OXFORD, Printed by WILLIAM HALL Anno Salutis M. DC. LXIII.


OXFORD, Printed by WILLIAM HALL Anno Salutis M. DC. LXIII.

A short description of CAMBRIA, now called WALES, drawne by Sir Iohn Prise Knight, and perused by Humphrey Lloyd Gentleman.

THe three Sonnes of Brutus, Locri­nus, Albanactus, and Camber divided the whole Isle of Bri­taine into three Parts. The part contained within the French Seas, the Rivers Severne (called in Bri­tish Hafren) Dee and Humber fell to Locrinus the eldest son, from whom it was called Lloyger, which name it hath in the British tongue to this day, in English it is called England, and now extendeth it selfe Northward to the River Tweed; The 2d son Albana­nactus had all the Country Northward from Humber to the Sea Orkney (called in the British tongue Môr Werydh, and in Latine Mare Caledonium) for his Share; The 3d son Camber had the remaining part lying within the Spanish and Irish Seas, and separated from England by the Rivers Severne and Dee; this part was after his name called Cambria, the Inhabitants Cambry, and their Language Camberaec, as at this day; The Inhabitants of this part have kept their Country and Language about 2690 years, without commixtion with any other Na­tion. This Country Cambria, in British Cymru, was called by the Saxons (a people of Germany that conquered and inhabi­ted that part of Britaine called Lloyger) Wales, and the Inha­bitants and the Language, Welsh, which are words signifying strange; and the Inhabitants of High and Low Germany doe at this day call the Language they do not understand, Walsh, and the people that speake it, Welshmen; so that they are much de­ceived, [Page 2] who derive the word from a Queene called Gwalaes, or from a Prince named Wala; neither is the phancy of Polydor Virgil, who saith it was called Walia quasi Italia, because the remaining part of the Romans in the Isle were driven thither, to be approved of; Giraldus Cambrensis before him and others were guilty of the same mistake. That the Country was call­ed Wales and the People Welsh by the Saxons (a strange Nati­on) is evident, in that the Welsh know not what those words meane, their mother tongue teaching them only to call themselves Cymru and their Language Cymraec; And that they were not Romans that were driven into Cambria, the language doth sufficiently evince, which hath words that have no affinity at all with the Latine: it must needs be granted that many words are borrowed from the Latine, as it could not be o­therwise, the Roman Legions and Colonies having been so long seated in the Country, but they are so different in termination that it requires some skill to discover the words that are of Ro­man extraction.

The Saxons gaining still ground, the Britains were driven by them out of the plain, champion country on the other side the rivers Dee & Severne, especially by Offa K. of Mercia, who made a Ditch of great depth and breadth to be a Meare between his795 Kingdom & Wales; the Ditch begins at the river Dee by Basing­werke between Chester and Ruthlan, & runs along the sides of the hills to the South Sea a little from Bristoll; It reacheth above a 100 miles in length, and is in many places to be seene at this day; the Welsh call it Clawdh Offa; the Country between it and England is commonly called (in Welsh) Y Mars, although the greatest part thereof be now inhabited by the Welsh, espe­cially in Northwales, which yet keepeth the ancient limits to the river Dee, and in some places reacheth beyond it.

Giraldus and others make the river Wy, in Welsh Gwy, to be the meare between England and Wales on the South part, the breadth of Wales from Salow or Willowford, in Welsh Rhyd yr helig upon Wy to S. Davids in Menevia is a 100 miles; also the length from Caerlleon upon Use in Gwentland to Holyhead or Caergybi in Anglesey, in Welsh Mon, is above a 100 miles; the Welsh tongue is at this day commonly spoken beyond these meares, as in Herefordshire, Glocestershire, and Shropshire.

[Page 3]About the yeare of Christ 870 Rodericus Magnus divided870 Wales into three Territories or Kingdomes, which were these, 1. Gwynedh, in English Northwales, in Latine Venedotia. 2. De­heubarth, in English Southwales, in Latine Demetia. 3. Powis­land. In each of these he ordained a Princely Seat or Court for the Prince to live at most commonly, as in Gwynedh, Aberffraw Aberfraw. in the Ile of Môn or Anglesey; in Deheubarth, Caermardhyn, from whence it was removed to Dinevowr, eight miles thence;Dinevowr. Mathraval. in Powys, Pengwern or Ymwythic, in English Shrewsbury, from whence it was removed to Mathraval in Powis land.

Of the Kingdome of Gwyneth or Aberffraw.

Rodri the Great gave Northwales to his eldest Sonne, and ordained that the other two should pay him (each of them) yearly by way of Tribute 2001, as appears by the Laws of Howel Dha. Northwales hath upon the North side the Sea, up­on the West and Southwest the river Dyvi, which divideth it from Southwales, and in some places from Powis; it extends from the river Dee at Basingwerke to Aberdyvi; on the South and East it is divided from Powis sometimes with rivers, some­times with mountains, till it comes to the River Dee againe. It was of old divided into foure parts, the first and chiefest where­of was Môn, now called Anglesey, in which at Aberfraw the1. Môn. Prince had his chiefe house; It is an Island separated from the maine land by an arme of the Sea called Menai; It hath in it three Cantreds or Hundreds, which are subdivided into six Co­mots, as 1. Cantref Aberfraw to Comot Llivon and Malliraeth: 2. Cantref Cemais to Talebolion and Twrcelyn: and 3. Cantref Rossîr to Tindaethwy and Menai. It hath in it a neat, commo­dious towne called B [...]umarish, also Newburgh, and a passage into Ireland at Caergybi, in English Holyhead. It is an egregious mi­stake in Polydor, to deny this Isle the name of Mona, and al­low it only to be called Anglesia or Anglorum Insula; and to give the name Mona to the Isle of Man, whereas the Inhabitants and throughout all Wales they know no other name for it, but Môn and Tîr Môn, that is, the Land of Môn unto this day, and that Man was never called Môn by any; the Inhabitants themselves call it Manaw, as the Welsh also doe. And Corn: Ta­citus puts the matter out of question, when in the life of Agrico­la he saith the Roman Souldiers swom over into Mona, which [Page 4] it was impossible for them to doe into the Isle of Man being above 20 miles distant from the maine Land.

2. Arvon, which is as much to say as, Over against Môn, is2. Arvon. the 2d part; it hath in it foure Cantreds and ten Comots.

  • 1. Cantref Aber hath in it three Comots, Y Llechwedd uchaf, y Llechwedd isaf and Nanconwey.
  • 2. Cantref Arvon hath two Comots, Uwch Gwyrvai, and Isgwyrvai.
  • 3. Cantref Dunodic hath two Comots, Ardudwy and E­vionyth.
  • 4. Cantref Llyn containeth three Comots, Cymytmaen, Tinllayn, and Canologion. All these, except Ardudwy, which is now a part of Merionethshire, are in Carnarvonshire. In this shire are the Snowdon Hills, called Eryri, which for their fertili­ty, height, wood, cattell, fish and fowle yeeld not to the fa­mous Alps; and this Country is without controversy the strongest for situation within Britaine. Here are the Townes of Carnarvon, called in old time Caer Segont (Segontium An­tonini,) of Conwey, called formerly Caergyffyn▪ the See of Bangor, Pwllheli, Nevyn, the Castles of Crickieth, Dolathelan, Dolba­darn: Dinas Dinlle, Clynnoc vawr, Ynys Enlli or Bardsey, and o­ther ancient places. This was the last part of Wales brought under the dominion of the Kings of England: It hath on the North the Sea and Menai, upon the East and South-East the river Conwey, which divides it from Denbighshire in most pla­ces, except it be toward the sea, where it passeth the river, and reacheth about five miles beyond it; on the South-west and West it is separated from Merionyth by high Mountains, Rivers and Meares.

3. Merionyth the third part of Gwyneth containing three3. Merio­nyth. Cantreds, each of which contains three Comots. 1. Cantref Meirion hath three Comots, Talybont, Pennal, and Ystymaner. 2. Cantref Arustly hath, Uwchgoed, Iscoed, Gwarthrenion. 3d. Cantref Penllyn, which hath Uwchmeloch, Ismeloch, and Mic­naint. This Country keeps the said name to this day, but not all the same Meeres it had in former times; It is full of Hills and Rocks, it hath upon the North the Sea, to which there is great resort to take Herrings. It hath upon the East Arvon, and Denbigh land, upon the South Powis, upon the West Dyvi and [Page 5] Cardiganshire. In this Country are the Townes of Harlech, where there is a strong Castle, Dolgelley and Bala, and here is the great Lake Llyn Tegyd, that is three miles long; of which it is said, that the River Dee running through it mingleth not with its water; moreover it is said that Salmons, commonly ta­ken in the River hard by the Lake, are never seen in the Lake, and that a sort of fish called Gwyniaid are very common in the Lake, but never taken in the River. Not farre from the Poole is a place called Caergai, which was the house of Gai K. Ar­thurs foster brother. This shire (like Arvon) is full of Cattell, Fowle, and Fish, and hath good store of red Deere and Roes, but Corne is scarce.

4. The Fourth part of Gwyneth was called y Berveddwlâd, 4. Y Ber­veddwlâd. which may be Englished, the Inland or Middle Country; It contained Five Cantreds, and Thirteen Comots, as 1. Cantref Rhyvonioc, which hath in it these Comots, Vwchalet & Isalet. 2. Cantref Ystrat, which hath Hiraethoc & Cynmeirch. 3 Cantref Rôs, which hath Uwchdulas, Isdulas & Creuthyn, all which are in the Lordship of Denbigh, except Creuthyn, which is a part of Carnarvonshire, and hath in it the Castle of Diganwy, which did belong to the Earles of Chester, and in the Latine and Eng­lish Chronicles is commonly called Gannoc. 4. Cantref Dyffryn Clwyd, that is, the Valley of Clwyd, it is now called the Lordship of Ruthyn, and hath these Comots, Coleigion, Llanerch and Do­gueilyn. 5th. Cantref is Tegengl, now a part of Flintshire, it hath these Comots, Counsyllt, Prestatyn and Ruthlan. In this part of Gwyneth is the faire valley of Dyffryn Clwyd, which reacheth 18 miles in length, and is in breadth 4, 5, 6, and in some places 7 miles: Northward it borders on the Sea, and on the East, West, and South it is inclosed with high hills: It a­bounds with all manner of necessaries both for Man and Beast, as Cattell, Fish, Fowle, Corne, Hay, Grasse, Wood, &c. The river Clwyd being increased by the accession of Clywedoc, Ystrat, Whilar, Elwey and other rivers from the hills runnes along and divides it in the midst. In this Valley two miles from the Sea doe stand the Towne and Castle of Ruthlan, famous for a Parlia­ment K. Edward I. kept there in the 12 yeare of his Reigne. And two miles above it is the See of S. Asaph called in old time Llanelwey, between the Rivers Clwyd and Elwey: foure miles [Page 6] thence and two miles from the river Clwyd lies situate Denbigh, the Shire towne for that County, in which there is a very faire, strong Castle built upon a rock, which was very much enlarged and strengthened by Henry Lacy Earle of Lincolne, to whom King Edward gave the Lordship of Denbigh: five miles above this lies the towne of Ruthin, wherein is a faire Castle, which did sometimes belong to the Grays Lords of Ruthyn and Earles of Kent. This part of Gwyneth hath upon the North the river Dee and the Sea; upon the West, Arvon and the river Conwey; South and East Merionyth and Powis; these be the Meeres and Bounds of Gwyneth. So there was under the Kingdome of A­berfraw 15 Cantreds and 38 Comots. But Northwales, as it is now reckoned sixe shires, containeth in it besides Gwyneth a great part of Powis.

The British Chronicle saith of Northwales, that it came by in­heritance to Women three times: 1. To Stradwen daughter to Cadvan ap Conan ap Endaf & Wife to Coel Godeboc, Mother to Genaw, Dyvyr & Gwawl: the second time to the same Gwawl wife to Edern ap Padern & Mother to Cunetha Wledic, which Cune­tha being a Prince in the North of England, about the yeare of Christ 540 sent his sonnes to recover Cardigan his inheri­tance540 from the Irish Scots and Picts, who had possessed them­selves of those parts of it which bordered upon the Sea; Tibiaon his eldest sonne dyed in Man, which the Irish Scots had con­quered; Gildas saith, that of the Progeny of Glam-Hector, that peopled a great part of Ireland, Yscroeth with his people in­habited Dalrienda, a part of Scotland. Builke with his people came to Man. Builke cum filiis suis inhabitavit Euboniam In­sulam, vulgò Manaw, quae est in meditullio Maris inter Hyberniam & Britanniam. The Children of Bethoun inhabited Demetia, or Southwales, with Gwyr and Cydweli, untill they were chased thence by the Children of Cunetha. thus farre Gildas. The sons of Cunetha being arrived in North wales divided the Coun­try betwixt them: first Meireaon the sonne of Tibiaon the son of Cunedha had Cantref Meireaon to his part. Arustel ap Cune­tha had Cantref Arustly. Caredic ap Cunetha had Caredigion, now Cardiganshire. Dunod had Cantref Dunodic. Edeyrn had Edeyrnion. Mael had Dynmael. Coel had Coleyon. Dogvael had Dogveilyn. Ryvaon had Ryvonioc now Denbigh▪ land. Maelor [Page 7] the son of Gwran the son of Cunetha had Maeloron, that is, the two Maelors, Maelor Gymbraeg, called Bromfield, and Maelor Saesneg. E [...]n Yrch had Caereneon in Powis. Vssa had Maesu­s [...] now Oswestree: What they say commonly of Oswald K. of Northumberland, that he was slaine there, and that a Well sprung up where his Arme was carried, is nothing so: for Beda and all other writers testify that Peanda slew Oswald at Maser­felt in the Kingdome of Northumberland, and his body was bu­ried in the Abbey of Bardney in the Province of Lyndesey. These names given by the Progeny of Cunetha continue to this day. After this the Irish Picts which the Britains called Y Gwyddyl Phictiaid overran the Isle of Môn, from whence they were dri­ven by Caswalhon Law hîr, that is, Caswalhon with the long hand, the son of Eneon yrch ap Cunetha, who with his own hands slew Serigi their King at Llan y Gwyddyl, that is, the Irish Church in Holy head. This Caswalhon was Father to Maelgon Gwyneth, whom the Latines call Maglocunus, King of Britaine: In his time lived the famous Bard Taliessyn who was called Pen Beirdh, that is, the chiefest of the Bards or Wisemen. Lucan in his first book of the Civil warre between Caesar and Pompey makes mention of our Bards thus, Plarima securi fudistis carmi­na Bardi: This Maelgon had a son called Run, in whose time, the Saxons invited Gurmond (who had come from Afric,) from Ireland to joyne with them against the Britains, who by him and them were greatly distressed, drove first over Severne, and slaine, as many as were known of them to professe Christ. This Run was Father to Beli, who was Father to Iago (or Iames) who, and not Brochwel or Brecyval (as the English Chronicle saith) was Father to Cadvan, the Father of Cadwalhon, the Father of Cadwalader the last King of the Britains. Brochwel, surnamed Ysgithroc, by reason of his long teeth, was Captain over those who fought with Adelred aliàs Ethelbert King of Kent, and his Saxons and Angles, whom Augustin the Monke had incited to make warre against the Christian Britains. Bro­chwel was twice put to flight by them not farre from Chester, and they cruelly slew a 1000 Priests and Monkes of Bangor, with a great number of Lay Brethren of the same house that li­ved by the labour of their hands, and were come bare-footed to desire mercy and Peace. Then Brochwel retired over Dee, and [Page 8] defending the passages against the Saxons, untill Cadvan K. of Northwales, Meredyth K. of Southwales, and Bledrus or Bletius Prince of Cornwall came to his aide, he gave the Saxons battell and slew of them a 1066, and put the rest to flight. After this Battel Cadvan was chosen King of Britaine, and was the chief Ruler within the Isle.

3. The 3d time that Northwales came to a Woman was to Esyllt, the daughter of Conan Tindaethwy, the son of Edwal Ywrch, the son of K. Cadwalader, The British Annals say, Conan was the son of Rodric Molwynoc son of the sayd Edwal. She was wife to Mervyn Bhrych and Mother to Roderic the Great.

The last Kings of the Britains finding Northwales to be a Coun­try exceeding strong, as being full of high Mountains, craggy rocks, great Woods, deep Valleys, streights and dangerous pla­ces, and deepe and swift Rivers, made it their chiefest Seate. The chiefe Rivers in Gwyneth are, Dyvi, which springs in the Hills of Merioneth, runnes North-west by Mowthwy and Machyn­llaeth, and so to the sea at Aberdyvi; it divides Northwales and Southwales. Dee, in Welsh Dourdwy, springs also from the same hills, runs East through Penllyn and the Lake Tegid, downe to Corwen & Llangollen, between Chirke land & Bromfield, where it bowes Northward towards Bangor iscoed, so to Holt & Chester, thence Northwest to Flint Castle, and so to the Sea. Conwey, which riseth likwise in Merionethshire, runs under Snowdon North-East, by the Towne of Aberconwey to the Sea. Avon Wy­nen, that fals into the sea at Traeth Mawr. Yvelenryd, which the sea receives at Traeth bachan. Mouthau, that falls into the Sea at Bermouth. Desynny. Alwen. Lleder. Llygwy. Machno. Ogwen. Cegid. Seint, which runs to the Sea at Carnarvon. Gwrvai. Llivon. Llyfni. Dwyvôr. Dwyvech. Erch. Soch. Clwyd, which riseth in Denbigh-la [...]d, runs downe to Ruthin, and plaine North, not farre from Denbigh, to St Asaph, and so by Ruthlan to the Sea. Cefni. Dulas. Aled. Elwey. &c. Among the Mountains in Carnar­von and Merioneth Shires there are very many Llynns or Lakes abounding with large Trouts; In the River Conwey there is a sort of Fish called Brwyniaid, which they use to take from the mid­dle of March to the middle of April. And in two Pooles, to wit, Llynn Peris and Llynn Torthenni, which are about three miles asunder, there is a Fish called Torgoch, from his red belly, which, when the season is to take it in the one, is not to be found in the other.

Of Deheubarth or Dinevowr.

This Kingdome although it was the largest, yet was it notDeheubarth or Dinevor. the best (in Giraldus his opinion) when the Division was made, in regard it was much infested with the Saxons, and afterwards with Flemings and Normans, and for that in divers parts there­of the Lords would not obey their Prince, as in Gwent and Morgannwc: It was divided into six Parts. 1. Caredigion 1. Caredigion. was the first, it contained 4 Cantreds and 10 Comots, 1. Can­tref Penwedic which had in it these Comots, Geneurglyn, Perveth & Creuthyn. 2. Cantref Canawl had these, Mevenyth, Anhunoc and Pennarth. 3. Cantref Castell had these Comots, Mabwyni­on and Caerwedros. 4. Cantref Syrwen had these, Gwenionyth and Iscoed: This part is at this day called in English Cardigan­shire, in Welsh Swydh Aberteivi. It is a champion Country without much wood: It hath been divers times overcome by the Flemings and Normans, who built in it severall Castles, but could not keep it: It hath on the East Northwales, the River Dyvi and part of Powys; upon the South Carmarthenshire: on the West the River Teivi and Pembrokeshire, and on the North the Irish Sea. In this is the Towne of Cardigan, upon Teivi, not farre from the Sea: the Towne of Aberystwyth, upon the River Ystwyth, by the Sea: Llanbadarn Vawr once an Episco­pall See, wherein was a famous Sanctuary in times past, and a place of Religious and Learned men; the Castles of Stratmeyric, Gwalter, of Llanrysted, of Dynerth, of the sons of Wyneaon, of Aberheidol and many more, the Abbey of Strata Florida, the Townes of Tregaron, Llandhewibrevi &c.

2. The 2d part was called Dyvet, at this day Pembrokeshire: 2. Dyvet. It had in it 8 Cantreds and 23 Comots, which were these, 1. Cantref Emlyn, that had these Comots, Vwchcuch, Iscuch and Levethyr: 2. Cantref Arberth had these, Penrhyn ar Elays, Este­rolef and Talacharn: 3. Cantref. Daugleddeu these, Amgoed, Pennant, and Evelfre. 4. Cantref Ycoed these, Llanhayaden and Castell Gwys. 5. Cantref Penbhro these, Coed yr hâ [...], Maenor byrr and Penvro. 6. Cantref Ros these, Hulfforth, Castell Gwalch­mai and Ygarn. 7. Cantref Pebidioc these, Mynyw, Pencaer and Pebidioc. 8. Cantref Cemais these, Vwchnever, Isnever and Trefdraeth: In this part are diverse Townes and Havens, as Pembroke, Tenby (in Welsh Dynbech y Pyseot) Harford West [Page 10] (Hwl [...]fforth) the faire Haven of Milford (in Welsh Aberdaugled­ [...]eu) St Davids or Menevia (in Welsh Mynyw) the chiefest Epis­copall See in Wales; Fiscard or Abergwayn, Newport or Tref­draeth; these are along the Sea coast, or not far off. There are divers Castles therein as Cilgerran, Arberth, Gwys, Llanhayaden, Walwyn, &c. This Part was won first by the Mountgomery [...] Earles of Shrewsbury, was after given to the Marshalls, and so to Valence. The Princes of Wales were from thence most trou­bled with Normans and Flemings, who remaine to this day, and inhabit about Tenby, Pembroke and in Ros, and can speak no Welsh, nor good English as yet. It hath on the West and North the Irish Sea, the Spanish Sea upon the south, upon the East Carmarthenshire, and Cardiganshire on the North East.

3. The 3d part was Carmarthenshire, which had 4 Can­treds3. Caermard­dyn. and 15 Comots, as 1. Cantref Fini [...]c, which hath these Comots, Har [...]ryn, Dervedd and Isgeneny. 2. Cantref Eginoc, which hath these Gwyr, now in Glamorganshire, Cydweli and Carnwyllion. 3. Cantref Bachan these, Malhaen, Caeo, and Mae­nor Deilo. 4. Cantref Mawr these, Cethineoc, Comot mab Elvyw, Comot mab Uchdryd and Wydigada: In this shire are severall Townes and Castles, as Caermardyn, Dinevowr, the Seat of the Prince of the Country, Newtowne, Llandeilo, Llanymddyfry, Emlyn, Swansey (in Welsh Abertawy) now in Glamorganshire a Towne by the Sea: the Castle of the sonnes of Uchiryd, of [...]lanstephan and others: It hath upon the West Dyuet or Pem­brokeshire, on the North Cardiganshire, on the South-West the Sea, on the South-East Glamorgan, and on the East Brecknock­shire. It is reckoned the strongest part of all Southwales, as be­ing full of high Mountains, great Woods, and faire Rivers, espe­cially Towy.

4. The 4th called Morganwc (now Glamorganshire) contained4. Morgan­nwc. 4 Cantreds with 15 Comots: As Cantref Croneth with these Comots, Rhwng Neth ag Avon, Tîr yr Hwndrwd and Maenor Glynogwr. 2. Cantref Pennythen with these, Meyskyn, Glynrhod­ni, Maenor Talavan and Maenor Ruthyn. 3. Cantref Brenhinol with these, Cibowr, Senghennyth, Uwchcaeth and Iscaeth. 4. Cantref Gwen [...]lhwg, which is now in Monmouthshire, with these Comots, Yrhardh Ganol and Eithaf dylygion. In this part are many Townes, Castles and Ancient places, as Landaff a Bishops [Page 11] See, Caerdyff, in Welsh Caerdhydd, Cowbridge (in Welsh Y bont Vaen, that is, a Stone-bridge) Neath, Ab [...]avon, Bridgend, Lantwyt, Caerffili, St Donats (the Seat of the ancient Family of the Stradlings) Margam (now the Seat of the Mansells another noble Family) and other: It hath diverse Rivers, which runne to the South Sea, as Lay, Tâf, Tawy, Neth, Avon, Ogwr or Og­mor, and Llychwr; It hath on the South the Severne Sea, which divideth it from Devonshire and Cornwall, upon the West and Northwest Carmarthenshire, upon the North East Brecknocke­shire, and Monmouthshire upon the East.

5. The Fifth part was called Gwent, & is now in Monmouth­shire; 5. Gwent. It had 3 Cantreds and 10 Comots, as 1. Cantref Gwent, which had these Comots, Ymynyth, Iscoed, Llefnydh and Trefy­grug. 2. Cantref Iscoed these, Brynbuga, Uwchcoed, Y Teirtref and Erging ac Ewyas, now in Herefordshire. 3. Cantref Coch, which is now in Glocestershire and called the Forrest of Deane: In this part is the ancient City of Caerllêon upon Us [...], where was in old time the See of the Arch Bishop of Wales; here are also divers Townes and Castles, as Monmouth, Chepstow, Glyn­strigul, Ros, Tintern upon the River Wy, Newport (in Welsh y Castell Newydd) Usc (in Welsh Brynbuga) Grosmont, Raglan, White Castle, Abergevenny and many other: It is a faire, fertile Country, but had this unhappinesse in former times, that the Gentlemen were never obedient to their Prince: It hath on the West Glamorgan and Brecknockeshire, Herefordshire upon the North, the River Wy and Glocestershire on the East, and upon the South and South East the Severne: Rivers, Avon, Elwyth, Munnow. &c.

6. The 6th and last part Brecheinoc, now Brecknockeshire, 6. Brecheinoc. which hath 3 Cantreds and 8 Comots, as 1. Cantres Selef, which hath these Comots, Selef and Trahayern. 2. Cantref Canol these, Talgarth, Ystradyw and Brwynllys or Eglwys Yail. 3. Cantref Mawr these, Tîr Raulff, Llywel and Cerrig Howel: In this part are these Townes Brecknock (in Welsh Aberhodni) lying situate by the Confluence of the Rivers Usc and Hodni, Hay (in Welsh Y Gelly) Talgarth, Buellt, Llangors. It hath West Carmarthenshire and the River Tawy, on the North Radnorshire and the Wy, Hereford and Monmouthshire on the East, and Gla­morgan on the South: It is for the most part full of Mountains, [Page 12] Woods and Rivers, especially Buelht. The Bruses, Mortimers, Bohuns and Staffords (after the dispossessing of the Welsh) have been Lords of this Country. These six Shires forementio­ned with Radnorshire, formerly a part of Powis, are now com­monly called Southwales: It is a large Country having many faire Plaines and Valleys for Corne, high Mountains full of Pasture for Cattell, great and thick Woods, Forrests and Parks for red Deere and Fallow: cleare and deepe Rivers full of Fish. The Rivers are, Severne which with Wy and Reidol spring out of a high mountain called Plymllymon in Montgomeryshire on the edge of Cardiganshire. Severne runs by Llanidlos full East, through Cydewen, by the Welsh Poole, and under the Castle of Shrawarden to Shrewsbury, from whence it turnes Southward to Bridgenorth, Bewdley, Worcester, Glocester,, and so to the Sea near Bristoll. Gwy, in English Wy, runs South East by Rayader-Gwy to Buellt, where Irwon meets her, thence to Glasbury, so to Hereford & Monmouth, & to the Severne Sea at Chepstow, Môr Ha­fren, so they call the Sea that severeth Wales from Somersetshire, Devonshire & Cornwall. Reidol runs Northward and makes hast to the Sea neare Aberystwyth. Usc riseth in a high mountain called y Mynydd du▪ in the Southwest part of Brecknockshire, runs to Brecknocke, so through Monmouthshire to the Towne of Usc, Caerllêon and Newport, and so to the said South sea. Tywy hath its spring not farre from Wy, runs South to Llanymd­dyfri, thence Southwest by Llandeilo, and Dinevowr to Aber­gwili and Caermarddyn, and so by Llanstephan to the sea. Teivi riseth in the edge of Carmarthenshire, runs Northwest by Em­lyn, Cilgerran, Cardigan, and so to the North sea. In Giraldus Cambr. his time there were in this River (above other Rivers) a great number of Bevers, a kind of beast the Welsh called A­vanc; the name remaineth still in Wales, but what it was very few can describe: It is not much unlike an Otter, only it is bigger, all hairy saving the tail, which is like a fishes tail, broad and thick like a mans hand: It useth as well the water as the land, hath very sharp teeth, and is a very sagacious Creature: He that will learne more of this beast, let him read Girald. Itiner. l. 2. c. 3. There are a number of other rivers, as Tawy in Glamorganshire▪ Tâf in Carmarthenshire, two rivers called Cledhe [...] in Pembroke­shire, Remney, Gevenni, Arth, Aeron, Ystwyth &c.

[Page 13]There are divers Lordships added to other Shires, that were heretofore taken for parts of Wales, and have at this day the Welsh spoken in most of them, as Oswestree, Knocking, Whitington, Elsmer, Masbrooke, Cherbury, Gaurs, Clunn, which are now in Shropshire; Ewyas Lacy, Ewyas Haroald, Clifford, Winsor­ton, Yardley, Huntingdon, Whitn [...]y, Loghardneys in Herefordshire.

Southwales, as all the rest of Britaine, was first inhabited by Britains, who remain there to this day, though in divers places, especially neare the Sea, mingled with Saxons, Normans, and Flemings. Since the Norman Conquest their Princes could never keepe quiet possession of it, but by reason of opposition from Strangers, and the disloyalty of their own people, & vexation and war thereupon, they were for the most part compelled to keepe themselves in Carmarthenshire.

Of Powis or Mathraval.

To this Kingdome belonged the Country of Powis and theMathraval or Powis. Land between Wy and Severne. It was bordered upon the South and West with Southwales, the rivers Wy and Tywy &c. upon the North with Gwyneth; and with the Marches of England, from Chester to Wy, a little above Hereford, upon the East; By reason of its nearnes to England it was most troubled with wars, from the Saxons first, and afterwards from the Normans, Lords Mar­chers, who daily conquered some portion thereof, by which means it came to passe, that it was the first part that submitted unto and served the King of England. This part called Powis was divided into Powis Vadoc & Powis Wenwynwyn. Powys Va­doc 1. Powis Va­doc. contained in it 5 Cantreds and 15 Comots. 1. Cantref Y Barwn, which hath 3 Comots, Dinmael, now in Denbighshire; Edeyrnion and Glyndourdwy▪ which are now both in Merioneth­shire. 2. Cantref Y Rhiw whose Comots were these, Yâl, now in Denbighshire, Stratalyn and Hop, now in Flintshire. 3. Cantref Uwchnant hath these, Merfforth in Flintshire, Maelor Gymraeg, in English Bromfield, now in Denbighshire, and Maelor Saesneg in Flintshire. 4. Cantref Trefred, which hath these Comots, Croesvain, Tref Ywayn, in English Chirke, and in Denbighshire. Croesoswallt, in English Oswestree, and in Shropshire. 5. Cantref Rayder hath these, Moch [...]ant Israyder, Cyn-Llaeth and Nan [...]e­udwy, all in Chirkeland and in Denbighshire. The Lordship and Castle of Whittington, which came by marriage to Fulke Fitz­warren. [Page 14] The Lordship of Oswestree, of which the Fitzalans have been Lords severall hundreds of years, Shrarden, the eleven Townes, &c. Clun, all now in Shropshire, were in this part of Powis; so were also the Castles of Holt, Chirke and Di­n [...]s Brân, now in Denbighshire. The Rivers Ceirioc and Alyn run in this Part.

The 2d Part called Powis Wenwynwyn had likewise 5 Can­treds2. Powis Wen­wynwyn. and 12 Comots. 1. Cantref Yuyrnwy, which had these Comots, Mochnant uwch rayder, Mechain [...]scoed and Llanerch hudol. 2. Cantref Ystlyc had these, Deuthwr, Gorthwr Isaf and Stratmarchell. 3. Cantref Llyswynaf, had these Caereneon and Mechain Uwchcoed. 4. Cantref Cydewen had Comot Conan and Comot Hafren. 5. Cantref Conan had Cyveilioc and Mouthwy. All five, except the Comot of Mouthwy which is now part of Merionethshire, are in Montgomeryshire: the three first Can­treds only beare the name of Powys at this day. This is a Coun­try full of Woods, Hills and Rivers: it hath in it these Townes, the Poole (in Welsh Trallwng) Newtowne, Machynllaeth and Llanvylling. Arustly in old time was in this part, but came af­terwards to the Princes of Gwyneth. In the time of Edward the 2d these Cantre [...]s or Lordships came by just descent to a Wo­man named Hawys Gadarn, Daughter of Owen [...]ap Griffith ap Gwenwynwyn ap Owen Cyveilioc. Arustly and Cyveilioc came to the Baron of Dudley, and was afterwards sold to the King. The Rivers Murnwy and Tanat are in this part.

The 3d Part belonging to Mathraval was the Land between3. Ferlix. Wy and Severne, which contained 4 Cantreds and 13 Comots, 1. Cantref Melienyth had these Comots, Ceri, Swythygre, Ri­walallt and Glyn Ieithon. 2. Cantref Eluel hath these, Uwch­myndd, Ismynydd and Llechddyfnog. 3. Cantref Yclawdh these, Dyffryn Teyveydiot, Swydhynogen, and Pennwellt. 4. Cantref Buellt hath these, Swydh y vam, Dreulys and Isyrwon: the Rivers Teme, Ithon, Lug, &c. run through this Part. Of this Part there is at this day some in Montgomeryshire, some in Radnor, and some in Brecknock shire; they speake to this day Welsh in this part and the Lordships adjoyning, and it is reckoned a Part of Wales. Townes and Castles in this part, Montgomery (in Welsh Trevaldwyn) a pretty Towne, and a faire Castle; the Castle of Clun (Colunwy) which belongs to the Earle of Arundel, Knigh­ton [Page 15] (in Welsh Trefyclawdd;) the Castle of Cymaron; Presteyn (in Welsh) Llanandras; the Towne of Kineton, and the Castle of Huntingdon (called in Welsh y Castell Maen) which were first the Bohuns, Earles of Hereford, afterwards did belong to the Dukes of Buckingham. Castell Payn, Hay, Llanvair in Buelht. These Lordships with Brecknock and Abergavenny did belong to the Bruses Lords of Brecknock, but came after by sundry wayes to the Bohuns, Nevills, and Mortimers; So there are in this Territory or Kingdome of Mathraval 14 Cantreds and 40 Comots.

Camden, after whom there is no gleaning, will supply what is defective in this Description.


An Advertisement to the Reader.

READER, If there comes into thine hands a Book enti­tled, British Antiquities Revived, thou art desired to correct these mistakes in it, pag. 6. lin. 13. for tenet read tenetur; p. 24. lin. last for Britaine r. the Britons; p. 38. l. 18. for St Davids r. Sherborne. p. 42. l. 16. for 21th r. 20th. l. 18. for 17th r. 16th. p. 43. at the end of the Pedegree blot, not the Coate of, and the line following; p. 44. l. 5. dele his Grandfather. lin. 13. for Mo­thers r. Fathers. lin. 14. blot it out quite, and put in stead thereof G. a Lyon rampant, regardant Or.

George Owen Harry therein quoted is said to be Parson of Whitchurch in the Lordship of Kemeys.

The Printer to the Reader.

BE Pleased, Gentle Reader, to take this short account of the British Annals following, as also of this and the former Edition thereof. Caradoc of Lancarvan collected the Acts and Successions of the British Princes from Cad­walader to the yeare of Christ 1156. Of his Collections there were afterward severall Copies kept in the Abbeys of Conwey in Car­narvonshire, and of Strata Florida or Stra [...]flur in Cardigan­shire, which received addition as things fell out, being ordinarily compared together every third yeare, to wit, when the Bards or Beirdh belonging to those Abbeys went their ordinary Visitation (which they called Clera) from the one to the other; They contai­ned in them (besides) such other occurrences happening within the Isle of Britaine, as were thought worthy the Recording. This Course continued in those Abbeys untill the yeare of Christ 1270, which was a little before the death of the last Prince Llewelyn, who was slaine at Buellt. Of these Collections there were a 100 Copies at least in Wales very anciently written. Humphrey Lloyd Gentleman (a painfull and worthy searcher of British Antiquities) lighting upon one of the Copies, translated it into English, and augmented it somewhat, out of Matt. Paris and Nicolas Trivet chiefely, but left it imperfect, God being pleased to take him away before he had finished it, as he had designed. The Right Honoura­ble Sir Henry Sidney Lord President of Wales, having had a Copy of his Translation a great while lying by him, employed David Powel Doctor of Divinity to Peruse, Correct, Augment, and Con­tinue it in order to the setting of it out in Print. The Doctor at his request compared the translation with the British Booke, where­of he had two ancient Copies, and corrected it where he saw cause. Moreover he consulted all Authors he could come by, that treat of the affaires of Wales, as Gildas, Asser Menevens., Galfrid, Wil­liam of Newborough, Matt. Paris, Matt. Westminster, Thomas Walsingham, Ponticus Virunnius, Polydor Virgil, Jo. Leland, Jo. Bale, J. Prise, Matt. Parker, Jo. Caius, William Lambard, [Page] and all the English Chronicles Printed; and in MS. Gildas Sapi­ens aliàs Nennius, Hen. Huntington, William Malmesbury, Ma­rianus Scotus, Ralph Cogshall, Jo. Eversden, Nic. Trivet, Flo­rentius Vigorniensis, Simon of Durham, Roger Hoveden, and other which John Stow Citizen of London had got together, the British books of Pedegrees, Jo. Castoreus, Sylvester Girald. Cambr. with divers other Pieces of Antiquity he had received from the Right Honourable the Lord Burleigh High Treasurer of England, who had also by his Letters directed him to all the Offi­ces where the Records of the Realme were kept: Out of which he gathered Notes (though not so many as he would, if time and his occasions had permitted him) which with the Book he Printed A. D. 1584, and Dedicated to the Famous Sir Philip Sidney Knight. Some of the Notes he added where he sound they were wanting, and some other, where the matter was delivered briefly and obscurely, for the better clearing of the Text he inserted in their due places in the Booke. Also he gave in the Margent exact quotations of the Authors, as well where they agree with the Book as when they are brought to Adde to it, or for further Explanation. In his Notes touching Families he was greatly furthered by the Paines of Sir Edw. Stradling Knight, Thomas Powel of Whi­tington Parke, and Richard Broughton Esquires. And the Book would have come out much more exactly done, had it not bin Printed almost quite off, when he received another Larger, and better cor­rected Copy of the Translation from Robert Glover Somerset Herald: So much touching the former Edition out of Dr Powell's Epist. Dedicat. As concerning this latter, Robert Vaughan of Merionethshire Esq. out of his zeale to preserve the Antiquities of his Country was pleased to impart some choyce notes, which he had been above 40 years in gathering, and were (most of them) never before in Print. These thou hast of New, which, thou wilt find, doe correct in many places as well as augment the Histo­ry. For the better understanding of the ensuing History thou hast in the beginning a Chorography of Wales; and at the end an Ap­pendix with an Index are thought necessary. Caradoc's Annals are Printed in an English letter, Dr Powell's Additions in an Italian and thus marked ⚜, and Mr Vaughans Collections in a Roman with this marke ¶ prefixed▪ Farewell.

W: H.

Cadvvalader Bhendiged, That is, The SAINT or BLESSED, in whom ended the British Kingdome, whereupon the Government of Wales by PRINCES began.

CADWALADER the last King of theA. D. 680. Galfr. Mon. Britains of the Noble Trojan Race, be­ing by reason of a great famine and mortality driven to forsake his Realm and native Country, went over with a great number of his Nobility and Sub­jects to Lhydaw (now called Little Britaine in France) there to so journe with his Cousin Alan King of the Country. And he had not been there long but intelligence arrived to him of the landing of strangers, as Saxons, Angles, and Juthes inGalfr. Io. Castor. his Kingdome of Great Britaine, which they finding desolate and without Inhabitants (sabe a few Saxons who had invi­ted them in, and a small remnant of poore Britons, who in Rocks and Woods by feeding upon roots prolonged a mise­rable life) did soon over-run and possesse themselves of a great part thereof. And dividing it into severall Territo­ries [Page 2] and Kingdomes, inhabited that part which was then and now (at this day) is called Lhoyger in the Brytish or Welsh tongue, and in English England, with all the Cities, Townes, Castles, and Uillages, which the Britains had buil­ded, ruled and inhabited by the space of 1827 years, under diverse Kings and Princes of great renowne: whereupon he purposed to returne, and by strength of British Knights to recover his own land again.

But having made ready his Navy for the transporting of his forces, which were partly his own men, and partly such succours as he had received from his Cousin Alan, an Angell appeared to him, who declared it to be the will of God that he should not take his voyage towards Britaine, but to Rome to Pope Sergius, where he should make an end of his life, and be afterwards numbred among the blessed: for GOD had appointed that the Britaines should have no more the Rule and Governance of the whole Ile, untill the Pro­phesy of Merlin Ambrose should be fulfilled.

Having acquainted his friend Alan with his Vision, and the message of the Angel, Alan immediately consulted all hisGirald. I [...]i­ner. Cambr. books of Prophesies, as the works of both Merlins; of Merlin Ambrose (who lived in the time of King Vortiger) and of Merlin Sylvester, or Merdhin Wylht, (who flourished (after) in King Arthurs time) and also the words which the Eagle spakeGalfr. Cast. at the building of Caer Septon, now called Shaf [...]sbury; and after long study found the time to be now come, whereof they had Prophe [...]ied.

⚜ Little Britaine is a Country in France, called in Caesars D. P. time, Armorica, and after inhabited by Britains, who about theLittle Bry­taine, or Bry­taine Armo­rike. year of Christ 384. under the conduct of Conan Lord of Meria­doc, now Denbighland, went out of this Ile with Maximus the Tyrant, to his aid against the Emperour Gratianus, and winn­ing the said Country of Armorica (which Maximus gave Co­nan Galfr. Mon. I. Cast. Math. West. Fabian. C [...]xton. and his People) slue and drove out all the old Inhabitants thereof, planting themselves in the same, where they to this day speak the British tongue, being the third remnant of the ancient Britains.

The names of the Kings of Little Britaine.
  • [Page 3]1 Conan Meriadoc.
  • 2 Gradlonus.
  • 3 Salomon 1.
  • 4 Auldranus.
  • 5 Budicus 1.
  • 6 Howelus Magnus. This Howel followed King Arthur in his Warres.
  • 7 Howelus 2.
  • 8 Alanus 1.
  • 9 Howelus 3.
  • 10 Gilquellus.
  • 11 Salomon 2.
  • 12 Alanus 2. Of whom Caradoc makes menti­on, descended of a Daughter of Run (the sonne of Maelgon Gwyneth, King of Great Britain,) which was married to the forenamed Howel the 2d, King of Little
    R. Caen▪ lib. 2. Pe [...]. 2.
  • 13 Conobertus.
  • 14 Budicus 2.
  • 15 Theodoricus.
  • 16 Rualhonus.
  • 17 Daniel Dremrost, i. e. Rubicunda facie.
  • 18 Aregstanus.
  • 19 Maconus.
  • 20 Neomenius.
  • 21 Haruspogius.
  • 22 Salomon 3. Slaine by his own men, and then was that King­dome turned to an Earledome, whereof one Alan was the first Earle, who valiant­ly resisted the Nor­mans, vanquishing them in severall Bat­tles.

Concerning the words of the Eagle at the building of Caer Galfrid▪ Cast. Septon in Mount Paladour in the time of Rudhudibras, in the year after the Creation of the World, 3048. some think that an Eagle did then speak and Prophesy: Other are of opinion, that it was a Britaine named Aquila that Prophesied of these things, and of the recovery of the whole Ile again by the Britains, bringing with them the bones of Cadwalader from Rome, as in the said Prophesies is to be seen.

Alan hereupon counselled Cadwalader to fulfill the will of God in going to Rome, which he did; and after he had lived there eight years in the service of God he dyed in the yeare of Christ 688, So that the Britains ruled this Ile, with the [Page 4] out-Iles, of Wight: Môn, in English called Anglesey: Manaw, in English, Man: Orkney and Ewyst, 1137. years before Christ, untill the yeare of his incarnation 688. And thus ended the Rule of the Britains over the whole Ile.

⚜ The Britains being sore troubled with the Scots and Picts, 450 and denied aid of the Romans, sent for the Saxons to come to de­fend them against their Enemies: who coming at the first as friends to the Britains, liked the country so well, that they became their mortall enemies, and drove them out of the same.

About the yeare of Christ. 590. Gurmundus an arch-pirateGalfrid. [...]ast. and Captaine of the Norwegians, after that he had conquered Ireland, being called by the Saxons to their aid against Careticus King of the Britains, overcame the same Careticus in battell, and compelled him and his Britains to flee beyond the rivers of Sea­verne and Dee to Cambria (now called Wales) and to Corn­wall, and some to Britaine Armorike, where they remaine to this day, and gave Loegria (now England) to the Saxons. And al­beit that Cadvan, Cadwalhon, and Cadwalader were since intituled Kings of all Britaine, yet they could never afterwards recover the quiet possession of the whole Iland. After the de­parture of Cadwalader out of the Land, the Britains were govern­ed within the Country of Wales or Cambria by those men, whereof this history following doth intreat, which were commonly called Kings of such Provinces and Countries as they possessed, untill the time of Owen Gwyneth, who being in the daies of King Stephen, H. Lh [...]yd. and Henry the second, was the first that named himselfe Prince of Wales, and so the rest after him kept that title and stile: and yet neverthelesse, they are sometimes called Princes before his time, and Kings after him, as I have observed by diverse Charters and old Records, which I have seen in the Tower of London and else­where. Howbeit, this Author calleth the chiefest of them Kings till the time of the said Owen, and since, Princes.

¶ Some say that Cadwalader was the sonne of Cadwallan byR. V. the sister of Penda King of Mercia, and that he is the same that Beda calleth young Cadvalla.

He beareth B. a Crosse pateé fitcheé Or. Which coate of [Page 5] armes was also borne by his sonne Ivor, who was slaine by the Saxons, and succeeded by his Nephew Ive, who was Crowned and Annointed King, not upon the account of his being a Bri­tain, but because he had Saxon blood running in his veines, his Father being one Renten of the British race, and his Mo­ther of the Saxon. This Ive Reigned 37 years, he was a wise and a provident Prince, he bare the fore▪mentioned Armes of K. Cadwalader as long as he lived, & so did the rest of the Kings untill the time of King Edward the First, so Nic. Upon de offic­militar. Humphred: Duc. Glocest.

After three years of his Reigne he went to Rome, in the time of Pope Sergius about the yeare of our Lord 690. so Po­lychron.

Cadwalader the Blessed being much weakned by a continuall war with the Saxons, which was attended with a great famine, & a raging pestilence, is said to retire with his Nobility to Little Britaine, where being kindly received by Alan King of the Country he lived, untill news was brought to him, that the plague began to coole and cease; then having obtained aid of his Cousin Alan for the recovering of his Kingdome he pre­pareth for his returne. But one night, as he lay a bed, an An­gell appearing to him, and telling him, that it was Gods will he should goe to Rome, and there spend the rest of his dayes in the service of God, and that it was declared that neither he nor his posterity should have the chiefe rule of Britaine, untill the time that his bones were brought back from Rome to Britaine, made him alter his resolution, and goe to Rome A. D. 680, where after he had lived eight years he dyed 688 or 689 in Pope Sergius his time, as Galfr. Mon:; Cadwalader being much dismayed and perplexed at the Vision, Quaesivit causam tanti maligni in Regnosuo, as is recorded in an old Book, Cui Angelus respondens dixit, Negligentia Praelatorum, rapina poten­tum, cupiditas Iudicum, detestanda luxuria, rabies perjurorum, & inordinatus Cultus vestimentorum.

There are some Authors say, that the time of the great pe­stilence and mortality, and consequently of Cadwaladers going to Rome was before the yeare 680. Beda saith, the pestilence happened A. D. 664. Nennius or whoever is the Author of the Tract beginning thus, Woden genuit Beldoc &c. (who by [Page 6] Leland, Bale & S. Simon Dewes is said to live in the declining age of the British Empire, that is, in the time of Cadwallan and Cad­walader Kings of Britaine, and Penda King of Mercia) averreth that the mortality aforesaid hapenned in the Reigne of Oswi King of Northumberland, and of Cadwalaeder King of the Bri­tains. Oswi began his Reigne A. D. 643. and dyed 670, so that the year wherein, as Beda saith, the plague began, was a­bout the 22 or 23 yeare of Oswis Reigne, at what time also Cadwalader ruled the Britains. For farther confirmation, there is an old British Chronology written on parchment 400 years agoe, which saith that from the battell of Caerlegion or Westchester fought A. D. 603 (between Ethelfred King of Northumberland Generall of the English and Brochwel Ysgythroc Leader of the Britains) to Cadwaladers going to Rome is 62 years, which 62 years added to 603 will make 665, the time about which the Pestilence, as Beda and the rest say, reged in Britaine. Ieffrey of Monmouth who saith that Cadwalader dyed in Pope Sergius his time on the 12 of the calends of May, seems to mistake Cadwalader for Cadwalla King of the West-Saxons, who went to Rome 688, being the 3d year of the Reigne of Alfred King of Northumberland as Beda in the 7 and 8 Chap­ters of the 5 book of his Ecclesiasticall History, and also S. Hen. Savil doe affirme; upon Easter day following this Cadwallae was Baptized and dyed the 12 of the Calends of May 689, but in our old British Calendars we find the 12 day of November to be consecrated to the memory of K. Cadwalader, which is to be reckoned the day of his death, or second Birth; Caradoc (our Author) as well as Ieffrey is mistaken in the time of Cadwala­ders going to Rome, and probably upon the same grounds.

In the old MS. text we read that after Cadwalader, Ivor sonne of Alan King of Little Britain ruled 48 years & then dyed. And after him Rodri Molwynoc, but no yeare put downe; the Trans­lators (it seems) found in some Copies that Rodri began his Reigne A. D. 720: take 48 out of 720 there will remaine 672 which must be the yeare of our Lord, that Ivor came into Bri­taine, by that account, that is 8 years before Cadwalader went out of Britaine, which is not probable, so that we may conclude the account of time Ieffrey and Caradoc give us as to this parti­cular very uncertaine. Adde the three years Caedwalader resided [Page 7] in Litle Britain to 665 which out of Ninnius, Beda &c. is proved to be the yeare of Cadwaladers going for Rome, his going thi­ther may be said to fall A. D. 668, unto which adde the 48 years of Ivors Reigne, the whole will be 716, wherein Ivor may be supposed to dye, being but foure years short of the yeare 720, which the Translators assigne for the beginning of Rodri Molwynocs Reigne; the reason inducing the Translators to assigne that yeare (peradventure) might be this, viz. that Ivas King of the West-Saxons, whom they confound with Ivor, went to Rome in the same yeare.

King Cadwalader was a Benefactor to the Abbey of Clynnoc Vawr in Arvon, as may be seen in the Extent of North-wales, which is in the keeping of the Auditor, and in the 2d volume os Monasticon Anglicanum published by M. Dugdale, to whom I sent the following account of the endowing of the said Abbey as it was taken out of the said Extent,

Ed: Rex Ex parte Galfridi Trefnant nunc praepositi sive Rectoris Ecclesiae Collegiatae de Clynoc Vawr.

Quidam Gwithaint dedit propriam Villam suam Clynnoc Vawr Deo & Beunon tunc Abbati Abbathiae de Clynnoc Vawr pro anima sua & anima consobrini sui Catwalani sine censu Rega­li & sine Consule ....... alicui, quamdiu fuerit lapis in terra: Ac personae subscriptae dederunt Deo & Sancto Beuno ter­ras subscriptas sicut Gwitheint dedit Clynnoc Vawr. viz.

Cadwalladrus Rex dedit Grayanoc.
Tegwaret Rex dedit Porthamal.
Mervyn Princeps dedit Carnguch.
Cadwgan ap Cynvelin dedit Bodveilion in Llyn & Bodvael.
Rodri filius Mervin dedit Denîo.
Griffith ap Tangwn dedit tertiam partem Maestref.
Idwal dedit Penrhos. Rodri dedit tertiam partem Newgwlf.
Grean dedit Dorwyn [vel Corwyn.]
Rodri filius Idwal dedit Botelog.
Gwithenet filius Tridoc dedit Llanllyuni & Coret Aber­seint.
Cadell Rex dedit Kilcourt, Idwal dedit Clynnoc Vechan.
Tridoc dedit Coret
Gwrvin à silva usque mare.
Idwal dedit Aber Braint. Cadell ap Rodri dedit Bryn hidu­gen.
[Page 8]Anarawd filius Rodri dedit Yscallen in Creuddyn.
Cadell dedit Botwynoc & Llwyn Dynwal.
Rodri ap Mervyn dedit Priscoll & Nant Soch in Llyn.
Cadell dedit Ethinoc. Rodri dedit Ilanor in Llyn.
Cynan filius Hival dedit Botelias in Llyn.
Anarawd dedit Bodagwyn. Anarawd filius Mervyn dedit Dolbebin.
Grevax filius I won dedit Dolcoedog.
Griffith ap Llywelyn dedit Aberllyfin.
Eliued filius Madoc dedit Maysang in suis terminis
Jago filius Idwal dedit Llechedern in Llyn.
Griffith ap Cynan dedit Boterid.
Trahayarn ap Caradawg dedit Treswyn.
Jago filius Idwal dedit Brynerit.
Griffith ap Llywelyn dedit Y Vainol.
Cadwgan dedit Llanvawr in Llyn.
Griffith ap Llywelyn dedit Trefrew.
Lunlion alias Coulion filius Llawfron dedit Hirdref in Llyn.
Jonas dedit Bodegros. Rodri filius Mervyn dedit Mowedd.
Cadell filius Rodri dedit Penhidgen.
Griffith ap Llywelyn dedit Tr [...]flagh.
Rodri dedit Penros in Twrkelyn.
Howel filius Cadell dedit duas partes Llecheiddior.
Griffith ap Llywelyn dedit Roswenesaf.

St Beuno, to whom the Abbey of Clynoc was dedicated, was the Sonne of Hywgi ap Gwynlliw ap Glywis ap Tegid ap Cadell a Prince or Lord of Gl [...]wisig, Brothers sonne to S. Cadoc ap Gwynlliw sometime Bishop of Beneventum in Italy; He was by the Mothers side Cousin German to Laudatus the first Abbot of Enlli (in English Bardsey) and to Kentigern Bishop of Glasco in Scotland, and of Llanelwey in Wales. The said Centigerns fa­ther was Owen Regent of Scotland and sonne of Urien King of Cumbria. Beuno having raised to life, as the tradition goes, S. Wenifryd (who was beheaded by one Caradoc a Lord in North-wales because shee would not yeeld to his unchast desires) was greatly respected by King Cadvan, who gave him Lands, whereon to build a Monastery. Cadwallon Cadvans sonne also gave him lands called Gwareddoc, where beginning to build a [Page 9] Church, a woman came to him with a Child in her armes, who told him the said Lands were the Inheritance of the said Child: this did trouble Beuno exceedingly, insomuch that hee and the said woman along with him went in all hast to Caer Seiont (called by the Romans Segontium, now Carnarvon) to K. Cadwallon, who then kept his Court there. When he came before the King, he told him with a great deale of zeale, he had not done well to devote to Gods service another mans inheritance, and demanded of him back againe the golden Scepter he had given him as a consideration for the said Lands, which the King refusing to restore was without more adoe excommunicated by him; Beuno after he had pronounced his sentence against him went his waies, but Gwyddeint a cou­sen german of the King's having heard of it followed after him, and overtaking him gave him (for the good of his own soule and the King's) the Towneship of Clynnoc vawr, which was his undoubted inheritance: there Beuno built a Church a­bout the yeare of our Lord 616 about what time Cadvan dyedA. D. 616. leaving his sonne Cadwallon to succeed him. Some say Beuno recovered S. Wenifryd to life in the yeare 644, but that a­greeth not with the truth of History. Not long before this time Eneon Bhrenin, or Anianus Rex Scotorum, a Prince in the North of Brytaine leaving his Royalty came to Llyn in Gwy­neth, where he built a Church, which is at this day called (from him) Llan Eingan Bhrenin; It is said that there, in the service of his God, he spent the remainder of his daies; K. Eneon was the sonne of Owen Danwyn, the sonne of Eneon Yrth, the sonne of Cunedha Wledig King of Cambria, and a great Prince in the North. He was cousen german to Maelgwn Gwyneth King of Britaine, whose Father was Caswallon Law-hîr, brother to Owen Danwyn. The sayd Maelgon dyed about the yeare of our Lord 586. Medif daughter to Voylda ap Talu traws of N [...]n­conwey was Maelgons mother.

Edvval Ywrch and Iuor.

AFter that Cadwalader had taken his journey to­wards688 Rome, as before is declared, leaving his Sonne named Edwal▪ Ywrch, that is to say, Ed­wal the Roe and his people with his Cousen Alan, Alan taking courage to him, and not de­spairing of the conquest of Britaine, manned his ships asGalfrid. Io. Cast. well with a great number of his own people, as with those which Cadwalader had brought with him, and appoint­ed Ivor his sonne, and Ynyr his nephew to be the leaders and Chiefetains of the same, who sailing over the narrow seas, landed in the West parts of Britaine; of whose arrivall when the Saxons were certified, they gathered a great army, and gave Ivor battell, wherein they were put to flight, and lost a great number of their People: and Ivor wan the Countries of Cornewall, Devon-shire, and Somerset-shire, which he peo­pled with Britaines.

Whereupon Kentwinus King of Westsex gathered a great number of Saxons and Angles together, and came against the Britaines, which were ready to abide the battell: and when both Armies came in sight one of another, they were not ve­ry desirous to fight, but fell to a composition and agreement, that Ivor should take Ethelburga to wife, which was cousen to Kentwyn, and quietly enjoy all that he had, during the reigne of Ivor.

This Ivor is he whom the English Chronicles doe call Ive H. Lhoyd. or lew King of the West Saxons, that reigned after Cedwall, and they say that he was a Saxon, for Kentwyn reigned but five years after Ivors coming to England, and after him, his nephew Cedwall, who after he had reigned over the West [Page 11] Saxons two years went to Rome, leaving his Kingdome to Ive his cousen: This Ive or Ivor (whom the Britains call the sonne of Alan, and the Saxons the sonne of Kenred) be­ing King of the Saxons and Britains which inhabited the West parts of England, after many victories atchieved against the Kings of Kent, Southsex, and Mercia, left his Kingdome to Adelred, or (as some call him) Adelerdus, his cousen, and took his journey to Rome, where he made a Godly end, about the yeare of our Lord 720.

⚜ Of Cadwalader, Cedwall, and Ivor, there be diverse opini­nions. Some hold, that Cadwalader and Cedwall are the selfe­same man; and that the Saxon writers call him Cedwall whom the Britains doe name Cadwalader: who (as the Brytish Chroni­cles do affirme) after his foresaid vision, did resigne all his right, title and interest in Great Brytaine, to the said Alan King of Brytaine Armorike, despairing that either he or his should ever have any thing to do there, so leaving his sonne Edwal Ywrch and his people to the ordering of his cousen Alan he went to Rome. But this opinion seemeth to vary from the assertion of Bernardus Guidonius. But certainly in my opinion it is more probable that that this Cedwall was Edwal the sonne of Cadwalader, for the name Edoal, which in the ancient Brytish copy is written Etoal, may well agree with that which Guidonius writeth: and an easy matter it were especially in proper names for the C. capitall to creep in, which is almost all one with that character which the Lawyers do call a paragraph, and is used commonly in all old Text hands at the beginning of periods or sections. Of this mat­ter thus writeth Guidonius, In suo pontificali Catalogo, sub Ser­gio primo.

Per idem tempus Ethoal Rex Brytonum, cùm per decemRob. Caenal. annos multis regulis obviasset, & plura mala illis irrogas­set, tandem ipsis in pacem devenientibus, super occidentales Saxones regnavit annis duobus. Videns autem Brytanniam multis miseriis contritam, regnum sprevit terrenum propter aeternum, & Romam veniens, paucis diebus transactis migra­vit ad Christum. Et paulo post. Hic ex toto illud regnum antiquissimum Brytonum corruit, quod omnibus ferè regnis diuturnius fuit. A tempore Heli Sacerdotis usque ad hoc [Page 12] tempus, per annos 1825. Rob. Caenalis lib. 2. per. 2.

That is.

At the same time Ethoal King of the Brytains, when he had by the space of ten years warred with diverse Kings, and often put them to the worse, at length coming to an agreement with them, he reigned over the West Saxons two years: then perceiving Bry­taine to be overworne with miseries, and preferring the heavenly Kingdome before the earthly, he came to Rome, and within few days dyed: and in him ended wholly that ancient Kingdome of the Brytains, which continued in a manner longer then any other, from Heli the priest to this time, by the space of 1825▪ yeares.

Further, it is not like that Iuor coming to the aid of Edwal his cousen would euer seeke the kingdome to himselfe and defeate the right heire: but very well it may be, if this Iuor be that man whom the Saxon writers call Inas or Iue, that after these Brytaines had arriued in the south part of this realme, and fought diuers times with the Saxon kings, and continued in Cornewall, Deuon­shire, and Somersetshire by the space of two yeares▪ they should meet Centwyn in the field and so fall to an agreement, that Iuor taking Ethelburga the cousen of Centwyn to wife should enjoy the kingdome of the West Saxons after Centwyn, and that therevpon Edwal resigning his title and interest to Iuor departed to Rome, and so died: as Guidonius saith.

All this notwithstanding, it seemeth by the report of other writers of very good account, that Inas or Iue king of the West Saxons Beda. H. Hunt. Cast. W. Lamb. (whose lawes are extant in print, set out by master William Lambard Esquier, a worthy searcher and preseruer of the anti­quities of this land) was not a Brytaine, but a Saxon, who had warre again [...]t the Brytaines diuers times, and vanquished them.

Matth West. reporteth that Inas or Iue fought with Gerent King of the Brytaines.

I haue an ancient book written (as Iohn Leland thinketh) by John Castoreus or Bever, sometimes Monke of Westminster, who lived in the time of Edward the third, which reporteth the History of Inas in this sort.

About the yeare of Grace 689. Ivor and Henyr sonnes of the Daughter of Cadwalader sometime King of Brytaine, came overI. Cast. from Ireland, and taking to their did the two Kings of Wales de stroyed the Province of Chester, and sent messengers to the Saxon [Page 13] Kings, commanding them to restore againe to the Brytains the Country of Lhoyger, out of which they had wrongfully expelledThe request of the B [...]y­taines. their Parents and Ancestors: adding that if they would not do so within fifteen daies, they should be sure not to enjoy it longer. This message Inas the Noble King of Westsex signified to all the other Saxon Kings, who soon met together in Mount Campden, to whom Sibertus King of Essex spake thus:

Deare friends and companions, let us weigh and consider not on­lyThe oration of Sibertus to the other Saxon Kings. what we are our selves, but also what our enemies are which come against us: they are the very Britains, whose Fathers and Ance­stors our Fathers have bereft of their inheritance, and expelled out of their own land, and now they justly come against us to claime that which our Ancestors by violence have taken from theirs. Let us therefore like other Nations choose unto us a Head; to lead, di­rect, and governe us, whom, as chief Lord in time of Peace and Warre, we as Members may obey and stick to, sith without a Head there is no victory to be looked for. Have not the Brytains after two years of their dispersion set upon the ancient Saxons (a more valiant people than we are) fifteen times within seaven years? Did they not spoile their Kingdomes, kill their people, and leave such as remained alive sore wounded and maimed at their departure?

The rest of the Saxon Kings agreed to his mind, and with one assent chose that worthy Knight Ina King of Westsex to be their Soveraigne, who having taken their Homage, advanced his Stan­dard, and marching forward against Ivor and Henyr set upon them, so that they were faine to forsake their Tents, and flye into Wales.

Thus Inas having obtained the victory with the other Saxon Kings (saving Sibertus who by reason of his age and impotency had gone home before) returned to Southampton, where his Cousen Adelard informed him that Ivor and Henyr had gathered and le­vied a puissant Army afresh to set upon the Saxons: whereupon Inas foreslowed not the matter, but went against them, and layd siege to the Castle of Snowdon, compelling the Brytains to flye to their ships, and while he was at Bangor with the other Saxon Kings, and the Nobles of Wales he kept the feast of S. David, and then dismissed the other Kings home to their Country, untill hee should have occasion for them again: and departed himselfe with Adelard his cousen to Queen Ethelburga being then at Manchester and continued there almost three months.

[Page 14]In the mean while Adelard minding to travell about all Wales met three spies, of whom (being by him taken and exami­ned) he learned that Ivor and Henyr were returning againe with a huge strong Army, such as all the Saxon Kings would not be able to resist. Then went he and shewed Inas what he had heard: wherefore Inas forthwith certified the other Saxon Kings of the same, commanding them without delay to be ready at Chester with Horse and Armour to go against their ene­mies, and to defend their Country from violence. They accor­dingly met at Chester, and following the Kings Standard gave the Brytains battell, and put them to flight. Howbeit, the Britains eftsoones invaded England, into which they made seaven inrodes in two years, destroying Townes and Villages wheresoever they came, and never returning without rich booties; Inas after this victory returned home, and raigned over the West Saxons 36 years, and then bequeathed his Kingdome to his cousen Adelard. Thus much out of Castoreus.

This Ivor made the fratrie of Glastenbury, called in the British tongue Ynys Avalon.

Joseph of Arimathea being sent by Philip the Apostle, asGildas. Polydor. Gildas reporteth, came into this Iland in the daies of Arviragus King of Brytaine about the yeare of Christ 53. and instructed the Brytains in the doctrine of Salvation, in the Ile of Aualon, where he built a Church for the Christians: which Church this Ivor (if it be hee that governed the West Saxons) converted to an Abbey, which he endowed with large possessions, and was the more famous, because the Bodies of the said Joseph of Ari­mathea Bale. and King Arthurs were there buried.

He gave also great lands to the Church of Winchester. In the second year of Ivors Reigne, Bryth a Subject to Egfrid King of Northumberland, did over-run & destroy a great part of the Country of Ireland. In the fourth year of his reigne there was a great Earthquake in the Ile of Man: and the year following it rained bloud in Brytaine and Ireland. The Milke like wise and the Butter turned to the colour of bloud. The second year after that the Moon appeared all bloudy.

[Page 15]After the departure of Ivor to Rome, Adelard or Adelred took the rule of the Saxons. And Rodericus, or Rodri Mol­wynoc the sonne of Edwal Ywrch, did take the rule of the Brytains in the West part of England.

¶ One Welsh History saith, that Iva was the sonne of one Assar King of Little Brytaine, and that he reigned 48 years, but another affirmeth Ivor, Alan, and Idwal to have been the sonnes of Cadwalader, and to have governed Wales.

Idwall Prince of the Britains not being able to withstand the continuall assaults of the Saxons brought over with him into Cambria a remnant of Britains who were miserably afflicted both with Warre and Famine, and governed them (under the name of Welsh men) 30 years. Dr Morgan saith Edwal lyeth buried at Caergybi, towit, Holyhead. Bp Nicol. Robinson's MS.

I. Dee thinketh that Ivor was sonne in Law to Alan by mar­riage of his daughter Agatha, but I find by good Records that she was married to Edwal Ywrch.

Sr Iohn Pryse Kt thinketh that Ynyr the cousen of Ivor is the same that the Saxon writers call Yne or Ynas, who was King of the West Saxons, and went after to Rome, as is here set downe, but Iohn Harding doth write plainly and distinctly of them both, Ynyr a Briton, and Yna a Saxon.

About this time was solemnized a Marriage in North Wales between the sonne and heire of the King of Man and Nest the daughter of Cadell the sonne of Brochwel Yscythroc ap Elise ap Cynllaw ap Eli of the race of K. Gorthyrn. Prince Mervyn Bhrych was the sonne of the said Prince of Man by the fore­said Nest.

In some copies of the old Text we read thus, viz. Two years after 688 there was a great slaughter in Ireland, and the next yeare there was an Earthquake; foure years after that it rained bloud in Great Brytaine and Ireland, and the Milke and the Butter turned to Bloud. Two years after that the Moon looked like bloud. A. D. 704 Elfric K. of England dyed, and was buried at Damnam. The yeare after the night was as light as the day. The yeare after dyed Osbric K. of the Saxons. And the yeare after that S. Michaels Church was conse­crated. A. D. 720▪ it was a very hot Summer.

Roderike Molwynoc. Roderike or Rodri, the Sonne of Edwal Ywrch.

ROderike began his Reigne over the Brytains An. 720. 720. against whom Adelred, King of Westsax raised a great Army, and destroying the Country of Devon­shire entred Cornwall, where Roderike with the Brytains gave him Battell, wherein the Brytains were Con­querours.This battell is called Gwaeth Heilyn. The yeare after the Brytains obtained two other victories against the Saxons, one in Northwales at a place called Garth Maelaw [...], and another in Southwales at Pencoet. At this time Belin the sonne of Elphin a Noble man amongst the Brytains dyed. The year following died Celredus King of Mercia and Ethelbaldus was made King after him, who be­ingEthelbald King of Mercia. desirous to annex the fertile soyle of the Country lying between Severne and Wye to his Kingdome of Mercia, ga­thered an Army, and entred into Wales, and destroying all before him, he came to the Mountaine Carno, not farre from Abergevenny, where a sore battell was fought between him723. and the Brytains in the year 728.

The yeare 733 died Beda a Priest, brought up in the Abbey733. Or Jarew. of Wyrnetham, a great Clerke that wrote many works, a mong which, there is one intituled, The Ecclesiasticall Histo­ry of the English Nation, Dedicated unto Cleolwolf King of Northumberland. This yeare Adelard King of Westsex, and Ethelbald King of Mercia joyned their powers against the734 Wastald was Bishop of Hereford. Brytains, and gave them battell, and after a long fight and great slaughter on both sides, obtained a bloudy victory. The yeare 735. Adelard King of Westsex died, and Cudred 735. reigned in his stead. And the yeare following dyedYwen.. Edwyn [Page 19] King of the Picts. And in the yeare 746. there was a greatHol. pa: 193 battell fought at Hereford betwixt Cudred and Ethelbaldus, where after a long [...]ight Cudred had the victory. Also the next yeare ensuing he gave the Brytains an overthrow and dyed shortly after.

⚜ The Brytains seeing they could prevaile but little a­gainstH. Hunt. Hol. pag. 189. & 193. the Saxons joyned in league with Cuthred King of the West Saxons, who then was out with Ethelbald King of Mercia, whereupon the said Ethelbald entred into Wales with a strong ar­my, and the Brytains met him, and were there discomfited. After that Cuthred and Ethelbald met in the field, where Ethelbald was put to flight: but anon after they two were made friends, & joy­ned together their powers against the Brytains and overcame them.

After Cudred in the yeare 749. was Sigebert created King, Math. West. who for his evill behaviour was expelled by his Nobles out749 of his Kingdome, and was miserably slaine by a swinebeard,Sigebert King of Westsex. Kenulph. after whom Kenulph was made King of the West Saxons the year 750. About the same time died Theodor the sonne of750 Belin, a man of great estimation among the Brytains. Not long after there was a great battell fought betwixt the Bry­tains and the Picts at a place calledMictant Magedawc, where Da­largan King of the Picts was slaine. Within a little after, Roderi or Roderike Molwynoc was driven by the Saxons to forsake the West country, and to come to seek his own inheri­tance in Northwales, where did rule at that time the Children of Bletius or Bledericus Prince of Cornewal and Devonshire (who was one of them that gave Adelred and Ethelbert the o­verthrow at Bangor upon the river Dee who had enioyed the government of Northwales ever since Cadvan was chosen King of Brytaine untill this time.

⚜ By this History it should seem that the Brytains continued their Government in the West part of Loegria untill this time. But certainly the consent (in a manner) of all writers is, that the Bry­tish Kingdome ended in Cadwalader, after whom the Brytains had nothing to doe beyond Severne, being con [...]rained to keep themselves within the Countries of Cambria and Cornubia. It is also written by diverse, that Ivor and Ynyr at their first arriving in Brytaine, were repelled by the Saxons, and driven to Wales, where Ivor ruled as Prince many years, whom this Roderi or Ro­derike the sonne of Edwal the sonne of Cadwalader succeeded.

[Page 18]When Roderike King of the Brytains had reigned about 30 years he dyed the yeare 750. leaving two sonnes after him, Conan Tindaethwy, and Howel.

Tho. Maelor saith Rodri Molwynoc founded and endowed the Monastery of Ynys Enlli (in English Bardsey) adjoyning to Llyn in Carnarvonshire. Reedify and augment it he might, but it seems to be of an ancienter foundation, for we find in our Records mention of a Monastery and an Abbot there before his time. S. Dubricius Arch-Bishop of Caerleon resigning his [...]ishoprick to S. David went to Bardsey from the Synod of Brevi, which was held against the Pelagians about the yeare of Grace 522, with most of the Clergy of that Synod along with him, there to spend the remainder of their dayes in a Monastery, where be­ing remote from the World they might the more entirely and unanimously devote themselves to the service of God. One La [...]datus was then Abbot of Bardsey, who is taken notice of, that being summoned to that Synod he did not appeare. A­neyrin gwawdydd mychdeyr [...] Beirdh, that is, Aneirin the Sa­tyrist King of Bards (brother to Gildas Albanius the British Historian who dyed about the yeare 512,) writes thus of the retirement of St Dubric and his followers to Bardsey,

Pan oedd Saint Senedd Bhreui
Drwy arch y Prophwydi
Ar ol gwiw bregeth Dewi
Yn myned [...] [...]nys Enlli &c.

This further relation following we have in a MS. remaining with the Auditor of North-Wales, which was written by one that had the keeping of the Records at Carnarvon.


Notet hic lector quoddam & mirabile & sanctum & inter mira­bilia Walliae in Chronicis annotatum. Ad primam autem Mo­nasterii hujus Insulae fundationem Dominus ipse Deus qui petitio­nes cordis justorum implet, ad deprecatum Sancti Laudati primi Abbatis ejusdem Monasterii inivit pactum cum ipso Sancto, sta­tuitque ei & miraculose confirmavit sibi & successoribus sui [...] clau­stralibus ibidem sanctè & miraculose victuris in perpetuum certum, & praestitutum ordinem & successum (mirabile dictu) seriatim [Page 19] moriendi: videlicet, quòd eorum major natu, vel aetate grandae­vior prius, ut ex tepore solis ardoribus maturata priùs ab arbori­bus vindemiantur. hoc mortis instinctu praemonitus ipse maturior aetate hujus loci quisque Canonicus vigilaret utique quâ horâ fur hujus vitae venturus esset, ut omni horâ praeparatus à corporis ergastulo fratribus valedicens eis in coelum praevolaret. Istudque pactum ipse fidelis Deus ut quondam Israelitis irruptum servavit, donec claustrales praedicti religiose vivere desierunt, & sanctuari­um Dei ibidem stupro & sceleribus nefandè profanarunt, ob id quidem rupto Dei faedere, nunc minor, nunc major, nunc eorum medius aetate, incertâ morte, incerto mortis tempore, communi mor­tis jure hac vita defungitur, cessavit (que) religio & vita monacha­lis, cessavitque & miraculum. Tu autem Domine miserere no­stri.

Laudatus the first Abbot of Bardsey was the sonne of Nudd hael ap Senyllt of the Tribe of Maxen Wledig or Maximus the tyrant: His mother was Thevoi daughter to Lotho King of the Picts, called in our British antiquities, Llewddyn lwyddawc ô ddinas Euddyn yn y Gogledd, that is, Lotho the popular, or ruler of hosts from Edenborough in the North. S. Beuno and Kentigern Bishop of Glasco in Scotland and of Llanelwey (now S. Asaph) in Wales were his Cousin-germans, their Mothers being sisters.

Rich: Powel of Ednop Esq. saith that Marchweithian Lord of Isaled in Rhyvonioc in Denbigh land and one of the fifteen Tribes of Gwyneth lived in Prince Rodri Molwynoc's time 720.A. D. 720.

The Armes of Marchweithian.

He beareth G. a Lyon rampant A. armed B.

Isaledi Baro Marchution, primaevus ab illo
Saltantem rubro niveum gerit orbe leonem,
Tempore Roderici Molwynoc floruit Ille,
Hinc genus Isaledi generosa prosapia manat.

His inheritance was Carnedd synydd, Dincadvael, and other lands within the hundred of Isaled, as appears by the extent of the Lordship of Denbigh, which was made 8. Edv. 3. at what time Cynwric Vaughan being the ninth in descent from March­weithian lived: from thence it may be conjectured when Marchweithian lived. St Tho. ap William's booke.

Families descended from Marchweithian. The family of [Page 22] Berain in Denbighshire now incorporated into the family of the Salesburys of Lleweni by the marriage of Katharine of Be­rain the daughter and Heire of Robert Vaughan of Berain Esq. with Iohn Salisbury the sonne and Heire of Sr Iohn Salisbury Knight, by whom she had Sr Iohn Salisbury of Lleweni Knight who lived in the reigne of K. Iames and was much noted for his great strength of body. Katherines second husband was Rich. Clough of Denbigh Esq. and a Merchant of Hamborough. Her third husband was Maurice Wynne of Gwedir Esq. and af­ter his decease she married Edward Thelwall of Plâs y ward Esq.

Robert ap Rees (Chaplain to Cardinall Wolsey) and his sonne Ellis Price of Plâs Iolyn Dr of Law descended from this Tribe, and were in their time men of great Power in their Country. Dr Ellis Price is supposed to be one of those Cambridge Scho­lars that disputed at Cambridge with Throgmorton and other Oxford Scholars A. D. 1532. which Caius in his first book of the antiquity of Cambridge speaketh of. William Price of Rhiwlâs in Merionethshire Esq. now living a Colonell for his late Majesty King Charles the first, and one of the Members of the long Parliament that sate at Oxford descended from the forementioned Rob. ap Rees. So also Rob. Price D. D. now Bishop of Fernes and Laghlin in Ireland. Wynne of Voelas Esq. Price of Plas Iollyn in Denbighshire Esq. Henry Vaughan of Pantglas in Carnarvanshire Esq. who was slaine in his late Ma­jesties service at the taking of Hopton Castle in Shropshire 1643 descended from him. Thomas Vaughan Esq. his son doth now inherit both his Fathers estate and Loyalty.

In the old Text we read A. D. 754 Rodri dyed, three years after that dyed Edpald King of the Saxons.

Conan Tindaethwy. Conan Tindaethwy The Sonne of Rodri Molwynoc.

COnan Tindaethwy began his Reigne over the Bry­tains 755 the year of our Lord 755. About two years after, there was a great Battell fought at Here­ford 760 betwixt the Brytains and the Saxons, where Dyfnwal the sonne of Theodor was slaine. And this year died Athelbert King of Northumberland, and Oswald reigned in his stead. About this time, there was an order taken for the right keeping of the feast of Easter in Wales by Elbodi­us 768 a man both Godly and Learned: for the Brytains eber be­foreI. Bale, Cen. 1. pag. 67. that time differed from the Church of Rome, in celebra­ting the Feast of Easter, and the difference was this. The Church of Rome by order of a Generall Councell holden at Nice had appointed, that ever the next Sunday after the 14 day of the moon should be Easter day, so that Easter should be ever either the 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, or 21 day of the moon, and neber the 14 day it selfe, nor never passe the 21. And the Brytains did use to keep their Easter upon the 14 day, and so to the 20 as it fell, so that sometimes when it was Easter day with the Brytains, it was but Palme-sunday with the Sax­ons: from this diversity grew a great contention about the yeare 660. betwixt Colman and Hylda upon the one part66 [...] defending the Rite of the Brytains; and Gilbert and Wilfrid on the other part, who could scarce afford to call the Bry­tains and Scots Christians, because they kept not Easter within the dayes appointed.

[Page 22]⚜ I read that this Hylda (which was the neece of Edwin KingLeland. I. Bale, Cen. 1. p. 81. of Northumberland, & brought up by Paulin and Aedan) did in a publike Synod withstand Wilfrid and other Monks about the keeping of Easter alleadging for herselfe (out of Polycrates) the fact of Irenaeus, who withstood Victor Bishop of Rome in that behalfe, and the custome of the Church of Asia observed by S. John the E­vangelist, Philip the Apostle, Polycarpus and Melito, and taught in this Iland of Brytaine by Joseph of Arimathea, who first Prea­ched the Gospell in the same.

In the yeare 763. was Offa made King of Mercia, and763 Brichtrich King of the West Saxons. In which yeare dyed 773 Fermael the sonne of Edwal: and the year following, 774 Ce­moyd the King of the Picts. The yeare 776. the men of Southwales destroyed a great part of Mercia with fire and sword. And the summer following all the Welshmen gathe­red themselves together, and entring the Kingdome of Mercia did there much hurt.

⚜ The Saxons bordering upon the Country of Cambria orIo. Cast. Wales, did daily incroach so upon the lands of the Welshmen be­yond Seaverne, that they had gotten much of the same into their hands, especially toward the south part of the Country. Where­fore the Welshmen put themselves in armour, and set upon the Sax­ons, and chased them over Seaverne againe, and then returned home with a great prey, and thus they did oftentimes, killing and destroying all before them, and alwaies bringing home with them much Cattell, which thing caused Offa to conclude a peace with the other Saxon Kings, and to bend his whole force against the Welshmen.

Whereupon Offa King of Mercia caused a great ditch to beIo. Castor. Math. West. made, large and deep from sea to sea, betwixt his Kingdome and Wales, whereby he might the better defend his Country from the incursions of the Welsh. And this Ditch is to be seen in many places as yet, and is called Clawdh Offa, thatClawdh Offa. is, Offas ditch, at this day.

⚜ King Offa calling to his aid the other Saxon Kings gathe­red [Page 23] a huge army, and came over Seaverne into Wales: upon whose coming the Welshmen (being not able to encounter with such a multitude of armed souldiers) left the plaine and even Country by Seaverne side, and the land between it and the river Wy, and withdrew themselves to the Mountains and Rocks, where they might be most in safety▪ untill the enemies were gone out of the country; neverthelesse they made continually diverse invasions by stealth into the land of Mercia, and alwaies returned with ad­vantage; the Saxons keeping themselves encamped could doe no goed against them, for they durst not pursue them to the Mountains and Woods, for feare of being entrapped by such as kept the passages and streights.

Offa perceiving this expelled them all quite out of the Coun­try between Seaverne and Wy, and planted Saxons in their pla­ces. And annexing it to his own Kingdome of Mercia caused this famous ditch to be made for the security of his people from the invasions of the Welsh. Hereupon the seat of the Kings of Powys was translated from Pengwern (now called Salop) to Mathraval, where it continued long after.

In the yeare 795. the Danes came first into England; sixe795 years after they came againe, and destroyed a great part ofMatt. West. pag. 189. Lindsey and Northumberland; they over▪ ran also the grea­test part of Ireland, and destroyed Rechreyn.

Also about the same time there was a battell fought at Ruthlan, between the Saxons and the Welshmen, where Cara­doc King of Northwales was slaine. This Caradoc was the sonne of Gwyn, the sonne of Colhoyn, the son of Ednowen, the sonne of Blethyn, the sonne of Blecius or Bledricus Prince of Cornewall and Devonshire. Also this yeare dyed Offa King of Mercia, and Egfert his sonne reigned in his stead.

In the yeare of our Lord 800. Egbertus was made King of Westsex: and Kenulphus the yeare following created King of Mercia. Arthen also the sonne of Sitsylht the sonne of Clydawc King of Caerdigan dyed the same yeare. Likewise Run King of Dyuet, and Cadelh King of Powys died in the808 yeare 808.

⚜ This was a troublesome time, and no setled Governement as yet [Page 26] established in Wales, and therefore such as were chiefe Lords in any Country are here called Kings.

The next yeare after died Elbodius Archbishop of North­wales, Io. Bale. before whose death the Sunne was sore eclipsed. In the yeare 810 was the Moon eclipsed upon Christmas day.810 The same yeare S. Davids was burnt by the West Saxons. There was also a generall murrein and death of cattell throughout all Wales. The next yeare ensuing Owen the sonne of Meredyth, the sonne of Terudos dyed▪ and the Ca­stle of Deganwy was destroyed with Thunder. Conan Prince of Wales, and his brother Howel could not agree, insomuch that they tried the matter by Battell, wherein Howel had the victory.

⚜ This Howel the brother of Conan, King or Prince of North­wales, did claime the Ile of Môn or Anglesey for part of his Fa­thers inheritance, which Conan refusing to give him, they fell at variance, and made Warre the one against the other.

This Mischiefe grew from a Custome in Wales, viz. the divisi­on of the Fathers inheritance amongst all the Sonnes commonly called Gauel-kind. In which division the elder sonne had the better share, but the younger had alwaies the ancient seate and man­sion house. And this custome did not only in time weaken their Families, but was also a cause of continuall strife and feud amongst them.

And the next yeare there was much hurt done by Thunder, and in diverse places many houses burnt to the Earth. The same yeare dyed▪ Gruffyth the sonne of Run, and Griff [...]i the sonne of Kyng [...] was slaine by the treason of Elice his Bro­ther.

Howel fought with his brother Conan another Battell, & slew a great number of his people, whereupon Conan leavied an Army in the yeare 817 and chased his brother Howell out of the Ile of Môn or Anglesey, compelling him to fly into Man. And a little after dyed Conan, chiefe King of the Brytains or Welshmen, leaving behind him a daughter called Esylht, which was married to a Noble man, called Mervyn Vrych, the sonne [Page 25] of Gwyriad, or Uriet, the sonne of Elidur, and so forth in the right line to Belinus the brother of Brennus King of the Bry­tains, and his Mother was Nest the daughter of Cadelh King of Powys, the sonne of Brochwel Yscythroc, (that fought with the Saxons at Bangor who was Prince of Powis.

⚜ This Brochwel is called by the Latine writers, Brecivallus Galfrid. I. Cast. Matth. West. and Brochmaelus, of whom I find this written in Historia Divae Monacellae.

Fuit olim in Powysia quidam Princeps illustrissimus nomine Brochwel Yscithroc, Consul Legecestriae, qui in urbe tunc tem­poris, Pengwern Powys (nunc vero▪ Salopia dicta est) habitabat: cujus domicilium seu habitaculum ibi steterat, ubi Collegium divi Ceddae nunc situm est.

That is.

There was sometimes in Powys a noble Prince, named Broch­wel Yscithroc, Consul or Earle of Chester, who dwelt in a towne then called Pengwern Powys, and now Salop, whose dwelling house was in the very same place where the Col­ledge of Saint Chad now standeth. This man with Cad­van King of Brytain, Morgan King of Demetia, and Blede­ricus Galfrid. Cast. King of Cornewal, gave an overthrow to Ethelfred King of Northumberland, near the river of Dee, Anno gra­tiae 617. The Ancestors of divers in Wales at this day, are known (by ancient books and records) to have descen­ded Paternally from him.

¶ The Armes of Brochwel Yscythroc.

S. three nags heads erased A. or (as others say) S. a cheveron between three Naggs heads erased A.

The Blaneys of Trefgynon, and the Pursells of Nantcriban in Montgomery-shire are descended from Brochwel Yschythroc.

The pedegree of Iohn Blaney of Trefgynon Esq. Iohn the sonne of Lewis the sonne of David Lloyd Blaney of Tresgynon the sonne of Thomas ap Ievan Lloyd of Maesmawr, which Ievan Lloyd was the son of Griffith ap Ievan Blaney, which Ievan (that took first the Surname of Blaney) was the sonne of Griffith ap Llewelyn Vaughan ap Llewelin ap Me [...]lir gryg ap Griff [...]i ap [Page 26] Iorwerth ap Owen ap Rodri ap Gwaeddan ap Brochwel ap Aed­dan ap Congen ap Elise ap Gwyliawg ap Beli ap Maelmynan ap Selyf ap Conan ap Brochwel Yscythroc K. of Powys.

Edward Lord Blaney of Ireland was younger Brother to Lewis Blaney aforesaid, and Father to Sr Arthur Blaney Knight and Colonel for his late Majesty CHARLES the First, who conferred on him the honour of Knighthood, as a reward for his service. This Sr Arthur marryed the Daughter and Heire of the foresaid Iohn Blaney of Trefgynon.

Brochwel ap Aeddans Coate. Party per pale Or & G. two Lyons Rampant endorsed, counterchanged.

The Pedegree of Iohn Pursell of Nantcriban Esq. Iohn the sonne of Edward Pursell of Nantcriban the sonne of Thomas the sonne of Rich. Pursell of Dintle, the eldest sonne of Nicolas Pursell, the sonne of Richard the sonne of Thomas Pursell the sonne of Ievan ap Llewelyn by Margaret the Daughter and Heire of Thomas Pursell, Ievan ap Llewelyn was the sonne of Llewelyn ap Griffith ap Ievan ap P [...]hirid ap Howel ap Trahayrn ap Cynwric ap Pasgen ap Gwyn ap Griffith ap Beli Lord of Gils­field ap Brochwel ap Aeddan, and so to Brochwel, as in the fore­going Pedegree.

The Armes of the Pursells.

Nebule A. & G. on a Bend S. three Boars heads erazed of the first tusked Or and langued of the second.

Brochwel Yscythroc was a great friend and favourer of the Monkes of Bangor, whose part he took ▪against the Saxons that were set on by Augustin the Monke to persecute them with fire and sword, because they would not forsake the customes of their own Church, and conforme to those of Rome; some say he fought against Ethelred A. D. 607, in which yeare there were slaine about 1200 of the said Monkes by the instigation of that blondy Apostle Austin; Tantum Religio potuit suadere malo­rum? Thus the Roman Religion (not the Christian) was first planted with bloud in this Island. Augustin did set out from Rome about 588, arrived in Brytain 596, A. D. 603 he held a Synod in the borders of Wales at Augustines Oake or Worcester, to which there came the seaven Bishops that were under the ju­risdiction of the Arch-Bishop of Menevia.

[Page 27]Septem illi Episcopi hi fuerunt, viz.

  • 1 Henfordens.
  • 2 Tavens.
  • 3 Pa­ternens.
  • 4 Banchorens.
  • 5 Elwy­ens.
  • 7 Morganens.

A. D. 610 Elbodus was by Augustin and his Clergy madeA. D. 610. Bishop of North-wales, he having first obliged them by his wri­ting in defence of the Church of Rome against the Brytains and Scots, who would not receive Law from her to the prejudice of their own Church, which they reckoned no lesse ancient and absolute then the Roman.

Of Bangor Monachorum or Bangor Iscoed.

Bangor Monachorum (so called from the famous Monastery that was in it) lyes situate in Maelor or Bromfield not farre from Caerlleon or Westchester. Both Towne and Monastery have so felt the injuries of time, that at this day there are hardly any r [...]ins of them remaining; there is now only to be seen a small Village of the name, but no footsteps of the old City, save the rubbish of the two principall gates, Porth Cleis and Porth Wogan, the former looking towards England, the later towards Wales; they are about a mile distant the one from the other, so that it is easy to conjecture how large the City might be; It lay be­tween those two Gates, the river Dee running through the middle of it; The old British Triades tell us that in the time of the British Kings there were in the Monastery of Bangor 2400 Monkes, who in their turnes (that is, a hundred every houre of the 24) continually (Night and Day) read prayers and sung Psalmes, so that the service of God went on there still without intermission.

Off a King of Mercia, and Meredith King of Dyvet dyed in the battell fought at Ruthlan 794. 796 the Saxons killed Cara­dawc 794. King of Northwales. This Caradawc could not be the sonne of Gwyn ap Collwyn, for Gwyn ap Collwyn lived 200 years and above after this time, nor yet Caradawg ap Alawg King of Pennarddal [...]wg (now Hawarden) who in the time of King Cadvan (200 years before) was slaine by Owen Penyverw the sonne of Tyvid in revenge of the wrong he had done to his sister St Wenifryd; But he may very well be Caradoc Earle of Here­ford the only one of that name that I read of living in those times; this Caradoc descended from Coeliog Myngrudd of the [Page 28] North of Brytain was fain to leave his Country, Ethelbald King of Mercia having despoyled him of his estate in the yeare of our Lord 760. Probably Roderic or his sonne Conan gave him Lands in Northwales for his support, which might be an occa­sion why he should be called King of Gwyneth. He might well be that Caradoc, that 28 years after the battell of Hereford was slaine by the Mercians, being much enraged for the death of their King Offa. This Caradawc's sonne Lluddocca ap Caradawc had one daughter called Rhieingar mother to Tuder Trevor of Bromfield, who was in her right Earle of Hereford, and is reckoned to be the Tribe of the Marches.

In one copy of the old Text we read thus▪ A. D. 760 there was a battell fought betweene the Brytains and Saxons called Gweith Henfordd. Dyfnwal the sonne of Tewdwr dyed the same yeare. 768 the Brytains were fain to change the time of their ancient observation of Easter, and Elbodius a servant of God was the Author of the change.

775 Cubert Abbot dyed. 776 Offa destroyed South-wales. A. D. 779 (in the summer) y distrywyd y Brytanyeid gidac Offa. 790 Pagans came into Ireland and Rechren was destroyed.

Merwydd King of Buelt and Gwerthrynion (called Marmodi­us Rex Wallensium in a Latine book at the end of Matthew Paris his History of the last edition) being in regard of his so neare neighbourhood much wronged and oppressed by King Offa became Generall of the Brytains, against him and his Saxons. The said Merwydd descended from King Vortigern.

Ranulph: Cest. lib. 1. cap. 49. Polychron: relateth that in K. Edward the Confessors time no Welshman durst with any weapon come over Offa's ditch, and that in his time both Welsh and English inhabited promiscuously without distinction on ei­ther side of it, in the Counties of Cheshire, Salop, and Here­ford.

Mervyn Bhrych and Esyllt the Daughter of Conan Tindaethwy.

THE first yeare of the Reigne of Mervyn Bhrych andMatth. West. Sim. Dunel. H. Hunt. Esylht his Wife, Egbert King of Westsex entred Wales with a great Army, and destroying the whole Country unto Snowdon hills, seised into his hands the Country of Rhyvonioc in Denbighland. About this time, there was a sore battell fought in Anglesey, called the Battell of Lhanvaes.

In the year of Christ 819 Kenulph King of Mercia de­stroyed819 West Wales, and the summer following, he oberran Powys land, doing much hurt, and soon after dyed, and Ke­nelme Reigned in his stead. About the same time also Howel King of Man dyed. The yeare 825 Ceolwulph was made King of Mercia, and Reigned two years. After whom Ber­nulph was created King, who was overthrown at Elledowne by Egbert King of the West Saxons, who also brought to his subjection the Countries of Kent and West Angles. Not long after, about the yeare 828 Bernulph was slaine by the East 828 Angles. After that there was a great Battell fought [...]at a place called Gauelford, betwixt the Brytains and the West Saxons of Devonshire, and many thousands slaine on either side, and the victory uncertain. The yeare 829 Egbert over­threw829. Wyhtla [...]e King of Mercia, and made him subject to his Kingdome. He also passed Humber, and conquered the LandThe King­dome of England be­gan. beyond, so that he was the first Monarch of the Saxons, ha­ving brought the Seaven Kingdomes into one, and changed the name of Brytain linto England, calling the people English­men, and the language English: for the people that came into this Ile from Germany, were Saxons, Angles, and Juthes. And of the Saxons came the people of Eastsex, Southsex, Middlesex, and West Saxons. Of the Angles came the East Angles, middle Angles or Mercians, and all on the North side of Humber. And of the Juthes came the inhabitants of Kent, and the Ile of Wight▪ And the seaven Kingdomes were these:

  • [Page 31]1 The first Kent.
    The seaven Saxon King­domes.
  • 2 The second Southsex, containing Sussex and Surrey.
  • 3 The third East Angles, containing Northfolke, South­folke, and Cambridgeshire.
  • 4 The fourth Westsex, containing Barkeshire, Devonshire, and Somersetshire.
  • 5 The fift Mercia, containing Glocestershire, Herefordshire, Worcestershire, Shropshire, Staffordshire, Cheshire, Warwike­shire, Darbyshire, Notinghamshire, Lincolneshire, Northamp­tonshire, Oxfordshire, Buckinghamshire, Bedfordshire, and halfe Hartfordshire.
  • 6 The sixt was East Saxon, containing Essex, Middlesex, and the other halfe of Hartfordshire.
  • 7 The seaventh Kingdome was all the Lands upon the North side of Humber, and it was divided into two King­domes, Deyra and Bernicia. Deyra was the land betwixt Hum­ber and Tine, Bernicia from Tine to the Scottish sea.

All these were brought under subjection by Egbert King of the West Saxons: and this Realm was called England the year after the coming of Brutus to this Ile 1968 after the coming of Hengist 383, and after the departure of Cadwala­der 149 years. Which name although it hath continued to this day, for the space of 755 years, yet was it not very lucky to the Saxons: For even upon this change of name, and u­nion of the Kingdomes, followed the cruell invasion of the Danes; and after that, the conquest of the Normans, of whom the Kings of this time are descended. But to returne again to my matter. The year 833 the Danes in great companies833 landed in divers places of this Realm, and fought diverse Battles with Egbert, wherein sometime they and sometimes he had the better. Afterward in the yeare 836 they landed in West Wales, and passing through Wales to England (with the accession of many Welshmen which joyned with them a­gainst Egbert fought him, but he overthrew them all at Hen­gestdowne, and dyed the year following.

⚜ This Egbert King of England wan the City of Caerlhêon ar Ran. Cest. Dhowrdwy or Chester (the chiefe City of Venedotia,) out of the hands of the Brytains, in whose possession it had remained untill that time. He caused also (as some writers doe affirme) the [Page 30] brazen image of Cadwalhon King of Brytaine, to be thrown downMatth. West. Chron. Wig. and defaced, commanding that no man upon paine of Death, should set up any such againe, and that this Land should be called no more, Brytain but England, and the people Englishmen. He also made proclamation (by the instigation of Redburga his wife, who bare an implacable malice towards the Brytains) that no Brytain Io. Cast. should remaine within the confines of England, commanding that all and singular which were of the Brytish bloud should within six moneths with their Wives and Children remove out of his King­dome, upon paine of losing their Heads.

After the death of Egbert, his sonne Ethelwulph reigned, who gave his daughter in marriage to Berthred King of Mer­cia and tributary to him. He had great warres, and much a­doe with the Danes, who with fire & sword destroyed the coasts of England. The yeare 841 dyed Idwalhon a Noble man of841 Wales. And two years after was the battell of Kettell betwixt Burchred King of Mercia and the Brytains, wherein (as some write) Mervyn Bhrych King of the Brytains was slain, leaving behind him a son called Rodri Mawr, that is to say Roderike the Great.

Mervyn Bhrych King of Man was the sonne of Gwyryat and Nest the daughter of Cadell ap Brochwel ap Elise King of Powis. The said Gwyryad was the sonne of Elidir, whose mo­ther was Celeinion daughter of Anarawd Gallgrwm ap Mervyn Mawr ap Cynvyn, &c. in a direct line to Maximus the Emperour. Elidirs Father was Sandef ap Al [...]wn ap Tegit ap Gwayr ap Dwig ap Llowarch hên a Noble man of King Arthurs Court li­neally descended from Coel Godebog.

Howel the Brother of Conan Tindaethwy in his distresse fled to Mervyn Bhrych, by whom he was kindly entertained. To gratify his Noble Landlord, Howell used such meanes afterwards that Mervyn married Esyllt the daughter and heire of his bro­ther Conan. Howel, after he had about five years enjoyed the Isle of Man with other Islands and Lands in the North given him by Mervyn to hold under him, dyed A. D. 825. After his death the premises reverted to Mervyn, who with his Ancestors had always held the same under the Kings of the Brytains.

A. D. 831 dyed Saturbin Bishop of Menevia. Burchred was not King of Mercia before the yeare 852, ten years after Mervyn [...] [Page 32] death, therefore it may be said with more probability that Mervyn was slaine in a battell fought between Ethelwolph and the Brytains. He lost his life valiantly, after he had governed Wales 25 years.

Of Cilmin Troedtu one of the fifteen Tribes of Gwyneth.

He lived in the time of P. Mervyn Bhrych, and Prince Rodri the Great A. D. 843. He was Mervyns brothers sonne, and he cameA. D. 843. along with his Uncle when he came from the North of Brytain to marry Esyllt the daughter & heire of Prince Conan Tindaeth­wy, as we read in an old MS. history.

The Armes of Cilmin Troedtu.

Quarterly 1. A. an Eagle displayed with two heads S. 2. A, 3. firy ragged sticks G. the 3d as the 2d, and the 4th as the first, o­ver all upon Escutcheon A. a mans leg cooped alaquise S. Rich. Powell of Ednop Esq. calls him the Tribe of Uwch-Gwrvai in Arvon, and in a Tract of the fifteen Tribes added to his Pentar­chia he writes these verses of him.

Nobilis Arvoniae Cilminus Satrapa Droedtu
Rich. Powell.
Bicipites nigras aquilas extollit in albo
Quadrato, binas pandentes fortiter alas
Fronte sub adversâ baculos tres cortice nigro,
Quarta tamen primae, par tertia parma secundae,
Fert tibiam medio descissam parmula nigra,
Unde tulit nomen Droedtu quasi nigripes esset,
Roderici Magni patruelis floruit aevo.

Many of his posterity were wise men and Learned in the anci­ent Brytish Lawes, and Judges in the Courts of the Princes of Wales, as Morgenen Ygnad ap Gwrydr, and Cyfnerth his sonne, both whose Law books we have fairely written on Parchment. Morgenen Ygnad ap Madoc. Morgenen Ygnad ap Meyric, and Madoc goch Ynad, famous Lawyers and Judges. Robert ap Me­redith ap Hwlkin Lloyd of Glyn Llivon Esq. a worthy Gentle­man living in the time of King Henry 7. descended from this Tribe. And this Robert is Ancestor to the Glynnes of Carnar­vonshire, viz. to Iohn Glynne of Glynllivon Esq. to Thomas Glynne of Nanlley Esq., also to the Glynnes of Lleûar and others. Sr. Iohn Glynne of Biscester in the County of Oxford, an emi­nent Lawyer, & His Majesty K. CHARLES the 2d's Serje­ant a [...] Law, is descended from the said Robert, being a younger [Page 31] sonne of Sr William Glynne of Glynllivon Knight.

Cilmins seat is thought to have been at Glynllivon.

British Rythmes containing the names of the fifteen Tribes of Gwyneth.

A. D. 843
Brân. a d Gweyrydd call
650 or 876.
1079 or 1170.
Hêdd, ai peddyd,
846 or 913.
Marchudd, bydd byd,
Bendew 1015 or 1079.
Bradwen 1194.
Ednowain gain, gida
Gwyr ungorph gadernid,
I rhain y bu oi rhan byd,
Gwindai pymthec Llwyth Gwyndyd.

Braint [...]ir of Isdulâs yn Rhôs in Denbighland is reckoned one of the fifteen Tribes of Gwyneth. Rich. Powel of Ednop saith he lived long before Cilmin and Marchweithian forementi­oned, in King Cadvallons time 650. but a M S. of Mr. Richard Matthews of Vale Crucis (of Guttyn Owens hand writing) gave me occasion to suppose he lived a great while after, about the time of Rodri the Great, or of his sons. His progeny it seems hath not much increased, there are not many (at this day) known to be descended from him, though some there are.

The Armes of Braint hîr.

Vert. a Cross flowry Or. others say, Or a Cheverson S. between three roses A.

Isdulae Dominus magnatum maximus Heros
Arma Brianus habet cognomine Longus in Auro,
Nempe rosas flexum tres albas insuper atrum,
Saxonis incursus retudit, Regis (que) Britanni
Cadvallon fuit ille sororius at (que) satelles,
Exoniâ Pendam captivum abduxit, & urbem
Restituit captam, pulsis Saxonibus inde,
Northumbriq, magum Pellitum Regis in aulâ
Sustulit obstantem Britonum conscendere classem,
Misit in auxilium quam Rex Aremoricus hospes.

Roderike the Great, Sonne of Mervyn Bhrych and Esylht.

ROderike the Great began his Reigne over Wales, the year after Christ his incarnation 843. This Prince divided all Wales into three territories, viz. of Aberffraw, Dinevowr, and Mathraval. He had Warre with Burchred King of Mercia, who with the aid of Ethelwulph entring North-Wales with a great power destroyed Anglesey, fought diverse times with the Welshmen, and slueMervyn. Meyric a great Prince among them. About the yeare 846 Meyric Bishop of Menevia was slaine by the Sax­ons▪

The yeare 846 the Danes over-ranne a great part of Eng­land, 846 and having fought with Athelstan King of Kent, bro­ther to Ethelwulph, had their Winter quarters in England. Matth. West. Io. Cast. This year also was Ithel King of Gwent or Wentland slaine in fight by the men of Brecknock. This yeare 854 Kongen King of Powys died at Rome, being slaine by Pagans, as some854 say, or (as others) choaked by his own men. And two years after dyed Cemoyth King of the Picts, and Jonathan Lord of Abergeley. About 854 the black Nation, to wit, the Danes and Normans wasted Anglesey. About the yeare 856 Ethel­wulph 856 took his journey to Rome, he made his Kingdome tributary to the Pope, and payd the Peter-pence to the Church of Rome.

The old Saxons doe bring the Genealogy of this Ethel­wulph Matt. West. to Adam, after this manner, viz. Ethelwulph the sonne of Egbert, the sonne of Alcmund, the sonne of Eaffa, the sonne of Eoppa, the sonne of Ingils the brother of Inas, the [Page 33] sonne of Kenred, the sonne of Coelwald, the sonne of Cud­win, the sonne of Ceawlin, the sonne of Kenrick, the sonne of Cerdick, who was the first King of the West Saxons, the sonne of Esly, the sonne of Gewise, of whom the people were called Gwysses, the daughter of Gewyn, the sonne of Wingy, the sonne of Freawyn, the sonne of Fridagare, the sonne of Brendy, the sonne of Beldegy, the sonne of Woden, from whose issue came Kings of many Nations, the sonne of Frethewold, the sonne of Freolaff, the sonne of Frethewolf, the sonne of Finny, the sonne of Godulph, the sonne ofDe quo Se­dulius in Paschali car­mine. Geta, the sonne of Teathwy, the sonne of Beane, the sonne of S [...]ldy, the sonne of Seafe, who Reigned in a Country called Anglia, lying be­twixt the Goths and the Saxons, from whence the Angles came first to Brytain, he was the sonne of Heremod, the sonne of Itermod, the sonne of Hadey, the sonne of Wale, the sonne of Bedwy, the sonne of Sem, the sonne of Noe, and so forth to Adam.

⚜ There is another Pedegree layd down by the same Author, ofMatt. West. pag. 275. Offa King of Mercia, ascending up even to Adam, not in all points agreeing with this; the Author writing the latter, seemeth often­times to forget what he had written in the former. The like also I find in Iohn Castoreus, at the end of the history of Edward theI. Castor. Matt. Paris pag. 126. Confessor. And another in Matth. Paris: in the History of King Henry 2. A. D. 1155. And these foure Genealogies seem to as­cend by the same men, although the names doe sometimes vary.

This Genealogy have I set downe here, that the Reader may understand thereby, how that not only the Brytains, but all other Nations have been ever desirous to set forth their antiquity and progeny, which was no hard thing to do for such as had not been inter-mingled with other Nations, and that had ever among them such as from time to time did professe that Art, and commit to writing the Progeny, the names of the Wives and Children of all that were of any estimation in the Country. In these two things, Wales ever surpassed all other Countries, having not mingled with any other Nati­ons, untill of late years with the English, and also having those that professed the art of Genealogy; who although they have sometimes erred, or rather willingly to humour the vain­gloriousBeirdh. coined false Genealogies, yet surely are able by [Page 34] their books to bring any Gentlemans Genealogy to Ance­stors that lived nine hundred years ago, and but few farther, except those descended from the kings of Brytaine.

The Italians, before they mingled with the Vandals, Goths, and Lombards, could bring their Genealogies to Aeneas. The Spaniards to Hesperus, before the Goths and Moores overran their land. The Saxons to Woden, before they mingled with the Danes and Normans. Yea the Frenchmen and Turks re­joyce at this day, to bring themselves to the Thracians, and so the Germans to the children of Gwyston: and it is possi­ble they may do it, because they have not bin mingled nor overrun with any other Nation. There are few Nations in the least civilized, but are taken with this innocent study as well as the Brytains. The Grecians honoured the memory of Berosus with a Copper Statue, which they set up for himH. Lloyd. in Athens, for his pains in transmitting to posterity the Be­ginnings and Pedegrees of Nations. Men are not to be blamed for delighting in this kind of History, but rather for not making a right use of it, by imitating the vertues, and shun­ning the Uices of their Ancestors.

This year the Danes chased Burchred out of his kingdome, who went to Rome, and there died. The year 857. died Ethel­wulph, Io. Castor. 857. and left behind him his sons Athelbald king of West­sex, and Athelbright king of Kent, and of the East Saxons.

⚜ Of this Ethelwulph it is written, that he was so well learn­ed and so devout, that the Clerks of the Church of Winchester Iohn. Cast. Sim. Dunel. Matth. Park. A Kings son and heir Bi­shop. Io. Cast. did choose him in his youth to be their Bishop, which function he took upon him, and was Bishop of Winchester for seven years before he was King. It is reported also that he conquered the kingdom of Demetia or Southwales, and gave the same with the kingdom of Southsex to Alfred his son; and that the said Alfred should bring a thousand souldiers out of Wales, to his brother Ethelbert's aid to Winchester, and put the Danes there to flight, having destroyed a great number of them. Athelbald the son of Ethelwulph after the death of his father kept his Mother-in-law for his Concubine, and afterward married her in the City of Chester.

[Page 35]After Athelbald had Reigned eight years he dyed, and A­thelbright his Brother took the rule of his Kingdome. And that year the Danes spoiled Winchester, and after a great fight were driven out of the Land: but returning to Thanet Fabian. and remaining there that winter, spoiled by incursions all the sea shore. This year also was the battel of Gweythen be­twixt the Brytains and the English, wherein was a great num­ber slain on either side. The year 895. died Conan Nant Niuer, a worthy Captain and noble Warrior. And the year865. following came Hungar and Hubba with a great army of Danes H. Hunt. into England. In the year 867. died Athelbright, and Ethel­red his brother reigned in his stead. The Danes the year next867. ensuing spoiled York, and slew the two kings of Northumber­land, H. Hunt. Fabian. Ran. Cest. Osbright and Elba, and afterward overran all the Coun­try to Notingham, spoiling and destroying all before them, and then returned to York, from thence to East Angle, where they slue Edmond the King. The sixt year of Ethelred came ano­ther Host of Danes through Westsex, and to Reding, with Bas­reck and Alding, and fought five battels with Ethelred and Alfred his brother, in two whereof the Danes were overcome at Henglefield and Estondowne, and in the thrée other the Eng­lish were overcome, at Reding, Basing and Mereton. The year 871. King Ethelred died, and Alfred his brother reigned in his stead.871.

Alfred having taken upon him the kingdome and considering with himsef, what a heavy burthen it was, sought out the wisest men and the best learned he could hear of, to be directed by them; These he worthily entertained, using their advise as well in the pub­lick Government of the Commonwealth, as in his private Studies and Affairs. He sent for two famous men for learning out of Wales, the one named John De Erigena, surnamed also Scotus, born at Meneuia or S. Davids, and brought up in the Colledge there, whoBale. Cent: 2. Cap. 24. having for knowledge sake travelled to Athens, bestowed there many years in the study of the Greek, Hebrew, and Chaldee tongues and the secret Mysteries of Philosophy, and coming from thence to France, where being esteemed well by Carolus Caluus, and Ludo­vicus Balbus, he translated the works of Dionysius Ar [...]opagita, I. Castor. [Page 36] De caelesti hierarchia, out of Greeke into the Latine tongue; and at the last being returned home to Wales, was sent for by this King Alfred, who began then the founding of the University of Oxford, Polidor. lib. 5. and was the first that professed learning, and read publikely in the said University. The other was Asserius or Asser, of whom I shallHol. pa. 218. have occasion to speak hereafter. He would not suffer any to [...]ear Office in his Court, but such as were Learned, exhorting all men generally to embrace and honour Learning and Learned men.

Alfred in the first year of his Reigne fought two Battels with the Danes upon the south side of Thames, and slue of them one King, and nine Earles. About this yeare died Gwgan King of Caerdigan.

⚜ This was that Noble Gwgan ap Mevric ap Dunwal ap Ar­then ap Sitsylht, King or Prince of Caerdigan, who, as some Bry­tish Books have it, was by misfortune drowned at this time.

At this time the Danes destroyed the Towne of Dunbri [...]. [...]on. Alclyd, wan also London and Reding, and all the inland Country and Kingdome of Mercia. And one King or Leader of them took the Country of Northumberland, who with his people did much annoy the Picts. Likewise the year following three Kings of the Danes went from Cambridge to Warham in Dorsetshire, and Alfred would have given them battell, but the Danes desiring peace forsware England, which they had never done before, and the same night their horsemen took their journey toward Excester, and their footmen which went to Sea were all drowned at Sandwich. When the Danes had thus abjured England, they bent their force against Wales en­tred the Ile of Môn with a great army in the year of Christ 873. where Roderike gave them twice battell, once at a place873 called Bangole, and the other time at a place called Mene­gid. Matth: West.

⚜ I find also that about this time Halden and Hungar two Cap­tains of the Danes arrived in Southwales, and overran the wholeSi. Dunelm. Matth. West. country, destroying all before them with fire and sword, neither sparing Churches nor religious houses; but within a while after they received their deserved reward at the hands of the West Sax­ons, who meeting with them on the coast of Devonshire, slew both Halden and Hungar, with 1200 of their men.Eneon Bho­neddig.

At this time Eneon Bishop of Menevia or S. Davids died, [Page 27] and Hubert was installed in his place. And within two years after Dungarth King of Cornwall was drowned by a mischance. In the year 876 the Englishmen entred Angle­sey, 876 fought with the Welsh a sore bloudy battell, and in the year following slue Roderike King or Prince of Wales, and Gwyriad his Brother, or (as some say) his sonne. This Roderike had by his Wife Enghârad the daughter of Meyric the sonne of Dyfnwal or Dunwal the sonne of Arthen ap Sit­sylht severall sonnes, as Anarawd his eldest, to whom he gave Aberfraw with Northwales; Cadelh the second, who had given him Dinevowr with Southwales, and took also by force Mathraval and Powys land after the death of Mervyn the third sonne, to whom their Father Rodri had given the same.

Roderick the Great is esteemed by all writers to be the un­doubted owner and possessor of all Wales. Venedotia or North­wales descended unto him from his mother Esylht, the daughter and sole heir of Conan Tindaethwy. Demetia or Southwales (as some do affirm) descended to him by his wife the daughter and heir of Meyric ap Dyfnwal ap Arthen ap Sitsylht king of Caer­digan: her brethren (who are thought to be illegitimate) holding of her husband. Powys he had by Nest, the Sister and Heir of Con­gen ap Cadelh king of Powis, his fathers mother. These three Dominions he appointed under their meares and bounds, with a Princely house in each of them; these he named Y tair Talaeth, and left them unto three of his sons, Anarawd, Cadelh, and Mer­vyn, who were called Y tri Twysoc Talaethioc, that is, The three Crowned Princes, because each of them did wear upon his Bonet or Helmet a Coronet of Gold, being a broad lace or headband indented upwards, set and wrought with precious stones, which in the Brytish or Welsh speech is called Talaeth, and Nurses do to this day name that broad headband wherewith a childs head is bound uppermost, other linen being under it, Talaeth. Aberffraw was the Chief House of the Prince of Gwyneth, whose Dominion was therefore called Talaeth Aberffraw: Dinevowr the princi­pal house of Dehevbarth, whereof that part is named Talaeth Dinevowr: and in like manner Talaeth Mathraval, was so calledGirald: Camb▪ from the principal seat of Powys called Mathraval.

Giraldus Cambrensis, in his Book Entituled, Descriptio Cam­bria, [Page 38] is of opinion that Mervyn was the eldest son of Roderike, to whom Venedotia was given, and was the father of Anandhrec, who was the father of Meyric, that was the father of Edwal, that was the father of [...]ago, &c: and that Anarawd had Powys and died without issue. But the common opinion of all other Wri­ters is otherwise, agreeable to what this Author affirmeth.

Roderic had also other sons, Rodrick, Meyric, Edwal or Tudwal, Gwyriad a [...]d Gathelic, of whom more in the follow­ing History.

¶ The Armes of Rodri the Great. G. a Cheveron between three Roses A. Or else thus▪ Quarterly G. and Or. four Lyons passant gardant counterchanged.

Roderic the Great is said to have corrected some of the old Brytish Laws, and to have appointed new.

He ordained that his eldest son should have the Crown or Co­ronet of Aberffraw, with the fifteen Cantreds thereunto belong­ing; that his Second should have the Crown or Coronet of Dinevowr or Cardigan, with its fifteen Cantreds, extending from the mouth of the river Dovi, to the mouth of Severne; and that his Third should have the Crown or Coronet of Mathraval with the fifteen Cantreds of Powis, from the mouth of the river Dee to the Bridge over Severne at Gloucester.

He ordained also that his eldest Son and his Successors, should continue the payment of the ancient Tribute to the Crown of London, and that the other two, their Heirs and Suc­cessors, should acknowledge his Sovereignety, and pay the like tribute to him and his Successors, and that upon the invasion of Strangers, they should send him aid, and that he should also be ready to protect them, when there should be need.

Moreover he ordained that when any difference should arise between the Princes of Aberffraw and Cardigan, the three Princes should meet at Bwlch y Pawl, and after hearing of coun­sel on both sides, the Prince of Powis should be Umpire be­tween them.

And if the difference were between the Kings of Aberffraw and Powis, that they should likewise all three meet at Dôl rhia­nedd (perchance Morva rhianed on the bank of the river Dee) where the King of Cardigan was to end the controversie.

[Page 41]And if there should be difference between the Kings of Powis and Cardigan, the Meeting should be at Llys wen upon the river Wy, and the King of Aberffraw to decide it.

Also he ordained that all Strong-holds, Castles, and Citadels, should be fortified and kept in repair; that the Churches and Chappels should be re-edified and adorned, and that in all Ages the History of Brytain (being faithfully Registred) should be kept therein. This I gathered out of a MS. of Roger Lloyds of Pentro Aron, a Shropshire Gentleman, which he copied out of an old Book of his Neighbours Thomas Powel of Parke Esq. Some of these Ordinances are to be seen also in an old Chard of the Prin­ces of Powis beginning, Cadwaladrus ultimus Rex Britonum &c. now in the keeping of Sir Percy Herbert Lord Powis; Doctor Powel cites the sayd MS. in his Latine History; It is supposed to be written by Thomas Maelor.

In the beginning of the forementioned King Alfreds Reign, there were Brytains that inhabited some parts of Scotland, as Alclud Castle (now called Dunbritton) and the Country between the Towne of Sterling and the Sea. Constantius and his Brother Hebertus were their Kings. Caeralclud the Royall Seat of the Northern Brytains was destroyed by the Danes A. D. 870, at what time (according to Hump. Lloyd) those Britains being by reason of the oppression of the Danes forced to seek out new habitations came into Northwales. Florent. Wigorn. Ethelward. Asser and other Historians averre the same.

In King Alfreds time it was thus recorded touching the West Saxon Kingdom, In toto Regno Occidentali non erat qui potuit docere Grammaticam, ex consilio Neoti Scholae publicae aperiuntur Oxonii, at Doctrina viguit apud Caerleon. Bp. Robinson's MS.

Our skilful Bards say that Mervyn the Third sonne of Rodri mawr had a sonne called Llewelyn, who had a daughter named Angharad that was married to Owen ap Howel dda Prince of Dyvet. This Will. Llyn discovered in very ancient MS [...].

Sir William Iones of Castell March in the Country of Carnar­von Knight and late one of the Judges of the Kings Bench, de­scended paternally from Mervyn son of Rodric the Great, He [Page 42] was the sonne of William Iones, the sonne of Griffith Iones, the son of Iohn ap Robert ap Llewelyn ap Ithel vachan ap Llewelyn ap Griffith ap Davydd ap Llewelyn ap Tuder ap Iorwerth ap Cynwric ap Geuillin Varchog ap Meirion Goch ap Tryffin ap Mervyn ap Rodri mawr.

His Armes A. a Cheveron B. between three Naggs heads e­razed S. His eldest sonne Griffith Iones Esq. is now living and greatly respected in his Country. Gr: Iones his eldest daugh­ter and heire married Sir William Williams of Uaenol Baronet, by whom she had Sir Griffith Williams Baronet now living. His second Daughter is wife to Thomas Bulkeley Esq. (second sonne to Thomas Lord Viscount Bulkeley lately deceased) a wor­thy Gentleman. Sir William Iones his second son Charles Iones was a Councellor at Law and dyed without Issue. Robert Iones Esq. his third sonne was a valiant Gentleman, a Colonell for his late Majesty King Charles the First: He dyed in the time of the late Usurping Powers, leaving only one sonne and one daughter: The sonne did not long survive him. From the fore­mentioned Triffin cometh Gwehelyth Rhiw in Llyn.

Thomas Howell borne in Carmarthenshire D. D. and late Bi­shop of Bristol descended from Tudwal the sonne of Rodri Mawr, He was both an elegant and a powerfull Preacher. Iames Howell Esq. Historian to His Majesty K. Charles the Second (a Person well known for his Dodonas Grove and other his works) being his Brother comes from the same stock. Tudwall was also Ancestor to Llowarch ap Brân one of the fifteen Tribes of Gwyneth.

Gwriad the sonne of Rodri had a sonne called Gwgan. ô Wo­gan ap Gwriad ydd heinyw gwyr y Nantmawr. ô Gwddelic mab Rodri gwyr Penmonlys ydd heinyw.

Anaravvd The Eldest Sonne of RODERIKE the Great.

ANarawd the son of Roderick began his Reign over Wales in the year of Christ 877. In his time Rollo 877 with his Normans came to France, and conquered the Country of Neustria, which (from the Normans is called Normandy to this day. At that time the Danes that had fled to Excester, having broken the Truce, unto which they were sworn, were so pursued by Alfred, that they were gladMatth. West. to give him Pledges for the performance of the Articles agreed upon between him [...]nd them; but the year following they [...]an all the land on the North side of Thames, which they held, and after they passed the River to Chipenham in West­sex, and the Englishmen fled before them, yet Alfred fought with a number of them, slew their Prince, and wan their Standard, which they called Raven. After that he overthrew them at Edendowne, where, after they had given him Pledges,Matth. West. Io. Cast. their Captain Godrun, ali [...]s Gurmond received the Christian Faith, and then reigned in East Angle. The year 878. died878 Aedan the son of Melht, a Noble man of Wales: and the se­condPolychroni. Will. Malm. year following there was a great battel fought by the Danes, and the Englishmen of Mercia, against the Welshmen near the River Conwy, where the Welshmen had the victory; and this battel was called, The Revenge of Rodericks death. Dial Rodri. After that about the year 882. the Danes that lay at Fullen­ham 882. by London, passed the Sea to France, and marching along the River Seyn, spoiled the Country about Paris, and over­threwSi. Dunelm. H Hunt. Matth. West. the Frenchmen in battel; but they were afterward all slain and drowned by the Brytains of Armorica. Then Alfred [Page 44] got London, and chased away the Danes that besieged Roche­ster, but at the same time he lost a great number of ships, which the Danes took and sunk at Sturmutham. In the year 889. Submon Cubin the greatest Clerk in Scotland died.889. And the year following the Black Nation (for so the Brytish Book calleth the Danes and Normans came to Northwales, and did much hurt. Here I think it convenient to let the Reader understand from whence such a wonderful number of Danes and Normans came. The Kingdom of Denmark had under it, not only Denmark, which is but a small country di­vided by the sea into Isles and half-Isles, as that which ad­joyneth to Saxon andHolstein Holsake, and runneth like an arme of the Sea, called Cymbrica Chersonesus, and the Isle of Sealand and Funen, with a piece of the main land adjoyning to Sweth­land; but also Norway and the great country of Suetia or Swethland, which reacheth to Moscovia, and almost to the North Pole. This Country being scarce known to the world at that time, poured out of it (like the Trojan horse) divers people, that at sundry times overran and spoiled all Europe with a great part of Africa, like a suddain hideous storm, fil­ling every Country whereunto they came. From thence came the Goths, who overran Germany, France, Spain, Afrike and Italy. From thence came the Vandals of no less worthiness. From thence came the Lombards, the Alans, the Switzers, the Burgundians, the Danes, and the Normans, who came from Norway and the sea shore of Eastland by Prussia, from whence the Vandals came. He that is desirous to understand the marvellous history of Swethenland, let him read the works of Olaus Gothus, and Joannes Magnus. And from these Countries (as I declared before) came the people called the Danes, and not from Denmarke only. The yeare 890 there890 came from these Countries 250 sailes, which landed at Ly­mene in Kent, hard by the great wood called Andreslege, andMatth. West. li. 1. pa. 345. built a Castle at Auldre or Apledor, as some books have it. The same time also came Hasting with 80 sailes to Thames mouth, and built a Castle at Middleton, and swore to Alfred, that he would never annoy him or his Subjects more: but shortly after he built a Castle at Beamfleete, and invaded the Country about him. Wherefore Alfred came & overthrew his [Page 45] Castle, and took his Wife and two Sonnes, which having first by his means bin Christned, he sent to their Father again.

⚜ Other Kingdoms and Countries of Europe were disquietedMatt. West. lib. 1. p. 342. with this persecution of the Danes as well as England. For of this Hasting it is written, that l [...]ying siege to the City of Limogis in France, and despairing of the speedy gaining of the same, he de­vised this trick to get it. He fained himself dangerously sick, and sending to the Bishop and the Consull of the city, desired them most instantly, he might be admitted to the Christian Faith, and be Baptized before his death. The Bishop and the Consul (suspecting no guile) were very glad not only to be delivered from the present distresse, but also to gain so great a person to the Christian Religi­on Whereupon a firm Peace being made between both Nations, Hasting is Baptized, the Bishop and the Consul being his God-fa­thers; this being performed, he was carried by his Souldiers to his ships, in very weak case, as was outwardly pretended. About midnight he caused himselfe, being compleatly armed, to be laid upon a Beere, commanding also his souldiers to arme themselves, and to carry their weapons under their upper garments, so that they might be ready when he should give them a signe. The day following all things being in a readiness, he was carried solemnly by his people with great clamour and counterfeit mourning, to be interred in the chief Church of the City, where the Bishop and the Consul accompani­ed with all the chief men of the city came to honour the Buriall; but as soon as the Bishop had made himselfe ready to bury the corps, (most of the Towns-men being in the Church) Hasting stepped up all armed with his sword drawn, and first killed the Bishop and the Consul, and then fell with his armed Souldiers upon the naked peo­ple, and destroyed them in a manner every one, putting all to the sword, sparing neither sex, age, or infirmity. And when he had sack'd the Town, he sent messengers to Charles the French King for peace, which he obtained, and (to keep him quiet) the city of Char­tres also towards his charges.

About this time Euneth the son of Bledryd a Baron of Wales died. And the year 893. Anarawd King or Prince of893 Northwales came with a great number of Englishmen, and making war against his brother Cadelh spoyled the Coun­tries of Caerdigan and Ystradgwy. In those dayes the Danes besteged Excester, against whom, when Alfred went, they [Page 46] which were at Auldre passed over to Essex, and built a Castle at Scobrith, from whence they took their journey to Buding­ton upon Seaverne. And when Alfred came to Excester the Danes fled to sea, and spoyled the sea-coasts of Wales. And they which were in Budington hearing of the Kings coming fled back to their Castle in Essex. Another company of them came to Leycester, where Alfred did bes [...]ege them, till they were driven to eat the flesh of their Horses. Afterwards the year 895 the Danes that were in Leycester, with the rest895 of them which were in Northumberland, passed by the NorthH. Hunt. seas to Meresige, an Isle in Essex, and the year following they entred the River Lyne with the Thames, and there built a Castle twenty miles from London; and as they came out to spoil the country, they were overthrown, and having lost four of their Princes, fled to the Castle. Then Alfred dividing the river into three parts, the water was so low, that their ships could not returne to the sea, which when the Danes perceived, they left their wives and children in Essex, and went spoilingMatt. West: the Country to Quadbrydge upon Seaverne, and passing the river spoyled the Countries of Brecknocke, Gwentland, and Gwentlhwg. Also this year a great number of them went to France by the river Seyn, and another company of them spoyled the coasts of Devonshire, where after a long conflict, they lost six ships. The summer following Ireland was de­stroyed by strange wormes having two teeth, which consumed every thing that was greene in the Land. These seem to be Locusts, a plague unusuall in these Countries, but often seen in Afrike, Italy, and other hot Regions.

About the yeare 900 Igmond came from Ireland with a900 great number of Souldiers to Anglesey, where the Welshmen gave him Battell at Molerain.

⚜ There be some Copies of this History, which affirme, that this battel, between Igmond Captain of the Black Nations and the Brytains, wherein Mervyn was slaine, was fought at a place called Meilon, from whence it was called Maes Rhôs Meilon.

The same yeare dyed Alfred, which some call Alured, ma­king (v a vowell, which should be a consonant. This Prince translated the ancient Lawes of Dysnwal Moelmut King of Brytain and the Laws of Marsia Queen of Brytain and wife [Page 47] to Cyhelin, out of Brytish into English, and called it Marsian Laws, which was afterward called Westsaxon Lex, and kept in a part of Mercia, and in all the Countries on the South of Thames, for the other part of the Land had another Law called Dane lex, and these remained till Edward the Confes­sors time, who of these two Lawes made one. Also this Alfred Io. Cast. did divide the day into three Parts, by a Taper which burnt continually in his Chappel, and endured just Twenty four hours. The first part of that time he bestowed at his Book and in Prayer; the second in the Affairs of the Common­wealth: & the third part to take his Rest and refresh himself: after his death, a certain Clerke made his Epitaph, as fol­loweth.Asser Mene­ven.

Nobilitas innata tibi probitatis honorem
Armipotens Alfrede dedit, probitasque laborem,
Perpetuúmque labor nomen, cui mixta dolori
Gaudia semper erant, spes semper mixta timori.
Si modò victor eras, ad crastina bella pauebas,
Si modò victus eras, ad crastina bella parabas,
Cui vestes sudore jugi, cui sica cruore
Tincta jugi, quantum sit onus regnare probârunt.
Non fuit immensi quisquam per climata mundi,
Cui tot in adversis vel respirare liceret:
Nec tamen aut ferro contritus ponere ferrum,
Aut gladio potuit vitae finisse labores.
I am post transactos regni vitaeque labores,
Christus ei fit vera quies, sceptrumque perenne.

After Alfred reigned Edward his son, against whom Adel­wulph Llowarch ap Heinyth dyed. Rytherch ap Heinyth was beheaded. his brother made war, for flying to Northumberland he stirred the Danes against him. He was chosen King as well by the Danes as the Angles, which at that time were both become one people: and after he subdued the East Saxons, and with a great army spoyled Mercia, he passed over Thames at Crick­land, and destroyed Brythend, and returned home with great spoil. At that time Evneth was slain in Arwystli. King Ed­ward also pursued his brother, and overran all the land be­twixtH. Hunt. Ouse, and the Dike of S. Edmond, and returned back with all his army, saving the Kentishmen, who tarried behindMatth. West. I. Castor. to spoil, against whom the Danes came, and fighting a sore bat­tel, [Page 48] slue a great number of them, and put the rest to flight. The Danes about the year 905. entred into Ireland, and fight­ing905 with the Irishmen slue Carmot King and Bishop of all Ire­land, and the sonne of Cukeman, a man both Godly and Re­ligious, and Kyrnalt sonne of Murgan King of Lagines. About a year after dyed Asser Archbishop of Wales.

⚜ There were two of this name at the same time both Country­menBale, Cent. 2. pag. 125. Giral. Camb. and kinsmen; the one being the Uncle, was Arch-bishop of S. Davids, of whom mention is made in this place. The other Asser the Nephew was a man of excellent Learning and Wisdom, and for that cause being Chancellor to his Uncle, was sent for by King Alfred to teach his children; this wrot the Acts of the same Alfred, and was afterward Bishop of Sherburn, of him mention is made in the English Chronicles.

About this time Edward sent a great Army to Northum­berland, which spoiled the Country, and then returned home: neverthelesse, the Danes followed them, and destroyed a great part of Mercia. But within a while after, Edward gathe­red an Army, and giving them Battell, overthrew them, and slue their Kings Alden and Edelwulph, and a great number of their Nobles. This year died Edelred Duke of Mercia, whoMatt. West: pag. 354. had been long sick; after him, Elfleda his Wife enjoyed the Country of Mercia, saving the Cities of London and Oxford, which King Edward seised into his own hands. The yeare 907 died Cadelh King or Prince of Southwales, second sonne907 of Roderike the Great, leaving behind him three sonnes, Howel Dha (that is to say Howel the Good who succeeded his Father in the Kingdome of Southwales, Meyric and Cly­daw [...]. About two years after King Edward built the CastleMatth. West. of Hartford betwixt the Rivers Benefic, Minier, and Lige; and also the Borough of Wytham in Essex, and lay at Wealdyne, where he subdued those Countries. The year following, the Danes of Leycester and Hampton slew a great number of Eng­lishmen at Hochnorton, and in their returne homeward spoy­led all Oxfordshire. The next year after that there came a great Navy from Tydwike with Uther and Rahald, which passing by the Westerne Sea into Wale [...] destroyed S. Davids and there was the Battell of Dinerth fought [...], where Meyloc (the sonne of Peredur Gam was slaine. And afterward [Page 49] they entred Herefordshire, where they were fought withall, and Rahald slaine, and the rest compelled to forsweare the Kings Country. Then the King caused the south side of Sea­vern to be defended with a great Army; yet did the Danes twice enter his land, once by the East at Werd, another time at Porto­gan, but were both times overthrown by the English. And then they departed to the Ile of Stepen, from whence they were driven by hunger to South-wales, where they were beaten and constrained to depart into Ireland. The yeare ensuing there was a great battel fought betwixt the Kentishmen and the Danes at Holme, but who had the victory there is no cer­tainty.913 In the yeare 913 Anarawd chief King of Wales dyed, leaving behind him two Sonnes, Edwal Voel, or the Bald, who Reigned after him, and Elise; some say a 3d named Meyric.

¶ After the death of Roderic the Great, the Northern Bri­tains of Stratclwyd and Cumberland, were (as Hector Boetius and Buchanan relate) much infested and weakned with the daily in­cursions of Danes, Saxons and Scots; which made many of them (all that would not submit their necks to the yoake) to quit their Country, and seek out more quiet habitations. Un­der the Conduct of one Hobert they came to Gwyneth in the beginning of Anarawd's Reigne, who commiserating their di­stressed condition gave them the Country from Chester to the River Conwey to inhabit, if they could beat out the Saxons, who had lately possessed themselves thereof. These Brytains ha­ving returned thanks to their Cousen Anarawd as was meet, fell upon the Saxons, and, necessity giving edge to their valour, soon drove them out thence, being yet scarce warme in their seats. About three years after this A. D. 880 Edryd Wallthîr King of the Saxons (called by the English Historians Eadred Duke of Mercia) made great preparations for the regaining of the said Country; But the Northern Brytains, who had settled themselves there, having intelligence thereof, for the better se­curing of their Cattel and goods, removed them over the river Conwey. In the mean time P. Anarawd was not idle, but gathe­red together all the strength he could make; His Army encam­ped neare the Towne of Conwey, at a place called Cymryt, where He and his Men making gallant resistance against the assaults of [Page 50] the Saxon power, at length after a bloudy fight obtained a compleat Victory. This Battel was called Gwaeth Cymryt Conwey because it was fought in the Towneship of Cymryt hard by Conwey, but Anarawd called it Dial Rodri, because he had th [...]re revenged▪ the death of his Father Rodri. In this battel Tudwal the sonne of Rodri Mawr received a hurt in the knee, which made him be called▪ Tudwal glôff or the Lame e­ver after; his Brethren to reward his valour and service gave him Uchellogoed Gwynedd; The Brytains pursuing their vi­ctory, chased the Saxons quite out of Wales into Mercia, where having burne and destroyed the Borders they returned home laden with rich spoyles. And Anarawd to expresse his thank­fulnesse to God for this great Victory, gave Lands and Possessi­ons to the Church of Bangor, as the Records of that Sea doe testify, and likewise to the Collegiate Church of Clynnoc in Ar­von, as we read in the Extent of North Wales. After this the Northern Brytains came back from beyond the river Conwey, and possessed again the Lands as [...]igned the [...] between Conwey and Chester, which for a long time after they peaceably enjoyed. Some English writers as Ma [...]. Wes [...] &c. not considering (belike) that the Brytains had lands in Loegria and Albania, af­ter King Cadwaladers time, take those of the North, Cumber­land, and Stratclwyd for the Brytains of Wales. Asser Menev. who lived A. D. 875. saith that Halden the D [...]n [...] marched into Northumberland, which he subdued, having before conquered the Picts and Brytains of Stratclwyd in Northumberland, Perrex­it eam (que) subjugavit, nec non & Pictos & Stratcludenses.

Of Collwyn ap Tagno one of the fifteen Tribes of Gwynedd▪ Collwyn ap Tagno lived in the time of Prince Anarawd about the yeare of our Lord 877. He was Lord of Ardudwy (now a part of Merionethshire) and of Evi [...]nyth (now one of the Hun­dreds of Carnarvonshire) and also of part of Llyn. His poste­rity doe at this day possesse most of the lands of those Coun­tries. His Granchildren, Ass [...]r, Meirion and Gwgan the sonnes of Merwydd ap Collwyn were grown up to mens estate in the be­ginning of the Reigne of Prince Griffith [...]p Conan, and lived in Llyn, when he first layd claime to the Principality of Wales▪ as is recorded in the life of the said Prince. From whence i [...] may be easily guessed what time he lived. His dwelling is said to [Page 51] have been at Bronwens tower, afterwards called (from him) Caer Collwyn, now Harlech.

The Armes of Collwyn.

S. a Cheveron A. between three Flower de luces.
Ordovica tribus Collwyn Tagnonis in atro
Fert (inter flexum) tria candida li [...]ia florum,
Rege sub Anarado Vir magni nominis egit.
Families and Worthies descended from this Tribe.

Iohn Vaughan of Trowsgoed in the County of Cardigan Esq. is descended in a paternall line from Collwyn; I am bound to re­member this Gentleman not only for his worth, as being an e­minent Lawyer, and every way a most accomplished Gentle­man, but also for his singular civility to m [...]e, in encouraging my studies, and lending me the ancient MS. book of Landaffe to transcribe. He was one of the members of the long Parlia­ment that did adhere to King CHARLES the First, in the late troubles, which he hath happily survived, and is now a member and a worthy Patriot in this present Parliament holden at Westminster A. D. 1662 under His Gracious Majesty K. CHARLES the Second.

His Pedegree.

Iohn the sonne of Edward Vaughan, the sonne of Moris Vaughan, the sonne of Rich▪ Vaughan, the sonne of Moris Vaug­han, the sonne of Ievan Vaughan, the sonne of Llewelyn Vaughan, the sonne of Adam Vaughan, the sonne of Meredith, the sonne of Adam Vaughan of Trowsgoed, the sonne of Llewelyn Vaughan, the sonne of Griffith, the sonne of Eneon by his Wife Angha­rad the daughter of Iestyn [...]p Gurgant Lord of Glamorgan, which Eneon was the sonne of Collwyn.

Iohn Bodvel of Bodvel in the County of Carnarvon Esq. (late­ly deceased) derived himselfe from Madoc the second sonne of Ievan ap Eneon ap Griffith ap Howel ap Meredyth ap Eneon ap Gwgan ap Merwydd ap Collwyn. He was the only sonne of Sr Iohn Bodvel Knight; In the late Warre he was a Colonell and Governor of Carnarvon for King Charles the First, and was one of those Members of the long Parliament that [...]a [...]e at Oxford A. D. 1644. His only Daughter and Heire is married to the sonne and Heire of Iohn Lord Roberts of Truro Lord Privy S [...]a [...]e▪ Iohn Bodurda of Bodurda Esq. Thomas Wynne of Bodvean Esq. [Page 52] (servant (both) to his late Majesty▪ Ch. 1. and also to Ch. 2. his Majesty that now Reignes) and others are descended from the house of Bodvel.

Tho. Madryn of Madrin Esq. the Family of the Owens of Plâs dû, from whence Iohn Owen the Epigrammatist was descended: Wynne of Penyberth, Wynne of Pennardd &c. are also descended from Collwyn.

Our Bards tell us of former Worthies of this Tribe, as Sir How­el ap Griffith, and his brother Eneon ap Griffith, of Ievan ap E­neon his sonne, of Howel ap Madoc, of Gryffith ap Iohn ap Gron­wy a valiant Captain in the French Warres, & others. Iollo Goch a famous Bard in the time of K. Edw. 3. Rich. 2. and Hen. 4. writ Cowydds or Panegyricks to the said Sr Howel, & to Ie­van ap Eneon ap Griff:, his Nephew. Gr. Grûg (who lived A. D. 1400) writ a Panegyrick to Eneon ap Griff. Evan Waed [...]a gives an account (in a Cowydd of his) of Ievan ap Eneon and his four sonnes; Inco Brydydd (who lived A. D. 1480) writ a Panegyricke to Howel ap Madoc. These Panegyricks are worthy to be pre­served for their elegancy, if not for the History they containe.

Gweledigaeth Iollo Goch, or his Cowydd moliant to Sir Howell ap Griffith.
A welai neb, a wela
Yn y nôs a jawn a wna,
Pan fûm (mwya poen a fû)
Yn buno anian benû,
Cynta dim a wela yn wîr
Caer fawrdêg accw ar fordîr,
A Chastell gwych gorchestawl,
A gwyr ar fyrddaû, a gwawl,
A glasfôr wrth fûr glwysfaen
Garw am groth twr grwn graen,
A cherdd chwibanogl, a chôd,
Gwawr hoynus, a gwr hynod;
Rhianedd, nid rhai anwiw,
Yn gwaû sidan glân gloiw liw,
A gwyr beilch yn chware gar barth
Towlbwrdd a Seccyr vwch talbarth,
A gwr gwnllwyth Twrch trwyth trîn
Nowswyllt yn rhoi barn Jessin
Mewn gorflwch aûr goreurynn,
Ai Law yn fy llaw yn llynn,
Ar y Stondardd hardd hirddû,
Ynhâl Twr (da filwr fû)
A thri blodeûn gwyn gwiw
Or un llûn dail arianlliw,
Eres nad oes henuriad,
Ar lawr Gwynedd (wleddfawr wlâd)
Oes neb yr un syberwyd,
Breddwydio'n brydd yr ydwyd,
Y wal deg a weli di
(Da dyddûn) dowed iddi
Ar Gaer eglûr, ar greiglost,
Ar garreg rûdd ar gwr grofft,
Hon iw Criciaith (gwaith gwiw)
Hên adâil, honno ydiw,
Ar gwr llwyd cadr paladrddellt
Yw Sir Howel mangddel mellt,
[Page 53]Ai wraig sy'r wregis eûraid,
Howel lân, ryfel in rhaid,
Ai llaw forwynion ton têg
Oeddent bob yn ddeûddeg
Yn gwaû sidan glan gloywliw
Wrth haul belydr drwyr gwydr gwiw
Tau olwc ti a welyd
Ystondardd ys hardd o hyd,
Pen sêl Syr Howel yw hwn
Myn Beuno mae'n i benwn,
Tri fflowr dy lis oris erw,
Yn y sabl; nid an syberw
Eingan mab Gruffydd rudd rôn
Ymlaen am i elynion,
Ymygniaw gwna yn y gwaed
Aniweirdref tôn eyrdraed
Ysgythrwr câd atcas gaythrûdd,
Esgid i droed esgid rûdd,
Ysgythredd blaydd ysgythreing,
Ascwrn hên yn angen ing,
Pan rodded rowsced rwysgainc
Y Ffrwyn ymhen brenin Ffrainc,
Barbwr fû fal
Geraint ap Erbin one of K. Arthur's Knights.
mab Erbin,
A gwayw a chledd, tromwedd trîn
A gollwng gynta gallai
Y gwaed dros draed, trîst i rai,
Anwyl fydd gan wyl Einiort,
A mael i Bheirdd, [...] mawl i fort,
Cadw'r bobl mewn Cadair bybyr,
Cadw'r Castell, gwell na gwyr,
Cadw dwy lins, Ceidwad loywlamp
Cadw'r ddwy wlâd, cadw'r gâd, cadw'r gamp,
Cadw'r mordarw, cadw'r mordîr
Cadw'r mordyray, cadw'r tai, cadwr tîr
Cadw'r gwrser yn cadw'r Garsiwn
Cadw'r tîr yn hîr a wna hwn
Cadw'r gwledydd oll cadw'r glew­dwr,
A chadw'r gaer, iechid i'r gwr.
Jolo Goch ai Cant.

This Sir Howel ap Griffith (whom his Countrymen re­member by the name of S. Howel y Bhwyall, from his Poll-axe) lived in the time of King Edward the 3d. and served under the black Prince at the battell of Poictiers, wherein Iohn King of France was taken prisoner: It is a tradition that goeth currant among Sir Howells Countrymen, that it was He, that first took him, which might be occasioned by some lines in the foregoing Cowydd of Iollo Goch's to him. And History leaving it doubt­full who took him, he might be the man as well as any other; Paulus Aemilius, De Serres, and other French Historians say, there were severall challenged the honour of it; and that Denis Morbec a French man, but then a Captain in the English Army, seeing the French King so distressed that it was impossible for him to escape the hands of the English did only speak to him, at some distance, and advise him to surrender himselfe; So that it is very probable some other person took him, or (which is as much) forced him to yeeld himselfe a Prisoner, and that be­ing known to be the King, he was in civility suffered to deliver [Page 54] himselfe into the hands of his own Countryman Denis; But however it were, it is most certain Sir Howell behaved him­selfe valiantly in that Battell, and performed some signall service with his axe there, as may be gathered from his reward, which was Great and Noble, for he had conferred on him the honour of Knighthood, the Constableship of the ancient Castle of Crickieth in Carnarvonshire, a new Coat of Armes, the farme of the Mills at Chester for life, and other things of great value; Besides, he had allowed in perpetuall memory of his service a Messe of meat to be carried before his Axe or Partisan for ever; Which messe after his death was carried down to be given to the Poore for the good of his soule; the said Messe had eight Yeomen attendants, found at the Kings charge, which were af­terwards called Yeomen of the Crowne, and had eight pence per diem of standing wages, and continued to the beginning of Q. Elizabeths Reigne; Sergeant Roberts of Havod y [...]wch neare Wrexham, who had been at first Yeoman of the Crowne heard it as a tradition in the Kings house, that the beginning of that Or­der of Yeomen of the Crowne was from thence; This he told his Brother in Law Robert Turbridge of Caeruallen neare Ruthin Esq. who upon the other mans credit related it to Sir Iohn Wynne of Gwedir Knight and Baronet, from whose MS. History (remaining in the house of Gwedir) this relation was taken.

The Armes of Sir Howell ap Griffith. S. Poll-Axe A. between three flower de luces. A Cowydd moliant to Ievan ap Encon ap Griffyth.
Pwy sydd o rym passio r jaith
Pwyn dilid top hên dalaith
Penayth mawr i bap anwyl,
Parch gwlâd cynheiliad cann hwyl,
Pwys dwy Ynys pôst henaûr,
Pen gwlâd ai pinagl aûr,
Jevan yn dy ran ir aeth
Fab Einion fyw yn bennaeth,
Hynod iw dy henw da,
Had Gruffudd, hyd Gayr Offa,
Ysgwier gwych, oes gwr gwell,
A cheidwad mwy na Chadell,
Sirri mawr dros wyr a medd,
Troes i enw [...] tros Wynedd,
Gwraidd dâf [...] ag ir-a [...]dd dyfiad
Gallu yn hîl Gollwyn ai hâd,
Dyn îrddewr mewn dawn urddas,
Dragwn ai sel drwy gan sais,
Cym [...]r faner Yfionydd,
Cae mamr o few [...] Cymru fydd,
Os yn y tir y syn trû
Ardydwy aeth ar dy dû
Coed Pascen drwy ne [...] yn jaith
Crû dilesg yn caù'r dalaith,
Rhwydd a gwy [...]h y rhoi ged
Rhywogaeth LIrien reged
[Page 45]Brîg bonedd bro Gwynedd gain,
Blodeûog ô blaed Owain,
A cheidwad eyrwych ydwyd,
Ai segr oll ai swcwr wyd,
Ai daioni ym [...]ob din [...],
Ai grym urddedig, ai gras,
Ai tryssor Nei' r wttressen,
Ai pont urddeddig, ai pen;
Dewr a chadarn, drych ydwyd,
Dwyfol a chall, difa [...]ch wyd,
Cynheiliad ar dyfiad ton
Calonog ayr ddoniog ddy [...]ion,
Caer fawr rhag gwyn ô foroedd,
Côst llai yn i Cestill oedd,
Llys Fwg yn llawes y ffordd,
Lletty yn braff lled hên briffordd,
Cwrr hynod is llyn fro-dîr,
Cell y gwin Celliwi [...] ir,
Mae dayoni mwy dynion,
At hîl y fam a [...]lwyd hon,
Llownwych frenhinlle hynod
Lletty'r gler llei tarrie'r glôd,
Llewyrch y drych a drychwn
Lliw dy frig, fel cerrig hwn
Cynheliad ych Tâd ich Tû
Cann hannedd y cawn hynny
Trewaist aûr tr [...]s dy werin
Tynnu holl waed tunnell win
Trysor mawr i ragor wyd
Tros wledydd trosol ydwyd
Torr di gwy [...] mewn tro [...]dog aûr,
Tâd arwyddion tid ryddaûr,
Cadarnedd Gwynedd i gîd
Tro r fei trwy wyr o fowyd
Tân ym wyd o enaû môn
Ar gwyr [...]chod iwr gwreichion
Barwn o wr in bro ni
By [...] ai olyd fal Beli,
Drwy faynol tir Y fionydd
Tra fych a fynych a fydd,
Gwell rydraws gallu Rhodri
Na thr [...]an does o [...]h ran di
Sylfayn jaith sy o [...]aen neb
Sem daioni syn d'wyneb
Swyddog mewn gras Jwl Casar
Sai ith garn sy fyw ath gâr
Jolo goch.
Ir un Gwr.
Jevan ddewr of [...]wn i ddawn
Fwya bonedd fab Eneawn
Fab Ryffyth wayw rûdd wiwrâs
Fab Howel glêdd bual glâs
Gwyr yw a wnai gair ewybr
Garw i aith dawn beniaith dan wybr
Garw ir drail a giriaid rôn
Goreu îr feistr ar Gaer ar vôn
Sydd Gynheliad nis gwada
Sic y Gaer dîr ywr gwyr da
A fflowrdeli [...] gl [...]w ddewis gl [...]dd
A fflaid ag Enaid Gwynedd
A ffwys y gaer loew gaer lain
A ffais dew a ffôst Owain
Costiog conglog diwg dai
Castell Crickiaith in costiai,
Mae'n Y fionydd ddedwydd dâl
Castell ysydd ddaû Cystal
Jevan awch darian wych Dwr
Yw'n eastell ni an Costiwr
Evan Eneon ywr mowrdôn mau
Ai feibion dewrion Dyrau,
Howel Vaughan gwiwran gwr
D [...] hydwyll ywr Deheudwr
Twry saner torf uniawn
Yw Madog ddi oriawg ddawn
Twr enwog mewn tair ynys
[Page 56]Parth yr haûl y Porth yw Rhys,
Twr Dwnsiwn pan draethwn pwy
Goreu o Wynedd yw Gronwy
Llaw [...]nydd bôb dydd i daw
Llyna Gastell llawn gostiaw
Llés ir beirdd llys a bâr
Lle da i gyrchu llydd i garchar
Lle aberthog llu a bortha
Llawn yw o ddawn llynn o dda
Cof na châd
rwystad rwystyr.
wastad ystyr
Castell a fae well o wyr
Cyffûr ffawd caiff ar y ffydd
Cerdd iniawn.
Corff Einiawn Caer yfionydd
Cariad mawr Cyriad y medd
Ceir ynghanol cyrn Gwynedd
Dau well i bencerdd diwyd
I byrth na chestyll y byd
Mwyn jawn ffrwyth nid
main ffriw
Maen yw adel Mûr ydiw
Ag er y gwyr a fay gwell
Iawn gostiau Evan Gastell
Ab Einiawn ddawn ddi ylch
Ai Dyrau yw gau'n i gylch
Yn gaer dal yn geyrw dilyth
Yn gydernyd ywn byd byth.
Evan Waed da ai Cant.

Ievan ap Eneon had foure sonnes, Howel the eldest, to whom he gave the House of Bronyvoel with the lands thereunto belong­ing; from this Howell, Owen Ellis of Bronyvoel and Stymllyn, Lloyd of Gwen Eingan and others are descended. Madoc the second, to whom he gave Berkin, from him are descended, Vaughan of Berkin, the Family of Bodvel before mentioned, Vaughan of Talhenbont or Plâs hên. Richard Vaughan late Bi­shop of Bangor, after of Chester, and (last of all) of London descen­ded from Thomas the fift sonne of Robert Vaughan of Talhen­bont, ap Griffith ap Howel ap Madoc ap Ievan ap Eneon, and so to Collwyn, as above. The Whites of Anglesey are descended from Iohn Wynne third son to the said Robert Vaughan, who li­ving in England was the first that changed his name from Wynne to White, he was the Father of Richard White, the father of Rowland White, Sir Rich: White Knight, and Robert White, as Lewis Dwn saith A. D. 1608. Rees the third had given him by his father Wheelog, from him the Lloyds of Wheelog &c. Gronwy the fourth had Gwnbhryn, from him comes Wynne of Gwnfryn, &c.

A Cowydd or Panegyricke to Eneon ap Griffith, Brother to Sir Howell ap Griffith, and Father to Ievan ap Eneon forementioned.
Y post hardd hapus dewrddoeth
Wy [...]o frig gwaed difreg coeth,
A gardd binagl gwraidd bonedd
Gyrr dy vawl o grûd i fedd
Einion dwg jawn vn digoll
Vab Gryffydd ywch gwledydd oll
Oes gwr well ysgwier wyd
Yn geidwad well nag ydwyd
Yn dy râdd hynod roddiad
Ith roes [...]wy waith ystad
Gwyddost walch oréugost wisg
Gael arian yn golerwisg
Wyr Howel gorff rheol gwych
Hîl Fred ydd hael srau ydych
Clau wyd eurwalch clôd Vrien
Call o jawn hâd Collwyn hên
O hwnn dwg hu enw digoll
Heb prinhau i arfau oll
Aeth dyro gwpl ith darian
A thri Flowerdelis ith rann
Yn gydwnion i gadu
Y sydd jawn mewn maes o ddu
Aeth y rhain dal ith rann di
O dâd i dâd yw dodi
Yngwynedd nid rhyfeddod
Oll ywch ben [...] eraill ych bod
Rhwng bonedd a rhinweddau
Rhoed ytt happ yr hediad dau
Wrth goffhau dy gampau di
Ath enwog waith ddaioni
Dewr a doeth benadur dawn
A di einig waed Einiawn
A glain nod hael galon nudd
Brau o faner bro Efion [...]dd
Ath annedd perffaith hynod
Yw Chwilog lys ychel glôd
Nevadd wenn newydd anwyl
I bonn down bob hynod wyl
Cwrt hir isllaw bro dîr llyn
Yw yn cynnal naw canyn
Llyna' r gaer llei llenwir gwin
Llys egored lles gwerin
Llei roed tad llaried tau
Waed dethol llei rwyd dithau
Yn rhannu fy ner bynod
Yma i gler aur am glôd
A diwarth rhoi da wrth raid
A rhyw gynnal rhai gweiniaid
Ag yno rhowch gann a rhost
I bawb irber byburbost
Rhwydd fawr gun wyd rhoddvawrged
Rhowiawg walch Vrien rheged
Dinam yw mewn da enw mawr
Diflin walch wyd o flaenawr
A di ball enaid y byd
I tyvodd gras ytt hefyd
O bob ssyniant ai wrantur
Vwch pawb mewn gwych enw pur
Hwyr weled dewr ir wlâd honn
Hael tyner ail ytt Einion
Yn wrol anian eryr
Ar dy gas goeth velwas gwyr
Ag yno yn oen gwynn in waith
Anwylwch i wann eilwaith
Cyfiowna cun cefnog coeth
Cryfddewr wytt haw [...] arosddoeth
Brenhinol bor iawn hynod
Brau at enw clau Bryttwn clôd
Hawdd i cevaist hûld cyfiawn
Arwydd stad urddas dawn
Ath roddion bennaeth rwyddwych
Ar bawb a ffoed, hîr i bych.
Gr. Grûg ai Cant.
[Page 58]A Cowydd Moliant to Howell ap Madoc ap Ievan ap Eneon.
Y gwr ir a gwar arian,
Ar osgle aur ar wâs glân,
Mae rediad fal tyfiad hîr,
Ath arswyd mwy na theirsir,
Mae bonedd a byw ynod,
Mewn y fath mae'n iawn ifôd
Howel eryr hael eirian
Hîl Madoc oludog lân
Llîn Jevan llew un asael
Llawn topp llîn Llywelyn hael
Llîn Ferwydd mewn cynnydd cû
Llin Gollwyn yn llawn gallu
Aer drûd o Rys ap Tewdur,
Ergyd pell ar y gwaed pûr,
Ednyved fawr ged fûr gwaith
Uychan tarrian y teiriaith,
Nid adwen wr dî-dwn iâch,
Pa du orau i bedeiriach,
Gwinwydd Yfionydd faenol
Gwres gwlâd ai cheidwad jchol,
Trysor im wyt tros wyr Môn
Drwy Lûn gwaed reiol inion
Tra gwrol at wyr goraû▪
Tyn ir allt trwy 'r tan ar iau,
Drwy fawr gariad y tad hael,
Treiaist hailioni'r trihael,
Nûdd Rydderch nowddwr roddiad
Mor-da coel am eirda i cad;
Mawr ydoedd i ymwaredion,
Am wr sy well mwy iwr sôn,
Brawd Ivor llei bae'r dafarn
Brawd Cadwn gofynwn farn
Brawd dyrus yn bwrw dewrion
Brawd ffwng lle bae raid a ffon
Cynheliad ar dyfiad wyt
Cadar heb gnycciaû ydwyt,
Cyff rowiog waredog wraidd
Cwmpas teyrnas tyhyrnaidd,
Cait randdwys Coed hirion ddewr
Cwnpassddadl walch campûs ddewr
Cymro îr, ple caen wr well,
Cystal a nerth y Castell,
Aeth ofn dros eithafon draw
O hyd Yfionydd î Fanaw,
O did ddyn yt at deinioes
Brych wyn dêwr breyach yn dy oes
A [...]on wydyr o Fôn ydwyd
Arf ai n [...]rth i Ryfain wyd
Eryr balch ar wyr y byd
Y Cawn nerth Cy [...]ion wrthid,
Sardia fêilch yn sorod fân
Od oes gwg nid ysgogan,
Tynn didawl at wroliaeth,
Tân a dwr tanad aeth,
Gwr wyd a roddwyd i râs
Anwc aur am i guras,
Trysor mawr tros wyr a maeth,
Tes a gwr Twysogaeth
Llew Gwynedd anrhydeddir,
Llwyn o waed da ynllenwi'r tîr
Llowydd gwledydd goludawc
Or dull y ceid Iarll y Cawc
Mae dy glôd yn gorfod gwyr,
Mewn moliant mwy na milwyr,
Mab ydwyt yn byw attiel
Man llei bych myn oll y bêl,
Trawst euraid teiroes derwen,
Drwy eigion byd trig yn ben.
Inco Brydydd ai cant.

Edvval Voel or the Bald, Sonne of ANARAWD.

AFter that Edwal Voel began his Dominion ober Northwales, Howel Dha being King or Prince of Southwales and Powys land, a terrible Comet ap­peared in the firmament. At which time, or the year following, Leicester was new built.

⚜ I think that▪ the name of Leycester is here mistaken for Le­gecestria, Matth. West pag. 3541 that is Chester, called by the Romans, Legionum Ce­stria, which being destroyed by the Danes was (about this time) by the procurement of Adelred Duke of Mercia, and Elfled his wife, repaired and reedified, as Matth. Westm. writeth, and as the an­cient Records of the City of Chester doe testify. Besides that, I find no mention of the reedifying of Leycester at this time, neither in the Brytish Chronicle, nor yet in any ancient English wri­ter.

The next summer after the men of Develyn destroyed the Ile of Môn or Anglesey. And the year 917 Clydawc the917. sonne of Cadelh was slaine by the hands of his brother Mey­ric, and about the same time the Englishmen overthrew theIo. Cast. Danes after a great fight at Tottenhall.

The year 919 Edelfled or Elfled Dutches of Mercia theEdelfled. Matth. West. pag. 357. wife of Edelred Duke of Mercia and sister to King Edward dy­ed: She built the boroughs of Strengat and Bruge, by the For­rest of Morph, Anno Domini 913. The next year after the building of that she built Tamworth and Stafford; and the year after that, Edelburgh; and the Winter following, Che­renburgh and Wadeburgh; then the next summer, Runcofe or Runcorne, as some think. After that, she sent her whole [Page 60] Army t [...] Wales, and fighting with the Welshmen wonneRan. Cest. Matth. West. Hol. pa. 222. Gweythy Dinas No. wydh. Brecknocke, took the Quéen and 33 men. This was it, which is called in Welsh Gweythy Dinas Newydh, that is to say, The battell of the new Citty. Also she wan the towne of Derby, with all that Country from the Danes: neverthelesse she lost there four of her chiefest Captains.Io. Cast.

Jo: Castoreus reporteth this story in this manner. Huganus Lord of Westwales, perceiving King Edward to be occupied in the Danish warre, farre enough from him, gathered an Army of Brytains, and entred the Kings land. Whereupon Elfled Lady of Mercia and sister to King Edward came to Wales with a strong Army, fought with the Welshmen at Brecknock, and putting Hu­ganus to flight, took his Allys. Wife and 34 men Captives, which shee brought with her to Mercia. Huganus thus discomfited, fled to Derby, and there being peaceably received by the Countrymen with fifteen men of warre, and two hundred Souldiers well appointed, joyned himselfe with the Kings adversaries the Danes, Elfled be­ing hereof certifyed by the men of Derby, pursued him with a great Army, and entred the gates of the Towne, where Huganus resisted her and slue four of her chief Officers. But Gwyane Lord of the Ile of Elie her Steward set the gates on fire, and furiously running upon the Brytains entred the Towne. Then Huganus being over­matched, and choosing rather to dye by the sword, then to yeeld himselfe unto a Woman, was there slaine. Thus out of Casto­rous.

The yeare ensuing Elfled wan Leycester, and subdued all the Danes that lay there. The Yorkeshire men also did her homage and service: she dyed at Tamworth, after that shee had worthily ruled Mercia eight years, and lyeth buried at Glocester by S. Peters porch; upon her tombe this Epitaph H. Hunt. was written.

O Elfleda potens, ô terror virgo virorum,
O Elfleda potens, nomine digna viri.
Te quoque splendidior fecit natura puellam,
Te probitas fecit nomen habere viri.
Te mutare decet sed solùm nomina sexus,
Tu Regina potens Réxque trophaea parans.
Iam nec Caesareos tantùm mirere triumphos,
Caesare splendidior virgo, virago vale.

[Page 61]After the death of Elfled, Edward disinherited her daugh­terMatth. West. Alfwyen, and seazed the land of Mercia to his own hands.

⚜ The cause why Edward disinherited this young Lady his own Neece, whose mother Elfled his sister had done so much for him, was (as Castoreus writeth) for that Alfwyen not making the King her Uncle (whom her Mother had appointed guardian and over­seer of her) privy to her doings, had promised and contracted marriage with Raynald King of the Danes: whereupon King Ed­ward, to prevent his enemy, entred the land of Mercia, and seazed the same to his own hands, and carried also the said Lady with him into Westsex. The same Author also reporteth, that about this time Leofred a Dane, and Gruffyth ap Madoc, brother in law to the Prince of Westwales, came from Ireland with a great Army to Snowdon, and minding to bring all Wales and the Marches thereof to their subjection, overran and subdued all the Country to Chester, before King Edward had notice of their arrivall. Where­at being sore offended, and loath to trouble his Subjects in that be­halfe, made a vow that he and his sonnes, with their own people, would be revenged upon Leofred and Gruffyth, and thereupon came to Chester,, and wan the City from them. Then he divided his Army into two Battels, whereof He and his sonne Athelstan led the first, and Edmund and Edred the second, and so following them with as much celerity as he could, he overtook them at the for­rest of Walewod, now Sherwod, where Leofred and Gruffyth set upon him fiercely, so that the King in the beginning was in some distresse, untill Athelstan stepped in between his Father and Leo­fred, and wounded the Dane in the arme, in such sort, that hee being not able to hold his speare, was soon taken, and committed to the custody of Athelstan. In the mean time Edmund and Edred encountring with Gruffyth, slew him, and brought his head to their Father. Then Athelstane caused Leofred to be beheaded, and so both their heads being set up together on the top of the tower of Chester, Edward and his sonnes returned home with Great triumph.

Then Edward after he had built Glademutham dyed at Fe­randyne, whose sonne named Alfred dyed also the same time at Oxford, and were buried both at Winchester, Anno 924. After his death Adelstan his base son reigned King of Eng­land, [Page 62] the worthiest Prince of Saxon bloud that ever reigned. He overcame Cudfryd the father of Reynald King of the Danes, at Yorke. He gathered also the second year of his Reigne a great Army against Hawlaf King of Ireland, whoIo. Castor. came with the whole power of the Scots and Danes against him, & gave him battel at Brimestbury, where Adelstan got the victory, who siue the said King Hawlaf and the King of Scots, and five Kings of the Danes and Norman▪, and twelve Earles,Ryfel y Brynn. so that he brought all the land of England and Scotland in subjection to him, which none of his predecessors had ever attempted. The year 933. Owen the sonne of Gruffyth was933 slain by the men of Caerdigan. Then Adelstan entring Wales with a great Army brought the Kings of the Country to sub­jection,Will. Malms. Hol. pa. 225. Io. Cast. Matth. West. Ran. Cest. and received yearly of tribute 20 pound in gold, and 300 pound in silver, and 200 head of Cattel: Yet the Lawes of Howel Dha appointed the King of Aberfraw to pay yearly to the King of London no more then 66 pound for a tribute: and that the Prince of Dinevowr and the Prince of Powys should pay a like summ, 66 pound yearly to the King of Aber­fraw. To this Adelstan the Kings of Norway and France sent great and rich guifts to purchase his friendship and good will. In the year 936 died Euneth the sonne of Clydaw [...], 936 and Meyric the sonne of Cadelh. At this time also Adelstan did remove the Brytains that dwelt in Excester and therea­bouts to Cornwal, and appointed the river Cambia to be theMatt. West. Hol. pag. 226 uttermost Mere towards England, as he had before appointed the river Wy to be the mere of England and Wales. In the year of Christ 939 the Noble Prince Adelstan dyed, and was939. buried at Malmsbury, his brother Edmund borne in wedlock Reigned in his stead, and in the first year of his Reigne, tookIo. Castor. five Cities from the Danes, Leycester, Darby, Stafford, Lin­colne, and Notingham. Then Aulaf King of the Danes sent to Edmund to desire Peace and Baptisme, both which Ed­mund granted him, so the Danes, which then were called Nor­mans, received first the Christian Faith, Edmund being their Godfather, who making peace with them returned to Westsex with much Honour. This year dyed Abloic chief King of Ire­land. The year following Cadelh the son of Arthvael a Noble Brytain was imprisoned, and dyed by poyson & Edwal Voel the [Page 63] son of Anarawd and Elise his brother were s [...]aine in a battell they fought against the Danes & Englishmen. This Edwal had six sons, Meyric, Jevaf or Jevan, Jago, which is, James; Conan, Edwal Vachan, and Roderike. After his death, Howel Dha his Cousen german ruled all Wales during his life. Elise also had issue, Conan and a daughter named Trawst, which was mother to Conan ap Sitsylht, Gruffyth ap Sitsylht, and Blethyn ap Convyn, the two last whereof were afterwards Princes of Wales.

Of Marchudd one of the Fifteen Tribes of Gwyneth.

Marchudd ap Conan ap Elvyw of Uwch dulas in Denbigh­land was Lord of Abergeley, and had his Seat at Brynffanigl. Sir Tho: ap William's book saith he lived A. D. 84 [...], but others are of opinion he lived before that time, for as much as wee have it recorded in an old Welsh MS. that Inethan his Gran­child and Lord also of Abergeley dyed in the yeare 849. But Powell of Ednop in his verses of him will have him to have lived after, in the time of Prince Edwal Voel A. D. 913.

Stren [...]us Uchdulae Marchudd bellator in orbe
Sanguineo tumidi spolium praelustre Gigantis
Aequali pugnâ & justo certamine caesi
Fert caput avulsum, tanti (que) insigne triumphi
Tortilis argenti nitidi (que) Corona revincit,
Hoc genere Henricus Rex nomine septimus ortus,
Claruit Idwallo sub Calvo Rege Britanno.

His Armes.

G. a Sarazens head erazed, proper, wreathed Or & A, wrea­thed A & S, as Gwylim sayth. Others give him other Coats, A. a Cheveron S. between three Sarazens heads. or a Blacka­more's head &c.

Families and Worthies descended from this Tribe.

Ednyved Uychan of Anglesey, was the sonne of Cynfric ap Ior­werth ap Gwgan ap Idnerth ap Edryd ap Nathan ap Carwed ap Marchudd. He was Privy Councellor to Prince Llewelyn ap Iorwerth, and to his sonne Prince David ap Llewelyn. He was Generall of Prince Llewelyn's Army, when the Earle of Chester with an Army of English invaded the Principality. Ednyved gave them battell, and after a bloudy fight, wherein on the English side were slaine three Lords, many Commanders of [Page 64] good note with a great number of common souldiers, obtained an absolute Victory: For this service (among other rewards) his Lord & Master (the Prince) gave him a new coat of Armes, viz. G. a Cheveron Ermine between three Englishmens heads cooped, proper. Some say Ednyved's coate is, G. a cheveron S. between three helmets A.

Sir Griffith Lloyd Knight, the sonne of Rees ap Griffith ap Ednyvet Vychan was a valiant Gentleman but unfortunate, Magnae quidem sed calamitosae virtutis, as L. Florus saith of Sertorius. He was Knighted by K. Edward the First, when he brought him the first news of his Queenes safe delivery of a Sonne, at Carnarvon Castle: the King was then at Ruthlan, at his Parliament held there; This Sir Griffith after­wards taking notice of the extream Oppression and Tyranny exercised by the English Officers, especially by Sir Roger Morti­mer Lord of Chirke & Justice of Northwales, towards his Coun­trymen the Welsh, became so far discontented, that he brake out into open Rebellion, verifying that saying of Solomon, Oppression maketh a wise man mad. He treated with Sir Edward Bruce (Brother to Robert then King of Scotland) who had conque­red Ireland, to bring or send over men to assist him in his de­signe against the English, but Bruses termes being conceived too unreasonable, the treaty came to nought; however being despe­rate he gathered all the forces he could, and in an instant, like a candle that gives a sudden blaze before it is out, overran all Northwales and the Marches, taking in all the Castles and Holds, but to little purpose, for soone after he was met with, his party discomfited and himselfe taken prisoner: this was in the yeare of our Lord 1322.

Sir Griffith Lloyd's letter to Edward Bruse.

Cares Ceo mele dit Sir Gruffith ensi feust mempres il vut en Northwall e manda sa breve a Sir Edward de Bruys en Ireland qui ad judges se fist Roi de mesme la terre, e testes paroles.

NObili in Christo Conquestori Domino Edwardo Illustriss Regi Hiberniae,
suus, si placet, Griffinus Lloyd in North­wall: reverentiam debitam in Honore.

Auditâ nobis vestri in terrarum conquisitione▪ famâ egregiâ in partibus nostris, praecipuè debelland: aemulos nostros & vestros, qui tam vos quam nos ab [Page 65] haereditatibus vi injustè expellendo destruxerunt & nomen nostrum memoriam (que) in terris delere conati fuerunt, ab initio suprà modum applaudimus, ut merito debemus, omnes unanimitèr in partibus nostris, unde Vobis ex parte Wallensium Nobilium significo per prae­sentes, quòd si ad Walliam cum hominibus vestris dignemini veni­re, vel si vos in propria personâ accedere illuc non poteritis, ali­quem Nobilem Albanen: Comitem, Baronem vel Militem cum pau­cis, si plurimi nequeant adesse ad dictas partes nostras volueritis mandare. Parati erimus omnes unanimiter dicom eo quod nomen vestrum celebre ubique publicetur expugnat: si quid Saxonibus in Albania, per illustrem Regem fratrem vestrum ul­tim: per Vos in Hibernia, per vos & nos in Wallia statum vestrum pristinum per Brutum conquisitum recuperabimus ipsis (que) suppedi­tatis, confusis & dispersis, Britannia juxta discretam vestre domi­nationis ordinationem inter Britones & Albaneos imposterum divisa cohaereditabitur. Valeat Dominatio vestra Regia per cuncta saecula.

Here followeth Sir Edward Bruse his Answer to the said Letter from Sir Griffith Lloyd and the Welsh.

La transcript de Cesto breve feust mande hors Derland a Monsieur Rogier de Mortimer de Chirck Justice de Gales apres Sieur Iohn de Grey e trovo est antre lez remembrances le dit Sir Rogier de son temps. Et Sir Edward de Bruis manda son responce de la breve auant ditr hors Dirland a Bardsey per un Thonno Dun felon le Roi un marium de Scote in Cestes paroles.

OMNIBUS desiderantibus a servitute liberari salu­tem in eo.

Qui desiderant in se relevat: & libe­rat: ab angustiis, temporibus opportunis, quia quilibet [Page 66] Christianus obligatur suo proximo in omni angustiâ subve­nire, & praecipuè illis qui ex unâ radice originis sive parentelae & patriae primitus processerunt, ideo compatientes vestrae servituti & angustiae jam ..... Anglicana molestia indigenti decrevimus (auxiliante Altissimo) vestro gravamini occurrere, & innatura­lem & barbaricam totis viribus Anglicanam de vestris finibus ex­pellere servitutem, ut sic sicut à principio Albanicus & Britanni­cus populus expulsis hostibus in perpetuum fiet unus. Et quia nul­lus inimicus facilitèr relevatur libentèr praecipimus, si jugum An­glicanum in tantum vos deprimit, quantum nuper depresserat po­pulum Scotianum ut sic ex vestro concordi conamine et nostro su­perveniente (juvamine disponente semper divino) possitis jura ve­stra et justitiam recuperare et proprietatem ..... hereditatem paci­ficè possidere. Veruntamen Dei cum omnia serviunt in isto proposito filium invocamus quod non ex praesumptione et ambitione injusti dominii talia attemptamus, sed ex merâ compassione effusionis in­nocentis vestri sanguinis et subjectionis intolerabilis et signant: ad hoc quod vellemus inimicorum vestrorum et nostrorum vires repri­mere, qui nec pacem nec concordiam desiderant. Imo vestram et nostram finalem destructionem sicut à principio ingressionis earum in Britanniam incessanter diebus ac noctibus molientur, et quia nullo modo est nostre conscientie quemquam decipere nec etiam de­cipi a quocun (que), nostram intentionem et proposit: sine tergiver­satione aliqua declaramus quod libenter sciremus vestram volunta­tem, si rationem nostri laboris et conaminis intuitu relevationis vestre acceptare decrement: nobis committere prosecutionem que­rele vestre et justitie nec non capitale dominium vestri prout alius hactenus Princeps vester liberiùs habere consuevit: Ita quod vos omnes et singuli cujuscun (que) extiteritis conditionis pristinis haeredi­tatibus, terris, libertatibus, possessionibus consuetis et omnibus condi­tionibus ad vos expectantibus integrè et finaliter gandeatis. Ve­stram igitur voluntatem super hiis, et quibuscun (que) aliis in quibus vos consolari poterimus, si videatur expediens cautè et celeriter no­bis remandetis. Valete Domini in Domino.

Out of the English book of Records written at the request of Iohn Salter Justice of Northwales.

Sir Tuder Vaughan ap Grono descended from this Ednyvet, being the sonne of Grono ap Tuder ap Grono ap Ednyvet Vaug­han. [Page 67] He was, for Estate, Power, and Interest, one of the chiefest men in Northwales in his time, as Lewis Morgannwc hath it in a MS. of his. It is set down in the aforecited book of the Records of Northwales, how that he assumed to himselfe the Honour of Knighthood, requiring all people to call and style him Sir Tuder ap Grono, as if even then his mind had given him, that out of his loynes hereafter should spring those that should have power to conferre that Honour; The King, viz Edward the third up­on notice hereof having sent for him & asked him, how he durst presume to invade his Prerogative, by assuming the title of Knight without his authority, received from him this answer, viz. that by a Law or Ordinance of King Arthur he might as­sume that title, in regard he had those three qualifications, which whoever had was by the said Law to be deemed a Knight; 1. He was a Gentleman. 2. He had a sufficient estate. 3. He was valiant and adventurous, saying this withall, If my valour and hardinesse be doubted of, Loe, here I throw downe my Glove, and am ready to fight with any man (whoever he be) for due proof thereof. The King liking well his courage and resolution, was easily perswaded to confirme to him the said Honour. From this Sir Tuder descended Worthies indeed, as Henry the 7th King of England, with the Kings, Queenes and Princes come from him. Henry the 7th was the sonne of Ed­mund Earle of Richmond, who was the sonne of Sir Owen Tu­der, the sonne of Meredith, the sonne of this Sir Tuder. Iasper second sonne to Sir Owen Tuder was created Earle of Pembroke by his halfe-Brother King Henry the 6th, and was a Noble He­roe of the Lancastrian party. When King Henry the 6th was deprived both of his Kingdome and Life, and Edward the 4th of the House of Yorke setled in the Throne, he found means to convey his Nephew Henry Earle of Richmond into France, out of King Edwards reach, who had a jealous eye upon him, as being (in the right of his Mother) next Heire to the Crowne of the House of Lancaster. He returned into England with his said Nephew, who (being King) created him Duke of Bedford, which Honour he enjoyed about two years and then dyed. Richard Owen Theodor of Penmonyth in Anglesey Esq. is a Branch of the same Family.

[Page 68]A Marwnad or Elegie on the death of Sir Tuder Vaughan.
Clowais ddoe um clust ddeau
Canu corn cyveiliorn cau
O vair pann ywr gweddiorn
Pa beth yw y eyfryw gorn
Marw chwedl penn cenedl coeth
Tydur arf awchddur wch ddoeth
Ni fyrnia ddim oi farnad
Fychan varchog mudlan mad
C [...]werw jawn yw chware orn
Gydcerdd rhwng clôch ag utgorn
Galargyrn melldeyrn Môn
Gogleissio beirdd gwag leission
Pa dwrw yw bwnn gwnn ganoch
Pa ymffust im clust mal clôch
Pa weiddi pwy a wyddiad
Yw hwnn a glown in gwlad
Ubain a llefain a llîd
Am y gwr mwya a gerid
Cael y pwyll nis cela pwy
Calon doethion Tindaethwy
Llygrwyd Môn mynn llaw egryn
Llygrwyd oll lle gorau dyn
Llygrwyd Gymru gwedi gwart
Llithricced hoedl llwyth Ricart
Dwyn llew brynn byrdda [...] dan llaw
Dadwreiddio i du drwyddaw
Dyrnod penn hyd ymenydd
Ar dlodion gwlad Fôn fydd
Dygn um chwedl dwyn hoedl hardd
Ysgwaeth dwyn browdfaeth bridfardd
Wyr Ririd lwyr euraid lwyth
Flaidd difileindraidd flaendrwyth
Lliwiodd Wynedd llaw ddinag
Llâs penn Môn wenn i mae (n) wâg
Beth o daw heibtaw hebom
Ir traeth coch lynges droch drom
Pwy a ludd pwl i ddym
Llychlyn ai bwyill awchlym
Pwy a gawn pie Gwynedd
Pwy a ddyrchaif glaif ne gledd
Gan farw fyngharw rhygl
Fyniant hîl naf Brynn ffanygl
Ag aisawr oedd vawr i fraych
Yswain wayw lathfain lithfraych
Aesor gwlad fawr golud fy
Yswain brwy dur sy (n) i brydy
Ffelaig ysgythûrddraig uthûrddrûd
A Fenn Môn rhag ffo na mud
Dillin Môn freheyron fro
Dalldai bwyll delli ebilldo
Gwyreing car pwyllig pell
Cartre r cost carw Tr [...]r castell
Gwae'r Deau er maddau medd
Gweddw jawn gwae ddwy Wynedd
Gwae'r jeirch mewn llenyrch maen llai
Gwaer ceirw ddwyn gwn ai curai
Gwae finae heb gy [...]anedd
Gweled bod mewn gwaelod bedd
Anhudded oer jawn heddyw
O ro ffrwd ar i ffryw
Nid oedd ef dra chynefin
O riw welu gwedi gwin
Cnodach iddo wisgo yn waisg
Yn ymwan frwydur ion ynwaisg
Helm gribog Ryddfaog fyth
A habrsiwn wr ewybrsyth
A llirig dromdew lew ladd
Dromlaes i fedry ymladd
Ni chollai gwr winllan gur
Dref i dâd dra fy Dydur
Ni ffolid car amharawd
Odid od wtleid tlawd:
Nag ynganer yngwynedd
Na ddalier ych dan wych wêdd
Na somer am a dderyw
Na lafurier ofer yw
Na chwardder am wych heirddion
Na hauer mwy ynhîr Môn.
Jolo Gôch ai Cant.

[Page 69] William Griffith Vaughan of Penrhyn in the County of Car­narvon Esq. descended from Ednyvet Vaughan. In the 18 yeare of the Reigne of Henry the 6th, being made an English Denison he had conferred on him the Chamberlainship of North-Wales the best office for profit and honour then in Wales: so Pet. Ellis his MS. Sir William Griffith Knight (surnamed the Liberall) his son was Chamberlaine after him, who was also succeeded in that Office by his eldest sonne another Sir William Griffith Knight. Richard Griffith of Llanvair (Major for his late Majesty and now living) descended from this Family. The Right Reve­rend Father in God George Griffith D. D. now Lord Bi­shop of St Asaph, The Right worshipfull Iohn Griffith of Blox­ham Esq & one of the Justices of North-Wales, Iohn Griffith of Llanvaethley Esq. the Griffiths of Porthyraur and Cichley & other Gentlemen of the name are descended from Edmond Griffith Esq. second sonne to Sir William Griffith the elder. William Griffith of Carnarvon Esq. was sonne to Sir William Griffith the younger William Llyn one of the most ingenious of our Modern Bards hath an elegant Poem or Cowydd to the said William Griffith to beg pardon and readmission into Favour: Which those that delight in this fruitlesse but innocent study will not take amisse to see published.

Carnarfon hên gouion gwyn
Coron yr holl Gwncwerwyr
Gorau mann ywch gwarr Menai
Gwyr a thîr ag aur a thai
Beth yw mewn byth i mi
Na baidd fy wyneb iddi
Oni chaf er jawn na cham
Meistrolaeth y meistir Wiliam
Collir tîr yn wîr a wnaf
A chwi a ellwch na chollaf
Ai gwîr gwayw chwyrn gwr gwych hardd
Dy vôd yn ddig wrth dy Fardd
Os gwir llew ysgall llyoedd
Yma (r) wyl ar y mai i r oedd
Wy Fardd hû ar furddas
Yn gefn grwm yn gofyn grâs
Mab Sir William ddinam ddoeth
Gryffudd bûr awchddur w [...]hddoeth
Pob anoeth a doeth a ith du
Pobl attad pawb ai lettu
Pob car ddyn pob cerdd yna
Attad oll perchen tû da
Draw yn dal dy wr nid wyf
Ni obeithiaf na bythwyf
Digus drwm yw dy gâs draw
gwaer dyn sy (n) gwyro danaw
Baych mawr val dwyn ebwych mam
Waith a gwyl oth ddîg Wiliam
Ba riw faych mwy bar fôd
Onid baych a wnaid o bechod
Clâf ydyw clwyf a wadodd
Clwyfais eissie cael dy vôdd
Ymrŷw adwyth mawr ydwyd
Eli o mynni um wyd
[Page 70]Gwyddoch. fy nwyf am clwyfau
A chwi a wyr fy jachau
O llidiaist fy llew llwydwynn
Ysgâr gâs ysgwiair gwynn
Haeddwn fôd draw heddiw n drwch
Od wy yn haeddu dan heddwch
Dîg o gwyn yw digio gwr
Di gwyn yw digio anwr
Salmon wyd gyvion digam
Sy ar ôl dau Syr William
Byw yn gymmwys heb hên gamaw
A bair i hîl gwr byrhau
Anllywodraeth a lledrad
A lygra hîl gwr ai hâd
Ni threissi neb gwnndeb gwîr
Bwy oth dras byth a dreissir
Gwr mawr gorau am arian
Ag a rûdd mwy na gwyr mân
Os i Siesswn ail Siosswy
Os ar varr nid oes wr fwy
Os rhanny gwîn os rhann gwr
Ni by dwyneb di anwr
Pa un a wnai (n) pennaeth
O'r Penrhyn mawr pe rhann maeth
Y llew doeth ai lleihau dy wg
Ai nad elwyf yn dolwg
Pam oedd raid o blaid yn benn
Dûr gwnn i daro (r) gownen
Llew gwynn oll o egin wyd
Ag oen wyf ag anafwyd
Gwalch chwyrn wyt gloch aur an tawdd
Yderyn wyf dyro nawdd
Llîd sy flîn medd Doethineb
Llîd ni all wellhau i neb
Tra blwng yw natur y blaidd
A llew orig anlariaidd
Llew yw dystod llwyd distaw
Torr dy lîd taro dy law
Meistres Marged luned lân
Ach dwg oll och dig allan
Priod William prydolwenn
Iarlles hir o Wedir hên
Merch yw honn Sion gyfion gu
Honn a ddichon heddychu
Barna honn waed brenhinawl
Ar dy swrdd euro dy fawl
Dof ath gerdd wr difeth gall
Nid am aur na dim arall
Ond cymod da i vôd hyd vêdd
Am llaw ge [...]ych Iarll Gwynedd.
William Llûn ai Cant.

The Williamses of Cochwillan and the Coetmors in the Coun­ty of Carnarvon &c. are descended from Ednyvet Vaughan. Sir Griffith Williams of Vaenol (the fourth Baronet of the Name and Line) is descended from the Williamses of Cochwillan. The most Reverend Father in God Iohn Williams D. D. and Arch­bishop of Yorke was of this Family. He was a Person of great abilities, which were a means to raise him to great Honours and Dignities: King Iames made him Dean of Westminster, Bishop of Lincolne, and Lord Keeper of the Great Seale of England, and he was advanced to the Arch-Bishoprick of Yorke by King Charles the First. His places and preferments brought him [Page 71] wealth, which enabled him to purchase Cochwillan, which had been the house of his Ancestors, and also Penrhyn the seat of the ancient and once flourishing family of the Griffiths, with other lands, which came all (he dying Intestate) to Sir Griffith Wil­liams of Penrhyn Baronet (now living) his elder Brothers sonne and Heire. Lumley Williams, Williams of Wig, Iohn Wil­liams of Meillionyth Esq. are branches of the house of Coch­willan.

That famous Souldier (in his time) Sir Rees Ievanc, that is, the Young sonne to Sir Rees Hên or the Elder of South-Wales Knight was of this Tribe. So saith Evan ap Madoc ap Rees.

Iohn Wynne of Melai in Denbighshire Esq. is descended from this Tribe. William Wynne Esq. his Father was a Colo­nell of a Regiment of foot for his late Majesty K. Charles the first under the Right Honourable Arthur Lord Capel;he was slain at the siege of Wem in Shropshire A. D. 1643. He was a valiant and a wise Gentleman, exceeding zealous, faithfull and active for his Sovereigne: All his family engaged in the same good cause, his Uncle Ellis Wynne, his Brothers Robert, Owen, and Hugh, served under him as Commissioned Officers. This Colonell Wynne was the sonne of Iohn Wynne, the sonne of William Wynne of Llanvair ap William Wynne ap Iohn Wynne ap Willi­am ap Meredith ap David ap Eneon Vachan ap Ievan ap Rees Wynne ap David Lloyd ap Y Penwyn ap Iorwerth ap Tegwared ap Iddon ap Ithel ap Edryd ap Inethan ap Iapheth ap Carwedd ap Marchudd. Sir Thomas Wynne Knight and Captain of a Com­pany of foot in Holland was of this family of the Wynnes. Iesus Colledge in Oxford doth acknowledge this Sir Thomas a Be­nefactor, his Brother and Executor Doctor Morgan Wynne ha­ving purchased Land with the mony he had left by Will to pi­ous uses and setled the same upon the said Colledge for the maintenance of one Fellow and one Schollar.

Hovvel Dha Sonne to Cadell ap Rodri and Cousin German to EDWAL Voel.

THis Howel Dha King or Prince of Southwales & of Powys long before, after the death of Edwal Voel his Cousen, took upon him the Government of all Wales about the yeare of Christ 940. Not­withstanding940 the sonnes of Edwal did somewhat murmur a­gainst him he was for his Godly behaviour, discreet and just Rule beloved of all men. This Howel constituted and made Lawes to be observed throughout his Dominions, which were in use in Wales, till the Inhabitants received the lawes of England which was in the time of Edward the first, and in some places thereof long after. These Lawes are at this day to be seen in Latine and in Welsh.

Howel Dha King of all Wales perceiving the Lawes and customes of his Country to have growne into great abuse, and disregard, summoned the Archbishop of Menevia, with all the other Bishops and Chiefe of the Clergy to the number of 140 Pre­lates, and all the Barons and Nobles of Wales, with six men of the Wisest and best reputed in every Commot to meet all together at his house called Y Tuy gwyn ar Taf, that is, The White house upon the River Taf (in Carmarthenshire:) Thither he came him­selfe, and continued there with those his Nobles, Prelates vnd Sub­jects all the Lent in Prayer and Fasting, craving the direction and blessing of Gods holy spirit upon his endeavour to reforme the Lawes and Customes of his Country, to the honour of God, and the good of his people. About the end of Lent he chose out of that com­pany twelve of the wisest, gravest, and of greatest experience among them: to whom he added one Clerke or Doctor of the Lawes, na­med Blegored, a learned and perfect wise man. These had in [Page 73] charge to examine the old Laws and Customes of Wales, and to gather out of them such as were meet for the government of the Country: which they did, retaining those that were wholesome and profitable, expounding those that were doubtfull and ambigu­ous, and abrogating those that were superfluous and hurtfull, and so ordained three sorts of Laws. The first, of the Ordering of the1. Kings or Princes houshold, and his Court. The second, of the Af­fairs2. of the Country and Common-wealth. The third, of the spe­ciall3. Customes belonging to particular places and persons. All these being read, Proclaimed, and Allowed, he caused three seve­rall Books of them to be written, one for his daily use to follow his Court, another to lye in his Palace at Aberffraw, and the third at Dinevowr, that all the three Provinces of Wales might have the use of the same when need required. And for the better observati­on of these Lawes, he caused the Archbishop of St Davids to de­nounce sentence of Excommunication against all such of his Sub­jects, as should refuse to obey them. Within a while after Howel (because he would omit nothing that might procure strength and Authority to his said Laws) went to Rome taking along with him, the Archbishop of Mordef. S. Davids, the Bishops of Lambert Bangor and S. Chebur. Asaph, and thirteen other of the most Learned and WisestMenev. men in Wales, where the said Laws being recited before the Pope were by his Authority confirmed: then having finished his devout Pilgrimage and emptied his purse, he came home againe with his Company.

  • 1. By these Laws they might not morgage their lands but to such as were of the same Family or kinred, De eadem parentelâ.
  • 2. Every Tenant holding of any other than of the Prince of Lord of the Fee, paid a fine pro defensione Regia, which was called A­rian ardhel, in Latine Advocarii.
  • 3. No Legacy of Goods by Will was good, otherwise than those which were given to the Church, to the Lord of the Fee, or for payment of Debts
  • 4. Every man might distraine as well for debts, as for Rent of lands, any goods, or cattell, saving Horses, which were counted to serve for a mans necessary defence, and were not distrainable with­out the Prince his licence.
  • 5. Causes of Inheritance were not heard or determined but from the ninth of November, til the ninth of February; or from the ninth of [Page 74] May untill the ninth of August. The rest of the yeare was counted a time of Vacation, and so ordered as for sowing in the Spring, so for roaping in the Harvest.
  • 6. This also is to be observed, that all matters of Inheritance of land were determined and adjudged by the King or Prince in per­son, or his speciall Deputy (if he were sick or impotent) and that upon view of the same land, calling unto him the Freeholders of that place, two Elders of his Councill, the Chiefe Justice atten­ding alwayes in the Court, the Ordinary Judge of the Country where the land lay, and the Priest. The manner of their procee­ding was thus. The King or Prince sate in his Judiciall seate high­er than the rest, with an Elder on his right hand, and another on his left, and the Freeholders on both sides next unto them, which for this cause (as I think) were called Uchelwyr. Before him directly a certain distance off and a little lower sate his Chiefe Justice, having the Priest on his right hand, and the ordinary Judge of that country on the left. The Court being set the Plain­tiff came in with his Advocate, Champion, and Rhingylh or Ser­geant, and stood on the right side: and last of all, the Witnesses of both Parties came, which stood directly before the Chiefe Justice at the lower end of the Hall untill they were called up to testify their knowledge touching the matter in controversy.

The figure of this I thought good to set down here before you.

 The KING. 
 An Elder of the Council. An Elder of the Council. 
Uchelwyr or Freeholders.   Uchelwyr or Freeholders.
The Priest. The chiefe Justice.The Judge of the place.
Rhingylh or SergeantThe Defendant The PlaintiffRhingylli or Sergeant
Advocate Advocate
Champion. Champion.
The Witnesses.

[Page 75]After hearing the Books read, the depositions of the witnesses also, and full pleading of the Cause in open Court, upon warning gi­ven by the Rhingylh, the Chief Justice, the Priest, and the ordi­nary Judge, withdrew themselves for a while to consult of the mat­ter, and then Secundum allegata & probata, brought their ver­dict, the Court sitting. Whereupon the King or Prince after con­sultation had with the Elders or Seniors which sate by him, gave definitive sentence; except the matter were so obscure and intri­cate, that right and truth did not appeare: in that case it was tried by the two Champions, who put an end to it.

At this time the foresaid King Aulaf and Regnald entered the Land of Edmond, who gathering his strength together followed them into Northumberland, where he overcame them in plaine Battel, and chased them out of the Land, he remained a whole yeare in those Parts, to set things in order, and quiet the Country. And because he could not by any means bring the Inhabitants of Cumberland to live in any good order, he spoyled that Country, and committed it after­wards to the Government of Malcolme King of Scotland, up­on condition, that he should send him succours in all his warres both by Sea and Land.

⚜ Some other write, that King Edmond being accompaniedMatt. West. Hol. pag. 228. with Lhewelyn ap Sitsylht (who was after Prince of Wales) en­tred Cumberland, and taking the two sonnes of Dummail King ofBuchan. lib. 6. fol. 53. that Province put out their eyes, and then gave that Country to Malcolme to be holden of him, upon this condition that he would keep the North part of the Realm from incursion of enemies, which afterward was but slenderly performed. This Malcolme was the sonne of Donald King of Scotland, and was the next King after Constantine the third, being in number the 76.

In the yeare 942 died Hubert Bishop of S. Davids▪ the942 year following Marclois Bishop of Bangor, and Ussa the sonne of Lhavye died. The yeare 944 the Englishmen entred Wales 944. with a strong Army, and after they had spoiled Strad Clwyd, returned borne. At which time Conan the sonne of Elise wasMatt. West. Hol. pag. 222. in danger of death by poyson, and Everus Bishop of S. Davids dyed. The yeare after Edmund King of England was slain byMatt. West. Treason, as some writers say, upon S. Augustines day, as he was at dinner. Other say, that he espyed an Outlaw fitting in [Page 76] the Hall, and as he drew him from the Table the Outlaw slew the King with a knife.

⚜ And some are of opinion, that as the King would have rescu­edIo. Cast. a man of his from an Officer who had arrested him, the same Of­ficer slue him, not knowing that he was the King: he lyeth buried at Glastenbury.

After his death, Edred or Edfred his Brother was Crow­ned in his stead, who making an expedition into Scotland and Northumberland subdued both the Northumbers and Scots promising fealty and homage by Oath, which was not long kept. In the yeare 948 died Howel Dha the Noble and948. worthy King of Wales, whose death was much bewailed by all men, for he was a Prince that loved Peace and good Or­der, and that truly feared God. He left behind him four sonnes, Owen, Run, Roderike, and Edwyn, betwixt whom and the sonnes of Edwal, there ensued great Warres, for the chief Rule of Wales, as shall appeare in the History follow­ing.

¶ The sonnes of Howel Dha, as some Writers doe record it, were these, viz. Owen, who did not live long after his Fa­ther, Eneon, Meredyth, Dyfnwal, Rodri, the two last whereof, as is conceived, were slaine in the Battell fought neare Llanrwst A. D. 952 by the sonnes of Edwal Voel. Run Lord of Cardi­gan and slaine before the death of his Father. Conan y Cwn who possessed Anglesey. Edwin, who was also slaine, as is sup­posed, in the forementioned battell. Owen ap Howel Dha dyed about the same time.

There was a battell fought between Howel and Conan ap Ed­wal Voel for the Ile of Anglesey, wherein Conan fell; Griffith his sonne renewing the Warre was overcome. And Cyngar a po­tent man being driven out of the Ile Howel enjoyed quiet pos­session thereof, and of the rest of Gwyneth.

I suppose Howel Dha was chosen to rule Wales during the minority of the sonnes of his Unkle Anarawd, who at the death of their Father were very young and not fit for Gover­ment: we have it in some copies of his Laws that in the year of our Lord 914 (soon after the death of Anarawd) he summo­ned the Arch-Bishops, Bishops, the rest of the Clergy with the914 Lords of Wales, and six of the most discreet Freeholders out of [Page 77] each Commot to appeare at his Court called y Tû gwyn ar Dâf, to advise with him touching the reformation of the British Laws; Being there met they compiled a new Body of Law; in the Preface of the said Laws he is styled Brenhin Cymru oll, King of all Wales. Northwales he held as Regent untill his Cousen Edwal Voel the eldest sonne of Anarawd came of Age to go­verne; In the yeare of our Lord 920 Howel Dha went to Rome to have his Laws confirmed by the Pope; Lambert Archbishop of Menevia, Mordaf Bishop of Bangor, Blegowryd Arch-Dea­con of Landaffe, and 13 of the best learned of his Clergy with a like number of the Nobility accompanied him thither; the Pope confirmed his Laws, after they had been read before him, and nothing found dissonant to Gods word therein. After his returne from Rome, as a faithfull Steward he resigned the King­dome of Gwyneth to his Cousen Edwal Voel being then of age, together with the Soveraignty of all Wales.

About the yeare 924 we have mention of Ludwall Rex omnium Wallensium, who in his submission to Athelstan is corruptly called Ludwal for Iudwal, which makes me to conclude that in the year 924 Idwal had began his Reigne. Idwal Voel and Elisseu his brother being both slaine by the English A. D. 940 Howel took upon him again the rule of Wales.

Blegabridus Languaridus Britan: collegit Leges Howeli Do­ctor utriusque Juris, Archidiaconus Landavensis. so Io. Baleus.

The Laws of Howel Dha translated into Latine and digested by Blangoridus begin with the following Prologue.

DEI Providentiâ Howel Da filius Cadell Rex totius Cam­briae videns suos Wallenses insolenter legibus abuti, accivit de quolibet Cemut totius Regni sui sex Laicos viros authoritate & scientiâ pollentes & omnes Ecclesiasticos dignitate baculosos, ut Archiepiscopus vel Episcopus vel Abbas vel Prior de Regno suo ad locum qui dicitur Ty gwyn super Taff yn De [...]ed, quam Do­mum voluit aedificari virgis albis in hospitium sibi ad venandum, quando ad partes Demetiae veniret, & ideo vocabatur Ty gwyn. Rex autem & congregati morati sunt ibidem per totam Quadra­gesimam orantes Altissimum per jejunium perfectum, petendo gra­tiam ad bona facienda secundum Regis propositum. Et de congre­gatis [Page 78] elegit Rex XII Laicos doctissimos & unum Clericum doctis­simum qui vocabatur Blangoridus ad instruendum sibi Leges & Usus, ut propinquius possent ad veritatem & justitiam intendi. Et in Tres partes scribi praecepit, quarum prima Lex Curiae suae cotidianae. 2da Lex Patriae. 3ia Usus utriusque. Tres autem Li­bros legis praecepit fieri consimiles, unum ad Curiam suam co­tidianam sequend: semper, & alium ad Curiam de Dinevwr, & tertium ad Curiam de Aberfraw, ut quaelibet de tribus partibus Cambri [...] sc. Gwynet & Powis & Deheubarth haberet in se au­ctoritatem legum ad opus paratam. Quorum Consilio & diligenti examinatione leges antiquas partim appropriavit, partim emen­davit, partim ex toto delevit, alias de novo condidit. Provulgatis itaque legibus quas observari decreverat auctoritatem suam eis impertivit firmiterque & illibatè eas teneri imperavit. Ipse ve­ro & omnes qui cum eo erant maledictionem Domini & suam & totius Walliae imprecati sunt ei qui eas in Walliâ deinceps non ob­servando temeraret.

Of Caradoc Bhraichfrâs.

There were two famous men of this name, the first lived long before the other; the British Triades say, he was King of Cornwall in King Arthurs time, He was the sonne of Llyr Marini of the Tribe of Cunedda Wledig; Our books agree that he was Lord of Ferlix, to wit, the Country between Wy and Sea­verne: Tegayrvron Daughter and Heire to King Pelinor was his Wife. His Armes are S. a Cheveron between three spears heads A. Goared pointed upwards G. The other Caradoc Bhraich­frâs was Earle of Hereford and sonne of Coeliog Myngrudd of the North of Brytaine. He had issue a sonne called Lluddocca whose daughter Rhieingar was mother to Tuder Trevor, the Tribe of the Marches: the said Tuder marryed Gladys daughter to Howel Dha King of Wales who Reigned A. D. 940, which computation of time inclines me to believe he was the same Ca­radoc that was styled King of Northwales and slaine A. D. 788. by the Saxons in revenge of K. Offa's death, who had bin slain at Ruthlan two years before; this was he to whom Rodri Mol­wynoc or rather Conan his sonne gave the Lands between Chester and Conwey to inhabite. His Armes, Vert a Lyon rampant par­ted per fesse Or & A. within a bordure of the 3d. Who say this Caradoc was the son of Gwyn ap Collwyn ap Ednowen, and father to Trahayrn King of Wales are much deceived.

Families descended from Caradoc Uraich [...]râs Pr. of Ferlix.

[Page 79]The Gameses of Brecknocke shire, the Vaughans of Tre'r twr in the same County, Sir Roger Vaughan of Tre'r twr Kt was slaine at the Battel of Agen Court, He was the son of Roger Hên of Bradwarden ap Walter Sais (husband to Florence Daughter and Heire to Sir Edward Bradwarden Kt) ap Roger Vaughan ap Roger Vawr of Llechryd ap Eneon. Ievan ap Howel ap Seyssyllt Lord of Cantre Selyf ap Llewelyn ap Moreiddig Warwyn Ld of Cantre Selyf (whose Coate is S. a Cheveron between three Childrens heads couped at the sho [...]l­ders A. their Peruques Or, enwrapped about the neck with as ma­ny snakes proper) ap Dryw a younger son of Maenyrch Ld of Breck­nocke lineally descended from the forementioned Caradoc. This Sir Roger had by his Wife Gladys daughter of Sir David Gam Kt three sonnes, viz. 1. Watkin of Bradwardin the eldest, father of Sir Tho­mas, father of Sir Richard of Bradwardin, father of Walter, father of Thomas Vaughan of Penbre, from which Family that worthy Gentle­man Sir George Vaughan (lately deceased) Kt, and Colonel for K. Charles the 1. was descended. The Second was Thomas Vaughan of Hergest, who had two sons Watkin Vaughan of Hergest the eldest, father of Iames, father of Charles Vaughan of Hergest. Sir William Vaughan Kt, a valiant & an expert Commander under K. Charles the 1. was a branch of this family. He was Knighted for his emi­nent service, and entrusted with the government of severall of His Majesties Garrisons in the County of Salop. He was very active and successefull. In the yeare 1645 with about 600 Horse and Foot he raised the siege of High Arcoll, beating off an Army of 3000 men. At the fatal battel of Naseby he had the honour to be highly instru­mentall in preserving his Majesties person, His Majesty in his retreat marching in the head of his Regiment. He died in his attempt to restore his Majesty K. Ch. 2. 1649 at the siege of Dublin, where he was unfortunatly sl [...]in to the great hinderance of the Kings Cause. The 2d Roger Vaughan of Cleirwy, father of Roger Ddû, who had two sons 1. Roger Vaughan father of another Roger Vaughan of Cleirwy. 2. Thomas Vaughan ap Roger Ddù father of Will. Vaughan of Court Newydd. The 3d son of the foresaid Sir Roger was Sir Ro­ger Vaughan of Tre'r twr Knight, who had two sons Sir Thom. Vaug­han of Tre'r twr Kt, and Roger Vaughan of Porthaml. Sir Thomas had a son called Henry Vaughan of Tre'r twr the Father of Christo­pher Vaughan, Watkin, William, Iames, Thomas Vaughan &c. Roger Vaughan of Porthaml had a son called Watkin Vaughan, the father of Sir Will. Vaughan of Talgarth & Roger Vaughan, which Roger had sonnes Watkin & Iohn Vaughan. Sir Will. Vaughan of Talgarth had a son called Sir Roger Vaughan Kt.

[Page 80]Also Sir William Lewis of Langors in Brecknock shire Baronet. Trevor Williams of Langibi in Monmouthshire Baronet.

Lewis Wogan of Bol [...]ton in the County of Pembroke Esq. the only sonne of Abraham Wogan Esq. (by his Wife Iane Daugh­ter of Sir Lewis Mansell of Margan [...] Baronet) the sonne of Maurice Wogan Esq. the sonne of Sir Iohn Wogan Knight.

Iohn Wogan of Wiston Esq. the sonne of Sir William Wogan Knight by Sibil daughter of Sir Hugh Owen of Orielton Knight, the sonne of Iohn, the sonne of Richard Wogan Esq. the sonne of Sir Iohn Wogan Knight, the sonne of Sir Iohn Wo­gan Knight, the sonne of Iohn Wogan Hîr Esq. the sonne of Sir Henry Wogan Knight by Margaret Daughter of Sir William Thomas of Raglan Knight (the Father of Sir William Herbert the first Earle of Pembrok of the name) the sonne of Sir Iohn Wogan Knight, the sonne of Sir Matthew, the sonne of Sir Wal­ter Knight, the sonne of Sir Matthew Knight, the sonne of Sir Matthew Wogan Knight, the sonne of Gwgan, (from whom they took their Surname) by his wife Cecily the daughter and coheir of Sir Philip Gwys of Wiston in the County of Pembrok Kt; which Gwgan was the eldest son of Blethyn, the eldest son of Maenyrch Lord of Brecknocke by his wife Elen daughter to Tewdwr Mawr, & sister to Rees ap Tewdwr Prince of Deheubarth or South Wales. Bernard Newmarch having discomfited and slain in the field Ble­thyn ap Maenyrch seised on the Lordship of Brecon, and forced his sonne and Heire Gwgan to be content with what share of it he was pleased by way of composition to appoint him. He gave him the Lordships and Mannours of Llanvihangel Talyllyn, part of Llanllyeni, and part of Cantref Selyf with lodgings in the Ca­stle of Brecknocke, where in regard he was the rightfull Lord of the Country there was such a strict eye kept over him, that he was not permitted at any time to goe abroad without two or more Norman Knights in his company. W. Llyn saith, the Armes of the Wogans are a field Paliwise of 6. Or and B. on a Fesse G. 3 Cinque foiles A.

Iohn Ieffreys of Tre'r Castell in the County of Brecon Esq. and Merchant of London, the sonne of Ieffrey, the sonne of Ed­ward, the sonne of Ieffrey, the sonne of Edward of Llywel, the sonne of Ieffrey ap Gwilim ap Ienkin of Slough ap Madoc ap Rees ap Richard vaw [...] ap David ap Rees of Aberllyf [...]i Esq. ap [Page 81] Howel ap Trahayrn Lord of Llangors ap Gwgan ap Blethyn ap Maenyrch &c.

There are many other worthy Families, in Southwales espe­cially, descended from this Caradoc, whose names all my en­quiry and industry could not procure.

Of Sir David Gam Knight.

Sir David Gam was the son of Llewelyn ap Howel Vaughan of Brecknocke by Maud the daughter of Ievan ap Rees ap Ivor of Eluel, the said Howel Vaughan was the son of Howel ap Eneon Sais ap Rees ap Howel &c. he was surnamed Gam, because he had but one ey; The Gameses derive their name & linage from him; He was a worthy Knight descended from the said Caradoc, whose Coat he gives: for his Policy and Valour we may style him our British Hannibal. He was a great stickler for the Duke of Lancaster, who was afterwards King Henry the 4th, upon which account it was, that Owen ap Griffith Vaughan (common­ly called Owen Glendor) was his mortall enemy: The said Owen having had his education at the Innes of Court, got to be prefer­red to the service of King Richard the 2d, whose Scutifer, as Walsingham saith, he was; Owen being assured, that his King and Master Richard was deposed & murthered, & withall provoked by severall affronts and wrongs done him by the Lord Gray of Ruthin his neighbour, whom King Henry greatly countenanced against him, he took Armes; And looking upon Henry as anCharters of O. Glend. Usurper he caused himselfe to be proclaimed Prince of Wales; And though himselfe were descended Paternally but from a younger Brother of the House of Powis, yet (as ambition is in­genious) he finds out a way to lay claime to the Principality, as descended (by a daughter) from Llewelyn ap Griffith the last Prince of the British Race, He invaded the Lands, burnt and de­stroyedHen: Sales­bury. the Houses and Estates of all those that favoured and adhered to King Henry.

Owen called a Parliament to meet at Machynlleth in Montgo­mery shire, whither the Nobility and Gentry of Wales came, in obedience to his Summons, & among them the said David Gam, but with an intention to murther Owen; the plot being disco­vered, and he taken before he could put it in execution, was like to have suffered had not intercession in his behalfe been made by Owen's best friends, and the greatest Upholders of his Cause, [Page 82] whom he could not either handsomely or safely deny; Owen being thus prevailed upon pardoned him and let him goe free, only requiring of him, that he would for the future be more loyall and loving to him, which he promised, but did not per­forme, for as soon as he came home to his own Country, where he was a man of great interest, he did exceedingly annoy and molest Owen's friends. When he lay in durance at Machynlleth for his attempt against Owen's life, there was this Englyn made of him, viz.

Davydd Gam dryglam dreigl, ddi ymwan frwydr,
Fradwr Rissiart Bhrenin
Llwyr yrhoes Diawl (hawl hwyl fliû
Y fath ystâd) î fys i'th dîn.

Not long after Owen entered the Marches of Wales destroying all before him, he burned then the house of Davyd Gam, and, as the report goeth, called to him one of Davids Tenants, to whom he spake thus mer [...]ily in verse,

O gweli di wr côch Cam
Yn ymofyn y Girnigwen
Dywed ei bôd hi tan y lan
A nôd y glo ar ei phenn.

But David himselfe kept out of Owen's reach, living most com­monly at Court, till Owen's time was expired.

When King Henry the 5th went with an Army into France against the French, David Gam brought in to his service a goodly company of stout souldiers and Gentlemen, which upon all occasions shewed their resolution and courage. News be­ing brought to the King that the French Army was advancing towards him and very numerous, he sent Captain Gam to ob­serve their motions and to bring him an account of their num­ber; He upon a diligent view perceiving them twice to exceed the number of the English was not a whit daunted, but when the King asked him how it was, what their number might be, made him this answer, An't please you, my Liege, They are enough to be killed, enough to run away, and enough to be taken Prisoners: The King was well pleased and much encouraged with this resolute saying of his; Nor did his tongue discover more courage then his hands, for in the heat of the Battell the Kings person being in danger he charged the enemy [Page 83] with such eagernesse that he forced them▪ to give ground, so securing the King, though with the losse of much bloud, and also of his own life, for in that service Himselfe, Roger Vaughan his sonne in Law, and Walter Lloyd of Brecknocke his Kinsman received their mortall wounds; when the King was told they were past all hopes of recovery, he came unto them, and in re­compence of their good service Knighted them all Three in the field, where they soon after dyed; Thus ended the Life but not the Fame of valiant Sir David Gam.

His Coate is S. a Cheveron between three Iavelins heads A. Tho. Iones of Cardigansh. Antiquar. pointed upwards G.

An Elegy upon the death of Gladys the Noble Daughter of Sir David Gam, Elegantly writ by Lewis Glyn-cothi.
Y seren o Evenni
At Dûw ar Saint i troes hi
Gwladûs lwyddianus ddinam
Oedd o gorff syr Davydd Gam
Bwriodd Dûw dan bridd do îr
Braych i Wend a Brychandir
Nid llai mynn [...]ûw yngwlâd went
Na theirmil yn i therment
Galw ar Jesu tra fy fyw
Ag ar y grôg a oryw
Arglwyddes o santes oedd
Or hên arglwyddi ir hanoedd
I mae meibion hirion hi
I roi gwleddau yn arglwyddi
Marfia gynt gymraes gall
Ar ddwywaith a roe ddyall
Oi hîl i by ynhal y bedd
Naw ai henwau yn frenhinedd
Gwladus a hi yn gweled saint
Oedd ail honn i ddal henaint
O honn i cawn frenhinwaed
Ag Ieirll Gwent aurlliwio gwaed
Gwladus du ar Gymru gynt
Iarlles oedd er llês iddynt
Ar ol i rhoi ar elawr
Ir aeth leng or iaith i lawr
A heddyw mae (n) rhoddi mêdd
O fron honno frenhinedd
Ail Gwladus haûl goleydent
Cymru accw ymro Gwent
Dy huno a chyffroi
A wuaeth in oes yn iaith ni
Ysgrin ar gyssegr o Went
Sy du arglwyddes dwy went
Pan teg peintiad y gadair
Pinaglys fel penn eglwys Vair
Maen beril naw mil yn wyn
Mormor a mwy o ermin
Bedd ir holl fonedd yw fo
Oll a growndwal Loeger ynto
Ma [...] (n) gorwedd mewn y gweryd
Draw yn y bedd drayan y byd
Yn seren i benn y bedd
I rhoed i gadw anrhydedd
Maes glas fel cledd penn drasus
Ar llew lir ar lliw o lus
O gylch y twr yn glych têg
Dûw oedd ef ar deyddeg
Engylion gwnion yw gylch
A Drig bob dri yw ogylch
[Page 84]Organau oll hyd frig nef
Ag arianllais gwyr unllef
Mil o dyrs amliw o dan
Mil ereill aml o arian
Mwy na mil o feydwyaid
Dan gwyr bob daunaw a gaid
Yn nessa ma [...] deunawssaint
Yn bwrw naw sens garbron saint
Main beril cylch syr William
Oedd fedd gwynn merch Davyd Gam
Dau a wnaeth ir Deau nawdd
Dûw Jesu ai dewisawdd
Ag oi rhyw yn benaig y rhawg
I dewisswn dywyssawg
ANOTHER On the Death of Morgan son of the said Sir David.
Y penn aeth ymhôb bonedd
Sy (n) [...]lan Faes Winllan ai fedd
Morgan garw difan Davydd
Gam ywr sant i Gymru sydd
Llann vaes oll ywr nef i wr
Lle mae eilwaith llew milwr
Lle rhoed tarian a maneg
Llan Ddûw dan y llen ddu dég
Gwlad Frychan am Forgan fydd
Ail i gawod wyl gewydd
Deigain niau dafnau dwr
Ar ryddiau ywr aweddwr
Deugain mlynedd i heddyw
Ir wyl beirdd arol i byw
Dwyfil achos mab Davydd
A dwy fwy yn y Deau fydd
Edn Aberhodni obaith
Silin oedd i selio yn iaith
Yn y Peutun un patent
Deutu wysg hyd at dwy Went
Braych a fy wrth groesdu (r) grog
Barr a chyngor Brycheiniog
Tu hugadarn teg ydoedd
Pwys i du ar un post oedd
Pwys gwlâd Frychan yn rhannu
Ar riw bost o wr i bu
Y tîr weithian fa trethydd
Ar swrn o bilere sydd
Mae irgoed o frîg Morgan
Mewn Yrhos yn mynny i rhann
Aeth llawer o gydgeraint
O Einion Sais hên yn saint
Bro wysg aeth yn brysgoed
Ond gwyr a aned o goed
O un cyff jawn yw caffael
Deri a hwynt yn dra hael
Ef oedd wr ef oedd eryr
Forgan aeth i frig yn wyr
Cynhaval drwyr ardalaoedd
I Lowarch hen falarch oedd
I Lowarch i by lewod
A gwae wyr byw Lloeger oi bod
I Forgant hyd nant y Nordd
Ar Loeger maer ail gwelygordd
Plant Brychan a gydrannodd
Plant sydd i Forgant un fodd
Plant efrog oediog adail
O dref Iorc hefyd ywr ail
Morgan oedd darian i dîr
A braych hendad Brychandir
Morgan oedd bumrhann ir byd
A llyfr i bob lle hefyd
Llewod Morgant blant un blaid
Garbron gwyr ywr Barwniaid
A llew henddoeth gwyr llannddûw
Ywr Barwn doeth garbron Dûw.

Lewis Glynn Cothi ai cant.

Of Tuder Trevor, the Tribe of the Marches. His Armes, Per Bend sinister Ermine and Ermines a Lyon rampant Or.

Candida parte unâ sursum sed nigra deorsum
Ric. Powell.
Erminiis folgens Theodori parma Trevori,
Fert rapidum fulvum (que) sinistro vecte Leonem,
Mostonis haec arma, simul sunt nota Trevoris,
Innumerisque aliis, quos part [...]rit utraque Maelor,
Ille sub Howelo vixit cognomine Iusto,
Cujus nata illi Gladusia nobilis Uxor.

Tuder Trevor sonne in Law to Prince Howel Dda descended from Maxen Wledic or Maximus (the sonne of Llewelyn Sena­tor of Rome, and Brother to Coel Godebog King of Britaine) who descended lineally from King Belinus Magnus and was in the right of his Wife King of Britaine, and Empe­rour of Rome. Vortiger King of Britaine descended lineally from Maximus, was also Ancestour to Tuder Trevor, which Tu­der in the right of his Mother was Earle or Consul of Hereford and by his Father Lord of both Maelors, Oswestree, y Drewen or Whitington, &c. His posterity enjoyes a great part of the said Lordships to this day, though they have sold away much of them. He had three sons 1. Lluddocca, who had given him the Lordships of Oswestree and Whitington and a great part of the Maelors, 2 Dinghad (whose Coate is Ermin a Lyon rampant S.) He had for his portion the remaining part of the Maelors, which his posterity possesse to this day by the severall names of Broughton, Ellis, Sonlley, Lewis, Trafford, Iones, Eyton, Roberts, Ieffreys, &c. 3. Grono, who had the Earledom of Hereford, which by his Daughter & Heire came to her son Adlystan Glodrydd.

Rees Sais (so called because he had had his education in England) great Granchild to Luddocca, being son to Ednyvet ap Llowarch Gam ap Luddocca, divided his Estate between his three sonnes, To Tuder the eldest he gave part of the Lordship of Oswestree, the entire Lordship of Whittington and part of the Maelors, to the 2d Elidur (whose Coate is Ermin a Lyon ram­pant B▪ armed & langued G.) he gave Eyton, which his posterity now enjoy by the name of Eyton; Sutton, which his posterity the Suttons hold to this day; & Rwyton, which his posterity the [Page 86] fDeccas held untill of late years, that it was sold to Justice Ief­reys. To the 3d Iddon (whose Armes are A. a Cheveron between 3 boares heads couped G. langued B. and tusked Or) he gave Dudleston and other parts of the Lordship of Oswestree, which are yet possessed partly by his Heires Male and partly by his Heirs generall. Tuder ap Rees Sais and all his posterity give Tuder Trevors Coate; his eldest sonne Blethyn had the largest portion of his estate; his 2d, Grono (whose Coat is V. two Boares passant in pale Barr Or) had the Lordship of Whit­tington and Estwicke. The Lordship of Whittington came with his sonnes daughter, who married Sir Warren Theneys to the Lords Fitzwarren, from them by marriage to the Hangfords, and in like manner from them to Bourchier Lord Fitzwarren, after and not long since it was purchased by one Mr Albany whose daughter and heire is the now wife of Thomas Lloyd Esq. Lord of Whittington. Estwicke came by heirs generall to Han­mer of the Fenns and Eyton of Pentremadoc. His 3d Cyhelyn, from whom is descended Trevor of Trevor &c. Blethyn ap Tuder ap Rees Sais left his estate to his sonne Owen, who by his wife Eve daughter of Madoc ap Gwenwynwyn Lord of Powis Wenwynwyn had 1. Ierwerth Hên. 2. Thomas the Ancestour of the Lloyds of Bryn and Horsmas in Maelor. Ierw [...]rth Hên en­joyed the greatest part of his Fathers possessions, and left it to his sonne Ierwerth Vaughan, who was married to Catharine daughter to Griffith ap Llewelyn ap Iorwerth Drwyndwn Prince of Northwales, and he left his estate to his son Iorwerth Voel, who had many children, as 1. Ednyvet Gam, who had the greatest part of his possessions; 2. Madoc Lloyd, who had faire possessions in Chirkland and Brueden heath, descended by Heirs generall to Sr Iohn Owen of Cleneney Kt and others. 3d Grif­fith, who had his part in Maelor Saesneg, which by Heirs general is divided among severall Families of good note. 4. Morgan An­cestor to the families of the Youngs of Brynyorkin and the Crox­tons in the Maelors, Ednyvet Gam had severall sons, as David, Llewelyn, Iorwerth Ddu, Meredyth, and other sonnes, who had their portions of his Inheritance with the forenamed Brothers, and are Ancestors to severall families yet in being. David had his part in Chirkeland and in the Lordship of Oswestree. Llewe­lyn had his part in the Maelors, which is at this day in the pos­session [Page 87] of the Heire male of his line. Thomas Lloyd of Halghton Esq.; Ierwerth Ddu had a share of his Fathers estate, and is the Ancestor of Sir Roger Moston of Moston Kt and Baronet, Colo­nell and Governor of Flint Castle for K. Charles the I. Of Iohn Moston Esq. and Colonell Roger Moston his Uncles, who were both faithfull to the same good Cause, and also of Edwards of Chirke Esq. &c. Meredyth is the Ancestor of Pugh of Lloynt [...]d­mon. David ap Ednyvet Gam had his part in Chirke land and in the Lordship of Oswestree, which he left to his sonne Edward, who dying 1440 left his estate among his sonnes, Iohn Trevor Hên. Richard Trevor, the Ancestor of the Trevors of Oswestrce. Ottowell, who had only a daughter and heire. Iohn Trevor Hên marryed Anne Daughter and Heire of Sir Pierce Camber, by whom he had Robert Trevor of Plâs têg whose Heirs male have failed long since. Edward Trevor of Brynkynallt. Roger Trevor, who had a faire estate at Pentre Cynwric. Richard Tre­vor of Trevalyn the Ancestor of Sir Richard Trevor of Trevalyn. Sir Iohn Trevor of Plâs têg. Sir Thomas Trevor of Enfield, late one of the Barons of the Exchequer, & Sir Sackvil Trevor, all Foure Brothers and Knights. Edward Trevor had sonnes, Iohn Tre­vor, who had only Daughters, Iohn Trevor Goch of Wigging­ton, who had been a Captain at the siege of Boloigne & marryed Elizabeth daughter of Iohn Eyton of Ruabon Esq. and only child of Elizabeth daughter of Sir Roger Kynaston of Hordley; He had Bryncynallt and all his Fathers inheritance, which he left to his sonne Edward Trevor, a man of great esteeme and power in his Country, who had two sonnes, Iohn Trevor Esq. and Richard Trevor Dr of Law and Judge of the Admiralty, whose posterity remains to this day. Iohn Trevor had one only sonne Sir Edward Trevor Knight one of his late Majesties Privy Councill in Ireland; which Sir Edward had by his first Wife, Iohn Trevor of Brynkynallt Esq., Arthur Trevor, who hath been a Colonell for his late Majesty, and is now one of the Judges of Southwales; by his second Wife he had Marcus Trevor, who hath also been Colonell upon the same good account, and is lately made Baron of Ros-Trevor, Viscount of Dungannon in Ireland, and one of his Majesty K. Charles the 2d's Privy Coun­cill in that Kingdome.

Sir Edward Trevor's Riddle.

[Page 88]Here lyes by name the Eve. Worlds Mother, by nature my Aunt, sister to my Mother. My Grandmother, mother to my mother. My Great-Grand-mother, mother to my Grandmother. My Grandfathers daughter and his mother; Which all may be, with­out the breach of Consanguinity.


Out of the Collections of Mr Francis Kynaston a Gentleman well skilled in the Antiquities of Wales.

The Pedegree of Sir Arthur Moston Kt and Baronet.

Sir Roger Moston the sonne of Sir Thomas Moston Kt, the son of Sir Roger Kt, the son of Sir Thomas Kt, the son of William Moston, the son of Thomas Moston Esq., who in the yeare 1539 [Page 89] took first the surname of Moston (the name of his house) at the appointment of Rowland Lee Bishop of Goventry and Lichfield and Lord President of the Marches of Wales, being then at Flint keeping Assises: Before he was commonly called Thomas ap Ri­chard ap Howel ap Ievan Vaughan, which Ievan Vaughan was the son of Ievan ap Adda ap Iorwerth Ddu ap Ednyvet Gam and so to Tuder Trevor, as in the foregoing Pedegree.

The Pedegree of Cynwric Eyton of Eyton Esq.

Cynwric the eldest son of Sir Gerard Eyton Kt, (the Father and Son both of them adhered firmely to his late Majesty King Charles the I. in his troubles) the sonne of Cynwric, the sonne of Iames, the son of Hugh, son of Owen Eyton, son of Willi­am, son of Iohn, Steward of Bromfield An. 18. Hen. 6., son of Iames, son of Madoc, son of Ievan, son of Madoc ap Llewelyn ap Griffith ap Cadwgan ap Milir Eyton of Eyton, son of Elidir ap Rees Sais forementioned.

Sir Robert Eyton of Dudleston Knight, was the sonne of Iames Eyton, son of William, the son of Iames, the sonne of Iohn Eyton younger Brother to Owen Eyton foremen­tioned.

There is another Family of the Eytons descended from Tingad the second sonne of Tuder Trevor thus, Llewelyn ap Ed­nyvet ap Griffith ap Iorwerth ap Eneon Goch ap Ievaf ap Llo­warch ap Ievaf ap Niniau ap Cynwric ap Rhiwallon ap Tingad. The said Llewelyn had two sonnes, of which more spe­ciall notice is taken, 1. David the eldest, to whom he gave his lands in Eyton, who was therefore called David of Eyton, and 2. Morgan, to whom he gave his Lands in Sonlley, and was there­fore called Morgan of Sonlley, by which two names their poste­rity were called ever after. Cynwric ap Rhiwallons Coate is, Er­min a Lyon rampant S. armed G.

The Families of the Lloyds of Berthlwyd in Montgomeryshire, of Isclawdd, of Talwrn &c. are come also from this Tribe.

Ievaf & Iago the Sonnes of Edwal Voel.

AFter the death of Howel Dha, his Sonnes divided South-Wales and Powys betwixt them: And Jevaf and Jago the second and third sonne of Edwal Voel ruled North-Wales, their elder brother Mey­ric being not a man fit to rule, They coming from the elder house would faine have had the chiefe Rule of all Wales, but were denyed it by the sonnes of Howel Dha: Thereupon Ja­go (or James and Jevaf entred South-wales with a great power, Owen the sonne of Howel and his brethren came a­gainst them and fought with them at the hills of Carno, where Jago and Jevaf had the victory: And the year follow­ing Jago and Jevaf entred twice into South-wales, spoyled Dyvet, and siue Dwnwalhon the Lord thereof. And within a while after died Roderike one of the sonnes of Howel Dha. 952. In the yeare 952. the sonnes of Howel gathered their strength together against Jevaf and Jago, and entring their land as farre as the river Conwy, they fought a cruell battel at a place called Gwrgustu, or Lhanrwst, as some think, where a great number were slaine on either side, as Anarawd the sonne of Gwyriad (or Uriet the sonne of Roderike the Great, and Edwyn the sonne of Howel Dha: in this battell the sons of Howel were overthrown by Jevaf & Jago, who pur­sued them to Caerdigan, & destroyed their Country with fire and sword. About this time Yarthyr the sonne of Mervyn was drowned: and the year following Congelach King of Ireland was slaine. But to returne to Edred King of England. As soon as he was returned to his own Land, Aulaf with a [Page 91] great Army landed in Northumberland, and was received of the people with much gladnesse; but anon after like fickle and unconstant men, they banished him the land, and took to their King one Hircius the sonne of Haroald, whom likewise after three years they expelled, and willingly submitted them­selves to Edred, who after he had ruled▪ the whole Land eight years died, and was buried at Winchester. After him reigned Edwyn sonne of Edmund, in whose time nothing chanced worthy the remark, but that he married another mans Wife, her Husband being yet alive. This man after he had Go­verned the Realme foure years died, leaving his Kingdome to his Brother Edgar, who was Crowned King of England in his stead. In the yeare 958. was a wonderfull hot sum­mer,958. when Gwgan the sonne of Gwyriad the sonne of Rode­rike died After that Heate, there followed a great plagueIdwal ap Rodri ap Howel Dda was slaine, and also the sons of Gwyn. in March following. In those daies Jago and Jevaf by force and strength ruled all Wales as they thought good: and yet for all their power, Abloic King of Ireland landed in Môn, and having burnt Holyhead spoyled the Country of Lhyn. In the yeare 961. the sonnes of Edwyn the son of Colhoyn 961. were slain, after they had destroyed all the country to Towyn Unwonus Presbyter Britannus accersitur ab Abbate S: Al­bani ad ver­tendos Codi­ces ê Britan­nico sermone in Latinum. Bal. Io. Cast. Hol. pag. 232. About this time Meyric the son of Cadvan, Rytherch Bishop of S. Davids, and Cadwalhon ap Owen departed out of this transitory World. Not long after, the country of North­wales was sore distressed and spoyled by the Army of Edgar King of England.

⚜ The cause of this Warre was the non payment of the Tribute that the King of Aberffraw, by the Laws of Howel Dha was to pay to the King of London. In the end there was a peace conclu­ded: for King Edgar understanding what hurt the Countries of England and Wales received daily, by reason of the great multi­tude of Wolves that then abounded (especially in Wales) which destroyed much sheepe and otherwise did great harme, released the Tribute in mony appointed by the said Laws of Howel Dha, and300, so Poly­chron. wolves de­stroyed by the Prince of Wales. bound the Prince of Northwales to pay him yearly certain Wolves for his Tribute, and so to be released of that other Tribute in mony, which the said Prince performed, untill he had left never a Wolfe either in Wales or England.

In the yeare 966 Roderike the sonne of Edwal Voel was966. [Page 92] slaine by the Irishmen, by whom Aberfraw was destroyed. The next yeare there [...]ell a great debate betwixt the two sonnes of Edwal, Jago and Jevaf, which had ruled joyntly from the death of Howel Dha to that time; and shortly after Jago having taken his brother Jevas by force, very cruelly kept him in Prison a long time. About this time, Eneon the sonne of Owen Prince of Southwales wan and seazed to himselfe the land of Gwyr. And in the yeare 969 Mactus 969 the sonne of Haroald with an Army of Danes entred the Ile of Anglesey, and spoyled Penmon. These Danes, were suffered by Edgar to inhabit quietly throughout all England, till they were grown as strong as the English, then they fell to such riotousnes and drinking, that much mischiefe ensued thereof: whereupon Edgar made a law, that every man should drink by measure, and caused a certain marke to be set in every PotA Law a­gainst im­moderate drinking. how deepe they should drink, and so by these meanes he some­what stayed that immoderate ingurgitation. Not long af­ter that, Godfryd the sonne of Haroald did subdue to him­selfe the whole Ile of Anglesey, which he enjoyed not long. King Edgar likewise in the yeare 972 did send a great Na­vy972. to Caerlheon upon Use, which shortly turned back, with­out doing any notable act. The next year following, Howel Ran: Cest. Fabian. the sonne of Jevaf raised a great power against his Uncle Jago for the deliverance of his Father out of Prison, and o­vercoming his Uncle in Fight he chased him out of the Land, and he took his eldest Uncle Meyric the sonne of Edwal, and put out both his eyes, and kept him in Prison; where he died shortly after, leaving behind him two sonnes, Edwal and Jonaval, from which Edwal came afterward the most worthy Princes of Wales. Howel notwithstanding he had set his Father at Liberty, yet took upon himselfe the sole rule of the Land for his life time, his Father preferring a private Life before a Kingdome suffered him to Reigne. He had thrée Brethren, all men of great estimation, Meyric, Jeva [...], and Cadwalhon, whose Lives doe follow.

[Page 93]The Sonnes of Ievaf, Howel, Cyswalhon, and Owen, who slue Cystennin ap Iago. The Sons of Iago, Gabriel, Cystennin.

Iago ap Idwal having fled to K. Edgar prevailed so farre with him, that He brought an Army into Northwales to restore him to his right: He came as farre as Bangor, where he was honourably received by Howell, who at his request was conten­ted his Uncle Iago should have a share in the Government, as he had in his father Ievafs time. Edgar then founded a new Church at Bangor on the South side of the Cathedrall, which he dedicated to the blessed Virgin Mary: He confirmed the ancient liberties of that Sea, and bestowed Lands and gifts up­on it; Then with Howel and Iago in his company, he march­ed towards Chester, where met him by appointment six Kings more, viz. Keneth King of the Scots, Malcolme King of Cumber­land, Macon King of Man, and Dyfnwal, Si [...]rethus, and Ithel three British Kings; These eight Kings having don him homage entred with him into his Barge, and rowed him, foure of each side, from his Palace to the Church or the Monastery of S. Iohn the Baptist, and after Divine Service rowed him back againe to his Palace in great State. Out of an old book of Records Bi­shop Baily shewed mee.

Nola Eltuti in veneratione apud Wallos, Cloch Elltut. Hanc Edgarus circa collum equi suspendi fecit in expeditione contra terram Glamorg: ac per visionem nocturnam reprehendi­tur, & restitui Ecclesiae statim curavit. post dies novem Edgarus moritur. Polychron.

Morgan Hên called in his younger years Morgan Mawr dyed about this time being a hundred years old, having li­ved fifty years after the death of his Wife Elen Daughter of Roderic the Great, by whom he had one sonne called Owen. Morgan was a Valiant and a victorious Prince well be­loved of his Subjects. Owen the sonne of Prince Howel Dda some years before the death of Morgan layd claime to Ystradwy and Ewyas (called the two sleeves of Gwent Vwchcoed) being the right of Morgan, and seized upon them to his own use, but the matter through the mediation of the Clergy and Nobility [Page 94] being by both parties referred to the decision of Edgar King of England, it was adjudged by the said King, that the sayd Lands did of right belong to the said Morgan, and to the Dio­cesse of Landaffe, and that Owen ap Howel Dda had wrongfully possessed himselfe of the said Lands. The Charter of the said Award was made before the Arch bishops, Bishops, Abbots, Earles and Barons of England and Wales, and is kept at Lan­daffe, as I have been informed by an old MS. called Y Cwtt [...] cyvarwydd o Vorgannwg. In the old book of Landaffe there is also somewhat to the same purpose, but the mistake in both is that they make Howell Dda to be the intr [...]der into the said lands, who had been dead twenty years before King Edgar began his Reigne.

The sonnes of Owen ap Howel Dha. 1. Meredith Prince of Powis. 2. Eneon Prince of Dyvet. 3. Idwal. 4. Llowarch, who had his eyes put out A. D. 982. 5. Cadwallon, Also 6 Grono, (who, as is conceived, begot Edwyn Lord of Yâl upon Elfleda Dutchesse of Mercia) is said to be his sonne.

Hovvel the Sonne of Ievaf ap Edwal Voel.

AFter that Howel the sonne of Jevaf had expelled his Uncle out of the Land, he took the sole Rule of it. And at that time Dwnwalhon Prince of Strad­clwyd took his journy to Rome. Then died Edwal­hon the sonne of Owen. Likewise Edgar King of England 974. passed out of this transitory life after that he had built many Monasteries. After him Edward his sonne was King, who when he had Reigned foure years was traiterously slaine through the malice of his stepmother, that her sonne Edred or Edelred might enjoy the Kingdome; who after his bro­thers death was Crowned King of the land. The yeare 976976. Eneon the sonne of Owen King of Southwales destroyed the land of Gwyr the second time. The yeare ensuing Howel the sonne of Jevaf with a great Army both of Welsh and English made warre against such as assisted and maintained the cause of his Uncle Jago, and spoyled the Countries of Lhyn and Kelynno [...] Vawr: shortly after Jago was taken by Howels men, and suffered to enjoy his Part of the land peaceably. About the yeare 979 Edwal Vachan the sonne of Edwal Voel was979. slaine by his nephew Howel. At this time Custenyn Dhu, that is, Constantine the Black, son to Jago (who then was prisoner) hired Godfryd the sonne of Haroald with his Danes, against his Cousen; They both destroyed Anglesey and Lhyn▪ Howel hereupon gathering his Army together, and setting upon them at a place called Gwayth Hirbarth overthrew them, there Constantine was slaine. About this time, the Danes landed with VII ships at South-hampton, and spoyled the Towne.

[Page 96]⚜ They overcame also and spoyled the whole Country of Devon and Cornwal, burned the Towne of Bodman, and the CathedrallSim. Dunel. Hol. pag. 238. Io. Vowel in Catal. episc. Exon. Church of S. Petrokes, with the Bishops house. Whereupon the Bishops Sea was removed from thence to S. Germans, where the same continued, untill the removing and uniting thereof unto Crediton.

About this time died S. Dunstan, who prophefied of much mischiefe and great destruction of the Land to ensue by the Danes. The yeare 981 Godfryd the sonne of Haroald ga­thered981. a great Army, and landed in Westwales, where spoyl­ing all the land of Dyvet, with the Church of S. Davids, he fought the battell of Lhanwanoc. Likewise in the yeare next ensuing, Duke Alfred with a great power of Englishmen spoyled and destroyed Brecknock, and a great part of the lands of Owen Prince of Southwales, against whom Eneon sonne of the said Owen, and Howel King of Northwales came with all their power, and overthrew them in Battell, where the greatest part of Alfreds Army was slaine, and the rest put to flight. The yeare following, the Gentlemen of Gwents­land rebelled against their Prince, and cruelly slue Eneon the sonne of Owen who had come thither to appease them. This Eneon was a worthy and Noble Gentleman, who did many notable acts in his Fathers time, and left behind him two sonnes, Edwyn & Theodor or Tewdor Mawr, from which last came the Kings or Princes of Southwales. In the yeare 984984. Howel the sonne of Jevaf King of Wales entred England with an Army, where he was fought withall, and slaine valiantly fighting. This Howel had no sonne, but his Brethren reigned in his stead.

¶ Some say Howel left a sonne foure years old named Co­nan, who afterwards being of age was King of Gwyneth A. D. 999.

The Sonnes of Eneon ap Owen Prince of Dinevowr 1. Cadelh, 2. Edwyn Lord of Yâl (whose Mother is supposed to be Elfleda) 3. Owen, 4. Tuder, who was slaine at Llangwm Dinmael.

Cadvvalhon the Sonne of JEVAF ap Edwal Voel.

AFTER the death of Howel, his brother Cad­walhon second sonne of Ievaf tooke upon him the government of Northwales: his first businesse was to make warre with his Cousin Ionaval son of Meyric ap Edwal Voel, and the right Heire, whom he slue: but Edwal, Jonaval's youngest brother, escaped out of his hands. The yeare following, Meredyth the sonne of Owen King or Prince of Southwales, with all his power entred Northwales, and in fight slue Cadwalhon the sonne of Ievaf, and Meyric his brother, and so subdued the land to himselfe. Herein a man may see how God punished the wrong Iago and Ievaf, the sons of Edwal Voel, had done to their eldest brother Meyric, who was first disinherited, and afterward had his eyes put out by them, and one of his sonnes slaine. First Ievaf was imprisoned by Iago, then Iago with his sonne Constantine, by Howel the sonne of Ievaf: and afterward the said Howel, with his bre­thren Cadwalhon and Meyric, were slaine and spoiled of all their lands.

¶ Meredyth ap Owen slue Meyric first; And Cadwalhon advan­cing forwards he slue after in another battell; Anglesey and the rest of Gwyneth were the purchase of his Victories, which he plagued with insupportable Tribute.

Meredyth the Sonne of Owen ap Howel Dha.

THis Meredyth ap Owen, having slain Cadwalhon, obtained the rule and gouernment of Northwales. In the yeare 986 Godfryd the sonne of Haroald, en­tered986 the Ile of Anglesey the third time, took Lhy­warch the sonne of Owen, and put out his eyes, He took 2000 prisoners besides. Hereupon Meredyth the Prince, with the rest, escaped and fled to Caerdigan. And there was a great murrain also among the cattell throughout all Wales. Then the Danes againe entred England with diverse Armies, and at Westport and Witest overthrew the Lords of England, Go­dan and Britchwould: so that the King was compelled to hire the Danes with the payment of 10000 pounds to live quietly in the Land: and yet within a while after, the king himselfDane gelt. Hol. pag. 239 broke the Peace, For he prepared a great navy to meete the Danes by sea, where he was ouercome, & lost all his ships, which were taken, with Alfricke Earle of Mercia Captaine of the same. After this the Danes spoiled Yorke, with Lyndsey, & went to Northumberland, where they were put to flight by Godwyn & Fridgist. About the same time Aulaffe & Swayn, sailing vp the Thames, with 94. sailes, besieged London, which was valiantly defended. Wherefore the Danes left their ships, entered the land, and cruelly with fire and swordH. Hunt. destroyed all Kent, Sussex, Surrey, and Hampshire. Herevpon king Edelred sent to them for peace, which he purchased with great summes of money and Uictuall; so that they lay peace­ably at Hampton that winter. Then Aulaffe vpon composition came to Edelred, who receiued him worthily, and did so entertaine him, that he promised to depart the land, and ne­uer to returne, which Promise he faithfully kept.

The yeare 987. died Ievaf the sonne of Edwal, who had987 [Page 99] liued many yeares a private life. The same yeare also died Owen the son of Howel Dha, Prince of Southwales. This Owen had three sons, Eneon, which died in his Fathers time; Lhywarch, who lost both his eyes; and Meredyth who (as is before declared) had wonne Northwales, and after his Fa­thers death took also to his possession all Southwales, having no respect to his brother Eneon's sons, viz. Edwyn & Theodor or Tewdor. About the same time the Danes sailed from Hampton along the coast, spoiling Deuonsbire & Cornwal; and so at the last landed in Southwales, and destroied S. Dauids, Lhanbadarn, Lhanrystyd, and Lhandydoch, (which were all places of Religion;) and did so much hurt in the country be­sides, that to be rid of them, Meredyth was faine to agree with them, & to giue them a Peny for every man within his Land, which was called The tribute of the blacke army.

At this time Elwmaen the son of Abloic King of Ireland was slain, & a great number of people died for hunger. The yeare 989 Owen the son of Dyfnwal was slaine. Within a989 yeare after Meredyth King of Wales destroyed the towne of Radnor, at what time his nephew Edwyn the sonne of Eneon, hauing to his aid Duke Adelf, and a great army of English and Danes spoiled all the land of Meredyth in Southwales, as Caerdigan, Dyvet, Gwyr, Kydweli, and S. Dauids: where Edwyn took Pledges of the chiefe men of those Countreys. In the meane time this Meredyth with his people did spoile Glamorgan, so that no place was free from sword and fire: but at the last Meredyth and Edwyn fell to an agreement, & became friends. Soone after Cadwalhon the onely sonne of Meredyth died. Meredyth being thus occupied, had so much to doe in Southwales, that Northwales lay open to the enemy: which when the Danes perceived, they arriued in Anglesey, up­on Ascension day, & destroyed the whole Ile. Wherevpon theMatth. West. pag, 383. Io. Castor. Inhabitants of that Country received Edwal the sonne of Meyric the right heire of Northwales, for their Prince, in the yeare 992, the Nobility delivering both Him & his Brothers992 out of Prison, where Meredyth had secured them as Pledges. These great troubles being past, there followed within a year after such famine and scarcity in Southwales, that many perished for want of food.

Edvval ap Meyric ap Edwal Voel and Meredyth ap Owen.

THis Edwal being in possession of Northwales studi­ed to keep and defend his people from wrongs. But Meredyth (the difference between him and his Nephew Edwyn being composed) gathered to­gether all his Power, intending to recover Northwales a­gaine, And Edwal meeting him at Lhangwm, overthrew him there in Battell; Where Theodor or Tewdor Mawr, Mere­dyth's Nephew, was slaine, who left behind him two sonnes, Rees and Rytherch, and a Daughter called Elen wife to Ble­thyn ap Maenyrch Lord of Brecon. A little after this Swayn the sonne of Haroald destroyed the Ile of Man: and entringMatth. West. Northwales slew Edwal the Prince thereof, who left behind him a sonne called Jago.

In the yeare of Christ 998, the Danes came again to S. Davids, 998 destroying all before them, and there they slew Mor­geney or rather Urgeney Bishop of that Sea. The same yeare also died Meredyth the sonne of Owen King or Prince of Wales, leaving behind him one only Daughter called Angha­rad, which was married to Lhewelyn ap Sitsylht, and, after his death, to Conuyn Hirdref, or (as others think) to Conuyn ap Gwerystan; shee had Children by both of them, which was the cause of much Warre and Mischiefe in Wales, as shall hereafter appeare.

A. D. 1000 the Danes spoyled Northwales, and the year after dyed Môr ap Gwyn, and Ivor Porthalarchi.

I am prone to believe, it was not Tewdwr Mawr but his bro­ther Edwin that was slaine in the Battell forementioned, which also seems rather to have been fought at Hengwm in Ardudwy in Merionethshire then at Llangwm; for there are to this day certain Monuments of Victory to be seen, as heaps of stones, Tomb-stones, & Columnes, which they call [...]arnoddi Hengwm.

Edwyn the sonne of Eneon, Meredyth's elder Brother, was the lawfull Heire of Southwales though dispossessed by Meredyth.

Aedan the sonne of BLEGORED.

THe death of both these Princes (for so much as Me­redyth had no issue Male, and Edwal had left be­hind him a Child under age, not able to take the charge of a Common-wealth) did cause much trouble to ensue: for in Northwales severall did aspire to the Government, and sought the Rule of the Land, as Conan the sonne of Howel, and Aedan the sonne of Blegored, who tried the matter in open field, where Conan was slaine in the yeare1003 1003.

⚜ I doe not know, neither could I ever find, what Colour or pretence of Title, this Aedan ap Blegored had to the Principality of Northwales, nor yet of whom he descended, or who came of him: whereas all the other Princes are notoriously known, of what Families they descended, and who came of them. Neither yet doe I read of any Blegored, whose sonne he might be, except it be that Doctor of Law, of whom mention is made in the Laws of Howel Dha, his Estate may be thought too meane to challenge the Princi­pality. He is reported to have Governed about XII years. Of the Acts by him atchieved, there is very little written, saving of those two Battels, the one wherein he overcame Conan ap Howel, and the other wherein he was overcome himselfe, and slaine with his foure sonnes, by Lhewelyn ap Sitsylht.

In the yeare 1004, Gulfath and Ubiad Irish Lords,1004 were taken by the Scots, and their eyes put out, which Scots did also destroy the Country and Towne of Dublyn. Likewise the Danes, who had destroyed againe Westwales went to England, spoyling and burning the Land all before [Page 102] them, especially Somersetshire, Dorsetshire, and so through Hampshire and Sussex, they came towards the River ofMatt. West. Thames without any Let or Stay, and so sailed along the Ri­ver to the place, where the River Mydwey entreth the Thames, along which they came to Rochester, where they ouerthrew the Kentishmen that gave them battell. Edelred King of England was at this time in Cumberland the chiefe Den of the Danes, which land he brought to his subiection: but in the meane while another army of Danes fought againe with the men of Somersetshire, and got the victory, and ruled the countrey at their pleasure. Then Edelred hearing of the great worthines of Richard Duke of Normandy sent to him for his Daughter Emma in marriage, thinking to have succour thereby: But God intending to punish the great sinnes and enormities of the Saxons moued the King thereto, that as they being instruments of Gods wrath, vnder colour of friends and hired soldiours, had traiterously slaine the Brytaines, and driuen them out of their own land, so should the Normans by colour of this affinity first enter the land as friends, and bring succour against the Danes, and afterward come as foes, and be the vtter destruction of the Saxons and Angles: which was then foreseen and told the King by an Anachoret, who inspired with the spirit of God, saw the plagues which he had certainly appointed to fall vpon the Saxons: but the King puffed vp with pride, and hope of this affinity, did priuily write to all the English Rulers through the realme, to kill theThe Danes murthered. Matt. West. pag, 39 [...]. Danes in one night, who then liued peaceably; this murther was cruelly executed vpon S. Brices day at night. But yet the Danes would not giue ouer so with losse. Therefore the yeare following, there came an army of them to Deuonshire, and over-ran the land with fire & sword, sparing nothing that had life, that they might revenge the murther of their Cousens. They rased the citie of Excester, and slue Hugh the Norman, Matt. West. pag. 393. H. Hunt. Sim. Dunel. whom the Queene had appointed Gouernour there. Then Almarus Earle of Deuon gathered a great army out of Hamp­shire, Wiltshire, and all the Country about, and met the Danes: but he and his were put to flight, and the Danes pursued them to Wilton, and destroyed it and Salisbury, and returned to their ships with rich spoiles and great triumph.

[Page 103]⚜ Some are of another opinion, who affirme, that the said Hugh Io. Cast. Si. Dunelm. Hol pag. 243. Io. Vowel. the Norman enticed and procured the Danes to come and besiege the City of Excester, which they burned, and vsed the people with great cruelty, vntill in the end the said Almarus Earle of Deuon, and the Gentlemen of the countrey submitted themselues, and so obtained peace.

And the yeare following, being 1004, Swayne a mighty1004. Prince of Denmarke, to whom God predestinated the Crowne of England, came with a great number of ships, laid slege to Norwich, and spoiled it, with whom Wol [...]kettel Duke of theHol. pag 243. Country made peace: yet the Danes, after they had rested a while, went to Thetford, which they also spoiled, and return­ed to their ships with their prey, and overthrew Duke Wolf­kettel (who had gathered and prepared an army to fight with them) and so sailed to their Countrey: And two yeares after returned againe with their companions, fire, sword and spoile, and landed at Sandwich, which they burned, and made England Hol. pag, 244. quake as a réed in the wind, and thence sailed to Wight, where they wintered till Christmas, and then entred Hampshire, and passed in diverse Bands through the land to Reding, Walling­ford and Colsey, deuouring such victuals as they found in the houses, and paying with sword and fire at their departing. And at their returne they met neare Essington the army of theIo. Cast. Westsaxons, which did nothing but trouble them with killing, and laded them with spoile, and so passed by the Gates of Winchester, with much triumph to Wight; and all this while was King Edelred at his Mannour in Shropshire full of cares and troubles. And then the Nobility of England bought peace of the Danes for 30000 pound. In which time of Peace Edelred made an Order, that of every 300 Hides of landH. Hunt. through the Realme, there should be a ship made and furni­shed, and of every 8 Hides, a Corselet and a Helmet. An Hide containeth as much ground as a plough may eare by the year. Besides these the King had a Naby from Normandy, which being all together at Sandwich, was one of the greatest that ever was seen in Brytain. But it happened so, that whereIo, Cast. Matt. West. the King had banished one Wilnot a Noble man of Sussex, he fell a roving upon the Sea, and troubled all passages and [Page 104] Uictuallers. Then Brightrych brother to the Traitor Edric 1008 Earle of Mercia, promised the King to bring before him Wil­not either alive or dead, but it hapned otherwise, for there fell such a tempest, that he was driven of force to the shore, where many of his ships were lost, and the rest Wilnot and his Company set on fire and burned. Then Brightrych, being a­bashed at this infortunate beginning, returned again along the Thames to London.

Shortly after there landed a Navy of Danes at Sandwich, Io, Cast. and so passed by land to Canterbury, with a mind to destroy the City: but the Citizens bought their peace for 30000 pound. And the Danes passed first through Kent, Suffex, Hamp­shire, and Barkshire, where King Edelred with all the power of England met them: notwithstanding being perswaded by the Traitor Edric, he would not fight with them, so that they returning back by London (which City defended it selfe manfully) went to their ships. But the yeare following they landed again at Ipswich upon Ascension day, and there overcame and put to flight Duke Wolfkettel, who fought with them. Then passing from thence to Cambridge, they met the Kings sisters sonne with his Army, whom they slew, and with him Duke Oswyn, with Edwyn and Wolfrike Earles, and after took their way by Essex towards Thames, leaving1010. no part of cruelty unpractised by the way. And along the Ri­verGwlfach and Vbiad had their eyes put out. Hol. pag. 245. Io. Cast. Iarddur Monke of En­lli dyed. side they went to Oxford, which they had burned the year before, and so to the three castles upon Ouze, Buckingham, Bedford and Huntingdon, and destroyed Godmanchester, which was then a faire Towne, and burned Northampton, and at Christmas returned to their ships. The next yeare following when they had spoiled all the land from Trent Southward, they laid siege to the City of Canterbury, and won it by the treason of one Almarike (whom Alfege the Archbishop had de­libered1011 from death) and left nothing behind them, but bloudIo. Cast. Hol. pag, 246. Matt. Park. pag. 68. and ashes, carrying the Archbishop with others to their ships, whom they cruelly slew afterward. Within a while after, Swayn King of Denmarke came along the Humber to Gainsbourgh, to whom Vitred Duke of Northumberland with all his people, and all Linsey with the Countries North of Watlingstreet became subjects, and gave him hostages. [Page 105] Whereupon Swayn finding his enterprises succesfull, com­mitted his Navy to Cnute his sonne, and went himselfe to Oxford and Winchester, which Cities with all the Coun­tries about acknowledged him for their King. Then he came to London, where King Edelred was, but the Citizens defen­ded the City so manfully and valiantly, that Swayn returned to Wallingford, and so to Bath, and received homage of all Westsaxon, and afterward coming to London, received the City to mercy, and was called King throughout the Land. Then Edelred perceiving all things to goe against him, sledHol. pag. 249. Io. Castor. to Normandy, to his Wife and his two sonnes, Edward and Alfred, whom he had sent thither before. And Swayne, Sim. Dunel, after he had brought the whole land to his obedience, dyed suddainly, after whose death, the Danes chose Cnute his sonne for their King; but the Englishmen sent for Edelred home a­gaine. who coming with a great Army destroyed Lynsey, Hol. pag. 248. because that Province was become subject to Cnute; Which thing when Cnute understood being at Ipswich, he cut off the hands and noses of all the Pledges that he had, and returned to Denmarke. About this time, Brian King of Ireland, and Murcath his sonne, and other Kings of that land subject to him, did gather a great Power against Sutric the sonne of A­bloic King of Dyuelyn, and Mailmorda King of Lagines; which Sutric hired a number of strangers, all armed men, and rovers upon the seas to his succour, and gave Brian battell, where the sayd Brian and his sonne were slaine, and on the o­ther side Mailmorda, and Broderike Captain of the strangers. In the yeare 1013, Cnute came again from Denmarke, and1013. landed in Westsex, and spoyled all the Country. Then Edric Io. Cast. with Edmund King Edelreds bastard sonne, gathered an Ar­my, but yet they durst not give him Battell. Then went Ed­mund to Vitred Duke of Northumberland, and together they spoyled Staffordshire, Leycestershire, and Shropshire. Cnute likewise, upon the other side, came downe through Buckin­ghamshire, Bedfordshire, Huntingdonshire, and so by Stafford passed toward Yorke, to whom Vitred came and yeelded him­selfe, yet he lost his life, whose possessions Cnute gave to one Egricke, and made him Duke in his stead, whereupon Edmund went to his Father, which lay sick at London. Then Cnute [Page 106] returned to his ships, and sailed to the Thames mouth, and up the River towards London: but before he came thither, Edelred was departed, after he had reigned with much trou­ble and misery 37 years. After whose death, the Englishmen chose his base sonne Edmund, surnamed Ironside for his strength and hardines in War, to be their King. This Ed­mund went to Westsex, and brought all that Country to his subjection. Then the Danes laid siege to London, and made a great trench about it, that no man could escape out, and gave1 Edmund battell (who came to raise the siege) at Proman by Gillingham, where Edmund had the vpper hand. The se­cond2 battell fought at Caerstan, wherein Edric, Almar andIo. Castor. Matth. West. pag. 498. Algar behaved themselves traiterously against Edmund, where after a long fight the night parted both the Armies. The third battell was at London, where Edmund pursued the3 Danes to their ships, and entred the City triumphantly, and two days after they fought the fourth Battell at Brenford, 4 from whence Edmund bare the honour away: and went to gather a new Army, whiles Cnute did besiege London by Water and Land, but it was manfully defended. Then Ed­mund with his Army passed the Thames at Brenford, and en­tred into Kent, and fought the fift Battell, where the Danes fled as sheep before him, but he staied the pursuit by the wic­ked5 counsell of the Lraitor Edric, whom he had received to mercy & made Steward of the Land; this Battel was fought at Essedowne in Essex, with the whole power of the Danes and Englishmen, there Edmund shewed his prowes, and for­saking his place, which was betwixt the Dragon and theMatth. West. pag, 399 Standard, he entred the Army of his enemies, breaking their thickest rankes, and compelling the proudest of them to turne their backs. Which when Edric saw, fearing the overthrow of the Danes, he cried aloud, Fledd Engle, Fledd Engle, Edmund is Dead: and thereupon fled with his people, all the Army following him, to the great slaughter of the English; there were slaine there Edmund, Alfric, Godwyn, and Ul [...]kettel, allHol. pag. 255. Matth. West. page, 399, Dukes, and all the Chevalry of England. After which victo­ry, Cnute entred London, and was Crowned King of the Land. And Edmund having gathered his Army together they met in Glocestershire, but both Armies fearing one the other [Page 107] were loth to fight, so that they moved the Kings to make an end of this cruell bloudshed by Combat, whereunto both Prin­cesHol. pag. 256. Matt. West. page. 400. Io. Castor. agreed, and the place being appoynted, fought together manfully, and they were both of them found so Ualiant and Worthy men, as few the like. But Cnute fearing the incom­parable strength of Edmund moved him to accord, whereun­to be agreed: Thereupon Peace was concluded with much joy, that Edmund should Keigne in Westsex, and Cnute in Mercia: and so they departed, Cnute to London, and Edmund to Oxford, where he was traiterously murthered by a sonneSim. Dunel. Fabian. Matt. West. pag. 401. of Edric with a sharpe knife, as he was at the Privie. Edric being quickly certifyed of the déed came to Cnute (with much joy) and gréeted him as only King of England, declaring how Edmund was slaine at Oxford. To whom Cnute replied, that for his good service be would reward him, as his deserts re­quired,Matt. West. pag. 402. and set him above all the Nobles of England: There­upon he caused his Head to be cut off forthwith, and to be set upon a Pole, on the highest Lower in London, and then he caused execution to be done upon all the other, that were consenting to the murther. In the yeare 1015 Lhewelyn 1015 the sonne of Sitsylht raised a great power against Aedan, who had by usurpation possessed himselfe of the rule of North­wales, and having slaine him with his foure sonnes in bat­tell (without any respect to Jago (or James) the sonne of Ed­wal the right heire) he took upon himselfe, the name and au­thority of King of Wales. This Lhewelyn was descended from the Kings of Wales by his Mothers side, whose name was Prawst. Trawst, Daughter to Elise, second sonne to Anarawd, the eldest sonne of Roderike the Great: He had to wife An­gharat, the only daughter of Meredyth Prince of Southwales, and so by these means he claimed and enjoyed the right of both Countries, as hereafter shall be declared.

¶ Elystan Glodrydd Prince of Ferlix, or the Country be­tween Wy and Severne, who is reckoned the 4th Royall Tribe of Cambria, reigned about this time. Our Writers stile him al­so Earle of Hereford. Athelstan King of England was his God­father, and gave him his own name at his Baptisme.

Edelstanus eum sacro de fonte levavit,
R. Powel.
Infanti (que) dedit proprium de nomine nomen.

[Page 108]He was the son of Cyhelyn ap Ivor ap Severus ap Cadwr Wenwyn, and so to Casnar Wledig ap Gloyw Wl [...]d lydan (that is, with the large Dominions) the son of Tenantius and Bro­ther of Cynobelinus Kings of Britaine, as Ievan Brechva, who lived in the dayes of Henry the 6th hath left upon record, which also an old MS. in Parchment written about 200 years before his time witnesseth concerning the said Gloyw: But Rich. Powel of Ednop in Shropshire Esq. a Gentleman well seen in the Antiquities of Wales, and lineally descended from the sayd Elystan sayth, Gloyw was the sonne of Arviragus, the sonne of Cynobelinus, and not the son of the Emperour Claudius, as Ieffrey of Monmouth would have it. Our Antiquities say, that the posterity of Casnar Wledig the sonne of Gloyw had their habitations on both sides os Severne, as in Powis, Arustli, Ceri, Cydewen, Radnorshire, being the Lands and Possessions of Ble­thyn ap Convyn, Trahayrn ap Caradoc, Elystan Glodrydd, and of their Ancestors descended from the sayd Casnar: So were also Glocester, Worcester, Ewyas, Erging, and the rest of Herefordshire with Gwerthrynion and Buellt, the Lands of Vortigern King of Britaine, whose Pedegree Gildas Albanius deriveth to the sayd Gloyw thus, Guorthigern map Guorthineu map Guitaul map Guitolin map Glovi. Bonus, Paulus & Mauron fuerunt tres filii Glovi, qui aedificavit Urbem magnam super ripam fluminis Sabrinae, quae vocatur Britannico sermone Caer Glovi, Saxoni­cè Gloucester. But this Glovi cannot be the same with the for­mer Gloyw, unlesse [...]t might so happen that some names have been left out in the Pedigree between Vortigern and Glovi. Al­so wee read in the same Author, that Embrisius (commonly called Ambrosius Aurelianus) King and Monarch of Britaine gave unto Pascen the sonne of Vortigern upon his submission some part of his Fathers inheritance, to wit, Buellt and Gwer­thrynion, which (according to Nennius) he left to his sonne Brin­cat father of Mempric father of Paul father of Eldoc father of Eldat father of Merwydd father of Guevan father of Theudibir King of Buellt father of Fermael King of Gwerthrynion, both which last named lived together as may be gathered out of Ninnius and Samuel Beulan, about the yeare of our Lord 820. But how the forementioned lands came to Elystan and his An­cestors a 100 years after, I have not yet learned. His Mother was Rhieingar the daughter and heire of Grono ap Tuder Tre­vor, [Page 109] of whom mention is made before p. 27, 28.

He quarters these Coates, A. 3 boares heads Cobazed S lan­gued G. tusked Or. And G. a lyon rampant, regardant Or.

Some say Elystan marryed Gwenllian the daughter of Eneon ap Owen ap Howel Dda, by whom he had Cadwgan, the Ance­stor of many worthy Families.

Families descended from Elystan Glodrydd.

The Pryces of Newtowne, Owens of Rhiwsaeson, the Lloyds, Williamses and others in Mountgomeryshire, some Gentlemen in Shropshire, most of the Gentry of Radnorshire, and very many in other parts of Southwales, whose names I have not. Sir Wil­liam Thomas of Aber in Carnarvonshire Kt, Granchild to Sir William Thomas of Llangathan in Carmarthenshire Kt, descen­ded from Elystan. Lewis Owen of Penyarth in Merionethshire Esq. a Learned, accomplished Gentleman comes also from him, so Hugh ap Iohn ap Hugh of Llanvendiged.

The Pedegree of the Prices of Newtowne.

Sir Matthew Price Baronet, sonne of Sir Iohn Price Baronet, who was the son of Edward the eldest son of Iohn Price the el­dest son of Matthew Gôch the eldest son of Thomas Price of New­town, which Thomas was 2d son to Rees ap David Lloyd (Esquire of the body to K. Edw. 4. and slain at Banbury) ap David ap E­neon ap Howel ap Tuder ap Eneon Vychan ap Eneon or graig ap Ievaf ap Grono ap Ivor ap Idnerth ap Cadwgan ap Elystan Glo­drydd. Iohn Price of Parke Esq. is descended from Matthew 2d son to the foresayd Iohn Price. Arthur Price of Vaenor was 2d son to Matthew Gôch; He married a Daughter of the Earle of Bath, & had by her Edward Price & Iohn Price of Llinwént. The said Edward married a daughter of Dr Nic: Robinson Bp. of Bangor, by whom he had Arthur Price Esq. whose daughter & Heire by Mary daughter to Owen Vaughan of Llwydiarth Esq. marryed George Devereux Esq. eldest son to Sir George Devereux of Sheldon in Warwickeshire Kt, by whom she had Price D'eve­reux Esq. and other Children. Oliver the 2d son of the forena­med Thomas Price had Neuadd wen, from whom are descended the Bolvirs of Llanyrvil. From Meredyth the eldest son of Rees ap David Lloyd comes Price of Keri.

The Paternall Coate of the Prices of Newtowne and Vaenor. Quarterly 1. A. 3 boares heads cooped S. langued G. tusked Or, 2. G. a lyon rampant regardant Or. the 3d as the 2d, the 4th as the 1st.

Lhevvelyn ap Sitsyllt: and Angharad his wife the only Daughter of Meredyth.

AFter that Lhewelyn the son of Sitsylht had taken in­to his hands the gouernment of Wales, all things prospered: the earth brought forth double to the time before passed, the people prospered in all their affaires, and multiplied wonderfully, the cattell encreased in great number, so that there was neither begger nor poore man from the South to the North sea, but euery man had plenty, euery house a dweller, and euery towne inhabitants. Now in this time Cnute married Emme sometimes wife to Edelred, and mother to Alfred and Edward, and sent Edmund and Edward the sonnes of Edmund Ironside to Hungary to be slaine, but the King of Hungary cherished them as his ownRan. Cest. lib. 6. cap. 18, children. King Cnute also levied upon the land a great subsi­dy of 72000 pounds, besides 11000 pounds, which the Citi­zens of London payd. In the yeare 1019 Meyric the sonne1019 of Arthpoel raised a great Army against Lhewelyn King or Prince of Wales, who met him in the Field, manfully slue him, and discomfited his people. Also this yeare Cnute with a great Navy sailed to Denmarke, and made warre againstRan. Cest. ib. the Vandals, who had a great Army in the field, which Cnute overthrew by the prowes of Earle Godwyn, and the English­men, which made him love them the better ever after.

In the yeare 1020, a certain Scot of low birth came to1020 Southwales, who naming himselfe Run the sonne of Meredyth their late King, was by the Nobility, which loved not Lhew­elyn, exalted to the Regall Throne, and taken for their King; which when Lhewelyn heard, he gathered his power in [Page 111] Northwales, and advanced towards Run, who had gotten all the strength of Southwales together at Abergwili, where with great pride he abode the coming of Lhewelyn. But when both Armies were ready to joyne, Run full of brags and crakes encouraged his people to fight, promising them the vi­ctory: yet he himselfe (following the Proverb, which biddeth a man to set on his dog, and not to run after him) set on his people to fight it to the uttermost, and withdrew himselfe pri­vily out of the way: whereas upon the contrary part, Lhewe­lyn, like a bold and couragious Prince, came before his peo­ple, calling for the vile Scot Run, that durst so bely a Princes bloud; so both the Armies joyned Battell with much malice and hatred, the one party was not so couragious to defend the quarrell of so worthy a Prince of their own bloud, as the o­ther was obstinate in the cause of a stranger: in the end, after great slaughter upon either part, the Northwales men re­membring their old victories, and encouraged by the prowes of their Prince, put their enemies to flight, and pursued Run so narrowly, that all his Scottish shifts could not save his life, and so returned home with great spoyle and prey. Then Lhewelyn ruled all the land quietly, but the year following be was slaine by Howel and Meredyth the sonnes of Edwyn, leaving behind him a sonne named Gruffyth ap Lhewelyn.

¶ It is not recorded in History, of what Stock or Linage Lhewelyn ap Sitsyllt Paternally descended, nor have we in a­ny of our Books his Coat of Armes, or the Coat of his sonne Prince Griffith ap Llewelyn. The house and land of the sayd Llewelyn and his sonne Griffith being at Ruthlan (which was a part of that Country Anarawd gave to the Northerne Britons of Cumbria in England, and Stratclwyd in Scotland to inhabite) it is probable they might be descended from one of those No­ble strangers that seated themselves there; Possibly the interest and Relations Sitsylt (Llewelyns Father) had in Cumberland might induce Edmund King of England to make use of his as­sistance, when he marched with an Army against Dunmail King of Cumbria. Of Ednowen Bendew.

Ednowain Bendew Lord of Tegaingl, one of the 15 Tribes of Gwyneth, lived A. D. 1015 in the time of Prince Llewelyn ap Sitsyllt according to Mr Powel of Ednop's verses, but in a book [Page 112] cited by Peter Ellis, wherein it is sayd he was the Chiefest of the 15 Tribe [...], we may find that he lived after, in the yeare 1079. His Armes, A. a Cheveron S. between three Boares heads Cooped.

Ednowen Bendew Capitonem voce Britannâ
Ric. Powel.
Innuit, Hic pat [...]ios vastantem funditus agros
Horrendum setis & acutis dentibus Aprum
Fortitèr occidit, quare huic argenteo in agro
A [...]ra trium capita aprorum curvamine nigro:
Tota Bithelorum domus hâc de stripe resurgit,
Ille Leolino vixit regnante Sisillo.

Rotpert ap Iorwerth ap Ririd of Coedymynydd, who was a man of great power, and lived in the dayes of Edw. I. as appears by the Records of the Exchequer of Chester, descended from him. Rotpert had a Brother called Madoc, that was Bishop of Ban­gor, and is not mentioned in Bishop Godwins History of Bishops. There is to be seen an Ode in praise of this Rotpert composedIo. Iones of Flint. by a Bard of those times. Ithel the sonne of Rotpert was a Lear­ned man, and Archdeacon of Tegaingl in the dayes of Edw. the 3d. The Bithels of Flintshire, and other worthy Families (which may be known by their Armes) come from this Tribe.

A. D. 1021 after the death of Llewelyn ap Seisyllt, Rytherch ap Iestyn King of Glamorgan obtained of King Cnute the rule of Southwales, as Caradoc hath it, but the Book of Landaffe sayth, of all Wales, Totius Gwaliae exceptâ tantum Insulâ Evoniae quam Jacob filius Idgwal per se tenebat: Riderch dico virum pacificum & mansuetum omnibus totius Regni tam Clericis quam Laicis, Viduis & Orphanis jura sua & haereditates divinâ lege & huma­nâ concedentem, & maximè Ecclesiae Dei & gubernatoribus ejus, Episcopis videlicet, & omnibus de inferioribus gradibus. In cu­jus tempore nulla desolatio in montibus nec in plano, nisi tantum tribus villis per totam Gualiam in solitario &c.

Tho: Maelor (if he be the Author of the Card of the Pe­degree of the Princes of Powis) writes thus, Blethyn ap Convyn ap Llewelyn ap Griffith ap Seissyllt ap Trahayrn ap Anarawd Prince of Powis, where he makes Trahayrn to be the Father of Seissyllt, which is a grosse mistake, there being herein never a true descent save that Blethyu was the son of Convyn.

Iago the Sonne of Edwal ap Meyric ap Edwal Voel.

After the death of Lhewelyn, Jago or James the son of Edwal took upon him the rule of Northwales as right Heire thereof. And Rytherch the sonne of Jestyn governed Southwales by strong hand. Cnute King of England about this time made a voyage toRan. Cest. lib. 6. Denmarke and Swethen, against Ulf aud Alaf, who had stirred up the Finlanders against him, he had a cruel fight with them, lost a great number of his Army, as well Englishmen as Danes; and after his returne to England, he made his jour­ney to Rome in great pompe and glory, not because heIo. Cast. thought by that journey to be clensed from his sinnes, but that his ambitious mind might have the praise and fame of the World, for his rich gifts and Princely behaviour, and what holinesse be learned there, it appeared at his returne. For forthwith be entred Scotland with a great Army, a­gainst Malcolme the Prince thereof, who desired Peace, and became his Subject, wi [...]h two other Kings of the Orkneys, and Ewyst, Molbeath and Je [...]mare.

About the yeare 1031 the Irish-Scots entred South­wales, 1031 by the means of Howel and Meredyth, the sonnes ofTwo more, Vchtrid & Owen. Edwyn ap Eneon ap Owen ap Howel Dha, who hired them a­gainst Rytherch ap Jestyn, whom they discomfited and slew, and by that means attained unto the governement of South­wales, which they two ruled joyntly, but yet with small quietnesse, for theRees. Griffith. sonnes of Rytherch gathered a number of such as were their Fathers friends to revenge his death, with whom Howel and Meredyth met at Hyarthwy, and af­ter a long dispute put them to f [...]ight. But the yeare follow­ing, Meredyth was slaine by the sonnes of Conan the sonne of Sitsylht, Brother to the worthy Prince Lhewe­lyn, to revenge their Fathers death, whom Meredyth and [Page 114] his brother had slaine. The yeare next ensuing, certain Eng­lishmen entred the land of Gwent, with whom Caradoc the son of Rytherch ap Jestyn fought, and was by them slaine. Not long after died Cnute the most Powerfull and famousH. Hunt. Io. Castor. Matth. West. Ran. Cest. li. 6 Alb. Crantz. Prince in the West Parts of the World, as he that had under his Dominion, the great Country of Swethen, from Germa­ny to the North pole, with Norway and Denmarke, and all the Noble Ile of Brytaine. After him Haroald Harfote his son begotten upon Alwyn the Daughter of Duke Alselyn, was Created King. For Hardi Cnute his other sonne by Em­ma was then in Denmarke. This Haroald in the first year of his Reigne banished Emma his stepmother out of the Realme.

In the yeare 1037 Gruffyth (the son of Lhewelyn ap Sit­syllt 1037 sometimes King of Wales,) raised a great number of peo­ple against Jago then enjoying the Principality or Kingdome of Northwales, whom Jago likewise provided for, as well as he could: but the greater part and the better Souldiers were of Gruffyths side, for the love they bare to his Father, which afterward well appeared: for after the Armies once met, Jago was soon overthrown and slaine. This Jago left behind him a sonne called Conan, by his Wife Avandred Daughter [...]o Gweir the sonne of Pylh.

¶ A. D. 1022. One Ioseph was made Bishop of Landaff, whose1022 election was ratified by the aforesaid Prince Rytherch, who, as we have it in the said book of Landaff, confirmed also the Lands and Churches belonging to that Sea.

In the old British Text thus we read, Un mlynedd ar ddêg ar ugain a mil oedd oed Crist pan laddawddyr Yscotiaid Rydderch ap Iestyn, a Iago vab Idwal a gynhelis teyrnas Wy­nedd, a meibion Edwin, Howel a Meredydd agynhalasant deyr­nas y Deheu. Hence it may seeme, Iago had but the Isle of Môn only in his possession, untill the death of Rytherch. About the year of Christ 1034 Morgynnith a Bishop dyed.

Gruffyth the Sonne of Lhewelyn ap Sitsylht and Angharat.

GRuffyth ap Lhewelyn, after he had slain Jago gover­ned Northwales, and worthily in all things, fol­lowing his Fathers steps, who overcame both the Danes and the English diverse times, and defended his Country and People manfully all his Reigne. In the first yeare of his Government he fought with the English and Danes at Crosford upon Seaverne, and put them to flight, and from thence he led his Army to Lhanpadarn vawr in Caerdi­gan shire, and destroyed it utterly, and from thence passed all Southwales throughout, and received the people to his sub­jection. For Howel ap Edwyn their King fled before his face, and forsook the Land.

⚜ This Howel procured Edwin the Brother of Leofrike EarleHol. pag. 272. of Chester or Mercia, to come with an Army of Englishmen and Danes to his aid against Prince Gruffyth, who met his enemies in the field, and overcame them, and slue the said Edwyn, but How­el escaped by flight. After which victory Gruffyth made sundryMatt. West. invasions into the Marches towards Hereford, and always retur­ned with great spoyles.

When Gruffyth had brought all Wales under his Domini­on, he returned to Northwales again. The yeare insuing, 1038 Herman Archbishop of Menevia or S. Davids died, a1038. man both learned and Godly. The year next following, How­el King of Southwales gathered a great power of his friends and strangers, and entred the Land, intending to recover it againe. Wherefore Gruffyth like a worthy Prince, came with all speed to succour his people, and meeting with Howel at Pencadair, after he had encouraged his Souldiers, gave [Page 116] him Battell, and overthrew him, and pursued him so nar­rowly, that he took Howels wife, whom he had brought to the field to see the overthrow of Gruffyth, but it fell out o­therwise, and Gruffyth liked her so well that he kept her for his Concubine.

About this time, Haroald King of England dyed, and his brother Hardy cnute Reigned in his stead, a Noble and a libe­rall Prince, who (as it is reported) caused his Lables to beH. Hunt. covered and furnished four times every day, for strangers and all comers, and after he had Reigned two years, he dyed at Lambeth in the floure of his age. After his death, the Eng­lish Matt: West. Sim. Dunel. sent for Alfred the eldest son of Edelred from Normandy, but that message pleased not Earle Godwyn, who was the most potent man in the Land, because he knew the young Prince to be Couragious and stout, and therefore one that would not suffer him to rule the Land as he intended to doe. Therefore he perswaded the People that Alfred, who had come well accompanied with Normans, had promised them the whole rule of the Land, thereupon they took all the Nor­mans and bound them, and afterward tithed them, putting e­very tenth man to death. And yet they thought there were two many, wherefore they tithed them the second time, and led Alfred from Gilford (where this cruelty was committed) to Gillingham, and there put out his eyes, and removed him from thence to Ely where he was pitifully murthered. Af­terward they sent for Edward the younger sonne, whom they received as King the year following, after that he had married Godwyns daughter, He in the first year of his Reign banished Earle Swayne, sonne to the said Earle Godwyn, who was received of the Earle of Flanders. In the yeare 1041 Howel came againe to South wales, and remained1041 there a while: and shortly after a number of strangers landed in West wales and spoyled the Country, against whom Howel The Battell of Pwll Deuach. gathered a number of People, and fought with them, and drove them to their ships with much losle.

At this time Conan the sonne of Jago (who had fled to Ire­land to save his life) with the power of Alfred or Auloedd King of Develyn, whose daughter Ranulph or Ranull [...] he had married, entred North wales, and by Treason had taken Gruf­fyth [Page 117] the King, and carried him towards the ships: but when it was known, the Country upon the sudden followed the I­rishmen, and overtaking them rescued their Prince, and pur­sued their enemies (with much slaughter) to their ships, who returned streight with Conan to Ireland. The yeare follow­ing, Howel the sonne of Owen Lord of Glamorgan dyed, being a man full of years. Then Howel ap Edwyn called to his succour Danes and Englishmen, with all the power he could make in South wales. Whereof Gruffyth being certified, ga­thered his power together in North wales, and came on cou­ragiously to meet his enemies, (whom he had twice before discomfited) and overcame them, and chased them, as farre as the spring of the river Towy, where after a long and dange­rous battell Howel was slaine, and his Army discomfited, and so narrowly pursued, that few escaped alive. After his death Rytherch and Rees the sons of Rytherch ap Jestyn aspiringHol. pag. 2 [...]0. Matt. West. again to the rule and government of South wales, which their father had once got, gathered a great Army, as well of stran­gers, as out of Gwentland and Glamorgan, and met with Gruffyth King of Wales [...], who after his accustomed manner loosing no time, but couragiously animating his men with the remembrance of their former fortune and Uictories under his Standard, joyned Battell with his enemies, whom he found disposed to abide, and to regaine the honour which be­fore they had lost: when they met, the fight was cruel and bloudy, and continued till night, which easily parted both Ar­mies being weary with fighting, And either fearing other re­turned to their Countries, to gather more strength. This year Joseph Bishop of Teilo or Landaf dyed at Rome. The Land being thus quieted, Gruffyth ruled all Wales without any trouble: till about two years after, the Gentlemen of Ystrad Towy did by treason kill 140 of the Princes best Souldiers, to revenge whose death King Gruffyth destroyed all Dyvet & Ystrad Towy. It is also to be noted here, that such snow fell this year, that it lay upon the earth from the Kalends af January, to the 14 of March. About this time, Lothen and Hyrling landed at Sandwich with a great number of Danes, and after they had spoyled the Towne, they returned to their ships, and sailed to Flanders, and sold their booties, and [Page 118] so sailed to their Conntry. At this time also Earle Swayne returned to England, and came to his Fathers house at Pe­venese, and humbly besought his Father, and his Brethren Haroald and Tosty, to procure him the Kings Favour. So Earle Beorned promised to intreat the King for him, and went with Swayne to his ships, where he was traiterously murthered, and his body left upon the shore, untill his friends, being certifyed of the same, fetched him away, and buried him at Winchester, where his Uncle King Cnute had been buried before. Swayne having committed this wicked fact, sailed againe to Flanders, and continued there, till his father made peace with the King, and brought him in favour againe about a yeare after.

In the yeare 1050 Conan the sonne of Jago did gather1050 an Army of his friends in Ireland, minding to recover his inheritance againe, and as he sailed towards Wales, there a­rose such a tempest, that it scattered his Navy abroad, and drowned most of his ships, so that he was disappointed of his purpose, and quite lost his labour. Shortly after, Robert Archbishop of Canterbury accused Earle Godwyn and his sonnes, Swayne and Haroald of Treason, and the Queene of Adultery, who because they refused to appeare, being called before the King, were banished the Land, and the Queene put away from the King, whereupon Godwyn with Swayne fled to Flanders, and Haroald to Ireland.

Eustace Earle of Bologne, the Father of Godfrey, havingWil. Malms. Hol. pag. 270. and 271. marryed Goda King Edwards sister, the widow of Walter de Maunt, came to England to his brother in Law, and as he was re­turning home againe one of his servants killed a man at Canter­bury (or at Dover, as Matth. Westm. hath it) whereof grew greatMatt, West. pag. 419. inconveniency and slaughter on both sides: whereupon Eustace re­turning again, made a grievous complaint to King Edward a­gainst the Kentishmen, whose part Earle Godwyn took, because they were of his County. But Eustace by the suggestion of Robert Archbishop of Canterbury (who hated Godwyn and his sonnes)Matt. Park. so incensed King Edward against him and the Kentishmen, that Godwyn and his sonnes were sent for, to answer the matter before the King at Glocester, Whereupon Godwyn fearing the Kings displeasure (who could never brooke him sithence the death of his [Page 119] brother Alfred) gathered an Army out of Kent and the Countrys where his sonnes ruled, and so came towards Glocester, reporting abroad, that all this preparation was made to resist Gruffyth Prince of Wales, who (as they affirmed) was ready with an army to invade the Marches. King Edward being certifyed by the Welshmen, that there was no such thing in hand, commanded Godwyn to send backe his army, and to come in person to answer, according to the order of law. Which when he refused to doe, the King by the aduise of Earle Leofrike appointed a Parliament and meeting at London, to take order in these matters, Where the King came with a great army out of Mercia and other westerne countrys Then Godwyn remaining with his army in Southwerke, and perceiuing how that divers of his friends disappointed him, and other daily forsook him and went to the Kings part, despairing to be able to withst and the Kings proceedings against him, conveyed himselfe away priuily with his sonnes, and fled out of the land. Wherevpon King Edward proclamed him and his sonnes Outlaw [...]s, confiscated their goods, and gaue their lands to other of his nobility.

Then the King gaue to Adonan the Earldome of Devon­shire and Dorsetshire, and to Algar sonne of Earle Leofrick the earldome of Haroald. Neuerthelesse Godwyn and Swayne got men and ships in Flanders, and sailed to the Ile of Wight, which they spoiled, as they also did Portland. At the same time Haroald coming from Ireland, and wafting alongst the shoare, spoiling the country as he went, at length met with his father & brother, who being together burned Pevensey, Romney Heath, Folkston, Douer, and Sandwich, & entring the Thames destroyed Sheppey, & burned the Kings houses at Middltowne, and afterward sailed vp towards London, where by the way they met with the King, and so sailed with him, & when they were even ready to fight, an accord was made by means of Bi­shop Stigand, in such sort that the King restored them their lands and goods, tooke home the Queene, and banished the Archbishop with all the Frenchmen, which had put that su­spicion in the Kings head.

Mat. Westm. writeth, that about this time, to wit, An. 1053.1053Rees the brother of Gruffyth King of Wales was slaine in a place called Bulendune, whose head was presented to King Edward, theMatt▪ West. page. 420. day before the Epiphany, the King being then at Glocester.

[Page 120]A little after that, Oswald Earle of Northumberland, when he heard that his sonne was slaine in Scotland, whither he had sent him with Forces to Conquer it, asked whether his deaths wound was in his brest or in his back; and they saying, in his brest, he answered, I am right glad thereof, for I would not wish me nor my sonne to dye otherwise▪ Then King Edward entred Scotland, and overcame the King in Battell, and subdued the whole Land to himselfe. The yeare following, Earle Godwyn dyed at the Kings table, choaked with a piece of Bread, whose Earledome Haroald his sonne had, and Algar Earle of Chester had the Earledome of Haroald.

⚜ About this time Makbeth King of Scotland caused a NobleHector Boet. lib. 12. cap. 5. man of his (named Bancho) to be cruelly murthered, whereupon Fleance the sonne of the sayd Bancho escaping the hands of Mak­beth, fled to Gruffyth ap Lhewelyn Prince of Wales, where beingBuchan. li. 7. page. 62. joyfully received & entertained courteously, he grew into such favor with the sayd Prince, that nothing was thought too good for him. But in processe of time Fleance forgetting the curtesy to him shewed,Hol. pag. 247. fell in love with the Princes daughter, and got her with child. Which thing the Prince tooke in so ill part, that he in a rage caused Fleance to be kild, holding his daughter in most ▪vile estate of servitude, for so suffering her selfe to be defloured by a stranger. At length she was deliuered of a sonne, which was named Walter, who in few yeares proved a man of great courage and valiancy, in whom from his childhood appeared a certaine noblenes of mind, ready to attempt any great enterprise. This Walter on a time fell out with one of his companions, who in that heat of contention obje­cted vnto him, that he was but a bastard, Which reproach so grieved Walter, that he fell vpon the other, and slew him; wherevpon fear­ing the punishment of the law, he fled into Scotland, where he fell into the company of those Englishmen which were come thither with Queene Margaret the sister of Edgar Edeling, amongst whom he shewed himself so discreet and sober in all his demeanor, that he was highly esteemed of all men: and so attaining to higher reputa­tion and credit, was afterward employed in the affaires of the Common wealth, and at length made Lord Steward of Scotland, receiuing the Kings revenues of the whole Realme. From which office he and his posterity reteined that surname of Steward ever [Page 121] after. The most Noble Kings of Scotland of the Family of Stew­ards, besides many other Dukes, Marquesses, Earles, and Barons of Great Fame and Renowne, descended from him.

Also at this time, Siward that worthy Earle of Northum­berland, being brought to the point of death with the bloudy flux, be wailed his mischance, that he had escaped in many a dangerous Battell, and now should dye such a filthy and cowardly death, and calling his friends and his men about him, commanded them to set him in his chaire, to Arme him at all points, & to put his shield in the left hand, & so he made an end of his worthy life. His Earledome, because his Sonne was within years, was given to Tosty Godwyns sonne.

In the yeare 1054 Gruffyth the sonne of Rytherch ap Je­styn, 1054. did gather a great number, as well strangers as others, against Gruffyth ap Lhewelyn King or Prince of Wales, but commonly called King of Northwales: who protracting no time, met him, fought with him, and slew him. Shortly af­ter, Algar Earle of Chester, being convicted of Treason a­gainstMat. We [...]. pag. 421. the King, fled to Gruffyth King or Prince of Wales, who gathered his power to revenge the often wrongs, which he had received at the Englishmens hands, who succoured ever his enemies against him. Therefore he together withHol. p. 272 & [...] 22. Octob. Algar entred Herefordshire, and spoyled with fire and sword all the way to the City, whither all the People had fled, andMatt. West. pag. 422. Io. Castor. This Ran­dulph was K. Edwards ne­phew, by his sister God a the Wife of Walter de Maunt. Eo tempore religiosus vir Tr [...]merin Walonicus Antistes deces­sit. Sim. Du­nelm. they boldly issued forth (Earle Randulph being their leader) and gave him Battell, which Gruffyth wished for above any other thing, as He that had wonne five set fields; and coura­giously receiving his enemies, fought with them. Which fight was long and doubtfull, till such time as Gruffyth en­couraged his people with the remembrance of the Prowesse and worthy acts of the ancient Brytains their Forefathers, say­ing that they were the same Enemies, whose backs they had so oftentimes seen before: which doubled their strength and force, and so they pressed forwards, that their foes were com­pelled to forsake the field and trust to their feet, where their hands prevailed not, and thought to have taken the Towne for their defence: But Gruffyth and his men pursued them so hard, that they entred in with them, & after a great slaugh­ter [Page 122] returned home with many worthy Prisoners, great tri­umph, and rich spoyles, leaving nothing in the Towne, but bloud and ashes, and the walls rased to the ground.

⚜ There be some which affirme, that King Edward by evillHol. pag. 276. Io. Castor. counsell (as it is thought) banished Algar the son of Earle Leofrike, whereupon he gat him into Ireland, and there providing XVIII ships of rovers, returned and joyned himselfe with Gruffyth King or Prince of Wales, who both together invaded the Ceuntry of Mer­cia, about Hereford, where Ranulph Earle of that Country (whoMatt. West. page. 423. St. Dunelm. was sonne to King Edwards sister named Goda, by her first hus­band Walter de Maunt) came against them with a great Army, and met them about two miles from Hereford, where after a sore fight by the space of three houres, Ranulph and his Army were dis­comfited, and about 500 of them slaine, and the rest put to flight, whom Gruffyth and Algar pursued to Hereford, and entring the Towne, set the Cathedrall Church on fire, and slue the Bishop na­med Leogar,, with seven of the Canons, spoiled and burned the Towne miserably. Whereupon, King Edward being advertised hereof, gathered an Army, & sent Haroald the son of Earle God­wyn against them, who pursuing the enemies to Northwales, pas­sed through Stradclwyd to Snowdon: but Gruffyth and Algar being afraid to meet Haroald, got them again to Southwales, whereof Haroald being advertised, left one part of his Army in Northwales, to resist the enemies there, and returning with the residue to Hereford, caused a great Trench to be cast round about the Towne, with a high Rampire strongly fortifying the Gates of the same. After this, by means of a parle had with Gruffyth and Algar, at a place called Biligelhag, a peace was concluded, whereupon Algar being pardoned by the King, and restored again to his Earledome, returned home to Chester. About two years af­ter, Algar was accused againe of treason, so that he was the se­cond time exiled the Land, and repaired to his old friend Gruf­fyth Io. Cast. Hol. pag. 277. Prince of Northwales, by whom he was received joyfully, and restored again to his Earledome by the aid of certain strangers, which came by chance from Norway. Whereupon King Edward being sore offended with Gruffyth, sent Haroald again with pow­er to Northwales, to be revenged upon him, who coming to Ruthlan, burned the Palace of Gruffyth, and his ships, and then returned back to the King at Glocester.

[Page 123]About this time, Edward the sonne of Edmund Ironfide, came to England with his Wife and Children, Edgar Ede­ling (which signifieth in the Brytish tongue, a young Lord or Prince) and Margaret, which was afterwards Queene of Scots, and mother to Mawd, wife to Henry the first King of England. About two years after came Roderike, sonne to Haroald King of Denmarke, with a great Army to Wales, Mat. West. where being friendly received by King Gruffyth, and joyning his power to Gruffyths, entred England, and cruelly spoyled and burned a great part of the land. But shortly after, Ro­derike was compelled to returne to his ships, and to saile to Denmarke, and Gruffyth returned home with spoyles.

This yeare, as Haroald Godwyns sonne would have sailedMat. Park. Mat. West. to Flanders, he was driven by force of a tempest to land in Poytiers, where he was taken, and conveyed to William Ba­stard, Duke of Normandy, to whom Haroald declared his journey thither, to be only to offer him service in the affaires of England, and took a solemne oath, first to marry the Dukes daughter, and after the death of Edward to reserve the Crowne to the Dukes use. Then shortly after receiving rich gifts, with much honour he returned to England. This yeare dyed Owen the sonne of Gruffyth ap Rytherch, and Joseph Bishop of Menevia. Also Haroald and his brother To­sty, by the procurement of Caradoc ap Gruffyth ap Rytherch, Mat. West. pag. 427. and others, gathered a great power, and entred Southwales, and subdued a great part thereof, and wrought so with those that were about Gruffyth the King, that as soon as he had gathered his people in Northwales, and took his journey to meet with Haroald, he was cruelly and traiterously slaine by his own men, and his head brought to Haroald: who appoin­ted and placed Meredyth the sonne of Owen ap Edwyn, Prince and Ruler in Southwales, and then he and his Bro­ther Tosty returned home.

⚜ Some doe report, that Haroald, about the Rogation weeke by the Kings commandment, went against the Welshmen, and ta­king the sea, sailed by Bristow, round about the coast, compassing in a manner all Wales. His brother Tosty, that was Earle of Northumberland, met him by appointment with an Host of Horsemen, and so joyning together, they destroyed the Country of [Page 124] Southwales, in such sort, that the Welshmen were compelled to submit themselves to deliver hostages, and engage to pay the anci­ent Tribute which before they had payd. The people of that Coun­try, because Groffyth their Prince fled at the coming of Haroald, leaving them to be a prey to the enemy, hated him sore, and slue him when he returned to them againe, and sent his head to Haroald, which he sent to the King. After whose death, King Edward granted the Principality of Northwales toSimon of Durham call­eth them Blechgentus & Ritowala­ [...]us. Blethyn & Rywal­hon the sonnes of Convyn, brethren to Gruffyth by the Mothers side, who did homage unto him for the same.

This Gruffyth ap Lhewelyn governed Wales 26. 34 years va­liantly and Worthily, be never fought but he bare away the victory, he was gentle to his Subjects, and cruell to his foes, loved of the one, and feared of the other: liberall to stran­gers, costly in apparell, and Princely in all his doings, and unworthy of that cruell death, that the ambitious desire of Rule did provoke his unkind Subjects and unnaturall Cou­sens, to prepare for so Noble a Prince, and so gentle a Ma­ster as he was.

¶ In the yeare of our Lord 1061 Prince Griffith ap Llewelyn was murthered, and Ioseph Bishop of Menevia dyed; but the English writers say, he was not slaine till A. D. 1064. I have an ancient Chronology, which sayth that there were from Grif­fiths death to William the Conqueror's coming to England (which was A. D. 1066) five years, from the Conquest to the death of Blethyn ap Convyn 7 years, and from Blethyns death to the battell in Mynydd Carno (where Trahayrn was slain) six years. He left two sons Meredith and Ithel.

A. D. 1053 Griffini Regis Australium Walensium, Res nomine, propter frequentes pra das quas egit, in loco qui Bulendun di­citur jussu Regis Edwardi occiditur. Simeon Dunelmensis saith that Leofegarius Harold's Chaplaine succeeded Ethelstan in the See of Hereford, and that in the very same yeare the XVI of the Calends of Iuly he was slain by Griffith King of Wales at a place called Glastbyrig, with his Clergy, cum Clericis suis & Vice­comite Agelnotho & multis aliis.

Our Author Caradoc Lancarvan: sayth that Ioseph Bishop of Landaff dyed A. D. 1043, but Bishop Godwyn saith it was three years after, 1046: he dyed in his way to Rome in the 24 yeare of his Bishoprick, as it is in the Book of Landaffe.

[Page 125]About the yeare 1051 Marbodus evanc a Priest of Wales was made Bishop of Redon in little Britaine. Bal.

Herewald who succeeded Ioseph next in the See of Landaffe, was, as Bishop Godwyn saith, consecrated A. D. 1056 by Sti­gand Arch-Bishop of Canterbury, but the Book of Landaffe gives another name to the Arch Bishop that Consecrated him, for it is thus recorded therein, Confirmata illius consecratio à summo Archiepiscopo Cynisi & aliis Angliae plurimis Episcopis Canonicè consummata est. By (Cynisi) must be understood ei­ther Eadsin then Arch Bishop of Canterbury, or else Kinsius Arch-Bishop of Yorke, of whom Ingulfus Abbot of Croyland writes that he dyed A. D. 1060. As touching the Synod Bishop Godwyn saith was held at London A. D. 1056, Chronicon Lan­dav. saith it was held A. D. 1059. The election of Herewald was confirmed by Prince Griffith ap Llewelyn, ab invicto Rege Grifido Monarchâ Britonum praepollente, as saith the Book of Landaffe, wherein we have also set downe this following Charter.

Pater & filius & spiritus Sanctus tres in personis, unus in Dei­tare & essentiâ, Creator & Gubernator totius Creaturae, visibilis & invisibilis, & super omnia formavit hominem ad imaginem & ad similitudinem suam, dividens singula prout vult, & cui omnia serviunt impraesentiarum quibusd [...] tribuens Regna & Potesta­tes, quibusdam modicas paupertates cum septiformi dono sapien­tiae & intellectus, consilii & fortitudinis, scientiae & pietatis & timoris inspiravit cor lapideum ingruente quadam infirmitate corporis Grifudi Regis Britanniae, & (ut sic dicam) totius Gua­liae de fine ad finem & calefactum sancti spiritus fervore. Videns igitur Rex quod potestas ejus sicut flos foeni & caro ut cinis conatus est pro transitoriâ substantiâ conquirere Regnum floridum sine casurâ & coeleste gaudium sine maerore & tristitiâ, semotâ omni penuriâ, semetipsum tribuens sub jugo Paenitentiae, & penitens [...]e­cisse quae fecerat contra Divina praecepta promisit se emendaturum jejunio & oratione & eleemosynâ cum diversis metallis preciosis largitis ab illo, Deo, egenis, Viduis & Orphanis, & non degene­rans à praedecessorum nobilitate, pietate & largitate, imò imitans & praecellens rigore & fortitudine tum contrà barbaros Anglos ex unâ parte semper fugitivos visâ facie sua in acie belli, tum con­tra Hibernienses occidentales & semper fugaces, tum contra indi­genas [Page 126] solito more bellicosas, tunc contra Danaos marinos tum con­tra insularum Orcadum habitatores, & semper versis dorsis in fugam, & firmato faedere ad libitum suum pacificatos: clamavit omnia territoria Landaviae Ecclesiae Petri Apostoli & sanctorum confessorum Dubricii, Teliavi, & Oudocei de omni Parochia ejusdem ab hostio Taratir super ripam Gui usque ad ripam Tywi Tiu­gui, & insuper terras ejusdem Lan Teliau maur, videlicet & Pennalun cum multis aliis Ecclesiis & telluribus suis omnibus, & cum illis in Breheniauc pluribus, ut in cirografo demonstratur, quae habentur extra diocesim in Episcopatu sc: Deuui, & cum toto privilegio ut melius fuit tempore praedecessorum suorum quie­ta & tranquilla ab omni regali servitio nisi tantum oratione coti­diana pro animabus Regum & Principum Britanniae, & firmata missis manibus super quatuor Evangelia, & in manu Heruvaldi Episcopi consolidata & coram omni populo suo in die Nativitatis Domini apud Ystumgwy▪ & oblata vill [...] Penrhos in manu E­piscopi & omnibus praesulibus Landaviae in perpetuo. De clericis testes sunt Herwaldus Episcopus, Mormarch, Merchbui, Tut­nerth, Canonici Landaviae. Benedictus lector. Jovanaul, Novis, Elinvi, Einon, Judhail presbiteri, Tathui, Abraham Archidia­conus Guenti. De Laicis rex Grifud, Margetud filius ejus. Cara­tauc filius Riguallaun, Byrguith, Judhail filius Teudus, Eidni­vet fuedlid. Berdicgwent, Caratauc filius Gulbrit, & cum da­ta communione omnibus incolis terrarum Ecclesiae per totum reg­num suum in campo & in silvis, in aqua & pascuis.

Of Edwin ap Grono.

Edwin ap Grono commonly called King of Tegaingl (which is now part of Flintshire) was one of the 15 Tribes of Gwy­neth. His Armes, A. a Crosse ingrailed flowry S. between 4 Cornish Crows proper.

Argento gerit Edwinus Tegenius atram
Florentemq, Crucem nodosam quatuor inter
Cornices, rostris pariter pedibus (que) cruentis,
Regis Griffini Leolini tempore vixit.

He lived in the time of Griffith ap Llewelyn A. D. 1041. He had a sonnne called Owen, whose daughter Angharad was wife to Griffith ap Conan King of Gwyneth. Many good Families in the Counties of Flint, Denbigh, and elsewhere are descended from him. The Right Reverend Father in God D. William [Page 127] Roberts Lord Bishop of Bangor (who was Consecrated A. D. 1637. and now living) derives himselfe lineally from him.

Also hee was Auncestor to that Famous Scholar and Lawyer Thomas Owen one of the Judges of England, and Father to Sr. Roger Owen of Condover neare Salop Kt. Howel Gwyneth a valiant Gentleman, who sided with Owen Glendor against King Henry the 4th, was of this Tribe: He was one that did for a long time very much hurt and annoy the English that dwelt in his neighbourhood; (as before him one Owen ap Aldud had done, who kept by force of armes under his sub­jection all Tegaingl about three years, untill such time as he had obtained his pardon) but at length he was taken by his enemies of the Towne of Flint and beheaded by them at a place called Moelygaer, and his Lands were given to one Sax­ton.

Blethyn ap CONVYN & RYWALHON his Brother, the sonne also of Convyn.

AFter the decease of King or Prince Gruffyth, Mere­dyth the sonne of Owen ap Edwyn (which Edwyn, as some writers say, was the sonne of Howel Dha) did take upon him the government of Southwales, and Blethyn and Rywalhon the sonnes of Convyn, and halfe­brethren to King Gruffyth ap Lhewelyn (as being also borne of Angharat daughter to Meredyth King of Wales) did go­verne Northwales, Conan the sonne of lago being all this time with his Father in Law in Ireland. About this time it fortuned, that as Haroald served the King with drink at Windsor his brother Tosty moved with envy, that his youn­ger brother should be preferred before him, pulled him by theMat. West. haire of the head, and overthrew him. Then departing thence, full of rancor and malice, to Hereford, where Haroald had prepared great chéere for the King, he s [...]ue all Haroalds servants, and cut off their Heads, Armes, Leggs, Noses, Feet, and Hands, and filled all the vessels of Wine, Meath, Beere, and Ale therewith: and sent the King word, that he should want no powdred and s [...]wsed meats when he came thither; as for other things, he might make provision himselfe. For which hainous offence the King banished him the land for ever.

Caradoc ap Gruffyth ap Rytherch was the first that pro­cured Haroald to come to Wales against Gruffyth ap Lhewelyn, h [...]ping by him to attaine unto the government of Southwales. But it fell out otherwise, for when Haroald understood that he should not get that at the hands of Caradoc which he looked for, which was a certain Lordship within Wales nigh unto Hereford, and knowing also Caradoc to be a subtile and deceitfull man, he compounded with Meredyth ap Owen for that Lordship, and made

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