ark by water from the general Flood: but yet God Conditioned with Noah, that he should believe this his salvati­on by such Means, and that he should obey God in Preparing an Ark, in laying up necessary provision in it, in Entring into it, and Continuing in it till the Flood should be abated. 3. In the third Covenant Expressure, from Abraham till Moses, God Pro­mised to Abraham Gen [...]7▪ 7, 8. & 12. 2, 3. & 15. 18. &c. to be a God to him and his Seed, to make all [Page 121] the Nations of the Earth blessed in his Seed, to give them the Land of Ca­naan, &c: but yet indented and Conditioned with Abraham; Gen. 12. 1, 2, 3. & 15. 6. & 17. 1, 2, 9. to 15. to deny his Countrey, Kindred, and Fathers House; To believe in the Lord, To walk before him and be perfect, and To submit himself and all his Male-Seed to the token of the Covenant Circumcision. 4. In the fourth Covenant-Expressure from Moses till David, God Promised,Exod. 20. 2, 3. Deut. 26. 12. To be A God to Israel, Lev. 18. 15. to 20. To raise them up Christ a Prophet and Mediatour like Moses from among themselves,Deut. 30. 6, 8. To give them his Sanctifying Spirit, and many Spiritual blessings,Exod. 20. 12. Ephes. 6. 2. Deut. 28. 1. to 15. Lev. 26. 3. to 14. To superadd to them Canaan, and many Temporals, and at last to crown them with Eternal life: but withall God Conditioned and Articled with them,Exod. 20. 2, 3. Lev. 26. 12. That they should be his Covenant-people,Exod. 19. 5. Deut. 4. 13. & 5, 29. That they should keep his Covenant by true Faith and sincere impartial obedience to all his Commandments, And he declared unto them his Covenant, which he commanded them to perform, even ten Command­ments. AndDeut. 30. 1, 2. Levit. 26. 40, 41, 42. 1 Kings 8. 46. to 54. That in case of any contrary failings, they should be­think themselves, repent, and return to God. 5. In the fifth Covenant-Expressure from David till the Babylonish Captivity, God Promised;Psal. 132. 11. & 89. 3. 4. 19. to 38. To stablish Davids Seed for ever, To set up the fruit of his body upon his Throne, To build up his Throne to all Generations, &c. But withal conditioned with David, Psal. 132. 12. & 89 30, 31, 32, 33. If thy children will keep my Covenant and my Testimony, that I shall teach them; otherwise, he would visit their transgression with the rod, and their iniquity with stripes, &c. 6. In the sixth Covenant-Expressure from the Babylonish Captivity till Christ, God Promised to his people;Ier. 32. 37. to the end. To gather them out of all Countries whither he had driven them, To bring them back to their own Land and cause them to dwell safely, To be their God, not to turn away from them to do them Good, &c. But withal he conditioned with them,Ier. 32. 38, 39, 40. That they should be his people, That they should not depart away from him, but fear him for ever, &c. 7. Finally, In the seventh and last Cove­nant-Expressure, the New-Covenant, God Promiseth to his peo­ple,Heb. 8. 8. to the end To put and write his Law in their hearts and minds, To be their God, To make them all know the LORD, To be merciful to their unrighteousnesses, To remember their sins and their iniquities no more: But withal agreeth and conditioneth with them;Heb. 8. 10. To be his people, (which one Condition hath all other Conditions in it),Heb 10. 16. to 26. To draw near with a true heart, with full assurance of Faith, &c. To hold fast the Profession of our Faith, without wavering, To Consider one another, to provoke unto Love and good works, &c. And elsewhere,2 Cor. 6. 17, 18. & 7. 1. From the Covenant-promises we are pressed to perfect Sancti­fication. Thus the whole series of the Covenant of Faith, from first to last, is propounded, in all the noted Discoveries of it, with Condi­tions▪ and Duties required from Gods Covenant-people: and there­fore it is Conditional throughout in all ages. He that sees not this, is either a great Stranger to the Scriptures, or he wilfully shuts his eyes against the light thereof.

[Page 122]3. The manyAs, 1. Un­der the first Covenant-dis­covery Gen. 4. 7, 12. & 6. 3. 7. 13. 2. Under the second Cove­nant-discove­ry from Noah till Abraham. Gen. 6. 17, 18. & 7. 4. & 9 5, 6, 25, 26. 3. Under the third Covenant-discovery from Abraham till Moses. Gen. 17. 14. 4. Under the fourth Covenant-discovery from Moses till David. Exod. 20. 6, 7. & 31. 14. 15. & 33. 3, 5. & 34. 7. Levit. 26. 14. to 40. Deut. 28. 16. to the end, &c. 5. Under the fifth Covenant-dispensation from David till the Captivity. Psal. 89. 30, 31, 32, 33. 2 Sam. 7. 14. 6. Under the sixth Covenant-dispensation, from the Captivity till Christ. Ezek. 11. 19, 20, 21. Ma [...]. 2. 11, 12, 13. & 3. 5, 8, 9, 10. & 4. 1. 7. Lastly, Under the New Testament. Mark 16. 16. Iohn. 3. 18. 36. 1 Cor. 6. 9. 10. Revel. 21. 8. Cautions, Warnings, and Threatnings annex­ed to the Covenant of Faith in all the several Discoveries thereof, against breaking, violating or transgressing Gods Covenant, by unbelief or disobedience; do eminently imply, That the Contra­ry Duties, or keeping of that Covenant, are required and Conditio­ned in the Covenant of Faith. And consequently that it is Condi­tional.

4. Without such Federal Conditions, Terms or Qualifications as these, None can be duly prepared for the Covenant of Faith, or be actually stated in and partakers of the Covenant of Faith and the fe­deral benefits thereof, nor can converse and walk suitably and agree­ably to the Covenant of Faith. Therefore such Conditions are in their place and kind, Necessary to the Effectual Application of the Cove­nant, and Covenant-benefits unto us: For, Our Covenant-Prepara­tion; Our Covenant-Participation; and our Covenant Conversation. 1. How should we be Prepared for Entring into Covenant with God, without some such Antecedent Preparatory Conditions as these; viz. (1) Hear­ing Gods Covenant preached: (2) Conviction of the Necessity of a true Covenant-state in Christ: (3) And effectual Calling, instil­ling supernatural abilities and principles for closing actually with the Covenant? 2. How should we actually close with God in this Covenant, without the Acting or Actual exerting and exercising of (1) Self-Denial; (2) Repentance; (3) Faith; (4) Love; and such like Concomitant Conditions? 3. How should we walk answerably to such a Covenant-state afterwards, without (1) Sin­cere, impartial, and Constant Gospel-obedience to God in Christ according to Covenant-Commands; (2) Renewing of Repentance in case of failings and backslidings; or such Consequent Covenant-Conditions? All which I have al­ready proved to be Necessary Covenant Conditions, in Opening the State of the Question. And if these be so re­quisite to our Covenant-state: How can they but be Covenant-Con­ditions?

5. Such Conditions as these, do in no regard Ecclipse, but rather much advance Both the Glory of Gods free Grace, And the Sweet­ness of our Consolation. Why then should it be thought harsh, strange, inconvenient, or any way prejudicial, to Assert the Conditionality of this Covenant of Faith?

(1) These Conditions do not Ecclipse, but Advance the riches and glory of Gods Free Grace. For, 1. All Antecedent Conditions, that might [Page 123] be imagined or pretended, either to Merit any Covenant-blessing from God, Or as any Impulsive Cause to Move or incline God to admit us into Covenant with himself, are hereby utterly disclaimed and disavowed. 2. All these Covenant-Conditions allowed and As­serted, Antecedent, Concomitant and Consequent, are avowed by us to be wholly Supernatural; The meer fruits and effects of Divine Grace, not at all of humane Nature; wholly of God, and not of our selves at all: Of meer Grace, God contrived his Covenant for us, God revealed his Covenant to us, God Prepares us for his Cove­nant, God instates us in his Covenant, and of the same meer Grace he enables us to walk according to his Covenant proportionably: All is entirely of his meer Grace. Therefore herein we take no Glory at all to our selves, but return the whole glory entirely to God alone. For1 Cor. 4. 7. what have we, but we have received it of him? HePhil. 2. 13. works in us both to will and to do, of his good pleasure. HeIoh. 6. 44. Cant. 1. 4. draws, and we come. HeEphez. 1. &c. Gal. 2. 20. Iohn 6. 57. quickens us: and then lives in us, and we by him. He works all in us, and for usIoh. 15. 5. without whom we can do nothing. To him we herein ascribe, The first Grace, principling us; and the second Grace, actuating those Principles: Preventing Grace, and subsequent Grace: Operating Grace, and Cooperating Grace;Rev. 3. 20. Cant. 5 4. &c. Knocking Grace, Opening Grace, Entring Grace: we ascribe all to him, and to his Grace.Rom. 11. 36. For of him, and through him, and to him, are all things. 3. The Apostle tell us, That the special Condition of Faith, whereby we receive the Covenant and Covenanted inheri­tance, is most subservient to Grace, saying,Rom. 4. 16. Therefore it is of Faith, that it might be by Grace. If the inheritance were by works, it should be of debt: but being by faith, it is of Grace. Faith and Grace go together. Grace freely gives, Faith alone receives: Grace is the Fountain: Faith the Cistern.

(2) These and like Conditions do not ecclipse but augment the sweet­ness of our Consolations also. For, 1. By these Preparatory Conditions, we are comfortably Qualified to be subjects capable of the Covenant. 2. By these Concomitant Conditions we are Comfortably enabled to accept and lay hold upon Gods Covenant, who by Nature are strangers to the saving benefits of his Covenant. And theRom. 4. 16. Pro­mise is made sure to all the believing Seed. 3. By these Consequent Conditions we are Comfortably conformed in our Conversation to the tenour of Gods Covenant which we have accepted. 4. By all these Conditions, we are Comfortably distinguished from all Peo­ple that are strangers to Gods Covenants; And we may comfortably try our selves, and discover whether we be in a good Covénant-state or no.

6. Many and great Absurdities, inconveniencies, paradoxes and incongruities must needs inevitably follow, upon denial of Conditi­onality to the Covenant of Faith. For, if in the Covenant of Faith, or in any one Expressure thereof, there be no Terms, Tyes, Resti­pulations, Re-obligations, Conditions, &c. imposed upon man, or [Page 124] expected from man: but all the Tyes and obligations be onely on Gods part.

(1.) Then, The Covenant of faith bindeth onely one, not both the Federates: God is bound by his Stipulation, man is not bound by any Restipulation. Now how absurd, and contrary to the Nature of a Covenant is it, to think God to be under obligation to man, and yet man to be at liberty from God? Covenants imply reciprocal obli­gations between Federates.

(2.) Then, God and man may agree in one and the same Covenant of Faith as Federates: and yet man on his part never Consent to the Covenant. For, Consent to the Covenant by Faith, is one of the Conditions asserted on our part: but if there be no Conditions at all on our part, then there is no Consent. How gross and absurd a Para­dox is this, to imagine, Mans Covenant-agreement with God, yet without Consent?

(3.) Then, Those that become Federates with God in the Cove­nant of Faith, have no more covenant-obligation, bond, tye, or Du­ty lying upon them, after their closing in Covenant with God, then before. They are no more bound to fear, love, obey, serve, walk with God, after Covenanting with him in Christ, then before. For, the Covenant brings no Tye or Condition upon them, but leaves them loose. How absurd! This makes Gods Covenant a very loose Covenant, a very licentious Covenant: and therein God to have very ill provided for his own worship and service.

(4.) Then, A man may be in Covenant with God, and yet not differ at all by any inward Covenant-qualification, or outward Co­venant-conversation from them that are out of Covenant. For, they that are out of Covenant with God, are destitute wholly of all salvi­fical Covenant-conditions: and (according to this opinion) so is he. So that in this regard, it had been as good for him to have been still without, as within a Covenant-state.

(5.) Then, Gods Covenant-people have no Gospel-rule written, for their faith and obedience. For they (according to this fond opini­on) have no tye or Condition at all imposed upon them in this Co­venant of Faith; therefore the Condition of Faith and the Conditi­on of Obedience is not thereby enjoyned them: consequently if it be not required by the Covenant of Faith, it is not required in all the Scripture. For since the Fall, The whole Scripture, which is Gos­spel, is taken up with Propounding or Expounding the Covenant of Faith in Christ in one respect or another, throughout all the various dispensations thereof.

(6.) Then, Neglect of those grand comprehensive Christian duties, Faith and Obedience to God in Christ, is no sin. For the Covenant of Faith (think they) doth not impose or require these Conditions and Duties: Consequently no Scripture requires them. How can it be then any Sin to neglect them? ForRom. 4. 15. & 5. 13. where there's no Law, there's no Transgression. And what is sin, if this be not sin?

[Page 125](7.) Then, The Having, and Using of faith and obedience to­wards God in Iesus Christ, is not the way to Heaven and eternal Sal­vation. Why? because (according to this opinion) the Covenant of Faith, which peculiarly chalks out to us the true way to Heaven and Salvation, yet requires no such Conditions at all from us, as Faith and Obedience, in order to eternal Salvation. But this is noto­riouslyMark. 16. 16. [...]oh. 3. 18. 36. Heb. 11. 6. 2 Thes. 1. 8. [...]eb. 12 14. Iam. 2. 14. [...]o the end. contrary to the Covenant and Scriptures, teaching, that without them there's no Salvation.

(8.) Then, Faith and Obedience to God in Iesus Christ were will-worship, un-instituted, un-required of God. For, if the Cove­nant of Faith do not require them, do not indent and condition for them, No Scripture since the F [...]ll requires them: All Scripture being wholly taken up one way or other about this Covenant of Faith. And if they be notIer. 7. 31. & 32. 35. required from us, how shall they be excused from will-worship, and being inventions of man? God then may say,Isa. 1. 12. Who required these things at your hands?

(9.) Then, The Pagans, that are utter aliens to Gods Covenant of Faith, are as much tyed to Duties of Religion, as true Christians that are Federates with God in Christ. For, these are (after this opi­nion) tyed to no duties, terms or conditions, by Covenant: and those, as well as Christians, are tyed by theRom. 1. 18. to the end. & 2. 14, 15, 16. Law and light of Nature in the Natural conscience, to believe, obey, worship and serve the true God, that hath made Heaven and Earth.

(10.) Then, Finally, The Gospel-Ministry and Ordinances of Christ both under Old and New Testament,Math▪ 28. 18, 19, 20. Act. 26. 18. [...]ph. 4. 8. to 14. 2 Cor. 5. 19, 20. 2 Cor. 11. 2. 1 Cor. 11. 26. intended and given of God to his Church, For preparing man for Christ, for espousing man savingly to Christ, And for guiding men conscienciously in Christ unto perfection, Are altogether vain and useless. For (accor­ding to this opinion) All Conditions tending to prepare for Christ, unite to him, or to give Communion with him, are denyed. But the Scriptures abundantly testifie, That Gods Covenant of Faith ap­points A Gospel-Ministry and Ordinances for the said end, to conti­nue in his Church till the worlds end.

From all this its plain, that to deny the Conditionality of the Covenant of Faith, is an Absurd opinion with a witness, that dashes upon so many notorious and intolerable Absurdi­ties.

7. The judgements of sound Writers, godly and learned, Ancient and Modern, Forreign and Domestique, do unanimously subscribe to the conditionality of the Covenant of Faith or grace, in the sense before stated and explained. And we are toProv. 2. 20. walk in the way of good men, and keep the paths of the righteous: 1 Cor. 11. 1. and to follow them that are of the Truth, as they follow Christ and his Truth. Ancient Writers (I confess) speak more sparingly of Gods Covenant of grace, and so consequently of the Conditions therein required on our part: notwithstanding they frequently urge the necessity and use of Repentance, Faith, Obedience, &c. in order to the attainment of the respective blessings spiritual and [Page 126] eternal promised, which is as much for substance. But Modern Writers proceed to more exact consideration of Gods Covenant, and plainly assert the conditionality thereof in express terms. I offer here (u) in the Margin a brief Taste of their sense in this point to the Reader, whereby he may see that this conditionality of the Covenant is not any odd opinion of singularity, but a Truth very generally Received.

Cle­ment of Rome, who lived in the Apostles times, thus speaks of Gods expectation of Repentance in all that Convert to him; [...], &c. i. e. Let us consider all generations, and we may learn that in every generation the Lord hath given place of Repentance to them that were willing to Convert unto him. Noe preached Repentance, and those that obeyed him were saved. Ionas preached destruction to the Ninivites, but they that repented of their sins, pacified God with their prayers, and obtained salvation, although they were aliens to God, &c. Ezek 23. 11. &c. Isa. 1. 16. &c. Therefore he willing that all his beloved ones should be partakers of Repentance, hath established it by his omnipotent will. Clem. Rom. in 1. Ep. ad Cor. p. 10, 11, 12. Edit. Oxonii. 1633. Thus he speaks of our Iustification by faith alone, and not by good works; yet exhorts upon other grounds unto Good-works; [...], &c. And we being called by his will in Christ Iesus, are not justified by our selves, nor by our own wisdom, or understanding, or godliness, or works which we have wrought in holiness of heart: but by Faith, by which the Almighty God hath justified all from the beginning. To whom be glory unto ages of ages, A men. What then shall we do, brethren? shall we cease from well-doing, and relinquish charity? The Lord doth by no means suffer this to be done of us: but let us hasten with all diligence and readiness of mind to finish every good work. We see all the just were adorned with Good works: and even the Lord himself adorning himself with works rejoyced, &c. ibid. pag. 41, 42, 43. And elsewhere he thus incites to obedience; Take we Enoch, who be­ing found righteous in obedience, was translated, nor was his Death found. Noah being found faithful, by his Ministry he preached Regeneration to the world; and by him the Lord saved the Creatures which with Consent entred into the Ark. Abraham called the friend of God, was found faithful▪ in that he became obedient to the words of God. He by obedience came out from his Country, and from his kindred, and from his fathers House, that leaving a little Country, and a weak kindred, and a small House, he might inherit the Promises of God Gen. 12. 1, &c. 13. 14, &c. 15. 5, &c. ibid. pag. 12, 13, 14, 15. And thus he elsewhere directs, in reference to the obtaining of Promised gifts, and the finding of Christ; [...], &c. i. e. Let us therefore earnestly strive to be found in the num­ber of them that wait for him, that we may partake the gifts promised. But how shall this be, beloved? If our mind be established on God by Faith, if we seek-out things well-plea­sing and acceptable to him, if we perform th [...]ngs agreeable to his inculpable will, and if we shall follow the way of Truth &c.—This is the way beloved, in which we shall find our Saviour Iesus Christ, the High-Priest of our offerings, the supporter and succourer of our infirmity, &c ibid. pag. 45, 46, 47.

Iustin Martyr, the Philosopher, who wrote about 150. years after Christ, thus declares the necessity of Faith in Christ and repentance, &c. [...]xhorting the Iews thereunto; [...], &c. i. e. If there be among you any perjured-person, or Thief▪ let him cease to sin: If any fornicator, let him repent; and keep true and joyful Sabbaths to God: If any have impure hands, let him wash them, and become pure. For Isaiah hath not sent you into a bath, that there you might wash away murders and other offences, which even the water of the sea is not sufficient to purge away: but, as is meet, this anciently was that salvifical washing, which was spoken to the penitent: nor are they any more purified with the blood of goats or sheep, or with the ashes of an heifer, or like oblations, but by faith through the blood of Christ, and his Death, who dyed for that very cause, as Isaiah saith; &c.—Therefore by the Lavor of Repentance, and of the knowledge of God, which was instituted for the sins of Gods people, as Isaiahs cryes, we believe, and know, and preach; that very washing declared by him, which alone can purifie the penitent, to be [Page 127] the water of Life. Iustin Martyr in Dialog. cum Tryphon. Iudaeo. pag. 177. & 178. edit. 1593. And afterwards he saith; Abraham had not from God a testimony of his righteous­ness, for his Circumcision, but for his Faith. For before he was circumcised, thus it was said of him; And Abraham believed God, and that was reckoned to him unto righteousness. Wherefore we also in the uncircumcision of our flesh believing [...]od through Christ, and ob­taining that Circumcision which is profitable to the obtainers, viz. Circumcision of the Heart, we hope we shall appear just and well-pleasing unto [...]od. ibid. pag▪ 250. lin. 5. &c.

Cyprian, who wrote about 240. years after Christ, singularly commends Faith, as that whereby we are justified, whereby we receive the plentiful endowments of the Holy-Ghost, and whereby we have all our ability; Fidem in totum prodesse: & tantum nos posse, quantum credi­mus. In Genesi; Et credidit Abraham Deo, & deputatum est ei ad justitiam. Cypr. Testi­mon. l. 3. s. 42. p 428. edit. 1593. And elsewhere, Non enim, qui beneficiorum terrestrium mos, in capessendo munere coelesti, mensura ulla vel modus est: profluens largiter Spiritus nullis finibus premitur, nec coercentibus claustris intra certa metarum spatia fraenatur. Ma­nat jugiter: Exuberat affluenter. Nostrum tantum sitiat pectus, & pateat. Quantum illuc fidei capacis afferimus, tantum gratiae inundantis haurimus. D. Cyprian. Epist. 2. S. 2. Edit. [...]. p. 2, [...].

Ambrose who flourished in the year 374, &c. after Christ, thus speaks of the necessity of Faith to Salvation; Secundum propositum gratiae Dei. Sic Decretum dicit à D [...]o ut cessante lege solam [...]idem gratiae Dei posceret ad Salutem.—Manifestè beati sunt, quibus sine la­bore vel opere aliquo remittuntur iniquitates & peccata teguntur▪ nullâ ab his requisitâ poeni­tentiae operâ, nisi tantum ut credant. Ambr. Comment▪ in Ep [...]ad Rom. C. 4. p. 189. edit. 1567. And elsewhere, speaking of the Law of the Spirit▪ he saith; Haec lex dat libertatem, solam fi­dem poscens: ut quia quae non videt credit, de conditione erui mereatur. Com. in Ep. 2. ad Corinth. C. 3. pag. 299.

Hierom, who flourished in the 385. year after Christ, doth plainly assert certain Promises (which have special reference to the times of the New Testament) to be upon Condition; Illud­que dicamus, quod etiamsi carnaliter sunt promissa Judaeis, tamen sub Conditione sunt pro­missa, ut si suscepissent lumen suum quod ad eos missum fuerat, tunc etiam ista sequerentur. Quod viz. per [...]esiderium auri, & opum abundantiam, rerumque carnalium, quarum semper ista gens capiatur illecebris, susciperent ad se missum Filium Dei: quem quia non suscepe­runt, universa sublata sunt, & suscipientibus spiritualiter reddita haereditas. Hieronym. Com­ment. in [...]saiam. cap. 60▪ pag. 228. A. B. Tom. 5. Edit. 1553.

Chrysostom, who flourished, in the year 398. after Christ, shews that God requires faith un­to justification; [...], &c. i. e. Hearing of Salvation, he added Righteousness and not thy righteousness, but Gods, subindicating the abundance and facility thereof. For thou dost not obtain it by sweatings and labours, but receivest it from the gift above, being onely one thing from within, To believe. Chrys. Homil. 2. in Ep. ad Rom. 1. 17 p. 28. A. Edit. Paris. 1633. And afterwards; How is it excluded, saith he? By what Law? of works? Nay, but by the Law of Faith. Lo, he cals even Faith a Law, per­sisting in the names, that he might lenifie the seeming newness. But what is the Law of Faith? To be saved by Grace. Hence he shews the power of God, that he not onely saves, but also justifies, and leads unto Glorying needing nothing of works, but requiring faith alone. ibid. Homil▪ 7. in Epist. ad Rom. 3 27. pag. 79 A. B.

Augustine, who flourished in the year 420. after Christ, declares Faith to be fundamentally necessary, but such a faith as works by love, and produceth good works; Fundamentum Chri­stus est in structura Architecti sapientis 1▪ Cor▪ 3.—Si autem Christus, proculdubio fides Christi: per fidem quippe habitat Christus in cordibus▪ sicut idem Apostolus dicit. Eph▪ 3. Porro fides Christi illa utique, quam definivit Apostolus, quae per dilectionem operatur. Aug. de fide & operih. c. 16▪ pag. 71. D. Tom. 4▪ Edit. Basil▪ 1569. Again; Cum ergo di­cit Apostolus, Arbitrari se justificari hominem per fidem sine operibus legis: Non hoc agit ut praecepta ac professa fide opera justitiae contemnantur, sed ut sciat se quisque justificari, etiamsi legis opera non praecesserint. Sequuntur enim justificatum: non praecedunt justifi­candum. [...]bid cap. 14. p. 68. C. And elsewhere; Sicut per unius delictum in omnes homines in [Page 128] condemnationem, ut nullus praetermitteretur: sic & in eo quod dictum est, per unius justi­tiam in omnes homines in justificationem vitae, nullus praetermissus est. Non quia omnes in eum credunt, & baptismo ejus abluuntur: sed quia nemo justificatur, nisi in eum credat, & baptismo ejus abluatur. De Natur. & Grat. contra Pelagian. cap. 41. page▪ 750. D. Tom. 7. And a little after that; Ea quippe Fides justos sanavit antiquos, quae sanat & nos; id est, mediatoris Dei & hominum hominis Iesu Christi, fides sanguinis ejus, fides crucis ejus, fides mortis & resurrectionis ejus. ibid. cap. 44. page 751. D.

To mention no more Antient writers, come we to the Latter writers, forrein and domestique, who speak more punctually and clearly to the matter in hand.

Calvin, that Apostolical man, Speaking of the Covenant mentioned in Hos. 2. thus ex [...]res­seth the reciprocalness, and consequently the Conditionality thereof; Nunc declarat quibus legi­bus hoc facturus sit: nempe, In [...]ustitia & judicio: hoc est, in ejus federe nihil fuit simula­tum vel fallax. Quum ergo syncere Deus populum adoptasset, quibus vitiis opponit justi­tiam & judicium? Respondeo, haec nomina ad utramque partem contrahentem referri. Justitiam ergo Deus intelligit, non suam duntaxat, sed quae mutua sit & reciproca, ut loquun­tur. Ioh. Calv. Com. in Hos. 2. 19. And afterwards; Et ipsa dicet m [...]hi, Tu deus meus. Pro­pheta enim significat Deum antevertere nos federe suo, quia alioqui arcemur ab accessu. Deus ergo sponte nos praevenit & [...]orrigit nobis manum, deinde subsequitur Consensus fidei nostrae. ibid Comment. in [...]os 2. 23.

Luther declares, that as God deals with us by way of Promise we deal with him by way of Faith; Deus non aliter cum hominibus unquam egit, aut agit, quam verbo PROMIS­SIONIS: Rursus nec nos cum Deo unquam agere aliquid possumus quam FIDE in verbum promissionis eju [...]. Opera ille nihil curat▪ nec eis indiget, quibus potius erga homi­nes & cum hominibus & nobis ipsis agimus. Indiget autem ut verax in suis promissis in no bis habeatur, talisque longanimiter sustineatur, ac sic Fide, Spe & Caritate colatur. Quo fit ut gloriam suam in nobis obtineat, dum non nobis currentibus, sed ipso Miserente, Pro­mittente, Donante, omnia bona accipimus & habemus. Luth. in Tom. 2. Latin. page 280 A.

Pete [...] Martyr, describing the Covenant, asserts the m [...]tual stip [...]lation of the federates, viz. of God and his people to one another; Quae autem Promissa utrinque servanda fuerint, Scrip­tura non semel docet. Deus enim pollicitus est, se futurum populi sui Deum, nempe qui adsit ei juvando, eripiendo, & modis omnibus quoad omnia bonorum genera ornando. Populus vicissim recepit se Dominum [...]ehovam pro Deo suo credendo, colendo & obediendo habi­turum. Christus autem in Federe, tanquam Mediator, inter utramque partem intercedit. Haec est Federis inter Deum & homines initi Explicatio & natura. Pe [...]. Mart. in Loc. Com. Class. Secund▪ Cap. 16 Sect. 1.

Cameron Describes the Covenant of Grace by the express mention of Faith in Christ as the Condition thereof, and asserts, that in that Covenant God st [...]pulates and requires faith from us; Fedu [...] Gratiae est illud quo deus, propositâ conditione fidei in Christum, remissionem peccatorum in ejus Sanguine, & vitam coelestem pollicetur, idque eo fine, ut ostendat Divi­tias misericordiae suae▪ Ioh. Cameron. de tripl. Dei cum Homine Federe. Thes. 82. And before; Quomodo differat Fides illa quam praesupponit justitia exacta in Federe Naturae, ab ea Fide quam stipulatur Deus in Federe Gratiae. Thes. 11.—In hoc convenire cum Fide quae postulatur in Federe Gratiae,—At fides quae requiritur in Federe Gratiae. Thes. 14.

Ursinus and Pareus, writing of that Common pla [...]e, of Gods Covenant, do often express the Conditionality of the Covenant of Grace; Fedus Dei est mutua pactio inter Deum & homi­nes, quâ Deus confirmat hominibus, se futurum eis propitium, remissurum peccata, &c. vicissim homines se obligant Deo ad fidem & poenitentiam, hoc est, ad recipiendum vera fide hoc tantum beneficium, &c. Fedus dei est unum substantia, duplex Circumstantiis: Seu, est unum, quod ad Conditiones principales, quas Deus nobis, & nos Deo stipulamur: & sunt Duo quod ad Conditiones minus principales, vel ut alii loquuntur, quod ad modum administrationis. Zach. Ursin. in Explicat. Catechet. Quest. 18. de Federe, Sect. 1. & 3.

Wendeline, in his excellent System of Christian Theology, describing the Covenant of Grace, still insists upon the Conditionality thereof; Fedus Gratiae, est dispositio Dei Gratuita, quâ per mor­tem filii sui salutem aeternam promittit hominibus, obedientiam fidei repromittentibus & prae­stantibus. Materia sunt personae seu partes Fedus ineuntes, 1. Deus, promittens vitam sub con­ditione fidei & cultus sui. 2. Homines, Fidem & obedientiam repromittentes. Forma est mutua Partium, secundum certas Conditiones, obligatio.—Et vel maximè huic commendat Dei gra­tiam & misericordiam Quod ad praescriptae Conditionis impletionem ipse hominem disponit per gratiam non tantum sufficientem▪ quâ possit, sed & efficacem, quâ velit implere conditio­nem. Hos. 2. 19, 20. Phil, 2. 13. M. Fred. Wendelin. Christian. Theol. l. 1. cap. 19. Thes. 9. & Expl. c.

The four learned professours of Leiden, viz Poliander▪ Rivet, Walaeus, and Thysius, Though they deny the New Testament properly so called, to require the Condition of fulfilling the whole Law in Bellarmines sense; yet in another and sound sense they assert the Conditionality of the New Covenant: Sed hoc negamus, quod illi volunt, Novum Testamentum proprie dictum, quatenus est promissionis gratiae in Christo datae Doctrina▪ requirere Conditionem totius legis implendae, quod vult Bellarmin. Justificat. lib. 4. cap. 2. aut justos non esse liberos ab observatione legis divinae, quatenus il [...]a exigit obedientiam perfectam, quâ ex debito justus aliquis pronunciatur.—Deinde, non omnem Conditionem negamus in Evangelio & Novo Testamento requiri ad Salutem▪: Requiritur enim Conditio Fidei & Novae obedientiae, quae ubique urgetur. Sed hae Conditiones à Deo gratis donantur; neque imperfectione suâ si modo sincerae sint, impediunt salutem quae ab alia causa manat. At non ita sentiendum de conditione totius legis implendae, quam statuunt illi salutis Causam, & quae à Deo nemini in hac vita do­natur talis, ut judicium Dei sustinere possit. Iac. 3. 2. & 2. 10. Synops. purior. Theol. Disp. 23. Sect. 27, 28, 29.

Mr. John Ball, in his judicious Treatise of the Covenant of Grace, doth often mention the conditionality of the Covenant; As, (1) In the General Nature of it. Chap. 3. page 17, 18, 19, 20. The words I have heretofore expressed in this Question. (2) In the Covenant of Pro­mise with Adam; Of this Covenant there be two parts: 1. A Promise. 2. A Stipulation.—The Stipulation is, that they believe in him that justifieth the ungodly, and walk before him in all well-pleasing. This may be gathered, because the Promise of forgiveness cannot be received, but by Faith, and by Faith it is that we overcome the world; and vanquish Sa­tan the enemy of our Souls, &c. Chap. 5. page 43, 44. (3) In the Covenant with Abraham; This Covenant was made in Form of a Promise, to be performed according to the purpose of Election: In thy Seed shall all nations of the earth be blessed: And in Form of a Covenant, Consisting of a Free Promise, and Restipulation: I'am God Al-sufficient, walk before me, and be perfect. Chap. 6. pag. 48. (4) In the Covenant with Israel at Mount Sinai▪ True it is the Promises run upon this Condition, &c. (as I have formerly in this Question Recited the words) Chap. 8. page 132, 133. And afterwards he adds; The Condition of This Covenant (in the sense aforesaid) is Faith in the promised Messiah, which is implyed in the Promise, I will be thy God; and Commanded in the Precept built upon it, [...]hou shalt have me to be thy God. Chap. 8. page 134. And again; These words, do this and live, must not be interpreted, as if they did Promise life upon a Condition of perfect Obedience, and for works done in such exactness as is required: but they must be expounded Evangelically, describing the subject capable of life eternal not the cause why life and salvation is conferred. And by Doing, sincere uniform impartial obedience; Not exact fulfilling of the Law in every Title▪ is to be under­stood. Chap. 8. page 136, 137. (5) In the Covenant with David; The Condition of this Covenant is that they should walk in the waies of the Lord, and keep his watch, &c. Chap. 9. page 149 (6) In the description of the New Covenant: The free Covenant which God of his rich Grace in Jesus Christ incarnate, crucified dead buried, raised up to life, and ascen­ded up to heaven, hath made and plainly revealed unto the world of Jew and Gentile, Promi­sing to be their God and father by right of Redemption, &c.—If they repent of their iniquities, believe in Christ, and through or by Christ in him, and walk before him in sincere constant and Conscionable Obedience. Chap. 1. of the New Covenant, page 198.

Mr. George Walker in his Compendious Treat. of Old and New Covenant, thus expresseth the Nature of a Covenant in General; viz. 1. Every true Covenant presupposeth a Division [Page 130] or Separation. 2. It comprehends in it a Mutual Promising and Binding betwixt two di­ [...]tinct Parties. 3. There must be faithful dealing without fraud or dissembling on both sides. 4. This must be between choise persons. 5. It must be about choise Matters and upon choise Convitions agreed upon by both. 6. It must tend to the wel-ordering and composing of things between them▪ Chap. 4. page 48, 49. Lond. 1640. Now if a Covenant in General, hath in it, Mutual Promising and binding of the federate parties, and choise Conditions agreed upon by both: consequently every particular species of a Covenant hath mutual Promising, binding, and Con­ditions. Again, touching the Covenant of Nature, he saith; The condition on mans part, was obedience to [...]ods Law, and subjection to God his Creator in all things, Chap. 5. page, 50. 51. And [...]hough he say; That in the Covenant of Grace there is not any condition or Law to be performed on mans part by man himself, as in the Covenant of Nature: yet he grants, That Certain [...]ifts, Graces, works and fruits of the Spirit; Outward, as the word Preached and Heard. The Sacraments given, and received, &c. Inward, as Faith by which Christ is re­ceived and applyed: Repentance, Love, Hope, and other saving Graces, are required to be in man to make him an actual partaker of Christ, and of life and Salvation in him. Chap. 5. page 55, 56. And this is as much as we assert, denying all conditions as of and from our selves, ac­counting all conditions or terms from us to be meer fruits of Gods grace.

Mr. William Pemble Opening the Nature of the Covenant of Grace and of works, for clear­ing the subject of Iustification, saith; The Diversity is this, The Law offers life unto man upon Condition of perfect Obedience cursing the transgressors thereof in the least point with eternal Death▪ The Gospel offers life unto man upon another condition, viz. of Repen­tance and Faith in Christ, promising remission of fins to such as repent and believe. That this is the main essential and proper difference between the Covenant of works and of grace, that is, between the Law and the Gospel, we shall endeavour to make good against those of the Romish A postacy who deny it. And after his proofs for it saith▪ From whence we conclude firmly, that the difference between the Law and the Gospel assigned by our Di­vines, is most certain and agreeable to the Scriptures, viz. That the Law gives life unto the just, upon condition of perfect obedience in all things: The Gospel gives life unto sin­ners, upon Condition they repent and believe in Christ Jesus. Pemb. Treat. of Iusti [...]. Sect. 4. chap. 1. page 214, 215, 216, 217. Lond. An. 1635.

Mr. Joh. Owen saith; Are we of our selves any way more able to fulfil the Condition of the New Covenant? Is it not as easy for a man by his own strength to fulfil the whole Law, as to repent and savingly believe the Promise of the Gospel? This then is one main difference of these two Covenants; That the Lord did in the Old only require the Condition; now in the New he will also effect it in all the federates, to whom the Covenant is extended. in his Tre [...]t. of Redemp. Book 3. ch [...]p. 1. page 103. 104. Lond. 1648.

Mr. William Perkins, who by his left-handed Dexterity stabbed Popery to the heart, thus describes the Covenant of Grace; The Covenant of grace, is that whereby God, freely pro­mising Christ, and his benefits, exacts again of man, that he would by Faith receive Christ, and repent of his Sins. Hos. 2. 18. 19. Ezek. 36. 25, 26, 27. Mal. 3. 1. The order of Cau­ses of Salvation, Chap. 31. page 70. A. Vol. 1. Lond. 1626. And elsewhere saith; In the Co­venant of grace two things must be considered: The Substance thereof, and The Condition. The Substance of the Covenant is, That righteousness and life everlasting is given to Gods Church and people by Christ. The condition is, that we for our parts, are by Faith to re­ceive the foresaid benefits. And this Condition is by grace [...] as well as the Substance, &c. Reformed Catholique, of Iustificat. II. Difference about [...] manner of Iustificat. page 571. B. C. vol. 1.

Mr. Edward Reynolds saith; In the New Covenant [...] works first. In the first Co­venant man was able by his created and natural strength [...] [...]ork his own Condition, and so to Expect Gods performance: But in the New, As there is [...] in the things Covenant­ed▪ then only righteousness and Salvation; Now, [...] of sins, and Adoption; In the means or intermediate Causes, which are now Christ and his righteousness and Spirit; In the stability, That a perishable, This an eternal and final Covenant that can never be changed; In the Conditions, There Legal obedience, Here only Faith and the certain Consequent [Page 131] thereof Repentance: So likewise is there difference in the manner of performing these Con­ditions; For now God himself begins first to work upon us and in us, before we move or stir towards him. He doth not only command us, and leave us to our created strength to obey the command; but he furnisheth us with his own grace and Spirit to fulfil the Com­mand: and when he bids us come unto him, he doth likewise draw us unto him. The life of Christ. page 512. Lond. 1632.

The godly and learned Assembly of Divines, who have done m [...]re faithful service to Iesus Christ and his Church then any Provincial or National Synod or Convocation before them since England received the Gospel, thus set forth Gods Covenant: Man by his Fall having made him­self uncapable of life by that Covenant, the Lord was pleased to make a Second, common­ly called the Covenant of Grace; wherein he freely offereth unto sinners life and Salvation by Jesus Christ, requiring of them Faith in him that they may be saved, and promising to give unto all those that are ordained unto life, his Holy Spirit, to make them willing and able to believe. Confes. of Faith, chap. 7▪ Sect. 3.

And elsewhere they express themselves yet more fully; The grace of God is manifested in the Second Covenant, in that he freely provideth and offereth to sinners a Mediator, and life, and Salvation by him: and requiring Faith as the Condition to interest them in him, promiseth and giveth his holy Spirit to all his Elect to work in them that Faith with all other saving graces, and to enable them unto all holy obedience, as the evidence of the truth of their faith and thankfulness to God, and as the way which he hath appointed them to salvation. Larger Catech. page 8. Lond. 1648. in quarto.

This Cloud of witnesses may suffice (though many more might easily be added) 1. To shew the Consent of writers to the Conditiona­lity of the Covenant. 2. To clear yet further the true state of the Question. But thus much for Confirmation of the Covenants Conditi­onality.

III. Lastly, As for Refutation of Contrary Arguments or Objecti­ons, militating against the Conditionality of the Covenant, they may be easily Answered from due consideration of the Premises. I shall not need therefore to insist much upon them.

Arg. 1. D. T. Crisp. Christ alone exalted. Serm. 6. page 160. Lond. 1643. If the Covenant stands upon any Conditions to be perfor­med on mans part, it cannot be an everlasting Covenant, except man were so confirmed in righteousness, that he should never fail in that which is his part. But man is not now so Confirmed.—Man did fail in the Con­dition, while there were Conditions before in the first Covenant, and there­by the Covenant was frustrated.

Answ. 1. True; The Covenant of Faith or Grace is a Final and Gen. 17. 13. 19. 2 Sam. 23. 5. Ier. 32. 40. Ezek. 37. 26. Heb. 13, 22. Everlasting Covenant, never to determine. 2. Its as True, That the Conditions which we Assert do no way prejudice the Covenants Perpetuity, but rather stablish it. The condition of Faith ensures the Promise; Rom 4. 16. Therefore it is of Faith, that it might be by Grace: to the end the Promise might be sure to all the seed. The Perpetuity of the Co­venant stands not, is not founded or bottomed, upon Conditions in us: but upon Gods Free-grace, Inviolable Truth and faithfulness, and Christs Al-sufficient Everliving Merit. 3. The Objection holds Against Conditions most strictly taken, such as was Adams obedience to the First Covenant: but such Conditions we disclaim. Against Con­ditions Asserted, it holds not.

Arg. 2. D. T. Crisp. ibid. page 161. to 165. Man hath no tye upon him to perform any thing whatsoever [Page 132] in the Covenant; as a Condition that must be observed on his part. The Covenant plainly shews, that the whole performance of the Covenant lies only upon God himself, and that there is not one bond or obligation upon man to the fulfilling of the Covenant, or partaking in the benefit of the Co­venant, Heb. 8. 10. Joh. 6. 45. Ezek. 36. 25, 29. If there be a Condi­tion, and there should be a failing in the Condition, he that undertakes all things in the Covenant must needs be in fault. But the truth is, the Par­ticulars mentioned in those Texts are not conditions of the Covenant, but Consequents of the Covenant.

Answ. 1. If God absolutely and properly do all in the Covenant, then it is not properly a Covenant but a Promise. 2. If we take Con­ditions Most largely, for Antecedent Preparatory, Concomitant, and Conse­sequent Conditions; Of more restrictively, for the Instrument of Applicati­on, Faith, as hath been explained: then man hath many Tyes, bonds, and obligations upon him, as hath been proved. But if we take Condi­tions, for Antecedent Impulsive, or Meritorious Causes, Or Most strictly: such bonds we deny in this Covenant as well as Crisp. 3. God, as the Primary, most free, independing cause and agent, obliged by no superiour Law, undertakes in the Covenant both to perform his part, and to enable us in an Evangelical sense to perform our part, giving both to will and to do, both first Grace and second Grace, infusing ha­bits, and drawing them into act; Notwithstanding, Acti agimus: being Acted by him, we act with him. God works not upon us, as men upon stones. He draws, and we come. He is Heb. 12. 2. author and finisher of faith: yet we believe. Efficiently God performs all, by enabling us to perform: but Formally and Subjectively we perform from him. 4. Hence, All our performances are originally to be ascribed to God: all our failings to our selves. Its no less then blasphemous, to translate our Covenant-failings upon God.

Arg. 3. D. T. Crisp. ibid. p. 165. &c. The Covenant in the Actual substance of it is made good to a person before he can do any thing. The main thing in a Covenant is Gods being the God of a People, and the model of that is Gods Love which is cast upon man before he can do any thing, Rom. 9. 11.

Answ. 1. Gods love in Election is cast upon man before the world was: much more before man can do any thing. 2. This Love is not Gods Covenant: The Covenant is the effect of this Love. 3. There are Concomitant and Consequent, as well as Antecedent Conditions. Further Resol. to objections, See in Mr. Ru­therford, Christ Dy [...]ng, page 471. to 478. And Mr. I [...]. Gra [...]l, Vindica tion of condi­tions in the Covenant. others.


V. Hence, The COVENANT of FAITH is a sweet Paradise of Believers Union to, and Communion with God in Iesus Christ. We may conceive of a threefold Para­dise, and a threefold Union and Communion with God therein. A threefold Paradise, viz. Terrestrial, wherein Gen. 2. 8. to 18. Adam was placed in [Page 133] innocency: Spiritual, wherein believers are placed in Grace; And Celestial, wherein 2 Cor. 12. 2, 3, 4. Luke 23. 43. Rev. 2. 7. the righteous are placed in glory. Answera­bly, A threefold Union and Communion with God, viz. Natural, Gracious and Glorious. Natural; and such union and Communion Adam had with God in Eden the Earthly Paradise before his Fall, by his Natural [...] 7. 29. with [...] Ch [...]p. 1. 2. & 3. integrity. Gracious; and such [...]. [...]. 20 to [...]. 1 [...]oh. 1. 3. 2 Cor. 13 [...]. union and Communion believers have with God in Jesus Christ through the Spirit by Faith in this world. Glorious; and such Ioh. 1 [...] 24. 1 Ioh. [...]. 2, 3. 1 Cor. 13. 12. Math. 5. 8. Heb 12. 22, 23. union and Com­munion just men made perfect shall have with God in Christ fully and immediatly face to face for ever in the highest Heavens. The Natu­rall union and Communion with God, in the Earthly Eden, Adam en­joyed by the Covenant of Works. The Supernatural union and Com­munion with God, whether gracious on Earth, or glorious in Hea­ven, Christs seed enjoy by the Covenant of Faith, Initiate here, Con­summate hereafter. And so this Covenant of Faith brings believers from Paradise, through Paradise, to Paradise. From Paradise, even the earthly Eden, where Gen. 3. this Covenant, after the Fall, had its first Rise and original: Through Paradise, even the spiritual Eden of union and communion with God in his Church, where Heb. 8. 6, 8, 9. this Covenant hath its growth and increase: And To Paradise, even the third Hea­vens, where this Covenant shall have its fulness and accomplishment.

Now this union and communion with God (which is the Saints spiritual Paradise, and Heaven on Earth) is grounded upon this Cove­nant of Faith. How? In this sort. According to this Covenant, 1. We have union unto Christ by Faith immediatly. For, Ioh. 1. 11. accept­ing him by Faith as our Mediatour, Root and Representative; we Actually become his Seed, his Spouse, his Members: who before were only such intentionally by Gods Decree. 2. We thus united to Christ, are mediatly through Christs Mediation Ioh. 14. 6. Col. 1. 20. Heb. 8. 10. brought into uni­on with God, he becoming our God, and we his people▪ 3. Being thus brought into this mystical Union to Christ and God, we conse­quently obtain sweet heavenly Communion with them both: 1 Ioh. 1. 3. And truly our fellowship is with the Father and his Son Iesus Christ. So that, Righteousness, both imputed to us, and inherent in us: Eternal life: And all things referring and appertaining hereunto, are freely made ours, in God and in Christ. These three things Christ notably ex­presseth in his sweet and heavenly prayer; Ioh. 17. 20. to the end of the Chapter. Praying for all them that should believe on him through his Apostles word, That they all may be one, as thou Father art in me, and I in thee, that they also may be one in us.—I in them, and thou in me, that they may be made perfect in one. Here's their union mystical to the Father and to Christ: but to Christ first, and then in him to the Father. That the world may know that thou hast sent me; and hast loved them as thou hast loved me▪ Father, I will that they also whom thou hast given me, may be with me where I am, that they may behold my glory which thou hast given me. Here's their Commu­nion with the Father, in his Love; and with the Son, in his Glory, flowing from the former union.


VI. HEnce, The Substance and Matters of this Covenant of Faith are most High and Great: far surpassing the matters of all other Covenants, whether of God or Man. Man never could Covenant with man, what God herein Covenants with Christ and his Seed: And God never did Covenant with Man in the Covenant of Works, what he here Covenanteth in this Cove­nant. For,

1. How high and great are the Mercies here Promised on Gods Part! I. To Christ the last Adam, God (as hath been formerly proved) promis [...]th, 1. To invest him with a Mediatory office, whereby he should prevailingly mediate with God as Priest, Prophet and King for the Re­covery of his Seed. 2. To Assist, comfort and protect Christ in the ex­ecuting and fulfilling of this his office, against all extremities of suffer­ings, All oppositions of enemies, and All his deepest discouragements. 3. [...]o exalt Christ gloriously, in his Resurrection from the Dead, As­cension into Heaven, and Session at Gods right hand: after he had been humbled and abased most ignominiously. 4. To accept Christ de­lightfully and contentedly in this his Mediation for his Seed. 5. To crown and prosper Christ with compleat success in this his office for the Recovering of all his Seed. These, amongst other excellent bles­sings, God Promiseth to Christ the last Adam, in order to the Recove­ry of his Seed. II. To Christs seed also in him God Covenanteth and promiseth these things Principally: viz. 1. To restore them from the state of Sin, to the state of Righteousness both Imputed and Inhe­rent. 2. To Recover them from Death, to Eternal life by Christ. 3. To be to them a God. Now, how high and transcendent are these Blessings promised! No created beings can promise such Bene­fits. God never promised such things in the Covenant of Works to Adam in Innocency: there's no promise of any Christ, or to any Christ, or of any righteousness or life by him, or of being Adam's God in him. These are the greatest mercies that Sinners can need, Christs seed can Receive, or God himself can give.

2. How high and great the Duties Restipulated! I. By Christ the last Adam, who re-obligeth himself to God, 1. To accept, undertake and discharge this Mediatory office chearfully and faithfully, for the Recovery of his Seed. 2. To depend and fully relie upon his heavenly Father, for Assistance, Protection and Acceptance in the execution of his office, notwithstanding all Distresses, Oppositions and Discourage­ments. II. By Christs Seed, who in Christ restipulate, 1. To accept Jesus Christ, and in him all Covenanted Mercies by faith unfained. 2. To walk worthy of Christ, and all these covenanted Mercies, accord­ing to the Gospel. 3. And in Jesus Christ to become the People of the living God. Behold, what manner of Duties are here! Never office in this world so weighty and intricate as the Mediatory office. For, [Page 135] hereby in order to the recovery of Christs Seed, Gods exactest Law was in all points to be fulfilled; Gods infinite justice offended by their sins was fully to be satisfied and appeased; Sin, Death, Hell and all the powers of darkness were to be condemned and subdued. What Abasement, what Temptations, what Reproaches and Persecutions, what Prayers, what Tears, what Torments of body, what Disertions and Agonies of soul, and what Effusion of his dearest hearts blood, did the effecting of these cost Jesus Christ? Never Creature in this world did or could so depend upon God, in such a red Sea of Ca­lamities, as Christ did: whose Faith failed not in the least degree. And as for Christs Seed, Their accepting Christ by Faith▪ walking wor­thy of him Evangelically, and becoming Gods People, are compre­hensive Duties, altogether supernatural, and contra-natural; wholly above, and against all corrupted Naturals. They wholly debase Na­ture, but exalt Grace. They altogether nullifie the Sinner, strike him off his bottome, and strip him of his boasting: but they magnifie, yea omnifie the Saviour, set him upon his Throne, and ascribe to him all the glory.


VII. HEnce, The Properties and Perfections of this Co­venant of Faith are divers and excellent. In the Nature of this Covenant thus Described and opened, these are more especially Observable, viz. It is, 1. Holy. 2. Gratuitous. 3. Ordered in all things. 4. Sure. 5. Comfortable. 6. Everlasting.

I. Holy. The Covenant of Faith is stiled Holy, 1. In the Old Testament by Daniel, describing the wickedness of Antiochus E­piphanes;Dan. 11. 28. 30. His heart shall be against the Holy Covenant.—He shall have indignation against the Holy Covenant.—And have intelligence with them that for sake the Holy Covenant. To this Effect the Psalmist describing Israels wonderful Deliverance out of Egypt, lays down this as the Cause thereof, Gods faithfulness in his holy Promise or Covenant; Psal. 105. 42, 43. For he remembred his Holy Promise, and Abraham his servant. Promise here being put for Cove­nant, by a Synechdoche. 2. In the New Testament by Luke; Luke 1. 72, To perform the mercy Promised to our Fathers, and to remember his Holy Co­venant. The Oath which he sware to our Father Abraham, &c. Thus, That this Covenant is Holy, is evident. But what is this Holiness ascribed to the Covenant? and in what respects is it Holy? Answ. A thing may be called Holy; and so this Covenant, Holy; in five respects, viz.

1. In respect of its Separation from Common things: or from Common to Sacred use and Service. Thus persons and things Dedicated and set apart for holy religious use, are frequently in Lev. 21. 6, 7, 8. Exod. 3. 5. & 16▪ 23. Psal. 46. 4. 1 King. 8. 4. Scripture called Holy. And thus the Covenant of Faith is holy, being separated, de­dicated [Page 136] and set apart to an holy and spiritual use, viz. The uniting of God and sinners in a Sacred Bond of Reconcilement in Christ.

2. In respect of its Perfection. Holiness implies an absence of im­perfection, and a presence of perfection. And this And. Ri­vet. Comment. in Exod. 15. 11. Some think, is especially signified by Holiness. Thus God being Iob. 11. 7, 8, 9. with Exod. 15. 10, 11. most abso­lutely perfect, without all imperfection: is most absolutely Holy. And Gods Covenant, being a Perfect Covenant in its kind, and wanting no Perfection therein for the Compleat advancing of the sinners Hap­piness and Gods Glory thereby, is in this regard proportionably Holy.

3. In respect of its pureness and clearness from all pollution, defile­ment, spot, or stain of sin: when there's no sinful mixture in it. As gold is said to be pure, when it is full of it self, all gold, and no mixture of dross in it: Honey is said to be pure, when there is no mixture of dregs in it. Thus, God being most pure, having Heb. 1. 13. Psal. 92. l [...]st. 1 Iohn 1. 5. Isa. 6. 3. no mixture of sin or darkness at all in him, is most Holy. The Godly being Rev. 1. 5. Acts 15. 9. 1 Cor. 6 11. washed in Christs blood, and purified by Christs Sanctifying Spi­rit, are above all other people, an 1 Pet. 2. 5. 9. Holy Nation, &c. And in this Sense Gods Covenant is holy, being pure, clean and separate from all Sin and sinful defilement, which may be incident to Mans Cove­nants. Every thing in and about this Covenant being in this Sense pure and Holy: The Covenant it self must needs be pure and Holy also. For, 1. The Author of this Covenant is Holy, viz. The Lord God, who is Isa 6. 3. Revel. 4. 8. Holy, Holy, Holy. Psal. 89. 35. Holiness it self.—Exod. 15. 11. who is like unto thee, Glorious in Holiness? 2. The Mediatour of this Co­venant is Holy, viz. Jesus Christ, who is Luke 1. [...]5. That holy thing. Acts 2. 27. & 13, 35. & 3. 14. 1 Iohn 2. 20. The Holy one. Mark 1. 24. Luke 4. 34. The Holy one of God. 3. The Parties to this Cove­nant are Holy, viz. On the one hand the Most Holy God. On the Other hand, Jesus Christ the last Adam and his Seed. Christ is Holy, as hath been shewed. And Christs Seed are conformable to him in Holiness. And thereupon stiled Heb 3. 1. 1 Thes. 5. 27. Holy brethren. 2 Pet. 1. 21. Holy men. 1 Pet. 3. 5. Holy women. Eph. 2. 21. 1 Cor. 3. 17. An Holy Temple. 1 Pet. 2. 5. An holy Priest­hood. Exod 19. 6. 1 Pet. 2. 9. An Holy Nation Deut. 7 6. & 28. 9. Isa. 62. 12. An Holy People, &c. 4. The Matters or Blessings Covenanted on Gods part to us, are Holy, viz. Our Recovery by Christ, the Holy one of God, from the State of Sin unto a state of holiness and righteousness, Eph 4. 24. 1 Pet. 2. 5, 9. enjoyed in our persons, Luke 1. 72, 73 74, 75. expressed in our Conversations. 5. Finally, The Matters and Conditions restipulated by us unto God, are Holy; viz. Accepting Christ by believing, Believing being called Jude 20. Our most Holy Faith. Walking worthy of Christ, &c. which is in other phrase stiled, Luke 1. 72. walking before God in Holiness and Righteousness all the days of our life. and—2 Cor. 7. 1. Perfecting Holiness in the fear of God, &c. Oh therefore how Holy in these regards is this Co­venant of God!

4. In respect of its Heavenliness. A thing that is heavenly, sublime, Spiritual, abstracted and lifted up from Earthliness, is said to be [Page 137] Holy. Hence [...]. Harm. Eva [...] ­gel. c. 176. pag. 191. &c. 180. p. 460. Scap. Lex. ad verb. [...]. some derive the Greek word for Holy, [...], from [...] & [...] without the Earth: as it were [...], un-earthly. For, every thing that is in Heaven, or is Heavenly, is Holy. Thus this Covenant consequently is Holy; for it is a most sublime, spiritu­al, Heavenly Mysterie. It was contrived in Heaven; All the world could not have devised or imagined such a way for Recovery of Sin­ners; and it brings all them at last unto Heaven, that embrace it, and close with God in it.

5. Finally, In respect of its firmness and setled stability a thing is called Holy. Hence Ideo Spiri­tus Sanctus di­citur, quoniam ad permanen­dum sanciun­tur, quicunque sanctificantur; Nec dubium est à Sanciendo [...]anctitatem vocari. Aug. de Fld. & Symb. p. 147. D. Tom. 3. Basil. 1569. Ger. Harm. Evan. c. 180. p. 400. Augustine thinks the Latin name for Holy, is derived from firmness and establishment, Sanctus, quasi Sancitus. Thus this Covenant is Holy, that is, firm, sure established that it cannot be shaken or overthrown, as after will appear in opening the Property of its Sureness.

Now his Covenant of Faith being every way thus sacred and Holy; 1. It is highly to be preferred above all Common humane Covenants in this point of Holiness. 2. An unholy sinful state, and inward saving interest in this Holy Covenant are inconsistent. He that intends to have share in this holy Covenant, must himself be­come holy in person and Conversation, 3. They that are Federates with God in Christ according to this Covenant, should in Conformi­ty to this Covenant, both think, speak, act and in all points walk holily, heavenly, and unblameably.

II. Gratuitous. The Covenant of Faith is wholly and meerly of Free-Grace. For what the Apostle said of the Inheritance of life and salvation, we may say of this Covenant of Faith promising this inhe­ritance; Rom. 4. 16. Therefore it is of Faith, that it might be by Grace; to the end the Promise might be sure to all the Seed. Grace and Faith are inseparable Relatives, which stand or fall together. If it be a Covenant of Faith, for the Condition of it; it must consequently be a Covenant of Grace, for the Foundation of it: and so on the contrary. For Faith hath nothing for its object in this Covenant but meer Grace, having nothing herein propounded by way of Promise from God, or by way of restipulation from Christs Seed, but all of meer Grace. And that, not only, The Grace of Favour towards Creatures, which had place in the Covenant of works: but also The Grace of Commiseration towards sinful, lapsed Creatures, which only hath place in this Covenant of Faith▪ But of the In Book [...] 1. chap. 2. Aphorism 2. Section 1. & corollar. 2. Gratuitousness of this Covenant enough for­merly.

III. Ordered in all things. 2 Sam. 23. 5. Although mine house be not so with God, yet he hath made with me an everlasting Covenant, Ordered in all things. [...] Berith Hharoucah Baccol viz. A Covenant Ordered in all. Thus David stiles Gods Covenant, which was made with him: and so proportionably every Particular discovery of this Covenant of Faith is Ordered in all. The Hebrew word translated, Ordered, signifies, Vid. Pagn in Thesaur. ad verb. [...] Orderly-disposed, orderly set, or placed by reason and proportion, Orderly fitted, furnished, prepared, directed, setled, ad­dressed [Page 138] The Lxxii render it [...], ready, prepared. As a Table is pre­pared and furnished when stored with all manner of Provision; Or as an Army is marshalled, ranked or set in graceful Order, when every one is in his place: so this Covenant is contrived and put in most excellent order, well furnished and prepared with all Necessaries to Salvation, and which shall be orderly disposed to Christs Seed in due Season. 1 Cor. 14. 33. & 15. 23. God is the God of order; As he most Gen. 1. throughout. Psal. 104. throughout. Eccles. 3. 11. orderly cre­ated all things at first: so in most comely and beautiful Order he Go­verns all things created ever since; Especially the mysteries of Grace for the Salvation of his Elect? More particularly This Covenant is Ordered in all things, in these respects following. viz.

1. In respect of the inward Constitution of the Covenant. How excel­lently and orderly hath God composed it and constituted it of Matter and Form? I. The Matter, 1. On Gods part promised, is The Recovery of Christs Seed by Iesus Christ from the State of Sin and Death, to the State of righteousness and life, that so the Lord may be their God. And this Matter is admirably well ordered. For, () Here's the Blessings or Mercies Promised, viz. Recovery, &c. God becoming their God, what could be ordered and prepared more suitably and more sufficiently for poor lost Sinners Salvation and happiness. Here are fit and full supplies for all their spiritual wants. (2.) Here are the Parties to whom these Covenanted mercies are peculiarly intended; viz. Christs Seed. Not all men, but only Gods Elect. They alone must share in these special mercies: peculiarly prepared for them. (3) Here is the only Mediatour by whom these persons shall come to enjoy these promised Mercies, viz. Jesus Christ, with whom God had a blessed Transaction for effecting thereof. 2. On our part, the matter resti­pulated is; 1. Our accepting of Christ and covenanted mercies by true Faith. How shall they else be made ours? (2.) Our walking worthy of them according to the Gospel. How else shall we walk thankfully, and really testifie they are ours? (3) Our giving up our selves to God as his people. How otherwise can we assure our selves that he is our God. II. The form of this Covenant is the mutual obligation and reciprocal engagement of the Federate parties to each other. Oh how comely and beautifully, with what symmetry and proportion are all things in this Covenant ordered and prepared!

2. In respect of the Outward Dispensation of the Covenant, it is Orde­red in all things. God observed an Order of Degrees in Revealing it. He made it not known at all, Gen. 2. 16, 17. with Gen. 3. 6, 15. till Adam had quite broken the Co­venant of works. And then but gradually; first discovering it more darkly, remotely and imperfectly, as we see things a great way off: but afterward more clearly, immediatly, & compleatly, as [...]e discern things at hand. God observed also an Order of Proportion in Dispensing it, having therein respect both to his Churches Non-age & Full age. 1. In her Non­age dispensing it sparingly, carnally & servilly in certain initial Elements and Rudiments of Ceremonies, Types and carnal observances, as his Peoples weakness and dulness was able to bear it: But 2. in her full age [Page 139] he dispensed it, more freely, fully and spiritually after the Coming of Christ. How orderly was this his proceeding!

3. In respect of the Accomplishment of it in Christ, this Covenant is ordered in all things. It makes Christ known first dimly, as at a great distance: then clearly, as at hand. This Covenant is a Cabinet: Christ is the rich Treasure in this Covenant-Cabinet; but not fully disclosed all at once. 1 At first he was represented, As the Gen. 3. 15. Seed of of the woman bruising the Serpents head. 2. Then (under the Type of Gen. 6. 18, &c. Heb. 11. 7. 1 Pet. 3. 20, 21. Noah sa­ving his Family in the Ark by waters;) As a Saviour of his family and little flock by his blood from perishing in their sins by the de­luge of Gods wrath overwhelming all the world besides. 3. Then, Gen. 12. 3. & 22. 18. with Acts 3. 25. Gal. 3. 8, 9. As the Seed of Abraham, in whom all the [...]inreds and families of the earth should be blessed. 4. Then, as the Exod. 24. & 25, &c. with Ioh. 1. 17. Col. 2. 17. Heb 9. 9. to 15. Anti-type of the Mosa­ical Sacrifices, Purgations and other Ceremonies, both Expiating the Guilt, and Purifying the Filth of sin, from his Seed. 5. After this, As the Psal. 89. 3. 4. 29. & 132. 11. with Acts 2 30. Seed of David, that as King,