A NEW HISTORY OF CHINA, Containing a DESCRIPTION OF THE Most Considerable Particulars OF THAT Uast Empire.

Written by Gabriel Magaillans, of the Society of Iesus, Missionary Apostolick.

Done out of French.

LONDON, Printed for Thomas Newborough, at the Golden Ball, in S. Paul's Church-Yard, 1688.

THE PREFACE.

FOR these Hundred Years last past, there have been Printed such a great number of Relations of China, that they who have read them, will per­haps believe too readily that they can receive no New Information from this. However, my Confidence is such, that if they will but take the Pains to read it, they will hardly find therein any thing which they have read before in others.

China is a Country so Vast, so Rich, so Fertile, and so Temperate; the Multitude of the People so infinite, their Industry in Manufacture, and their Policy in Govern­ment so extraordinary, that it may be truly said, that ever since the undertaking of Long Voyages, there was never any Discovery made, that might stand in Competition with this Kingdom. These are things known to all the World; and so there needs not much more to be said, to make the Learned appre­hensive, that the Subject is large enough to fill many more Volumes then yet are extant, [Page] and to employ the most able and judicious Writers.

To this it might be added, That among all the great numbers of Relations that have been Printed upon this Subject, there are few that merit Public Reputation, or that have been written with a design to inform us of the most considerable Particulars of that Vast Empire. The Relation of Ferdinand Mendez Pinto, in all other places, where he does not speak of the Portugal Affairs, is stuft with Fables and Chimera's, which he has in­vented with a most wonderful fertility of Ima­gination: And which he has season'd with so many Circumstances and studied Discourses to persuade and prepare the belief of his Rea­der, that there are several Persons who take them for real Truths. But those are Errors now not at all to be regarded, seeing that the most part of the Nations of Europe have given us very exact and sincere Descriptions of China, and many other Countries of which that Author speaks.

For Example: He says that the City of Nan Kim, which is known to be seated in a smooth and level Plain, is situated upon a Mountain: That the River of Kiam, which runs through it, and is call'd Barampina, comes from Pe kim, and the Greater Tartary: That China contains Thirty two Kingdoms: That the City of Pe kim is Thirty large [Page] Leagues in compass, whereas it is not above Four in circuit, or Five at most, taking in the New City: That it has Three hundred and Sixty Gates: An Hundred and Twenty Canals, of Three Fathom deep, and Twelve broad; and Eighteen hundred Bridges of Free-stone; whereas there are only Nine Gates, and one small River that belongs to it: That in one single Prison, of two Leagues square, there are kept Three hundred Thou­sand Prisoners, appointed still for the Repair of the Great Wall: That there are other Buildings also to be seen, as wonderful or as extravagant; and one among the rest of a League in circuit, built in the middle of the pretended River of Barampina, &c. That the King of Tartary came and sat down be­fore Pekim, with Twelve hundred Thousand Foot, Six hundred Thousand Horse, Seven­teen thousand Ships, and Fourscore Thousand Rhinoceroces that carry'd the Baggage be­longing to the Army; and that the same King lost in six Months and a half, above Seven hundred and fifty Thousand Men. I could give an account of several other of his Fables, particularly of what he tells us of Two pretended Emperors, both of equal Puissance, Siammon and Calaminban; the first of which had in his Empire Seven hun­dred Provinces, Fifty thousand Elephants, and Eighteen hundred and fifty Thousand [Page] Soldiers in continual Pay; and many other things, which none but this Author ever heard of. But I shall forbear to make any longer stop upon these Fables and Stories, which there is no Man but will be asham'd to believe, more especially since there is not the least shadow of Truth in any thing that he says of the Island of Calempluy, or in what he reports concerning the Language, Names, Manners and Government of the Chineses.

The Relation of F. Gonzalez de Mendoza is true and sincere, as to what he recounts of the the Travels of Martin de Harrada, and Ierome Marin into China. But both those two Fathers, and the Author himself, listen'd with too much credulity to the vaunting Re­lations which the Chineses made of the Gran­deur of their Empire, as may be seen by that which follows. For he allows China to be Eighteen hundred Leagues in length, tho' all the World knows that it lies within Twenty two or Twenty three Degeees, that is to say, not above Four hundred and fifty Leagues in length. He Alters and changes the Names of the Provinces in such a man­ner, that it is almost impossible to know them again. He makes the City of Pe Kim as big as Ferdinand Mendez Pinto does, assuring us in two Places of his Relation, that a Man mounted upon a good Horse, and riding from Morning till Night, will have [Page] much adoe to cross the City within the Walls; for the Suburbs are not included in this Jour­ney, which take up altogether as much Ground: To which he adds, That the Chi­neses also report it to be larger. He says moreover, That in the single Province of Paguia, which must certainly be Pekim, there are Two Millions, Five hundred and fifty Thousand Soldiers; and within the whole Kingdom Five Millions, Eight hundred forty six Thousand five Hundred Foot, and Nine Hundred Forty eight Thousand Three Hundred and Fifty Horse.

Pedro Cubero Sebastian, in his Voyage of the World, Printed at Naples in 1682. says almost the same things. But that is nothing to be wonder'd at; for that besides that he often mistakes in speaking of the most Known Countries of Europe, it is apparent that he has copy'd what he speaks of China from the Authors before mention'd.

I could cite several other Relations of China, the Authors of which appear to have been very much mis-inform'd in several things. But besides that such a Rehersal would be both troublesom and unprofitable, we have several others that make us amends for the Imperfections of the other. Among the rest, the Relations which seem to me most wor­thy of Credit and Esteem, are those of Father Trigaut, the Annual Letters of China; the Relations of Father Semedo, Father Martini, [Page] and the Modern Ones of Father Adam Schall, Father Greslon, Father Rougemont, Father Couplet, R. P. of Orleance, and some others.

The Relation of Father Trigau [...], was the first that ever gave us any exact Informa­tion of China. But in regard his Principal design was to give an account of the Origi­ginal of the Missions of the Society of Je­sus, in that vast Country, and of their Set­tlement by Father Matthew Ricci; 'he never speaks but occasionally of the Affairs of China. Father Semedo indeed applies himself wholly to the Description of the Country, in the First Part of his Relation, wherein he has been very fortunate. Father Couplet in his Chronology, and Father Martini in his First Decad of the History of China, and his Relation of the Tartar War, has publisht almost a compleat Succession of the History of that Kingdom. The same Father Martini in his Atlas, has made a Geographical De­scription of it, so compleat and full, that there hardly remains any thing more for us to desire. And lastly, the Annual Letters and other Pieces which I have cited, giving an Account of the various Successes of the Missions which they undertook, inform us of several Notable and Curious Particulars. But tho' these Authors are every one worthy to be esteem'd and valu'd: Certain it is, that we wanted still a very great number of Con­siderable [Page] Particulars, whither it were, that the Subject was too Copious to be exhausted, or that those other designs which they pro­posed to themselves, diverted their particu­lar Industries. However it were, it is appa­rent, that Father, Magaillans had it in his thoughts to have supply'd all the Defects which he found in those other Pieces, and whatever was wanting that might give us a perfect knowledge of China. For they who read this Relation, will find that the Matters therein contain'd, have either been wholly omitted by all other Authors, or else but very slightly touch'd; and therefore in regard they are things of great Curiosity, I make no question but this Translation will be grateful to the more exact Part of the Learned World.

In a word, it seems to me to have all those Advantages that suffice to recommend it to the Reader. The Matter is of great conse­quence, and becoming the Curiosity of all those that desire to know remote Countries, since it has describ'd with an extraordinary Exactness, and Part by Part, what is most Considerable in that same Famous Empire of China. There you shall find it determin'd by evident Proofs, that the Countries of Catay and Mangi are comprehended in that Spacious Kingdom. It discourses at large of the Chinese Language; of the Letters and [Page] their Composition, of the Words which they comprehend, of the Excellency of the Lan­guage, and how easie a thing it is to attain it; which gives us a far different Idea of it, from whatever we have had till now. Of the Chinese Books, and their Antiquity; and the great number of them upon all sorts of Subjects. Of the Antiquity of their Kingdom and their Kings. Of the Certain and Successive Continuance of the Chinese Chronology from the next Ages to the De­luge. It shews us the Industry of the Chi­neses in many things, their wonderful Form of Government, and all their different Tri­bunals, with a world of other Circumstan­ces. There you find an exact Acount of all their Public Works, and a particular Description of some Magnificent Bridges, the Great Canal, the City of Pe Kim, their most Sumptuous Houses, their Principal Temples, and the Vast and Spacious Palace of the Em­peror, which comprehends within it several others, sufficient to make us admire their Architecture, and the Form and Contrivance of their Buildings. Lastly, there is a De­scription of a certain sort of Wax, which is not any where else to be found; of the Riches of China, of the Emperor's Revenues, of some Remarkable Ceremonies; and of so many other Particulars, which it would be here too tedious a trouble to repeat.

[Page]The Author was well inform'd of all those things, of which he gives us an Account. He had travell'd over all the Chiefest Parts of China, from the Year 1640. to 1648. at what time he was carry'd to Pe Kim, where he stay'd Nine and Twenty Years at the Court; that is to say, till his Death, which happen'd in the Year 1677. without stir­ring from thence, unless it were once that he was sent to Macao by the Command of the Emperor. So long and constant a Residence, the Knowledge of the Language and Books, his Conversation with Persons the most Con­siderable in the Kingdom, the Liberty which he had to enter into the Palace; the Choice which he made of the Matters and Particu­lars of which he gives an Account, will ea­sily confirm us that he had a perfect Know­ledge of the things of which he gives us the Relation. So that altho' the Description which he gives us of the Emperor's Palace, does not agree with that which we find in the Dutch Embassie to China, yet there is all the Reason of the World to prefer the Testi­mony of this Author, before that Relation.

The Sincerity also and Reality of Father Magaillans farther appear by this, that he makes no scruple to Correct Father Martini, where he knows him to be in an Error. Tho in other places he confirms by his Te­stimony the Esteem which all Europe had for [Page] the Works of that Father; and for that he speaks with Moderation of many other things where the Authors have strech'd too far in their Relations.

Having thus far given an Account of the Worth and Merit of this Relation, it will not be improper to tell the Reader how it fell into my Hands. It is now about Three Years since, that F. Couplet coming to Rome in the Quality of Procurator for the Missions of China, had several Occasions to wait upon Cardinal d' Estrees, where I had the Honour to be at that time. His Eminency ask'd him several curious Questions concerning China, but chiefly concerning Pe Kim, the Empe­rors Court, and the Government and Policy of that Great Kingdom. To which the Father gave His Eminency all the Satisfaction he could desire, so far as he knew. But in re­gard he had never been but once at Pe Kim, when he was carry'd Prisoner thither in the time of the late Persecution, he answer'd the Cardinal with his usual sincerity, That he was not so well inform'd as to those other particular Questions which His Eminency put to him; but that he had brought out of China a Portuguese Manuscript, written by F. Gabriel de Magaillans, where he would find the Ple­nary Satisfaction of all that he desir'd to know; and at the same time presented the Manuscript to His Eminency, who having [Page] read it over with great delight, gave it into my Hands upon a proffer which I made him to Translate it.

However, I found it a more Difficult Task then I imagin'd; for tho Father de Magail­lan's had deliver'd it fairly written, yet by an Unfortunate Accident, it hapn'd to be half Burnt; so that I was forc'd to have re­course to the Confus'd Original, which had been luckily preserv'd, which being the greatest part writt'n in loose Papers, it requir'd a great deal of time to place them in order, and find out the connecti­ons.

The Author had entitl'd his Work, The Twelve Excellencies of China: But this Title seem'd to me to be too much affected, and not answerable to the Subject; for it was not limited to twelve Excellencies of China, in regard it contain'd a far greater Number, as they that read the whole will easily find. Besides that, the Division which he had made was not proportionable to the Matter, there being some of those Excellencies which did not take up a Page or two, and others that filled up above thirty or forty: So that I thought it more proper to divide the Rela­tion into one and twenty Chapters, and to give them Titles answerable to the Matters therein contain'd. In other things I have not swerv'd at all from the Method and Sense [Page] of my Author; neither have I made the least Alteration; only that I might conform to the Style and Genius of our Language, I have not ty'd my self so Strictly and Literally to his Expressions: and by what I have said, you may be confident that this Relation has never appear'd in any other Language, nor was ever Printed before, and by consequence that it is altogether New.

I also observ'd in Reading▪ That there were several things which did not seem to me to be sufficiently explain'd, for the under­standing of such as have not a perfect Know­ledge of China; and that the Description of Pe kim, and the Emperors Palace might seem obscure to many People; I have therefore endeavour'd to remedy the first of these two Inconveniences by Notes in Italick, which I have plac'd at the end of the Chap­ters, because I would not crowd the Mar­gins nor interrupt the Text, but preserve the Original in its Purity and Credit, and leave the Reader at liberty to make use of them or let them alone. For remedy of the Se­cond Inconvenience, I have made a Draught of the City of Pe kim and the Palace, colle­cting together with great Care what the Au­thor had spoken dispersedly in several parts of his Relation. Mounsieur Peyronett an In­genier of good repute, drew out the Draught at my Request fair upon Paper, to which I [Page] added the Explanations of every thing, with Letters which relate to others that are En­grav'd upon the Plane.

And further, to satisfie entirely the Curi­osity of the Reader, and to give more Repu­tation to the Book, I have added the Life of Father Magaillans, who was the Author, which I was the rather inclin'd to do, be­cause it seems to me to be but very short and modestly written. It was writ by Father Lewis Buglio a Cicilian, and Father Magaillan's inseparable Companion, from the Year 1640, to the Year 1677, that is to say, for near the space of thirty seven Years together. Fa­ther Buglio dy'd in the Year 1682, in great Reputation for his Vertue and Learning; so that the Care which he has tak'n to Write the Life of our Author, is a double Appro­bation of his Work.

I must here take notice by the way, that I have not observ'd the Portuguese Orthogra­phy, in spelling the Name of our Author; for the Portugueses write it after this manner, Magalhanes: But in regard few People in France can so pronounce it, I alter'd it into Magaillans, which the French pronounce not much different from the Portuguese pronun­ciation of Magalhanes. This Father was of the same Family of the famous Ferdinand de Magaillans, who was called by the Corru­ption of Languages Magellan, and was the [Page] first that discover'd the Magellanick Straits, in the extreme parts of the Southern America. I have also made use of the Word Mandarin or Mandarim, which the Portuguese make use of to signifie the Officers and Magistrates of the Kingdoms of Siam, Cochinchina, Tum kim and China; as well for that all the other Relations make use of the Word, as also for that it is a Word well known in France, ever since the coming thither of the Mandarins of Siam: The Word is deriv'd from Mandar, to command, and comprehends all sorts of Officers and Magistrates.

This remark obliges me to add another up­on the Pronunciation of the Chinese Words and Letters, for the better understanding how to pronounce them, in imitation of the Chineses. Their Words are all Monosyl­lables, or else of one Syllable, without excep­tion, and so they are to be pronounced all at once, and without any distinction of Syl­lables, of what number of Consonants and Vowels soever they are compos'd. For Ex­amples, Kiam, which is the name of the greatest River in China, must be pronounc'd all at a time, and not as if it were two Syl­lables Ki-am. In like manner the Words Liuen, Hiuen, do not make two Syllables, Li-ven, nor three Li-u-en, but only one Syl­lable, which is to be expressed by pronoun­cing them all as one Syllable, yet so as to ex­press [Page] the Sounds of all the Letters. Not but that the Chineses have Words compos'd of several Syllables: but these Syllables are al­ways separated, and from different Words, as Tai yuen, the Names of the capital City of Xan si: Cham hien chum, the name of a Tyrant mention'd in the Relation. Thus we write in France, St. Malo, Havre de Grace, by separate Words, and not in one Word, as Villeneuf, Montroyal: Nevertheless there is this Difference, that St. Malo is form'd of two Words and three Syllables, and Ha­vre de grace of three Words and five Syl­lables, whereas the Chinese Names have ne­ver more Syllables than Words; thus Tai yuen is composed of two Words and two Sil­lables, and Cham hien chum of three Words and three Syllables only.

As for their Letters, though there are as many Chinese Letters as there are Chinese Words, yet they may be express'd by means of our European Letters, adding necessary Accents to distinguish them in speaking, as is explain'd in this Relation; which being premis'd, you shall see after what manner the Chineses pronounce.

A, They have a sound in their Language which answers to our A, as in the Word Nan kim.

B, They have no Sound that answers B; but in the room of it they make use of P, [Page] thus instead of Cambalu, they say, Ham pa lu.

C, Before A, O or U, must be pronoun­ced as our Ca, Co, Cu; but before E and I, it must be pronounced Tze, Tzi, and not Ce, Ci.

Ch, Must be pronounced as Tcha, Tche, Tchi, Tcho, Tchu.

D, is not pronounc'd in the Chinese Lan­guage, but only T, which is nearest to it.

E and F, are pronounc'd as in France.

G, before A, O, U, must be pronoun­c'd Nga, Ngo, Ngu, as if there were an N before the G. But before E and I, as we pronounce Ge, Gi, H must be pronounc'd with a strong Aspiration of the Throat, like the Welch Ll.

I, K and L, as we do.

M, at the end of a Word, must be pro­nounced open and softly, without making any Stop by closing the Lips, otherwise they pronounce it as we do.

N, at the End of a Word, is to be pro­nounc'd hard, putting a stress upon it, as in the Latin Word Lumen; otherwise as we do.

P, as in France.

Q, in the same Manner, unless when a U follows, and then it is pronounc'd as in the Latin Word Quam.

[Page] R, is never pronounc'd by the Chineses.

S, As we do.

T, As we pronounce it in Totality and Totus.

V Consonant as we do; U Vowel, as the Latin U, or the French Ou, except in these Words, Chu, Triu, Xiu, Yu, Tiu, Niu, Siu, &c.

X, Is pronounc'd as in Portuguese or Ch in French, as for Example Xansi, Xensi, as if it were written Chansi or Chensi.

I took those Observations upon the Pro­nunciation from Father Couplet, from a Chi­nese that was brought out of China, from my Author, and out of Father Greslones Preface to his Relation.

THE CONTENTS.

CHAP. I.
OF the Names which the Chineses and Foreigners give to China; and of the Countries of Catai and Mangi p. 1
CHAP. II.
Of the Extent and Division of China, of the number of the Cities and other wall'd Towns; and some other particulars observed by the Chinese Authors p. 31
CHAP. III.
Of the Antiquity of the Kingdom of China, and what a high Opinion the Chineses have of it p. 59
[Page]CHAP. IV.
Of the Letters and Language of China p. 68
CHAP. V.
Of the Wit of the Chineses, and their principal Books. p. 87
CHAP. VI.
Of the Civility and Politeness of the Chineses, and of some of their Feasts. p. 101
CHAP. VII.
Of the Publick Works and Buildings of the Chi­neses, and particularly of the Grand Canal p. 113
CHAP. VIII.
Of the great Industry of this Nation. p. 121
CHAP. IX.
Of the Navigation of the Chineses p. 128
CHAP. X.
Of the great Plenty of all things in China p. 133
[Page]CHAP. XI.
Of the Nobility of the Empire p. 145
CHAP. XII.
Of the wonderful Government of this Empire; of the Distinctions between the Mandarins, and of the Council of State p. 193
CHAP. XIII.
Of the eleven Supreme Tribunals, or of the six Tribunals of the Mandarins for Letters, and the five Tribunals of the Mandarins for Mi­litary Affairs p. 200
CHAP. XIV.
Of several other Tribunals of Pekim p. 218
CHAP. XV.
Of several Tribunals and Mandarins of Pro­vinces p. 241
CHAP. XVI.
Of the Grandeur of the Emperour of China, and of his Revenues p. 250
[Page]CHAP. XVII.
A description of the City of Pe kim: Of the Walls that inclose the Emperours Palace: and the Form of the Principal Houses of China p. 265
CHAP. XVIII.
Of the twenty Apartments belonging to the Em­perours Palace. p. 281
CHAP. XIX.
A Description of twenty particular Palaces con­tained in the Inner Enclosure of the Emper­ours Palace p. 303
CHAP. XX.
Of several other Palaces, and some Temples erected within the same Enclosures p. 314
CHAP. XXI.
Of the Emperours seven Temples in Pekim, and how the King goes abroad upon the perfor­mance of Publick Ceremonies. p. 319
[Page]
[Page] THE PLANE OF THE CITY OF PEKIM YE METROPOLIS OF CHINA

[Page] [Page] A Scale of 10 Chinese furlongs wch. amount to 2730 Geometrical Paces one Chinese furlong making 273 Geometrical Paces

An EXPLANATION of the Plane of the City of PEKIM.
A
The Walls of the ancient City of Pekim nere 4 leagues in Circuite
B
The 9 Gates of the same Wall
C
The Streets of the City
D 1
The first Enclosure of the Palace two leagues in Circuite
D 2
The second Enclosure
D 3
The third Enclosure where the Emperour resides
E
The south and principal Gate of the City
F
The first street [...] ch. you pass through upon you [...] entrance into the City
G
A Palace encempassed with a Marble Ba­lu [...] trade
H
The second street [...] •h. two Triumphal Arches
I
The [...] Apertim▪
1
The street of perpetual repose
2
2d. [...] [...] ch is the first within the outer enclosure of the Pallace
3
3d. called the Portal of the beginning
4
4. is The second Enclosure
5
5 Called the supream Portal
6
6 Called the supream Imperial Hall
7
7 Called the Hall thrice exalted
8
8. [...] the Supream Hall in the middle
9
9 [...] of [...]overaigne Concord wher the Em­ [...] [...] in Counc [...]l [...] •h his Colaos
10
10 The [...] of Heaven
11
11 [...] [...] of Heaven in [...] •h. and ye two [...] the Emperour lodges himself
12
12 The Beautifull House
13
13 The House which receives Heaven
14
14 [...] and Gardens
15
15 The [...] of the Inner Enclosure
16
16 The High [...]aisd Portal on the south side with a place to manage Horses
17
17 The Park and artificial Mountaines
18
18 Consisting of three Houses
19
19 The Portal on the north side
20
20 The Enclosure called ye Portal of repose
123 to 20
Are 20 particular places belonging to the Emperour for several uses
K
The first Palace betwen the two Enclosures
L
The second Pallace
M
3 Palace upon the Lake
N
4 Palace upon a Mountain
O
5 Palace nere the Lake
P
6 Palace nere the Lake
Q
7 Palace
R
8 Palace of the Fortress
S
1 Temple of the 4 within ye Palace
T
2 Temple
V
3 Temple
X
4 Temple
Y
24 Places for the Mandarins
Z
5 Temples in ye new City mark 1 2 3 4 5
&
1 Temple in the Old City
&
2 Temple in the Old City
A A
The 6 Tribunals markd 1 2 3 4 5 6 [...] •h. A A
B B
The 5 Tribunals of ye military Mandarins

A New Relation OF CHINA:

Containing

A Description of the most conside­rable Particulars of that Great Empire.

CHAP. I. Of the Names which the Chineses and Foreigners give to China; and of the Countries of Ca­tai and Mangi.

IT is a Custom usual in this Empire, that when any new Family ascends the Imperial Throne, the Sovereign gives a new Name to his Dominions. Thus under the Reign of the preceeding Family, China was called Taè mim que, that is to say, a Kingdom of great Bright­ness. But the Tartars who govern it at present have called it Taà cim que, or a Kingdom of great Purity: and this is the Appellation most [Page 2] common among the Chineses. However in regard th [...] formerly there have been Kingdoms in it highly fam [...]s either for their long Continuance, or for the Vertues of their Princes, or the num­ber of Learned Men, or for some other Advan­tages, they have preserv'd and still make use in their Books of Names which were then in Practice, [...] as are those of Hia que, Xam que, Cheu que, H [...]n que, &c. Which gives us to understand, that although these Names signifie China, yet they were rather intended to denote the Reigns of se­veral Royal Families, than to signifie the King­dom it self.

In their Books and Petitions to the King, they generally make use of the Word Xam que, that is, High and Sovereign Kingdom. The Learned Men in their Writings and their Books make choice of the Word Chum que, which signifies the flower▪ of the Middle, or Center. And indeed the most usual and common Name for all China is Chum que, or the Kingdom of the Center; which name is given to it, either because they believe that Chi­na lies in the middle of the World, or because the first King of China establish'd his Throne in the Province of Honan, which was then as it were, the Center of the Kingdom, or lastly because it is much more considerable than all the barbarous and poor Kingdoms that surround it. That same Hyperbolical Word also Tien Hia, or the King­dom that contains all that is under Heaven, is very frequently made use of. So that when they say Tien Hia [...] [...]im, all that is under Heaven is in Peace, it is the same thing as to say China is in Peace. China likewise has other Names, which I forbear to mention, because they are less in Pra­ctice.

[Page 3]Foreigners call it Hara Kitai, Catai, Cataio, Mangi, Nica Corum, Chin, China, and Kina. The Tartars that lie to the West call the Chineses, Ha­ra Kitai, or the Black Barbarians; which is the Name they give also to China it self. The Europe­ans instead of Hara, say Cara; for that in regard the Tartars pronounce Ha, with a very strong Aspiration, strangers believe they say Cara, and not Hara. For that Reason it is that Marcus Paulus and other Authors call by the name of Can, that Emperor, who between the years 1260, and 1275. conquer'd the Western Tartary, and all China, in­stead of calling him Han, that is to say, King, in the Language of the Western Tartars. The same word also is at present in use among the Eastern Tartars, who are Masters of China; and who were formerly so barbarous that they had not any A King, nor any word to signifie a King, as we shall relate in its due place.

The Muscovites, as I was inform'd by some resi­ding in this Court, in imitation of the Tartars, B call it Kitai. The Kingdom of Chahamalaha, the Inhabitants of which are Mahumetans, and which confines to the Province of Xansi, the Kingdom of Tumet or Tibet, which environs a good part of the Provinces of Xensi and Xansi▪ and that of Usan­gue C bordering upon the Province of Sù Chuen, having corrupted the word Kita, call it Kata [...], and the Merchants that come from Indostan, and other parts of the Indies call it Cataio. By which we clear­ly find that the Kingdom of Cataio, of which Fa­ther D Anthony de Andrad [...] speaks in his Relation of Tibet where he had been, signifies no more than China, and that Grand Catai, is no other, then Grand China; to which alone may be attri­buted whatever has been said of China. So much the rather for that of all the Kingdoms seated be­tween [Page 4] the Indies, and the Eastern Extremities of Asia, only those that lie upon the Sea are known; the rest are small, barbarous, poor and untilled.

The Eastern Tartars moreover in derision call'd China, Nica Corum, or the Kingdom of the Bar­barians, tho' at present, now they are setled there­in, and are become Masters of it, they call it Tulimpa Corum, or the Kingdom of the Middle. The Kingdoms of the Indians, as Canara, Bengala, and others call it Chin, as I was inform'd in the Pro­vince of Sù Chuen by two Iognes, of which the one had been at Goa, and had learnt some Portugal Words; and, as I understood at Pekim, by some Merchants of the Country. This name of Chin seems to have been given to China by the Indians, because of the Family of Chin, who reign'd a Hundred sixty nine Years after Christ; though I find more probability to believe that it comes from the Family of Cin, who reign'd two Hun­dred forty six before Christ, the chief of which Family was Master of all China, and among the rest of the Province of Yûn nân, which is not far di­stant from Bengala, because the Chineses pronoun­cing strongly, and whistling the Word Cin through the Teeth, the Indians that cannot imi­tate them, pronounce it Chin, and the Portugals, who took this word from the Indians, not ha­ving any word in their Language that ends in N, have added an A at the latter End. The Ita­lians write China like the Portugheses; but they pronounce it K [...]na; and so they ought to write it Cina, to give it the same sound as the Germans who write schina.

By what has been said we find apparently that Cataio, Hara Kitai, and China are all one and the same thing, and not different Kingdoms, as Clu­verius would have them to be; who in his fifth [Page 5] Book of his Introductions to Geography, Chapter Fifth, frames several Kingdoms as Catai, Tangut, Tainfu and others, which he seems to have bor­row'd from Marcus Paulus: whereas they are not the names of Kingdoms, but only the corrupt­ed names of certain Cities of China. And this is particularly manifest by the word Tainfu, which is no other then Tai Yuenfu, the Metropolis of the Province of Xansi, where the Tartars settled their Court before they Conquer'd the Province of Pekim. The Description also which Cluveri­us gives of the Province of Tainfu, agrees per­fectly with that City and the Country that belongs to it For there are the best Grapes in China; and good store of Iron near the City of Lû gân, which furnishes Pekim and the rest of the Pro­vinces, especially those that lie toward the North, with Nails, and all sorts of Iron Utensils and Instruments. Marcus Paulus speaks of another Ci­ty of that Province which he calls Pianfu, tho' the Chineses call it Pim yàm fù. Cluverius has also borrow'd from Marcus Paulus the corrupted word Cambalu, the Capital City of Catai; for neither the Western nor Eastern Tartars have any B. as we shall shew in due place in our Tartarian E Alphabet, so that Marcus Paulus instead of Cam should have written Han, that is King; and in­stead of Balu, Palu, which signifies Court, and con­sequently instead of Cambalu, Hanpalu, which in the Tartarian Language signifies the Kings Court. And then he should have taken notice that there were two Hanpalu's, or Kings Courts; the ancient Court, at present but a mean place, distant a­bout three Leagues from Pekim toward the East, which is called Tum Cheum, and the new Court which is Pekim, which Marcus Paulus calls Taidu, instead of Tai tu, which signifies the great Court.

[Page 6]Some Authors question whether the Kingdom of Mangi, of which M. Paulus makes such fre­quent mention, be not a different Kingdom from China; but there is no doubt to be made but that it is comprehended within it. For M. Paulus di­vides China into two Kingdoms, Catai and Mangi: Comprising under the Name of Catai all the Nor thern Provinces and under that of Mangi all the Southern. The word Mangi is deriv'd from Mânt Zù, which signifies Barbarous: For that the Southern Chineses, to mock the Northern,F call them Pe tai, that is, Fools of the North: and the other to pay the Southern Chineses in the same Coin, call them Nân Mân, Barbarians of the South, or else barely Mantzu, Barbarians. The Tartarians likewise in contempt of the Chine­ses, call them also Mantzu or Barbarians. But in regard the Tartarians, especially the Eastern, cannot well pronounce the Syllable tzu, they say gi, Mangi; which I have heard a Thousand and a Thousand times for three and twenty Years together that I liv'd among them. And so without question, it was in the time of M. Paulus, who being a stranger could not understand the force of the Language, but hearing the Tar­tars so often call the Southern Chineses, Mangi, believ'd it to be the Name of the Kingdom or Nation, and not a name of Reproach.

However that there may be no farther doubt but that the Names of Catai and Mangi, are quite different, and do not both of them signifie China, I shall here translate a piece of the forty fourth Chapter of the second Book of Marcus Paulus, by which it will evidently appear, that what I affirm is a constant and assured Truth. For having spoken in the former Chapter of the great River, which by reason of the vastness of [Page 7] its Stream, the Chineses call [...] âm eu Kiam, or the River Son of the Sea▪ he goes on in this manner.

Caingui [...]s a small City upon the Banks of this River upon the South-side, where they gather ever Year a great quantity of Rice, the greatest part of which is carried to Cambalu to supply the Court of the great Cam. These Provisions are transported to Catai by Water, over Ri­vers and Lakes, and one large and deep Ca­nal, which the great Cam has caus'd to be made for the passage of Vessels from one River to another, and to go from the Province of Mangi to Cambalu, without going by Sea. This is a work of wonder for its Situation, and its Length, but more for the benefit which the Ci­ties receive from it. The Great Cham also caus'd to be rais'd all along the Banks of the said Rivers and Canal very strong and spacious Damms for Travellers to walk upon.’ These are the words of M. Paulus, and we shall speak of this great Work in the seventh Chapter.

But as for Caingui, mention'd by that Author, to speak properly, it is neither a Town nor a City. The Chineses call it Chim Kiam▪ Keu, that is, the Mouth of the Son of the River, in regard that an Arm of the River separates in that place, and after it has run through part of the Province of Nan Kim, crosses the Country of Che Kiam as far as the Capital City of it call'd Ham Cheu. On both the sides of this Mouth, there is one of those sort of places which the Chineses call Mâ teû, that is, a Place frequented for the sake of Trade: Be­cause the Barques there meet and come to an Anchor to ride secure in the Night time. Now this Place of which Marcus Paulus speaks, might well be call'd a Town, by reason of the extraordinary number of Vessels that resort thi­ther, [Page 8] tho it be neither wall'd, nor have buildings enow to form a City.

Now tho' this be perfectly known by all such as are employ'd as Missionaries into this Kingdom, yet I cannot forbear, to the end I may make this matter yet more evident, to unfold some other passages of the same Author, and to begin with the names of so many Cities, of which he makes mention in his History. In the twenty seventh Chapter of his second Book he speaks of the Ci­ty of Tainfu, which the Chineses call Tai yuen fu, and which as we have said, is the Capitol of the Province of Xansi. In the 28th. Chapter he speaks of another City of the same Province, call'd by the Chineses, Pim yam fu, and which is a City of the second Rank, as being the most Rich and Potent in the whole Empire, except that of Sucheu in the Province of Nankin. In the 56th. Cha­pter he speaks of the City of Coiganzù, which is called Hoaì gâ [...] fû, which is a Town of great Trade, and very Rich, by reason of the great quantity of Salt which is there made, as in the Territory round about, and which is thence tran­sported into several parts of the Empire, as M. Paulus observes in the same Chapter. In the 65th. Chapter he speaks of the City of Chian gian fu, which is call'd Chim Kiam fu. In his seventieth Chapter he describes the City of T [...]pinxu, other­wise Tai [...] fu, in the Province of Namkim. In the 75th. he mentions the City of Fogiu, other­wise Fo Cheu, the Capital of the Province of Fo Kien. In the 76th. He has the City of Quelin­fu; which is called Kien nim fu. He also reports that about this City there are a great number of Lions, and that he repeats several times in other places; which gives us to understand that he was mis-inform'd in most things, since it is certain that [Page 9] the Chineses never saw a Lyon, not so much as in Picture; and therefore they paint a Lyon quite another Creature than he is▪ For my part, I am perswaded that M. Paulus is mistaken, in believing those great and furious Tygres which are so com­mon in that Empire to be Lyons▪ And he confirms me in this Perswasion by saying in the 14th Cha­pter of his second Book, that the Great Han has Lyons train'd up to hunt the other wild Beasts; and that they are mark'd with white, black and red lists or streaks, and are larger then the Lyons of Babylon. All which perfectly agrees with the descriptions of the Tygres or Leopards, which several of the Princes of Asia make use of in their Ch [...]ces; but not at all with the descriptions of Lyons. The same Author makes mention of several other Cities, the names of which are so changed, that they are so far from being Chinesie, that they have no resemblance to the Language. Nevertheless we clearly find that the Provinces and Cities which he places in Catai, and Mangi belong all to China, because they generally end with the Syllable fu, which in the Chinesie Lan­guage signifies a City. For example the Metro­polis of the Province of Canton is Quam cheu fu. Quam cheu being the proper name that distin­guishes it from the rest, and fu signifies a City, as Polis among the Greeks: and so Constantinopo­lis signifies the City of Constantine, and Adrianopo­lis the City of Adrian.

We draw the second Proof of the Description which M. Paulus makes, in the sixteenth and seven teenth Chapters of his second Book, of the old and new City of Pekim, and the King's Palace, in regard that all that he speaks of it is confor­mable to what we see at this day, and to what we shall describe in the Progress of this Relation▪

[Page 10]The third is drawn from the Wine which is F F drank in that Court, and the Stone-Coal which they burn there, and is call'd Muy. This Coal is brought from certain Mountains two Leagues di­stant from the City, and it is a wonderful thing that the Mine has never fail'd, notwithstanding that for above these four Thousand Years not on­ly this City so large and Populous, but also the greatest part of the Province has consum'd such an incredible quantity, there being not any one Family, tho' never so poor, which has not a Stove heated with this Coal that lasts and preserves a Heat much more Violent then Charcoal. These Stoves are made of Brick like a Bed or Couch three or four Hands Breadth high, and broader or nar­rower according to the number of the Family. Here they lie and sleep upon Matts or Carpets; and in the day time sit together either upon Car­pets or Matts, without which it would be impossi­ble to endure the great Cold of the Climate. On the side of the Stove there is a little Oven where­in they put the Coal, of which the Flame, the Smoak and Heat spread themselves to all the sides of the Stove, through Pipes made on purpose, and have a passage forth through a little opening, and the Mouth of the Oven, in the which they bake their Victuals, heat their Wine, and prepare their Cha or Thè; for that they always drink their Drink hot. The Halls and Chambers of Wealthy Persons have every one their Stove, not rais'd like those of the Poor, but underneath; so that the Floor serves for the Stove where they Eat, Study, Walk, and Sleep: either upon Car­pets, Beds, or Chairs. The Cooks of the Gran­dees and Mandarins, as also the Tradesmen that deal in Fire, as Smiths, Bakers, Dyers, and the like, both Summer and Winter make use of this, [Page 11] Coal: the Heat and Smoak of which are so violent, that several Persons have been smother'd there­with; and sometimes it happens that the Stove takes Fire, and that all that are asleep upon it are burnt to Death. Therefore to avoid the pernicious Effects of this Smoak, there needs no more then to set by the side of the Stove a large Vessel full of clear and fresh Water. For the smoak gathers to the Water and intermixes with it in such a manner that the next day the Water will smell as strong and loathsome as the smoak it self.

The fourth Proof is that Marcus Paulus in the 37th. Chapter of his second Book describes a fa­mous Bridge, seated two Leagues and a half from Pekim towards the West, in these words. ‘When you leave the City of Cambalu after you have travell'd ten Miles, you meet with a River call'd Puli Sangan, which empties it self into the Ocean, and is Navigable for many Vessels that carry Merchants Goods. Upon this River there is a very fair Stone Bridge, and perhaps there is not the like of it in the World. This Bridge is in Length three hundred Geometrical Paces, and eight in Breadth, so that ten Horsemen may conveniently ride a▪Breast. There are four and twenty Arches, and five and twenty Piles that support it, and it is all made of Ser­pentine Stone wrought with wonderful Curio­sity. The Securities to lean upon on both sides are made of Tables of Marble, and Pillars rang'd with an extraordinary Symmetry. At the two Extreams it is broader then at the top of the Ascent, but when you are up, you find it as flat and level as if it had been laid with a Line. In that part there is a very large and high Column rear'd upon a Tortoise of Marble, [Page 12] with a huge Lyon near the Base, and another above. Over against this there is another very fair Column, with a Lyon distant about one Pace and a half from the former. The Columns of support that serve for rails are a Foot and a half one from another, and the spaces be­tween are fill'd up with Tables of Marble, a­dorn'd with several Sculptures, to prevent Peo­ple from falling into the River. In a word, up­on every Pillar there is a Lyon of Marble, which is a very pleasant Sight to behold.’ These are the Words of M. Paulus. It seems the Printer forgot some words toward the End, which render the Author's Description obscure. How­ever I have translated them as they ought to be▪ and according to the Structure of the Bridge.

This Bridge is the most beautiful in China, but it is not the biggest; for there are those which are much longer. The Author says the River is call'd Puli Sangan, which is a name given it by the Western Tartars, who were then Masters of that Empire, and of whom there are still at Pe­kim many intermix'd among the Eastern. It is call'd by the Chineses, Hoen Ho, or the muddy Ri­ver, by reason that the rapidness of its stream carries along with it a world of Earth that ren­ders it all the Year long, thick, and muddy. He says that this Bridge has four and twenty Arches, whereas it has but thirteen, and that several Ves­sels Sail upon this River, which is Impossible. For tho' it be very well fill'd with Water, it is not Navigable by reason of the great Number of Falls, Windings, and Rocks of which it is full. But that which carried M. Paulus into these Mi­stakes, was this, that about three Leagues farther toward the West, there is another River and ano­ther Bridge of four and twenty Arches. Of [Page 13] which there are five in the middle vaulted, the rest are flat and cover'd with long and very broad Tables of Marble, very well wrought and cut in a streight Line. In the midst of the Bridge the Columns are to be seen of which M. Paulus speaks in his Description. The River is called Cieu li hô, or the River of Glass, because it is clear, quiet, and Navigable. And thus you see the Au­thor mistakes one Bridge for the other: The first is the fairest in China, and perhaps the fairest in the World for the excellency of the Workman­ship, and the Materials of which it is made. It is all of white Marble very fine and well wrought according to the perfect rules of Architecture. On the sides stand a Hundred and forty Pillars of Support, allowing Seventy to each side. They are a Pace and a half distant one from another, and the Spaces between fill'd up with square panes of Marble, Carv'd with several sorts of Flowers, Fruitages, Birds, and other Creatures; a piece of Workmanship no less Magnificent, then perfect and to be admir'd. At the entrance of the Bridge toward the East there are two fair Pedestals rais'd high, and cover'd with Tables of Marble, upon which are two Lyons of an extraordinary Size, and carv'd as the Chineses represent them. Between the Legs, upon the Backs, Sides and Breasts of these Figures are cut in the same Mar­ble, several young Lyons in several Postures, some slightly fastned to the Lyons, some Ram­pant, other Couchant, some Descending, some Ascending, with a surprizing Beauty and Delica­cy. At the other end, toward the West, are to be seen upon two Pedestals, two Elephants, both of the same Marble, wrought with as much Art and Perfection as the Lyons. M. Paulus forgot to make mention either of the one or the other, un­less [Page 14] perhaps they might be added afterwards. However the Chineses averr that this Bridge was built two Thousand Years ago without having sustain'd the least damage in all that time, till our Days. But upon the Vigil of St. Laurence's Day in the Year 1668. after an Extraordinary Drought which had lasted all that Year, it began to Rain, and the Rain continu'd Day and Night till the sixteenth of August, with so much Vio­lence, as if whole Rivers had pour'd down from Heaven. The Seventeenth of August about eight of the Clock in the Morning, of a sudden there came a Deluge that overflow'd the new City, the Suburbs and the Planes adjoining. Presently they shut up the Gates of the old City, and stopp'd up all the holes and clefts with Chalk and Bitumen ming­led together, to prevent the entrance of the Wa­ter. But the third part of the Houses of the new Ci­ty were overturn'd, and an infinite number of poor Creatures, especially Women and Children were either drown'd or buried in the Ruins. A great number of Villages and Houses of pleasure were carried away by the Impetuosity of the Inundati­on; and the same thing happen'd to the Neigh­bouring Cities. All the People fled for Refuge to the high Places; or clim'd up to the tops of the Trees, where several confounded with their Fears, or fainting for want of Food, dropt down into the Water, and miserably perish'd. In other Provinces their happen'd Accidents and Calami­ties yet more strange, occasion'd by dreadful Earthquakes. So that it seem'd to be the Pleasure of God to punish those Insidels for the Persecuti­on which they had rais'd against the Christian Religion, and the Preachers of the Gospel. Ne­ver was [...]en the like Consternation in that Court, where all Men were reduc'd to utmost despair, [Page 15] not being able to divine the Cause of so extraor­dinary a Deluge. At last, the King, having sent out certain People upon Rafts of Timber, for they have no Boats at Pekim, to examine the Rea­son, they found that the troubled River, of which we have already made mention, had bro­ken down the Damms, and made it self a new Channel cross the Fields and Suburbs of the City▪ which begat such an amazing Fear in the Minds of the People, that the King and the Grandees were just upon the point of removing to some o­ther place. The same Fury of the Inundation carried away several Rocks, which knocking a­gainst the Piles of the famous Bridge, shook it in such a manner, that they broke down two of the Arches.

The fifth Proof is, that M. Paulus in the thirty second Chapter of the same Book speaks of that great River, which the Tartars call Caramoran, and the Chineses, Hoâm Hô, or the yellow River; in regard that the slimy Mud which it carries with it, makes the Waters to look of that Colour. In the thirty sixth Chapter he makes mention of another River which he calls in the Chinese Lan­guage, ô Kiam, or the great River, and which the Chineses, as we have said already, call Yam cu Kiam, or the River Son of the Sea. In the thirty sixth Chapter, describing the City, which he calls Kimsai, and which erroneously he will have to signifie the City of Heaven, tho' the word, as we shall shew hereafter, signifies a Court, he reports several Particulars concerning it; for example, that the City is seated between a Great Lake, and a great River; and that round about the Lake are to be seen several Palaces of the Grandees, and divers Temples of the Bonzes, and many o­ther things which are very true; only that he [Page 16] stretches too far where he says that the City is an hundred Miles in Circuit, wherein he shews him­self rather a Poet then an Historian. However it be, the Description which he makes of the City and Palace of Cambalu sufficiently demonstrate that Catai is a part of China; and that what he says of the City of Kimsai, is enough to prove that Mangi is another part of the same Empire: for that the greatest part of his Relation is entire­ly conformable to what we our selves have seen. Yet if M. Paulus had understood the Chinese Lan­guage, as he says he understood that of the Tar­tars, he had with more Exactness set down the Names of the Cities and Provinces, and other particulars, which he reports concerning that Em­pire. But it is no wonder he should so often corrupt the Names, since we our selves, who upon our first arrival appli'd our selves with all the industry i­maginable to understand the Chinese Letters and Language, after the Study of several Years were frequently deceiv'd and quite mistook some part of the words. So that we must not be surpriz'd if a Knight, who only minded his Military De­signs, and to court the Favour of the great Han, and only convers'd with the Tartars, who for want of Politeness are the greatest Corrupters of Words above other Nations, should fall into the same Inconvènience. For he has corrupted Names in such a manner, that they among us, who have the greatest Knowledge of the Language and the Empire, have much ado to pick out the meaning of many of his Mistakes. Nevertheless, by a strict Examination of the Situation of the Places, and other Circumstances of his Relations, we at length find out what he intends.

Father Martin Martini, so famous for his Atlas of China, as witty and ingenious as he was, could [Page 17] not exempt himself from committing the like Errors. Insomuch, that we who have resided in this Empire for so many years, have found it very difficult to understand the Persons and the Places of which he speaks; especially in the Names that ought to terminate in M, and which he always ends in Ng. For example instead of saying▪ Pekim, Nankim, Chekîam, Yûmlie, Cûmchîm, he always writes Peking, Nanking, Chekiang, Yeunglie, Cung­ching. Wherein he must of necessity be deceived, because that manner of writing does no ways cor­respond with the Chinese Pronunciation, which an­swers to that of our M. and not of Ng▪ Nor will it avail to say, that the Germans pronounce I'm, open with a soft production of the sound almost like Ng, because they express it somewhat through the Nose; for that the letter M, whether pronun­ced open or close, has always a much greater cor­respondence with the Chinese and Latin Pronun­ciation, then the letters Ng. So much the more, because the Germans pronounce I'm final open ra­ther like In or En, then Im or Em. So that indeed this Reason might have been in some measure pardonable, had the Father written in High-Dutch, or only to the Germans; But having writ in La­tin and for the benefit of all Europe, he ought to have conformed to the most exact and common Pronunciation.

Philip Cluverius in his sixth Chapter of his sixth Book, makes a doubt whether the City of Kimsai▪ of which M. Polo makes mention in his sixty eighth Chapter of his second Book, w [...]re the Court of the King of Tartary, or the King of China. He also with good reason takes notice of the Hy­perboles which M. Polo makes us in describing the said City of Kimsai. For the resolving of which Difficulties it will be necessary to observe, [Page 18] that instead of Kimsai, he ought to have written Kimsu, the Master Court. For that Kim signifies a Court, and Su a Master: The Court being as it were the Model of the Rest of the Kingdom. Kimsai then, or Kimsu was the Court of the Prin­ces of the Family of Sum, whom the Western Tar­tars despoil'd of the Kingdom in the time of M. Polo. A hundred years after that Nankim and Pekim were the Courts of the Princes of the Fa­mily of Mim, which of later Years was destroyed by the Eastern Tartars. Which being granted, I an­swer, that Father Martin, to whom I refer the Reader for fear of being tedious, has very well unravell'd those Difficulties, and corrected the Hyperboles of M. Polo, who like a Young man as he was, has enlarg'd many things much beyond the Truth. Nevertheless as to the number of twelve thousand Bridges, which M. Polo tells us there are in Kimsai, and which Father Martin grants for a Truth, I cannot so easily give my consent. For besides that we have seen the contrary, the Chineses themselves, who stuff their Writings with so many impertinent particulars, would ne­ver have omited a circumstance of that Importance. Also what M. Polo relates of the vastness of several Bridges under which Vessels may Sail without striking their Masts is no way probable; since it is not to be believed, that they should be all so ruin'd that there should be no traces of such Structures re­maining. Thus much I know, that a Famous Chinese Author who has written a Treatise of the Grandeur of this Empire, and of whom I shall re­late many things hereafter, does not allow the Ci­ty of Ham Cheu, which is the same with Kimsai, a­bove five considerable Bridges. Nor would he have fail'd to have spoken of that extravagant height of the Bridges of his Country, had there been any [Page 19] ground for his so doing. The rest that M. Polo re­lates concerning this City is true, granting him on­ly some Excursions and Enlargements according to his Custom. But to clear all disputes concerning this same City of Kimsai, more especially because Father Martini speaking of this Ham Cheù in his Atlas, Fol. 109. varies in what he says of the Ori­ental and Western Tartars, I shall here produce an extract which I took for this very purpose out of the Chronicles of China.

To the end then that Family may be reckon'd into the number of the Imperial Families of this Empire, of necessity that Family must either have subdu'd the whole or the greatest part of it. For if it has conquered no more then only two or three Provinces, that Family is only call'd Pam-Chao, or a Collateral Kingdom, nor is it to be admitted into the Direct Line of the Imperial Families. Those then that we are now to speak of are of that Number.

In the year of JESUS CHRIST, 1200. A Captain of the Oriental Tar [...]ars that some years since subdu'd this Empire made himself Master of the Provinces of Pekim Xansi, and Xantum, which the yellow River separates from the o­ther Twelve. Thereupon he caused himself to be Crown'd King, and Named his Family Tai-Leao. Some Years after another Captain of the Eastern Tartars made War upon him, got pos­session of his Kingdom, exterminated the Reigning Family, and call'd his Own and his Kingdom Tai-Kinque, or the Kingdom of Gold, which continued till the year 1260. At what time the other twelve Provinces were subdued by an Emperor of the Family of Sûm. Upon this some of his chief Ministers advis'd him to send great Presents to the Grand Han, who [Page 20] had a little before subdu'd the Western Tartars, and to desire his Assistance for the Expulsion of the Tartars out of the three Provinces which they had Usurp'd. But others of his Councel­lors laid before him the ill consequence of pro­voking that terrible Nation of the Western Tartars, or molesting the Eastern, with whom they had for several years preserv'd an Amica­ble Correspondence; withal, that it was no good Policy to expel Tigres, and bring more cruel Lions into their Room. Nevertheless the first Counsel, tho the worst, was follow'd: And the Grand Han was called in with his Tartars, al­ready the Vanquishers of so many Nations, who in a short time exterminated the Family of Tai Kim and made themselves Masters of the three Provinces. But so soon as they had finish'd that Conquest, perfidiously they turn'd their Arms against the King of China, who kept his Court in a City belonging to the Provinces of Hônân, bor­dering upon the yellow River. This Prince be­ing terrifi'd by the Neighbourhood of those Barbarians fled in all hast to the City of Ham Cheû in the Province of the Che Kiam, where he setled his Court. Of which the Han no soon­er had intelligence, but he cross'd the yellow River, and after little or no resistance made himself Master of the Provinces of Ho Nam, Nan Kim, and Che Kiam, and consequently of the Village of Ham Cheû, which M. Polo calls Kimsai. Thereupon the King of China, fled into the Province of Fo-Kien, and from thence into that of Quamtum, where having Embark'd him­self with a design to seek out Foreign shelter, he suffer'd Shipwrack in the Golf of the Island of Haî Nân, and there miserably perish'd, so that all the rest of China submitted voluntarily to the Grand Har.

[Page 21]This is what I have taken out of the Histories of China, by which it is clearly to be seen that Ham Cheû, and Kimsai are one and the same City. And that the word Tai Kim does not signifie a Mountain, there being no such thing in Tartary, as it is imagin'd, but the Kingdom of Gold. Which is the Title that was formerly given to the Orien­tal Tartars.

Notes and Explanations of the first Chapter.

P. 3. As we shall relate in it's due place.

THE Author, as has been already said in the Preface, not being able to finish this Work, has not according to his promise made out the Ori­ginal of the Eastern Tartars. Nevertheless several Authors have made some mention of them, as Fa­ther Martini in his History of the War of the Tar­tars, and in his Preface to his Atlas of China: The Embassie of the Hollanders to Pekim. Father Adam Schall in his Letters printed at Vienna in the year 1665. And Father Couplet in his Chronology of China printed this year. By which Authors and particularly by the two latter it appears, that it is not above a little while since the Eastern Tartars, now Masters of China, have had any Kings, and that the Original of those▪ Princes is so obscure, that as modern as it is, it is altogether intermixed with Fables.

Father Adam reports that the Eldest of the Un­cles of the Emperor Xunchi, the Father of him that now reigns, had told him several times, that [Page 22] it was about ten Generations since that three Nymphs or Goddesses called Augela, Chaugula, and Foecula descended from Heaven to bath them­selves in a River of Tartary. That Foecula ha­ving discover'd under her Cloths which she left upon the shore, a sort of Nightshade or Herb call'd Alkakengi with red Fruit, devour'd it with such a greedy Appetite, that she became with Child. That her two Companions returning to Heaven she remain'd upon Earth till she was brought to bed of a Boy; which she suckl'd, and afterwards left in an Island of the River, telling him that she was returning to Heaven, but that a Fisherman would come and take care of his Edu­cation, which happen'd accordingly. That this Child became a Man of an extraordinary Valour, and that his Sons and Grand Children rul'd this Country. But that in the fifth Generation the People rebell'd against this Family, which they defeated and exterminated, all but one who betook himself to flight. This Prince being close pursu'd, and not being able to run any farther, sate himself down upon the ground despairing to save his life; At what time a Mag-pye came and perch'd upon his head, and deluded his Enemies who took him for the stump of a Tree, and not for a Man. And thus it is easie to see, as Father Adam observes, that thus far the Relation is altogether Fabulous, and clearly demonstrates that the Original of the Em­peror of China is very obscure, and has nothing of Illustrious or Renowned. That which follows is certain and unquestionable. In regard the Person, such as he was, liv'd at the beginning of this Age, and made himself sufficiently known by the bloody War which he made upon the Chineses in revenge of the Death of his Father, whom the Chinese Mandarins had caus'd to be murdered, and of other [Page 23] outrages committed against his Nation. Father Adam says, that he was Lord of the Valley of Moncheu, which Father Martini takes for a great City. The Emperor Van-liè gave him the Go­vernment of that same Valley and the neighbour­ing Countries, upon condition he should defend them against the Incursions of the Oriental Tartars who were divided into seven small Principalities. He was call'd Tiel Mini, and died in the year 1628. His Son, a Person of more Wisdom and Moderati­on continued the War till his death which happen'd in the year 1634. Cumtè, his Son, in some measure, compleated the Conquest of the Empire of China; but died before he obtain'd the possession of it in the year 1644. His Son Xunchi, at the age of six years, was acknowledg'd Emperor at Pekim, and di'd in the year 1662. Leaving for his Successor his Son Camtri the Monarch reigning at present. This Catalogue of the Tartarian Princes of Father Adam's confirm'd by Father Couplet in his Chrono­logy, by Father Rougemont in his Historia Tartaro-Sinica, and the Embassie of the Hollanders, gives us to understand that Father Magaillans had good reason to justifie himself for saying, that the Tar­tars had neither any King, nor any word to signi­fie a King; seeing that it was but in this Age that their Princes have deriv'd their Original from a petty Captain of a Hord, or chief leader of Ban­diti's or wandering Tartars.

Here we are farther to observe that Tar­tary which comprehends all the Nothern Asia is divided by the Chineses into Western and Eastern. The Inhabitants both of the one and the other, are for the most part wanderers with their Flocks and Herds, and live in Tents. But the We­stern are incomparably more potent then the Eastern, in regard they possess all that Country [Page 24] which lies between the extream part of the Pro­vince of Pekim and the Countries of the Mogul, the Persian and the Muscovite; All which they possess'd entirely in the Reign of Saint Lewis. The Eastern Tartary reaches from the Country of Leaotûm, beyond Iapon, and comprehends the Province of Niuchè, to the North of Corea; The Province of Niulhan to the North of Niuchè; that of Yupi to the East of Niuchè; and the Country of Y [...]co, to the North-East of Iapon, and to the East of Yupi. But these Countries are poor and ill peo­pled; There being not above two or three little Cities in them all; the rest is barren uncultivated, and full of Woods and Moun­tains.Letter of Peter Fer­dinand de Verbiest. Nevertheless these Tar­tars are not a little formidable when they are united, as being harden'd to la­bour in a rigorous Climate, and almost always a­horleback, and employ'd in hunting or busied in War. They made themselves known by their incursions into China above two hundred years before the Birth of Christ: And in the twelfth Age after the Incarnation they possess'd themselves of the Provinces of Leaotum, Pekim, Xensi, Xansi and Xantum. But the Ancestors of the Tartarian Prince who Reigns in China, were so far from being Masters of all the Eastern Tartary, that they were not Lords of all the Province of Niuchè, where, as has been said, there were seven or eight de­stinct Sovereigns. And Father Adam observes that Tien [...]um Great Grand Father to the Emperor Reign­ing at Present, when he enter'd into China, had not above eight thousand men, which were soon encrea­sed by the concourse of the rest of the Eastern Tar­tars, and an innumerable Number of the Western Tartars, which the fame of his Victories and the noise of prodigious Booty drew to his Assistance.

P. 3. The Kingdom of Chahamalaha, whose Inha­bitants are Mahometans, and which borders upon the Province of Xensi.

This Name of Chahamalaha, is not to be found as I verily believe, in any Mapp, nor in any other Relation; But I am perswaded by what our Au­thor say's of it, that it is the same place which Father Martini calls Samahania; and which, as he does, I take to be the Country of the Usbegs, or of Mavralnara, of which Samarcand is the chief City: For that we know not of any other King­dom of Mahometans to the West of Xensi, where there are several considerable Cities, Palaces and Houses artificially built, and good Architecture, store of Gold and Silver-Plates and other things which the Chineses allow the Country of Samaha­nia or Samahan, by the report of Father Martini. Nor must we be surpriz'd, that the Chineses assure us that this Kingdom borders upon the Province of Xensi; for that they never travel toward the West, nor have any other knowledge of the Coun­tries situated Westward, then what they learn from the Information of the Caravans that come once in two or three years to trade in China, un­der pretence of an Embassie. For the Merchants make use of that Invention, to get leave to enter into China, which would be otherwise deny'd them. They rendevouze in the Kingdom of Cascar, as you may find in the Travels of Bene­dict Goez, inserted into the Relation of Father Trigaut. But formerly and especially in the time of Tamerlan, who made Samarcand one of the chief­est Cities in the World, they went for the most part from that City. And it is very probable that those Merchants to give themselves the great­er [Page 26] reputation, assum'd to themselves to be all of the Kingdom of Samarcand, and that the Chineses, who want the Letter R, and easily confound C. with H, wrote Samahand, instead of Samarcand. For the same reason also the Chineses observing the Mer­chants arrive à Sucheu the last City of the Province of Xensi, and styling themselves all Natives of Samahan or Samarcand, might readily believe that Samahan border'd upon the Province of Xensi.

P. 3. Usanguè.

This must certainly be the same Country which Father Martini calls Usucang, and which is contained within the Kingdom which the Chineses call Sifan, situated to the West of the Province of Suchuen, The Relation of Father Anthony de Andrada calls it also the Country of Ussanguè, and says that it is situated to the East of the Kingdom of Tibet, twenty days journey from China.

P. 3. Father Antony de Andrada, &c.

Father Anthony de Andrada travelled twice into the Kingdom of Tibet. The Relation of his Se­cond Travels in the year 1624. with Father Con­calo de Sousa which was Printed at Lisbon in the year 1628. speaks very clearly of China. For there we find, that it is not above twenty days journey from the Kingdom of Ussanguè or Ussang; and that Ussang is not above forty days journey from the City of Caparange, where the King of Tibet keeps his Court, and where those Fathers arriv'd from [Page 27] Agra in less then two months and a half, passing through Sirinagar. As for Catai, in regard the People of Tibet are very ignorant, they spoke of it very confusedly to Father Andrada; to whom they asserted that Catai was a great City. By the way we may observe, that by that Relation and by the Atlas of Father Martini, who in his History of the War of the Tartars tells us also that the Province of Suchuen borders upon the Kingdom of Tibet, that the Kingdom of Tibet is situated to the East of the Country of the Great Mogul, and not to the North, where the most part of our Maps place it. So much the rather, for that Father Be­nedict Goez in his Travels which he made always to the North of the Empire of the Great Mogul; from the Country of the Usbegs travelling conti­nually Eastward as far as China.

P. 5. The Tartarian Alphabet which we shall give you in due place.

Father Magaillans, not being able to perfect his Work, has not given us this Tartarian Alphabet. But it is to be found in the Grammar made by Fa­ther Ferdinand de Verbiest, which will suddenly be printed at Paris.

P. 6. Mangi, or Mantzu, Barbarians.

Father Nicholas Longobardo in his Letter writ­ten from China 1598. and printed in Latin at Mayence in 1601. tells us, that the Chineses call'd those of the Province of Quamtum Mangi, that is to say, Barbarians. Manginos, that is, Barbarous People, which confirms the opinion of Father Magaillans.

P. 10. Stone-Coal, and Stoves of China.

Almost all Authors that speak of China, agree that in the Northern Provinces the cold is much more intense, then it ought to be, considering the climate, and situation under the fortieth or forty second degree. They also speak of the Stoves which are very Common, and built all alike in all those Northern Provinces. See the Relation of Father Trigant l. 4. c 3. Father Semedo. Part 1. c. 3. and Father Martini's Atlas in his Description of the Provinces of Xansi, and Pekim, where he says that the two Mountains out of which they dig their coal, are very near to the City of Pimko, and are call'd Kie, and Siu vu.

P. 12. That which causes M. Polo to commit these Mistakes, is this, that three leagues, &c.

Father Martini in the Description of the Pro­vince of Pekim confirms this conjecture in these words. ‘The River Lu keu, which is also call'd Sangean, passes to the South-West of the Royal City. You cross over a stately Bridge where a man may count several Arches of Stone, 'tis plain that he speaks of the River that runs to the West of Pekim, and the Bridge built over it, and that this is that of which M. Polo makes mention.’ For that there is no great difference between the name of Sangean, which Father Martini gives it, and that of Sangean, or Buli Sangan, as M. Polo calls it. Father Greslon in his History of China l. 3. c. 8. speaks of an Eastern Bridge, in these words; In the Province of Pekim, there was a Bridge of an admirable Structure, above three hundred paces in length, of which two Arches are broken. And [Page 29] Father Magaillans tells the true reason of the fall of those two Arches the ninth of August 1668. To which Father Greslon adds, That the rest of the Bridge fell the 26. of the month of Aug. the same year. He says moreover that it was call'd Lo-Co-Kaio, that it had been built a thousand years, and that it was not above six Leagues from Pekim. The Fathers Rougemont and Intorcetta in their Re­lations confirm the fall of the rest of the Bridge the 26 of August 1668. three thousand years af­ter it was first laid: And the first of those Fa­thers tells us, that the same Bridge was three hun­dred and sixty paces in length.

P. 15.

These Reasons of Father Magaillans are so much the stronger, because his Opinion is confor­mable to the practice of all those that have wrote concerning China, both before and after him, as Father Adam, a German; Father Greslon, a French­man; Father Semedo, an Italian; Father Rouge­mont, a Flemming, &c. And for that Father Martini has not been follow'd by any but by the Author of the Embassie, who has either copy'd or bor­rowed from Father Martini, all that he speaks concerning China, except the Gests of the Em­bassadors from Camtum to Pekim, and their Ne­gotiations. So that 'tis no wonder the one has imitated the other in his Orthography. Father Greslon also in the Preface to his Relation, proves against Father Martini, that the Chinese words ought to be pronounced as our Author tells us.

P. 16.

We could add several other Reasons to prove [Page 30] that Catai is no other then China deduc'd from the Silk, many Fruits, Plants and Animals, which according to M. Polo breed and grow in China, and are not to be found in any part of Tartary. But this has been so often bandy'd about for these hundred years, and all Authors who have writ up­on this Subject, have prov'd it by so many different Arguments, besides what our Author alledges, that it would be but time ill spent to labour any more about it. Besides that there is no person now that questions, or can doubt of it, unless he would be wilfully blind; I shall only observe that the reason why men might formerly be deluded was this; because that when the Western Tartars undertook the Conquest of China, there were two Emperors: The one was the Real Chinese Empe­ror of the Family Sum, who possess'd the twelve Southern Provinces; the other was the King of the Eastern Tartars of the Family Tai-kin, who possessed the three Northern Provinces, the Coun­try of Leaotum, and the Eastern Tartary. These two Emperors were vanquish'd one after the o­ther, and their Kingdoms subdu'd between the years 1225. and 1280. This being granted, it may be readily apprehended, how easie it was for the Oriental Authors, and such as had heard talk of those Conquests, to believe that the real Em­peror of China was Master of all China, as now we know it; and that the other Emperor of the Fa­mily Tai-kin, whose Empire was more Northerly, liv'd in Tartary to the North of the great Wall; where for that reason our Ancient Geographers have placed Cambalu, and many other Cities and Countries.

CHAP. II. Of the Extent and Division of China: Of the Number of the Cities and other wall'd Towns; And some other particulars obser­ved by the Chinese Authors.

IT is now eighteen years since Father Francis Fierrado Vice-Provincial of China, and after­wards Visitor of Iapan and China, order'd me to write the History of this Empire, and the Pro­gress of the Gospel, there first begun to be preach'd now fourscore and thirteen years ago; But the Employments of the Mission, and the Per­secutions we have undergone, have hindr'd me from going on with it. The Fathers Nicholas Trigaut a Flemming, Alvaro Semedo a Portuguese, Martini Native of Trent, Antony Govea, and Ig­natius de Costa in their yearly Relations have treat­ed very largely upon this Subject. But the Beauty, the Grandeur, and the Antiquity of this Empire, are such copious Subjects, that though there has been much already written concerning them, yet there remains much more to be said. Where­fore I thought it my duty to set down in this place the chiefest Observations which I have col­lected together

China is seated almost at the utmost Extremi­ties of Asia towards the East. It lies under twen­ty three degrees from North to South, from the [Page 32] Fortress of Cai Pim, placed upon the Frontiers of the Province of Pekim in forty one degrees of Latitude to the Meridional point of the Island of Hai Nan in eighteen degrees of Elevation, and A to the South of the Province of Quamtum. So that the length of China from North to South, ac­cording to the Chinese Books, is five thousand seven hundred and fifty Li, or Furlongs. Which makes

  • 402½ Spanish or Portugal Leagues at 17½ to a degree.
  • 575 French Leagues at 25. to a degree.
  • [...]45 German at 15. to a degree.
  • 1380 Italian Miles at 60. to a degree.
  • 5750 Li or Chinese Furlongs at 250. to a degree.

From the Point of Nîm Pô, a Sea-port Town in the Province of Che-kiam, where the Portugals were formerly wont to trade, and which Ferdinand Mendez calls Leam Po, to the extremity of the Province of Suchuen in a streight Line from East to West, it is accounted

  • 297 Spanish and Portugal Leagues.
  • 426 French Leagues.
  • 255 German Miles.
  • 1020 Italian Miles.
  • 4080 Chinese Furlongs at 240 to a degree.

But if you would have the length of China where it is longest, you must take it from the last place to the North-west of the Province of Leaotum call'd Caiyven, to the last City of the Province of Yun­nan call'd Cin tien Kiun min Fu. Take it thus, and then the longest length of this Empire will b [...]

  • [Page 33]525 Spanish Leagues.
  • 750 French Leagues.
  • 1800 Italian Miles.
  • 8400 Chinese Furlongs, at four and a half to a Mile of Italy.

The truest breadth of China, to take it from Tam Chan, the most Easterly place of the Coun­try of Leao tum, and which joins to the King­dom of Corea, to the Place call'd Tum tim to the West of the Province of Xensi is

  • 350 Spanish Leagues.
  • 500 French Leagues.
  • 300 German Miles.
  • 1200 Italian Miles.
  • 5400 Chinese Furlongs.

There are fifteen Provinces in this Empire, which for their largeness, their Riches and Ferti­lity may well be call'd Kingdoms. Which the Chineses rank in this Order according to their Antiquity and Precedency. Pe kim, Nan kim, now call'd Kiām Nân, Xansi, Xantum, Hô nân, Xénsi, Che Kiam, Kiam si, Hù quam, Su chuen, Fo Kien, Quám tūm, Quam si, Yunnan, Quei cheum. The Country of Leao tum might also well deserve the Name of a Province by reason of its extent; but the Chi­neses include it within the Province of Xan tum. The Provinces that lie upon the Sea are Pe kim, Xan tum, Nan kim, Che Kiam, Fo Kien, and Quam tum. Those that border upon Foreign King­doms are Pekim, Xansi, Xensi, Su chuen, Yunnan, Quamsi. The Midland Provinces are Honan, Hu quam, Kiamsi, Quci cheu. By which it ap­pears that Cluverius trusted too unwarily to false [Page 34] Relations, when he reckons up Eighteen Provin­ces in China, and among the rest the Kingdom of Cochinchina. For tho' that Kingdom, and that of Tum Kim were formerly subject to China, 'twas but for a very few Years, and it is a long time a­go since they threw off that subjection. There are several Islands also belonging to China; as the Great and Little Lieu Kieu; Tai Van, which the Portugueses call Formosa, where the Hollanders had a Fortress which was wrested out of their hands by a Chinese Pirate some Years since, and where they lost a great number of Men, and great Guns, and a great quantity of Goods. Hai Nan and Hiam Xan, where stands the City of Ama­gao, or Macao, upon the Southern Promontory of that Island, and a great number of others, some Inhabited, others quite Desart. The Kingdom of Corea is not an Island adjoining to China, as Clu­verius believes, but a great Promontory of the Firm Land, extending it self from the North to the South. Neither is Xam Haì an Island, as Mar­tini writes in his Atlas, and marks it in his Map; but a Fortress so vast and so well fortisi'd by Art and Nature, that it may compare with the best in Europe. It stands upon the firm Land near the Sea, between the Province of Pe Kim and the Country of Leao tum.

The Places Wall'd in, through the whole extent of this Empire, amount to the number of Four Thousand Four Hundred and Two; and are di­vided into Two Orders, the Civil and Military. The Civil Order comprehends Two Thousand Forty Five Wall'd Towns, that is to say, One Hundred Seventy Five Cities of the first Rank which the Chineses call Fu: Two Hundred Seven­ty Four of the Second Order, which they call Che­ū, One Thousand Two Hundred Eighty and [Page 35] Eight Cities which they call Hièn, Two Hundred and Five Royal Hosteries, or Places of Entertain­ment, call'd Ye; and an Hundred and Three Courts of Guard, or Royal Hosteries of the Se­cond Rank, which they call Cham Chin.

Among the Cities and Towns of this Empire I reckon several, seated in the Provinces of Yun Nan, Quei cheum, Quam Si, and Su chuen, which however pay no Tribute to the Emperour, nor yeild him any Obedience, but are govern'd by particular and absolute Princes. These Towns are for the most part so environ'd with high Mountains and steep Rocks, as if Nature had taken a particular Care of their Fortification. Within which Mountains lie Fields and Plains for several Days Journeys; where are to be seen Ci­ties both of the first and second Rank together with many Towns and Villages. The Chineses call these Lords Tù Sù, or Tù Quon, that is to say Mandarins of the Country: For that as they be­lieve there is no Emperour of the World but the Emperour of China, so they are conceited that there are no other Princes or Lords but such as they to whom the Emperour gives that Title. Nor do they give the Title of Mandarins of the Land or Country to those, but to distinguish them from others by a kind of Contempt of Foreigners. The People that are subject to these Lords speak the same Language with the Chineses, altho' be­sides that, they have a particular Language also. Their Manners and Customs are somewhat diffe­rent from those of the Chineses: nevertheless their Complexion and the Shape of their Bodies are altogether alike; but as to their Courage, you would think them to be quite another Nation. The Chineses stand in fear of them; so that after several Tryals which they have made of their [Page 36] Prowess, they have been forc'd to let them live at their own liberty, and to consent to a free Traf­fick and Commerce with them. In the Relati­on which I have made of that Famous Tyrant B Châm Hiém Chùm, concerning which Father Martini wrote to me upon his return out of Eu­rope, that he had left a Copy of it in the Secreta­ry's Office at Rome, and another in the College of Conimbre, where it was publickly read, I give an account of what be [...]ell one of these Sovereign Lords. I shall here repeat it in few words, to the end the Puissance of this Empire may be the bet­ter understood, where they make little account of the Forces of these Lords, tho' they are very con­siderable, and that their Dominions are seated in the heart of the Provinces of China.

The Tyrant Cham Hien Chum not enduring there should be any one that refus'd to yield him Obedi­ence in the Province where he had caus'd himself to be Crown'd, and where he vaunted that he had laid the Foundations of his Empire, sent a Com­mand to one of these Lords whose Principality lay nearest to his Court, to come and attend his Per­son, acknowledge him his Sovereign, and pay him that Tribute which was due to him. The Lord sent him back for Answer, that neither he nor his Predecessors had ever paid any Tribute to the Emperour of China; which Answer put the Ty­rant into such a Chase, that he immediately sent an Army to force him to Obedience. But his Army was in a short time deseated by the Prince. Cham Hien Chum thereupon rais'd another Army more numerous then the first, and march'd himself in person to enter the Territories of the Prince; who being a person of great Courage, and fa­vour'd by the Advantage of the Places, gave the Tyrant Battel, overthrew him and forc'd him to [Page 37] retire, enrag'd at his ill Success, yet more ani­mated to Revenge then ever. For that reason he rais'd a Third Army, and gave the Command of it to his first adopted Son call'd Sum Co vam, of whom I have sometimes made mention in the An­nual Letters of this Mission. He was a Person Learned, Prudent, Courageous, and so affable and good natur'd, that many times he effected those things by his Prudence and Sweetness, which his Father could not bring to pass with all his Armed Force and Cruelty. And indeed he knew so well to manage the haughty Spirit of the stubborn Prince, that he not only oblig'd the Prince to ac­knowledge his Father for his Sovereign, but to as­sist him with Men and Money to compleat his Con­quest of China. He carry'd him in his company to the Court with all his Army consisting of For­ty Thousand Men, all pick'd and chosen Young Men clad in the same Colour'd Habit, and Arm'd with a sort of Cuirasses and Head-pieces of quilt­ed Cotton. Upon his arrival the Prince Muster'd his Army in the place appointed for those kinds of Exercises in every City of China. The Ty­rant on the other side receiv'd him with many Ex­traordinary Caresses and Marks of his Favour and hearty Affection, and invited him publickly to a solemn Feast the next day, where the Prince fail'd not to attend him. But in the midst of the Mu­sick, the Comedy and Jollity of the Banquet, the Persidious and Cruel Tyrant order'd a most rank and nimble Poison to be presented him in a Glass of Wine, which dispatch'd him in a few Moments. Which done, he caus'd his whole Army ready drawn up for that purpose to surround and put to the Sword all the Forces of the unfortunate Prince, and not to let a Man escape. Which was executed with so much the more ease, because the [Page 38] poor People not mistrusting any such Treachery were surpriz'd without a Leader, without Arms, and all in disorder. And of this accident I my self was an Eye-witness; which I therefore here relate to shew the Grandeur of this Empire.

Nor ought any Man to scruple the belief of what I have here related concerning the Number of the Cities and Towns far more numerous then what Father Martini sets down, in regard I take in all those belonging to these Petty Sovereigns, whose Principalities, tho' they do not acknow­ledge the Emperour, are nevertheless seated in the middle of his Empire, in the Four Provinces which I have nam'd. I have also included the Ci­ties and Towns of Leao tum, and of the Province of Yun Nan, which the Chineses excessively addict­ed to their own Formalities, never put into their Ordinary Catalogues, but in the particular, which I have said they make of the Raigns of certain Families.

The Chineses have caus'd to be Printed a Pub­lick [...]inerary which contains all the Roads and Pas­sages as well by Water as by Land, from Pe kim to the utmost parts of the Empire. This Book the Mandarins buy, when they go from Court to their several Governments and Employments at a di­stance, as also all other Travellers, to the end they may be able to know the Roads, the distance of one place from another, and the Furlongs of e­very Journey. In this Book all the Royal High­ways in the Empire are divided into Eleven Hun­dred Forty Five Days Journeys, every one of which have a certain place where the Mandarins are Lodged and Entertain'd at the King's Expences when they go to their several Employments. But when they deprive them of their Charges, they lose also the Privilege of Royal Entertainment. [Page 39] These Eleven Hundred Forty Five Places are call'd Ye or Chin, that is to say, Places of Entertain­ment and Attendance. And this Name is given to them not without reason. For there they wait for the coming of the Mandarins with as much care and circumspection, as if they were upon their Guard against an Armed Enemy. Of these Places there are Seven Hundred Thirty Five in the Cities of the first and second Order, in the Frontier Town, and in the Castles in the heart of the Em­pire. Two Hundred and Five in the Places call'd Ye, and Three Hundred and Three in the Places call'd Chin. Both the one and the other were for­merly built in those places where there were no Towns, and may be call'd Towns of the second Rank; because they are all Wall'd, have Mandarins for their Governours, and because there are some which are larger and better peopl'd then many Towns and Cities. There are a Hundred and Two which have no Walls, but such as are very large and very Populous. The Day before the Mandarin sets forward, a Courier is dispatch'd a­way before with a little kind of a Trencher which the Chineses call Pai, upon which is written the Name and Employment of the Officer, with his Name and Seal at the bottom. So soon as that is seen, they cleanse and make ready the Palace where he is to Lodge. Which preparations are more or less sumptuous, according to the dignity of the Mandarin, of Dyet, Porters, Horses, Chairs, Litters, or Barges, if he be to go by Wa­ter, and in a word of whatever it be that is need­full. In these Hosteries likewise are entertain'd proportionably all sorts of other Persons whether Chineses or Foreigners, to whom the King is pleas­ed to grant that favour; the convenience of which I found my self, when I was sent some years ago [Page 40] to Macao. In these places the King's Couriers take what they have occasion for, either for spee­dy hast or refreshment. There they find Horses ready saddled; but for fear they should not be al­ways ready, a furlong or two before the Courier arrives at the Hostery or Inn, the Courier gives several loud Bangs upon a Basin call'd Lô, which he carries behind his back, and then they saddle a Horse for him with all the speed imaginable: So that he presently Mounts and leaves his other Horse behind him without any farther trouble.

The Kingdom of China contains Eleven Milli­ons, Five Hundred and Two Thousand Eight Hundred Seventy Two Families, not including the Women, Children, Poor People, Mandarins employ'd, Souldiers, Batchelers of Art, Licenti­ates, Doctors, Mandarins dispenc'd with from Service, such as live upon the Rivers, the Bonzes, Funuchs, nor any that are of the Royal Blood; for they only reckon those that cultivate the Land and pay the King's Rents and Tributes. So that there is in the whole Empire of China Fifty Nine Millions, Seven Hundred Fourscore and Eight Thousand Three Hundred Sixty Four Males. Thus much for the Civil Order of China.

The Military Order contains Six Hundred Twenty Nine large Fortresses of the first degree, and of great Importance, either upon the Fron­tiers, as the Keys of the Empire, to keep out the Tartars, or upon the Consines of the Provinces against Rebels and Robbers. The Chineses call them Quan, and that of Xam hái, of which we have spoken already, is one of the Number.

There are Five Hundred Sixty Seven Fortresses of the Second Rank, which are call'd Guéi in the Chinese Language. And that same place call'd Ti­en [...]ìm g [...]êi, or Fortress of the Well of Heaven, of [Page 41] which Father Martini speaks in his Atlas, p. 36. is of the same number. By which you may guess at the rest of the Fortresses of the second Rank. They reckon Three Hundred and Eleven Fortresses of the Third Rank, call'd Sò. Three Hundred of the Fourth Rank call'd Chin, which retain the same Name and the same signification with those of the fifth Civil Order; and a Hundred and Fifty of the Fifth Rank, call'd Paò.

There are a Hundred Fortresses of the Sixth Rank, call'd Pù; and lastly, Three Hundred of the Seventh Order, call'd Chái. These latter are of several sorts; for some of them stand in the fields, and serve for places of Refuge for the Country-men, who retire thither with their Cat­tel and Goods, when any Tartars, Robbers or Re­bels harrass the Country: as also when the Em­perour's Armies are upon their March. Others are seated upon the Precipices of steep Mountains, to which there is no other ascent but by steps cut out of the Rock, or by the help of La [...]ders made of Ropes or Wood, which they remove as they please themselves: And these Fortresses general­ly have no Walls because they need none. Others are seated upon Mountains, which are neverthe­less approachable: and therefore on that side where they lie open they are guarded with a dou­ble or treble Wall: And both of these and of the other before recited I have seen several in the Pro­vinces of Su-chuen and Xensi. By this account it appears, that the fortifi'd Places amount to the number of Two Thousand Three Hundred Fifty Seven, which being added to those of the Civil Order, make up Four Thousand Four Hundred and Two. Besides which, there are within and without the great Walls that environ China above Three Thousand Towers or Castles, call'd Tai, of [Page 42] which every one has its proper Name. In those Towers are kept Guards and Watches all the Year long, which give the Alarm so soon as the Ene­my appears, in the Day time by Erecting a Ban­ner upon one of the highest Towers, and in the Night by setting up a Lighted Flambeau. Should we reckon these Towers or Castles among the Fortifi'd Places of which these latter would make an Eighth Order, there would be then in all Five Thousand Three Hundred Fifty Seven.

About a hundred and Fifty Years ago a certain Mandarin of the Superior Tribunal of Arms, com­pil'd two Volumes which he Dedicated to the Emperor, and which he Entitul'd Kiu pien tu uxe, the Practice of the Mapps of the Nine Frontiers. He meant by that the Nine Quarters into which he had divided the Great Walls that Envi­ron a part of China for four hundred and five Portuguese Leagues together, which make 23 De­grees and ten Minutes from East to West, from the City of Caī yêun, seated at the Extremity of the Country call'd Leâo tūm to that of Cân so, or Cān cheu, seated upon the Borders of the Province of Xensi. And this too must be under­stood of the Fortification running in a streight Line; for should we take in all the Turnings and Windings of the Mountains and Walls, the whole without question would amount to a­bove five hundred Portugal Leagues. In those Books he represents in three Maps all the Pas­sages of the Mountains that are accessible, and in a hundred and twenty Nine other great Maps, Thirteen Hundred twenty seven Fortresses great and small, which he says are all necessary to pre­vent the inroads of Tartars. So that if the Chi­neses were not so Negligent, so Cowardly, so Covetous, and persidious to their Prince as they [Page 43] are, the Tartars could never have surmounted those Walls nor got footing within those Castles, so well dispos'd in all Places requisite, and so strongly Fortify'd as well by Nature as by Art. And indeed it is apparent as well by their own Histories, as by what we have seen in our time, that the Tartars could never enter into China, but when either the Cowardice or the Treacherous A­varice of the Commanders open'd them a Pas­sage. This the Tartars knew and therefore of­fer'd them a Moiety of their Plunder and Booty, and were no less punctual in their performances then they had been liberal in their promises upon their Return into Tartary. For the continuance of which Trade they always left a Passage open for these Inroads, which the Tartars fail'd not to make twice a Year; nor could all the Rigorous punishments which the King inflicted upon seve­ral of those Traitors deterr the rest from their disloyal Traffick with his Enemies. Or if he at any time did restrain some within the bounds of Duty, then the Tartars enlarged their Offers. But then such was the eager desire of those persidious Of­ficers to heap up Wealth, that at length they surrender'd into the hands of a small Number of half Barbarians the Richest and most Populous Kingdom in the World.

In the same Book you see the number of Souldi­ers that keep Guard upon the Frontiers, to the number of Nine hundred and two Thou­sand C and fifty four. The Auxiliary Forces that lie ready to March to their Assistance, when the Tartars are upon entring into China, are in­numerable; there being Nine hundred fourscore and nine Thousand an hundred sixty seven Horses appointed for those Forces. The Emperors Ex­pences for the Payment of the Officers and Souldi­ers [Page 44] amounts every year to five Millions, thirty four Thousand seven hundred and fourteen Livers. Were these Books printed, and their Maps Engraven with that skill and exactness as Maps are done in Europe they would be the Admiration of all curious Persons. It were to be wish'd that some one would take the pains to give us a lively Representation of the Walls, Fortresses, and other the most remarkable things in this Empire.

Now by what we have said concerning the Num­ber of Souldiers appointed to Guard the Walls and Frontiers against the Tartars, an easie judg­ment may be made of the Number of those that are employed upon the Borders of the Provinces, in the Cities, Towns and other wall'd Places of the Provinces, of which there is not any one that has not a Garrison. They amount to the Number of seven hundred sixty seven Thousand nine hun­dred and seventy Men, which in time of Peace Guard and attend in the day time upon the Man­darin's, Embassadors, and other Persons whose Ex­pences the King defrays, and in the Night time keep Guard about their Barques, or their Lodgings. The Horses also which the King keeps as well for the Service of his Troops, as for his Posts and Messengers amount to five hundred sixty four Thousand and nine hundred. But when there happens any Revolt, or any War, the Armies which rendevouze from all the Provinces are al­most innumerable.

And now because my time is short, and my oc­casions oblige me to Brevity, I shall here set down the Principal Wonders of this Empire, of which the Author before mentioned gives a larger ac­count.

There are in the fifteen Provinces three hun­dred thirty and one Famous Bridges, not much [Page 45] inferior to that of which we have already spoken; and to those which are describ'd by Father Mar­tini, and M. Polo in their Descriptions of China. And therefore I shall say no more upon this Sub­ject, seeing that if I were to describe every Stru­cture in particular that is considerable, it would require the labour of several Volumes.

There are also in China two thousand fourscore and nineteen Mountains, Famous [...]her for being cut into the shape of Monstrous Idols, (as is that which I have mentioned in the Relation of my Travels from the Province of Kiam nân or Nankim, to that of Su Chuen, and which I sent into Europe in the year 1643.) Or for their Foun­tains, their particular Plants, and their Minerals of great Virtue; or for their extraordinary strength, and other Prerogatives which distinguish them from others.

Their Famous Waters, such as are their Lakes full of Fish, their hot Fountains, no less Medicinal than Wonderful, the large Streams and Navigable Rivers are to the number of one Thousand four Hundred Seventy and Two.

There are one Thousand Fourscore and Nine­teen Peices of Antiquity to be seen, as Statues, Famous Paintings and Vessels of high Price, and greatly esteemed. One Thousand one Hundred Fifty Nine Towers, Triumphal Arches, and o­ther such like Magnificent Pieces of Workman­ship, Erected in Honour of Renowned Princes; Men famous for their Valour or their Learning, or of Widows and Virgins renowned for their Chastity and Vertue. Two hundred seventy two Libraries embellish'd with sundry Ornaments, stored with great numbers of Books, and built at vast Expences.

[Page 46]There are likewise to be seen seven Hundred and Nine Temples Erected by the Chineses at se­veral times in memory of their Ancestors and considerable for their Largness and the Beauty of their Architecture. For it is the Custom of the Chineses to testifie an extraordinary Affection and Obedience to their Parents, especially after their Death; and therefore to make this manifest to the World, they cause to be built at great Ex­pences most stately Halls, wherein, instead of Images and Statues, they set up in Cartredges the Names of their Ancestors and Parents. Also up­on certain days of the Year appointed by the Fa­mily to which the Temple belongs, they assemble all together in these Halls, where they prostrate themselves upon the ground in token of Love and Veneration: Which done, they offer Incense, and afterwards make a spendid Feast at several Ta­bles richly set Forth, and adorn'd with an extra­ordinary Decency, and a great Number of Dishes and Viands well dress'd.

They reckon about four Hundred and Fourscore Temples of Idols very Famous and much frequen­ted by reason of their Riches, their Magnisicence and the Pretended Miracles and Fables which they report concerning their Idols. In these Temples, and in others of which the Number through the whole Empire is incredible, no less than three Hundred & Thousand Bonzes have their Habitations. I must confess I could not conceive there should be so great a Number; and therefore I put the Question to a Mandarin of the Tribune of Ceremonies who was one of my friends, whether it were true or no [...] For that the Bonzes are under the Jurisdiction of this Tribunal and receive their Licences from it, which they call Tutie. This Mandarin upon a dili­gent search inform'd me, that within the City and [Page 47] Court of Pekim only there were Six Thousand Six Hundred Sixty eight Bonzes unmarry'd, call'd by them Ho xám, and five Thousand and Twenty Two Marry'd, and which like the former have also their Pass-ports and Licences; by which said he, you may judge of the number dispers'd over the whole Empire. Besides that you are farther to observe that within the Number of three Hundred and fifty Thousand mention'd by the Chinese Histo­rian, are only comprehended the Bonzes which have Licences: But in regard that among six or seven Bonzes not above one or two generally have Licences, should they all be reckon'd into the Number, they would certainly amount to above a Million.

There are moreover six Hundred Fourscore and five Mausoleums, Famous for their Architecture and their Riches. For in China all Persons are prohibi­ted under great Penalties to bury their dead with­in the Walls of their Cities, or of any other place whatever. So that after they have put the Corps in the Cossin, all the Chincks and Jointures of which are stopp'd up with Bitumen to prevent the scent of the dead Body, they leave them in the House where they died for some Months and many times for two or three years together, the Magistrate in all that time having no power to to constrain them to an Enterrment. It is also law­ful, when a Person dies at a distance from his own House, to transport his Body from one City or Province to another; as it is usual for the Richer sort and the Mandarins to do; provided nevertheless that they do not bring their dead Bodies through the Cities, but round about by the Walls. These Coffins, which are generally of some sort of precious Wood, cost many times two hundred, and sometimes above a thousand Crowns. [Page 48] And the Children of the Deceas'd are so obse­quious as to cause these Cossins to be carry'd for several days, and sometimes for a whole months Journey together, at an extraordinary expence, to lay them in the Sepulchres of their Ancestors. And indeed the Sepulchres of their Grandees are very magnificent Structures, and certainly deserve [...]oth to be seen and Admir'd. For they are very fair and large Houses all vaulted, erected upon a Mountain or plain, wherein they also presently put the Coffin, and cover it with as much Earth as will make a little Hillock which they adorn and plant in wonderful Order and Symmetry with Trees of several sorts. Before the Hillock they Erect a large Altar of white Polish'd Marble, upon which they place a great Candlestick of Marble, Steel or Tin, and upon each side another Candle­stick of the same materials. Then upon each side, and in several files, you shall see rang'd in very good order a great number of Figures of Manda­rins, Gentlemen, Pages, Eunuchs, Lions, Horses Saddel'd, Camels, Tortoises, and other Creatures. Whose Actions and Movements are represented with that lively briskness, that you would think them alive indeed, the Chineses being very hap­py in their manner of expressing in dead Sculpture the most lively Passions of the Mind, as Joy, Fear, Anger, Melancholy, and the like.

They reckon Three Thousand Thirty Six Men famous and renowned for their Vertues, their Knowledge, and their Prowess, their Loyalty to­ward their Princes, their Obedience toward their Parents, or for some good Work or Action per­formed for the benefit of their Country. They also reckon Two Hundred and Eight Virgins and Widows, who for their Chastity, their Courage, and Heroick Actions, are thought worthy of Eter­nal [Page 49] Memory, and are Celebrated in their Stories and Poesies, as being honour'd by the Chineses with Titles, Inscriptions, Temples, and Trium­phal Arches.

Lastly, There are in China Thirty Two Princes or Petty Kings Palaces, much less then the Empe­rors, but which resemble those in form, and in the disposal and contrivance of the Halls, Cham­bers, Gardens, and all other Parts according to the Model of that Palace where the Emperor keeps his Residence.

Notes upon the Second Chapter.

A. P. 32.

IN the Portuguese Original, just against this part, the Author has set down these words in the Mar­gin. A Ly, contains a Hundred and Sixty Paces; a Pace, Six Cubits; a Cubit, the length of this Mar­gin. A Ly, is a Chinese Furlong; a Cubit is a Chi­nese Foot. I measur'd likewise exactly the length of the Margin in the Original, which, as the Author says, is equal to a Chinese Cubit, and found that it was to the Foot of Paris as Seven to Eight; that is to say, that the Foot of Paris exceeded the Chinese Cubit, a Seventh part of that Cubit. But in regard it is very requisite to know the proportion of these Measures, we are to understand, that in Geography all Itinerary Measures are [...]o be reduc'd to one degree of a great Circle of the Earth.

There has been great Labour and Industry employ'd in all Ages, and among all the more Eminent Nations [Page 50] to determine the Measure of one of these degrees; but with so little success, and so much uncertainty, that you shall hardly meet with two Geographers that agree in this particular, as may be seen in their Works, and more especially in the reformed Geography of Father Riccioli, a Iesuit, who has made a large Collection of those varieties of Opinions.

' [...]would be to no purpose to dive into the Causes of both their Errors, or of the great difficulty to deter­mine precisely the measure of a degree. Let it suf­fice therefore to say, that at length the Royal Society of Sciences at Paris, compos'd of the most Learned Men, and most Ingenious Astronomers and Geometricians of Europe, has brought this difficult undertaking to per­fection with so much Caution, Care and Exactness, that we cannot believe that future Ages will be able to add any thing to their Inventions. Here then is the Proportion or Measure of the great Circle of the Earth, according to the Measures of several Coun­tries.

The Measure of the Great Circle of the Earth.
  • Fathoms of Paris—57060
  • Paces of Bolognia in Italy—58481
  • Perches of Rhine of 12 Foot to each—29556
  • Parisian Leagues of 2000 Fathoms—28¼
  • Middle Leagues of France of about 2282 Fa­thoms—25
  • Sea Leagues, or an Hour's running—20
  • English Miles, 5000 Foot to each—73 1/200
  • Miles of Florence of 3000 Fathom—63 1/10
The Circumference of the Earth.
  • Fathoms of Paris—2054 1600
  • Leagues of 25 to a degree—9000
  • [Page 51]Sea Leagues—7200
The Diameter of the Earth.
  • Fathoms of Paris—6538594
  • Leagues 25 to a Degree—2864 [...]
  • Sea Leagues—2291 59/71
  • The Measure of a Degree—57660 Fathoms
  • Of a Minute—951 Fathoms
  • Of a Second—61 Fathoms
Supposing the Foot of Paris of 1440 parts.
  • The Foot of the Rhine or Leyden has—1390
  • The Foot of London—1350
  • The Foot of Boloyne—1686
  • The Fathom of Florence—2 [...]80
  • Value of a Degree—57060 Fathoms
  • Of a Minute—951
  • Of a Second—16 Fathoms

By these Measures 'tis apparent, that it is to no purpose to say that a Degree contains so many Foot of France or Spain, or so many Italian or German Miles, if you do not at the same time tell the Number of Fathoms and Feet which those Miles and Leagues contain, and the Measure and Proportion of the said Fathoms and Feet.

This being granted, 'tis no wonder that the Itinera­ry Measures have been so uncertain in Europe till now, that they should be much mor [...] uncertain in China, more especially considering that the Chineses are very Ignorant in Geometry, and very little skill'd in Astro­nomy, and for that the Missionaries can hardly find time, and requisite Conveniences to measure a Degree, and examine the Proportions between the Measures of China and those of Europe. However they have al­ready rectifi'd the Map of this great Kingdom very much, by several observations, and illustrated many things. But still they are frequently oblig'd to have recourse to the Chinese Authors, [...]s Father Magail­lans [Page 52] acknowledges in this place, because the Bigness and Proportion of the Cubit, and Furlong with the Measures of Europe are still unknown.

Father Riccioli upon the Authority of Father Martini believes the Chinese Cubit, to be equal to the Ancient Roman Foot of Vilalpandus; but I find by the Measure mark'd down by Father Magaillans, that it is les [...] by about a Seventeenth part.

The Fathers Massei, Trigaut, and Semedo, will have the Li, or Chinese Furlong, to consist of Three Hunderd Chinese Paces of Six Cubits each, and the Fathers Martini and Magaillans, assert it to contain Three Hundred and Sixty.

Father Trigaut and Father Semedo allow Five Chinese Furlongs to an Italian Mile of Sixty to a Degree. Father Martini Four, and a Sixth part. Father Magaillans in the computations which he makes of himself allows Four Furlongs and a half to every Italian Mile.

Father Trigaut believes that there ought to go Three Hundred Chinese Furlongs to One Degree. Fa­ther Semedo Two Hundred Fifty Five. But the Fa­thers Adam, Martini, and Magaillans, admit no more than Two Hundred and Fifty; which according to the judgment of the two last, make Fourscore and Ten Thousand Chinese Paces, or Five Hundred and Forty Thousand Chinese Cubits or Feet. But as I have said already, both the Ancient as well as the Modern Geographers, were all in a Mist, before the Academy of Sciences found out the true Measure of a Degree. So that all that is to be done, till the Iesuits which the King has sent to China, send us the exact Itinerary Measures of that Country, is to follow the Opinions of Martini and Magaillans, conformable to the Measure of the Chinese Cubit, mark'd down by the latter, and according to the largeness of a Degree measur'd by the Gentlemen of the Academy of Sciences. [Page 53] We know well that there are in China Two certain Measures; which are the Chè or Chinese Cubit or Foot, and the Puù or Pace, or the Chinese Fathom. The Chè is to the Foot of Paris as Seven to Eight And so a Degree containing Three Hundred Forty Two Thousand Three Hundred and Sixty Foot of Pa­ris, will be equal to Three Hundred Fourscore and Eleven Thousand Two Hundred Sixty Eight Feet, or Chè of China, and Four Sevenths. Now according to all the Authors that have writ of China, the Puù or Chinese Pace contains Six Che or Cubits. But the Puù is to the Fathom of Paris as Seven to Eight; so that Fifty Seven Thousand and Sixty Fathoms of Paris, contain'd in one Degree, amounts to Sixty Five Thousand Two Hundred and Eleven Puù's, Paces or Fathoms of China, and 3/7.

The Fathers, Adam, Martini, and Magaillans, who seem to be the most exact, allow Two Hunderd and Sixty Furlongs to a Degree; so that there remains no more to be known, then how many Puù's or Paces every Furlong contains. Now it cannot contain Three Hun­dred and Sixty, as those Fathers say; for then a De­gree would contain Fourscore and Ten Thousand Paces, or Seventy Eight Thousand Seven Hundred and Fifty Fathoms of Paris; and by consequence would be too large by a Third Part. So that of necessity they must have allow'd too many Paces to a Furlong. Which makes us believe that those Fathers trusted to the Cal­culations of the Chineses, or that Father Magaillans had recourse to Martini's Atlas: or that it might be an Error of the Press, which might easily mistake 3 for 2. Which last Opinion is so much the more pro­bable, for that if instead of allowing Three Hundred and Sixty Puù's or Chinese Fathoms to a Furlong, you admit no more then Two Hundred and Sixty, and then Multiply them by Two Hundred and Fifty Furlongs, the Product will be Sixty Five Thousand Puù's or [Page 54] Chinese Paces. Which approaches so near to Sixty Five Thousand Two Hundred and Eleven Puù's or Paces, to which I have equall'd the Fifty Seven Thou­sand and Sixty Fathoms of Paris, which compose a Degree according to the Measure of the Academy of Sciences, that the difference hardly amounts to a Furlong.

These things being granted, it follows that a De­gree of the Great Circle of the Earth amounts to
  • Feet of the Guild-Hall of Paris 342360
  • Geometrical Paces each of Five Parisian Feet 68462
  • Fathoms of Paris, Six Foot each 57060
  • Chè or Chinese Feet or Cubits, which are to the Foot of Paris as Seven to Eight 391268
  • Puù or Chinese Paces or Fathoms, each of Six Chè, or Feet, and which are to the Geometrical Paces, as 10⅚ to 10, or 42 to 40, and to the Fa­thom of Paris as 7 to 8. 65211 [...]
  • [...], of Furlongs at 260 Puù's or Paces, and which amount to about double the Furlongs of the Greeks and Romans 250
  • Miles, 60 to the Degree, at 4 1/6 Furlongs each, and 1086 [...] Puù's or Paces, or more truly 1086 300/420 60
  • Sea Leagues of an Hour at 12 1/6 Furlongs, or at [...] Puù or Paces each 20

These Computations may serve to rectifie the Mea­sures which we meet with, as well in this Relation as in others, till the Iesuits sent by the King to China, give us the exact measure of the Cubit or Foot, of the Pace or Fathom, and the Furlong of the Chineses, whence it will be easie to gather the measure of a Degree of a Great Circle in China.

B. p. 36. In the Relation which I have made of the Exploits of that famous Tyrant Cham Hien Chum, &c.

From this Relation it is that Martini has taken what he writes of Cham Hien Chum, in his History of the War of the Tartars, as he acknowledges him­self. There, he confirms what our Author tells us of some Independent Princes in certain Provinces of Chi­na, by another example of a Soveraign Princess, in the Province of Su chuen, who came in Man's Ap­parel to the Succor of the Chinese Emperor, in the stead of her Son, who was an Infant. He relates that she perform'd with her own hand many Valiant Exploits; as well against the Tartars, as against the Rebels. Father Couplet also in his Chronology makes mention of this Amazon or Independent Princess.

The great Encomiums that Magaillans gives in this place to Sun co vam, one of the Adopted Sons of the Tirant Cham hien chum may perhaps awaken the Curiosity of the Reader to understand what became of him at length. To which purpose I have here set down what I met with in the History of Father Rouge­mont, who alone makes mention of him.

After the Cruel Tirant Cham hien chum, was slain and his Army defeated by the Tartars, Sun co vam retir'd with a small Force into the Province of Junnan, which he valiantly defended for some Years against the Tartars. For he defeated them in seve­ral Encounters, and won so high a Reputation by his Valour, and by his Glorious Atcheivements, that he was declar'd Emperor by his Army in the Year 1650. But at that time there was an other Emperor of the Royal Race, call'd Yum Liè, Grandchild to the Em­peror Van Liè, who Dy'd in the Year 1620. This Young Prince had been acknowledg'd Emperor in the [Page 56] ▪Provinces of Quam si, and Quei cheu, and in a great part of Quam tum. But in the Year 1650, the Tartars having Reconquer'd all the Province of Quam tum, fell upon that of Quam si, and con­strain'd Yum Liè, to flie for shelter into the Province of Yun nan, where Sun co vam was sole Lord and Master. The Friends and Favourites of Sun co van [...] advis'd him to put the Fugitive Emperor to Death, and to maintain himself in the Sovereign Power that had been conferr'd upon him. But he absolutely re­sus'd so unworthy an Action, and more then that, de­clar'd that he was resolv'd to acknowledge Yum Liè, whose Birth had given him an undoubted Right to the Crown. In short he acknowledg'd the Fugitive Emperor, and all his Officers and Soldiers follow'd his Example. His Forces were very numerous and well disciplin'd, and there was great hopes that so brave a Captain would have resettl'd the Affairs of China, and driven out the Tartars. But the Vices of the Emperor, who took no care of his own Affairs, as be­ing wholly addicted to Wine and Women, prevented the Success. For this bad Management of himself brought Yum Liè in [...]o Contempt among his Subjects; and Sun co vam repenting perhaps that he had resign'd the Em­pire to him, left him only the Name of Emperor, with wha [...] was requisite for his own and the subsi­stance of his Family. However this harsh Usage of the Emperor displeas'd several of the Commanders of the Army, and among the rest, one of the chiefest a­mong them call'd [...]im Qué; before the best Friend that Sun co vam had, and his Brother by Adoption, as being both Adopted by the Tirant Cham hien chum. Thereupon the Quarrel between these Two Great Per­sons grew to that height, that they broke Friendship, parted their Forces and fought one against the other, till at last in the heat of the Combat Sun co vam's Soldiers deserted him and went over to the Enemy; [Page 57] so that he had much ado to escape by flight with only Three Hundred Men that continu'd faithful to him. Upon which, despairing ever to resettle the Affairs of China, he surrender'd himself to the Tartars; who having his Vertues in high Esteem and Veneration, advanc'd him Laden with Honors to the Dignity of a Petty King. Some time after, Yum Liè, bereft of the Assistance of so great a Captain, was in a short time by the Tartars depriv'd both of his Empire and his Life, the Prowess of Li tim not being sufficient to withstand their Power. Nevertheless that the Eldest Son, the Wife and Mother of the same Emperor had been Baptiz'd in the Year 1648. by Father An­drew Kassler a Iesuit, the Son being nam'd Constan­tine. Thus much I took out of the History of Father Rougemont.

C. P. 43. In the same Book you may see the number of Soldiers that keep Guard upon the Fron­tiers, &c.

There is some difference among Authors, concerning the number of Soldiers in China, which nevertheless is very extraordinary. Father Trigaut asserts that there are above a Million; Father Martini, near a Million, and by the report of Father Semedo, Father John Rodriquez, who was a person very Curious, and one that had Travel'd much in China, assur'd him, that by what he had met with in the Chinese Books, that the number of Soldiers in the several Provinces of the Kingdom amounted to Five Hundred Fourscore and Fourteen; and Six Hundred Fourscore and Two Thousand Eight Hundred Fourscore and Eight to Guard the great Wall against the Tartars; not in­cluding the Soldiers which belong to their Fleets. But we ought rather to give Credit to ihe Relation of Fa­ther Magaillans, a more Modern Writer, and who [Page 58] took what he asserts out of a Book presented to the Emperor himself. However, we are to consider that these Soldiers are not like to ours in Europe, neither for Courage nor Discipline, as being no other for the most part then the Country Militia. For Father Se­medo, speaking of the Soldiers of the Provinces, says they are of [...]ittle worth; and that we are not to think they follow no other Employment then that of be­ing Soldiers. [...]or that they are generally Inhabitants in the places where they are Enroll'd; and follow their Trades, some Shooe-makers, others Taylors, &c. And Father Trigaut in his Second Chapter tells us, that to the end we may kn [...]w the number of the Soldiers to be incredible, we ought to observe that almost half the People of the Three Northern Provinces are [...]oll'd i [...] [...]he Service of the Emperor. [...]Magaillans [...] firm [...] the same thing, wher [...] [...] [...]ays that the Ex­ [...]e of the Emperor eve [...]y Year for Nine Hundred a [...] Two Thousand and Fifty Four Soldiers that Guard th [...] W [...] ▪ including Officers and all, amounts but to [...] Millions Thirty Four Thousand Seven Hundred and Fourteen Livres, which is not above half a Pistol a Year for every Man, which could never maintain them, did they not follow their Trades to support them­selves and their Families. And for that very reason we are not to think such a number of Soldiers incredi­ble, which the Chinese Historian Cited by Father Ma­gaillans, allows as well for the defence of the Fron­tiers, as the inner parts of the Provinces, which a­mounts to Sixteen Hundred Seventy Thousand and Twenty Four: More especially considering the vastness of the Empire numerously Peopled, and that the Soldiers have neither Courage nor Discipline. And therefore Father Martini tells us that the Tartars are better Soldiers then the Chineses, but neither of them comparable to the Soldiers in Europe.

CHAP. III. Of the Antiquity of the Kingdom of China, and what a high Opinion the Chineses have of it.

THis Kingdom is so Ancient that it has pre­serv'd its form of Government, and has con­tinu'd during the Reign of Twenty Two Fa­milies, from whence have descended Two A Hundred Thirty Six Kings for the space of Four Thousand and Twenty Five Years. For it is so many Years since it began according to the Opinion which the Chineses hold for certain and unquestionable. For should we rest satisfi'd with what they look upon to be very probable, it would be Four Thousand Six Hundred and Twenty to this present Year 1668, since this Kingdom be­gan. The Chineses however have Three Opinions concerning this matter. Some of their Books six the Original of their Kingdom some Hundreds of Thousands of Years before the Creation. But tho' the Vulgar sort believe this to be true, yet the Wiser and more Learned sort, hold those Books for merely Fabulous and Apocryphal, more especi­ally since Consucius has condemn'd that Error. The Second Opinion makes King Fohi to be the Founder of this Kingdom, who was the first that Reign'd towards the Consines of the Province of Xénsi the most Western part of China, and after­wards [Page 60] in the Province of Honan, seated almost in the middle of the Empire. So that according to their Books it was Two Thousand Nine Hundred Fifty Two Years before the Birth of Christ, that this Prince began to Reign, about Two Hundred Years after the Universal Deluge, according to the Version of the Seventy Interpreters. All the Learned Men hold this Opinion to be probable, and many among them take it to be unquestiona­ble.

The Third Opinion is, that the Foundations of this Kingdom were laid about Four Thousand and Twenty Five Years ago by a certain Prince whose Name was Yao. Which last Opinion, being held among them as an Article of Faith, should any Chinese refuse to believe, he would be lookt upon as a Heretick, and as such a one be severely pu­nish'd. So that should the Preachers of the Go­spel but once testifie either by Writing, or by Word of Mouth, that they make a doubt of it, that alone would be sufficient to shut the Door up­on our Sacred Religion, and cause us all to be sen­tenc'd to Death. The very bare suspicion, with­out any Foundation, of a Man's Incredulity in that point, being a sufficient ground for Banish­ment. For this reason it is that the Fathers of the Mission have obtain'd leave from the Holy See to stick to the Version of the Seventy, approv'd by the Church in the Fifth General Council; as well for that the Two latter Opinions are very probable, as to avoid the foremention'd Inconveniences and many others which may be easily imagin'd. And indeed it must be acknowledg'd that there is not any Kingdom in the World that can boast a Train of Kings so Ancient and so well continu'd. Those of the Assyrians, the Persians, the Greeks, and Romans, have had their Periods; whereas that [Page 61] of China continues still, like a great River that never ceases rolling along the streams that fall from its first Fountain.

This long continuance and other Excellencies of China of which we have already spoken, and of which we are to speak in the Progress of this Re­lation, infuse into the Chineses a Pride most In­supportable. They put the highest value imaginable upon their Empire and all that belongs to them; but as for strangers, they Scorn 'em to the lowest pitch of Contempt, and all the advantages of their Wit and Learning, tho' they themselves have little or no Knowledg. Which is not so much to be won­der'd at, since Pride proceeds from Blindness and Ignorance. In their Maps they allow a vast Ex­tent to China, but represent all other King­doms round about it, without any Order, Positi­on, or any other Mark of good Geography; small, contracted, and with Titles Ridiculous and Con­temptible. As for Example; Siaò gîn que, or the Kingdom, the Inhabitants of which are all Dwarfs, and so little, that they are constrain'd to tie them­selves several in a Bunch together for fear of being carry'd away by the E [...]gles and Kites. Niù gîn que, or the Kingdom where all the Inhabitants are Women, who Conceive by looking upon their Sha­dow in a Well, or in a River, and bring forth none but Girls. Chuen sin que, or a Kingdom where the Inhabitants have all a Hole in their Breasts, into which they stick a piece of Wood, and so carry one another from place to place. A Kingdom where the Inhabitants have Bodies like Men, and Faces like Dogs. A Kingdom, where he Inhabitants have such long Arms that they reach down to the ground: with many other such De­scriptions of the same Nature. In short, they re­present the Neighbouring Kingdoms, such as are [Page 62] those of the Tartars, the Iapanners, of the Peninsula of Corea, and those other that border round a­bout upon China, under the Title of the Four Barbarous Nations. They say, that besides Chi­na, there are Seventy Two Kingdoms, which they paint all very Diminutive in the middle of the Sea, like so many Nutshells, and their Inhabitants all Deformed and Monstrous with Gestures so ridiculous or terrible, that they resemble rather Apes and Wild Beasts then Men. Of latter times having understood something of Europe, they have added it to their Maps, as if it were the Island of Tenariff, or some Desert Island. And therefore it was, that the Vice-Roy of Quam tum, in the Year 1668, after he had spoken of the Embassie of the Portugueses in a Memorial which he sent to the Emperor, added these words; ‘We find very plainly, that Europe is no more then only Two little Islands in the middle of the Sea.’

They divide the Heaven into Eight and Twenty Constellations, and China into so many Quarters, to every one of which they allow one of these Constellations, and call them by their Names, not leaving so much as one for the rest of the King­doms. They give to their own most Lo [...]ty and Magnificent Titles, but to Foreign Countrys most Barbarous, Disagreeable and Scornful Names; on purpose to Exalt their own Empire, by Disgracing all other Kingdoms.

At what time I resided with Father Lewis Bug­lio in the Capital City of the Province of Su chuen, there was a Persecution begun against the Christi­an Religion at the Instigation of several Thou­sands of Bonzes who assembled together from all parts of the Province, and the same time accus'd us in all the Tribunals of the Province, more especial­ly before the Tribunal of Crimes, which is call'd [Page 63] Gán chan su, the President of which made answer to the Petition of the Bonzes in this manner,

‘If these Strangers remain in their Habitati­ons without stirring forth, or teaching new In­ventions, Chum que chi tá vû sò pù yûm, that is to say, This Kingdom is so vast, that it is able to contain both the Natives and the Foreigners, there being room enough for as many more; but if they Teach any new Doctrine different from the Sacred and True Doctrines which we profess in this Great Empire, or if they go about to sur­prize and delude the People, let them be Pu­nish'd with every one Forty Lashes, and Expell'd the Province.’

Father Nicholas Longobardo having discours'd for some time concerning the Law of God to some of the Eunuchs, and with those solid Reasons and Arguments, that it was apparent enough, that they were inwardly convinc'd, They gave no more then the following Reply,

Chum que chi vâi hûan yeù tao, that is to say, What is this that we see, what is this this that we hear? Is it possible that without the Limits of this Empire there should be any Rule, or any Path whereby to arrive at true Vertue? Is there any other Belief, or any other Law?’ And I have many times observ'd, that when I have been discoursing with the Learn­ed concerning the Christian Religion, and the Sciences of Europe, they ask'd me whether we had their Books? To which when I answer'd No, they reply'd altogether surpris'd, wavering and scandaliz'd, If in Europe you have not our Books and our Writings, what Learning or what Sciences can you have? However these Insidels deserve both to be pity'd and excus'd, since it is impossible to imagine the high Idea which not only the great [Page 64] Lords and Learned Men, but also the Vulgar Peo­ple have conceiv'd of this Empire. And certain­ly, besides that our Nature enclines us always to put a Value upon our selves and all that belongs to us, the extraordinary Grandeur and Advanta­ges of this Kingdom contribute very much to puff up the Minds of the Chineses with foolish Imagina­tions, and unparallel'd Pride.

Notes upon the Third Chapter.

A. P. 59.

THE Chronology of China is of extraordinary Importance, by reason of its Antiquity: and I believe that neither the Portugueses nor Castillians have in all their Voyages made a more considerable Discovery. The Annals of the Chaldeans and Egy­ptians might perhaps have stood in Competition with those of China, and perhaps those of the Tyrians al­so, and some other Oriental Nations, of which Jose­phus makes mention. But they are lost a long time ago, as well as the Histories of Berosus the Chalde­an, and Manathon the Egyptian, of which we have no more then only some few fragments of little or no use. The Greeks and Romans have left us nothing of certainty before Herodotus, for that reason call'd the Father of Historians. Who nevertheless did not write till about Four Hundred and Fifty Years before Christ. And if we go back to the Original of the Olympiads, they did not begin till about Seven Hun­dred Seventy Seven Years before Christ. But the Cycles of the Chineses, and their Cronologies, begin [Page 65] Two Thousand Six Hundred Four score and Seventeen Years before Christ, under the Reign of Hoam ti: And two Thousand nine Hundred Fifty two Years, according to the sentiments of those that stick to the second Opinion, and acknowledge Fo hi for the first Emperor of China. And tho' we should rest satisfi'd with the third Opinion, which makes Yao the first Emperor of China, their Chronology would begin two Thousand three Hundred Fifty seven Years be­fore Christ; that is to say, fifteen Hundred sixty nine years before the first Olympiad. And indeed I know no reason why any man should refuse to give Credit to this Chronology, in regard it is well pursu'd and well cir­cumstanc'd: that it is less fabulous than the first times of the Greek and Roman History; and for that there are set down therein several Eclipses, and other Astronomical Observations which perfectly agree with the Computations of our most learned Astronomers in these latter Ages; as I have seen in some Manuscripts written upon this Subject. To which we may add that almost all the Parts of the Chinese History have been written by Authors that liv'd at the same time. As for Example, the Acts of King Yao, are written by the Secretaries of Xun, his Successor. The History of Xun, and his Successor Yu, was compil'd by Au­thors then living, and is contain'd, together with that of King Yao, in the two first Parts of the most Anci­ent and venerable Book among the Chineses, call'd Xu Kin. It is divided into six Parts; of which the four last contain one part of the History of the Second and Third Imperial Family. Nor is there any doubt to be made either of the Antiquity or truth of the two first Parts of the Book Xu kin, seeing that Confu­cius who liv'd Five Hundred and Fifty Years before Christ, so often makes mention of it, and has collected with great industry several authentick Pieces that con­tain several particulars of the Lives and Government of the first Kings.

[Page 66]Another Philosopher, call'd Lao Kiun, Confucius' s Contemporary, as also another Author more Ancient then He by two Hundred Years, whose name was Tai su lum, often quote these Ancient Histories. Confu­cius also wrote himself a History of several Wars of China for the space of two Hundred Forty and one Years; which he begin at the Forty ninth Year of the Emperor Pim [...]am, the Thirteenth Prince of the Third Family call'd Che [...]; that is to say, 722 Years before the Birth of Christ, since which time there have been a great Number of Historians in every Age, which the Chineses still preserve, and out of which they have compil'd General Histories, of which there is one of several Chinese Volumes in the Kings Library.

To this we may add that the certainty of this Chro­nology is confirm'd by many circumstances conformable to the Holy Scripture, which are not to be found in any other History: as for Example, the long life of their first Kings, like to that of the Patriarchs in the time of Abraham. Thus they tell us, that Fo hi Reigned a Hundred and Fifty Years; Xin nun, his Successor, a Hundred and Forty, Hoam ti liv'd a Hundred and eleven Years: Xao hao that succeeded him a Reigned a Hundred, Ti co a Hun­dred and Five, Yao, a Hundred and Eighteen, Xun his successor, a Hundred and Ten Yu, a Hundred Years: after whom there was nothing extraordinary in the Age of the Emperors. We find also that Fo-hi be­gan to Reign in the Province of Xensi, the most Westerly part of all China, which shews that either he or his Father came from the West where Noah and his Children remained after the Deluge. That his Kingdom was but of a narrow extent, and the num­ber of his Subjects but small; so that he might seem to be rather the potent Father of a Family like A­braham, then a King or an Emperor. That he and his Subjects liv'd upon Herbs and wild Fruits, drank [Page 67] the Blood of Beasts, and cloathed themselves with their skins. That his Successor Xin nun avented the Art of Tillage, and many other such like Circumstances. The greatest part of these Passages are to be found in the Hi­story of China by Martini, in the Chronology and Pre­faces of F. Couplet, Printed at Paris with tee works of Confucius; and in several parts of our Author, chief­ly in the Fifth and Sixth Chapters.

It may be objected, that this Chronology does not agree with the Vulgar Translation of the Bible. But besides that God has not vouchsaf'd us the Holy Scripture to make us Learned but Vertuous; and so there may have happen'd some omission, or mistake in the Dates; it may be answer'd that the question a­bout the Continuance of the World after the Deludge is not yet decided; that their Chronology agrees with the Translation of the Septuagint, which is authentick and receiv'd by the Church as well as the Vulgar. But this is not a place to enlarge upon this Subject, they who desire to know more may consult the Book which Father Pezeron, a Barnardine has newly Printed upon this Subject.

Nor can it be said that the Fathers have by agree­ment juggl'd up this Chronology: For we find they have spoken truth in the Rest of their Relations; that they make no scruple to correct one another when they are mistaken, as you may see by our Author in se­veral places: That the Jacobins, Augustinians and Franciscans who have had several quarrels with the Iesuites in reference to their Mission, agree with them in this particular, and never accuse them to have err'd in their Chronology. And lastly, that the Hollanders who have sent several Embassies into China, and who have several Thousands of Chineses at Batavia, never reprov'd the Iesuits for any mistake upon this occasion. On the other side they put a great value upon Martini's Works, which are printe in Holland, as also China illustrated by F. Kirker.

CHAP. IV. Of the Letters and Language of China.

ALtho' the Egyptians vaunt themselves to have been the first that ever made use of Letters and Hieroglyphicks; yet certain it is that the Chineses had the practice of Letters before them. All other Nations have had a way of Writing in common, consisting of an Alphabet of about Four and Twenty Letters, which have almost all the same sound, tho' differing in shape. But the Chi­neses make use of Fifty Four Thousand Four Hun­dred and Nine Letters, which express what they signifie with so much Grace, Vivacity and Efficacy, that you would think them not to be Characters, but Voices and Languages that spoke, or rather Figures and Images that represent and express to the Life what they signifie; so wonderful is the contrivance of their Letters. For proof of which, I shall here set down a Paragraph of a Treatise which I compos'd concerning the Chinese Language.

The Chinese Letters are either Simple or Com­pounded. The Simple Letters are made of Lines, Points and Folds, as [...] sin, [...] mô, [...] tú, [...] chú. The Compounded Letters are formed of se­veral Simple Letters put together, as [...] xú, [...] chú. The Letter signifies sincere, since­rity, and is compos'd of the Letter [...] in, which signifies, as; and the Letter [...] sin, which signi­fies [Page 69] a Heart; for that the Countenance and Words of a sincere Man are like his Heart.

The Letter chu signifies a Pillar or Column, and is compos'd of the Letter [...] mò, which signifies a Tree Wood, or a piece of Timber, and the Letter [...] chu, which signifies a Lord or Master; because the Pillars are as it were the Masters of the House, and the Props that support it. And because a Fo­rest contains several Trees, the Letter [...] lin, which expresses this word, is compos'd of two [...] mo. When the Forest is very thick it is express'd by the Letter [...] sen, form'd of three [...] mo. And thus by what we have said, you may judge of se­veral other Contrivances which are very numerous in the composition of the Chinese Letters, which have so much Force and Efficacy to explain, as also to perswade what they signifie, that many times it happens that the change of one Letter in a Process is enough to cause the Party accus'd, or the Accu­ser, to lose his Estate or his Life.

Nor will it be amiss in this place to examine whether the Chinese Letters be not Hieroglyphicks, or no?

In the first place I am apt to believe, if we consider their first Original, that without doubt they are Hieroglyphicks For that the Ancient Letters which the Chineses say were made use of in the first Ages of the Empire, were the Images and Figures, tho' imperfect, of the things visible which they signifi'd. For example, the Ancient Letter, which signifi'd the Sun was this▪ ☉ ge, and that which is now in use is made thus [...] ge. The Letter which signifi'd the Moon was made after this manner [...] yue, but now thus [...] yue. The Letter which signifi'd the Ancient Foundation of any thing, had this Figure [...] puèa, but the Mo­dern Letter is shap'd thus [...] puen, and so of the [Page 70] rest. By which it may be seen that many of the Ancient Letters were Figures that represented the things which they signifi'd; and by consequence that a part of the Chinese Letters are Hierogly­phicks.

In the second place the same thing may be said of the Modern Letters consider'd in themselves. For that the greatest part of them are compos'd of simple Letters; of the signification of which they retain something always. For example, all the Letters that any way relate to a Woman are com­pos'd of the Letter niù, which signifies a Woman, and of some other Letter. Thus the Letter ciù, which signifies, that a Man Marries, or takes a Woman, is compos'd of the Letter ciù to take, and the Letter niù, a Woman. The Letter Kiâ, which signifies that a Woman Marries, is com­pos'd of the Letter Kiâ, which signifies a House or Family, and the Letter niù, which signifies a Woman. Which is the same thing as to say that a Woman is in her House or Family. For that the Chineses holds that a Marry'd Woman is in her Husband's House or Family, and not in her Fa­ther's. By these Examples of the composition of their Letters a Man may see, that they are Hiero­glyphicks, since they represent to the Imagination the thing which they signifie with so much grace, and after so ingenious a manner.

In the third place it is the nature of Hierogly­phicks not to be the natural figures of the things which they signifie, but only to represent them, either naturally, or by the Institution of Men. Now all the Chinese Letters are either natural fi­gures, as the Ancient representations of the Sun, the Moon, and the like; or else figures appointed to signifie something, as are all those which are appointed to signifie something that has no figure, [Page 71] as the Soul, Beauty, the Vertues, the Vices, and all the Actions of Men and Beasts.

Fourthly, It cannot be said that our Letters are in like manner Hieroglyphicks: Because there is not one in particular that represents or signifies a­ny thing but only when it is join'd to another. Whereas every Chinese Letter has its proper signi­fication, and still preserves it tho' join'd with o­thers. For example, in the Letter Lim which sig­nifies a Bell; for it is compounded of the Letter Kin which signifies Mettal, and the Letter Lim which signifies to Command; in regard there is no way more easie to command then by the sound of a Bell. By which it is evident that these two Let­ters in the composition preserve their particular signification.

Fifthly, In regard the Chinese Letters are not simply Lines or Characters, but figures appointed to represent or signifie something, it follows of consequence that they are not simple Letters like ours, but Hieroglyphicks. Where we are to take notice that these Hieroglyphick Letters which ex­treamly help the Memory to remember them, and contribute much to know and distinguish what they signifie, in regard that every Genus and every Species has a distinct Letter which is to be found in all those that signifie the things contain'd in the same Species. For example, all those Letters that signifie those things which have any Relation to Fire, infallibly contain in their composition the Letter Ho, which signifies Fire. So the Letter cai, which signifies Calamity, is compos'd of the Letter miên a House, and the Letter ho Fire, for that no greater misfortune can befal a Man then to have his House burnt down. The Letter hoâm is compos'd of the Letter hoam which signifies a great King, and the Letter ho or Fire, because [Page 72] there is nothing in the World that has more Splendor and Lustre then a King. And so it is in other things that have any Relation or Resem­blance to Fire. The Letter tem which signifies a Mountain of hard Rocks, serves also for Stairs or Ladders. The same observation is also to be made in all Letters that belong to Mountains. And what we have said of these two Species, is to be under­stood of all others. These Reasons and these Ex­amples plainly demonstrate, not only that the Chinese Letters are Hieroglyphicks, but the neat­ness and subtilty of the Wit of the Chineses.

The Language and Letters of the Chineses have been invented with a wonderful deal of Contri­vance; in regard they are all Monosyllables, as, Pa, Pe, pi, po, pu. Pam, pem, pim, pom, pum. Ta, te, ti, to, tu. Tam, tem, tim, tum: and so of the rest. There are also several other Monosylla­bles, of which the Chineses make no use, as Ba, be, bi, bo, bu. Ra, re, ri, ro, ru. Pom, tom, mom, nom. So that the number of their words consider'd in themselves, is not above three Hundred and twen­ty; but if they are consider'd with their differen­ces and distinctions, there are are enow to form a perfect Language. For example, the Syllable Po, taken after eleven several manners, makes eleven several Words, and signifies eleven diffe­rent things. And indeed, it is a wonderful thing, that every Monosyllable should be a Noun, Pro­noun, Substantive, Adjective, Adverb and Parti­ciple; that it should be a Verb, and signifie the Present, Imperative, Subjunctive and Infinitive; the Singular and Plural with their Persons. The Present, Imperfect, Perfect, Aori [...]s, and Future Tenses. These varieties proceed from the manner of Pronunciation in varying the Voice, the tone or accent, which is either soft or strong, Grave, [Page 73] Acute, or Circumflex; as also in observing or not observing the Aspiration. The difference of Ac­cents in Pronunciation is known by the diversity of the tones of the Voice. For example, the sim­ple Accent or Tone is when we pronounce with a smooth and equal Voice; which we mark with this simple and equal Figure.—We express Aspi­ration with this Mark, [...], of which the Greeks also made use to signifie their Aspiration. All this is to be seen in the following Example of ele­ven manners, acording to which the Syllable Po may be varied. [...]. When this Syllable is pronounc'd with an accent smooth and equal, [...] signifies Glass. With a Grave [...] signifies to boil, with an Acute [...] signifies to winnow Corn or Rice. With a Circum­flex [...] signifies sage or Prudent, and libe­ral. With a close Circumflex pointed at top signifies to prepare: When pronounc'd with a Cir­cumflex charg'd and aspirated, [...] signifies an Old Woman: with an equal accent aspirated, [...] signifies to cleave or break: with an Accent level and aspirated [...] signifies stooping: with an acute accent elevated and aspirated, [...] signifies never so little, or almost; with a Circumflex o­pen and aspired [...] signifies to Water: With a close Circumflex aspirated and a point above, [...] signifies a Slave or Captive.

In the Treatise of the Letters and Language of China; which I compos'd for those that come to Preach in this Empire, I have explain'd at large these eleven manners of Pronunciation, which are very intelligible by what goes before, and what follows. However what I have here said is sufficient to shew the Contrivance of the Language, which having no more than so small a number of Monosyllables, is yet so copious and so expressive; for it unites, [Page 74] changes and intermixes them after so many vari­ous manners, and those so eloquent, that there is nothing can be more wonderful; as you may see in the following example. The Letter mō, being alone, signifies a Tree, a piece of Wood, or the proper name of a Family, &c. But in Compositi­on it comprehends a great number of other significa­tions. Mō cūm, is the name of several Saints, which as the Chineses pretend, never die, but fly from one Wood or Mountain to another. Mō to signifies the Clapper of a Bell. And because it serves to make People hear, the Chineses have ve­ry elegantly appli'd the name of Mō tō to Masters, Doctors and Preachers of the Faith, because that by their Voices, their Writing and Examples they cause People to hear and learn, according to the words of the Scripture, In omnem terram exivit sunus eo­rum. For this reason it is, that the Chineses give the Title of Mo to, by way of Excellency, to Cum fu ci us, for that he taught the natural Law of the Ancients, and is Master and Doctor of that Nation. Mō leáo signifies a quantity of Timber prepar'd for Building. Mō triām, is the name of a certain Odour. Mo ngeu, signifies by Chance: as also certain Figures or Puppets, which the Chi­neses carry when they accompany their Dead. Mo kin, is the Name of a certain flower that blows and spreads in the Morning; but in the Evening wi­thers and falls. Which the Chineses aptly make use of in the Composition of their Letters, to express the short endurance and inconstancy of worldly Felicity. Mo puen signifies a wooden Bowl. Mo tien a Scholar of the College Royal. Mo signifies a Tree, and tien Heaven, as much as to say, a Scholar of the College Royal, is like a Tree planted in Heaven. Mo qua signifies a Quince; a sort of Fruit, which only grows in the province [Page 75] of Xansi. The Chineses never eat it, but make use of it in Physic only. Mo kie signifies wooden Shooes. Mo lân, Bars or Grates. Mo cien a Wedge of Wood. Mo quai, a Batoon or Cudgel. Mo no a Man of few words. Mo quem a Batoon, or an impudent Person, or a Porter. Mo hia, a Chest or Coffer. Mo siam a Court Cupboard. Mo yu, a wooden Instrument like a Fish, which the Bonzes play upon when they say their Prayers, or beg Alms. Mo ûl a Mushrom. Mo ciám or Mo cum, a Carpenter. Mo nieu litterally signifies Cows of Wood; and Metaphorically an invention for the carrying of great Burthens: alluding to a cer­tain Person, who as the Chineses say, formerly made cows of Wood so artificially, that they mov'd of themselves and carried great Burthens. Mo nu, a sort of small Orainges. Mo nun the name of a precious Stone. Mo sim, the Planet Iupiter. Mo kiun an enchasing, also a hook. Mo mien Cot­ton. The Syllable mo may be thus joined after several manners, which I omit for brevity sake. So that as we, out of four and twenty Letters, form all our words, by placing them after several manners, in like manner the Chineses form all their words and discourses by variously intermixing their Syllables one with another. And this they make it their business to do with so much Perspicuity, Grace, and Significancy that in some measure they equal the Greeks and Latins. At the end of the Treatise of the Chinese Letters and Language, which I have already mention'd, I have Colle­cted Alphabetically all the Theological and Phi­losophical terms, which our Fathers made use of in the Books which they compos'd for the Chineses. And I have observ'd, that there are a great num­ber of words that express their Signification much more happily and easily then ours: so curious and eloquent is that Language.

[Page 76]It may be demanded of me perhaps how it can be that one and the same Word should have so ma­ny significations and how they who understand them can distinguish them? To which I answer, that the variety of Signification arises from the various couching of the Monosyllables together, as we have shew'd in the Syllable Mō, and the difference of the Accents and Tones, as we have demonstrated in the Syllable Po. This distinction is so natural to the Chineses, that without making the least refle­ction upon the tones or accents, they readily un­derstand all the different significations of the same Monosyllable. I say without the least hesitati­on or reflection. For that indeed the People know not what either tones or accents mean, which are only understood by the Poets, and our Fathers that travel into China, who having acquir'd that Knowledge, come to understand the Language with Ease, which else they could never do without an extraordinary deal of Trouble. We are be­holding for this curious and profitable observation of the tones to F. Lazaro Catanco. And I have endeavour'd to explain it by the Comparison of a Musician, who by labour and skill has acquir'd a readiness to know and express the six tones, ut, re, mi, fa, sol, la, which another Man born with necessary abilities, naturally expresses and distin­gnishes without the help of Rules or Art. It does not follow nevertheless that the Chineses sing out their words when they speak, as one of our Fathers of Macao imagin'd; or that they carry a tablet about their Necks, upon which they write down what they would say, when we do not under­stand them, as I was made believe when I first tra­vell'd into the Empire. Or that the Chineses cannot whisper a Man in the Ear, as once I thought, ima­gining it was necessary for them to exalt their [Page 77] Voices to express their tones and accents. The contrary to which may be easily evinc'd by this Ex­ample. Should I say in Europe that there was a dif­ference of tone in the Syllable to of the Latin words, totus and totaliter, perhaps I should hardly be believ'd: and yet there is nothing more cer­tain. For in totus, to is pronounc'd with a clear and strong Voice, by opening the Lips; but in totaliter, the same Syllable is pronounc'd with a weaker sound, and with the Lips more close. So likewise in the Chinese Language, the Syllable to pronounc'd with an acute and elevated Accent has the same sound that to in totus, and signifies sloth­ful or to fall; in regard a slothful Man seems as if he were tumbling every step he takes; but to in the Chinese Language pronounc'd with a Circum­flex mark'd with a Point, has the same Sound with to in totaliter; and signifies to study, or a solitary Person; because that a Man must be reti­red that will read or study to advantage. The Chinese Language has many other Qualities and Advantages that shew the Wit and Industry of those that invented it. But I pass them over in silence for brevities sake.

However I cannot forbear to assert, that the Chinese Language is more easie then the Greek, the Latin, or any of the other Languages of Europe At least it cannot be deny'd me but that it is much more easie then the Languages of those other Countries where our Society is employ'd in Missions: which is an Advantage not a little considerable. Nor is this a thing to be question'd, in regard my Sen­timents are conformable both to reason and Ex­perience. for in the first place it is most certain, that there is nothing which more condnces to the acquiring of a Language then the Memory; and by consequence that Language must be the most [Page 78] easie which has fewest words: in regard a small number of words is more easily retain'd then a more Copious quantity. Now the Chinese Lan­guage is the most concise of all others, as not being compos'd of above a hundred and twenty Monosyllables: whereas the Greek and Latin con­tain an infinite number of words, of Tenses, Moods, Numbers, Persons, &c. But the Chinese Language requires only a Memory to retain the Accents, which are as it were the form that di­stinguishes the signification of Words; and to learn how to pronounce the three Hundred Mo­nosyllables.

In the Second place it is most certain, that he who will Industriously, and under a good method, apply himself to study the Chinese Language, may be able in a Years time to understand and speak it very well. And we find by experience that our Fathers that are at present employ'd in the Mission, at the end of two Years became so perfect in the Language that they were able to Confess, Catechize, Preach and Compose, with as much ease, as in their own Native Tongue, tho' there is not the least resemblance between their Language and ours, and that the Fathers are generally persons far advanc'd in Years. Which they could never attain to in Europe where the Languages generally have a dependance one upon another.

That there is no question to be made of this apparent truth, when we consider the great number of Books which the Fathers have made and translated, and daily make and translate into the Chinese Language, which are esteem'd and admir'd by the Chineses themselves. Such as are those Books which Father Matthew Riccio com­pos'd upon our Sacred Law, and upon several other [Page 79] Subjects. Of whom the Chineses speak to this Day as of a Prodigy of Knowledg, and all sorts of Knowledg: So that there is not any Person of Quality in the Empire that does not know and speak of him with Applause. The Learned quote him in their Writings as one of their most famous Doctors; and the Handicraft-Workmen to put off their Wares, and sell them at a higher Rate, assure the Buyers that they were the Inventions of that Illustrious Person Father Matthew Riccio. In short, they esteem'd and honour'd him to that degree, that several believe, that as Cum fu ci us was the Prince, the Saint, the Master, and Doctor of the Chineses, so Father Matthew Riccio was the same among the Europeans: Which was the highest Praise those Idolizers of Cum fu ci us could give him. Father Diego Pantoja has also compos'd seve­ral Learned Treatises of the Seven Deadly Sins, of the Seven Vertues which are their Contraries; upon the Pater Noster, upon the Ave-Marie, and the Credo. The Fathers Alfonso Vanhone, and Iu­lio Aleni, wrote several Tomes upon the Christian Religion, upon the Life of Christ, of the Holy Virgin and the Saints, and upon several other subjects. Father Manuel Dias the younger, tran­slated all the Gospels, with the Commentaries and Explanations of the Fathers, which makes a Work no less Large, then Pious and Learned. Father Francis Furtado publish'd a Treatise of Rhetorick and Logick, with certain other Books de Coelo and de Mundo, as also of the Soul of Man. The Fa­thers Iohn Terencio, Iohn Roo, and Iohn Adam, have written a great number of other Books up­on our Holy Law, and upon all the parts of the Mathematicks. Father Lewis Buglio, who was al­ways my chiefest Consolation and inseparable Com­panion in all my Travels, Afflictions and Impri­sonments, [Page 80] for Thirty Years together, translated the first part of St. Thomas, which the more Learn­ed Chineses esteem and admire to that degree, that I heard one of them who had read the Treatise of God, declare his thoughts in these words, Certain­ly this Book is a Mirror wherein to let us see our own Ignorance. The same Father Buglio wrote several other Pieces upon several other subjects; among the rest, that Eloquent and Learned Apology, in an­swer to a Book which Yam quam siem, that wicked Infidel, publish'd both in this Court, and over the whole Empire, against the Christian Religion and the Preachers of it; and which he Entitl'd Pu te y, Because I could no longer. Whereupon the Father that he might conform himself to the Stile and Language of the Country, Entitl'd his Answer, I have Answer'd because I could no longer forbear. Both Titles are very significant in the Chinese Language: But the Fathers was more highly esteem'd because it carries two significati­ons. The First, I refute, because I could no longer forbear; the Second, I have refuted a Book En­titl'd, Because I could no longer forbear. And which was more to be wonder'd at, the Father compos'd the greatest part of these Books, in the Boats, up­on the Roads and in the Inns, under the Power of Rebels and Barbarians; in Prison with Three Chains upon his Legs, Three about his Neck, and Six upon his Hands; and in a word, in the midst of continual Persecutions. I could say much more in praise of that person truly Pious, and o [...] great Reputation▪ did I not fear that the sh [...]e which I had in his Sufferings, and the strict Friendship that was between Us, would render me suspected of too much partiality. Father Ferdinand Ver [...]st [...]t the same time wrote a Learned Answer to [...] or rather a Satyr full of Mistakes a [...]d Dol [...] [...] ­norance, [Page 81] which the same Yam quam siem wrote a­gainst the European Mathematicks. Father Antho­ny Gouvea compos'd a Catechism. Father Iohn Monteiro wrote two Books, the one of the Law of God, and the other of True Adoration. Fa­ther Francis Sambiesi wrote Four Treatises, Of the Immortality of the Soul; Of Morals; Of Painting, and Sounds, all very short and highly esteem'd. I my self wrote a Treatise of the Re­surrection of Christ; and another of the Uni­versal Resurrection. Nicholas Trigaut, Lazaro Ca­taneo, Gaspar Ferreira, and Alvaro Semedo, all Fa­thers of the Society have compos'd Dictionaries very large and very exact, and Gaspar Ferreira has written above Twenty Treatises upon several Subjects. Father Soeiro made an Abridgment of the Christian Law; and Father Nicholas Longobar­do, who Dy'd but a few Years ago in this Court, Fourscore and Sixteen Years old, has written seve­ral Godly Treatises, besides a Treatise of Earth-Quakes, highly esteem'd by the Learned of this Empire. In short there have been a great number of other Books written concerning the Christian Religion, and of all Sciences and Subjects which amount in all to above Five Hundred Tomes Print­ed besides Manuscripts. There is Printed in China a Catalogue of all the Fathers that ever Travell'd in­to the Country to Preach the Gospel; wherein are also the Names set of all the Books which they have written. From whence I conclude, that so many Books could never have been translated and written in a Foreign Language, and in so short a time, had not the Language been very ea­sie: So that it follows that the Chinese Language is more easie to learn then any other; and that it is withal very Elegant, very Copious, and very Expressive; since it wants for no terms to explain [Page 82] and unfold the Subtilties and Mysteries of Theolo­gy, Philosophy, and the rest of the Sciences.

I will conclude this Chapter with the first Para­graph of the first Article of the Commentary which I made upon the Works of Cum fu cius, with which our Fathers always begin, when they first set themselves to study the Chinese Letters and Language, to the end that by this short Sam­ple the Beauty of the Language, and the Wit of the People, may be the better display'd. They read the Letters beginning from the top down to the bottom, and from the right to the left: but that I might the better conform to the Customs of Europe, I have plac'd the first Column upon the left-hand. To explain them you must put them together according to the Order of the Cyphers. The Marks, or Zero, which are to be seen at the bottom of some Letters are the Points and Accents of the Chineses. The Order of the Letters, and the Explanation of the Text, are taken from two Chinese Commentators; of which the one, who liv'd about Three Hundred Years ago, was call'd Chū hi; and the other, who was a Colao, was nam'd Chām Kiù Chim, who Dy'd in the Year 1610, at what time Matthew Riccio arriv'd at this Court, of whom I have already spoken in this Chapter.

[Page 83]

[...]4 Great men [...]1 consists in the se­cond place
[...]3 teach [...]2 to renew
[...]2 to [...]3 the People
[...]1 the Rule [...]4 consists in the 3d place
[...]5 consists in the first place [...]5 to stop
[...]6 to enlighten [...]6 at
[...]7 reasonable [...]7 the Soveraign
[...]Nature [...]8 Good▪

The Commentary and Explanati­on of the Text.

THE Method for Great Men to Learn, consist [...] in three things. The first is to unfold the Rational Nature: The Second is, to reform Man­kind; And the Third to stop at the Soveraign Good.

As to the First, the Rational Nature is the Heart of Man, for the Chineses make no distinct on be­tween the Understanding and the Will; but at­tribute to the Heart what ever we attribute to those Faculties. The Heart is a substance pure and intelligent without any Darkness or Ob­scurity: and where Man has always ready, all requisite Reasonings to answer to all difficulties that present themselves. But because that at the very moment of our Birth, this Intelligent and Ra­tional Nature is cag'd up and enclos'd within the Prison of the Body, and for that our inordinate Passions keep it bound and chain'd, it comes to be obscur'd and troubled. For this reason it is neces­sary that Men should apply themselves to Learning and Information by putting of Questions, to the end the Rational Heart may be delivered from it's Bondage and Slavery, that so it may be able to break the Chains and Fetters of the Passions, and re­turn to it's primitive Beauty, light and under­standing; in the same manner as a Tarnish'd Mirrour being polish'd recovers it's former Luster.

[Page 85]The Second consists in Reforming the People. For example, I who am a King, a Magistrate, a Father of a Family &c. If I have already puri­fy'd my Rational Nature, it is my duty to extend it to that degree, that she may be able to com­municate her self to other Men, by causing them to abandon the Corruptions and defilements of Vice and evil Customs, and I ought to deal so by my People, as I do with Garments, when they are spotted or besmear'd. For if they are well wash'd and scour'd, they become clean and handsome as they were before.

The third consists in attaining and stopping at the Soveraign Good. This Soveraign Good is the Soveraign Accord of things and of Reason. When Great Men enlighten their Intelligent Nature, and renew the Vertue of the People, they do it not by hap-hazard or without design: but all their end is to bring their Vertue to perfection; to the end there might not be one single person among the People whose Vertue was not renewed, or who was not renewed by Vertue. When they are ar­riv'd at a degree so sublime, and to such an extra­ordinary Excellency, they may be assur'd they have attained the Soveraign Good; like those who after a long and tiresom journey at length coming to their own homes, may say they have attain'd the final end of their travelling. These are the three most necessary and principal things in that Book, and as it were the Mantle or outward Garment that Covers the Cloths, or as the string that holds a row of Beads together. These are the expres­sions of the Chinese Commentator.

Here by the way we may observe, that possibly there can be nothing more proper then these words of Cum fu cius to explain the functions of a Minister of the Gospel, who is oblig'd in the [Page 86] first place to perfect himself and next his Neigh­bour, to the end we may arrive at the Soveraign Good, which is God, the Supream and utmost end of all things. Nevertheless, the Chineses being Pagans and carnally minded People, have accom­modated these three points to the Government of the Kingdom, wherein like Politicians they place all their happiness and Ultimate End.

In the second place we are to observe that the Ancient Chineses did understand there was a God. And therefore when I oppose their Learned Men in dispute, I frequently make use of this Dilemma. Either Cum fu cius did understand what he desin'd, or he did not: If he did understand what he de­fin'd, he knew there was a God, who is no Other than that Soveraign Good of which he speaks, and which you also ought to know and adore as well as he. If he did not understand that what he defin'd was God himself, he was very Ignorant; since as you your selves confess, the Syllables Chi and Xen signifie that Soveraign Good which con­tains and comprehends all others: which is an Attri­bute that cannot be given to any Creature, what Advantages soever he may have, but only to God alone. Some there are who being touch'd with Heavenly Grace, submit to the truth: Others not knowing what to answer, and unwilling to ac­knowledge that Cum fu cius was ignorant, rather choose to abide in their Error, and to follow their Pride and Passions, and cry, They'll come a­gain another time.

Notes upon the Fourth Chapter.

I shall add nothing farther to what our Author has said concerning the Chinese Language, the Nature and Genius of which he has sufficiently set forth: And as for those who desire to see more, they may consult the sixth Chapter of the Relation of F. Se­medo, who fully confirms what here F. Magaillans avouches. I must only observe this by the way, that he gives us in this place an Idea of the Chinese Lan­guage, far different from what he gave us for­merly.

CHAP. V. Of the Wit of the Chineses and their Prin­cipal Books.

ONE of the Ancients has told us, that A [...]ia was very fertile in great Wi [...]s. But he would have been more strongly confirmed in his Opinion, had he had any knowledge of China. For if they who best invent, most suddenly and easily, may be said to have more subtil and better Wits then others, the Chineses ought to be preferr'd before other Nations, since they were the first that invented Letters, Paper, Printing, Ponder, fine Porcelaine, [Page 88] a [...]d their own Characters. Tho' they are igno­rant of many Sciences, for want of Communication with other People, nevertheless they are accom­plished in Moral Philosophy, to which they solely bend their Studies for the most part. Their Wits are so quick and apprehensive, that they under­stand with ease when they read the Books which the Fathers of our Society have written, the most subtil and difficult Questions as well in Mathema­ticks, and Philosophy, as in Theology. Perhaps there may be some who will not so readily believe what I assert; but I can assure them, there is no­thing more certain, in regard that I have known some Learned Christians, and Infidels also, who understood without any instruction, as we could find by their discourses, the Questions concerning God and the Trinity, which they had read in the first Part of Saint Thomas Translated by Fa­ther Buglio.

What Kingdom is there, whatever the number of the Universities be which it contains, where there are above ten Thousand Licentiates as in China; of which Six or Seven Thousand meet every three Years at Pe kim, where after several Examinations, there are admitted three Hundred sixty five to the Degree of Doctors? I do not believe there is any Kingdom where there are so many Scholars as there are Batchellors of Art in China which are said to be above Fourscore and ten Thousand, nor that there is any other Country where the knowledge of Letters is so universal and so common. In regard that in all the Pro­vinces, more especially the Southern, there is not any Man Poor or Rich, Citizen or Husbandman, that cannot both Write and Read. And in short, I do not beleive there is any Region unless it be [...], that has publish'd so many Books as the Chineses have done.

[Page 89]The Chronicles of the Chineses are almost as Ancient as the Deluge; as beginning not above two Hundred Years after it, and being continu'd to this present time by several Authors: by which a Man may guess at the number of Volumes which their History contains. They have several Books of Natural Philosophy where they Treat of Na­ture, her Properties and Accidents. 'Tis true they intermix mistakes and impertinences with truth; but tis for want of Art and Knowledge, not for defect of Wit; they have also several Books that Treat of the Mathematicks and Mi­litary Discipline, and several Excellent Treatises of Physick, wherein they shew the smartness of their Wits, by making several solid and learned Dis­courses upon the Pulses, or beating of Arteries, of which they have a particular knowledge; upon the Manner of knowing and distinguishing between De­seases and Deseases, they have several Pleasant Romances and Books of Chivalrie, like those of Amadis de Gaul, O [...]lando Furioso, D. Quixote, &c. and Volumes of Histories and Presidents of Obe­dience of Children toward their Parents: of the Loyalty of Subjects towards their Princes: of Agri­culture: Eloquent Discourses, Pleasant Poems full of Witty Invention, Tragedies and Comedies; and lastly a very great Number of Treatises upon an Insinity of other Subjects: besides that such is their readiness and quickness of Invention, that there are very few Licentiates or Doctors that do not publish at least one or two large Volumes.

They have five Volumes which they call U Kim or the five Writings, which among them are the same as the Holy Scriptures among us. The first is call'd Xu Kim, that is to say a Chronicle of five Ancient Kings, which the Chineses esteem and wor­ship for Saints. The three last were the Heads [Page 90] of three different Families, that raign'd for al­most two Thousand Years: that is to say, almost as long as the Nineteen Families that succeeded them, including also that of the Tartars that Reigns at present. The first of these Emperors was call'd Yao, who according to the Chinese Chro­nicles began his Raign four Thousand and Twen­ty five Years ago, counting to this present year, 1668. or about Five Hundred Years after the De­luge, according to the Calculation of the Seven­ty Interpreters. This Prince, the Legislator of the Chineses, was eminent for several Vertues; more [...]specially for his extraordinary Clemency, Justice and Prudence. Now in regard he saw that his Son had not those Qualities which are requisite for a Good Governour (for by the Report of the Chine­ses, they put a higher value upon Vertue, then upon all other Endowments) he chose for his Co-part­ner in the Empire one of his Subjects, call'd by the name of Xùn, whom he declared Emperor upon his death Bed, and gave him his two Daughters for his Wives. This President the Chineses make use of to maintain Polygamy; but the Fathers of our Society return for answer, according to the Sentiments of the Fathers and Doctors of the Church, that God at that time permitted plurali­ty of Wives, because it was requisite for the Multiplication of Human Kind, and for peopling the Earth. The Chineses are satisfy'd with this Answer, because the first of their sacred Books informs them, that at that time China was but very thinly inhabited. Moreover they approve the Exposition which Father Iulio Aleni makes up­on that passage in the Books call'd Keù to ge chao, compos'd by the Learned Christians of the Province of Fo-kien, from what they had heard the Learn­ed Father discourse both in publick and private▪ [Page 91] that is to say, that tho' the words of the Text of that first Book are Cil Niù, those two Monosylla­bles do not signifie two Daughters, but the second Daughter of the Emperor Yao, which he Marry'd to his Successor. For that the Chineses, as it is the Custom at present, never gave no other Names for distinction's sake, but only that of the Order of their Birth: As for example, the First, the Se­cond, the Third, Son. So that when they read, that Yao gave to Xùn, Cil Niù; the meaning is, that the Emperor gave him his Second Daughter, the Letter Cil, being no more then the Figure 2 among us.

That Emperor Xùn is applauded in this Book for many Vertues; but more especially for his O­bedience to his Father, and his Affection to his Brother, who both endeavour'd to have kill'd him several times: but he suffer'd all their Cruelties with an extraordinary Patience. Among other Examples of his Vertue, there are two Philoso­phers who report, how that one Day his Father and his Brother, who were both as Wicked, as he was Vertuous, commanded him to go down into a Well to cleanse it. Immediately he Obey'd; but he was no sooner at the bottom, but those Barba­rians transported with Fury and Malice, drew the Ladder, and threw down great Stones, peices of Wood, and what ever they could find next at hand to destroy him in the Well However he got out through a passage which he discover'd un­der ground. Nevertheless he was so far from seeking to revenge that excess of Fury and Inhu­mani [...]y, that he repay'd them with greater Marks then ever of Respect and Love.

The Third Emperor was call'd Yù, who having serv'd the Emperor Xùn, during his Life time, with great Loyalty and Advantage, the Dying [Page 92] Prince made choice of him for his Successor, in regard that his Son, besides that he was notorious­ly Wicked, was no way endow'd with parts to Govern the Empire. This Emperor Yù, during the Reign of his Predecessor, took care to drain away the Water of the Deluge, which at that time overslow'd a great part of the Plains of Chi­na; and which the Chineses call by the Name of Hûm Xùi, or the Great Deluge of Water. This Emperor was desirous, as his Successors had done before him, to choose, for his Successor, one of his Subjects call'd Ye, who had been assistant to him in the Government of his Kingdom: but the People would not permit him, declaring that the Emperor's Son was a Person Endu'd with all Ver­tues necessary to Govern them well; and so they put him in possession of the Empire. The Princes that succeeded this last Emperor, Reign'd by right of Succession, and not of Election, till the Empe­ror Kie, a Vicious and Cruel Prince, who was the last of this same first Family.

The Fourth Emperor, call'd Chim Tam, was the Founder of the Second Royal Family. His Emi­nent Vertues had oblig'd the preceding Emperors to make him King of the Kingdom of Po, which is at present comprehended within the Province of Hô nan. He took up Arms against the Emperor Kie, and after he had deliver'd the People from so Cruel a Tyrant, made himself Master of the Em­pire. During the Reign of this Emperor, there was such a Drought, that there was neither Rain nor Snow for Seven Years together, as if the Hea­vens had been made of Brass. The Fountains and Rivers were almost all dry'd up; the Land be­came Barren; and these Calamities were attended with Famine and Pestilence. In the midst of these Fatal Extremities the Emperor forsook his Palace, [Page 93] quitted his Royal Habit, and covering himself with certain Skins, went up to the top of a Hill call'd Sam Lin, where as he lay prostrate upon the Earth, he made the following Prayer. ‘Lord, if thy People have offended thee, punish them not, because they have ignorantly transgress'd a­gainst thee; Punish me rather, who here pre­sent my self before Thee as a Victime ready to suffer whatever thy Divine Justice shall be pleas'd to ordain.’

He had scarce concluded this Prayer, before the Sky was all overcast with Clouds, and pour'd down Rain in such abundance, that it suffic'd to Water [...]ll the Territories of the Empire, and re­store them to their pristine Fertility. From hence it is, that when the Chineses make any scruple a­bout the Mystery of the Incarnation, we endea­vour to convince them by this Example; telling them, that this King cover'd himself with the Skin of a Lamb, and offer'd himself a Sacrifice to obtain Pardon for the Sins of the People, yet thereby did nothing lessen the Lustre of his Dig­nity: So likewise, tho' God was pleased to Cloath himself with the homely Covering of our Humanity, and was offer'd up as a Lamb in Sacri­fice for the Sins of the People, he has no way les­sen'd▪ but rather exalted his Almighty Power, his Infinite Mercy and Goodness: and has thereby made it so much the more clearly appear, that he was infinitely above this King, who was no more then a Man, and a mere Creature. The Chineses presently submit to this Argument, as well because it seems to them to be Rational and Convincing, as also for that they are very much pleas'd to hear that we make use of their Histories and Examples to prove the Verity of our Religion.

[Page 94]This Emperor had for one of his Counsellers a Holy and Famous Learned Person, who liv'd seve­ral Years hid up in the Mountains among the Wild Beasts, because he would not submit to the Tyrant Kie. The Off-spring also of this Empe­ror Chim Tam Reign'd above Six Hundred Years till the Rule of King Cheu, who was no less Wick­ed and Cruel then Kie. So that when the Chineses call a Prince a Kie, or a Cheu, 'tis the same thing as when we call such a one a Nero, or a Dioc [...]e­sian.

The Fifth Emperor call'd Vù Uâm, was the Son of Ven Uâm, King of the Kingdom of Ch [...]ū, which is now a part of the Province of Xensi. Who not able to endure the Wickedness and Ty­ranny of King Cheu, set upon him, Vanquish'd him in Battel, and made himself Master of the Empire. This Emperor Vù Uâm had a Brother highly esteem'd for his Prudence and other Ver­tues, whom he made King of the Kingdom of Lù, now a part of the Province of Xān Tūm, and of whom he made choice upon his Death-Bed to Govern the Empire during the Minority of his Eldest Son. He it was, according to the report of the Chineses, who above Two Thousand Seven Hundred Years ago, first [...]ound out the Use of the Needle and Compass. For the Emperor his Ne­phew, having receiv'd the Honour of an Embas­sie, and the acknowledgment of a Tribute from a Country call'd Tum Xim, and Cochin China, or Kiao chi que, and all by means of the Industry and Prudent Conduct of his Protector, the same Governor presented the Embassadors with a kind of Compass, by the Direction of which they might return the nearest way home, without ex­posing themselves to the Toil and Hardships of of those [...]ound about Windings and Wandrings [Page 95] through which they had labour'd in coming to Court. So that this Prince is one of the Heroes and Saints of the Chineses, who have an extraor­dinary veneration for his Memory: Now when the Emperor Vù Uâm return'd in Triumph from the Battel, wherein the Tyrant Cheu had been de­feated, his two Brothers Pe y, and Xeo cî, famous for their Vertue and Nobility, met him upon his March, and after they h [...]d stopp'd him by taking his Horse by the Bridle, they boldly, and in very sharp and severe Language reprov'd him, for having seiz'd upon the Empire, and forc'd the Emperor to burn himself in his Palace, together with all his Treasures; that notwithstanding he were so vicious and so cruel, yet he was both his Lord and Prince ordain'd by Heaven: that it was his Duty to advise him to amendment like a good Subject, not like a Traytor to put him to death: and lastly that he ought to surrender the King­dom to the Children of the deceased Prince, to let the World see, that he had not been push'd forward by any motives of Ambition, but only out of a Desire to deliver the Title from Tyranny and Oppression. But when the two Brothers sound that he would not follow their Counsel, they retir'd to a desert Mountain, protesting, they would rather chuse to die in that manner, then eat of the Pro­ducts of those Territories which Vù Uâm had [...]u­surp'd, for fear they should be thought in some measure to approve his Treason and Revolt.

The History of these five Kings which the Chi­neses look upon as so many Saints; especially the four first, and their Off-spring, is the subject of the first Book, which is in as great Reputation among these Infidels, as the Books of the Kings among us Christians. The Stile of it is very an­cient, but very exact and elegant. Vice is there [Page 96] blam'd, and Vertue applauded, and the Actions of King and Subjects related with an entire sin­cerity. And to the End, the more curious Reader may see the Energy and Briefness of the Chinese Language and Letters, which were at that time in use; I will here set down five words taken out of the Book already mention'd in reference to the King Yáo; Kin, Mîm, Vén, Su, Gān. That is to say, King Yao was great and venerable; he was most Perspicacious and Prudent. He was very Compos'd, Modest, and Courteous. He appear'd always Pensive and Studious, searching continual­ly after the best means how to govern his People and Empire: and therefore he liv'd all the time of his Reign in Comfort, Quiet, and Repose.

The second Book is call'd Li ki, or the Book of Rites and Ceremonies. This contains the greatest part of the Laws, Customs and Ceremo­nies of the whole Empire. The principal Author of this Book, is the Brother of the Emperor Vù Uàm, of whom we have spoken already. He was call'd Chéu cūm, and was equally venerable as well for his Vertue, as for his Prudence, Learning, and good Conduct. This Volume contains the Works of several other Authors also, the Disci­ples of Cum fu cius, and other interpreters, more modern, and more suspected, which therefore ought to be read with so much the more Circum­spection, there being many things therein con­tain'd which are accompted Fabulous.

The third Volume is call'd Xi Kīm, contain­ing Verses, Romances, and Poems; all which are divided into five sorts. The first of which is call'd Ya sum, or Panegyricks and Encomiums, sung in Honour of Men famous for their Vertue, or their Endowments. There are also several Gnomonics, or Verses containing Precepts, which [Page 97] are sung at their Funerals, their Sacrifices, the Ceremonies which the Chineses perform in honour of their Ancestors, and at their most solemn Fe­stivals. The second is call'd Que fūm, or the customs of the Kingdom. These are Romances or Poems chosen out among those which were made by private Persons. They are never sung, but only rehears'd before the Emperor and his Mini­sters of State. Therein are describ'd, without any dissimulation, the manners of the People; how the Empire is govern'd, and the present state of Affairs. Which seems to be the same thing with the Anci­ent Comedies of the Greeks, that spar'd neither the Vices of Private Men, nor the miscarriages of the publick Magistrates. The third sort is call'd Pi que, that is to say, Comparison. For that all which is there­in contain'd is explain'd by Com [...]arisons or Simili­tudes. The fourth sort is call'd Him que, that is to say, to raise or exalt. Because this sort of Po­etry begins with something that is curious and lofty, to prepare and raise Attention to that which follows. The fifth sort is call'd Ye Xi. That is to say, Poesies rejected or separated: [...]e­cause that, Cum fu cius having review'd this Vo­lume of Poems rejected those which he either mislik'd or thought to be fabulous. However they are still quoted, and left as they are.

The fourth Volume was compos'd by Cum fu cius, and contains the History of the Kingdom of Lù, his native Country; at present compre­hended within the Province of Xan [...]um. The Chineses put a high value upon this Book, and are all in Ecstasie when they read it. He wrote this History of two Hundred years Transactions, after the manner of Annals; where he exposes as in a Mirrour, the Examples of Princes both Vertu­ous and Wicked, referring the [...]ents to the [Page 98] Times and Seasons wherein they happen'd. And therefore he gives to his Book the Title of Chun cie [...], or Spring and Autumn.

The fifth Volume is call'd Ye kim, and is e­steem'd the most ancient of all the Rest, because the Chineses affirm that Fo hi their first King was the Author of it. And indeed this Book is wor­thy to be read and esteem'd, in regard of the no­ble Sentences and Precepts of Morality which it contains. I believe truly that the good Maxims which are scatter'd up and down in this Volume might be writt'n by King Fo hi; but that the rest was added by others who were desirous to give Reputation to their Visions, under the name of this famous Prince. Nevertheless, most certain it is, that the Chineses have an extraordinary ve­neration for this Book, and look upon it to be the most profound, the most learned and myste­rious of any in the World; and that for the same reason they believe it to be almost Impossible for them to understand it, and that strangers ought neither to see or touch it.

The Chineses have also another Volume of equal Authority with those before-mention'd, which they call Sù xu that is to say, the four Books, by way of Excellency. This is a Volume of Extracts or Abridgments, being as it were the very Mar­row and Quintessence of the former Five. The Mandarins [...]ull out from thence the Sentences and Texts, which they propose for▪ Themes to the Learned that are to be Examin'd before they are admitted to the degrees of Batchellors, Licentiates, and Doctors; and upon which those Persons Write and Comment for their Reputation. It is divided into four Parts. The first treats of the Laws, and the Doctrine of Men famous for their Knowledge and their Vertue. The second dis­courses [Page 99] of the Golden Mean. The third con­tains a great number of Moral Sentences well ex­press'd, solid and profitable to all the Members of the State. These three Parts were writt'n by Cum fu cius, the first Doctor of the Chineses, and were publish'd by his Disciples. The fourth Part, which is as big as all the other three, was writ by the Philosopher Men su, who was born about a Hundred Years after Cum fu cius; and is honour'd by the Chineses, as a Doctor of the se­cond Order. This is a Work wherein there ap­pears a wonderful deal of Wit, subtilty and E­loquence. The discourses are pertinent, the Sen­tences grave and moral, and the Stile lively, bold, and perswasive. All the Missionaries of our Soci­ety in these Parts, very industriously study the Letters and the Language of the four Parts of this Book. And from thence, and out of the for­mer five it is, that so many Treatises and Com­mentaries of various Authors, as well ancient as modern, of which the number is almost Infinite, and give us occasion to commend and admire the Wit, the Industry and Eloquence of that Nation, are deriv'd as from so many Springs and Foun­tains.

Notes upon the Fifth Chapter.

A. P. 96.

THE Subject or Ground of this Book is no more than a Table of sixty four Figures, e­very one consisting of six Lines, which are all of a Piece, as thus,—others of two Parts, [Page 100] as thus;——▪The Chineses attribute the Wri­ting of this Table to their first King Fo hi; but no body can divine what was the design or meaning of the Author. However it is certain that about twelve Hundred Years before Christ, Prince Ven Uam, Fa­ther of the Emperor Vu▪ Uam, Founder of the third Royal Family, and his second Son Cheu cum, under­took to interpret this Enigmatical Table, and that five Hundred Years afterwards, the Philosopher, Cum fu cius, made Commentaries upon the Interpre­tations of those two Princes. But whatever those three Authors have written upon this Subject amounts to no more then only from the agreeement and vicissitude of the Elements, and other natural things, to draw Po­litick and Moral Maxims and Conclusions, and Pre­cepts also as well for the Princes as their Subjects. But that which renders this Table pernicious, is this, that the Idolaters call'd Tao su, the Bonzes and For­tune-Tellers make a bad use of it to confirm their Su­perstitious Predictions, forging out of that variety, and many other things which they intermix therewith, an infinite Number of Confederacies, and vain, and Impertinent allusions; by vertue of which they boast themselves able to foretel whatever shall befal a Man whether Fortunate or Unfortunate. Epitomes of the first Commentators of this Table of Fo hi may be seen more at large in the Prefaces of Cum fu cius which are newly Printed, together with several others particulars concerning the Principal Books of the Chi­neses, of which our Author speaks in this Chapter.

CHAP. VI. Of the Civility and Politeness of the Chineses, and of some of their Feasts.

SEveral Books might be writt'n of the Civili­ty, Complements and Ceremonies of the Chi­neses. They have a Book which gives an Ac­compt of above three Thousand, and it is a won­derful thing to see how ready and punctual they are in those Particulars. At their Marriages and Funerals, in their Visits and Feasts, the Master of the House, tho' a Person of greater Honour and Dignity then any of his Guests, always gives the chief place of Preheminence to the Eldest. The eldest give place to those that come farthest off, but all to Foreigners. When any Embassador arrives, from the very day that his Embassie is ac­cepted of, to the time of his departure, the Em­peror furnishes him with all manner of Provisions, Horses, Litters, and Barks. At Court he is lodg'd in the Royal Court, whether the Emperor sends him, at every two days end, a Feast ready dress'd out of his own Kitchin, as a Mark of his Favour and Good-will. For the Kings of China above all things, study to receive and entertain all Strangers with Splendor and Magnisicence, as F. Buglio and my self have frequently found by Ex­perience for the space of two years that we were lodg'd in the Royal Inn, when we came from the [Page 102] Province of Su chuen to the Court. 'Tis true indeed, that this Civility is not always perform'd with the same Decency and regularity; neverthe­less the fault is no way to be attributed to the King, but to the Baseness and self-Interest of his Officers, who privately purloyn and turn to their own Use what the King with an extraordinary Bounty allows for the entertainment of Strangers.

There is not any Nation that equals the Chine­ses in the Multitude and Variety of Titles and Honourable Names by them made use of in their Complements, which I am not able to explain, because that neither our Languages, nor the Greek and Latin have any words by which they may be express'd. They have also a great number of Names whereby they distinguish the various De­grees of Parentage. For example, we have onely the Names of Grandfather and Grandmother, whi­ther by the Father or Mother's side: but the Chi­neses have all different to distinguish the four Re­lations. In like manner we have only the word Uncle to signifie the Brothers of the Father and Mother. But the Chineses have words which not only distinguish the Brothers of the Father from those of the Mother, but also tell ye which are Younger or Elder then the Father or the Mother; and so of the rest of the Kindred. This Nation also surpasses all others in the care which they take of their Garments; in regard there is not any Person tho' never so poor which is not mo­destly, fashionably and decently habited. 'Tis a surprizing thing to see them all, upon the first day of the year, in their new Cloths fashionable spruce and clean. Insomuch that you shall not meet any one person how wretched soever, but what affords a pleasing object to the Eye. Nor is the modesty of this Nation less to be admir'd▪ [Page 103] The Learned Men are always so compos'd, that they believe it crime or a sin, to make appear the least Gesture or Motion which is not exactly con­formable to the Rules of Decent Behaviour and Urbanity. The Women affect Modesty, Chastity and Honesty to that degree that a man would think those Vertues were born with them. They live in perpetual Retirement, never so much as shewing their hands bare; so that if they are oblig'd to present any thing to their Brothers or Brothers­in-Law, they lay the Present upon the Table with their hands exactly cover'd with their Sleeves, which for that Reason are very long and large; and then the Brothers come and receive it. Which is the Reason that the Chineses are highly offend­ed when they see the Images of our Saints with naked Feet: and truly for my part I think they have very good Reason for it. For that those Representations do no way agree with that An­gelick Modesty and Purity which those Saints profess'd: and therefore those Pictures are de­fective and counterfeit, in regard they neither resemble the Originals, nor in their Imitation sufficiently follow either the History, or Nature, which is the perfection of Painting. Besides that there is no likelihood that young Virgins should go bare-foot, and that it is a ridiculous hing to Paint them in glorious and Rich Habits, and not allow them Shoes and Stockins.

The Chineses reduce their Civility, or Conver­sation one among another to five Heads; that is to say, Of a King towards his Subjects; of a Father towards his Sin; Of a Husband towards his Wife; Of an Elder Brother toward the Younger; and of one Friend toward another. These rules include a great part of their Morals: but I shall dilate no farther upon this Subject; for that I should [Page 104] never be able to make an end, should I go about to give an account of all that they write of the Loyalty of Subjects towards their Prince; Of Obe­dience of Children towards their Parents; Of the Submission of Wives toward theirs Husbands; Of Brotherly Affection, and that Amity and respect which ought to be among Friends. I could speak of the Noble Order observ'd in their Political Go­verment; but for that I shall reserve a whole Chapt [...]r, before I finish this Relation.

Among the Festivals of the Chineses one of those which they celebrate with most joy and solemnity is the fifteenth Day of the first Moon of their Year. That day they kindle so many Bonfires, and light up so many Lanthorns, that if the whole Empire were to be seen at one time from the top of some high Mountain, You would believe it all in a Blaze like some Vast Fire-work. There is hardly any person either in City or Country, upon the Sea shores or upon the Rivers, that does not set up Lanthorns painted and fashion'd after several manners, or that does not fling about Squibs and Bombs burning in the Air like Boats, Towers, Fish, Dragons, Tigers, Elephants, with a Thou­sand other surprizing sorts of Fire-works. Which gives me an Occasion to relate what I saw with my own eyes in the year 1644. In the Province of Su chuen, at what time F. Lewis Buglio and my self were detain'd Prisoners by that Cruel Tyrant Cham hien Chum, He invited us to see the Fire-works which he had order'd to be prepa­red against the Night of this same fifteenth day: and indeed there was an infinite number admirable for their Curiosity and their Invention: But that which most surpriz'd me was the following Ma­chime. This was an Arbor cover'd with a Vine of Red Grapes of which all the Joyners work burnt [Page 105] without consuming, while on the other side, the Stock of the Vine, the Branches, the Leaves, the Clusters and Grapes themselves consum'd by de­grees; yet not so, but that you might all the while discern the Redness of the Clusters, the Green of the Leaves, the Chestnut colour of the Vine so live­ly represented, that you would have sworn that e­very thing had been natural and not counterfeited. But that which more astonish'd us, was to see that the Fire, which is an Element, so active and so de­vouring should move so leisurely, that it seem'd to have quitted its own Nature to obey the precepts and commands of Art, which were only to repre­sent the Arbor to the life and not to burn it.

Nor are the Lanthorns less to be admir'd. For as I have said already, there is not any House, whether Poor or Rich, where you do not see them hanging up in their Halls, in their Courts, and before their Windows; and they are of so many different Fashions, that there is not any Figure which they do not represent. Those that are made for the Poor are of a small value. But there are others which are made for the Rich, so curi­ous for their Painting and Artificial Contrivance, that they are worth Five, Ten and Twenty Pistoles: and others which are made for the Man­darines, the Visitors, and Viceroys of Provinces, for the Princes and the Emperor, which cost a Hundred, two Hundred, and sometimes three Hundred and four Hundred Pistoles: which tho' it may seem a [...]hing difficult to be believ'd, is nevertheless most certainly true. The largest are hung up in the Royal Halls, or else in the Courts upon Scaffolds erected on purpose. They are twenty Cubits and sometimes more in Diameter: and the Lamps and Candles of which there are an infinite number in every Lanthorn, are intermix'd [Page 106] and plao'd within-side, so artificially and agreably, that the Light adds beauty to the Painting; and the smoak gives life and spirit to the Figures in the Lanthorn, which Art has so contriv'd, that they seem to walk, turn about, ascend and de­cend. You shall see Horses run, draw Chariots and till the Earth; Vessels Sailing; Kings and Princes go in and out with large Trains: and great numbers of People both a Foot and a Horseback, Armies Marching, Comedies, Dances, and a thou­sand other Divertisements and Motions represent­ed: and all the whole Nation spend the whole night by the light of these pleasing Objects, and in the midst of the Musick of several Instruments that attend the Feasts, more or less magnificent, which every one makes with his Family, his Kindred and Friends. Sometimes at the same time, they will have counterfeit Comedies, represented by little Poppets, which are mov'd by hidden Wires; Or else by the shadowings of white peices of Silk very sine and transparent, and made on purpose. It is a wonderful thing to see those little Wood­den Poppets, and Artificial Shadowings represent Kings, Queens, Captains, Souldiers, Swashbuck­lers, Merry Andrews, Learned Men, or any other thing personated upon a Theater: How they will weep, express Joy, Sorrow, Anger and all the rest of the Passions: With what Industry, and facility those Artists cause the Figures and Shadowings to move. Nay sometimes you would almost think they spoke too; for the Machinists, while the Figures move, will be counterfeiting the Voices of little Children with so much ad­dress, that a man would think that all he saw was absolutely natural; so ingenious and inventive is that Nation.

The Chineses relate the Original of this Lan­thorn [Page 107] Festival after this Manner. They tell ye that sometime after the Establishment of their Em­pire, a certain Mandarin belov'd of all the People for his Vertues and his rare Qualities, lost his only Daughter whom he passionately lov'd near the Bank of a River. Whereupon away he went and sought for her all along the River side; and be­cause the People had an extraordinary affection for him, they follow'd the Mandarin with Flam­beaux and Lanthorns, weeping and wailing as he did. But tho' they sought a long time up the stream and down the stream, as Ceres sought for her Daughter in vain, all their labour prov'd to no purpose, for they could find nothing. This is the Vulgar Opinion of the People. But in regard this Story is very like to that which occasion'd the Festival solemniz'd the fifth day of the fifth Moon, which the Inhabitants of Macao, if I am not de­ceiv'd, call Lumba Lumba, and the Chineses Lūm Chuen, that is to say Barks made in the form of a Dragon, wherein they sport themselves that day upon the Rivers, the Learned in their writing re­late another occasion of the Original of the Lan­thorn Festival in this manner.

About Three Tousand Five Hundred Years ago Raign'd the last King of the first Family Hià, who was call'd Kie, of whom we have already spoken. This King, being a Person very cruel, and addicted to his pleasures, discoursing one day with one of his Queens, which was the Lady that he most en­tirely lov'd, or rather upon whom he doted even to folly, complain'd to her of the short continuance of the pleasures of this Life: that there were but very few Men who liv'd aHundred Years; and there was never any one that spent all his days in per­fect joy and divertisment. That in winter the days were very short, and the nights tediously long; and [Page 108] in Summer quite the Contrary, the Nights very short and the Days very long. Which inequality was the reason, that Man could not take any plea­sure that was capable to give him satisfaction: that the Sun was no sooner risen but set agen; that it was the same thing with the Night: that time flew away two swiftly: that life was not long enough to content our desires; and that he won­dred Nature should be so cruel and rigorous to Man­kind. To whom the Queen, All this, said she, Sir, signifies nothing; I know a way to prolong time in such a Manner that it shall be sufficient to give you satisfaction. Make but one day of a whole Month, and one Month of a whole Year: by which means the Years, the Months and Days will be so long, that living Ten Years, you will have a Hundred Years of Pleasure and Content. This would be an excellent Invention reply'd the King, hadst thou but the power to stop and re­tard the Motion of the Heavens, the Sun, the Moon and Stars. I confess, said the Queen, that neither You who are the Son of Heaven, and Master of so vast an Empire, nor my self, nor any human Power, are able to change the Laws of Nature. But you may blot out of your remem­brance both Time, the Heavens, and the Stars by devising new Heavens, and new Time of your own after this manner. Do but order a Palace to be built with Rooms and Chambers so contriv'd, as that they may neither have Doors nor Win­dows, nor so much as the least chink and cranny to admit the light either of the Sun, Moon or Stars. When your Palace is finish'd, and all the Rooms are thus perfectly darkn'd, carry thither all your Treasures of Gold, Silver, Precious Stones, and costly Furniture; Store it with what delights you fancy most, I mean Young Men and Virgins [Page 109] all selected and cull'd without any defect. Then You and I will go and live there our selves with­out any other Cloths but what Nature has af­forded us. After all these Preparations, You may of a sudden and all at once cause a Thou­sand Flambeaux, and a Thousand Lanthorns to give you a new Light, which presenting to your Eyes the Objects which you love with so much passion will cancel the remembrance of Time, the Heavens, the Sun, the Moon and even of your self at length: For you will be so charm'd with your Pleasures, that a Month will seem no more to you then a day, nor a Year any more then a Month. The Flambeaux and the Lanthorns will perform the Office of the Sun, Moon and Planets, and every Room will appear a Heav'n adorn'd with Stars; and by this means you shall create new Heavens and new Time. The Emperor trans­ported with his Lusts, and sway'd by his vain Pleasures, was so tak'n with the Queens contri­vance, that he appointed all things to be done ac­cording to the Advice of his Lascivious Queen. And when all things were done according to his wish, He spent a whole Year in this Palace, abandoning himself to all manner of dishonest and voluptuous Pleasures, minding neither his Court nor his King­dom. And these follies together with several other unjust and crue Actions, enforc'd his Subjects to revolt and choose in his Place the Emperor Cham tum, the Chief of another New Family of which we have already spok'n▪ After the Death of the Emperor Kie, the Chineses destroy'd his new Palace where he had perpetrated so many wicked Actions, and abolish'd all the Laws and Statutes enacted by that same cruel Tyrant, unless it were his Invention of Flambeaux and Lanthorns which they preserv'd to Celebrate the Festival before mention'd.

[Page 110]The Chineses also relate, how that about Two Thousand Years afterwards, another Emperor of the Tenth Royal Family, who was call'd Tam, suffer'd himself to be Deluded and Govern'd by a Mountebank of the Sect of those that are call'd. Tao Su, whose Profession it is to Cheat the Peo­ple, the Nobility, the Learned Men, and even the Princes themselves, by means of their Chymi­cal Operations, and their Gorgeous and Glorious Promises of continual streams of Gold and Silver, Life almost Eternal, and to Empower them to flie from one Mountain, City, or Province to another in a few Minutes. Now then this Emperor having surren­der'd his Understanding to one of these Impostors or Magicians, told him that he had a great de­sire A to see the Lanthorns in the City of Yâm Cheu, in the Province of Kiam Nan, the most Curious and most Celebrated over all the Empire, for their Beauty, their Riches, and their Workmanship; but, said he, I am afraid that if I go Incognito, and in Disguise, least some Disorder or Tumult should happen in the mean time in the Court or Kingdom; or if I should take this Progress with an Attendance and Train suitable to my Dignity, besides the Bur­then and Charge that I shall be to the People, I fear that all Men will condemn me of Folly, and think it strange that so great an Emperor should take a Journy so long and tedious for the Divertisement of a few Hours.

Let not your Majesty be disturb'd at that, re­pli'd the Magician, for I promise your Majesty, that without exposing your self to any of these Inconveniences which you have propounded to me, I will so order the matter, that the next Lan­thorn Night, which is not far off, you shall set for­ward, return to your Palace, and see the Lanthorns with all the satisfaction you can wish or desire.

[Page 111]In a few Hours after that, there appear'd in the Air Chariots and Thrones all of White Clouds, and drawn by Swans. Immediately the King and Queen betook themselves to their Chariots, with a great number of Damsels and Ladies of Hon­nour, together with the Musicians of the Palace: and then away flew the Swans with an extraordina­ry swiftness, and in a few Moments arriv'd at Yâm Cheu, which the Clouds, enlarging them­selves, cover'd all over. And then it was that the King at leisure view'd the Lanthorns which the People had Lighted, and to recompense them for the Divertisement which they had given him, he caus'd his Musicians to Charm their Ears with a Consort of Voices and Instruments; at the end of which, he set forward again for his Capital City, and in the Twinkling of an Eye found himself at home in his own Palace. Within a Month after, there came a Courier, according to custom, with a Dispatch, by which Intelligence was giv'n to the King, that upon a Lanthorn Night several Holy Men were seen hovering over the City of Yâm Cheu upon Thrones of Clouds drawn by Swans, and who at the same time had Ravish'd their Ears with a most Harmonious Musical Consort of Voi­ces and Instruments.

Lastly they tell you that about Five Hundred Years ago there was a King of the Family of Sûm, renown'd for his Noble Qualities and Vertues, more especially for his Mildness and Affability. That this Prince, to show the Affection which he had for the Nobility and People, was wont every Year to appear publickly in his Palace for Eight Nights together, without his Guards, and all the Gates set open, and to suffer the Multitude to take a view of all the Fire-Works and Lanthorns, which were very large and magnificent, and of [Page 112] several forms, that were in the Halls and Courts; all the while entertaining his Subjects with Musick befitting the Grandeur of an Emperor that made himself so familiar to the whole Assembly.

These are the Stories which the Chineses recount touching the Original and Augmentation of Ho­nour given to the Lanthorn Festival, so famous o­ver all China. Upon which, I have the longer in­sisted, to the end that by this same pattern, the Reader may judge what might be enlarg'd upon other Subjects.

Notes upon the Sixth Chapter.

A. P. 110. Yam Cheu in the Province of Kiam Nan.

THE City of Yam Cheu is seated near the Mouth of the Grand Canal, in the River Kiam. It is very Wealthy, Eminent for Trade, and Adorn'd with Magnificent Houses, built for the most part by the Merchants themselves, who are Enrich'd by their Traffick in Salt, of which there are vast Quantities drawn out of several Salt-pits upon the East side of the City. The Wealth of this City is the Cause, that the Inhabitants are exorbitantly addicted to their Pleasure, insomuch that several Little Girls are there bred up, the most Beautiful that can be found, and taught to Dance and Sing, and instructed in all other Female Allurements that may render them Agreeable who being thus accomplish'd [...]re sold at dear Rates for Concubines to the more Wealthy sort. No wonder then that they spare for no Cost to Divertise them­selves, [Page 113] and to render their Lanthorn Festival the most Pompous and Magnificent above all others in China. Almost all the Relations mention this Feast after the same manner as our Author does, but not with so ma­ny Circumstances. Kiam nan signifies a Province to the South of the River Kiam. Under the Chinese Kings, this Province was call'd Nan Kim, as also the Capital City belonging to it; that is to say, the Court of the South; as Pe-kim is call'd the Court of the North. For then there were two Courts, and the Ci­ty of Nan Kim enjoy'd the same Priviledges and Im­munities which the City of Pe-kim did. But the Tar­tars have depriv'd them of their Franchises, and chang'd the Name of Nan Kim, into that of Kiam Nim, that is to say, the Repose of the River Kiam. Which Custom of altering Names is very Ancient in China, and has also been practis'd from time to time in reference to other Cities.

CHAP. VII. Of the Publick Works and Edifices of the Chi­neses, and particularly of the Grand Canal.

THE Publick Works and Structures of the Chineses, in my Opinion, surpass in number and largeness, all those of other Kingdoms which are known to us. The Palaces of the Princes and Principal Mandarins appear to be Cities, and the Houses of Wealthy Private Persons resemble so many Palaces. They consist of Five or Six A­partments, not one above another, as in Europe[Page 114] but one beyond another, and upon the same Plat­form. Every Apartment is separated from the o­ther by a large Court, from which you ascend in­to the Halls and Chambers by an ascent of Six or Seven Steps. I have spoken in general of their Works and Buildings in the Second Chapter. I have also describ'd in the First Chapter the Cele­brated Bridge which is to be seen not far from Pe-kim, and I intend to speak more at large, in the last, of the Emperor's Palace. Nevertheless, that I may give a more just Idea of the Grandeur and Magnificence of the Publick Works of China, I shall here make a Rehearsal of what I have al­ready said in the Annual Letters of the Year 1659. touching the Grand Canal; which if I am not deciev'd, surpasses all other Works of this Na­ture which are upon the Earth.

A It is now above Four Hundred Years ago, since the Western Tartars Conquer'd all China. Their Emperor settl'd his Residence in the City of Pe-kim, which he founded anew, to the end he might Govern his Territories with more ease; for that he was also Lord of all the Western Tartary, which extends it self from the Province of Pe­kim to the Territories of the Mogul, to Persia, and the Caspian Sea. But in regard the Nor­thern Provinces could not furnish so large a City with Provisions necessary for their subsistance, he order'd a great number of Vessels to be built, to bring Victuals, Spices and Merchandize of all sorts to Pe-kim, from the Southern Provinces. However perceiving the Incertainty of those Voyages, and how that Calms and Tempests caus'd the loss of an infinite Quantity of Provi­sions and Merchandize, he employ'd Workmen without number, who at vast Expences, and with an unparallel'd Industry, open'd a Canal, Three [Page 115] Thousand Five Hundred Chinese Furlongs, or Two Hundred Forty Five Portugal Leagues in length, through several Provinces. This Canal, as well to weaken the Current of the Stream, as to make it more deep by retaining the Water within it, is furnish'd with Seventy Two Sluces, which the Chineses call Chā. They have every one great Gates, which are made of large Pieces of Tim­ber; and which are shut up in the Night, but set open in the Day time, for the passage of the Barks: And the greatest part of these Sluces are pass'd through with a great deal of ease. But there are some which are not to be shot, but with a great deal of Pains and Danger. More especi­ally one, which the Chineses call Tien Fi-cha, or the Queen and Mistress of Heaven; thereby to ex­press in Hyperbolical Terms the extraordinary Height of it. When the Barks are row'd against the Stream, and come to the bottom of this Sluce, the Watermen fasten to the Prow a great number of Cables and Cordage, which are drawn on both sides the Canal, by Four or Five Hundred Men, and sometimes more, according to the Burthen of the Vessel, and the Weight of the Lading. Others at the same time labour at Capstanes plac'd upon the Walls of the Sluce, which are very broad and built of Free-Stone. Besides the Ropes already mention'd, there are others which are very strong, wound about great Pillars of Stone or Wood to hold the Vessel if any of the other Cordage should chance to break. When these Cords are all fasten'd, they begin to Haule by degrees, as it were keeping time to the sound of a Bason, upon which they knock at first but softly, and with some in­tervals between the stroaks: but when half the Bark at least is rais'd to the height of the upper Channel, in regard the Current is then much [Page 116] stronger, they knock upon the Bason with thicker stroaks; at what time the Four or Five Hundred Haule all together with loud Hey Boys, and give such a stretch, that the Vessel mounts up in a Moment, and is secur'd in the dead Water between the sides of the Canal and the middle of the Cur­rent. The Vessels on the other side, fall down with more speed and ease, but with more danger. For the prevention of which, they fasten a great number of Cords to the Poop, which are let go, or held tite, with equal Care and Observation, by those that hold the Ropes on both sides the Canal. At the same time there are other Men on both sides the Vessel, who with long Poles with Iron Heads, guide the Bark through the middle of the Canal, to prevent her striking against the Jaumes, or great Stones, to which the Gates are fasten'd. Which when the Bark has pass'd, the Cords are lets go which kept her from plunging, and at the same time the Currant carries her as swift as an Arrow out of a Bow, till she stop by degrees as the Stream grows weaker and weaker, and carries her according to her usual course. This Canal be­gins at the City of Tum Cheu, distant about two Leagues and a half from Pe-kim. There is in the same place a River, with the Current of which Vessels drive, till near the Sea it falls into another, through which the Vessels Sail for some few Days. But then you come into a Canal made with hands; and after you have Sail'd Twenty, or Five and Twenty Leagues, you come to a Temple call'd Fuen Hui Miaò, or the Temple of the Spirit, which divides the Waters. As far as this place you Row upon the Canal against the Stream, but when you come just against this Temple, you be­gin to Swim with the Stream, and make use only of your Oars. Now I would fain know of our [Page 117] Engineers and famous Wits of Europe, how this can be, and whether it be a Work of Art or Na­ture? A Bark lies cross the middle of the Canal with the Prow to the West on the Temple side, and the Poop to the East. Now on the one side the Water runs toward the North, on the other side, it runs toward the South. To unfold this Riddle, you are to understand, that on the East side at the distance of about half a Days Journy, there lies a great Lake between high Mountains, the Waters of which swell'd a good large River that bent its course toward the Sea upon the East side. Now the Chineses stop'd up that Outlet, and having cut through the Mountain, open'd a Canal by which they brought the Water to the Temple. In that part they hallow'd two other Canals, one toward the North, the other toward the South; and this with so true a proportion and regular Line, that the Waters coming to the mid­dle before the Temple, take their leaves, and one part of the Streams runs equally to the North, and the other toward the South, as you may see by the following Figure,

[figure]

This Canal in some places runs through the mid­dle of Cities, in other places along by the Walls. [Page 118] It crosses one part of the Province of Pe-Kim; af­terwards all the Province of Xan tum, and after it has enter'd into the Province of Nan kim, dischar­ges it self into that great and rapid River, which the Chineses call the Yellow River. Upon this Ri­ver you Sail for about two days, and then you come into another, where you Sail about the length of two Musquet Shot, at what time you meet with a Canal, which the Chineses open'd upon the South­side of this last River, and which runs toward the City of Hoai ngan: afterwards this Canal runs through many Cities and Towns till it come to the City of Yam cheu, the most famous Sea-port Town of all in the Empire. Soon after it dischar­ges it self into the River Kiam, a good days Jour­ney from the City of Nan Kim. Certainly this was an Undertaking and Performance very great and Magnificent: nor is the Building of Eleven hundred forty five Royal Inns much inferiour to it. Only the raising of several Thousands For­tresses, and the Walls Five hundred Leagues in length which environ China, is more to be won­dred at.

Notes upon the Seventh Chapter.

A. P. 114. It is now above Four hundred years ago since the Western Tartars conquer'd, &c.

CHingis Can, the Founder of the Monarchy of the Tartars, the largest that ever was in the World; or at least his Son Octay Can, about the year 1220. began the Conquest of North China, setting upon the [Page 119] Eastern Tartars, in whose Possession it had been about a Hundred and seventeen years, according to the Chro­nology of F. Couplet. But the entire Conquest of China was not Compleated till the year 1220. by the Fifth Emperor after Ching is Can, call'd by our Histo­rians in imitation of the Eastern Tartars Cublay Can, or Cobila. The Chineses who give him great Enco­miums, call him Xi Su; and affirm, that formerly he was call'd Ho pie lie: which I believe to be no other than the Name of Cublay or Cobila corrupted, in re­gard the Chineses Pronounce very ill, and corrupt al­most all the Names and Words of other Nations, as our Author has observ'd in his first Chapter, that M. Polo had Corrupted the [...]artar Name of the An­cient Pe Kim, calling it Can b [...]lu instead of Han palu. The Chineses commit the same Mistakes in the Pronun­ciation of Foreign Languages, changing Letters and adding Vowels to facilitate Pronunciation; in regard that all the Words of their Language are Monosyllables. Thus I have seen in a Manuscript Discourse of the Ne­cessity of performing Divine Service in the Chinese Language, which highly deserves to be Printed, that the Chineses instead of Crux, Pronounce Cu lu c [...]. Instead of Pronouncing Beatus, they say Pe j [...] su s [...]. For Baptizo they cry Pa pe ti so; and in stead of Bartholmeus, Pa ulh to lo meusu. And in the same manner 'tis very probable that they might have said Ho pie lie, instead of Cublay or Cobila, changing the C into H, and the b into p: so reading Hopili instead of Cobili, and adding e to facilitate the Pro­nunciation.

This Prince Xi Su, or Cubluy Can it was, that caus'd the Grand Canal to be made, which the Author describes with his usual Exactness, and which is with­out question one of the most Magnificent and Admira­ble undertakings in the Universe. Only there is one thing we would fain know, whether these Sluces are [Page 120] made like those in France and the Low-Countries; that is to say, whether they are made of two Gates at a distance one from the other, between which the water rises. For by the Relation of Father Magaillans, and that of F. Trigant, the Chinese Sluces seem to be no more than only a b [...]re Gate made fast with pieces of Wood let fall perpendicularly till the Overture be wholly stopt up. The water being swell'd in this manner, they draw up these pieces of Wood one after another, and then cause the Vessels to ascend or fall, which sometimes would not be able to Sail for want of Water in the Canal, if i [...] were not retain'd and stopp'd by this Invention. But this is not so convenient as a Sluce with two Gates and a Hutch between both. Thus the Author of the Relation of the Dutch Embassy reports, that the Sluces in China are not open'd but with great difficulty, and that they are a great hindrance to the Voyage. However this is a Thing very Remarkable, that a man may at any time go from one end of China to the other, for the space of above Six hundred Leagues, unless it be one Iourney only by Land between the Provinces of Quam Tum and Kiamsi, or between the Cities of Nan hium, and Nan gan, where you Embark again upon the River of Can. Upon which it will not be amiss to observe that the Author of the Dutch Embassy made a considerable Mistake in confounding the River Can, with the great River Kiam, which comes from the Pro­vince of Iunnan, and touches only the Northern Ex­tremity of the Province of Kiamsi, whereas the River Can divides it in two, running through it from South to North.

CHAP. VIII. Of the great Industry of this Nation.

THe Magnificence, and great Number of Pub­lick Works in China, is not only the Effect of vast Charges and Expences; but of the extraor­dinary Industry of the Nation. They do all man­ner of Mechanick Works with a far less number of Tools, and with more Ease than we do. For as in this Country here is not a foot of Land that lyes wast; so there is not any Man or Woman, young or old, lame, deaf or blind, that has not a way to get a Livelyhood, or that has not some Trade or Employment. The Chineses have a common Pro­verb, Chūm qūe vù y vo, In China there is nothing thrown away. How vile and useless a thing may appear to be, it has its Use and may turn to Profit. For example, in the City of Pekim only, there are above a Thousand Families, who have no other Trade to subsist on, but only by Selling of matches for Tinderboxes, and weeks for Candles. There are also as many that have nothing else to live upon, but by picking up in the Streets and among the Sweepings of Houses, Rags of Silk, Cot­ton and Linnen-Cloth; pieces of Paper, and other things, which they wash & make clean, and then Sell to others that make use of them in several Trades. Their Invention also for the carrying of Burthens is very curious; for they do not carry their Bur­thens by main Strength as we do, but by Po­licy,A in this manner: They fasten the things [Page 122] which they are to carry, either with Cords or Hooks, or put them in Baskets or Hampers, and hang them afterwards at both ends of a flat piece of Wood made on purpose, which they take up upon their Shoulders equally pois'd, so that the Burthen weighs as much on the one side as on the other. Which Invention is a very great Conve­nience; it being most certain that Burthens equally pois'd, are much more easie to carry.

In all the Cities and Towns of the Empire, there are two Towers, the one call'd the Drum-Tower, and the other the Bell-Tower; which serve to tell the Hour of the Night. For the Chineses divide the Night into five parts longer or shorter, accor­ding as the Nights are longer or shorter, and as they are longer in Winter than in Summer. At the Beginning of the Night or first Watch, the Watchman strikes several stroaks upon the Drum, and the Bell answers him after the same manner. After that, during all the first Quarter, the Watch­man gives one stroak upon the Drum, and another Watchman one rap upon the Bell with a wooden Hammer. And this they do all the first Quarter, observing the space of time that a Man may say his Creed between the stroak and rap together. When the second Quarter of the Night begins, then they give two stroaks, and two raps apiece at the same distance of time, till the beginning of the third Quarter, and then they give three stroaks and raps apiece. When the fourth Quarter begins, they give four; and when the fifth Quarter begins, five; and as soon as Day breaks they redouble their stroaks, as they do at the Beginning of the Night. So that let a man wake at any time of the Night, he shall know by the City Signal what Hour of the Night it is, unless the wind sit so as to hinder the sound.

[Page 123]At Pekim in the King's Palace, you may see Drums and Bells upon the high Towers, and B in the City two other Towers with Drums and Bells. The City Drum is fifteen publick Cu­bits Diameter, as is that which I have mention'd in the first remark. The Palace Bell is as big as ever any that I saw in Portugal. But the sound of it is so loud, so clear and harmonious, that it rather seems to be a Musical Instrument than a Bell.

F. Athanasius Kirker in the second Chapter of his Sixteenth Book of Musurgie, or Art of Concords and Discords, assures us, that the Bell in the City of Erfort under the Elector of Mayence, is the big­gest not only in Europe, but in all the World. Ne­vertheless we have seen with our own Eyes, and observ'd by the tryal which we made in the year 1667. that it is much less than that which the Fa­thers Iohn Adam, and Ferdinand Verbiest got C up with Engines, to the Astonishment of the whole Court, and plac'd in one of the Towers of which we have formerly spoken. Of the Truth of which a man may be easily convinc'd, that compares the Measures of the Bell of Erfort taken out of Father Kirker's Book, and those of the Bell at Pekim, compar'd by F. Ferdinand Verbiest, after this manner:

1. The Bottom of the Bell of Erfort, is seven Chi­nese Cubits and [...].1. The Diameter of the Bottom of the Bell of Pe­kim, is Twelve Cubits and [...].
2. The Thickness of the Bell of Erfort toward the Closure, is 6/10 of a Cubit and 7/10 of 1/10.2. The Thickness of the Bell of Pekim toward the Closure, is 9/10 of a Cubit.
[Page 124]3. The Inner Depth which F. Kirker calls Altitu­dinem inclusae Curva­turae, is Eight Cubits and five Tenths ½.3. The Inner Depth of the Bell at Pekim, is Twelve Cubits.
4. The weight of the Bell of Erfort, is Twenty five thousand four hun­dred Pound.4. The weight of the Bell of Pekim, is a Hundred and Twenty thousand Pound of Brass.

This Bell is that which is appointed to give no­tice of the Watch or Hour of the Night in the City of Pekim, and I dare confidently averr, that there is not the like Bell in Europe, and in all probability it is the biggest in the World. When they strike upon it in the Night, the sound or terrible roaring rather which it makes, is so loud, so full, and so r [...] ­sounding, that after it has spread it self over all the City, it extends it self over the Walls into the Suburbs, and is heard a great way round about the neighbouring Country.

The Kings of China, together with this extraor­dinary Bell caus'd Seven others to be Cast, of which there are Five that still lye upon the Ground. But of those Five there is one that justly deserves to be admir'd, as being all over-cover'd with Chi­nese Characters, so fair, so neat, and so exact, that they do not look as if they had been cast, but writ­ten upon Paper by some judicious and excellent Writing-Master.

The Chineses have also found out, for the regu­lating and dividing the Quarters of the Night, an Invention becoming the wonderful Industry of that Nation. They beat to Powder a certain Wood, after they have peel'd and rasp'd it, of which they make a kind of Past, which they rowl into Ropes and Pastils of several Shapes. Some they make of [Page 125] more costly Materials, as Saunders, Eagle, and o­ther odoriferous Woods, about a fingers length, which the wealthy sort, and the Men of Learning burn in their Chambers. There are others of less value, one, two and three Cubits long, and about the bigness of a Goose Quill, which they burn before their Pagods or Idols. These they make the same use of as of Candles to light them from one place to another. They make these Ropes of powder'd Wood of an equal Circumference, by the means of Moulds made on purpose. Then they wind them round at the bottom, lessening the circle at the bottom till they come to be of a Conick figure, which enlarges it self at every Turn, to one, two and three hands breadth in Diameter, and sometimes more; and this lasts one, two and three days together, according to the bigness which they allow it. For we find some in their Temples that last ten, twenty or thirty days. These Weeks resemble a Fisher's Net, or a String wound about a Cone; which they hang up by the Middle, and light at the lower end, from whence the Fire winds slowly and insensibly, accor­ding to the windings of the string of powder'd Wood, upon which there are generally five marks to distinguish the five parts of the Watch, or Night. Which manner of measuring Time is so just and certain, that you shall never observe any conside­rable Mistake. The Learned Men, Travellers, and all Persons that would rise at a precise hour about Business, hang a little weight at the Mark, which shews the Hour when they design to rise, which when the Fire is come to that point, certainly falls into a Copper Bason, that is plac'd underneath, and wakes them with the noise of the fall. This Invention supplies the want of our Larum Watches, only with this difference, that this is so plain a [Page 126] thing and so cheap, that one of these Inventions, which will last Four and twenty Hours, does not cost above Three pence; whereas Watches that consist of so many wheels and other devices, are so dear, that they are not to be purchas'd but by those that have store of Money.

Notes upon the Eighth Chapter.

A. P. 121. They fasten the things which are to be carried, &c.

THis Invention as it is describ'd, is altogether like to that which the Women in Holland (he might have said the Men in England) make use of to carry their Milk-Pails about the Streets, of which no que­stion but that F. Magaillans was ignorant. But it is of no use in the world to carry a Burthen of one en­tire piece.

B. P. 123. The City Drum is fifteen City Cubics Diameter, &c.

I have observ'd in the first Note upon the second Chapter, that the Chinese Cubit was a Parisian Foot, as seven to eight. So that these fifteen Cubits amount to thirteen foot and ⅛ of Paris. Which shews us, that this Drum is of a Prodigious bigness; seeing that by the Proportion of the Diameter to the Circumference, this Drum must be Forty one foot and a quarter, or near seven fathom in Compass.

C. P. 123. F. Athanasius, Kircher, &c. affirms that the Bell of the City of Erfort, &c.

Father Kirker certainly had never heard of several Bells in Europe bigger than that of Erfort. For to go no farther than France, the Bell of Roan call'd George d' Amboise, weighs about Forty thousand weight, as the Inscription upon it declares. Those of Rhodez, of St. John of Lyon, and the two which were cast for Nostre Dame in Paris, are almost as big as that of Roan. As certain it is, that F. Kirker had never heard of the Bells at Pe-kim, since he has acknow­ledg'd his Error in his China illustrata, after F. Gru­ber had sent him the Extract of a Letter from F. Fer­dinand Verbiest, containing the Description of that Bell at Pe-kim, which F. Kirker has quoted and Printed in his China Illustrated. Neither had F. Magaillans ever seen this last Piece of F. Kirker.

As for the Bells of Pekim, F. Ferdinand Verbiest in his Letter, and F. Couplet in his Chronology tells us that they were cast about the year 1404. by the Order of the Emperor Chim su, otherwise Yum lo, the Uncle of Kien ven ti, & second Son of Hum vu, who ex­pell'd the Western Tartars out of China, and founded the Royal Family Tai min ga extirpated this last Age by the Eastern Tartars. This Emperor Chim su caus'd five of these Bells to be cast, every one of which weighs a Hundred and twenty thousand weight, and there is no question to be made, but that then they were the big­gest in the World. But James Rutenfels in his Rela­tion of Muscovie, which he wrote in Latin, affirms that there is one much bigger in the Palace of the Grand Duke at Moscow, which weighs Three hundred and twenty thousand Pound, and that it is of that Prodi­gious weight, that no Art of Man can raise it, nor hang it in the Tower call [...]d Yvan velichi, at the bottom of which it lyes upon pieces of Timber.

[Page 128]Father Rougemont tells us in his History, that F. Adam caus'd two of the Bells at Pekim to be cran'd up into a Tower a Hundred and fifty Chinese Cubits, or One hundred thirty one Foot and ¼ high, by the help of Two hundred Workmen only, to the great Astonishment of the Chineses, who thought he must have employ'd as many Thousands: and that two years after he caus'd a third Bell to be cran'd up in the same manner, but with more Ease, though he employ'd no more than a Hundred and twenty young Men. F. Intorcetta ob­serves in his Relation, that the Bells of China have no Clappers, only they make them sound by striking with a Hammer upon the outside of the Skirt.

CHAP. IX. Of the Navigation of the Chineses.

NAvigation is so common and so Universal in this Kingdom, that there is hardly any Ci­ty or Town, especially in the Southern Provinces, that does not enjoy the benefit of some River, some Lake, some Canal, or some Navigable Arm of the Sea; insomuch that there are almost as ma­ny Inhabitants upon the Water as upon the dry Land. Which is a Sight no less pleasing then sur­prizing, when a Stranger comes to any Port in the Evening, to see one City of Vessels upon the Water, and another of Houses upon the Land. They that put off very early, or come too late, are forc'd to Sail or Row for several Hours together, between Vessels that lye not far from the Shoar on both sides. Moreover, there is such a Trade at some [Page 129] of these Ports, that it is half a days time, and sometimes more, before a Man can get clear of the Vessels that lye before the Town Insomuch that a Man may say, there are two Empires in China, the one upon the Water, and the other upon the Land; and as many Venice's as there are Ci­ties. For these Vessels serve instead of Houses to them that are the Masters of them. There they dress their Meat, there they are born, there they are bred, and there they dye; there they have their Dogs and their Catts; there they breed their Pigs, their Ducks, and their Geese. Their Vessels are some of good Burthen, others less. Some belong to the King, some to the Mandarins, some to the Merchants, and some to the People. Among the King's Barks, those which are call'd So chuen, are employ'd to carry the Mandarins to their several Governments, and to bring them back upon their Returns. These are made like our Caravels, but high, and so well Painted, especi­ally the Cabin where the Mandarin lodges, that they resemble Buildings erected for some publick Solemnity, rather than ordinary Hoy's. Those that are call'd Leam chuen; that is to say, such as are appointed to carry Provisions from the Provinces to the Court, are about nine Thousand, nine Hun­dred, fourscore and nineteen. I have often been Inquisitive to know why they did not add one more to make up the number of ten Thousand; but all the Inquisition I could make was still to no purpose, till at length, after several years, and when I better understood the humour and customs of the Nation, I made a shrewd Conjecture at the Reason. The number of Ten Thousand is express'd by two Chinese Letters only, Y, and Van; which have nothing in them either of Great or Magnifi­cent, either in Writing or Pronunciation, and by [Page 130] Consequence deserve not to be made use of to ex­press the number of the Emperor's Barks. So that they have tak'n one out of ten Thousand, to ren­der the number more Pompous and Majestick, and which was more proper to flatter their Vani­ty and Pride, by saying, nine Hundred fourscore and nineteen, as running most upon their ador'd number Nine. These Vessels are somewhat less then the former; Nevertheless they have their Fore-Castles and Quarter-Decks, and a Cabin or Hall in the middle, like those of the Mandarins. The third sort of the Emperor's Barks are call'd Lum y chuen, that is to say, the Vessels that bring the Emperor's Habits, his Peices of Silk and Tissue to the Court. Of these there are as many as there are days in the Year, or three hundred sixty five: For in regard the Emperor is stil'd the Sun of Heaven, there is nothing that appertains to him, to which the Chineses do not ascribe some relation to the Celestial Beings, as the Heavens, the Sun, the Moon, the Planets, and the Stars. Thus Lum y, signifies the Habits of the Dragon; for that the Imprese and Arms of the King of China are compos'd of Dragons, with five Clawes: and for that reason, his Habits and his Moveables, of ne­cessity must be adorn'd with Dragons, either in Painting or Embroidery. So that when you say Lum yen, the Eyes of the Dragon, or Lum y, the habits of the Dragon, all the Chineses understand that you mean the Emperor's Eyes, or the Empe­ror's Garments; and so of the rest. Lastly there are other Vessels call'd Lám chuen, very light and small in Comparison of the others, and which are almost as broad as they are long. These are for the use of the Men of Learning, and other wealthy Persons and People of Quality, that go and come to and from the Court. They have belonging to [Page 131] them a fair Cabin, a Bed, a Table and Chairs, where you may sleep, eat, study, write, and receive Visits, with the same Convenience as if you were at home in your House. The Prow belongs to the Marriners and Watermen, and the Master of the Boat lives in the Poop with his Wife and Chil­dren, where also the Victuals are drest for him that hires the Bark. These last Vessels, with seve­ral others of several Forms, belong to particular Persons, and are almost Innumerable. And I my self in the Year 1656, by the Emperor's com­mand, went by water from Pe kim to Macao upon the grand Canal and several other Rivers, for a­bove six hundred Leagues, without going by Land but only one days Journey, to cross a Mountain which divides the Province of Kiam si, from [...] of Quam tum.

Certainly there is no Kingdom in the World so vast as this is, that enjoys the like advantage. Ne­vertheless what I am now going to relate, will seem to be yet more incredible; and indeed, I should hardly have believ'd it my self, had I not seen it my self. The fourth of May, in the year 1642. I departed from the City of Ham cheu Capital of the Province of Che Kiam, and the twenty eighth of August of the same year, I arriv'd at Chim tu, the Capital of the Province of Su chuen. During these four Months, I made four Hundred Leagues, all the way by Wa­ter, counting the windings and turnings of the Rivers; yet so that for a whole Month I sail'd up­on two different Streams, tho during all the other three Months, I kept upon the grand River of Kiam, which is call'd the Son of the Sea. During this tedious Journey by Water, I met with every Day such vast quantities of Timber Trees tied one to another of all sorts of Wood, which if they were [Page 132] fasten'd together, would make a Bridge of several days Journey. I sail'd by some of these that were fasten'd to the Shoar, above an hour, and sometimes for half a days swimming with the Stream. Now the most wealthy Merchants of China are they that trade in Salt and Wood, there being no o­ther Commodities for which they have a more considerable Vent. This Wood therefore is cut down in the Mountains of the Province of Suchu­en, upon the Frontiers of China, to the West: and after they have caus'd it to be carry'd to the Banks of the River Kiam, which about those Parts falls into this Empire, they Saw it into Boards, and with little Expence carry it into most parts of the Provinces, where they make a very great Profit by the Sale of it. The Breadth of these Trains of Timber is about ten Foot, and the Length ei­ther longer or shorter, according to the Merchant's Stock, but the longest are sometimes about half a League. They rise above the Water four or five Foot, and they are made after this manner. They take as much Wood as is requisite for the height or thickness of four or five Foot, and breadth of ten. Then they make holes at the Ends of the pieces of wood, through which they put wreaths of Reeds or twisted Osiers, to which they fasten other pie­ces of Wood, suffering the Float to fall down with the stream, till the whole Train be as long as they desire. All the parts of the Float being thus contriv'd, move and yield to the Water, as ne­cessity requires, as pliably as the Links of a Chain. Only upon the fore-part of the Float they set four or five Men with Oars or Poles to guide the Float, and make it swim where they please. Upon these Floats at such and such distances, they build little wooden Cottages, which they sell whole, as they are, at the several places where they [Page 133] stop during their Journey. Here the Merchants Sleep and shelter themselves, as in their Houses, dress their Meat and Eat it, and put their furniture and utensils therein. The same Merchants also bring from the Mountains and Forrests, where they cut their Wood, several sorts of Medicinal Herbs, Parrots, Monkeys, and other things, which they sell in the Cities and other places thro' which they pass, to other Merchants that vend them o­ver all the Provinces of the Empire. Great Quanti­ties of this Wood are brought to Pekim, though it be distant above seven hundred Portugueze Leagues from the Mountains where the Wood is cut down. And thus a Man may easily judge by what I say, that there is no Kingdom in the World that can compare with China, for the Benefit of going and trading by Water.

CHAP. X. Of the great Plenty of all things in China.

MOST certain it is, that the two Fountains of Trade, are Navigation and Plenty, in a King­dom stor'd with all sorts of Commodities. China enjoys both these Advantages to that degree that no Kingdom exceeds it. The great quantity of Gold which is found in all the Mountains is such, that instead of Coining it into Money, to buy Ne­cessaries; it is it self a Commodity. Whence comes that Proverb among the Chineses so often repeated [Page 134] at Macao, Money is the Blood, but Gold is Mer­chandize. As for Money, it is now above four thou­sand five hundred Years that this Empire has last­ed; nor has their Coveteousness of Money, nor their Industry to get it been less ancient. So that the quantity which the Chineses have rammas'd to­gether, must needs be immense and incredible; so much the rather for that whatever enters once, is never carri'd out again, in regard the Laws so strictly forbid it. You shall rarely hear in Europe of Presents made of five Hundred or a Thousand Crowns, but in China it is a usual thing to make Presents, not only of a Thousand, but ten, twenty, thirty, forty thousand Crowns. And certain it is, that through the whole Empire, but more especially at Court, several Millions are expended in Presents and Entertainments, and that the same thing is there every day to be seen which was anciently said of Rome: all things are there put to sale. There is not any Employment of Governour of a City or Town, which does not cost the Person who is preferr'd to it, several Thousands of Crowns; sometimes twenty, sometimes thirty, and so pro­portionably for all other Offices great and small. To be a Viceroy or Governour of a Province, be­fore a Man can have his Commission seal'd, will cost him twenty, thirty, forty, and sometimes threescore, sometimes seventy Thousand Crowns. And yet so far is the King from receiving a Far­thing of this Money, that he knows nothing of the Abuse. Only the Grand Ministers of the Em­pire, the Colao's, or Counsellers of State, and the six Supream Tribunals of the Court, are they that privately sell all Offices and Employ­ments, to the Vice-roys and great Mandarins of the Provinces. On the other side, they to satis­fy their Avarice, and to reimburse themselves of [Page 135] the Money laid out for their Preferments, extort Presents from the Presidents of Territories and Cities, who repay themselves upon the Governors of Towns and Burroughs, and they, or rather all together, make themselves whole again, and reple­nish their Purses at the Expence of the Miserable People. So that it is a common Proverb in China, that the King unwittingly lets loose so many Hang-Men, Murderers, hungry Dogs and Wolves to ruin and devour the Poor People, when he Creates new Mandarins to Govern them. In short there is not any Vice-roy, Visitor of a Province, or any such like Officer, who at the end of Three years of his being employ'd, that does not return with Six or Seven hundred Thousand, and sometimes a Million of Crowns. From whence I draw one Con­clusion, which to me seems undeniable, that if we consider the natural Inclination, and insatiable ava­rice of the Chineses, there is very little Money in China; but if we consider the Riches which She possesses within Her self, there is not any Kingdom that may compare with it.

There is in China a vast Quantity of Copper, Iron, Tin, and all other sorts of Metals; especi­ally Copper and Lattin, of which they make their Great Guns, an infinite number of Idols and Sta­tues, and several sorts of Dishes and Cups of various forms, and of a Price and value extraordinary. There are some of these Vessels, which either for their Antiquity, or because they were made in such a King's Reign, or by such a Workman, tho' otherwise very ordinary and clownish, are valu'd at several Hundreds of Crowns, nay sometimes a Thousand and more. And indeed the City of Macao affords us an evident proof of the great plenty of these Mettals. For that in that one City there are cast such numbers of great Guns to be ad­mir'd [Page 136] for their goodness, their bigness, and their Workmanship, which not only serve for the use of that City, but to supply several places in the Indies, and even Portugal it self. Moreover, a Man may judge of the Great Plenty of Copper and Tin in China, by the great quantity of Copper and Tin Money that is made over all the Empire. These pieces of Money have square holes in the Middle, and so are threaded upon Strings, which contain every one a Thousand Deniers. And generally you exchange a String of a Thousand Deniers for one Crown, or Chinese Tael; and this exchange is made in Banks and publick places appointed for the same purpose.

By the way we are here to take notice, that there is not any Memorial extant in China, neither do we meet with any Record in their Histories or any other o [...] their Books, that ever they made use o [...] Paper-Money in that Kingdom, as M. Polo tells us in his second Book, Chapter eighteenth. But in regard that M. Polo is an Author of good Re­putation, I will here unfold the Reason that made him commit that mistake. The Copper Money of China is round, and generally about the bigness of a Portuguese Real and a half. It has Letters stamp'd upon it, which on the one side de­clare the Name of the Reigning Prince; on the other, the Name of the Tribunal that caus'd it to be Covn'd. The Pieces of Gold and Silver are not Coyn'd, but cast into Lingots in the form of a small Boat, which at Macao are call'd Paes, or Loaves of Gold or Silver. Both the one and the other are of a different value. The Loaves of Gold are of the value of one, two, ten, and twenty Crowns. Those of Silver, of the value of half a Crown, one Crown, Ten, Twenty, Fifty, and sometimes a Hundred, and three Hundred Crowns. [Page 137] These they cut with Steel Scizars, which the peo­ple carry about them for that purpose, and divide them into pieces, bigger or lesser, according to the value of the purchas'd Commodity. This being granted, you are to take notice, that the first and fifteenth day of every Month, and at all times that the Chineses carry their Dead to Enterrment, they burn a great quantity of Money and Loaves made of Pastboard, cover'd over with Leaf-Tin, and guilded over with Leaf-Gold, Varnish'd with Yellow. Now these Pastboard Figures are so like the real Tin Money, and Loaves of Gold and Silver, that Foreigners who are not well instructed in the Customes and Superstitions of this Nation, may easily be deceiv'd. So much the rather, because they see in the Streets and Piazza's at every turn, Men laden, & Shops full of this Counterfeit Money. Now the Chineses burn them, because they believe the Ashes turn to Copper Money, and Loaves of Gold and Silver, which their deceas'd Parents make use of in the other World to hire Houses, and to buy Cloaths and Victuals, and to purchase the Favour of the King of Hell, his Ministers and his Executioners; to the end they may use them with less severity, and be more remiss in their torments; as also to oblige them not to delay, but rather to hasten the time of their Transmigra­tion or Metempsycosis, by translating their Souls not into the Bodies of Beasts, but into the Bo­dies of Men considerable for their Learning, their Honors, and their Wealth; such is the ex­traordinary ignorance and blindness of these Infidels. We are also farther to observe, that Anciently, when the Kings of China wanted Mo­ney, they gave to the Mandarins and Souldiers in part of their Pay, certain Tickets sign'd and seal'd with the King's Seal. Which Tickets were made [Page 138] of Past-board, about the bigness of half a sheet of Paper, with their Price or Value written upon them. Thus when any Person was to receive a Hun­dred Crowns, they paid him Fifty in ready Money and the other Fifty in these sort of Tickets: which are call'd Chao, whence the word Chao fu is deriv'd. But because the People scrupl'd to re­cieve these Billets instead of Money, the King order'd that an Employment should be given to him that should take up these Billets and bring a Hundred back into the Royal Treasury; and a more considerable Employment to him that should bring in a Thousand, and so proportionably for a greater Number. Which as it was a great advan­tage to the King, so was it no less gainful to the wealthier sort, for that they got Employments, which they could never have obtain'd but by that means; & wherein that Nation places their chiefest glory and felicity. However this expedient could not satisfie the Generality, who were unwilling and grumbl'd to part with their Commodities and Provisions for a piece of Past-board; which was the occasion of many Quarrels and Disputes; so that at last the Court was oblig'd to suppress these Billets, to avoid those Inconveniences, and many others, which they every day foresaw. So that after some few Ages, those Pastboards were no longer in use. However, there is no question to be made, but that these were the Reasons that induc'd M. Polo to assert in several Parts of his History, that the Chineses made use of Pastboard or Paper Money.

The white Silk and Wax of China, are things that are worthy to be taken notice of. The first is the best in the World; and the second is not on­ly the best, but that which is singular, and no where else to be found but in this Kingdom. All [Page 139] Men know the great plenty and goodness of the Silk which is made over all China. The Ancients had the Knowledge of it, in regard they call China the Kingdom of Silk; and the Moderns know it by Experience, in regard that many Nations both of Asia and Europe load out several Caravans, and great Numbers of Ships, with Chinese Silk, both wrought and raw. And this same vast Plenty of Silk appears yet more, by the incredible Num­ber of Silk Stuffs both plain and intermix'd with Gold and Silver, which are worn over all the Kingdom. The petty Kings, the Princes, the Grandees and their Servants, the Eunuchs, the Mandarins, the Men of Learning, the wealthy Burgesses, also all the Women, and a fourth part of the Men, wear Silk Garments, as well upper as undermost. Nay, it is so common at Court, that the very Footmen that run by their Masters Horses, are clad in Sattin and Damask. But lastly, a man may be convinc'd of this inexhaustible Plen­ty of Silk, by the Three hundred sixty five Barks of which we have already spoken, which the Pro­vinces of Nam kin and Che kiam alone, send every year to the Court, laden not only with Pieces of Tissue, Damask, Sattins and Velvets of different Shapes and Colours, but rich and costly Garments for the King, the Queen, the Princes their Chil­dren, and all the Ladies of the Court. To which we may add the Hundreds of thousand Pounds of raw and wrought Silk, which the other Provinces Pay by way of Tribute to the King; of which I shall presently give an Accompt. So that of ne­cessity China must have an undrainable plenty of Silk, since the Tribute which it pays is so great.

The Wax is the most beautiful, the clearest A & the whitest, that ever was seen; and tho it be not so common as B [...]es-wax in Europe; however [Page 140] there is enough to serve the King, and all that be­long to the Palace; for the Grandees, the Lords, and all the Mandarins that are in actual Employ­ment, for all the Learned and rich People. It is found in several of the Provinces, but in greatest Abundance in the Province of Hû quàm, and the most excellent for whiteness and Beauty. It comes from certain Trees, which in the Province of Xan tūm are but small, but in that of Hu quàm are as large as the Pagod Trees in the East Indies, or the Chesnut Trees in Europe: however it does not sweat out of the Tree, like Rosin out of the Pine Tree, but is produc'd by a particular Industry of Nature. There is in these Provinces a small Ani­mal no bigger than a Flea, but so restless, so active and vigorous, so quick at biting and penetrating, that it pierces with an extraordinary swiftness, not only the Skins of Men and Beasts, but the Branches and Bodies of Trees. The most esteem'd are those of the Province of Xan tūm, where the Inhabitants pick the Eggs of these Animals out of the Trees, and hoard them up. These Eggs in the Spring turn to little Worms, with which they fill the hollow­nesses of large Canes, and carry them into the Province of Hû quàm to sell. At the beginning of the Spring they lay these Worms at the roots of the Trees; where they are no sooner lay'd, but with an incredible swiftness they run up the Bodies of the Trees, and take possession of the Branches and Boughs as it were by a kind of natural Instinct; where being always in motion with a wonderful Activity, they bite, pierce, and penetrate to the very pith, which by a peculiar property that God has given them, they prepare, purifie and turn to Wax as white as Snow. Afterwards they thrust it up through the holes which they have made to the Superficies, where by means of the Wind and [Page 141] the Cold, it congeals and hangs like so many drops or Isicles. And then the Owners of the Trees come and gather it, and make it into Cakes like our Cakes of Wax, and then Sell it all over the Kingdom.

'Tis true that there is not in any part of this Empire any Woollen Cloth comparable to the Cloth which we make use of in Europe; never­theless there are several sorts of Serges, and those very fine, and very costly, of an Ashie or Cinna­mon Colour, which are worn by Old People and Persons of Quality in the Winter. The Country People, and Meaner sort, make their Garments of Cotton Cloth, of which there is such an extraor­dinary plenty, and of so many several Colours, that it is scarce possible to express it. But much more impossible to express the Value, Richness, Beauty, Plenty, and Variety of the Furrs in this Nation, which are worn in all the Northern Pro­vinces, especially at the Court at Pe-kim. I shall only make this Observation, for the better confir­mation of the Truth of what I say, that when the King appears publickly in his Royal Room of State, which he does Four Times in a Month, the Four Thousand Mandarins that come to pay him their Homages, are all cover'd from Head to Foot with Sables of an extraordinary Value. The Women also are Clad with the same sort; and the Chineses not only Line their Buskins and their Bonnets, but Face the Saddles of their Horses with several sorts of Furrs; nay, they Line their Seats their Chairs, and the inside of their Tents with Furrs. Among the Common People, the more Wealthy sort, wear Lambskins; the Poorer sort wrap themselves in Sheepskins. So that in [...] Winter time there is not any Person that is no [...] up in the Skins and Furrs of several [...] ▪ as Sables, Martins, Foxes, Wolves, [...] several others, of [Page 142] which I do not know the Names in Portuguese: and some of these Skins are so high-priz'd, that a Garment will cost a Hundred, Three Hundred, and Four Hundred Crowns.

As for Flesh, Fish, Fruit, and other Provisions, it is enough to say, that they have all which we have in Europe, and many more Varieties that we have not; the Cheapness of which sufficiently de­monstrates their Plenty. Now as the Chinese Language is very Laconick and short, so is their Writing, which is the reason that they express all these things with Six Letters or Syllables. The Two first are, ù co, which signifie, that there are Five Principal sorts of Grain; Rice, Wheat, Oats, Millet, Pease, and Beans. The other Two are Lo trio, signifying that there are Six sorts of the Flesh of Tame Animals; Horses, Cows, Pork, Dogs, Mules, and Goats. The Two last, Pe quò, signifie that there are a Hundred sorts of Fruits; as Pears, Apples, Peaches, Grapes, Oranges, Walnuts, Chestnuts, Pomegranates, Citrons, and several other sorts, which we have also in Europe, except Three, which we have not. The first of the Three is call'd Sū sù, and at Macao Figs of China, not that they resemble Figs in shape, but because the Tast of Figs is somewhat like to the Tast of this Fruit, which is so Delicious, that it may well be call'd a Lump of Sugar. The largest and the best are about the bigness of a Quince, but somewhat flatter, or a little more seemingly crush'd. The Colour of it is a lively deep Yel­low, truly resembling the true Golden Apple. The second sort is call'd Li chi, and the third Lum yen, and at Macao, Lichia, and Longans. These two Fruits, whether Eaten newly gather'd, or dry'd, are of a most Exquisite Tast. It may be object­ed perhaps, that in lieu of these we have Quinces, [Page 143] Medlers, and Services: but beside that those Fruits are also to be met with in the Province of Xan si, there is no comparison between the Tast of the one and the other, especially the Two latter; which are not to be Eaten neither, but when they are Rotten.

All manner of Game is also there so plentiful, that during the Three Months of Winter, you shall see in several places appointed for the sport of Hunting, several Nets of one or two Musket Shot in length, spread forth upon Tacks, and heaps of several sorts of Land and Water Fowl, harden'd and set upon their Legs,B and as it were Embalm'd from Corruption by the Vehemency of the Cold. Among the rest of their Game, there are to be seen wild Bears of three sorts, which the Chineses call Gin hium, or Men-Bears; Keu Hium, or Dog-Bears, and Chiu Hium, or Pig-Bears; because of their several Re­semblances, especially in the Head and Paws. The Paws of Bears well boyl'd, are highly esteem'd in the Banquets of the Chineses, and their Fat is a great Entertainment for the Tartars, who eat it raw, temper'd with Honey. Nevertheless these Bears are very rare, and consequently very dear. But there are such vast Numbers of all other sorts of Creatures, as Deer of several Kinds, wild Boars, Ellands, Hares, Conies, wild Cats and Rats, Geese, Ducks, all manner of Wood Fowl, Par­tridges, Quails of different sorts and shapes, which we have not in Europe, and all so cheap, that I could never have believ'd it, had I not been con­vinc'd by my own Experience for Two and twen­ty years together that I liv'd at Court.

Notes upon the Tenth Chapter.

A. P. 139. The Wax is the fairest, &c.

OTher Relations speak of this Wax produc'd out of Trees, but not with so many curious Circum­stances. Father Trigaut says, that the flame of it is very clear, and that it is whiter and not so unctuous as ordinary Wax. Another Author writes that it is Transparent, and that you may see the Week through it. Father Trigaut says moreover, That the Chineses make another sort of very white Wax drawn from a Tree, but that it does not give so clear a Light as the first. Another Relation gives this Description of the Tree and the Fruit of it.

There is in the Province of To Kien, a fair Tree, large and well tufted with Boughs call'd Ku ei Xu, which grows by the River side. In December it pro­duces a Fruit of a dark Green colour, as big as a Hazel Nut; the green Peel of which dryes up of it self, and sheds off by degrees, and then appears a certain Sub­stance as white as Snow, like to Suet exactly try'd. This the People gather at the End of December, or Be­ginning of January; afterwards they melt it, and make Candles of it, which are like to white Wax, and yield no ill smell. They make use of these Candles all the Year, tho they last much longer in the Summer than in the Winter, and cost not above Fourteen pence the Pound. Out of the Dregs and Lees of this Fruit, they press out an Oyl which serves for Lamps. This Fru [...] is very Extraordinary, and shews us how Heaven h [...] favour'd China above other Countrys.

B. P. 143. Fix'd upon their Legs, and as it were Embalm'd from Corruption by the vehemency of the Cold, &c.

This by no means ought to be look'd upon as a thing incredible; since it is the ordinary Effect of Cold. All the Spanish Histories report, That in the Voyage that Diego d' Almagro made to the Country of Chili, several of his Men crossing the high Mountains of Andes, growing numm and stiff with cold, were frozen to Death ei­ther upon their Horses backs, or standing upon their legs and leaning against the Rocks. In which Postures they were found a long time after without any Corruption. The Relation also of Muscovy, which I have already quoted once before, tells us that there is, every Winter, a great quantity of Sturgeon of Astracan sold in the Market at Mosco, stiffen'd and preserv'd sweet and wholesom by the vehemency of the Cold; as also whole heaps of other Fish cover'd over with Snow.

CHAP. XI. Of the Nobility of the Empire.

IF this word Nobility be tak'n in general for the Nobility of the Kingdom it self, which is no more then an Illustrious Grandeur, that has conti­nu'd all along for several Ages; since it began not above Two hundred years after the Flood; and has flourish'd ever since to this present time, for about Four thousand five hundred thirty two years; cer­tain it is, that never any Empire was ever more [Page 146] Illustrious than that of China. But if we restrain the Signification of the word to the Nobility only of particular Families, we must confess, that there are very few noble Descents in the Kingdom, for the following Reason. For all the Great Lords, which are as it were so many Petty Kings, Dukes, Marquisses, Counts, &c. never last any longer than the Reigning Family; with which they perish all together. Because the Family which is advanc'd in the room of the t'other puts them all to Death, as we have seen by Experience in our Time. For this reason it is that the most Noble House that ever was in this Empire, is the Family of Cheu, which has lasted Eight hundred seventy five▪ years; and expir'd about Two thousand two hundred years ago. No Family since that, having been able to attain to a Continuance of Three hundred years.

However what we have hitherto said, extends it self only to that Nobility, which is acquir'd by Arms. For as to that which has been acquir'd by Employments of the long Robe, the continuance of it is very inconsiderable. And therefore tho a Man should be Xam xu, which is the first Dignity, in the Supream Tribunals of the Court, or Co laò, that is to say, Prime Minister of State, which is the Highest degree of Honour and Riches, to which Fortune can raise a Subject in this Empire, generally his Grandchild shall be reduc'd to great Poverty, and shall be constrain'd to follow Merchandize, or to trade by Retail, or to be an ordinary Man of Letters, as his Great Grandfather was before him. In short there was never any Descent of the Gown­men, that ever lasted so long as the Reigning Fami­ly. I was acquainted, under the Family that reign'd before the Conquest of the Tartars, with several P [...]tty Kings, Dukes, and other great Lords, who because they were of the Blood Royal, or descen­ded [Page 147] from Valiant Captains, who had been assisting in the Conquest of the Empire, claim'd a Nobility as ancient as the Royal Family, and which expir'd as unfortunately with it: but I never saw or heard of any Family of the Gown-men that ever lasted so long. However that which is but a usual Misfor­tune which attends the latter, is an Effect of the Cruelty of their Enemies in regard of the first; of which there are several, which had they not been destroy'd by Massacres, might have continu'd their Lustre and Grandeur as long as the Empire it self. And yet there is still one Family remaining, which not only has preserv'd its Luster, but is honour'd at present by the Kings, the Grandees and People with equal Veneration, and has flourish'd for above these Twenty Ages: so that it may be truly said to be the most Ancient Family in the Universe. This is the House of that famous Confu ci us, who was born under the Third Imperial Family call'd Cheu, Five hundred and fifty one years before the Birth of Christ; and so his Family may be said to have lasted Two thousand two hundred and nine­teen years, reck'ning to this present year 1668. The Ancient Kings gave to his Descendants the Title of Que cum, which is the same with that of Duke or Count. And this Family claims to it's self a kind of Sovereignty, & an Exemption from Paying Tribute in the Province of Xan tum, and the City of Kio feu, where Cum fuci us was Born, without ever having been molested, or having suffer'd any Alteration, tho the Empire and the Reigning Houses have been se­veral times ranvers'd. The Chineses also bestow upon this Philosopher Names and Titles very Ho­nourable, of which the Chiefest are, Cum su, Cum fu su, and Xim gin. The two first signifie Doctor or Master, as we say Doctor or Master Scotus. The third signifies a Holy Man. For that when they [Page 148] say, The Saint, by way of Excellency, they mean Cum fu ci us, which among the Chineses, signifies a Person of extraordinary and heroick Wisdom. For this Nation has so high a Veneration for that Phi­losopher, that altho they do not Worship him as one of their Deities, yet they honour him with more Ceremonies than their Idols or Pagods; tho they cannot endure to hear him call'd their Idol or Pagod; but on the other side, would take it for a very great affront. I could add several other things, which that Nation affirms of this Philoso­pher, who in reality was a Learned Person, and endow'd with several Natural Vertues. It shall therefore suffice to say, that they liberally bestow upon him now he is dead, that Affection, that Ve­neration, and those Titles of Honour, which he could never obtain while he liv'd: and therefore it is that they call him Su vam, that is to say, a King without Command, without a Scepter, with­out a Crown and Jewels; only Naked, and with­out Luster. By which they would have us to understand, that he was furnish'd with all the qua­lities and vertues requisite to have made him a King or an Emperor; but that Destiny and Heaven were not so favourable to him.

CHAP. XII. Of the wonderfull Government of this Empire; of the Distinctions between the Mandarins, and of the Council of State.

IF China be to be valu'd and admir'd for those things which we have already related, it me­rits certainly a far greater reputation for the excel­lency of its Government. But before we proceed any farther upon that Subject, it will be necessary to unfold what the learned say of their Kings, and the form of their Government. Among all the Three Laws which are observ'd in this Empire, that which they call the Law of the Learned, is the principal and most ancient. The chief end of it is the good Government of the Kingdom, upon which they have compos'd so many Treatises and Commentaries that it is a thing to be admir'd. Anciently Cum fu sius wrote a Tractate upon this Subject, which he entitled Chum Yum, that is to say, The Golden Mediocrity, wherein he teaches, that a vertuous Prince ought to have nine Qualities, or to doe nine things. First of all to accomplish and govern himself well, to the end he may shew himself a Guide and example to all his Subjects. Secondly, to honour and cherish men of Learning and Vertue, and frequently to converse with and consult them upon the affairs of his Empire. Thirdly, to love his Uncles, his Cousins, and all the rest of the Princes of the Blood; to grant them those fa­vours and rewards which they deserve, and to let them see that he respects and values them, and [Page 194] prefers them before all other persons within his Dominions. Fourthly, to be respectfull and cour­teous to all his Nobility which are not of the Blood Royal, advancing them to wealth and honour, that all the world may see how much he values and considers them above the common sort. Fifthly, to incorporate himself, as I may so say, with the rest of his Subjects, to equalize and unite his heart to theirs, and to regard and esteem them as his own proper substance and Person. Sixthly, to love his people with a true affection, to rejoyce in their welfare and their joy, and to be afflicted at their calamity and sadness; so that the meanest person in his Kingdom may be [...]ully perswaded that the King loves him as one of his Children. Seventhly, to invite to his Court all sorts of Work­men and Artists, for the quick dispatch of all pub­lick and private business. Eighthly, to caress and treat with all imaginable civility and liberality all Foreign Embassadours, letting them see in deeds as well as words the effects of a Royal and Gene­rous Soul, and taking such order, that upon their departure they may return into their Countrey with all security and satisfaction. Ninthly, to cherish and embrace all the Lords of the Empire, and to treat them in such a manner, that they may be so far from admitting the least thought of Revolt to slide into their hearts, as rather to be the Bulwarks and Fortresses of his Kingdom. These were the Nine Rules or Maxims of Cum fu sius. What follows is the Exposition of a Commen­tatour.

If the King, says he, puts in practice these nine Rules he may immortallize his Reign, and not onely acquire great Renown, but attain the end for which Heaven has advanc'd him to so high a [Page 195] degree of Dignity. For if a Prince govern himself well, at the same time he shall also obtain that so­vereign perfection and universal vertue of Golden Mediocrity. He shall be a chrystal mirrour where­in his Subjects may behold themselves, and a living Rule and enliven▪d Model for them to imirate. If he esteem and honour men of Learning and Vertue, with equal complacency they will discover to him the method and maxims of good Government. He will every day become more and more enlighten'd, and acquire Prudence, Judgment, Experience and Knowledge how to govern himself and his people; and he will find himself from moment to moment less uncertain and less entangled in the conduct of affairs both of his House and Kingdom. If he love his Uncles, Brothers, and the rest of his Kin­dred, they will live together with him and serve him with concord and satisfaction. If he favour and cherish his Grandees, they will be faithfull and diligent, they will serve him as Instruments to increase his power; they will act sincerely and justly in all affairs of importance. In a word, they will be a help and assistance to him in all things; nor shall he ever be expos'd, while he makes use of their counsel, to be without a Guide, and hazard his Dominion by the rash errours of his Govern­ment. If he consider his Subjects as his own mem­bers they will do their utmost to serve him, with all the marks of entire sidelity, in return of their Prince▪s esteem and favour. If he love his people as his Children, he will fill their hearts with joy and affection, while they on the other side pro­strate themselves at his feet ens [...]am'd with love and veneration for their King, their Parent and their Master. If he invite to his Court Artificers and Artists of all sorts, they will make it their business [Page 194] [...] [Page 195] [...] [Page 196] to settle or improve Commerce, Agriculture, and all such Trades and Arts to which they have been bred. Thus the Kingdom will be enrich'd, and by that means the people, the whole Empire and the King himself will live in plenty, and en­joy an abounding and durable peace. If he be courteous and liberal to Embassadours and other Foreigners▪ the fame of his Vertues will spread it self to all parts of the Earth and distant Nations will glory to be under his subjection. If he cherish in his bosome the great Lords of his Kingdom, he will excite them to all the heroick and illustrious actions of which their Quality and Nobility renders them capable; and all with a respectfull awe and ardent affection for their Prince will embrace ver­tue, and be Guards to the Emperour, and Bul­warks to the Empire. These are the Reflexions of the Commentator upon the Nine Rules of good Government. I translated them out of Chinese in­to Portugueze, to the end that by this Essay, men might be able to judge of their Sentiments upon this Subject, and the Reader more clearly under­stand the rest that follows.

The Mandarins of the whole Kingdome are di­stinguished into nine Orders, and every Order is divided into two Degrees. For example: It is said, such a one is a Mandarin of the second degree of the first, second or third Order; or else, he is a Mandarin of the first degree, of the first, second or third Order. This Division signifies no more, than onely the particular Titles which the King gives them without any respect to their Employ­ments. For though usually the Mandarins are of an Order Superiour or Inferiour according to the Dignity of their Employments, nevertheless that is no general Rule; because sometimes is happens [Page 197] that to recompence the merits of a person whose Office has been usually enjoy'd by a Mandarin of the inferiour Order, the King may give him the Title of a Mandarin of the first or second Order. And on the other side, to punish a person whose Office belongs to the superiour Mandarins, he de­bases him to the title of Mandarin of the inferiour Orders. And the knowledge, distinction and subor­dination of these Orders is so perfect and exact, the veneration and submission of the latter toward the former is so great, and lastly the sovereign power of the Prince over the one and the other so absolute, that I never met with any thing that could compare with it among all the searches I have made into any of our Governments whether Temporal or Ecclesiastical.

The Mandarins of the first Order, are Coun­sellors of the King's Council of State, which is the greatest Honour and the highest Dignity to which a Learned man can arrive in this Empire. They have several Names and several Titles both ancient and modern annext to their Offices, of which the most common are Nui Co, Co Lao, Cai Siam, Siam Cum, Siam Que; yet all these with little difference signifie no more than Assistants, Judges Lateral, and supream Counsellors to the King. There are also several Halls in the King's Palace, magnificent as well for their Architecture, as for their Spaci­ousness and Furniture; which are distinguisht into inferiour or superiour according to the business therein transacted. For when the King would bestow any great favour upon some one of his Counsellors, he gives him the name of one of those Halls, as Chum chie tien, that is to say, Supream Royal Hall of the Middle, and then he adds this new Title to his usual Name. The King also [Page 198] gives them other Titles by which they acquire an extraordinary same and honour, when they merit those Titles by any glorious Action; as Que chu, which signifies the Pillar that supports the Empire.

Of these Counsellors there is no determin'd number, being sometimes more sometimes fewer, as it pleases the Emperour, who chooses them at his own pleasure out of the Mandarins of other Tribunals. Nevertheless there is always one, call'd Neu Siam who is their President, and as it were the Emperour's prime Minister and Fa­vourite. The Tribunal of these Counsellors as it is the highest of all that belongs to the Empire, so it is also plac'd in the King's Palace on the left hand of the supream Royal Hall, where the King gives Audience and receives the Homages of the Mandarins when he goes abroad. And here we must observe by the way that among the Chineses, the left hand is the place of Honour. This Tri­bunal is call'd Nui Yuen, or the Tribunal within the King's Palace. It is composed of three Orders of Mandarins: The first, are the King's Counsel­lors, of whom we have already spoken. These are to view, examin and judge of all the Memori­als which the six chief Tribunals, of which more in due place, present to the King, upon all impor­tant affairs of the Empire, whether they relate to Peace or War, or whether to Causes Civil or Criminal. When they have determin'd them, they communicate their judgments to the King in a very short Extract, who either ratisies or cancel [...] them as he pleases; and then overlooking the Me­morials at large himself, gives his own decision, as he thinks the Cause deserves.

They that compose the second Classis, are as it were Assistants and Assessors to the King's Coun­sellors, [Page 199] and are very powerfull and much dreaded and respected. They are usually of the second or third Order of Mandarins, and are many times preferr'd to be Counsellors to the King, Viceroys of Provinces, and to the principal Offices of the six supream Tribunals Their usual Title is Ta hion su, or the Learned in great knowledge. This Title is also given to the King's Counsellors; be­sides which, the King also consers other very ho­nourable Titles upon the Mandarins of these two Classe's, according to their deserts; as Tai cu Tai, or chief Governour of the Prince Heir of the Crown. Tai cu Tai su, Grand Master to the same Prince; Ho tien ta trion su, Chief Letter'd of the Hall of Concord, and the like.

The Mandarins of the third Classis of this Tribu­nal are call'd Chum xu co, that is to say, the Clas­sis or School of the Mandarins. Their business it is to write or cause to be written out the Affairs of this Tribunal; and the King gives them Titles answerable to the Place and Halls where they ex­ercise their Functions They are usually of the fourth, fifth or sixth Order of tho Mandarins. But they are much more dreaded than those of the two preceding Classe's, for that upon them solely it is, that the good or ill success of Affairs in a great measure depends; for that by altering, ad­ding or leaving out a Letter they may cause either the gaining or losing of a Suit. Insomuch that many times through their wilfull mistakes the most inno­cent lose their Estates, their Reputation and their Lives. So great a power has Corruption and Avarice over that Nation▪ and such an Energy of Expression and Nicety of Equivocal Interpreta­tion lies in the Chinese Letters. Moreover, besides these three Classe's there belongs to this Tribunal [Page 200] an infinite number of Scriveners, Procters, Rev [...] ­sers and other Officers.

CHAP. XIII. Of the eleven Supream Tribunals, or of the six Tribunals of the Mandarins for Letters, and the five Tribunals of the Mandarins for Military Affairs.

BEsides the Supream Tribunal, of which we have spoken in the foregoing Chapter, there are yet eleven Chief Tribunals more, between which the King of China two thousand years be­fore the coming of CHRIST, shar'd all the affairs of the Empire, and which remain to this present day. That is to say, six of Learned Mandarins, which they call Lo pu; and five of Military Man­darins, that are call'd ù fu, and of which we shall speak hereafter. The first of the six Tribunals of the Learned is call'd Li pu, whose business it is to take care of all the Manderins of the Empire, and has power to confer or deprive them of their Em­ployments. The second, Hu pu, has the Super­intendence over all the Impositions and Revenues of the King▪ The third Li pu, has the manage­ment and ordering of all the Rites and Ceremonies. The fourth Pim pu, takes care of all the Arms, Captains and Souldiers throughout the whole Em­pire. The fifth Him pu, takes cognizance of all Crimes, and the punishments of all Offenders in the Kingdom. The sixth Cum pu, has the overseeing of all the King's Works and Buildings. These six Tri­bunals [Page 201] have a Jurisdiction over almost all those that belong to the Court, but are absolute over all in the Provinces, by whom they are dreaded and obey'd, though at never so great a distance, as if they were under their Eye. But in regard their power is so large and of so great an Extent, for fear lest any one among them should make use of his authority to raise Sedition, and lay hold of any opportunity to revolt; their Employments are re­gulated in such a manner, that there is not one of these Tribunals that can determin the business with which they are intrusted, without the inter­position and approbation of the rest, as we see eve­ry day, and have found true by wofull experience in the time of our Persecution, during which, we were sent to all these Tribunals for the determina­tion of several circumstances. In the Palaces be­longing to every one of these six Tribunals, there is always a Hall and an Apartment for one Manda­rin call'd Co li, or Overseer, who examins either publickly or privately all that is done in his Tri­bunal; and if he finds any disorder, or any inju­stice, he presently gives notice thereof to the King. Which Mandarin is neither subject nor superiour to his Tribunal, but only an Overseer or Control­ler as we have said before.

The Chief Presidents of these six Tribunals, by reason of their Office are of the first degree of the second Order of Mandarins. They are called Xam xu: for example: Li pu Xam xu, that is, Chief President of the Tribunal of Ceremonies. H [...] pu Xam xu, Chief President of the Tribunal of the King's Revenue. Every one of these Presidents has two Assessors, of which the first is called Tso xi lam, or President of the Left Hand. The other Yeu xi lam, or President of the Right Hand. Which [Page 202] Assessors are of the first degree of the second Order. All these three Presidents have several other Titles beside; for example; the first is call'd Ta tam, the great or first Hall; the second, the Hall on the Left Hand; the third, the Hall on the Right Hand.

These Six Tribunals are planted according to their rank close by the King's Palace, on the east side, in large magnificent square Structures, the sides of which are every way a musquet shot and a half in length. These Structures have every one three divisions of Doors, Courts and Appart­ments. The first President possesses that in the middle; which begins at the Street, with a Portal that has three doors, and runs along through o­ther doors, portals and courts, beautified with portico's, and galleries supported by fair pillars, till you come to a spacious hall, where the first President sits with his Assessors, and many other Mandarins, who have their particular titles, but are generally called Mandarins of the great Hall. Beyond this Hall there is another Court, and be­yond that another lesser Hall, where the first Pre­sident withdraws with his Assessors, when he is to examine any private business, or any affairs of extraordinary moment. On both sides, and be­yond this Hall, there are several Chambers and other Halls. The Chambers are for the use of the President, his Assessors and the rest of the Mandarins to take their repose, and to eat their Meat, which the King gives them, to the end, that having no occasion to go to their own Houses, they may spend the more time in the dispatch of Business. The Halls are for the Pronotaries and Clerks, and other inferiour Officers. The two o­ther Divisions of Rooms and Courts one within a­nother, [Page 203] belong to the inferiour Tribunals, which are subordinate to the Supream Tribunal, for which the Palace was design'd. These petty Tri­bunals are more or less numerous, according to the business that comes under their cognisance, as we shall shew in due time.

The manner of proceeding in these six Tribunals is this. When a man has any business, he sets it down in a paper of such a form and largeness as the custome allows. Then he goes to the Palace of the Tribunal, and beats upon a Drum which he finds at the second Gate, and then falling upon his knees, he raises his Petition with both his hands as high as his head, at what time the Officer appointed for that employment, takes his Paper from him. He, carries it to the Mandarins of the great Hall, who gives it to the first President, or in his absence, to his Assessors, who having read it, either admit or reject it. If they do not ad mit it, they send the Petitioner his Paper again▪ and many times order him to be soundly whipt▪ for troubling the Court with a causeless Suit, or for any other sufficient reasons of their dislike▪ If the Paper be admitted, the first President sends it to the inferiour Tribunal, to whom this sort of Business belongs, to examine the cause, and give their opinions. After this Tribunal has examined the matter, and given their judgment, they send it back to the Chief President, who then gives Sentence, either adding, moderating, or con­firming without any alteration the sentence of the lower Court. If the business be of great concern­ment, he orders the same Tribunal to draw up the case in writing, which having read together with his Assessors, he sends it to the Mandarin Contro­ler, and he to the Supream Tribunal of the Coun­sellors [Page 204] of State, that are lodg'd in the King's Pa­lace▪ This Tribunal examines the cause, and in­forms his Majesty, who most commonly orders the Tribunal to re-examine it. Then the Counsel­lors of State send back the Case to the Controller, who after he has seen the King's Order, sends it to the chief President, who causes it once more to be examined, and then sends it back to the Con­troller, the Controller to the Counsellors of State, and they to the Emperour, who then gives his definitive Sentence. That Sentence returns the same way to the first President, who gives notice of it to both parties, and so the Suit is ended. If it be a business which the Provincial Tribunals send to the Court, the Case is seal'd up and direc­ted to the King's Controller; the Controller opens and reads it, and then sends it to the Chief Pre­sident, who proceeds as before is recited.

Would but the Mandarins in their judicial pro­ceedings act conformable to the Laws, and the intention of their Prince, China would be the most happy and best govern'd Countrey in the world. But as exact as they are in the outward observance of their Formalities, as hypocritical, as wicked, and cruel are they in their hearts. Their tricks and cheats are so numerous, that a large volume would not suffice to contain them. I shall therefore say no more than onely this; that it is a rare thing to meet with a Mandarin that is free from avarice and corruption. They never consider the justice or injustice of a cause, but those that give most money, or send most presents. So that whether Life, Estate, or Honourly at stake, those insatiable and sanguinary Judges have no regard to either, but onely like so many ravenous Wolves to gorge their Sacrilegious Avarice. [Page 205] And what we have hitherto said, is common to all the six Tribunals. But now to speak of every one in particular.

The first of these six Tribunals is call'd Li Pu, whose business it is, to furnish the Empire with superiour and inferiour Mandarins, to examine their merits and miscarriages, and to inform the King, to the end he may either prefer or disgrace them; reward or punish them. In the Palace be­longing to this Tribunal are four other inferi­our Tribunals. The first of which is call'd Ven Sinen Su, or the Tribunal which makes choice of such persons as are quallified with knowledge and other endowments requisite to fit them for the Ho­nour of being Mandarins. The second Cao cum su, which examines the good or bad behaviour and conduct of the said Mandarins. The third Nien fum su, whose business it is to seal Judicial Acts, to give the Seals to every Mandarin; and to ex­amine whether the Seals which are brought to Court or sent away are true or counterfeit. The fourth Ki hium su, or the Tribunal, whose busi­ness it is to examine the merits of the great Lords, as the Petty Kings of the Bloud Royal, the Dukes, Marquesses and the like, which the Chineses call Hiun chin, or ancient Vassals, who have perfor­med great services in the Wars, when the Reign­ing Family conquer'd the Empire.

The second superior Tribunal is call'd Hu pu,▪ which signifies the King's Lord High Treasurer. This Tribunal oversees the Treasures, the Re­ceipts and Expences, the Revenues and Tributes of the King: distributes the Pensions, and the quantity of Rice, the pieces of Silk and the Mo­ney which the King gives to all the Petty Prin­ces, and other Grandees, and to all the Manda­rins [Page 206] of the Empire. This Tribunal keeps the Roll or Catalogue, which is made every Year with great exactness, of all the Families, of all the Men, the Measures of Land, and Duties which they are obliged to pay, and of the publick Magazines. Here for the better understanding of that which follows; we are to understand, that although there are fifteen Provinces in China; yet in the publick Registers, and according to the usual manner of speaking, they say fourteen Provinces and a Court. For, say the Chineses, the Pro­vince where the Court resides, is not in subjection, but commands; and therefore they never reckon it in the number of the other Provinces. And therefore it is, that in the six Superior Tribunals, there is not any Inferiour Tribunal appointed for the Affairs of Pekim. But the chief President sends them to one or two of the inferior Tribunals appoin­ted for other Provinces as he thinks [...]it. This being thus promis'd, the Superiour Tribunal of the Exche­quer has on both sides of the Palace belonging to it, fourteen inferiour Tribunals which bear the name of the Province to which it belongs. As for example: The Tribunal of the Province of Ho nan, the Tribunal of the Province of Can ton, and so of the rest. During the Reign of the pre­ceding Family they reckon'd but thirteen Provin­ces and two Courts; for that the City of Nan k [...] was a Royal Court as well as Pe kim; and had also six superiour Tribunals, and all the rest sub­ordinate to them as now at Pe kim. But the Tar­tars depriv'd it of the Title of Court, put down all the Tribunals, and alter'd the name of the City, calling it Kiam nim, and the Province Kiam n [...]n, which are the Names that they had in former times.

[Page 207]The third superiour Tribunal is call'd Li pu, which has the oversight and ordering of Rites and Ceremonies, Arts and Sciences. This Tribunal takes care of the Royall Musick, to examine the Students, and to give them power to be admitted to the Examination of the Learned: give their advice in reference to the Titles and Honours which the King vouchsases to bestow upon the deserving; what Temples and Sacrifices the King ought to erect and make to the Heaven and the Earth, to the Sun, the Moon and his own Ancestours. They order the Banquets when the King feasts his Subjects or Foreigners: They re­ceive, entertain and discharge the King's Guests, and all Ambassadours: They take care of the Li­beral and Mechanick Arts: And lastly, of the three Laws or Religions which are observed throughout the Empire, of which the first is that of the Learned; the second, that of the Tao su, or the Married Bonzes; and the third, of the Batchelour Bonzes. 'Tis in the power of this Tri­bunal to apprehend, whip and punish them all; and in this very Tribunal it was that we were all of us imprison'd for two months during the Perse­cution, and bound every one with nine chains; that is to say, the Fathers Iohn Adam, Lewis Bu­glio, Ferdinand Verbiest, and Gabriel Magaillans, and afterward deliver'd over to the Secular power. On each side of this Tribunal stand four other inferiour Tribunals, among which the care of those things already mention'd is divided. The first is call'd Ychi su, or the Tribunal of Important Affairs, as of the Titles of Petty Princes, Dukes, Great Mandarins, &c. The second Su ci su, which takes care of the King's Sacrifices, the Temples, the Mathematicks, the three Laws, &c. The [Page 208] third Chu ke su, which takes care to entertain and dispatch the King's Guests, whether Natives or Foreigners. The fourth Cim xen xu, which has the ordering of the Banquets which are prepared for the King, or for those upon whom the King is pleas'd to bestow that favour. When the Chineses were Masters of their own Countrey, none but Doctours, and those two onely, such as were of most repute for their knowledge and merit were admitted into this Tribunal. So that they were the most esteem'd, and such as stood the fairest for preferment: for out of their number it was that the King made choice of the Colao and his Coun­sellors of State. But now Tartars are put in, who dispose of all things at their own pleasure, while the Mandarins signifie no more among them than onely dumb Statues: and so it is in the rest of the Tribunals. So truly may we believe it to have been the will of God, to chastise and bring down the incredible pride of this Nation, by subduing and subjecting them to a small handfull of poor, ignorant, rustick Barbarians; as if God for the pu­nishment of Europe, should deliver it over into the power of the Cafers of Angola or Mozambique.

But though the name of this Tribunal be altoge­ther like that of the former, nevertheless there is a great difference in the Chinese Language: for the Characters of the first Sillable Li, are nothing alike, and the pronunciation also is very different; the first is pronounced by shrilling and raising the voice which we therefore mark with an accute accent, Li. On the contrary, the second is pro­nounced by falling the voice, and therefore mark­ed with a grave accent Lì. Thus according to the first signification Li signifies Mandarins, and Pu, Tribunal; and both together the Tribunal of [Page 209] the Mandarins, according to the second pronunci­ation. signifies Rites or Ceremonies, and joyn'd with Pu, the Tribunal of Ceremonies. This E­quivocal Signification is no where to be met with among the Tartars, who call the first Tribunal Ha­fan xurgan, or the Tribunal of the Mandarins. For that Hafan signifies a Tribunal, and Xurgan Mandarins: and the second Toro Xurgan, or the Tribunal of Ceremonies.

The fourth superior Tribunal is call'd Pim pu, which has the ordering of War and Military affairs over the whole Empire. This chuses and advances all the Officers; disposes of their Commands in the Armies; in the Garrisons upon the Frontiers; in the Inland Fortresses, and in all parts of China. This orders the Levy's and Exercises of the Souldiers; Replenishes the Grand Arsenals, and a great number of Magazins with Arms offensive and defensive, with Ammunition and Provisions, and all things necessary for the defence of the Empire. And to the Palace of this Tribunal belong four more that are inferiour. The first is call'd Vu si­ven su, and takes care to make choice, and to confer upon the Military Mandarins their Com­mands, and to cause them to exercise their Soul­diers. The second is call'd Che fam su, and takes care to distribute the Souldiers and Military Offi­cers into all the Places and Posts of the Empire, for the pursuit of Robbers, and to prevent the di­sturbance of the publick Peace. The third is call'd Che Kia su, and takes care of the King's Horses, as well those that are upon the Frontiers, and in Places of importance, as those that are appoin­ted for Postage, and the service of the Royal Inns.

They have also the ordering of the Waggons and Boats, which serve for the Transportations of [Page 210] Provisions and Souldiers. The fourth is call'd Vu cu su, and takes care for the making of all sorts of Arms, offensive and defensive, and that they be kept in good order, and fit for service in all the Magazins and Arsenals of the Empire.

The fifth superiour Tribunal is called Him pu, like the Tournelle, or Parliamental Criminal Court in France, and extends its power over the whole Empire They examine, try, and punish all Crimi­nals according to the Laws of the Empire: which are almost all of them very just and conformable to reason So that if the Mandarins of this Tribu­nal, and consequently of all the rest did but right­ly observe them, there would not be those acts of injustice and tyranny which are committed every day. For now there is hardly a Cause that is try'd according to reason and justice. He that gives mony is always in the right, till another gives more, and then he has more Right on his side. Gold, Silver, pieces of Silk and other Presents govern there in­stead of Laws: Reason and Justice are there put to sale as in an open Market, by Portsale or outcry who gives most. This Nation suffering themselves to be so blinded by their Avarice, that they cannot be diverted from it by all the rigorous punishments, which the King sometimes orders to be inflicted upon those that are convicted of their Corruption and Extortion. All the Tribunals of this Court take cognizance of all the Crimes and Offences of such as are under their Jurisdiction by reason of their Employments. However, when the Crimes deserve more than ordinary severity of Punishment, as Confiscation of Goods, Banishment, or Death, then after they have inform'd the King, they send back the Indictment and the Person indicted to this Tribunal, where after another re examina­tion [Page 211] of the cause, the definitive sentence is pro­nounc'd. To the Palace appointed for this Tribu­nal, belong fourteen more inferiour Courts or Tribunals, for the fourteen Provinces of the King­dom, as we have already observ'd in the descripti­on of the second Tribunal. The Torments also and Executions which this Court inflicts upon Criminals are of various sorts; which I omit for fear of being too tedious. I shall onely observe one custome among the Chineses, quite contrary to what is usual in Europe, where Noble men are beheaded, and ordinary offenders are hang'd: whereas in China the greatest ignominy that can befall a man is to have his head cut off. And therefore when the King would shew an extraor­dinary favour to a great Lord or Mandarin con­dem'nd to dye, he sends him a very soft peice of Silk to be hang'd in, instead of a Halter. And the reason which the Chineses give to justifie this conceit of theirs is this; because they say that of necessity such as are beheaded, must have been disobedient to their Parents, who gave them sound and perfect Bodies, till they by their disobedience and their crimes made a separation and disfigure­ment of the members. And they are so possest with this Opinion, that the Chineses will buy of the Hangman the Bodies of the Malefactors ex­ecuted, if they were their Parents, for five, ten or twenty Crowns, nay sometimes they will not spare for hundreds and thousands of Crowns, ac­cording to their wealth or poverty, and then they sow the head to the body again with a world of lamentation and showers of tears, to satisfie in some measure for their disobedience. They re­port that the original of this Ceremony proceeded from a Disciple of Cum fu cius, call'd Tsem [...]su: [Page 212] This Philosopher lying at the point of death sent for his Children and Disciples, and after he had shewn them his head, his arms and his feet, he took his last farewell of them in these words: ‘Children, said he, learn of your Father and your Master, to be as obedient as I have been to them who gave me my being in this world, and brought me up with so much care, since by that means I have preserv'd entire and perfect the body which they bestowed upon me.’

I said but now that the Chineses purchased the bodies of Parents at great rates, which is true; for they that are condemn'd to be beheaded, are also sentenc'd to be depriv'd of common burial; which is a most terrible infamy among them. For this reason the hangman is oblig'd after he has stript the body, to throw it into the next Ditch: and in sel­ling the body he exposes himself to the hazard of being severely punish'd, or at least to give the Mandarin or the informer that discovers the sale a good part of the money which he receiv'd; and therefore he must sell dear that he may give the more. Among the rest of the Laws there is one observ'd by this Tribunal which was enacted by one of the Ancient Kings, of which I cannot omit the rehearsal; that when any criminal either for his good qualities, or for any other reason de­serves to be pitied, whether he be condemn'd in the Spring, the Winter or the Summer, he shall be repriev'd till the end of the next Autumn follow­ing. For that it is an ancient custome among the Chineses, upon the Birth or Marriage of a Prince, or upon any other cause of publick rejoycing, or after an Earthquake, or upon any extraordinary alteration of the Seasons or Elements to release all sorts of Prisoners, except some few that are ex­cepted, [Page 213] and by that means those that are reprie­ved are set at liberty, or at least live in fair hopes for some months.

The sixth and last superiour Tribunal is call'd Cum Pu, or the Tribunal of the publick Works. This Tribunal takes care to build and repair the King's Palaces, their Sepulchres and Temples, wherein they honour their Predecessors, or where they a­dore their Deities, the Sun, Moon, Heaven and Earth, &c. as also the Palaces of all the Tribunals throughout the Empire, and those of the great Lords. They are also the Surveyors and Over­seers of all the Towers, Bridges, Damms, Rivers, Lakes, and of all things requisite to render Rivers navigable, as High-ways, Wagons, Barks, Boats and the like. To this Palace belong four more inferiour Courts. The first is call'd Vin Xen Su, which examines and draws the Designs of all the works that are to be done. The Second Yu hem su, which has the ordering of all the Work-houses and Shops in all the Cities of the Kingdom for the making of warlike Arms and Weapons. The third Tum Xui su, takes care to make the Rivers and Lakes Navigable, to level the High Ways, to build and repair Bridges, and for the making of Wagons and Boats, and other things necessary for the convenience of commerce. The fourth Ce Tien su, are the Overseers of the King's Houses and Lands which he lets out to hire, and of which he has both the Rent and the Fruits of the Harvest.

By what has been said, it appears that the six superiour Tribunals have under them four and forty inferiour Courts, which have their peculiar Palaces within the circuit of the Palace of that Tri­bunal to which they belong; with Halls, Cham­bers and other conveniences. Every one of these [Page 214] forty four Courts has also a President, and twelve Counsellors; four of which are of the first degree of the fifth Order of Mandarins; four of the second degree of the fifth, and the other four of the sixth Order. In the Tribunals of the Exchequer, and the Criminal Tribunal, the number of Judges is dou­ble, where all the inferiour Tribunals have a Pre­sident and twenty four Counsellers.

But besides these graduated Mandarins there are some employ'd who are under no degree, and yet are Mandarins for all that: however after some years service, the King advances them to the Ninth and eighth Order of Mandarins. Moreover all these Tribunals have a great number of Prothonotarys, Registers, Clerks, Controllers, Merchants, Ushers, Porters, Messengers, Atten­dants and Servants, Jailors, Provosts, Serjeants, Bayliffs, Beadles to whip and punish Offenders: Sweepers, Cooks to dress their Viands, people to lay the Cloath, and wait at Table, and all at the King's charges. Observe by the way how­ever, that what we have said as to the number of Mandarins, relates onely to the reign of the pre­ceding Family, for at present their number is dou­ble in all the Courts. For example, the lower Court which consisted of no more than twelve Mandarins, has now twenty four, that is to say, twelve Tartars, and twelve Chineses.

These are the six Tribunals that govern all China, and which are so famous over all the King­dom However, that neither the one nor the o­ther should grow too powerfull, the Ancient Kings that establish'd and confirm'd them, shar'd their Employments, and regulated their Functi­ons with so much prudence, that there is not one which is so absolute in the Affairs which are under [Page 215] their jurisdiction, but they depend one upon ano­ther. For Example, the first President of the fourth Tribunal, which is that of War, had it an independent Authority, had an easy opportu­nity to rebell, because all the Forces of the King­dom are at their disposal But they want money, and therefore of necessity they must have the King's leave and order to require it from the Tri­bunal of the Exchequer. The Pioneers, Barques, Boats, Waggons, Tents and other instruments of War, belong to the sixth Tribunal, to which the fourth must address themselves: besides that the Horses are under the jurisdiction of a petty se­parate Tribunal, of which we shall speak hereaf­ter.

The Military Mandarins make five Tribunals, which are call'd U Fu, or five Casses. Their Pa­laces are plac'd Westward, on the right hand of the Palace Royal and are thus distinguish'd by their Names. The first is call'd Heu Fu, or the Rereguard. The second Tso Su, or the Left Wing: The third Yeu Fu, or the Right Wing. The fourth Chum Fu, or the Main Battel: and the fifth Lien Fu, or the Vanguard. The five Tribunals are govern'd by fifteen great Lords, as Marquis­ses, Counts, &c. three in each Tribunal, of which the one is President, and the other two his Assessors. They are all fifteen of the first Order of the Mandarins; but the Presidents are of the first degree of that Order, and the Assessors of the se­cond; all the Officers and Souldiers of the Court being under their care.

These five Tribunals have one superiour Tribu­nal above them, which is call'd Ium chim fu, that is to say, the Supream Tribunal of War; the Presi­dent of which is always one of the greatest Lords in [Page 216] the Kingdom. The Authority of this Tribunal ex­tends it self over all these five Tribunals, and over all the Officers and Souldiers of the Empire. But to prevent their abusing so large a power, they are curb'd by an Assessor set over them, who is a Mandarin of learning, with the Title of Su­preme Regent of Armes, and two Royal Control­lers, who are equally concern'd in the manage­ment of Affairs. Under the Reign of the prece­ding Family these Tribunals had a very great Authority, and were much more highly honour'd and esteem'd: nevertheless they had much more reputation than real power; in regard the Execu­tion of Business belong'd to the superiour Tribunal of Arms call'd Pim pu. It may be objected per­haps that these five Tribunals were superfluous, because they depended upon the fourth of the six superiour Courts: But in answer to this it is to be observ'd, that there were at Court at that time a great number of Lords which the Chineses call Hium Chin, or Vassals of great merit, whose An­cestours had assisted the first King of the preceding Race to make himself Master of the Empire. Besides it is most certain that there is no Passion so prevailing over the Chineses as the violent ambiti­on of Rule and Command; as being that wherein they place all their chiefest glory and happiness; as may appear by the Answer which a Mandarin made to Father Matthew Ricci. For that same Father discoursing of our Holy Law, and of that Eternal Felicity which they who embrac'd it en­joy'd hereafter; Come, come, said the Mandarin, hold your tongue, and lay aside these idle conceits, your greatest glory and happiness as a Stranger, it is to abide in this Kingdom and this Court. And for my own part, all my glory and happi­ness [Page 217] consists in this same Girdle and Habit of a Mandarin, all the rest is nothing but fables and words which the wind blows away; meer stories of things invisible or rather never to be seen. That which is visible, is to command others; Gold and Silver, Wives and Concubines, and multitudes of Servants of both sexes, these are vi­sible; Noble Houses, great Wealth, Banquets, Divertisements, these are to be seen. In a word, Estate, Honour and Glory are the consequences of being a Mandarin. This is all the felicity which we desire and enjoy in this large Empire, and not your vain felicity, which is as unprofitable as it is invisible and impossible to obtain. These are the carnal sentiments of men no less blind, than proud and haughty: which being so, the Kings, who understand the humour of that Nation, espe­cially of the Grandees, for their satisfaction, be thought themselves of these Tribunals, which they erected and regulated in such a manner that they gave them an opportunity to satisfie their Ambiti­on, with the Honours and Profits belonging to their Offices, and prevented them from doing mis­chief by the small authority which they had allow'd them. Now as there are some Mandarins who are not of any of the Nine Orders, which are call'd Vi jo Lieu, or Men not settl'd, there are others which are call'd Vu Pin, or such for whom there is no degree high enough, or such whose Merits are so great, that they are above all Orders and Degrees. These are the Petty Kings, Dukes, Marquisses, &c. which govern the two Tribu­nals of Arms. But though they are honour'd with Titles, and some small authority which they enjoy by virtue of their Quality of Mandarins, nevertheless, the dignity of Dukes and Marquisses [Page 218] which their great Services have purchased is far more valu'd and esteem'd. And thus much for the Eleven Superiour Courts or Tribunals: we shall now briefly give you a Prospect of the other Tribunals of the Court and whole Empire.

CHAP. XIV. Of several other Tribunals at Pekim.

THE Licentiates of all the Kingdom, whom the Chineses call Kiu Gin, or men famous, for Learning, meet together every three years at the Court at Pekim, and are there examind for thir­teen days together. A month after, the degree of Doctor is given to three hundred and sixty six, who have display'd the most pregnant of Parts and Ingenuity in their Compositions. Out of these young Doctors the King makes choice of the youngest and most ingenious, and prefers them to a Tribu­nal call'd Han Len Iven, that is to say, a Garden or Wood flourishing in Learning and Knowledge. This Tribunal contains a great number of Man­darins, all very learned and the most sprightly Wits of the Empire; which are divided into five Classes, and compose five Tribunals, with the Names and Employments of which I shall not trouble the Reader for fear of being tedious, but onely give a general accompt of their Functions. They are Tutors to the Prince who is Heir to the Empire, whom they instruct in Vertue, Civi­lity, and the Liberal Sciences. By degrees also, as he grows in years, they teach him the true arts of Governing, and the methods of good Conduct. [Page 219] They set down all the remarkable accidents that happen either at Court or throughout the whole Empire, and which most deserve to be deliver'd to Posterity. They compile the general History of the Kingdom: they are always at their Studies, and write Books upon several Subjects. They are properly the King's Learned People, who fre­quently discourses with them upon several Scien­ces, and makes choice of several of them to be his Colao, or Counsellors, or for his other Tribunals: and generally he commits to their care the Execu­tion of all affairs that require Secrecy and Fidelity. In short, this Tribunal is a Royal Academy, or as I may so say, a Royal Magazine furnish'd with Men of Wit and Learning always ready to serve the State, and the Emperour. They that belong to the first Tribunal are of the third order of Mandarins: they of the second, of the fourth Order; and they that belong to the other three, are of the fifth Order. Yet though they are of those inferiour Orders, nevertheless they are very much esteem'd, respected and dreaded.

The Tribunal call'd Gue Thu Kien, is as it were the Royal School or University of the whole Em­pire, and it has two sorts of Employments: The first is that when the King makes any Sacrifice to the Heaven, the Earth, the Sun or Moon, or to any one of his Subjects deceas'd, to recompence his great Services, the Mandarins of this Tribunal present the Wine, which is done with a great deal of ceremony. Their next business is to take care of all the Licentiates and Undergraduates of the Kingdom, and of all the Students, to whom for some particular reason the King is pleas'd to con­fer Titles and Dignities which equal them in some measure with the Batchelour Graduates. These [Page 220] Students are of eight sorts. The first are call'd Cum Sem, who being Batchellors of Art and lear­ned, are of an age not to be examin'd, or who having been examin'd had not the good fortune to come off with applause, and therefore to make them amends the King gives them a Pension as long as they live. The second, call'd Quen Sem, are the Sons of great Mandarins, upon whom, by reason of the eminent Services of their Parents the King confers employments, without suffering them to undergo the rigour of Examinations. The third sort call'd Ngen Sem, are certain Students whom the King makes Mandarins at his coming to the Crown, or upon the Birth or Marriage of the Prince his eldest Son. The fourth is call'd Cum Sem, are Students upon whom the King bestows his Favours, and advances them to Dignities by reason of their great personal merits, or the great Services of their Ancestours. The fifth sort, call'd Kien Sem, comprehends all those who having been Batchellors for some time, and after their Examinations not being able to merit the degree of Licentiates, or else fearing to lose their degree of Batchelour, give the King a Sum of Money, for which he grants them the Title of Kien Sem, which confirms them for ever into their Batche­lour's degree, and makes them capable of being elected Mandarins. The sixth is compos'd of Stu­dents that learn foreign Languages, that they may be able to interpret when Strangers come to Court. To whom the King for their incourage­ment gives this Title with Revenues proportiona­ble, and after they have served for some years, they may be made Mandarins without any Exa­mination. The seventh consists of the Sons of great Lords, who in this Tribunal learn Vertue, [Page 221] Civility, and the Liberal Sciences, and when they are of age to be Mandarins, the King prefers them to some Employment or other. The eighth is accidental and of a peculiar sort; for when the Emperour has any Daughters that are call'd La­dies of the Palace or Cum Chu, and that he has an intention to marry them, he makes choice at Pe­kim of several young Lads, hopefull for their parts, handsome, and between fourteen and se­venteen years of age, whether they be the Sons of Mandarins, Tradesmen or poor people. Out of these the Tribunal of Ceremonies chooses the most accomplish'd for Beauty and Wit, and presents them to the King, who culls out one that pleases him most and sends the rest back to their Parents, after he has given to every one a summ of Money and a piece of Silk. But as for those who are thus made choice of to be his Sons in Law, he sets over them a Mandarin of the Tribunal of Cere­monies, and places him in that College to be in­structed. The President of this College is of the fourth Order of Mandarins; and his Assessors, who are Regents in the College, are of the fifth Order.

The Mandarins that compose the Tribunal call'd Tu Cha Yuen are Controllers of the Court, and of all the Empire. The President is equal in dignity to the President of the six superiour Tribu­nals, so that he is a Mandarin of the second degree. His first Assessor is of the third: and his second Assistant of the fourth, and all the rest of the Manda­rins which are very numerous, and of great autho­rity, are of the seventh Order. Their employ­ment is to take care both at Court and over all the Empire, that the Laws and good Customs be strictly observed, and put in execution, that the [Page 222] Mandarins perform their Functions justly and tru­ly, and that the people do their duties. They punish slight faults in their own Tribunals, and inform the King of great offences. Every three years they make a general Visitation, sending four­teen Visitors abroad, that is, one for every Pro­vince▪ So soon as the Visitors enter the Province, they are superior to the Viceroys and other Man­darins, as well the great as the petty ones, and they controul them with so much majesty, autho­rity and rigor, that the dread wherein the Mandarins stand of them has given occasion to this usual proverb among the Chineses, Lao xu Kien mao, that is to say, The Rat has seen the Cat. Nor is it without reason that they stand in so much awe of them, in regard it is in their power to take away their Employments, and ruin their persons The Visitation being finish'd, they return to Court, generally loaden with four or five hundred thousand Crowns, more or less, which the Mandarins give them. For they that are guilty will bleed very freely for fear they should be accus'd to the King. Others are more sparing, but give however, to prevent the inventing of accusations against them. At their return they divide their spoils, with the first President and his Assistants, and after that give both them and the King an accompt of their visitation▪ Generally they never impeach any one of the Mandarins but such whose injustice and tyrannies are so publick, that it is impossible to conceal them; or such who through their virtue or their poverty are not able to gratifie their avarice. This Visitation is call'd Ta Chai, or the great and General Visitation. The second Tribunal makes a second Tribunal every year, which is call'd Chum Chai, or the middle Super-Visor. [Page 223] This Tribunal also sends visitors to nine Quarters of the Frontiers, on that side which is next the vast Walls that separate China from Tar­tary. They send other Visitors to the Salt Pits, which yield the King a great Revenue: and if the general Visitors greatly enrich themselves by their spoils and robberies of the Mandarins and people; these latter commit much greater robbe­ries upon the Farmers, who distribute the Salt into the Provinces, and who are the Richest men in China, as being commonly worth four or five hundred thousand Crowns a man. The third Vi­sitation is call'd Siao Chai or the Petty Visit: this Visitation is made every three months, by send­ing Visitors frequently unknown and in disguise, sometimes to one Province or City, sometimes to another, that he may be able to give true informa­tion against some Mandarin famous for his Tyran­ny and Extortion. Besides these Visitations, this Tribunal sends into every Province every three years, a certain Visitor call'd Hio Yuen, and to every City another call'd Ti Trio, to exa­mine the Batchelours of Art, and suppress the vi­olences, which confiding in their privileges, they act upon the people. These have power to appre­hend, to condemn all such Offenders to the Whip; and when they prove incorrigible, they degrade and punish them with an extraordinary severity. Lastly, this Tribunal sends forth when­soever it is thought requisite a Visitor call'd Siun Ho to survey the famous Canal, of which we have already spoken, and to take care of the Barks which are employ'd therein. By means of which Visitation he reaps more honour and profit than all the other Visitors, which this Visitation sends forth.

[Page 224]The Judges of this Tribunal are lodg'd in a vast Palace, where they have under them five and twenty inferiour Tribunals, divided into five clas­ses, of which every one has five Tribunals, with five Presidents, and many Assessors and inferiour Officers. The five of the first Classis are call'd U­chin Chayuen, or Visitors of the five Qurters of Pe Kim. The first is the Visitor of the South Walls and that Quarter of the City next adjoyning. The second visits the Walls on the North side; the third, the Walls on the East, the fourth the Walls on the West side; and the fifth the Walls in the middle. The Authority of these Mandarins is very great, for they have power to try and punish the misdemanours of the people and the Domestick Servants of the Mandarins and great Lords. But if the Offender deserve Death, Confiscation of Estate or Banishment, then they send him to the Criminal Tribunal.

Those of the Second Classis are call'd U Chin Pim Ma Su, or Grand Provosts of the Five Quarters. Those of the third Classis are call'd Tam quen; or inferior Provosts of the five Quarters. The two latter Classes make it their business to apprehend Theives and Robbers, Malefactors▪ Gamesters, Vagabonds and the like; and to detain them in Prison till they resign them to the Superiour Robbers. It is likewise their business to keep watch and ward in the day time, to go the Rounds in the Night, and to set Sentinels to give notice when any fire happens in any house. The Captains of the Watch are also subordinate to these two Classes. For to every ten houses there belongs a Captain call'd Pai; and every Pai teu have another Captain call'd Stum Kia, who is oblig'd to inform the Tribunal of what is done, in his District, con­trary [Page 225] to the Laws and good Customs of the City; when any Strangers come to Town, or of any o­ther Novelty. He is also oblig'd to exhort the several private Families by singing with a loud voice at the beginning of every night a Song consisting of five verses, containing the most necessary Pre­cepts of Morality in these words.

Hiao xum, fu mu, Tsum Kim cham xam, Ho mo Hian Li, Kiao tzu Sun. Mon tzo vi.

That is to say, Obey your Parents, reverence old Men, and your Superiours, live together in Unity, in­struct your Children, and do no acts of Injustice.

In petty Towns where there are no Mandarins, the care of this duty is committed to four or five of the honestest old Men, call'd Lao gen, who have a Captain call'd Hiam yo, or Ti fam. This person also sings the same Song every Night; and the first and fifth of every month assembles the Inhabitants, and explains the meaning of those Instructions by Similes and Examples. Of which I thought it not amiss to relate some few to let the Reader see the vertuous disposition, wit, and good government of this Nation. Obey your Parents as Lambs obey their Ews, as they teach us by their extraordinary humility in kneeling when they suck, and submitting to them exactly in ac­knowledgment of the nourishment which they receive from them. Reverence the Aged and your Superiours, in imitation of wild Geese, who by the Order which they observe in their flight, shew plainly the respect which is to be given to Seniority. Live together in peace, in imitation of that Love and Unity which is observ'd among Deer; for when any one of them has met with a good piece of Pasturage, he will not feed by him­self, till he has call'd together the rest of the Herd [Page 226] to take their share. Instruct your Children like that ancient Matron call'd Tuen Ki, who being a Widow, every day whipp'd the onely Son that she had till she dispossest him of all his evil inclinations, so that at length being renown'd for his knowledge and his vertues he came to be Chuam Yuen, or chief of the Doctours of the Empire, and afterwards for his Vertue and Heroick Actions was advanc'd to be Co Lao, or Chief Minister of State to the Emperour. Commit no acts of Injustice, like that same wicked and disobedient Heu ci, who out of his extraordinary Ingratitude, designing to kill his Father in Law that reprov'd him for his Misde­meanours, kill'd his own Mother unexpectedly, whose Indulgence had been the Perdition of her Son, by supplying him with Money, which he spent in all manner of debauchery; and by con­cealing the early lewdness of his Life. But Hea­ven to make him an Example to all as wicked as himself, and to deter others, crush'd him to the Earth, and cleft him in sunder with a Thunder­bolt.

The Tribunal call'd Iu Hio, is a mixt Tribunal, which takes care of Batchelours of Arts, and Mi­litary Probationers. Two Presidents belong to it, of which the one has the oversight of the first, the other of the latter. These exercise themselves in making Discourses upon the means of preser­ving the Estate and governing the People. The other discourse of Warlike Discipline, when to give Battel, how to attack and defend Fortified places, and other matters of the same nature. The Mandarins of this Tribunal who are dispers'd over all the Provinces and Cities, give them frequent occasions to exercise their wits upon these Subjects; and those Mandarins are re­spected [Page 227] by those Batchelours and Probationers, rather as Professors than Magistrates. The two Presidents which reside at Court are Doctours both, the one of Civil Learning, the other in Mi­litary Discipline. The other Officers are such out of whose number the King makes Mandarins out of his meer Grace and Favour, or by reason of the Merits of their Ancestours.

The Tribunal call'd Co Tao, or Co Li, is that of the Inspecters or Overseers, of which we have already spoken, which are divided into six Classes, like the six superiour Tribunals, from whence they take their name and distinction. For example; the first is call'd Li Co, or Inspecters of the superiour Tribunal of the Mandarins. The second, Hu Co, or Inspecters of the superiour Tribunal of the Exchequer; and so of the rest. Every Classis is compos'd of several Mandarins all of the seventh Order, and all equal, so that there is not one, no, not so much as he that keeps the Seal of the Tribunal, who has any superiority over the rest of his Brethren. Their business is to repre­hend the King himself for any miscarriages of his Government: and there are some so resolute and undaunted that they will rather expose themselves to Death and Banishment than forbear when they have Truth on their side, which they will tell him sometimes to his face, and sometimes in writing without any mincing of the matter. And of this freedom as we meet at present with several exam­ples, so is there a far greater number to be seen in the Chinese Histories. Many times also it happens that the Kings will amend their defects, and mag­nificently reward those that have been so liberal of their Reproofs. They are also entrusted to inspect the Disorders of the six superiour Tribunals, and [Page 228] to inform the King by private Memorials. The King likewise makes choice of the Mandarins of this Tribunal for the execution of several Orders of Importance that require Secrecy. And every year he culls out three to be Visitors. The first of which is call'd Siun Cim, who visits all the Mer­chants of the Court, or in the City of Pe Kim, and takes notice of all Merchandize that is either sophisticated or prohibited. The second is call'd Sium Cam, who visits the Burners of the King's Lime. The third, who is call'd Sium xi nim ym, is present at all the General Musters. The Man­darins of this Tribunal are only of the seventh Order, however their Authority and Power is very large.

The Tribunal, call'd Him gin su, consists of se­veral Mandarins, all Doctours, all equal, and all of the seventh Order, like those of the preceding Tribunal. Their Employment is to be sent abroad, either as Envoys or Embassadours, either to di­stant parts of the Empire or to Foreign States. As when the King sends them to carry Titles of Ho­nour to the Mother or Wise of a Mandarin slain in the Wars; or after he has done the King and Kingdom eminent Service in the discharge of his Employment. Or when the Emperour is pleas'd to confer or confirm the Title of King to the Prince of Corea, or any other neighbouring Sovereign. These Embassies are very honourable, and some­times no less gainfull.

The Tribunal of Tai li su, i. e. of Supream Rea­son and Justice, is so call'd, because they are entru­sted to examine all doubtfull and intricate Causes, and to confirm or annihilate the Sentences of o­ther Tribunals, especially in reference to Crimes that concern the Estates, the Honour and Life of [Page 229] the King's Subjects. The President of this Tribu­nal is of the third Order: his two Lateral Judges or Assessors, of the fourth; and the other inferiour Mandarins, of which there are a great number, of the fifth and sixth. When the Tribunal of Crimes condemns to death any person of Quality or other person of mean condition, and that the King finds the reason of the Sentence dubious, he refers it always to San fa su, which is▪ as it were his Council of Conscience. Then three Tribunals assemble together, the Tai li su, the Tu li yuen, or the superiour Tribunal of Visitors, and the Tribu­nal of Crimes. All these together re examine the Process in the presence of the Accusers and the Party accused, and many times revoke the Sen­tence. For that the Prosecutor not having gain'd the Tribunal of Crimes, nor having Money nor cunning enough to corrupt the other two, they judge according to Reason and Justice, and gene­rally the King confirms the Decision of those three Tribunals.

The Tribunal Tum chim su, takes care to have the King's Orders and Commands proclaim'd at Court, and diligently to inform themselves of the calamities, oppressions and necessities of the Peo­ple, and exactly and privately to inform the Em­perour. They are likewise entrusted to send to the King, or else to bury in silence, as they shall deem most proper, all the Memorials of the Mi [...]i­tary Mandarins, and the Letters of the fourteen Provinces of the Veteran Mandarins, who are dispens'd with from all manner of Employments; of the People, Souldiers, and Strangers that come from Foreign Countries. The Mandarins of the Province of Pekim present their Memorials imme­diately to the King himself, never taking notice of [Page 230] this Tribunal; the President of which is of the third Order of Mandarins; his first Assessor of the fourth, his second Assessor of the fifth, and the rest of the inferiour Mandarins of the sixth and se­venth Order.

The Tribunal Tai cham su, is as it were an Associate and Assistant to the supream Tribunal of Ceremonies. The President is of the third Order, his Assessors of the fourth, and the rest of the Mandarins, of which there are a great number, of the fifth and sixth Orders. They take particular care of the King's Musick and Sacrifices: and in regard these Sacrifices are perform'd in the Tem­ples dedicated to the Heavens, the Earth, the Sun and Moon, to Rivers and Mountains: this Tribunal takes care of all those Piles, which are very vast and magnificent: They also take care of the married Bonzes, who are generally Alchy­mists and Fortune-tellers. Two of these Manda­rins are appointed to give orders for the Reception and Lodging of Strangers that come to Court. Lastly, they have the oversight of the publick Courtesans, of the places of their Habitation, and of those that govern and direct them in their infa­mous Trade. The Chineses, to shew their aversi­on to those miserable Creatures call them [...]am [...]a, that is to say, Men that have utterly bury'd in oblivion eight Vertues, viz. Obedience to the [...] Fathers and Mothers, Affection for their Brethren and other Kindred, Fidelity toward their Prince, Sincerity, Honesty, Justice, Modesty, Chastity, and all manner of laudable Sciences and Custom [...] ▪ This is the signification of those two words, which the Chineses mark with only two letters, by which it is easie to see the Force of their Language, and the esteem which they have for Vertue, though [Page 231] for the most part they follow their own deprav'd Inclinations that carry them headlong into vice.

The Tribunal Quan lo su, or of the Royal Inns, takes care for the provision of Wine, Cattel, and all other things necessary for the King's Sacrifices, Banquets, and for the entertainment of such as are treated at the King's charges whether Chineses or Foreigners. This Tribunal is an Associate to that of the Ceremonies. The President is of the third Order; his Assistants, one of the fourth, the other of the fifth, and all the rest of the Man­darins, which are very numerous, of the seventh Order.

The Mandarins of the Tribunal Tai po su, are of the same Orders with those before mention'd. Their business it is to take care of the Horses, as well for the King's service, as for the Wars. To which purpose they send their Agents and their Messengers to buy up such numbers as are neces­sary, which they send afterwards to the Tribunal of War, to which this Tribunal is an Assistant, who distributes them to the Commanders, and in­to the Fortresses of the Frontiers. During the Government of the Chineses, those Horses were all bought up in the several Provinces; but now, the Western Tarters bring them to the Court: and the Emperour buys every year seventy thousand, besides what the great Lords, the Commanders, the Souldiers, the learned Mandarins and the peo­ple buy, which amount to double or treble the number. By which a man may judge of the vast number of Horses at the Court, which I dare not presume to mention, for fear it should be thought incredible.

Kin Tien Kien is the Tribunal of the Mathema­ticks. The President of which is of the fifth Or­der; [Page 232] his two Assessors of the sixth, and the rest of the Mandarins of the seventh and eighth. They apply themselves to Astronomy; and it is their business to give the King notice of the time and Day of the Eclipses of the Sun and Moon, and whether total or in part; of which the Emperour sends word to all the Tribunals of the Province, by the grand Tribunal of Ceremonies, to the end they may prepare themselves for the performance of the usual Ceremonies which consist in their bea­ting of Drums during the Eclipse, the Mandarins kneeling all the while, and fixing their eyes upon the Skie with a most awfull reverence. This Tribunal also composes the Kalendar, which is printed every year and distributed over all the Empire; neither is it lawfull to make any other, which is a thing forbidden under the for feiture of life.

The Tribunal call'd Tai Y Yuen, or the Tribu­nal of Physick, is compos'd of the Kings, Queens and Prince's Physicians. They also take care of all others whom the King out of his especial grace and favour orders them to visit, and prepare the Medicins themselves. The Mandarins of this are of the same order as are those of the preceding Tribunal, and both belong to the Grand Tribunal of Ceremonies.

The Tribunal Hum Lu Su, supplies the Office of Groom Porter, and Master of the Ceremonies, which are observ'd when the King gives audience, or when he comes into the Royal Hall to receive the Homages of the Grandees and Mandarins. This Tribunal is an assistant to that of the Cere­monies; the President being of the fourth Order; the Assessors of the fifth and sixth, and the rest of the Mandarins of the seventh and eighth.

[Page 233]The Tribunal call'd Xam len Yuen take [...] care of the Gardens, Orchards, and Parks; as also of the breeding of the Cattel, Sheep, Pigs, Wild Ducks, Fowl, and all sorts of Creatures which are made use of in the Royal Sacrifices, Feasts, and Royal Inns. It is under the Jurisdiction of the Tribunal of Ceremonies, and the Mandarins are of the same Order with those of the Tribunals of the Mathe­maticks and Physick.

The Tribunal Xam pao su, lodges in the Palace Royal. It takes care of the Emperour's Seal, which is made of a most excellent and precious Stone, as the signification of the two Syllables Xam pao denotes. It is square, and almost a hands breadth in Diameter. When any Tribunal has an occasion to make use of it, this Tribunal is oblig'd to give notice to the King, and after it has been made use of and is lock'd up again, they are bound to give the King notice of that too. They are entrusted to have ready at all times the Seals of all the Tribunals of the Court and Empire, and to order what Letters and Marks are to be grav'd upon them, when the King con [...]ers any new Title or any Employment upon any person, or when upon some reason of State he is pleas'd to change the Seals. When the Grand Tribunal of Manda­rins has any occasion to confer Commands and give Dispatches to the Mandarins of the Court or Provinces, they send for them to this Tribunal after they have obtain'd leave of the Emperour. The President of this Court has but one Assessor, but they are both Doctours and of the fifth Order. The rest are of the number of those that have been made Mandarins out of Favour, and are onely of the seventh or eighth Order.

The Tribunal call'd Kin y guei, or of the Royal [Page 234] Guard, is compos'd of several hundreds of Milita­ry Mandarins divided into four Classe's. They of the first Classis are of the second Order of Manda­rins; those of the second, of the third; they of the third are of the fourth; and those of the fourth Classis, are of the fifth Order. Their Em­ployment is to guard the Person of the King when he goes out of his Palace, or gives Audience to the Grandees and Mandarins: and upon this Tribunal it is that he relies for the apprehending and arresting of Persons considerable for their Birth or Dignity. They are generally the Sons of great Mandarins, Brothers, or otherwise of kin to the Queen, or Sons or Nephews of the King's Sons; or Sons or Nephews of the Mandarins, who have perform'd great Services; in consideration of which the King bestows that Favour vpon them. They are never advanc'd to other Tribunals like the rest of the Mandarins, who change continually from one Tribunal to another. However, they are preferr'd in their own Tribunal, and frequently to the dignity of Xam xu, which is the Title of the Presidents of the six superiour Tribunals; and ma­ny times to the dignity of Colao, or Counsellors of State. They are greatly feared and respected by reason of their Employments, and their Nobility, and for that they are always near the Person of the King. And though they are Military Man­darins they are exempt from the Jurisdiction of the Pim pu, or supream Tribunal of Arms, as being onely subject to the King

To this Tribunal belong two inferiour Tribunals that abide in particular places. The first is call'd Nan Chin, or the Watch Tower of the South. The second Pe chin, or Watch Tower of the North. The Presidents of these two Tribunals are of the [Page 235] fifth Order; and the inferiour Mandarins, which are very numerous, are all of the seventh Order. The Employment of the Mandarins of the first Tribunal is to attend those who are sent to appre­hend any great Lords, and of the second to re­ceive and guard the Prisoners while in custody, till they are releas'd by the King's Order, or deli­ver'd over to the Tribunal of Crimes.

The two Tribunals call'd Xui que su, are pro­perly Directors of the Audits of the Tolls, which all things pay that are brought to Pekim, and sold in the City. The first, which is the more consi­derable, takes care to set Guards at all the Gates of the City, to prevent the bringing in of any Goods, unless they be first register'd and pay the duties demanded. The second receives the duties of all things that are bought and sold in the City, as Slaves, Horses, Camels, Cattel, &c. The Pre­sidents of these Tribunals are of the seventh Or­der, and the inferiour Mandarins of the eighth and ninth. These two Tribunals belong to the grand Tribunal of the Exchequer.

Tu pu, is as it were the Tribunal of the ordinary Judge of the King's Houshold: their Employment is twosold: the first is to arrest Robbers and Ma­lefactors, and to make out their Processes; and then if they happen to be quitted they release them; if they are thought worthy of death, they deliver them over to the Tribunal of Crimes. As for Cut▪ purses, for the first Offence they brand them upon the left Arm with a red hot Iron: for the second Offence, upon the right Arm; and for the third they deliver the Offenders over to the Tribunal of Crimes. Their next Employ­ment is to arrest Fugitive Slaves, which they first cause to be punish'd with a hundred lashes of [Page 236] a Whip, and then to be restor'd to their Masters. But of late years they are mark'd upon the left Cheek, with two Tartar and two Chinese Charac­ters. But a Chinese Mandarin, by a Memorial, besought the King to consider that the punishment was too rigorous for a crime that was rather the effect of desire of Liberty, so natural to all Man­kind, than any act of a wicked inclination, and that it was a thing no way becoming the City of his Majestie's Residence, to behold the Streets so full of those deformed objects of cruelty. Which counsel being approv'd by the King he or­der'd for the future that the Letters should be branded upon the left Arm. The President of this Tribunal is of the second Order; his Assistants are of the third, and the rest of the Mandarins are of the seventh and eighth. To this Tribunal there belongs a great number of Catch-poles and Thief takers, who with an industry and cunning more than ordinary, discover and apprehend all manner of Thieves, Robbers and Runaway Slaves.

The Tribunal call'd Fu yn, is that of the two Governours of the City of Xun tien Fu, or Pekim; but the first name is not in use, because Pekim signifies properly the Court of the North. These Governours are above all the other Governours of all the Cities of the Empire, and of the third Order of Mandarins, and their Assessors of the fourth. The first has the oversight of all the Stu­dents, and all the Men of Learning who are not yet Mandarins. The second takes care to instruct the people, and to exhort them to live in peace and union, and to inform themselves of their man­ner of living, to punish those that introduce No­velties and Disorders, to cherish labour and indu­stry, to administer Justice equally to all men, to [Page 237] spare the people in the publick Works, to know the number of the Families and persons in the Ci­ty, to watch day and night in redressing the mi­series of the people, to defend them against the wealthy and potent, to comfort and ease the poor and afflicted, to recompence the vertuous, relieve the innocent and punish the guilty: and lastly to prepare the place and all things necessary for the publick Sacrifices. Such Functions as these are easie demonstrations, that it is not without reason that the Chineses call the Governours of Cities Fu mu, that is to say, the Father and Mother of the People.

There are yet two Tribunals more call'd Tai Him Hien, and Von Pin Hien, whose employment is the same with that of the Tribunal of the Go­vernours of the City upon which they depend, and are as it were the Officers belonging to it. They are two, because that Pe Kim is divided into two Cities, according to the Custome of the Em­pire, where the Cities are said to be double or sin­gle, according to the largeness and extent of their Territory. The Presidents of these Tribunals in Cities where the Court is kept are of the sixth or­der; and in the Cities of the Provinces, of the se­venth order; and the four inferiour Mandarins are of the seventh, eighth and ninth order.

T [...]um Gin Fu, is the Tribunal of the Grandees, that descend from Father to Son, of the Royal Family. The President is one of those that enjoy the Title of King, and is always a person venera­ble for his Age and his Vertues. He is of none of the nine orders, because his dignity advances him above all the orders of the Mandarins. His Asses­sors also are always 2 dignifi'd Lords of the Royal Bloud, who are of no Order for the same reason. [Page 238] All these officers take care to distribute the Pen­sions which are paid to the Kings kindred of the Male Line; who whether they be great Lords or poor, and at least fifteen or sixteen Generati­ons distant in Bloud, have nevertheless some Pen­sion, all of them more or less according to their dignities and proximity of Alliance. They have all the privilege to paint their houses and their furniture with red. But in regard the preceding family had reign'd for two hundred se­venty seven years, the descendents from it were multiply'd to that degree and spread to such a di­stance from the source of the Pedigree, and their divided revenues consequently so small that seve­ral of them were reduc'd to follow trades for their subsistance. So that when I enter'd first into the Empire, I met with one in the Capital of the Province of Kiam Sì, that was a common Porter, and to distinguish himself from the rest of his Companions, carried the instruments of his pro­fession, at his back, very bright, and varnish'd over with red. There were an infinite number of them, in the reign of the preceding Family, dis­pers'd all over the Empire, who abusing the pri­vileges of their Birth committed a thousand insolen­ces, and extortions upon the poor people: but they have been all since utterly extirpated toge­ther with the Family from whence they descended. At present, the Kindred of the King of Tartary that now reigns are all great Lords, and live at Court: but if their Dominion long endures, they will multiply, and their numbers become no less burthensome than the former. This Tri­bunal is also entrusted to determine all Differen­ces, and processes as well civil as criminal between the Princes of the Bloud, to give sentence accord­ing [Page 239] to the penalties which they deserve, and to order execution, after they have first inform'd the King of their proceedings.

Hoam cin is the Tribunal of the King's Female Kindred which are of two sorts. The first are they who descend from the King's Daughters, married to young Gentlemen call'd and chosen for those matches, and are call'd Tu ma. These ac­cording to the custom of China, are not lookt up­on as Princes of the Bloud, nor as the King's Kin­dred, nor have they any Right of succession to the Crown, though they should have several heirs males; which custom is also observ'd among the people. For in China to marry a Daughter is to exclude her for ever from her Fathers Fami­ly, and graft her into the Family of her Husband, whose Sir Name she assumes at the same time in­stead of her own. Thence it comes to pass, that the Chineses, when they would say that a Maid is ally'd to the Family of her Husband, never make use of the word Kin, to goe, but of the word Quei, to return: asmuch as to say, she is not gon, but is return'd to her Family. Thus they explain themselves also when they speak of the dead: for they do not say, such a one is dead; but such a one is returned to the earth. By the same rea­son, when a Grandfather speaks of the Children of his Son, he calls them barely Sun Su, my Grand Children: but when he speaks of his Daughters Children, he calls them Vai Sun Su, my Grand Children without: for they look upon them to be of the Son in Laws Family.

The second sort of the King's Kindred by the Female side, are the Fathers, Brothers, Uncles and other Kindred of the Queen, the King's Sons in Law, their Fathers, Brothers, Uncles, and o­ther [Page 240] Kindred. Out of these two sorts the King makes choice of some of the most considerable to compose this Tribunal and to act the same things as the Officers of the Tribunal of the Royal Bloud. They differ onely in this, that the latter are of none of the nine Orders, the former are Manda­rins of the first and second Order. Though they esteem much more honourable the Titles of Hoam Cin, and Fu Ma, or the King's Kindred, than that of Mandarin, though of the first order: But this se­cond sort of Kindred was also extirpated by the Tartars with the preceding Family. Thus far concerning the Tribunals of the Mandarins and of the Government of the Court. We are now to give a short accompt of the Tribunals of the Provinces.

Notes upon the fourteenth Chapter.

He causeth a choice to be made at Pe Kim of several young Gentlemen, &c.

Here we are to observe, that in this place the Author onelyPag. 221. speaks of what was practis'd in the time of the Chinese Emperours, for the Tartar Emperours have alter'd this Custome, and never marry their Daughters but to Kings, Princes or Great Lords, as our Author himself acknowledges a little lower.

CHAP. XV.

TO every one of the fifteen Provinces there be­longs a supream Tribunal, which has the oversight of all the rest. The President bears the Titles of Tu Tam, Kiun Muen, Tu Yuen, Siun Fu, with several other names, which all signifie no more than Governour of a Province or Viceroy, with us. These Presidents are of the first, second or third order, according as the King is pleas'd to regulate them, when he sends them into the Pro­vinces. They are intrusted with the whole Go­vernment, as well in times of Peace as in War, and with the command of the People and Souldi­ers as well in civil as criminal matters. They give notice to the King and the six superiour Tri­bunals of all matters of importance. On the o­ther side all the Kings orders, and dispatches with those of the Superiour Tribunals are directed to this Tribunal, and all the Mandarins of the Province are bound to repair to this Tribunal in all affairs of moment. There are other Viceroys, that go­vern two, three or four Provinces, and are call'd Tsum To, as Leam Quam Tsum To, or Viceroy of the Provinces of Quam Tum and Quam Si. Quam Tum signifies the Province extended toward the East, and Quam si, the Province extended toward the West. There are other such like Viceroys in China as in the Provinces bordering upon Tartary, and other places of importance. And besides the Viceroy there is in every Province a Visiter call'd Ngan Tai, or Ngan Yuen, of which we have spo­ken formerly. Lastly, there is a third considera­ble Officer call'd Tsum pim, who commands all [Page 242] the Forces of the Province, and is of the first Or­der of Mandarins. These three supream Presi­dents of the Tribunals of the Provinces have un­der them several inferiour Mandarins, who assist them in the dispatch of business; and though these three Tribunals general have their Palaces in the Capital City, nevertheless they are not always resident there, but keep their Circuits from place to place as business requires. But for the particu­lar Tribunals of the Capital Cities they are these that follow.

Every Capital City has two Tribunals, in which properly consists the whole Government of the Province; the one for Civil the other for crimi­nal affairs. The first is call'd Pu chim su, the Pre­sident of which is a Mandarin of the first degree of the second Order. The Palace belonging to this Tribunal, like those at the Court, contains on both sides, two other Tribunals, which are not inferiour but Assistants to the first Tribunal. That on the left hand is the most considerable and is call'd Tsan chim: having two Presidents, both of the second degree of the third Order. The other on the right hand is call'd Tsan y; the Presidents of which are both equal, and of the second degree of the fourth Order. To all these three Tribu­nals belong a great number of inferiour Mandarins, call'd Xeu lien quen, whose business it is to decide all Civil matters, and to pay and receive all the Revenues of the Province.

The Criminal Tribunal is call'd Nghan cha su, and the President who is of the third Order has no Assessors, but two Classes of Mandarins under him. Those of the first Classis, who are call'd To su, are of the fourth Order. They of the se­cond Classis, who are call'd Cien su, are of the [Page 243] fifth Order; and the Mandarins of these two Clas­ses are call'd Tao li, or Tao tus [...] These Tao li are the Visiters of all the Quarters of the Province in which they have their Tribunals. Some of them take care of the Post Horses, the Royal Inns, and the King's Barks, so far as their Jurisdiction rea­ches, and are call'd Ye chuen tao▪ Others that are call'd Pim pi tao, are intrusted to inspect the seve­ral Troops and Companies of the Province; others to drain the Lands and level the Highways, who are call'd Tun tien tao. This Tribunal has power to punish Criminals by banishment, as also by confiscation of Goods and lo [...]s of Life. And if there be no Visiter in the Province, it has an eye over all the other Mandarins, and gives notice to the King of what passes in the Province, when business requires their information▪ In a word, these two Tribunals do the Office of the six su­pream Tribunals of the Court, and are as it were their Substitutes.

Every Province is divided into Districts, and to every District belongs a Mandarin call'd Tao [...]i, who is as it were a Visiter, or Inspe [...]er into the manners and behaviour of the Officers within his Jurisdiction. He takes care to solicit the Gover­nours of the Towns and Cities to make quick payments of their duties to the King▪ There are some also that take no less care of the Rivers and Sea Coasts in their Quarters. They that look af­ter the Rivers are call'd Ho tao, and the Survey­ors of the Sea Coasts H [...] tao. All these Manda­rins belong to the Tribunal of Inspecters or Over­seers call'd Co tao, of which we have already spoken.

All the Cities of the first rank whether Capital or no, have a Tribunal where the Governour of the City or Territory presides, who is a Mandarin [Page 244] of the fourth Order, and is call'd Chi fu. He has three Assessors, the first call'd Tum chi, the second Tum pu [...]n, and the third Chui Quen, who are of the sixth and seventh Order. They are also call'd second, third and fourth Lord, of the second, third or fourth Chair, or of the second, third or fourth City; in regard the President is call'd the first Lord, the first Chair, and the first City.

There are four other inferiour Mandarins call'd Kim lie chu su, Chao mo, and Kim k [...]ao, which are onely of the seventh, eighth or ninth Order. The Imployment of this Tribunal is the same with that of the Governour of Pe Kim. All the Cities of the Empire are provided with such Mandarins as these. But if it be a place of great trade, or that the Territory be of a large extent, then the number of these Mandarins is doubl'd.

The Cities of the second rank call'd Cheu are of two sorts▪ Those of the first sort are subject to the Capitals onely, as the Cities of the first Rank, and have Cities which depend upon them. Those of the second sort are subject to the Cities of the first Order, whether they have Cities depending upon them or no. The President of these Cities is call'd Chi cheu. He is of the second degree of the fifth Order, and has two Assessors; of which the first is call'd Cheu [...]um, and the second Cheu poon, who are of the second degree of the sixth and second Order▪ He has under him also a third Mandarin call'd L [...] mo, of the second degree of the ninth Order. The people call this Governour Tai Ye, or the great or first Lord; the other three the second, third or fourth Lord. Their Employment is the same with the Governours of the Cities of the first Rank.

All the other Cities of the Empire have a Tri­bunal, of which the President is call'd Chi hien, [Page 245] and is of the first degree of the seventh Order. He has also two Assessors, of which the first is call'd Hien chim, of the eighth Order; and the second who is of the Ninth is call'd Chu pu. He has also a third under him who is call'd Tien su, who is of no Order, but if he acquit himself well of his employment for three years, the Governor of the City gives him a Certificate to the Gover­nour of the Superiour City, and the Governour of that City to the Governour of the Capital. The last Governour certifies to the two grand Tri­bunals of the Capital City, and they to the Vice­roy. The Viceroy writes to the grand Tribunal of the Mandarins, and they to the Counsellors of State, who inform the King: and by him gene­rally he is made a Mandarin of the eighth or ninth Order. This is the Road which the Manda­rins observe for their promotion to new dignities. But this good Fortune never befalls them, if they do not purchase it by Presents proportionable to what they may squeeze out of their Employments; and this kind of trade is driven as openly as if it were an establish'd Law among them. This is the reason that Justice and Employments are sold as at an outry, all over the Empire, but more especi­ally at Court; so that there is no body but the King who can be properly said to mind the pub­lick good, all the rest regarding nothing but their private interests. And of this manner of proceed­ing I will bring ye one example, of which I my self was an eye witness.

There was a young Gentleman whose name was Simon, a very good Christian, who was a Manda­rin of a City of the second Rank, by a particular favour which the Emperour shew'd him, in re­gard his Father, Viceroy of the Province of [...]n si▪ [Page 246] was slain fighting against an Army of Robbers that had rais'd a Rebellion in the Province. The three years of his Employment being expired, he was advanced to be Mandarin of a City of the first Rank, and after the expiration of that Employ­ment he repaired to Court, according to the cu­stome, in hopes to be preferred to another City yet more considerable for the recompence of his Services duely perform'd. The King referr'd his Petition to the Tribunal of the [...]. Pre­sently Letters were sent him from that Tribunal to le [...] him know, that if he would deposite in a third hand fourteen V [...]n of Silver, which amounts to about a hundred thousand Crowns, they would give him the Government of the City of [...]un [...]m in the Province of Xan si; which is one of the best peopl'd, the most remarkable for Trade, and the richest Cities of the whole Empire. To which this vertuous Christian return'd for answer, that if he had such a summ by him, nay though it were far less, he would never go about to move for any more employment, in regard a smaller summ than that would suffice him to live at his ease. Nor did he think it convenient to take up so large a sum at great interest, as others did; by which they were forc'd for satisfaction of their Creditors, and to glut their insatiate avarice, to turn real Tyrants and greedy Wolves, that devour'd the Cities, and opprest the miserable people wherever they came, which they were otherwise bound to protect and defend. So that they might dispose of that Employ­ment to him that was able to purchase it; but that for his part he would be contented with what sell to his [...]t Now it is the custom to write as many [...] as there are Mandarins that stand [...], upon little thin boards, which [Page 247] are thrown into a Vessel, and every one is Go­vernour of that City of which he draws the Name. Nevertheless when a man has agreed with the Tribunal, the Tablets are so order'd that the Person draws the City which he desires. How­ever this Artifice fail'd a Mandarin in the year 1669, who had given a good Summ to a Protho­notary, who had promis'd him the ready draught of a City of great Trade, and not far distant. For he drew a miserable City in the Province of Quei cheu, the most remote and the poorest in the whole Em­pire. Thereupon the wretched and unfortu­nate Mandarin quite out of his wits at his ill Suc­cess, without any respect to the Tribunal, or the presence of above three hundred Mandarins, rose up all in a rage (for they draw upon their knees) crying out with a loud voice he was un­done, and throwing off his Robe and his Cap, fell upon the Prothonotary, threw him upon the ground, and with his Foot and Fist be­labouring the poor Officer, cry'd out, K [...]ave and Impostor as thou art, where is the mony that I gave thee? where is the City of which thou gav'st me a promise, with many other reproaches of the same Nature? Thereupon the Tribunal broke up, and the Mandarin and the Prothonotary were both committed to the Prison of the Criminal Tribunal, where they were both in great hazard of being condemn'd to death. For such sort of merchandizing is death by the Laws, besides that the scandalous Circumstances of the Action ren­der'd the Crime much more enormous.

In all the Towns and Cities of the Empire there is a Tribunal compos'd of a President, and at least two or three Assessours; which is call'd Kiao quon, or Judges of the men of Letters. For, that their [Page 248] business is to take care of Learning and Learned Men; and more especially to overlook the Bat­chelours of Art, which are very numerous, and frequently very poor, yet trusting to their Privi­leges, become bold and insolent, and practice ma­ny Acts of Violence and Knavery to get Money from Poor and Rich, and many times throw off that respect which is due to the Presidents and Governours. Therefore the Ancient Kings with much prudence erected this Court to apprehend and punish them, either by whipping or other pe­nalties according to their demerits, and to degrade them if incorrigible. Which is the reason that the Batchelours both fear and respect those Mandarins after an extraordinary manner. This Court also has power to assemble from time to time, all the Learned Men of the City; that is to say, the Bat­chelours, Licentiates, Doctours and old Mandarins excus'd from Service by reason of their Age, to treat of Sciences and Vertue. To which purpose they give them Themes taken out of their Books, upon which they make several Comments, which this Tribunal examines, & publickly either applaud or discommends; so that these Officers are rather Professours than Mandarins. Besides these Man­darins which are common to all the Empire, there are other Tribunals appropriated to particular Places and Provinces: as the Mandarins of the Salt; who take care to distribute it over all China by publick undertakers, and to prevent private Merchants from uttering any, to the prejudice of the King's Revenue. Other Mandarins there are who are as it were Stewards of the Rents belong­ing to the King and the great Lords, more especi­ally in the Provinces that lye upon the Sea. There is also another Tribunal call'd Ti Kin Su, and by [Page 249] the Portugueses Tai qui si For indeed the Portu­gueses corrupt all the Chinese words: For the City of Hiam Xan or the Mount of Odours, they call Ham Sam. Ma Cao is call'd Ama gao. That is to say, the Bay or Gulph of the Idol Ama. For Gao signifies a Bay; and Ama is the Name of an Idol, which is worship'd in that Part.

These are the Tribunals of the Letter'd Manda­rins: Those of the Military Mandarins are yet more numerous. For besides that they are in all Places where the Tribunal of the Learned Manda­rins are erected, they are also in several important Places that separate the Provinces, in all Ports and Bays, and many more upon the Frontiers next to Tartary. There is likewise sent from the Court a Catalogue of all the Learned Mandarins which is printed and reprinted every Season of the Year, wherein are set down the Names, the Titles, the Countrey and the Time when every one receiv'd their Degrees. And such another Catalogue is printed of the Military Mandarins. The Num­ber of the Learned Mandarins over all the Empire is thirteen Thousand six Hundred forty Seven, and that of the Military Mandarins amounts to eighteen Thousand five hundred and twenty: in all thirty two Thousand one hundred sixty seven Mandarins, which though it be most certain may seem a thing incredible Though their Distribution, their Distinction, and their Subordination as much surpasses belief: It seems as if the Legislators had omitted nothing, and that they had foreseen all Inconveniences that were to be fear'd. So that I am perswaded no Kingdom in the World could be better govern'd or more happy, if the Conduct and Probity of the Officers were but answerable to the Institution of the Government. But in regard they [Page 250] have no knowledge of the True God, nor of the Eternal Rewards and Punishments of the other World, they are subject to no remorses of Consci­ence; they place all their happiness in Pleasure, in Dignity and Riches; and therefore to obtain these fading Advantages they violate all the Laws of God and Man; trampling under foot Religion, Reason, Justice, Honesty, and all the Rights of Consanguinity and Friendship. The Inferiour Offi­cers mind nothing but how to defraud the Superi­our Mandarins; they the Supream Tribunals, and all together how to cheat the King: Which they know how to do with so much cunning and ad­dress, making use in their memorials of words and expressions so soft, so honest, so resp [...] [...], so hum­ble and full of Adulation; and [...] so plau­sible and seemingly disinteren [...] [...]ded Prince frequently takes [...] for solemn Truths. So that the [...] them­selves continually oppress'd and [...] [...]tud, without any reason, murmur and [...] [...]ditions and Revolts; which have caus'd [...]o much [...]ne and so many Changes in the Empire. Nevertheless there is no reason that the Excellency and Perfec­tion of the Laws of China should suffer for the de­pravity and wickedness of the Magistrates.

CHAP. XVI. Of the Grandeur of the Emperour of China, and of his Revenues.

I Have observ'd in the third Chapter the three Opinions which the Chineses have concerning [Page 251] the beginning of their Empire. Nor do they esteem their Kings to be of less Antiquity, in re­gard their Government has been always Monar­chical and absolute without any mixture of Aristo­cracy. I have also observ'd that Cum fu cius, and all the Learned Men reject the first Opinion as merely fabulous. I shall therefore only add, that according to the second Opinion that the Chineses were under the Government of Kings two thou­sand nine hundred fifty two years before the Birth of Christ. King Fohi was the first of their Kings, and the Founder of their Empite, which began in the Province of Xen si, the most western part of China toward the North. The Chineses paint this King cloath'd with the leaves of Trees, and all a­gree that his Kingdom was of no great extent at first, nor his People very numerous. Their Histo­ries relate, how that when this King began to reign, the Chineses liv'd upon Herbs and wild Fruits▪ drank the Blood of Beasts, and clad themselves in Skins. But that he taught them to make Nets as well for Hunting as Fishing, and was the first in­venter of the Chinese Letters. All the Learned be­liev'd this Opinion probable, and some there are that hold it for certain and unquestionable. In a word it seems very probable, that Fohi might be the first King of China; in the regard that if we set aside the Fables which the Chineses have added, and of which the Greeks and Romans are no less guilty when they speak of their first Founders, the Sequel of their Story and the successive Train of their Kings seems to have much of Truth. For according to the Computation of their Histories and Chronologies, we clearly find that the first King of China began to reign about two hundred years after the Universal deluge according to the [Page 252] Version of the seventy Interpreters. In which time the Descendants of Noah might well spread them­selves to the farther end of Asia; seeing that with­in the same space they expanded themselves over all the Western Parts of Asia, into Africa and a good part of Europe.

The third Opinion asserts that the first King of China was Yao, who according to their Chronolo­gy began to reign four thousand and twenty five years ago. Their Histories relate that in his time there were both Mathematicians and Astrologers; that he caus'd great Ditches and Chanels to be made for the draining away of the Waters of the Grand Deluge, that till then cover'd the Valleys and the Champaign Grounds. This King was a Prince illustrious for his Vertues and his Transcen­dent parts, and is still honour'd as one of the wi sest and most vertuous Princes of China: this Opi nion passes for currant and unquestionable among the Chineses. And all the Fathers that have had the greatest Knowledge and Insight into their Books and Histories, hold this latter Opinion for certain, and the second for probable. And be­cause that according to the Version of the Holy Scripture call'd the Vulgar, it would of necessity follow that Fohi and Yao must have been born and reign'd before the Deluge, therefore we are forc'd in this Countrey to follow the Version of the Seventy. Which being granted, the History of this Empire seems very probable, well trac'd, and conformable not only to the Egyptian, Assyrian, Greek and Roman Histories, but which is yet far more surprising, to the Chronology of Sacred Scripture.

According to the second Opinion then which is most probable, from King Tohi, who began to [Page 253] reign about two hundred years after the Deluge to the Emperour Cam Hi, who reign'd in the year 1668. There have been two hundred thirty six Kings, divided into twenty two sidifferent Families, who have govern'd this Empire for the space of four thousand five hundred thirty four years. Which Families endur'd for a longer or lesser time, ac­cording as they govern'd well or ill; and till a­nother revolting, put the King to death, routed out all the Princes of his Family, and all the Nobility which he had rais'd, and made himself Master of the Empire. At the beginning these Rebels were either Petty Kings or Great Lords: But afterwards they happen'd to be Men of low Birth and mean Condition. The first King of the preceding Family, was a Person of very obscure Parentage, whose Name was Chum. He was a long time a Servant among the Priests of the Idols; after which, he betook himself to be a Robber upon the High-way. Afterwards be­ing banish'd he put himself at the head of cer­tain Free booters, and after a great deal of pros­perous Success made himself Master of the Em­pire. At his Coronation he call'd himself Hum Vu, or the Valiant and Warlike: but then the Learn­ed Flatterers advanc'd his Titles, and call'd him Tai Mim, which signifies a Reign of great Luster. His Posterity reign'd in China two hundred seven­ty six Years, and till the Year 1643, that the Tar­tars made themselves Masters of the Empire, and destroy'd the Royal Family. All those that revolt pretend that it is by the decree of Heaven, that sent them to ease the People opprest by the Tyranny of their Governours: And this Opini­on, or rather Vision finds so much credit in the Priests of the Chineses, and is so deeply rooted in [Page 254] their minds as if it were one of the greatest Truths in the World, insomuch that there is hardly one among them that does not hope to be an Empe­rour at one time or other: And this is the reason of those frequent Revolts which we find in this Empire, to day in one Province, to morrow in a­nother; nay many times onely in one City or in one Town. Many times you shall see a miserable Wretch advanc'd to be a King, sometimes by a Troop of fifty Bandity, sometimes by a hundred or two hundred Peasants, but more frequently by a certain Sect of Idolaters, who make a Profession of creating new Kings, and establishing a new Government in the Empire. 'Tis a wonderfull thing to see the Comedies, or rather Tragedies, which are acted every day upon the Theatre of this Empire. For he that but to day was but an ignominious Robber, and under that Notion both dreaded and hated, let him but shift his Habit, and take upon him the Crown, the Robes and Orna­ments of a King, and the same Man to morrow shall be belov'd and respected by all the World, and though he is known to be of vile and abject Birth, they shall presently call him the Son of Heaven, and Lord of the Universe. For that the Chineses, as we have said, call their Kingdom Tien Hia, that is to say, all that which is under the Heaven, or Su hai Chinun, that is to say, all that is between the four Seas. Titles conformable to their Pride and their Ignorance, and to their scorn of Strangers: So that it is the same thing among them, to call a Man Master of all that is under the Heaven, or between the four Seas, as to call him King of China.

The Chineses give their Emperour several losty and magnificent Titles. For example, they call [Page 255] him Tien Hu, Son of Heaven; Xim Tien Hu, Ho­ly Son of Heaven; Hoam Ti, August and Great Emperour; Xim Xoam, Holy Emperour; Hoam Xam, August Sovereign; Xim Kium, Holy Prince; Xim Xam, Holy Sovereignty; Que Chu, Lord of the Kingdom; Chao Tim, Palace Royal; Van Sui, ten thousand years; with several other Titles full of Grandeur and Majesty, which I omit for fear of being tedious. So that 'tis the same thing to say Son of Heaven, or ten thousand Years, or Palace Royal, as to say King or Emperour: Yet notwithstanding all these idle flatteries, this Prince is far from being so vain as the King of Monomo­topa, who believes it to be in his Power to com­mand the Sun, the Moon and Stars; or so ambi­tiously Politick as the King of Siam, who knowing by experience that the great River that crosses his Countrey overflows its banks every year at a cer­tain Season, and that it returns again by degrees within a certain time, marches forth in great pomp out of his Palace, to command the Waters to re­tire, and fall down into the Sea. For though the Chineses give these great Titles to their King, and though he suffers them, yet neither he, nor they, at least the learned and more prudent sort, are so unprovided of reason, as to believe him to be the real Son of Heaven: but onely that he is an Adop­ted Son, whom Heaven has made choice of to be Lord of the Empire, for the Government and De­fence of the People. Nevertheless we cannot de­ny but that these Titles demonstrate not a little presumption in those that ascribe, and in him that assumes them. But it is in some measure excusable in a Pagan People, and which inhabit an Empire so spacious, so puissant and so flourishing. So much the rather, for that the King never makes use of [Page 256] them, when he speaks of himself. For in private he onely uses the word Ngo, or I, and which is common to all his Subjects: and when he speaks in publick seated upon his Throne he uses the word Chin, which signifies the same, onely with this difference, that no other Person but himself can make use of it; wherein he is more modest than many of our Princes, who are continually swelling out the Catalogues of their affected Titles with new Additions.

The most part of sovereign Princes create Dukes, Marquisses, and other great Lords, as well as the Emperour of China; but he outvies them in this, that of late days he takes upon him a power of making Gods and Idols. It was formerly a cu­stome in this Empire, that when the King was desirous to recompence the merits of any Illustri­ous person for the great Services which he had done the Kingdom, he built him up after his death a magnificent Palace, where his name was usually set up engraven in Gold, with Titles and Encomi­ums proportionable to his Merits. For example; Somewhat above a thousand years agoe, there was in China a most renowned Captain, who for several years defended the Empire and the People, and restor'd the King and Kingdom to its ancient lustre, after he had wone several famous Victories, with vast labour and toils, with great expence of Blood, and at length the loss of his own Blood, while bravely fighting against the Rebels of his King and Countrey. Therefore in acknowledg­ment of so much fidelity and so many heroick acti­ons, the Emperour resolv'd after his death to keep up that honour which he had so well preserv'd in his life-time. To which purpose he built him a magnificent Temple, wherein he put his Statue, [Page 257] and declar'd him Emperour of all China. This valiant Captain and several others of equal vertue are now ador'd, as Pagods or Deities, by the King and all the Chineses, who forgetting that the In­tention of their Ancestours was onely to honour vertuous persons, and to excite and encourage others by their example to be valiant and faithfull, lost by degrees the knowledge of what they for­merly had obtain'd, that there was but one onely God, and plung'd themselves headlong into Idola­try. At present the Kings assume to themselves a privilege to deisie whom they please, as it was an­ciently the custome of the Senate of Rome; of which I shall here produce two instances that me­rit observation. When Father Matthew Ricci first enter'd into China, it was govern'd by the Empe­rour Van Lie, whose Reign which lasted eight and forty years was no less happy for the Kingdom, which he all along maintain'd in peace and plenty, than he himself was unfortunate in the Government of his Family. For he made choice for Tutor to the Prince who was heir to the Crown, of a Colao or Counsellor of State▪ a person of great Policy and great Learning, whose name was Ch [...] K [...] Che [...]. This person abusing the easie freedom which he had of entring into the Palace, which his great Reputation and Dignity allow'd him, insinuated himself into that Familiarity with the Emperour's Mother, that she abandon'd her self entirely to the lust of that great Officer; which when the Emperour came to understand, he forthwith put him to death. As for the Lady, she laying deeply to heart the asfront, and death of the Colao, and fearing the same destiny her self, within a few days fell sick and dy'd. But then the Emperour in some measure to repair the Reputation of his Mo­ther [Page 258] by giving her Honours more than ordinary, solemnly declar'd that she was Kieu Lien pu sa, that is to say, a Goddess of nine Flowers; and erected her Temples over the whole Empire, where she is ador'd under this Title, as the Curti­san Flora was honour'd among the Romans for the Goddess of Flowers. After the death of this Co­lao, the Mandarins advis'd the Emperour to burn the Commentaries which he had made upon the Books compos'd by Cum su sius: but he answer'd them with his wonted prudence, that he onely punish'd his evil deeds, and not the good Works which he had made for the Instruction of the Prince and the whole Empire. In short, that Commentary is the most excellent Piece which the Chineses have upon that Subject. It is full of Mo­ral Discourses well handl'd; full of solid Maxims and Arguments; and of clear and true Decisions of many difficult Controversies: and for those reasons it is a Book which our Fathers who have acquir'd the Knowledge of the Language study very much.

It is about four hundred years ago, that a Bon­ze of the Sect of those that never shave their heads, yet marry, by the Chineses call'd Tao Su, so insinuated himself into the Affection of the Prince then reigning, by means of his Skill in Chymistry, and after that by his Magick Arts, and other Diabolical Inventions, that he not onely esteem'd him as one that was more than a Man during his life, but also after his Death declar'd him God and Lord of Heaven, of the Sun, the Moon and Stars. By these two examples it is evi­dent, how great the Ignorance of the People is, to believe that the Emperour has a power to make an Almighty God of a feeble miserable Man; and [Page 259] to what an excess the Flattery of the Learned ex­tends it self, who not only approve, but perswade the King to Actions so contrary to all manner of Reason. Which gives us an opportunity to con­vince them with the greatest ease in the World by this Dilemma. Either the King is more powerfull than this Pagod, or this Deity; or this Pagod is more powerfull than the King. If they say that the King is more powerfull, How comes it then to pass, say we, that the King throws himself upon his Knees before the Pagod, and adores him by bowing his head to the Earth? Why does he of­fer him Incense? Why does he implore of him long life for himself, and peace for his Kingdom, with several other blessings? I [...] they say, as usual­they do, that the Pagod is more powerfull, then we answer them thus. This Power cannot pro­ceed from any other reason, but onely that he is a Pagod. Now it is the King that makes the Pagod; and therefore the King is more powerfull than He. And to let them see that the Pagod has no Power, we ask them whether the King can grant them▪ long Life, Health, Children, &c. They an­swer that he is so far from being able to grant these blessings to them, that he cannot bestow them up­on himself. Which being really so, we reply, that seeing the Pagod derives all the Power he has from the King, and that the King cannot give him that Power which he has not himself, as you your selves confess; it follows evidently that the Pagod has no Power at all. They understand the force of reason well enough, and some of them abandon their Errours to embrace the Truth▪ but for the most part they answer with a great deal of Civi­lity; Tsai lai lim Kiao, we will return another time to hear your Doctrine: Which is the very [Page 260] same answer which the Ar [...]opagites made St. Paul.

We now come to the Revenues of this puissant Monarch, which are pay'd into his Treasures and Magazines every ▪year. There are pav'd into the Treasury every year, eighteen Millions and six hundr'd thousand Crowns in Silver, not including his Tolls and Customs upon what are bought and sold over the whole Empire, nor the profit of some Millions which the King lends at excessive Interest, nor the Revenues of his Crown Lands, his Woods and Gardens which are very great. Nor the Money which comes by Con [...]scations which happen every day in that Court, and the Sales of Goods immoveable consiscated for High Treason, and leavy'd upon the Estates of Rebels, Robbers of the King's Money, or that robb the People of a thousand Crowns and upward, or that are convicted of hainous Crimes, or commit great Miscarriages in the Exercise of their Trusts; or in several other Cases where the Avarice of the Chief Ministers resolve to have a pretence to despoyle their Inferiours. There are pay'd into the Trea­sury under the Name of the Queens Revenues, eighteen hunder'd twenty three thousand nine hunder'd sixty two Crowns.

  • Into the Magazines of the Court are carry'd every year, forty three Millions three hunder'd twenty eight thousand eight hunder'd thirty four Sacks of Rice and Wheat.
  • 2. Thirteen hunder'd and fifteen thousand nine hunder'd thirty seven Loaves of Salt; each Loaf weighing fifty Pound.
  • 3. Two hunder'd fifty eight Pound of very [...]ine Vermillion.
  • [Page 261]4. Fourscore and fourteen thousand seven hun­der'd thirty seven Pound of Varnish.
  • 5. Thirty eight thousand five hunder'd and fifty Pound of dry'd Fruits, as Raisons, Figgs, Wall­nuts, Chestnuts, &c.
  • Into the King's Wardrobes are brought sixteen hunder'd fifty five thousand four hunder'd thirty two Pounds of Pieces of Silk of several Colours, as Velvets, Sattins, Damasks and other sorts, not in­cluding the Royal habits which are brought in the Barks of which we have already spoken.
  • 2. Four hunder'd seventy six thousand two hun­der'd and seventy Pieces of slight Silks, such as the Chineses wear in Summer.
  • 3. Two hunder'd seventy two thousand nine hunder'd and three Pounds of Raw Silk.
  • 4. Three hunder'd fourscore and sixteen thou­sand four hunder'd and fourscore Pieces of Cotton Cloath.
  • 5. Four hunder'd sixty four thousand two hun­der'd and seventeen Pounds of Cotton.
  • 6. Fifty sixty thousand two hunder'd and four­score Pieces of [...]axen Cloath.
  • Lastly, Twenty one thousand four hunder'd and seventy Sacks of Beans for the King's Horses in­stead of Oats. And two Millions five hunder'd fourscore and eighteen thousand, five hunder'd fourscore and three Bottles of Straw, every Bottle weighing fifteen Pound. These two last Propor­tions were so order'd under the Chinese Kings, but at present they are advanc'd to treble, nay quadruple the Quantity, by reason of the great Number of Horses which the Tartars keep▪

[Page 262]Besides these things which I took out of the Chinese Authour already quoted, there are several other sorts of Provision brought to Court, as the Particular duty's of Tenants and Proprietours of Lands; as Oxen, Sheep, Pigs, Geese, Ducks, Hens and other Domestick Fowl: Also Venison o [...] wild Flesh, as Bears, Deer, Hares, Rabbets, Pheasants, Partridges, with other land and water Fowl: Fish, as Barbels, Trouts very large, and several other sorts, all excellent in their Kinds, of which I cannot give the Names in Portuguese. All sorts of Garden herbs, as green and fresh in the middle of Winter, which is very sharp in that Court, as in the midst of Spring. Wherein we must acknowledge the wonderfull Industry of that Nation: For they preserve all those sorts of Plants in places prepar'd on purpose, or else by the means of subterraneal Ovens, which they warm to what degree of heat they please: So that you cannot believe it to be an Artificial heat un­less you see it. They also bring Oyl, Butter, Vi­negar, and all sorts of Spice; precious Wines from all parts and various Compositions of Waters: Meal, Bread, March-panes, and Biskets of several sorts: Together with all manner of Fruit which we have in Europe, Melons, Cucumbers, Grapes, Cherries, Peaches, Pears, Apples, and many other sorts which we have not. I cannot tell the pre­cise quantity of these things, which are daily brought to the Court; however I can safely say, there is such an abundance of every thing that it is almost incredible, and would be more surprizing, were I able to give you a just Account. And therefore to give the Reader an Idea of the Plenty I have seen, I shall onely add this short Relation.

[Page 263]Upon the eighth of December 1669. the King order'd three Mandarins to come and burn In­cense before the Tomb of Father Iohn Adam, on purpose to do him a particular Honour; and far­ther order'd three hunder'd twenty five Crowns to be given to the three Fathers then at Court of which I was one, to defray the Charges of his Funeral. Several Mandarins that were our friends, and the greatest part of the Christians of Pekim invited themselves to the Ceremony which was very neat and exactly perform'd; but that is not to my purpose. The next day we went accord­ing to Custom, to return our humble Thanks to the Emperour for so extraordinary a favour. Which when we had done; his Majesty sent a Messenger to us to bid us stay, for that he had something more to say to us. We waited above an hour, and about three a Clock in the Afternoon we were carry'd into the Royal Hall, where the Empe­rour was seated in his Throne, and commanded us to seat our selves at the first Table of the third Rank on the Right side. We obey'd; and then most of the Principal Officers that reside in the Court, among which many were of the Blood Royal, took their places according to their de­grees. There were two hunder'd and fifty Ta­bles, and upon every one four and twenty Silver Plates about a hands breadth and a half in Diame­ter, set one above another after the manner of the Tartars; that is to say, one upon the Table, the rest at a distance one from another in the Air, their Edges being supported by the Edges of the first; all full of Viands, and several sorts of Fruits and Comfitures, but without any Potages. At the beginning of the Feast the Emperour sent us from his own Table, two Plates of Gold as big [Page 264] as the Silver ones, full of Preserves and excellent­ly tasted Fruits. About the middle of the Repast, he sent us another Plate of Gold, wherein were twenty Apples of the largest and best in the King­dom, call'd by the Name of Pin quo. At the end of the Feast he sent us another Plate full of Pears, and those Apples of Gold, of which we have spo­ken in another Place. The favour which the Em­perour did us at that time, seem'd to us surprizing­ly extraordinary; as it did to all those that heard the Relation of it: but it was no more than what was usual, to all the rest that were invited; in re­gard they are feasted by the King in the same manner every day. Not but that at other times upon certain occasions of publick rejoycing he treats much more magnificently all the Great Lords and Mandarins of the Court, which are a­bout five thousand. By which the Reader may readily conjecture at the Grandeur and Puissance of this Emperour; and that the abundance of Provisions which is brought continually to the Court, is far beyond the Relation which I have made.

Notes upon the sixteenth Chapter.

Father Magaillans had already spo­ken of the three Opinions of the Chine­ses Pag. 250. concerning the Antiquity of China. And I make no question but that if he had liv'd to finish this Work, he would have put all that he says of it in the same Chapter. However I did not think it proper for me to pare off any thing from this Chapter; as well for that I would not make an Alteration so considera­ble, as for that the Authour has inserted several new and [...] Circumstances, and for that the matter is [Page 265] also of great moment. Besides that this Chapter be­ing compos'd in the year 1669. serves for a Confirma­tion of the third, which F. Magaillans had written in the year before; as may be seen by the difference of the dates which he sets down in this Work.

CHAP. XVII. A Desoription of the City of Pe Kim: Of the Walls that enclose the Emperour's Palace: And the form of the principal Houses of China.

THE City or Court of Pe Kim is seated in a Plain. It forms a vast Square; each of the Sides of which is twelve Chinese Furlongs in length, which make about three Italian Miles, or near a Portugal League. It has nine Gates; three upon the South Side, and two upon each of the other Sides: Not twelve Gates, according to the Relati­on of F. Martini in his Atlas p. 29. wherein he seems to have follow'd M. Polo. l. 2. c. 7. This City is now inhabited by the Tartars and their Troops divided into eight Quarters or Banners, as they call 'em. But in regard that under the preceding Kings the Inhabitants were so multi­ply'd that the Capital was not sufficient to contain them, nor the nine Suburbs answering to the nine Gates; which if they are not every one a great City, are at least as big as many great Boroughs; there was a new City built, of a square form like the Old one; of which each of the Sides is six Chi­nese Furlongs, or an Italian Mile and a half in [Page 266] length, having the North Side joyning to the South Side of the Old City. It has seven Gates and every one a Suburb well peopled; more espe­cially that which looks toward the West; for that is the Side where all that come from all Parts of the Empire enter into the Capital City. Both the one and the other City is divided into five Quarters, or Jurisdictions, as we have said in the fourteenth Chapter. The principal Streets, some run from the North to the South, others from the East to the West. But they are all so streight, so long, so broad and so well proportion'd, that it is easie to see they were mark'd out with a line, and not built by hap hazard, as in our Cities of Eu­rope. The little Streets run all from the East to the West, and divide all the Space between the great Streets into equal and proportionable Islands. Both the one and the other are known by their particular Names, as the Street of the King's Kin­dred, the White Tower-street, the Iron Lyons-street, the Fish-street, the Aquavity-street, and so of the rest. There is a Book to be sold that speaks of the Names and Situation of the Streets, which serves for the use of the Lacquies that attend upon the Mandarins in their Visits, and to their Tribunals, and carry their Presents, their Letters, and their Orders to several Parts of the City and Empire. For they are continually sending a great Number all over the Kingdom. Whence comes that Pro­verb so often in the Mouths of the Chineses, that the Provinces send Mandarins to Pe Kim, and Pe Kim in exchange sends them none but Lacquies and Messengers. And indeed it is a rare thing to meet with a Mandarin who is a Native of that City. The fairest of all the Streets is that which is call'd Cham gan kiai, or the Street of perpetual [Page 267] Repose. It runs from East to West, bounded on the North side by the Walls of the King's Palace, and upon the South side by several Tribunals, and Palaces of great Lords. It is so spacious, that it is about thirty Fathoms broad; and so famous­ly known, that the Learned in their writings make use of it to signifie the whole City, taking a part for the whole. For it is the same thing to say, such a one lives in the Street of perpetual repose, as to say he lives at Pe Kim. If the Hou­ses were but high, and built to the Street like ours, the City would shew much more stately. But they are all low Buildings, to shew the respect which they have to the King's Palace. Yet there are some Palaces that belong to the great Lords, which are lofty and magnificent. But they are built backward, so that you see nothing to the Street but a great Gate, which has houses on each Side, inhabited by their Domesticks or by Merchants and handycraft Tradesmen. However this is very convenient for publick convenience: For in our Cities a great part of the Streets is ta­ken up by Houses of Noble Men, so that the In­habitants are forc'd to go a great way to Market. Whereas at Pe Kim, and in all the other Cities of China, there is every thing to be sold at your Door for entertainment, subsistance or pleasure. For these little Houses are as so many Magazines or Markets, Shops and Taverns. But for the Multitude of People, so numerous it is, that I dare not presume to utter it, nor do I know how to make it understood. All the Streets both of the old and new City are crowded with People, as well the small Streets as the great, as well those at the farther ends as those in the hart of the Place. The Throng is every where so great, that [Page 268] there is nothing to compare with it but the Fairs and Processions of Europe.

The Emperour's Palace is seated in the midst of this great City, and fronts toward the South, ac­cording to the Custom of that Empire, where you shall rarely see a City, Palace or House of any great Person which does not face that Point of the Compass▪ It is surrounded with a double en­closure of walls, one within the other, in form of a long Square. The outward Enclosure is a Wall of an extraordinary height and thickness, plaister'd both within and without with red Mor­ter, and cover'd with a small Roof of varnished Bricks of a yellow Gold Colour, lay'd with great Art and Agreement. The length of it from the South to the North Gate is eight Chinese Furlongs, or two Italian Miles. This Enclosure has four Gates, one in the middle of each Side; and every Gate compos'd of three Portals of which the mid­dlemost is always kept shut, and never open'd but onely for the King. The rest are always o­pen to those that go in and out of the Palace from break of day, till the Bell rings for clea [...]ing the Palace, except the South Gates, which are never but half open, unless the King goes out or in. In the time of the Chinese Kings, there was a guard of thirty Souldiers with their Captain, and ten Eunuchs at each Portal; but at present, not above twenty Tartars with their Officer. By which it is apparent that Alvaro Semedo and Mar­tini, who affirm the Guard of every Gate to con­sist of three thousand Men, and five Elephants was a great Piece of Misinformation; while they took the whole for a part. For there is indeed a Guard of three thousand Men in all, which being distributed into Companys and Squadrons, in [Page 269] their turns and so many days in a Month, guard the Gates of the City and of the Palace where there are several others besides those we have men­tion'd, and several Towers that environ the inner Wall. As for the Elephants, they never stand at the Gates, but in their Stables or rather in their Palace. For they are lodg'd in a spacious Court, in the middle of which there is a large and fair Room, where they are kept in the Summer; but in the Winter they put them into little Stalls by themselves, the Pavements of which are heated with Stoves: with which those Creatures could never endure the Rigour of the Winter in that Climate, where many times they die through the Negligence of those that look after them. Nor are there above five or six which were brought from the Province of Tun nan. They never bring them out of their Stables but when the King goes forth in State in order to some publick Solemni­ty, as to his Sacrifices or the like. All manner of Entrance within these Gates is forbid to the Bon­zes of Pagods, to the Blind, the Lame, the Maim'd, to Beggars, such as have Scars and Wens upon their Faces, or have their Ears or Moses cut, and in a word to all those that have any considerable Deformity.

The inner Wall which immediately encompas­ses the Palace is extremely high and thick, built of large Brick all equal, and embollish'd with Bat­tlements well contriv'd. It extends from the North to the South six Furlongs or▪ an Italian Mile and a half, a Furlong and a half in breadth, and fifteen Furlongs or five Miles wanting a Quarter in Circumference. It has four Gates with large Vaults and Arches; those to the South and North being three­fold, like the Gates of the first Enclo­sure, [Page 270] those upon the Sides single. Upon these Gates and upon the four Angles of the Wall eight Towers, or rather eight Halls of an extra­ordinary Bigness, and very good Workmanship, advance themsemselves, varnish'd within with a very beautifull red, adorn'd with Flowers of Gold, and cover'd with Tiles varnish'd with yellow▪ Du­ring the Reign of the Chinese Kings, twenty Eu­nuchs kept guard at each of these Gates. But at present the Tartars have plac'd in their Rooms forty Souldiers with two Officers. All the Mandarins of the Tribunals within the Palace, and all the Officers of the King's Houshold are al­low'd Entrance within this Wall. But all others are severely prohibited, unless they shew a little Table of Wood or Ivory, wherein their Names and the Place where they serve be set down, with the Seal of the Mandarin to whom they be­long. This second Wall is environ'd with a deep and large Mote lin'd with free Stone, and full of large and excellent Fish. Every Gate has a Draw-Bridge to lay over the Mote, the South Gate ex­cepted, where the Draw bridge lies onely over one Arch.

In the wide Space that separates the two Walls there are several separate Palaces, some round, others square, which are all call'd by their proper Names conformable to the uses and divertisements for which they were design'd; withall so spacious, so rich, and so magnificently adorn'd as might well beseem not onely many Princes but some Kings of Europe.

In the same Space, upon the Eastern side, and closely by the Wall, runs a River, over which are built several Bridges, very fair Structures, and all of Marble except the Arch in the middle▪ [Page 271] where there lies a Draw-bridge: and all the other Bridges, of which there are a great Number in the Palace, are no less beautifull and built of the same Materials. On the West side where the Space is much more large, there is a Lake very full of Fish, five Furlongs or an Italian Mile and a quarter, and made in the form of a Base-viol. Where it is narrowest it is to be cross'd over a very beautifull Bridge which answers to the Gates of the Walls, at the Ends of which stand two Triumphal Arches of three Arches a Piece: high rais'd, majestick and most excellent Workmanship▪ This Lake of which M. Polo makes mention, l. 2. c. 6. is environ'd with little Palaces or Houses of Plea­sure, built partly in the Water, and part up the Land. The middle of the Lake being full of very beautifull Barges for the King's Use when he has a mind to fish, or to be row'd about the Lake. The remainder of the two East and West Spaces, which is not taken up by the Lake or the separate Pala­ces, is divided into large and well proportion'd Streets inhabited by the Officers, and Artificers that belong to the King's Palace. In the times of the preceding Kings those Streets cantain'd, be­sides, ten thousand Eunuchs; but they who reign at present have put in their Rooms Tartars and Chineses of the Province of Leao, who are look [...] upon as Tartars by a peculiar favour. Thus much as to the outside of the Palace; we are now to speak of the inside.

Therefore for the better understanding of that which follows, there are two things to be observ'd. The first, that all the Cities and all the Palaces of the King, the Great Lords, the Mandarins and wealthy Persons are so built, that the Gates and Principal Apartments look toward the [Page 272] South. The second, that whereas we build our Lodgings one Story above another, the Chineses build upon the same Level one within another; so that we possess the Air and they the Earth. For example, the great Gate that fronts the South, stands toward the Street with little Houses on both sides, and this is the first Apartment. Then you enter into a fine Court, and at the End of that stands another Gate, and there's the second Apart­ment. Behind that lies a more spacious Court, joyning to a great Hall appointed for the recepti­on of Strangers. Behind that lies a third Court, at the End of which is a fourth Apartment, where the Master of the House resides: behind which lies a fifth Court and a fifth Apartment, where the Master lays his Jewels, his most costly Furniture and his Lumber. Beyond there is a Garden, and at the End of that a sixth Apartment, with a lit­tle Door in the Middle, which is never open'd but upon occasion or necessity. Upon the East and West sides of these Courts are buildings of meaner Value, which serve for Cellars, Larders, Store­houses, and other Offices belonging to the Family: Onely in the Court adjoyning to the great Gate, live the Domestick Servants with their Wives and Children. Thus the Houses of the Mandarins and wealthy Persons are usually contriv'd: But the Palaces of the great Lords take up more Ground, and have more Rooms, larger and higher according to their Dignity: all things being so well regulated in China, that neither the Manda­rins nor great Lords can build their Houses but conformable to what is ordain'd by the Law.

Notes upon the seventeenth Chapter.

This Chapter is so much the more curious, because it contains a very large Description of the Capital Ci­ty of China, and the spacious Palace of the Emperour. All the other Relations without exception, speak very little of it, and generally that very confusedly too▪ but that's not a thing to be wonder'd at. For the Em­bassadours live always retir'd in the Palaces appointed for their Reception: and as for the Missionaries they never saw Pe kim, unless it were onely passing through it, or when they were carry'd Prisoners thither in the last Persecution. So that unless it were Father Adam, Father Ferdinand, Verbrest, and F. Magaillans, there were none that could instruct us perfectly of the Particulars of this great City: and indeed the latter is the onely Person who has given us a Description of it, after a Residence in those parts of near five and twen­ty years. Nevertheless, for the Readers better satis­faction, and to furnish him with a more distinct Idea of the Place I thought fit to add to the Description a Ground-plot or Draught of the City of Pe kim and the Emperour's Palace; which I have drawn out with a great deal of care and pains, not putting in any thing for which I had not a sufficient warrant from the Relati­on of our Authour, as may be seen by this Translation and the following Notes. You will find also tha [...] though this Description be very curious, yet it would have been more perfect had it had a more exact Draught of the City and Emperour's Palace in general, and more Draughts and particular Designs of several Pa­laces, as w [...]ll belonging to the Emperour as to the great Lords, as also of the Temples, Triumphal Arches and Bridges, &c. But we may be well cement with this Relation till the [...] who are gone to China by [Page 274] the King's Command, shall be able to send us something more compleat. In the mean time we have not mark'd down above seventy Streets, for that they being all of one Form and Situation, are sufficient to give us an Idea of this spacious City; besides that the Relation does not ascertain the Number; and for that the small­ness of the Draught would not allow us to set down any more.

Every side of the City is twelve Chinese Furlongs in Length, &c.Pag. 265.

Father Martini allows to the Walls of the City no more than the Compass of forty Chinese Furlongs. But we are rather to believe Father Magaillans, who could not choose but be better inform'd, and makes 'em forty eight Furlongs in Circuit. Father Martini tells us also that the Walls were built by the Directions of the Emperour Tai Sungus, the third of the Family of Tai mim, who began his Reign in the year 1404. Father Couplet in his Chronology calls this Emperour Chim Su, or Yum Io; and says moreover that he did not translate the Seat of the Empire from Nam Kim to Pe kim till the seventh year of his Reign, or the year, 1411.

It has nine Gates, and not twelve as Father Martini tells us. Pag. 265.

What our Authour says here concerning the Number of the Gates is confirm'd by Peter Semedo, Father Adam Schall, and Father Couplet in his Chronolo­ [...], who all agree that there are but nine Gates belong­ing to the City of Pe kim

[Page 275] They built a new square City of which every Side is six Chinese Fur­longs, Pag. 265. &c.

It has seven Gates, and every Gate opens into a Suburb, &c.

Here I meet with three Difficulties that very much puzzle me; the first, as to the Largeness of the new City; the second in reference to the Situation of the Gates: and the third, as to the Number of the Sub­urbs of the two Cities.

Father Magaillans tells us that the new City is square, and that each side is six Furlongs in length. Which if it were so, the new City would be twenty four Chinese Furlongs in Circumference; and the Ground­plot would be but a fourth part in proportion to that of the other City; that is to say, that it would not take up above a fourth part of the Ground which the Old City does, which to me seems too small for two Reasons. The first, because that Father Adam tells us, that af­ter the Conquest of China, the Tartars reserv'd the old City for themselves, and constrain'd all the Chine­ses to retire into the ne [...] ▪ which being so small could never be capable to contain them▪ [...] [...]h the rather, because he adds that it was in good pa [...] inhabited in the Time of the Chinese Emperours. Secondly, because the same Father positively tells us, that the new City from the East to the [...] [...]er by [...]ur Furlongs than the old one: but that [...] [...]he North to the South it is not above half [...] [...]ad as the [...] City [...] ▪ so it follows that the new City could not be above [...] Furlongs broad, as F. Magaillans relates; but it would be sixteen Furlongs in length, and forty four in cir­cumference. Now Father Adam is a Testimony of great Authority, as well as [...]Magaillans▪ And [Page 276] therefore to reconcile them both together we must of ne­cessity conclude, that F. Magaillans speaks onely of the breadth of the new City or the sides that look toward the East and West, which are not full out six Furlongs in length. Nevertheless, untill we have better Informa­tion, I do not think it behoves us to reject the Descrip­tion, of F. Magaillans, and therefore in the Draught I have made the new City perfectly square, leaving to eve­ry Man his liberty to adhere to which Opinion he pleases, According to these Measures the Circuit of the Ancient [...] Pe kim, of twelve Furlongs to the League of twenty Leagues to the Degree [...] and not twelve and a [...], as we have already agreed it) would amount [...] Leagues or forty eight Furlongs; and the Ground [...] would [...] up a hunder'd forty four Furlongs▪ And the new City according to F. Magaillans would [...]ke up a fourth Part of the old one, or thirty six square Furlongs, and both together a hunder'd and fourscore square Furlongs.

According to Father Adam the new City would be [...] Furlongs in Circuit, the Ground-pl [...]t fourscore [...] Furlongs, and both together a hunder'd [...] Furlongs square.

[...] of the Holland Embassie, makes the [...] of both the Cities of Pe kim to be five Leagues [...] to a Degree; which agrees with the Computa­ [...] [...] Magaillans, who allows the Circuit of both [...], but according to the Measures of [...] Adam, [...] are sixty eight Furlongs in Circumfe­ [...], [...] Leagues and two thirds.

[...] we [...]pare Pe kim with some other Cities, [...] both Cities taken together, are much [...] [...] or Ki [...]m nan; though according to [...], [...] and Trigaut they are much better [...] Semedo and Trigaut make Nan kim to be [...] [...], which amount to se [...]ty [Page 277] two Furlongs, and make an Area of three hunder'd and fourscore Furlongs square; so that the two Cities of Pe kim, according to the Opinion of Father Adam, not containing above two hunder'd and forty Furlongs, by consequence take up not above three fourths of the Ground enclos'd within the first Circuit of Nan kim. For I do not speak of the second, which by the report of Authours, does not form an entire Enclosure, but consists onely of some Entrenchments to secure the City where the avenues are most easie of access.

The Second difficulty is about the Situation of the seven Gates which our Authour gives the new City. The Authour of the Holland Embassie says, that when you enter in at the South Gate, you are half an hour be­fore you come to the second Enclosure of the City, that is, to the South Walls of the Ancient City. Which space of half an hour in crossing the new City, agrees with the breadth which F Adam, and F. Magaillans allow it. He goes on, and says that the second Enclo­sure is fortify'd with a broad M [...]e full of River Water. Which circumstance sh [...]ws us, that the new City has no other Wall on the North side, th [...] that of the old City, from which it is onely separated by a Mote. So that all the Relations make [...] but of [...] Enclosures which you are to cross before you c [...]me to the Palace. Whence that it seems the [...] Gates of the old City ought to joy [...] to the new City; which [...] is difficult to apprehend, considering the length [...]. Magaillans seems to g [...]ve it▪ but very easie to under­stand according to F. Adam's Mea [...]ure. And there­fore to avoid confusion, I have not joyn'd the new City immediately to the old one, as I am [...] to [...] ought to have d [...]ne. Which being gran [...]d, my Opini­on is, that it ought to have three Gates [...] side to answer the three Gates of the old City; [...] the East side, and an [...]ther upon the [...], [...] [Page 278] Authour in that Paragraph says, that every Gate leads to a particular Suburb well peopl'd; more especially that which looks toward the West. Now he had not ex­plain'd himself right if there be more than one Gate and one Suburb on the West side. And thus there remain but two Gates, which I have plac'd on the South side; and I do not expect to meet with any thing more exact, till we have further News from China.

The third thing that puzzles me is the great Num­ber of Suburbs belonging to the two Cities: Our Au­thour says, that every Gate leads to its Suburb. So then as there are sixteen Gates, nine in the old, and seven belonging to the new City, there must also be sixteen Suburbs. But this seems to be impossible, by reason that according to our Authour and other Rela­tions, the North side of the new City joyns to the South side of the old, and you enter out of the first into the second at three Gates, as Father Adam says expresly in these words, Tribus portis ab anteriorem Urbem est pervia. Consequently the southern Gates of the old City can have no Suburbs, no more than the nor­thern Gates of the new, especially if they are onely separated by a Mote. So then according to this suppo­sition the old City can have but four Suburbs, the new City but two, and both together but six. Or if you will have the seven Gates of the new City to be separated, and distant from the Gates of the old City, then there will be thirteen Suburbs in all, and not sixteen. Which makes me think our Authour meant that every separate Gate that lead into the Countrey, had a Suburb.

Now in regard that neither our Authour nor any Relation speaks exactly of the Fortifications of this great City; it will not be amiss to set down here what I have collected from Trigault, Semedo, Martini, Adam, and out of the Holland Embassie. The old Town is environ'd with strong Walls, defended by [Page 279] several Towers plac'd a Stones throw one from another. F. Adam numbers the Towers to be three hunder'd and sixty, which make a hunder'd fourscore and two Foot of Paris. He says moreover, that among these Towers, at the distance of every two Furlongs, there is one of a larger Bulk, which might be easily made, a Bastion, by adding the Point or two Faces of the Bastion, which are wanting. The whole Cir­cuit of the City is forty eight Furlongs; whence it follows, that there are twenty four great Towers, which would make twenty four Bastions, which would be distant one from the other about four hunder'd and fifty Fathoms, or five hunder'd and forty Geometrical paces. The Wall is properly a Rampart consisting of two Brick walls, the Bottom of which is of large free Stone, according to Trigaut and Martini; and the Spaces between are fill'd up with Earth, after the manner of our strong Forts in Europe. F. Adam says that the Rampart is fifty Cubits or Chinese foot high; that is to say, seven Fathom, and seven and 7/24, or forty three Foot and three Quarters: and that the thickness of it is twenty four Cubits or Chinese Feet, that is to say, three Fathoms and a half, or twenty one Foot. All the old Wall is surrounded with a deep and large Mote full of Water; and the Rampart and Towers are furnish'd with all sorts of Armes necessary for their defence according to the Custom of the Coun­trey. Moreover the Relation of the Dutch Embassie, observes that there was a large Portcullis belonging to the Gate, through which the Embassadours enter'd.

It is so spacious that it is above thirty Fathom broad. Pag. 267.

It is in the Original, above twenty Lances, accor­ding to the Portugueze way of speaking, but I have [Page 280] translated it twenty fathom, allowing nine foot to the Spanish Lances which are somewhat longer than ours.

Notes for the better understanding the Plane or Draught of the City of Pe kim.

There are the same Marks upon the Draugh [...]

  • A. The Walls of Pe kim which make a perfect Square of twelve Furlongs, or about a League every way, and forty eight Furlongs, or near four Leagues in Circumference. These Walls are double with a Platform of Earth between, and form a Rampart of seven Fathom and near ⅓ high▪ and three Fathom and a half thi [...]. They are guarded by three hunder'd and [...] square Towers, and surrounded with a Mote full of Water, which is not mark'd in the Draught because the [...] says nothing of it.
  • B The Gates of the City, nine in Number, three on the South, and two on each of the other Sides. They are plac'd very near where they ought to stand, because the Authour d [...]s not say where they stand, but onely in the middle of the South side.
  • C. The Streets of the City are all streight and drawn [...]t by a li [...]e, with this difference, that those which run from North to South are all very large; but those that run from East to West are all narrow.
  • D a. The first enclosure of the Palace, which forms [...] long Squ [...] [...]wo Miles in length, a Mile broad, and six Miles [...] two Leagues of twenty to a Degree in [...] ▪ This [...] [...]ll is very h [...]gh and very thi [...]k. O [...] [...] of the Wall runs a Ri [...]er, which accord­ing to the [...] ▪ makes sev [...]l Turnings and [...] the Palace. But in regard they do not mark the C [...]urse of the stream, n [...] more tha [...] [...]ur [...], we have been forc'd to mark it [...] in a [...]. On the West side there [...] [...] [...] five [Page 281] Furlongs or a thousand one hunder'd thirty seven Fa­thoms and a half in length, with a Bridge over the nar­rowest part. This Lake represents the form of a Base­viol, which we have imitated as near as we could.
  • D b. The second Enclosure of the Palace, which contains several particular Palaces belonging to the Emperour.
  • D c. The third Enclosure of the Palace, which on two Sides bounds the Row of several Apartments of the Emperour's grand Palace. The Emperour's Apart­ments which the Authour mentions to the Number of Twenty, and which he describes beginning from the Meridional and Principal Gate of the City.
  • E. The Meridional and Principal Gate of the City, very large and magnificent.
  • F. The first Street you meet with as you enter the City at the South Gate.
  • G. A Square Piazza environ'd with a Balustrade Marble.
  • H. The second Street adorn'd with two Triumphal Arches, between which no Person is permitted to pas [...] either in a Sedan or Horse-back, [...]ut of respect to the Emperour's Palace.

CHAP. XVIII. Of the twenty Apartments belonging to the Em­perour's Palace.

TO the Emperour's Palace there belong twenty Apartments, which run on in a stereight Line from North to South But fo [...] the better apprehending their Situation, you are to understand, that between the outward Enclo­sure of the Palace and the South Wall, where [Page 282] stands the Principal Gate of the City, there is a large Space belonging to the Palace, and contriv'd after the following manner. When you enter at the Gate of the City, you meet with a large and fair Street, which extends it self the full length of the City Wall, which after you have gone thorough, you enter into a square Piazza environ'd with a Balustrade of Marble; beyond this there is a second Street adorn'd on each Side with two Tri­umphal Arches, into which you are not permitted to go neither in a Sedan, nor a Horse-back; but you must alight at the first Triumphal Arch, and walk a foot beyond the second. For to do other­wise would be a breach of that respect which is due to the King's first Apartment, which stands on the other side of the Street at an equal dis­tance between the two Arches. This first Apart­ment is call'd Tai cim muen, or the Portal of great Purity. It consists of three great Gates with three Vaults very long and large, above which is a very fair Hall. These Gates are never open'd but when the King himself goes out of Town. Be­yond this first Apartment, there is a large and vast Court adorn'd on both sides with Portico's and Columns supported by two hunder'd Pillars, which being seen from the Gate afford a very large and pleasing Perspective. This Court is [...]wo Bow-shoots broad, and long above twice Musquet-shot; and is bounded on the North side by the famous Street of Perpetual Repose, which runs along athwart the two Gates which are to be seen on both sides. These Gates derive their Name from the Streets wherein they are built. For the first is call'd the Oriental Gate of the Street of Perpetual Repose, and the other the Wes­tern Gate of the same Street. All that I have [Page 283] hitherto describ'd is without the two Enclosures of the Palace, and onely serves for a Portico or Avenue, but so majestical that it challenges an awfull respect. Thence going on from North to South, you see in the middle of the Exteriour wall, which as I have said, bounds the Street of Perpetual Repose on the North side, the second Apartment and the second Portal, which ought to be rather call'd the first, because all that go to the Palace are oblig'd to go through it. It is com­pos'd of five Gates, three great ones which never open but for the King, and two small ones on each side, advanc'd at the bottom about the height of a step above the level Ground, through which all that go in and out must pass, even the great Lords themselves. Above these Gates, as above all the rest, stands a great Hall, adorn'd with a great Number of Columns with Bases and Chap­ters guilded; and painted on the outside with Ver­million Varnish, withinside with a Varnish of Gold and Azure. Behind this Apartment lies a Court incomparably more spacious than the former, on the East and West sides fill'd up with Halls and Chambers that have their Portico's and Galleries, as have all the rest already mention'd. From hence you proceed to the third Apartment, which is call'd the Portal of the Beginning. Behind which there lies another Court, as behind all the rest, that joyns to the fourth Apartment, which they call the Tower or Portal of the South, and which is the first within the inner Wall. This Apartment consists of three vast Arches, and a Hall above them, the Architecture of which is like to that of the third; but the Structure is larger, more lofty, and more majestick. On the two sides it has two Walls built in the form of Galleries, that extend [Page 284] themselves toward the South a full Musquet-shot in length, and at both ends North and South are bounded by four Pa [...]illions or Halls like those in the middle, but much le [...]s. The Roofs are Hex­agonal or sloping six ways, and are beautifi'd at the Top with D [...]ggs of Brass guilded. All which [...]ive Buildings together beget a strange Surprize, causing both Astonishment and Reverence, by means of their Grandeur and their Riches. In the middle of this great middlemost Hall it is where the Drum and the Bell hang up, of which we have spoken in the eighth Chapter. Behind this, [...]ies onother [...] like the former, and the first Apartment call [...]d the supream Porta [...]. To this Apartment belong five large [...]nd majestick Gates, to which you ascend by five Pair of Stairs of thirty steps a piece. But before you come at it, you must cross a deep Mo [...]e full of water over five Bridges that answer to the five Pair of Stairs. Both the one and the other beautifi'd with Parapets Balusters, Columns, Pilasters and square Bases, with Lyons and other Ornaments, all of very fine and very white Marble. So that it is not with­out good reason, that this Apartment cariers the Name of the Supream Portal, as being more mag­nificent and majestick than all the rest. Behind it lies another very spacious Court, garnish'd on both sides with [...]ortico's and Galleries, Halls and other Rooms very Noble, Stately and Rich. This Court j [...]ns to a sixth Apartment, call'd the su­preme Imperial Hall. To which you ascend by five Pair of Stairs; each pair of forty steps, all of very fine Marble and costly Workmanship. The pair in the middle, which the King onely ascends is of an extraordinary breadth; the two pair on each side appointed for the great Lords and Man. [Page 285] darins are not so broad; and the other two which are the narrowest, serve for the Eunuchs and Of­ficers of the King's Houshold. They tell us, that under the Reign of the Chinese Kings, this Hall was one of the wonders of the World for its beau­ty, riches and spaciousness; but that the Robbers that rebell'd during the last Revolutions, burnt it together with a great part of the Palace, when they abandon'd Pe kim, for fear of the Tartars, who like Barbarians as they are, were contented that it should onely in some measure resemble what it was before; yet there is that in it still which serves to fill the Imagination, and to dis­play the Grandeur of the Emperour. In this Hall it is, that the Prince being seated in his Throne, receives the Homages of all his great Lords and all his Mandarins both Learned and Military. Which as it is a very remarkable Ceremony, so it will not be from the purpose to give a Relation of it with all its Circumstances.

So soon as any new Family obtains the Empire, the days are presently appointed for all the Lords and Mandarins to attend and pay their Homages to the Emperour. This new Family of the Tartars have made choice of the first, the fifth, the fifteenth, and twenty fifth of every Moon. And so upon every one of those days, all the great Lords and Mandarins of the Court, to the Number of near five thousand, assemble together in the Halls, the Chambers and Portico's on both sides the Court that lies before the South Gate. They have all Bonnets upon their Heads, and are clad in Robes richly embroider'd with Gold; yet so distinguish'd however, that you may know one from another by the Variety of Beas [...] and Bi [...]ds embroider'd, three [...]orys one above another upon their Bonnets, upon [Page 286] both sides of their Garments, and upon their Breasts, and the diversity of the Figures and Colours of their precious Stones. By break of day the King removes out of his 'leventh Apartment where he makes his Residence, carry'd in a magnificent Se­dan upon the Shoulders of sixteen Eunuchs, and surrounded with several other Persons. Being come into the Hall, he seats himself in a costly Throne rais'd in the middle between six high and massie Pillars, which appear to be such, as they call them, Pillars of fine Gold, though they are onely richly guilt. Then an Eunuch falling upon his Knees before the Door, and raising his voice as loud as he is able, with a slow yet vehement Tone cries out, Ta lui, that is to say, let the Heaven let loose its Thunder. Upon which presently they strike upon the Bell, and beat the great Palace Drum, and at the same time the Kettle-drums, Trumpets, Hoe­boys and Flutes making a confused Noise, of a sudden all the Gates of the Palace are thrown open, except those of the first Apartment or Portal. Then at the same time that this Confusion of Har­mony begins, the Lords and Mandarins prepare to march. First the petty Kings, or great Lords of the Blood-Royal, and the learned Mandarins from that side next the East; and the Lords which are not of the Blood-Royal, and the military Man­darins from that side next the West. Thus they proceed on both sides in good Order, with a slow and equal Pace through passages that lie in a di­rect line pav'd with large Marble Stones, and through the lesser Gates that are next the great ones. Then the great Lords ascend the Stairs, and place themselves according to their Degrees, upon the Platform or open Walk before the great Hall: and the Mandarins as they [Page 287] come forward take their stands in the Court ac­cording to their several Ranks and Qualities, in the Places appointed for every one of the nine Orders, which are mark'd and writ down at the Bottom of certain little Pillars. When they are thus dispos'd on both sides the Court, leaving a void space in the middle where the King uses to pass along, and which is somewhat broader and higher rais'd than the rest of the Court, they turn their Faces one towards another; that is to say, those on the East towards those on the West, and they on the West side toward those on the East; and then the Din of all the Instruments of Mu­sick ceases, and a profound silence ensuing, they keep themselves in a posture of all the Respect and Modesty imaginable. Then the Master of the Cere­monies being upon his Knees upon the middle of the last Pair of Stairs, with a loud and harmonious Voice addresses himself to the King in these words; ‘Most Illustrious and most Puissant Prince, our Sove­reign Lord, all the Princes of the Blood and great Lords, and all the Learned and Military Man­darins are come, and are ready to pay the Ho­mages which they owe to your Majesty.’ Af­ter that he rises, and standing upright upon the West side of the Stairs, he raises his Voice again, and cries Pai pan, or set your selves in Order; at what time they compose their Garments, their Feet, their Hands and Eyes after their manner: then he goes on Cheuen Xin, turn your selves; up­on which they turn in a moment toward the Im­perial Hall. Quei, fall upon your Knees; which they presently do. Keu teu, touch the Earth with your Heads: 'tis done assoon as said. Ki lai, rise, and then they all rise. After that he cries Ye: By which he commands them to extend both their [Page 288] Armes like two Bows, and joyning both Hands together to lift them up above their Heads, and then to bow down as low as their Knees: and that being done, to resume their first Posture with a gracefull behaviour; for the single syllable Ye, commands all this sort of Reverence. This Cere­mony they perform three times together, and then fall upon their Knees, at what time the Ma­ster of the Ceremonies cries Keu teu, touch the Ground with your Heads, which they do. T [...]ai Keu teu, touch the Ground a second Time: 'tis done a second Time. Yeu Keu teu, touch the Ground a third Time: which is likewise done. Now when they knock the Ground the two first times with their Foreheads, they utter with a low Voice van sui, that is to say, Ten Thousand Years; but the third time they cry Van sui van van sui, Ten thousand Years, ten Millions of Millions of Years. This last Prosternation being over, the Master of the Ceremonies repeats Ki lai, rise; Cheuen Xin, turn your selves; and then they turn one toward another, and lastly Quei pan, set your selves in Order, and then they return to their places, put­ting themselves into rank and file, as they were before. In the mean time the Master of the Ce­remonies falling again upon his Knees, with the same respectfull and sonorous Voice cries aloud [...] pi, most Potent Lord, the Ceremonies of this Homage which are due to thee are accomplish'd: and with that the Din of the loud Instruments be­gins again, while the King descending from his Throne, descends in the same manner as he came. The great Lords and Mandarins also retire into the Halls and Chambers of the Court before the South Portal, where they repose and change their Cere­mony Hab [...]s, which are different from their usual [Page 289] Garments, and much more sumptuous. Never­theless there is not one of them that dares presume to wear yellow, for fear of being severely punish'd. For the Chineses say that yellow is the Queen of Colours, since Gold which all men grant to be the Queen of Metals, is of the same Colour, has prefer'd it before all others, and therefore by con­sequence it ought to be reserv'd for the Emperour. In short, he always appears in publick in a long Robe down to the ground of that Colour, the ground of which is Velvet, embroider'd with a great Number of little Dragons with five Claws a piece all emboss'd Work, which covers the Robe all over. Two large Dragons opposite one to the other, with their Bodies and their Tails twin'd and twirling one within another, take up both the sides and the forepart of the Breast, and seem as if they would seize with their Teeth and Claws a very fair Pearl that seems to drop from the Skies, in allusion to what the Chineses say, that Dragons play with the Clouds and with Pearls. His Bonnet, his Buskins, his Girdle, and in a word all his Robes are very sumptuous and mag­nificent, and are extraordinary Marks of Grandeur and Majesty.

Next to the Imperial Hall and the Court that lies behind it, stands the seventh Apartment, which is call'd the High rais'd Hall, and next to the Court behind this stands the eighth Apartment call'd the Supream Hall in the middle: The next Hall, ha­ving a Court before it likewise, is call'd the Hall of Sovereign concord. To this Hall it is, and two more built of each side, that the King comes twice a year, Morning and Afternoon to treat of the Affairs of the whole Empire with his Colao or Counsellers of State, and with the Mandarins of [Page 290] the six supream Tribunals. And for this reason it is, that at the East end of this Hall, there is a ve­ry fair Palace for the Tribunal call'd Nui yuen, or the Tribunal within, compos'd of Counsellers of State, and above three hunder'd Mandarins of all Degrees, and which is above all the other Tribu­nals of the Empire. Behind another Court stands the tenth Apartment with a fair and very high rais'd Portal, which is call'd the Portal of Heaven clear and without blemish. There are three great Gates in the middle, to which you ascend by three Pair of Stairs, each pair containing above forty steps, having two little Doors on both sides, as have all that we have mention'd, and all that we shall mention. After this, you enter into a spaci­ous Court, bounded by the 'leventh Apartment, which they call the Mansion of Heaven clear and without blemish, and which is the richest, the highest rais'd and the most sumptuous of all. There are five Ascents to this of very fine Marble, each Ascent containing five and forty steps, adorn'd with Pillars, Parapets, Balusters, and several lit­tle Lyons, and at the Top on both sides with ten beautifull and large Lyons of guilded Brass, excel­lent Pieces of Workmanship. In the middle of the Court, at a proportionable distance from the Stairs stands a Tower of guilded Brass, round and end­ing in a Point at Top, and about fifteen Foot high with Doors and Windows, and abundance of small Figures curiously engraven, and on each side two large Chafers of guilded Brass and curiously wrought; where they burn Incense Day and Night. In this sumptuous Apartment it is that the King resides with his three Queens, the first of which who is call'd Hoam heu, or the Queen or Empress, lives with him in the middle Quarter. [Page 291] The second call'd Tum cum, has her Lodgings in the Oriental Quarter; and the third call'd Si cum, in the Western Quarter, which as well as the Eastern joyns to that of the middle. The Sons of these three Queens are all Legitimate, with this difference onely, that the Sons of the First are prefer'd in the first place [...]o succeed in the Empire. In this Apartment also, and in the rest, of which we shall speak anon, there are generally residing a thou­sand, sometimes two, and sometimes three thousand Concubines according to the Emperour's pleasure. They are call'd Cum niu, or Ladies of the Palace: but they for whom the King has the greatest Af­fection are call'd Ti; or almost Queens. When he pleases, he bestows upon them Jewels which they wear in their Heads, or upon their Breasts, and a piece of yellow Sat [...]in or Damask which they hang before their Doors, and which causes them to be respected above all the rest. These Ladies have also their particular Titles and Dignities, and are divided into several Classes or Orders, distin­guish'd by their Habits and Dresses, and other Marks of their Degrees, like the Mandarins. Their Sons, as also those of the half Queens, are looked up­on as natural Children. Now whatever concern'd the Service of the King, the Queen, the Concubines, together with the government of the Royal Hous­hold and the Palace, was formerly all in the hands of Ten thousand Eunuchs, of whose Conduct, Avarice, Pride, Wealth and Impurity, I could give an ample Accompt, were it no [...] [...] from the business of this Relation. But so soon as the Tartars came to be Masters of the Empire, they threw out Nine Thousand, and onely reserv'd one Thousand for the Service of the innermost Retirements of the Palace. Nevertheless, taking their advantage of [Page 292] the youth of the deceased King, by their Tricks and their Flatteries, they so insinuated themselves into his Affection, that they recover'd almost all their former Authority. However, after the King's decease, the four Tartar Tutours or Regents again depriv'd them of all their Credit, and reduc'd them to three hunder'd to serve the Infant King, and the Queens his Mother and Grandmother, in the most vile and meanest Drudgeries of the Fami­ly. But now this Prince begins to recall them to his Favour, and indeed they know so well how to please and fit his humours, that there is no small Pro­bability, but they will come to be as great as ever they were.

We are also to observe one thing more in refe­rence to this Apartment, that as the Houses, so are the Porcelams, the Moveables, the Habits, and all other things made use of for the Service of the King, painted, adorn'd and embroider'd with Dragons. In like manner all the Structures where he resides have some resemblance to the Heaven, either in Name, in Number, or some other way. Thus this last Apartment is call'd the ninth Hea­ven, and not the 'leventh; in regard the Chineses never reck'n that which is without the outermost Enclosure of the Palace; and for that they make but one of the Portal of Heaven serene and with­out blemish, and this last Apartment; which for this reason is said to be the 'leventh, and answers to the ninth Heaven In like manner, to answer to the twelve Signs, the particular Palaces where the King resides are to the number of twelve; three of which stand in a streight Line from North to South; the rest stand upon the East and West side, and are so spacious and so stately, that one single Apartment might suffice a King. Upon this Principle, [Page 293] when the Chineses and particularly the Eu­nuchs speak of their King, they express themselves in pompous and hyperbolical words, referring to Heaven, the Sun, the Moon, the Stars, and the like. Thus they never say, sound the Trumpets, beat the Drums, &c. but Ta lui, let the Heaven let loose its Thunder. To let you understand the King is dead, they make use of the words Pim tien, he is gone, a new Guest, into Heaven: Or of the word Pum, that is to say a great Mountain is fal­len. Instead of saying the Gates of the Palace, they say, Kin muen, the Gates of Gold, and so of other things.

Here it will not be amiss to give an account of one of the Circumstances of the Persecution rais'd against the Christian Religion in the year 1664, by some Persons, but more especially by a Mandarin call'd Yam quam sien. One of the great Crimes which this Miscreant lay'd to the Charge of F. Iohn Adam, was that in the Construction of a Celestial Globe, he omitted to mark out the North Star, which the Chineses call Ti sim, or the Star which is the King of all the other Stars. For that because it is immoveable, they say that all the other Stars turn about it, as the Subjects turn about the King to doe him service: and for that reason they pre­tend, that the King is the same upon Earth which that Star is in Heaven. From all which this Im­postour concluded, that Father Adam had omit­ted to mark it down, because he would not ac­knowledge a King in China, and that by conse­quence he was a Rebel and deserv'd death. The Judges were ravish'd with this ridiculous Accusa­tion, because that all the rest which they had form'd against our sacred Religion, had onely serv'd to make it break forth with greater luster. Never­theless [Page 294] their wicked Designs vanish'd all into Smoak, and the Malice of this Impostour serv'd onely to make the Company sport. The Fathers that accompany'd F. Adam, who was fallen into a fit of an Apoplexy, and for that reason could not speak for himself, desir'd in his behalf that the Globe might be produc'd before the Assembly; where it appear'd that it was not finish'd, and that he had not mark'd down the Constellations but onely from the Equinoctial line to the Antartick Pole, which clearly overturn'd that Calumny, and confounded the Accuser.

Behind this 'leventh Apartment lies another Court, and next to that stands the twelfth Apart­ment or second Lodging of the King, which is call'd the noble and beautiful middle Mansion. Behind which lies another Court and the thirteenth Apartment or third Lodging of the Kings, which is call'd the Mansion that entertains Heaven. Be­hind that you behold a most beautifull and spaci­ous Garden, which makes the fourteenth Apart­ment, and is call'd the Imperial Garden. From thence after you have cross'd several Courts and other large spaces, you come to the last Portal of the innermost Enclosure, which makes the fifteenth Apartment, and is call'd the Portal of Mysterious Valour. It consists of three Gates and three great Arches which support a very high rais'd Hall, painted and guilded, and crown'd with several little Towers, and several Ornaments at the Top of the Roof, with so much Symmetry and Pro­portion, that the Prospect is no less majestick than beautifull. Going out of this Apartment you cross the Mote over a fair and large Bridge, built all of large Marble Stones; beyond which you come into a Street that runs from East to West; and [Page 295] which is bounded to the North by the Mote, and to the South by several Palaces and Tribu­nals. But in the middle and just against the Bridge there is a Portal with three Gates, some­what less than the preceding Portals, and this is the sixteenth Apartment, call'd the high rais'd Portal of the South. Behind it lies a Court or Platform thirty Fathoms broad from South to North, and a Chinese Furlong in length from East to West. Here it is that the King exercises his Horses and therefore it is not pav'd as the other Courts, Streets and Spaces are, of which we have spoken; but onely cover'd with Earth and Gra­vel, which is water'd when the King has a mind to ride. In the midst of the North wall of this Platform, stands a large Portal with five Gates, altogether like the former, which makes the seven­teenth Apartment, and is call'd the Portal of Ten Thousand Years, that is to say, the Emperour's Portal. A little farther you meet with a spaci­ous Park where the King keeps his wild Beasts, Bears, wild Boars, Tigers and the like; every one in their particular stands large and beautifull. In the midst of this Park are five Hillocks also of a moderate heighth: of which the middlemost is the highest; the other four, which are less, and plac'd two to the East, and two to the West, slope down­ward every way with an equal Proportion. They were made by hand, of the Earth which was digg'd out of the Mo [...]e, and the Lake of which we have spoken, and are cover'd with Trees to the very Top planted with an exactness of Symmetry; with every one a round or square Pedestal, where­in several holes are cut for the Rabbets to borough and Hares to sit in, of which those little Hills are very full. Nor is the same Enclosure without a [Page 296] great Number of Deer and Goats, nor the Trees less frequented with several sorts of Birds both wild and tame. Which is the reason that the King often visits this Place to hear the Musick of the Birds, and to see the Beasts run and skip up and down. Of these Hills M. Polo makes mention in his second Book c. 16.

To the North and within two Musquet shot of these Hills, stands a very thick Wood, and at the End of the Wood, adjoyning to the Wall of the Park, are to be seen three Houses of Pleasure ex­traordinary for their Symmetry with lovely Stairs and Terrasses to go from one to the other. This is a Structure truly Royal, the Architecture being exquisite, and makes the eighteenth Apartment, being call'd the Royal Palace of long Life. A lit­tle farther stands a Portal like the former, which makes the nineteenth Apartment, and is call'd the high rais'd Portal of the North. Out of this you come into a long and broad Street, adorn'd on both sides with Palaces and Tribunals, beyond which stands a Portal with three Gates, built with­in the outermost Enclosure, and is call'd the Por­tal of the Repose of the North. This is the last and twentieth of these Apartments that make up the King's Palace in a streight Line from North to South.

Notes upon the eighteenth Chapter.

  • I. The first Apartment call'd Tai cim muen, or the Portal of great Purity. It consists of three great Gates and three Vaults, that support a lovely Hall. Behind lies a spacious Court of a greater length than breadth, garnish'd on both sides with Portico's and Galleric [...], supported by two hunder'd Columns. [Page 297] This Court is bounded by the Street of Perpetual Re­pose, which is divided by two Gates, one upon the West, the other upon the East side. We have plac'd them at a venture, because their Situation is not mark'd down in the Relation.
  • II. The second Apartment, which ought to be call'd the first because it l [...]ads into the outer Enclosure of the Palace. This Apartment or Portal is compos'd of five Gates, three great ones in the middle, which ne­ver open but for the King himself, and two lesser on each side, through which all People are permitted to pass to and fro. There are also five great Vaults or Arches which support a spacious Hall, adorn'd as our Authour describes it; and beyond it a Court much lar­ger than the former; but in regard we had not any measure of the parts of the Palace, I could not tell how to give it its due Proportion. This Court like the rest is garnish'd on the right and left hand with Portico's, Galleries, Halls and Chambers.
  • III. The third Apartment call'd the Portal of the Beginning, with its Court belonging to it like the former.
  • IV. The fourth Apartment, and first of the second Enclosure call'd the Tower or Portal of the South. It has three Gates, three Vaults, and a Hall above, larger, higher rais'd, and more majestick than the for­mer. This Hall has on each side two Galleries, that extend toward the South, bounded at both ends by two Pavillions or lesser Halls, &c. In this Hall hangs the Bell and the Drum mention'd in the eighth Chapter.
  • V. The fifth Apartment call'd the Supream Portal, with its Court before it, form'd of five great Gates with an ascent to it of five magnificent Marble pair of Stairs. Before your come at it, you cross a great Mote mark'd in the Draught over five Marble Bridges that answer to the five pair of Stairs.
  • [Page 298] VI. The sixth Apartment call'd the Supream Impe­rial Hall. To which you ascend by five pair of mag­nificent Marble Stairs, each pair of forty two steps, &c. In this Hall the Emperour receives the Homages and Submissions of the Princes, great Lords, Mandarins▪ &c. which our Authour describes so exactly that there is nothing more to be added, onely what Semedo, and some other Authours relate; that the same Days the same Ceremonies are perform'd in all the Cities of the Kingdom, where all the Mandarins meet at the Go­vernours Palace before a Throne, upon which are erec­ted the Royal Ensigns, where they use the same Cere­monies and Reverences as before the Emperour, already related by our Authour.

    Father Magaillans tells us, that as fast as the Mandarins come to the place, they take their stands according to their Rank and Qualitiy, in places ap­pointed for every one of the nine Orders, which are mark'd and writ down at the Bottom of little Pillars. Father Adam, says these Pillars are of Brass and square. He also gives us an accompt of the Distin­ctions of the nine Orders of Mandarins, which I ne­ver read in any other Authour, and therefore it may not be amiss to insert them here.

    The Mandarins of the first Order wear at the Top of their Cap or Bonnet which ends in a very flat Cone, a Carbuncle enchac'd in Gold, and a Pearl at the Bot­tom before. Upon their Girdles also glitter four Stones highly esteemed in China, enchac'd in Gold and cut into long Squares, three Fingers broad and four in length. This stone call'd by the Chineses, Yusce, is brought from the Kingdom of Cascar by the Mahome­tan Merchants, that come from thence to China every three years under pretence of an Embassie. It is some­what greenish, and resembles a Iaspar, onely that it is harder, somewhat transparent, and enclining to [Page 299] white. As for the great Lords who are above all the nine Orders of Mandarins, they are distinguish'd from the first Order onely by the Stones in their Girdles, which are round, with a Saphyr in the middle. The petty Kings so call'd, though they enjoy nothing of So­vereignty, instead of a Carbuncle, wear at the Top of their Bonnets a Ruby adorn'd with several Pearls, with a Flower of Gold fasten'd at the lower end of their Bonnets that come over their Foreheads. The Emperour himself wears a Bonnet of the same form, and at the point of it a Pearl as big as a Pigeons Egg, with several other lesser Pearls dangling underneath; his Girdle also dazles the Eye with the pretious Stones and Pearls with which it is cover'd all over.

    The Mandarins of the second Order wear at the Top of their Caps a large Ruby, and another which is less at the Bottom. Their Girdles are adorn'd with demy Globes of Gold embellish'd with Flowers of the same Metal, with a Carbuncle in the middle. The Mandarins of the third Order at the point of their Caps, carry a Carbuncle enchas'd in Gold, and a Sa­phyr at the Bottom, and upon their Girdles demy Globes adorn'd with Flowers onely. They of the fourth Order wear a Saphyr, and at the Bottom another Saphyr which is less; having upon their Girdles plain demy Globes of Gold onely. The Mandarins of the fifth Order wear onely a Saphyr in their Caps, in other things like those of the fourth Order. The Mandarins of the sixth Order at the Top of their Bonnets wear a Crystal neatly shap'd, and at the Bottom a Saphyr [...] Their Girdles being cover'd with pieces of Rhino [...]s Horns set in Gold They of the seventh Order, have nothing but an Ornament of Gold at the point of their Caps, with a Saphyr at the Bottom, and their Girdles cover'd with Silver-plates. They of the eighth Order carry also an Ornament of Gold, but without any Iew [...] [Page 300] at the Bottom; having their Girdles cover'd with thin pieces of Rhinoceros's Horn. The Mandarins of the ninth Order wear a Bonnet of Sattin purfl'd with Sil­ver; and pieces ef Bufola's Horns inchas'd in Silver upon their Girdles. Besides these nine Orders the Li­centiates wear upon the Top of their Heads a Dove of Gold, or guilt upon a Bodkin of the same Metal; with flat pieces of Rhinoceros's Horns upon their Girdles. Lastly the Batchelers of Art wear the same Doves, but of Silver onely, and Plates of Bufola's Horns upon their Girdles.

    Their Habits also serve to distinguish the various Orders of Mandarins. The learned Mandarins of the three first Orders, and the Military Mandarins of the four first Orders are distinguish'd from the Inferi­our Orders by their Garments enricht with Figures of Dragons. They also wear a certain sort of Surcoat, variegated with the Figures of Birds and Beasts in Embroidery, which serve also to distinguish the various Orders of the Mandarins. But in regard they are not bound to wear them regularly, especially in the Summer by reason of excessive heats, they are no such certain Signs of Distinction between the Orders and Degrees of the Mandarins, as those other which we have already mention'd. For no man dares to quit them, or wear them indifferently as he pleases himself without a breach of the Laws: and the same Laws have regulated the places which every one ought to take when they meet in the Palace. The letter'd Mandarins stand upon the King's left hand, which in China is the most honourable place; the Military Mandarins upon the Right, and the King himself always looks to­ward the South, when he sits upon his Throne.

  • VII. The seventh Apartment call'd the high rais'd Hall with a Court before it.
  • [Page 301] VIII. The eighth Apartment call'd the Supream Middle Hall.
  • IX. The ninth Apartment, call'd the Hall of So­vereign Concord. To this Hall are joy'nd two others, one upon the West, and the other upon the East side: In this Hall it is that the Emperour sits in Counsel Morning and Afternoon with his Colao's or Counsel­lers of State, and the Mandarins of the six Supream Tribunals. Upon the East side of this Apartment stands the Palace of the Supream Councel compos'd of Colao's and above three hunder'd Mandarins.
  • X. The tenth Apartment, call'd the Portal of Hea­ven clear and without blemish. It has sive Gates like the rest, and you ascend to the middlemost by three pair of stairs, each pair of above forty steps a piece.
  • XI. The 'leventh Apartment call'd the Mansion of Heaven clear and without blemish, is the most beauti­full of all, as you may see by the Relation of our Au­thour. I have observ'd in the Draught the Towers of Brass, and the great Chafers which he speaks of. In this Apartment the Emperour resides with his three Queens and his Concubines. The Chineses will have this Apartment to be no more than the ninth; for that they never reckon'd the first which is without the out­ward Enclosure to be one, and besides they make but one Apartment of this, of that before it, and the next that follows it, which serves to explain the meaning of the Chineses, when they say that the King sleeps with­in nine Walls, which some Relations misunderstanding have ill explain'd the sense of the Words.
  • XII. The twelfth Apartment, call'd the fair and beautifull Middle-House, the King's second Logding.
  • XIII. The thirteenth Apartment, and the King's third Lodging call'd the House which entertains Heaven.
  • [Page 302] XIV. The fourteenth Apartment which cousists in a great Garden, several Courts and other void Spaces, which the Authour does not particularly describe, and which the smallness of the Plate would not have per­mitted me to distinguish, though they had been de­scrib'd.
  • XV. The fifteenth Apartment call'd the Portal of my­sterious Valour, and the last of the innermost Enclosure. After that, you cross the Mote over a fair Marble Bridge, and after that a Street which runs from East to West.
  • XVI. The sixteenth Apartment call'd the high rais'd Portal of the South. Which has three Gates and a Court where the King manages his great Horses, 30 Fathom broad, and 230 in length.
  • XVII. The seventeenth Apartment, call'd the Portal of ten thousand Years. Which has five Gates, and leads into a magnificent Park, full of wild Beasts, Hills and Woods. Other Relations say that the Hills were made of the Earth, digg'd out of the Lake when it was first made.
  • XVIII. The eighteenth consists of three beautifull Summer-Houses, and is call'd the Royal Palace of long Life.
  • XIX. The nineteenth Apartment is call'd the high rais'd Portal of the North; and leads into a large and long Street.
  • XX. The twentieth Apartment seated beyond that street in the outtermost Enclosure; which has but three Gates, and is call'd the Portal of the Repose of the North. Here I must inform the Reader, that the five last Apartments do not seem to be sufficiently distin­guish'd; especially the nineteenth, and the great Street which is next to it. But I could do no better, notwith­standing all the pains that I took. For I found that the Ground between the two Enclosures was too nar­row [Page 303] for so many Apartments, for a place to ride the great Horse, a spacious Park and Streets, &c. Now some Relations say, that the Emperour's Palace extends to the Wall of the City on the North side, which would have afforded me space enough and to spare. But I durst not vary from my Authour, who clearly seems to say the contrary, and who would not have fail'd to have mark'd the place where these Apartments had crossed the exteriour Enclosure, which he never sets down till at last. So that we must be forc'd to stay for a new Relation to unfold these Difficulties.

CHAP. XIX. A Description of twenty particular Palaces con­tain'd in the inner Enclosure of the Empe­rour's Palace.

BEsides the Palace design'd for the Emperour's Person, there are erected on the other side se­veral particular Palaces, many of which for their Beauty, Splendour and Largeness might well serve for the Mansions of great Princes. But for the better apprehending of their Situation, it is to be observ'd that the Space which the inner Wall en­closes is divided into three distinct Parts, by two great and high Walls that run from the South to the North. These Walls have no Battlements, but are cover'd with Tiles varnish'd over with yellow, and the Top is rais'd and trimm'd with a thousand Designs and Figures all of the same Materials and the same Colour. The Eves of this little Roof end in Dragons in Demy-Relief, which hang down on [Page 304] both sides. The rest of the Wall is cover'd with square Tiles, green, yellow and blew, which are so rang'd as to represent Beasts, Flowers and Horns in abundance. This being suppos'd, the Palace takes up the space or part in the middle, and the other parts are for the collateral Palaces which we are going to describe, and by consequence stand within the innermost Enclosure.

The first is call'd Ven hoa tien, or the Palace of flourishing Learning. It serves the King for two Uses; first, for his Retirement, when he has a mind to discourse of Sciences, or any important Affairs of the Empire. Secondly for his more strict observance of the Fasts that are most usual among the Chineses; which they observe four times a year, and are generally answerable to our four Seasons. For when they design to perform their solemn Sa­crifices, they fast the three preceding days. And lastly when they would implore the Favour and Mercy of Heaven in any publick Calamity, as in the time of Famine, Pestilence, Earthquakes, or extraordinary Inundations. During these days the Mandarins live apart from their Wives, and remain Day and Night in their Tribunals, never eat any Flesh, nor drink Wine, nor discourse of a­ny Business, especially in criminal Matters. The Emperour also keeps himself solitary in his Palace, upon the East side of the Supream Imperial Hall.

The second Palace is just over against the for­mer, on the West side of the same Imperial Hall, and is call'd vu im tien, or the Palace of the Coun­cil of War. Thither the King retires to Consulta­tion when the Kingdom is alarm'd by any Revolt, or by Pyrates, or the Inrodes of the Tartars upon the Frontiers. These two Palaces have every one four Apartments, with their Courts, and a Royal [Page 305] Hall in the middle with Stairs, and an open Walk or Gallery round about; of white Marble, wrought after the same manner as are those of the princi­pal Palace, but much less. The Courts are gar­nish'd on each side with Halls and Chambers, the Architecture of which is very exquisite, and pain­ted within side with Vermillion Varnish, inter­mix'd with Gold and Azure. And what we say of these two Palaces is to be understood likewise of those that follow.

The third or second on the East side is call'd Tum sien tien, or the Palace where honour is pay'd to the deceased Kings of the Royal Family that actually Reigns. Those Kings are seated upon their Royal Thrones in a magnificent Hall adorn'd with Stairs and Galleries, and all other conveni­ences like the rest before mention'd. Their Ima­ges are made of Eagle-wood, Saunders, or some other odoriferous and precious Wood, and adorn'd with sumptuous Habits. Before the Images are plac'd sumptuous Tables, with Candlesticks, Cha­fers, and other costly Ornaments. And upon the day of the Ceremony, there is an Offering made them of several Tables cover'd with a great Quan­tity of Exquisit Viands.

The fourth Palace or second on the West side is call'd Gin chi tien, or the Palace of Mercy and Prudence. So soon as the King is dead, they set him in a rich Chair which is ready prepar'd, and which sixteen Eunuchs carry into the Middle of the Royal Hall of this Palace, where there is an Estrade, and a rich Bed upon which they lay the Body. Soon after, with a world of Ceremonies and funeral Musick they put him into a Coffin, which costs no less than two or three thousand Crowns. It is made of a certain Wood that grows [Page 306] in the Province of Su chuen, call'd cum cio mo, or Peacock-wood, in regard the Lines and Veins of it form certain Figures that represent the Eyes in a Peacock's Tail. The Chineses affirm, that this Wood, which is certainly very curious and preci­ous, preserves dead Bodies from corrupting, for many years afterwards. The funeral Pomp is per­form'd in this Palace, with so many Ceremonies and with so much cost, that it would be the Sub­ject of a long and curious Relation. The Chineses, after they have stopt up all the seams and joyn­tures of the Coffin with Bitumen, to prevent the Exhalation of any offensive Smell, usually leave the Body for several Months, and sometimes for several Years, in the same place; especially if it be the Corps of a Father or Mother, for whom they wear Mourning for three Years; because say they, they cannot endure to part with them. As for the King, after the funeral Obsequies are per­form'd with a Magnificence incredible, and befit­ting so great a Monarch, they carry him to be interr'd in the Imperial Wood. For so they call the place where the Royal Sepulchers are; of which I shall say no more, but that the Grandeur of it, the Palaces, the Wealth and Ornaments that belong to it, the Walls that environ it, the Manda­rins and other Servants that are employ'd in con­tinual Attendance, and the Souldiers that guard it would well deserve a particular Relation.

The fifth Palace or third on the East side is call'd Tsu him cum, or the Palace of Compassion and Joy. Here the Prince who is Heir to the Empire, keeps his Court till the Death of his Father.

The sixth and third on the West side is call'd Kim ho cum, or the Palace of Union and Flourishing. This is the Residence of the second and third Son [Page 307] of the Emperour before they are marry'd; for when they are marry'd they are usually sent to the Capital, or some other principal Cities of the Provinces, where they have Palaces built to re­ceive them of an astonishing Magnificence. I have seen three, several times, my self. The first in the City of Vu cham, Capital of the Province of Hu cham. The second in the City of Chim tu, Capi­tal of the Province of Sucheuen; and the third in the City of Ham Chum, a famous City in the Pro­vince of Xen si. There are others in the City of Si gan, Capital of the said Province of Xen si: In the City of Pien Leam Capital of the Province of Honan: In Kim cheu, a considerable City in the Province of Hu quam: In Kien cham, a remark­able City in the Province of Kiam si: In Nam cham, Capital of the same Province and in several others. All these Palaces though much less than Pe kim were very vast, beautifull, rich and mag­nificent. They contain'd some ten, some twelve, some more Apartments with separate Palaces on each side, and a double Enclosure of Walls. When the Emperour sent his second or third Son to one of these Palaces, he gave him the Title of King. For example, he gave the Title of Cho vam, or King of Cho, to him whom he sent to the City of Chim tu, Metropolis of the Province of Su chuen, be­cause this Province was antiently call'd Cho. Every one of these Kings had a thousand Eunuchs to serve and attend them, to take care of their Affairs and receive their Revenues. But these Kings had no­thing to do in the publick Affairs of the Province. Nevertheless the Mandarins were oblig'd to come four times a year to the young King's Palace to pay their Homage to him in the same manner as they do to the King at Pe kim, onely with this dif­ference, [Page 308] that they give the Emperour the Title of Van sui, or ten thousand years, but to these Prin­ces they give no more than the Title of Cien sui, or a thousand years.

The seventh or fourth Oriental Palace is call'd Yuen hoen iten, or the Palace of the Royal Nup­tials. When the King or the Heir of the Crown are pleas'd to marry, the Tribunal of Ceremo­nies makes choice of the most beautifull and most accomplish'd Virgins that are to be found, whe­ther they be the Daughters of great Lords, or but of mean descent they value not. To this pur­pose the Tribunal employs Women that are well in years, and of good Reputation, who make choice of twenty which they deem the most ac­complish'd. The Tribunal being inform'd of this choice, order the young Virgins to be carry'd in close Sedans to the Palace, where for some days they are examin'd by the Queen Mother; or if there be no such Person living, by the principal Lady Lady of the Court, who visits them, and orders them to run, on purpose to find out whe­ther they have any ill smell or defect about them. After several Trials, she makes choice of one whom she sends to the King or Prince with a great deal of Ceremonie, accompany'd with Feasts and Banquets, distribution of Favours, and a general pardon for all Criminals of the Empire, unless Re­bels and Robbers upon the High-way. After this she is crown'd with a splendid Pomp, and at the same time she has bestow'd upon her many Titles and large Revenues. As for the nineteen Vir­gins to whom Fortune was not so favourable, the King marrys them to the Sons of great Lords; of which if there be not anow to serve them all, he sends the remainder back to their Parents with dow­ries [Page 309] sufficient to marry them advantageously. This was the Custom of the Kings of China. But at pre­sent the Tartar Emperours make choice of the Daughters of some great Lords, who are not of the Blood-Royal, or of the Daughters of some one of the Kings of the Western Tartars for their Wives and Queens

The eighth or fourth occidental Palace is call'd Tzu nen cum, or the Palace of Piety; and serves for the Residence of the Queen Mother, and her Damsels and Ladies of Honour.

The ninth or fifth oriental Palace is call'd chum cui cum, or the Palace of Beauty; and the tenth or fifteenth on the West side is call'd Ki fi­am cum, or the happy Palace. These two Palaces are appointed for the Daughters and Sisters of the King before they are marry'd. For which pur­pose, during the Reigns of the Chinese Kings, the Tribunal of Ceremonies pickt out certain young Gentlemen, handsome and ingenious, and four­teen or fifteen years old. Out of which the King chose one for his Daughter or his Sister, to whom he gave a vast Dowry in Lands and Jewels. These were call'd [...]u m [...], or the Emperour's Kindred by his Wives. They could not be [...]. How­ever they became very powerfull, and were great Oppressours of the People. Bef [...] the [...] had any Children, they were oblig'd every [...] and Evening to fall upon them Knees [...] [...]heir Wives, and knock their Heads thr [...] [...] [...]gainst the Ground. But so soon as they [...] Children, they were no longer engag'd to that Ceremony. At present the Tartar King marrys his Sisters and his Daughters to the Sons of great Lords who are not of the Blood Royal, or with the Sons of the petty Kings of the Western Tartars.

[Page 310]The 'leventh or sixth Palace to the East is call'd Y hao tien, or the Palace of due Title; and the twelfth or sixth Palace to the West, is call'd Siam nim cum, or the Palace of Felicity. The thirteenth or seventh Eastern Palace is call'd Gin xeu cum, or the Palace of long Life: and the fourteenth or se­venth Western Palace is call'd Kien nim cum, or the Palace of Celestial Repose. All which four Palaces were the Habitations of the second and third Queen, and the Concubines and several o­ther Ladies belonging to the deceas'd King, whom the King never sees, nor ever enters into their Palaces; such is their respect and veneration for their Predecessours.

The fifteenth or eighth Palace to the East is call'd Kiao ta tien, or the Palace of great Friend­ship.

The sixteenth or eighth to the West is call'd Quen nim cum, or the Palace of the place of Re­pose; to either of which the King retires, when he has a mind to be private with his Queen.

The seventeenth or ninth to the East, is call'd Chim chien cum, or the Palace which receives Hea­ven: and the eighteenth, which is opposite to it, [...] quen cum, or the Palace of the elevated Earth. These two Palaces serve for the King's divertise­ment with his other two Queens: to the first of which he goes with his second, and to the second with the third of his Wives.

The nineteenth or tenth to the East is call'd Hum te tien, or the Palace of abundant Vertue.

The twentieth or tenth to the West is call'd Kiu en sin tien, or the Palace that envelops the heart. In these two Palaces are kept the King's Jewels and Rarities of an inestimable Value. And sometimes he goes himself to visit his Treasure, [Page 311] which perhaps is the largest and the richest in the World, in regard that for four thousand twenty five years the Chinese Kings have been always ad­ding to it without taking any thing out of it. For though the Reigning Families have so often alter'd, yet none of them ever touch'd this Treasure, nor those of which we shall give an accompt hereafter; because of the rigorous Punishments which the new Kings would have inflicted upon those that should have attempted such a Sacriledge, and all their Family. Now though the Names of all these Pa­laces seem very mean and ordinary in our Lan­guage, certain it is however, that in the Chinese Language they are very significative and mysteri­ous, as being invented on purpose by their Men of Learning, conformable to their Structure, their Situation and their Use.

Notes upon the nineteenth Chapter.

THESE Palaces are large and magnificent, and sea­ted in the spaces between the twenty Apartment▪s of the Emperour's Palace, and the two Walls of the Inner Inclosure, which are describ'd by our Authour in this nineteenth Chapter.

  • I. The first Palace call'd Ven hoa tien, or the Pa­lace of flourishing Learning. Hither the King retires when he has a mind to discourse with his Men of Learning, or to consult about his most important Af­fairs, or to keep the Fasts most usually observ'd in China. It is plac'd on the East side of the sixth Apart­ment call'd the supream Imperial Hall.
  • II. The second Palace over against the foregoing, to the West of the sixth Apartment, call'd Vu im tien, or the Palace of the Council of War.
  • [Page 312] III. The third Palace, or second on the East side, as you go to the North, call'd Tum sien tien, or the Palace where Honours are pay'd to the deceas'd Kings of the Royal Family.
  • IV. The fourth Palace on the West side, call'd Gin chi tien, or the Palace of Mercy and Prudence, where the funeral Honours are pay'd to the King after his Decease.
  • V. The fifth Palace on the East side, call'd Tzu kim cum, or the Palace of Compassion and Ioy, where the Heir to the Crown resides till the Death of his Father.
  • VI. The sixth Palace, on the West side, call'd Kim ho cum, or the Palace of Union and Flourishing. Here the second and third Sons of the Emperour, reside till they marry.
  • VII. The seventh Palace or fourth on the West side, call'd Yuen hoen tien, or the Palace of the Royal Nuptials, because the Nuptials of the King, and the Heir to the Crown are there solemniz'd.
  • VIII. The eighth Palace or fourth on the West side, call'd Tsu nim cum, or the Palace of Piety, being the Residence of the Queen Mother, and her Maids of Honour.
  • IX. The ninth Palace or fifth to the East, call'd Chum cui cum, or the Palace of Beauty.
  • X. The tenth Palace or fifth to the West, call'd Kia [...]iam cum, or the happy Palace, appointed for the Sisters and Daughters of the King before they are marry'd.
  • XI. The 'leventh or sixth to the East, call'd Y hao tien, or the Palace of due Title.
  • XII. The twelfth or sixth Palace to the West, call'd Siam nim cum, or the Palace of Felicity.
  • XIII. The thirteenth or seventh Palace to the East, call'd Gin chu cum, or the Palace of long Life.
  • [Page 313] XIV. The fourteenth or seventh Palace to the West, call'd Kien nim cum, or the Palace of Celestial Re­pose. In this Palace the second and third Queen keep their Courts, together with the Concubines and other Ladies of the deceas'd King. So that this Palace serves for the same use, as the old Seraglio at Con­stantinople.
  • XV. The fifteenth, or eighth to the East, call'd Kiao ta tien, or the Palace of great Friendship.
  • XVI. The sixteenth, or eighth to the West, call'd Guen nim cum, or the Palace of the place of Repose. To these Palaces the King retires when he has a mind to be private with his first Queen.
  • XVII. The seventeenth Palace, or ninth to the East, call'd Chim kien cum, or the Palace that receives Heaven
  • XVIII. The eighteenth Palace, or ninth to the West, call'd Y xuen cum, or the Palace of the elevated Earth. To the first of these two Palaces the King retires with his second Queen, and to the second with his third.
  • XIX. The nineteenth, Palace or tenth to the East, call'd Lum te tien, or Palace of abounding Vertue.
  • XX The twentieth or tenth Palace to the West, call'd Kiun sin tien, or the Palace that envelops the Heart. In these two Palaces are kept the King's Iewels and Rarities of an inestimable Price. Our Authour tells us, that this Treasure has been filling for these four thousand and twenty five Years, and that in all that time nothing has been taken out of it. But this is to be understood, unless there happen any sudden Conflagration; or that the City had not been taken and plunder'd by the Enemy, who never trouble themselves to observe the Laws of China in that par­ticular. For example, all the Relations that mention the Wars of the Tartars, among the rest Martini [Page 314] and Couplet tell us, that in the year 1644. the Re­bel Li or Li cum, not daring to abide the coming of the Tartars to Pe kim, spent eight Days in removing all that there was of precious and valuable in the Pa­lace.

To every one of the Palaces belong twenty four separate Apartments, with a Royal Hall in the middle. I have plac'd them as they stand in the Draught: for a Man may easily believe that the last where the Women reside, and where the Treasure lies, ought to be most remote from the principal Gate.

CHAP. XX. Of several other Palaces, and some Temples erected within the same Enclosures.

ALL these Palaces which we have hitherto mention'd, are seated within the innermost Enclosure of the Palace, from which they are se­parated by two Walls, and divided one from a­nother by other Walls of the same Fabrick▪ Those that follow are seated between the two Enclo­sures.

The first is call'd Chum hoa tien, or the Palace of the doubl'd Flower. Now to understand this Name, you are to take notice, that about two hunder'd years ago one of the Chinese Kings, con­trary to the Advice of his Grandees and People, would needs go and fight the Western Tartars, who took several places and lay'd waste the Pro­vince of Pe kim: but he was overthrown, taken and carry'd into Tartary, where the Chineses be­liev'd [Page 315] him to be dead, and therefore set up his Brother in his place. Some Months after, Embas­sadours came from the Tartars, who brought news that he was alive, and demanded a Ransom both for him and the rest of the Prisoners. So soon as the new King receiv'd this Intelligence, he gave Order to Commissioners to treat about his Bro­ther's Enlargement, and appointed a magnificent Palace to be built, whither he intended to retire upon his Brother's Return. The Palace being fi­nish'd, and the Treaty concluded, the Prisoner was brought to the Frontiers, where the Tartars receiv'd a great Summ of Money, great Quantities of Silk and Cotton, and all that they demanded▪ Thereupon the King returning to Pe kim, the new King would have resign'd the Scepter into his hands, but the old King would not accept it, but retir'd to the Palace which his Brother had prepar'd for himself, without ever offering to mod­dle any more with the Affairs of the Government. Three years after that, the new King dy'd, and then the old King accepting the Crown, was crown'd a second time; and then the Learned Men, according to the Custom gave him another Name, calling him, Tien xum, or the King who follow'd the Will of Heaven. They also gave a new Name to the Palace where he had liv'd three years retir'd, calling it Chum hoa tien, or the Pa­lace of the doubl'd Flower, alluding to the double Coronation of the King. The Bridge over which they cross the Mote that surrounds this Palace is a wonderfull piece of Workmanship. It is a Dra­gon of an extraordinary Bulk, whose fore and hind-feet standing in the water supply the place of Pillars; and whose Body, Dolphin like, makes the middle Arch; and two more, the one with [Page 316] his Tail, the other with his Head and Neck. The whole is made of black Jasper stone, so well clos'd and so well wrought, that it seems not onely to be of one piece, but represents a Dragon to the life. It is call'd Ti kiam, or the flying Bridge. For the Chineses report, that this Dragon flew through the Air from a Kingdom in the East-Indies, which they call Tien cho, or the Kingdom of Bam­boos, whence they also pretend that their Pagod and their Law was brought in former times. They also tell a hunder'd idle Stories of this Dra­gon and this Bridge, which I omit as not become­ing this Relation. This Palace takes up in length two Furlongs of China, or half an Italian Mile.

The second is call'd Hien yam tien, or the Pa­lace of the Rising Sun. A Structure beautifull and magnificent for the Architecture, and environd with nine very high Towers all of different Work­manship. These nine Towers signifie the first nine Days of the Moon which are very great Holy-days, especially the ninth, among the Chi­neses. They marry their Children during these Holy-days; and among the several Dishes of the Feast, they never fail of one which represents the Tower with nine Stories, every one of which an­swers to one of the nine Days. For say they, the Number of Nine includes within it self those properties, which make it more excellent than all the rest of the Numbers, and render it fortu­nate by the Augmentation of Life, Honour and Riches. For this reason, all the Chineses Rich and Poor get up that day upon Terrasses and Towers in the Cities, and in the Countrey upon Mountains and Hills, or at least upon Damms and other high rais'd places, where they feast with their Relations and Friends. But in regard [Page 317] the Kings of China seldom go out of their Palaces they caus'd these nine Towers to be built, that upon the Top of them they might Celebrate this Festival, so generally solemniz'd over the whole Empire.

The third Palace is call'd Van xeu tien, or the Palace of ten thousand Lives▪ Now you are to understand, that about a hunder'd and forty years ago King Kia cim, that is to say, a King neat and precious, began his Reign. This Prince maintain'd Peace and Justice in the Empire: but in regard he was flexible and superstitious, one of the mar­ry'd Bonzes beguil'd his Credulity, and made him believe, that he would so order it that he should live eternally, or at least for several Ages, by vertue of his Chymistry. To bring this to pass he advis'd him to build this Palace near the Lake, which we have already mention'd. 'Tis very true, 'tis less than the rest; but what it wants in bigness, it has in beauty. It is environ'd with a high Wall with Battlements, and perfectly round; all the Halls and Chambers a so are round, Hexagons or Octagons, and the Architecture is most beautifull and magnificent. Hither then the King retir'd to distill the Water of Immortality. But his toil and pains were recompenc'd with a Success quite contrary to his Expectations; for that instead of prolonging, they shorten'd his Life. For the Fire in the Furnaces having dry'd up his Bowels, he fell sick in a Month or six Weeks after, and dy'd within a few Days; after he had reign'd five and forty years. The Emperour Van lie his Grand­child reign'd eight and forty; and both their Reigns are remarkable, as well for the peace and prosperity which the People enjoy'd all that time, as for that the Apostle of the Indians, the Holy [Page 318] Francis Xavier arriv'd in China, and dy'd upon the Frontiers, during the Reign of Kia cim, a little before the Portugueses built the City of Macao; as also for that in the Eleventh year of the Emperour Van lie, the famous Father Matthew Ricci, so uni­versally esteem'd to this day by the Chiueses for his Learning and his Vertue, first set footing in the Empire.

The fourth is call'd Cim hiu tien, or the Palace of perfect purity, and was built upon this occasion. The fifteenth Day of the eighth Moon, is solem­niz'd by the Chineses with great feasting and re­joycing. For from the setting of the Sun, and rising of the Moon till Midnight, they are all a­broad with their Friends and Kindred in the Streets, in the Piazza's, in their Gardens, and up­on the Terrasses, feasting and watching to see the Hare which that Night appears in the Moon. To this purpose, the preceding Days they send to one another Presents of little Loaves and Sugar-Cakes, which they call Yue Pim, or Moon-Cakes. They are round, but the biggest, which are about two hands breadth in diameter, and represent the Full Moon, have every one a Hare in the middle made of a Past of Walnuts, Almonds, Pine-Apple-Kernels and other Indgredients. These they eat by the Light of the Moon; the Richer sort having their Musick also playing about 'em, which is very good. But the poor, in the midst of the ruder Noise of Drums, Fifes and Basons loudly knockt upon with Sticks. And for the solemni­zing of this Feast it was, that the Ancient Kings erected this Palace, not very big, but wonderfully delightfull; more especially for its Situation upon a Mountain made by hands, which is call'd Tulh Xan, or the Mountain of the Hare. Our Euro­peans [Page 319] perhaps will laugh at the Chineses, for ima­gining the Spots in the Body of the Moon to be a Hare. But beside that among us the People are no less fond of many idle Opinions, no less ridicu­lous, let me tell our Europeans that the Chineses laugh as much at us, when they find in our Books, that we paint the Sun and Moon with humane Faces.

The fifth Palace is call'd Ym Tai Tien, or the Pa­lace of the Flourishing Tower. It is built upon the brink of the Lake among a great number of Trees which afford both shade and coolness. So that the Emperour makes it his chiefest residence during the excessive heat, which the want of cooling Breezes renders almost insupportable: the City of Pe Kim being equally subject to the inconvenien­cies of heat and cold.

The sixth is call'd Van Yeu Tien, or the Palace of ten thousand sports and pleasures. It is seated upon the Bank of the Lake on the north side; and serves for the King to repose in when he goes a fishing, or to delight himself by Water in his Pleasure Boats, which are made either to sail or row, all very lovely and very richly adorn'd. There is one wich is made like one of our Brigan­dines, by the directions of Father Iohn Adam, which pleases the Emperour extreamly, and wherein he always goes a fishing, or to behold the Sea Fights, which are many times represented upon the Lake.

The Seventh is a great Platform encompass'd with a square of high walls, in the middle of which is a beautifull Palace call'd Hu Chim Tien, or the Palace of the walls of the Tiger. The Royal Hall belonging to it is round, very high and Ma­jestick. Upon the top of it appear two Cupola's of of Brass guilded, one above another at the di­stance [Page 320] of the length of a lance; the one very large, the other less, in the form of a great Gourd, which together with the roof cover'd over with Tiles varnish'd with Azure, and embellish'd with Flowers, Grotesco Borderings, and other Orna­ments, yield a very pleasant prospect. From this Hall and the Balconies belonging to it the King delights himself with the sight of the Beasts that are bread in the enclosure, as Tigers, Bears, Leo­pards, Wolves, Monkeys of several sorts, Musc-Cats, and several other Kinds; and with them the intermixture of Birds, no less remarkable for the colours of their feathers than for their bigness; as Peacocks, Eagles, Swans, Cranes; green, red and white Parrats, and several others, the names of which I cannot tell. Among the rest there was one which was call'd La cui, or the Bird with a Bill of Wax, by reason the Bill is of the colour of Wax. It was as big as a Blackbird, but the feathers of an Ash colour. This bird learns whatever is taught her with that docility that she does things incredible; for all alone she will act a Comedy. She will put on a Vizor, handle a Sword, a Lance, or Ensign made on purpose for her. She plays at Chess, and performs several actions and motions with such a lively grace as charms the spectatours. So that it is hard to say which is most worthy of admiration, the natural instinct of the Bird, or the industry of him that taught her.

The eighth is seated at the end of a vast Plat­form, and is call'd the mansion of the Fortress of the middle. The Kings of China were wont to go to the Royal Hall of this Palace, to see three thousand Eunuchs arm'd at all points, perform their military exercises, and make a shew of their pretended valour. But the Tartars have suppress'd this ridiculous divertisement.

[Page 321]Besides these Palaces, there are within the two enclosures a great number of Temples dedicated to Idols; of which there are four more famous than the rest, and which are also call'd Palaces, by reason of their largeness, the multitude of their Appartments, and the beauty of the Ar­chitecture. The first is call'd Tai Quam mim, or the Palace of great light. It is dedicated to the Stars, which we call North Stars, and the Chineses, Pe Teu. They believe that constellation to be a God, and that it has power to grant them long life; and therefore it is that the Kings, Queens and Princes offer their Oblations in this Temple where there is no Idol to be seen, but onely a Cartridge or Linnen Roll, surrounded with a sump­tuous square Border with this inscription. To the Spirit and the God Pe Teu. This Temple stands within the inner wall. The other three are seated between the two Enclosures.

The Second is call'd Tai Cao Tien. Or the Pa­lace of the most illustrious and Sovereign Emperour. This is the Temple dedicated to that famous and loyal Deify'd Captain, of whom we have former­ly spoken, who was call'd Quan Ti. Of him they implore long life, Children, Honour, Riches and all the Blessings of this life, not minding or dream­ing of any other; for that the Chineses place all their happiness and final end, in sensible objects and pleasures.

But for the better understanding of what we have to say concerning the two next, we are to premise, that to the north-west of the Province of Xen Si, the most western part of China, there lies a Kingdom, call'd by the Indians Tibet, and by the western Tartars Tumet, where Father Anthony An­drada travell'd about forty five years agone. The [Page 322] King of this Countrey takes upon him to perform alike both Functions, as well of King as of High Priest, and by virtue of that Dignity, he orders all things in matters of Religion, and is perpetual and absolute Superiour over all the Lama or Idola­trous Priests of that Countrey. These Lama are usually clad in red and yellow habits, which hang down to the ground with straight sleeves and a Mantle of the same colour, one side of which they fling under their Right Arms, and throw it back upon the left shoulder, much after the same manner as the Apostles are painted, as if they had imitated in that the Apostle St. Thomas, who according to all probability came into China, and resided there for some time. For the Histo­ries and Chronicles of China relate that during the reign of the Family Han, what time our Sa­viour was both born and dy'd, there came from the Indies into this Empire a certain holy man, whose name was Tamo, who preach'd and taught a holy Law; that the Bonzes oppos'd it and pro­secuted the holy Man in such a manner, that find­ing he could do no good he return'd into India. That he carry'd a staff in his hand, and went bare­headed; and that one day designing to cross the Great River of Kiam or Sun of the Sea, and find­ing that no body would receive him into a Boat, by reason that all people had a prejudice against him at the instigation of the Bonzes, he walkt over the River without wetting his feet. Many other Mira­cles and wonderfull actions of the same Saint are to be read in the same Story.

Nor ought it to séem strange that the Chineses call him Tamo instead of Tomas. For as we pro­nounce the Chinese words, so do they mistake and altar the words of other Nations; insomuch, that [Page 323] sometimes it is impossible to know them again. And I dare affirm that they are not able to pro­nounce any strange name, more especially such words as are spelt with the Letter R. or any words consisting of several Syllables; and hence it is that they have so misplac'd the Vowels, placing a in the first Syllable, whereas they should have put it in the last. Nay the Portugueses do worse than they, in Saying Tome, and substituting e in the place of a. F. Anthony Andrada also has made the same mistake in his relation of the Kingdom of Tibet, where he writes Lamba instead of Lama, meaning the Idolatrous Priests before mention'd. There are a great number of these Lama at Pe Kim, but they are not esteem'd either by the Chineses or the Eastern Tartars, who are Lords of China, because they are acquainted with their wicked manners and the impertinency of the Law which they teach, and the ridiculousness of their Idols. For though the Emperour permits them to reside at Court, and some few years since order'd two Temples to be erected for the exercise of their Idolatrous worship, he did not do it out of any Kindness which he had for them, but out of meer reason of state, to prevent by means of their credit, the Eastern Tartars from enterprizing any thing a­gainst them. For though these two sorts of Tar­tars, are equally valiant, yet the Eastern Tartars who are not very numerous are afraid of the We­stern, whose multitudes are infinite. Besides the esteem and veneration which the latter have for the Lama is almost incredible. For they no sooner behold these Priests at a distance, but they are presently seiz'd with fear and compunction; but so soon as they meet, the Tartar alights from his horse, throws away his Bonnet, and falling upon [Page 324] his knees, embraces the Lama's feet, and kisses the lower hemm of his Garment, with a zeal and de­votion unexpressible; which he shows by the mo­tions of his countenance, his hands, and his whole body. In the mean time the Lama with a formal gravity reaches his hand to the top of the Tartra's head, and drawing the figure of a Lozange upon his Crown, mutters over him certain pray­ers according to the usual manner. These things being thus premis'd;

The Third Palace or Temple is call'd Macala Tien. For Tien in the Chinese Language signifies a Royal Palace; and Macala in the language of the Lama signifies the head of an Ox with the horns on: because the Idol which is worship'd in that Temple is the horned head of an Ox. Which shews the blindness of man, whom the Chineses call Van Vo Chi Vam, or King and Lord of all things, and Van Vo Chi Tim, or the most under­standing of all Creatures, which nevertheless a­dores the work of his own hands, Beasts that are created for his service, and which seems more incredible, the Carcass of the head of an Ox.

The Fourth Palace is call'd Lama Tien or the Palace or Temple of the Lama. It is seated upon the East side of the Lake of which we have spoken, upon a Mountain made with hands like a Sugarloaf environ'd with Rocks which were brought thither in former times from the Sea side, though far remote, with great labour and expence. These Rocks are for the most part full of holes and hollownesses, occasion'd by the continual dashing of the waves; the Chinsees taking great delight to behold those unpolish'd works of nature. And they are so dispos'd as to counterfeit the high out-juttings, and steep and rugged Precipices of Rocks; so that at a [Page 325] moderate distance the whole seems to represent some craggy wild Mountain, the first work of Nature. At the top appears a round Tower of twelve stories, well proportion'd and of an Extraordinary height. Round about the upper Story hang fifty Bells, that jangle day and night, with the motion of the wind. The Temple which is large and magnificent, is seated in the middle of the descent, on the South side; and the Cloisters and Cells of the Lama, extend themselves to the East and West. The Idol stands upon an Altar within the Temple all naked, and in a filthy Pos­ture like the Roman Priapus. Neither is it ador'd but by the Lama and the Western Tartars, for the Eastern and the Chineses abhor it, as an infa­mous and obscene Monster. The deceased King, Father of the reigning Emperour, erected these two Temples for reasons of State, and to please his Mother, Daughter of a petty King of the Western Tartars; that Princess being greatly de­voted to the Lama, whom she maintains in Pe kim at vast Expences. But there is great proba­bility, that so soon as she is dead, those abomina­ble Temples will be shut up.

Moreover between the two Enclosures, there are four and twenty beautifull Palaces besides, which serve instead of four and twenty Tribunals: the Mandarins of which are as it were the Empe­rour's Stewards, and are no way subject to the other Tribunals and Mandarins of the Empire. They are the Overseers of the Palace, of the Ser­vants, of the Cellars, Offices, Treasuries, and the like; they punish or reward, according to the King's Order, such as belong to the Houshold. And in the time of the Chinese Emperours, all these Tribunals were under the Government of [Page 326] Eunuchs; but at present they are govern'd by seventy two Tartar Lords bred up in the Palace▪ Three of these belong to every Tribunal, who have under them a great Number of inferiour Officers, all employ'd in their several Stations to expedite the business with which they are entrus­ted. And thus we have given an Accompt of the principal Structures of the Emperour's Palace. For we should never have done, should we undertake a particular description of all those other Places and Buildings which are therein enclos'd, as the Houses of Pleasure, the Libraries, the Magazines, the Treasuries, the Stables, and such like meaner edisices. But by what we have already describ'd, a Man may readily conjecture what farther re­mains to be said.

All the Structures which we have already de­scrib'd, are cover'd with large thick Tiles, var­nish'd with yellow, green and blew, and fasten'd with Nails to withstand the fury of the Winds, which are very high at Pe kim. The Ridges which always run from East to West, rise above the Roof about the height of a Lance. The Ex­tremities are terminated with the Bodies and Heads of Dragons, Tygers, Lyons and other Beasts, that wind about and extend themselves all the length of the ridges. A vast variety of Flowers, and Grotesco-work, and other delightfull Ornaments, issuing as it were out of their Mouths and Ears, or else being fasten'd to their Horns. And in regard that all that you see of these Pala­ces is varnish'd over with the Colours before men­tion'd, you would think at a distance, when the Sun rises, as I have many times observ'd, that they were all made or at least cover'd with pure Gold enamel'd with Azure and Green, which [Page 327] yields a most delightfull, magnificent and majestick Prospect.

Notes upon the twentieth Chapter.

Of some other Palaces, and certain Temples seated between the two Enclosures.

  • K. The first Palace seated to the East between the two Enclosures, and upon the South side, as it is in the Plane, and as F. Couplet places it, speaking of the Emperour who caus'd it to be built. This Prince was call'd Ym sum, or Kim tum, and his Brother Kim ti, he began his Reign in the year 1436. he was taken by the Tartars in the year 1650. and set at Li­berty some time after. His Brother Kim ti dy'd in the year 1457. and this Emperour reassum'd the Go­vernment the same year, and dy'd 1464. The Bridge which our Authour describes, is a piece of Workman­ship altogether extraordinary, and is enough of it self to make us admire the Wit and Industry of the Chineses.
  • L. The second Palace seated between the two En­closures, as are the six that immediately follow. It is call'd Hien yam tien, or the Palace of the Rising Sun. Therein are solemniz'd the Festivals of the first Day of the Moon.
  • M. The third Palace call'd Van xeu tien, or the Palace of ten thousand Lives. It is mark'd near the Lake by our Authour. That Emperour Kia cim, was otherwise call'd Xi sum He began his Reign 1522. The Holy Francis Xavier arriv'd in China 1522. and dy'd in the Island of Su chuen in the Province of Quam tum, the second of December of the same year. The Emperour Kia cim, or Xi sum reign'd till 1567. his Son Mo sum, or Lum kim dy'd 1573 and his Grandchild Van lie, or Xin cum dy'd in the year [Page 328] 1620. King Kia cim built this Palace to practice Chymistry, and get the Balsom of Immortality.
  • N. The fourth Palace call'd, Cim hieu tien, or the Palace of great Purity; I have plac'd it upon a Mountain conformable to our Authour's description. Therein the Feast of the fifteenth Day of the Moon is solemniz'd.
  • O. The fifth Palace, call'd Ym tai tien, or the Palace of the flourishing Tower. It stands near the Lake among the Trees, as our Authour describes it. There the Emperour abides during the excessive Heats.
  • P. The sixth Palace Van yeu tien, or the Palace of [...]en thousand Sports and Pleasures. It stands by the Lake on the North side: for so we have plac'd it according to our Authour's description. There the King reposes when he goes a Fishing, or to take his pleasure by water.
  • Q. The seventh Palace call'd Hu chim tien, or the Palace of the Tiger Walls. There the King breeds up wild Beasts of several sorts, and goes to see them himself. The situation of this place is not particularly set down by our Authour. I have plac'd it in that part which I thought to be the most spacious, and most proper between the two Walls.
  • R. The eighth Palace, call'd the Mansion of For­tress of the Middle, appointed for exercising the Eu­nuchs. The situation is not mention'd by the Authour, onely he places it between the two Enclosures as well as the other six.
  • S. The first Temple of the four most considerable in the Palace; it is call'd Tai quam mim, or the Palace of great Light, and dedicated to the Bear-stars: It stands within the inner Enclosure; and I have plac'd it on the left side as the most honourable place: as being upon the left hand of the Emperour.
  • T. The second Temple call'd Tai cao tien, or the [Page 329] Temple of the most Illustrious and Sovereign Emperour. This Temple is dedicated to that famous deify'd Cap­tain mention'd in the sixteenth Chapter, whose Name I could never find, nor the precise time of his death. I have plac'd the Temple at a venture upon the West side of the Lake; because our Authour says no more but onely that it stands between the two Enclosures.
  • V. The third Temple call'd Macala tien, or the Palace of the Oxe's Head: But our Authour does not precisely mark down the situation of it.
  • X. The fourth Temple, Lama tien, the Palace or Temple belonging to the Lama. It stands in the Plane, as our Authour places it; in the Middle of a Rocky Mountain, made with hands like a Sugar-loaf, with a Tower at the Top.
  • Y. Twenty four Palaces for the Mandarins, High Stewards of the Emperour's Houshold. I have plac'd them on the East side between the two Enclosures, where our Authour places them, who makes no particular descrip­tion of them, no more than he does of the other Edifices; as Houses of Pleasure, Libraries, Magazines, Offices, Stables, &c. Which makes the curious more desirous of compleater descriptions, and more perfect draughts.

CHAP. XXI. Of the Emperour's Temples seated in Pe kim, and of the manner how the King goes abroad to perform publick Duties.

BEsides the Temples which stand in the Palace, the Emperour has seven more, in each of which he sacrifices once a year. Five in the new City, and two in the old one.

[Page 330]The first of these is call'd Tien tam, or the Tem­ple of Heaven, seated two Chinese Furlongs from the principal Gate of the City, a little to the East, and encompass'd with a round Wall three furlongs in compass. One part of this Area is taken up with very beautifull Buildings. The rest with a green and very thick Grove, whose Trees are of an extraordinary heighth; and render the place no less melancholy and gloomy to us, than it seems devout and venerable to the Insidels. It has five doors on the South side, three in the middle, like the Palace which are never open'd but when the King comes to sacrifice, and two of each side al­ways open, for admittance of all that go to the Temple. On the South and North side, there are seven separate Apartments: Six of which are Halls and Portals, as large and magnificent as those of the King's Palace. The seventh is a vast and high round Hall which represents Heaven, supported by fourscore and two Columns; the whole painted within side with Azure and Gold, and cover'd with Tiles varnshi'd with blew. In this Temple it is that the King sacrifices to Heaven upon the day, and at the very moment that the Sun comes to the Winter Solstice, attended by all the great Lords and Mandarins of the Court: and as for the Victims he offers, they are Oxen, Hogs, Goats and Sheep. Great preparations are made for the performance of this Ceremony, which is very solemn, and the Solemnity carry'd on with no less respect and humility. For then the Em­perour lays aside his Gold, his precious Stones and yellow Robes; appearing onely decently habited in a plain of Vestment of black or sky Colour Damask.

The second Temple is call'g Ti tam, or the Temple of the Earth. It stands toward the West [Page 331] at a distance answerable to that of the first; from which it differs nothing but onely that it is cover'd with Tiles varnish'd with green. When the King is Crown'd, before he takes possession of the Em­pire, he goes to this Temple where he sacrifices to the God of the Earth. Afterwards he puts on the Habit of a Ploughman, and with two Oxen with guilded Horns, and a Plough varnish'd with Vermillion and Streaks of Gold, he sets himself to plough a little piece of Ground that lies within the Enclosure of the Temple. While he is busie at his Labour, the Queen with her Ladies in another part dress him a poor and homely Dinner, which she brings him, and which they eat together. The ancient Chineses instituted this Ceremony, to the End their Kings might remember, that their Re­venues came from the Labour and Heat of the Peoples Brows; and therefore ought to be em­ploy'd in necessary Expences and for the good of the Kingdom, not in useless Buildings, exorbitant Sports and Pleasures, or superfluous Riot.

To the North of these two Temples, stand three more distant, two Chinese Furlongs from the Gates, and from the Walls on the North, East and West sides, and which are altogether like the two for­mer. That on the North side is call'd Pe tien tan, or the North Temple of Heaven. Here the King sacrifices at the time of the Summer Solstice: and at the time of the Vernal Equinox he sacrifices in the Eastern Temple, call'd Ge tam, or the Tem­ple of the Sun; and to the Autumnal Equinox in the Western Temple, which is call'd Yue tam, or the Temple of the Moon. But before the per­formance of these Sacrifices, the King commands a Fast for three Days to be observ'd in Pe kim, during which time they are forbid to eat either [Page 332] Flesh or Fish: Nor are the Tribunals, especially the Criminal to doe any business: Which some­what resembles our Fast of Ember-weeks. I ask'd a learned Man one day what benefit they hop'd to obtain by these Fasts and Sacrifices, and how they durst affirm that their King nor Queen ever sacrific'd publickly to Idols, since the Heaven, the Earth, the Sun and Moon were all inanimate Bo­dies, that no way merited Divine Honours and Sacri­fices, which belong'd onely to God by whom they were created. To which he reply'd that the word Heaven had two significations By the first was meant the material Heaven call'd Yeu him chi tien, which is that which we see, and of which we feel the effects, as we do also of the Sun, Moon and Stars: but the second signification intended the immaterial Heaven, call'd Yeu vu him chi tien, which has no shape or figure, and which is nothing but the Creatour and Principle of all things. This is the Heaven, added he, to which the Ancient Chineses address'd their Sacrifices and their Fasts, to appease his wrath, and return him thanks for the Benefits which continually they receive from him all the four Seasons of the year. But afterwards as men are naturally blockish and carnal min­ded, they forgot the true Lord of all things, and minded onely the material visible Heaven: Nevertheless, said he, when the King sacrific'd in the Temples of Heav'n, or Earth, the Sun or Moon, whose Names were onely us'd to distinguish the Sacrifices and the Seasons, he did not sacrifice to those Creatures as the People ima­gin'd, but to the spiritual Heaven.

The sixth Temple, standing in the old City, is call'd Ti vam miao, or the Temple of all the past Kings. This is a large and magnificent Palace, [Page 333] with many Apartments, Portals, Courts, and Halls, of which the last is as fair, as spacious, and as well adorn'd as those of the King's Palace. There you behold on rich Thrones, the Statues of all the Kings of China, good and bad, for four thousand five hunder'd twenty five years together, from the first King nam'd To hi, to the last call'd Xum chi the Father of the present Prince. This Tem­ple stands in the middle of one of the fairest Streets of the City. Which Street is fill'd up in two pla­ces by two Triumphal Arches with three Gates, high rais'd, majestick and worthy to be admir'd. All People that pass thorough this Street, of what quality so ever, alight and walk a foot when they come to these Arches, till they are past the Front of the Temple. Here the King performs his An­nual Ceremonies to his Predecessours once a year. But the Ceremonies which are observ'd both in this and all other Solemnities are so numerous, and of such various and different Sorts, that we should never make an end, should we go about to give a full accompt of them all. But the Reader may make an easie judgment of their Splendour, by what we have related▪

The seventh is call'd Chim hoam miao; or the Temple of the Spirit that guards the Walls. It stands within the City near the Walls, on the West side. The King never sacrifices in this Tem­ple, but the Mandarins onely. Nevertheless this Ceremony is accompted among the Royal Sacrifi­ces, as well for that the King is at the Charge, as because that he is the Man who names the Persons that are to sacrifice in this place. Moreover all the Cities of the Empire have such a Temple as this, and seated as this is; consecrated to the Spi­rit that guards the Walls, as if we should say, de­dicated [Page 334] to the Tutelary Angel of every City. Thus much for the Emperour's Temples. We are now to give an accompt of the Pomp and Mag­nificence of his Retinue, when he stirs out of his Palace.

There are two occasions that carry the Em­perour abroad out of his Palace. The first, when he goes a hunting, or to take the Air; which is lookt upon onely as a private Action; and then he is attended onely by his Guard, the Princes of the Blood, and other great Lords, who ride before, behind or on each side, according to their Degrees and Pre-eminency. This train does not consist of above two thousand Men, all on Horse-back, sump­tuous in their Habits, their Armes, and the trap­pings of their Horses; at what time you behold nothing but Silks, and Embroideries of Gold and Silver glittering with precious Stones. Certainly, if a Man do but consider it well, I question whe­ther any Prince upon the Earth ever appear'd in his common Cavalcades with a Pomp parallel to what we see at this Court, when the Em­perour comes forth out of his Palace onely to di­vertise himself in his Parks and Gardens, or onely to hunt for his pleasure in the Countrey.

The scond occasion is when the Emperour comes forth to perform any Sacrifice, or any publick Duty: and then his Procession is after this Man­ner.

  • First, appear twenty four Men with large Drums, in two rows or files of twelve a piece; as do all the rest that follow.
  • Secondly, twenty four Trumpets, twelve in a row. These Instruments are made of a certain Wood call'd V tum xu, highly valu'd by the Chine­ses, who say, that when the Bird of the Sun is [Page 335] desirous of repose, she pearches upon the Boughs of this Tree. These Trumpets are about three foot in length, and almost a hands breadth dia­meter at the Mouth. They are shap'd like a Bell, adorn'd with Circles of Gold, and pleasingly ac­cord with the noise and beat of the Drums.
  • Thirdly, twenty four men with long staves, twelve in a row: which staves are seven or eight foot in length varnish'd with red, and from one end to the other adorn'd with guilt Foliage.
  • Fourthly, a hunder'd Halbardeers, fifty in a row, with the heads of their Halbards in the form of a Crescent.
  • Fifthly, a hunder'd Men carrying Maces of guilt Wood, fifty in a row, with staves as long as a lance.
  • Sixthly, two Royal Poles call'd Cassi, varnish'd with red intermix'd with Flowers and gilt at both Ends.
  • Seventhly, four hunder'd large Lanthorns richly adorn'd, and all curious pieces of Workmanship.
  • Eighthly, four hunder'd Flambeaux, delicately trimm'd and carv'd, and made of a certain sort of Wood, that gives a great light that lasts long.
  • Ninthly, two hunder'd Lances, adorn'd below the steel heads, some with silk Fringes; others with the tails of Panthers, Wolves, Foxes, or o­ther Beasts.
  • Tenthly, twenty four Banners, upon which are painted the twenty four Signs of the Zodiack, which the Chineses divide into twenty four parts, whereas we divide it into no more than twelve.
  • 'Leventhly, fifty six Banners, wherein are pain­ted fifty six Constellations, under which the Chi­neses comprehend the whole Number of the Stars.
  • [Page 336]Twelfthly, two large Flabels, supported by long Poles, gilded and painted with various Fi­gures of the Sun, Dragons, Birds, and other Creatures.
  • Thirteenthly, twenty four Umbrello's richly a­dorn'd, and they that carry them, two and two together, as I said before.
  • Fourteenthly, eight Sorts of Utensils, for the King's ordinary Use and Occasions, as a Table Cloath, a Bason of Gold, and an Eure of the same Metal, with several other things of the same Nature.
  • Fifteenthly, ten Horses as white as Snow, with their Saddles and Bridles adorn'd with Gold, Pearls, and precious Stones.
  • Sixteenthly, a hunder'd Lanciers, and on both sides within side of them, the Pages of the Empe­rour's Chamber, and in the middle between them the Emperour himself with an Air majestick and grave, mounted upon a lovely Steed, and cover'd with a Parasol or Umbrello, beautifull and costly beyond the belief of those that never beheld it; and so large that it shades both the Emperour and his Horse.
  • Seventeenthly, the Princes of the Blood, the petty Kings, and a great Number of the most Emi­nent Lords, magnificently clad and rang'd on both sides, in ranks and files according to their Dig­nities.
  • Eighteenthly, five hunder'd young Gentlemen belonging to the Emperour, richly habited.
  • Nineteenthly, a thousand Men, five hunder'd in a Body, call'd Hiao guei, that is to say, Footmen, clad in red Robes, embroider'd with Flowers and Stars of Gold and Silver, with long streight plumes of feathers in their Bonnets.
  • [Page 337]Twentiethly, an open Chair or Litter carry'd by thirty six Men; attended by another close Litter, as big as a Chamber, and carry'd by a hun­der'd and twenty Men.
  • One and twentiethly, two vast Chariots each of them drawn by two Elephants.
  • Two and twentiethly, a large Chariot drawn by eight Horses, and another lesser, by four. All these Chariots are sumptuously lin'd, the Elephants and Horses richly caparison'd, and the Governours and Coachmen in costly Liveries, and every Lit­ter and every Chariot is attended by a Captain with fifty Souldiers.
  • Three and twentiethly, two thousand learned Mandarins, a thousand in a Body.
  • Four and twentiethly, two thousand Military Mandarins, both the one and the other gorgeously apparell'd in their Ceremony-Robes: and these last bring up the Emperour's Train, and conclude the Pomp.

Notes upon the twenty first Chapter.

And upon the Emperour's seven Temples standing in the two Cities.

  • Z. Five Temples seated in the new City. The first call'd Tien tam, or the Temple of Heaven; standing as our Authour says, two Chinese furlongs from the Principal Gate of the City, that is to say, from the South Gate, a little toward the East. It is encompass'd with a round Wall, three furlongs in Circumference: The rest is to be seen in the Plane. There the King sacrifices to the Winter Solstice. The four other Tem­ples are built altogether like the first. The second call'd Ti tam, or Temple of the Earth, is seated toward the West at a distance from the Principal Gate proportiona­ble to that of the first. Here the Emperour sacrifices to [Page 338] the God of the Earth upon the day of his Coronation. The third is about two Furlongs distant from the North Gate, and is call'd Pe tien tam, or the North Temple of Heaven. Here the King sacrifices to the Summer Solstice. The fourth is about two Furlongs distant from the East Gate; and is call'd Ge tam or the Temple of the Sun, where the King sacrifices to the Vernal Equinox. The fifth is two Furlongs distant from the Western Gate, and is call'd Yue tam, or the Temple of the Moon, where the King sacrifices to the Autumnal Equinox. If we must allow sixteen Fur­longs in length to the new City, according to the Opi­nion of F. Adam, these two Temples ought to be plac'd farther, to keep the same distance of two Furlongs from the East and West Gates.
    • 1. Two Temples standing on the old City. The first call'd Ti vam miao, or the Temple of all the deceas'd Kings: This is a spacious and magnificent Palace, in the chief great Room of State of which, are to be seen the Statues of all the Kings of China, good and bad, from King Fo hi seated all upon Thrones. Our Au­thour mentioning the Situation of it, says no more, than onely this, that it stands in one of the fairest Streets of the City between two Triumphal Arches, which are mark'd down in the Plane. So that this Temple must not be plac'd to the South of the Palace; in regard that space is taken up with the outermost Courts and first Apartments of the Palace. Nor did I think it proper to place it toward the West, in regard the fol­lowing Temple is plac'd there; nor toward the North which among the Chineses is the meanest place in the City, and therefore I have plac'd it toward the East, in the Street which is next the East Gate of the Palace.
    • 2. The second Temple is call'd Chim hoam miao, or the Temple of the Spirit that guards the Walls. I have plac'd it according to our Authour within side, [Page 339] and near to the Walls. Here the King never sacrifi­ces himself, but onely the Mandarins.
  • A A. The six supream Tribunals of the Learned Mandarins, describ'd by our Authour in Chap. 13. He says they are plac'd according to their Order, near the King's Palace upon the East side, so many spacious square Edifices which have every one three Divisions of Apartments, &c. I have very near represented them in the same manner, placing the first near the inner Apartments of the Palace where the Emperour himself resides.
  • The first, Li pu, has the Oversight of all the Man­darins of the Empire. Four inferiour Tribunals be­long to this, which assemble together in the same Pa­lace, in two Rows of Apartments, that are to be seen upon the right and left hand; the middlemost being appointed for the supream Tribunal. And it is the same thing with the other five, where the middlemost is still the supream, and the inferiour on each side.
  • A A 2. The second, Hu pu, has the Oversight of the Exchequer, with fourteen inferiour Tribunals; one for every one of the Provinces of China; that of Pe kim having no particular Tribunal, by reason of the Dignity of that Province where the Court resides.
  • A A 3. The third Tribunal, Li pu, that has the ordering of Ceremonies, Sciences, Arts, &c. with four inferiour Tribunals.
  • A A 4. The fourth Tribunal, Pim pu, that has the Care of Warlike Arms and Provisions, with four Tribunals under it.
  • A A 5. The fifth Tribunal, Him pu, that judges without appeal of all Crimes committed in the Empire, with fourteen Tribunals inferiour to it.
  • A A 6. The sixth Tribunal, which has the Oversight of the publick Works; with four Tribunals inferiour to it.
  • B B. The five Tribunals of the Military Manda­rins, [Page 340] seated to the West of the Royal Palace. Our Authour speaks nothing particularly either of their situation or fabrick: But 'tis very probable, they are all built like the former. The first which we may suppose to stand most to the North, Heu fu, or the Rere­gard. The second Tso fu, or the left Wing; the third Yeu fu, or the right Wing. The fourth Chum fu, or the main Battle. The fifth Cien fu, or the Vanguard.

    Neither does F. Magaillans speak any thing of the situation of many other Tribunals in Pe kim, of which he gives the Description. But most certainly they stand in those places, where he says in general, that there are Palaces and Tribunals in such Streets, as in the Street of Perpetual Repose, and in other parts mark'd down in the Plane.

    We have nothing to observe upon the Emperour's Pomp, when he stirs abroad out of his Palace, but onely this that the Description of Father Adam, is much after the same Manner.

THE END.

An Aridgment of the Life and Death of F. Ga­briel Magaillans, of the Society of Jesus, Missionary into China, written by F. Lewis Buglio, his inseparable Companion for six and thirty Years; and sent from Pe Kim in the Year 1677.

FATHER Gabriel de Magaillans, a Native of Portugal, was born in the year 1609. He spent his first years in the House of one of his Uncles who was a Canon, and who took care to educate him in Piety and the fear of God. After­wards [Page 341] he studied in the Schools of the Society of Iesus, in the famous University of Conimbre; where mov'd by the good example of those Fathers, he resolv'd to forsake the world, and was re­ceiv'd into the Society at seventeen years of age. Being as yet but a Noviciate, he begg'd leave that he might be sent to the Missions of the East Indies, which would not be granted him however, till he had compleated his Studies of Rhetorick and Phi­losophy. He arriv'd at Goa in the year 1634, where he was immediately employ'd to teach Rhetorick to the young Religious of the House. Two years afterwards he earnestly desir'd that he might be sent to the Mission of Iapan, which was with great reluctancy at length consented to, by his Superiours, in regard of the great progress which their Scholars made under such a Master. When he arriv'd at Macao, the Father Visiter or­der'd him to teach Philosophy, to which he there­upon began to settle himself: but at the same time there came a Christian Mandarin, who discharg'd him from that employment. And indeed the Fa­ther Visiter was willing to lay hold of the opportu­nity of such an Officer, by his means to get the liberty of sending a person of merit into China, to assist the Missionaries there. For at that time there was no person in the whole Colledge who was proper for that Countrey. Which was the reason that F. Magaillans, observing so favourable a conjuncture, earnestly begg'd the Employment, which was granted him as soon. Thereupon he departed with the Mandarin, and arriv'd at the City of Han Cheu, the Metropolis of the Province of Che Kiam, where the Vice Provincial then resi­ded. At the same time also there came Intelligence from the Province of Su chuen, that Father Lewis Buglio, who was gone to lay the Foundations of a [Page 342] Mission there, was fallen sick and wanted a Com­panion. Thereupon Father Magaillans offer'd himself and obtain'd leave to goe and assist him; and though it were a Journey of above four months from Ham cheu, to the Capital City of Suchuen, nevertheless he fortunately arriv'd there, and became a great help to Father Buglio; and then it was that he apply'd himself with great Industry to the study of the Chinese Language and Letters, which he learnt with an extraordinary ease.

Two years after, there happen'd a violent Per­secution against the Preachers of the Gospel, rais'd by the Bonzes of that Province, who assembling together in great numbers from the neighbouring Cities, accus'd the Fathers of Rebellion in all the Tribunals of that Metropolis. The chief Manda­rin therefore of the Tribunal of Crimes fearing a Revolt, at a time when the Kingdom was tur­moil'd with several Insurrections, order'd that the Fathers should be well drubb'd, and then expell'd out of the limits of the Province. But they put­ting their confidence in God's assistance, and the protection of the Mandarins, of which the greatest part were their Friends, would not forsake their Station. Thereupon the Bonzes hung up Libels every day in the principal Quarters of the City, against the Fathers; as also against the Mandarins. But one of the Military Mandarins, who was a Christian, took care to have them pull'd down by the Souldiers. On the other side, the Fathers writ several Books, wherein they explain'd and asserted the truth of their Faith, and refell'd the Impostures of their Adversaries. This Persecution lasted three months; but then the Bonzes, whe­ther it were that they were afraid of the Manda­rins who protected the Fathers, or whether they [Page 343] wanted money to maintain them any longer in the Capital City, retir'd home one after another; and then the Governour of the City, who favour'd the Fathers, discharg'd the Superiour of the Bon­zes from his Employment; which put all the rest to silence, and absolutely stifl'd that uproar.

In a short time after, they were expos'd to a Persecution much more formidable than the for­mer. For the Rebel Cham hien chum, follow'd by a numerous Army, and filling all places where he came with fire and slaughter, advanc'd toward the Capital to make himself Master of the place, and there take upon him the Title of Em­perour of China, as he really did. Upon this, a great number of people fled for shelter to the Mountains, and the Fathers among the rest, with a resolution to expect the issue of these disorders. In the mean time the Rebel took the Capital City, where he made a bloody havock; and three months after understanding that great numbers of people were fled to the Mountains, and among the rest the Fathers, he sent several Companies of Souldiers who brought back a considerable part of the people, of which number were the Fathers. But when they came into his presence he receiv'd them with extraordinary honours, and promis'd them that as soon as he had secur'd himself in the quiet possession of the Empire, he would erect magnificent Churches in honour of the God of Heaven. In the mean time he gave them a mag­nificent House, where the Fathers hung up the Picture of our Saviour, and baptiz'd several per­sons, and among the rest the Tyrants Father in law. And indeed, during the three years that he usurpt the Government, for the first year he behav'd himself with much Justice and Liberality. But being provok'd by several Insurrections in several [Page 344] parts, he resolv'd to subdue the Province of Xen si, the Inhabitants of which are a warlike sort of people, and before his departure so to secure the Province of Suchuen, that it should not be in a con­dition to revolt. In pursuance of which cruel re­solution, he put to death an infinite number of people by all manner of Torments. Some were cut into quarters, others flead alive, others were cut in pieces by bits, and others were mangl'd, but not suffer'd to dye. A hundred and forty thousand Souldiers also of the Province of Suchuen he caus'd to be massaker'd, so that the Province was almost depopulated. Thereupon the Fathers observing these horrid Butcheries, and despairing to make any farther progress under the Govern­ment of so barbarous a Tyrant, presented a Peti­tion to him, wherein they desir'd leave to retire till the troubles that harrass'd the Kingdom were appeas'd. But the Tyrant was so enrag'd at this Petition, that about two hours after he sent for the Domestick Servants belonging to the Fathers, and order'd them to be flead alive; accusing them that they had instill'd those thoughts into their Ma­sters heads. Presently the Fathers hasten'd to save their lives, and told the Tyrant, which was no more than the truth, that those poor people had not the least knowledge of their design. However after some discourse, the Barbarian order'd the Fa­thers to be lay'd hold of, and carry'd to the place of execution and there to be cut in pieces. Which had been executed, if his Chief General, who was his adopted Son, had not, while they were leading to the place of torment, by his Arguments and his Intercessions obtain'd their pardon. Thereupon the Tyrant sent away with all speed to have them brought back again into his presence, where after he had loaded them with ill language and Reproa­ches, [Page 345] he committed them to the custody of certain Souldiers, with orders to guard them day and night. In which condition they remain'd for a whole month, at the end of which he sent for them one morning into his presence. They found him then very bloodily employ'd in giving Orders for the putting to death a great number of per­sons, and verily believ'd that their last hour had been at hand. But at the same time it was the will of God, that the Scouts came in one after another, bringing intelligence that some of the avant Couriers of the Tartars Vanguard were at hand. But the Tyrant, not giving credit to their Intelli­gence, would needs mount without his Arms, and attended onely by some of his most faithfull Friends, rode forth to make a farther discovery of the Ene­my himself, at what time being forc'd to a Skirmish, he was at the beginning of the Fight shot through the Heart with an Arrow. Thus the Fathers finding themselves at liberty by the death of the Tyrant, resolv'd to retire to their House. But by the way they met a Troop of Tartars that shot several Ar­rows at them, insomuch that F. Magaillans was shot quite through the Arm, and F. Buglio into the Thigh, where the head of the Arrow stuck very deep in the Flesh: so that although F. Magaillans made use of his Teeth to pull it out he could not. Till looking about him in that extremity, he spy'd at last a pair of Pincers lying in a blind place to which they had retir'd for shelter, by the help of which he drew the Arrow out of the wound, not without great loss of blood.

The same Evening they were presented to the Prince who commanded the Army, who being in­form'd what they were, entertain'd them with an extraordinary civility, and order'd two Lords to take care to furnish them with all things necessary▪ [Page 346] However, The Fathers underwent great hard­ships, for above a year together that they follow'd the Army, till they came to Pe Kim, more especi­ally for want of Victuals, of which there was great scarcity in the Army for some time: so that F. Ma­gaillans was constrain'd for three months to live upon a small quantity of Rice onely boil'd in fair water. But upon their arrival at Court, the Tri­bunal of Ceremonies, which takes care of all Strangers, caus'd them to be lodg'd in the Royal Hostery, with a large allowance of Provision for their entertainment. There they resided two years, which being expir'd, a Person of Quality was commanded to take care of their Entertain­ment. During all which time they employ'd them­selves in preaching the Gospel, and baptiz'd several persons. They continu'd seven years at Court, before they were known to the King. But then the Prince understanding who they were, was extreamly joyfull at their preservation, and gave them a House, a Church, Revenues, and Money to buy them Vestments. Thereupon F. Magail­lans, in testimony of his Gratitude to the King for so many Favours, employ'd himself day and night in making several curious and ingenious pieces of Art to please him; yet not so, but that he was no less diligent in the Conversion of Souls, as well by preaching as by writing. He also wrote seve­ral Relations, and translated the Book of St. Tho­mas Aquinas concerning the Resurrection of the Body, which was receiv'd with great applause.

After a Reign of eight years the King dy'd; and because his Son, who is the present Em­perour, was very young, he appointed four Pro­tectors to govern the Empire during the Son's mi­nority. Now at the beginning of their Regency, some Footmen belonging to a Christian Mandarin, [Page 347] to revenge themselves upon their Master, against whom they were highly incens'd, falsly accus'd F. Magaillans to have given Presents in favour of that Mandarin, who was put out of his Employ­ment; which is a great Crime in China. There­upon the Father was carry'd before the Criminal Tribunal, where he was put to the Rack two times, by the squeezing of both his Feet in a Press, which though it were a hideous Pain, yet the Fa­ther endur'd it with a constant Resolution, nor would be brought to confess a thing of which he was not guilty. Nevertheless the Judges contra­ry to all Justice, condemn'd him to be strangl'd, and sent their sentence, according to custom, to the four Regents. But they, as well for that he was a stranger, as because they were satisfi'd of his Innocency, acquitted him, and restor'd him to his Liberty.

Three years after, in the Persecution which all the Fathers suffer'd for Religion, he was apprehen­ded with others, and loaden for four whole months together with nine Chains, three about his Neck, three about his Arms, and three about his Lggs: He was also condemn'd to have forty Lashes, and to be banish'd out of Tartary as long as he liv'd. But a great Earth Quake that happen'd at that time at Pekim, deliver'd both him and the rest of his Companions. Afterwards for several years together, he made it his business as well to perform the actual Functions of the Mission, as to pleasure the Reigning Prince, who had taken possession of the Government, with his ingenious Inventions: labouring like an ordinary Mechanick, to the end that the favour of the Prince might be a means to maintain and augment the Faith; which was the Fathers onely aim.

Three years before his Death, the wounds [Page 348] which he receiv'd in his Feet, when he was put upon the Rack broke out again, which he en­dur'd with an extraordinary Patience. Two Months before he dy'd, these pains were accom­pany'd with defluxions that stopt his Respirati­on; so that he was constrain'd to sleep sitting up in a Chair for fear of being choak'd; which was the reason that many times he never shut his Eyes for several nights together. He wanted for no­thing during his Sickness, but no Remedies could surmount the force of the Distemper, which dayly encreas'd; so that upon the sixth of May, in the year 1677, between six and seven a Clock in the Evening, as he sat in his Chair, and the Distem­per urging still with more violence, he sent for the Fathers who gave him the Viaticum and extream Unction, after he had some days before made a general Confession. And so about eight a Clock he placidly surrender'd his Soul to his Creatour, in the presence of all the Fathers, the Servants, the Neighbours, and several Christian Mandarins, who could not forbear weeping at his departure. The next day F. Verbiest, now Vice Provincial of this Mission, went betimes in the Morning to give notice to the King of the Death of the Fa­ther. The Prince bid him return home, whither he in a very short time would send him his own Or­ders what to do. Accordingly within half an hour, he sent three Persons the most considerable in his Court, with an Elogy in honour of the Father, two hundred Taels, or about fourscore pounds, and ten great pieces of Damask for his Shroud, with command to perform all the customary Ce­remonies before the Corps of the Deceas'd, and to bewail him after the usual manner, which the two Messengers did, shedding a great number of Tears in the presence of the whole Assembly.

[Page 349]The Elegy which the King gave the Father was in these words.

‘I understand that Nghan uen su (for by that Name they call'd the Father in China) is dead of a Distemper. I make him this writing, in con­sideration that while my Father liv'd who was the first Emperour of our Family, this same Ho­ly Person by his ingenious Pieces of Art delight­ed the genious and humour of my Father; and for that after they were invented he took care to preserve them with an extraordinary Indus­try, and beyond his Strength. But more espe­cially for that he came from a Region so far dis­tant, and on the other side of the Sea to abide several years in China. He was a Man truly sincere and of a solid Wit, as he made appear during the whole Course of his Life. I was in good hopes his Disease might have been overcome by Remedies. But contrary to my Expectation he is remov'd for ever from us, to the great sorrow and sensible grief of my heart. For that reason, I make him a Present of two hunder'd Crowns, and ten large Pieces of Da­mask, to shew that my design is never to for­get our Vassals that repair to us from Places so remote.’

Below was written, the Emperour's words.

The sixtteenth year of the Emperour Cam hi, the sixth day of the fourth Moon, which answers to the seventh of May, in the year of Christ 1677. the next day after the Father's death.

This Elogy was printed, as also an abstract of the Life of the Father, and giv'n about to all the Princes, great Lords, Mandarins, to our Friends, and all that were Christians. Which was of great consequence and mainly contributory to the Cre­dit and Reputation of our sacred Law, when the [Page 350] World should understand the high Esteem which the King had of the Preachers of the Gospel.

Two days after, the King sent again the three same Persons to weep before the Corps of the de­ceas'd, because he had order'd them to accompany it to the Grave: which was an extraordinary Ho­nour. However the Fathers had not as yet given notice to their Friends of his death, for fear of the disturbance it would be to their Minds: and yet there was a great Concourse of Friends and Man­darins, who came with their Presents to perform the usual Ceremonies; while others sent their Elo­gies and Encomiums upon the Father, written up on white Satin.

Some days before he was buried, the same three Persons came to tell us, that it was the King's plea­sure, his Funeral should be very magnificent. So that the Fathers as well to conform themselves to the Will of the Prince, as to shew their high value of the Elogy which the Prince had sent them, made more than ordinary preparations.

Upon the day of the Funeral, the same three Persons came in very good time to accompany the Corps, according to the King's command. There came also a great Number of Mandarins, Acquain­tance and other Persons to pay the same respects. And as for the Ceremony it was perform'd after the following Manner.

Ten Souldiers march'd before with their Armes to clear the Streets; they were follow'd by ten Ushers of several Tribunals, that carry'd Tablets, wherein was written an Order of the Mandarins, to give way, under pain of punishment. Twenty four Trumpeters and Hoeboys, with several Sorts of other Instruments follow'd them, and preceded the King's Elogy that was written upon yellow Satin, and carry'd in a Litter, surrounded with four and [Page 351] twenty Pieces of Satin of various Colours. This Elogy was attended by several Christian Eunuchs, of which there were some that waited upon the King's Person. Afterwards appear'd three other Litters adorn'd with several Pieces of Silk. In the first was carry'd the Cross, in the second the Picture of the Holy Virgin, and in the third the Picture of St. Michael. These Litters observ'd a convenient distance one from the other, and in the spaces between there went a great number of Christians, of which some carry'd Lantherns, some Banners, and others Censors, others carry'd wax Tapers, sweet Odours and other things. Af­ter that in another Banner was carry'd the Por­traiture of the Father surrounded with Pieces of Silk, which the King had order'd to be drawn to the Life three years before, together with the Pictures of all the rest of the Fathers, by a famous Painter of the Palace. This Picture was attended by a great Multitude of Christians, among which there were above threescore in Mourning. The Fathers came last and just before the stately Cof­fin; which was [...]t into an Herse varnish'd over with God and Vermillion, under a Canopy of a rich Piece of red Velvet, which was environ'd with certain Pieces of white and blew Damask, and was the King's gift. The Coffin was car­ry'd by seventy Men, who had every one a Mourning Bonnet upon their Heads, and the number of those that follow'd the Coffin was so great, that the Front was distant from the Rear above a Mile. When they came to the place of Enterrment, the Responses were Sung, with other usual Prayers and Ceremonies of the Chris­tians. To which purpose eight Christian Manda­rins in Surplices assisted the Father that perform'd the Office. The Christians also Sung with great [Page 352] Devotion, the Letanies of the Holy Virgin, and then the Body was put into a Sepulchre made of Brick. So soon as the Ceremony was over, you might hear the Lamentations and Moans of the whole Assembly accompany'd with Tears that shew'd the reality of their grief; the three Persons also sent from the Emperour perform'd their parts. And three days after they return'd by the King's Order, and pay'd the same Funeral respects as upon the burial day.

Never was seen in this Court a Funeral so Magnificent, whether you consider the Multitude of those that were at it, their Modesty, their Tears, and their sincere sorrow, or the Honours done to the Party Deceas'd by the King, and the Elogy which he gave him, contrary to the usual custom. So highly had this good Father merited all a long the marks of esteem that were bestow'd upon him, by the Modesty which he shew'd in all his Actions, by his extream charity for all the World, and particularly toward the Poor, by his Affabi­lity to all sorts of Persons, by the hardship which he suffer'd for the love of God [...]d his Zeal for the Advancement of the Christian Religion, though at the expence of his Life and Reputation.

The King understanding by the Persons whom he had deputed to be present at the Ceremony, the Solemnity of the Funeral, and with what Pomp and Decency it had been perform'd, was extreamly satisfi'd; so that when the Fathers went to return their thanks to his Majesty, he made them approach very near his Person, en­tertain'd them with a particular sweetness and favour, and chear'd them for their loss, with ex­pressions full of goodness and sincerity.

FINIS.

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