ANNOTATIONS ON MILTON's Paradise Lost.

WHEREIN The Texts of Sacred Writ, relating to the POEM, are Quoted; The Parallel Places and Imitations of the most Excellent Homer and Virgil, Cited and Compared; All the Obscure Parts render'd in Phrases more Familiar; The Old and Obsolete Words, with their Originals, Explain'd and made Easie to the English Reader.

By P. H. [...].

Uni, cedit MILTONUS, Homero Propter Mille annos. Juv. vii. 38.

LONDON, Printed for Jacob Tonson, at the Judges Head near the Inner-Temple-Gate in Fleet-street, MDCXCV.

NOTES On MILTON's PARADISE Lost.
BOOK I.

PARADISE, [...], is a word of Persian Extraction, whence the Jews bor­rowed it, and of them the Grecians: Though they who affect such Gingles, de­rive [...]. from [...], to water round about; because it was a Place, according to the Description of Moses, watered by some of the most famous Ri­vers of the World. This adopted Hebrew word is found but in three places in the Old Testament, Eccles. 2. v. 5. Nehem. 2. v. 8. and Cantic. 8. v. 13. where it is styled a Paradise of Pomegranates; expressive every where of a Place of the greatest Perfection, Pleasure, Plenty and Delight imaginable. Xenophon tells us of divers Paradises, (like Fortu­nate Islands) encompassed by Euphrates; and Phil. in Vit. Apoll. mentions Many, in which not only the choicest Trees and Fruits, the most sweet and beautiful Flowers, the most fragrant and lasting Greens, but Multitudes of living Creatures of the selectest sorts were enclosed; whence Aul. Gell. Est autem Paradisus, omnis locus amaenissimus, & voluptatis ple­nissimus, quem etiam vivaria dici à Latinis, l. 2. c. 20. Noct. Alt.

That Paradise was not Allegorical or Figurative, (according to Origen, St. Ambrose and others) is not only confirmed by the general Consent of the Greek and Latin Fathers; nor Fantastical, according to the Jewish Cabbala: But a part of Asia, where Babylon was af­terwards built, and known by the Name of Mesopotamia, as lying between the Euphrates and the Tygris; both the Description of Moses, the Nature of the Soil, and the Compari­son of many places of Scripture most evidently make out. Of the Fertility of the Coun­try, Q. Curtius gives this Testimony, Resudat toto ferè solo humor, qui ex utroque amne (Eu­phrate & Tigri) manat per aquarum vends, & solo Babylonico foelicitatem affert maximam.

In this Garden of God, as it is called Gen. 13. 10. abounding with all things, the choicest and most excellent the Earth ever bore, God seated our great Progenitors, in a Condi­tion so superlatively happy, that our blessed Saviour was pleased by it to Typifie the high and happy State of Everlasting Life, Luk. 23. 43. This day thou shalt be with me in Pa­radise.

The Forfeiture of this Innocent and Blissful Seat, by the Disobedience of our first Pa­rents, and their deserved Expulsion out of this Paradise, is the sad Subject of this un­parallell'd Poem.

V. 2. The Fruit of that Forbidden Tree. It imports not much to know, nor can it be de­termined, what kind this Interdicted Tree was of, the Prohibition having no regard to, or influence on, its Fruit, more than that it was made the Trial of Man's entire Obedience to his Maker. Moses Barcepha endeavours to prove it a Fig-Tree, because the Offenders had its Leaves so ready at hand to cover their Nakedness, Gen. 3. 7. But this implies no more, than that a Tree of that kind, stood in its dangerous Neighborhood. It seemeth on the contrary, not reasonable to imagine, Adam should presume to cloath his Naked­ness, the Consequence of his Offence, with the Leaves of the same Tree, the Eating of [Page 2] whose Fruit had been the cause of his Offending; especially when according to Gen. 3. 3. the Prohibition was so strict and severe, that it had been a Daring second to his shameful Sin, but to have touch'd that sacred Tree; sacred (as our Author tells us) to Abstinence, secluded and set apart from all Enjoyment.

The common Opinion, That this Tree so set apart, and secluded by God's Command, was an Apple-Tree, is weakly grounded on Cantic. 8. 5. [...] &c. sub arbore malo suscitavi te. Ibi corrupta est mater tua, ibi violata est genetrix tua, more expressive of the Original than our Translation, I raised thee up under an Apple-Tree, there thy Mother con­ceived thee, there she conceived that bare thee: But this excellent Song is wholly Allegorical, and not to be literally understood.

V. 2. Whose mortal taste; Mortalis, Lat. deadly: The taste of this Forbidden Fruit is called Deadly, not as such in its own Nature, and therefore prohibited; but by the Pro­hibition, being made the Test of Man's Obedience, became pernicious to him by violating his Creator's Command, and brought forth Death and Hell.

V. 4. With loss of EDEN; Of Paradise, which by God was planted Eastward in Eden, as to the place where Moses wrote, Gen. 2. 8. though [...], signifies Pleasure and Delight, from whence perhaps the Greek [...], and also Adonis horti, from some knowledge the Ancient Poets had of the Writings of Moses and this Garden of Eden. And although St. Hierom, and after him Cajetan and others, and in some places the LXX (though not in this) translate Eden, Pleasure, as Gen. 2. 8. Plantaverat autem Dominus Deus Paradisum voluptatis, yet undoubtedly Eden is here the proper Name of a Region, as will be more evident from Gen. 4. 16. Ezech. 27. 23. Isai. 37. 12.

Divers have been the Opinions of Men, and Many, even of the Learned, absurd enough, concerning the Site of this Terrestrial Paradise: Some have fancied it in the Moon, others beyond an Unnavigable Ocean, others under the Equinox; some, near the North-Pole; others, above the middle Region of the Air: But the Learned Sir Walt. Rawleigh plainly proves, God planted this Delightful Garden in Eden, (Eastward in respect of Judaea) which was afterwards called Mesopotamia, where Tygris and Euphrates joyn their Streams, and taking several Courses water Chus and Havilah according to Moses, the Seat of Chus and his Sons being then in the Valley of Shinar, where Nimrod built Babel. A Climate of all others the most temperate, 35 Degrees from the Equinoxial, and 55 from the Pole; abounding with most Excellent Wines, Fruits, Oyl, and Grain of all sorts, where, as the most perfect proof of Fertility, Palm-Trees grow in great numbers at this Day, without Care or Cultivation.

Ibid. One greater Man, the Man Christ Jesus, much greater than the Protoplast Adam, as being both God and Man, the perfect Image of his Father, who fulfill'd all Righteous­ness, and was made a Propitiation for us.

V. 6. Sing, Heav'nly Muse: Inform me, Heavenly Muse, who didst instruct the Shep­herd Moses, who first taught the Sons of Israel, how the Heavens and Earth were made, and how this Beauteous Universe arose in such bright various Forms out of Confusion.

The Poets, Ancient and Modern, in the beginning of their most Considerable Works at least, call some one, or all, the Muses to their Assistance:

[...].
[...].

Musa, mihi causas memora a AEn. 1. Nunc age qui Reges Erato, &c. Tu vatem, tu, diva, mone, AEn. 7. Pandite nunc Helicona, deae, cantusque movete, AEn. 10.

So one of our own:

Begin then, O my dearest, sacred Dame,
Daughter of Phoebus and of Memory,
That dost Ennoble, with Immortal Name,
The Warlike Worthies of Antiquity,
In thy great Volume of Eternity.
Begin, O Clio, &c. Spen. B. 3. C. 3.

As our Author has attempted agreater Undertaking than that of either of those two Master-Poets, so he had need to Invoke this Heavenly Muse, whom a little after he explains by God's Holy Spirit, to inspire and assist him: And well he might, being to sing, not only of the Beauteous Universe, and all Created Beings, but of the Creator Himself, and all those Revelations and Dispensations He had been pleased to make to Faln Man through the Great Redeemer of the World, His Son. This Argument might need a Divine In­structress, preferable to any of their Invoked Assistants, though styled [...], the Daughters of Jove.

[Page 3] The Christian Poet, the famous Torquato Tasso, the Darling of discerning Italy, begins his Exordium,

O Musa, tu che di caduchi allori,
Non circondi la fronte in Helicona
Ma sù nel Cielo infra i beati Chori,
Hai di stelle immortali aurea Corona,
Tu spira al petto mio Celesti ardore, &c.

These are the choicest Lines that adorn his Invocation; in which, though he calls to his Assistance the same Heavenly Spirit, yet we shall find him fall short of our Poet, both as to the Sublimity of his Thoughts and Argument, as much as Helicon is inferiour to Horeb, and that he had but too just occasion to ask Pardon (as he does in the end of this Stanza) for mixing and intangling Truth with vain Fiction.

Ibid. Muse, Lat. Musa, from Greek [...], ab inquisitione.

V. 7. Oreb, or of Sinai. The Poets use to mention their Parnassus, the Famous Haunt of the Muses; ours opposes to it his Oreb, Nam neque Parnassi vobis juga, nam neque Pindi Vlla moram fecere, Virg. Ecl. 10. Horeb and Sinai are not two distinct Mountains, but One variously so called, as Deut. 5. 2. The Lord our God made a Covenant with us in Oreb; and Exod. 19. 2, 3, 4. c.& the same Place, in which the Law (God's Covenant with the Jews) was given and promulged, is named Sinai. It is a Mountain of Arabia Petraea, parted at the top into two Hills, of which Sinai is much the highest. The Jews tell us, this later Appellation was given the Mountain, in Memory of the Bush in which God ap­peared to Moses, Exod. 3. 2. who calls Himself [...], Inhabitant is rubum, Deut. 33. 16. And the Rabbins confidently assure us, the very Fragments of Stones gathered on this Mountain, shew the Image of that Incombustible Bush, whence it was named [...] before that called only Horeb.

Its Top or Summity is said to be secret, either as hid among the Clouds, or rather from that thick Darkness which cover'd the Mount, when God spake there with his Ser­vant Moses, as in private, Exod. 19. 16. In Memory of which, it is by the Arabians named at this Day Gibel-Mousa, the Mountain of Moses.

V. 8. That Shepherd, Moses, Exod. 3. 1. though he was also in Homer's sense [...], God having led his People through the Wilderness by the Hands of Moses and Aaron.

Ibid. Who first taught, That the Mosaical Philosophy is most Ancient, is not only very certain, but that all the Heathen Poets, and their greatest Philosophers too, borrowed their Description of the Chaos, and what they delivered of the first Formation of Matter from the Creation, as delineated by Moses, whose Writings many of them saw, though they did not understand them. Hence Mercur. Trismegist. in his Pimand. 3. gives us this Relation; Erant Tenebrae infinitae in Abysso & Aqua, & Spiritus tenuis intelligibilis, quae di­vinâ virtute er ant in ipso Chao. And Plato in Timaeo, discoursing of the Fabrication of the World; Quicquid erat non tranquillum & quietum, sed immoderatè agitatum & quasi fluctu­ans, id assumpsit, & ex inordinato ad ordinem adduxit, &c. These, and many such, are the obscure Comments on the [...] of Moses, Gen. 1. 2. signifying Desolation and Emptiness, though we read it without form and void, and the LXX translate it [...], invisible.

Ibid. The chosen Seed, the Israelites, the Seed of Abraham, God's chosen People, Exod. 19. 5.

V. 10. Rose out of Chaos. Chaos is a wide, dark, gaping Gulph, a vast unfathomable Deep, by which the Poets express the Confusion of uninformed Matter, out of which, at the Creator's Word, this Wonderful World arose.

Unus erat toto Naturae vultus in Orbe
Quem dixere Chaos, rudis indigestaque Moles. Meta. Li. 1.
Et Chaos innumeros avidum confundere Mundos. Luc. Li. 6.
Antiquum repetent iterum Chaos omnia, &c. Luc. Li. 1.

Chaos is, by Hesiod in his [...], made the Ancestor of the Gods, whose Progenitors he names Chaos, the Earth and Love; thereby intimating the Beginning of all things, as Virg. uses the word, áque Chao densos divum numerabat amores. Geo. Li. 4.

This Original Chaos is by some fancied from [...], to gape; by Philo demundo from [...], as being a Mixture of fluid Matter. Eugub. in his Cosmopoeiâ, take notices of the small difference between [...], (the word the Greek Philosophers express the Worlds first Matter by) and [...], Mud and Slime, where all things lay wrapt and swallowed up in the Womb of Water.

[Page 4] Ibid. Sion-Hill, a Mountain in Jerusalem: On this Hill stood the Strong-hold of the Jebusites, which King David took, 2 Sam. 5. 7. and made it the place of his Residence, and named it The City of David; which, when Jerusalem was in its greatest Glory, was called the Upper City.

V. 11. Siloa was a small Brook, as appears by Isai. 8. 6. arising on the East-side of the Temple in Jerusalem; of which, the Tower our Saviour mentions Luc. 13. 4. probably took its Name.

V. 12. Fast by the Oracle of God, close by God's Temple, (as before) where he gave his Sacred Oracles; Oracula, Lat.

V. 13. Invoke, pray, call upon, from invocare, Lat. to call for help, adventrous, bold, daring, from Fr. adventureux, couragious.

V. 14. To soar, to get up, to take a high flight, from sorare, It. to fly high.

V. 15. Th' Aonian Mount, is in Boeotia, (a Province of Greece) made famous by the Poets for a Meeting of the Muses. The Country was first named Aonia from Aon, Son of Nep­tune and the Muses, thence styled Aonides. Primus ego in Patriam mecum, (modò vita su­persit) Aonio rediens deducam vertice Musas. Geor. Li. 3.

V. 16. Things unattempted yet, so Hora. Non usitata nec tenui ferar penna; but not on so sublime a Subject as this, not undertaken as yet by any Poet: As in the beginning of the Ninth Book, he says of himself, he was not sedulous by Nature to indite Wars, hitherto the only Argument, Heroic deem'd,—trita vatibus orbita. So Virg. on a Subject much inferiour makes his Brags,

Sed me Parnassi deserta per ardua, dulcis
Raptat amor: Juvat ire jugis, qua nulla priorum
Castaliam molli divertitur orbita clivo. Geor. 3.

Ibid. In Prose or Rhime, either in Prose or Poetry, Prosa, Lat. for that free and easie way of writing and speaking, unshackled and unconfined in its Parts and Periods, used by Orators, Historians, and all Men in common Conversation, styled Soluta Oratio, as op­posite to Rhime, derived of the Greek [...], consisting of a more exact Measure and Quantity of Syllables, of which Aristotle says, [...], in Probl. [...] autem longitudines, & al­titudines vocis emetitur, longior mensura vocis [...] dicitur, altior [...], Aul. Gell. l. 15. c. 18. Scribimus inclusi, numeros ille, hic pede liber, Pers. Sat. 1.

Poetry (of which Rhime is a Modern part) is tied up to certain Measures and Quan­tities, which, among the Greek and Latin Poets, (till the times of Monkish Ignorance) con­sisted in an Harmonious Modulation of Numbers, that implyed nothing less than the in­convenient gingle and chime at the ends of Verses, which we falsly call Rhime; so de­servedly disdained by our Author, for the shackles it puts upon Sense; no Comparison better suiting such Poetasters than that of Tagging of Points in a Garret.

V. 17. O Spirit. Divers are the Opinions concerning the meaning of Gen. 1. 2. The Spirit of God moved upon the Waters. Jerom, Basil, Theodoret, Athanasius, and many of the Fathers, understand it of the third Person of the Trinity: From hence the Heathen Phi­losophers coined their quickning and intellectual Spirit, that diffused it self through the Universe, as Zoroaster and Heraclitus, which Orpheus calls [...], a fiery Breath: Hence the Platonists borrowed their Animam Mund [...] and the Pythagoreans learnt this great Truth, That God was all in all, in all Things and all Places; admirably exprest by the sublime Virgil;

—Deum namque ire per omnes
Terrasque tractusque Maris, Coelumque profundum. Geor. 4.
Principio Coelum, & Terras. Camposque liquentes,
Lucentemque Globum Lunae, Titaniaque Astra
Spiritus intus alit, totamque infusa per ar [...]us
Mens agitat Molem, & Magno se corpore miscet. AEn. 6.

That this Spirit was not a Wind, which God made to move the Waters into a Separa­tion, as Tertull. against Hermogenes; nor a quickning enlivening Power fraught with Fe­cundity, as St. Chrysost. Nor Angels (as Cajetan imagines) setting the Primum Mobile on work: But the Spirit of God, is manifest from other Texts of the Divine Writ: His Spirit has garnish'd the Heavens, Job 26. 13. And Psal. 104. 30. If thou sendest forth thy Spirit, they are created, &c. And to this our Author's meaning is conformable here.

V. 21. Dove-like sat'st brooding. Spiritus Dei ferebatur super aquas, Gen. 1. 2. which Basil, out of a Syrian Doctor, interprets by incubabat and f [...]vebat, a Metaphor taken from Birds sitting and hatching their young ones, which is here extreamly heightned by Dove­like, [Page 5] God's Holy Spirit having visibly descended on his Son, the Blessed Jesus, in that soft Similitude, the Emblem of Meekness and Innocence, Matth. 3. 16.

Ibid. On the vast Abyss, [...], Gr. Bottomless, the Immeasurable Deep, a Bottom­less Profundity, the vast Gulph and wide Womb of Nature, out of which the Created World arose, from the privitive à and [...], Bottom. Others fetch it from [...], to co­ver, and so it signifies a place overwhelmed with a mighty unfathomable Quantity of Water, the meaning of it in this place, and that of Gen. 1. 2.

V. 22. Mad'st it pregnant; Fruitful, productive of all things; Praegnans, Lat.

V. 23. Illumin; Illuminate, enlighten, clear my Understanding; Illumino, Lat.

V. 25. Assert Eternal Providence; Prove and make plain the wise, just and equal Ad­ministration of all things, by God's Eternal Providence: Assert, from assero, Lat. to af­firm, to prove.

Ibid. Providence; Providentia, Lat. the Infinite Knowledge and Wisdom of God Al­mighty, by which he foresees all things, and orders and disposes them, as seemeth best to his unaccountable Distributions.

Cicero acquaints us, the Exordiums and Beginnings of all great Works, should be plain, easie and modest; Principia verecunda, non elatis intensa verbis, &c. Orat. which our Au­thor has in his exactly observed. Now, if we cast our Eyes on the stern Achilles, and consider his fatal Anger, so pernicious to his Party: Or on the sly and subtil Ulysses, who, with all his Cunning, after Ten Years Ramble, brought home no Body but himself, weary, weather-beaten and old: We must confess, both these to be very imperfect and unfinished Heroes. Virgil's AEneas is a more Correct and Manly Piece, the Lines are not so gross, and the Features more fine and exact, yet this must be allowed much inferiour to the Protoplast, who, as the first, and finish'd by the great Creator, must needs be the most accomplish'd of his kind.

If we carry our Consideration to the Fields of Battel, our Myriads of Immortal Spirits, will, in endless Strife, out-do all the Heroick Havock of their Rage, who fought at Thebes or Troy. But when we reflect how shamefully the one exposes all his Deities, though the other in that respect much better observes the [...], it must be acknowledged, a much harder Task to form a right Idea of that Eternal Being, which made the Universe; and to observe with all due Veneration, and Awful Respect, the great Decorum requisite in speaking of the True God; and to offend in nothing against the Revelations he has been pleased to make of himself; and yet to manage all this under the Heats and Heights of Towring Fancy; than either Homer or Virgil undertook, a Task, by none, but him­self, attempted, (as he may justly boast) and impossible to be, by any Undertaker, bet­ter performed.

V. 27. Say first; Tell me first, O Thou Supreme Spirit, from whose vast View, nor highest Heaven, nor the dark deep Vaults of Hell, can any thing conceal.

[...].
[...].

V. 28. The deep Tract of Hell; The low dark Region and Place of Everlasting Punish­ment, which many imagine to be in the Center of the Earth; Tractus, Lat. for Coast or Country.

V. 29. Moved our grand Parents; Perswaded our great Ancestors, our Progenitors, the first of Human Kind, Adam and Eve. Grand, Fr. Great, Parens, Lat. Father.

V. 32. For one restraint; For the Fruit of one Tree forbidden. Lords of the World be­sides; Words highly aggravating the Crime of our first Parents, who having all the World at will, could not undergo one restraint, laid, by their Mighty Maker, on their Sensual Appetite, as a tryal of their Homage and Obedience to him, who had made 'em Lords of the World, and all the Creatures in it; for this prohibited Tree had, probably, nothing in it more alluring, to sight or savour, than many others, left free and open to enjoyment, Gen. 2. 16, and 17.

V. 33. Who first seduc'd them; Who first mislead them to the base Rebellion; ano­ther Imitation of Homer:

[...]
[...].

Seduco, Lat. to lead astray, to deceive. Revolte, Fr. Rebellion.

V. 34. Th' Infernal Serpent; The Devil, who entred into the Serpent, and actuating his Organs, deceiv'd our Mother Eve, therefore call'd the Old Serpent, Revel. 12. 9. Moses, in the Relation of Satan's Attempt, takes no notice of the Arch Fiend, but barely reports [Page 6] the Matter of Fact, the Serpent entertaining and tempting Eve, who discovered not the fly Seducer, Gen. 3. 1. He relates, but does not interpret. So Gen. 18. 3. the Angels entertained by Abraham, are call'd Men, because such in outward appearance.

Moses Barcephas, Chap. 27. de Parad. affirms, it was not so much out of choice, as meer necessity, that Satan entred into the Serpent; God permitting him to make use of no other Animal, that Eve might be the more amazed and startled, at so strange and bold an attempt, from such a base and creeping Worm, and with the greater horrour detest and tremble at the Temptation, urged by so vile a Creature, against the express Com­mand of her Creator.

This Old Serpent imposed long after upon the Grecians and Romans in the same shape; the later of which, sending to Epidaurus for Esculapius (a Grecian God) to stop the Plague that had almost desolated their City; the Serpent, in the form he was there worship'd, is said to have followed the Ambassadors, of its own accord, into the Ship that transported it to Rome, where it was inshrined in a Temple, built in the Isle of Tiberina, Val. Max. l. 1. c. 6. Read the end of Metamorph. l. 15.

Ibid. Infernal. Infernalis, Lat. Hellish. Serpens, Lat. à Serpendo, from creeping.

Ibid. Whose Guile; Whose Craft and Cunning, an old word from the Fr. Guille, de­ceive, Originally from the Sax. Galian, to bewitch or inchant.

V. 36. The Mother of Mankind. Eve, from whom the whole Race of Mankind derive their being, Gen. 3. 20.

V. 37. With all his Host; With his whole Power, with all his Army. Host, or Ost, an old Fr. word for an Army, from Hostis, Lat. Enemy, because prepared against such. Of Rebel-Angels, of Disobedient Spirits: Angel, of [...], Gr. a Messenger.

V. 38. By whose Aid aspiring; By whose Assistance endeavouring. Aspiro, Lat. to at­tempt.

V. 39. Above his Peers; Above his Equals. Pares, Lat. for the Fr. Pairs, and our Peers.

V. 42. Against the Monarchy of God; Against the Sovereignty of Heaven, the Absolute Government of God Almighty. [...], the Supreme Power placed in a single Person, from [...], One; and [...], Principality, Rule.

V. 44. Th' Almighty Power; God Almighty, well express'd by the boundless and infinite Power he has, to do whatever pleaseth him.

V. 45. From th' Etherial Skie; From the Lofty Firmament, out of Heaven, [...], belonging to the AEther, [...], used by the Poets for the Habitation of the Gods. Cui Rex AEtherei breviter sic fatur Olympi. AEn. 10.’

V. 46. With hideous Ruine, &c. With terrible Destruction and everlasting Burnings, threw headlong flaming out of Heaven, down to endless Desolation. Hideux, Fr. fright­ful; Ruina, Lat. downfal; Perditio, Lat. Destruction, Combustion, Burning, Lat. Com­bustio.

Whether Angels were Created before, or with the World, no Text of Holy Writ that I know, does declare. St. Austin affirms the later in l. 11. c. 32. de Civit. Dei: But Theod. in 3 q. sup. Gen. after he has endeavour'd to support the same Opinion, concludes, Illud porro scire necesse est, omnia quaecunque Extant, (exceptâ Sanctâ Trinitate) Naturam habere, Creationi obnoxiam; hoc autem concesso, siquis Angelorum turbas, ante Coelum & Terram, conditas esse di xerit, non offendet verbum Pietatis.

That Angels were Created concurrently with the World, the Lateran Council con­ceives, because there could be no place of Destruction, no Hell to hurl the offending Spi­rits into, before there was any place in Nature; Everlasting Fire being said to be prepared for the Devil and his Angels, Matth. 25. 41. But our Narrow Capacities are in no propor­tion to the Compass of the Creation. Of the Rebellion and Overthrow of these wicked Spirits in Heaven, and of their Expulsion thence, we read Revel. 12. 7, 8, 9. whose defeat, for their Pride and Disobedience, most probably was not unrevealed to Adam, by so ter­rible an Example, to fright him from offending his Maker, and to determine him more stedfast and unshaken in his Duty.

V. 48. In Adamantine Chains, &c. In Bonds Eternal, and afflicting Fire. [...], made of Adamant; so Hor. Figit Adamantinos, dira necessitas Clavos; a Stone so named of its hardness, from the Privatives A and [...], to tame, as hardly to be cut by any Tool. Thus Virgil describes one of the Gates of Hell:

Porta adversa, ingens, solidoque Adamante Columnae,
Ut vis nulla virûm, non ipsi exscindere ferro
Coelicolae valeant. AEn. l. 5. Durum vinclis Adamanta. Lu. l. 6.

[Page 7] Ibid Penal; Poenalis, Lat. painful, torturing, from Poena, punishment.

V. 49. Omnipotent; Almighty; Lat. Omnipotens.

V. 50. Nine times the space; A certain, for an uncertain time, is usual with the Poets, who are fond of the Number Nine, whether in respect to that of the Muses, or as being the Square of the Ternary, made famous by Pythagoras, and by Aristot. and Plutar. styled the most excellent of all Numbers as containing, in it self, the beginning, middle and end; to Christians much more renown'd, as expressive of the Mysterious Trinity.

[...].
[...].
[...].

Which last Virg. imitates, Jamque dies epulata novem Gensomnis. AE. l. 5.’

V. 52. In the Fiery Gulf; In the Flaming Flood, from the It. Golf [...], and that perhaps from [...], sinus Maris, or from the Lat. Gula, because like a Whirlpool, it swallows up every thing.

V. 55. Of lost Happiness; According to the received Opinion, that the Torments of the Damned consist, in poena damni, the loss of the Beatifick Vision of God, (in whose presence are pleasures for evermore) as well as in poena sensus, the Punishments of more gross sensibility.

V. 56. His Baleful Eyes; His sorrowful sad Eyes, weighed down and overwhelmed with Grief, from the Dutch, Bale, a Burden; Grief being deducible à gravitate: Sorrow is a a heavy Burden, and hard to be born. So the Baleful Stound, F. Q. Cant. 7. St. 25.

V. 57. Dismay; Astonishment, from the old Fr. Esmay, an overwhelming Grief and Af­fliction.

V. 58. Mixt with Obdurate Pride, &c. Supported by inflexible Pride, and unrelenting Hatred, the short, but severe and true, Character of the Arch-Rebel Satan, mixt from mistus, Lat. mingled with. Obdurate, Lat. Obduratus, hardened, stiff-neck'd, unalterable.

V. 59. As Angels Ken; At once he views around as far as Angels Eyes can see. Ken, to see, to discern, from the Sax. Cennen, to know, to discover, whence cunning Know­ledge, Experience.

V. 60. The Dismal Situation; The sad ghastly Seat; Situation, Fr. the site or standing of a place, Lat. Situs, dismal, horrid, dark, frightful. Dimmel, Sax. obscure.

V. 61. A Dungeon horrible; A frightful Prison, filled and surrounded on all sides with Everlasting Flames, from the Fr. Dongeon, the strongest place in the middle of a Fort, the last Retreat, where the Besieged made their utmost Effort, and thence used for the strong­est place in a Prison. Horribilis, Lat. dreadful.

V. 62. As one great Furnace; Like one great red-hot Oven flamed. Fornax, Lat.

V. 63. Darkness visible, seems nearer a Contradiction, than that Egyptian Darkness sent on Pharaoh, which was such as to be felt, Exod. 10. 21. But a Mist is often the cause of Darkness that may be palpable, though that in the Text was preternatural: But our Poets meaning by this Darkness visible, is only, that from Hell's flaming Dungeon there issued no Light, but such a Darkness, as through it might be discovered those dismal Scenes and Seats of Everlasting Wo.

V. 65. Regions of Sorrow, Doleful Shades; The Realms of Grief, and Seats of Everlast­ing, Sorrow. Regio, Lat. Country, doleful, woful, sorrowful, from dole, an old word from dolor, Lat. grief. The Description of this vast flaming Fu [...]nace, may (if we consi­der the gloomy Darkness which our Poet arrays it in) admit of these sad Shades, with­out the least allay to its Eternal Burnings; though I conceive this Verse, and the two subsequent, not to relate so much to the Topography of Hell, as to the Persons of its hopeless Inhabitants. The dark Regions of the Dead, are, by all the Poets, delineated by Shades; Ire sub umbras, is, in Virgil's phrase, to die, Vitaque cum genitu fugit indig­nata sub umbras. And Hell is so by him described,

—Tum Tartarus ipse,
Bis patet in praeceps tantum, Tenditque sub umbras. AEn. 6.

V. 67. Hope never comes, that comes to all; Except the Damned, who are past all hope, which on this side the Grave courts all Conditions, and under the worst, caresses life, Dum curae ambiguae, dum spes incerta futuri. AEn. 8.

Ibid. But Torture without end; The never-ceasing Stings and Lashes of Conscience, that put the wicked to Eternal Tortures, assiduum quatiente animo tortore Flagellum, Juv. Tor­tura, Lat. Torment.

[Page 8] V. 68. Still urges; Continually presses and pursues 'em: Urgeo, Lat. to vex.

Ibid. And a Fiery Deluge fed, &c. A Flood of Flaming Brimstone, which, though al­ways burning, will never be consumed. Deluge, from Diluvium, Lat. for an Inunda­tion, Sulphur, Lat. Brimstone; latè circum loca Sulfure fumant. AEn. 2.

V. 73. Their Portion set; Their Lot, their appointed Place, from Lat. Portio, a Propor­tion, a Share.

V. 74. As from the Center thrice. Outcasts of Heaven, banish'd from its pure and ever­lasting Light, and the glorious Presence of God Almighty, three times as far as either Pole is distant from the Center: An Imitation of Homer,

[...],
[...]
[...],
[...].
Tum Tartarus ipse,
Bis patet in praeceps tantum, tenditque sub umbras;
Quantus ad AEthereum Coeli suspectus Olympum. AEn. 6.

In Homer, Jupiter threatens to throw any of the Gods that shall dare to aid either the Trojan or Grecian Army contrary to his Command, down very far into gloomy Hell, where is the deepest Pit beneath the Earth, whose Gates are Iron, and its pavement Brass, as far beneath Hell, as Heaven is above the Earth.

Virg. tells us, Hell goes headlong down twice as deep, as the prospect thence up into Heaven.

Our Author says, God, in his Justice, had appointed the dark Infernal Dungeon for these Disobedient Spirits, thrice as far from Heavens chearful Light, and his own blest Abode, as is Earths Center from the utmost Pole: Which of 'em has measured the Di­stance most Mathematically, is hard to determine; but Milton's Description of this Infer­nal Region, far exceeds both the [...], of the one, and the Pallentes umbras Erebi, Noctemque profundam, of the other; neither of 'em having ventured on so large a Survey of that sad Seat. Tasso's Description is curt and inconsiderable;

Itene maladetti al vostro Regno,
Regno di pene, é di perpetua morte. Cant. 9. St. 64.

Ibid. Center: Lat. Centrum, from [...], Gr. the middle point in a Circle, from which the Circumference is equi-distant.

Ibid. Pole. The Poles (or Vertical Points) of the World are two, the North and South, so call'd from [...], to turn round, because on them the Daily Motion from East to West is made, for the same Reason by the Lat. termed Vertices à Vertendo,

Hic vertex nobis semper sublimis, at illum
Sub pedibus Styx atra videt, manesque profundi. Georg. 1.

V. 77. Whirlwinds of Tempestuous Fire: A Noble Expression of the Flaming Hurricane of Hell, taken doubtless from Psal. 11. 6. Fire and Brimstone, and an horrible Tempest.

V. 78. Weltring; Wallowing, tossing and tumbling up and down by his side, from Fr. Veaultrer, of the Lat. Volutare.

V. 79. Next in Power and next in Crime; One of his associate Angels, the greatest next to himself both as to Authority and Transgression. Crime, fault; Lat. Crimen, Sin, Of­fence.

V. 80. Palestine; Palestina, Lat. so named from the Philistines, its old and famous Inhabitants; since Judaea, of the Jews who dispossest them: It is a Province in Syria, bounded with Euphrates, Arabia, Phoenicia, and the Mediterranean Sea, called by Christi­ans the Holy Land.

V. 81. Beelzebub; The Lord of Flies, of [...] Lord, and [...] a Fly, an Idol worship'd at Ecron, a City of the Philistines, 2 King. 1. 2. most probably a Telisina made against Flies, in Imitation of the freedom from those Insects, which is reported to have belonged to the Slaughtering-place of the Jewish Sacrifices; the more remarkable, because the con­stant Effusion of so much Blood, must naturally have bred, or, at least, have brought, and kept, together, vast Swarms of those troublesome Creatures. Matth. 12. 24. Beel­zebub is called Prince of the Devils; therefore deservedly here made second to Satan him­self.

[Page 9] V. 82. Th'Arch Enemy called Satan; the chief Enemy, and therefore in Heaven call'd Satan the Enemy, [...]. Arch is an additional Particle, by way of Preheminence set before many words, as Arch Duke, Arch Rogue, from the Gr. [...], chief, principal, [...] Satan an Adversary from [...]; to be against, to hate, the Enemy of God and Man.

V. 83. The horrid silence; The dismal, the dreadful silence, which, under the Astonishment and Amazement they were overwhelmed with, till now was never broken. Horridus, Lat. for rough, ugly; Horrida jussa, severe Commands, AEneid. 4.

V. 84. If thou beest he; If thou beest my Companion; But how disguised, how changed and alter'd by thy fall, from him, who in the happy Region of the Day, invested with exces­sive Brightness, didst outshine Millions tho' bright! So Virg.

Hei mihi qualis erat! Quantum mutatus ab illo
Hectore, qui redit exuvias indutus Achillis,
Vel Danaum Phrygios jaculatus puppibus ignes! AE. 2.

V. 85. Realms; Regions: Royaulme, Fr. Kingdom, the Realms of Light, in Heaven.

V. 86. Transcondent Brightness; Excessive Glory; Transcendere, Lat. to exceed, surpass.

V. 87. Myriads; Millions, from [...], Gr. for Ten Thousand, from [...], infinite, in­numerable, a certain for an incertain Number, familiar with the Poets.

Ibid. If he whom Mutual League; If thou beest he, whom Solemn League and Covenant, agreeing Thoughts and Resolutions, mutual Hope and Danger in the Gallant Undertaking, made my Companion once, and now the same Misfortune has made my Miserable Associate in this fatal Downfal.

League; Ligne, Fr. à ligando: A Confederacy or siding of Factious Subjects against their Sovereign, of which the Holy League in France, and its Spawn the Solemn League and Cove­nant in our Country, are two abominable Instances.

Mutual; Mutuus, Lat. for alternate, by turns; Mutuaque inter se laeti convivia curant, Georg. 1. They make merry, and entertain one another by turns.

V. 88. United Thoughts and Counsels; Designs and Counsed chosen and agreed to between us, from unitus, agreed, joyned together.

V. 89. Enterprise; An Undertaking, Fr. Entreprinse, an Attempt, an Exploit.

V. 91. Into what Pit thou seest; Thou seest how we are faln, from Heavens bright Battle­ments, into this low dark Dungeon.

V. 94. The force of those dire Arms? Till taught by sad Experience, who knew the fatal force of his hot Thunderbolts, those dreadful Engins? Dirus, Lat. Cruel.

V. 95. The Potent Victor; The Powerful Conqueror, his Pride was still too superlative to allow God to be Omnipotent, although he found him such to his ruine: Potens, Lat. mighty; Victor, Lat. Conqueror.

V. 96. Can else inflict: Nor for what ever more he can lay on, or load me with, do I re­lent or alter my unchanged Mind, though as to my Brightness and outward Lustre altered and abated: Infligo, Lat. to inflict, to punish.

V. 97. In outward Lustre; Though alter'd as to my External Brightness, the abatement of my Beauty has not at all impair'd the Gallantry of my Mind: Lustre, Fr. shining, glittering.

Ibid.—That fixt Mind, &c. I alter not my firm Resolution, nor that Noble Scorn, proceeding from a sense of despised Desert, which, raised in me th'Ambition to engage with the most Highest, and to the furious Encounter brought along infinite Aid of Angels number­less, who boldly blamed his Government; and preferring me before him, with all their Might, his utmost Strength attack'd, in doubtful Battel on the Heavenly Plains, and shook his Seat. A vain boast of the Father of Lyes, whom the Lord of Host had in derision.

Fixt; Fixus, Lat. firm, stable, stedfast.

V. 98. Injur'd Merit; Wrong'd Desert, abused Merit; Injurior, or injurio, Lat. to do wrong to: Meritum, Lat. Desert, Merit.

V. 99. To contend; To strive with; Contendo, Lat. to make earnest Opposition, so Conten­tion for Strife, Encounter.

—Quis talia demens
Abnuat, aut tecum malit contendere Bello? AEn. 4.

V. 101. Innumerable; Without Number, numberless: Innumerabilis, Lat.

V. 102. Reign; Government, Power, from Regner, Fr. to Rule, and both from Regnare, Lat.

Ibid. Me preferring; Esteeming me before him, from praefero, Lat. to set by, to make esteem of.

V. 103. With adverse Power oppos'd; With open Force resisted: Adverse, from adversus, Lat. against, opposite to; oppos'd, Lat. Opponere, to place, or stand against.

V. 104. Dubious; Dubius, Lat. doubtful, uncertain.

V. 105. His Throne; His Royal Seat, his Kingdom, [...], Gr. Heaven is called [...], Jove's Throne, [...], Theoer. Idyl. Z. But more truly by our Saviour The Throne of God, Matth. 5. 34.

Ibid.—What though the Field be lost? What though we have lost the Battel? All is [Page 10] not gone, our Wills inflexible, th'Eternal study of Revenge, and Hatred irreconcileable, and dauntless Resolution ne'er to yield, remain our own, and still within our Power; and what be­sides, may not be overborn?

V. 107. Immortal; Immortalis, Lat. not subject to death or decay.

V. 108. Submit; Yield, submittere, Lat. to yield to, to humble ones self to.

V. 110. That Glory, &c. A Submission, so glorious for him, and base in me neither his Anger, nor his Power shall force from me: Gloria, Lat.

V. 111. Extort; Force from: Extorqueo, Lat. to wrest by force.

Ibid. To bow and sue for Grace: To cringe, and like a Suppliant sue for Pardon, on bended Knee, and own him for my God, who from th'affright this armed Hand of mine, so lately put him in, doubted his Imperial Power; that were base and mean, that were an Infamy and a Disgrace more vile and low than is this fatal Downfal. Another of Satan's blasphemous Boast­ings, and suiting well his cursed Character, which our Poet holds up to the heighth of Luci­ferian Pride.

Grace; Fr. Pardon.

V. 112. Suppliant; Begging, entreating: Supplicare, Lat. to beseech.

Ibid. Deifie; Deifico, Lat. to make a God of, from Deus, God, and facio, to make.

V. 113. Terrour; Fright, a Dread; Terror, Lat.

V. 114. Empire; Imperium, Lat. Command, Power.

V. 115. Ignominy; Disgrace, Dishonour: Ignominia, Lat. Infamy.

V. 116. Since by Fate; Since by th'unalterable Laws of Nature, we that are Gods, and this our Heavenly Substance is not subject to decay.

Fate by the Heathen was used to express that Unchangeable and Eternal Series of Things, which the Gods themselves could not disturb or alter: Thus Juno, Hoc regnum dea gentibus esse, siqua fat a sinant. AEn: 1.

Fatum à sando, as if it were; Quod de unoquoque fatus est Deus, Heavens Decree: But Hermes deseribes it better, An Obedience of second Causes to the first. Fate therefore is the Excuse of Fools, who [...]harge it with the greatest of their Follies, Sin: For if Fate, or any irresistable Influence of the Heavenly Bodies, or Cogency of the Stars, did over-rule our Wills, or over­reach our Reason, just were that Impious Evasion of those that say, Accusandum potius Aucto­rem siderum, quam Commissorem scelerum.

Ibid. The Strength of Gods: The Vigour and Power of Angels, or Angels themselves, after the Grecian manner: [...], for Priam himself: [...], Bring Priam with you, that he himself may swear. [...] & [...], the Strength of Hector, [...], whom Virg. imitates, Vimquo Deûm Infernam, AEn. 12. the Infer­nal Gods.

V. 117. This Empyreal Substance; This Heavenly Being, this glorious shining Substance, from [...], burning like Fire; hence Coelum Empyraeum, the Firmament adorned with Everlasting Lamps.

V. 122. Irreconcileable; Not to be made Friends, implacable: Irreconciliabilis, Lat. not to be appeased.

V. 123. Who now Triumphs, of the Lat. Triumphare, to ride in Pomp after a Conquest made.

Excess, of Excessus, Lat. abundance, overmuch.

V. 124. Sole reigning, &c. Reigning without a Rival, is absolute above.

Sole, of Solus, Lat. alone, without any Companion or Competitor of his Power.

Ibid. Holds the Tyranny; Exerts his Arbitrary Power on high. [...], Gr. for Govern­ment, is most commonly expressive of an unjust and cruel Domination; so its Derivative Ty­rannus, is by Plato. Is [...]crates, and the Greek Tragedians, used for a good Prince; by Virg. in both senses, Pars mihi pacis erit dextram tetigisse Tyranni, of AEneas, AEn. 7. and Odium crudele Tyranni, of Pigmalion, AEn. 1.

V. 125. Th'Apostate Angel; The Disloyal, the Desertor, fallen from his Faith and Allegi­ance, [...], a Renegado, from [...], to stand on the other side; one who quits his Party, and runs over to the Enemy.

V. 126. Vaunting aloud, &c. Though in torment, making vain boastings, from Vanter, Fr. to brag.

Ibid. Rackt; Tormented and torn in pieces by dire Despair, that rackt his Soul.

—Curisque ingentibus aeger,
Spem vultu simulat, premit altum corde dolorem. AEn. 1.
Soft and expressive of a less-sized Sorrow.

V. 127. Compeer; Companion, Mate: Compar, Lat. a Second.

V. 128. Chief of many Throned; O Leader of many mighty Angels, that heretofore in Heaven sat on Thrones. Angels and Superior Beings are in Scripture exprest by Powers and Thrones. [...]. Colos. 1. 16.

V. 129. Th'Imbattell'd Seraphim; Th'Embodyed Angels, th'Array'd Angelick Armies, [...] Seraphim, is the usual Appellation given the Angels, Isai. 6. 2. where they are de­scribed [Page 11] attending on Gods Throne: 'Tis a Derivative of [...] to burn, or flame like Fire, alluding to the brightness of those Celestial Beings, or to their wonderful Activity, as Psal. 104 [...]. Making his Angels Spirits, his Ministers a flame of Fire.

V. 130. Under thy Conduct; Under thy Care and Guidance, from Conductus, Lat.

V. 131. Heav'ns Perpetual King; God Almighty, the Everlasting Ruler in Heaven: Perpe­tuus, Lat. Beelzebub here diminisheth as much as he may of Gods Everlasting Empire, not styling him Heavens Eternal, but Perpetual King, a word not of so Comprehensive Signi [...]cancy.

V. 132. To proof his high Supremacy; Made tryal of his Title to that vast and absolute Do­minion he assumed unto himself, whether supported by his mighty Power, by Fortune, or the Fates. Supremacy, absolute Power, from Supremus, Lat. Highest, God's frequent Title in the Scripture being the Most High.

V. 134. Rue the dire Event; Lament the sad Success, from the Ger. Rew, to repent of, per­haps of the Gr. [...], to bewail. Event, Consequence, Success; Eventus, Lat. from evenire, to happen, to come to pass.

V. 138. Heavenly Essences; Spirits, Angelick Beings, Inhabitants of Heaven; Essentia, Lat. the Being and Existence of any thing. He arrogantly calls his Fellow-Subjects Gods, in De­rogation of the one Almighty.

V. 140. Invincible, and Vigour; For the Mind and Soul remain unconquerable, and Strength and Courage are soon recovered: Invincibilis, Lat. Vigor, Lat. Courage.

V. 141. Though all our Glory extinct; Notwithstanding all our Glory be decayed and lost. Extinct; Extinctus, Lat. put out, as a Flame, or any thing that burns and shines, a word well expressing the loss of that Angelick Beauty, which like a Glory attended on their Inno­cency, which by their foul Rebellion they had forfeited, covered now with Shame and black Confusion. Extinctus is used in the same Metaphorical manner by Virg.

—Te pr [...]pter eundem
Extinctus pader. AEn. 4.

V. 148. Suffice his Vengeful Ire; That we may be able long to suffer and endure his Re­venging Wrath: Vengeful, Vindicative from Venger, Fr. to revenge. Ire, an old word for Anger, from Ira, Lat.

V. 149. Thralls; An old Danish word for Slaves, or Captives.

V. 152. His Errands; His Messages, Sax. Erend; a Messenger, ab errando, journeying to and fro.

Ibid. In the gloomy Deep; In the obscure, the dark Abyss, an Interval our Poet supposes be­tween Heaven and Hell, corresponding well enough with Virgils, Pallentes umbras Erebi, no­ctemque profundam. AEn. 4. Gloomy, from Sax. Glommun, Twilight.

V. 153. W [...]at can it then avail? What does it profit, or advantage us? Valere, Lat. to help or conduce to.

V. 154. Strength undiminish'd; Our Vigour unabated; Indiminutus, Lat. unbroken. What will all our Strength, unbroken and undecayed, nay, our Everlasting Being, what will these avail us, if given us only to encrease our Woes, by undergoing Everlasting Punishment? A Question that startles Satan and to which he makes a quick Reply.

V. 156. Arch-Fiend; The chief Devil, Satan, our chief Enemy, Fiend, Sax. an adver­sary.

V. 157. Fall'n Cherube; Laps'd Angel, [...] according to the Rabbins, is a Human Shape with two Wings, placed over the Mercy-Seat of the Ark of the Covenant Exod. 25. 18 & 19. representing the Invisible Angels; and Moses by this word expresseth the Angelick Guard pla­ced before Paradise, after Adam's Expulsion, Gen. 3. 24.

Ibid. To be weak is miserable; To faint in undertaking, or sink in undergoing what may hap­pen, is to be wretched. Superanda est omnis fortuna ferendo, Virg. Fortiter ille facit, qui miser esse potest, Mart.

V. 164. To pervert that end; To cross and thwart that Design; Pervertere, Lat. [...]o turn aside, to put out of the way.

V. 167.—And disturb his inmost Counsels, &c. And make his most secret Deliberations miscarry, and fall short of their designed end. Disturb, from disturbo, Lat. to throw down, to hinder. Destino, Lat. to appoint, to design.

V. 169. But see, so Virg. Quos ego: Sed mo [...]os prastat Componere flactus, AEn. 1.

V. 170. His Ministers of Vengeance; The Executioners of his Anger who pursued us; Mi­nister, Lat. Servant; Vengeance Fr. Revenge.

Ibid. Pursuit, Fr. Poursuitte; The Chase, pursuing of an Enemy.

V. 171. The Sulphurous Hail; The Storm of Fiery Hail that beat so sore upon us, is now blown o'er, and these Flaming Waves, into whose Boyling Bosom, from Heavens Lo [...]ty Tow­ers we fell, begin t'abate, and the Thunder, riding upon the Wings of ruddy Lightning and sto [...]my Rage, perhaps exhausted of its Shafts, begins to give over Roaring and Bellowing through the void Immense.

Sulphureu [...]. Lat made of Brimstone: Upon the Wicked he shall rain Snares, Fire and Brim­stone, and stormy Tempest, Psal. 11. 5.

[Page 12] V. 173. The Fiery Surge; The Flaming Flood: Surge, a Wave; à Surgendo, from their rising, and riding over one another.

Ibid. That from the Precipice; That in our steep downfal from Heaven received us: Pra­cipitium, Lat. a direct steep downfal.

V. 175. Wing'd with Red Lightning: The Poets give the Thunder Wings, to denote its swiftness and suddenness: Fulminis Ocyor alis, AEn. 5. and Virg. describing the Cycl [...]ps forging a Thunderbolt;

—Radios—
Addiderant, rutili tres ignis, & alitis Austri,
Fulgores nunc terrificos, sonitumque, metu nque
Miscelant operi, flammisque sequacibus Iras. AEn. 8.

A Noble Description! yet is our Poet very short, and very significant.

Impetuous; Impetuus, Lat. violent, stormy.

V. 179. Or satiate Fury; Or his Anger now allay'd, his Rage appeased: Satiatus, Lat. full, cloy'd, satisfied.

V. 180. Y [...]n Dreary; That dismal, woful, an old Sax. word, Yon that Sax.

Ibid. Forlorn; Waste, destroy'd; Verlohren, Ger, spoil'd, lost; whence the Forlorn Hope, from the eminent danger they are exposed to.

V. 181. The Seat of Desolation; That lonely, solitary Seat, destitute of any living Creature but our wretched selves. Desolatio, Lat. a laying waste.

Ibid. Void of Light; Without Light, dark: Unide, Fr. from Vacuus, Lat. empty.

V. 182. Save what the Glimmering, &c. Except what th' obscure Glimpses of those Pale Flames, Casts faint and fearful. Glimmering, a faint feeble shining, like that of the Twilight, from the Danish Glimmer, to shine a little.

Livid; Lividus, Lat. for Lead-colour, or that of bruised Flesh. Virg. styles the Water of Cocytus one of the Poetick Rivers in Hell, Vada Livida, AEn. 6. This is an exact Explanation of our Poets meaning by Darkness visible, in the foregoing Description of Hell, V. 63. and is a wonderful addition to it.

V. 183. Tend; Go, Tendo, Lat. to go to remove: Tendimus in Latium, AEn. 1.

V. 185. Can harbour there; Can dwell, is to be found there: Hauberge, Fr. an inn, a place to stay at; or from the Ger. Here, an Army, and Bergen, to cover, signifying properly the station of an Army.

V. 186. Our afflicted Powers; Our broken and beaten Forces: Afflictus, Lat. broken, har­rass'd.

V. 187. Consult; Consider of: Consulo, Lat. to advise about.

V. 189. This dire Calamity; This sad Affliction and Overthrow: Calamitas, Lat. Damage, Adversity.

V. 190. What Reinforcement; What Reparation, what new Strength and Courage we may gain from hope: Renforcer, Fr. to strengthen again to inspirit and add new Vigour to.

V. 192. Mate; Companion, from Maet, Be [...]g. an Associate.

V. 194. That Sparkling blazed; That shot forth Fire, and blazed out like a Flame: Blaze, from Blase, Sax. a Torch.

V. 195. Prone on the Flood; Lying along upon the flaming Flood: Pronus, Lat. lying down both from [...], Gr. [...], cecidit autem Pronus, I [...]. E.

Ibid. Extended; Extentus, Lat. stretcht out in length and breadth.

V. 169. Lay floating many a Rood; Cover'd a mighty space: Rodata terrae, as the Law terms it, is the fourth part of an Acre.

Ibid. In bulk as huge; For size as large: Bulk signifies Greatness, Thickness, Largeness, according to all Dimensions, from [...], Gr. weight: Hugh, vastly great, from Oga, Sax. terror, fright; as hugy, terrible, big.

V. 197. As whom the Fables: Satan was of a size as vastly big, as any of the Giant-Sons of Earth, Briarcos or Typhon, who, as the Poets relate, made War on Jove. The Fables Name, of whom the Stories are told; Fabula, Lat. a Tale, a Fiction.

Ibid. Monstrous; Wonderful: Monstrosus, Lat. strange, preternatural.

V. 198. Titanian or Earth-born; The last explains the first, as is evident, Genus antiqu [...]un terrae, Titania Pubes, AEn. 6. The Poets tell us, Coelus and Vesta had two remarkable Sons, Titan and Saturn; this the youngest was permitted to Reign, on condition he should destroy all his Male Children, that the Empire might revert to Titan and his Posterity: But the Cheat of Nursing Jove in Crete being discovered, Titan and his Sons made War upon Saturn, and deposed him: To his Fathers rescue came Jupin, overthrew the Titans, and soon after de­prived his Father of his Kingdom, Vesta (the Earth) concerned at the Destruction of her Sons, brought forth, and raised against Jupiter many hideous Monsters, of vast bigness, who Rendezvousing in Thessaly, piled the Mountains one upon another, till they gave Jupiter a ter­rible Scalado at Heaven-Gates:

[...], &c. [...]
[Page 13] Affectasse ferunt, Regnum Coeleste, Gigantes,
Aitaque Congestos struxisse ad sydera montes. Meta. 1.
Et conjuratos Coelum rescindere Fratres,
Ter sunt conati, imp [...]nere Pelio Ossam. Georg. 1.

V. 199. Briareos was one of these Earth-born Boobies, he had 100 Hands, with which he hurl'd up great Rocks at Jupiter; therefore styled by Virg. Centum Geminus Briareus, AEn. 6.

Ibid. Typhen, who had his Name of [...], to smoak, was of all these Monsters the most dreadful, therefore reported the Son of Earth and Hell: His Stature was so prodigious, his Knees reach'd above the highest Mountains. He had 100 Dragons Heads, vomiting perpetual Fire and Flame, at such a rate, that all the Gods, who came to Jupiter's Assistance, finding such hot Work on't, ran shamefully away into Egypt, disguising themselves there, in the shapes of divers Beasts, &c. However, with much to do, at length Jupiter, with many Volley of his Thunder, overbore him, and buried him under the Isle of Sicile, as Ov [...] relates.

Emissumque unâ de sede Typhoëa terrae,
Coelitibus fecisse metum. Metam. l. 5.
Vasta Gigantaeis injecta est Insula Membris
Trinacris, & Magnis subjectum molibus urget,
AEtherias ausum sperare Typhoëa sedes.

In Memory of this Victory of Jupiters, Virgil calls his Thunder Tela Typhoëa, AEn. 1. Nec tam justa fuit Terrarum Gloria Typhon, &c. Luc. 1. 4.’

V. 200. By Ancient Tarsus, the chief City of Cilicia in Asia the Lesser, near which, in the Mountain Arimus, was a Cave, call'd Typhon's Den. [...].’

Translated by Virg.

—Durumque Cubile
Inarime, Jovis Imperiis, Imposta Typhoëo. AEn. 9.

Where [...], is made Inarime, an Island Southward of Prochyta, which is a Mountain in Cilicia,

V. 201. Leviathan; The Whale, [...] Heb. excellently described, Job 41. 9. His Neisings make the Light to shine; his Eyes are like the Eyelids of the Morn, out of his Mouth go Lamps, and Sparks of Fire. So that Satans Blazing Eyes, came up to the Comparison. After this, he that has a mind to read Tasso's Description of Satan, may find it, Cant. 4. Stan. 6, 7, & 8.

Nè tanto scoglio in mar, ne rupe Alpestra
Ne pur Calpe s'inalza, O'l mago Atlante,
Ch'anzi lui non paresse un picciol colle
Si la gran fronte, e ie gran corna est [...]lle, &c.

V. 202. Th'Ocean Stream; The Sea, the vast Mass of Water that encompasseth the Earth, and with it makes one Globe, [...], Gr. [...], ad Ocea [...]i fluenta, [...].

V. 203. On the Norway Foam; On the German Ocean, that washeth Norway on the West, a Kingdom of great Extent, on the North-West Shoar of Europe▪ reaching from the entrance of the Baltick-Sea, almost to the North-Cape, about 1300 Miles long, and 250 broad.

Foam, for the Foaming Sea, as Adnixi torquent spumas & caerula v [...]rru [...]t, AEn. 111. Et spumas salis aere ruebant, AEn. 1. They cut through the Salt Foam with their Brazen Prows.

V. 204. The Pilot of some; Pilot, the Steersman, he that takes the chief Care of the Sailing part of a Ship, from the Bel. Piilen, to sound, to Fathom and Loot, Lead: One that sounds the Shallows. Many Sea-Terms are Dutch, borrow'd of the Saxons, Belgians, and Cimbrians, being Maritime Nations.

Ibid. Night-founder'd Skiff: Some little Boat, whose Pilot dares not proceed in his course▪ for fear of the dark Night; a Metaphor taken from a founder'd Horse, that can go no fur­ther; or Night-founder'd, in danger of sinking at Night, from fo [...]dre, Fr. to sink to the bot­tom, the meaning of a Ships foundring at Sea. I prefer the former, as being our Authors aim.

Skiff, from the Gr. [...], a little Boat.

V. 205. Deeming some Island; Judging it to be an Island: Fr. Isle, and both from I [...]sula, land surrounded by the Sea. As Seamen tell; As Seafaring-Men are used to relate among the other Wonders of their Voyages, Words well added to obviate the Incredibility of calling [Page 14] Anchor on a Whale, (a Floating Delos) which if any mistaken Pilot ever did, he might well wish for the delaying Morn, for doubtless he underwent a tossing and tempestuous Night.

V. 206. With fixed Anchor; With his Anchor sticking fast in his Back all armed with Skales▪ Anchora, Lat. [...], acurvitate.▪

Ibid. Skaly Rind; In his tough Hide covered all o'er with Scales: Fr. Escailles. Rind is properly the Bark of a Tree, yet not unapplicable to the Scaly Skin of this armed Monster, especially if it originally be from [...], corium. Job describing him, says of his Scales, The Majesty of 'em is like strong Shields, they are sure sealed, &c. Job 41. 6.

V. 207. Moors by his side under the Lee; Makes fast to his side with Anchors and Cables, to keep him off the Leeshore, to which the Wind drives him; Moor of the Fr. Marer, (and this of Mare the Sea) to fix himself, to take a place for a Ship to ride in.

The Lee, from A'l'Eau, Fr. is the verging or inclining of a Vessel, either by Wind, or the setting of the Tyde towards the Shore, the Water naturally tending thither as higher than the Land, and falling down to it.

V. 208.—Night invests the Sea; While Night covers and overcasts the Sea with her dark Mantle: Fr. Investir, to cover, to enclose as Garments do.

—Rui▪ Oceano Nex
Involvens umbrâ magnâ terramque Polumque. AEn 11
Nox ruit & fuscis tellurem amplectitur alis. AEn [...].

All exact Night-Pieces, yet is this one word [Invests] [...].

V. 214. Reiterated Crimes; Repeated Sins, committed o'er again▪ Reitero, Lat. to do over again.

V. 220. Treble Confusion; Threefold Confusion, that is, manifold Vengeance, Wrath and Confusion: Triple, Fr. Lat. Triplex.

V. 222. His mighty Stature; His vast Bulk, of Proportion and Size huge and extraordinary: Statura, Lat. Bigness, or height of Body.

V. 223. Driven backwards slope, &c. On either side of him the Flames forc'd backwards, slant of their Pointed Wreathes. Slope, raise sidelong, obliquely, indirectly.

Ibid. Their Pointing Spires; Their Curling Wreathes that end in Points. Spire, from Spira, Lat. as that from [...], any thing that turns round, and fetcheth a Compass; well applyed to Flame, whose curling Motion rises Circular, ending in a Pyramid Point, which has its De­nomination of [...], Fire. Spira is used by Virgil for the Gyres and Twistings of Serpents.—Spirisque ligant ingentibus, AEn. 11.

V. 224.—Rowl'd in Billows, &c. The Flaming Flood, by Satans motion in raising of him­self, was beaten backwards into Fiery Billows, that on each side rowl'd over one another, lea­ving betwixt 'em a most dreadful Valley. Vale, a diminitive of Valley, from Vallis, Lat.

V. 225. Then with expanded, &c. Then with his out-stretch'd Wings he takes his flight on high, oppressing sore the smoaky Clime, that ne'er yet felt such weight.

Expanded; Lat. Expansus, spread, stretch'd out.

V. 226. Incumbent; Lying, leaning heavily upon: Lat. incumbens, from incumbo.

Ibid. Dusky Air; Obscure, smoaky, from [...], Gr. shadowy, dark.

V. 129. With solid as the, &c. If that may be call'd Land, that always burn'd, with firm as the Lake burn'd with fluid Fire. Solid; Solidus, Lat. firm, substantial: Liquid, liquidus, Lat. melting, moist, running.

Lake; Lacus, Lat. [...], Fissura, a Pool, or deep place always full of Water.

V. 230. And such appear'd in Hue; And such for Colour seem'd: Hue, or Hew, a Sax. word.

And such for Colour shewed, as when the Strength
Of Wind pent under Ground, removes a Hill
Rent from Pelorus, or the ragged side
Of Roaring Etna, whose wide Womb well stor'd
With Matter fit to burn, thence catching Fire,
Heighten'd with Flaming Sulphur, Wing the Winds,
And leave a Boyling Bottom, Clouded o'er
With stinking Fumes.

V. 231. Subterranean Wind; Bred or imprison'd underground: Subterraneus, Lat. under­ground, from sub and terra. Transports; Carries, forces away: Transporto, Lat. to carry from one place to another.

V. 232. Pelorus; A Promontory of Sicily, now Cape di Fare, about a Mile and a half from Italy, whence Virg. Augustâ à sede Pelori, AEn. 3.

V. 233. Thundring AEtna; A Mountain on the East of Sicily, now Mont Gibel, often belch­ing out Fire and Smoak, and sometimes casting forth huge Stones with mighty Noise, well deserving the Epithet of Thundring, which Virgil also applies to it,—Horrificis juxta tonat AEtna ruinis, AEn. 3. This Mountain has made nine several Fiery Eruptions, of which the most [Page 15] dreadful was that in the Year 1669, when four Torrents of liquid Fire ran down its sides, through the Fields. a Mile into the Sea, and there maintain'd their Fury a long time unextin­guish'd. Satan spitting Fire, is by Tasso compared to this AEtna, which our Poet does apply much better to his Place than Person.

Qual' i fumi sulp [...]urei, & infiammati
Escon di Mongibello, e'l puzzo, e'l tuono,
Tal dela fiera bo [...]a, i negri fiati
Tale il fettore, e le faville sono. Canto. 4.

Hear our Spencer:

As Burning AEtna, from his Boyling Stew,
Doth belch out Flames, and Rocks in pieces broke,
And ragged Ribs, of Mountains Molten new,
Enwrapt in Cole-black Clouds, and filthy Smoak,
That all the Land with Stench, and Heaven with Horror choak. Fai. Q. B. 1. C. 1 [...].

Ibid. Whose combustible; Whose Bowels apt to burn: Combustus, Lat. burnt. Comburo, to burn.

V. 234. And fewell'd Entrals; Whose hollow Womb is stored with fit Materials for Fire; Fewel, any thing fit to burn: The Food of Fire, from Feu, Fr. Fire; this from Fuoco, Ital. and both from Focus.

Entrals; Des Entrailles, Fr. Bowels, the Inwards.

Ibid. Thence conceiving Fire; Catching Fire, or hatching and bringing it forth, from concipio, to breed and bring forth, as viviparae do.

V. 235. Sublim'd with Minerai Fury; Raised, height'ned with the furious Force of a Sul­fureous Mine: Mineral, of Mine, whence Metals are digged, from the barbarous Lat. Minare, to make Mines and Cavities under-ground. Sublim'd, of Sublimis, Lat. high, lofty.

V. 236. All involv'd; Cover'd all o'er: Lat. Involvo, to hide, to wrap up in.

Virg. AEn. 3. Gives us a large Description of this Burning Mountain.

—Horrificis juxta tonat AEtna ruinis,
Interdumque atram prorumpit ad aethera nubem,
Turbine fumantem piceo, & candente favilla:
Attollitque Globos flammarum, & sidera lambit:
Interdum Scopulos, avulsaque viscera mont is,
Erigit eructans, liquefactaque saxa sub auras
Cum gemitu Glomerat, fundoque exaestuat im [...].

Which though very exact, yet the Avulsa viscera montis, Erigit eructans, seem short of the com­bustible and fewell'd Entrails, thence conceiving Fire, sublimed with Mineral Fury: Where­our Author has given us the Philosophy of this Fiery Mountain, viz. great Quantities of com­bustible Matter, lodged in vast Hollows and Caves; in whose dark Womb, the Winds either bred or imprisoned, striving and struggling to get out, collide and strike Fire, and in a roaring Tempest springing a Mine of Sulphur, blow the Mountain up, and rowl out flaming Floods of liquid Fire. Sive bitumineae rapiant incendia flammae, &c. Ovid. Meta. Lib. 15.

V. 237. Such resting found the sole; Such place to rest upon: Sole, of the Lat. Solum▪ both signifying the bottom of the Foot. Avia Pieridum peragro loca, nullius ante, Trita Solo. Lucr. Lib. 1.

V. 239. The Stygian Flood; The Gulph of Fire. Stygius from Styx, a Fountain of Arcadia, whose Waters were so contagious, that it was esteem'd one of the Rivers of Hell: It was had in such Veneration, that no Oath was so inviolable, as that confirmed by the invocation of this abominable Flood; for Styx is from [...], to hate, to detest.

[...]
[...]

Excellently translated by Virgil, Stygiamque Paludem, dii cujus Jurare timent & fallere numen. AEn. 6.’

V. 241. Of Supernal Power; Not by permission of a Higher Power: Supernus, Lat. high.

V. 242. The Clime; The Climate, the Situation: [...], Gr. of [...], to bend from, to de­cline. A Clime is properly a space of the Earth comprehended between two Parallels, serving to distinguish the difference of Day-light by their approaching to, or receding from the Equa­tor; at first reckon'd seven, then nine, sufficient for the then-known World, since a fuller dis­covery made, encreas'd to 24, according to the length of the Days, augmented by half an hour in every Clime from the Equator to the Pole, till they attain to 24 Hours; then encreasing by Weeks and Months to half a Year, the Climes are of no more use. Satan's is a Fiery Cli­mate, a Torrid Zone.

[Page 16] V. 244. This Mournful Gloom; This lamentable glaring Darkness for Heavens pure Light: Coelestial, Heavenly; Coelestis, Lat. divine, excellent.

V. 246. Who now is Sovran; Who now commands in chief. Souverain, Fr. Sovrane and So­vrano, Ital. all from Supremus, Lat. the most High.

Ibid. Can dispose and bid; Can order and command as just, what he thinks fit, and therefore must be just. A Description of Arbitrary Power, harmless in no Hand, but His, who is as Just, as He is Powerful and Almighty, Righteous in all his Ways, and holy in all his Works, Psal. 145. 17. though many of 'em unaccountable, and past our finding out.

Dispose, from Dispono, Lat. to order, to appoint.

V. 248. Whom Reason hath equall'd: Satan makes very ill use of that Reason the Sovereign Creator had in such Perfection endow'd him with, to argue an Equality with his Maker, and that by force of Arms he had obtain'd an Usurp'd Superiority over him and his Rebellious Crew, as his Equals, who are his Creatures; and though of a higher Form than Man, yet in­finitely short of the transcendent Perfections of their Maker. Supreme, highest: Supremus, Lat. most High.

V. 250. Hail Horrours: Thou Seat of Dreadful Desolation, I salute thee: And thee, thou nethermost World and deepest Hell, receive thy new-come Lord. Hail, a Sax. word for Salu­tation (as the Lat. Ave, and the [...] of the Greeks) of Hele, Health and Welfare.

Horror, Lat. dread: Infernus, Lat. lowermost: Profundus, Lat. deep.

V. 254. The Mind is its own Place; Is not to be altered by change of Air, Coelum non animum mutant qui trans mare currunt: The Mind makes all Places alike: He who is unalterable, by the Circumstances of Time and Place, may by his mighty Mind turn Heaven to Hell, and Hell into a Heaven: Another vain-glorious Boast of the Father of Lyes.

V. 256. What matter where? What does it import me▪ in what place I am, if I continue still the same, and all I should be, but less than him, whom Thunder has exalted?

V. 260. For his Envy; A malicious Inuendo, as if their Bountiful Creator had denied them the Heaven he placed 'em in.

V. 262. To Reign is worth Ambition; To Reign, though but in Hell, is desirable, and worth attempting; Well exprest!

—Nam te nec sperent Tartara Regem
Nec tibi regnandi veniat tam dira Cupido. Georg. 1.

Ambition; Ambitio, Lat. A desire of Honour and Power.

V. 265. Th' Associates and Copartners; The Companions and Sharers of our Misfortunes. As­socio, Lat. to joyn together, to accompany, from Socius, Lat. Copartners, from the Law-Term Coparceners, such as have equal Shares in their Ancestors Inheritance.

V. 266. Lie thus astonish'd, &c. Lying amazed on the forgetful Flood. Lethe, the oblivious Pool of the Poets, has its Name from [...], forgetfulness, which it caused in all that drank of its Waters.

—Lethaei ad fluminis undam
Securos Latices & longa o [...]livia Potant. AEn. 6.

This forgetfulness here mentioned, does not imply that the laps'd Angels had lost all Remem­brance of what they had enjoyed or suffered; but is expressive of that great Astonishment and Confusion with which they were at present (helpless and forgetful of themselves) quite over­whelmed.

Oblivious; Forgetful: Lat. Obliviosus. Astonish'd, Lat. Attonitus, confounded.

V. 268. Unhappy Mansion; In this our sad abode: Mansio, Lat. an abiding place, à manendo.

V. 269. With rallied Arms; With re-united Force, with all our Powers re-assembled: Ral­lier, Fr. to bring into order broken Troops.

V. 273. None could have foyl'd; None could have worsted, beaten, overcome, from fouler or affoler, Fr. to trample upon, to bruise.

V. 274. Their liveliest Pledge; The best Security and Raiser of their hope. Plege, Fr. an Undertaker, a Law-Term for one who is Security or Gage for another.

V. 276. On the Perilous Edge; On the Bloody Brink of Battel when enraged: Well is the eminent Danger of Outragious Slaughter described by the Edge of Battel, acted by the Edge of the Sword, our Poet useth the same Expression: On the rough Edge of Battel ere it joyn'd. Bo. 6. V. 108.’

Perilous; Periculosus, Lat. dangerous. Edge, of the Lat. Acies, as that of [...], mucro.

V. 277. In all Assaults; In all Attempts, in all Onsets. Fr. Assault, from Lat. Assultus, a leaping upon.

V. 278. Signal; Sign, from Signum, Lat. Notice.

Ibid. Resume; Take new Courage, recover: Resumo, Lat. to take again.

[Page 17] V. 280. Groveling; To lie flat on ones Face, unable to rise or help ones self, as if Ground­ling.

Ibid. Prostrate: Lat. Prostratus, knock'd down, overthrown.

V. 281. Astounded, an old word for astonish'd, confounded: Fr. Estonné, from the Lat. Attonitus.

V. 282. Such a pernicious heighth; Fallen so far, from such a dangerous heighth. Perniciosus, Lat. destructive.

V. 283. Scarce had ceas'd; Made an end of speaking: Cesso, Lat. to leave off, to give over.

Superiour; Chief, the Arch-Fiend: Superior, Lat. higher, uppermost.

V. 284. His Ponderous Shield; His Weighty Shield: Lat. Ponderosus, heavy, from Pondus, Lat. weight.

V. 285. Ethereal Temper, Massy; Of extraordinary temper, of Trempe, Fr. Temperature.

Massy; Solid, strong, heavy, from Massa, Lat. for a Lump.

V. 286. The broad Circumference;—The mighty Round, cover'd his Shoulders like the full-Orb'd Moon; A Comparison better suiting the Shield of this mighty Seraph, than that of a Grecian Shield, or the Circumference of the Sun, the Monstrous Eye of Polypheme. Argolici Clypei, aut Phoebaae Lampadis Instar. AEn. 3.’

Circumference; Circumferentia, Lat. the Round, the Compass of a Circle, or a Circular Bo­dy. They who will please themselves in reading Homer's Description of Achilles's Shield, [...]. and that of AEneas in Virg. AEn. 8. will find that Vulcan, who made 'em both, gave neither of 'em such a turn as our Poet has, to this of Satan; yet the first was large enough to be engra­ven with the Sun, Moon, and all the Stars, two Cities, Fields and Vineyards, Combats, Mu­sick and Weddings, and so many things as employ 138 Verses, whom though Virgil imitates by the Embossment of his Hero's Shield in 107 Lines, yet he exceeds him by adorning it with all the Prowess and Praises of his Posterity, down to the famous Victory over Anthony and Cleo­patra, and puts it on his Back with an admirable Grace, Attollens humero, famamque & fata Nepotum.

Tasso has follow'd both these, in Rinaldos Shield celebrated Cant. 17. from Stanza 66. to the 81. consisting of 128 Verses. And in another place he tells us of a Divine Shield large enough to cover the whole Country between Caucasus and Atlas,

Scudo di lucidissimo diamante
Grande, che può coprir genti, e paesi
Quanti ve n'hà frà il Caucaso, é l'Atlante. Cant. 7. Stan. 82.

V. 287. Whose Orb; Whose Round Spherical Body, through his Perspective Glass, th'Italian Artist views: Orbis, Lat. any round thing of a circular Shape, and therefore the World Terra­rum Orbis, as also the Coelestial Circles in which the Heavenly Bodies move, Quos ignis Coeli Cyllenius erret in Orbes, Georg. 1. Here it properly denotes the Moons Orbicular Phasis, or ap­pearance.

V. 288. Through Optick Glass; Through his Telescope, an Instrument invented to draw things vastly distant nearer to the Eye, by which they are more clearly presented to the view, therefore named [...], Visorius, from [...], to see, strengthning the Visual Ray, and affording great assistance to Sight, in Objects so remote, as are the Stars and Heavenly Bodies.

Ibid. The Tuscan Artist; The Italian Astronomer, Native of Tuscany, whence Virgil styles Ti­berim Tuscum, Georg. 1. Artist: Artista, Lat. one skill'd in the Arts and Sciences, especially those call'd Liberal, of Ars, Lat.

V. 289. From Fesole: Lat. Fesulae, a considerable City of Tuscany in Italy, one of the twelve famous Towns of Etruria, where the Augurs used to reside.

V. 290. Or in Valdarno; A Fruitful Valley in Tuscany, through which the River Arno runs, between Florence and Pisa, into the Tuscan Sea. Of Vallis, Lat. a Vale, and Arno, Arnus, an Italian River.

Ibid. To descry new Lands, &c. Which the inequality of the Moons Surface seems to suggest to the Beholders; for by repeated Inspections, through the Glazed Opticks, her Superficies is discovered neither to be equal, nor exactly Sperical, but rough and uneven, full of vast Hollows and great Extuberancies, not much unlike Earths Hills and Valleys, whose highest Mountains fall short of the Eminences discovered in the Moon, as Galilaeus demonstrates in his Siderius Nuncius, Pag. 25. To descry, to discover.

V. 291. Rivers or Mountains, &c. According to the Opinion of the Pythagoreans, that the Moon was another World, whose brighter part resembled the Earth, and the more dark and obscure the Watery Element. Mihi autem dubium fuit nunquam, Terrestris Globi à longe con­specti, atque à radiis Solaribus perfusi, terream superficiem clariorem, Obscuriorem aqueam, sese in conspectum daturam. Gal. 11. P. 17.

[Page 18] Ibid. Spotty Globe; In her circle full of Spots, which arise not so much from the Inequality, as from the Dissimilitude of her Contexture. Globus, Lat. any thing that is, or appears round and Globular.

V. 292. His Spear to equal, &c. Compared with which, the loftiest Pine: Pinus, Lat. for that tall streight Tree.

V. 293. Norwegian Hills; The Hills of Norway, a Kingdom of large extent on the North-West Shore of Europe; Barren and Rocky, but abounding in vast Woods, from whence are brought Masts of the largest size. Norvegia, Lat. from the Germ. Nort, the North and Weg signifying Way, from its Northern Situation.

Mast; Lat. Malus, made generally of Firr-Trees, which for their streightness and tallness are fittest to hoist the Yards on, which bear the Sails of a Ship.

V. 294. Ammiral; According to its German Extraction Amiral or Amirael, the Chief Com­mander at Sea. That this Similitude may not seem too exorbitant, let us compare it with the Cyclop his Club:

[...]
[...]
[...]

Ulysses and his Companions took it, to be as big as the Mast of a broad Ship of Burden, with Twenty Oars; thus translated by Ovid:

Cui postquam Pinus, Baculi quae praebuit usum,
Ante pedes posita est, Antennis apta ferendis. Metam. l. 13.

Tasso arms Tancredi and his Adversary with two Spears as big. Posero in resta, é drizzare in alto 1 due Guerrier le noderose antenne, Cant. 6. St. 40. Hector took a Spear Ten Cubits long, [...]. Now if Hector, or Polyphemus himself, compared to their Superiour Satan, were but a Pigmy, who can wonder at the Circumference of his Shield, or the Size of his Spear? (to use our Author's Argument and Words)

When Millions of fierce encountring Angels fought
On either side, the least of whom could weild
These Elements, and arm him with the force
Of all their Regions. Bo. 6.

See Spencer, Bo. 3. Cant. 7. his Spear amidst her Sun-broad Shield arriv'd, that nathemore the Steel asunder riv'd, all were the Beam in bigness like a Mast.

V. 296. Over the Burning Marle; Over the Burning Ground, the singed Soil; Marle, ac­cording to Pliny, Marga is a Fat Earth, of kind and colour like Lime, used in many Countries to soil the Earth, which its innate heat stimulates into great Fertility.

V. 297. On Heavens Azure; On Heavens Blue Plains: Azur, Fr. Azurro, Ital. both from the barbarous Greek [...], Lapis Lazulus, a Stone of which is made the best Blue Paint resembling the Blue Sky, brought from Persia, call'd there Lazurd.

Ibid. The Torrid Zone; The Roasting Region, the Scorching Climate: Torridus, Lat. burnt: Torrida semper ab igni, of the Torrid Zone. Geor. 1.

V. 298. Vaulted with Fire: Voulté, Fr. Arched over-head with Fire, well agreeing with his former Description,

—On all sides round,
As one great Furnace flamed. V. 62 & 63.

V. 299. Nathless;. Nevertheless, of which it seems to be a contracted Diminutive, or the Sax. Nadeles, of Na, not and less.

Ibid. Till on the Beach; The Brink, the Side, the Brow of that Burning Sea.

V. 300. Inflamed; Inflammatus, Lat. all on a light Fire.

V. 301. His Legions, Angel-forms; His Armies of Angels, Angelick Shapes: Legio, Lat. was a square Battalion of Roman Footmen, consisting of about 6000, more or less, according to different times. Twelve millions of Angels our Saviour mentions Matth. 26. 53.

Forms; Forma, Lat. for Shape, Figure, Beauty, &c.

Ibid. Intrans't; Helpless, confounded: Transi, Fr. fallen into a Swound:

V. 302. Thick as Autumnal; As numberless as Leaves in Autumn. [...], As many as the Leaves and Flowers that adorn the Spring, says Homer; And [...]. Very many, like to Leaves or Sands for number. Thus improved by Virg.

Quem qui scire velit, Libyci velit aequoris idem
Discere, quam multae Zephyro turbentur arenae.
[Page 19] Aut ubi Navigits violentior incidit Eurus,
Nosse quet Ionii veniant ad litora sluctus. Geor. 2.

But those which exactly quadrate with the place are,

Quàm multa in Sylvis Autumni frigore primo
Lapsa cad [...]nt Folia. AEn. 6.

Ibid. Autumnal; Of or in the Autumn: Autumnus, Lat. the Harvest, that Quarter of the Year from the beginning of August to that of November.

V. 303. In Vallombrosa; It. In the shady Vale. Valombrosa is a famous Valley in Tuscany, so named of Vallis and Umbra Shade, remarkable for the continual cool Shades, which the vast number of Trees that overspread it, afford.

Ibid. Where th' Etrurian Shades, &c. Where the lofty Tuscan Trees Vaulted high overhead, agree in one green Bower. Etruria was the ancient Name of a considerable part of Italy, now Toscana, Thuscia and Tuscia, Lat. containing all that Country, which belongs to the States of Florence, Siena, Pisa and Luca, the last a Free State, the rest subject to the great Duke of Florence.

V. 304. Over-arch'd; Arch'd over-head, Arch. A Circular Figure from Arc, Fr. as that of Arcus, Lat. for a bent Bow its resemblance.

Ibid. Scatter'd Sedge; Weeds broken by the Wind, and covering the Red Sea. Sedge, from the Sax. Saecg. A little Sword, from its shape; and A secando, from the sharpness of its sides, which are apt to cut the Hand they are drawn through.

V. 305. A Float; Floating, swimming about, from Flotter, Fr. as that from Fluctuare, to swim.

Ibid. Orion arm'd: The Poets Fable, that Jupiter, Mercury and Neptune, being one Night out late on a Ramble, were forc'd to take into a poor House where one Hircus lived, who killed the only Ox he had, to entertain his Heavenly Guests; who to reward his Gratitude, granted him any Request he should make 'em; which was, That he might have a Child without the trouble of a Wife: Whereupon these his Guests Urining in the Oxes Hide, commanded him to bury it Ten Months in the Earth, which he did, and at the end of the term he had this Son, who proving a great Hunter, was kill'd by a Scorpion, and by the Commiseration of the Gods translated to Heaven, into a Constellation of Sixteen Stars: From this extraordinary way of Generation, he was called [...], from [...], Urine. Others say, [...], from the Stormy Weather that attends him.

Assurgens fluctu nimbosus Oryon. AEn. 1.
Armatumque Auro Circumspicit Oryona. AEn. 3.

Where Virgil has adorn'd him with Gold in respect of his Splendor, as Milt [...]n does here arm him with fierce Winds in Consideration of the season he appears in, which is generally tempe­stuous. Armatus; Lat. armed.

V. 306. The Red-Sea Coast; Mare Erythraeum, of Erythreus, Son of Persus and Andromeda, who Reigned in Egypt on the Confines of this Sea, and probably found the way of sailing in small Vessels, among Islands thereof, the affinity of his Name with [...], Greek for Red, oc­casioned the naming this Sea so. Sir Walter Rawleigh, from a view that Gama a Portugese took of this Sea Anno 1544, affirms, That the Earth, Sand and Cliffs of divers Islands in this Sea, being of a Reddish Colour, give by Reflection a foil to its Waters, that seem to have a Tin­cture of Rubicundity, though not real: Where the Hebrew Text mentions the miraculous passage of the Israelites cross this Sea, it is call'd [...], Mare Algosum, the Sea of Weeds, from the abundance of Weeds and floating Sedge, though translated the Red-Sea.

V. 307. Busiris was, according to Sir Walter Rawleigh's Opinion, one of the Egyptian Kings that opprest the Israelites, in whose Reign Moses fled, having slain the Egyptian, and that he was called Chencres, on whom the Ten Plagues were inflicted, and who was afterwards in persuit of 'em drown'd with all his Host in the Red-Sea. Pharaoh (the word used by Moses) was the general Appellative of all the Egyptian Monarchs, as is evident from 2 Kings 23. 29. and Jerem. 46. 2. where by his Sirname one of their Kings is call'd Pharach-Nechoh.

Ibid. His Memphian Chivalry; His Egyptian Horsemen; from Memphis the great and glori­ous city of old Egypt, seated on the Brow of a Mountain two Miles West of Nilus, and is call'd Moph, Hos. 9. 6. About Ten Miles from this place stand the famous Pyramids.

Barbara Pyramidum sileat miracula Memphis. Mart.
Quem non AEgyptia Memphis, AEquaret visu, numerisque moventibus astra. Luc. l. 1.

Chivalry; Chevalerie, Fr. Horsemanship, Service performed on Horseback, and such as per­form it, from Cheval, Fr. a Horse.

V. 308. Perfidious Hatred; Treacherous, because Pharaoh, after leave given to the Egyptians to depart, follow'd after 'em like Fugitives. Perfidiosus, Lat. faithless,

[Page 20] V. 309. Sojourners of Goshen; The Israelites, who inhabited that part of Egypt, Gen. 47. 27. Sejourner, Fr. to stay in.

V. 310. Their float Carcasses; Their dead Bodies swimming to and fro: Fr. Carquasse, quasi Caro cassa. Read Exod. 14.

V. 311. Chariot, from Carrus, whence Currus, Lat. for the same sort of Carriage.

V. 312. Abject; Lat. abjectus, cast away, cast down, lost and dispirited.

V. 315. Of Hell resounded; Rang again: Resonner, Fr. from resonare, Lat. to sound again, or to resound.

Ibid. Potentates; Rulers, Governours, from the Lat. Potentatus, a Chief Magistrate, as Vossius tells us, used both by Caesar and Livy.

V. 316. The Flow'r of Heav'n; Lately Heav'ns chief Inhabitants, from Flos, Lat.

V. 317. If such Astonishment can seize; If such Confusion, such a Dulness and Stupidity as this can master Everlasting Beings: Saisir, Fr. to lay hands on, to take hold of.

V. 319. After the Toil, &c. After the Fatigues and Labours of the Foughten Field, to re­cover the decay'd Strength.

Repose; Some will have from reponere, Lat. to rest; others from re and pausa, of [...], to ease, to rest: Vertue, of Virtus, Lat. Courage, Gallantry, Strength.

V. 323. To adore the Conquerour; To worship and pay Adoration to our Adversary: Adorare, Lat. to worship. The manner of Adoration among the Idol-Worshippers was, Manum Ori, Capite inclinato, admovere. So Job 31. 27. If my Mouth did kiss my Hand. So Psal. 11. 12. Kiss the Son; that is, worship him: Thus Hosea 13. 2.

V. 324. Cherub and Seraph; Angels of all sorts and kinds. Seraph is the singular of Sera­phim, of which before.

V. 325. And Ensigns; With Arms and Colours thrown away, from Insigne, Lat. for any thing remarkable.

V. 326. Discern th' Advantage; See the Advantage they have got over us: Lat. discerno, to judge of, to know well, of dis and cerno, to see.

V. 327. Descending; Falling or driving down directly on us: Descendens, Lat. from des­cendere, to go down.

V. 328. Thus drooping; Fainting, and out of heart, or with Thunderbolts linked together like Chain-shot.

V. 329. Transfix us, &c. Strike through and rivet us to the bottom of this Flaming Whirle­pool: Transfigo, Lat. to pierce through. This alludes to the Fate of Ajax Oileus, [...]. imi­tated by Virg. Illum expirantem transfixo pectore flammas, Turbine corripuit, scopuloque infixit acu­to, AEn. 1. Who pleaseth to read the Devils Speech to his Damned Assembly in Tasso, Cant. 4. from Stanza 9. Tartarei. Numi di seder più degni, Là soura il Sole, to Stanza 18, will find our Au­thor has seen him, though borrow'd little of him.

V. 334. Rouse; Get up, a more Northern pronunciation of Rise, like the Dorick Dialect.

V. 335. Evil Plight; The sad Condition, a Metaphor from Merchants plighting or passing their Words the Commodities (often sold unseen) are in good case.

V. 337. Generals; Generalis, Lat. thence Commander in Chief.

V. 339. Amrams Son, was Moses by Jochebed, Exod. 6. 20. Numb. 26. 59.

Ibid. In Egypts evil, &c. When her obstinate King provoked God to plague both him and the whole Land. It was so named of Egyptus the Son of Belus, one of its most ancient Kings.

V. 340. A Pitchy Cloud; A Cloud of Locusts as black as Pitch; for the sacred Text tells us, The Locusts covered the face of the Earth, so that the Land was dark, Exod. 10. 14 and 15. as it follows, and darken'd all the Land of Nile. Locusta, Lat. for that devouring Insect.

V. 341. Warping; Working themselves forward, a Sea-Term: The East-Wind wafted 'em over, Exod. 10. 13.

V. 342. That o'er the Realm of Impious Pharaoh; That like dark Night o'erspread the King­dom of Prophane Pharaoh; this was not the particular Sirname of any King of Egypt, except him who bore it first, whose Virtue and Heroick Actions made it Honorary to all his Succes­sors, as that of Caesar and Augustus was among the Romans, till the Egyptians in process of time altered it to Ptolemy, in memory of Ptolomaeus Lagus, one of Alexander's Captains, who after his death succeeded in the Sovereignty.

V. 343. The Land of Nile; Egypt Graphical described, by that famous and wonderful River Nilus, to whose Annual Overflowings that Country owed its extraordinary Fertility: Rich without Rain.

V. 344. Hovering; Flying about, taking many turns on the Wing without alighting.

V. 345. Under the Cope of Hell; Under the Flaming Vault, the Fiery Canopy of Hell: Cope, from It. Cappa, as la Cappa del Cielo, the Cope of Heaven, from Caput, Lat. Head, as Heaven seems to be, to the under World. Others deduce it from [...], a Canopy, such as is hung about Beds in hot Countries infested with Flies, made of thin and small Measht Net to keep 'em out, from [...], a Gnat. In Testudineo tibi Lentule Conopeio, Ju. Sat. 6. I prefer the former.

V. 346. Surrounding Fires; 'Twixt the Flames above, below, and on all sides encompassing them. Nether; Underneath, from Ned, Dan, for under, surrounding from the obsolete Fr. surronder, to encompass quite round, to inclose on all sides.

[Page 21] V. 348. Of their great Sultan; The Title of the Turkish Emperours for their Cruelty and Tyrannick Government, well enough apply'd to Satan, [...], Heb. Dominion, of [...], to bear Rule over.

Ibid. To direct; To appoint, to give order and direction: Dirigo, Lat.

V. 349. In even Balance, &c. They light down all at once in exact order of time and place. Bilanx, Lat. a pair of Scales, from Bis, Lat. two, and Lanx, Lat. a Scale.

V. 350. On the firm Brimstone; On the burning Soil: Brimstone, from the Sax. Brennestone, a hard stony Substance, apt to burn.

V. 351. A Multitude; A vast Company, a mighty Swarm: Multitudo, Lat.

Ibid. The Populous North. Northern Countries abound in People, as being more Procreative than hotter Regions, and the Inhabitants of Northern Climates are more vigorous and strong, than those that lie nearer the South and the Sun, whose Heat enervates and emasculates its few and feeble Inhabitants: Populosus, Lat. full of People.

V. 352. Pour'd never from her Frozen Loyns; Never sent forth from her cold Climates: Pour'd relates to the Similitude of the Deluge, by which he well expresses the Inundation these Barba­rous Nations made upon the Southern parts of the World, when streightned for room they left their hungry Hives. The holy Text expresseth the Production of Mankind by the same word Loyns, Thy Son which shall come out of thy Loyns, of Salomon, 2 Chron. 6. 9.

V. 353. Rhene; Rhenus, Lat. A vast River of Germany, and one of the greatest in Europe, arising out of the Alps in Switzerland, and after a course of 800 Miles falling into the British Sea by the Briel, famous for having been for a long time the Boundary of the Roman Empire.

Alpinas, ah dura, Nives, & Frigera Rheni,
Me sine S [...]la vides. Virg. Ecl. 10.

Ibid Danaw; Call'd by the Germans, Donaw; by the French, Daiuibe; by the Italians, Da­ [...]bio; by the Poles, Dunay; and by the Turks, Tuna; and by the ancient Greek and Latin Historians and Poets, Danubius and Ister.

Stat vetus urbs ripae vicina Binominis Istri. Ov. l. 1. de Ponto.
Et conjurato descendem Dacus ab Istro. Geor. 11.

It is the greatest River in Europe, rising in the County of Bar in Suabia, and after a course of 1500 Miles, (modestly computed) emptieth its self, and many other Navigable Rivers, into the Euxine, or Black Sea, by three great Out-lets. It was also for many Years the Boundary of the Roman Empire on that side against the Barbarous Nations, the Legions having their Sta­tions on its Banks.

Ibid. Her Barbarous Sons; When her cruel Off-spring, as Virg.

Quaeve hunc tam barbara morem
Permittit Patria? AEn. 1.

Strangers were by the Grecians styled [...], not being understood; so St. Paul useth the word 1 Cor. 14. 7. and Virg. Barbarus has Segetes, Ec. 1. But the Greeks, proud of their ex­traordinary Language and Learning, esteemed and termed all other Nations Barbarous. Suidas tells us, that Foreigners endcavouring to learn the Athenian Idiom, spoke and pronounc'd it very roughly and untowardly, and did often (when at a non-plus) repeat and chop upon Barbar, which gave occasion to the naming them thereby. But these our Poet speaks of, are more just­ly styled Barbarous, because they blotted out, and almost utterly defaced all the Learning of the Civiliz'd parts of the World, which their over-ran. They were the Goths and Vandals, who first made an Irruption into Poland, then into Italy, Spain, Africk, and possest them­selves also of some of the Southern parts of France, Languedoc and Provence. The Goths, ancient Inhabitants of Gothland in Sueden, removed most prosperously into Spain about the Year 400, and continued Masters of it under 31 Kings of their own Nation, till overcome by the Moors in the Year 716, whence our Poet says they spread, &c.

V. 355. Beneath Gibralter; A City and Mountain of Andalusia in Spain, seated at the Moutl [...] of the Mediterranean Sea, where it runs into the Atlantick Ocean: The Name is corrupted from Gibel Tarick, in the Morisque Tongue, signifying the Mountain of Tarick, a famous Leader of the Moors, who first Landed here, when they Invaded Spain.

Ibid. To the Lybian Sands; To the Sandy Desarts of Africa. Lybia is generally taken for Africa, and had its Name from Lybia the Daughter of Epaphus, or as others, from Lybs the South-Wind, to which it lies open and exposed.

—Lybiae deserta peragro
Europà atque Asiâ pulsus. AEn. 1.

Properly speaking, Lybia is but a part of Africa, bounded by the Mediterranean, Egypt, the Country of the Tripolitanians, and Ethiopia. Of its Sandy Barrenness, Lucan.

[Page 22]
Lybicae, quod fertile, terrae est,—
Vergit in occasus, sed & haec, non fontibus ullis
Solvitur, Arctoos raris aquilonibus imbres Accipit, Lib. 9.

The Vandaels, or Vindelici, seized on this Country about the Year 428. a People of Germany, Natives of Suevia, one of whose Kings, Gensericus, Invaded Italy, sackt Rome, and gave the Plunder of it for 14 Days space to his Soldiers; their Power continued in Spain and Africk for 146 Years.

V. 356. Squadron; Esquadron, Fr. Agmen quadratum, a Body of (Foot) Men drawn into a Square, from Quadratus, Lat.

Ibid. Band; A Company, from Bande, Fr. and Banda, Ital. for the same, all perhaps from [...], as Suidas tells us, Gr. for an Ensign: An easie Metonymy, the Flag for those that fol­low it.

V. 357. The Heads and Leaders; The one explains the other; Commanders are in respect of the Military Bodies they Command, what the Head is to the Body Natural. Thus in our Universities, the Master of a House or College is call'd the Head.

V. 358. Godlike Shapes; Whose Size and Shapes were like the Gods: If Homer gave his Hero the Title of [...], and Virg. AEneas be, Os, humerosque, Deo similis, these Mighty Spirits that durst Rebel against th'Almighty, may be well allowed the same Epithet.

V. 359. Forms Excelling Human; In Shape and Beauty exceeding all Mankind: Excellens, Lat. of Excellere, to surpass, to go beyond, to outdo: Humanus, Lat. belonging to Man­kind.

Ibid. Princely Dignities; Majestick Personages: Princeps, Lat. Dignitas, Lat. Worthiness, Majesty and Powers, well applyed in the Abstract to such Spiritual Beings: Podesta is at this day in use for a Magistrate, as Juvenal long since, Vis Fidenarum Gabiorumve esse Potestas; Thrones, Dominions, Principalities or Powers, Colos. 1. 16.

V. 360. Erst; Formerly, lately, from Erist, first.

V. 361. In Heav'nly Records; In the Registers and Rolls that are kept above in Heaven. Records, from Lat. Recordari, to remember, Authentick and Uncontroulable Testimonies in Writing, contained in Rolls of Parliament and preserv'd in Courts of Record.

V. 362. Be no Memorial; Is no Remembrance: Lat. Memoriale: Ras'd, scrap'd out, Fr. raser, to blot or scratch out: à Radere, Lat.

V. 364. The Sons of Eve; Among Mankind Eve took her Name of [...] to live, because the Mother of Mankind, who from her derive their Being, Gen. 3. 20.

V. 371. To transform to the Image of a Brute; To change the Glory of the Invisible God into the Image of a Beast, as Exod. 32. 1, 2, &c. Where the Israelites forc'd Aaron to make them a Molten Calf, likening their Maker to the Grazed Ox, as follows: Transformare, to turn into se­veral shapes: Omnia transformat sese in miracula rerum, Georg. 4. Imago, Lat. the likeness or appearance of any thing represented, as if imitago ab imitatione. Brutus, Lat. dull, heavy, void of Reason, as Beasts are.

V. 372. Adorn'd with Gay Religions full of Pomp, &c. Decked and set out with Gawdy Rites and Shews, Solemn Processions and Copes wrought with Gold. Adornatus, Lat. trim­med, set forth. Pompa, Lat. of [...], a fight, or glorious shew. Gay, fine, splendid, of [...], to be proud.

V. 375. Idols; [...], gross Material Representations of God, the Infinite and Invisible Being.

Ibid. The Heathen World; Among the Gentiles, some fetch the word from [...], Gr. for the same. Vossius, Heathen, Ger. Heyden, is from Heyde, a Country place, where these Heathen used to observe their prophane Rites, after their Churches were dedicated to, and employed in the Service of the True God.

V. 379. On the bare Strand; On the barren Bank, or the fruitless Shore. Of Strande Belg.

V. 380. Promiscuous Croud; The common Croud of ordinary Angels, like common Soldiers. Promiscuus, Lat. mixt, mislead, common, confuted, confused.

Ibid. Aloof; At a distance, far off. All-off; at a good distance.

V. 382. Roaming to, &c. Wandring up and down the Earth. It seems derivative from Room, as that from the Belg. Ruym, broad.

V. 384. Their Altars; Their places of offering Sacrifice: Altare, Lat. Quasi alta ara, Erected above Ground, and raised, on which they sacrificed diis superis, to the Heavenly Deities. Al­tare est, quod è terrâ erectum est: Ara vero quae in terrâ statuitur.

V. 386. Jehovah, [...], The peculiar and most expressive Name of GOD, describing him by Essence and Eternity, explain'd well by St. John, Revel. 1. 4. [...], see Exod. 3. 14. and Chap. 6. 3. and Isai. 42. 8. Its Root is [...] to be, to exist. The Jews had this Name in so great Veneration, that, as often as it occurr'd in reading the Mosaick Text, they pronounc'd [...]. Adonai in stead of it, thence call'd [...] the explain'd Name, and from the number of its Letters (which the Greeks learn'd of 'em) the [Page 23] [...]. The sacred Concealment of this Name, was not unknown to the Heathens. Joh. Melala, Lib. 3. Cronic. tells us, Orpheus made his Boasts, that he had heard from the O­racle the ineffable Name of God, HERI KEPEO. The Cabalists among their Arithmetical Traditions, have this Numeral of the Name Jehovah, [...]. KEPEO, which they deduce thus, &c. [...], that [...] gives 100. [...]. behold 125. And so [...], which added to 125, makes 161. Lastly, [...], which with 161, makes 186 by the Hebrew Numeral Letters thus exprest, [...], to which prefixing the Note of Admiration [...], behold 186, is a Numeral Expression of that Sacred Name of GOD, (not to be pronounc'd but once a Year by the High Priest, on the Day of Expiation) and the mean­ing of the Oracles [...].

Ibid. Thundring out of Sion, as it is exprest Joel 3. 16. and Amos 1. 2. The Lord shall roar from Sion, and utter his Voice from Jerusalem.

V. 387. Thron'd between the Cherubim; This relates to the Description of the Oracle in Salo­mon's Temple, wherein the Ark was placed between the two Golden Cherubims, 1 Kings 6. 23. 1 Kings 8. 6 and 7. See also the 2 Kings 19. 15. O Lord God of Israel, which dwellest between the Cherubims, Hezekiah's Prayer.

V. 388. Within his Sanctuary; Within his Holy Temple: Sanctuarium, Lat. of Sanctus, Ho­ly. The place in which the Ark of the Covenant resided in Salomon's Temple was called San­ctum Sanctorum, the most Holy Mansion, into which the High Priest enter'd but once a Year. Of the Idols attempting and possessing even this Holy Temple, read 2 Kings 23. 4. and 2 Kings 21. 4 and 5.

Ibid. Their Shrines, Abominations; Their Temples and Worship, things derestable and accurst. Shrine, from Escrin, Fr. as that from Scrinium, Lat. a Repository, or place wherein Jewels and things of the greatest Value were laid up. So Scrinium Sacrum, where Holy Re­liques are kept by their dull Adorers. Demetrius the Silversmith is said to make Silver Shrines for Diana, [...], little portable Silver Chappels, representing the Form of that famous Ephesian Temple, with the Image of Diana enshrined: These Silver Shrines were not made for, but of Diana, Act. 19. 24.

V. 389. Abominations; Accursed things, detestable, such as God abhors: Abominatio, Lat. By this phrase the Holy Writ expresseth Gods detestation of Sin, all sorts of it being Abomi­nation in his sight, as Levit. 18. 22, 23, 26, 27, 29, 30. and 1 Kings 11. 7. Salomon built an high place for Chemos, the Abomination of Moab, &c.

V. 390. His Holy Rites profan'd; Polluted and defiled his Sacred Ceremonies, which in his Worship the Jews were appointed to observe. Ritus, Lat. Custom: Profane, Lat. to unhal­low. Of the most Solemn Feasts enjoyned the People of God, see Exod. 13. Vers. 14, 15 & 16. Levit. 23. 39. read Deut. 16.

V. 391. Affront his Light; And with their Deeds of Darkness durst oppose and encounter his Holy Purity, the Delusion must have been very strange, and this Darkness must have pos­sest the misty Minds of their Adorers, before they could be prevailed upon to quit the Living GOD, (by so many miraculous Deliverances manifested to 'em) a GOD of infinite Mercy, ap­peasable by the Sacrifice of a Pigeon, for those Grim Idols to whom they were to give up their Children (their own Bowels) to be burnt. Affronter, Fr. to encounter sawcily and impu­dently.

V. 392. First Moloch horrid King; Dreadful King. [...] Heb. King. Levit. 18. 21. 2 Kings 23. 10. Jer. 7. 31. 1 Kings 11. 5. he is called Milcom, and in the 1 Chron. 20. 2. Malcom, which our Translation reads of their King, which the LXX render [...], took the Crown of Moloch (the Idol of the Conquer'd Ammonites) from off his Head.

This Idol is by some thought the same with Saturn, to whom the Heathen sacrificed their Children, worshipped chiefly by the Ammonites, and afterwards by the Idolatrous Jews, who in cursed Imitation of their cruel Neighbours offered their Sons and Daughters to it; the Devil probably seducing and enticing them by these horrid Sacrifices, to an Emulation of the Tryal God was pleased to make of Abraham's Faith and Obedience, in offering up his only Son Isaac, Gen. 22. 2.

The Image of Moloch was of Brass, hollow within, with the Head of a Calf Crown'd; and being made red hot by an internal Fire, the Child was clapt into his Arms, fixt in a posture to receive it; and to hinder hearing the horrid Shreicks it gave, they made a horrible Din with Drums and Trumpets, &c. He who thus sacrificed to Moloch, is by Hosea said to kiss the Calf, Chap. 5. 2. The Sacrificers of Men kiss the Calf, that is, worshipped and adored him.

Ibid. Besmeared; Dawbed all over, from Be, in Composition signifying round, as Beset, and smear of the Belg. smeeren, to dawb, to anoint, to pollute.

V. 394. Timbrels loud; Drums, Tabers, either of the Fr. Tambour, a Drum, as if Tambrel, or from [...], Gr. for the same.

V. 395. That past through Fire; Although this be an Hebrew phrase expressive of burning, yet all Parents, though zealous in this Idolatry, were not so unnaturally impious as to offer up their Children Burnt-Sacrifices to Moloch, when God himself was contented with Bullocks and Rams. Some of 'em satisfied their Diabolical Zeal, by making 'em pass through the Fire, others between two Fires, before this Grim Idol, which they were made by the Priests to believe to be very conducive to the Prosperity and Long Life of their singed Off-spring. There were [Page 24] some remains of this Heathen Rite in St. Chrysostom's Days; Mothers, even Christians, were wont to make their Children pass yearly over the Fire on St. John's Day, which he reproves: Solennes ejus honores, [...] excitatas ait, ipsumque diem Lampada, appellatum. In Homil. de Nat. St. Joann. In this sense Ahaz made his Son to go through the Fire, 2 Kings 16. 3.

V. 396. Grim Idol; Ugly, cruel: Grimm, Ger. Anger, which distorts the Countenance, and disorders it; hence the Fr. Grimace, for an ugly or ridiculous Face.

Ibid. Him the Ammonit [...]; The Ammonites were descended from Lot, by his youngest Daugh­ter, Gen. 19. 38. who called her Son [...], The Son of my People; [...] signifying a Nation: The worshipping this detestable Deity Moloch, is called The Abomination of the Chil­dren of Ammon, 1 Kings 11. 7.

V. 397. Worshipt in Rabba; A City beyond Jordan, belonging to the Ammonites, and Ca­pital of their Kingdom, besieged by Joab, and taken by David, before whose Walls Uriah was slain, 2 Sam. Chap. 11. and 12. Her Plains are styled Watry, from the many Springs and Brooks, that gave Rabba the Name of The City of Waters, 2 Sam. 12. 27.

V. 398. Argob; Was a Country, part of the Dominion of Og King of Basan, Deut. 3. 3, & 4. Jair, Son of Manasseh, took this Country, to whose half Tribe it was allotted for a Possession, Deut. 3. 13, and 14.

Ibid. Basan; Was all that Country, under the Command of Og the last King thereof, lying beyond Jordan, from the River Arnon, to Mount Hermon, given in Allotment to the Reubenites, Gadites, and the half Tribe of Manasseh, Deut. 3. 12, 13.

V. 399. Utmost Arnon; A River beyond Jordan, in the Country of the Ammonites, being the farthest part Eastward possest by the Children of Israel, therefore called utmost, (outermost) as their Boundary on that side.

V. 400. Audacious Neighbourhood: Nor was Moloch satisfied by being so bold a Neighbour to the True God, as to invade the Land of Promise, and to be worshipp'd in the borders of his Kingdom among the Idolatrous Ammonites, but he seduced even Solomon himself to build him a Temple just o'er against God's Holy Temple at Jerusalem, on that scandalous Hill, &c. Au­dax, Lat. bold, daring.

V. 401. Of Solomon; The Son of David by Bathsheba, 2 Sam. 12. 24. so named of God by Nathan the Prophet, famous for his extraordinary Wisdom granted him by God, 1 Kings 3. 12. and 1 Kings 4. 29. to the end.

V. 403. On that Opprobrious Hill; Where Moloch's Temple was erected in the Valley of Min­nom, South East of Jerusalem, by King Solomon, 1 Kings 11. 7. to please and gratifie his Ido­latrous Wives: The Hill is deservedly called Opprobrious, from the scandal which it gave not only to the People of God, but to the Jealous God of his and their Fathers. Opprobriosus, Lat. repro chful.

V. 404. Valley of Hinnom; This is sometime called the Valley of Benhinnom, [...], that is, the Vale of the Children of Hinnom, an usual Hebraism, Jer. 7. 31. in which the Grove of Moloch stood: Throughout the Sacred Text, where-ever Idolatry is either reproved, pu­nish'd or abolish'd, mention is made of Groves, 2 Chron. 24. 18. They left the House of the Lord God of their Fathers, and served Groves and Idols. So 2 Chron. 14. 3. the planting of Groves near God's Altar was positively forbid, Deut. 16. 21. as being a part of the Gentile Supersti­tion.

Ingens ara fuit, juxtaque veterrima Laurus,
Incumbens arae, atque umbrâ complexa Penates. AEn. 11.

Ibid. Tophet; [...] Heb. a Drum, the Name opprobriously, and by way of detestation of the Grove where Moloch's Temple stood, because they made use of many of those loud and noiseful Instruments to drown the dismal Outcries and Groans which proceeded from those cruel Sacrifices, Jer. 7. 31, and 32.

V. 405. Black Gehenna call'd; Hell it self, from its dismal Flames. This Valley of Hinnon some fetch from [...], to roar, to cry out, through excessive torment: It lay South-East of Je­rusalem,. Josh. 15. 8. where Tophet stood, 2 Kings 23. 10. From the Burnt sacrifices of Infants, and the horrid Groans and Outcries of Human Holocausts, Hell, the Seat of Eternal Punish­ment and Penal Fire was named Gehenna, read Isai. 30. 33. and our blessed Saviour himself so applies it, [...], Matth. 18. 9. Type, the Image, the Resemblance, of [...], Gr. the Form or Likeness.

V. 406. Chemos, the Idol of Moab, Jer. 47. 7, and 13. from [...], to hide, [...], says Philo Judae. both importing a behaviour fit to be concealed. Origen, who search'd the Hebrew Authors, confesseth he could find no other account of this Chemos and Peor, which are the same) but that it was Idolum Turpitudinis. St. Hierom on the 9 Chapter of Hosea, likens it to Priapus, whose Lascivious Deity was worshipp'd by shameful Prostitutions. And indeed, in Numb. 25. 1 Kings 15. 2 Chron. 15. 16. and in all other Texts of Holy Writ where mention is made of this abominable Idol, his Worship is attended with, and exprest by, all the Lustful and Wanton Enjoyments imaginable. Of the same Opinion is our Milton, who therefore style [...] Chemos the O [...]scene Dread of the Moabi [...]es, and his Rites Wanton: 'But our Learned Selden dis­agrees, and not without sufficient Reason on his side, for Idolatry throughout the Old Testa­ment is every where exprost, by going a Whoring after strange Gods, and by Lust and Abo­minations, [Page 25] as is sufficiently evident Ezek. 23. The Whoredoms, which the Israelites committed with the Daughters of Moab, cannot be proved to have been any part of the Idolatrous Rites performed in Worshipping this their God, but rather the Allurements and Rewards these fair Idolatresses bestow'd on their Admirers, by which they ensnared them, to bow down before their senseless Deities, and to provoke the Living God. Read Numb. 25.

Ibid. The Obscene Dread; The filthy Fear, the lustful Deity, the beastly lascivious God of the Moabites. Dread, for Deity; Primus in orbe deos fecit timor; And Ovid speaking of Styx, so much reverenced of all that swore by it.

—Stygii quoque conscia sunto
Numina torrentis, timor & deus ille deorum. Met. Lib. 3.

Obscaenus, Lat. unclean, unchaste, abominable. Moab, the Father of the Moabites, was the Son of Lot by his eldest Daughter, Gen. 19. 37.

V. 407. From Aroar to Nebo; The first a City West of, the later a Hill East of the Promised Land, whence Moses took his prospect of it, Deut. 34. 1.

V. 408. Of Southmost Abarim; Mountains of Moab bordering on the Desart Southward, and therefore wild, a Wilderness, not far from Mount Nebo, Numb. 33. 47.

V. 409. In Hesebon and Horonaim, &c. Chief Cities of Seon King of the Amorites, from whence he had driven out the Moabites, Numb. 21. 26. Jerem. 48. 3, 4, and 5.

V. 410. The Flow'ry Dale of Sibma; The Fruitful Vale: Dale, of the Dan. Dall, the Germ. Thall, all of Vallis, Lat. which seems to spring of the Gr. [...], to be green, to abound and flourish as Valleys do, that are generally more fruitful than the Hills.

Sibma; A City in the Vale of Moab, famous for Vineyards: O Vine of Sibma, I will weep for thee, Jerem. 48. 32.

V. 411. Eleale; Another City of the Moabites, rebuilt by the Reubenites, Numb. 32. 37.

Ibid. Th' Asphaltick Pool; The Lake Asphaltites, so named of [...], Bitumen, there ga­thered in great quantities: It is a black, thick, Pitchy Consistence, sometimes used in Lamps, of the Nature of Brimstone. This Pool is often in Scripture called the Sea of the Plain, Deut. 3. 27. and the Sea of Sodom, of its Neighbourhood thereunto; also the Dead Sea, because no li­ving Creature is or can live there; or from its thickness, as being unmoveable by the Wind. It is 32 English Miles long, and 10 broad, and like the Caspian Sea, has no Outlet. It lies to the Southward of the Desarts of Moab, and in it the famous River Jordan loseth it self. See Tacitus, Lib. 5. Pag. 618.

Ibid. Pool; Properly a standing Water, of the Belg. Poel, from Palus, Lat. Stagnum as that perhaps of [...], Mud.

V. 412. PEOR his other Name, and more usual than Chemos, which seems to be given this Idol by the Prophet Jeremiah, by way of disgrace, Chap. 48. 7, and 13. The Sacred Text often styles him [...], Baal-Peor, and the LXX [...], Lord of Peor, a Mountain in the Territories of Moab, beyond Jordan, where he was worshipp'd, even by the Israelites, en­ticed thereunto by the Beauty and Embraces of the wanton Midianites. Read Numb. 25. 1, 2, and 3. where, by the Peoples eating and bowing down, Moses means the Sacrifices and Feasts the Heathens made to the Infernal Gods, for their dead Friends and Relatives, which is evi­dent; They joyned themselves to Paal-Peor, and did eat the Offerings of the dead, Psal. 106. 28.

[...]
[...]. Apo [...]in.

V. 413. In Sittim; The last encamping place, of the Israelites, under Moses, in the P [...]ains of Moab, whence came the Wood of which the Ark was made, Numb. 33. 49.

Ibid. From Nile; From Egypt, of which this is often called the River. Nilus, Lat. is a vast River in Africa, it had formerly seven Outlets, Septemplicis Ostia Nili; now reduced to four, which run into the Mediterranean Sea; on it the Fertility of Egypt depended.

Gurgite septeno rapidus mare summovet [...]mnis,
Terra suis contenta bonis, non indiga mercis
Aut Jovis, in solo tanta est fiducia Nilo. Luc. 8.

V. 415. His Lustful Orgies; His Lascivious and Wanton Feasts, he extended even from Egypt, as far as Jerusalem. [...], the Feasts and Sacrifices of the Drunken God Bacchus, cele­brated every three Years, from [...], Gr. Anger, because his Proselytes, cloathed in Skins of Tigers and Panthers, danced about expressing the Fury of this God, who is reported in the shape of a Lyon, to have torn the first Giant that assaulted Heaven in pieces. Others fetch the word [...], from the Mountains, the Heathenish Sacrifices being usually made in High Places.

[...]. Theoc. Idul. 27.
[Page 26] Nocturnique Orgia Bacchi Geo. 4. And
Ubi audito, stimulant Trieterica Baccho, Orgia. AEn. 4.

V. 416. Even to that Hill of Scandal: This Hill was East of the Temple at Jerusalem, some­thing higher than that Opprobrious Hill, where Moloch's Idol-Edifice stood, termed Scandalous, for the same Reason that the other was call'd Opprobrious: And at Verse 443. Th'Offensive Moun­tain, from Scandalum, Lat. an Offence, or a cause of Offence; these were both built by Solo­mon, as appears from 1 Kings 11. 7. And 2 Kings 23. 13. it is said to stand on the Mountain of Corruption; in which Chapter there is a large account how the good King Josiah, Son of Am [...]n by Jedidah, drove these daring Monsters from Jerusalem to Hell.

V. 417. Homicide; Manslayer, Murderer of Mankind, of Homicida, Lat. from Homo, a Man, and Caedes, Slaughter; a fit Epither for the Devil, the designing Destroyer of all Man­kind.

V. 420. Of old Euphrates, now Aferat, and by the Arabians call'd Frat, is one of the most Celebrated Rivers in the World, springing from the Mountains of Armenia Major, washing Mesopotamia on the West and South, and dividing it from Syria and Arabia Deserta; hence by our Poet rightly styled The Bordering Flood: It joyns with the Tygris, and with it loseth it self in the Persian Gulph. Well may this River pass for old, since remembred so long ago in the History of the Creation by Moses, Gen. 2. 14. compared with whom, these are Neotericks that speak of him, as Virg.

Caesar dum Magnus ad altum
Fulminat Euphratem Bello. Geor. 4. And Ovid,
Arsit & Euphrates Babylonicus. Met. 2.

Ibid. To the Brook that parts; Some Anonymous River, such as Fuller mentions crossing the Desart of Shur, and calls a River of Egypt, near Rinocolaura, entring the Mediterranean. See his Map of Symeon, Pag. 227.

V. 421. Egypt; AEgyptus, (so named of one of its ancient Kings) is by the Turks its present Masters call'd Misir, retaining something of the Hebrew Misraim: It is the most ancient and most fruitful Kingdom of Africa, the famous Nile runs the whole length of it, and annually overflowing it in the Month of June, extreamly enricheth it.

Ibid. From Syrian Ground; From Syria, a vast Country in the greater Asia, containing Phoe­nicia, Palestina and Syria properly so called.

V. 422. Of Baalim, [...], the Plur. of Baal: By this Idol whose Name expresseth Lord, the Sydonians, and many other Nations, worshipp'd the Sun, the seeming Supreme Visible Lord of the Universe. Now Baalim is here put for the other Luminous Stars in general, as is evident from 2 Chron. 30. 3. He reared up Altars to Baalim, and made Groves, and worshipp'd all the Host of Heaven. Hence Plato derives [...], God, from [...], to run, the Grecians as well as the Phoeni­cians having worshipp'd for Gods the Sun, Moon and Stars, whose motions are strange and un­accountable.

Ibid. Ashtaroth, [...], Plur. Hebrew for Herds, Flocks. Kimchi tells us, it was the Name of certain Images in the shape of Sheep, which the Sydonians adored as Goddesses: But doubtless the Holy Writ does by this word express the Host of Heaven; Judg. 11. 13. Judge. 10. 6. They forsook the Lord, and served Baal and Ashtaroth. Baalim was expressive of those more mighty and vigorous Stars and Constellations that govern'd Men, as Ashtaroth signified the more weak and Feminine, which influenced the She-Sex, as our Author well observes: Male belonging to Men, from Mas, Lat.

V. 423. These Feminine; Belonging to Women: Foeminius, Lat.

V. 424. Can either Sex assume; Can take upon themselves which Sex they please: Sexus, Lat. kind: Assumere, Lat. to take to, or upon ones self.

V. 425. Uncompounded; Simple, not mixt and made up of divers and different things: In­compositus, Lat.

V. 426. Not manacl'd; Not tied together with Joynts and Ligatures of Nerves and Sinews: Manacles, of the Fr. Manicles, from the Lat. Manicae: Irons fastned about the Wrists of Ma­lefactors, of Manus.

—For Spirits can make choice
Of which Sex likes 'em best, or both; so easie,
So clear and unmixt are these Heavenly Beings,
Not linkt to Limbs, or bound with Sinews up,
Or weakly underpropt with brittle Bones,
Like heavy Clods of Clay; but in what Forms
They please, larger or less, shining or sad;
Their Undertakings quickly bring to pass,
Shewing themselves our Friends, or Enemies.

Non me latet▪ alium ex hisee verbis. sensum elici posse, nimi [...] de succul is & [...]lg [...]nus Daemen. Q [...]m à Poetae [...] puritate alienum judi [...]o & missum facio.

[Page 27] V. 428. Like Cumbrous Fiesh; Heavy, uneasie, burthensome, that incumbers us with many Pains and Diseases, of the Ger. Kummer, misfortune, loss; others think better of [...], a di­minutive of [...], the Burden of a Ship: But Incumber, may be well enough fetcht from Incumbere, to lie hard upon, to press upon.

V. 429. Dilated or condens'd; Enlarged or contracted, bigger or less, of dilat [...]re, to spread out, to extend; and condensare, to thicken, to crowd together, used commonly to express the thinness and lightness or the thickness, and consequently the gravity of the Air.

V. 430. AEry Purposes; Their quick Designs easily executed by such AEry Beings, of the Fr. Propos, as that of the Lat. Propositum, an aim; Execute, perform, of Exequor, Lat. to bring to pass.

V. 433. The Race of Israel; The Off-spring, the Children of Israel: Race, corruptly of the Lat. Radix, a Root, the first of a Family, Tribe or People, from whence Posterity springs and grows up.

V. 434. Unfrequented left; Forsook God's Holy Altars, left 'em unattended: Infrequentatus, Lat. unresorted to, forsaken.

V. 435. To Bestial Gods; In the Forms of Brure Beasts: Bestialis, Lat. belonging to a Beast. Bestia.

V. 437. Of despicable Foes; Of contemptible Enemies: Despicabilis, Lat. fit to be despised and slighted. Read how many Kings the Israelites slew under the Conduct of Joshua, and what mighty Nations they subdued, while they served the living God, Josh. 12. and compare this Story with what is related Judg. 2. from Verse the 11th to the end.

V. 438. Came Astoreth. [...], An Idol of the Phoenicians representing the Moon, by the LXX named [...], 1 Kings 11. 5, and 33. styled the Queen of Heaven, Jer. 7. 18. Jer. 8. 2. mention is made of a City call'd Astoreth, Josh. 12. 4. and 9. 10. 1 Chron. 6. 71. the Royal Seat of Og King of Basan, and Gen. 14. 5. and in other places, her Temple was [...], as it is translated 1 Sam. 31. 10. where the Philistines hung up the Armour of Saul as a Trophy to their God, who, whether he borrowed his Name of this City, or the City its Name of this Idol, is uncertain, though the first is most usual. It matters not, that this Idol is in Holy Writ call'd the God of the Sidonians, and therefore not to be understood of the Moon; for the Sacred Text no where concerns its self with the Sexes of Idols, nor do the Mysteries of the Hea­then Iniquities any where distinguish 'em. The Romans had their Lunus and Luna: And Ar­nobi. contra Gentes, Lib. 3. tells 'em they used to begin their Addresies to their false Gods, Sive tu Deus Es, sive tu Dea. [...]. Phil. Lib. de Isid. [...]. Lucian.’

Venus Syria, in whose Temple the Sidonian Dames performed those Wanton Rites, to which the Influences of her Increases did so often incline them. Who desires to heat his Head with more Quotations, and to fill it with more Uncertainties, may consult the Learned Selden, Syntag. 2. Cap. 2.

Ibid. Phoenicians; Inhabitants of Phoenicia, one of the three Provinces of Syria, so called from Poenix, Son of Agenor, King of that Country, and Founder of that Nation.

V. 439. With Crescent Horns, which increasing and decreasing she wears. Tertia jam Lunae se cornua Lumine Complent, AEn. 3. Crescens, Lat. encreasing, growing greater. A Cressent is a Wexing Moon, the Turkish Arms; à Crescendo, for the Omen sake, though now (God be praised) upon the Wain.

V. 441. Sydonian Virgins; Maids, Natives of Sydon, a famous City of Phoenicia, not far from Tyre, seated on the Mediterranean.

V. 443. On th'Offensive Mountain; The Mount of Olives, as many think, because full of Idols, thence called, as before, Opprobricus, and the Hill of Scandal, and the Mountain of Cor­ruption, 2 Kings 23. 13. where it is observable, that [...], Mons Corruptionis, differs from [...], Mons Olivarum seu Unctionis, by one Letter only and the additional [...], that there might remain an Intimation of its true Name, not without a lasting Memorial of Re­proach.

Offensive, of Offensio, Lat. for displeasure, fault.

V. 444. Uxorious King; Solomon, a King indeed so Uxotious, that his fair Egyptians Wives took off all his Affections from his God; so mislead by Women, that he had 700 Wives, Women of Quality, and 300 Concubines. Of his adoring Asteroth the Goddess of the Sydonians, consult 1 Kings 2. Uxorious, of the Lat. Uxorius, doating on, fond of a Wife. So Horat. calls the Tyber, (because fond of Ilia) Uxorius amnis, Carm. Lib. 1. Od. 2.

Ibid. Whose Heart though large; Capacious, as to his Understanding, larger and more en­lighten'd than any of his Predecessors, or those that were to succeed him, 1 Kings 3. 12. Lar­gus, Lat. great, spacious.

V. 445. Idolatresses; By his Women that worshipp'd Idols: Idololatrix, Lat. for such an one, of [...], Gr. for an Idol, and [...], Worship.

V. 446. Thammuz, [...] of [...] Death, or killing, Ezek. 8. 14. a Syrian Idol, by some esteem'd the same with Admis: He was the Favorite of Vanus slain by a Wild Boar, and [Page 28] by the Adorers of this Goddess lamented in the Month of June. [...], read the latter end of Metam. 10 Lib. Others affirm Thammuz to have been a Priest, wrong­fully put to death by a King of Babylon, who to make some amends for his Injustice, appointed Anniversary Mournings for him.

V. 447. Whose Annual Wound; The Commemoration of whose Death, once every Year, whose Death lamented every Year the Wound the Wild Boar gave him. Annuus, Lat. year­ly, done every Year.

[...]. And Ovid,
—Repetitague mortis imago,
Aunna plangoris per aget simulamina nostri. Met. 10.

Lebanon allur'd, Libanus, the biggest Mountain in Syria, frequent in Scripture, and famous for Cedars, from the Confines of Arabia and Damascus, where it takes its beginning: It stretcheth 125 Miles to the Mediterranean, where it ends near Tripoli. Allur'd, entic'd, per­swaded the Syrian Maids, from ad and Ludere, to cheat into, allicere.

V. 448. Damsels; The young Syrian Ladies, of the Fr. Damoiselle, a word signifying a young Woman of Quality.

Ibid. To lament his Fate; To bemoan his untimely Death. Lamentor, Lat. to bewail: Fa­tum, Lat. Death.

V. 449. In Amorous Ditties; In Love-Songs made of Venus and Adonis: Amoreux, Fr. lo­ving: Ditty, quasi dictum, Songs composed and indited.

V. 450. Smooth Adonis; As unwrinckled in his Flood, as in his youthful Face. Adonis is the Name of a River arising out of a Rocky part of Mount Libanus, which runs bloody the Day his Death is commemorated on, as Lucian tells us: Hence this Rock is named Native, from Nativus, Lat. born.

Adonis, is deducible from [...], Lord, [...], Hesych, the Son of Cinyra King of Cyprus, by his Daughter Myrrha: He was the Favorite of Venus, and to her grief killed by a Wild Boar. Meta. Lib. 10.

V. 451. Ran Purple; Of a dark Dye, as stain'd with the Blood of Thammuz yearly slain. Purpura, Lat. as [...], Gr. for that Colour.

V. 453. Infected Sions, &c. The Love-Story the Jewish Ladies to like pity moved. Infected, of Inficio, Lat. to corrupt, to stain.

V. 454. Whose Wanton Passions; Whose loose behaviour in the holy Porch of the Temple &c. Ezek. 8. is to be read: Sacer, Lat. holy: Porticus, Lat. for a place raised on Pillars, and cover'd over head, fit to walk under, free from the Sun or Shower.

V. 455. When by the Vision led; The two usual ways by which God made known his Will to his People under the Dispensation of the Old Law, were Visions and Dreams, Numb. 12. 6. Visio, Lat. for an appearance, a shew. This Vision our Author mentions is recorded Ezek. 8. and at the third Verse, The Spirit lift me up between the Earth and the Heaven, and brought me to Jerusalem, [...], in the Visions of God.

V. 456. Survay'd; Mark'd, heedfully beheld, from the old Fr. Surveoir, quasi supervidere.

V. 457. Of Alienated Judah; Departed from serving the Living God, to worship Stocks and Stones. To alien or alienate, is a Law-Term, for transferring the Property of an Estate to one who had before no Right to it; from alienus, Lat. a Stranger, well applyed, to shew how God's Children and Inheritance had alienated and made themselves over to Sin and Satan. Ju­dah was the fourth Son of Jacob by Leah, from whom the Jews were call'd Judaei, and the Land of Promise Judea, Jer. 29. 35.

V. 459. Maim'd his Brute Image; Lamed his senseless Image: Maim, from whence this word, is of Mancus, Lat. Lame, defective in one Member or other.

Ibid. Head and Hands lopt off; A Metaphor taken from lopping and cutting of the Branches of Trees, with which in a Man (according to the Comparison of a Tree reverst) the Hands and Feet seem to correspond. Read 1 Sam. 5. 2, 3, 4, and 5.

V. 460. On the Grundsel-Edge; On the Foot-post of his Temple-Gate, from the Sax. Ground, the Earth next which it generally lieth.

V. 462. Dagon his Name, Sea-monster, [...], is thought to have been half a Fish and half a Man, a Monster like a Triton, but with the Head of a Fish: Idolum Dagon, quod Colebatur à Philistaeis, habebat caput piscis; Ideo vocatur Dagon, quia Hebraeum [...] significat piscem, Lyran. But [...] signifies Corn, and he was called Oannes and [...], as the Learned Selden tells us. The clearest account we have of this Idol, is from Helladius, who relates, that a Man cloathed in a Fishes Skin, first taught the Syrians the manner of Tilling the Ground and Sowing of Corn, for which he obtained a Temple and Divine Honours, worshipp'd in the form of an Image, up­ward a Man, covered over with Ears of Corn, and downward a Fish, because of his Habit, and his retiring every Night towards the Red-Sea; a Mysterious involving (perhaps) of the share that moisture has in all the Productions and Fruits of the Earth. Mention is made of this monstrous Idol, Judg. 16. 23. 1 Chron. 10. 10. 1 Maccab. 10. 84. Ibid. 11. 4.

[Page 29] V. 464. Azotus; Ashdod, once a principal City of the Philistins, now a Village by the Turks, named Alzete. Of this, and the other four that follow, read 1 Sam. 6. 17.

V. 465. Gath, another of the five Regal Cities of the Philistins, famous for its Champion Goliah, 1 Sam. 16. 4.

Ibid. Ascalon; Scalona, a City in the Holy Land on the Mediterranean Sea, between Azo [...]us and Gaza, one of the five chief Cities.

V. 466. Accaron, or Ecron, heretofore a famous City of the Philistins, now a poor Village.

Ibid. Gaza's, once a beautiful and rich City of Palestine, taken by the Tribe of Judah, Judg. 1. 18. It was the fifth Ruling City of the Philistins, seated near the Shore of the Mediterra­nean, on the Confines of Idumea, towards Egypt, and therefore called Frontier Bounds, the Bor­ders, the Confines of a Country, of the Fr. Frontiere, as this of the Lat. Frons, the Forehead.

V. 467. Rimmon; [...], in the Sacred Language signifies a Pomegranate, and is mentioned 2 Kings 5. 18. as the chief God of Damascus, holding this Fruit in his Hand, thence esteemed the Protector of the People, who had it, either in their Orchards, or their Arms, by some supposed Jupiter Cassius, represented with a Pomegranate in his Hand, worshipp'd on the Con­fines of Mount Cassius, near to Damascus. The Learned Selden thinks it more reasonable to de­rive the Name of this Idol of [...], high and exalted, because he finds in Hesychius [...] to signifie [...] and [...]; The Dissonancy between Raman and Rimmon after so many Ages, not being worth taking notice of.

V. 468. Fair Damascus; The principal and most ancient City of Syria, seated in a Plain, sur­rounded with Hills, uncertain when or by whom built, but because mentioned by Abraham, Gen. 15. 2. The Steward of my House is this Eliezer of Damascus, Fame will have it built by A­braham's Servants.

Ibid. Fertil; Fruitful: Fertilis, Lat. encreasing, abounding in Fruit, Corn, &c.

V. 469. Albana and Pharphar; Two Rivers of Damascus, 2 Kings 5. 12. Lucid, clear, of Lucidus, Lat. bright.

V. 471. A Leper once he lost; Naaman the Syrian, 2 Kings 5. 14. Leper, of [...], the Le­prosie, of [...], Gr. rough, full of Scabs and Asperities like Scales of Fish: Of this Disease, and the care God himself took of it, see Levit. 13. and 14 Chapters.

V. 472. Ahaz his sottish Conquerour; His dull, his foolish Conquerour, to fall down and wor­ship Gods he had vanquisht, as it follows. Read the Story 2 Kings 16. 10.

V. 473. Gods Altar to disparage; To slight and contemn: To disparage, is properly to un­dervalue a Person or Thing, by a Comparison mean and disproportionate, from the Detractive Particle Dis, and Pareggio, Ital. Comparison.

V. 474. Of Syrian Mode; For one of Syrian Shape: Modus, Lat. for manner, or make.

V. 475. His Odious Off rings; His abominable Sacrifices, and Idol-Offerings detestable. Odio­sus, Lat. hateful.

V. 476. Vanquish'd; Overcome: Vaincu, Fr. of Vinco, Lat. to conquer.

V. 477. A Crew; A Company, a Gang, used generally for an Assembly of the meanest sort, of the Fr. creu, or accreu, increased.

Ibid. Of Old Renown; Of Ancient [...]ame: Renomée, Fr. Reputation.

V. 478. Osiris, was the Name of an Idol, by which the Ancient Egyptians adored the Sun, whose Approaches and Recesses gave the Occasions of excessive Grief and Joy at his [...] & [...].

Exclamare libet, Populus quod clamat Osiri
Invento. Juv. Sat. 8.

Hermes Trismeg. says, he was [...], the Guide and Conductor of the Undertaking, Strength and Power of the People; to which alludes what the Israelites pronounced of their Molten Calf, These are thy Gods, O Israel, which brought thee out of the Land of Egypt, Exod. 32. 4. This, and the Golden Calves, at Dan and Bethel, were Imitations of this Idol, which was [...], a Golden Bull.

—Atque suum Proles miratur Osirim
Barbara Memphitim, plangere docta bovem. Tib. Eleg. 7.

Hence Moses had the Reason, for the Necessity of the Peoples going into the Wilderness, to sacrifice to the Lord their God: Can we sacrifice the Abomination of the Egyptians before their Eyes, and they not stone us? Exod. 8. 26. Shall we venture to sacrifice on our Altars Oxen, the Gods the Egyptians place and adore on their own?

Others are of Opinion, that by Osiris, Nilus was meant and worshipt: And considering the Annual Advantages both of Health and Fertility, of which to them he appeared the immediate Author, he might well be accounted the Egyptian Neptune. The same Figure of a Bull is con­sistent enough with the Representation of a River, the Poets describing them with Horns, to denote the Fury and Impetuosity of their Overflowings, or the Noise of their many Waters. So the Grecians style all great Rivers [...]; and Achelous, the most famous River of Greece, is Fabled to have encountred Hercules in the shape of a Bull:

[Page 30]
Et Gemina Auratus Taurino Cornua vultu
Eridanus. Georg. 4.
Et sic Tauriformis volvitur Aufidus
Cum saevit, horrendamque cultis
Diluviem Meditatur agris. Hor. Car. Lib. 4. Od. 14.

[...] used by the Prophets for Nilus, Isai. 23. 3. and Jerem. 2. 18. signifies Black, the co­lour of the Sand and Soil, with which this River cultivates that Country: Et viridem AEgyptum nigrâ foecundat arenâ, Virg. Geo. 4. From this [...] they fetch [...], and Hesych. tells us, [...]. Siris was the Name both of the Sun and the Dog-Star, about the time of whose rising, Nile annually arose above his Banks, floating the Country into a strange Fertility.

A third Opinion of this Egyptian Idol is, That Osiris was one of their best and most ancient Kings, who appointed Inquirers into the Lives of his deceased Subjects, according to whose Verdict, the Virtuous were Interred in beautiful Gardens and Flowery Meads, but the Vicious were exposed naked, and thrown out into loathsom places, a Prey to ravenous Birds and wild Beasts: His Good Government and Laws obtained him Divine Honours, and he was represent­ed by a Statue cloathed in Linnen.

Et tectum lino spargam per Vulgus Osirim. Luc. Lib. 9.
Et quem tu Plangens, hominem testaris, Osirim. Luc. Lib. 8.

In his Temple at Memphis a Bushel was set over his Head, which made some mistake him for Joseph, much his Junior, though perhaps placed there, in Honour of him, and in Memory of that fatal seven Years Famine by him foreseen and supported.

Ibid. Isis, was the fabulous Io, Daughter of Inachus, one of Jupiter's Mistresses, turned by him into a Cow, to avoid the discovery of his Jealous Juno, Meta. Lib. 1. After many Wan­drings, she came into Egypt, and was there worshipp'd in the shape of a white Cow, one of that kind and colour being always kept in a corner of her Temple, at whose Death extraor­dinary Lamentations were made, till another was found exactly so marked. By Osiris the E­gyptians worshipp'd the Sun, the visible glorious God of the Universe, (as they supposed; and by Isis they adored his Queen the Moon: The Rabbies make it a Descendant of [...], Heb. for a Wife; from hence the Israelites took the Idolatrous Imitation of the Golden Calves. Nos in templa, tuam Romana accepimus Isim. Luc. Lib. 8.’

Ibid. Orus; There were two Kings of this Name that Reigned in Egypt before the Depar­ture of the Israelites from thence, the first of which was probably Deified, for Orus was one of their Idols, by which they worshipped their shining God the Sun of [...], Light, to shine, to be bright: [...]. Herod. in Euterp.

Ibid. And their Train; Their Company, and the rest of their Crew, of the Fr. Train, pro­perly expressing the attendance of Servants, following Persons of Quality, from Trahere, Lat. to draw after.

V. 479. With Monstrous Shapes and Sorceries; With mishapen dreadful Deities and Witch­crafts. See Sands's Travels, Pag. 133. where he gives you the Cuts of several with Dogs and Cats Heads, that their Adorers might very well seem to be bewitch'd.

Omnigenumque Deûm monstra, & latrator Anubis. AEn. 8.
Semideosque Canes, & sistra Jubentia luctus. Luc. 8.
—Qualia demens
AEgyptus portenta colat? Crocodilon adorat
Pars haec, illa pavet saturam Serpentibus Ibim.
Effigies sacri nitet aurea Cercopitheei. Juv. Sat. 15.

Monstrous: Lat. Monstrosus, strange, of unnatural Birth and Shape. Sorceries, Witchcraft, of Sorciere, Fr. a Witch: Sortiarius, Lat. one that pretends to tell Fortunes by casting of Lots; sortes.

V. 480. Fanatick Egypt; Furious, Frantick, Fantastick Egypt, full of foolish Rites and Re­ligions. The Priests among the Heathen were styled Fanatici, Quoniam in fanis, i. e. Templis Sacra Curabant; thence the word was used for a Mad-Man, because these Priests seem'd to rave, and be possest when they pronounced their Lying Oracles.

—Subito non Vultus, non Color unus,
Non Comptae mansere Comae; Majorque videri,
Nec Mortale sonans: Afflata cst numine quando
I am propriore Dei. And a little after;
At Phoebi nondum patiens, immanis in antro
Bacchatur vates, Magnum si pectore possit
Excussisse Deum: Tanto Magis iile fatigat
Os rabidum, fera corda domans, fingitque premendo. AEn. 6.

Fanaticus, Lat. a Mad Frantick Votary, from [...], to shine, a misguided Zelot, led out of the right way by the Light within him.

—Crine senex Phanaticus albo
Sacrorum Antistes. Juv. Sat. 2.
—Sed ut Phanaticus oestro
Percussus Bellona tuo. [...]d. Sat. 4.

V. 481. Their wandring Gods, &c. The Poets tell us, when the Giants attempted Heaven, and upon Mountains piled one above another attacked the Gods, they were most of 'em so ter­ribly affrighted at the very sight of the Monstrous Briareus, Egeon and Typhon, &c. that in a shameful manner they deserted, and ran down right away by the Mountain Atlas into Egypt, where they transformed and hid themselves under the base sordid shapes of Beasts, and Birds, and Herbs, while Jupiter, Apollo, Bacchus, and the rest that stood to't, laid about 'em with their Thunderbolts, and at last cleared the Sky of these bold Invaders: Hence the Egyptians worshipped those mean Animals, under whose assumed shapes the Gods were supposed to have disguised themselves, in so much that they held even their Onyons Sacred, imagining some Dastard Deity might still lie stinking there for fear.

Porrum & Coepe, nefas violare & frangere morsi [...]
O Sanctas Gentes, quibus hac nascuntur in [...]ort is
Numina. Juv. Sat. 15.

Others relate, That those who stayed behind, when Pharaoh and his Host perish'd in pursuit of the Israelites in the Red-Sea, Deified and made Gods of whatsoever they were employed in at that time, owning their Deliverance and Safety to some Fatality in their Occupation, which detained 'em: Thus the Cooks Consecrated their Onyons, from which they abstained, on ano­ther score, though the Multitude were not Masters of the Mystery, Garlick and Onyons being very hurtful to the Eyes in those hot Climates, and therefore forbid by their Priests, who were in those Days also their Physitians.

Ibid. Disguised; Changed into other Shapes, transformed to Brutes: Disguiser, Fr. to put on a disguise, to alter ones Cloaths or Meine so, as not to seem the same, or to be known.

Et se mentitis superos celasse Figuris
Duxque gregis, dixit, fit Jupiter; unde recurvis
Nunc quoque formatus Libys est cum Cornibus Ammon.
Delius in Corvo, proles Semeleïa Capro,
Fele soror Phoebi, niveâ Saturnia Vaccâ
Pisce venus latuit, Cyllenius Ibidis alis. Meta. Lib. 5.

V. 483. Th'Infection; The Poison, the Pollution of this gross Brutal Idolatry, in worshipping Beasts, or Idols of Beastial Form: Infectio, Lat. for Poison.

Ibid. Borrowed Gold; For so it was, of the Egyptians, by the Israelites at their departure, Exod 11. 2. and 12. 35. Of which borrowed Gold the Molten Calf was made, see Exod. 32. 2, 3, and 4. Composed, made, of Componere, Compositus, Lat. put together.

V. 484. The Rebel King; Jeroboam, made and chosen King by the Israelites, who Rebelled against Rehoboam, 1 Kings 12. Rebellis, Lat. for one that throws off, and resists the Power and Lawful Authority of his Prince.

V. 485. Doubled that Sin; Of making and worshipping the Molten Calf, by making two Golden Calves, therefore said to double the Offence, 1 Kings 12. 28, and 29.

Ibid. In Bethel and in Dan; These were the two Boundary Cities of the Ten Tribes which revolted to Jeroboam, where he placed the two Golden Calves, lest the People going up year­ly to worship at Jerusalem, might by their ancient Religion be put in mind of their former Loy­alty, 1 Kings 12. 27.

V. 486. To the Grazed Ox; A mean Representation of the Almighty, whose Name was held so sacred, that they durst not pronounce the Ineffable JEHOVAH. See Psal. 106. 20.

V. 487. When he past from Egypt marching; For God not only brought his People out with a mighty Hand, and out-stretch'd Arm, but went before them by Day in a Pillar of a Cloud, to direct the way, and by Night in a Pillar of Fire, to give them Light, Exod. 13. 21, & 22.

V. 488. Equall'd with one Stroak; Made no difference between her bleating Gods and their dull Adorers, but the same Night, with one Stroak, killed the First-born both of Man and Beast, Exod. 12. 29. which he calls their Bleating Gods, because worshipp'd in Brutish shapes. Mutton was Reverenced there, not Roasted.

[Page 32]
—Lanatis animalibus abstinct omnis
Mensa, nefas illic foetum jugulare capellae. Juv. Sat. XV.

V. 490. Belial; [...] Vice, Wickedness, [...] as being without a Yoke, [...], Men, Sons of Belial, Deut. XIII. 13. who have broke through all the Restraints of Virtue and Religion, and thrown off God and all Goodness, therefore call'd in Scripture the Sons of Disobedience; and thence by some interpreted [...], fit for nothing, of no pro­fit, and fit for no purpose.

V. 494. When the Priest turns Atheist; When he who is separated and set apart for the Service of God, does not believe there is one; or does not Worship him as he ought. Priest of [...], Gr. Senior; a Name not so much of Age, as Dignity, as Senator among the Ro­mans. [...], of the Privative [...], and [...], God.

V. 495. As did Ely's Sons; Ely was the High Priest, of the Tribe of Levi; of the Iniquity of whose Sons, read 1 Sam. II, from the 12. to the 18.

V. 495. In Courts and Palaces; A Redundancy frequent with the Poets, Palatium Lat. for a Prince's Court.

V. 498. Luxurious Cities; Great Cities, abounding in all Excess of Pomp and Pleasure: Luxuriosus, Lat. riotous.

V. 499. Of Riot ascends; Where the Noise of Roaring, Singing and Carousing rises above their Highest Towers, ascending up to Heaven. Riot, in the most usual acceptation, and as here understood, signifies, the Excess of Luxury and Lasciviousness, which often occasion and end in those Riots; which the Law interprets, a forcible doing of an Unlawful Action, by 3 or more in Company together; as if from Arietare, to run at one another like Rams: Ascen­dere, Lat. to Rise up.

V. 500. And Injury and Outrage; And Force and Violence to Excess: Injuria, Lat. Wrong, Harm, Damage, Outrage, of the Ital. Oltraggio, Expressive of Immeasurable Fury and Violent Rage, of the Lat. Ultra, beyond, surpassing all the Bounds of Just and Equal.

V. 502. Flown with Insolence and Wine; Puft up with Drink and Pride, raised and heighten'd above the ordinary Pitch of Pride and Debauchery; a Metaphor taken from Birds of a rank Wing, that fly High, for Hearts swoln with Pride, and Heads heated with Wine, quickly fly out into Extravagancies, above the reach of Reason: Insolentia, Lat. Haughtiness and Arro­rogancy; Vinum, Lat Wine.

V. 503. Witness the Streets of Sodom; A City early mention'd by Moses, Gen. XIII. 10. Seated in the Plains of Jordan, where Lot dwelt, Destroyed by Fire and Brimstone: Read Gen. XIX. 13.

V. 504. In Gibeah; A City of Benjamin: Read this Story, Jud. XIX. from the 13th to the 26th.

Ibid. The hospitable Door; The hospitable House of the Good Man, who entertained the Levite in Gibeah, Jud. XIX. 19. Hospitalis, Lat. belonging to Hospitality, of Hospes, a Guest.

V. 505. Exposed a Matron; Gave up to Lust and Rage, a Woman, a Wife; Matrona, Lat. as if Mater Nati, and Married Women, were so stiled before they had Children: Exposed, Lat. Exponere, to set out to Publick View, to deliver into the Power of.

Ibid. To avoid worse Rape; To prevent a worse Sin and Shame, Namely, that Unnatural Sin of Sodomy: Rape, of Raptus, Lat. for a Ravishing and Deflowering a Woman by Violence.

V. 506. These were the Prime; The First, the Chief, the most considerable for Rank and Power: Primus, Lat. First: Order of Ordo, Lat. for Condition and Degree; Ordo amplissimus, the Senate of Rome, Cic.

V. 508. The Ionian Gods, of Javan's Issue; Javan was the fourth Son of Japhet, the Son of Noah, Gen. X. 2. This Javan and his Offspring, Peopled that part of Greece as Josephus tells us, call'd from him Ionia: whence the Iones, a considerable People, sprang, Joseph. lib. 1. 8. Issue; Offspring, Posterity; of the Ital. Uscita, from Uscire, as this of Exire, to go out of, to proceed, as Children do, out of the Loins of their Parents.

V. 509. Later than Heav'n and Earth, their boasted Parents; So Orpheus in his Hymn to Saturn stiles him, [...], the Offspring of the Earth, and the Starry Heaven: And the same Poet, [...]: And Homer in his Hymn to the Earth, [...], Hail, Mother of the Gods, and Wife of the bright Starry Heaven: See Hesiod. [...]. Virg. tells us, the Bees nurs'd Ju­piter in Crete: Dictaeo Coeli Regem pavere sub antro, Geor. IV. Ovid, that a Goat suckled him:

—Sidus Pluviale capellae
Quae fuit in cunis Officiosa Jovis. Fast. lib. II.

And Epiphan. affirms, they shew'd his Tomb in a Mountain of Crete: To which Callimach [...] alludes,

[...]
[...].

[Page 33] V. 510. Titan Heavn's first-born; Titan and Saturn, were Sons of (Coeli & Vestae) of Heaven and Earth: The Elder, at the entreaty of his Mother, yielded his Birthright in the Kingdom, to Saturn, who obliged himself to destroy all his Male Children, that the Empire might after him revert to Titan and his Descendants; but contrary to this Contract, Rhea Wife to Saturn concealed Jupiter, and bred him up in Crete: Upon the Discovery of which, War arose be­tween Titan and Saturn, in which the first was Victorious; but Jupiter coming to his Father's Assistance, recovered all, and re-instared him in his Kingdom, out of which he drove him not long after, provoked by his Father's designing against his Life, who had been forewarned by an Oracle, that one of his Sons should deprive him of his Kingdom. [...]. Orph. in Hym.’

V. 511. Enormous Brood; with his vast, monstrous Offspring, Enormis, Lat. for Irregular; beyond the ordinary Shape and Size,

Terra feros partus, immania monstra, Gigantes
Edidit, ausuros in Jovis ire domum. Ovi. Fast. lib. 5.

V. 512. By younger Saturn; in respect of Titan, Heavens First-born, for Saturn was one of the most Ancient of the Gods, in whose time the Poets date the Golden Age.

Aurea Prima sata est aetas, &c.
Postquam Saturno tenebrosa in tartara misso,
Sub Jove mundus erat; subiit Argentea Proces. Met. 1.
[...]
[...]
[...].

Ibid. Jove; Jovis, a diminutive of Jupiter, from Jovah, an Abbreviation of Jehovah, the most Sacred Name of God: Jupiter was the Son of Saturn and Rhea.

V. 513. Rhea's Son; Rhea was the Daughter of Heaven and Earth, and Wife to Saturn [...]. Epig. Graec.’

Orpheus in his Hymns, has a remarkable Verse of her:

[...]
[...].

V. 514. Usurping; Encroaching on his Father's Authority, taking his Power and Scepter out of his Hand; of the Lat. Usurpare, to invade anothers Right, or Property.

Ibid. In Crete; one of the largest Islands in the Mediterranean Sea, now Candia, lying oppo­site to the Mouth of the Archipelago, from East to West in Length 150 Miles, in Breadth 60, in Compass about 540. It took its Name from Creta, the Daughter of one of its Kings; It was call'd by Homer, [...], as having had formerly 100 famous Cities: In which Virg. imitates him.

Creta Jovis magni medio jacet insula Ponto,
Mons Idaeus ubi, & gentis Cunabila nostrae,
Centum urbes habitant magnas. AEn. 3.
See Strab. lib. 10. and Diodor. Sicul. lib. 6. c. 12.

V. 515. And Ida; a famous Mountain in Crete, in a Cave adjoyning to which, the Fables tell us, Jove was Nurs'd. [...]. Callim. Hym. in Jovem.’

From this he was Named Idaeus: Idaeum (que) Jovem, Phrigiam (que) ex Ordine Matrem. AEn. 7.’

V. 516. Of Cold Olympus; Several Mountains were Renown'd by this Name, the Chief of which, is that of Thessaly, where it Borders on Macedonia, so high it exceeds the Clouds, by the Poets used for Heaven, from its height, termed Cold and Snowy, and the Gods dwelling there, are said to rule the Middle Air: From this Mountain Jupiter was call'd [...]. and Heaven [...], its Name is derivable quasi [...], because never cover'd and obscured by the Clouds or, [...], the Cold being so extream, or rather [Page 34] the dazling, unshaded Light, that it took away the Eye-sight: Virgil stiles the same Jupiter, Superi Regnator Olympi. AEn. 2.

V. 517. The Delphian Cliff; Was a Rock on which the Oraculous Temple of Apollo, thence called Delphius, was seated, in Delphos, anciently a very great City of Phoeis in Achaia, at the Foot of Mount Parnassus, never Walled, but by the steep Rocks that surrounded it, thence stiled the Delphian Cliff; or rather Clift of our English word Cleave, a Clift being properly a ragged Rock, broken and rising in Points and sharp Eminencies.

V. 518. Or in Dodona; a famous Wood in Chaonia, the Western Part of Epirus, dedicated to Jupiter, full of Oaks (Trees Sacred to him) consulted and celebrated for Oracles, hence called, Quercus fatidicae.—habitae Graiis oracula quercus, Geor. 2.

[...],
[...].
Cum jam glandes at (que) arbuta sacrae
Deficerent Sylvae, & victum Dodona negaret. Geor. 1.

Two Doves that used to haunt this Wood, and generally sate upon these Oraculous Oaks, flying away, the one to Delphos, the other to the Temple of Jupiter Ammon in Lybia, trans­ferr'd the Spirit of Prediction to those places, and silenced this Wood, which for a long time was well stored with groaning Boards.

V. 519. Of Doric Land; Of Greece, a part for the whole: Doris or Doria, was that Country in Achaia, where the Doric Dialect was Spoken.

Ibid. Saturn Old; Of whom before, well might he be Old and so call'd, of whom Sibylla Erithr. [...]

His Greek Name [...], signifying Time, denotes his Antiquity; and Saturnus his Lat. Ap­pellation, Quod saturetur annis, See Cicer. de Nat. Deor. lib. 2. where he gives the Physical ac­count of what is involved in these Fables.

V. 520. Fled over Adria; Saturn driven out of his Kingdom by his Son, pass'd over the Adriatic Sea into Italy, and being well received of Janus, one of the first Rulers that civilized Men into Cities and Societies, they agreed and governed so well, that the Golden Age was dated in their days.

Primus, ab AEthereo, venit Saturnus Olympo,
Arma Jovis fugiens & regnis Exul ademptis. AEn. 8.

Adria; The Adriatick Sea, now the Gulph of Venice: Italy is washt by two Seas, the Adrian on the North, call'd the Upper Sea, and the Tyrrhen on the South, the Lower Sea.

Omnem Hesperiam—
Et mare quod supra, teneant, quod (que) alluit infra. AEn. 8.
—Improbo, Iracundior Adria. Hor. Od. 9. 1. 3.
Et fretis acrior Adriae, Curvantis calabros sinus. Lib. 1 Od. 33.

Ibid. To th' Hesperian Fields; Into Italy and Spain, for Hesperia is common to them both, of [...], the Evening Star; intimating their VVestern Situation.

Est Locus, Hesperiam Graii cognomine dicunt, &c.—
—Nunc fama minores
Italiam dixisse. AEn. 1.

V. 521. 'Ore the Celtic; That Part of France, which, according to the Roman division, was call'd Celtica, lying between Garumna and Sequana; The other Parts being Belgica and Aqui­tanica.

V. 523. Downcast and Damp; VVith dull cloudy Countenances: A Damp is a suffocating Vapour rising in Mines, used here to express the Fiends down-cast heavy looks, like Persons in a Swound.

V. 527. Like doubtful Hue; A look that shewed some glimmerings of uncertain Joy.

V. 528. Soon recollecting; Quickly recovering his usual Haughtiness: of recolligere, Lat. to gather together.

V. 529. Semblance not, Substance; The Shew, the Shadow, not the Substance of true worth: Semblance, as if simulans of simulare, to be like.

V. 530. Dispel'd their Fears; Eased 'em of their Apprehensions, removed their Fears: of dispellere, Lat. to drive away.

V. 532. Clarions; From the Fr. Clairon, a small, shrill Treble Trumpet: à Claro, quem edit, sono.

[Page 35] V. 533. Standard; Of the Fr. Estandart, or Ital. Stendardo, a Royal Ensign set up to sum­mon the whole Body of a Nation to come to the Assistance of their King and Country.

V. 534. Azazel; [...], signifies the Scape-Goat, Levit. 16. of [...], a Goat, and [...], to escape: This Scape-Goat bore all the Sins and Iniquities of the Israelites into the Wilderness, and our Author has conferr'd his Name upon the Standard-bearer of Satan, who carried his mighty Ensign all o'er emblazon'd with his Rebellion against th'Almighty.

V. 535. Unfurl'd; Open'd, spread out the Ensign that had been wrap'd up, from un and furl, from the Fr. Frester, to fold together.

V. 536. Th'Imperial Ensign; Insigne Imperiale, Lat. the Royal Banner: Insigne, Lat. for a Flag: Imperialis, Lat. belonging to an Emperour or King.

V. 537. Shone like a Meteor; Looked like a Comet waving in the Wind: The Greeks call'd all those imperfect Mixtures and Exhalations, as Comets, &c. that were seen blazing in the Air, to the Amazement of Mankind, [...], from [...], high, lofty, because of their appearance above, among those shining Bodies.

V. 538. With Gems, &c. With precious Stones, and shining Gold adorn'd: Gemma, Lat. Jewel, imblazed, emblasonné, Fr. painted, as Coats of Arms, from Blazonner, to blaze Arms.

V. 539. Seraphick Arms and Trophies; The Arms and Trophies of Seraphims: Trophies, Mo­numents of Victories gained, of the Lat. Trophaeum, [...], of [...], flight, therefore usually erected near the place where Enemies have been routed.

Bellorum exuviae, Truncis affixa Trophaeis
Lorica, &c. Jun. Sat. 10.

V. 540. Sonorous Metal blowing Martial Sounds; While Warlike Musick breathed through Sounding Brass: Metal blowing, for Sounds made by blowing through Metal. Sonorous Metal, Trumpets made of Sounding Metals. Sonorus, Lat. Sounding. Metallum, Lat. Metal. Clypeis atque AEre sonoro. AEn. 12.’

Ibid. Martial Sounds; Inspiring Courage, encouraging to Battel: Martius, of Mars the God of War, the Commendation of Misenus.

—Quo non praestantior alter
AEre ciere viros, Martemque accendere Cantu. AEn. 6.

V. 542. That tore Hells Concave; Which rent the hollow Vault of Hell: Concavus, Lat. hollow within.

Sicubi Concava, passim—
Saxa petunt, the hollow Rocks. AEn. 5.

V. 543. Frighted the Reign of Chaos; A Shout, that not only rent the hollow Vault of Hell, but far beyond its Bounds, affrighted the Kingdom of Confusion and uncreated Night. Night was by the Ancients Celebrated as the Eldest of all the Gods, as being before any thing else was, out of whose dark Womb the Universe arose.

[...]
[...]. Orph. in Hymn.

Darkness and Nonentity seem near of kind; and Moses tells us, Gen. 1. 2. Darkness was upon the Face of the Deep; so that this black Goddess had not only an Universal Empire before the Creation, but maintains it still, tho' impaired, o'er half the Globe, interrupted and disturbed, sometimes feebly, by the Stars.

V. 545. Banners; Flags, Ensigns, Colours belonging to several Bands, that is, Companies of Warring Spirits.

V. 546. With Orient Colours waving; Streaming with shining gawdy Colours: Oriens, Lat. the East, the Quarter of Heaven where the Sun riseth, and from whence the Glorious Light, first strikes our Eyes.

V. 547. Serried Sheilds; Lock'd one within another, link'd and clasp'd together, of serrer, Fr. to lock, to shut close.

V. 550. In Perfect Phalanx; In Exact Order. [...] was the Macedonian manner of em­batteling an Army in a square Body, consisting of 20000 Footmen at least, as Poly. Lib. 5. [...]idas will have the Name from [...], of drawing near to their Adversaries, whom being so knit together, and cover'd with their Shields joyn'd together, they usually broke in upon. [...].’

And his Eccho,

Circum hos utrinque Phalanges
Stant densae. AEn. 12.
At fratres, animosa Phalanx, Ibid.

[Page 36] Ibid. To the Dorian Mood; According to the manner of the Dores, which was grave, solid, and manly, and had great Influences on Mens Passions, in whose Praise our Author expatiates. Mood, of Modus, Lat. manner.

V. 551. Of Flutes and soft Recorders; Wind-Instruments, which come nearest Vocal Musick, of all the best. Flutes, of Flatus, Lat. Breath. Recorder, of Recordari, Lat. to remember, as young Birds are said to sit and record, when they sing softly to themselves. The Lacedemonians used Pipes and Flutes in their Armies, as inspiring more sedate and manly Courage than Trum­pets, &c. [...]; [...], &c. Thucid. Thus Homer marches his Grecians silent and sedate. [...].’

Aristotle in his Problems gives for the reason of this Lacedemonian Custom, that their marching to such moderate Musick, made their Alacrity and Security more manifest, than any other more Noiseful and Clamorous was capable of.

V. 552. Heroes old; The Ancient Worthies, Men of Renown, derived from the Gods, either by Father or Mother side, or for their Gallant Actions advanced amongst them.

[...]. Lucian.
—Divisque videbit
Permistos Heroas, atque ipse videbitur illis. Virg. Ecl. 4.

V. 554. Deliberate Valour breathed; Inspired 'em with sedate and settled Courage, not like the Huffing Heats of Vaunting Bravoes, but Valiant Resolutions not to be shaken by fear of Death, to them less dreadful than Flight, or a dishonourable Retreat. Deliberate; Deliberatus, Lat. advised, resolved: Retreat, Fr. Retraicte, of Retrahere, Lat. to draw back.

V. 556. To mitigate and swage; To make easie and supportable, of mitigare, to appease, to render mild and gentle, to swage, or as more usual, to asswage, is to give ease to by perswa­ding, as if from suadere, Lat. to reason with: Others will have it from suavis, sweet, to as­swage troubled Thoughts, to sweeten 'em, and take off their sharpness with which they gaul us.

V. 557. With solemn Touches; With their grave Tones: Touch is put here for the Tune made by those Touches and Stops upon the Flute, or other Instrument.

V. 558. Anguish; Extraordinary Affliction of Body or Mind, of the Lat. Augustia, or An­gor.

V. 559. From Mortal or Immortal; Musick has been in all Ages so justly admired, that af­ter its first Invention, it was introduced early into the Service and Worship of the Gods, either as pleasing them, and asswaging their Anger, or as useful to calm and compose the Minds of their Adorers, and fix their Wandring Thoughts. The Immortal Minds here meant, are Spirits and Angels, principally those in pain.

V. 560. Breathing united Force; Being all of one piece: Unitus, Lat. where many are joyned together as if but one, resolute to stand by one another, to the uttermost.

V. 561. That charm'd their painful Steps, &c. The Musick so inchanted them, that they for­got, or at least better endured their fiery March. Charm comes of Carmen, Lat. for Verse, in which all those foolish Pretences to supernatural Power were writ. Cantando rumpitur an­guis. Virg.

V. 563. A horrid Front; A dreadful Line of Battel, a terrible Number: Exercitûs frons, Tac. the Vauntguard, or fore-part of the Army: Frons, Lat. Forehead.

Ibid. In guise; According to the manner of: Guise, an old Fr. word for Mode or Fashion: Hence to disguise, to do something that disorders and hides our former shape or manner.

V. 568. Traverse the whole Battalion; Quite cross the whole Body of Men: à travers Pays, Fr. cross the Country: Battalion, Fr. a Gross of Men, drawn up in greater Numbers, and sit to charge in Day of Battel.

V. 570. Their Visages; Their Looks, of Visage, Fr. Countenance, of the Lat. Visus.

V. 572. Distends with Pride; Swells with Pride, of Distendo, Lat. to stretch.

V. 574. Such imbodied Force; So great, so vast a Force and Multitude in one Body joyned together, never met, as compared with those, could bear more just Proportion than Pigmies do to all the rest of Mankind; though all the Giants, and the Heroes of old, that fought at Thebes or Troy, and all their fabulous Gods that took their parts, were numbred and enrolled with them, and all who since, &c.

V. 575. Could merit more; Could deserve any higher Comparison, of mereo, or mereor, Lat. to deserve.

V. 576. Then that small Infantry warr'd on by Cranes; A Periphrasis, or Description of the Pig­mies, seated about the Bounds of India, among the Mountains, about three spans high, con­tinual Adversaries to the Cranes, whom though our Poet terms Infantry, (a word importing Soldiers serving on Foot) yet they were wont every Spring, mounted on Rams and Goats, [Page 37] to march with all their Multitude down to the Sea, armed with Bows and Arrows, there to encounter the Cranes, and to destroy their Eggs and Young Ones, lest their Winged Enemies should grow too fast upon 'em. During this Expedition, which took up almost three Months, they encamped in Huts made of Mud and Feathers, sized o'er with the Whites of the Eggs where their Enemies lay in Embryo's. Plin. Lib. 7. Cap. 2. That there was also in Thrace a parcel of this Diminutive People, the same Author reports, Lib. 4. Cap. 11. with whom Juven. agrees, Sat. 13.

Ad subit as Thracum volucres, nubemque sonoram
Pygmaeus parvis currit bellator in Armis,
Mox impar hosti, raptusque per aera curvis
Unguibus, à saevâ fertur grue, &c.
—Ubi tota cohors pede non est altior uno. Ibid.

Of these, and their Conflicts with their Long-neck'd Adversaries, who used to over-reach 'em,

[...],
[...],
[...],
[...].

Infantry; L'Infanterie, Fr. Fanteria, Ital. of the old word Fante, a Foot-Soldier, or a Ser­vant; for the Foot were counted Servants and Followers of the Cavalry, of Infans, Lat. not only for a Child, but a Boy, and thence a Servant.

Crane, not unlikely of [...], Greek for that Bird, by leaving out the Termination, a Bird with a long Neck, whence that useful Engine the Crane took its Name both in Greek and Latin from from its shape.

Ibid. The Giant Brood; The Race of the Giants, [...], Gr. for one of an extraordinary Size, exceeding the usual Dimensions of Mankind, such as Briareos, Typhon and others, of whom before. [...].’

V. 577. Of Phlegra; A City of Macedonia, near Mount Pindus, of [...], to burn, because seated in a Soyl abounding in Brimstone, where the Giants are fabled to have fought the Gods, and by frequent Thunderbolts to have been overcome, the Sulphureous Nature of the Coun­try affording an occasion of the Fiction.

V. 578. That fought at Thebes; Theba, Lat. a Renowned City of Beotia in Greece, famous for the War between Eteocles and Polynices, Sons of Oedipus, recorded by Statius in his Poem: The chief Heroes were, Meneceus, Hyppomedon, Tydeus, Capaneus, Amphiaraus, &c. There have been several Cities of this Name, one in Cilicia, another in Egypt with 100 Gates. Atque vetus Thebae centum jacet obruta Portis. Juv. Sat. 15.’

Of this, the Fruitful Province Thebais took its Name; this here meant had but seven, as the same Satyrist has it:

—Quot sunt
The barum Portae vel divitis ostia Nili.

Now a poor Village called Stives by the Turks.

Ibid. Ilium; Troy, call'd Ilium of Ilus the Son of Tros, who much inlarged it, a City of Phry­gia in the Lesser Asia,—Iliacae primus pater urbis & auctor, AEn. 8. Renowned for its Ex­tent, Riches, and the Ten Years War and Siege it sustained against united Greece. The Prin­cipal Heroes were, Hector, AEneas, Agamemnon, Achilles, Nestor, Ulysses, the two Ajaxes, Pa­troclus, Idomeneus, Diomedes, &c. Immortalized by Homer in his Iliads, who introduces all the Gods siding in the Quarrel, and therefore here by Milton styled Auxiliaries: Auxiliaris, from Auxilium, Lat. Aid, Assistance.

Mulciber in Trojam, pro Trojâ stabat Apollo,
AEqua venus Teucris, Pallas iniqua fuit. Ovid.

Read the Engagement of the Gods. [...].

V. 579. And what resounds; Makes so much Noise, in Stories and Romances of the Lat. resonare, to sound or ring again.

[Page 38] V. 580. Or Romance; The German Nations, who overthrew the Western Empire, did for a long time retain their ancient Language, which at last began to be intermixt with that of their Subjects, and Larded with Latin words, which they call'd the Roman Language to distinguish it from their own: In this corruptly mixt Latin Language, many Military Love-Stories were writ by the Romans, whence they took the Name of Romances, in this kind of writing; but in their own Language, the French are very frequent.

Ibid. Uther's Son; Of Ether, Welth for Admirable, a King of the Britains, or as if [...], the Happy-Hunter: Uther and Arthur, and all their Descendants, though they gave Noble Sub­jects for the Histories of the Ages they lived in, yet by the gross Ignorance that over-spread those times, there is nothing transmitted to us but what is foolishly fabulous and fantastick.

V. 581. Begirt with British and Armorick Knights; Surrounded, encompass'd with English and French Men of Mars. British of Britain; Armorick, of Bretagne in France, formerly called Aremorica, conquer'd by the Britains under Maximus, Anno 389.

Vicit Aremoricas, animosa Britannia, Gentes,
Et dedit imposito, nomina prisca, Jugo.

V. 582. Baptiz'd or Infidel; Christians, or Unbelievers, Heathens. Baptized, of [...], to dip or plunge in Water, as the manner was of St. John's Baptism in Jordan. Infidel, In­fidelis, Lat. one that does not believe in the Messias, our blessed Saviour Jesus Christ.

V. 583. Jousted in Aspramont or Montalban; Ran a Tilt, of the Fr. Juster, to encounter on Horseback armed with a Launce, an Exercise frequent and famous in former Ages. Aspramo [...]t and Montalban, Romantick Names, of Mons Asper, Lat. a Rough Rock, and Mons Albanus, perhaps Montanban, a City of France in the Connes of Aquitaine.

V. 584. Damasco; Dam [...]scus, of which see V. 468.

Ibid. Marocco; A City and Kingdom in Affrica, a considerable part of Mauritania Tingita [...]a, extended along the Atlantick Ocean: This, before Fez became the Capital, was one of the greatest Cities in the World.

Ibid. Trebisond; Trabisonde, Trapezus, the Capital City of Capadocia, in the lesser Asia near the Euxine Sea, having a large and secure Haven, taken by Mahomet the Second Emperour of the Turks, in the Year 1460.

V. 585. Whom Biserta sent from Affrick; The Saracens, Biserta, the Modern Name for Utica, a City of the Kingdom of Tunis in Affrica, famous for the Sirname it gave to the Immortal Cato Uticensis, who here kill'd himself. From this Country the Saracens expell'd the Romans, Afric, Lat. Africa, is one of the four Principal Parts of the Earth, bounded on the North by the Midland Sea, on the West and South by the Ocean, Eastward by the Red Sea, and the Ara­bian Gulph joyned to Asia by a small Neck of Land of 60 Miles long. It has its Name from [...], cold, because there is little or none in that Climate.

V. 586. When Charlemain, &c. Charlemain, or Carolus Magnus, was King of France and Emperour of Germany, who about the Year 800. undertook a War against the Saracens in Spain, where Aigoland, Bellingan, Marsiles and Idnabala, had erected several petty Kingdoms; these joyned against Charlemain, who in his Royal Army had with him, Milon Count of Angiers his Brother-in Law, Ro [...]land his Nephew, Renaud of Montauban, Roger the Dane, Arnold of Belland, &c. famous Warriours, Subjects of the French fabulous Romances, who in that Illi­terate Age, confounded their Story, and cover'd it with much Confusion and Obscurity. Aigo­land, one of these Saracen Kings, light upon Milen so advantagiously about Bayon, that he cut him and 40000 French Men in pieces, entered G [...]scony, and besieged Agen. At another time Bellingand [...]lew Rowland, and defeated a considerable Army: And though this War lasted 14 Years, I can no where find that this Emperour was killed by 'em, but that by degrees he Ma­ster'd them, dying peaceably in the Year 814, and lieth buried at Aix la Chapella.

Ibid. With all his Peerage; With all his Nobility: Peerage, the Priviledge of being a Pe [...]r or Nobleman.

V. 587. By Fontarabbi [...], called by the Spaniard Fuentarabia, F [...]ns R [...]p [...]dus. or Fl [...]entum rapi­dum, a very strong Town in Biscay in Spain, seated on the Shore of that Bay, at high-Water surrounded by the Sea, and so fortified, that at the lowest Ebb not easily to be attempted: Charles the Fifth added much to its Strength, and call'd it his Pillow.

V. 588. These beyond compare of Mortal Prowess; These Warriour-Angels did as far exceed all Mankind in point of Power and Courage, as all the Heroes of old Greece or Troy, &c. are above the Comparison of Pigmies encountring Cranes, Mortal Prowess, Human Courage, of the Fr. Proiiessc. ‘—He above the rest.’

V. 590. In Shape and Gesture proudly eminent; He in Carriage and Behaviour high exalted above the rest. Gesture of Gero, Gestus est compositio corporis & habitus, quem in dicendo, aut mo­vendo observamus, the Behaviour or graceful Motions of Speech and Carriage. Eminent, of Eminens, Lat. higher; exalted, of emin [...]o, to excel.

V. 591. Stood like a Tow'r; Appear'd above 'em all like a stately Tower, that over-looks the humbler sort of Buildings, of the Fr. Tour. as that of Turris, and this of [...], Gr. a Tower: Thus Virg. describes the Venerable Cybele, Mother of the Gods.

[Page 39]
—Berecynthia Mater
Invehitur cur [...]u Phrygias tu [...]rita per urbes. AEn. 6.

V. 592. All her Original Brightness; His Divine Shape and Heavenly Features had not quite lost their Primitive first Beauty, nor did he appear other than an undone Arch Angel, and the h [...]ighth of Brightness dimmed and overcast. Originalis, Lat first, that belongs to one from his beginning. Excessus. Lat. exceeding. Obscured darken'd, O [...]s [...]urus, Lat. hid.

V. 594. As when the Sun, &c. As when the Sun just up, looks through the Air that's thick near the Horizon, bereav'd of all his Beams, or by the Moons dark disk Eclipst, a dismal Twilight casts on half the World, and with sad thoughts of change disturbs its Rulers.

V. 595. Horizontal Misty Air; That is always more gross and thick near the Horizon. Ho­rizontal, of [...], Lat. Finiens, & Finitor, the Limiter, and is so named, because it bounds and limits our sight, when we look round as far as our Eyes will reach, where the Earth (or the Sea) and Sky seem to touch and kiss one another.

—Nec sidera tota
Ostendit Libycae Finitor Circulus Orae. Luc. Lib. 9.

V. 596. Shorn of his Beams; Bereav'd and robb'd of the Rays of Light that surround his Glorious Head. Shorn, as if his shining Head had all its glorious Locks cut off, and he ap­pear'd bald without his Perruque powder'd with dazling Light, of which our Author assigns the true Reason, the Foggy Air and grois Mists that verge near the Surface of the Earth.

At Genitor circum Cap [...]t omne Mic [...]ntes
D posuit Radios. Meta. Lib. 2.

V. 597. In dim Eclipse; [...], Gr. for defect, failure, as of Light, when the Sun is Eclips'd by the intervening of the Moon between him and the Earth, robbing us of some part of his Light here described. The Moon is said to be Eclips'd, when the Earth coming between her and the Sun, hinders her of that borrowed Brightness with which at other times she shines; both which, at certain times, according to the constant Motions of these three great Bodies, must inevitably come to pass, and therefore easie to be forescen, though some greater, and others more partial, according to the Segment of the Sun or Moons Orb obscured.

—Squallidus interea, & expers
Ipse sui decoris, qualis cum deficit Orbem, esse solet. Meta. 2.

Ibid. Disastrous Twilight sheds; Casts an unlucky dim Light: Desastre, Fr. unluckiness, misfortune, of [...], Gr. mischance.

Ibid. Twillght; That small doubtful Light that appears Morning and Evening on the Con­fines of Day and Night: Some will have it two Lights, as partaking both of that of the Sun and Stars; others, because it comes between two Lights, that of the Day past and coming.

V. 599. Perp exes; Disturbs with doubtful thoughts, of Perplexus, intricate, doubtful.

V. 601. Deep Scars of Thunder had intrench'd—But his Face was furrow'd by deep Wounds by Thunder made. Scar, of the Gr. [...], a hard Crust made by a Caustick, a Burning Medicine applyed to mortifie the Flesh, so as it may be cut out, and is hard like a Scar.

Ibid. Intrench'd; Had cut into, of the Particle in and Trencher, Fr. to cut; so an Army is said to be intrench'd, when about their Camp a Trench is cut, which hinders their Enemies from coming at, or attempting them.

V. 602. Sat on his faded Cheek; Sorrow and sad Concern dwelt on his pale discolour'd Cheek: Faded, of the Fr. Fade, as this of the Lat. Fatuus, properly, unsavory, insipid, as Meats and Drinks that are decay'd have lost their true taste.

V. 603. Of D [...]untless Courage; Of Invincible Courage, not to be frighted or overcome. Fear­less, of Daunt, from the Fr. Dompter, as that of the Lat. Domitare, to tame.

Ibid. Considerate Pride, waiting Revenge; Of wary Pride, watching for Revenge: Consi­deratus, Lat. heedful, circumspect. Revenge, of the Fr. Revenche, a return, requital in an ill sense.

From Verse 591, to 594. and from thence to this, the Designer of Lucifer's Picture, pre­fix'd to this first Book, should have taken the Noble Lineaments of his Obscured, and yet Glorious, Haughty Looks: He should have express'd his Furrow'd Face and Faded Cheek un­der those Lofty Brows of stedfast Courage and of wary Pride, vowing and waiting for Re­venge: If he had hit these Lucky Stroaks, he might have spared his Horns and Asses Ears. so unsuitable to the Description of the Arch-Angel, that Milton has afforded him no hint of 'em, as not having, amongst his Idol-Deities, enrolled Corniger Ammon.

V. 604. Cruel his Eye; His Look was fierce, but shewed Signs of Relenting and Compassi­on.

[Page 40] V. 605. Remorse; Fr. Remors, is properly the gnawing of tormenting Conscience, when it convinceth one of having done amiss, of Remordeo, Lat. to bite again, to gnaw. Passion, Passio, Grief.

V. 606. The Fellows of his Crime, the Followers rather; Fellows, seems to imply the chief Con­trivers, and Complotters of his bold Rebellion; the Followers those, that by his Authority and sly Insinuations were perswaded to side with him, therefore not so criminal, though inexcusa­ble, it being impossible Angelick Beings could sin through ignorance.

V. 608. To have their Lot in Pain; Adjudg'd to have their Portion in Eternal Pain.

V. 609. Millions, of the Fr. Million, Ten Hundred Thousand, of the Lat. Mille, a certain for an uncertain Number, frequent and familiar with the Poets; Mille meae siculis errant in Montibus Agnae. Virg. Ecl. 1.’

And of the Colours in the Rainbow; Mille trahens varios adverso sole Colores. AEn. 4.’

Which would be hard for any one to assign.

Ibid. For his Fault amerc'd, &c. Punish'd with loss of Heaven, Fined by Eternal Banishment from Bliss. Amerciament is a Law-Term, signifying a Pecuniary Punishment of an Offender against the King or other Lord, who is in miscricordia, that is, who has transgress'd, and is to stand to the Mercy of the Lord: But Amerc'd has a strange Affinity with the Greek [...], to deprive, to take away, as Homer has used it much to our purpose, [...].’

The Muse Amerc'd him of his Eyes, but gave him the faculty of singing sweetly. [...].

V. 610. From Eternal Splendors flung for his revolt; Thrown out from Heavens Everlasting Light for his Rebellion: Splendor, Lat. Light, Brightness. Revolt, of the Fr. Revolte, Re­bellion, a falling off from.

V. 612. Their Glory wither'd; Their Beauty and Brightness diminish'd and decay'd, like wi­ther'd Flowers.

Ibid. As when Heavens Fire; The Lightning, which Virg. calls Jovis Ignem;

Illa Jovis rapidum jaculata è Nubibus Ignem. AEn. 1.
Dum flammas Jovis & sonitus imitatur Olympi. AEn. 6.

V. 613. Hath scath'd the Forest Oaks; Has harmed the Oaks that grow in Forest, or the Pines that delight in Hills and Mountains. Scath is an old word for Hurt, Damage.

To work new Wo and unprovided Scath. Spen. Bo. 1. Cant. 12. Stan. 34.
Mote breed him Scath unawares. Spen. Bo. 3. Cant. 1. Stan. 37.

Schaden, Dutc. to hurt. The Oak was Jove's Tree, more often singed with Lightning and Thunder-struck than any other. De Coelo Tactas praedicere Quercus. Virg. Ecl. 1.’

V. 614. Their Stately Growth; Their tall Trunks, their vast high Bodies, a Noble Compa­rison of the Angelick Armies, to the tall Sons of Earth, the Mountain Pines, Actas ad Sydera Pinus, AEn. 11. And of their blasted Beauties and faded Glory to their singed Crowns. Virgi [...] describing Pandarus and Bitias, thought it not enough to say they were Abietibus Juvenes Pa­triis & Montibus aequos, but falls into the same Simile,

Quales Aëriae liquentia flumina circum
Consurgunt Geminae Querous, intonsaque Coelo
Attollunt Capita, & sublimi Vertice nutant. AEn. 9.
Et AEtnaeos Fratres Coelo Capita alta ferentes
Concilium Horrendum: Quales cum vertice celso
AEriae Quercus, aut Coniferae Cyparissi
Constiterunt. AEn. 3.

And if this Simile was not too Superlative for the Cy [...]ops, this cannot be so for the Seraphim.

V. 615. Stands on the blasted Heath; The Lofty Trees with their Heads burnt bare, stand upright on the parched Heath: Blasted, of the word Blast, signifying a hot killing Breath, a parching Wind, injurious both to Men and Beasts, as well as Trees and Plants.

[Page 41] V. 617. From Wing to Wing, and half enclose him round; Draw into a half Circle enclosing him half round. The Romans used the same term for the lesser Bodies placed on each side of the Gross of their Armies: Tyrrhenique duces, Evandrique Arcadis alas. AEn. 12.’

V. 618. Attention held them mute; With silence they gave heed: Attentio, Lat. heedfulness as of one that listeneth: Mutus, Lat. for silent, still as well as speechless: Conticuere omnes, attentique or a tenebant. AEn. 2.’

V. 619. Thrice he assay'd; Endeavour'd, tryed: Fr. Essayer, to attempt. Ter sunt conati, AEn. 1. Ter conatus ibi collo dare braehia circum, AEn. 2. a Number in favour with the Poets, as is also Nine its square.

V. 620. Tears such as Angels weep; Such Tears as from Immortal Eyes can flow: Thus Ho­m [...]r describes Venus wounded and bleeding;

[...]
[...].

The Immortal Blood of the Goddess ran down, such Blood indeed as the blessed Gods have in them. Virgil is less circumspect in his Weeping Venus;

Tristior, & [...]acrimis Oculos suffusa Nitentes
Alloquitur Venus. AEn. 1.

V. 621. Words interwove, &c. Words mingled with sad Sighs, Words broke with interrupt­ing Sighs. Of inter, Lat. between and weave.

V. 624. Was not inglorious; Not mean and disgraceful; of Inglorius, Lat. void of Renown.

Ibid. Though th'Event was dire; Though the Success was sad and dreadful: Eventus, Lat. Issue.

V. 625. As this place testifies; As this place proves, of testificor, Lat. to bear witness, to con­firm.

V. 626. Hateful to utter; Detestable to speak of: Utter signifies to speak, Speech being a bringing forth the Thoughts and Conceptions of our Mind framed within, to the outward hear­ing of others; of utter, outward.

Ibid. But what Power of Mind? But what Force or Strength of Understanding, from greatest Knowledge of Things past or present, by Foresight or Foretelling, could have appre­hended, how such a Multitude of Godlike Spirits, so united thus, and thus embattelled, should e'er have undergone an Overthrow?

V. 627. Presaging; Foretelling, of the Lat. Praesagire, to foretel what shall happen.

V. 630. Could ever know repulse; Could ever have been foil'd or worsted: Repulsus, Lat. a foil, a beating back, of repello, to drive back.

V. 632. Puissant Legions; All these powerful Legions, against all this mighty Multitude, whose banishment has even dispeopled Heaven, and left it empty. Legio, Lat. a Number of Soldiers different, in different times generally about 6000.

—Cum longa Cohortes
Explicuit Legio. Virg. Geor. 2.

Puissant; Fr. Powerful. Exile, Lat. Exilium; Banishment, Ejection. Has emptied Heae­ven; Many are of Opinion that one third of the Angelick Nature was for this Rebellion ex­pell'd Heaven, grounding it on Revel. 12. 4.

V. 633. Shall fail to reascend; Shall not be able to climb up again, of the Fr. Faillir, to be unable to be deceived, of fallo, Lat. to cheat.

Ibid. To reascend; To get up again, of re and ascendere, Lat. to rise again.

V. 634. Self-raised and repossess; Raised by their own inherent Power, repossess, regain the Possession of their Original Heaven, to the Inheritance of which they were born: Repossideo, Lat. to enter again into possession of: Nativus, Lat. Natural.

V. 636. Monarch in Heav'n; But he who Governs, Sole and Supreme above. [...], Monarcha, a King, of [...], alone, and [...], Rule.

Ibid. As one secure; Like one grown careless; safe, Securus, Lat. and therefore heedless.

V. 639. Upheld by old Repute; Held up, supported by ancient Fame and Reputation: Re­pute, from Reputation, Esteem, Renown.

V. 640. His Regal State put forth at full; Made a great shew of his Princely Port; Set all his State to shew: Regalis, Lat. Kingly: Status, Lat. Condition. Concealed, of Celare, Lat, to hide.

[Page 42] V. 642. Which tempted our Attempt; Which drew on our design, which provoked us to attempt and try his Power: Tempt, of the French Tenter: Tentare, Lat. to Provoke, to En­tice to: Attempt, of Attentat. Fr. a Design, an Enterprize: Words, thô well chosen, and signi­ficative enough, yet of Gingling and Unpleasant Sound, and like Marriages between Persons too near of Kin, to be avoided.

V. 644. To Provoke; Provocare, Lat. to Dare to, to Challenge.

V. 646. By Fraud; By Cheat and Cunning, bringing that to pass, which Force could not effect: Fraus, Lat. deceit; Efficere, Lat. to effect, perform.

V. 649. But half his Foe; Force may affect the Sence, but cannot reach the Soul. The Mind and Stubborn Will are both invulnerable and invincible, the Unconquerable Will,

And Courage never to submit or yield,
And what is else not to be overcome? In Satan's former speech.

V. 650. Space may produce new Worlds; Several Philosophers were of Opinion, that there were many Worlds, as Anaxymenes, Aristarchus, Diogenes, Democritus, and Plato, (scandalized with believing five) because not rightly understood, Epicurus many, and others that they were infinite, not only the Sun and Moon, but every Star containing a distinct World; to the conti­nuing of these Conceits, the Spectacles of Galileus have not a little contributed.

Ille ferox unoqūe tegi non passus Olympo
Immensum per inane volat, finemque perosus,
Parturit innumeros Augusto pectore Mundos. Claud.
Et Chaos innumeros avidum confundere Mund [...]s. Luc. lib. 6.

Space is not only used for Place, but Time also; Produce, Producere, Lat. to bring forth new Worlds different from that the Angels were in, supposed to have been Created before this lower World.

V. 651. Whereof so rife there went a Fame; Concerning which, there were so many Reports: Rife, an old Word for Frequent: Fame, of Fama, Lat. Report.

V. 652. To Create; Lat. Creare, to give Beginning to: Creation is the Work of that infi­nite Power, that brought All Things ount of Nothing.

Ibid. Therein P [...]nt; And place therein, of Plantare, Lat. to set, or cause to grow, as Herbs, Irees, and Flowers.

V. 653. A Generation, a Brood of Creatures; Of Generare, Lat. to Beget.

Ibid. Whom his choice Regard; Whom his especial Care, of Regard, Fr. for Care, Conside­ration.

V. 654. Equal to the Sons of Heaven; Favour as highly as the Heavenly Angels: Inhabitants of Heaven, and its Offspring: AEqualis, Lat. in the same proportion, as much: Not only our Poet, but many of the Fathers, supposed the Angelick Nature created before the World, thô some refer their Original to the first day's Distinction, comprehending their Creation by Fiat Lux.

V. 655. Thither if but to Pry; Towards Heaven, or where else, this Mighty Work of Creation is to be performed, thô but to mark and heed it: Of the Fr. Preuver, to try, to make tryal of: To pry into Things, is to look narrowly, that is, heedfully into it, with contracted Eyes, strengthening the Sight.

V. 656. Our first Eruption; Our first Sally, and brea [...]ing out of this our hated Prison: Eruptio, Lat, of Erumpo, to break out.

V. 657. This Infernal Pit; This low dark Dungeon: Pit, of the Fr. Puis, as this of Puteus, Lat. a Well.

V. 660. Must mature; Must bring to Perfection, of Maturare, Lat. to grow Ripe. So Virg. Hic. annis gravis, atque animi maturus Alethes. AEn. IX.’

V. 661. For who can think Submission; For who is so base and mean, as but to think of truckling, of humbling our selves before our Adversary: Submissio, Lat. Yielding, Submit­ting.

V. 662. Open or Understood: Publick or Private, Proclaimed or Concealed.

V. 663. He Spake; Thus he spoke, an Imitation of Homer's frequent, [...].

Ibid. And to confirm his Words; In approbation of his Speech, in token of their agreeing to his Opinion.

V. 667. Fierce with grasped Arms; Furious, raging of Fier, Fr. from Ferox, as this of [...], a Wild Beast: And bold with Armed Hand, bray'd on their Sounding Shields War's dreadful Din, daring outrageous Heaven's Almighty Arm: A Graphick Description of the Foolish De­fiance given by these Damned Spirits, in their impotent Rage against the Almighty, sitting in Heaven, and having them in Derision. Clash, and Din, are Words formed of the Similitude of the Sounds of which they are expressive: Clash, as if of [...], Clango; and Din, of Tinnio; the Sound that hollow Metal makes when beat upon. [Page 43] Saeva sonoribus Arma. Says Virg. AEn. 9.’

And Homer,

[...].
—Tum scuta, Cavae (que); Dant sonitum flictu Galcae.

V. 669. Hurling Defiance; This Verse seems Declaratory of the Action expressed in the two preceding, the Reprobate Spirits making a dreadful Noise on their clattering Shields, turned their disdainful Eyes up towards Heaven, in Looks that bid Defiance to the Almighty: De­fiance, a Challenge; of Defier, to Challenge, to Dare to the Combat, Fr. Hurl, or, as its Original, Whirl, to throw, to throw round about.

V. 670. Whose Griesly Top; Whose horrid Head: Griesly, an old Word for Ugly, dreadful.

V. 671. Belch'd Fire, and rouling Smoak; Like Virg. of Mount AEtna: Turbine fumantem piceo & candente favilla. AEn. 3. Belch, as the Latin Ructare, formed of the Sounds they express.

V. 672. The rest entire, shone with a glossie Scurf; The rest all Ore, was covered with a shining Crust: Glossie, bright, shining of Gleissen, Ger. to shine: Scurf, a thin, dry, and lighter kind of Scab: Entire, of Entier, Fr. whole.

V. 673. In his Womb was hid Metallic Ore; That his Belly, his Entrails were stored with Mines of divers Metals: Metallic, Metallicus, Lat. belonging to Metals; in Greek, [...]: Quod vix ulla Metalli vena inveniatur, quin altera in propinquo inveniatur, unde Graeci videntur dixisse. [...]. Plin. l. 33. c. 6.

Ibid. Ore; Is crude Earth, as digged up, unrefined, and containing Metal in proportion to the richness of the Mind: Lead, Tin, Silver Ore, of the Fr. Or, Aurum Gold, the Me­tal, [...].

V. 674. The Work of Sulphur; The Offspring and Production of Sulphur, that Vivum & fossile, as Celsus calls it, which, as if it were Soli [...], the Subterranean Fire, concocts and boils up the Crude and undigested Earth into a more profitable consistence, and, by its innate Heat, hardens and bakes it into Metals: It is called Sulphur rerum by Paracelsus and the Chy­mists; it ordinarily signifies, Brimstone.

Ibid. Winged with speed; 'Tis usual with the Poets to express Speed by Wings, those Crea­tures that are furnished with them being the [...]blest: Thus Fulminis Ocyor alis, and Mercury the Messenger of the Gods, is fledged with them both at head and Foot. Ut primum alatis tetigit magalia Plantis. AEn. 4.’

V. 675. A Numerous Brigade; A great Company, Ital. Brigata, a Company of Soldiers, generally Horsemen: Hence our Brigadeer, the Commander of a Party of Horse, Numerosus, Lat. for a great many.

V. 676. Pi [...]s; Of Pionnier, Fr. a Digger: Of Pion, an old Word derived of the barba­rous Latin Pedito, that is, Pedes a Foot Soldier.

V. 677. To Trench; To draw a Line, or digg a Trench cross a Field: Of Trencher, Fr. to Cut.

V. 678. Or cast a Rampart; Or to throw up a Defence, Fr. Rempar, the Wall of a Fortress: Of Re, en, and parer, to defend one against.

Ibid. Mammon lead them on; [...] Riches, Wealth, it is no Hebrew Word, though found in the Lexicon Rabbin-Philos [...]h. St. Austin in his 35th Sermon on the Words of our Saviour, Ye cannot serve God and Mammon, Luc. 16. 13. where the Greek has [...], which we render Riches, tells us, it is a Punic Word, many of which were crept into, and mixt with the Hebrew Language: I do not find it any where used in the Sacred Text, but in the 9th and 11th Verses of the above quoted Chapter, and Matth. 6. 24.

V. 679. The least Erected Spirit; The most Abject, Base, and Vile: Erectus, Lat. for Raised: Erectâ consurgit ad Oscula plantâ, stands on Tip-toes. Juv.

V. 682. Heaven's Pavement trodden Gold; As the Heavenly Jerusalem is described by St. John, Revel. 21. 21. And the Street of the City is pure Gold: Pavimentum, Lat. a Floor, a Causeway, of Pavio, Lat. to beat down, to pave.

V. 684. In Vision beatifick; In the happy beholding of God Almighty's infinite Perfections, in which the supremest Satisfaction consists: Visio, Lat. Sight, Seeing: Beatificus, Lat. Beatum faciens, making Happy.

V. 685. By his suggestion Taught; Instructed by his Information: Suggestio, Lat. a Prompting: Of Suggerere, to put in Mind, to Prompt.

V. 686▪ Ransack'd the Centre; Dug deep down to the middle of the Earth: To Ransack, is to search narrowly, and to pry into every Corner, for Prey and Plunder, as if Reinsaccare, sac­cos Excutere & Expilare: Centre, Centrum, Lat. the middle Point in a Circle, or any round Body.

V. 687. Rifled the Bowels of their Mother; Tore out the Entrails of the Earth that bore 'em, and Nurs'd 'em too; the Earth was called not only Mater magna, from her many Sons, but as Antiquity thought, the Mother of all the Gods: Alma mater, was another of her Attributes, from her constant providing for her great Family.

[Page 44] Nec tantum segetes, Alimentaque debita Dives
Poscebatur humus, sed itum est in viscera Terrae
Quasque recondiderat, Stygiisque admoverat umbris
Effodiuntur Opes. Met. Lib. 1.

Rifler, or Rafler, Fr. or the Sax. Reapian, all probably of Rapere, to snatch, to tear out.

V. 688. For Treasures better hid; In search of Riches, which had better been still in the Center, lock'd up there, and close concealed. [...], a Store laid up for the future.

—Pereunt discrimine nullo,
Amissae leges; Sed pars vilissima rerum,
Certamen Movistis, Opes. Luc. Lib. 3.

V. 690. Ribs of Gold; Continuing the Metaphor of Earths Bowels, he calls the great Hole made in the Hill, a wide Wound, and here the Ore, Ribs of Gold, almost refined by the Natu­ral Heat of that Infernal Soil.

V. 692. Deserve the precious Bane; Deserve the dear Destruction: Well may Riches come from Hell, the Desires and Designs after which will send so many thither. Bana, an old word for Murderer. Lucan describing Affrica, praiseth it for its Poverty:

In nullas vitiatur Opes, non aere, nec auro
Excoquitur, nullo glebarum crimine, pura
Et penitus terra est. Lib. 9.

V. 694. Of Babel; The Name of the famous Tower, which Nimrod perswaded the Inhabi­tants of the Earth, who were then all of one Language and of one Lip, Gen. 11. 1. to undertake to build as high as might be, to prevent the Destruction of any future Deluge. It was called [...] Confusion, from that Confusion of Tongues, whose diversity made 'em desist from their vain design: Now because Gen. 8. the Diluvian Waters are said to have surpass'd the highest Mountain by 15 Cubits, and there being many Mountains in the World, whose Perpendicular Altitude is more than four Miles: They intended (as Josephus tells us, Lib. 1. Antiq.) to raise this Tower five Miles in heighth: Heylin reports it was raised 5164 Paces, before interrupted; but Confusion covers it. And whereas the Sacred Text says, they did attempt this to get 'em a Name, Gen. 11. 4. this word Babel is convey' [...] (through all Languages) down to us, to per­petuate the Memory of their Presumption and Folly: For to Bable, signifies to say something unintelligible. The Giants attempting Heaven, and Piling Pelion on Ossa, is probably a Poe­tick Imitation of this vain attempt.

Inseruit celsis prope se oum Pelion Astris,
Syderibusque vias incumbens abstulit Ossa. Luc. Lib. 6.

Ibid. Works of Memphian Kings; The famous Buildings of Egyptian Monarchs, called Mem­phian of Memphis, the Capital of ancient Egypt, seated on the Western Shoar of Nilus, from which, distant about 16 of our Miles, stood the wonderful Pyramids, the biggest about six Acres high, on which one of their Kings employed 366000 Men almost 20 Years: These Monuments of mighty Wealth and Luxury are still standing, and like enough to last till the ge­neral Conflagration. Barbara Pyramidum sileat Miracula Memphis. Mart. Lib. 15.’

V. 695. Monuments of Fame; Places erected and built in memory of great Kings, as those above-mentioned of the Memphian Monarchs, Monumentum est structura ad memoriam defuncti facta, in the same sense that we call the Tombs at Westminster the Monuments; and such were often made in remembrance of great Men, though their Bodies lay not there Intombed.

V. 697. By Spirits Reprobate; By Wicked Fiends, of the Lat. Reprobus, evil, nought, re­jected.

V. 698. With incessant Toyl; With continual Labour: Incessans, never ceasing, uninterrup­ted, of in and cesso, Lat. to give over. Toyl of Tuyl, Dutch for Husbandry, whence to Till, that being an Occupation full of Labour.

V. 699. Innumerable; Numberless, of Innumerabilis, Lat. that cannot be number'd.

V. 700. Nigh on the Plain; Hard by on the smooth Plain, many small Trenches were pro­vided, which had underneath 'em Streams of flowing Fire, conveyed into 'em from the flaming Lake, where another numerous Band with admirable Skill, &c.

Ibid. Cells, of the Lat. Cella, any private secret place: A celando, to hide.

V. 701. Veins; Streams: Vena, Lat. not only for the blew Conduits in Mens Bodies, but those of Fountains and Metals in the Earth.

[Page 45] V. 702. Sluc'd from the Lake; Let out, of the word Sluce, a Contrivance to keep in, and let Water out at pleasure, from the Belg. Sluyse, or the Fr. Escluse, of Excludere, Lat. to shut out.

V. 703. Found out the Massie Ore; Melt down the Golden Ore, of Fondre, Fr. or Fondere, of the Lat. Fundere, to melt, to cast Metal.

—Fluit aes rivis, aurique Metallum,
Vulnificumque Calybs vastae fornace liquevit. AEn.

Massie, heavy, of Massif, Fr. Weighty, of Massa, Lat. a Lump. Gold is the heaviest of all Metals.

V. 704. Sev'ring each kind; Separating each sort: Sever, of separare, Lat. to divide.

Ibid. And scumm'd the Bullion-Dross; And took the foul Froth that arose out of its Dross: To scum, of Escumer, to take off the Scum, Lat. Spuma, the Froth. Bullion, of Billion, Fr. old word for base Money, made of Metal not refined, or clogged with too much Alloy. Dross, of the Begl. Droes, Lees, the Dross in Metals being the useless terrene part, separated from the refined and purer Ore.

V. 706. A various Mould; Variety of Moulds, of several Shapes and Figures: Mould, of Molde, Span: For Figure, Shape, of Modulus, Lat.

V. 708. As in an Organ; As in an Organ the sound Board conveys Breath from each blast of the Bellows, to many Rows of Pipes, an exact Comparison and new: Organ, as if [...], Gr. the Instrument, it being one superlatively, and chief of those of Musick.

V. 710. A Fabrick huge; A mighty Building, a stately Edifice, of Fabrica, as this, à Fabri­cando, Building erecting. Huge, big, of the Sax. Oga, fright, terrour, as the old word Hugy, terrible big, of an affrighting, terrible size.

V. 711. Rose like an Exhalation; Came up on a suddain like a mighty Mist, out of the warm Womb where it was founded. Exhalatio, Lat. for a Fogg or Mist, drawn out of the moisture of the Earth.

V. 712. Of Dulcet Symphonies; Of sweet Harmonies and Concordance: Dulcet, pleasing, charming, of Dulcis, Lat. sweet. Symphonies, [...], from [...] and [...], a Sound, a Voice, an Agreeing and Justness in Time and Tune.

V. 713. Where Pilasters round; Set about with little Pillars, of Pilasire, Fr. from the Lat. Pila, call'd by Vitruv. Parastatae.

V. 714. Doric Pillars; Pillars carved according to the Doric Order. Doria was part of Greece, where the Doric Dialect prevailed, so named of one of their Kings Dorus: The Greci­ans were the most renowned Architects of Antiquity, and the Terms belonging to that Noble Art are from them transmitted down to us; hence to this Day the Doric and Corinthian Orders have their Names.

V. 715. Architrave; A word used by Builders, of the Fr. or It. Architrave, the Head or Chapiter of a Pillar.

V. 716. Cornice; An Architectonick Term, signifying the Brow or Projection of a Pillar or Wall, of [...], the end and finishing of a thing; so Homer describing the Palace of Alcinous, [...].’

And Mart.

Si nimius videor, serâque Coronide longus
Esse Liber. Epig. Lib. 10.

Where Farnaby, Cornices ponebantur in calce Libri, quasi signa absoluti Operis, translatione ab aedificiis, cujus jam absoluti fastigio apponebatur Cornix.

Ibid. Freeze; That broad flat Band between the Cornice and the Architrave, from the Fr. Frize, as that from Freze, a Ruff: Others deduce it of the Ital. Freggio, a Fringe, it being one of the Ornamental parts of a Building.

Ibid. With Bossy Sculptures graven; Adorned and set off with bold swelling Carved Work. Bossé, Fr. Imboss'd, swelling out: Sculptura, Lat. Carving: Graver, Fr. to cut, to carve, to engrave.

V. 717. The Roof was Fretted Gold; The Roof was covered over with Fret-Work all of Mas­sie Gold: Fretted, of the It. Fratto, of the Lat. Fractus, broken, it being a kind of Work full of many Breakings and Indentures.

Ibid. Babylon; One of the most famous Cities of the ancient World, Renowned both in Sacred and Profane Story, the Capital of the Assyrian Empire; Semiramis encompass'd it with Walls of Brick, said to be 100 Cubits high, broad enough for two Chariots to pass, and containing 48 English Miles in Circuit, so that it might well be accounted one of the Worlds seven Wonders.

—Murisque superbam
Assyrias Babylona domos. Luc. Lib. 8.

[Page 46] V. 718. Nor great Alcairo; The Modern Name for Old Memphis, the Metropolis, and most Celebrated City of Egypt, seated a little above the Delta, where the Nile first divides it self, making an Island, which took its Name from the resemblance it has to the Letter [...].

V. 719.—Such Magnificence— Equall'd in all their Glories; Neither the Renowned Ba­bylon, nor Mighty Memphis, when at the heighth of all her Glory, Assyria strove in Wealth and Luxury to exceed Egypt in both abounding, ere could shew or Temples of their Gods, or Prince­ly Palaces, that with this stately Structure could compare, either in Expence or Art.

Magnificence; Lat. Magnificentia, Greatness of Expence in Noble and Sumptuous Building, Furniture, or Provision.

Ibid. To Enshrine; To place in a stately Temple. See V. 388.

V. 720. Belus the Son of Nimrod, second King of Babylon, and the first Man worshipp'd for a God, by the Chaldeans styled Bel, by the Phenicians Baal, both of the Hebrew [...], signify­ing Lord, used promiscuously in the Holy Text: The first, Isai. 46. 1. Jer. 50. 2. and 51. 44. The other is used in many places with the additions of Peor, Tzephon, and others, as Baalsamaim, of which the Supreme Lord, to manifest his Detestation, tells his People, Hes. 2. 16. they shall call him no more Baali, [...] my Lord. Hesiod is the first Poet that mentionsthis Deified Man in his Catal. Heroin. [...]. This Name grew so famous, that many of the Afri­can Heroes subjoyned it to their own, as Hannibal, Asdrubal, Maherbal. By this Name the Sy­donians worshipp'd the Sun, whom they term'd Baalsamaim, the Lord of Heaven, the Learned Selden deducing Agalibalus, or, as corrupted, Heliogabalus, the Sun, from [...], Signifying Circular Lord. Synt. 2. Cap. 1. Ninus, the Son and Successor of this Belus, having erected his Fathers Statue, proclaimed Impunity to all such as should repair to it, and solemnly beg pardon there of whatsoever Crime committed: This procured him many vile Votaries and impious Adorations, and made him the first instance of the ancient Egyptian Idolatry, which most Na­tions of the World, as an allay to the Learning they brought from thence, conveyed into their own Countries.

Ibid. Serapis, was the same with Apis, [...], in the Hebrew Tongue signifying a Bull, the same with Apis in the Egyptian, as if a concrete of both [...], vultus bovis. Certain it is, that the Egyptians kept in a Corner of the Temple of Osyris, a live Ox which they had in great Veneration, his Colour was black, with a square blaze in his Forehead, and a white Half-Moon on his Right Side; at a certain period prescribed by their Ceremonial, he was to be drown'd in the Nile, that is, sacrificed to that Noble River, as Strab. Lib. ult. Plin. Lib. 8. Cap. 46.

—Aut quo se gurgite Nili,
Mergat adoratus trepidus pastoribus Apis. Papin. Sil. 3.

Great and Universal Lamentations were made all the Country over, till another so mark'd was found, which the Prophetick Priests were provided of beforehand, then their Rejoycings were as extravagant; all this agrees with the [...] and [...] of Osyris, V. 478.

V. 721. When Egypt with Assyria strove. Egypt has had many Names; first, Misreia, of Misraim the Son of Chus, the Son of Cham, its first Planter; next Oceana, of Oceanus, one of its Kings; then Osiriana, of Osiris; lastly, Egypt, of Egyptus Ramases, one of its Princes of great Power. Assyria, a great Country in Asia, bounded on the East with Media, on the West with Mesopotamia, Northward by Armenia, and Southward by Susiana: Most Historians derived it of Ashur the second Son of Shem, which Sir Walter Rawleigh's History of the World, Bo. 1. Chap. 10. disproves.

When Egypt grew to that excess of Wealth and Debauchery, that it contested with dissolute Assyria, which was most corrupted:

—Horrida sane
AEgyptus; sed luxuriâ, quantum ipse notavi,
Barbara famosa non cedit turba Canopo. Juv. Sat. 15.

Luxuria, Lat. the excess of Riot.

V. 722. Th'Ascending Pile; The rising stately Structure, described before, rising on a sud­dain like an Exhalation, V. 711. Ascending, Ascendens, Lat. of Ascendere, to arise. Pile sig­nifies properly a Heap, but used to express a great piece of Building, which when finely fi­nish'd, is styled a Noble Stately Pile, of the Fr. Pile, or the Ital. Pila, as both of [...], to bind together, to make firm and compleat, rather than of [...], Heaps of Wood erected at Funeral Piles.

V. 724. Opening their Brazen Folds; So Virg. describing Juno's Temple building by Dido;

Hic Templum Junoni ingens—
AErea cui gradibus surgebant limina, nexaque
AEre trabes, foribus Cardo stridebat Ahenis. AEn. 1.

[Page 47] V. 726. And level Pavement; O're the even Floor: Livel, Fr. of Libella, Lat. a Line with a Plummet to it, by which Masons and Carpenters try their Work.

Ibid. From the Arched Roof; From the Vaulted sealing: Arch, of Arcus, Lat. a Bow, because bent, and turning like one.

V. 727. Pendant by subtle Magick, &c. From the Vaulted Roof, hanging by strange Con­trivance many Rows of shining Lamps, and flaming Torches fed with Oily Naptha and Sul­phur, darted Light as from the Starry Firmament.

Pendens, Lat. hanging, hung up by so nice and curious a Contrivance, by a Line so small, as not to be perceived. Subtilis, Lat. whence Subtle signifies properly Small, Fine.

Magick, [...] and [...], are Persian Words, expressing the Service of their Gods, and the Priests that were knowing and conversant in the Administration of Divine Things, the Philoso­phers of their Age, who kept all the Learning in their own hands; Magick in those times being the highest Skill in Natural Philosophy put into Practice in some Amazing Instances, whose Definition is thus given us: Magia est connexio a Viro sapiente Agentium per naturam, cum patientibus, sibi congruenter respondentibus, ut inde Opera prodeant, non sine eorum admiratione, qui causam ignorant. And says another, Magick is a perfect Knowledge (as far as attainable in this Life) of the wonderous Works of God, and their Effects; Hàc Magià, Dominum Jesum, fuisse promissum regem, cognoverunt Magi, qui ad eum adorandum, longissimis è Regionibus profecti sunt: Scalig. cont. Cardan. So that by Subtle Magick, imports no more than, as we say, hung up by Geometry, that is, strangely, of which every Beholder cannot conceive the Contrivance.

V. 728. Of Starry Lamps; Of Lights that shone like Stars, [...], from their shining.

Ibid. And Blazing Cressets; And flaming Beacons: Cresset, an old Word for any great flaming Light: Blazing, of the High Dutch Blazen, to blow, because Flame and Fire are encreased by Wind.

V. 729. Fed with Naptha; [...], Gr. [...], from [...], to disperse it self, is so power­ful a Composition, or rather so unctuous a sort of Bitumen, that if it approach either Fire or the Sun-Beams, it immediately breaks out into a Blaze: [...]. Diosco. l. 1. c. 102. The Greeks call it [...], the famous Sorceress Medea's Oyl.

Ibid. Asphaltus; [...], a kind of soft, fat, oily Clay, clammy like Pitch, abounding with much fiery and flaming Matter, [...], as incapable of being shaken, or over­turned; [...]: This Asphaltus mixt with well-burnt Bricks, and little Stones, gave such a strength and security to Buildings, that they became stronger and more durable, than if made of Iron; Suidas. The Lake of Sodom abounded with this Bitu­men, thence called [...].

V. 732. The Architect; [...], the Master-Builder, the Chief Contriver: Of [...], Principal, and [...]. Gr. a Builder.

V. 733. By many a towred Structure high; By many lofty Buildings adorn'd with Towers: Structura, Lat. a Building, an Edifice.

V. 734. Where Scepter'd Angels, &c. Where Angels Regent kept their Courts: Scepter'd, al­lowed Scepters as Ensigns of their State and Command: [...], Sceptrigeri Reges; as Homer calls them, I A. B. Sceptrum, Lat. [...], Gr.

Angel, of [...], Gr. a Messenger, these Spirits being God's Messengers. Residence, a Place of Abode: Of Resideo, Lat. to remain, to abide: Residentia, both in the Canon and Common Law, is the Continuance or Abode of a Parson or Vicar upon his Benefice.

V. 735. The Supreme King; The most high Governor GOD Almighty, the lofty One Lord over all: Supremus, Lat. highest.

V. 736. Exalted to such Power; Raised to such Command: Exaltare, Lat. to lift up, to advance.

Ibid. And gave to Rule; And appointed them Rulers over the bright Orders of the Angels committed to their Holy Care: G [...]oe to Rule, gave the Government of; a Verb used for a Noun, as Tibi duice dedit Deus ridere.

V. 737. In his Hierarchy; In his Holy Government: Of [...], Holy; and [...], Rule, Principality.

Ibid. The Orders bright; The several Ranks and Degrees of Glorious Angels, there being, without all doubt, Order and Distinction in that Heavenly Hierarchy: Ordo, Lat. Degree.

V. 738. Unadored; Not Worshipp'd: Of In and Adorare, Lat. to Worship.

V. 739. In ancient Greece; Graecia, so called of Grae [...]us Son of C [...]crops, one of the first Kings of that large Country lying in Europe, vast, fruitful, and populous, the early Seat of Arts and Arms, brought to a mighty height and noble pitch in about 2000 Years time, now entirely over-run by Barbarity (the Reproachful Name given by its Inhabitants to all other Nations) in 200 Years by the Turks ill Government and Tyranny.

Ibid. Ausonian Land; Italy, part of which was so named of Auson Son of Ulysses, by Calipso, who is said to have Reigned there: Others say, the ancient Inhabitants of this Country were by the Greeks called [...], whom the Latins styled Aruncos, (as Auruncos ita ferre senes, AEn. 7.) by changing r into [...].

[Page 48] V. 740. Mulciber; So called, à Mulciendo, i. e. à Temperando ferro, his more reputable Name being Vulcan, the Son of Jupiter and Juno, thrown out of Heaven for rescuing his Mother out of his angry Father's clutches, as he relates his own Story. [...].

[...],
[...].
[...],
[...]: According to the Relation of him here given.

Others affirm, his Father and Mother both gave him this unlucky lift (by which he got his Lameness) for his Ugliness and Deformity, of which Homer makes him accuse them. [...].

[...]
[...]
[...].

The Mystery of all this is, that Thunder and Lightning, begot in the Regions above by the influence of the Sun on the Air, is thrown from thence in dismal Noise and terrible Claps down upon the Earth.

V. 741. They Fabled; Told a pretty Story, feigned a well-contrived Tale: Of Fabula, Lat. a Story, a Fiction.

Ibid. Jove; The Son of Saturn and Ops, born in Crete at the same Birth with his Sister Juno, whom he took to Wife: He was privately brought up in Ida, and Nurs'd by the Nymphs, for fear of his devouring Father, whom he expelled out of his Kingdom. Jove is not so probable a Diminutive of Jupiter, as a Derivative of the Venerable and Ineffable [...]; and Jupiter rather Jah Pater, than Juvans Pater. Jovem primò Deum Judaeorum fuisse existimat Varro: As St. Aug. in l. 1. De consen. Evang.

V. 742. Sheer o're; Quite over the bright Battlements of Heaven: Sheer, an old Word signifying Pure, Bright, Clear.

Ibid. Chrystal Battlements; Chrystal, of [...], which they tell us, is [...], Water frozen to a shining Consistence, like Ice.

[...]
[...], Chrystal made of Water. [...].

Battlements are properly Pinnacles and Ornaments of great Buildings, to set 'em off, and please the Eye; they are also Defences on the top of a Garrison Wall to defend the Soldiers against the Besiegers.

V. 745. Dropt from the Zenith; Fell directly down, [...], and corruptly [...], is an Arabian Word for the Crown of the Head, and from thence made to signifie the Pole of the Horizon, the Point of the Firmament directly over our Heads wherever we are.

Ibid. Like a falling Star; A Comparison well suted to a tumbling Deity. So Homer: [...].’

V. 746. Lemnos; A considerable Island in the Archipelago, about 600 Miles in circuit, where Vulcan had a Temple, and kept one of his Shops in which he made Thunderbolts; hence called, Pater Lemnius. Haec Pater AEoliis properat dum Lemnius oris. AEn. 8.’

Ibid. Th' AEgean Isle; An Island in the AEgean Sea, part of the Mediterranean near Greece, call'd now Archipelago. It took its Name either of AEgeus Father of Theseus, who drowned himself therein, or of AEgis a City in the Island Eubaea; as Strabo affirms.

—Boreae cum Spiritus alto
Intonat AEgaeo. AEn. 12.

Ibid. Thus they relate; Thus the Poets tell the Story: Relate of, Referro, Lat. to report, to tell; whence Relation.

V. 747. Erring; Mistaking: Of the Lat. Errare, to Wander, to be Deceived.

V. 749. Scape; Get off, save himself: Of the Fr. Eschapper, to come off, to free himself.

V. 750. By all his Engins; With all his Tricks and Contrivances: The Word seems a Deri­vative of Ingenium, Wit and Cunning, of which a great deal is requisite to find out those strange Engines, and Mathematical Machines, useful in raising great Piles and vast Weights.

V. 751. With his Industrious Crew; With his Gang of Cunning Artificers: Industrius, Lat. Di­ligent, Laborious.

[Page 49] V. 752. The Winged Heralds; Heraut, Fr. and Heraldo, Span. come all from the Ger. He­rold, an Officer in a formal and remarkable Habit, sent either to denounce War, or to pro­pose Terms of Cessation and Truce, always held sacred and secure as to their Persons in Ho­nour of their Office, which is very ancient, derived of Heer, Dut. Army, and Held, Com­mander, as sent from the General or Commander in Chief: Milton has given them Wings, not only as Angels, but to express their speed.

V. 755. A Solemn Council: A general publick Meeting, to consider and consult of their Af­fairs: Solennis, Lat. publick, great: Concilium, Lat. for Council, and the place it is held in.

V. 756. At Pandaemonium; A Name feigned by our Poet for Lucifer's Palace, the famous Fabrick described before, of the Gr. [...], all, and [...], Gr. for wise, skilful, knowing, a word not always taken in an ill sense, though the Devils are call'd [...], from their extra­ordinary knowledge and cunning. All-Devil-Hall, or Satan's Court.

Ibid. The High Capital; Satan's chief place of Residence; of Capitalis, as this of Caput, the Head, and thence used for Chief: Thus Rome was styled, Caput Orbis, & Rerum Maxima Roma.

V. 757. Their Summons; Of Semonce, Fr. a calling before one, a Citation, and this of Sum­moneo, Lat. to give Notice of.

V. 758. Squared Regiment; Full and compleat: Carré, Fr. of Quadrare, Lat. a Square being a Figure whose four sides are equal. Regimentum, Lat. a Band of Soldiers, from R [...]gimen, the Government they are, or ought to be kept under.

V. 761. All access was throng'd; Every place that led to the Infernal Palace was crowded, all the Avenues thronged: Accessus, Lat. for Passage, or Way to.

V. 762. The Porches wide; Open spacious Places, whose Roofs were commonly supported by Pillars, made to avoid the Violence of Sun or Showers, in which the ancient Philosophers taught and disputed, of Porche, Fr. and this of Porticus, Lat.

V. 763. Where Champions, &c. A Champion is properly a Challenger, who to maintain and defend anothers Claim or Right, was wont anciently to defie all Opposers that durst dis­pute it, and give 'em Combat by way of Decision; of the Lat. Campus, a Field, in which, en­closed on all sides, the Encounter usually was made.

V. 764. At the Soldan's Chair; Before the Turkish Emperour seated in his Chair of State: Soldan or Sultan, are esteemed to be of Arabian, by others of Persian Original, and to signifie Power, Dominion; yet the word seems more naturally derivable of the Hebrew [...], to Govern.

V. 765. Defi'd the best of Panim, &c. Challeng'd the stoutest of the Heathen Knights. De­fie, of Defier, Fr. to provoke to fight: Panim, of the Fr. Payen, as this of Paganus, Lat. a Countryman, qui in Pagis degere solebat: The Heathens were call'd Pagans, because their Tem­ples being Consecrated to Christ, when his Holy Religion prevailed in the World, and their Churches in all Cities sequester'd to his Service, they were allowed their Idolatrous Worship only in Country Towns and Villages, which being more ignorant, and less apt to be enlighten'd, continued longest there.

Ibid. Chivalry; Horsemanship, Gentlemen serving on Horseba [...]k: Chevalerie, Fr. Knight­hood, and its cause, Prowess, of Cheval, Fr. a Horse.

V. 766. To Mortal Combat; To deadly fight: Combat, Fr. for Fight, of Combatre, to Fight, of Con and Batuere, Lat. to beat.

Ibid. Or Carreer with Lance; Or running a Tilt, a famous Exercise formerly, in which Persons armed from Head to Foot, and bravely mounted, run full speed at one another; and by breaking their Lances, and continuing firmly seated in their Saddles, shewed their Horse­manship, Strength and Dexterity: This sort of Encounter is by our Author distinguish'd from the Mortal Fray, as being but Ludicrous, and often used with great Pomp and Splendour at Feasts and Marriages. Carriere, Fr. running full speed on Horseback. Lance, of Lancea, a Javeline, a Spear, ab aequâ Lance, because poised before thrown, or of [...], Gr. for the same.

V. 767. Thick swarm'd; Flew about in swarms like Bees, to which he compares them in the following Verses. To swarm, comes of the Teutonick Shwarmen, to fly in great Num­bers.

V. 768. Brush'd with the hiss; Sounding with the Noise made by their whistling Wings: Hiss is a word made of the Similitue of the Sound of which it is expressive, of the Tut. Zischen, of [...], to make such a Noise, as red hot Iron does when quench'd in Water: So the Wind is said [...], to whistle.

Ibid. Russling Wings; Making a Noise, sounding, of the Belg. Ruysselen, to make a hollow Sound, a coined word.

V. 769. When the Sun with Taurus Rides; When the Sun is in the Coelestial Sign named the Bull, for which Taurus is Lat. placed by Jupiter among the Signs of the Zodiack, in Memory of that Bull that transported his Mistriss Europa from Phoenicia to Crete.

[Page 50]
Candidus auratis aperit cum Cornibus annum
Taurus. Georg. Lib. 1. in April.

V. 770. Pour forth their Populous Youth; Send forth their Young Ones in vast Multitudes: Populosus, Lat. abounding full of People. So Virg.

Ut, cum prima novi ducent examina Reges
Vere suo, Ludetque favis, emissa juventus. Georg. Lib. 4.

V. 771. About the Hive in Clusters; An exact Imitation of Homer, describing the Crowds that followed Agamemnon after his Haranguing the Grecians.

[...]
[...],
[...]
[...],
[...].

[...], is exactly expressive of in Clusters, of [...], Racemus, a Bunch of Grapes.

V. 773. The Suburb of, &c. The Out-part of this little City, thatcht with Straw: Suburbia, Lat. for Streets and Houses lying without the Walls of a City. Citadelle, Fr. is properly a small City, also a strong Fort built within a City, either to defend or curb it.

V. 774. New rubb'd with Baum; Balm, or as the Fr. Baulme, is an Herb of a pleasing and grateful smell: Its Name is Greek, of [...], and by contraction Balm, of Bees being de­lighted by all Odoriferous Herbs, and perfumed Flowers. Virgil, as well as Experience, tells us,

Haec circum casiae viridos, & olentia latè
Serpylla, & graviter Spirantis copia Thymbrae,
Floreat—

Ibid. Expatiate; Flee to and fro, wander about, of expatiari, Lat. to go abroad.

V. 775. And confer their State-Affairs; Consider and advise of things concerning their Go­vernment, according to the Opinion of Virgil and others, that Bees have one, and that Mo­narchical.

Solae Communes Natos, consortia tecta,
Urbis habent, magnisque agitant sub legibus aevum
Et Patriam solae, & certos novere Nepotes. Georg. 4.
—Regem non sic AEgyptus & ingens
Lydia, nec populi Parthorum, aut Medus Hydaspes
Observant, Rege incolumi mens omnibus una est,
Amisso, rupere fidem. Ibid.—

Confer, of Confero, Lat. to consult, to consider of in common.

Ibid. The Airy Crowd; The Light Spiritual Throng of Angels, of AErius, Lat. of Air.

V. 776. Swarm'd and were straitn'd; Increased, and were confined in narrow room: Strait, of Estroit, Fr. of strictus, Lat. contracted, crowded together.

V. 778. In bigness to surpass, &c. They who so lately seem'd in size t'exceed the Giant Off­spring of the Angry Earth, sent to attempt on Heaven. Surpass, Fr. Surpasser, to go beyond, to out-do. Brood, of the Belg. Broeden, to hatch.

Giant; One of extraordinary bigness, both for Bulk and Stature. Lat. Gigas; Geant, Fr. [...], as if [...], Gr. Earth-born. So Virg.

—Partu terra nefando
Coeum (que) Japetumque creat, saevumque Typhoëa
Et Conjurat [...]s Coelum rescindere Fratres. Georg. Lib. 1.

And

Hic genus antiquum Terrae, Titania Pubes
Fulmine dejecti. AEn. 6.

These Giants were by the Poets made the Sons of Titan and the Earth, who made War on Jove, to revenge the Injury done their Father, (Elder Brother to Saturn) by depriving him, and consequently them his Descendants, of his Kingdom.

[Page 51] V. 780. Like that Pigmean Race; The Pigmies are said to inhabit about the East of India, near the rising of the Ganges, where the Cranes lay their Eggs: They had their Name of [...], Gr. a Fist, as being about a Hand high. Juven. measures'em by the Foot:

Ubi tota cohors pede non est altior uno. Sat. 13.
Ad subitas Thracum volucres, nubemque sonoram,
Pigmaeus parvis currit Bellator in armis,
Mox impar hosti, raptusque per aëra, curvis
Unguibus à saevâ fertur grue.

Pygmaeos quoque, haud longè ab his nasci; quorum qui longissimi sint, non longiores esse, quam pe­des du [...] & quadrantem, Aul. Gell. Lib. 11. Cap. 4. the tallest not exceed 2¼ Feet in height. Race; The Breed, Off-spring, from Radix, Lat. a Root.

V. 781. Beyond the Indian Mount; The Mountain Imaus, the Northern Boundary of India. Ibid. Or Faery Elves; Or Dancing Sprights, agreeable to the Old Wives Fables: Fairies seem derivable from [...], the Ionic word for Fauns, Satyrs, and such like Wild Creatures, as are Fabled to frequent the Woods.

Elf; A Goblin, a Nimble Spright, from [...], to change, according to the Erroneous Opi­nion, that these Fairy Elves do sometimes exchange their Brats for others more Beautiful.

V. 782. Whose Midnight Revels; Whom sporting and dancing at Midnight, near some Wood, or Waters-side, a Swain going late home, sees, or imagines that he sees. To Revel, is pro­perly to Dance or make Merry late, or all Night, from the Fr. Resveiller, to Watch, to be up late.

V. 783. Belated Peasant; Some Country Swain out late at Night: Paisant, Fr. a Country-Man, a Clown.

V. 784. Or dreams he sees. So Virg. Aut videt aut vidisse putat per nubila Lunam. AEn. 6.’

V. 785. Sits Arbitress; Governess of the Night, looking on like a Judge and Beholder of their Pastimes. Lucian, in his Book De Deâ Syriâ, calls the Moon Noctis Arbitram. Arbiter is properly an Umpire, a Private Judge, chosen by Common Consent to determine between Par­ties, but most properly it signifies a Looker on, and is so used by Horace, Non locus effusi late maris arbiter; a Place that has a free and open Prospect to the Sea-ward. Epist. Lib. Cap. 11.

Ibid. And nearer to the Earth; Beginning to decline and go down, nearer to her setting, or nearer to the Earth, in regard of the Sun and Stars, that fetch wider compass round it.

V. 786. Wheeles her pale course; Makes her wan way, drives her pale Chariot nearer to the Earth. Pallidus, Lat. faint, whitish, course: Cursus, Lat. Race, Journey, Way.

V. 787. Intent, with Jocund Musick charm, &c. They wholly busie in their Sports and Dance, with pleasing. Tunes delight his charmed Ear. Intent, earnest, set upon a thing, of intensus, Lat. Jocund, of Jucundus, Lat. sweet, pleasant: To charm, is to gain upon, and as it were bewitch or inchant ones Ears, so as to deprive him of the power to depart, of Carmen, Lat. for a Charm. Carmina vel Coelo possunt deducere Lunam. Virg. Ecl. 8.’

Musick; [...], the Art of Harmony, whether Instrumental or Vocal; A Musis Inventoribus.

V. 788. At once with Joy and Fear, &c. At the same time both pleased and scared, delight­ed and affrighted, his Heart within him leaps, he feels at once the unequal Motions and Im­pressions that Fear and Joy make in his beating Breast. Rebound, of Rebondir, Fr. to leap back again; a Metaphorical Expression, from the rebounding of a Ball.

V. 789. Thus Incorporeal Spirits; Thus Angels, or Spirits not cloathed and clogg'd with gross Earthly Bodies, for Incorporeal is Declarative of their Nature. Incorporeus, Lat. without a Body.

V. 790. Reduc'd their Shapes immense; Lessen'd and contracted their vast Shapes to smallest size: Reducere, Lat. to restrain: Immensus, Lat. vast, huge.

Ibid. And were at large; And were at ease, not crowded, because contracted into less room; so to go at large, is to be at liberty, to be free, otherwise to be at large, when they had les­sen'd themselves, would be a plain Contradiction.

V. 792. Of that Infernal Court; Of Hell, Lucifer's new Court: Infernalis, Lat. belonging to the nethermost deepest Hell, [...].

V. 793. In their own Dimensions; Not lessen'd in Shape or Size, but in their own Majestick make: Dimensio, Lat. Measure, Proportion.

V. 794. Seraphick; Is the singular of Seraphim, and Cherubim the plural of Cherub, the Ru­sing Lords, of both which before.

V. 795. In close recess; In strictest privacy: Recessus, Lat. Retirement, a place to be in pri­vate.

[Page 52] Ibid. And secret Conclave; Is a private place into which no Person can come without a Key, a place appointed and set apart for secret Counsels, of Con and Claudo, to be shut up together: Hence the place where the Election of the Pope is made at Rome, is called the Conclave.

V. 796. A thousand Demi-Gods; A great Assembly of consulting Seraphims, called Demi-Gods, as being Spirits approaching nearest to Divinity, though infinitely short of it. Demi of Dimi­dium, Lat. half the word answers to the [...] of the Heathen, Illustrious Persons, Aiders of Mankind, and Maintainers of Virtue; Heroes who deliver'd their Country from Oppression and Tyranny, therefore reputed the Off-spring of the Gods, and at their Deaths mounted among them.

[...]
[...]. Hesiod. [...] ▪ So [...].

Ibid. A Thousand; A great many, a certain Number, for one incertain, so mille trahens va­rios adverso sole colores, Virg. of the Rainbow, casting a Thousand Colours, the many-coloured Bow.

V. 797. Frequent and full; Compleat and full, a Pleonasm, Frequens, Lat. for full, Sylva frequens trabibus.

V. 798. Consult; The Consultation, of Consulo, Lat. to take advice, to consider of Affairs together.

NOTES On MILTON's PARADISE Lost.
BOOK II.

Vers. 1. OF Royal State; Of Kingly Port and Condition: Royal, Fr. belonging to a King, of Roy, Fr. from Rex, Lat. a King: State, of Status, Lat. Con­dition, Quality, Dignity, Secundum Statum, according to the Quality of of the Person.

V. 2. Outshone; More Glorious and Shining: Of Outshine, to shine beyond, Out signify­ing Beyond: As Outdo, to do more, or beyond the power of another.

Ibid. Ormus; Ormusium, once a Rich and Potent City in an Island on the Coast of Persia, seated at the Mouth of the Persian Gulph. about 12 Miles from the Continent, called Ormuzia, famous for the Traffick of India, Persia, and Arabia, for which its Situation made it most con­venient: The Arabians used to say of it,

Ibid.
Si Terrarum Orbis quâquâ patet annulus esset,
Illius Ormusium Gemma decus (que) foret.

Ind; India, named of its vast River Indus, bounding it on the West, rich in Mines of Gold and Silver, with precious Stones and Ge [...], and Spices of all sorts.

V. 3. Or where the Gorgeous East; Or where the Glorious Nations of the East: Gorgeous, of the Fr. Glorieux, Splendid, Gawdy.

V. 4. Barbarick Pearl and Gold; Pearl and Gold found among the soft Asiaticks, esteemed and called Barbarous by the Grecians: Barbaricus, Lat. Foreign, found among uncivilized People. Thus Lucretius terms Exotick Cloaths of a Foreign Fashion: Iam tibi Barbaricae vestes Melibaeaque fulgens. Lib. 2.’

So Virgil. Barbarico postes Auro, spoliisque superbi. AEn. 2.’

And Lucan. Pharsa. Lib. 1.

Barbaricas saevi discurrere Caesaris alas;
Forces raised among Barbarous Nations.

V. To that bad Eminence; Raised to that sad Supremacy, to that wicked Height: Eminen­tia, Lat. Excellency, a Station and Degree of Honour more than ordinary, Son Eminence.

Satan, by much bad Merit raised on high, fat on a Glorious Throne in Kingly State, out­doing far the Pride of wealthy Ormus, and rich India; or where the gawdy Eastern Nations pour with profuse hand whole showers of Pearl and Gold upon their barbarous Kings.

Ibid. And from Despair, thus high uplifted beyond Hope; And from the desperate Estate in which so late he was, when he lay groveling on the burning Lake: Raised up thus high beyond his Hope, Aspires beyond thus high, aims at some things above this height: Desperatio, Lat. Despair.

V. 8. Insatiate to pursue; Unsatisfied with the pursuit of, unsatisfied in prosecuting War against the Almighty, thô in vain to pursue successless War with Heaven, much overmatch'd: Insatiatus, Lat. unsatisfied: Pursuit, Fr. Poursuivre, to follow after, to push on: Vain, Va­nus, Lat. foolish, indiscreet, and thence unsuccessful.

[Page 54] V. 10. Imaginations thus display'd; Did thus his lofty Thoughts unfold: Display, of Disployer, Fr. from Displicare, Lat. to unfold, to unwrap; our Imaginations, till express'd by Words lying close wrapt, and, as it were, folded up in our Minds, which our Expressions unfold, and lay open to others Ears and Understandings: Imaginatio, Lat. the Conceptions of the Mind, our Thoughts.

V. 11. Powers and Dominions, &c. Ye Rulers, Princes, and Heavenly Gods, well express'd by Satan in the beginning of his Speech, by Power and Dominion in the Abstract, flattering his Damned Slaves with Absolute Power, and Sovereign Command, styling them The Deities of Heaven, at the same time they were, outcast and exil'd thence, Captives of Hell. St. Paul uses the same Expression, Coloss. 1. 16. Thrones or Dominions, Principalities or Powers. Domi­nium, Lat. Rule: Dei [...]as, Lat. Godhead, Deity.

V. 12. For since no Deep, &c. For since no Deep, no not this bottomless Pit of Hell, is able in its flaming Dungeon to Imprison the everlasting Strength of Deathless Angels, thô overlaid and foyl'd: Oppressus, Lat. Overlaid, Overcharg'd.

V. 15. From this descent Celestial Virtues; From this low Station our Heavenly Powers reco­vering and arising, will much more daring and more dreadful shew, than if not fallen at all, and need to fear no second foyl: Descent, Descensus, Lat. Descensus Averni, going down into Hell, Virg. Fatum, Lat. Calamity, Overthrow.

V. 18. The fixt Laws of Heaven; Satan here ascribes his former high Station in Heaven not to his Maker but to Fate and uncontrolable Necessity, the fixt unalterable Laws of Heaven, according to the Opinion of the Stoicks, well express'd by Lucan:

Sive Parens rerum—
Fixit in aeternum causas, quâ cuncta coercet
Se quoque lege tenens, & secula jussa ferentem,
Fatorum immoto divisit limite Mundum. Phar. 2.

V. 21. Hath been atchiev'd of Merit; Thô Fate made the at first your Leader, next your own free Choice, moved to it by what I have merited, either by Conduct, or my Courage, yet no­thing more secures me in this safe unenvied Throne, allowed me thus by general Consent, than this our overthrow, recovered in some measure: Achiev'd, or Atchiev'd, of Achever▪ F [...] to bring to pass, to finish, to compleat.

V. 23. Establish'd; Fixed, assured: Of Establir, Fr. to confirm: Consent, Consensus, Lat. Agreement.

V. 25. In Heaven, which follows Dignity; The Glorious Train that does in Heaven's happy Palaces attend on Ruling Angels, well might move Envy from those below: Dignitas, Lat. Worth, and thence (as the reason of it) Authority.

V. 26. From each Inferior; From every Underling, from those under Command: Infe­rior, Lat. Lower.

V. 27. Exposes; Lays open: Of Exponere, Lat. to hazard, to adventure.

V. 28. The Thunders Aim; An Epithete Homer o [...]n gives his Jupiter: [...], and [...], thundering from on high: [...], Altitonans.

V. 29. Your Bulwark; Your Guard, your Security, that interposeth between you and Dan­ger, a Bulwark being a Defence made to strengthen a Town 'gainst an Attack, where the Defendants stand unexposed to the Enemies Shot, who assault it bare-faced: Of Boll, Ger. for Round, Spherical; and Werk, a Work, denominated of its Circular Shape.

Ibid. Condemns; Of Condamnare, Lat. to condemn, to overthrow in Judgment. The highest Place, Satan's Pre-eminence gives Sentence, as it were, against him, that he ought foremost to expose himself to the most eminent Dangers, in regard of his high Station and Com­mand.

V. 32. From Faction; From Plotting, and contriving Parties: Factio, Lat. for the same, is a siding of great Men generally, rather than good, combining for their own Interest together against a Prince or Government.

Ibid. Will Claim; Will lay Claim to, will strive for: Of Claim, Fr. for a publick Demand of something belonging to a Person kept out of Possession of it: Of the Lat. Clamare, Cla­mando sibi vindicare; thence the barbarous Law word, Clameum.

V. 33. Precedence; Place, a going before, Authority: None sure will claim Precedence, will strive for Place in Hell, where the highest Seat may be the hottest: Praecedentia, Lat. of Prae­cedere to go before.

V. 34. That with ambitious Mind; Satan here slily sets forth to view all his Dangers and Undertakings, his Courage, and his Consultations, but hides and keeps close his proud Ambi­tion, and desire of Rule, Lording it over the fallen Angels for his sake exposed to Sin and Suf­fering, for his dire Ambition that made him Rebel against his Maker, Ambition so insatiate of Command, that in the first Book, Vers. 262. he says, To Reign is worth Ambition, thô in Hell; which here he cloaks with such a sly Infinuation, as if his High and Kingly Exaltation did only raise his Sufferings to a height, in proportion to his Power: Ambitiosus, Lat. desirous of Command.

[Page 55] V. 36. Firm Accord; Assured and unshaken Agreement: Of Accord, Fr. of Accorder, to agree, as if Accordare, of Ad and Corda, a Musical Metaphor, from the stretching and tuning of several Strings to the same Tone: Firmus, Lat. for settled, sure.

V. 39. Surer to prosper, &c. More certain to succeed, than even Success it self could have ascertained us: Prosperity, Lat. Prosperitas, which often makes Men heedless of their Advan­tages and Dangers.

V. 41. Or Covert Guile; Or secret Practices, cunning Wiles and Stratagems: Couvert, Fr. hid: Of Couvrir, Fr. to hide: Of the Lat. Cooperire, to conceal.

V. 42. We now debate; Argue, Consider, Dispute: Of Desbatre, Fr. to Fight; a Debate being a kind of Fight, and engaging of one Reason against another, till by frequent Refuta­tions the strongest prevail, and are Victorious.

V. 46. Th' Eternal; with God, who is Everlasting: AEternus, Lat. Eternal.

Ibid. To be deem'd equal in strength; His Hope was to be judg'd equal in Force and Power with God everlasting: Deem'd, Judged, of the Sax. Deman, to judge, and Dema, a Judge: Equal, AEqualis, Lat. for like in Power, Years, or Size, &c.

V. 47. And rather than be less, cared not, &c. These Words consummate the Character of Moloc, the boldest and the fiercest Spirit that fought in Heaven, daring to that degree, that rather than be any thing less than the Almighty, would choose, to cease to be at all, had rather be destroyed, annihilated, and reduced from Being, to his Primitive Original Nothing.

V. 48. Cared not to be; Despis'd his Being, his Nature, and Eternity, with that Care lost, with that contempt and disregard of Life, lost and vanish'd were all his Fears of what might happen to him.

V. 50. Or worse, he reck'd not; Of Hell, or worse, if ought might be so, he made no ac­count, stood not in aw of: He reck'd not, he reckon'd not, an abbreviation to reck, to reckon, to esteem or make account of.

Ibid. These Words thereafter, &c. And accordingly in these Words express'd his Mind, his Sentiments.

V. 52. Of Wiles more unexpert; With Tricks and Designs less acquainted: Inexpertus, Lat. unskilled in, unacquainted with.

V. 53. Contrive; Find out: Controuver, Fr. to invent.

V. 56. Sit lingering here; Stay waiting here, losing their Time and Patience: Linger, of the Ger. Langerew, to draw out in length, as if to longer.

V. 57. Heaven's Fugitives; the Runaways of Heaven, that have forsaken and fled from their Native Heaven: Fugitivus, Lat. one that runs away.

V. 58. Opprobrious Den of Shame; A Pleonasme, this dark disgraceful Den of Shame: Den is properly a lurking Place, where Wild Beasts in Woods and Forests hide themselves.

V. 59. The Prison of his Tyranny, &c. The Prison into which we are thrown by his Usurped Power, who Reigns thus much the longer, by the delay we make in attempting on him.

V. 63. Turning our Tortures, &c. Using our Torments in stead of Arms against our Tor­menter; explained by Arming our selves with Hellish Flames and Fury, V. 61. Tortura, Lat. for any sort of Pain or Punishment usually inflicted on Malefactors, to make them confess their Crimes and Wicked undertakings.

V. 65. Of his Almighty Engin; A description of the Thunder, God Almighty's powerful Engin.

V. 67. Black Fire and Horror; The gloomy, dark, and obscure Fire of Hell, from whose Flames no Light, but rather Darkness visible. Book 1. V. 62.

Ibid. And Horror shot with equal Rage; And trembling and dismay, with the same force and fury thrown amongst his Angels: Horror, Lat. for Quaking, either by reason of Fear, or Cold, the one being the consequence of the other: Rage, Fury, of the Lat. Rabies, Madness.

V. 69. Mixt with Tartarean Sulphur; And his pure Throne, stained and polluted with Hell Fire, and flaming Brimstone: Tartareus, Lat. Hellish; of [...], Gr. the deep Gulph of Hell, the bottomless Pit; of [...], to be disturbed, to be in confusion.

[...]
[...].

Bis nigra videre Tartara. Says Virg. AEn. 6.’

V. 71. And steep to scale, &c. And hard to rise upright upon the Wing against our Foes, who over-reach us from on high: Difficult, Lat. Difficilis, hard to be brought to pass: Steep, Upright, as Cliffs and Hills are, where we are forced to climb up step by step: To scale, is properly to mount up to, by a Ladder, of Scala, Lat. so signifying; hence Scalado, setting Ladders to a Town-Wall, and endeavouring by them to pass over, here, to mount upright upon the Wing to­wards Heaven's high Battlements.

V. 73. If the sleepy Drench, &c. If the dull Draught, we lately took of the Lethean Lake, does not still seize our Senses, and make us forget our natural Force and Faculties; Pythagoras, who was the first, or at least the most famous of the Philosophers, who maintained the [...], the returning of Souls after Death into other Bodies, to act other parts on the [Page 56] low Stage of this miserable Life, gave occasion to the Poets that followed his Opinion, to in­vent this Lethe, which was one of the Rivers of Hell, where Souls that were to be re-embo­died were first drench'd before their return to this World, that they might forget all that they knew or suffered before, of which it seems Pythagoras drank not so deep, since he remember'd his former Name and Quality.

—Trojani tempore Belli,
Panthoides Euphorbus eram—

To this Lethean Lake our Poet alludes; of which Virg.

—Animae quibus altera fato
Corpora debentur, Lethaei ad Fluminis undam,
Securos latices & longa oblivia potant. AEn. 6.

—Lethes tacitus praelabitur amnis
Infernis, ut fama, trahens oblivia, venis. Luc. lib. 9.

Drench, of the Sax. Drencan, to drink. Benumm not still, does not still stupifie, and dwell upon our Understandings: A Limb is said to be benum'd, when so seized on by the Cold as to be useless, and not to be moved; of the Sax. Niman, to take hold of, to seize on; as the Latins use Membris captus, and Physicians express the stupifying Distempers that affected the Brain, by [...], by the same Analogy.

V. 77. To us is adverse; Is contrary to our nature: Adversus, Lat. against, contrary; the Winged Angels, Spiritual and Light, do naturally ascend; descent and fall is force, and preter­natural to them.

V. 78. Hung on our broken Rear; Followed our routed Army in the Rear: Of the Fr. Ar­riere, behind.

V. 79. Insulting; Leaping on us: Of Insulto, Lat. to leap upon, of in and salto, to jump, from the usage of the Word; for triumphing and bragging over one is meerly Metaphorical, from Insultare, to trample on, to tread under Foor, and thence to Scorn and Contemn: Through the Deep, through the vast Interval, the space between Heaven and Hell.

V. 80. With what compulsion; With what constraint and force, what painful flight, how diffi­cult and hard it was for us to descend, to take our flight against our Airy Nature downwards: Compulsio, Lat. constraint: Laboriosus, Lat. difficult, full of labour.

V. 81. The Ascent is easie; To spring upwards on the Wing, is usual and easie to us: Ascen­sus, Lat. the act of flying or getting up. Virgil does as truly observe:

—Facilis descensus Averni
Sed revocare gradus, superas (que) evadere ad auras
Hic labor, hoc Opus est.—AEn. 6.

Concerning his Hero's going to visit his Father among the Shades below, Bodies compounded and elemented of Earth do naturally descend; but to Spirits, those Divine, Airy, Agile Beings, as our Poet well observes, Ascent is easie, and all Motion downwards seems forc'd and con­trary.

V. 87. In this abhorred Deep; In this most hateful Dungeon, in this deterstable loathsome Deep: Of Abhorreo, Lat. to hate.

V. 88. Of unextinguishable Fire; Everlasting Fire, that shall not be quenched: Inextingui­bilis, Lat. unquenchable; as described in Isa. 66. and the last Verse; and Mark 9. 43, 44, 45, 46, &c.

V. 89. Must exercise us; Must vex and toil us everlastingly, must be our constant business to be broil'd in everlasting Flames: Exerceo, Lat. to vex and trouble, as well as to employ and busie.

V. 90. The Vassals of his Anger; The Subjects of his Wrath, the Bond-slaves of his ever­lasting Fury: Vassal does properly signifie a Tenant, who, by the holding of his Lands, was bound to attend his Lord in Person to the Wars; thence by the Learned Spelman deduced from the Ger. Gesell, a Companion in Fight and Danger; but at last it was depraved to signifie a Slave or Bond-man.

Ibid. The Scourge; The Lash, the Whip; of the Fr. Escourgée, a Thong, a Lash: As the Ital. Scoreggiare, to Scourge, all from the Lat. Corium, a Hide, out of which Thongs and Lashes were usually made.

V. 91. Inexorably; Without Remission, not to be begged off: Of Inexorabilis, Lat. that can­not or will not forgive, unpardonably.

V. 92. Calls us to Pennance; To Punishment: Of Pennance, a contraction of the Lat. Paeni­tentia, Repentance, being a Punishment inflicted on our selves by hearty Sorrow and Grief for our Offences, that God may be pleased, through the Merits and Mediation of Jesus Christ, to remit that Eternal One due to our manifold Transgressions. Our Poet here supposes the [Page 57] Sufferings of the Damned Spirits not to be always alike intense, but that they had some Intermissions, during which they might consider of their sad condition, and with more deco­rum contrive, and try all ways how to alleviate their everlasting Loss of Heaven and Happi­ness.

V. 93. Quite abolish'd, and expire; Utterly destroyed, and cease to be: Abolitus, Lat. utterly ruined, quite destroyed. Expirare, Lat. to dye, to breath ones last; not to be said of the Angels everlasting, à parte p [...]st, Quite altogether, of the Fr. Quitte, free, as Debtors are when they have paid what they owe, and are free from all their Obligations; of the Lat. Quietus, at ease, as being discharged.

V. 94. What doubt we to incense; Why should we be afraid of encreasing his Anger to ex­tremity: Incendere, Lat. to inflame, to set on fire.

V. 95. Which to the heighth enraged; Which forced into its fiercest Flame, which to its most outrageous heighth provok'd: Enrag'd, encreas'd, even unto Madness, of Enragé, Fr. Mad, Fu­rious.

V. 96. His fiercest Wrath; Which raised to utmost Fury, will either quite destroy us, and bring back to our first Nothing this our sprightly Being; a State more happy than to be ever wretched: Consume, of Consumere, Lat. to waste, to destroy: Reduce, of Reducere, Lat. to bring back to the former place or condition.

V. 97. This Essential; This our Being: Nothing and Essence are directly opposite, the one being a Privation of what the other is: Essentiale, Lat. any thing that is; of Essentia being, of Esse to be, happier far, &c. an Argument that has more of Subtilty than Solidity in it.

V. 98. 'Tis happier far not to be at all, than to be miserable; Of this Opinion, Virgil makes In­turna in AEn. 12. where she complains:

Quò vitam dedit AEternam? Cur mertis adempta est
Conditio? Possem tantos finire dolores
Nunc certe, & misero Fratri comes ire sub umbras,
Jam mortalis ego.—

V. 99. Or if our Substance; Or if our Being Heavenly be, and therefore can never be de­stroyed; we ne'er can be in worse condition than now we are, on this side being nothing at all: Divine, of Divinus, Lat. Heavenly.

V. 102. Sufficient to disturb; Able to disorder and trouble Heaven: Disturbare, Lat. to toss upside down, to hinder an Undertaking.

V. 103. With perpetual Inrodes to allarm, &c. And with continual Attempts to shake, thô we can never reach his Throne, so fixed, and by the Fates established: Inrode, an Invasion into an Enemies Country; of in and ride, to ride into, to Allarm, is to steal upon our Enemies by sur­prize, which causes them on the sudden to sound to Arms, to repel the unforescen onset: Of the Fr. Allarme, the depravation of Ad Arma.

V. 104. Inaccessible; That cannot be come at: Of Inaccessus, Lat. unapproachable: Fatal, immoveable, Fatalis, Lat. according to the unalterable Decree of the Fates.

V. 106. His Look denounc'd; His Looks proclaimed, and threaten'd desperate Revenge: Of the Lat. Denunciare, to threaten, to bespeak.

V. 109. In Act more graceful and humane; In Behaviour more comely and gentile: Actus, Lat. for gesture in Speech or Gate: Humanus, Lat. belonging to Mankind, and thence Gentle and Debonaire.

V. 111. For Dignity compos'd, and high Exploit; Made to Command, and undertake great Deeds: Compositus, Lat. fitted, framed: Exploit, Fr. an Attempt, a Noble Design or Under­taking.

V. 112. But all was false and hollow; Deceitful and empty: Hollow, as having no true Sub­stance and Solidity, a Metaphor taken from Vessels that sound most, when empty.

V. 113. Dropt Munna; Dropt Sweetness, overflowed with Eloquence, as Manna is described, Exod. 16. 31. and Wisdom 16. 20. [...] comes of [...], to number, because overy one was ap­pointed to gather an Omer thereof according to the number of the Persons in their Families, thô the Talmud will have it [...], Quid hoc! by way of Admiration.

V. 114. To perplex and dash; To confound and disorder the wisest Councels; of the Sax Dwaef, a Fool, one astonished, frighted out of all Thought and Consideration: Maturest, pro­perly Ripest, of Maturus, Lat. Ripe; Maturest Counsels, the best chosen Advice brought nearest to perfection.

V. 116. In Vice, industrious, &c. In ill, laborious, in more gallant Deeds, fearful, and back­ward: Industrius, Lat. diligent, forward: Nobler, of Nobilis, Nobilior, Lat. more noble, more excellent: Timorous, of Timidus, Lat. fearful.

V. 118. And with perswasive Accent; And in his winning way did thus begin: Perswasive, of Persuasio, Lat. for perswading, gaining on our Hearers by Arguments finely urged, eloquent and graceful Discourse: Accent, Lat. Accentus, the graceful Tone used in pronouncing Speeches, affecting the Auditory with the Harmonious turn of the Tongue.

[Page 58] V. 121. Main Reason to perswade; Chief Argument to move us to immediate War: Main, of the Fr. Magne, as that of Magnus, Lat. great, main Reason, chiefest, the greatest Reason: Immediate War, without any intermission, incessant, uninterrupted; of Immediatus, Lat. without any stop, or delay.

V. 122. Did not disswade me most; Were not the greatest Argument to me against it: Of Dissuader [...], Lat. to advise to the contrary, to advise against.

V. 123. Seem to cast, ominous Conjecture, &c. And seem to raise an ill Opinion of our Un­dertaking: Ominosus, Lat. unlucky, for Omen is used in both senses, and here in the worst; Quod dii prius omen in ipsum, Convertant. AEn. 2. Conjectura, a Guess, an Opinion.

V. 124. In Fact of Arms; In Deeds of War: Of Facta, Lat. valiant, noble Deeds.

V. 127. And utter Dissolution; And intire Destruction of his Being, utter Abolition: Of Dis­solutio, Lat. from dis and solvo, the breaking the Ligaments and very Bonds of Being.

V. 128. As the scope of all his Aim; As the utmost end of his Intention, as the chief Design and Mark at which he aims: Scopus, [...], the Mark at which Archers shoot, and thence the Intention and Design at which Men in their Undertakings aim.

V. 130. That render all Access impregnable; That make all Approaches to Heaven's high Towers, vain, and to no purpose: Render, of the Fr. Rendre, as that of Reddere, Lat. i. e. E [...]i­cere▪ to make: Access, Accessus, Lat. a coming to: Imprenable, Fr. not to be taken, or forced.

Ibid. Oft on the bordering Deep; Their Legions of Armed Angels oft encamp upon the gloomy Deep that borders on our flaming Dungeon.

V. 132. Encamp their Legions; Legions of Angels keep their watchful Camp, Neighbouring on the Deep, or Winging through the Dark, search far and wide through Regions of the Night, disdaining any sudden Onset or Attempt: Encamp, of in and campus, Lat. Field, Armies being then Encamped, when quitting their Quarters they take the Fields and lodge in 'em.

V. 133. Scout; To spy, to search diligently, as those who are sent out to discover the ap­proach or posture of the Enemy: Of the Fr. Fs [...]cute, a Spy, of Esco [...]ter, Fr. to hear, to listen, their Ears (in the Night especially) being on the Watch, as well as their Eyes at other times.

V. 134. Surprize; Of the Fr. Surprinse, a taking one at unawares, an unforeseen Assault given on a sudden.

V. 135, &c. By Force, and at, &c. Or suppose us able to force our way, and at our Heels all Hell, in maddest Mutiny armed with [...]ooty Fires, could rise and mix 'em with Heaven's Purity; yet would our mighty Adversary sit, unsullied on his Throne, and Heaven the Seat, of his transcendent Brightness, would endure no Stain, but quickly throw off and disdain the bl [...]ck Attempt superior, and soon clear it self from all our gross and baser Flames.

Insurrectio, Lat. arising against; of Insurgere, Lat. to confcund, to mix with, of Confundere, Lat. to mingle by poaring together: Incorruptible, Incorruptibilis, Lat. not to be corrupted, inca­pable of decay or alteration: Unpolluted, Impollutus, Lat. unstained.

V. 139. Etherial Mould; The Heavenly Substance: Mould properly signifies Earth, Dust.

V. 140. Incapable of Stain; Heaven's Azure, not to be stained or sullied: Incapax, Lat. not subject to: Expel, of Expellere, to drive out.

V. 142. T [...]us repulsed; Thus worsted, and foil'd: Repulsus, Lat. beaten back, defeated.

V. 143. Our final Hope is flat Despair; Our last, our utmost Hope is meer Despair: Final, last, highest, from Finalis, Lat. last: Flat, plat. Meer, plain, downright Despair.

Ibid. We must exasperate; We must provoke: Exasperare, Lat. to whet, to make more rough and severe.

V. 147. Th [...] Intellectual Being; This Spiritual Understanding, this Angelic Essence, whose Beings are more compleat, and of a compass of Understanding more vast and comprehensive than the Rational: Intellectualis, Lat. belonging to Knowledge.

V. 150. In the wide Womb, &c. In the empty Womb of dark Confusion; Uncreated Night is made the Image of Non-entity, for of Things uncreated, or that have no Being, we have but an obscure Negative Notion: I [...]creatus, Lat. unmade, not created.

V. 151. Devoid of Sense and Motion; Without all Sense and Motion: Senseless, dead, void and devoid, of the Fr. Vnide, emp [...] This is one of those bad, which Belial endeavours to make appear a good Reason, according to his Character, Ver. 113. for certainly 'tis much better not to be at all, than to be miserable to all Eternity, as our Saviour himself testifieth of Jud [...]; Woe to that Man by whom the Son of Man is betrayed: it had been good for that Man if he had never been born. Matth. 14. 21. And we see even Kings and mighty Potentates willingly give up, and desire to resign their Crowns, and all the Affluence and Power, the Pomp and Pride of Life, when press'd with extream and remediless Pain, thô but Corporeal, thô the naked and shivering Soul may (for ought they know) immediately be summoned and arraigned at Hea­ven's high Tribunal, and after a short interval, the lazy Grave may again give up its sad and sinful Associate, to be consigned over to Eternal Punishment.

V. 154. Is doubtful; Whether it be in his Power to do it, is uncertain, is more than we know; that is, Whether it be consistent with his immutable Decrees, to annihilate and destroy our Angelic Beings.

V. 156. Belike through Impotence, &c. As it were through Weakness, or by meer Mistake: Impotentia signifies properly want of Power, thence used to express Ras [...]ness and Disability to [Page 59] Govern our Passions; Will God, who is so Wise and so Omniscient, manage his Anger so un­warily, as in his wrathful Rage with one stroke to destroy and end his Enemies, whom his Anger spares, decreed and doom'd to suffer without end?

V. 160. We are Decreed, Reserv'd, and Destin'd; We are adjudged and doom'd, kept and ap­pointed for everlasting Pain: Decreed, of Decerno, Lat. to judge, to sentence: Reserv'd, Reser­vatus, Lat. kept, preserv'd: Destin'd, Destinatus, Lat. appointed, designed for. Here Belial makes and answers an Objection; If destin'd thus, and doom'd to everlasting Sufferance, why should we fear or scruple to provoke the Victor with immediate War? What have we worse to fear, or more to feel? Which thus he refutes; Thô our Punishment be endless, yet it is not so severe as when first we fled, and fell from Heaven into this burning Lake, nor as it may be, if by our daring we should awake his Anger, (somewhat abated and allayed) who can make our Tor­ments much more intense and everlasting too.

V. 165. When we fled amain; As fast as we were able, with might and main; of the Sax. Maegen, Strength, Power.

V. 168. A Refuge, &c. A shelter from those Sufferings: Refugium, Lat. a place of safety, to which Men fly in time of danger, of Refugio, to fly to.

V. 172. And plunge us in the Flames? And drowned us in that fiery Floud? Plonger, Fr. to put over Head and Ears into Water.

V. 173. Should intermitted Vengeance, &c. Or what if from Heaven our angry Victor, somewhat now appeased, should reassume his Thunder? Intermitted, Intermissus, Lat. broken off, respited.

V. 174. His red Right Hand; God Almighty's Power is in Holy Text expressed by his Right Hand, as Psal. 17. 7. and 44. 4. which is called Red, as being Armed with his flaming Thun­der: Read Deut. 33. 2. where a Fiery Law is said to be in his Right Hand.

V. 176. Should spout her Cataracts of Fire; And this flaming Roof of Hell should shower down her Spouts of Fire, [...], or [...]; Locus abruptus & praeceps in flumine, unde aqua rult potius quam fluit; as Eustathius describes it: Of [...], to flow, and rush away with violence and imp [...]tuosity as overflowing Rivers do. A Cataract, is a headlong fall of Water from a steep place, like those of Nile, deafning the Neighbourhood; and these Ca­taracts of Fire do well enough agree with Hell's Firmament vaul [...]ed with fluid Flames.

V. 177. Impendent Horrors; Dreadfully hanging over us: Impendent, of Impendere, Lat. to hang over, so as to seem instantly ready to fall on ones Head: Horror, Lat. shivering, quaking for Cold; and thence any extraordinary Dread or Fright, that scares into a Trembling.

V. 179. Designing or Exhorting; Contriving or perswading, &c. Designo, Lat. to mark out: Exhortor, Lat. to perswade.

V. 180, and 181. Caught in a fiery Tempest, &c. each on his Rock transfix'd; Snatch'd in a flaming storm up, shall be dash'd, each on a pointed Rock struck through; borrowed of Virgil, in his description of the Fate of Ajax Oilëus:

Illum expirantem transfixo pectore flammas
Turbine corripuit, scopuloque infixit Acuto. AEn. 1.

Homer has not expressed it half so terribly. [...].

Ibid. The Sport and Prey; Vacuis ludibria ventis: Prey, of Praeda, Lat. for Spoyl and Plunder.

V. 182. Of racking Whirlwinds; Of tormenting Tempests, according to the Hurricane of Hell, set out by our Poet in the beginning of the first Book; O'rewhelm'd with Floods and Whirl­winds of tempestuous Fire, Ver. 64.

V. 184. To converse with, &c. To entertain our selves with dismal Groans to all Eternity: Conversari, Lat, to be familiar, to be acquainted with.

V. 185. Unrespited, Unpitied, Unreprieved; Without Delay or Pity, or Reprieve: Unrespi­ted, without the least Respit, a Law Term, of the Fr. Respit, a Delay, time, or a Term given, of Respectus, Lat. for looking back, and considering before things are brought to a final deter­mination, so Sentence or Judgment is said to be respited: Unrespited, without any intermis­ssion: Unpitied, of Pitié, Fr. for Mercy and Compassion: Unrepriev'd, to reprieve: Reprendre, Fr. is to bring back from the place of Execution, and to suspend the Punishment for some time.

V. 187. Open or concealed; Publick or private, declared or secret: Concelare, Lat. to hide, to keep close.

V. 191. Derides; Laughs at: Of Deridere, Lat. to scorn, to expose and laugh at.

V. 192. To resist our Might; To withstand our Power: Resistere, to withstand, to stand against.

V. 193. To Frustrate; To make vain, to disappoint: Frustare, Lat. to deceive.

V. 194. Thus vile; Thus base, mean, and contemptible: Of Vilis, Lat. of no worth or account.

V. 195. Thus expell'd; Thus driven out, Outcasts and Exiles of Heaven: Of Expellere, Lat. to drive out.

[Page 60] V. 197. Since Fate inevitable; Since unavoidable necessity o'repowers us: Inevitabilis, Lat. that is not to be avoided: Subdues, of Subdere, Lat. to overcome, to subdue.

V. 198. Omnipotent Decree; And the All-powerful Sentence of him who has subdued us: Decretum, Lat. an Ordinance, a Sentence, Fatorum Decreta, were accounted unalterable.

V. 200. Nor the Law unjust that so Ordains; Nor is the Law, that orders our Sufferings to bear proportion with our Sins, unequal or unrighteous: Ordinar [...], to dispose, to order, to ap­point.

V. 206. To endure Exile; To undergo Banishment: Endurer, Fr. to suffer, of in and durare: [...]xilium, Lat. Banishment.

V. 210. May much remit; Asswage, diminish, and abate his Anger: Remittere, Lat. to abate.

V. 214. Will slacken; These raging Fires will be less fierce, will abate their Heat: Slack, of the Lat. Laxus, loose, remiss.

V. 215. Our purer Essence, &c. Our more Spiritual Beings will o'recome their noisom Fumes: Noxius, Lat. hurtful: Vapor, a hot Breath, or fiery Exhalation.

V. 216. Or enured, not feel; Or used and accustomed to 'em, of in and ure, a contraction of Usura, Lat.

V. 217. And to the place conform'd; Or at length altered, and to our sad Seat becoming sui­table: Conformis, Lat. like to.

V. 219. Familiar the fierce Heat; Will entertain with less disorder the scorching Flames, familiar and customary grown: Familiaris, Lat. wonted, what one is acquainted with, and accustomed to.

V. 222. Of future Days; Besides what hope Futurity may help us to: Futurus, Lat. for what is to come.

Ibid. What Chance, what Change; Here our Haranguer does not consider, that neither Chance or Change take Place on God Almighty, and his Wife and Unalterable Determina­tions: Chance, as if Cheance, of Cheoir, Fr. to fall, Chance being to poor Purblind Mortals what seems to befall 'em, who see not from whose Hand their Mischiefs come, or that their own oft pull 'em down deservedly upon their Heads.

V. 225. If we procure not; If we encrease not our Unhappiness, if we provide not for our selves more Woe: Procurare, Lat. to busie ones self in anothers Matters, also to encrease, aug­ment.

V. 226. With Words cloath'd in Reason's Garb; Thus Belial cloathing his Discourse with Reason's comely Dress, arraying his Oration with fine Expressions full of seeming Sence and Reason: Garb, of Garbe, an old Fr. Word for a gentile comely Dress; Words are the Garb Men dress their Thoughts in.

V. 227. Counsell'd ignoble Ease; Advised dishonourable Ease: Ignobilis, Lat. base, dishonest; Ignobile otium.

V. 229. Either to Disinthrone; Either to Dispossess the King of Heaven, and to Displace him from his Throne: [...], Gr. to place on a Throne, whose contrary is to Disin­throne.

V. 230. Or to regain; Or to recover; of the Fr. Regaigner, to obtain, or get again.

V. 231. Him to Unthrone; Him to bereave of his Power, to dispossess of his Soveraignty; Unthrone, Dethrone, Disinthrone, Words of the same import.

V. 233. To fickle Chance; When the fixt and Eternal Laws of the Creation shall to giddy and uncertain Chance give way, and Confusion decide the Quarrel and Contest.

V. 234. Argues as vain; Proves the other as vain and hopeless for us to recover our lost and forfeited Inheritance of Heaven: Arguere, Lat. to make appear, evident.

V. 237. Suppose he should Relent; Suppose he should incline to Mercy, grow soft and easie, and proclaim to all free Pardon, on condition of Return to our Obedience; Relent, Fr. Ra­lentir, Lat. Relentescere, to wax soft: Publicare, Lat. to Publish: Grace, Gratia Lat. Pardon, Favour.

V. 239. Of new Subjection; Of new Obedience: Subjectio, Lat.

Ibid. With what Eyes; How ashamed and confounded should we? Shame shewing it self in the Eyes, the Windows of the Soul.

V. 241. Strict Laws impos'd; Severe Laws laid upon us: Strictus, Lat. hard, severe, compul­sive, of Stringo to bind: Impos'd, Impositus, Lat. of Imponere, to lay upon.

Ibid. To celebrate his Throne with Warbled Hymns; In solemn manner to surround his Throne with Tuneful Songs, and to his Godhead sing Thanksgivings forc'd and feign'd: Celebrare, Lat. to worship, to frequent and haunt.

V. 242. With Warbled Hymns; With Chanted Songs: Warble, of the Belg. Wervelen, is properly to turn round, thence in Musick used for that turn of the Voice used in shaking a Note: Hymns, [...], Gr. a Song made in Praise of the Deity, many of which were made by Homer, Orpheus, Callimachus, &c. called [...]: And by the same Name Phi [...]o calls the Psalms of David.

V. 242. Forc'd Hallelujahs; Strained Praises, and Thanksgivings forced and constrained: [...] Praise the Lord, of [...] the Imperative Mood Pihel, and [...] the Lord, frequently used in the Psalms, as 106. 1. and 113. 1. and Revel. 19. [...]. 1, 3, 4, &c.

[Page 61] V. 245. Ambrosial Odours, &c. While from his Altar does ascend the sweetest Scents, breath'd from Immortal Flowers our Slavish Sacrifice: [...], Immortal, Divine, of [...] Pri­vative, and [...] Mortal. Hence Homer, [...]. Sometimes it signifies Sweet, Pleasing, [...], per placidam noctem; [...]. Liquidum Ambrosiae diffudit Odorem; Geor. 4. And Ambrosiaeque Comae divinum vertice Odorem, Spiravere; AEn. 1. Nectar was the Drink, and Ambrosia the Meat of the Gods, administred to 'em by Ganimedes, and Hebe the Goddess of Youth, thô promiscuously used. Neptune's Horses had a mash of it, [...]. And Thetis used it for a Pre­servative to Patroclus, [...] It was sometimes taken for the name of a Flower, whence [...] signifies Floridus, as Eustath.

V. 246. Our Servile Offering; Servilis, Lat. belonging to a Slave, or Bondman.

V. 249.—Let us not then pursue, &c. Let us not then pursue the mean condition of shining Slavery, by Power unattainable, and if by Prayer, unwelcome, thô in Heaven unacceptable; of in and acceptus, Lat. welcome, pleasant.

V. 252. Of splendid Vassalage; Of gay, pompous Slavery: Vassalage, is properly the Service and Subjection a Tenant owes his Lord, of whom he holds his Land.

V. 254. Live to our selves; Tecum habita & noris quam sit tibi curta supellex. Pers.

V. 256. Preferring hard Liberty; Esteeming Freedom, thô with Hardship gain'd, beyond the Yoke of pompous Servitude, that seems so easie to mean Minds: Pompa, Lat. for shew, such as of Triumphs and Processions.

V. 258. Then most conspicuous; Our Grandeur then will be most manifest: Conspicuus, Lat. evident. notable, admirable.

V. 262. Through Labour and Indurance; To work Ease out of Pain seems a hard Task, but our Author's meaning is, To overcome their Punishment by Patience, and by Sufferance to sub­due the Extremity of it to that degree, as by Custom and Habitude to allay its Rigour: Indurance, of Indurare, to bear, to harden ones self against; as Virg. Durate & vosmet rebus rebus servate secundis. AEn. 1.’

V. 264. Heaven's all-ruling Sire; The Great Governor and Supreme Lord of Heaven: Sire, Fr. Lord, in a sense so Superlative, that without any addition it is used as the most Honourable Appellative in Speaking and Addressing to the French King, All-Ruling: Tum Pater omnipotens rerum cui summa potest [...]s. AEn. 10.’

V. 265. Choose to reside; Make his Abode; of Resider, Fr. to remain, to stay, to continue in a place.

Ibid. His Glory unobscured; His Brightness unsullied, his Glory not dimmed or diminished: Unobscured, of Inobscuro, Lat. to hide, to conceal, to darken.

V. 266. And with the Majesty, &c. Darkness has a kind of Awfulness, by our Poet well express'd by Majesty, with awful Darkness surrounding his Soveraign Seat, which some of the European Monarchs seem to imitate by the Concealments of their Courts.

V. 268. Mustering their Rage; Shewing their Fury, proclaiming Heaven's loud Anger: To Muster, is to shew, of the Fr. Monstre; so to muster Forces, is to make a general shew and appearance of Soldiers with their Arms; the foregoing five Verses are an imitation of Psal. 8. from v. 9. to v. 13. inclusive; see also Exod. 19. v. 9, and 18. Resembler, Fr. to be like.

V. 269. Cannot we his Light imitate; Confirmed by St. Paul, who tells us, Satan himself is transformed into an Angel of Light, 2 Cor. 11. v. 14. Imitari, to Counterfeit, to do any thing like another.

V. 270. This desart Soil, &c. This Wilderness of Woe wants not its conceal'd Wealth, Jewels and Gold; nor want we Power or Art to adorn even Hell it self, and make it imitate his Heaven: Desertum, Lat. a Wilderness, a Place uninhabited, uncultivated.

V. 275. Become our Elements; Our Punishments in time, perhaps, may change into our Pastime, a vain Flattery, and foolish Expectation, as if Fits of Gout or Stone could be more tolerable for being tedious to Extremity, if so, the Damned Spirits might hope for Ease on everlasting Racks: Elementa, Lat. the first Principles of which all things are made and com­pounded, in this Elementary World our Punishment might become part of our Being.

V. 277. Into their Temper; Our pure Spiritual Being, changed into these gross Fires, as be­fore, V. 217.

V. 278. The Sensible of Pain; The Sense, the Pungency of Pain; To Sensibile, the Adje­ctive used for a Substantive.

V. 282. Dismissing quite; Laying aside, giving over all Thoughts of War; of Demittere, Lat to send away.

V. 284. He scarce had finish'd; He had scarce made an end of speaking, scarce had he fi­nished his Speech: Finir, Fr. to make an end, of the Lat. Finire.

Ibid. When such murmur, &c. When such a sound was heard through the Assembly, as when in hollow Rocks remains the buz of boistrous Winds, which all night long had raised and swelled [Page 62] the Seas, but by degrees now falling, do with their rude hoarse Murmurings incline Seamen (whom Danger had bereaved of Rest) to sleep, whose Skiff perhaps, or little Vessel, rides at Anchor within a Harbor hemm'd in by broken Rocks, the Storm being now blown o're: Murmur, Lat. the noise of Water running, or any such thing, Coined of the sound it makes; [...], says Eustathius: Hence Expressive of the Applause and good Liking given by the Auditors to a publick Speech or Action. So Virg.

—Continno vastis cum viribus effert
Ora Dares, magno (que) virûm se murmure tollit. AEn. 5.

V. 286. Retain the sound of blustring Winds; Retain, of the Fr. Retenir, to keep in or back, blustring, noiseful, roaring, we call a swaggering vapouring Fellow, a Blusterer.

V. 287. Had rouzed the Sea; Had raised and swelled the Sea into angry and foaming Bil­lows, had waken'd it out out of its dull lazy Lethargy, where it lay sleeping in a dead Calm, and stirr'd and toss'd it into a furious Storm. Virg. compares the Assent given by the Assembly of the Gods to Juno's Speech in AEn. 10. to the rising Wind which our Author assimulates to its decreasing Murmurs.

—Cunctique fremebant
Caelicolae assensu vario; ceu flamina prima
Cum deprensa fremunt silvis, & caeca volutant
Murmura, venturos nautis prodentia ventos.

The one as true on Land, as the other at Sea.

Ibid. With hoarse Cadence lull; Words not easie to be altered into others half so expressive, the Winds with their decreasing hoarsness hush and lay asleep the o'rewatch'd Seaman: La Ca­dence, as the Fr. use it in reference both to Speech and Musick, is a round going off of Words, a just and proportionate Measure falling from some higher Strain, whence it has its Name, from Cadere, Lat. to fall: Lull, expresseth a sort of humming and singing used by Nurses to get Children to sleep, whence our Lullaby, a Word coined of the sound, derivable of the Greek [...], used to the same purpose, of [...], Gr. to speak.

V. 288. Sea-faring Men; Seamen that travel by Sea, of the Ger. Fharen, to go, to journey: Bark, of the Fr. Barque, and this of [...], Gr. for a little Ship; others, of our Bark of a Tree, of which divers barbarous People do at this day make Boats.

V. 289. Or Pinnace Anchors, &c. Of the Fr. Pinasse, a Skiff, of the Lat. Pinus, the Timber Tree of which anciently they were made, and by the best Poets tropically described.

Ne trepidate meas, Teucri, defendere Naves
Neve armate manus: Maria ante exurere Turno
Quàm sacras dabitur Pinus.—AEn. 9.

Anchors, rides at anchor, remains in; Anchora, Lat. of the Gr. [...]; And since this and many other of our Sea-terms are borrowed of the Grecians as well as of other Nations, why may we not presume that our Island Ancestors, by situation inclined to Commerce, might bring home and adopt into their Language many Greek Words, as probably as their Sailing-Successors daily transport Foreign Commodities and Fashions:—Unco non alligat Anchora morsu, says Virg. descriptive both of its shape and design; AEn. 1.

Ibid. In a Craggy Bay; in a Rocky Harbour: A Crag signifies a Rock, derivable either of the Welch Craig, signifying the same thing, or of Crag the Neck, broken and sharp Rocks ap­pearing on the Hills in shape of that similitude. A Bay, is properly the Sea encompassed by a bending Shoar, of Bygen, Ger. to bend, being a crooked or circular Inclosure of the Sea where Ships may ride secure, defended from the Fury of the Winds.

V. 290. Such Applause; Such good liking; such Commendation was given Mammon at the end of his Speech: Applausus, Lat. a clapping of Hands in token of Liking or Joy, of Ap­plaudo.

V. 291. His Sentence pleas'd; This Opinion pleas'd perswading Peace: Sententia, Lat. Judg­ment, Councel: Advising, of the Fr. Aviser, to give Counsel, to Advise.

V. 292. For such another Field; The Place for the Action, the Field for the Battel there fought, for such another Fight was more dreadful and terrible to 'em than all their Tor­ments. Nulla salus bello, pacem te Pos [...]imus omnes. AEn. 11.’

V. 294. The Sword of Michael; Described in the sixth Book, Given him from the Armory of God so temper'd, with which Satan himself was wounded. Read Dan. 10. v. 13 and 21. and Revel. 12. 7.

[Page 63] V. 296. To found this nether Empire; To lay the Foundations of this Infernal State, of Hell the Government below: Fundare, Lat. to lay the Ground-work of a Building: Nether, of the Sax. Nider, downwards below: Imperium, Lat. Command of Kings Governors, &c.

V. 297. By Policy, &c. Which by State Policy, and length of Time, might rise to Rival Heaven: Policy, of [...], Gr. for the Government of Kingdoms or States, of [...], a City, and thence taken for the Subtilties made use of to support 'em: Process, of Processus, Lat. of Procedere, to go on, as Time is travelling every minute forward towards Eternity, its Jour­ney's end.

V. 298. In Emulation opposite; In envious Contrariety to Heaven: AEmulatio is used both in good and bad Sense, for striving to exceed and excel others: Oppositus, Lat. set against, con­trary to.

V. 300. With grave Aspect he rose; With Wisdom in his Face he stood up: Gravis, Lat. Weighty, Wise: Aspectus, Lat. Countenance, Looks.

V. 302. A Pillar of State; A Supporter of the Government, one on whose Shoulders the weighty Affairs of State might well be trusted, able to undergo the burden of Publick Busi­ness, and therefore fitly compared to Atlas in the following Verses; a Metaphor taken from Architecture, which under-props mighty Piles of Building by Pillars: Status, Lat. for Condi­tion, and used to express the great Men and Governors of Kingdoms and Common­wealths.

Ibid. Deep on his front engraven Deliberation sat, &c. The nice Consideration of Affairs ap­peared in his Forehead, and wary Advice dwelt on his Brow: Front, of Frons, Lat. the Fore­head: Engraven, of Engraver, Fr. of Graver to Carve, of [...], Gr. the Grecians having been great Masters in Sculpture, we may well borrow their terms of Art: Deliberatio, Lat. for Consultation, an Advising.

V. 305. Majestick thô in Ruine; Awful althô undone: Majesteux, Fr. Princely, of the La [...]. Majestas, Sage, Wise, of Sagax. Lat. Cunning.

V. 306. With Atlantean Shoulders, &c. Of vast Abilities, fit to undertake the weightiest Affairs of mightiest Kingdoms: Atlas was King of Mauritania, for his great skill in Astrology Fabled to support Heaven on his Shoulders.

—Docuit quae maximus Atlas
Hic canit errantem Lunam, Solisque labores. AEn. 1.

—Ubi Caelifer Atlas
Axem humero torquet stellis ardentibus aptum. AEn. 6.

—Maximus Atlas
Edidit, aethereos humero qui sustinet axes. AEn. 8.

Perseus the Son of Jupiter turned him in to a Mountain of the same Name for refusing him Entertainment, of which read Metam. lib. 4. about the latter end. It is the greatest Moun­tain of Africa, of vast height, which gave occasion to the Fiction of bearing Heaven on his Back: See him described, AEn. 4.

—Latera ardua cernit
Atlantis duri, Caelum qui vertice fulsit, &c.

Hence Juvenal exposing the multiplicity of the Roman Deities,

—Nec turba Deorum
Talis, ut est hodie; contentaque sidera paucis
Numinibus, miserum urgebant Atlanta minore Pondere. Sat. 13.

V. 307. His Look drew Audience; His Look obliged 'em all to listen and attend, silent as Night, and quiet and unmoved as the mid-day Air in Summer: Audience, hearing, of Au­dire, Lat. to hear: Noon-tide, mid-day, of Nona, Ital. for that time, from the ninth hour of the day, when the Romans used to eat, and Tid, Sax. Time; Night is seldom named by the Poets, without the adjunct of Stillness and Silence, Sub nocte silenti, AEn. 4. And in great Continents in Summer time, about Noon the Air is as still, not the least breath of Wind being heard to break or interrupt its calmness, a Similitude not so obsolete.

V. 310. Thrones, &c. Princes, and commanding Powers, the Birth of Heaven, Divine Per­fections, or these glorious Names, now must we quit, and changing them be call'd, &c.

V. 311. Or these Titles, &c. These glorious Names: Titulus, Lat. for a Title of Honour as we phrase it: Renuntiare, Lat. to renounce, to forsake, to give over.

V. 312. Changing Style; Altering our Appellations, changing our Names: Style, of Stylus, Lat. for an Iron with the sharp end, of which the Romans wrote on Tables, and with the broad end strook it out, hence taken for the manner of Men's Writing or Speaking, and for their Names, Titles, and Dignities.

[Page 64] V. 313. For so the popular Vote inclines; For to this common Wish, the general Voice, the publick Desire, leads and directs: Vote, of the Lat. Votum, a Prayer, or any thing much wished for; so to put to the Vote, is to leave the Matter in dispute to be decided by the choice, de­sire, or good liking, of the major part of the Assembly: Popularis, Lat. common, general, as belonging to the common People: Inclines, moves, of Inclinare, Lat. to bend, to stoop down­wards.

V. 315. Doubtless, while we Dream; No doubt, while we vainly imagine, and will not know, that Heaven's King has decreed this Place our Prison, not a secure Abode, beyond the reach of his Almighty Arm, Ah nescis longas Regibus esse manus! most undoubtedly true of Heaven's Almighty King: To Doom, is to decree, to judge, to ordain, a Sax. word: Retreat, of the Fr. Retraicte, a retiring, or withdrawing from Danger, into a place of Strength and Se­curity.

V. 318. To live Exempt from H. h. Jurisdiction; To live free from God's Supreme Autho­rity, out of the compass of Heaven's all-commanding Power: Exemptus, Lat. free from, Priviledged against, whence the Fr. Military Word Un Exempt, being an Inferior Officer discharged of common Duty: Jurisdiction, Jurisdictio, is a Law-Term, signifying the Autho­rity and Power by Law given to a Person to do Justice in Causes of Complaints made before him. See Cook's Proemium to the 4 Justitiae.

V. 319. In new League banded against, &c. In a new Alliance combined against his Power: Banded, of the Fr. Bander, to joyn together, to combine.

V. 321. In strictest Bondage; But to continue in severest Slavery, thô at this vast distance by unavoidable Restraint, Retain'd, Millions of Slaves Imprison'd.

V. 322. Curb; Restraint: A Curb is that Chain that is made fast under a Horses Chops, ser­ving to retain and with-hold him, the Word to Curb signifying as much; of the Fr. Courber, of Curvare, Lat. to bend, to bridle, and restrain: Reserv'd, of the Lat. Reservare, to keep in store, to retain: Captive, of Captivus, Lat. properly a Prisoner taken in War.

V. 325. In heighth or depth; In Heaven or Hell, the one the highest, the other the lowest, and consequently deepest, First and Last, &c. Absolutely, without any Competitor; I am Alpha and Omega, the beginning and the ending, saith the Lord, which is, and which was, and which is to come, even the Almighty; Rev. 1. 8.

V. 328. And with Iron Scepter Rule, &c. And bear Rule over us here in Hell, by exercising his wrathful Vengeance on us, as he governs by his Eternal Goodness, and unexhausted Mer­cies those in Heaven: The Iron Scepter is an allusion to Psal. 11. 9. as that of Gold to Esther 5. 2. Of these two Metals were the Ages of the World so significantly named, the first and happiest The Golden Age, long before that Precious Bane was found, the other of Iron: Tunc itum est in viscera Terrae, &c. Iamque nocens ferrum, ferroque nocentius aurum Prodierat, Met. 1. Sub initio.

V. 330. Projecting; Designing, contriving, of Projicere, Lat. to put forth, to be inclined, or bent to, whence Project, and Projectors.

V. 331. War hath determin'd us; This one Battel lost, hath put an end to all our Endea­vours, has concluded us; of Determinare, Lat. to bring to an end: Irreparable, Irreparabi­lis, Lat. not to be restor'd to its former State, irrecoverable.

V. 334. Custody severe; Strict and close Imprisonment: Custodia, Lat. Prison, Restraint: Severus, Lat. harsh, cruel.

V. 335. Arbitrary Punishment; According to the Will of our angry Conqueror: Arbitra­rius, Lat. Voluntary, left to the Will of another: The Civilians distinguish between Arbitrium and Arbitrarium thus; Arbitrium, est sententia, ex arbitrio & bona fide lata; Arbitrarium quod in arbitris potestate est pro arbitrio judicioque suo statuere.

V. 338. Untamed Reluctance; Unbroken, unabated, unwearied Opposition: Reluctance, Strife, of Relucta [...]i, to wrestle with: Hostilitas, Lat. Enmity.

V. 340. May least Rejoyce, &c. May take least Pleasure in inflicting those Punishments that are to us most sensible and severe,

V. 343. With dangerous Expedition; With hazardous Attempt to march against the Almighty: Expeditio, Lat. a March into an Enemies Country, a Warlike Voyage: Invade, of Invadere, Lat. to go against, or into an Enemies Land.

V. 334. Siege or Ambush, &c. Siege, of Sedes, Lat. a Seat, for to besiege a Place is to sit down before it, and Insedere is used by Livy to besiege: Ambush, a lying in wait, [...]o surprize or set upon an Enemy at unawares, of the Fr. Embuscade, properly a hiding in Bushes and Woods, of the Particle En and Buisson, a Bush.

V. 347. If Ancient and Prophetic Fame; If old Reports in Heaven, and foretelling Fame mistake not: Ancient, of Ancien, Fr. old: Prophetic, of Propheticus, Lat. of [...], a Pro­phet, one who foresees and foretells Things e're they come to pass: Fame, of [...], Gr. for Report.

V. 355. Pronounc'd among the Gods; Such was his Pleasure declared among us [Gods], and ratified with an Oath that shook Heaven's mighty Round: Pronunciatus, Lat. declared openly, proclaimed: Confirmare, Lat. to ratify, to ascertain. Homer makes his Jupiter grant Requests by nodding his Head, which he tells us shook whole Heaven: [...].’

[Page 65] Virgil imitates him, but adds an Oath to it:

Idque ratum Stygii per flumina fratris,
Per pice torrentes atrâque vor agine rigds,
Annuit, & totum nutu tremefecit Olympum. AEn. 9.

V. 357. How Endu'd; Furnish'd with what strength of Understanding: Endu'd, for En­dow'd, of Dos, Lat. for the Faculties and Powers of the Mind, as well as for a Dowry.

V. 364. May be Atchiev'd; May be Perform'd, of the Fr. Achever, to Compleat, to bring to Perfection.

V. 368. The punie Habitants; The weak infirm Possessors, the late made Inmates of this new World: Puisnè, born since, created long since us, Angelick Beings boasting Eternity.

V. 369. Seduce them to our Party; Entice them to forsake their God, and side with us against him; this was the dreadful Danger, and Diabolick Design, for their Force, thô inconceivable, was not to be feared, against that our Maker had secured us.

V. 371. Abolish his own Work; And may repenting he had made vile Men crush his Creation: Abolere, Lat. utterly to destroy and deface.

V. 372. Interrupt his Joy in our Confusion; This would disturb and diminish the Pleasure he takes in having ruined us: Interrumpere, Lat to break off.

V. 375. Their frail Original; Their infirm State, and blasted Happiness, blasted so soon: Their weak Original Adam, the Protoplast, an Original of Mankind: Originalis, of Origo, Lat. the first, the Fountain.

V. 379. Hatching vain Empires; Dreaming of Designs that never will succeed: A mean Metaphor from a Hen sitting on, and hatching her Eggs, well applied to the trifling Endea­vours of these exiled Angels, to establish an Empire against their Almighty Conqueror.

V. 380. First devised by Satan; See the first Book, V. 642. Space may produce new Worlds, &c. Devised, found out, thought on, of Deviser, Fr. to invent.

V. 385. To mingle and involve; To mix and wrap up Earth and Hell together, (i. e.) to se­duce Mankind to side with him against his Maker, and thereby to make the Earth, like his Hell, the Seat of Sin and Suffering: Involvere, Lat. to wrap up, and thereby to darken.

Ibid. Done all to spite; To vex and anger the Almighty: Spite, a Contraction of the Fr. De­spit, Anger, Spleen, of the Lat. Despicere, to Contemn; nothing like Contempt provoking Men more readily to Anger.

V. 386. His Glory to augment [...] To encrease and raise his Glory and just Praise, who brings Good out of Evil, and (as at the Creation) called Light out of Darkness; See V. 217. of the first Book: Augmentare, Lat. to encrease.

V. 389. With full assent they Vote; They all agreed to it, and gave their Voices for under­taking the Design: Assensus, Lat. an Agreement, Liking, Approbation.

V. 392. Synod of Gods; Assembly of Gods: [...], Gr. an Assembly met to consult of great and weighty Affairs, a General Council, of [...] and [...], a Convention.

V. 394. In spight of Fate; In defiance of Fate, notwithstanding all the envious opposition of our Fate.

V. 396. Of those bright Confines; Perhaps in sight of Heaven's bright Bounds: Confinia, Lat. are properly the Bounds and Terms of Lands adjoyning to one another.

V. 397. And opportune Excursion, &c. Whereby our Force being nigh, with easier Invasion we may happen again to enter Heaven: Opportunus, Lat. convenient, fit, easie: Excursio, Lat. a sudden Onset, or Invasion.

Ibid. We may chance re-enter; Perhaps we may re-enter, it may fall out, we may regain our Native Habitation, Heaven: Of Cheance, Fr. an old Word: Hap or Luck, of Cheoir, Fr. to befall.

V. 398. In some mild Zone, &c. Or else in some calm Quarter remain not banish'd from Heaven's beauteous Light: Zone, of [...], Gr. a Girdle, or Swathing-band, because in that manner the Zones begirt and encompass the World; They were always reckon'd five, the middlemost that between the Tropics, called the Torrid or Roasting; the two outermost placed between the Polar Circles and the Poles, named the Frigid or Cold; the two styled Temperate; lying each between the Frigid and the Torrid Zones.

Quinque tenent Caelum Zonae, quarum una corusco,
Semper sole rubeus & torrida semper ab igni, &c. Georg. 1.

Quarum quae media est, non est habitabilis aestu. Ovid. Metam. 1. about the beginning.’

V. 399.—Not unvisited; Not debarr'd of, not shut up from: Invisitatus, Lat. unfre­quented.

V. 400. At the brightning Orient, &c. And at the rising brightness of its Rays, clear of this dusky hue, the pleasing Air shall with her balmy Breath heal up the Wounds made by these fretting Fires: Oriens, Lat. for Rising, and also the East, because there the Sun rifeth.

[Page 66] V. 401. Purge off; Cleanse, Scour, of Purgare, Lat. Deliciosus, Lat. sweet, pleasing.

V. 402. To heal the Scar; To cure the Wounds which commonly leave Scars behind 'em: Scar, of the Gr. [...], as being like the crusty Hardness made by searing with a hot Iron or Caustic: Corrosive, gnawing, grinding, of Corrodere, Lat. to gnaw round.

V. 403. Shall breath her Balm; Shall send forth her soft healing Breath: Balm, Balsamum, both of the Gr. [...], the Balm-tree, from which distilled a most Sovereign Healing Li­quor growing near Engaddi, a City not far from the Lake Asphaltites, as Josephus affirms, Book IX. Chap. 1. Presented to Solomon by the Queen of Ethiopia, as the same Author, Book VIII. Chap. 2. Odorato sudantia ligno Balsama. Geor. 2.’

V. 405. Who shall tempt, &c. Who shall Essay to wander through the bottomless, dark, and unbounded Gulph, and through the thick and sensible Obscurity seek out his unknown Way: Tempt the Abyss, try, adventure on, of Tentare, Lat. to undertake, to attempt.

V. 406. Infinite Abyss; The boundless, unlimited Gulph of Darkness, the incomprehensible State of Non-Entity: Infinitus, Lat. unfinish'd, endless, not to be taken here in the sense that Infinitude is attributed to the One only Infinite GOD. Anaxagoras made two First Principles of all Things, the Intelligence, and the Interminate, the first of which Aristotle called Form, and the latter Privation.

V. 407. The palpable Obscure; The sensible Obscurity, Darkness so gross as to be felt, like that Egyptian Plague on Pharaoh, Exod. 10. 21. where the Translations use the same Word to express its Grossness; Tenebrae tam densae ut Palpari queant: Whence Palpable, Lat. Palpabilis, that may be felt; Obscure for Obscurity, an Adjective for a Substantive, as Magnum per inane, & per inane profundum: Lucret. lib. 1.

V. 408. His uncouth Way; His unknown Road, of the Sax. Uncud; undiscovered, un­known.

V. 409. Upborn with indefatigable; Or take his nimble Course, raised on unwearied Wings, over the vast Vacuity, broken off from being, till he shall Land upon this new World, balanc'd in the yielding Air like to some fortunate Island: Indefatigabilis, Lat. unwearied.

V. 410. Over the vast Abrupt; Over the Pathless Deep; Abrupta dicebantur loca difficilia, & divulsa ac invia: Of Abruptus, Lat. broken off: Vastus, Lat. large, desolate, uninhabited.

Ibid. E're he arrive the happy Isle; Before he Land upon the happy Island: Arriver, Fr. to come to the Bank of: Rive, Fr. the Shore, of Ripa, Lat. Bank, Isle, of Insula, Lat. an Island.

V. 412. Or what Evasion, &c. Or what sly Contrivance can help him to escape through the strict Watches, and the many Guards of Angels camping round: Evasio, Lat. a getting off, or out of a dangerous Undertaking.

V. 413. Sentries; Watches, Guards, of Sentry and Sentinel, a Watchman, one set to watch the approach of an Enemy, of the Lat. Sentire. Statio was a Watch in a Camp or City in time of War.

V. 415. All Circumspection; All heed and watchfulness imaginable: Circumspectio, Lat. heed­fulness, of Circumspicio, Lat. to look about. He had need look well and warily about him.

V. 416. Choice in our Suffrage; And we have need to be as careful in the Choice of him to be Elected by our Votes for this great Enterprize: Suffragium, Lat. a Voice or Vote given at the Election of one to some considerable Place or Employment.

V. 418. Expectation held his Look suspense; Uncertainty and Doubt sate on his Eyes, while he expected who would back or contradict, or undertake the dangerous Enterprize: Suspen­sus, Lat. uncertain, doubtful in his Deliberation.

V. 420. To second, or oppose; To uphold, or object and speak against; of Secundus, Lat. Se­cond, one who stands by, and supports another in any Speech or Action: Opponere, Lat. [...] speak against.

V. 421. All sate mute pondering; But they all were silent, weighing the Danger: Mutus, Lat. Dumb: Ponderare, Lat. to consider of.

V. 423. And each in others, &c. And each in others Face discovered his own Fear, Con­founded.

V. 425. Of those Heaven-Warring Champions; Of those Celestial Leaders: Champions, of the Lat. Campus, the Place where they performed their Prowess; Campio (says Hottoman) est cer­tator pro alio, datus in Duello, à Campo dictus, qui circus er at decertantibus definitus. Here our Author, in imitation of the Greeks, who delighted in the significancy of Compound Words, useth Heaven-Warring Champions for Heavenly Warriours, Champions that waged War in Heaven.

V. 426. So hardy; So bold, so daring, of Hardi, Fr. Valiant, of Ardere, Lat. to be active and earnest about.

V. 430. Conscious of highest Worth, &c. Relying on his own vast Valour, thus undaunted spake: Conscious, knowing, understanding well his own Worth [...] of the Lat. Conscius. So. Virg. Conscius audacis facti. AEn. 11.

[Page 67] V. 431. O Progeny of Heaven; O Heavenly Offspring, and Eternal Powers: Progeny, of Proge­nies, Lat. Jam nova Progenies Coelo demittitur alto. Ecl. 4.’

V. 432. With Reason, &c. Not without Reason do we silent sit and pause, thô fearless on this Undertaking; Demur, or Demurrer, is a Law-Term of the Fr. Demeurer, to stay, to abide in a place; and is a Pause or Stop put to the Proceedings of any Action, wherein matter of Law ariseth that is not plain to the Judge, but hard and difficult, that it breeds just doubt.

V. 434. And hard that, &c. Sed revocare gradus, superasque evadere ad auras, hoc Opus, hic labor est; an imitation of Virgil, AEn. 6.

V. 435. This huge Convex of Fire; This vast Vault of Fire: Convex, of Convexus, Lat. bend­ing downwards, round about, like the Heavenly Orbs encompassing the Earth. So Virg. Supera aspectans convexa precatur. AEn. 10.’

Convexum is the outward Roundness, the Superficies of the Globe, as Concavum the in­side thereof, used promiscuously by the Poets:

Taedet Caeli convexa tueri. AEn. 4.
Inque modum tumuli concava surgit aqua. Ovid. de Trist.

V. 436. Outrageous to devour, immures us; Fierce to destroy, surrounds us on all sides: Oult­ragieux, Violent, Furious, Fr. Immures, encloseth us with flaming Walls: Immurare, bar. Lat. to Wall in.

V. 437. Ninefold; All the Poets bestow this Epithete on Styx, one of the Rivers of Hell, Novies Styx interfusa coërcet. AEn. 4.’

Which, to make the Infernal Prison more strong, our Poet has applied to its Walls.

V. 438. Prohibit all Egress; Forbid our getting forth: Prohibeo, Lat. to hinder, to forbid: Egressus, Lat. going forth, an Outlett.

V. 439. The void Profound of unessential Night; The empty Deep of uncreated Darkness swallows him immediately, and with entire loss of being affrights him, drown'd in that wide gaping Gulph that never brings forth any thing: Night was by the Ancients esteemed a God­dess, or rather the Mother of all the Gods, as being before the Creation of any thing, Dark­ness approaching nearest to, and being the best resemblance of Non-entity.

[...],
[...].—Orpheus in Hym.

The Title of Unessential, is much more suitable and expressive of this great Gulf, placed by our Poet between Heaven and Hell: Profundus, Lat. deep; Noctem profundam, in the same sence, AEn. 4. Unessential, void of Being: Essentialis, Lat. that has Being, or belonging to the Being or Essence of any thing.

V. 442. Plung'd into that Abortive Gulf; Thrown headlong into that abortive Womb of Dark­ness: Plonger, Fr. to duck, to dive: Abortive, Abortivus, Lat. born, or brought forth before its time, untimely, cast out of the Womb before it has attained perfect Life and Form. The State of Non-entity is well compared to an aborti [...]e Gulf, where there is no beginning of Being, but even our Conceptions are swallowed up in confusion.

V. 449. Of public Moment; Of Importance to the Public: Momentum, Lat. Concern, Esteem: Publicus, Lat. belonging to the Generality, to the Public.

V. 451. Wherefore do I assume, etc. Wherefore do I take this State upon me: See Sarpedon's Speech to Glaucus, [...].

[...],
[...]
[...], &c.

Which will be found as much exalted in the Imitation, as a Seraphim is superiour to a Man even of Homeric make.

V. 458. Intend at home; Make it your business, apply your selves to find out what may make Hell more easie to be undergone: Intendo, Lat. to give heed to: Tolerabilis, Lat. that may be suffered or endured.

V. 461. If Cure or Charm, &c. If any Means or Magic may be found to delay or deceive, or ease and slacken the Miseries of this sad Mansion: Cure of Cura, Lat. the Care necessary [Page 68] to be taken in working it: Charm, of the Lat. Carmen, a Verse, in which Charms were usually written, as Virgil testifies:

Ducite ab Urbe domum, mea Carmina, ducite Daphnim:
Carmina vel Caelo possunt deducere Lunam. Ecl. 8.

V. 462. To respite; To put off, to delay: Respit is a Law Word, and in the Latin called Re­spectus, a kind of Pause and Stop in a Suit, allowing one time to look back, or about him: To slack the Pain, to abate it, to give some Ease, untying as it were; a Metaphor taken from binding strictly, to make it less intense.

V. 463. Intermit no Watch; Keep strict Guard, be sure not to discontinue the Watchfulness against our Foes, who are not to be surprized: Intermittere, Lat. to cease, to give over.

V. 473. Stand his Rivals; Be rank'd even with him, be in the Opinion of the Vulgar esteemed his Equal: Rivales, Lat. for those that make Love to the same Woman: Repute, Re­putation, Honour, of Reputer, Fr. to esteem.

V. 478. Of Thunder heard remote; Of Thunder at a distance: Remotus, Lat. removed, far­ther off.

V. 480. Extol him equal; In their Praises raise him equal to God the most Highest: Extol­lere, Lat. to Praise excessively: Extollere vires, AEn. 11. to praise and magnifie the Power.

V. 485. Their specious Deeds; Lest ill Men should vaunt their seemly Deeds on Earth, forc'd from 'em by Vain-Glory or Ambition cautiously, concealed and covered over with godly Zeal: Speciosus, Lat. beautiful, fair to outward appearance; Speciosa quaero pascere Tygres, Hor. of Eu­ropa,' Od. 26. Carm. lib. 3. Exercitare, Lat. to excite, to stir up.

V. 486. Or close Ambition varnish'd o're, &c. A noble Verse, and highly expressive of those zealous Hypocrites our Author's Contemporaries, an Age so impiously Godly, and so zealously Wicked, that Prayer was the Prologue to the Murder of a Monarch at his own Gate: Var­nish'd o're, of the Fr. Vernice, a Composition of Gum of Juniper Trees and Lineseed Oyl, setting a Lustre on what it is laid, admirably applied to Zeal, which so glares in the Eyes of the Weak Populace, that they are not able to discover the dark Designs that it too often hides: Zeal, of the Gr. [...], of [...], to be hot, as it is too often.

V. 489. As when from Mountain; As when from lofty Hills dark Clouds arise, while the North Wind lies still and overspread, Heaven's pleasant Prospect, the thick condens'd Air threatens the Earth, o'recast with Snow or Rain.

V. 490. The North Wind sleeps; A Wind that generally clears the Air when it breaths, and therefore is said to be at Rest while the assembling Clouds ascend: 'Tis usual with the Poets to lay the Sea asleep, which can hardly be, if any Wind be awake; Saeva quierant aequora. AEn. 4.’

[...]
[...]
[...]
[...]
[...].

Where Jupiter is said to lay the Winds asleep, before he covers the Mountains with Winter Snow.

V. 491. The Lowring Element; The angry Sky; to Lowre, Sign to look awry upon, a threatning Aspect, as if by frowning, and drawing down the Brows, it were looking lower: By Element, is meant the Air, commonly called one of the four.

V. 492. Scouls o're the darken'd, &c. With Showre or Snow threatens the darken'd Earth: To Scowl, is to look on one with Eyes half shut, as if we endeavoured to hide our selves, to see and not be seen, well applied to the Cloudy Sky: Lantskip, of the Belg. Landschap, the shape or appearance of Land; hence we call a Piece of Painting, where a prospect or view of Woods and Trees, Gardens or Fountains, with adjoyning Hills or Plains is imitated, a Land­skip; but it is here meant, a Country overcast by dark Clouds, as by Heaven's chearful Face, the clear Sky.

V. 493. If chance the Radiant Sun; If it chance the shining Sun, e're he take leave, shews himself ere he sets, the Fields recover: Radians, Lat. shining: Extendere, Lat. to stretch, or spread out: Revive, of Revivisco, Lat. to gain new Life, to recover.

V. 495. And bleating Herds attest their Joy; The very Beasts do with their various Voices joyn to express their general Joy: Bleating, comes of Balatus, the Cry of Sheep or Lambs, coined in imitation of the Sound: Attest, of Attestari, Lat. to bear Witness.

V. 497. O Shame to Men; Read Juvenal Sat. 15. about 16. Verses from the end:

Sed nunc Serpentum major concordia, Parcit
Cognatis maculis similis fera, &c.

[Page 69] V. 498. Firm Concord; Lasting Agreement: Firmus, Lat. fast, stable, Concordia, Lat.

V. 502. Levie War; Raise wastful War, of the Fr. Lever, to raise, hence to Levy Money.

V. 504. Induce us to accord; Perswade us to agree, and live in Peace; Inducere, Lat. to per­swade, to intice: Accord, of Accorder, Fr. to agree, a Musical Metaphor of ad and Chorda, a String, from the straining and tuning Strings up to the same Tone.

V. 507. The Stygian Counsel thus dissolved; The Hellish Counsel thus broke up: Stygian, of Styx, one of the Rivers of Hell; whence Pluto, its Governor, was styled, Stygius, Stygii per flumina fratris, AEn. 9. Dissolv'd, Dissolvere, Lat. to break up, to dismiss.

V. 509. Their mighty Paramount; Their haughty Chief, of Paramount, a disused Fr. Word, signifying Supreme.

V. 510. Alone th' Autagonist of Heaven; Able alone to oppose th'Almighty: [...], Gr. an Adversary, more properly one that Contends in single Combat; of [...], against, and [...], Strife, Contention, Fight.

V. 513. A Globe of, &c. A Multitude, a Troop, of the Lat. Globus, a great Company.

V. 514. With bright Imblazonrie, &c. With shining Ensigns, and affrighting Arms: Imbla­ [...]onrie, of In and Blason, Fr. for the Painting and Embellishing of Arms, either on Flags, Co­lours, or Shields: Horrent, Horrens, Lat. terrible.

Horrentia martis Arma. AEn. 1.
Acie dens [...] atque horrentibus hastis; In AEn. 10.

V. 515. Of their Session; Of their Meeting and Sitting in Council: Sessio, Lat. for a Meet­ing, or Sitting on public Business, an Assize: Result, the Resolution that is taken, what is done and resolv'd on, of Resolvere, as Consult, of Consulere.

V. 518. The sounding Alchymie; The sounding Metal: Alchymy is an Arabic Word, signi­fying Hidden, of Al the Article, and Chema to hide, to conceal: Hence the Alchymists and Chy­mists take their Name, not so fitly from concealing the Secrets of their Art, as because they cannot find their great Secret The Philosophers Stone, which lyes hid, and is concealed from them: Now this Art endeavouring the Transmutation of ignobler Metals into more perfect and of higher Price; our Author useth the word for Metal, a Trumpet of Brass or Silver.

V. 521. Acclaim; Acclamation abreviated; a Shouting for Joy, or in sign of good Liking and Concurrence, of Acclamare, Lat. to rejoyce, or agree with.

V. 523. By false presumptuous Hope; By Hope that often deceives us, by promising and pre­suming too much: Presumer, Fr. of the Lat. Presumere, to take before hand, to be too forward and overweening.

Ibid. The ranged Powers disband; The Infernal Forces that all this while had stood in Order of Battel, (as Book 1. Ver. 555.) now disperse, and go each his own way, as Inclination, or the sad Survey of their dark Dungeon leads them: Ranged, of Ranger or Arranger, Fr. to draw into Order.

V. 526. Truce to his restless Thoughts; Ease to his tortured Mind: Truce, Treves, Fr. of the Ger. Trew, Faith is a temporary or short Peace agreed on by Enemies upon mutual Faith given. The Iroksom Hours, to pass away the unpleasant Hours; Irksom, as if Werksom, painful, of Werk, the Lincolnshire Word for Grief or Pain.

V. 531. As at the Olympian Games; One of the four Celebrated Games of Graece was Insti­tuted by Hercules, in Honour of his Father Jupiter Olympius, not far from the City Olympia in Elis, after he had revenged himself on Augeas the King of that Province: It was observed every fifth year, and the Exercises were five, Cuffing, Running, Dancing, Quoiting, and Wrestling;

Cursibus & crudo decernet Graecia cestu. Geor. 3.
The Victor was Crown'd with a Garland of Olive.

That Hercules, and not any of the five Idean Brothers, was the Institutor of these Olympic Games, Pindar attests.

[...]
[...]. Pind. in Olymp.

Pisa was part of Elis near the River Alpheus:

Aut Alphea rotis praelabi fllumina Pisae,
Et Jovis in Luco currus agitare volantes. Geor. 3.

Hor. Od. 1. 1. 1. ‘Quos curriculo pulverem Olympicum collegisse juvat.’

[...], the Olympic Races, were at first invented in Honour and Memory of the Sun's Motion.

[Page 70] Ibid. Or Pythian Fields; Where the Pythian Games were, as Ovid tells us, Instituted by Apollo after he had slain the vast Serpent Python, to perpetuate the Memory of his Victory.

Neve Operis famam possit delere vetustas;
Instituit sacros celebri certamine ludos;
Pythia de domitae Serpentis nomine dictos.
His juvenum quicunque manu, pedibusve rotâve
Vicerat, Oesculeae capiebat frondis honorem.
Nondum Laurus erat.—Met. 1. 1.

But in Memory of the Debauchery attempted by him on the Nymph Daphne, the Victors were afterwards Crowned with Laurel.

V. 532. Part curb their fierce Steeds; Some of them are employed in governing and taming their high-metled Horses, making them governable and obedient to Hand and Heel: Part of, Lat. Pars, a Portion: To Curb, is to with-hold, to hold in, to stop or keep from running away, of the Fr. Courber, to bend. This is a manifest imitation of Virg. AEn. 6.

Quae gratia curruûm
Armorumque fuit vivis, quae cura Nitentes
Pascere Equos; eadem sequitur tellure repostos.

Ibid. Or shun the Goal with rapid Wheels; Meta (que) fervidis Evitata rotis: Hor. lib. 1. Od. 1. In Charior-Racing, the Art of the Driver was shewn in turning round, and not touching the Goal, attempted often with extream Hazard: Goal, Fr. Gaule, a long Pole or Post, used to mark the Place where the Course ended, and therefore well applied by Virg. Hic tibi mortis erant metae, AEn. 12. Rapid, swift, Lat. Rapidus.

V. 533. Or fronted Brigad's form; Or range and draw their Troops up, facing each other; when an Army is Embattled, the Line next the Enemy is called the Van or Front of the Army, from Exercitûs: Form, Lat. Formare, to shape, fashion, bring into form.

V. 535. Waged in the, &c. Wage cometh of the Fr. Gager, to Fight, give Battle, or Engage, War being the worst of Wagers.

V. 537. Before each Van prick forth, &c. From before each Army the nimble active Knights (light as the Air where they Encounter) spur their Coursers on, and point and level their Lances at each other, till the main Grosses joyn: Van, the fore Front of an Army, of the Fr. Avant, the fore part, so their Avantgarde, the Vantguard: Prick, of Piquer, Fr. to Ride, to Spur a Horse; whence to Pickeer, signifyeth, to Ride out from a Body of Men going to Charge, and single out some Daring Man, engaging with Sword and Pistol, as formerly with Launce, ge­nerally performed on Horseback, and therefore a Derivative of Piquer, and not of Pike: Couch their Spears, lower, let fall their Launces, and drop 'em so, as to run full tilt against the Adver­sary, Fr. Coucher, to lay along; Spears in marching being born upright, let fall to a level in an Encounter.

V. 538. With F [...]ats of Arms; With Warlike Deeds, with bold Exploits: Fr. Faict, an Action.

V. 539. From either end of Heaven, &c On every side the Firmament seems on Fire, where the Heaven seemeth to our sight to have an End, hard to be found in Bodies circular: Welki [...], the Sky, the Region of the Air, Sax. Welen. These Warlike Apparitions may be well supposed sent to forewarn Proud and Luxurious Cities, they being seldom fancied to appear, but in disastrous Times, and eminent Dangers; our own Stories afford us some of these fight­ing Phaenomena about the time of our Civil Wars.

V. 540. Others with vast Typhean Rage, &c. Others more boistrous with Gigantic Rage tear Hills and Rocks, and in Hurricanes Tempest the Air so hideous, that Hell it self can scarce contain the dire Turmoil: Typhaean, a Derivative of Typhaeus or Typhon, one of the Gigantic Inva­ders of Heaven, of whom before, Book 1. Ver. 199. Fell, of the old Fr. word Felle, Cruel, whence Fellon.

V. 541. Rend; Or Rent, of the Sax. Rendean, to tear up.

V. 543. As when Alcides, &c. As raging mad and furious as Hercules, who having fought with Achelous, and won Deianira the Daughter of Oeneus King AEtolia, coming to the River Euenus, Nessus the Centaur would needs undertake to carry the Bride over, to whom, after Hercules was got to the other side, he offered Violence, but was immediately slain by one of the Arrows that had killed the Venomous Hydra; the Revengeful Ravisher mixing his Bloud with the Poyson that infected the deadly Dart, perswaded the credulous Lady, that the Garment stained with his Gore would prove a most certain Antidote against her Husband's wandering Affections, as famous for the Conquests gained o're him by the fair Sex, as he was for his own. Hercules afterwards having subdued Oechalia, (a City of Boeotia) brought thence the Charming Iole Daughter of Erytus King of that Country, and Landing in Eubaea, was busie in Erecting an Altar to return Thanks by Sacrifice to his Father Jupiter, when Deianira, jealous of his new Mistress, sent Lychas to him with the Poyson'd Robe, which stuck so close to him, that he pulled the Flesh from his Bones endeavouring to get it off, whereupon he made himself a [Page 71] Funeral Pile of Thessalian Pines, and burnt himself thereon. Venerat Eveus rapidas Jove natus ad undas; Met. 9. Where read this Story; Hercules was the Son of Jupiter and Alcmena, named Alcides of his Grandfather Alcaeus, as Euripides testifies:

[...],
[...]
[...]

Victor ab Oechalia Cenaeo sacra parabat
Vota Jovi.—Met. l. 1.

V. 544. Th' Invenom'd; Empoison'd with the Bloud of Nessus: Fr. Envenimé, of In and Venenum, Lat. Poison. Praetulit imbutam Nesseo Sanguine vestem. Meta. 9.’

Tabem fluenti vulneris dextra excipit
Traditque nobis ungulae insertam suae, &c. Her. Oet. Act. 2.
—O Mare & Terras, ardeo!
Quantam neque atro delibutus Hercules
Nessi cruore.—Hor. Epod. 17.

V. 546. Oeta; A Hill in the Borders of Thessaly, where enraged Hercules burnt himself, which made Seneca give Hercules the Name of Oetaeus in the Tragedy written of him.

V. 547. Into th' Euboic Sea; Eubaea (now Negropont) is an Island in the Archipelago, from whence the Neighbouring Sea was formerly called Euboic.

Euboica tellus,
Vertice immenso tumens Pulsatur omni latere. Sen. Her. Oet. Act. 3. Sce. 2.
Sternentemque trabes, irascentemque videres
Montibus aut Patrio tendentem brachia Caelo.
Ecce lichan trepidum & latitantem rupe cavata, &c.
Corripit Alcides; & terque quaterque rotatum,
Mittit in Euboicas, tormento fortius, undas. Met. 9.

V. 548.—Others more gentle; Retired into some secret Valley, sing with Angels Voices tuned to many a Harp, their own bold Deeds and luckless Overthrow, by chance of War, complaining that hard Fate, free Virtue should to Force or Chance enslave.

V. 551. By Doom of Battel; By the Decision of the Sword, by Event of Battel: Doom signifies Judgment, of the Sax. Dom; hence Domedag, Doomesday, the Day of Judgment.

V. 552. Should Enthral; Should make subject to, should Enslave, of the Dan. Trael, a Slave.

V. 553. Their Song was Partial; Their Song was Selfish, but the Notes Divine, (how could they choose when Souls Immortal sing?) made Hell more tolerable, and took with strange Delight, those who in Throngs gave ear: Partial, of Partialis, Lat. one so byass'd by his Affe­ctions to the side he is engaged on, that right or wrong his Judgment is overborn by Passion for his Party.

V. 554. Suspended Hell; Made 'em forget their Pains, mitigated their Torments, of Suspen­dere, Lat. to put off, to stay, to defer: Ravishment, extream Delight, of the Fr. Ravisse­ment.

V. 555. The thronging Audience; The thronging Hearers, of Audientia, Lat. the sense of Hearing, Listning, of Audire, Lat. to hear: An Imitation of Virg. AEn. 6.

Pars pedibus plaudunt Choreas & Carmina dicunt,
Nec non Threicius longâ cum veste Sacerdos, &c.

But he introduceth only an Orpheus or Musaeus his Scholar, far inferior to this Angelic Quire.

Ibid. Discourse; (Which our Poet so justly prefers to the highest Harmony, that he has seated his Reasoning Angels on a Hill as high and elevated as their Thoughts, leaving the Songsters in their humble Valley,) is from the Fr. Discours, as this of the Lat. Discursus, Rea­soning, Discourse leading from one Notion or Argument to another.

V. 556. For Eloquence, &c. For Eloquence seizeth the very Soul, while Song only at­tacques our Ears; the Powers of the first affect all the Faculties of our Souls, and Captivate 'em, while the Charms of the other work but on Sense, tickle our Ears, and then vanish with their Airy Trillo's: Eloquentia, Lat. for the noble Faculty, of Reasoning in free, strong, and copious Speech.

[Page 72] V. 558. In Thoughts more elevate; In Notions more high and refined: Elevatus, Lat. for raised, of Elevare, to lift up.

V. 559. Of Providence, &c. They Discoursed and Reasoned subtily and refinedly of the wonderfull, various, and unaccountable Providence of that Eternal Being, who made this beau­teous Universe, and manageth it according to the Methods of his inscrutable Will, not to be fathomed by the most discerning and enlightened Angels, much less by Minds cloathed and immersed in Clay: Providentia, Lat. of Providere, to foresee, and take care of. Instances of God's continual and general Providence over the World, are many in Scripture; Psal. 147. v. 8. Matth. 6. v. 26. Read the 39th Chapter of Job. Orpheus styled GOD Oculum Infinitum, an Infinite Eye, supervising and providing for the whole Creation.

Ibid. Fore-knowledge, Will and Fate; The Praescience and Fore-knowledge of God Almighty is indubitable, since he who is Omniscient must needs know and see all Things at one view, those that are past or yet to come, being only such in reference to finite Beings, but have no relation to him that is Eternal. From this Fore-knowledge, which in God is Absolute, as the next Verse affirms, the weak Apologists for Sin and Folly endeavour to draw a Consequen­tial Impunity, as if whatever God foreknows will be, were by that his Fore-knowledge in­fluenced and compelled so to come to pass, robbing at once the just Judge of all the Earth (of whom the Psalmist says, The Lord is righteous in all his Ways, and holy in all his Works, Psal. 145. v. 7.) of his Glory, and Man of his Free-will, whom God created after his Image, Gen. 1. 27. and left him in the hands of his own Counsel, Eccles. 5. v. 14. But to avoid deriving our Finite Consequences from Incomprehensible Infinitude, many things are by Men foreknown, on which nevertheless their Foreknowledge has not the least effect or shadow of Impulse, as the Rising and Setting of the Sun, the Succession of the Seasons of the Year, the various Appearances of the Moon, and the Eclipses of both those Luminaries to the end of the World, are easie to be foreknown, yet no Man will affirm, that his Foreknowledge is the cause of any of'em.

V. 560. Fix'd Fate Free-Will. Omnia fato fieri, was the Dogma of the Stoicks; And Quod fore paratum est, id summum exuperat Jovem. Seneca in his Oedipus follows their Opinion; Fatis agimur: cedite fatis, non illa Deo vertisse licet, quae nexa suis currunt causis. It cuique ratus, prece non ulla, Mobilis ordo. This Inflexibility of Fate seems borrowed of what Sacred Writ has delivered of the Immutability of the Almighty, I am the Lord, I change not, Mal. 3. v 6. To this fixed Fate, this fatal Necessity, is opposed Man's Free-Will, well described, Eccles. 15. from v. 11. to the end: Come, now let us reason together, saith the Lord, if you consent and obey, ye shall eat the good Things of the Land, but if ye refuse and be rebellious, &c. Isa. 1. v. 18, 19, 20. 2 Esdras 1. v. 28, 29, 30. Thus saith the Almighty Lord, have I not prayed you, as a Father his Son, &c. See Luke 13. v. 38. and read the 11th Chapter of Hosea. Absolute, of Absolutus, Lat. perfect, finish'd. Man's Free-Will will be made out more clear in the third Book of this Poem.

V. 561. In wandring Mazes lost; And found no way out of the Confusions of the Contro­versie, well compared to the turnings and windings of a Maze; Human Reason may well grow weary, and lose its way among the many amazing turns of Providence, or become giddy and confounded when it runs into Disputes so far above its reach, as are those infinite Per­fections of God's Omniscience, and his Eternal Decrees, A Mazė, a Labyrinth, contrived with so many turnings, that he who entereth it may easily miss his way, by rounding often the same place, derived of the Belg. Missen, to wander.

V. 563. And final Misery; They argued and disputed much of Bliss and Misery, the great Conclusions and Ends of all Things, and all Persons: Finalis, Lat. bounding, concluding.

V. 564. Passion and Apathie; Of the Unruliness of our Passions and Affections, and the Care which is to be taken in Governing them; or of Discarding of 'em quite, and Disrobing our selves even of all Natural Affections, if there be such a Possibility, well by our Poets styled, Vain Wisdom all, and false Philosophy. Passion, of the Gr. [...], Sufferance: Apathie, its con­trary, of the Privative [...] and [...], freedom from Passion or Concern, either of Pain or Pleasure, a setled sedate state of Mind: Philosophie, of the Gr. [...], the Love of Wis­dom.

V. 566. Yet with a pleasing Sorcerie, &c. Yet with a soft Delusion could allay: Sorcerie, Witchcraft, of the Fr. Sorcier, a Conjurer, one who pretends to Cun [...]ing, Per illicatas sortes.

V. 567. Pain for a while, or Anguish, &c. Pain for some time, or Grief, and could raise up deceitful Hope, and arm the stedfast Heart with persevering Patience, as with Steel covered threefold: Anguish, properly Grief, Sadness relating to the Soul, as Pain does to the Body, of the Fr. Angoisse, from the Lat. Augustia: Excite, of the Lat. Excitare, to raise, rouze, to quicken: Fallacious, Fr. Fallacieux, Cousening, Cheating: Obdured, hardened, of Obduratus, Lat.

V. 569. With triple Steel; An imitation of Horace; Illi robur, & aes triplex, circa pectus erat, &c. Od. 3. His Breast was armed with the strength of threefold Brass, only our Poet useth the hardest Metal of the two: Triplex, Lat. threefold.

V. 570. Another part of these Infernal Fiends, in Squadrons and great Bodies, bold and ad­venturous, take their quick march four several ways, to discover far and wide that dismal World, if perhaps any part of it might yield 'em a more easie Dwelling-place.

[Page 73] V. 575. That disgorge; That empty themselves, Fr. Desgorger, to Vomit, of Gorge, Fr. the Throat.

V. 577. Abhorred Styx; The Greek Poets give Names to the Infernal Rivers of Heil, from those noxious Springs found in divers Parts of their Country: Styx is a Fountain of Arcadia, issuing from an extream high Rock near the City Nonacris, falling at last into the River Cra­this, a cold Poison so strong, that it pierces even Vessels of Gold, and could be contained in nothing but a Horse's Hoof, as Pausanias in his Arcadicis. It had its Name of [...], to Hate, rightly styled, The Flood of deadly Hate; and by Virg. Palus inamabilis, AEn. 6. the Hea­then Gods were said to Swear by this hateful Stream. [...]

Thus imitated by Virgil.

—Stygiamque paludem,
Dii cujus jurare timent & fallere numen. AEn. 6.
Diis juranda palus Oculis incognita nostris. Met. 2.
—Stygii quoque conscia sunto
Numina torrentis, timor & Deus ille deorum. Met. 3.

V. 578. Sad Acheron; There were divers Poisonous Springs of this Name, one in Elis, the Western Part of Peloponesus, flowing into the River Alpheus, where Pluto and Proserpina had a Temple, Strab. l. 8. Another in Thesprotia of Epirus, according to Pausan. in Atticis. Its Name is deduced of [...], Gr. Grief, and [...], to flow:—Tenebrosa palus Acheronte re­ [...]uso, AEn. 6. Well agreeing with our Poets, Of Sorrow black and deep: Read, Est locus, Italiae in medio, &c. AEn. 7.

V. 579. Cocytus; Of [...] Gr. Lamentation, one of the Rivers of Hell, swoln continu­ally by the Tears of the Damned, of [...] to Mourn; as our Poet expounds it by the ruful Stream.

[...]
[...].

Cocytusque sinu labens circumfluit atro. AEn. 6.’

And in the same Book.

Hinc via Tartarei quae fert Acherontis ad undas,
Turbidus hic caeno, vastaque voragine gurges
AEstuat, atque omnem Cocyto eractat arenam.

Ruful, Mournful, of the word to Rue, of the Teut. Rewen, to repent; and indeed even the Heathen Poets did by these Rivers of Mournings and dismal Lamentations, which were to be pass'd by all that left Life, describe the sad and disconsolate Condition of Mankind, when at their Deaths they reflected on their past and ill-spent Lives.

Ibid. Fiery Phlegeton; Another of the Rivers of Hell, whose Streams are raging Fire, bor­rowed (not improbably) of the Sacred Writ, describing the Torments of the Wicked by Fire that shall never be quenched, Isa. 66. v. 24.—Rapidus flammis ambit torrentibus amnis Tartareus Phlegethon, torquetque sonantia saxa. AEn. 6. From [...] to burn: Torrens, Lat. vehement, furious: Waves of torrent Fire, Torrents and Floods of Fire. Et quos fumantia Torquens aequora, vorticibus Pelegethon perlustrat anhelis. Claud.

V. 583. Lethe the River of Oblivion; Divers Rivers were Renowned by this Name, one in Portugal commonly called Lima, as Mela; another in Africa near the Great Syrtis, and the City Berenice, as Solinus; a third in Beotia near the City Lebas, Pausan. in Baeoticis; and many others reckoned by Strab. l. 14. It took its Name of [...], Gr. Forgetfulness, because, according to the Opinion of Pythagoras, and divers other Philosophers who maintained the Transmigration of Souls into other Bodies, they were to drink of this dull heavy River before their re-entry, that they might forget as well the happy Freedom they enjoyed when released from this low Life, as the Cares and Miseries they were to undergo again by undertaking it a second time, which no one would submit to that had the least remembrance of 'em.

—Animae, quibus altera fato
Corpora debentur, Lethaei ad fluminis undam
Securos latices, & longa oblivia potant. AEn. 6.
Quam juxta Lethes tacitus praelabitur Amnis,
Infernis (ut fama) trahens oblivia venis. Luc. l. 9.

The true Description of The Slow and Silent Stream. Oblivio, Lat. Forgetfulness,

[Page 74] V. 584. Her watry Labyrinth; Her watry Windings and Turnings to and fro: [...], a Greek Word, to express a Building made on purpose with so many intricate Turnings, and deceitful Doors, that it was difficult to find the way out; of which Pliny reckons four: One in Egypt, the Undertaking of many of the Kings of that Country; the second in Crete, built by Daedalus in imitation of that, but far short of it; a third in Lemnos, supported by 150 Pil­lars; and a fourth in Italy, the Work and Sepulcher of Porsena King of the Thuscians: Plin. l. 36. c. 13. The Charging and Retreating of the Trojan Youths, and their turning upon one another, is by Virgil assimulated to a Labyrinth.

Ut quondam Cretâ fertur Labyrinthus in altâ,
Parietibus textum caecis iter, ancipitemque
Mille viis habuisse dolum, quà signa sequendi
Falleret indeprensus & irremeablilis error,
Haud aliter Teucrûm nati.—AEn. 5.

It may therefore as well suit with the various Windings of a River often turning upon it self, whose intricate Gyres and Meanders with-hold and check its Waters from making too much speed unto their Source the Sea.

V. 587. A frozen Continent; A cold Country: Continens, Lat. continual, without separa­tion. Hence the firm Land is called the Continent, as not interrupted by the Sea.

V. 590. And Ruin seems of ancient Pile; Looks like the decay and downfal of some mighty Building, or ancient Structure: Pile, Fr. for a Heap, and thence used for a vast Building, or Princes Palace, a Noble Pile.

V. 592. A Gulf profound, &c. A gawping Gulf, as deep as the vast Serbonian Quagmire be­tween the ancient Mountain Cassius, and famous Damiata, a City of Egypt, on one of the more Eastern Mouths of the Nile, formerly called Tamiata, and still by the Arabians Damiat.

Ibid. Serbonis was a Lake 200 Furlongs in length, and 1000 in compass, called by the old Egyptians, The Place of Typhon's Expiration, now Bayrena, dividing Egypt from Syria. It was surrounded on all sides by Hills of loose Sand, which, carried into the Water by high Winds, so thickened the Lake, as not to be distinguish'd from part of the Continent; where whole Armies have been decoyed in, and swallowed up, for the Sands for a great way seeming firm Land, slid by the weight of great Bodies of Men farther off into the Lake, that was but a de­ceitful crude Consistence, and engaged 'em beyond possibility of returning thence, called, like that in AEn. 8. Immane Barathrum. Read Herod. l. 3.

The Mountain Casius, bordered on this Bog, being no other but a vast Mole of loose Sand, as Lucan testifies:

Perfida quâ tellus Casiis excurrit arenis
Et vada testantur junctas AEgyptia Syrtes. Phar. 8.

V. 594. The parching Air;—Burns fror [...], &c. Our Poet tells us, that beyond the flaming Torrent of fierce Phlegethon, there is a frozen Continent in Hell, dismal and dark, with ever­lasting Storms of dreadful Whirlwinds, and horrid Hail that never melts, but grows up in vast heaps, like mighty Ruines of ancient and decayed Piles: The keen Air in this accursed Climate scorcheth, and the fierce Frosts perform the Effect of Fire.

V. 595. Burns frore; Boreoe Penetrabile frigus adurit, The piercing cold North-Wind burns, says Virgil, Geor. 1. The scorching Air burns by freezing, says Milton; the Words Urere and Adurere are applied both to Heat and Cold; Ureban [...] moneana nives. Lucan. l. 4. Perusti artus, membra torrida gelu. Livi. l. 21. Ambusti multorum artus vi frigoris. Tac. l. 13. [...], &c. Kenoph. Aristotle, in the fourth Book of his Meteors, tells us, this is effected; [...], because the natural and innate Heat, hemm'd in and befieged on all sides by the extream contrariety of the Cold, be­comes more fierce and scorching. Others more probably alledge, That Cold performs the effect of Fire, by extinguishing the Heat, and drying up the thriving Moisture in Plants and Trees, whereby they become wither'd as if scorch'd by Fire, which agrees with the Philosophy of Eccles. ch. 43. v. 20, and 21. describing a Frost, [...], &c. [...]. When the cold North-Wind bloweth, &c. It devoureth the Mountains, and burneth the Wilderness, and destroyeth all that is Green, like Fire, Frore, of Freeze, and this of [...], to shake for Cold, to shiver.

V. 596. By harpy-footed Furies; Harpyiae, who were named from [...], of their Rapa­city and Greediness, were said to be Daughters of the Earth and Sea, styled Jupiter's Dogs, [...]. Apoll. l. 2. They inhabited the Strophades Islands near Pelopon­nesus, in the Ionian Sea, described by Virg.

[Page 75]
Tristius haud illis monstrum, nec saevior ulla
Pestis & ira Deum Stygiis sese extulit undis.
Virginei volucrum vultus, faedissima ventris
Proluvies, uncaeque manus, & pallida semper
Ora fame.—AEn. 3.

In the same place one of 'em is styled Furiarum maxima, and afterwards Divae obscenaeque volucres.

V. 597. At certain Revolutions; At certain Times: Revolutio, Lat. for the turning round of the Heavenly Spheres, coming about to the Point where their Gyre began, therefore used to express the Terms and Periods of Time, depending on, and measured by their Motions.

V. 599. Extreams by Change more fierce; Finely Illustrated, by being removed from Beds of raging Fire, to starve in Ice their soft Spiritual Warmth, there languishing, fix'd, and im­moveable, and frozen in for certain terms of Time, and in an instant, motionless and benum'd, hurried back to Baths of flaming Brimstone. To Pine, is to be punished, thence to wast and decay, of the Sax. Pin, Paena Punishment: Immoveable, Immobilis, Lat. void of Motion: Infixt, fastened, Infixus, Lat. of Infigere, to drive into.

V. 603. Periods of Time; For certain terms of Time: [...], Gr. a Circuit, a going about, of [...] about, and [...] a way, Time being computed by the Heavenly Motions and Circumgyrations.

V. 604. Lethean Sound; This Lethean Straight: A Sound, is properly a Sea enclosed with Land, as that of Denmark. Of Sound, Dan. for Swimming: Lethean, Lethaeus, Lat. of the River Lethe.

V. 607. With one small Drop; Virgil, and the rest of the Poets that held the [...], made no other use of these Waters of Oblivion, but to drench the Souls that were to be In­corporated anew, with an absolute forgetfulness of lamentable Life, as was shewed before, V. 583. and will be further manifest from these:

Has omnes, ubi mille rotam volvere per annos,
Lethaeum ad fluvium, Deus evocat agmine magno:
Scilicet immemores, super a ut convexa revisant,
Rursus & incipiant in corpor a velle reverti. AEn. 6.

But our Author improves it to the aggravation of Hell's Torments, by Ferrying his Fiends to and fro over this Lethean Lake, between their Torrid and their Frozen Zone, passing them over this forgetful Ford, and shewing them a whole River of that Water, one drop of which would be an Anodine to all their Torments, and end their Sufferings (which else must ever last) in sweet Oblivion.

V. 611. Medusa with Gorgonian Terror; Medusae with her Snaky Hair, and horrid Face, de­fends the Ford. The Gorgons were three, (Daughters of Phorcus) Medusa, Euryale, and Stbenyo, so named of [...], Gr. Cruelty: Medusa, beautiful beyond all the Women of her time, and famous for her extraordinary fine Hair, of which boasting beyond measure, and vying with Pallas her self, the angry Goddess changed her curling Locks, on which she so much valued her self, into Snakes so terrible, that all the Beholders were turned into Stones; her horrible Head was at last, in Mercy to Mankind, cut off by Perseus with the Aid and Advice of his Sister Minerva, and worn by her in her Shield.

Nata Jovis
Gorgoneum turpes crinem mutavis in hydros,
Nunc quoque, ut attonitos formidine terreat hostes,
Pectore in adverso, quos fecit, sustinet Angues. Met. 1. 4.

Ovid relates the Provocation given the Goddess, to have been of another nature, but I prefer this, both as more probable, and more modest.

Rom [...]ve fer [...] monstra, tuaeque
Saxificos [...]ultus, qu [...]c [...]nque ea, talle Medusae. Met. 1. 5.
Bellumque immane Deorum
Pallados è medio confecit pectore Gorgon. Luc. l. 9.
AEgidaque horrificam, turbatae Palladis arma,
Connexosque angues, ipsamque in pectore Divae
Gorgona, desecto vertentem lumina collo. AEn. l. 8.

This Gorgon's Head was so terrible, that it stood the Gods in good stead when the Giants attempted Heaven.

[Page 76]
[...]
[...]
[...].

V. 613. Living Wight; Living Creature, of the Sax. Wiht, an Animal, a Creature.

V. 614. Of Tantalus; The Crime, as well as Punishment, of this miserable Tantalus, is diversly related by the Poets. He was reputed the Son of Jupiter and the Nymph Plota, punish'd in Hell with Fugitive Banquers and Eternal Thirst, because at an Entertainment of the Gods he Dish'd up his slain Son to heighten the Festival; or, as others affirm, for disclo­sing the Secrets of the Gods, at a Banquet to which he was admitted, or, as some would have it, for Prating impertinently there. Others differ about his Torments, telling us, he had a great Stone always hanging over, and ready to fall on his Head. Homer describes his Suffer­ings without mention of his Offence.

[...],
[...].
[...].
[...],
[...].

Virgil in a different manner punisheth him with Hunger but omits his Thirst.

—Lucent genialibus altis
Aurea fulcra toris, epulaeque ante ora paratae
Regifico luxu: Furiarum maxima juxta
Accubat, & manibus prohibet contingere mensas. AEn. 6.
[...]
[...]
[...].
[...],
[...],
[...]. Eurip. in Oreste.
Tantalus est illic, & ciroum stagna, sed acrem
Jam jam potuero, deserit unda sitim. Tibull.
Quaerit aquas in aquis, & poma fugacia captat
Tantalus, hoc illi garrula lingua dedit.
Tantalus à labris sitiens fugientia captat
Flumina.—Hor. l. Ser.
Nec miser impendens magnam timet aere saxum
Tantalus, ut perhibent, cassâ formidine torpens. Lucret.

V. 616. With shuddering Horror pale; Pale and shivering, trembling and pale, shaking and quaking with Cold, not able to hold a Joint still for extream Cold, a Word used in Lincoln­shire, of the Dut. Schudderen, to quake: Horror, Lat. for Cold, and thence for a fright.

—Mihi frigidus horror
Membra quatit, gelidusque coit formidine sanguis. AEn. 3.

Ibid. And Eyes agast; Staring with fix'd affrighted Eyes: Agast, affrighted, of the Particle á and Gast, Belg. a Ghost.

V. 619. Many a Region dolorous; Many a sad Country: Dolorous, of Dolorosus, sad, sorrowful, of Dolor, Lat. Grief.

V. 620. Many a Fiery Alpe; They pass'd o're many a Frozen, and many a Flaming Moun­tain: Alpes, Lat. for the famous Barrier of Hills parting Italy from France and Germany, called Alpes, from Albedine, whiteness, as being covered with Snow, the old Latins pronouncing Alpum for Album, white: Alpinas, (ah dura) nives. Virg. Ecl. 10.

V. 622. A Universe of Death; IA World of Death, or rather of never-dying Torments: Universe, of Universum, Lat. [...], the whole World.

V. 623. Created Evil, for Evil only Good; Which God on purpose made so ill, so dismal, and so woful, as proper and most fit for the Punishment of Evil Doers, Wicked Angels or Men.

V. 624. Where all Life dyes, &c. Where all the Pleasures of Life are consumed, if any thing can be called Life there, when Martial says truly, Non est vivere, sed valere vita; Death lives, Death everlasting lives and reigns; well express'd, Where the Worm never dyeth, and the Fire never goeth out. Mar. 9. v. 44.

[Page 77] V. 625. Perverse, all Monstrous and Prodigious, &c. Nature (GOD's Handmaid) is said to breed in Hell all terrible and astonishing Mischiefs, perversely, as if turned aside, and divert­ed from her ordinary course; for as Holy Writ, the most Authentick Record of the Creation, testifies, GOD saw all that he had made, and behold, it was very good: So that the production of the place of Punishment, as it relates either to fallen Angels, or sinful Men, seems a Devia­tion from the Infinite Good, created Good for the chastisement of Evil, as before. Perverse, of Pervertere, Lat. to turn awry. Prodigious, fearful, dreadful, of Prodigiosus, Lat. Monstrous, contrary to the common course of Nature.

V. 628. Gorgons; Of this see Verse the 611th, where you will find Virgil's Imitation of Mi­nerva's Breast-Plate thus described by Homer:

[...]
[...].
[...].
[...].

Ibid. Hydra's; Hydra was a Monstrous Serpent living both on Land and in the Water, whence it took its Name of [...], Gr. Water; some say it had Seven, others Nine, and some Fifty Heads, and when any one of 'em was cut off, two sprang up out of the Wound. Hercules with Fire and Sword tamed this Monster in the Lake of Lerna, between Mycenas and Argos, sear­ing with Burning Brands the Wounds he gave it.

Quinquaginta atris immanis hiatibus Hydra. AEn. 6.
—Non te rationis egentem,
Lernaeus turbâ Capitum circumstetit anguis. AEn. 8.
—Lernaeaque pestis
Hydra Venenatis posset Vallata colubris? Lucr. Lib. 5.
Pars quota Lernaeae Serpens eris unus Echidnae!
Vulneribus foecunda suis er at illa: Nec ullum
De centum numero Caput est impune recisum;
Quin gemino cervix haerede valentior esset. Meta. Lib. 9.

Ibid. And Chimera's dire; Chimera, of [...], or [...], a Goat, was a Monster that vomired Fire, and had three Heads, one of a Lyon, another of a Goat, and the third of a Dragon, as Hesid. will have it.

[...]
[...]
[...].

Homer says it was like a Lyon before, a Goat in the middle, and behind a Dragon.

[...],
[...].

With the latter part of this Virgil agrees:

—Ac bellua Lernae
Horrendum stridens, flammisque armata Chimaera. AEn. 6.

A Composition so contrary to all the Miscarriages of Nature, that it was long since exploded by Lucretius, as a most improbable Fiction, that une Chimere may well express a Whimsie, a Castle in the Air.

Qui fieri potuit triplici cum corpore, ut una
Prima Leo, postrema Draco, media ipsa Chimaera,
Ore for as acrem flaret de corpore flammam?

V. 632. Explores his solitary Flight; Endeavours diligently to search out his lonely way. Ex­plores, of Explorare, Lat. to search after, to seek diligent. Solitary, Solitarius, Lat. of Solus, alone, without a Companion.

V. 634. Now shaves with Level Wing; Now cuts with downright Wing the Deep, then rises alo [...]t, up to the Flaming Vaulted Roof on high, fetching a Fiery Compass. Touring high, ta­king a turn on high, of Tour, Fr. a Circle, turn about, of the Lat. Turris, from its round Form.

V. 636. Concave; Of Concavus, Lat. hollow, as Circular Vaults are. Descried, seen, disco­ver'd, of discernere, or of the Fr. Preposition des, Lat. dis, and the Vetb Cry, to give Notice by Exclamation properly.

[Page 78] V. 637. Hangs in the Clouds by AEquinoxial Winds; As when a Fleet discern'd far off at Sea, seems hanging in the Clouds, while heedfully they sail, by Winds that blow about the Equi­nox, through the Gulf of Bengala, or from the Molucca Islands, Ternate and Tydore, whence our Merchants bring the East-India Spices. The Sailers on the Wealthy Waves use all their diligence to make the Cape of Good-Hope, yet warily by Night stand off through the vast Ethio­pian Ocean towards the Southern Pole.

Ibid. AEquinoxial Winds; By Winds that blow about the Equinoxes, that is, in Spring and Autumn, March and September, when Days and Nights are of like length.

Libra die, somnique pares ubi fecerit horas,
Et Medium Luci atque umbris, jam divider Orbem. Virg. Geor. 1.
Our Seamen call them Trade-Winds, as our Poet does the Trading-Flood.

V. 638. Close sailing from Bengala; The City of Bengala lies in a Bay, to which it gives its Name, and into which the famous Ganges empties his many Mouths, about whose Borders the Kingdom of Bengala in the East-Indies is situate, under the Dominion of the Great Mogul: The Country is very fruitful, and from thence and the Gulf of Bengala, a vast Trade is driven with the European Nations. Close sailing, because of the vast disproportion between this Bay and the wide Ethiopean Ocean.

V. 639. Ternate and Tidore; Two of the five small Islands called the Molucques, on the Coast of East-India, lying near the Line. Machian, Moties and Bachian, are the Names of the other three, from whence vast Quantities of Spice are sent all over the World.

V. 640. Their Spicy Drugs; Their Spices, or other Medicinal Plants used in Physick, of which the Indies afford many. Drug, of the Fr. Drogue, Herbs and Simples made use of in the curing Diseases.

V. 641. Ethiopian to the Cape; Through the wide Southern Ocean to the Cape of Good-Hope; call'd Ethiopian, of AEthiopia the Lower, the more Southern Part of Africa, which it bounds. Cape is a Promontory high Mountain, or Headland running out into the Sea, so call'd of Ca­put, Lat. Head, and that meant here is the Cape of Good-Hope, it is a most famous Promontory in the most Southern part of Affrica, first discovered by Bartho. Diaz a Portuguese, in the Year 1487. and call'd Cabo de Bona Speranza, by Emanuel then King of that Country, because he conceived hope, by doubling this Cape, a passage might be opened to the East-Indies, as after­wards was effected.

V. 641. Ply stemming Nightly to the Pole; Use their utmost diligence to make the Cape, but for their security stand off every Night to Seaward towards the South Pole. Ply, of the Teur. Pleyen, to be diligent, to take care of. Stemming, turning their Prows (the Ships Heads) to­wards the Pole, for fear of Dangers in the Night, of the Verb Stemm and that of Stem, the Forecastle of a Ship, from Stem to Stern, as Sailors speak, from one end of a Ship to the other. Thus to Stem the Tyde, a Ship is said when there is Wind enough to carry it against the Tyde.

V. 645. And thrice threefold the Gates; Nine Gates, three of Brass, three of Iron, and three of Rocky Adamant, not for Ornament, but Strength, according to the usual Custom both of the Greeks and Latins, who express those things that were most firm and strong, by Ada­mant. So Horace, ‘Si figit Adamantinos dira necessitas Clavos.’

Virgil encompasseth his Hell with a threefold Wall:

Sub rupe sinistrâ
Maenia lata videt, triplici circumdata Muro. AEn. 6.

And a little after, ‘Porta adversa ingens solidoque Adamante Columnae.’

And, Stat ferrea turris ad Auras. Ibid.’

But his Barriers were but to keep in the wicked and condemned Sufferers thereof, our Poet to confine and imprison the Fiends themselves; yet for what he wants in Gates, he has made good with the detestable River Styx; Novies Styx interfusa coercet. AEn. 6.’

V. 647. Impenetrable, impal'd, &c. Unpassable, enclosed with surrounding Fire, yet unde­cayed. Impenetrable, impenetrabilis, Lat. not to be pierc'd through, not to be broken through. Impal'd, encompass'd, paled about, enclosed, of the Lat. Palus, a Hedge-Stake; Circling, round, on all sides, of Circulus, Lat. for a Figure compleatly round.

V. 648. A Formidable Shape; A dreadful Figure: Formidabilis, Lat. affrighting, terrible.

V. 650. In many a Scaly Fold; Sin and Death are placed as Guardians of Hell-Gates, which all the Power of Satan and his Infernal Legions never could have unbarr'd, or broken through, if Mankind by offending their Maker, had not lent their helping Hands, by the Commission of innumerable Sins subjecting themselves to Death and Hell. This Description of Sin is ge­nuine and exact, resembled to a fair beautiful Woman down to the Waste, but all below ending [Page 79] in many Snaky Folds, deformed and ugly as the Night-Hag: Intimating, that how lovely and alluring soever Sin may seem in its first Approaches, yet after Commission, it ends in Nause­ous Loathings, and severe Remorse, well express'd by a Serpents deadly Sting. S [...]aly, Fr. of Escailles, the Scales of Fishes.

V. 652. Voluminous and vast, &c. A twisting mighty Snake, denoting the intricacy of Sin, enticing us from less to greater, till it involve us in Ruine inextricable. Voluminous, twisting and twining, besetting us on all sides, of Volumen, Lat. the most proper word for the Turnings and Windings of a Serpent. So Virg. Saucius at Serpens sinuosa volumina versat. AEn. 11.’

Vast, of Vastus, Lat. huge: This seems an Imitation of Horace;

—Ut turpiter atrum
Definat in Piscem Mulier formosa superne!

De Arte Poet. or of the Story (of Scylla following V. 500.

V. 655. With wide Cerberian Mouths, &c. The yelling of these Hell-Hounds that never gave over Barking, with Mouths as deep as the three-headed Cerberus, their howling even when re­turn'd and hid within the Womb that bare 'em, denotes to us, the never-ceasing Pa [...]gs and dire Remorse of Conscience, which though diverted and disturbed sometimes by Company, Wine, and other Artifices, yet give us inward Pangs and secret Stings, and break the Sinners meditated Mirth; and amidst all their feigned Smiles and forc'd Jollities, lash 'em within unseen, and howl about their Heart-strings. Cerberian Mouths, as wide as those of Cerberus, a Dog by the Poets feigned to lie at Hell-gate, so called, as if [...], greedy and devouring, he is gene­rally described with three Heads, covered over with many Serpents.

Cerberus, [...] ingens latratu regna trifauci,
Personat, AEn. 6. And—Jan [...]tor Aul [...]
Cerberus: Quamvis furiale centum
Muniant angues caput ejus, atque
Spiritus teter, saniesque manet
Ore trilingui. Hor. Lib. 3. Od. 11.

V. 656. A Hideous Peal; And made a dreadful Noise: A Peal is properly the Ringing of Bells, and is derived of Appeller, Fr. to call, because used to assemble People to Church, there­fore used with Rung, but it is used also for the discharging of great Guns, call'd a Peal of Or­dinance.

V. 659. Far less abhorr'd vex'd Scylla; Those Sea-Dogs that bark about Scylla, bathing in the Sea between Italy and the roaring Island Sicily, are not so detestable as these Hell-Hounds. The Scylla here meant, was the Beautiful Daughter of Phorcus, beloved of Glaucus, and by the jealous Circe, who poison'd a Fountain, in which she used to bathe, changed from the Waste down­wards into a strange Monster, whereupon, frighted with her own Deformity, she cast her self into the Sicilian Sea.

—Scyllam quam fama secuta est
Candida succinctam latrantibus inguina monstris. Virg. Ecl. 6.
At Scyllam caecis cohibet Spelunca latebris
Prima hominis facies, & pulchro pectore Virgo
Pube tenus: Postrema immani corpore Pristis
Delphinum Caudes utero Commissa luporum. AEn. 3.

Homer describes this Monster with six Heads, each with three Rows of Teeth:

[...]
[...]
[...], &c. [...].

V. 661. Calabria; The ancient Appellation of the extream part of Italy, called now Terra d'Otranto, bounded on the East, West and South, by the Mediterranean Sea.

Ibid. The hoarce Trinacrian Shoar; From the loud, noiseful Shoar of Sicily, occasion'd by the fu­rious Eruptions of the bellowing Mount Etna. This Island was called Trinacria, of the [...], its three Extremities, by the Promontories Pelorus, Pachynus and Lilybaeum, shaped like a Triangle.

Trinacriâ lentandus remus in unda. And
Praestat Trinacrii metas lustrare profundi. AEn. 3.
Terra tribus scopulis vastum procurrit in aequor
Trinacris, à positu nomen adepta loci. Ovid. Fast. 4.

[Page 80] V. 662. The Night-Hag when call'd in secret; None so deform'd and dismal attend the chief Night-Witch, when summon'd in private, and allured by the smell of Infants Blood sacrificed to her, she comes flying through the Air, to Dance and Revel with her Lapland Consorts, while the sickning Moon faints at their direful Charms. Hag is by a great Master in Etymologies deduced from the Lat. Saga, a Witch, by turning S into the Aspiration H, as on the contrary the H, or its equivalent Aspiration is changed into S; as [...], Gr. super; [...], sudor, Soegn. Dut. Hog. Of the Flying of Witches, the Modern Tasso gives his Testimony in his Armida, the famous Inchantress,

Calca le nubi, e tratta l'aure a volo,
Cinta di nembi, e turbini sonori;
Passa i lidi sogetti al' autro polo,
E le terre d'ignoti habitatori;
Passa l'alcide i termini, ne'l suole
Appressa de gli speri, O quel de mori;
Mà su i mari sospeso il corso tiene. Cant. 16. Stan. 70.

The Ancients believed Witches able to turn themselves into Bats and Owls, when they had a mind to wing it from place to place through the Air; and the Italians do still call Witches, Strigas.

V. 664. Lur'd with the smell of Infant-Blood; Invited, allured, drawn by the reeking smell of some poor Infants Blood. I find Horace in his Invective on Candia, accuseth her of making use of Frogs Blood in her Incantations; Et uncta turpis ova Ranae sanguine: And of burying a Boy up to the Chin, there to starve to death, to make a Philtre of his dry'd Liver, Quo posset infos­sus puer, Longo die bis terve mutatae dapis, Inemori spectaculo, Ep. 5. A Lure is a Bundle of Fea­thers made something like a Bird, by Falconers thrown up to take down the Hawk, of the Ital. Luro, of the Lat. Ludere, to cheat.

V. 665. With Lapland Witches; Lapponia and Lappia, Lapland is the most Northern part of Scandinavia, on the North it has the Frozen Sea, Westward the Kingdom of Norway, South­ward Bothnia and Finia, two Provinces of Sweden, and on the East the White-Sea, the Empe­ror of Russia and the Kings of Denmark and Sweden are Lords of this Country, but the last has the greatest share of it, a Nation inhabits it full of Heathenism and Ignorance; insomuch, that those that are converted to the Christian Faith, can hardly be brought to Church but for the sake of a good Soop of Brandy, which stands at the entrance of all of them, as the Holy-Water does at many other Church-Doors. Their Diabolical Superstitions, and Vindicative Na­tures, added to their gross Stupidity, and the Malicious Imaginations of Melancholy, have made them Infamous for Witchcraft and Conjuration, an Opinion almost worn out in England with our Ignorance and Superstition, the Parents and Faustors of such Fables: Quodcunque ostendis mihi fic, incredulus Odi. Hor.’

V. 666. The Labouring Moon Eclipses at their Charms; The Ancients believed the Moon ex­treamly afflicted by Sorceries, and that Magick-Charms were able to fetch her out of her Pale Chariot, to give more Efficacy and Virtue to those Venemous Plants used by those that profess'd Witchcraft: That her extraordinory Redness or Paleness, and her want and deficiency of Light, proceeded from the force of their Incantations; and all her senseless Subjects (that knew no better) came out to her Assistance with all their Pots and Pans of Metal, and made a mighty Din to hinder her from hearing those Compulsive Spells that forc'd her from her shining Sphere; and they who understood not Eclipses to be inevitable and natural, according to the certain Motions of the Heavenly Bodies, might well believe all the Old Wives Tales of Witchcraft.

Carmina vel Coelo possunt deducere Lunam. Virg. Ecl. 8.
—Polo
Deripere Lunam vocibus possum meis. Hor. Ep. 17.
Tot pariter Pelves, tot tintinnabula dicas
Pulsari; Jam nemo tubas atque aera fatiget;
Una laboranti poterit succurrere Lunae. Juv. Sat. 6.

Tasso ascribes the same Power to his Armida:

Quante mormoro mai profane note
Tessala Maga con la bocca immonda,
Cio, ch' arrestar può le celesti rote,
E l'ombre trar de la prigion profonda. Cant. 16. Stan. 37.

Labouring, of Laborans, Lat. sick, in pain, labouring of a Distemper. Luna laborans, the Moon in an Eclipse, of which before Bo. 1. V. 597.

[Page 81] V. 671. Fierce as ten Furies; As terrible as ten Fiends: Furies, of Furiae, Lat. for Wicked Spirits, the Punishers of Wicked Men after Death.

V. 673. The likeness of a Kingly Crown; Death is the only Universal Monarch, Conquerour of all, who ever have, or shall pretend to, that unlimited boundless Power, so large his Em­pire, that all Mankind, and all Things living on Earth, must be his Subjects, and pay him humble Homage in Dust and vile Corruption. Job has described him well, by [...], The King of Terrours, chap. 18. vers. 14. The Apostle puts his Iron Scepter in his hand, and shews the Commencement of his Reign: But Death reigned from Adam, Rom. 5. v. 14. and it will end only with the Universe: Crown, of the Lat. Corona.

V. 681. Execrable Shape; Accursed, dreadful, detestable Figure: Execrabilis, Lat. accursed, and thence terrible.

V. 683. Thy miscreated Front athwart, &c. Thy ill-made Face across my way: Miscreated, created, made amiss, therefore ugly and ill-favoured; His miscreated Mold, F. Q. B. 2. c. 7. st. 42. Front, of Frons, Lat. for the Forehead, and thence for the Face: Athwart, cross, of a and thwart; to thwart, is to cross one.

V. 686. Retire, or taste thy Folly; Begone, or feel thy Folly; hence, or thy Feeling shall make the Understanding thy foolish vain Prefumption: Taste, of the Fr. Tastir, applicable to the Feeling, as well as Tasting; so Tastire le Pouls á, to feel ones Pulse.

V. 688. Goblin; A Sprite, of Gobelin, Fr. for a Hobgoblin, as it is called, of the old Fr. word Fober, to devour, to eat Ravenously, Nurses using the Word to affright crying Chil­dren.

V. 692. The third part of Heaven's Sons; A third part of the offending Angels, grounded pro­bably on Revel. 12. v. 3, and 4. Behold a great Red Dragon—And his Tayl drew the third part of the Stars of Heaven, and cast them to the Earth.

V. 693. Conjured against the Highest; Banded and leagued together against the most High: Conjured, Conjuratus, Lat. of Conjurare, to bind one another by Oath, to be true and faithful in a Design undertaken.

Et conjuratos Caelum rescindere fratres. Geor. 1.
Aut conjurato descendens Dacus ab Istro. Geor. 2.

V. 697. Hell doom'd, &c. Condemn'd and Sentenc'd unto Hell; and darest defy me here, where I Reign thy Lord and King: Defiance, of the Verb Defy, this of Defier, to brave, to challenge, of the Lat. Diffidere, to defy, to scorn, as a faithless and perfidious Enemy.

V. 704. The Grieslie Terrour; Thus spake grim Death, th [...]ghastly dreadly King: Grieslie, an old Word for Ugly, used by Chaucher and Spencer, Gnashing with Grinded Teeth his Griesly Look: Griesled, grey, hoary, of the Fr. Gris, is either the Offspring, or Parent of Griesly. Spen. B. 6. C. 5. St. 16.

V. 706. And deform; Grew ten times more dreadful and ill-favoured: Deformis, Lat. Ugly.

V. 707. Incens'd with Indignation; Set on Fire with Disdain and Rage: Incens'd, of Incen­dere, Lat. to burn: Indignation, of Indignatio, Lat. Anger, properly that Rage arising from a sense of some vile Baseness thrown unworthily on a Man.

V. 708. Like a Comet burn'd; Satan with Rage enflamed, looked like a Blazing Star that fires all the Space, possess'd by the huge Dragon towards the Northern Pole, and with his fiery Looks affright the pale Spectators with the sad Presage of wastful War or Plagues: Come­ta, Lat. of the Gr. [...], a hairy Star, Stella crinita, as here described with his horrid Hair.

—Totoque ardentis ab ore
Scintillae absistunt; occulis micat acribus ignis. AEn. 12.

V. 709. That Fires the length of Ophiucus huge; [...], Gr. is Anguitenens properly, of [...] a Serpent, and [...] to have, and is meant of Hercules, who in his Cradle squeezed two Snakes to death, or of Esculapius, who was worship'd in the shape of a Serpent, and is express'd by the figure of a Man pressing a Snake in his hands, and placed in the AEquator.

Pressasque tandem solvat Ophiuchus manus
Virusque fundat.—Sen. in Mede.

Our Author means the famous Dragon that kept the Hesperian Gardens, (robb'd by Hercules of their Golden Fruit) and by Juno afterwards translated amongst the Stars, where he rounds the North Pole, reaching to the Great Bear with his Tayl, and embracing the lesser with his bulk.

[Page 82]
—Fuit aurea Sylva,
Divitiisque graves & fulvo germine rami,
Et nunquam somno damnatus lumina Serpens
Robora complexus rutilo curvata metallo. Luc. l. 9.

Thus Virgil describing the Northern Hemisphere.

Maximus hic flexu sinuoso elabitur anguis
Circum, perque duas, in morem fluminis Arctos. Geor. 1.

V. 710. In th' Artick Skie; [...] Northern, in the Northern half of the Heaven: [...], Gr. a Bear, the name of the noted Stars, the Greater and Lesser Bears, near the North Pole; feigned to have been Calisto (Daughter of Lycaon King of Arcadia) Mistress to Jupiter, and her Son, by jealous Juno, turned into that Beast, and placed by her Gallant among the Stars.

—Laudataque quondam
Ora Jovi, lato fieri deformia victu,
Ursaque conspectos in montibus horruit ursos
Et celeri raptos inania vento
Imposuit Caelo, vicinaque sidera fecit. Met. l. 1.
Arctos Oceani metuentes aequore tingi. Geor. 1.

V. 711. Shakes Pestilence and War; Of these fatal Effects the Poets were great Observers▪

Non secus ac liquidà si quando nocte Cometae
Sanguinei lugubre rubent.—AEn. 10.
—Diri toties arsere Cometae. Geor. 4.
—Crinemque tremendi
Syderis & terris mutantem regna cometen. Luc. l. 1.
—Augurium qualis laturus in Orbem,
Praeceps san [...]ineo delabitur igne Cometes,
Prodigiale [...]ens. Non illum navita tuto,
Non impune vident populi: Sed crine minaci
Nunciat aut ratibus ventos, aut Urbibus hostes. Claud. de Rap. Pros. l. 1.
Crine ut flammifero terret fera regna Cometes
Sanguineum spargens ignem, vomit atra rubentes
Fax Caelo radios, & saevâ luce coruscum
Scintillat sidus, terris (que) extrema minatur. Sil. Ital. l. 1.
Qual con le chiome Sanguinose, horrende
Splender Cometa, suol per l'Aria adusta,
Che i Regni muta, e i fieri morbi adduce
A i purpurei Tiranni infausta luce
Tal ne l'Armi ei Fiammeggia, &c. Tasso. Cant. 7. St. 52.

Most of these are used to set off an angry Hero armed for dreadful Deeds, as our Author hereby expresseth Satan's Rage and Indignation; and I give the judicious Reader his Option, out of the six Quotations to find any one so expressive of the common Sentiments of Man­kind, and the fearful Effects they apprehend from the appearance of Comets, as is our Author's, And from his horrid Hair, shakes Pestilence and War.

V. 715. With Heaven's Artillery fraught; As when two pitchy Clouds, big with Heaven's Can­non, (loaden with Roaring Thunder) cross the Caspian, come grumbling on, then stand Head to Head awhile, staying the grim Engagement, till appointed Winds sound the sure Signal to discharge, their dreadful Volleys rending the Mid-Air. Heaven's Artillery, Thunder: Quicquid habent telorum Armamentaria Caeli. Juv. Sat. 13.’

Artillery, of Artillier, a Bow-maker; Bows and Arrows were the Artillery of former Ages, now the Word is applied to Guns, and more especially to great Guns, any number of which is called, A Train of Artillery: Fraught, loaden, of the Word to Fraight or Lade a Ship, of the Fr. Fretes.

[Page 83] V. 716. Over the Caspian; Over the Caspian Sea, so called of the Caspii People of Scythia, bordering on it Southward, now called Mer de Bacu, or de Sala.

V. 717. Hovering a space, &c. Delaying a while: To hover, is properly to fly about, to and fro, as Birds do about their Nests or young ones, not to fix, to make a feint, as Armies some­times do, hovering about one place when they design the Siege of another.

Ibid. Till Winds the Signal blow; Thunder seldom happens without Wind, therefore descri­bed with Wings, and compounded by Virgil with certain Portions of Wind.

Radios rutili tres ignis & alitis austri AEn. 8.
Fulminis afflavit ventis & contigit igni. AEn. 2.

V. 718. Their dark Encounter; Their dismal Shock in the mid Sky: Encounter, of Encontre, Fr. an Engagement, a meeting and Shocking of Charging Enemies.

V. 719. So frown'd the mighty Combatants; The mighty Champions: Combatant, of Comba­tans, Fr. of Combatre, to fight.

V. 722. To meet so great a Foe; For never was either of them like to meet so great an Enemy, but once more, when our Blessed Saviour Jesus Christ did at his Resurrection, en­counter, conquer, and triumph over, both Death and Hell, when he saw Satan like Lightning fall down from Heaven. Luc. 10. v. 18.

V. 723. Had been achiev'd; Great things had been brought to pass: Achiev'd, done, finish'd, of the Fr. Achevé, accomplish'd.

V. 724. The Snakie Sorceress; Sin, the sly insinuating Inchantress; a short, but significant De­lineation of Sin, in two Words: Sorceress, shews her Charms, and bewitching Delusions: Snakie, admonisheth us of her sly Insinuations, and the bitter Remorse and Repentance here, or the everlasting Sting that follows it hereafter.

V. 735. The Hellish Pest; The Infernal Plague: Pest, of Pestis, Lat. Plague.

V. 737. So strange thy Outcry; The Noise thou makest seems to me so strange, and the Speech thou usest to part us is so strange also, that my hasty Hand is with-held, and forbears to shew thee by my Actions what I intend to do, till thou acquaint me, &c. Interposest, the Words thou usest to us are so odd: Interponere, Lat. to put between.

V. 741. Thou Double-form'd; Of two such different Shapes, described half Woman, half Snake, V. 650.

V. 743. That Fantasm; That Shadow, Death, that empty Apparition: Fantasm, [...], Gr­a delusive Apparition like that of Ghosts, expressive of what is said at V. 669. That Shadow seem'd.

V. 745. More detestable; More hateful, more loathsome: Detestabilis, Lat. abhorred, abomi­nable.

V. 750. With the Combin'd, in bold Conspiracy; Linked and joyned with them in the daring Design against GOD Almighty: Combin'd, of Combinare, Lat. to agree together: Conspiracy, Conspiratio, Lat. an Agreement against a Prince or State, a joynt Undertaking.

V. 753. Dim thine Eyes, and dizzie swum in Darkness; Dimness seized thine Eyes, and all things on a sudden seemed to turn round in thy disordered Cloudy Head, a Graphical De­scription of that Error with which Satans Pride blinded his Understanding, leading him into those dark Designs, in which he lost himself and his Associates: Dizzie, Giddy, like one that thinks the World turns round, of the Belg. Duysigh, astonish'd. The Vertigo, derived à vertendo, from turning round, is the swimming of the Head through the prevalency of Windy Vapours therein, a Similitude well suiting Satan's giddy Pride.

V. 754. Thy Head flames thick and fast; It is reckoned among the Symptoms of the Vertigo, that before the Dimness and Dizziness comes to the height, the Patient's Eyes seem to sparkle and strike fire.

755. Till on the left side; The left side was by the Romans counted unlucky;

Si mens non laeva fuisset—Et saepe sinistra,
Cavâ praedixit ab ilice Cornix. Ecl 1.

As to Intonuit laevum, Auguries were reputed lucky that came from the left part of Heaven, because the Augurs turning their Faces to the South, the Eastern Parts were on their left hand, which were always reckoned most prosperous: In the worst sense, is,

—Si quem
Numina laeva sinunt.—AEn. 4.

And there is a general Unluckiness laid to the Charge of those that are but left handed.

V. 757. A Goddess armed—Out of thy Head I sprung; Sin, that is hatch'd in the Imagina­tion, is said to be brought forth out of Satan's Brain-pan, as Pallas armed Cap-a-pied, (by which the Poets meant Wisdom, &c.) was fabled to have been the Offspring of Jove's Noddle. This [Page 84] Description is so like Homer's, of that War-like and sharp-witted Goddess, that it seems Copied from it.

[...]
[...]
[...].

V. 759. Back they recoil'd, afraid at first; There are but few, who in the first entrance on an Evil Life, and Wicked Practises, do not feel some Reluctance till Folly grow familiar, and Sin habitual: Recoiled, they fled back, started back; a sign of the Amazement that seized the Heavenly Host at the first entrance of it, till disguised and varnished over with fair Pretences. And well they might be startled at a Sight so ominously ill, when Homer at the Birth of Pallas (as described above) tells us,

[...]
[...].—
Amazement seized all the Beholders, thô Gods.

V. 761. A Sign Portentous held me; Esteem'd me an unlucky Sign: Portentous, Lat. Porten­tosus, unlucky, boding some Mischief, of Portentum, Lat. a Sign of bad Consequence. Sed variis Portenta Deûm terroribus obstant. AEn. 8.’

V. 762.—With attractive Graces won, the most averse; With my inticing Allurements gain'd, the most unwilling to Comply; Sin by degrees insinuates it self, Nemo repente fit tur­pissimus; We approach to its Pollutions at first afraid, as Boys shivering enter a River by degrees, till at last we plunge in out of our depth, and swim down the Stream, With attra­ctive Graces, by my powerful Charms: Attractif, Fr. alluring, enticing, of Attraire, Fr. to draw to one, of Ad, Lat. to, and Trahere to draw: Grace, Fr. Beauty, Comeliness: Averse, the most backward, those that were least inclinable to me at first: Aversus, Lat. froward, untractable.

V. 765. Becamest Enamour'd; Becamest in Love with me: Inamour'd, Fr. Inamouré, Lat. Ina­moratus, in Love with.

V. 766. That my Womb conceived a growing Burden; That thou begatest more Sins of me, one Sin is the Parent of many more, we pass from one Offence to another, from a Fault, to the concealing of it by a Lye, and then to the disavowing of it by many Oaths and horrid Imprecations, by Hypocrisie and Dissimulation, and many succeeding Crimes that are linked together, and hang in a Chain.

V. 770. Rout; Disorder, Confusion, of the Fr. Route, Lat. Ruptio, the breaking to pieces of an Army.

V. 771. Through all the Empyrean; Throughout all Heaven; Caelum Empyraeum, Heaven, the Seat of Bliss, and Region of everlasting Light: [...], Gr. burning, shining, the Climate of never-dying Day: So in Book 1. Ver. 117. he calls the Angelic Natures, Empyreal Substance, of their Purity and Brightness.

V. 776. These Gates for ever shut; And they had been for ever so close kept and barricadoed on Satan and his accursed Crew, had not Mankind fallen from their Maker by Disobedience, and their Sins opened the dreadful Doors.

V. 777. Pensive here I sat; Thoughtful and sad here I took up my Seat: Pensif, Fr. of Pen­ser, Fr. to think, of Pensare, Lat. to meditate and weigh things in ones Mind.

V. 780. Rueful Throes; Sad Pangs: Throws are properly the Pains Women feel in Child-birth, of the Sax. Drorian, to suffer: Rueful, lamentable, painful, of the Teut. Rew, Repentance.

V. 781. This odious Offspring; This hateful Issue of mine; a true Description of Death, Sin's dreadful Offspring; Sin, when it is finished, bringeth forth Death, Jam. 1. v. 15.

V. 784. Dist [...]rted; Drawn awry, burst, of Distortus, Lat. deformed, of Distorquere, Lat. to writhe.

V. 785. Transformed; Quite changed, of a different shape from what I was before; shewing well the different Aspects our Sins wear, when Lust and heared Imaginations, untamed Bloud, and Thoughts ungovernable, hurry us on, they seem beautiful and alluring; but when Sickness or old Age sets 'em in a true Light, and shews 'em in a right Prospect, when Death appears, then Sin, how Charming soever before, shews snaky and distorted, and with her ghastly end affright us: Transform'd, of Transformare, Lat. to alter the Shape.

V. 786. Brandishing his fatal Dart; Shaking his deadly Dart: Brandir, Fr. to shake: Fatal, of Fatalis, Lat. deadly: Telum fatale corruscat. AEn. 12.

V. 789. From all her Caves, and back resounded; Insonuere cavae, gemitumque dedere cavernae: An imitation of Virg. AEn. 2. Resounded, of Resonare, Lat. to return a Sound back as Eccho's do: Resonantia longè littora. Geor. 1. Resonabilis, Eccho. Ovid.

V. 794. Ingendering with me; Begot of me: Engendrer, Fr. of Ingenerare, Lat. to beget, as coupling Creatures do their young ones: Rape, a forc'd Enjoyment, of Rapere, Lat. to snatch by force.

[Page 85] V. 795. These yelling Monsters; These hideous howling Monsters: Yelling, is properly the howling of hungry famelic Wolves, and seems made of the similitude of Sound.

V. 796. Surround me; Encompass and enclose me on all sides, of Surronder, an old Fr. word, to hem in round on all sides.

V. 797. Hourly conceived, and hourly born; A fruitful and a fearful Birth, excellently descri­bing the perpetual Pangs, the direful Agonies, and gnawing Remorses, that day and night in­cessantly corrode the Guilty.

V. 800. Their Repast; Their Food, their Feast: Fr. Repas, of Repaistre, of re and Pascere, Lat. to feed.

V. 801. With conscious Terrors; With affrighting Guilt harass me on all sides: Conscious, of the Lat. Conscius, knowing, and thence guilty, of Conscire; whence Conscience. The Word is used both in a good and bad sence.

Occiso pastore Lupus magnove juvenco
Conscius audacis facti.—AEn. 11.

As also,

Mens sibi conscia recti. AEn. 1.

V. 807. His End with mine involv'd; That if he destroys me, he must be no more, for Sin the Provocation ceasing, Death the Punishment must also cease: Sublatâ causà tollitur effectus; The last Enemy that shall be destroyed, is Death, Rom. 15. v. 26. Involv'd, rouled or wrapt up to­gether, of Involvere, Lat. to fold up.

V. 808. A bitter Morsel; An unpleasant Bit, and unsavory Mouthful, of Morceau, Fr. of Morsus, Lat. for the same.

V. 809. So Fate pronounc'd; So 'tis decreed:

—Sic fata Deûm Rex,
Sortitur, volvitque vices, is vertitur ordo. AEn. 3.
Sic fata Jovis poscunt, hic terminus h [...]ret. AEn. 4.

Pronuntiare, Lat. to decree, to declare.

V. 812. Invulnerable; Invulnerabilis, Lat. free from Wounds, that cannot be wounded.

V. 813. For that Mortal Dint; That deadly Stroke none but Heaven's Eternal King can withstand: Dint, of the Sax. Dynt, a Stroke, used for Strength and Force; By dint of Judg­ment, by strength of Reason.

V. 815. His Lore soon learnt; Quickly understood what was fit for him to say: Lore, an old word fo [...] Learning, of the Sax. Laeran, to teach: —Ne would unto his Lore allured be. Spen. F. Q B. 5. C. 11. St. 61.’

V. 827. This uncouth Errand sole; Upon this dark Design alone, alone I undertake this dismal Journey: Errand, is of the Sax. Errend, a Messenger, Ab Errando: Uncouth, an old word for Terrible, of the Sax. Uncud, unknown.

V. 829. The Unfounded Deep; The wide Gulph between Heaven and Hell, the vast Vacuity, the boundless Vacuity: Unfounded, that has no Foundation. Lucretius his—Magnum per Inane. Lib. 1.’

Ibid. Through the void Immense; Through the vast Vacuity: Per inane profundum, Lucr. [...]. 1. Void, Fr. Vuide, Lat. Vacuus, Empty: Immensus, Lat. Immensurable: Immensas (que) trahi nubes, Geo. 4. So Virgil, Magnum per inane coacta, Semina, Ecl. 6. And he calls Hell, Domos ditis vacuas & inania Regna; AEn. 6.

V. 830. With wandering Quest; Diligently to search every where: Quest, Fr. Une Quest [...], an Inquiry, a Search, hence an Inquest, both of the Lat. Quaerere, to make search after.

V. 831. And by concurring Signs; By all agreeing Signs and Tokens: Concurring, of Concur­rens, of Concurrere, Lat. to agree.

V. 833. In the Pourlieues of Heaven; Hard by, in the Neighbourhood of Heaven: Purlieu is [...] Fr. word, (as most of our Law Terms are) of Pur Pure, and Lieu a Place, and denotes Ground adjoyning to, and being accounted part of any Forest, by Hen. 2. and other Kings, was by Perambulation granted by Hen. 3. separated again from the same, and adjudged Purlieu, that is, pure and free from the Laws of the Forest: So Satan calls the World, A Seat of Bliss, bordering upon his Native Heaven.

V. 835. Perhaps our vacant Room; To supply and fill the Places we have lost in Heaven; Sedes vacantes, Our Seats empty since our Rebellion.

V. 836. Surcharg'd with potent Multitude; O'recharg'd, o'restock'd with mighty Multitude: Potens, Lat. powerfull: Surcharg'd, of Surcharger, Fr. to overload, to overburthen.

[Page 86] V. 842. Wing silently the buxom Air; Fly unperceiv'd thorough the yielding Air: Buxom▪ plyable, yielding, of the Sax. Bocrum, tractable, obedient; Buxomness in Chaucher is put for Lowliness, Humility. Spencer makes it the Epithete of the Air; And therewith Scourge the Buxom Air so sore. F. Q B. 1. C. 11. St. 37.’

Ibid. Imbalm'd with Odours; Scented and delighted with the sweet Fragrancy of the Spicey [...]dian Air, breathing Perfumes and Aromatic Odours: Imbalm'd, Embaumé, Fr. put up and preserved with Balm and precious Spices, as Princes and great Persons are at their Death, á Word well applied to caress the ugly Fantom: Odours, of Odor, Lat. for any sweet Smell or Perfume. [...]

V. 846. Grin'd horrible a gastly Smile; And grim Death grin'd out a frightful Smile: Grin'd or Girn'd, of the Ital. Grignare, with open'd Mouth to shew ones Teeth between Smiling and Snarling: Gastly, dreadful, terrible, as if Ghostly.

V. 847. His Famine should be fill'd, and blest his Maw; To hear the time should come, when his famelic hungry Guts should be stuff'd, and praised his mighty Maw reserved for that same lucky hour: Famine, of the Fr. Famine, and that of Fames, Lat. Hunger: Maw, of the Sax. Ma­ga, the Stomach: Destin'd, of Destinare, Lat. to appoint.

V. 858. Into this gloom of Tartarus profound; Into the dark Dungeon of deepest Hell: Gloom, of the Sax. Glommung, Twilight, Glimmering: Tartarus, Lat. of [...], Gr. the lowest, deepest Pit of Hell, of [...], Gr. to confound, to disorder, there being Confusions and Per­turbations everlasting: Bis nigra videre Tartara. AEn. 6. Profound, Lat. Profundus, deep.

V. 860. Inhabitant of Heaven, &c. Who dwelt in Heaven, and am born therein: Inhabi­tant, of Inhabitare, to dwell or reside in a Place; Sin calls her self Heavenly born, Native of the bright Regions above, because the Wicked Angels sinn'd probably before the World was made, as our Poet supposeth, intimating that Man was Created to supply the Vacancies made in the Heavenly Quires by their Downfall, and Ejection from thence, as before, V. 834.

V. 861. Here in perpetual Agony; In continual Anguish, and extreme Pain: Agony, signifies any great Anxiety, immoderate Anguish, or Trouble; 'tis expressive of the last Efforts and Conflicts of the Soul and Body at their sad Separation, of [...]. Strife, Contention, such as those of the famous Games of Greece, of [...], Gr. Certamen, from the strict Discipline, and the mighty Concern those Combatants had of succeeding in so renowned and public Under­takings, made to signifie the most tormenting Apprehensions of Shame and Disgrace.

V. 864. My Author; The first Founder and Inventer of Sin, as Satan was, of Author, Lat. the Maintainer and Abetter ab Auctoritate.

V. 869. Voluptuous; Pampered with all sensual Delights: Voluptuosus, Lat. given to Pleasure, of Voluptas, Lat.

V. 873. Rouling her Bestial Train; Drawing after her the Snaky Folds, of which her lower Parts consisted (as before): Rouling, of Rouler, Fr. to twist and twine as Serpents do themselves, moving circularly: Bestial, Beast-like, of Bestia, Lat. a Beast: Train, that Skirt of a Ladies Gown that draws on the Ground, of Trainer, Fr. to draw.

V. 874. The huge Portcullis; Is a Gate made of Grated Iron Bars, to be let slip down upon the approach of an Enemy to a City, its own weight, and the Bars shapened at the bottom, fix it in the Ground; of Porte, Fr. a Door, and Coulisse, Fr. for a thing made to slip up and down, of Couler, Fr. to slide.

V. 877. The intricate Wards; The difficult Passages and Turnings in a Lock that hinder any other Key from passing them, that is not made for the purpose: Intricatus, Lat. hard to hit, to discover: Wards, of Guarder, to keep, to secure, no one shall enter without leave.

V. 880. With impetuous Recoile, &c. In a instant Hell Gates fly open with violent rebound, and jarring noise, which made their grating Hinges imitate hoarse Thunder, that the very Foundations shook of its dark Dungeon. Impetuous Recoile, with violent Repulse: Impetuo­sus, Lat. furious, forcible: Recoile, of Reculer, Fr. to force back, to Retreat hastily and furiously. Jarring Sound, a grating Noise; to Jar, signifies here, to make such a sound as Hinges made of Metal do by a sudden turn and mighty weight, and seems to be Coined on purpose from the Noise so made, [...]. Foribus cardo stridebat ahenis. AEn. 1.’

V. 881. On their Hinges grate harsh Thunder;

—Horrisono stridentes carrdine sacrae
Panduntur Portae.—AEn. 6.
Does not make so terrible a Noise.

V. 883. The lowest bottom shook of Erebus; Of Hell, the most profound depth of Hell: Erebus, [...]. Of [...] the Earth, or [...] to cover, as being supposed under, or in the Center of the Earth. [Page 87] Erebi de sedibus imis. Geor. 4.’ Pallentes umbras Erebi. AEn. 6.’

V. 885. That with extended Wings; The Gates when opened were so wide, that with its Wings stretch'd out, and all their Colours flying, with Horse and Chariots in their loosest Order ranged, a Royal Army with all its square Banners might pass through them: Banner'd, of Banniere, Fr. for a square Flag or Standard. Rank'd in loose Array, drawn in their open Order: Rank'd, Rangé, Fr. Array, of the Fr. Arroy, Order; we say, In Battle array, when an Army or Body of Men is drawn into Order ready to give the Onset: Arroyer, Fr. to order a Battel.

889. Redounding Smoak, &c. Cast forth a mighty Smoak, of Redundans, excessive, Parti. of Redundare, to abound: Ruddy, of the Sax. Rudu, Redness: Furnace, of Furnax, Lat. an Oven.

V. 891. The Secrets of the hoary Deep; Before his Eyes all at once appear, the inmost Cham­bers and the dark Recesses of the ancient Deep, where Night (perpetual Darkness) and Chaos▪ (everlasting Confusion), the Parents and Predecessors of all Created Beings, dwell. Hoary, grey, and consequently old, of the Sax. Haryan, to grow old and grey: Secrets, Secreta, Lat. Things hid and unknown.

V. 892. Illimitable Ocean; A boundless Ocean: Illimitable, without Bound, as expoun­ded in the end of the Verse; of Limitare, Lat. to bound, to confine: Ocean, of [...], Gr. [...], from its swiftness.

V. 894. Where eldest Night and Chaos, &c. Night and Chaos, that is, Darkness and Confu­sion, are so near Privation and Non-entity, that they might well be styled, The Ancestors of the Creation; Things that have no Being, are, as to us, in unconceivable Darkness. Thus Orpheus in his Hymn on Night, accounted by him and many others a Goddess,

[...]
[...].—

Makes her a Mother of all Things, and not undeservedly, since the Poets, in those early Ages of the World, had so little Light into the bright Original of all Things: Ancestors, of the Fr. Ancestres, contracted of the Lat. Antecessores, those that were before, Predecessors.

V. 895. Eternal Anarchie; Keep everlasting Misrule and Disorder; what can be less ima­gined under the Empire of Darkness and Confusion, Beauty and Order were the Offspring of Creation. Anarchie, [...], Gr. the State of those that have no kind of Government among 'em, where every one is Lawless, and Might takes Place, a State of Confusion, described by the four first Qualities, Hot, Cold, Moist, and Dry, Warring continually on one another.

V. 900. Their Embryon Atoms; Their yet imperfect Atoms, their unfinished and imperceive­able Individuals, their imperfect Motes: Embryon, of the Gr. [...], is an imperfect and shapeless Creature enclosed in its Mother or Dam's Womb, of [...] and [...], to spring and shoot like a Plant in its first Formation.

Ibid. Atoms; [...], Things so minute and small, that they were incapable of division into lesser Particles, of whose blind and fortuitous Concourse, Epicurus and Democritus fancied the Glorious Universe to have been made; a Whimsy so ill agreeing with our Author's Philo­sophy, that he has allowed their Atoms a very different Place from any in Nature, esteeming them aright, the Offspring and Subjects of blind Ignorance, and black Confusion.

V. 901. In their several Clans; In their several Tribes, in their divers Companies: Clan is a Word among the Highland Scots, signifying a Tribe, perhaps of the British Llann Area, to denote those that live on the same Spot, or on Lands belonging to one of their great Leading Chiefs.

V. 902. Light Arm'd, or heavy; Having engaged these contesting Atoms, as before (Amongst the Noise of endless Wars,) at V. 286. he continues the Warlike Metaphor, some of them are light Arm'd, or heavy, Levis or Gravis Armaturae, according to their Inclinations to the Qualities, Dry or Moist, and thence Swifter or Slower, &c.

V. 904. Of Barca or Cyrene's torrid Soil; As numberless as the Sands in the fiery Region of Barca or Cyrene. Barca, the Chief City of the sandy Libya; of which, Silius Ital. AEternumque arida Barce. Lib. 2.’

Of this Country, and its Inhabitants:

Hinc deserta siti regio, lutéque furentes Barcaei. AEn. 4.
Barce sitientibus arida venis. Sil. Ital. lib. 3.

[Page 88] Cyrene, a Province of the thirsty Libya, full of Sand, and deficient in Water; it had five Cities in it, of which Cyrene was the Chief, and gave Name to the whole Country; it was built by Battus, one of their Kings.

Nec non Cyrene Pelopei stirpe nepotis,
Battiadas parves fidei stimulavit in arma. Sil. Ital. l. 3.

Soil, of Solum, Lat. Earth, Ground; the comparison of these flying Clouds of Sands, does not only suit well with Atoms as to their Infinitude, but as to their Motion also, according to the Epicurean and Democritic Hypothesis, of the Atomical Structure of the Vniverse.

V. 905. Levy'd to side with Warring Winds; Raised for the Service of conflicting Winds, of Lever, Fr. to raise: Warring Winds, fighting Winds, not engaging one against another, but making War with whatsoever stands in their way.

Regna videt pauper Nasamon errantia vento,
Discussasque domos: Volitantque a culmine raptae
Detecto Garamante casae. Non altius ignis
Rapta vehit: Quantumque licet consurgere fumo,
Et violare diem, tantum tenet aera Pulvis. Luc. l. 9.

The Roman Soldiers that marched through Libya with the Noble Cato, had a terrible En­counter with one of these Storms of Sand and Wind intermix'd.

Tum quoque Romanum solito violentior agmen
Aggreditur, nullusque potest consistere miles
Instabilis, raptis etiam, quas calcat, arenis.
Sic orbem torquente noto, Romana juventus
Pr [...]ubuit, metuensque rapi, &c. Ibid.

Ibid. To poise their lighter Wings; To give weight to their airy Blasts, and thereby encrease their mighty force; Cambyses, infamous for his Impiety against the Gods of his Times, as well as for his Cruelty to Men, sent an Army to overturn the Temple of Jupiter Ammon, (which when Alexander visited, he saw in four days time neither Man, Beast, Bird, Tree, nor River) seated in the most Southern part of Cyrene, but the Prince of the Air encountered his Forces with such a dreadful Tempest of flying Sand, that it overbore them, and buried most of them in the Libyan Desert.

Alligat & stantes affusae magnus arenae
Agger, & immoti terrâ surgente tenentur. Luc. l. 9.

To Poise, Peser, Fr. the Winds are said to ballance themselves with Sand, to add the more Weight to their Fury. This seems an imitation of Virgil concerning Bees:

—Adventantibus Euris
—Saepe lapillos,
Ut cymbae instabiles fluctu jactante suburram,
Tollunt: his sese per inania nubila librant. Geor. 4.

Balance, Poise themselves.

V. 906. To whom these most adhere; He of these four Champions, to whom most of these aiding Atoms joyn themselves, is for one moment Master of Misrule. This place is mistaken by Mr. Hog, the Latin Translator of our Author, who has thus expressed it:

Cui se miscuerant vento, magis ille parumper
Imperat.

Adhere, of Adhaerere, to stick to, to side with.

V. 907. Chaos Umpire sit; Confusion sits Judge of the Contest, and by his Judgment does encrease the Quarrel, thereby supporting his own Power. An Umpire, is a Person to whose Judg­ment and Equity the Determination of any Controversie is referred: Decision, of Decisio, Lat. for determining, deciding, of Decidere, to determine or judge.

V. 908. Imbroils the Fray; Makes the Contest more intricate and endless: Imbroils, of Em­brouiller, Fr. to intangle, to confound: Fray, a Quarrel, a Scuffle, of the Fr. Effrayer, to affright.

V. 910. High Arbiter—Chance governs all; Chance, or Fortune, most commonly so called, may well be the chief Substitute of Chaos, a fit Deputy to Confusion, of which many have as great an Esteem now adays, as the Heathens had formerly. [Page 89] Sors omnia versat. Ecl. 10.’

Fors incerta vagatur
Fertque refertque vices & habent mortalia casum. Luc. 2.
Fortuna omnipotens & ineluctabile fatum;
Fortune and Fate seeming Contradictions. AEn. 8.

Arbiter, Lat. for an Elective Judge between Man and Man, and seems the same with Umpire: Chance, of the Fr. Chance, of Cheance, what may happen, of Cheoir, Fr. to fall out, to chance.

Ibid. Into this wild Abyss, &c. Into this wide gawping Gulf, the Womb of all Things, and perhaps their Tomb, into this empty Chasma, this vast Hollow that contains, nor Sea, nor Land, nor Air, nor Fire, but all this mix'd together in their powerful Causes, big with them, strugling and contending, and which must always do so, unless it shall please GOD Almighty, the Maker of all Things, to use them as the hidden Materials of more Worlds, and by his powerful Word, to distinguish and bring them into Being. Abyss, [...], Gr. is here to be understood, of a bottomless Deep, a vast Emptiness, immeasurable and immense, styled by him before, The Hoarie Deep, V. 891. and there described of the Privative [...] and [...], bottom; used Revel. 9. v. 1, and 2. The bottomless Pit, understood there, and in other places of that dark Book, of Hell.

V. 916. His dark Materials; His secret Materials, how the World, and all Things it con­tains, was made of Nothing by the Almighty Architect, is so obscure to our finite Under­standings, that the Materials may well be called Dark: Materials, of Materialis, belonging to the Matter, Materia, Lat.

V. 919. For no narrow Frith he had to cross; For he had no small Streight to pass: Frith, of Fretum, a narrow Sea, streighten'd between the Land.

V. 921. To compare, &c. Sic parvis componere magna solebam: Virg. Ecl. 1. Compare, Com­parare, Lat. to liken to.

V. 922. Then when Bellona storms, &c. Nor was his Ear assaulted with Noises less roaring and destructive than are those made by War, when some chief City is attack'd and storm'd with all its battering Rams, or thundering Cannons, Mortars, and Bombs. Bellona was the Goddess of War, and Sister to Mars, described with a bloudy Whip in her hand, to shew how severe a Scourge and Plague War is. Quam cum sanguineo sequitur Bellona flagello. AEn. 18.’

V. 923. Bent to Rase; Resolved to destroy: Rase, of the Fr. Raser, or Rayer, to lay even with the Ground, to destroy, of the Lat. Radere, or of the Gr. [...], to break. Engin, B. 1. V. 570. Capital, B. 1. V. 756. Battering Engins, formerly Rams, now Cannon and Mortars; Battering, of the Fr. Batre, to beat down.

V. 924. Or less than if this Frame; Or with less noise than if the whole Frame of Nature, disjoynted now, were falling, and the quarrelling Elements, all in an Uproar and mad Mutiny, had from her Center rent and torn the Earth, hitherto immoveable; Succidere horrisono posse omnia victa fragore. Luc. l. 5.’

Pene reluctatis iterum pugnantia rebus
Rupissent Elementa fidem. Claud. de Rapt. Proser. l. 1.

Seems expressive of the Mutiny here meant: Mutinie, of the Ital. Mutino, and this of Mu­tire, Lat. to murmur, Seditions and Mutinies in Armies generally beginning so.

V. 926. From her Axle; Axle, of Axis, Lat. and this of [...], Gr. an Axle-Tree, thence made to signifie the Diameter of the Earth, being an imaginary Line drawn through its Center from the North to the South Pole. Stedfast, immoveable Earth, against their Opinion that suppose it to move, and the Sun to stand still.

V. 927. His Sail-broad Vannes; At last he spreads his Wings as broad as Sails; Velorum pan­dimus alas, says Virg. AEn. 1. Nothing is more usual with him, than to apply Swimming to Birds (or to those who imitated them) through the Air, and Flying to Ships. Volat ille per aera magnum Remigio Alarum. AEn. 1.’

And, Mare velivolum—Gelidas enavit ad Artos. AEn. 2.’

Vannes, of Vanner, Fr. to winnow; or of the Lat. Vannus, a Van, with which they winnow Corn, whence the word Fan.

[Page 90] V. 928. The surging Smoak; The rising, ascending, á Surgendo, Lat. from its tending up­wards.

V. 929. Uplifted spurns the Ground; Spurning the Ground lifts himself up into the rising Smoak: Spurn, of Sporan, Sax▪ to k [...]ck, to strike with the Foot.

V. 932. A vast Vacuity; An absolute Emptiness, a huge Vacuum: Vacuitas, Lat. Empti­ness.

V. 933. Fluttering his Pennors vain; Shaking his Wings in vain down-right he falls: Flut­ter, of the Sax. Floteran, to beat the Air, to wag the Wings as Birds when weary, of the Lat. Fluctuare: Pennons, Wings, of Penna, Lat. Plomb down, directly down; Plomb, Fr. Lead, and a Carpenter's Plummet, being a Ball of Lead fastened to a String, by which they guide their Work; so that á Plomb, is perpendicularly, downright, of the Lat. Plumbum, Lead.

V. 935. Had not by ill chance the strong Rebuff; Had not by ill luck the violent blast of some furious Cloud, loaden and big with Fire and Nitre, driven him back again as many Miles aloft: Rebuff, Fr. of Re the aggravating Particle, and Bouffee a Blast, and it signifies here, a sud­den Storm, and furious Repulse, burst from something like a Cloud made up of Nitrous Fire, for our Poet is describing Satan's flight through a Tract where there is nothing distinguishable, or to be named by any distinct created Being: Tumult [...]ous, Tumultuosus, Lat. tempestuous, furious.

V. 937. Instinct with Fire and Nitre; Provoked and pushed on by Fire and Nitre: Instinctus, Lat. pushed forward: Nitre, [...], Heb. Nitrum, is of a substance like Salt, of Colour ruddy or white, and porous like a Sponge, the more unknown, the better suiting our description here: Hurried him, forced him furiously, drove him, Fr. Harier, to toil, to harrass.

V. 939. Quench'd in a b [...]g [...]y Syr [...]is; That fiery Rebuff ceased, quenched and put out by a soft Quick-sand: Syrtis is explained by Neither Sea, nor good dry Land, exactly agreeing with Lucan.

Syrtes, vel primam Mundo natura figuram
Cum daret, in dubio Pelagi, Terraeque reliquit, &c. Phar. l. 9.

Boggy, yielding, sinking, as the Irish Bogs do: Syrtis, as if [...], of [...], to draw, be­cause it is an indraught of Sand, Mud, and Stones, that compose it, as Salust. tells us: In hospita Syrtis. Virg.

V. 940. Nigh foundred, on he fares; Almost lamed, on he goes: Foundred, B. 1. V. 204. Fares, of the Teut. Fahren, to go, to journey; hence Seafaring.

V. 941. Treading the crude Consistence; Treading the Bog, marching o're the yielding Quag­mire: Crude, of Crudus, raw, soft, not well disgested: Consistence, of Consistere, Lat. to hang or grow together.

V. 942. Behoves him now, &c. It behoveth him now to use both his Oars and Sails, as Gal­leys do, according to the Proverb, Remis Velisque, With might and main.

V. 943. As when a Gryphon; As when a Gryphon, to his winged haste, adds his swift Feet through some wild Desart, where o're Hill and Dale he eagerly pursues the trembling Arima­spian; whose sly Hand has from his wakeful Watch born of the Gold committed to his Guard. Gryphon, [...], Gr. a strange Creature, like Eagles as to their Wings and Beaks, in all the rest of their Bodies resembling Lions; they were dedicated to Apollo the God of Gold, whose Beams have no small influence in the formation of that yellow Metal; and therefore these Grifons are fabled to have been its Guardians, being found in sandy Desarts. These Creatures are said to have great Enmity against Horses; whence Virg. Jungentur jam Gryphes Equis. Ecl. 8.’

Pliny esteems 'em Fabulous and Poetical Monsters, Lib. 10. c. 49.

V. 944. With Winged Course; Both of Wings and Feet to fit the Comparison to Half on foot, half flring and to make it square the better with Both Oar and Sail, as above: Moary Dale, wa­try fenny Valley, of Moor, a Fen, a Bog, of Moer, Belg. Mud.

V. 945. Pursues the Arimaspian; Lucan in his Pharsalia mentions these Arimaspians and makes 'em Natives of Scythia, adorning their Heads with Gold.

Hinc & Sithoniae gentes, auroque ligat [...]
Substringens Arimaspe comas. Lib. 3.
Quodque legit dives summis Arimaspus Arenis. Lib. 7.

Aulus Gellius tells us, that in some fabulous Greek Authors, he found the Arimaspians placed among the Scythians, and described to be People that had but one Eye in the middle of their Foreheads like the Cyclops. Nect. Attic. l. 9. c. 4.

V. 946. From his wakeful Custody purloin'd; The Golden Apples in the Hesperian Garden were guarded by Dragons that never slept.

[Page 91]
Et nunquam somno damnatus Lumina Serpens
Robora complexus rutilo curvata metallo. Luc. l. 9.

The Golden Fleece was guarded by as vigilant and wakeful a Watch.

Pervigilem superest herbis sopire draconem
Qui cristâ linguisque tribus praesignis & uncis
Dentibus horrendus, custos erat arietis aurei. Met. l. 7.

Both expressive of unhappy Covetousness, that hinders the hoarders of sound Sleep: Purloin'd, stolen, of the old Fr. Purloigner, as when a Grifon seized of his Prey. F. Que. Cant. 5. Stan. 8.

V. 948. Dense or rare; Through thick or thin: Densus, Lat. thick, close: Rarus, Lat. thin, ratified.

V. 951. A Universal Hubbub wild; A strange and general Uproar; the word Hubbub seems coined of the confused Noise made by many low Voices at a distance, and is so expounded in the following Verse, of Stunning Sounds and Voices all confused: Stunning, of Estonans, Fr. asto­nishing.

V. 960. And his dark Pavilion spread; Chaos (Confusion) is made the Supreme Power of the nethermost Abyss, and his Royal Tent and dark Throne is said to be spread at large over the wasteful Deep, appointed to no end as not coming within the compass of Creation: Pavi­lion, is a Royal Tent, of the Lat Papilio, a Butterfly, whose Wings resemble it as Pliny tells us; Pavilion, in Fr. is used for the Flag of that Country, as Arborer le Pavilion de France, is to carry the French Flag.

V. 962. Sat Sable vested Night; Sat Night in her dark Dress: Night was by the Heathen esteemed a Goddess, the Mother of Love, Deceit, old Age, Death, Sleep, and Dreams, of Fear and Darkness; her black Hair was Crowned with Poppies, in an Ebony Chariot drawn by black Horses, and had a White Boy (Sleep) and a Black-a-moor (Death) in her Arms. Sable vested, cloathed in her Sable Furs; a Sable, is a Creature, whose Skin is of the greater Price, the blacker it is: Vested, of Vestire, Lat. to cloath: [...]. Eurip. in Jove.

Ibid. Eldest of Things; As before, V. 894. A Title she maintained, even when the Creation was Commenced, Darkness was upon the Deep, Gen. 1. v. 1.

V. 963. The Consort of his Reign; The Queen of Chaos, as at V. 896. Consort, of Consors, Lat. a Partner of his Power.

V. 964. Orcus and Ades; Signifie the same thing, the first being Latin, the other Greek, for a dark dismal Dungeon: [...], of [...] Privative, and [...] to see, thence used for Hell, as Virgil expresses it:

—Mediisque in faucibus Orci
Et tristes sine sole domos, loca turbida. AEn. 6.

So Homer, [...].— [...].’

V. 965.—And the dreadful Name of Demogorgon; [...], A Deity that with­out danger could behold the Gorgon's Head, which turned all the Spectators into Stones.

—An ille
Compellandus erit, quo nunquam terra citato
Non concussa tremit, qui Gorgona cernit apertam. Luc. l. 6.

This dreadful Demogorgon is thus hinted at by the Italian Tasso.

Per lungo disusar già non si scorda
Del' arte crude, il più efficace aiuto:
E sò con lingua anch' iò di sangue lorda,
Quel nom proferir grande, & temuto,
A cui nè Dite mai ritrorsa, ò sorda,
Nè trasourato in vibidir fù Pluto.
Che si? Che si? Volea più dir, mà intanto
Conobbe, che seguite, era lo'neanto. Tass. Ca. 13. St. 10.

Some take this Demogorgon for the Chief of the Gods, the [...] of Plato, and Creator of all Things, whose Name was concealed in imitation of that ineffable appellation of God, seldom pronounced by the Jews.

[Page 92]
Scimus enim & quicquid dici noscique timetis,
Et turbare Hecaten, ni te Tymbraee vererer.
Et triplicis mundi summum, quem scire nefastum est,
Illud sed taceo.—Stat. Theb. 1.

Our Poet has followed Spencer in placing this terrible Bugbare in the immense Abyss.

Down in the bottom of the deep Abyss,
Where Demogorgon in dull Darkness pent;
Far from the view of Gods, and Heav'nly Bliss,
The hideous Chaos keeps, their dreadful Dwelling is. F. Q. B. 4. Ca. 2. St. 47.
Which was begot in Demogorgon's Hall,
And saw'st the Secrets of the World unmade. Cant. 5. St. 22.

Ibid. Rumor next, and Chance, &c. Uncertain Rumor, fickle Chance, enraged Tumult, mad Confusion, and distracted Discord, able and fit Supporters of such a jarring and confounded State. Rumor, Lat, Bruit, Report, à Ruendo, from the speed it makes to disperse it self. —Rumoresque serit varios. AEn. 12.’

Tumult, of Tumultus, Lat. Sedition, a sudden Hurly-burly, as if Tumor multus, a popular Storm.

—Simul ingens clamor & omnes
Turbati cunei, calefactaque corda tumultu. AEn. 12.

Confusion all imbroil'd; Confusio, Lat. All imbroil'd, disordering and entangling every thing: Imbroil'd, Embrouillé, Fr. of en and brouillé, hunddled together.

V. 967. Discord; Discordia, Lat. Disagreement, with a thousand various Mouths, of a thou­sad different Opinions: Varius, Lat. different, disagreeing. Virgil dresses her in a torn Coat: Et scissâ gaudens vadit discordia Pallâ. AEn. 8.’

In another place, he has dress'd her Head with as many Snakes as Milton has given her Mouths.

—Discordia demens
Vipereum crinem vittis innexa cruentis. AEn. 6.

V. 977. Where your gloomy Bounds confine with Heaven; Where the Boundaries of your dark Empire border on Heaven's illustrious Realms: Confine, of Confinire, Lat. to border on.

V. 978. Dominion, Lat. Dominium, Empire, Kingdom: Etherial King, GOD Almighty: AEthereus, Lat. of Heaven. Cui Rex AEtherei breviter sic fatur Olympi. AEn. 10.’

V. 980. I Travel this Profound; I Journey through this vast Deep: Per inane profundum. Luc. l. 1.’

V. 982. To your behoof; To your advantage: Behoof, and behoveth, of Behere, Sax. gain.

V. 983. All Usurpation thence expell'd; If I bring back that part of the lost Kingdom, and driving thence all its Usurpers, recover and reduce it to its ancient state of Darkness, and bring it under your Power again, which is the aim of this my Undertaking and tedious Travel. Usurpation, Usurpatio, Lat. the distrubing and invading the Right and Possession of another: Expell'd, driven out, of Expellere, Lat. to drive away: Sway, Rule, Government, of the Verb to sway, to rule.

V. 986. Erect the Standard; Set up, or display the Banner: Standard, of the Fr. Estandart, or the Ital. Stendardo, both from Extendendo, to stretch out, it signifying a large and extended Banner.

V. 988. The Anarch old; Chaos, the ancient Master of Misrule: [...], one that wants a Governor or Prince, of [...], Gr. without, and [...], a King, or Leader. [...] is twice used by Homer in [...]. where mustering the Troops commanded by Protesilaus and Philoctetes, of which one was killed, and the other left behind, he says however,

[...]:
They were not without a Commander.

[Page 93] But the Power (Chaos) called here Anarch, may well enough be interpreted, that he was sub­ject to no Command, thô he had but very little over the Subjects of his confounded Kingdom.

V. 989. With faultring Speech, &c. With Words disordered, and Looks ill-assured: Faul­tring, faint, of the Span. Faltar, to faint, and Falta, a Swound: Visage incomposed, out of Coun­tenance, Incompositus, Lat. disordered, out of fashion.

V. 995. With Ruine upon Ruine, &c. Totally broken, and utterly ruined: Ruina, Lat. for undoing: Rout, of the Fr. Route, the running away of an Army, of the Verb Rompre, to break.

V. 996. Confusion worse confounded; Confounded and driven through the Kingdom of Con­fasion.

V. 998. I upon my Frontiers; I upon the Confines of my Kingdom keep my Court, and reside: Frontiers, of Frontiere, Fr. the Bounds of a Prince's Territories, from the Lat. Frons, the Forehead.

V. 1001. Encroach'd on still; Gained upon daily by our home-bred Quarrels: Encroach'd, of the Fr. Accrocher, to hook and draw in: An Encroachment, (the Law Term,) or Accroachment, Accrochement, Fr. is an unlawful gaining or gathering in upon another Man's Right. Intestine Broils, our Domestic and Civil Jars: Intestinum, the Bowels, the Intrals, Civil War being in the very Bowels of a Nation, and thence the more dangerous: Broils, of Brouiller, Fr. to jumble together, to confound.

V. 1002. Weakening the Scepter; Infeebling and destroying the Empire of ancient Night, Scepters and Crowns being the Emblems and Representations, as well as Ornaments of Power.

V. 1009. Havock; Slaughter, Destruction, of Haroc, Sax. for the bloody and rapacious Bird a Hawk.

V. 1011 His Sea should find ashore; That his Voyage and Travel should have an end.

V. 1012. With fresh Alacrity; With more Courage, and renew'd Vigour: Alacritas, Lat. chearfulness, of Alacer, Lat. sprightly, vigorous.

V. 1013. Springs upward like a Pyramid; Raises himself directly upright like a pointed flame of Fire: Pyramid, [...], a Geometrical Figure so called, of [...], Fire, because shaped like ascending Fire and Flame, whose Nature is to mount. The famous Egyptian Pyramids, the expensive and astonishing Tombs of their Kings, are of this Figure.

V. 1014. Into the wild Expanse; Into the vast Space, from Expandere, Lat. to stretch out, the Expanse signifying properly the Air, Firmament, the Heavens, or whatever else, is spread out over us.

Ibid. Through the Shock, &c. Through the strugle and encounter of the Warring Elements hudled together in their pregnant Causes, as V. 913. Shock, a Charging, an Encounter, of the Fr. Choc, and Choquer, to Engage as Armies do.

V. 1016. Environ'd; Encompass'd, surrounded, of Environer, Fr. to enclose.

V. 1017. When Argo past; Argo was either the first Ship, (as the Poets tell us) or the most considerable of those times, built for the Expedition to Colchos; it took its Name either of Argos, its Architect, or of the the Argives, the Grecians who sailed in it, or of [...], Gr. swift, from its good Sailing.

Non Palladiâ compacta manu, regum referens,
Inclyta remos quaeritur Argo. Sen. Mede.
—Et altera quae vehat Argo
Delectos Heroas.—Virg. Ecl. 4.
Inde lacessitum primò mare, cum rudis Argo
Miscuit ignotas temerato littore gentes,
Primaque cum ventis, pelagi (que) furentibus undis
Composuit mortale genus, fatisque per illam
Accessit mors una ratem. Luc. Phars. l. 3.

V. 1018. Through Bosphorus; Through the Streights of the Thracian Bosphorus: [...], of [...], an Oxe, the Passage being so narrow, that Cattle swam over from one Shore to the other.

Ibid. Betwixt the justling Rocks; Are two Rocks lying in the Mouth of the Euxine or Black Sea, which are said to justle one another, because they seemed at a distance to be but one great Rock, and to divide or open as Ships approach'd 'em; they were called Symplegades, Syndromi­des, of which our Poet in his Justling Rocks has given the true Interpretation:—Cum duo montes, Claustra profundi, hinc atque illinc subito impulsu, velut AEtherio, Gemerent sonitu; spargeret astra Nubesque ipsas mare deprensum. Sen. Med.

Homer's description of 'em may be seen: [...], &c. [...].’

[Page 94] V. 1019. Or when Ulysses, &c. When Ulysses avoided Charybdis, leaving it on his left hand, and past by the dangerous Whirlpool Scylla, as Circe advised him, [...]. Ulysses, one of the Grecian Conquerors of Troy, Son of Laertes King of Ithaca and Dulichia, two small Ionian Islands; this Hero is Eternized by Homer, not only in his Iliads, but by a Book as big, com­posed of his Travels, and entituled by his Name. Larbord, the left side of a Ship, Leverbord, of the Lat. Laevits, left. Scylla latus dextrum, laevum irrequieta Charybdis. Met. 13.’

V. 1020. Charybdis; A dangerous and tumultuous Sea near Sicily, hard by Messana; Homer describes it, [...]. about 100 Verses from the beginning: Virgil imitates him in all but his Prolixity.

—Laevum implicata Charybdis
Obsidet: atque imo barathri ter gurgite vastos
Sorbet in abruptum fluctus, rursusque sub auras
Erigit alternos, & sidera verberat undis. AEn. 3.

They derive Charybdis, of [...] to gape, and [...] to suck in, and by all the Poets re­corded a most voracious Whirlpool.

—Ratibusque inimica Charybdis
Nunc sorbere fretum, nunc reddere. Met. 7.

Ibid. The other Whirlpool, Scylla; Of which before, V. 660. To which you may subjoyn,

Cum siculi Virgo Pelori,
Rabidos utero succincta canes,
Omnes pariter solvit hiatus,
Quis non totos horruit artus,
Toties uno latrante monstro. Sen. Med.

Whirlpool, a Gulf, swallowing and sinking all that comes within its Circle, of Wearelen, Bel. to turn round, and Pool, of Palus, Lat.

V. 1025. Following his Track; Following his Footsteps: Track, of the Fr. Trace, or Trac, the print of the Foot, or a Path made by Footsteps; of the Lat. Tractus, a Wheel, or the Tract and Way made by it.

V. 1026. Paved after him a broad, &c. Wide is the Gate, and broad is the Way that leadeth to Destruction, and many there be that go in thereat, Matth. 7. v. 13. Paved, made firm, and fixed with, and pitcht with Stones, of the Fr. Paver, and that of Pavire, to strike, of [...], the Greek signifying also to strike, Stones being so ram'd and beaten into the Streets.

V. 1031. With easie Intercourse; With free access, with easie and open way: Intercourse, of the Lat. Intercursus, properly a going between, from place to place, of Inter the Preposition, and Currere, Lat. to run, to move.

V. 1034. The Sacred Influence; The Divine Streams, the Beautiful and Heavenly Beams of Light discover themselves: Influence, of Influentia, and this of Influere, Lat. to flow and stream easily into; a word wonderfully fitted to express the swift and immediate Influxes of the pure Streams of Light, of which more in the beginning of the Third Book.

V. 1036. Shoots far—a glimmering Dawn; And from the Chrystal Sky darts far into the Bosom of dark Night, the chearful break of Day: Glimmering, B. 1. V. 182. Dawn, the break of Day, of the Sax. Daegian, to grow day.

V. 1038. Her fardest Verge; Here the Creation, and all Created Nature, have their utmost Bounds: Fardest, is the Superlative of Far, from the Sax. Feor, or the Belg. Varre, distant from: Verge, of the Fr. Verge, and this is of the Lat. Virga, a Rod, is in our Law-Books called Vir­gata, and is the compass of the King's Court, whose most considerable Officers carry Virga's, i. e. White Staffs, to denote their Authority. See Stat. 33 Hen. 8. c. 12.

V. 1039. As from her utmost, &c. Retreating like an Enemy beaten from his Out-works.

V. 1040. With less Hostile Din; With less furious Noise: Hostile Din, such a violent Cla­mour and Shout as Engaging Armies make: Hostilis, Lat. of Hostis, Lat. an Enemy. Din, of the Sax. Dyn, a Noise, coined of such a sort of Sound as the Lat. Tinnio is.

V. 1042. Wafts on the calmer Wave; Sails more easily or'e the smoother Sea, more swift, Wings through the gentle Air his way. I have shewed before, that Flying and Sailing are Me­taphors convertible, and used alternately by the Poets: Calmer, of Calm, of the Fr. Calme, gentle, smooth, applicable both to the Seas and Skies, as depending on the Winds, which raise and trouble both; it is very probable, that the Original is from [...], Gr. heat, of [...], to burn, because in great heats the Weather is generally calm, from want of Wind. Waft seems a Derivative of Wave, a dancing o're the Waves.

[Page 95] V. 1044.—Holds gladly the Port; And like a Weather-beaten Ship is got safe into Har­bour, where the Sailers rejoyce, thô damaged in her Sails and Rigging: Shrouds, are the Sails, the Cloathing of the Ship, of the Sax. Scrud, Cloathing: Tackle, of the Belg. Taeckel, a Rope.

V. 1045. Or in the emptier Waste; Or in the thinner Space, much like the Air, poises his out-stretch'd Wings, flaps his broad Wings, poizing himself: Waste, of the Belg. Waest, empty, desolate, of the Lat. Vastus, great, wide: Resembling, Ressemblant, Fr. like to.

V. 1048. In Circuit, undetermin'd Square; Stretch'd out wide in compass, hard to determine whether square or round as to its Shape and Figure: Circuit, of Circuitus, Lat. the compass of a City, or any Inclosure. What Figure the Empyreal Heaven is of, may be very hard to de­termine, but the Héavenly Jerusalem, described in the Revelations, is said to be four-square, Revel. 21. v. 16. Square, of the Ital. Squadrare, the corruption of Quadrare, Lat. to square: Round, Fr. Rond, of Rotundus, Lat. of a Circular Shape.

V. 1049. With Opal Towers; With Towers of Precious Stones: Opal, Lat. Opalum, a Stone of divers Colours, partaking of the Carbuncles faint Fire, the Amethists shining Purple, and the Emralds pleasing Green.

V. 1050. Of Living Saphire; Beautiful with Pinacles and Turrets of never-decaying Sa­phire: Living Saphire, bright and chearful, full of Strength and Life: [...], a precious Stone, so named of its clearness; [...], Gr. bright, perspicuous: Battlements, are Ornaments set on the Walls of great Cities, Castles, and other Noble Structures, principally intended for Security against Assaults; thence a Derivative of the Word Battel, of the Lat. Batuere, to sight.

Ibid. His Native Seat; The Place of his Birth, the Country of his Creation; Heaven, the Place of his former Happiness: Nativus, Lat.

V. 1051. In a Golden Chain; Our Poet seems to have borrowed this Golden Chain of Homer, where he says, [...], &c. [...]. Jupiter says, if all the Gods, with the Earth and the Sea, hung upon a Golden Chain, he would Pull 'em all up into Heaven, &c.

V. 1052. This Pendant World; This well-poized World, the self-ballanc'd Earth; Ponderibus librata suis, Met. l. 1. Of which, Job gives us the best account, That God hangeth the Earth on Nothing, c. 26. v. 7. And c. 38. v. 6. he dares Human Understanding to determine, Where­upon are the Foundations thereof set, or who laid the Corner-Stone thereof?

Ibid In bigness as a Star of smallest Magnitude; In bulk like a Star of smallest size: Many Stars, not only of the first Magnitude, but of smaller Sizes, surpass and exceed the whole World by many Degrees, as the Celestial Surveyors of the Heavens assure us, the Earth being but a meer Point compared with the Firmament, Gassend. l. 1. c. 3. Stars of the first Great­ness are 108 times as big as the Earth, and those of the sixth Size 18 times; yet is the Moon reckoned to be 39 times less than the Earth, and is commonly accounted the Planet whose Sphear is nearest to it. Gass. l. 2. c. 14.

V. 1055. He hies; He makes hast, he makes all the speed he can, of the Sax. Higan, to use diligence.

NOTES On MILTON's PARADISE Lost.
BOOK III.

Verse 1. HAil Holy Light, &c. Hail Divine Light, Illustrious First-born, of the Almighty Word; Oh thou bright Beam of everlasting Purity, thy self as everlasting: Hail, the old word used in Salutations, answering to the [...] of the Greeks, and the Roman Salve, of the Sax. Hael, Health. By this Hail, the former of 'em, is interpreted, in the Salutation of the Angel Gabriel, to the Mother of our Blessed Saviour, [...], Luc. 1. v. 28. men­tioned by our Author in his Fifth Book.

—On whom the Angel Hail
Bestow'd, the Holy Salutation used
Long after to Blest Mary, second Eve.

Ibid. First-born; Light was doubtless the first and brightest Birth of Heaven, without which even the Deity himself is inconceivable; Speak not of GOD without Light, was Plato's saying, and what is there among all his Creatures so expressive of his Goodness, Omniscience, and Purity? Who covereth himself with Light, as with a Garment, Psal. 104. v. 3. Light, as to the Creation of this lower World, was the first of all the Creatures that had the Almighty Fiat pronounced at its Production; Then God said, Let there be Light: and there was Light. Gen. 1. 3. So our Poet, Forthwith Light Etherial, first of all Things, sprung from the Deep.

V. 2. Coeternal; Thou bright Beam, as everlasting as thy everlasting Father GOD Almighty: Coaeternus, Lat. of the same duration with Eternity.

V. 3. May I express thee unblam'd, &c. Blameless may I declare thee, because God himself is Light, and from Eternity in amazing brightness, disdaining all approach of Human Eyes, dwelt from Eternity, dwelt then in the, bright Emanation of the brightest Being, Eternal, Un­create.

Ibid. GOD is Light; Nothing can give us a clearer Idea of the Divine Incomprehensible Being, than Light: See him described; His Brightness was as the Light, Hab. 3. v. 4. God is Light, and in him is no Darkness, 1 John 1. v. 5. Every perfect Gift cometh from the Father of Lights, Jam. 1. v. 17.

V. 4. In unapproached Light; Who dwelleth in the Light that none can approach unto, whom no Man hath seen, nor can see, 1 Tim. 6. v. 16. When our Saviour appeared to St. Paul, the transcendent Brightness blinded him; A Light from Heaven passing the brightness of the Sun, Acts 26. v. 3.

V. 6. Bright Effluence, &c. Bright overflowing of the bright Uncreated Being: Effluentia, Lat. the Issue, Offspring, Efflux: Of Essence increate, Essentia increata, Lat. GOD Almighty, the Creator of all Things, Himself uncreated, and Self existent.

V. 7. Or hearst thou rather, &c. Or hadst thou rather be styl'd, Pure Heavenly Stream, whose Fountain Head, who can declare? According to that of Job, Where is the way where Light dwelleth? And where is the place of Darkness? That thou shouldest receive it in the Bounds thereof, and that thou shouldest know the Paths to the House thereof, ch. 38. v. 19, and 20.

V. 9. Before the Sun, before the Heavens, &c. Before the shining Sun, or rouling Heavens thou wert, and at the Voice of God, as with a Garment, didst array, the World arising from the Womb of Waters, gained from the empty and unfinished Deep: A noble Idea of Light, [Page 97] the usefullest Ornament of the Creation, without which it had been but a sad Night-piece. Many of the Fathers, both Greek and Latin, were of opinion, that the Primitive Light created on the first Day, was the Light of the Sun imperfect and unfinished, which as it contradicts the Narrative of Moses, who tells us, That the Sun and the Moon (the two great Lights) were made on the fourth Day, so it derogates from the Majesty of the Great Maker of the Uni­verse, that any thing, on which his Omnipotent Fiat was pronounced, should come forth unfinished.

That this first Light was not the Sun, but a shining bright Body, like a radiant Cloud mo­ving about the Earth, and distinguishing Day from Night, before the forming of the Sun and other Planets, is the Opinion of Bede in his Exem. Bonaventure, Nicol. de Lyra, and Tostatus, with many of the School-Divines; and of this Opinion was our Author, as at large he expresseth it, where he handles the Creation in his Seventh Book:

—Light from her Native East
To journey through the Airy Gloom began
Spheared in a radiant Cloud, for yet the Sun
Was not.—According to Moses Cosmopoiaea. Gen. 1. v. 3, and 14.

V. 10. As with a Mantle didst invest; As with a Glorious Mantle didst cover the dark World coming out of the deep Womb of Waters. Our Poet useth the Word Invest, B. 1. V. 208. While Night invests the Sea; there Night throws her dark Coverture o're the Waters, here Light with her glorious Garb arrays the Infant World just at its Birth, arising from the dark Deep; and the same Word does well express the Metaphor in both places. Mantle, of Manteau, Fr. of Mantelum, Lat. a Cloak.

V. 11, and 12. The rising World, &c. Won from the Void, &c. A nobler Description of Chaos, than any made before, and not inferiour to that of the Sublime and Poetical. Job 12. v. 22. He discovereth the deep Places from their Darkness, and bringeth forth the shadow of Death to Light.

V. 13. Thee I revisit now; Thee, O holy, heavenly Light, I visit now again more joyful, since I escaped from the black Stygian Lake: Revisitare, Lat.

V. 15. Though long detain'd in that obscure Sejourn; Though long Imprison'd in Hell's dark Dungeon: Detain'd, Detentus, Lat. kept, with-held: Sejourn, stay, of the Fr. Sejourner, to stay it, to remain in a place.

V. 17. With other Notes than to the Orphean Lyre; While pursuing my strange Subject through Hell the utter, and through the void empty Gulf, the middle Darkness, I sung of Chaos and everlasting Night, in Strains more lofty and sublime, than Orpheus ever Tuned his famous Harp to. Orpheus is reckoned the Son of Apollo and the Muse Calliope, an excellent Poet and Philosopher, as those famous ones of Antiquity were.

Sylvestres homines sacer, interpresque Deorum
Caedibus, & victu faedo deterruit Orpheus
Dictus ob hoc lenire tygres rabidosque Leones. Hor. de Arte Poet.

The Barbarity of the Age he lived in, was so Civilized by his Moral Instructions couched under his charming Odes, that he was said to make the Woods dance after him, by reducing Men from those Salvage Abodes into Civil Societies.

Unde Vocalem temeré insecutae
Orphea Sylvae.
Blandum & auritas fidibus Canoris
Ducere quercus. Carm. l. Od. 12.

The Poets feigned him to have followed his Wife-Eurydice down to the Shades below, and to have obtained her return by his commanding Musick, on condition he looked not on her till their arrival at the light; which Condition the fond Husband breaking, she was ravished back again for ever from him, to this fabulous descent of his into Hell, which our Poet in his two former Books has been busied in describing, it is that he refers to in this place. Read his Story in the admirable Virgil.

Taenarias etiam fauces, alta ostia Ditis
Et caligantem nigra formidine lucum
Ingressus, manesque adiit regemque tremendum, &c. Geor. 4.

Lyre, a Harp, of [...], Gr. Hence one Tribe of the Poets are called Lyricks.

V. 20. To reascend, thô hard and rare; Thô difficult and unusual from thence to arise up again: Reascend, of the Particle Re, signif. again, and Ascendere, Lat. to rise, an Imitation of Virgil.

[Page 98]
—Facilis decensus Averni
Sed revocare gradus, superasque evadere ad auras
Hic labor, hoc Opus, est: Pauci quos aequus amavit
Jupiter.—AEn. 6.

V. 22. And feel thy Sov'ran Vital Lamp; And feel thy comfortable enlivening Warmth: Vital, Vitalis, Lat. lively, or enlivening: Lamp, a Fire, Torch, or Light, of [...], the same, [...], from its shining.

V. 25. So thick a Drop serene hath quench'd their Orbs; The French express incurable Blind­ness by Goutte serene, and explain it by a thick and continual dropping from the Head, by which the Optick Nerve is stopt and choak'd, that all Sight is thereby hindred, and irrecove­rably lost: Serene, of the Fr. Serain, and the Ital. Sereno, (not of the Lat. Serenus, fair, clear,) signifying the Mildew, or hurtful Dew that falls in the Evenings sometimes, to which our Au­thor compares the noxious Distillation that from his Head fell down into the Optick Nerve, and choak'd its perspicuous Passage, of the Lat. Serum.

Ibid. Quench'd their Orbs; Light and Fire are by Nature so near of Kin, that the Meta­phor of Quenching the Eye-sight is easie and proper enough; most Person's Eyes have a shine­ing, and many a sparkling, darting Light, especially in Youth, that issueth from them: So Virgil calls, Turnus his, Ardentes Ocalorum acies, AEn. 12. Inflam'd with Anger: Orbs, Orbes, Lat. the shining Circles of the Eyes.

V. 26. Or dim Suffusion veil'd; Or a dark Veil o'respread, or a black Film like a Veil has o'regrown the shining Circles of mine Eyes, and clouded 'em with everlasting Night: Suffu­sion, of Suffusio, Lat. an overspreading, a covering, of Suffundere, Lat. to cover over.

At, si virgineum suffuderit ora ruborem, Ventus erit. Georg. 1.
Of the Moon cover'd with a red Suffusion, the sign of Wind.

Here our Poet has hinted at the other Cause of Blindness, by Film or black Cataracts growing within the Eyes, the White being often remediable by Couching.

V. 27. Cease I to wander; Yet do not I forbear to follow the Muses wheresoe're they meet, at Chrystal Springs, cool Groves, or lofty Hills; the Castalian Spring at the foot of the Hill Parnassas, was a famous haunt of the Muses, so was Mount Helicon; Pieris was a Grove, in which Jupiter and Memnosyne begat the Muses: Such Groves and Hills as these are often men­tioned by the Poets, and the Muses named of them. Thus Virgil:

—O qui me gelidis in vallibus Haemi
Sistat, & ingenti ramorum protegat umbrâ. Geor. 2.

Haunt, of the Fr. Hanter, to frequent, to keep company with.

V. 29. Smit with the Love; Enamour'd of Divine Poesie: Smit, smitten, struck with, as Perculsus used in the same sense:

Me vero primum dulces ante omnia Musae
Quarum sacra fero ingenti Perculsus amore
Accipiant.—Geor. 2.

V. 31. Thy Hallow'd Feet; The Brooks Cedron and Siloah ran on the East side, and the Wa­ters of the Fountains on the South of Mount Sion; John 18. v. 2. Isa. 8. v. 6. 2 Chron. 32. v. 3. Whose Feet are called Hallow'd, because frequently styled in holy Writ, The holy Moun­tain, Psal. 2. v. 6. The holy City, Isa. 64. v. 10. God's Dwelling-place, Psal. 76. v. 2. and Psal. 74. v. 2.

V. 33. Equal'd with me in Fate; As unlucky as my self in the loss of my Sight, attended with the same misfortune by losing their Eyes:—Fati quod lege tenetur, AEn. 12. AEqua­lis, Lat. equal to.

V. 35. Blind Thamyris; Was a Thracian Poet, so excellent, that he challenged even his Mi­stresses the Muses to sing with him, and therefore with the Victory lost his Eyes.

[...]
[...]
[...]
[...].
[...], &c. [...].

[Page 99] Plutarch commends his Poem, of the Tytans Warring against the Gods, in his Book of Musick; and Pausanias attributes the loss of his Sight to a natural Infirmity, which happened to Homer and divers others.

Ibid. Maeonides; One of Homer's Names, of his Father Maeon.

V. 36. And Tiresias; A Theban Poet, blind also, and a great Southsayer, even after his Death, as Homer makes him.

[...]
[...]
[...]
[...].

His Name is derivable of the Gr. [...], the Stars, of his Predictions drawn from them, and his Blindness passed into a Proverb, Tiresiâ caecior; whence, Nec surdum, nec Tiresiam quem­quam esse Deorum, Juv. Sat. 13. Ovid relates his Story differently, and more merrily, Met. l. 3.

—Gravius Saturnia justo,
Nec pro materiâ fertur doluisse: suique
Judicis aeternâ damnavit lumina nocte.
At Pater omnipotens—Pro lumine adempto
Scire futura dedit, paenamque levavit honore.

Ibid. Phineus Prophets old; Phineus was King of Arcadia, and a Prophet so great, that he is said to have been punished with Blindness, for discovering too clearly the Mind of the Gods to Men.

[...]
[...]
[...]
[...],
[...]
[...].

Others report him punished with Blindness, for putting out the Eyes of his Sons by his first Wife, at the Instigation of their Mother-in-Law, and that the Harpies tormented him, perpe­tually plucking his Meat out of his Mouth, whom Calais and Zetes drove away, because he acquainted the Argonauts, their Comrades, with the Dangers that lay in their way to Colchos, where the Golden Fleece was kept.

—Phineia postquam
Clausa domus, mensasque metu liquere priores. AEn. 3.

Prophets, [...], Gr. a Prophet, of [...], to foretell Things, anciently the Heathen Poets and Prophets were the same; their Celebrated God Apollo was Patron and President both of Poesie and Prophecy.

—Interpres divum qui numina Phaebi
Qui tripodas, Clarii lauros, qui sidera sentis. AEn. 3.

And the same word, Vates by the Latins, is promiscuously used for both Poets and Prophets of the noblest Strain and Endowments, Superlative to that other Poeta.

—Et me fecere Poetam
Pierides: sunt & mihi carmina: me quoque dicunt
Vatem pastores.—Virg. Ecl. 9.

Musaeus, Hesiod, Orpheus, and Homer, were the Philosophers and Divines of their Ages; and the Bards were Men of the same Profession among the ancient Gauls. Of whom Lucan:

Vos quoque qui fortes animas, belloque peremptas,
Laudibus in longum vates dimittitis aevum,
Plurima securi fudistis carmina Bardi. Phar. l. 1.

V. 37. Then feed on Thought; Then please your selves my Thoughts, that, of your own ac­cord, move in Melodious Measures: Feed, in the same Metaphorical Manner as that of Virgil. Animum pictura pascit inani. AEn. 1.’

[Page 100] Voluntaire, Voluntarius, Lat. free, easie, without constraint. Harmonious Numbers, a Defini­tion of Numbers, which consists in Musical Measures, without the gingle of Rhime; Harmo­nicus, Lat. Musical; Numerus, Lat. Verse.

Numeros memini, si verba tenerem. Virg. Ecl. 9.

V. 38. As the wakeful Bird; That in the Dark sings, while other Birds sleep; and in the leavy Hedges, and dark Woods concealed, Tunes all Night long her Charming Notes. A Description of the Nightingale, agreeing with Virgil's, thô less lamentable:

Qualis populeâ merens Philomela sub umbrâ
Flet noctem, ramoque sedens miserabile carmen
Integrat, & maest is [...]é loca questibus implet. Geor. 4.

V. 39. Sings darkling; A Word by our Author coined, and which I have no where else met with: Those whose Eyes fail much, are said to be Dark; and Birds, whose Eyes are put out, sing better and oftener to divert themselves, deprived of all the Avocations of Sight, they ply their Song the more: And thus the Nightingale is called Darkling, chearing the Night with its Charming Serenade.

V. 40. Tunes her Nocturnal Note; Sings her Night-Songs: Tunes, of [...], and [...], to stretch, to strain and raise the Voice: Noctural, Nocturnus, Lat. of the Night: Note, Song, of those Marks so called, by which the Tones and Measures of Sound are distinguished and Pricked down.

Homer comparing the disconsolate Penelope to this melancholy Bird, has these Verses:

[...]
[...],
[...]
[...]
[...].

I think I need not fear to affirm, the Comparison made by our Author is more suitable to himself, and thô very short, (consisting only of two Verses) is as expressive of the Melodious Moan of this Night-Singer, as all those before recited.

V. 42. The sweet approach of Even or Morn; The two most ancient Records of Time, Gen. 1. 5. In describing of which, few Poets have failed to exercise their Fancies, as their Comparisons will shew hereafter. The holy Poet thought their Vicissitudes so pleasant, that he tells us, God makes the Outgoings of the Morning and Evening to sing, [...], thô we ren­der it, Thou shalt make the East and the West to rejoyce, Psal. 65. v. 9. It is observable, that the Hebrew word for Morning, is a Derivative of [...], to enquire, to search after, that being the time fittest for Study and Business, Aurora musis amica, as the Evening is for Retire­ment and Diversion.

Cum frigidus aëra vesper temperat
Ante focum, si frigus erit, si messis in herbâ. Geor. 3.

Approach, l'Approche, Fr. of Approcher, to draw nigh to.

V. 43. Of Vernal Bloom; Of the beautious Spring when all things are in Blossom, of which Bloom seems a Diminutive, of the Ger. Bluhen, to blow, to be in Flower: Vernal, of the Lat. Vernus, of the Spring.

V. 44. Or human Face divine; Because created in the Image of God his Maker, Gen. 1. v. 27.

V. 48. Presented with a Universal Blanc; I cannot perswade my self but it should have been a Universal Blot, and that it is a mistake of the Printer. Blanc is Fr. for White, and the Phrase, Donner la carte Blanche á, to send one a Blanc, is to submit absolutely to what Conditions the Conquerour shall set down: Now Blindness (as well described by Clouds and continual Dark­ness) does so fully import an entire Ignorance and Privation of Colour, that a Person born blind has doubtless no notion of any such thing; but for a Man that had for many years en­joyed his Eyes, to say, his Blindness had cut him off from the chearful ways of Men, and, in­stead of Nature's fair Book of Knowledge, had presented him with a Universal Blanc, like a piece of white Paper, unspotted and unstained with any Impression, his Memory retaining still the Idea's of all Things formerly seen, thô now as to his Eye-sight blotted out, seems absurd. The next Verse, Of Natures Works to me-expung'd and ras'd, confirms, that it ought to be an Universal Blot; for Expung'd, is of Expungere, Lat. to blot out a written Word, by covering it with little Pricks or Blots, and Ras'd, is of Radere, Lat. to shave; the Romans, (who writ on Waxed Tablets with Iron Styles) when they struck out a Word, did Tabulam radere, rase it out.

[Page 101] V. 53. Irradiate; Enlighten all the Powers and Faculties of my Mind: Irradiare, Lat. to shine into.

V. 54. All Mist purge and disperse; Clear my Understanding, and drive away all the Mists of Error and Ignorance that may overcast my Judgment: Purgare, Lat. to cleanse; Dispergere, Lat. to drive away, to scatter.

Light, and the Blessings of it, were never drawn in more lively Colours, and finer Stroaks, than by these; nor was the sad loss of it and them ever so passionately and so patiently la­mented. They that will read the most excellent Homer, bemoaning the same Misfortune, will find him far short of this. Herodotus, in his Life, gives us these Verses, in which he bewailed his Blindness.

[...], &c.
[...],
[...].

V. 57. From the pure Empyrean; From the highest Heaven, which the holy Page styles, The Heaven of Heavens, where God is pleased to reveal the unconceivable Sight of himself and his infinite Perfections; Sedes mentium beatarum, as it is generall phrased, Behold Heaven, and the Heaven of Heavens is the Lords, thy God, Deut. 10. v. 14. So 2 Chron. 2. v. 6. Psal. 115. v. 16. Caeli Caelorum; And Psal. 148. v. 4. Many of the Fathers take this to be the third Heaven, into which St. Paul was taken up, 2 Cor. 12. v. 2. Understanding the AErial Heaven to be the first, the Starry the second, and this third the highest, the Empyrean, (of which before, B. 2. V. 771.) described to be the Habitation of holy Angels and blest Spirits, enlightend with the ineffable Purity and Majesty of the Divinity, immoveable, and shining with a Light re­sembling the pure Element of Fire, according to its derivation of [...], Gr. Fire.

V. 58. High Throned above all heighth; Exalted on his Throne, high above all imaginable heighth: God is frequently styled The most high, Psal. 7. v. 17. and Psal. 9. v. 2. Dan. 5. v. 18. The most high God.

V. 60. About. him all the Sanctities of Heaven; About him all his holy Angels stood, as num­berless as Stars: Sanctities, of Sanctitas, Lat. Holiness, well expressing the Purity and Perfe­ctions of the Angelic Nature; The Lord thy God hath made thee as the Stars for multitude, Gen. 10. v. 22.

V. 62. Beatitude past utterance; Unspeakable Bliss and Happiness, which being unconcei­vable and infinite, must needs be unexpressible; The Things which Eye hath not seen, neither Ear hath heard, nor the Heart of Man hath conceived, 1 Cor. 2. v. 9. Beatitudo, Lat. Blessedness.

V. 63. The radiant Image of his Glory; According to St. Paul, Who being the Brightness of his Glory, and the express Image of his Person,—sate down on the right hand of the Majesty on high, Heb. 1. v. 3.

V. 64. His onely Son; Let the discerning Linguist compare the preceeding Description of God with this of Tasso's:

Dal suo gran seggio il Rè del Ciel volgea,
Sedea col à dond' egli è buono, e giusto
Da legge al tutto, e'l tutto orna, e produce
Soura i bassi confin del mondo augusto,
Oue senso, ò ragion non si conduce.
E del' eternità nel trono augusto
Risplendea con trè lumi in una luce,
Ha sotto i piedi il Fatto, e la natura
Ministri humidi, e'l moto, e chi'l misura. Cant. 9. Stan. 55, 56, 57.

[And so on for 14 Verses more.]

V. 68. Uninterrupted Joy, unrival'd Love; Joy without ceasing or intermission, because Sin­less and Innocent; Love unrival'd and undisputed, because in Solitude; yet the only two, and all of Mankind: Interruptus, Lat. disturbed, of Interrumpere, to break in upon: Unrival'd, of Rivalis, Lat. a Competitor: Solitude, Solitudo, Lat. for being alone, Solitariness, thence a Desart, in calm and undisturbed Retirement and Loneliness.

V. 72. In the dun Air sublime; Aloft in the dark thick Air, the backside, the bare outside of the Created World, described more fully at V. 428. of this Book; Dark, wast, and wild, un­der the frown of Night starless exposed, and ever-threatning Storms of Chaos blustring round, in cle­ment Skie. Dun, of a dark colour, Dwun, Welch: Sublime, Sublimis, Lat. high, lofty.

V. 75. Firm Land imbosom'd without Firmament, &c. Seemed firm solid Land, without any support, enclosed on all sides but uncertain whether with Water or with Air: Without Firma­ment, without any support, without any thing to support and bear it up, agreeable to what Job says of the wonderful Creator, Who hangeth the Earth upon nothing, ch. 26. v. 7. Firma­ment, Firmamentum, Lat. and the Gr. [...], signifie both, Strength, Solidity.

[Page 102] V. 76. Uncertain which, &c. A Question that may well puzzle the Curiosity of Mankind, who know so little of Created Nature, that they may easily be ignorant of the Confines and Boundaries of the World's vast Building.

V. 77. From his Prospect high; From his exalted View, from his all-knowing omniscient Fore-sight, in which Things past, present, and to come, all at once he beholds: Prospect, Prospectus, Lat. a seeing at a great distance, a clear view without any lett or hinderance of Prospicere, Lat. to see far, to foresee.

AEneas scopulum interea conscendit, & omnem
Prospectum late pelago perit. AEn. 1.

V. 80. Onely begotten Son; Because God sent his onely begotten Son into the World; 1 John 4. v. 9. and John 3. v. 18.

V. 81. Whom no Bounds prescribed; Whom nothing can with-hold, not Hell it self: Prescri­bed, of the Lat. Praescribere, to appoint, to assign.

V. 84. Wide interrupt can hold; Nor the vast Gulph, wide and broken off from Being: Interrupt, separated from the Creation, Interruptus, Lat. broken off: Main, the corruption of the Lat. Magnus, great.

V. 87. Through all Restraint; In spight of all the Imprisonments of deepest Hell, and the abortive Gulph: Restraint, of Restringere, Lat. to bind again, to bind fast.

V. 88. In the Precincts of Light; In the Neighbourhood of Heaven, and the Creation: Pre­cincts, of Precinctus, Lat. enclosed on all sides, bordering on, of Praecingere, to encompass.

V. 90. With purpose to Assay; With design to try, if he may master him by force: Purpose, of the Lat. Propositum, design: Assay, of the Fr. Essayer, of the Lat. Ab and Sagire, to grow wiser.

V. 93. Glozing Lyes; Flattering Lyes: To Gloze, is an old word, to flatter, cogg, perswade, of [...], Gr. Tongue, too much inclined to it.

V. 94. Easily Transgress; Will, with little perswasion, go beyond the Bounds of that single Command that I have made the only Tryal of his Obedience to me his Maker: Transgress, of Transgredi, Lat. to go beyond, Sin breaking through the Boundaries of God's Laws, and there­fore styled Transgression.

V. 98. Ingrate all he could have; Unthankful Man, has had of me all I could give him in the Order and Rank of the Creation where he was placed; I made him Upright and Just, able to withstand all Temptations, thô liable to offend, if he suffer himself and his divine Reason to be mis [...]ed and imposed upon by glozing Lies: In the same manner I Created all the Heavenly Powers, Angels, and Spirits, as well those who stood firm in their Obedience, as those Rebellious that fell from it, all alike endowed with Free-will. Ingrate, Ingratus, Lat. Un­thankful, of all Ingratitudes, Sin is the blackest: Just, of Justus, Lat. Innocent, Good, in oppo­sition to Wicked, &c. as, Wilt thou destroy the Just with the Wicked? Gen. 18. v. 23. Right, of Rectus, Lat. Straight, Upright, the Character of GOD himself, A God of Truth, and without Iniquity, Just and Right is he, Deut. 32. 4. Who made Man in his own Image, Gen. 1. v. 27.

V. 99. Sufficient; Able to have stood firm in their Duty to their Maker: Sufficiens, Lat. Able.

Here begins the excellent Discourse of Free-will, the Reasons of which are plainly and very convincingly laid down.

V. 103. What Proof could they have given? For were not both Angels and Men endued with Free-will, what sincere real Proof could they give of their Obedience, Love or Faith, to the Universal Lord of all Things, when all their Actions and their best Performances would not be the Results of Reason and Choice, but the meer Effects and Impulses of Fate and Ne­cessity, doing nothing but what was unavoidably for them to leave undone. Sincere, of Since­rus, Lat. sound, true, perfect.

V. 104. True Allegiance, &c. True Obedience, constant Trust and Love: Allegiance, of the word Alligare, Lat. to bind to, the Faith we swear to our King being the highest Bond and Obligation imaginable.

V. 107.—What Praise, what Pleasure I? What Praise, what Satisfaction, could Men expect from their best Deeds, or more sincere Endeavours; or what Pleasure or Delight could God himself take in the most ardent Devotions, Praises or Prayers of his Saints. when their Wills and Reason (Reason that determines the choice of Good from Evil) robb'd of all their Judi­cious Powers and Elective Faculties, were made useless, as if bestowed in vain, or given only to be subservient to invincible Necessity, not to their Maker GOD Almighty. Despoil'd, De­spoliatus, Lat. robbed, of Despoliare, Lat. to bereave.

V. 110. Made Passive both; Will and Reason, instead of being active and free Principles, should be enslaved, made to obey and undergo the irresistible Power of Fate: Passive, Passi­vus, Lat. suffering, of Pati, Lat. to suffer.

V. 113. Their Maker, or their Making; Neither can Mankind justly accuse their Maker GOD, who made them in his own Similitude, and therefore neither their Making, the Powers [Page 103] and Endowments of their Souls, nor the various, useful, and astonishing Organs of their Bo­dies. In respect of God's absolute Dominion and Power, the Clay cannot say to the Potter, Why hast thou made me thus? Nor, as to the Riches of his Grace and Mercy, shall any of the Vessels of Wrath be able to excuse themselves, as being his handy Work; having, after all his Long-suffering, fitted themselves by Sin and final Impenitence to destruction, according to the best interpretation of Rom. 9. v. 22. a place much controverted in this matter.

V. 114. As if Predestination, &c. Praedestinatio, Lat. a fore-ordaining what shall come to pass; the Predestinarians are such, as hold the Elect and Reprobates to be fore-ordained such from the beginning of the World, and that all the Miscarriages and Faults cannot hinder the Salvation of the former, nor all the Struggles and Endeavours imaginable remedy or stave off the Damnation of the latter: An Opinion of the greatest Impiety conceivable, destructive of God's Glory and Mercy, as well as of his Irreproachable Justice. Read St. Paul to the Ephesians, ch. 1. v. 4, 5, and 6. God (he says) had chosen us (the Ephosians) in Jesus Christ before the Foundation of the World, That we should be holy and without blame before him in Love; there is the Condition: Certainly all the Ephesians were not blameless, nor all there­fore Elect; Having Predestinated us, &c. according to the good pleasure of his will, to the Praise of the Glory of his Grace. But what Praise if the Ephesians were Elected, without a firm Belief in the Saviour of the World, and a Life conformable to his holy Example, thereby Glorifying the Riches of his Grace and Forgiveness.

V. 115. Over-ruled their Will, dispesed; As if Man's Will were overborn, and influenced by God's absolute decree, (as Lord of all) or by his infinite Fore-knowledge, whereby what­ever he fore knows must certainly come to pass; which Objection he answers in the next Verses. Disposed, Dispositus, Lat. appointed, ordered.

V. 118. Fore-knowledge had no influence; The Fore-knowledge of God does not determine the Minds of Men to good or bad Actions, thô that Fore-knowledge be infinite and infallible; nor does the commission of Good or Evil depend thereon: But he that knoweth whereof we are made, and that searcheth the Hearts, and trieth the Reins, that knows all our Thoughts afar off, clearly foresees all our Faults and Failings, which we should have committed undoubtedly, al­thô they had not been foreknown or foreseen by that infinite Eye. In vain did all the Pro­phets cry against the Abomination of Israel, and the Idolatries and Backslidings of Juda, if these People had it not in their power, to serve God rather than Baal. Choose you this day whom you will serve, &c. but as for me and my House we will serve the Lord, says Josuab: And when the People had made and confirmed their Choice, v. 21. Nay, but we will serve the Lord; he replies upon them, Ye are Witnesses against your selves, that you have chosen the Lord to serve him; and they said, We are witnesses, Jos. 23. v. 22. Good and Evil, Life and Death, therefore are in the Choice, and ballance the Wills of all Mankind; they have the Election of their Mis­chiefs and Miscarriages in their own Power; neither does any Influence of the Stars, or pre­tended Power of Fate, bend or incline their Wills to Folly, were there any Power so co­ercive, as to constrain and force them unto Wickedness, Mankind, nay even the worst of them, would not be inexcusable; they Decree therefore their own Revolt, that Defection from their Maker to his and their Enemy the Devil. It is observable, that where God cautions the Israe­lites against the false Prophets that should go about to turn them away after other Gods, [...] is used, a word properly signifying a Revolt, Deut. 13. v. 5. as also Jer. 28. v. 16. and ch. 29. v. 32. in both which it is translated Rebellion.

V. 120. So without least Impulse; So without the least motion, force, or pretence, of any over-ruling Power: Impulsus, Lat. for such a force as is necessary to set an Engine in mo­tion, &c. Mankind must be Engines, if set on work by any other Motives, than the Impulses of their own Free-will.

V. 121. Immutably foreseen; The celebrated Place in the Controversie of Free-will, in Rom. 9. v. 11, and 13. Jacob have I loved, but Esau have I hated, for the Children being yet un­born, neither having done any Good or Evil, &c. seems to imply such an Immutability in God's Foresight, as influenced the Actions of these two Brethren and their Descendents; but the truth is, God from his high Prospect foreseeing all the Behaviour, not only of these two Brethren, but of Mankind, infallibly and unerringly, the Divine Fore-knowledge and Fore-sight had no power or weight on the Wills of them and their Posterity, tho he foresaw that of the first would endeavour to keep his Commandments and Statures, and should therefore be his chosen People; and that of Esau, would forsake his Ways, and become Reprobate to God and all Goodness. To what end are all the Promises of Happiness, and the Rewards of everlasting Life, and the Terrors of the Lord, his Threatnings, and the repeated Denuntiations of Eter­nal Punishment, Damnation, and Hell, to obstinate and impenitent Sinners? If they that do well, and those that commit Iniquity, do both not what they would, but what they are con­strained to do, obey not God, but Necessity; how shall the Judge of all the Earth do Judgment, as Abraham says in his humble Expostulation with his Maker? Gen. 18. v. 25. Is God un­righteous who taketh Vengeance? (I speak as a Man.) God forbid: for how then shall God judge the World? Rom. 3. v. 5, and 6. Immutable, Immutabilis, Lat. unalterable, unchangeable.

V. 122. They Trespass; They Sin, they Offend: Trespass, of the Fr. Trespasser, to go beyond, to transgress, of the Lat. Trans beyond, and Passus, Lat. going, Transgression being a Proceeding beyond the Limits of the Law.

[Page 104] Ibid. Authors to themselves; Leaders and Guiders of themselves, in all things which they judge fit and reasonable to be done, and therefore choose to do: Author, or, as better writ, Auctor, is one that adviseth or perswades another. So Virgil useth it:

Italiam petiit fatis Auctoribus. AEn. 10.
Conf [...]iis habitus non futilis Auctor. AEn. 11.

Judge, of Judicare, Lat. to esteem; God has not left himself without a witness, Acts 4. v. 17. A severe one indeed, and irreproachable, which every Reprobate will bring with him, and against himself at the dreadful Day of Doom.

V. 128. Ordain'd their Fall; My Decree, eternal and unchangeable, appointed their Free­dom, exempted 'em from all force of any Foreign or Exterior Power, made sufficient to have stood their Ground against all Temptation, they ill advised, choose to mistrust me, and fall off from their Maker, and this Conscience, God's Umpire, the wary Inmate of each Man's Breast, will testifie one day against the Opposers of Mankind's Elective Liberty. Ordain'd, of the Lat. Ordinare, to set in order, to appoint, to take care of.

V. 129. The first sort, &c. The Fallen Angels, the Apostate Spirits, fell from their Obedience by their own Consent and Inclinations: Self-tempted, Self-depraved, tempting and vitiating themselves: Suggestion, of Suggestio, Lat. a prompting or inticing, of Suggerere, Lat. to per­swade: Deprav'd, of Depravare, to corrupt, to make ill.

V. 131. Deceived by the other first; Man sins, deceived and cheated by those fallen Angels, and therefore shall find Pardon and Compassion, which is denied those that tempted both him and themselves.

V. 135. Ambrosial Fragrance filled all Heaven; At the first Promise and Promulgation of God's Mercy, well does our Poet to fill Heaven with this Divine Fragrance, all Sacrifices and Attonements made to obtain it under the Ceremonial Law being called, A sweet Savour unto the Lord, Numb. 15. v. 3, 7, 10, &c. The Mercies of God are expressed by the same Epi­thete by the Royal Psalmist, Psal. 129. v. 21. For thy Mercies are sweet. Of Ambrosial, B. 2. V. 245. Liquidum Ambrosiae diffudit odorem. Geor. 4.’

Homer makes no scruple of feeding Neptune's Horses with Ambrosia, thô it is commonly used by him for the Gods own Diet: [...].’

Fragrance, of Fragrantia, Lat. a pleasant Smell or Persume.

V. 136. Spirits Elect; Elect, of Electus, Lat. Chosen: This does not contradict what was asserted before at V. 100. Such I Created all the Etherial Powers and Spirits: Free and sufficient, yet not secure from falling, for the Elect Angels and Blessed Spirits above, as to the continuance in their happy Station, are secured by their Obedience, as well as Gods chosen here on Earth; Wherefore, the rather, Brethren, give diligence to make your Calling and Election sure: for if you do these things you shall never fall, for so an entrance shall be ministred unto you abundantly, into the ever­lasting Kingdom of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ,. 2 Pet. 1. v. 10, and 11.

V. 137. Ineffable, diffused and spread; A sense of new Joy, such as they never felt before, and above all expression, unspeakable over all the Elect Angels: Ineffabilis, Lat. unspeakable, of In Negative, and Fari, Lat. to speak: Diffus'd, poured out, of Diffundere, Lat. to pour abroad.

V. 140. Substantially express'd; According to Hebr. 1. v. 3. where the Son of God is styled, [...]; The brightness of his Father's Glory, and the express Image of his Person: The Character of his Substance, as the Original expresseth it.

V. 143. Which uttering; All the divine Compassion, everlasting Love, and immensurable Grace and good Will to Mankind, which so plainly appeared in the Son of God, now breath­ing forth in words to his Father thus he spake: To Utter, is to speak, that is, to bring forth the most secret and inmost Thoughts of the Heart, and to render them intelligible to others; of Utter, signifying utmost, external: Visibly, apparently, to be plainly seen, of Visibilis, Lat. that may be seen.

V. 150. Finally be lost; Be lost for ever, for so both the Latin and Greek word for End are used in Scripture; Psal. 79. v. 5. How long, Lord, wilt thou be angry? for ever? The Original [...] signifies to Eternity, which the Lat. translates In finem: So [...]. 1 Thess. 2. v. 16. To the end, to all Eternity: Finally; of Finis, Lat. the end.

V. 151. Thy youngest Son; In respect of the Angels created, (as our Poet well enough sup­poses) long before Man.

V 152. Fail Circumvented; Miscarry, thus deceived by Satan's Wiles, thô made more dan­gerous by his own foolish Credulity: Circumvented, of Circumvenire, to beset, to cheat: Fraud, of Fraus, Lat. deceit, tricks.

[Page 105] V. 158. His Malice, &c. Shall Satan, the Adversary of God and Man, be able to effect and bring to pass his Hellish Malice, and disappoint thy Mercies? Malice, of Malitia, Lat. for Fore-thought Wickedness, Cum quis datâ operâ malè agit. Naught, of the Sax. Naht, Nothing.

V. 165. So should thy Goodness; So should thy Mercy and thy Majesty be called in question both, and be reproached without reply: Blasphemed, be ill spoken of, of [...], to reproach, [...], to hurt and violate the Reputation of a Person; [...], Mar. 3. v. 28.

V. 168. Chief Delight; According to the Voice from Heaven at his Baptism, This is my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased, Matth. 3. v. 27. Mar. 1. v. 11. and ch. 12. v. 6. Having therefore one Son, his Well-beloved, in the Parable wherein our Saviour represented himself.

V. 169. Son of my Bosom; As in John 1. v. 18. The only begotten Son which is in the Bosom of the Father; an Expression of highest Indearment, as appears from ch. 13. v. 23. Now there was leaning on Jesus bosom, one of his Disciples, whom Jesus loved.

V. 170. My Word; Suitable to, John 1. v. 1, 2, and 3. In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God, &c 1 John 1. v. 1. Which we have looked upon, and our hands have handled of the Word of Life; And ch. 5. v. 7. Three that bear Record in Hea­ven, the Father, the Word, and the Holy Ghost, and these three are one.

Ibid. My Wisdom; Read the Description of Eternal Wisdom, Prov. 8. The Lord possessed me in the beginning of his way, before his works of old, then was I by him, as one brought up with him, and I was daily his delight, rejoycing always before him, v. 22, and 30. Christ the Power of God, and Wisdom of God, 1 Cor. 1. v. 24.

Ibid. And effectual Might; And my prevailing Power: All Power is given to me in Heaven and Earth, Matth. 28. v. 18. Now is come Salvation and Strength, and the Kingdom of our God, and the Power of his Christ, Rev. 12. v. 10. Effectual, of Efficax, Lat. able, strong, power­ful.

V. 172. As my Eternal Purpose; From all Eternity as I have appointed: Purpose, of the Fr. Propos, of the Lat. Propositum, an intention, a design.

V. 175. But Grace in me, freely voutsaft; Man was utterly unable, after his Fall, to recover the favour of his Creator, or to attone in any measure for his Offences; nor could all his best Endeavours have so rectified his Free-will, debauched and depraved in its first Source, but that he must inevitably have lyen under God Almighty's everlasting Displeasure; But God, who is rich in Mercy, for his great Love wherewith he loved us, even when we were dead in Sins hath quickened us, together with Christ, (by whose Grace ye are saved,) that in the Ages to come he might shew the exceeding Riches of his Grace; for by Grace are ye saved through Faith, and that not of your selves, but the Gift of God, Eph. 2. v. 4, 5, 7, and 8. Gratia, Lat. Grace, Good-will: Fr [...]ely voutsaft, freely bestow'd, without any Right or Claim of ours? To voutsafe, is to Grant, as Su­periors do to Inferiors, of their own meer Motion and Generosity, the Greatness of the Do­nor vouching, as it were, for the safety and security of the Gift.

V. 176. His lapsed Powers; Once more I will reinforce his decayed Strength and Faculties, thô liable and enslaved by Sin to many ungovernable Desires and Passions extravagant and wild: Lapsed, of Lapsus, Lat. fallen, decayed; So Virgil in the same sense,—Lapsis quaesitum cracula rebus, Geor. 4. Forfeit, lost, of the Fr. Forfaict, a Crime, an Offence, or rather the Punishment of a Fault, by loss of Goods and Life, there being Forfeitures of both, as well of as Member, a Law Term: Exorbitant, unmeasurable, ungovernable, of Exorbitare, to go out of the right way or tract.

V. 180. How frail; How weak, how unable to support it self, of the Fr. Fresle, of Fragi­lis, Lat. easily broken.

V. 184.—Of peculiar Grace elect above the rest; Of my special Grace and Favour, chosen before others: So the Israelites, The Lord thy God hath chosen thee to be a special People unto himself, above all the People that are upon the face of the Earth, Deut. 7. v. 6. Ye are a chosen Gene­ration, a Royal Priesthood, an holy Nation, a peculiar People, 1 Pet. 2. v. 9. Ye have not chosen me, but I have chosen you, and ordained you, John 15. v. 16. As he hath chosen us in him, before the foundation of the World, Eph. 1. v. 4. So is my Will; God, who has endowed his Creature Man with Free-will, may be certainly allowed to be Master of his own; Therefore, according to his good pleasure, he hath mercy on whom he will have mercy, Rom. 9. v. 18. But unsearchable are his judgments, and his ways past finding out, Rom. 9. v. 11.

V. 186. To appease the incensed Deity; By Repentance to allay the wrath of God provoked, while Mercy and Pardon is tendred to 'em: Incensed, angry, of Incendere, Lat. to burn, as God's wrath is by the Inspired Psalmist described, Shall thy wrath burn like fire? Psal. 89. v. 46. And God himself is styled, A consuming fire, Deut. 4. v. 24. Heb. 12. v. 29. To appease, Fr. Ap­paisir, to asswage, calm, quiet by entreaty: Deity, Lat. Deitas, the Godhead: Invites, calls, of Invitare, Lat. to bid, to entreat.

V. 195. My Umpire Conscience; An Umpire, is one chosen to decide a Difference, (of which, B. 2. V. 907.) and Conscience will be an irreproachable one between God and every Sinner; Their Conscience also bearing witness, and their Thoughts accusing or excusing one another, Rom. 2. v. 15. The answer of a good Conscience towards God, 1 Pet. 3. 21. The Heathens had a noble sense of this awful Inmate:

[Page 106]
—Prima est haec ultio, quod se
Judice, nemo nocens absolvitur—
Nocte dieque suum gestare in pectore testem.
—Quos diri conscia facti
Mens habet attonitos, & surdo verbere caedit
Assiduum quatiente animo tortore flagellum. Juv. Sat. 13,

Conscience, Conscientia, Lat. the inward Witness of his good and bad Actions that every Man bears in his Breast, of Conscire, Lat. to be privy to: Nil conscire sibi nullà pallescere culpa. Juv.

V. 196. Light after Light; Instruction and Knowledge (if employed to good uses) they shall not fail of. Information and Instruction are well express'd by Light, To open thine Eyes, and to turn them from Darkness to Light, and from the power of Satan unto God, Act. 26. 18. The People which sate in Darkness saw great Light: and to them which sate in the Region and Shadow of Death, Light is sprung up, Matth. 4. v. 16. Attain, obtain, of Attinere, Lat. to gain, to arrive at, or attain to.

V. 197. Persisting; Standing stoutly, enduring to the end, of Persistere, Lat. to stand firm, to hold out: He that endureth to the end shall be saved, Matth. 10. v. 22. To them who by patient continuance in well-doing, &c. Rom. 2. v. 7.

V. 199. They who neglect; According to the Expostulation of St. Paul, Despisest thou the Riches of his Goodness and Forbearance, and Long-suffering, not knowing that the Goodness of God lead­eth thee to Repentance. Rom. 2. v. 4.

V. 200. But hard, be harden'd; As was Pharaoh, by God's permission, leaving him in his Obstinacy and Impenitency, who, thô under the Lash, when he saw there was respite, harden'd his Heart, Exod. 8. v. 15.

Ibid. Blind, be blinded more; According to the Psalmist, Let their Eyes be darkened that they see not, Psal. 69. v. 23. as they well deserve, who shut their Eyes against the Glorious Light of the Gospel; But after their Hardness, and impenitent Hearts, treasure up unto themselves Wrath against the Day of Wrath and Revelation of the just Judgment of God, Rom. 2. v. 5.

V. 202. From Mercy I exclude; None but the Obstinate and Impenitent, that will neither hear the Check of their own Consciences, nor the Voice of the Preacher, that hate to be reformed, and cast God's Laws behind them, that will not hear his Voice, but harden their Hearts, as did the Israelites in the Provocation in the day of Temptation, shall be shut out from Mercy. Excludere, Lat. to shut out, to except from.

V. 204. Disloyal, breaks his Fealty; Faithless, has broke the Obligation of his Obedience in which he stood bound to me his Maker, and in so doing, has forfeited my Favour: Disloyal, of the Fr. Desloyal, Unfaithful, that has thrown off his Loyalty, as Rebels do: Fealty is an Oath of Fidelity, of the Fr. Feaultie, of Fidelitas, Lat. Faith and Truth. There is a double Fealty, one General, due from every Subject to his Prince; the other Special, owing by every Tenant to the Lord of the Fee of whom he holds: Hotom. in Comment. de verbis Feudal. Fidelitas est fidei, obsequii & servitii ligamen, quo generaliter subditus Regi, particulariter vassallus Domino astrin­gitur. Spel. The Fealty God required of Adam, the first great Tenant of the Universe, seem'd as reasonable as it was easie; He hath shewed thee, O Man, what is good; and what doth the Lord require of thee, but to do justly, and love mercy, and to walk humbly with thy God? Mich. 6. v. 8. agreeing with Deut. 10. v. 12.

V. 206. Affecting Godhead; Designing and desiring to be a God, aiming at a Station above that he was placed in, and equal to that of his Creator; according to that lying Insinuation of Satan, Ye shall be like Gods, knowing Good and Evil, Gen. 3. v. 5. Affecting, of Affectare, Lat. earnestly to endeavour after; Affectare regnum, Liv. A Word well chosen; as in Ovid, Affe­ctasse ferunt regnum caeleste Gigantes, Met. 1. An Affectation of like Folly, and perhaps a Copy of this Original not understood by the ancient Poets.

V. 207. To expiate his Treason; To make amends for, to attone for his Treason and Unfaith­fulness to his Maker: Expiare, Lat. of Ex and Piare, to appea [...]e by Sacrifice; as Virg. Et cul­pam hanc miserorum morte piabunt, AEn. 2. Treason, of the Fr. Trahison, from the Lat. Traditio, a betraying or giving up, as here the Obedience and Fidelity due to God and his Vicegerents, to the delusive Insinuations of Satan.

V. 208. To Destruction sacred and devote; Made liable to Death and Destruction: Sacred, of the Lat. Sacer, appointed, dedicated.—Sacer Cybele Chloreus, AEn. 11. Devoted, Lat. Devotu [...], destined; Pesti devota futurae, AEn. 1.

V. 212. The rigid Satisfaction; Make full satisfaction, make satisfaction to the utmost, Death for Death: The word Rigid, seems to imply a stiffness, an unrelenting satisfaction to be made to the Almighty Justice, The Soul that sins must dye, or some other as able and as willing: Rigi­dus, Lat. hard, stiff; Et rigidas motare cacumina quereus, Virg. Ecl. 6.

V. 216. Charity so dear? Tantusne Animis caelestibus ardor? Charity, of Charitas, Lat. as this of [...], Lovē, Bounty.

[Page 107] V. 217. All the Heavenly Quire stood mute; All the Angelic Audience kept silence: Quire, of the Fr. Choeur, as this of the Lat. Chorus, and both of [...], Gr. a Company that sing Praises, either Divine or Human.—Laetumque choro Paeana canentes, AEn. 6.

V. 219. Patron, or Intercessor; Patron, of Patronus, Lat. for an Advocate, one who among the Romans pleaded the Cause, and made a Defence for a Person accused, and called in to Judgment: Intercessor, Lat. one who entreats for Pardon for an Offender, of Intercedere, Lat. to go between, and entreat for.

V. 221. And Ransom set; And pay the Ransom set on Man, made liable to Death, and devo­ted to Destruction, by dying for him, Ransom, of the Fr. Rençon, the Price paid for redeeming a Captive.

V. 231. Comes unprevented, unimplored; The Free Grace of God comes unask'd, being justi­fied freely by his Grace, Rom. 3. 24. Unprevented, nor foreslow'd by our Offences, of Praeve­nire, Lat. to come before to prevent: Unimplored, of Implorare, Lat. to beseech, to ask.

V. 234. Atonement for himself, &c. As the Prophet Micah reasons excellently, ch. 6. v. 6, and 7. Wherewith shall I come before the Lord, and how my self before the high God? Shall I come before him with Burnt-offerings, with Calves of a year old? Will the Lord be pleased with thousands of Rams, or with ten thousands of Rivers of Oyl? Shall I give my First-born for my Transgression, the Fruit of my Body for the Sin of my Soul? No, alas! nothing less than the First-born of the Al­mighty, The Image of the Invisible God, and the First-born of every Creature, Coloss. 1. 15. could attone, whom God ordained to be a Propitiation for us, Rom. 3. 25. Atonement, under the Mo­saic Law, was an Offering brought to appease God's Anger by Sacrifice out of the Herd or the Flocks, which was to be slain by him that offered it. Lev. 1. v. 4, and 5. And he shall put his hand upon the head of the Burnt-offering; and it shall be accepted for him to make Atonement for him. And he shall kill the Bullock before the Lord. The Word in the Original is [...], and signifies Redemption, or Ransom; all the Judaic Immolations being Types and Figures of that Immaculate Lamb Jesus Christ, The Lamb of God who taketh away the Sins of the World, John 1. 29. In whom we have Redemption through his Blood, Eph. 1. 7. Atonement seems a Musi­cal Metaphor, like Accord, to bring Jarring Differences and Diffonancies (ad Toman) into Tune.

V. 241. On me wreck all his Rage; On me let Death revenge himself with his utmost Rage: Wreck, of the Sax. Wpaecan, to be revenged.

V. 249. With Corruption there to dwell; According to the Prophetic Psalmist, For thou wilt not leave my Soul in Hell, neither suffer thy holy One to see Corruption, Psal. 16. 10. Illustrated and ap­plied to our Saviour (who rose the third day) by St. Peter, Act. 2. v. 20, 21, &c.

V. 253. And stoop inglorious; And be humbled and subdued, disgraced, and disarmed, of his irresistible Dart. Positis inglorius armis, AEn. 10. Inglorious, Inglorius, Lat. disgraced.

V. 255. Maugre Hell: In spight of Hell: Maugre, of the Fr. Malgré, against ones will, of the Lat. Malé, and Gratum.

V. 256. The Powers of Darkness bound; According to the Apostle to the Colossians, ch. 2. v. 15. And having spoiled Principalities and Powers, he made a shew of them openly, triumphing over them; confirmed by St. Luke, ch. 10. v. 17, and 18. Lord, even the Devils are subject unto us through thy Name; and he said unto them, I saw Satan, as Lightning, fall from Heaven.

V. 259. Glut the Grave; Satisfie, cloy the wide gaping Grave, that, e're it be satisfied, must devour all Mankind: The last Enemy that shall be destroyed is Death, 1 Cor. 15. 26. Glut, of the Lat Glutire, to swallow.

V. 269. Filial Obedience; The Duty and Submission which, as a Son, he paid his Almighty Father, exceeded only his everlasting Love to mortal Men: Filial, of Filialis, Lat. belonging to a Son: Obedientia, Lat. Duty, Obedience.

V. 273. Thus replied; Answered thus: Of Replicare, Lat. to reply, to speak again to.

V. 276. My sole Complacence; My only Delight and Pleasure; In whom alone I am well pleased. Complacentia, Lat. of Complacere, to like well. See before, V. 168. of this Book.

V. 282. Their Nature, &c. Joyn and unite their Manhood to their Godhead, Perfect God, and perfect Man, &c. according to St. Athanasius's Creed.

V. 285. By wonderous Birth; Behold a Virgin shall Conceive, and bear a Son, Isa. 7. 14. and Matth. 7. 18.

V. 286. The Head of all Mankind, thô Adam's Son; The Answer to the Question, with which our Saviour posed the Pharisees, Matth. 22. 45. Christ is Adam's and David's Son as to his Humanity, and David's and Adam's Lord as to his Divinity, therefore in the holy Page styled The last Adam: The first man Adam was made a living Soul, the last Adam was made a quickening Spirit, 1 Cor. 15. 45.

V. 287. As in him perish; For as in Adam all die, even so in Christ shall all be made alive, 1 Cor. 15. 22. Restored, of Restaurare, Lat. to renew, revive.

V. 291. Thy Merit imputed shall absolve; Thy holy Life, and meritorious Death, accounted and imputed to Mankind, shall obtain Pardon and Forgiveness for as many as renounce their own Deserts, and through Faith lay Claim to thine: For as by one man's disobedience, many were made Sinners; so by the obedience of one, shall many be made righteous, Rom. 5. 19. And therrfore it was imputed to him for Righteousness. Now it was not written for his sake alone (Abraham) that it was imputed to him, but for us also, to whom it shall be imputed, if we believe him, &c. Rom. 4. v. 22, [Page 108] 23, and 24. Imputed, of the Lat. Imputare, to reckon, to account: Absolve, of the Lat. Absol­vere, to absolve, to acquit, to free.

V. 292. Who renounce their own both Righteous; For who can justifie himself before God? We must all say, as Job did, If I be wicked, woe unto me; and if I be righteous, yet will I not lift up my head: I am full of confusion, Job 10. 15. We are all an unclean thing, and all our Righteous­nesses are as filthy rags, Isa. 64. 6. But could we do all that is commanded us, we are unprofitable Servants, Luke 17. 10. Renounce, of the Lat. Renuntiare, to forsake, to disclaim.

V. 293. Live in the transplanted; Removed from the killing Letter of the Law, to the gra­cious Gospel, that brought Life and Immortality to light, pursuing the Simile used before at V. 288. of Christ being a second Root, by whom we are Regenerated: Transplantari, Lat. to be removed, as Trees are, into another place, a better soil.

V. 304. Degrade thine own; Debase, dishonour, of Degradare, Lat. to disgrace.

V. 307. God-like Fruition; All that God enjoys: Fruition, of the Lat. Frui, to enjoy: Quitted all, left, forsaken all, of the Fr. Quitter, to leave.

V. 313. This Humiliation; This thy humbling and debasing of thy self to redeem lost Man. The greatest Humiliation sure, that ever was, where the Son of God made himself of no Repu­tation, and took upon him the form of a Servant, and was made in the likeness of Men: And being found in fashion as a Man, he humbled himself, and became obedient unto Death, even the Death of the Cross, Phil. 2. v. 7, 8.

V. 314. Thy Manhood to this Throne; According to our Creed. As also, 1 Tim. 3. 16. God was manifested in the Flesh, justified in the Spirit, seen of Angels, preached unto the Gentiles, belie­ved on in the World, received up into Glory. And, Ye Men of Galilee, why stand ye Gazing up into Heaven? This same Jesus, which is taken up from you into Heaven, shall so come in like manner, as ye have seen him go into Heaven, Acts 1. 11. Hereafter shall you see the Son of Man sitting on the right hand of Power, and coming in the Clouds of Heaven, Matth. 26. 64

V. 315. Here shalt thou sit Incarnate; Here shalt thou sit in thy Flesh: Incarnate, in carne, of Caro, Lat. Flesh.

V. 316. Son both of God and Man; Thou art my Son, this day have I begotten thee, Psal. 2. 7. For that which is conceived in her is of the Holy-Ghost, Matth. 1. 20. Therefore also that holy thing which shall be born of thee, shall be called the Son of God, Luc. 1. 35. Which was the Son of Adam, which was the Son of God, Luke 3. 38.

V. 317. Anointed Universal King; Who is the blessed and only Potentate, the King of Kings, and Lord of Lords, 1 Tim. 6. 16. Kings in Scripture are styled God's Anointed; Saul the first King of the Israelites was anointed by Samuel, 1 Sam. 10. 1. and his Successor David by the same hand. 1 Sam. 16. 13. Then Samuel took the Horn of Oyl and anointed him; a Ceremony still in use among most Nations. Therefore God, even thy God, hath anointed thee with the Oyl of Glad­ness above thy fellows, Heb. 1. 9. Acts 10. 38.

V. 321. That bide in Heaven, &c. That have their Abode in Heaven, according to Phil. 2. 10. That at the Name of Jesus every Knee should [...]ow, of things in Heaven, and things in Earth, and things under the Earth. Bide, and abbreviation of Abide, to stay in a place.

V. 324. Shalt in the Skie; They shall see the Son of Man coming in the Clouds of Heaven with Power and great Glory, Matth. 24. 30.

V. 325. The summoning Archangels; The Chief of thy Angels, that shall summon and call all that are or ever were living. Michael is named one of the Archangels, Epist. Jude, v. 9. Summoning, of Summonere, Lat. to warn; and Summonitio, in our Law, is a giving notice to ap­pear in Court. [...], Chief Angel; For the Lord himself shall descend from Heaven with a shout, with the voice of the Archangel, and with the trump of God, 1 Thes. 4. 16.

V. 326. Thy dread Tribunal; Thy dreadful Judgment Seat: For we must all appear before the Judgment Seat of Christ, knowing therefore the terrour of the Lord, 2 Cor. 5. v. 10, 11. Tribu­nal, Lat.

Ibid. From all Winds; From all Parts and Quarters of the World, from whence the Winds blow and take their Names:

Eurus ad auroram, Nabathaeque regna recessit
Persidaque & radiis juga subdita matutinis. Met. l. 1.

They shall gather together his Elect from the four Winds, Matth. 24. 31.

V. 327. The cited Dead; The Dead called to appear at the General Day of Doom: And I saw the Dead, small and great, stand before God, Rev. 20. 11, Citare, and Citatio, Lat. are Terms of the Civil Law, signifying a calling one to answer an Accusation or Crime brought against him.

V. 329. Such a Peal; Such a Sound shall awaken 'em from their long and lazy Lethargy: He shall send his Angels with a great sound of a Trumpet, Matth. 24. 31. [...], With a Trumpet and loud Voice, as the Original.

V. 331. They Arraigned shall sink; They, as soon as brought to that bright Bar self-accused and condemned, shall sink down into Hell, beneath thy Sovereign Sentence: To Arraign, is to bring a Prisoner to the Bar, to hear the Accusation laid to his Charge, of Arranger, Fr. to set and digest Things into order by way of Proof in Tryals.

[Page 109] V. 334. The World shall burn; The Heaven and the Earth which are now, by the same Word are kept in store, reserved unto Fire against the Day of Judgment, and perdition of ungodly Men. But the Day of the Lord will come as a Thief in the Night, in which the Heavens shall pass away with a great noise, and the Elements shall melt with fervent heat, the Earth also, and the Works that are therein shall be burnt up. 2 Pet. 3. v. 7, and 10.

Lucretius tells us, the World shall be destroyed by a downfal.

Principio mare, ac terras, caelumque tuêre:
Horum naturam triplicem, tria corpora, Memmi:
Tres species tam dissimiles, tria talia texta,
Una dies dabit exitio, multosque per annos
Sustentata, ruet moles & machina Mundi. Lib. 5.

Ovid affirms, its Destruction shall be by Fire:

Esse quoque infatis reminiscitur, affore tempus,
Quo mare, quo tellus, correptaque Regia Caeli
Ardeat; & mundi moles operosa laboret. Met. l. 1.

Lucan agrees with him:

Hos Caesar, populos si nunc non usserit ignis,
Uret cum terris, uret cum gurgite tonti:
Communis mundo superest rogus, ossibus astra
Misturus.—Phar. l. 7.

How this lower World, and all therein, may probably enough be liable to a General Con­flagration, is easie to imagine; but how the Heavens, the Celestial Bodies, the Sun, Moon, and Stars, those bright burning Beings, which many of the Fathers, as well as Philosophers, believed to consist and be made of Fire, shall be obnoxious to it, is not so familiar to our Understand­ings. Certain it is, the World shall have an end, Generation and Corruption shall cease, Mo­tion give place to Rest, and Time to Eternity; and then both the Elementary and Celestial Bodies having performed and finified their Function, and all their Vicissitudes and manifold Mutations being determined, shall be done away. The Heavens, the work of thy hands, they shall perish, but thou shalt endure, yea all of them shall wax old like a Garment: as a Vesture shalt thou change them, and they shall be changed, Psal. 102. 26. And with this agrees the Vision of St. John; And I saw a great white Throne, and him that sate on it, from whose Face the Earth and the Heavens fled away, and there was found no place for them, Rev. 20. 11.

V. 335. New Heaven and Earth; Of which Isaiah Prophesied, Behold I create new Heavens and a new Earth: and the former shall not be remembred, ch. 65. v. 17. Confirmed by St. Peter; Nevertheless we, according to his promise, look for new Heavens and a new Earth, wherein dwelleth Righteousness, 2 Pet. 3. 13. Foreseen by St. John; And I saw a new Heaven and a new Earth: for the first Heaven and the first Earth were passed away, Rev. 21. 1. The number of Beings subject to Generation and Corruption, to encrease and decay, will one day be compleat and fulfilled; then the Heavenly Orbs, the Elements, the Earth and Sea, the Causes, and the Recep­tacles and Subjects of those many Mutations of Matter, (through the Vicissitudes of Time and Motion) shall be no more: And God will make another World more beautiful, and much more glorious than this, void of all Alteration, incapable of Decay, the House of Eter­nity.

V. 336. After Tribulations long; After all the Afflictions of this Life: Tribulatio, Lat. Anguish, Pain, Suffering.

V. 337. See Golden Days; As the Poets express'd the first happy Simplicity of the World, by the Golden Age, before that mischievous Metal was discovered, to disturb it:

Aurea prima sata est aetas. Ov. Met. 1.
Toto surget gens aurea mundo. Virg. Ecl. 4.

V. 341. God shall be all in all; According to 1 Cor. 15. v. 24, 25, and 28. Then shall the Son also himself be subject unto him that put all things under him, that God may be all in all.

Ibid. All ye Gods, adore him; Worship him all ye Angels, the Powers and Principalities of Heaven, [...], the Hebrew word Gods, is generally understood in Scripture of Idols or Angels, as Psal. 97. 7. Worship him all ye Gods, Translated by the Latin, all ye Angels; and in the Hebrews, ch. 1. v. 6. where this very Text is quoted, it is expressed by [...]. So Psal. 95. 3. A great King above all Gods. Which Title also is bestowed in holy Writ on Prin­ces, as God's Vicegerents, I have said, ye are Gods, Psal. 82. 6. Alledged by our Saviour him­self, John 10. 34.

[Page 110] V. 342. Who, to compass all this, dies; Who yields himself up to Death, to bring all this to pass: O faelix-culpa, quae talem ac tantum meruerit habere Redemptorem. Greg. Our Author has been entertaining us for 264 Lines, with a Discourse of the highest Nature, as the Mysteries of God's Mercy and Justice to Mankind; of Free-will, of the inconceivable Incarnation of his Son, and all the nicest Points of Faith: And has acquitted himself of this great Undertaking as well as is possible for Human Understanding to do, in things so much exceeding the com­pass of our Capacities. He has kept close to the Revelations of Holy Writ, as appears by the Quotations vouching each Verse, Homer, instead of Treating the Deities of his Days, with any tolerable Decency, makes them Quarrelsome, Vulnerable, and of a Behaviour below that of a Stoic Philosopher, as is frequent through all his Iliads: His Venus stands with a Fly-flap in her hand, to keep the corrupting Insects from infecting the Corps of her Son's dead Favou­rite, [...]. &c.

Virgil, thô less blameable, gives the same Goddess the weakness of Weeping: Lacrymis cculos suffusa nitentes. AEn. 1.’

And the Character of his Juno is very angry and spiteful:

Nec dum enim causae irarum, saevique dolores
Exciderant animo, man [...]t altâ mente repostum
Judicium Paridis, spretaeque injuria formae. AEn. 1.

And he styles her frequently, Saeva Jovis conjux; and there is so bitter an Altercation be­tween her and Venus, AEn. 10. that enraged Jupiter is forced to end it, by swearing he will take neither of their Parts. The Parallel therefore, as to the [...] of these Poems and our Authors, is infinitely to his advantage.

V. 348. With Jubilee; With great shouts of Joy and Rejoycing, from Jubilare, Lat. to re­joyce; a Word that probably enough derives its Original of [...], the Year of Jubilee, Cele­brated with extraordinary Rejoycings every Fiftieth Year by the Jews, when every Man was restored to his former Estate and Liberty; of [...], a Ram, because proclaimed by the sound of those Creatures Horns on the 10th day of the 7th Month. Levit. 25. 9.

Ibid. And loud Hosanna's; Songs of Salvation and Deliverance. [...], Mat. 21. 9, 15. Mark 11. 9, 10. and John 12. 13. the joyful Exclamations and Prophetic Exultations, made not only by a great multitude of Men, but even by Children at our Saviour's riding into Jerusalem, the Original is [...], Heb. Save us, of [...], to save and deliver. An exstatic Confession of the Saviour of the World, even by those who believed not in him.

V. 352. Down they cast their Crowns; Agreeing with Rev. 4. 10. The twenty four Elders fall down before him that sate on the Throne, and worship him that liveth for ever, and cast their Crowns before the Throne.

V. 353. Immortal Amarant; [...], Gr. for unfading, that decayeth not, a Flower of a Purple Velvet Colour, which, thô gathered, keeps its Beauty, and when all other Flowers fade, recovers its Lustre by being sprinkled with a little Water, as Pliny affirms, Lib. 21. c. 11. Our Author seems to have taken this hint from 1 Pet. 5. 4. To an Inheritance incorruptible, undefil'd, and that fadeth not away; [...]. And 1 Pet. 1. 4. Ye shall receive a Crown of Glory that fadeth not away; [...]: Both relating to the name of his everlasting Ama­rant, which he has set finely near the Tree of Life. Immortal Amarant; Job asks, in ch. 27. v. 24. Doth the Crown endure from Generation to Generation? That is, Is the Crown Eternal? The Greek has it, [...], Immarcessible: Amarantus Flos, Symbolum est Immortalitatis. Clem. Alex. Paedag. l. 2. c. 8.

V. 356. Where first it grew; If there be any such immortal unfading Flower, it must grow in Heaven, for all Things beneath are subject to change and decay; and it is as true, that there is nothing Everlasting, as that there is nothing New under the Sun.

V. 358. Where the River of Bliss; The abundant Happiness and immortal Joys of Heaven, are in Scripture generally expressed by the Fountain of Life, and Rivers of Pleasure: So, Thou shalt make them drink of the River of thy Pleasures, for with thee is the Fountain of Life, Psal. 36. v. 8, and 9. For the Lamb which is in the midst of the Throne shall feed them, and shall lead them unto living Fountains of Waters, Revel. 7. 17. And he shewed me a pure River of Water of Life, clear as Chrystal, ch. 21. v. 1.

V. 359. Rouls o'rè Elizian Flowers; The Elizium Fields, were the imaginary happy Regions, where the Souls of good Men, that had passed through Life with the least Infection, after a Purgation by Water, Wind, or Fire, according to the foulness of their Faults, enjoyed pure and everlasting Ease; hence the Papists borrowed their Heathen Purgatory, as is evident from Virgil:

Ergo exercentur paenis, veterumque malorum
Supplicia expendunt. Aliae panduntur inanes
Suspensae ad ventos; aliis subgurgite vasto
Iafectum eluitur scelus, aut exuritur igni.
Quisque su [...]s patimur manes: Ex inde per amplum
Mittitur Elysium—AEn. 6.

[Page 111] Much Dispute has been about the Situation of these delightful Fields: Virgil places them beneath, in the Neighbourhood of his Place of Purgation. AEneas, and his Guide, after they had passed by the dreadful Place of Punishment:

Devenere lucos laetos & amaena vireta,
Fortunatorum nemorum, sedesque beatas. AEn. 6.

Others have placed this blest Abode in the Fortunate Islands the Canaries, and such might interpret our Author's Amber Stream according to the Letter. Others fancy it in the Moon's Silver Fields, some in the quiet Sedate Region of the Air, in the middle between Heaven and Earth; AEris in campis latis, AEn. 6. Homer placed it in Spain near Gades, now Cales.

[...]
[...]
[...].
[...].
[...]
[...].

A Description very indifferent, if compared with that of Virgil's before cited. Elysium is of Greek Original, either of [...], signif. Going, as being that desirable Place to which all Men (even the Wicked who would die the Death of the Righteous) would fain go; or [...], from the Release the blessed Souls enjoy from the Incumberances of the Body, and the Miseries of this low Life; or as [...], Eternal, Indissoluble. This happy Seat, and State, free from all Disturbance, had not its Foundation only from Fancy, but was bor­rowed from the Sacred Writings, and was Copied from Moses's Paradise; and accordingly the Rabbins tell us, that Elysium sounds in the Holy Language, [...], The Grove of God. The floridness of these Elysium Groves, is expressed thus by Tibullus:

Fert Casiam non culta seges, totosque per agros
Floret odoratis terra benigna rosis. Car. l. 1.

Ibid. Her Amber Stream; Homer, in the Verses above-mentioned, tells us, there were no Showers in the Elysian Fields, which made Virgil, perhaps, so willing to adorn them with his own Country River the Italian Po.

—Unde superne
Plurimus Eridani per Sylvam volvitur amnis. AEn. 6.

Our Author's River of Bliss runs through the Heavenly Plains more delightfully, whose Stream he calls Amber colour'd, from its clearness and transparency.

—Non qui per saxa volutus
Purior Electro campum petit amnis. Georg. 3.

Amber is generally thought to be the Gums of Trees dropping into the Sea, where it receives its hardness, according to Ovid's Tradition:

Inde fluunt lacrymae: Stillataque sole rigescunt
De ramis Electra novis: Quae lucidus amnis
Excipit.—Met. l. 2.

But later Experience has discovered it to be a kind of Petroleum, sweating out of the Rocks in the Sinus Botnicus, the Botnar Sea, (running into, or rather being a part of the Baltic) where it has been found hanging down like Isickles, thence dropping on Flies or small Animals, and Embalming them in transparent and perspicuous Tombs, is in the Spring when the melted Snows-fill those Caverns, washt out and set a-floating, and by the Salt-wash its viscosity is hardened into a sort of Stone, which, when burnt, betrays it self by its smell to be of the nature of a Bitumen.

V. 361. Resplendent Locks; Their shining Hair, twisted with dazling Beams of Light: Locks, of the Sax. Locca, a Head of Hair, of the Lat. Floccus, a Fleece of Wool, from the Resemblance: Resplendens, Lat. shining, glittering, of Resplendere, Lat. to shine.

V. 362. In loose Garlands; In Crowns of Flowers: Guirlande, Fr. á Gyrando, from compas­sing and going round the Head.

V. 363. A Sea of Jasper shon; A Jasper, [...], Gr. from the Heb. [...], was one of those twelve Precious Stones appointed to be set in the Breast-plate of Aaron, Exod. 28. 18. and in its Correspondent, ch. 39. v. 11. it cast divers Colours, and the Green (the most esteemed) [Page 112] has most similitude to the Sea; Ruae. de Gem. l. 2. c. 1. Mention is made of this Stone in the Description of the Walls and Foundations of the New Jerusalem; Having the Glory of God: and her Light like unto a Stone most precious; even like a Jasper Stone, clear as Chrystal; Rev. 21. v. 11, 18, and 19. Illi stellatus Jaspide fulvâ Ensis erat. AEn. 4.’

See its divers kinds, Plin. l. 37. c. 9.

V. 364. Impurpled with Celestial Roses; The Pavement that seemed a shining Sea of Jasper, looked lovely, as if dyed in Purple, by the reflection the Heavenly Roses made in Garlands strewed upon it: Impurpled, turned into Purple; [...], Gr. as Purpura, Lat. both for the Co­lour and the Fish, out of which is taken that which dyes it. The Poets are much in love with this Colour:

—Manibus date lilia plenis
Purpurcos spargam Flores. AEn. 6.
Et flore comantem Purpureo. AEn. 12.

The Light it self must be tinged with it:

Et lumine vestit Purpureo. AEn. 6.
Lumenquae juventae Purpureum. AEn. 1.

But all this is outdone by a Neoteric, Brachra Purpureâ candidiora nive; daring to a Con­tradiction. Smil'd, the Actions of Living Creatures, and sometimes of Rational, are by the Poets often applied to Things inanimate, as Cum tacet omnis ager; and Ridet ager, so Laetus ager; so before the North Wind is said to sleep, B. 1. V. 490. Sylvaeque & saeva quierant oequo­ra. AEn. 4.

V. 367. With Praeamble sweet; With a sweet beginning of Charming Notes: Praeamble, of the Fr. Preambule, a beginning, something that is played before, that chiefly designed, of Prae­ambulare, Lat. to go before: Introduce, they bring in, they usher in, make way for, of Introdu­cere, Lat.

V. 369. Waken Raptures high; Raise their noble Strains, such as ravish the Auditory: Rap­tura, Lat. for Ravishment; hence Rapture, used for any Delight that does as it were Rapere, snatch us from our selves, raise us above what we were.

V. 370. No Voice exempt; No one is excused, no Voice is left out, of Exemptus, Lat. of Exi­mere, to take away.

V. 371. Melodious Part, &c. No Voice but easily could bear a part in that Celestial Song, such Harmony is in Heaven: He maketh Concord in his high Places, Job 25. 2. Melodius, Musi­cal, Harmonious, of [...], Music, Singing: Concord; Concordia, Lat. Agreement, and here that Musical one of Time and Tune.

V. 372. Omnipotent; I am the Almighty God, Gen. 17. 1. 2 Cor. 6. 18.

V. 373. Immutable; That changeth not: Immutabilis, Lat. I am the Lord, I change not, Mal. 3. 6. Jam. 1. 17.

Ibid. Immortal, infinite; Everlasting, and boundless: Immortalis, Lat. Infinitus, Lat. bound­less, infinite; whose Power, Knowledge, Goodness, Mercy, and Truth, are infinitely perfect, and exceed all human Comprehension.

V. 375. Fountain of Light; Nothing is so expressive of the Glorious and incomprehensible Majesty of God, as Light: Who onely hath immortality, dwelling in the light, which no man can approach unto, 1 Tim. 6. 16. God is light, and in him is no darkness at all, 1 John 1. 5. The light dwelleth with him, Dan. 2. 22.

Ibid. Thy self Invisible; Now unto the eternal King, immortal, invisible, the only wise God, &c. 1 Tim. 1. 17. Whom no man hath seen, or can see, ch. 6. v. 16. Invisibilis, Lat. not to be seen.

V. 377. Throned inaccessible; Whose Throne is not to be approached: Oh, that I knew where I might find him! that I might come even to his Seat! On the left where he doth work, but I cannot behold him: he hideth himself on the right, that I cannot see him, Job 23. v. 3, 9. Touching the Almighty we cannot find him out, ch. 37. v. 23. Heaven is styled God's Throne, Matth. 5. 34. Inaccessible, of the Lat. Inaccessus, that cannot be come at, of the Negative In and Accedere, to approach.

V. 378. Through a Cloud; According to the Psalmists description, Clouds and Darkness are round about him, Psal. 97. 2. The House was filled with the Cloud, and the Court was full of the brightness of the Lord's glory, Ezekiel's Vision, ch. 10. v. 4. He holdeth back the face of his Throne, and spreadeth his Cloud upon it, Job 26. 9.

[Page 113] V. 380. Dark with excessive Bright; The excessive Brightness, amazing and astonishing all created Sight to that degree, that Darkness and Confusion seizes all approaching Eyes; He that will stedfastly behold the Sun, will in a short time make the dazling Experiment end in Darkness, not soon recovered. How impossible therefore is it for human Eyes to behold him, Who is cloathed with Honour and Majesty, who covereth himself with Light as with a Garment; Psal. 104. v. 1, 2▪ Our blessed Saviour's Face in his Transfiguration in the Mount, (thô the full blaze of his Glory was shaded by a shrine of Flesh) did shine as the Sun, and his Rayment was white as the Light, Matth. 17. 2. His Countenance was as the Sun shineth in his strength, Rev. 1. 16.

Ibid. Thy Skirts appear; The borders of thy shining Shrine. Read Isaiah's Vision, ch. 6. I saw also the Lord sitting upon a Throne high and lifted up, and his Skirts filled the Temple. To which our Author seems to have had respect in this noble description of God's Glorious Majesty. Excessivus, Lat. boundless.

V. 382. With both Wings veil their Eyes; According to the description of God's Throne by the Prophet Isaiah; And about it stood the Seraphims: each one had six Wings, with two he covered his face, &c. Isa. 25. 2.

V. 383. Of all Creation first; According to our Creed, The onely begotten Son of God, begotten of his Father before all Worlds; of whom David says, The dew of thy birth is from the womb of the morning, Psal. 110. 3. before the World, or Light, that distinguished Morn from Evening, were brought forth of the Womb of the Creation; Who is the image of the invisible God, the first-born of every Creature, Coloss. 1. 15.

V. 384. Divine Similitude; Exact Resemblance of the Divinity, God of God, Light of Light, very God of very God; Nicene Creed. Similitudo, Lat. likeness.

V. 385.—Without Cloud—th' Almighty Father shines; The Law, at its Promulgation by Moses, was delivered with Thunders and Lightenings, great Earthquakes and Terrors, and Mount Sinai was covered with a Cloud: Exod. 19. v. 9, and 16. I come unto thee in a cloud, there were thunders and lightenings, and a thick cloud upon the Mount, and the whole Mount (Sinai) quaked greatly: But when our Saviour appeared, the Cloud was removed, That the light of the glorious Gospel of Christ, who is the image of God, might shine unto Believers; For God, who com­manded the light to shine out of darkness, has shined in our hearts, to give the light of the knowledge of the Glory of God, in the face of Jesus Christ, 2 Cor. 4. v. 4, and 6.

V. 387. No Creature can behold; No man hath seen God at any time, the onely begotten Son, which is in the bosom of the Father, he hath declared him, John 1. 18. No man hath ascended up into Heaven, but he that came down from Heaven, even the Son of Man which is in Heaven, John 3. 13. Holiness, without which no man shall see the Lord, Heb. 12. 14. Now the Righteousness of the best of Mankind being but as filthy Rags, it must be the imputative Holiness of Jesus Christ, that must qualifie and enable us to behold the Lord of Glory.

V. 388. Imprest the Effulgence; Stamp'd upon thee, the brightness of his Glory dwells: Im­prest, Impressus, Lat stamp'd, printed, graven; as, Cratera impressum signis, AEn. 5. Effulgence, brightness, of Effulgere, Lat. to shine bright: Who being the brightness of his Glory, and the express image of his Person, Heb. 1. 3. And we beheld his Glory, the Glory as of the only begotten Son of the Father, John 1. 14.

V. 389. Transfus'd on thee, &c. Poured out on thee, according to those many Prophecies fulfilled visibly at his Baptism by St. John: And the Spirit of the Lord shall rest upon him, Isa. 11. 2. I have put my Spirit upon him, Isa. 42. 1. And lo the Heavens were opened unto him, and he saw the Spirit of God descending like a Dove, and lightening upon him, Matth. 3. 16. And John bare record, saying, I saw the Spirit descending from Heaven like a Dove, and it abode upon him John 1. 32. Transfus'd, Transfusus, Lat. poured out: Amplus, Lat. large, mighty.

V. 390. He Heaven of Heavens, &c. God created the World, and the Heavens, and all their high Inhabitants, by his Son the Word of his Power. All things were made by him, and without him was not any thing made that was made. He was in the World, and the World was made by him, John 1. v. 3, 10. For by him were all things created that are in Heaven, and that are in Earth, vi­sible and invisible, whether Thrones or Dominions, or Principalities, or Powers: all things were created by him, and for him, Coloss. 1. 16.

V. 391. By thee threw down the aspiring Dominations; By thee cast down into Hell the ambi­tious Angels: God spared not the Angels that sinned, but cast them down to Hell, 2 Pet. 2. 4. The Angels which kept not their first estate, but left their own Habitation, he hath reserved in everlasting Chains under darkness, unto the Judgment of the Great Day, Jude 1. 6. Dominatio, Lat. Power, Authority, as the Angels are styled, Coloss. 1. 16. quoted at V. 390.

V. 394.—That shook Heaven's everlasting Frame; Well might God's flaming Chariot loaden with Almighty Vengeance shake Heaven's everlasting Basis, Whose Pillars tremble, and are asto­nished at his Reproof, Job 16. 11. Juno giving her self but a jogg on her Throne, shook the wide Olympus, the Homeric Heaven: [...].’

Jupiter, when in good humour, does as much: Annuit, & totum nutu tremefecit Olympum. AEn. 9.’

[Page 114] How much more true is that of the Almighty, He looketh on the earth and it trembleth, he toucheth the Hills and they smoak, Psal. 104. 32.

V. 396. Angels disarray'd; Disordered, and put to the rout: Disarray'd, Desarroyer, Fr. dis­ordered, of the old Fr. word Arroy, the Equipage and Order belonging to Soldiers; hence in our Law-Books Arrayer, Arraiatores, were such as had Commissions of Array, to see the Sol­diers well provided of Arms, &c. Read the Battel of the great Dragon and his Angels, Rev. 12. v. 7, 8, and 9. And they overcame him by the bloud of the Lamb, v. 11.

V. 398. Thee only extoll'd; Praise thee alone: And I heard a loud voice saying in Heaven, Now is come Salvation and Strength, and the Kingdom of our God, and the Power of his Christ, Rev. 12. 10. Extollere, Lat. to lift, to raise up, and thence to praise.

V. 405. But much more to Pity enclined; A Repetition affected after the Homeric manner, who often uses the same Verses and Words, in which Commands were given, or Messages sent, as supposing it not possible to change them for better. So Jupiter's Message delivered to Juno and Minerva in [...]. [...], &c.’

V. 410. O unexampled Love! O Love beyond all Example, Precedent, or Comparison! Herein is love, not that we loved God, but that he loved us, and sent his Son to be the propitiation for our Sins, 1 John 4. 10. That in the ages to come, he might shew the exceeding Riches of his Grace in his kindness towards us, through Jesus Christ, Eph. 2. 7.

V. 413. Shall be the copious matter; Shall be the ample subject of my Song: Copious, Lat. Co­piosus, large, plenteous: Disjoyn, part, divide, of Disjungere, Lat. to separate.

V. 416. Above the Starry Sphear; In highest Heaven, above these lower Orbs, spangled with Stars: Starry, full of Stars; Star seems of kin to the Gr. [...]: Sphear, any round or circular Body, as those carrying the Stars, of [...], Gr.

V. 417. Hymning; Singing of Psalms, and holy Songs of Praise, of [...], Gr. to Praise, to Celebrate: [...], Eph. 5. 19.

V. 418. The firm opacous Globe; The solid round and dark outside of the World: Opacus, Lat. dark; used by Virgil as an Epithete of obscure Woods and darker Night:—Inter opa­cum allabi Nemus, AEn. 8. And, Dono noctis opacae, Ibid. Of Globe, B. 2. V. 513.

V. 419. Whose first Convex; Whose outermost vast Circle separates the inclosed Orbs of Light, from Chaos, and dark Invasions of ancient and everlasting Night, of Convex, B. 2. V. 435. Luminous, Luminosus, Lat. bright, shining, full of Light: Enclosed, encompassed, Inclusus, Lat. shut in.

V. 423. A boundless Continent; At a great distance it shewed like a round Ball, but now at his alighting on it appears a vast unbounded Country, its roundness being not very discove­rable so near: Continent, Continens, Lat. for firm Land, not separated and interrupted by the Sea, as Islands are.

V. 424. Under the frown of Night starless exposed; Under the displeasure of Darkness, with­out one glimmering Star, laid open to the continual Storms and Attempts of Chaos roaring round it, a severe and angry Neighbourhood: Frowning implies, not only a wrinkling and con­tracting the Forehead and Brows, but hiding and darkening the Eyes, excellently express'd:

[...]
[...].

Night may well be shaded by her Frowns, when the dawning of the Day is expressed by the chearful Eye-lids of the Morn, not only by most Heathen Poets, but by the Poetic Book of Job, His Eyes are like the Eye-lids of the morning, ch. 41. v. 18. Exposed, Expositus, Lat. laid out, or open to.

V. 426. Inclement Skie; Unmerciful, cruel, severe Climate, of Inclemens, Lat. merciless, rigorous. So it is used by the judicious Virgil:

Durae rapit inclementia mortis. Georg. 2.
Verùm inclementia Divûm Has evertit opes. AEn. 2.

V. 431. A Vultur on Imaus; A Vultur is a fierce and voracious Bird of Prey, so named à Vultu, from his haughty look:—Rostroque immanis Vultur adunco, AEn. 6. Pliny says, they are constant followers of Armies, and could presage approaching Battles, and three days before death smell a future Carcass; l. 10. c. 6. With whom in part agrees Plutarch: [...].’

[Page 115]
Et quicquid nare sagaci
AEra non sanum, motumque cadavere sentit.
Nunqum se tanto Vulture caelum
Induit.—Says Lucan, of the bloudy Pharsalian Field, l. 7.

Homer mentions this Bird: [...].’

And in the same Book he has a Comparison not unlike our Author's, where the Eagle is named, as here the Vultur, Tyrants Both:

[...]
[...]
[...].

Ibid. Imaus, one of the largest Mountains in the greater Asia, now named Dalanguer, rising at Mount Taurus, near the Caspian Sea, and stretching Southward as far as the Spring-head of Ganges, then spreading it self East and West, becomes the Northern Boundary to the Empire of the Greal Mogul.

V. 432. The Roving Tartar; The Tartars are a People the most barbarous, bloody, and fierce of all Mankind, Inhabitants of Tartary, the greatest Country in all Asia; they are here said to be Roving, from their continual wandering up and down that Country; fruitful in Pasturage, with their Families in little covered Carts, having anciently no Cities, but living in Companies in the Fields called Hords; This hardy course of Life has fitted 'em for War, in which they have often proved themselves the Scourges of God on the Civilized World: In this last Age one of their Princes broke in upon China, and entirely Conquered it. Roving, wandering, of the Fr. Roder, to move to and fro, as Vagabonds, Thieves, and Pirates do, who are called Rovers.

V. 434. To gorge the Flesh; To glut himself with the Flesh of tender Lambs, or Kids new yean'd: Gorger, Fr. to Cloy, to Gluttonize, of Gorge, Fr. the Throat, the Gullet: Yeanling, new yeaned, lately born, or fallen.

V. 436. Of Ganges or Hydaspes; Ganges, at this day called Ganga, is the greatest River of East-India, by it divided into two Parts; it riseth from Mount Imaus (as the Ancients say from Emodus) in the Confines of Great Tartary, and running Southward through the Empire of the Great Mogul, dischargeth it self by five Outlets into the Bay of Bengala: So that Virgil seems not to have been so much mistaken as Interpreters suppose him, when he said of this River,

Ceu septem surgens sedatis amnibus altus
Per tacitum Ganges. AEn. 9.
Quâ colitur Ganges, toto qui solus in orbe
Ostia nascenti contraria solvere Phaebo
Audet, & adversum fluctus propellit in Eurum. Luc. l. 3.

Ibid. Hydaspes, is a River of East-India, thô Virgil calls it Medus Hydaspes, Geor. 4. On its Banks stood Nysa, the chief City of India when conquered by Alexander, therefore by Lucan styled Nisaeus Hydaspes, l. 6. From the disagreement among the Poets about the Native Place of this Rivet, it came to pass, that Horace calls it Fabulosum—Vel quae loca Fabulosus lambit Hydaspes. Car. l. O. 22.

Ibid. Indian Streams; Rivers of India, so named from Indus, its Principal River, and Western Boundary:

Quâque ferens rapidum diviso gurgite fontem
Vastis Indus aquis, mistum non sentit Hydaspen. Luc. l. 4.

V. 438. The barren Plains of Sericana; Cathay, anciently called Serica, (Et Scythia extra Imaum) the Habitation of the Silk-weaving Seres: This Country is bounded on the East with the Ocean, Westward with Tartary, Northward with the Scythian Sea, and on the South with China.

Ibid. Where Chineses drive, &c. Chineses, the Inhabitants of China, a vast Kingdom in the East of Asia, a People, for their Numbers, Civility, Learning, and the Fertility of their Coun­try, preferible to all those of the Pagan World. Some Parts of Tartary, as well as China it self, are so very flat and plain, that Waggons are usually driven over them, without any other Motive than that of Sails and Winds. Heyl. Geog.

[Page 116] Ibid. Their Cane Wagons; Their Carriages made of Canes, and therefore the lighter: Pliny tells us, there were in India, Arundines tantae proceritatis, ut singula internodia, alveo navigabili ternos interdum homines ferant, l. 7. c. 2.

V. 440. So on this Windy Sea of Land; Beaten by Eternal Storms and Tempests:

The bare outside of this World, that seem'd
Firm Land, imbosom'd without Firmament,
Uncertain which, in Ocean or in Air. As described V. 75. Bo. 3.

From the Chineses sailing in their light Waggons over Land, he brings the Comparison up, and calls this cruel stormy Climate, A Windy Sea of Land.

V. 445. Like AEreal Vapours; Like Mists arising in the Air, light and empty, and therefore easily mounting aloft: The Philosophers distinguish a Vapour from an Exhalation, this being the Offspring of the Earth, as that of the Water, yet both convertible into Air or Water; the Word is used promiscuously by Virgil;—Lentusque carinas est vapor, for Fire, AEn. 5. Volat vapor ater ad auras, of boyling Water, AEn. 7. AEreal, Aëreus, Lat. of the Air, and thence any thing that riseth up into it; hence the Cranes are called AEriae, Geor. 1. and the Alpes AErias, by the same Author, from their high situation, Geor. 3.

V. 446. Transitory; Short-lived, trivial: Transitorius, Lat. of short stay and duration, that quickly pass away, of Transire, Lat. to go by: Vain, Vanus, Lat. empty, foolish, false.

V. 452. Of painful Superstition; Superstitio, Lat. a vain Esteem and Reverence of that which deserves none, Will-worship of Saints, &c. not required at our hands, which the easie Folly of some Men, and the cunning Knavery of others, have imposed on great part of the World, deservedly called Painful, because the deluded Votaries take so much pains (in Fastings, Scourgings, Processions, Pilgrimages,) in vain, and to no purpose. Our Author seems to have had the advice of St. Paul to the Colossians in his thoughts, Let no man beguile you of your reward, in a voluntary humility, and worshipping of Angels, &c. Which things have indeed a shew of Wis­dom in will-worship and humility, and neglecting the Body, not in any honour to the satisfying the flesh, Coloss. 2. v. 18, and 23. [...], by us well translated Will-worship, (such as the vain Devotions of fantastic Zealots choose) is by the Latin Translation rendred Superstitio, which, among the Heathens, was an excess beyond their established Religion, thô Idolatrous.

—Non haec solennia nobis
Has ex more dapes, hanc tanti Numinis aram,
Vana superstitio, veterumque ignara Deorum
Imposuit.—AEn. 8.

V. 454. Fit Retribution; The just Reward, a Recompence as vain and em pty as their idle Adorations, according to their Fopperies; And all the evil of the men of Shechem did God render upon their heads, Judg. 9. 57. according to his most exact and adequate Retributions: Retribu­tio, Lat. a Return, a Repayment, Reward, of Retribuere, Lat. to restore, to make amends.

V. 455. All the Unaccomplish'd; All the imperfect, unfinish'd Works of Nature, such are Abortive, Abortivus, Lat. for any thing born dead, or cast out of the Womb imperfect, and be­fore due time: Monstrous, Monstrosus, Lat. any thing contrary to Nature, exceeding the com­mon in size, parts, or proportion: Unkindly mixt, begotten by different kinds, as the unna­tural Mixtures of Men and Beasts like the Fabulous Minotaure: Unaccomplish'd, Inaccompli, Fr. Incompletus, Lat. unfulfilled.

V. 457. Fleet hither; Swim and slide hither, of the Lat. Fluitare, to glide as Rivers do, thence to wander: Dissolv'd, Dissolutus, Lat. dead, loosed from the Ligatures that tye Life to­gether: Till final Dissolution, until utter Destruction overtake 'em at last.

V. 459. Not in the Neighbouring Moon; In the Moon of all the Planets, the nearest Neigh­bour to the Earth, as before, Bo. 2. V. 1053.

This Pendant World in bigness like a Star
Of smallest Magnitude close by the Moon.

Bold and prying Philosophy has assigned the Moon, the Mother of Moisture and Muta­tion, for the Receptacle of monstrous Births, Embryo's, and Creatures imperfectly and unkindly mixt; our Author rather supposes her Silver Fields Peopled with Saints removed thither, or Inhabited by Spirits of a kind and make between Angels and Men, inferiour to the first, and transcending the latter.

V. 460. Those Argent Fields; Since the Discoveries made in the Moon, of vast Provinces, Lakes, Woods, Valleys, Caves, &c. or something very like them by the Optic Glasses invented by Galilaeus and Kepler, and the manifestation of three or four Planets moving about Jupiter, within few Degrees of him; many do not only fancy the Moon to be another World, whose Globe appears so very like that of our Earth, but that there may be many other Worlds, as well in the Stars, as in the Sun himself; nor it is easie to disprove the Opinion of those, who imagine, [Page 117] that this our World does as officiously by turns enlighten the Moon, and shine on her, as she lends her borrowed Light to us: Argent Fields, Silver, of Argenteus, Lat. of the Moon's faint white Complexion: Argentum, Lat. Silver, of [...], Gr. White.

V. 461. Translated Saints; Removed thither from this lower World: Translatus, Lat. of Transferre, Lat. to carry over.

V. 462. Betwixt the Angelical, &c. Those that please themselves with a Plurality of Worlds, bring this Argument to support their Imaginations, that there seems wanting in this lower World many Degrees of Beings; that between Angels and Men, divers ranks and kinds of living Creatures (by our Poets styled Middle Spirits) inferiour to the Angelic Agility and Pu­rity, but surpassing the grossness of Human Debility, might be placed; and another Set, in­serted between the Rational and Animal Life, as also between Plants and other mixt Beings, all which being not to be found in this World, they suppose there are divers others, or at least one more, in which all these seeming Deficients are supplied.

V. 463. Hither of ill-joyn'd Sons, &c. Hither, not into the Neighbouring Moon, but unto the barren, stormy back-side of the World, first of all, the Giants came from the old World, the Offspring of the Sons of God, ill-joyned with the Daughters of Men, Gen. 6. 2.

V. 464. Those Giants came from the old World destroyed by the Floud; The Giants came, whose Oppression, Pride, Tyranny, and all manner of Impiety, were the Provocations of God's Ven­geance poured out on all the Inhabitants of the Earth by the Deluge, as is implied by Job 26. 5. where the Word [...] is better Translated Giants, as usually, Deut. 2. 11. 2 Sam. 21. v. 16, and 18. then Dead things: Rapha, or the Giant of Gath, with his three Sons, is Recorded. 1 Chron. 20. v. 4. to the end; the last of which is, according to the usual Hebraism, named A Man of Measure, that is, of mighty Stature. That the general size of Mankind in the vigo­rous Youth of Nature, before the Flood, was superiour to that of their Successors, is very pro­bable, but not to a degree so incredible as Barcepha has stretch'd and rack'd our first Parents to, for having placed Paradise beyond the Ocean, he makes Adam and Eve ford through it. From this hint in the Sacred Writings the Gentiles had their [...]. Homer and Virgil have given good Examples of the sizes of their Hero's by the vast Stones they hurled at one another, that, with which Diomedes mawled AEneas, two Men, such as lived then, could hardly move, [...]. and that which Turnus threw at the same Person was so big.

Vix illud lecti bis sex cervice subirent
Qualia nunc hominum producit corpora Tellus. AEn. 12.

Of all which, hear Juvenal:

Nec hunc lapidem, quali se Turnus & Ajax,
Et quo Tydides percussit pondere loxam
AEneae; sed quem valeant emittere dextra
Illis dissimules, & nostro tempore natae.
Nam genus hoc vivo jam decrescebat Homero,
Terra malos homines, nunc educat atque pusillos. Sat. 15.

V. 465. Though then Renown'd; Famous for vain and wicked Deeds that then were looked on as Glorious: Renown'd, according to the Original Men of Name, [...], of Renommée, Fr. Commendation, Fame. Gen. 2. 4. The same became mighty Men, which were of old, Men of Renown.

V. 467. On the Plain of Sennaar; After the Deluge, Men being diffident, dwelt for some time on the tops of Hills for their security, but by degrees, as their fear decreased, drew down towards the bottoms, and in length of Time encreasing, and finding themselves straighten'd in the Valleys, delighted with the prospect and verdure of the open Plains, forsook the Neigh­bourhood of Hills, and in their march from the East, they light on this famous Plain in the Land of Shinar, Gen. 11. 2. a spacious pleasant place of vast view on all sides, extreamly fruitful, being water'd by Euphrates. [...], is by the Rabbi's said to have been so named, not at the first possession of this place by these new Inhabitants, but after they attempted building of Babel, (signifying Confusion) and importing the Judgment sent upon 'em, as if the word were compounded of [...], Heb. a Tooth, [...] to strike out, and express'd as much as the place where their Teeth were struck out, relating to the confusion of Language that there befel them, the Teeth being necessary for the pronunciation of divers Letters in all Languages: Of Babel before, Bo. 1. V. 694.

V. 471. Empedocles; The Scholar of Pythagoras, a Philosopher and a Poet, born at Agrigen­tum in Sicily: He wrote of the nature of Things in Greek, as Lucretius did in Latin Verse. He stealing one night from his Followers, threw himself into the flaming AEtna, that being no where to be found, he might be esteemed a God, and to be taken up amongst them into Heaven; but his Iron Pattens being thrown out by the fury of the burning Mountain, disco­vered his defeated Ambition, and ridiculed his Folly.

[Page 118]
—Dicam, siculique Poetae
Narrabo interitum; Deus immortalis haberi
Dum cupit Empedocles, Ardentem frigidus AEtnam
Insiluit: Nec, si retractus erit, jam
Fiet homo, & ponet famosae mortis amorem. Hor. de Arte Poet.

V. 472. Plato's Elysium; The Paradise of Plato, called Divinus, from writing so finely of the State and Condition of the Virtuous after this Life: He was a Grecian, Scholar to Socrates, travelled into Egypt and Italy to improve his Knowledge, a Man of great Integrity of Life, of whom Quintilian gives this Testimony: Platonem quis dubitet esse Philosophorum praecipuum? Ex quo multum eloquentiae se tra [...]sse Cicero fatetur, sive acumine disserendi, sive eloquendi facultate, divinâ quàdam & Homericâ: Multum enim suprà prosam orationem & quam pedestrem Graeci vo­cant, surgit; ut mihi non hominis ingenio, sed quodam Delphico videatur oraculo instructus.

V. 473. Cleombrotus; Not the unfortunate Leader of the Lacedemonians, but a foolish Youth of Ambracia, a City of Epirus in Greece, thence called Ambraciota, so great an Admirer of the Writings of the Divine Plato, that being thereby both convinced and enamoured of the happy Immortality of the Soul in a higher and more noble Life, he leapt into the Sea, that he might immediately enjoy it, therefore deservedly Ranked amongst the Idiots by our Author.

V. 474. Embryo's and Idiots; Men of imperfect Minds, of distempered Brains, that lack common Sense, which in them (like Embryo's yet in the Womb) was imperfect and incom­pleat, of Embryon, Bo. 2. V. 900. before. Idiots, [...], Gr. for private Men, in opposition, [...], to those that bear the Offices and the Magistracy; and also in distinction, [...], of those that are Learned; and in this sense, Idiots is here to be understood, witless and foolish Men.

Ibid. Eremits; [...], Gr. Such as pretend to more Sanctity of Life than ordinary, by re­tiring into Solitude in Caves and Desarts; of [...], solitary, lovely, a cowardly retreating and faint-hearted flying from the difficult Duties, Temptations, Allurements, and Tryals, both of Human Life, and Christian Conversation and Virtues, often pursued by Pride, Arrogance, Vain glorious Austerities presumptuous Sanctity, &c. which makes the melancholy Desarts as dangerous as the busie World.

Ibid. Friers; Of the Fr. Frere, as this of the Lat. Frater, a Brother, of their Fellowships and Fraternities according to their Habits, named, White, Black, and Gray; as of their Saints, Founders of their Orders, Franciscans, Dominicans, &c. of St. Francis and St. Dominic.

V. 475. With all their Trumpery; With all their Beads, Bawbles, Tricks, and Cheats: Trum­pery, of the Fr. Tromperie, a Cheat, Deceit.

V. 476. Here Pilgrims roam; Here those that undertake long and painful Journeys to the Lady of Loretto, or the Tutelary Saint of distant Countries, or with the Mahometans go on Pilgrimage to Mecha, have in this wide windy Continent room enough to wander. Pilgrim, of the Fr. Pelerin, of the Lat. Peregrinus, one that undertakes to wander on the score of his Reli­gion: To Roam, is properly to wander, as wild Birds do, of the Fr. Ramage, as Un Espervier Ramage, a wild Hawk; or of the Ital. Romigare, to wander up and down; or of Rome, the fa­mous place of Pilgrimages.

V. 477. In Golgotha him dead; Who gave themselves the unnecessary trouble to go so far out of their way as Golgotha on Mount Moria at Jerusalem, to see the place where our Saviour died, who lives in Heaven. [...]; Heb. for a Scull, 2 Jud. 9. 35. by which Name, the Place of Execution near Jerusalem was called, from the Sculls of Malefactors there Crucified: Matth. 27. 33. And when they came to a place called Golgotha, that is to say, a place of a Scull. It is in like manner interpreted by St. John, ch. 19. v. 17.

V. 479. Dying, put on the Weeds of St. Dominic; Are cloathed and buried in the Habit of St. Dominic. to make sure of their Passage into Paradise, thô not half so well assured of it, as the order is of a considerable Legacy. Weeds, an old Word of the Sax. Waede, Cloaths.

V. 481. They pass the Planets seven; They get up above the seven Circles assigned to the wan­dring Lights, Saturn, Jupiter, Mars, Sol, Venus, Mercury, Luna, styled [...], Wanderers, or [...], Gr. Wandring, because of their various and unequal Motions.

Ibid. And pass the fix'd; And soar above the Firmament, where the fixed Stars are placed, called [...], Gr. unerring, not as if this Sphere were void of all motion, but because it moves so slowly on the Poles of the Ecliptic, as not to compleat its compass in less than 25000 years, therefore seeming fix'd to the giddy Planets.

V. 482. And that Chrystalline Sphear; Gassendus tells us, this Caelum Chrystallinum is so named, being void of Stars; it is transparent and as clear as Chrystal, [...], Gr. The same Astronomer, for the convenience of solving the [...], has divided this Chrystalline Heaven into two, constituting the 9 and 10 Sphears, which are supposed to be so equally poized and ballanced, the ninth on the Poles of the Ecliptic, and the tenth on the Equinoxial Points, that by a kind of trembling libration the one inclines from the West to the East, and so back again, and the other from North to South reciprocally, with a trepidation so slow, that the first is mo­ving two degrees and one third▪ (which makes one libration) 1700 years, and the latter is twice as long in performing a libration but of 24 minutes; an Invention that might have become a Quaking Astronomer. Gass. l. 2. c. 8.

[Page 119] V. 483. The Trepidation talk'd; They pass the Chrystalline Orb, so poized, that it moves forwards and back again by a slow trembling, too much fancied and talk'd of, like a Spanish Jennet never standing still, and yet gaining no ground: Ballance, of the Lat. Bilanx, a Beam that holds Scales, poized and centred upon a Point: Trepidatio, Lat. trembling, of Trepidare, to shake.

Ibid. And the first moved; The eleventh Heaven, the Primum mobile, because the twelfth is by the School-men made immoveable, the Empyrean, of a square form as to its outside, accor­ding to the description of the Heavenly Jerusalem, Rev. 21. 16.

V. 484. At Heaven's Wicket seems to, &c. And now St. Peter. seems to stand ready to open Heaven's Doors, waiting for 'em with his Keys in his hand. How the Romanists have confer­red this Office of Door-keeper on St. Peter, and for what reason I know not, unless they inter­pret the Power of the Keys our Saviour gave him, (which is generally by them understood, the absolute Power and Authority of Governing Christ's Church on Earth delegated to him) to be exercised Literally by him now in Heaven, the Popes (his pretended Successors) mana­ging the other Magisterially enough on Earth. Read Matth. 16. v. 18, and 19. Wicket, of the Fr. Guichet, a little Door.

V. 486. At foot of Heaven's Ascent; Now at the beginning of Heaven's high rise, at the bottom of the going up, or arising up towards Heaven: Ascent, of Ascensus, Lat. a climbing up, of Ascendere, Lat. to mount.

V. 488. Blows them transverse, &c. Blows them aside; Mutati transversa fremunt & vespere ab atro Consurgunt venti, AEn. 5. Transversus, Lat. turned aside, put by.

Ibid. League; At Sea, especially, is three English miles, so called of the Fr. Lieûe, as this of Leuca, Lat. derivable, says Ammi. Marcellinus, a [...], from white Stones, whereby the Ac­cients distinguished them, as the Romans also did, Decimus ab Urbe Lapis, 10 miles from Rome.

V. 489. Into the devious Air; Out of the way into this blustering Climate: Devius, Lat. Devid, out of the way.

V. 490. Cowles, Hoods, and Habits; The Dresses and Habits of Monks and Friars: Cowle, Sax. Cugle, Fr. Cagoulle, of the Lat. Cucullus, a Monk's Hood: Habit, of Habitus, Lat. a Dress, Cloaths.

V. 491. Flutter'd into Rags; Torn and rent into Rags: Flutter'd, beaten, B. 2. V. 933. Re­liques, Lat. Reliquiae, the Remainders of Saints Bodies, Bones, Ashes, old Garments, &c. suppo­sed to work miraculous Cures by their credulous Admirers and Adorers.

V. 492. Indulgences, Dispenses, Bulls; Licenses, Dispensations, Proclamations, and Edicts of the Pope: Indulgentia, Lat. a Permission from the Pope to do something otherwise forbid: Dispen­ses, of Dispensatio, Lat. Leave given to do things against the Laws of Men, and often those of God, as Murders, incestuous Marriages, breach of Faith, &c. Bulls, the Popes Letters Patents sealed with a piece of Lead hanging to 'em; of Bulla, Lat. for the Boss of a Bridle, and thence a Seal.

V. 493. The sport of Winds; Vacuis Ludibria ventis: Or as Virgil of the Sibyls Verses writ on Leaves of Trees, Haec turbata volant rapidis ludibria ventis, AEn. 6.

V. 495. Into a Limbo large and broad; Limbus, Lat. for the Welt or Hem of a Garment, by the School men supposed the place in the Neighbourhood of Hell, where the Souls of the Just, who dyed before the Ascension of our Saviour, were detained, and into which they consign the Souls of the Infants dying unbaptized. A daring and enterprizing Opinion, grounded on these following Texts of Scripture: Jacob mourning for the suppofed Death of his Son Joseph, says in the bitterness of his Soul; I will go down into the Grave unto my Son mourning, Gen. 35. 35. The Hebr. word is [...], signifying generally the place of Human Bodies after Death, and there­fore in our Bibles well translated the Grave. The same word does indeed signifie the lowest Place, and is understood of Hell; As Hell is naked before him, Job 26. 6. Of which Aben Ezra says in his Commentary on the place, Centrum ipsius terrae, ipsi in aperto & propatulo est, the very Center of the Earth (where Hell is supposed to be) is open and plain before him. The next place as­signed for a Support and Foundation, is that where the Witch of Endor tells Saul, I saw Gods ascending out of the Earth, 1 Sam. 28. 13. And in the Eulogy of Samuel, this ascending God, it is said, And after his death he Prophesied, and shewed the King his end, and lift up his Voice from the Earth, Eccles. 46. 20. Another Text is Zecha. 9. 11. where the Prophet foretelling the joy­ful Coming of the Messiah, says, As for thee also, by the blood of thy Covenant, I have sent forth thy Prisoners out of the Pit, wherein is no Water. [...], Vinctos tuos, those that are bound; which Place, if compared with its Parallel, Isa. 61. 1. where it is said of our Saviour, He hath sent me to bind up the broken-hearted, to proclaim liberty to the Captives, and the opening of the Prison to them that are bound; it will be manifest, that the Captivity and Prison here meant, is to be understood Spiritually of those that were sold under Sin, and sate in the thick darkness of Ignorance, and the shadow of Death, not of any such Local Confinement of Spirits after this Life.

But the Sacred Quotations, on which these Prying Architects do most insist, are Luke 16. 22. where the Angels carried Lazarus into Abraham's bosom; which has made 'em add to their Limbus Patrum, that of Sinus Abrahae; which is so far from being a description of the Place in this Parable of our Saviour, that it leaves us in the same mysterious Incertainty; and whereas the Romanists infer from v. 26. Between us and you there is a great Gulf fixed, that this Limbus is not ill situated, and so near the place of Torment as their Adversaries affirm, the whole pro­ceeding [Page 120] of the Parable shews it to be both within the reach of the Eye and the Ear: The other is, 1 Pet. 3. 19. By which also he went and Preached to the Spirits in Prison, a Text as applicable to their Purgatory as to this Limbus; both which Turrianus tells us, were entirely evacuated by our Saviour's descending into them.

Our Poet has more rationally assigned the back-side of the World for the large Limbus of Superstition and Folly, into which all useless, painful Fopperies, that disturb Mankind, deserve well to be thrown.

V. 501. His Travell'd Steps; Weary took his way: Travell'd, of Travaillé, Fr. tired.

V. 506. With Frontispiece of Diamond and Gold; A description of Heaven's high Fore-front, imitated from Ovid's:

Regia solis erat sublimibus alta columnis,
Clara micante auro, Flammasque imitante Pyropo. Met. 2.

Well has our Poet adorned Heaven's everlasting Gate with Gold, and the impassive Dia­mond, this Stone resisting not only the Anvil and the Iron Hammer without the least damage, but supporting the fiercest Fires, thô thrown into the midst of a flaming Furnace for many Days; (whence it derived its Name [...], Indomitus, untameable:) Gold, of all Metals the finest, comes more pure and perfect out of the Fire. Frontispicium, Lat. the fore-part, the fore-front of a Building, Frontis inspectio.

V. 507. Imbellish'd; Beautified, of Embelli, Fr. adorned.

V. 508. The Portal shon; The place leading to the Gate shon bright with sparkling Jewels: Portal, Fr. Portail, both of Porta, Lat. a Door, and signifies a place leading to a Door, and usually Arched, and raised on Pillars.

V. 509. By Model, &c. Not to be imitated by any Carver's or Painter's hand: Model, Fr. Modelle, Lat. Modulus, a Pattern or Specimen of any great Building, shaped in small, but in exact proportions: Pencil, Fr. Pinceau, the Instrument Painters use to draw with.

V. 510. Whereon Jacob saw; Jacob, the second and Twin-Son of Isaac and Rebecca, his Name [...], sign. a Deceiver, of [...], to deceive, a derivative of [...], the Heel, by which he took his Brother Esau striving for the Birth-right in his Mother's Womb, of which he after­wards supplanted him, Gen. 25. 26.

V. 511. Angels—Bands of Guardians bright; And he dreamed, and behold a Ladder set upon the Earth, and the top of it reached to Heaven, and behold the Angels of God ascending and descending on it; and behold the Lord stood above it, Gen. 28. v. 12, 13. That by this Vision of the Ladder, God's Universal Providence and Care of the World is set forth, and his particular Kindness and Assistance to his Servant Jacob in his flight from his threatning Brother, is the sense of the best Interpreters: Bands of Guardians bright, Companies of shining Illustrious Warders, bright shining Guards of Angels; of Gardien, Fr a Keeper, a Warden; of Garder, Fr. to watch, to keep safe; that God employeth his Angels in these Ministerial Offices, many Instances in Scripture make it plain; Are they not all ministring Spirits, sent forth to minister for them, who shall be heirs of salvation? Hebr. 1. 14. The two destroying Angels that came to Sodom, proved Protectors to Lot and his Family, Gen. 19. Three Angels appeared to Abraham, and were Entertained by him, Gen. 18. Jacob, in his return into his own Country, was met by the An­gels of God, and when he saw them, he said, This is God's Host, Gen. 32. v. 1, and 2. a Guardant Host of Angels to protect him against his angry and armed Brother Esau marching against him. Elijah has an Angel for his Providore, 1 King. 19. v. 5, and 7. David saw the destroying Angel standing between Heaven and Earth, with a drawn Sword in his hand stretch'd out over Jerusalem, 1 Chron. 21. 16. An Angel appeared to Zacharias, Luke 1. 11. The Angel Gabriel was sent from God, &c. To the Virgin Mary, Ibid. v. 26, 27, and 28. With many more both in the Old and New Testament

V. 512. When he from Esau fled; Esau, [...], of [...], to make, as if more perfect and com­pleat, being all hairy, not so tender as young Infants generally are, but the Word has another signification, to acquire, and conquer, relating to the struggle he had with his Brother for the Birth-right in their Mother's Womb. Of Jacob's flight from him, read Gen. 27.

V. 513. To Padan-Aram, &c. The open or plain Country of Syria or Mesopotamia, whither Jacob was sent, Gen. 28. 2. [...], in the Arabic Language, signif. a Field, a Champain Coun­try, [...], Aramia, or Syria; Bethuel is styled, the Syrian of Padan-Aram, Gen. 25. 20.

Luz; So was the name of that City called at the first, Gen. 28. 19. but Jacob enter'd not into it, but slept on his hard Pillow, Sub Dio, Under the open Skie, Gen. 28. 11.

V. 515. This is the Gate of Heaven; This is no other but the House of God, this is the Gate of Heaven, Gen. 28. 17. Here God, by his especial Favour and peculiar Providence, has mani­fested himself to men, as in his Heavenly Palace; here by this favourable Vision I have had as easie and free access to him, as if this were the very Gate leading into the Glorious Mansion of his Majesty; in perpetual remembrance thereof, he calls the Place [...], Bethel, The House of God.

V. 516. Each Star mysteriously was meant; The meaning of this Visionary Ladder is diversly allegorized by the Fathers and School-Divines; some make it the Type and Representation of the Genealogy of our Saviour Jesus Christ, which the Evangelist St. Matthew has deliver'd, ch. 1. [Page 121] by descending from Abraham to Joseph and Mary, and St. Luke by ascending up from them to Adam and God, Chap. 3. The many Steps then of this Ladder shew the many Generations, and Persons contained in his Pedigree from Adam. God's Mercy and his Truth are the sides that support its mighty length, reaching from Heaven to Earth. Others interpret the Foot of this Ladder standing on the Earth, to foreshew Christ's Human, as its top reaching to Heaven; does his Divine Nature. Oh that thou wouldst rent the Heavens, that thou wouldst come down! Isai. 64. Vers. 1. Christ indeed may well be represented by this Heavenly Ladder, for by him not only the Angels, but all the Saints and faithful Servants of God, (who in Heaven shall be like the Angels, Matth. 22. Vers. 30.) do ascend and descend, that is, have free access to God, and the Throne of Grace, and attain by his Merits Everlasting Happiness. So Rupertus, Va­talbus, and others.

Others interpret this Ladder to be the way to Perfection, towards which we must endea­vour to ascend gradually: Many are the Stairs, and Degrees of Faith, Repentance, and all the Christian Virtues to be persued by perseverance in well-doing, ere from the bottom, fixed on frail Dust and Ashes, we can climb up to the highest pitch of Perfection, where GOD stands at the top, ready to receive us into Everlasting Joy. Mysteriously was meant; Contained some Divine Matter, was not to be understood according to the Letter, but signified some Secret more considerable. Of [...], Gr. a Sacred Secret, something concerning holy Things con­cealed from being common; of [...], to instruct, to interpret the knowledge of Sacred Rites.

V. 519. Or of Liquid Pearl; Or of Pearl dissolved, made liquid, and fluid like Water, of a bright shining White: Praeferuntur Margaritae, quae Candidissimae, Lucidissimae, Rotundissimae, Le­vissimae & Minimi Ponderis sunt, Rueus de Gem. Lib. 1. Pliny tells us the Oysters, (whose pretious Off-spring Pearls are) are so knowing of their Treasures, that upon the approach of any Humane Hand, they compress their Shells harder than ordinary, and if forc'd open, often bite off the Invaders Fingers: Justissima tantae temeritatis, Luxus & avaritiae poena; an Obser­vation very fictitious and fallacious, and contradicted by every Days Experience, and found by chance as dangerous to the Mouse, caught by the Nose in this Scaly Trap, as by accident it may have proved to any Man. Of Jasper, see V. 363. of this Book.

V. 522. Rapt in a Chariot drawn by Fiery Steeds; Snatch'd up into a Chariot drawn by Shi­ning Horses, this is meant of Elijah, 2 Kings 2. Vers. 11. as he that is said to sail o'er the Li­quid Lake of Pearl wafted by Angels, must be Enoch, Gen. 5. Vers. 24. That both these were translated into the Earthly Paradise, (which they were of Opinion did still exist) Irenaeus, Hie­ronymus, Justinus and others held, where by Eating of the Tree of Life, they remain free from all Distempers both of Body and Mind, in continual Contemplation of God, though not in the Beatifick Vision of Him. Others affirm, That without Meat or Drink, or the want or desire of them, they continue unchanged and incorruptible, GOD suspending in them the Act and Power of Natural Heat, from preying upon the Radical Moisture that feeds the Lamp of Life. Others who believed the entire abolition of Paradise, suppose 'em carried into some Superiour Orb, illustrious and delightful, unknown to Mankind, where free from all Inconveniences both of Body and Soul, they are to continue, till towards the end of the World they are to appear against Antichrist, and to be put to death by him: Tertull. August. Rupertus, Suarez, grounding the last part of their Opinion on Mala. 4. Vers. 5. Matth. 17. Vers. 11. and Revel. 11. Vers. 3.

V. 524. Or aggravate his sad Exclusion; Or to make his Banishment from that place of Bliss more grievous to him; of aggravare, Lat. to render more heavy and uneasie. Exclusio, Lat. shutting out.

V. 529. Wider by far; Because GOD in the first Ages of the World did more frequently visit his chosen Servants and People, Abraham, Isacc and Jacob, and the Children of Israel by his holy Angels, not only calling to them out of Heaven, but by conversing Face to Face, of which see divers Instances before Vers. 511. of this Book.

V. 531. The Promised Land; Canaan promised to Abraham and his Seed after him by GOD. Abraham dwelt in the Land of Canaan, and the Lord said to Abraham, Look from the place where thou art, Northward and Southward, Eastward and Westward, for all the Land which thou seest, to thee will I give it, and to thy seed for ever, Gen. 13. Vers. 12, 14 and 15. See Gen. 12. Vers. 7. Deut. 34. Vers. 4.

V. 532. Those happy Tribes; Of the Children of Israel, so happy in GOD's particular Instru­ction of 'em, and his continual Providence over them. Tribes, of Tribus, Lat. a Division of the Romans at first into the three parts, Senators, Soldiers, and the common People: Hence Tribus, of the Numeral Tres.

V. 533. On high Behests; On extraordinary Commands and Occasions: Hest and Behest are old words of the Sax. Here, a Command. Obeying Natures first Behest, Spen. F. Q. Book 6. Cant. 4. St. 14. Who his Hest observ'd, Idem. Book 5. Cant. 12. St. 43.

V. 535. From Paneas the Fount, &c. Was by the Ancient Geographers accounted a Fount of Mount Libanus, and thought to be the Head of Jordan, till later and better Discoveries have found its true Sources to be Jor and Dan, whence it takes its Name, (as our Thames is of Tame and Isis) two Fountains both at the Foot of Libanus, in the Confines of Caelosyria, running South­ward: It is a rapid River, of a thick Warer, as washing a far Soil, full of Fish, and its Banks adorn'd with thick and pleasant Woods, as Monsieur Thevenot, an Eye-Witness of it, testi­fies.

[Page 122] Ibid. Jordan is perhaps the most famous River in the World, for the many Miracles and Mysteries there wrought: It was past over by the Israelites on dry-foot, Josh. 4. Also by Elijah and Elisha in the same manner, 2 Kings 2. Vers. 8. In it Naaman the Syrian left his Leprosie, Chap. 5. Vers. 14. In it John Baptized the Jews into Repentance; and afterwards our Saviour himself was in this River Baptized by him, Matth. 3. Vers. 5. and 15. The Talmud derives his Name [...] of [...] and [...], as descending from Dan, the City anciently called Lais near Paneas, formerly supposed the Spring and Fountain of Jordan, by Plin. Lib. 5. Cap. 15. and Solin. Cap. 38.

V. 536 To Beersaba, &c. [...]; The Well of the Oaths, because there Abraham and Abi [...]lech swore and made a Covenant together, Gen. 21. Vers. 31. A Town of Idumaea, at first belonging to the Edomites, afterwards to the Tribe of Symeon, which the Christians warring against the Infidels for recovery of the Holy Land, (so styled because our Saviour wrought there the Salvation and Redemption of the World) Fortified as bordering on the Arabian, (common­ly call'd) the Red-Sea, not far from Egypt, as our Poet truly says this was the Southern, as Jordan and Libanus the Northern Limit of the Promised Land.

V. 539. As bound the Ocean Wave; Well has our Poet declared the Bounds appointed to Darkness and encroaching Night, to be such as those that bound the enraged Ocean's proud swelling Waves, whose Briny Billows rising much higher than the shelving Shore, cannot be imagined to be stopt by the yielding Sand, but by that Almighty Power, that says, Thus far shalt thou come, and no farther; Whose Voice the tumultuous Waves and stormy Winds obey, Matth. 8. Vers. 24. 26, and 27. Mar. 4. Vers. 37. Luk. 8. Vers. 23. Attend the Boundaries ap­pointed to that Proud Element, always in Motion, and so easily puft up. Who shut up the Sea with Doors, when it brake forth as if it had issued out of the Womb? When I made the Cloud the Garment thereof, and thick Darkness its Swadling Bands, and established my Decree upon it, and set Bars and Doors, and said, Hitherto shalt th [...]u come, but no farther; and here shall the Pride of thy Waves be stayed, Job 38. Vers. 8, 9, 10, and 11. The same Command establish'd the Limits and Barriers of Night and Day.

V. 543. As when a Scout; As when one sent through dark and dismal Night, wandring through dangerous and unknown ways, at break of comfortable Day, has gain'd the top of some vast Hill. Scout, of the Fr. Esecuté, a Harkener, of Escouter, to listen, as it behoves a Scout to do, when stealing through the Night. Dawn, of the Sax. Doegian, to grow Day. Brow, of the Belg. Brauwe, the Top, or Height of any thing. Peril, of Periculum, Lat. danger.

V. 549. Metropolis; The chief City of a Kingdom. [...], Gr. the Mother-City. Pi­nacles; Ornaments on the Tops of Towers, of the Barbarous Lat. Pinnaculum, of Pinna.

V. 553. The Spirit Malign; The wicked malicious Spirit, Satan. Malignus, Lat. bearing ill-will to, malicious. This word is used in the Translation of many places of the first Epist. Gene. of St. John, Chap. 2. Vers. 13, and 14. Chap. 3. Vers. 12. Not as Cain, who was of that wicked one, which the Vulgar Lat. renders, Qui ex Maligno erat, the Greek expressing it by [...], and so Chap. 5. Vers. 18, and 19.

V. 557. Above the Circling Canopy of Nights Extended Shade; So high above the darken'd He­misphere, (the dark half of the World) over which Night stretches her Shade; Satan stand­ing on one of those Golden Stairs leading to Heav'ns high Palace, and thereby raised above the compass of Nights dark Veil, that encloseth half the Globe, while the enlightning Sun visits and enlivens with his chearful Rays the other half, from so exalted a Station, well might he look round, and survey the whole World.

Canopy; Fr. Canopée, Lat. Conopeum, all of the Gr. [...], properly a Net hung about Beds against the Inconvenience and Importunities of Flyes and Gnats; [...], Gr. The Alex­andrians were forced to this Invention by Multitudes of these buzzing and biting Insects, that arose from the Nile and its Neighbourhood. It was reckoned among the Effeminacies of the Romans,

Interque signa, (Turpe!) Militaria
Sol aspicit Conopeum,
Ut testudines tibi Lentule Conopeo. Juv. Sat. 6.

It is since understood of the Tester of a Bed, and of a State hanging over the Seats of Kings and Princes in Publiek, call'd Canopies of Estate.

V. 558. Of Libra to the Fieecy Star, &c. He takes a view of the World from the most Ea­stern Point of Libra, to the Constella [...]ion call'd Andromeda, carried by the Ram wide of the Western Ocean, beyond the Horizon, then from North to South, and without more delay, &c.

Libra, is one of the Twelve Signs of the Zodiack, represented by the Balance [...], which has occasioned it to be mistaken for Virgo. It took its Name à Libran [...]o, because when the Sun enters into this Sign, N [...]ctes & Dies librant [...]r, the Days and Nights being equal, are in a Counterpo [...]se, I [...]b [...]a die [...] que [...] Georg. 1.’

[Page 123] V. 559. Andromeda; Was the Daughter of Cepheus and Cassiopoea, the Beautiful Off-spring of a vain-glorious Mother, who having despised the Beauties of Juno, or as others say, of the Sea-Nymphs, Neptune punish'd her Arrogance, by sending a strange Sea-Monster, who de­populating the Country, the Oracle was consulted, and by it, her Daughter doomed to be de­voured by it. Perseus came to her relief, kill'd the Destroyer, releas'd the Lady, and Married her for his reward.

Illic Immeritam Maternae pendere Linguae
Andromedam poenas injustus jusser at Ammon
Quam simul ad duras religatam brachia Cautes, &c. Metam. Lib. 4.

By the favour of Minerva they were all placed among the Stars.

Jam clarus Occultum Andromeda Pater
Ostendit ignem. Hor. Carm. Lib. 3. Od. 29.

The Fleecy Star that bears Andromeda; Is meant of Aries, the Phrixean Ram advanced among the Constellations in memory of the Golden Fleece, just over whose back Andromeda is placed.

Ibid. Atlantick Seas; The Western Ocean, taking this Name of Atlas, the greatest Moun­tain in all Affrica, heaving it self up in Mauritania near this Sea. Ovid makes him a mighty King turn'd into Stone for his rudeness to Perseus; Constitit Hesperio Regnis Atlantis in Orbe. Metam. Lib. 4.’

V. 561. Without longer pause; Immediately without delay: Pause, Fr. stop, stay: Pausement, leisurely.

V. 563. Precipitant; Headlong, (as before:) Down-right: Praecipitans, Lat. to fall headlong, of Praeceps.

V. 564. The pure Marble Air; Marble Marmoreus, Lat. [...], Gr. white, shining, of [...], to shine, to glister, is often used to express clearness or whiteness, without any re­flection on its hardness. So Virg. Marmoreâ Caput à cervice revulsum. Geo. 4.’

Winds his oblique way; Turns and winds up and down: Obliquus, Lat. sidewise, crooked, away. Obliquatque sinus in ventum. AEn. 5.’

V. 565. Amongst Innumerable Stars; That the Stars are Numberless, the Holy Scriptures seem to assert. Look now towards Heaven, and tell the Stars, if thou be able to number them, Gen. 15. Vers. 5. The Lord thy God hath made thee as the Stars of Heaven for Multitude, Deut. 10. Vers. 32. Of God it is said, He telleth the Number of the Stars; He calleth them all by their Names, Psal. 147. Vers. 4. As if their Number were Incomprehensible to any Creature. Stellae dinumerari non possint, quia nec omnes eas videri posse credendum est, &c. August. de Civi. Dei, Lib. 16. Cap. 23. That the Number of the Fixt Stars is unknown to Mankind, Aristotle in his Book De Mundo, and his second Book De Coelo, as also Plato in Timaeo, and Seneca in his Natural Quest. Lib. 6. Cap. 16. do all affirm. But the most conspicuous and considerable, and all, that at so vast a distance can be discerned, are by the best Astronomers reckoned 1022, and distributed into 48 Constellations, according to their various Magnitudes and Sizes, those of the sixth Magnitude being bigger than the Earth 18 times; insomuch that they undertake Mathematically to prove, That if the whole Cavity of Heaven were as full of Stars of the first Magnitude, (each of which are bigger than the Earth 108 times) as they could be placed, it could not contain more than 71209600 of 'em. Perr. Comment. in Gen. Lib. 2. Quaest. 8.

V. 566. Nigh-hand seem'd other Worlds; Following the Opinion of divers Philosophers, who thought not only the Moon to be such an Inhabitable World as this Terrestrial of ours is, and by turns enlightened by it: But the Stars, especially those of the first size, to be shining Orbs possest by the Souls of departed Heroes, and Spirits pure and sublimed above sense, account­ing it absurd to imagine, that so many Illustrious Bodies, of so much Beauty, and such Immense Magnitude, and Motions incredible and almost Spiritual, should be made to no other end, than to dart and center their Innumerable Beams of Light, in this dark opaque spot of Earth, a vast Inestimable Tribute paid by so many Glorious Attendants, on a dull, heavy, unactive Clod.

V. 568. Like those Hesperian Gardens; So call'd of [...], Vesper, because placed in the West, under the Evening Star. Those famous Gardens were the Isles about Cape Verd in Af­frica, whose most Western Point is still call'd Hesperium Cornu. Others will have 'em the Ca­naries. The Poets tell us, Hesperus the Brother of Atlas had three Daughters, AEgle, Aretheusa, Hesperethusa, to whose keeping, and that of a watchful Dragon, these Gardens and their Golden Fruit were committed.

[Page 124]
—Fuit aurea silva
Divitiisque graves, & fulvo germine rami,
Virgineusque chorus, nitidi custodia luci,
Et nunquam somno damnatus Lumina Serpens,
Robora complexus rutilo curvata Metallo. Luc. Lib. 9.
Oceani finem juxta, solemque Cadentem
Ultimus AEthiopum locus est: Ubi maximus Atlas, &c.
Hesperidum templi custos, epulasque Draconi
Quae dabat & sacros servabat in arbore ramos. AEn. 4.

Both these describe the Golden Fruit to hang on the Trees of these Gardens, and yet Inter­preters are not agreed in the matter, because Mala signifies Apples, (they being probably no other than Mala Citrea vel Aurantia, Lemons and Oranges) is so near to [...], Gr. for Sheep, having finer Fleeces than those of other Countries.

V. 573. Allur'd his Eye; The Sun in his Glorious Majesty most nearly resembling Heaven, the Habitation of his Maker, drew him to behold it. Allur'd, of allicere, to entice.

V. 574. Through the calm Firmament; Thro' the quiet Air, as V. 564. Through the pure Mar­ble Air; Aura AEtherea, as Tycho calls it, that [...], tho' by the LXX translated [...], and by the Vulgar Latin Firmamentum, signifies Extension, the pure Expanse of Heaven, the Air, of [...], to extend or stretch out: And that the Solidity, by the Ancient Philosophers and Astro­nomers, attributed to the Heavens and the Coelestial Orbs, has incumber'd all their Machines and Motions with innumerable Inconveniences, in so much that they have been forc'd to Ham­mer out of their Heads for the Sun three distinct Orbs, five for the Moon, and for the Planets 36; so scribbled over with Centrick, Concentrick, and Excentrick, Cicles and Epicicles, &c. is so well known, that to assert the Heavens, in which the Stars seem to move, to be liquid like the Air, is an Opinion most probable, as not being liable to so many Inconveniences, Con­fusions, and Crowds of Errours, and the most easie to discover the Motions, Distances, Alti­tudes, Aspects, &c. of the Stars, and to give the clearest Account of the Generation, Agita­tion, and decay of Comets, and the Appearances of New Stars, and to solve all other Diffi­culties.

V. 575. By Center or Excentrick hard to tell; Hard to tell how Satan took his course towards the Sun, of whose course, though continued so many thousand Years, Mankind is so ignorant. The Astronomers observing so great Varieties in the Motions of the Planets, and that the Sun himself in passing through the Zodiack kept not an equal pace, making 187 Days Journeys in travelling through his six Northern Inns, and spending only 178 in the six other Southern Signs, were forc'd to fancy new Orbs, in which sometimes both they and he their great King and Governour, moved from, and deviated Excentrically to the Center of the Earth: Centrum, Lat. [...], Gr. a Mathematical word, importing the middle point in a round, or circular Body, from which the Circumference is on all sides equally distant.

V. 576. Or Longitude; The Longitude of the Sun or a Star, is an Arch of the Ecliptick, in­tercepted between the beginning of Aries, and the Point where the Circle of Latitude cuts the Ecliptick. Longitudo, Lat. length.

Ibid. The Great Luminary; The vast Light the Sun, so call'd by Moses, Gen. 1. 16. And God made two great Lights, the greater Light to rule the Day. Various have been the Opinions of the most learned of Mankind concerning the Magnitude of the Sun: Anaximander thought it as big as the Earth, and its Orb 27 times bigger: Anaxagoras esteem'd it greater than Pelopone­sus: Heraclitus and Epicurus somewhat bigger than it seems. But by comparing the Suns Dia­meter with that of the Earth, (that is, the Globe of Earth and Water) Ptolemy and his Follow­ers affirm, the Sun to be greater than the Earth 167 times, Tycho Brahee 139, and Copernicus 434; 'tis hard to determine which of 'em is the best Coelestial Surveyor. Constellatio, Lat. properly an Assembly of Stars.

V. 579. Dispenses Light from far; Sends far and near his chearful Light: Despendere, Lat. to bestow, to lay out.

V. 580. In number that compute Days, Months and Years; Days are of two sorts, one consist­ing of the time in which the Sun is carried about the Earth, called Natural, [...]; the other accounted by his Duration above the Horizon, named the Artificial Day. A Solar Month is the time the Sun is in passing through the twelfth part of the Zodiack; and a Year, that in which he entirely runs through all the Twelve Signs of that Circle, so named, [...]. Thus Homer:

[...]
[...].
Vos, O Clarissima Mundi.
Lumina, labentem Coelo quae ducitis annum. Georg. Lib. 1.
—Tuus jam regnat Apollo
Et incipient Magni procedere Menses. Ecl. 4.
Interea Magnum Sol circumvolvitur Annum. AEn. 3.
A dextrâ, laevâque dies, & Mensis & Annus,
Saeculaque & positae spatiis aequalibus horae. Meta. Lib. 2.

The reason of all which is, from the Motion of the Sun, the Measure of Time.

V. 583. By his Magnetick Beam; Or are turn'd towards him by his Attractive Rays, that draw 'em to him. Magnetick, of [...] or [...], the Loadstone that draws Iron to it with such eager embraces, that the force, whereby they are separated, is very per­ceptible; so call'd from the Name of its first Finder an Indian Shepherd. Philosophers having observ'd a Central Virtue in the Earth, which draws and allures all weighty things to it, are of Opinion, that the Sun has a Magnetick and Attractive Power in his shining Orb, that in­fluenceth all the lesser Lamps of Light, and makes 'em attend his Motions, like an Illustrious Train, wearing his Gawdy Livery.

V. 584. The Universe, &c. The World, (Natures whole Frame) and into its Bowels work­ing its easie way, although unseen, darts undiscern'd its Virtue into the Sea. Univers, Uni­versitas, Lat. [...]. the whole Fabrick of the World.

V. 585. With gentle Penetration; With soft Insinuation, gently sinking, or making easie way into the Earth: Of Penetrare, Lat. to pierce into.

V. 586. Even to the Deep, to the Sea, his Wonders in the Deep, Psal. 107. Vers. 24. properly so called because unfathomable, yet by the Suns Prolisick Rays, its Briny Bosom is warm'd, and its vast Womb enlivened.

V. 587. So wondrously was set his Station bright; So wondrously was his bright Place appoint­ed, so usefully, even to admiration, was his glorious Course ordained; and indeed there is nothing more amazing, or that gives Mankind juster Occasions of admiring GOD Almighty's Incomprehensible Wisdom, than the Position and Motion of the Sun, the most Glorious of all Inanimate Bodies: Such is his appointed Place, and such his constant Course, that moving obliquely between the two Poles, he divides his enlivening Influence through the wide World, rendring all the Quarters of it Inhabitable, and by his Invisible Virtue and vari­ous Approaches and Recesses, stimulates Universal Nature into those Vicissitudes that support her.

That the Suns appointed Path is here called his Station, and that said to be set, so that the Stars dance round him, dispensing Light from his Lordly Eye, on which they wait by turning themselves towards him, or by being turn'd by the force of his Attractive Beams, seems to be said by our Author according to the Copernican Opinion, of the Earths moving about the Se­dentary Sun, of which more, Book 8. But Station, Lat. Statio, does not imply a want of Mo­tion, but is referable to the Orb, wherein the Sun is placed, and this very word is used by Pliny, Statio Syderum, for the Starry Orbs, Lib. 2. Cap. 16. Deprensis Statio Tutissima Nautis, Georg. 4.’

Where though Seamen might ride out a Storm, yet not without violent Motions and Concus­sions both of Winds and Waves.

V. 589. Astronomer; [...], one skilled in the Knowledge of the Stars, of [...], Gr. a Star, and [...], to distribute; one that understands the several Tribes, Distributions, Places and Motions of the Heavenly Bodies. Lucent Orbe, shining Circle: Lucens, Lat. shining.

V. 590. Glazed Optick Tube; A long and large Perspective Glass, called a Telescope, ha­ving Glasses so framed and ground, that it represents Objects at so vast a distance as the Stars are, extreamly plain, even to the discovery of Spots, and mighty Inequalities in the Sun, Ma­culas & Faculas, as they call 'em, and Rivers and Mountains in the Moons spotty Globe, as before, Book 1. Vers. 288. where it is call'd Optick Glass, here Glazed Optick▪ Tube, of Tubus, Lat. a hollow Pipe, in which the Glasses are placed. Sin Maculae incipient rutilo immiseerier igni. Geo. 1.’

V. 592. Medal; Is a Piece of Gold or Silver Coin, struck at the Coronation of some great King or Emperour, or in Memory of some great Action. Medal, of the Fr. Medaille, as both of the Gr. [...].

V. 594. As glowing Iron with Fire; All those who have treated of the Sun, affirm Light as Essentially in his Nature as Heat in Fire; therefore our Author tells us, that in his Glorious Body, all parts are not alike; some more thick and illustrious, compared to Gold; others more rare and less radiant, resembling Silver: Yet notwithstanding this, they are all alike en­lightened, as red-hot Iron, be it thicker or thinner, is affected by Fire, Inform'd, shaped, fa­shioned, fill'd with; of Informatus, Lat.

[Page 126] All the Poetick Descriptions of the Sun, are made up of Fire and Light, his two nearest Resemblances.

Medium Sol Igneus Orbem Hauserat. Geo. 4.
Ig [...]us est Ollis vigor & Coelestis Origo. AEn. 6.
—Alto se gurgite tollunt
Solis equi, lucemque elatis naribus effiant. AEn. 12.

Thus Ovid gives the Horses that draw his Flaming Chariot Names suitable to their work, three of 'em Derivatives of Fire.

Interea volucres Pyrois, Eous & AEthon
Solis equi, quartusque Phlegon hinnitibus auras
Flammiferis implent. Meta. Lib. 2.

V. 595. Part seem'd Gold; A Metal appropriated to the Sun, (the Illustrious Son of a more Illustrious Father) as Lead to Saturn, Iron to Mars, Brass to Venus, &c. Of this Resemblance Homer styles his Chariot [...], and makes him look very terrible out of his Golden Hel­met,

[...].
Ubi pulsam Hyemem Sol aureus egit Sub terras. Geo. 4.

V. 596. Carbuncle most or Chrysolite; A Carbuncle is a Precious Stone, so named from its Colour resembling a burning Coal, the chief of the flaming and burning Gems. It darts a Fire extreamly resembling the Sun, and there are some found in India and South Arabia of a very Fiery Lustre, having within them some little specks of Gold, in Number and Position like the Hyades. Ruae. de Gem. Lib. 2. Carbunculus, a Diminitive of Carbo, Lat. a burning Coal.

Chrysolite; [...], Gr. a Golden Stone, so named of its Colour imitating that Prime, Commanding Metal: The choicest come from India, whose Yellowness is so set off and heigh­thened with a Glance of Seagreen, that Gold cannot appear before it, but looks pale and dis­countenanced. Chrysolithus est aureus Lapis, aurco vel potius solari colore translucens, adeoque ful­gens & quasi ardens, ut aurum cum eo collatum albicare videatur. Plin. Lib. 37. Cap. 9.

V. 597. Ruby or Topaz; Ruby, Rubinus, Lat. a Stone of a Red Colour like Blood. Topaz, [...], Heb. [...], Gr. a Gem of a Golden and Green Colour, extreamly delightful, and very illustrious. Pliny derives its Name of the Island Topazium, where usually found, some of [...], Gold, others of [...], Ophir, of a Colour imitating the Suns Beams.

Ibid. To the Twelve that shone in Aaron's Brestplate; Or like to the Twelve Stones by God's appointment, engraven each with the Name of one of the Twelve Patriachs or Tribes of Israel, Exod. 28. 17.

V. 600. That Stone, or like to that; Like to that called the Philosophers Stone, which has pro­ved a Stumbling-Stone to the Inquisitive, and conceited Chymists that have persued it in vain, even to extream Poverty, of whose obscure Art, our Poet gives us some of the abstruse Terms, and fruitless Practices and Pursuits. Philosopher, [...], Gr. a Lover of Wisdom.

V. 603. Volatil Hermes; Nimble Mercury: Quicksilver hard to fix: Volatilis, Lat. apt to fly away, to take wing, and evaporate. Quick-silver amongst the Chymists is a great Ingre­dient in the Composition of their imagined Stone, and has been often tortured to confess where it lies hid, but hitherto in vain. Hermes, [...], Gr.

V. 604. Old Proteus from the Sea; Our Poet has fitted the Chymists (fond of the Mutations of Inferiour Metals into their Perfection Gold, with the aptest Similitude imaginable. Proteus was understood by the Ancients to be the first Principle of all Things, Keeper of the Keys of the Sea, Author of all, and the Universal Humidity and Subject Matter of Nature.

[...],
[...]
[...]. Orph. in Hym.

Homer describes him,

[...],
[...],
[...]
[...].

Imitated exactly by Virgil,

—Ille suae non immemor artis
Omnia transformat sese in miracula rerum,
Ignemque, horribil [...]nque feram, sluviumque liquentem. Georg. 4.

[Page 127] This Proteus, after he had turned himself into all these amazing Mutations, was fabled by the Poets, at last to return to his proper shape, and to answer truly all Questions put to him; therefore our Author tells us, The Chymists drain their various Matter, they work upon, thro' all its Mutations, till pursued through all its Latent Labyrinths, it assume, Proteus like, its first shape, and answer their Expectations: A Simile well suited to their uncertain search.

V. 605. Drain'd through a Limbeck; Purged and refined by a gentle Fire, till he assume his first Original Form. Limbeck; Alembicus, an Arabick word, a Still.

V. 607. Breathe forth Elixir pure; Breathe forth a pure enlivening Spirit. Elixir is an Ara­bian word, and by it the Chymists understand a powerful Preservative, and most certain Resto­rative of Health, which keeps back and retards Old Age, which they conceive Adam knew by his living 930 Years, and is one of the Properties of the Philosophers Stone, in search of which most of its Votaries look pale, and ill complexion'd. Elixir signifies Force and Strength, and sometimes their Powder of Projection.

V. 608. Potable Gold; Aurum Potabile, Gold so dissolved as to be drank; that commonly so call'd, is liquified by divers Corrosive and Aperative Spirits, and consequently is only a dead, dispirited Gold: But the true, and that aimed at by Philosophers, is a living Gold, like red Powder, or granulated Saffron, extracted from the most pure Seeds of Gold, and so heighthen­ed, that by meer Contact, it will not only turn the impurer Metals into the finest Gold, but multiply, even that so made and transmuted, into Mountains.

V. 609. Th'Arch-Chimick Sun: Who would wonder if in the Suns Glorious Region, and those bright Fields, the Air should be as pure and preservative as the Alchymists fabulous Elixir, or there should be Rivers of Liquid Gold? Who would admire at this, that considers how here the Sun, the best of Chymists, though so far removed from this dark Globe, does by the Virtue of his powerful Touch, mixt with Terrestrial Moisture, beget so many things of Price, for Colour Glorious, and for Use most Rare and Wonderful? Chymia and Alchymia, is a Science concerned in explaining the Principles, Causes, Properties and Qualities of all Me­tals, and the manifold Alterations they are capable of; and further pretends to teach, how to change and transmute the gross and imperfect, as Lead, Iron, Quicksilver, &c. into the most perfect, Gold: To heighten the Light and Luster of all Precious Stones to Perfection, and of this Philosophers Stone, to make the most Cordial Preservative of Life, beyond the attack of all Diseases, and even of Time and Old-Age it self. —Credat Judaeus Apella non ego. Juv.’

Well therefore does our Author shew the conceited Chymist the Sun, the Noblest Chymist, whose Influence with Earth and Water mixt, brings forth such wonderful Productions, accor­ding to that Admirable Alchimie, that with a word brought all Things out of Nothing, while these Presumptious Imitators of Nature, quickly bring all theirs to nothing. Chymicus, and Chy­mia, as well as Alchymista and Alchymia, and Alembick, are Arabick words though mixt with Greck. Al, is the Arabick Particle, and Chymia of [...], Gr. to melt; the Arabians of all Na­tions having been the first and most famous in this Spagirick Art, of separating and compound­ing Metals, when they conquered Egypt and Syria, full of Macedonian Colonies, adopted many Greek words into their own Language. Virtuous, powerful, of Virtus, Lat. strength, vigour. Remote, distant, of removere, Lat. to remove.

V. 610. Terrestrial Humour; The Moisture of the Earth. Terrestris, Lat. earthy: Humor, Lat. Moisture, that succus terrestris, which is Corpus Minerale, ex liquidis & oleaginosis crassiori terrestri materiae admixtis compositum.

V. 613. To gaze; Is to look earnestly upon, with concern and admiration, it sounds as if a Derivative of [...], Gr. to admire and wonder at. Obstacle, hinderance, of obstare, Lat. to stand against.

V. 617. His Beams at Noon Culminate from th'AEquator; As when the Sun-Beams at Mid-Day got to their heighth, shoot directly upwards from the AEquator. The AEquator is that great Circle, which is equally distant from the two Poles of the World, dividing it into two Hemi­spheres, the North and South. AEquator dictus, quia ab utroque Mundi Polo, aequis undique di­stat intervallis. Culminate, shoot directly, dart perpendicularly, of Culminare, Lat. to get up to the top of, to come to the highest pitch of a thing; the reason why those directly situated under the AEquator are [...], without shadows.

V. 619. From Body Opace; From a dark Body, which is impervious to the Suns Beams. Opa­cus, Lat. dark, shadowy.

Nocte tegentur Opacà, AEn. 4.
Domus sanie dapibusque cruentis Intus Opaca, ingens, AEn. 3.
Gressi per Opaca viarum, AEn. 6.

V. 620. Sharpen'd his Visual Ray; Made his sight more quick, clear and acute. Sharpness may well be applyed to the Eyesight, Acies Oculorum, ab acuendo, a quickness and sort of pier­cing sharpness appearing in the Eyes. Visual, belonging to sight, of Visus, Lat. the sense of seeing. Ray, of Radius, Lat. a Beam either issuing out of the Eye to the Object, or from [Page 128] the Object to the Eye, according to the Opinion of the Ancient and Neoterick Philosophers about the Sense of Seeing.

V. 623. Whom John saw also in the Sun; And I saw an Angel standing in the Sun, Revel. 19. Vers. 17.

V. 625. A Golden Tiare; A Golden Coronet of shining Rays circled his Head, yet never­theless did not hinder his lovely Locks that hung behind over his Shoulders adorned with Wings, from weaving themselves into Curls and Rings. Tiar, of [...], the Persian word for a round Cap high, and ending in a point, the usual Covering and Ornament the Eastern Princes wore on their Heads, [...], Xen. Curopad. l. 8. wearing his Tiar upright, those that were of kin to Kings wearing them low and bending. Sceptrumqut Sacerque Tiaras. AEn. 7.’

V. 627. Illustrious Fledge with Wings; His shining Shoulders furnish'd with Wings. Illustri­ous, of Illustris, Lat. bright; Fledge, of the Belg. Flederen, to fly: Young Birds are said to be Fledg'd, when their Wings and Feathers are so well grown, as to be able to waft their weight.

V. 628. Lay waving round; Curling like the Circling Waves, of the Sax. Warrian, to move to and fro, to wave or waver.

V. 634. But first he casts to change; But first he casts and considers in his mind, how he may so disguise himself, as not to be discover'd by this sharp-sighted Angel seated in the Sun. Proper; Proprius, Lat. particular, peculiar.

V. 636. A Stripling Cherub; A Youthful Angel, not arrived at full Perfection, yet such as Youth smiled Heavenly in his Face. Stripling, young, not grown big, slim and gaunt: Not in his prime, of Primus, Lat. first chief.

Humane Membra, aspetto human si finse;
Mà di Celeste Maestà il compose.
Tra giovine, e fanciullo & à confine
Prose, & orno de raggi il biondo crine.
Tasso. Cant. 1. St. 13. Description of Gabriel.

V. 639. So well he feigned; Counterfeited, disguised himself, of Feindre, Fr. to dissemble.

V. 640. Under a Coronet; A little Crown: Coronetta, Ital. a Garland, a Diminitive of Corona, Lat. a Crown.

V. 642. Of many a Colour'd Plume; Of divers Colour'd Feathers: Pluma, Lat. Feathers.

V. 643. His Habit fit for speed succinct; His Garment girt about him: Succinctus, Lat. tuckt up. Nigrâ succinctam vadere pallà. Hor. Sat. 8.’

V. 644. Before his Decent Steps; Before his Comely Feet. Decens, Lat. becoming. Poetry is a speaking Picture, and our Author has here described an Angel as they are commonly paint­ed.

Ali bianchi vesti, c'han d'or le cime
Infaticabilmente agili, epieste, &c.
Read Torq. Tasso of the Angel Gabriel, Cant. 1. Stan. 13 & 14.

V. 647. Admonish'd by his Ear; Having notice given him of his approaching by his Ear. Admonere, Lat. to inform.

V. 648. Th'Arch-Angel Uriel; [...], of [...], God, and [...], Light or Fire, thence call­ed Gods Eye, V. 660. Or his Name is deducibe of [...], God, and [...], a Watchman, as if [...], one of Gods Watchmen, which in this sense may well be named Gods Eyes, V. 650. 2 Esd. 4. Vers. 1. and Chap. 5. Vers. 20. and 10. Vers. 28.

V. 650. And are his Eyes, &c. According to the Golden Candlestick and his seven Lamps, Zach. 4. Vers. 3. interpreted by the Angel, Those seven, they are the Eyes of the Lord, which run to and fro through the whole Earth, Vers. 10. agreeing with Chap. 3. Vers. 9. to which St. John's Vision refers, Revel. 4. Vers. 5. And there were seven Lamps of Fire burning before the Throne, which are the seven Spirits of God: And Chap. 5. Vers. 6. Having seven Horns and seven Eyes, which are the seven Spirits of God sent forth into all the Earth. The Monarchy of Persia had se­ven Noblemen of great Dignity about their King, and of extraordinary Trust, called [...], the Kings Eyes, as Hesychius, Suidas and Xenop. in Paed. relate.

V. 653. Thus accosts; Thus bespeaks, of the old Fr. word Accoster, to come near to, as Men approach to converse together.

V. 656. His great Authentick Will; His high and absolute Commands, his uncontroulable Decree. Authentick, of [...], Powerful, of [...], Dominus, qui pro Arbitrio & Au­toritate suâ quidvis agendi potestatem habet; Well suiting the God of all Power and Might. In­terpreter; Interpres, Lat. one that expounds and makes known something delivered in a Lan­guage not commonly understood.

[Page 129] V. 658. His Sons; The Angels styled Gods Sons, for the Excellency of their holy Obedience to all his Commands: And all the Sons of God shouted for joy, Job 38. Vers. 7.

V. 667. Brightest Seraph tell; Inform me, most Illustrious Angel. Seraph the singular of Se­raphim, of which before, Book 1. V. 129.

V. 681. The False Dissembler unperceiv'd; So spake this Fawning Hypocrite undiscover'd. Unperceiv'd; Imperceptus, Lat. undiscern'd. Dissembler, of dissimulare, Lat. to differ from what we seem to be, to conceal and hide ones self in order to impose on others.

V. 683. Hypocrisie the only Evil; [...], Gr. Dissimulation, a Counterfeiting Virtue, Re­ligion and Piety, the better to gain an Opinion of Sanctity, and under that disguise covertly to commit all manner of Villany and Impiety; A Wickedness kept often so secret and so well varnisht over, that it may well be said to walk invisible to all but God himself: Nay, the Hypo­crite supposes God himself does not discover the holy Cheat, otherwise he would not persevere therein, speaking Lyes in Hypocrisie, having their Conscience seared with a hot Iron, 1 Tim. 4. Vers. 2. Well therefore might our Saviour alone charge the Scribes and Pharisees with this dark and hid­den Iniquity, comparing them to whited Sepulchres, which indeed appear beautiful outwards, but within are full of dead Mens Bones, and all Uncleanness, Matth. 23. Vers. 27. In which Chap­ter he lays this Charge home to 'em by Name no less than seven times, with a woful Denun­ciation of God's Wrath against 'em, Wo unto you, Scribes and Pharisees, Hypocrites, Vers. 13, 14, 15, 22, 25, 27 and 29.

V. 686. Suspicion sleeps at Wisdoms Gate; And oft, though Men are wise, yet if heedful Wariness stand not a Wakeful Sentinel at Wisdoms Gate, if at any time she fall asleep, and trust her Guard to easie Plainness and Simplicity, who mistrusts no evil, where none appears, these fly Hypocrites will get in. Suspicio, Lat. mistrust, and therefore Heedfulness. Simplicitas, a plain openness of Mind; sine plicis, that does not hide and involve it self. Resigns, of resignare, Lat. to give up, to surrender.

V. 692. To the Fraudulent Impostor; To the deceiving Fiend, to the sly Deceiver. Fraudu­lentus, Lat. deceitful. Impostor, a common Cheat, a Jugler: Ab imponendo, Lat. from Cheating, an admirable Epithet for Satan, Sin being the most absolute Imposture imaginable.

V. 705. What Created Mind? What Created Mind, Spirit or Angel, can conceive or un­derstand the Number of Gods Works, or the Infinite Wisdom in which he made 'em all, and set 'em forth to view, but concealed their Causes? He hath made every thing beautiful in his time; and given up the World to their Disputations, so that no Man can find out the Work that God maketh from the beginning to the end, Eccles. 3. Vers. 11. Foelix qui potuit rerum cognoscere causas. Comprehend, of the Lat. Comprehendere.

V. 708. I saw when at his word, &c. I was by, and beheld, (says Uriel) how at his Al­mighty Word the shapeless Lump, the slimy muddy Matter of this beauteous World, rose from the Womb of Waters to a heap, and came to fix into Firmness and Consistency. Massa, Lat. a Lump. Mould, or Mold, of the Belg. Modder, Slime, or moist Earth. Material; Mate­realis, Lat. consisting of Matter.

V. 710. Confusion heard his Voice; Confusion obey'd his Command, that Heap and Chaos of Confusion, in which the Elements of Air, Water, Earth and Fire lay jumbled and commixt together, covered with Egyptian Darkness and Obscurity, no sooner heard his Voice, but it began to separate and shew ready Obedience.

Ibid. And wild Uproar; The dreadful disorder occasion'd by the contesting Elements enclo­sed and struggling to get forth, by his Word was over-ruled and appeased.

V. 711. Stood vast Infinitude confined; The vast unfinished Gulph of Non-Entity and un­created Night, that boundless Deep, (Illimitable Ocean without Bound, without Dimension, where Length, Breadth, and Heighth, and Time and Place are lost, as Book 2. Vers. 892.) received its Confines, the Verge of Nature, and the vast Circumference of all Created Beings, was fixt, and their appointed compass establish'd.

V. 716. This AEthereal Quintessence of Heav'n; This light and pure spiritual part of Heav'n, took wing and flew upwards, enliv'ned and inspirited with divers Forms, that moved in Rounds, and at last turned to Stars innumerable, to the Four Elements, some of the Philoso­phers added an AEthereal Spirit, void of Corruption and Contrariety, the purest and most sub­tle Agility, and the Bond and Ligature of all the rest, of which they supposed the Stars and Heavens, those Glorious Bodies, were made, as of a Quintessence arising out of the Quaternion of Elements.

AEthereal Quintessence; A flaming shining Spirit. Quintessence; Quinta essentia, Lat. is the purest and highest rectified Spirit, extracted out of any thing, and separated from its Faeces, admirably applyed to the Coelestial Bodies and Heav'nly Orbs. Orbicular; Orbicularis, Lat. any thing that is round, or of a circular shape.

V. 721. The rest in Circuit Walls; The rest of this pure Heavenly Quintessence, encom­passes the Universe round like a Wall.

V. 723. Though but reflected Shines; Looks bright and glorious by the returning of that Light it has from hence, from the Sun, where Uriel and [...] stood. Reflected; Reflexus, Lat. return'd, turn'd back again, reverberated, beaten back and recoyling. Reflexion is a return­ing that Brightness that Light cast on any Opaque and Solid Body.

[Page 130] V. 725. As th'other Hemisphere, &c. which otherwise would be as dark as the other half of the Globe (or World) is, when the Moon is absent, who yonder comes to its assistance, and interposes her feeble Light. Hemisphere; [...], Gr. half the compass of the Heav'ns.

V. 727. That opposite fair Star; That bright Star, that is over against us, being in the Sun, from which she as well as the Earth has her lent Light. Oppositus, Lat. placed over against.

V. 728. And her Monthly Round; And fulfils her Circle in a Month, so named of the Moon, the Lunar Month, as Mensis, of [...], Gr. for the Moon, from her encreasing, coming to the Full, and her abatement. —Quid Menstrua Luna Moneret. Geor. 1.’

V. 730. Her Countenanoe trif [...]rm; Her threefold Face, encreasing, full, and decreasing: Hence fills and empties, from her beginning comes to be compleat, and thence does by degrees de­creasing vanish; according to which three appearances she was called,

Luna Sole, Diana Polo, Proserpina in Orco. Ovid.
Nec Par, aut eadem Nocturnae forma Dianae
Esse potest unquam, semperque hodierna sequente,
Si crescit, minor, est major si contrahit orbem. Ibid. Meta. Lib. 15.
Tertia jam Lunae se Cornua Lumine complent. AEn. 3.

Her Horns at her increase regarding the East, as in her decrease they point to the West. Triformis, Lat. of three shapes.

V. 731. Hence fills and empties; That is, from the Sun, of whom the Moon, being a Sphe­rical, Opaque and Obscure Body, borrows all her Silver Light, as Virgil hints very hand­somely. Nec fratris radiis obnoxia surgere Luna. Geor. 1.’

V. 732. And in her Pale Dominion; And with her feeble Empire curbs the Night, hinders and opposes the Encroachment of Ancient and Hereditary Night. Checks the Night; Hinders the progress of dull Darkness. Check, a Metaphor taken from the Game called Chess, where a Pawn, &c. when placed aright, hinders and opposes the march of the Enemy, or drives him upon eminent Danger.

V. 734. Adams Abode; The Abiding, the Dwelling-Place of Adam, so named of the Heb. [...], according to his Creation, [...], of the Dust of the Earth, Gen. 2. Vers. 7. a sort of Coloured Earth, of [...], Heb. to look Red.

V. 740. Down from th'Ecliptick; Down from the Suns bright Road: The Ecliptick is a Line running along the middle of the Zodiack, in which the Sun compleats his Annual Course; so named of the [...], the Eclipses there happening. Satan discoursing with Uriel in the Region of the Sun, must needs take his flight from the Ecliptick, in some part of which the Sun always is.

Ibid. Sped with hoped Success; Heightned with hopes of Success; hasting with hopes to suc­ceed. Sped, of Spedire, It. and that of Expedire, Lat. to make haste; or of [...], Gr. to make haste, to be dil [...]gent.

V. 741. In man [...] an AErie Wheel; With many a nimble turn. A Wheel, a round Circle, according to its shape; hence a Body of Men are said to Wheel, when they move round.

V. 742. On Niphates top he lights; A Mountain in the Borders of Armenia, not far from the spring of Tigris, (as Xenophon affirms upon his own Knowledge) so named of [...], great drifts of Snow covering its Crown; thence styled Rigidum Niphaten, by Hor. Car. l. 2. Od. 9. Urbes Asiae domitas, pulsumque Niphaten. Geo. 3.’

There is also a River of the same Name in the Neighborhood of this Hill. Armeniusque tenens volventem Saxa Niphatem. Luc. l. 3.’

The Poet lands Satan on this Armenian Mountain, because it borders on Mesopotamia, in [...]ich the most Judicious Describers of Paradise place it.

NOTES On MILTON's PARADISE Lost.
BOOK IV.

V. 2. WHO saw th'Apocalyps; Who in a Vision saw the Revelation of what was to befal the Church of God to the end of the World. St. John (who though in the Front of the Revelation he be named the Divine) is yet held to be the same who writ the Gospel called by his Name, as Ire­naeus, Hieronymus, Eusebius and others affirm; the difference of the style being no more, than that in the one, he has used that of a Prophet; and in the other, that of an Historian. Apocalyps, [...], a Discovery, a Revealing of hidden Mysteries, thence translated the Revelations, of [...], to discover, tho' still extreamly obscure, like those Acroatick parts of Aristotle's Philosophy, which he says were [...]. This obscure Discovery was written by St. John, in the Island Patmos, whither he was banish'd by Domitian about the 14th Year of his Reign, 64 Years after the Death of our Saviour, and four Years before his own, as the Chronologers relate.

V. 3. When the Dragon put to second rout; Interpreters of Revel. 12. whence this is taken, are of Opinion, that as Satan was, after his Rebellion, thrown out of Heaven in the beginning of time, so towards the end of it and the World, he shall be beaten out of his lower Dominion usurpt by him, and be no longer Prince of the Air, here called his second rout. The Dragon, Satan.

V. 14. Far off, and fearless; Fearless, yet keeping distance; though undaunted, yet wary in approaching.

V. 17. A Devilish Engine back recoils; Like a great Gun, that at discharging its destructive Entrails, runs back with mighty force and rude repulse; so this malicious attempt of Satan on frail Man, beats back again upon himself in hideous Horrours and distracting Doubt, of what he was, is, and must be to all Eternity. Recoils, of Reculer, Fr. to give back, to run back as a Cannon when fired.

V. 18. Horrour and Doubt distract, &c. The amazement of his Guilt, and the uncertain suc­cess of new Mischiefs undertaken, which how much they may add more to his Punishment than Revenge, confounds all Consideration. Distracts his Thoughts; Put him upon a Rack, where all his Resolutions against th'Almighty, vain and frivolous, are rent to pieces. Distracts, of distrahere, Lat. to pull in pieces.

V. 20. For within him Hell he brings; Is his own Hell and Tormentor. Change of Place gives no allay or intermission to his Pains: He travels with Hell about him and within him. Coelum non Animum mutant qui trans mare currunt.

V. 30. In his Meridian Towre; In his Noon-tide Exaltation, in Meridian Majesty, of Meri­dianus, Lat. of Noon-tide: Meridies, Lat. Mid-day, when the Sun is at the highest.

V. 31. Then much revolving; Tossing and turning over many direful Thoughts, risen from Conscience waking of despair that slumber'd, &c. An admirable Description of tormenting Guilt, discovered when too late to be discharged. Revolving, of revolvere, Lat. to roll to and fro, thence to think, and in Virgil to relate. Sed quid ego haec autem, nequicquam ingrata revolvo. AEn. 2.’

[Page 132] V. 33. Look'st from thy sole Dominion; O thou Majestick Monarch, with amazing Bright­ness Crown'd, that from thy shining Seat look'st like the Supreme and Universal God of this low new-created World, at whose glorious appearance all the Stars discountenanc'd hide their disappearing Heads.

Like the God; Well does Satan Deifie the Sun, whom he perswaded seduced Mankind of­ten to adore as such. [...], as the Phoenicians styled him, and the holy Page shews how easie it was to set up this visible supposed Author of all things, and of so many Blessings, of such inestimable use to the World, for an Illustrious Deity; especially when Ignorance and Sin had so depraved and blinded Mens Minds, that they could not see him, [...], who dwells in unapproached Light, for which reason God by Moses so strictly forewarn'd his People of Idolatry, Lest thou lift up thy Eyes unto Heaven, and when thou seest the Sun and Moon, and the Stars, even all the Host of Heaven, thou shouldst be seduced to serve and worship them, Deut. 4. Vers. 19. Thus Homer attributes Omniscience to the Sun, and from the worship of him in this Island, one of the Days of the Week took his Name. [...].’

V. 35. Their diminisht Heads; Dim their diminisht Lights, which the Sun hides and hinders from appearing. Diminutus, Lat. impair'd, made less.

V. 40. Till Pride and worse Ambition; Pride is a kind of excessive and vicious Self-esteem, that raises Men in their own Opinions above what is just and right: But Ambition is that which adds Fewel to this Flame, and claps Spurs to these furious and inordinate Desires that break forth into the most execrable Acts to accomplish their haughty Designs; which makes our Author stigmatize Ambition as a worse Sin than Pride.

V. 45. With his Good upbraided none; Did not with his Bountiful Goodness twit or reproach his Creatures. Upbraid, of Upgebredan, Sax. to scorn, or reproach one with any thing received.

V. 50. I 'sdein'd Subjection; I disdain'd to be subject, to pay Obedience to. 'Isdeind, for disdain'd, an Italian Imitation of sdegnare, It. dedignari, to contemn, to despise, 'sdein'd.

V. 58. Powerful Destiny ordain'd; O that his uncontroulable Decree had appointed me one of the Vulgar Angels, of the common Spirits! Destiny, of Destinatio, Lat. Appointment, Decree.

V. 79. O then at last relent! Quit thy harden'd Obstinacy, and melt into Repentance. Re­lent, of Ralentir, Fr. to grow soft again, of re and lentescere, Lat. to soften, to melt, as tough viscous and fat things do at Fire.

V. 84. Vaunts; Boastings, of vanter, Fr. to boast.

V. 87. How dearly I abide; How much to my Cost, with how much Pain and Torment I make good my Vain-glorious Undertaking against th'Almighty. Abide, signifies here to su­stain, to endure, as in Virg. ‘Tu ne cede Malis sed contrà audentior ito.’

V. 96. Ease would recant Vows made in Pain; When reinstated in my former Condition, I should soon unsay whatever in pain I swore. Recant, of the Lat. recantare, to retract and un­say something affirm'd formerly. Vows, of Votum, Lat. Protestations, of Vovere, Lat. to vow or protest. As violent and void, as forc'd from me, and therefore of themselves void and of no Obligation, as all things done, or obtain'd by Duress and Menasse, are by our Laws esteem'd of no effect.

V. 100. To a worse relapse; To falling back into a worse Condition. Relapse is properly a falling back from some beginnings of Recovery into the same Distemper, made by its return more dangerous, of Relabi, Lat. to slip back again, a Metaphor taken from Men climbing up a steep slippery place, whence they often slide back again down to the bottom.

V. 110. Evil be thou my Good; All real true Good is lost and forfeited by me, and therefore now my Malice and Revenge, wreck'd on Mankind, and so upon his Maker, by destroying his new-created Favourite, is the only chiefest Good I can propose to my self, or prosecute. That Evil should be Good, seems a Contradiction; but by Good is here meant Choice, and as such, deluded Mankind place their Happiness upon it, mistaking often many Evils which they pur­sue, disguised under the Notions and Appearances of Good.

V. 114. Each Passion dimm'd his Face; While he made this Speech, full of sad and dismal Reflections, disquieted with Anger, Envy and Despair, each of these Passions darkened and over­cast his Countenance, which spoiled his disguise, and discovered him a Cheat and Impostor. Coun­terfeit, false, of the Fr. Countrefaict, false Money stampt in Imitation of the true.

V. 120. Each Perturbation smooth'd; Calm'd all the Storms these Passions had raised in him. Perturbatio, Lat. disorder.

V. 121. Artificer of Fraud; Master of Deceit, the Arch-Cheat and Crafts-Master. Artifex, Lat. one perfect in his Trade, a Workman. Fraus, Lat. Deceit.

V. 122. Under Saintly shew, &c. Transforming himself into an Angel of Light, 2 Cor. 11. Vers. 14. Couch'd with Revenge; Lodged with Revenge, of Coucher, Fr. to lie down with.

V. 126. On th' Assyrian Mount; Niphates, Book 3. V. 742.

[Page 133] V. 127. Saw him disfigur'd; Disorder'd in his Looks: Discountenanc'd, of the Fr. disfiguré, alter'd in Face, as disfigured with the Small-Pox, as if disfeatured.

V. 128. His Gestures fierce and mad Demeanor; His fierce Carriage and extravagant Beha­viour. Gesture, of Gesius, Lat. the Mien and Habit of speaking and walking gracefully. De­meanour, of Demener, Fr. to move to and fro, to use handsom and becoming Action in our Deportment.

V. 131. To the Border comes of Eden; So on he marches, till he comes to the Border of Eden, in which delightful Paradise now more in view, encompasses with its green Enclosure (that shew'd like a Country Mount) the lofty open Plain, spread on top of a steep Wilderness, whose shaggy sides, rude and o'ergrown with Intangling Thickets, and wild Underwood, hinder'd all approach. Above these, over-head, grew up Cedars and Pines, Firr-Trees and Branching Palms, tall Sons of Earth, that made a lofty shade of heighth unpassable, a Woody Scene, and as the Verdant Ranks arose one o'er another, Shade above Shade, they form'd a Natural Thea­tre of Noblest View.

V. 133. With her Enclosure green; With her natural green Hedge. Enclosure, of Enclosture, Fr. a Close, a Field hedged in.

V. 134. As with a Rural Mound; As with a Country Mount. Ruralis, Lat. belonging to the Country. Mound, a high Bank, set with a Hedge, of the Lat. Mons, a Mount, a Hill.

Ibid. The Champain Head; The open, plain and large Top and Surface of a steep Wilder­ness. Champain, Champion Ground, of the Fr. Champaigne, an open wide Plain, of Campus, Lat. a Field.

V. 135. Whose Hairy Sides; Whose Shaggy Sides o'ergrown with the green Thicket, cover'd with Leaves. Leaves, by a frequent Metaphor, are called the Honour, and the Hair of the Trees.

Ille comam Mollis jam tum t [...]ndebat Acanthi. Georg. 4.
Redeunt jam Gramina Campis
Arboribusque Comae. Hor. Carmi. Lib. 4. Od. 7.
Hic Tertius December
Silvis Henorem decutit. Hor. Epo. 11.

V. 136. Grottesque and wild; Full of dark obscure Dens and Caverns: Grotesque, Fr. for dark, and inartificial Paintings and Sculptures, used first in obscure blind Grotto's, of the Fr. Grotte, a Cave, of the mispronounced Lat. Crypta, a Cave, an obscure place or recess from the Sun, of the Gr. [...], to hide.

V. 137. Access deny'd; So Virg. of Circes Grove: Dives inaccessos ubi solis filia Lucos, &c. AEn. 7.’

V. 138. Insuperable Heighth; A Heighth not to be overgone, impassable, not to be surmount­ed, of Insuperabilis, Lat. unconquerable.

V. 139. Cedar and Pine, &c. Cedar, [...], Gr. a tall growing Tree of a sweet smell, frequent on Libanus, a Mountain in Syria, famous for them in Scripture, Psal. 29. Vers. 5. and 104. Vers. 16. useful and ornamental in Building, and particularly famous in that of Solomon's Temple, 1 Kings, Chap. 6. Vers. 18, 20, 36, &c.

—Dant utile Lignum
Navigiis Pinos, Domibus Cedrosque. Georg. 2.
—Olentem scindere Cedrum. AEn. 11.

And expressive of the highest Extravagance:

—Tectisque superbis
Urit Odoratam Nocturna in Lumina Cedrum. AEn. 7.

The Juice of this Tree was esteemed an admirable Preservative against the Worms and Rot­tenness; whence

—Speramus Carmina fingi
Posse linenda cedro? Hor. Art, Poet.
Et Cedro digna locutus. Pers. Sat. 1.

Pine; Pinus, Lat. of [...], Gr. a Lofty Tree: Evertunt actas ad sidera Pinus. AEn. 11.’

Firr-Tree, another Montaneer, raising his Gigantick Arms towards Heaven.

Abies in Montibus altis. Ecl. 7. Used by the Ancients for Ship-Service.
Labitur Uncta vadis Abies. AEn. 8.

[Page 134] Ibid. Branching Palm; A celebrated Tree of a tall and strong Body, rising against all im­pediment and opposition, and therefore made the Reward and Crown of Conquerors.

Palmaque Nobilis, Terrarum Dominos evehit ad Deos. Hor. Od. 1.
Seu quis Olympiacae miratus praemia Palmae. Geor. 3.
—Etiam Ardua Palma
Nascitur, & casus abies visura Marinos. Geor. 2.

Palm, of Palma, as this of [...], a Hand, Quia ex eâ uvae, ceu digiti ex Palma prodeunt.

V. 140. A Silvan Scene; A shew of loftiest Shade, a prospect of green Tents and Arbours, arch'd by Nature, and cover'd with her youthful Livery. So Virgil,

Tum Sylvis Scena Coruscis
Desuper, horrentique atrum nemus eminet umbrâ. AEn. 1.

Scene, of Scena, Lat. of the Gr. [...], Umbraculum. of [...], Umbra. A Bower, and thence a Tent, or Pavilion, that affords a Shade. Sylvan, of Sylva, Lat. a Wood.

V. 141. A Woody Theatre; The Comparison consists in the Resemblance the ascending Ranks of Trees have to the Rows of Seats and Benches raised one above another in Theaters and Pla­ces of publick Shews. Thus Virgil describes AEneas making use of a Natural Theater:

—Tendit
Gramineum in Campum, quem Collibus undique curvis
Cingebant Sylvae: Mediâque in Valle Theatri
Circus erat. AEn. 5.

Theater, [...], a place where Sports and Stage-Plays are usually exhibited, of [...], Gr. to behold.

V. 143. The Verdurous Wall; The Green Banks of Paradise, which walled it round. Ver­durous, Green, of Verdure, Fr. Greenness.

V. 149. With gay enamell'd Colours mixt; Curiously shaded and set off with divers Colours mixt and blended together. Enamell'd, Esmaillé, Fr. Esmail, is two parts Lead and one Tin, well calcined in an Oven of Reverberation, fixt afterwards on Rings, and Paintings, by Fire, whence it got the Name of Encaustum.

V. 151. Or Humid Bow; On which the Sun more pleased displayed his Beams, than on Gay Western Clouds, or the Gawdy Rainbow. Humid Bow, the Wet, the Rainbow, of Hu­midus, Lat. Watry, Wet, according to the Philosophy of its Birth, in a watry dark Cloud, pierced somewhat by the Sun-Beams, which nevertheless are repelled and reflected. Hence Virgil,

—Et bibit ingens Arcus. Geor. 1.
Qualis ab imbre Solet, percussis solibus, Arcus
Inficere ingenti longum Curvamine Coelum. Met. Lib. 6.

And now, if we compare our Poets Topography of Paradise with Homer's Descriptions of Aloinous's Garden,

[...]
[...].

Or with that of Calypso's shady Grotta,

[...]
[...].

We may without affectation affirm, that in half the Number of Verses, that they consist of, our Author has outdone 'em. But to make a Comparison more obvious to most Understand­ings, read the Description of the Bower of Bliss by a Poet of our own Nation, and famous in his time; but 'tis impar congressus! and Rhyme fetter'd his Fancy.

A Place pickt out by choice of best alive,
That Nature's Works by Art can imitate;
In which whatever in this Worldly State
Is sweet and pleasing unto Worldly Sense,
Or that may daintest Fancy aggravate,
Was poured forth, with plentiful dispence,
And made there to abōund with lavish Affluence. Spen. Bo. 2. C. 11. Stan. 42.

[Page 135] V. 157. Fanning their Odoriferous Wings; Now pleasant Gales waving their perfumed Wings on all sides, bestow Natural Sweetness, and tell from whence they came, rich with those pre­cious Spoils. Odoriferous, that has a pleasing Smell: Odoriferus, Lat. Odoriferam Panaceam, AEn. 12.

V. 158. Native Perfumes; Natural Sweets; such as grow, Nativus, Lat. Perfume, of the Fr. Parfum, quasi per fumum, made by laying sweet smelling Shrubs on Fire, whose Fumes re­fresh or please the Scent.

V. 159. Those Balmy Spoils; Those Spicy Spoils. Balmy, sweet, delicious, of [...], Gr. the Balm-Tree preferable for its smell to all other Odours, growing only in Judea, and near to Destruction by the Malice of the Jews, at the sacking of their chief City, as Pliny relates. Saeviere in Arbusculum hunc Judaei, sicut in vitam quoque suam, contra defendêre Romani, & dimi­catum pro frutice est, Lib. 12. Cap. 25. The Juice, the Seed, the Bark, and the Wood it self are extraordinary Perfumes.

Quid tibi Odorato referam sudantia ligno
Balsama. Georg. 2.

V. 160. Beyond the Cape of Hope; Cape de bonna Speranza, a famous Promontory in the most Southern part of Africa, named The Cape of Good Hope, by Emanuel King of Portugal, who when it was discovered by Barth. Diaz, conceived great hopes of finding a passage to the East-Indies. Cape, of Caput, Lat. Head, thence called a Head-Land.

V. 161. Mozambic; Mosambica is a little Island on the Eastern Coast of Africa, near the Continent, where there is a City and River of the same Name, running into the Ethiopick Ocean.

V. 162. Sabean Odours; High and rich Perfumes, like the Pretious Breaths of the Sabeans, Inhabitants of Saba, chief City of Arabia Foelix, (Arabie the Blest) rich in Balm, Cassia, Myrrh, Cinnamon, Frankinsense, &c. insomuch that they used nothing but perfumed Wood in their Kitchins. Non alia Ligni Genera in us [...] sunt quam Odorata; Cibosque coquunt turis Ligno, alii Myrrhae. Plin. Lib. 12. Cap. 17.

Centumque Sabaeo
Ture Calent arae, sertisque recentibus halant. AEn. 1.

The Spicy Shoar; The sweet smelling Coast, the perfumed Country. Spicy, of the Fr. Espi­ces, Perfumes.

V. 163. Arabie the Blest; Arabia, a large Country in Asia, is known by three Names; Foelix the Happy here meant, the largest and most fruitful, wash'd on three sides by the Sea, adjoyning on the other to that call'd the Desart and the Stony.

V. 165. Chear'd old Ocean Smiles; Delighted, pleased with, made more chearful. Chear, of [...], Joy, thence used for the Countenance, where soonest seen, whence the Sea-Salutation, What chear? How fare you? Old Ocean, the Ancients, both Poets and Philosophers, repu­ted the Ocean the eldest of the Gods, meaning thereby that without Humidity there could neither be any Generation or Corruption, and so consequently no World. [...].’

A smattering of Moses's Deep, Gen. 1. Vers. 1.

[...]
[...]. Orp. in Hym.

V. 166. These Odorous Sweets; These extraordinary sweet Breaths and perfumed Winds; a Redundancy. Odorous, Odorus, Lat. that smells well, yeilding a good smell, as also quick of smelling, that has a good Nose, as Odora Canum vis, AEn. 4.

V. 168. Then Asmodeus; The Name of the Evil Spirit enamour'd of Sarah, Daughter of Raguel, whose seven Husbands he had destroyed, therefore well named of [...], Fire, and [...], to destroy, expressive of a lustful destroying Angel, and therefore called [...], Rex Vastatorum, Tob. 3. Vers. 8. Fume, a Smell, of Fumus, Lat. Smoak. Spouse, Fr. Espouse, of the Lat. Sponsa, a Bride.

V. 171. From Media; Now call'd Servan and Schirvan, a Province in the North-West of the Kingdom of Persia, towards the Borders of Georgia, and bounded Northward with the Caspian Sea, Southward by Persia, on the East by Hircania and Parthia, and West by Armenia and Assyria, famous for the Empire of the Medes and Persians, once greatly considerable; read Tobit 6. Vers. 13, and 14. and Chap. 8. Vers. 2, and 3.

Media fert tristes succos, tardumque saporem
Foelicis Mali. Georg. 2.

[Page 136] V. 172. Savage Hill; That high Woody Hill. Savage, Fr. Sauvage, Woody, wild like a Wilderness.

V. 179. Th' Arch Fellon; Satan, the Arch-Rebel, the Ringleader of Rebellion. Fellon, is of the Sax. Felle, cruel; and Felonia, (in our Law-Books) Ideo dicta est, quia fieri debet felleo ani­mo, Cooke, Inst. Lib. 4. Others derive it of Fehl, Sax. a Fault, of the Lat. falli, to be de­ceived, and in this sense Satan is the chief Felon, the Arch-Sinner and Deceiver.

V. 181. At one slight bound, &c. With one easie Leap jumped over all its Limits: A Bound, a Jump, is from the Fr. Bondir, to leap. Bound, a Limit, as the Bounds of a Field, of the word Bind, tied up and restrained within its compass: Or of Bornes, Fr. for the same.

V. 183. A Prowling Wolf; A Ravenous, a Preying Wolf. Prowling, or Proling, of the Fr. Proyer, and its Diminutive Proyeler, to seek after Prey.

V. 185. Pen their Flocks; Shut in their Sheep. A Pen is a Sheepfold, of the Sax. Pyndan, to shut up. Eeve, or Eve, a Diminutive of Evening, and this a Derivative of the Sax. Eren, or the Belg. Avend.

V. 186. In hurdl'd Cotes; In places hemm'd in with Hurdles, wall'd about with Fences made of small Sticks interwoven and plasht together. Hurdle, of the Sax. Hyrdl, though some will have it of [...], to shut up. A Cote is a place hurdled in, of the Sax. Cote, or the Belg. Kott, whence our Cottage, and from its use is called a Sheep-Cote, an Inclosure made of Hurdles, in which they are Nightly shut up, either to keep 'em together, or to Dung the Ground more equally by removing their demolish'd Mansion.

V. 187. Leaps o'er the Fence; Leaps o'er the Hedge of Hurdles that fences 'em in, of the ob­solete fendere, whence defendere, Lat. to guard and secure.

Ibid. Fould, of the Sax. Falad, or Fald, a Stable, a Hedge, whence a Sheepfold, and place where they are enclosed, of the Sax. Fealden, to enclose.

V. 188. Bent to unhoard the Cash; Resolute, to discover the hid Treasure of some Rich Ci­tizen. Unhoord, to discover, of the Particle un, and Hoord, to lay up, of Hord, Sax. Treasure, of Hordan, to treasure up, to hide.

Ibid. Cash; Treasure, properly Money, of the Fr. Casse, a Chest, continens pro contento; whence Cassier, a Cashier, one entrusted with Money and Receipts, and Payments thereof, all of the Lat. Capsa, a Coffer, by Barbarous Depravation. Burgher, Citizen, of the Teut. Burger, both of the Sax. Burgh, Borough, as Edinburgh, the chief Ci [...]y of Scotland.

V. 191. Climbs; Get up by help of a Ladder, of [...], Gr. a Ladder.

V. 193. Lewd Hirelings; Wicked Mercenary Priests, Avaritious greedy Hirelings, of the Sax. Hira, a Mercenary Servant. Lewd, is a word expressing general Wickedness, of Laerede, signifying a Laick, one of the common People, and therefore more Flagitious generally than the Clergy, a dissolute Person, as the word Laxus, Lat. and as the Gr. [...], in the same sense seems to signifie.

V. 195. The middle Tree; The Tree of Life also in the midst of the Garden, Gen. 2. Vers. 9. In the midst, is a Hebrew Phrase, expressing not only the Local Situation of this enlivening Tree, but denoting its Excellency, as being the most considerable, the tallest, goodliest, and most lovely Tree in that beauteous Garden planted by God himself: So Scotus, Duran, Valesius, &c. whom our Poet follows, affirming it the highest there that grew: To him that overcometh, will I give to eat of the Tree of Life, which is in the midst of the Paradise of God, Revel. 2. Vers. 7.

V. 196. Sate like a Cormorant; A very Voracious Sea-Fowl, and a great Devourer of Fish, its Name is the Corruption of Corvus Marinus, Lat. the Sea-Crow.

V. 199. Of that Life-giving Plant; After many frivolous Disputes concerning the truth of this Tree of Life, whether it were Natural, &c. which is plain, from Gen. 2. Vers. 9. where it is said, Out of the Ground made the Lord God to grow every Tree that is pleasant to the sight, and good for Food: The Tree of Life also, &c. The best account of it is, that it was a Tree of wonderful Virtue, whose Fruit, more Physical than for daily Food, tasted sometimes, would have prolonged and lengthened out the Lives of Men for many Hundreds, or some Thousands of Years: A Natural Preservative and Panpharmacon against all Diseases and Decay, by which Mankind, (if sinless) had lived for ever, Gen. 3. Vers. 23. That is, till it had pleased God to have translated em to Heaven without tasting of Death, visiting the Grave, or seeing Corrup­tion. Plant, Planta, Lat. that of which an Herb or Tree grows of.

—Deinde Feraces
Plantae immittuntur, nec longum tempus & ingens
Exiit ad Coelum ramis felicibus arbos. Geo. 2.

V. 200. What well us'd had been the Pledge of Immortality; Satan made use of the Tree of Life only to advance his prospect round God's Garden, never thinking or reflecting on the Virtue, the hidden mystick Power of that Plant, the Type and Figure of the Son of God, Sa­viour of Mankind, whose Fruit is Life and Immortality, the repining at whose Power was what occasion'd the Rebellion of the laps'd Angels, and their ambitious Leader. Our Author must in this have respect to some Allegorick sense, for 'tis unconceivable that Satan could have bet­ter'd his sad estate by eating of the Tree of Life, for he was already immortal à parte post, to [Page 137] his cost and everlasting misery. Strange is the Conceipt of Rupertus, in his Commentaries on Gen. 2. Vers. 22. Igitur nec Adam cognovit, nec ipse Serpens Diabolus scivit, quod etiam Lignum Vitae plantasset Dominus Deus in medio Paradisi, &c. That neither Adam nor the Devil himself knew any thing of the Tree of Life planted in the midst of Paradise: For if he had understood there had been a Tree of that vivifying Vertue, he would never have persued his Ma­lice by halves, but as he perswaded him to eat of the forbidden Tree, and thereby to sin and become miserable, so he would doubtless have incited him to have tasted of this Tree of Life, to have made him Immortal in Immutable Misery. Cap. 30. Lib. 3. Comment. in Genes.

V. 209. Of God the Garden was; Suitable to Gen. 2. Vers. 8. And the Lord God planted a Garden Eastward in Eden.

V. 210. Eden stretch'd her Line; The Region of Eden (in which Paradise was planted) ex­tended and stretch'd it self from Auran Eastward, to the ancient City of Seleucia seated on Eu­phrates, rebuilt by Grecian Monarchs. [...]. That Eden was the Name of a Country, and par­ticularly of Mesopotamia, from its Fruitfulness and Amenity, well deriving its Title of [...], Heb. to be delightful, is most certain, from the Testimonies of the LXX Translators, all the Greek Fathers, and the most Learned of the Jewish Rabbins: And though St. Hierom has translated Eden by Pleasure, Plantaverat autem Dominus Deus Paradisum voluptat is à principio, Gen. 2. Vers. 8. very erroneously, which is by the Septuagint and our Version exactly ren­der'd; and though he has continued the same mistake Vers. 10. Et Fluvius egrediebatur de loco voluptatis, And a River went out of the place of Pleasure (Eden) to water the Garden; yet he was ashamed to say that Cain dwelt on the East of Pleasure, but has there used the proper Name of the Region Eden, Ad Orientalem Plagam Eden, Gen. 4. Vers. 16.

V. 211. From Auran Eastward; Auran, A City in Mesopotamia, diversly written, Haran, by the Turks at this day Harran, and Haran, Charran in Holy Writ, memorable for the remove of Abraham to it from Ur in Chaldea, Gen. 11. Vers. 31. and Acts 7. Vers. 4. and for the fa­mous overthrow of the Covetous Crassus by the Parthians.

—Miserando Funere Crassus
Assyrias Latio Maculavit Sanguine Carras. Luc. Lib. 1.

This Country was also called Aram and Aramia, of [...], the Seat of the Syrians, from Aram, one of the Sons of Shem, Gen. 10. Vers. 22. whence the Region took the Name of Aram, and Aran and Auran; and Ptolomy dividing Babylonia into three parts, gives one of 'em the Name of. Auranitis.

V. 212. Of great Seleucia, &c. Seleucia, a famous City of Mesopotamia on the River Tigris, anciently called Chalne and Chalaune, as Appian affirms; afterwards Coche, and then Alexan­dria, being rebuilt by the famous Conqueror of that Name. It was again Re-edified by An­tiochus King of Syria, and by his Fathers Name called Seleucia, now Bachad, Bagdad and Bag­dett, a great, rich, and populous City, the Seat of the Califs, often mistaken for Babylon, forty Miles distant from it, and situated on Euphrates.

V. 214. The Sons of Eden dwelt in Telassar; Our Author has bounded Eden; by Charran, Seleucia, and Telassar, where the Edenites were Garison'd on the Borders of Babylonia, to resist the Assyrians. Two Epistles sent by the Nestorian Christians inhabiting Mesopotamia, to the Pope in the Year 1552. mention an Island of Eden in the River Tigris, commonly called Go­zoria: See Sir Walter Rawleigh's History, Book 1. Chap. 3. Sect. 10.

Telassar was a very Strong-hold, on a steep Rock, in an Island of Euphrates, being a Pass out of Mesopotamia into Babylonia, and as the Name declares was a Garison maintain'd to curb the Assyrians. [...], of [...], a Fort, a Rampart, and [...], an Assyrian. The Children of Eden that were at Telassar, Isai. 37. Vers. 12. Haran, and Canneh, and Eden, Ezech. 27. Vers. 23. That the Eden in these Texts, was not the same with that where Gods Garden Paradise was planted, Cajetan would infer, from its being so populous, when the Flaming Sword rendered the other both uninhabitable and inaccessible; which was true before the Deluge, but Para­dise being by that defaced, and as our Poet supposes,

—By might of Waves remov'd
Out of his place, push'd by the Horned Flood,
With all its Verdure spoiled, and Trees adrift, &c. Book 11.

What might hinder it from being inhabited, and from either regaining, or retaining the Name of Eden, as the most pleasant, rich, best watered, and thence the most fruitful Country ima­ginable?

V. 218. The Tree of Life, &c. of Vegetable Gold; Satan by his malicious cunning designing as much as in him lay, to undermine and invalidate the Credit of the Holy Text, promoted among the Heathen Poets many strange Fictions, that seem borrowed or imitated from the Sacred Writers, as their Nectar and Ambrosia, Nepenthe and the wonderful Herb M [...]ly, by H [...] ­siod, Homer, &c. The Imitations of this wonderful Tree, Just. Mart. in his Second Apol. for the Christ. Of Vegetable Gold, of growing Gold, according to the conceit of the Chymists, that their Aurum Potabile, their Liquid Gold, is the highest Preservative, able to cure all Dis­eases, [Page 138] and to postpone Old Age and Death for a long time. Vegetable, Vegetabilis, Lat. any thing that grows, encreaseth and flourisheth, and is productive of its kind, as Plants and Trees, that have a Vegetative Being.

V. 221. The Tree of Knowledge of Good and Evil, as term'd Gen. 2. Vers. 9. By the He­braism of Good and Evil, is meant the Knowledge of all things; that there was but one Tree of this sort, to the intent that it might be more remarkable, and that Adam by no mistake might pretend ignorantly so much as to touch it, is very probable; but of what kind it was, few are so daring as to determine. This fatal Tree (to pass over the idle Inventions of the Rabbins) had its Name of the Knowledge of Good and Evil, as some imagine, from that sad Ex­perimental Knowledge that our first Father found by eating its forbidden Fruit: Of Good, the Favour of God, and happy Innocence lost; and the Evil of Sin, and his Makers Displeasure and Wrath incurr'd, as our Author, ‘Knowledge of Good bought dear, by knowing Ill.’

Others are of Opinion, it was so named, either by deceived Adam himself, or at least by Moses, (the Writer of his Story by way of Anticipation) as an Everlasting Monument of the Glozing Lyes of the Tempter, who was a Deceiver from the beginning, and had promised Eve that their Eyes should be opened, and they should be as Gods knowing Good and Evil, Gen. 3. Vers. 5. And the Ironical sad Sarcasm is carried on Vers. 22. And the Lord God said, Behold, the Man is become as one of us, to know Good and Evil. Rupert. Tostat. Pererius, &c.

V. 223. Southward through Eden; The great River Euphrates, which runs Southward through Mesopotamia, Gen. 2. Vers. 10.

V. 224. Through the shaggy Hill; Was not diverted or turned aside, but made its way through the hairy Hill, o'ergrown with Trees and leavy Bushes. Shaggy, of the Sax. Sceaega, the Hair and Fleece of Beasts. Metaphorically as before, Whose hairy sides with Thicket overgrown, Vers. 135.

V. 225. Ingulft; Swallow'd up, of the Fr. Goulfe, of the Lat. Gula, the Gullet, Engoufrer, Fr. to draw or suck in.

V. 227. Upon the Rapid Current; On the swift stream. Rapid, of the Lat. Rapidus, swift, an usual Attribute of Rivers. Rapidum Cretae veniemus Oaxem, Virg. Ecl. 1.’

Current, the Stream, or Channel of a River, à Currendo, from its running swiftest there.

V. 228. Of Porous Earth, &c. Which drawn up by gentle heat through the Veins of the hol­low Earth, rose like a sweet Spring, and water'd the lovely Garden. Porous, of the Gr. [...], a Passage and Way, whence those small and imperceptible passages through the Skin in Human Bodies, by which any thing is received or ejected, as Sweat and other Excrementitious Matters are called [...] of [...] to pass through. Water is said by our Philosophick Poet to run through the Earth in the Veins of the Macrocosm, and thence as it were drawn up and exhaled by the Suns kindly Heat, (the Efficient Cause of Drought and Thirst) to break forth in fresh and cooling Fountains, wat'ring its Verdant Plains and Fruitful Surface.

V. 229. A Rill; Is a little purling Stream, a small shallow River: Rill, a Contraction of Rivulus, Lat.

V. 231. Down the steep Glade; Fell down the steep Mountains side, where it had worn a Way. A Glade, is an open place made in a Wood, by lopping the Trees, or cutting some of 'em down: Of [...], Gr. a Bough, [...], signifying to make a Glade. The River here is said to fall down the steep Glade, by washing down all that stood in its way, and over-bearing the Trees that opposed its precipitate fall from the steep side of Paradise.

V. 232. Which from its darksom passage; In which it past diving through the obscure Hill.

V. 233. Into four main Streams; Into four large Currents, according to Gen. 2. Vers. 10. so irreconcilable to any Country, that our Poet wisely avoids giving any further account of 'em, though Sir Walter Rawleigh, with the greatest probability the undiscovered place is capable of; seems to make Euphrates and Tigris, both in Mesopotamia, satisfie the Text: Hist. of the World, Book 1. Chap. 3. Sect. 11. But I will not enter on the inextricable difficulty, but leave the Rivers to wander their own way.

Quaque caput rapido tollit cum tigride magnus
Euphrates, quos non diversis fontibus edit
Persis.—Luc. Lib. 3.

V. 237. How from that Saphire Fount.

From that clear Fountain how the curling Brooks,
Running o'er shining Pearl and Golden Sands,
With various Windings under hanging Groves,
Conveyed delicious Nourishment t' each Plant.

[Page 139] Saphire, Clear; see Book 2. Vers. 1050. Crisped; Curled, wrinkled, as Water is by the Wind, or little purling Brooks by opposition of Stones, &c. lying in their watry way, of the Lat. Crispatus, curled, like Hair.

V. 238. And Sands of Gold; Conformable to the Traditions of the Tagus, Pactolus, Hermus, and other Rivers ennobled by the Poets for the Gold found among their Sands.

Passaque ab auriferis tellus exire Metallis
Pactolon: Quâ culta secat non vilior Hermus. Luc. Lib. 3.
—Auro turbidus Hermus. Geor. 2.
Pactolusque irrigat auro. AEn. 11.

V. 239. With Mazie Error; With various Turnings, with intricate Wandrings. Mazie, see Book 2. V. 561. Pendant Shades, Trees hanging over the Streams, or growing on that Ground the Brooks past under. The Shadow, for the Tree that casts it, frequent with the Poets, Aut viridi fontes induceret umbrâ. Virg. Ecl. 9. A Green Shade.

V. 240. Ran Nectar; [...] was the Drink of the Gods, as Ambrosia their Meat, which were served up to 'em by Hebe (Youth) as the Poets tells us, the Preservatives of their Mirth and Immortality; its Name is derivable of the Privative [...] and [...], Gr. to kill; those that used it, being subject to no decay.

[...],
[...].

A Description of Claret. [...]. Vina novum fundam Calathis Arvisia Nectar. Virg. Ecl. 6.’

And by the same word he expresses Honey;

—Aliae purissima Mella
Stipant, & liquido distendunt Nectare Cellas. Georg. 4.

V. 242. Nature boon pour'd forth profuse; But bounteous Nature lavishly pour'd out the Flowers, free and unconfin'd, in Beds and Artful Knots, on every place. Boon, of the Fr. Bon, and this of Bonus, Lat. Good, Gracious, as Bounty and Bounteous, of Bonté, Fr. and Bo­nitas, Lat. Profuse, Lat. Profusus, Lavish, Prodigal, of Profundere, to pour out abundantly, an Expression like this of a Bank o'ergrown with Flowers, is in Book 8. Vers. 286. ‘On a Green shady Bank profuse of Flow'rs.’

V. 245. Where the unpierc'd Shade imbround the Noontide Bow'rs: Paradise was so profuse and prodigal of Flow'rs, that they continually cloathed the Garden every where, both in the warm Sunshine, and the obscure Shade. Imbround, made the Bow'rs that were convenient at Noon, look dark and brown. Embrunir, Fr. to darken, to make ob [...]re.

V. 248. Wept Odorous Gums and Balm; As Myrrhe and Balm, from which at certain seasons a Gum is distill'd, a sort of sweet and odoriferous Sweat, styled in Lat. Lacrymae, the Tears of those Trees.

Flet tamen & tepidae manant ex arbore Guttae
Est Honor & Lacrymis: Stillataque cortice Myrrha
Nomen herile tenet, Nullique tacebitur aevo. Ovid. Met. 10.
Quid tibi Odorato referam sudantia ligno
Balsama. Virg. Georg. 2.

Gums, of the barbarous Lat. Gummi, as this of the Exotick Greek [...], the Tears and Di­stillations of Trees.

V. 249. Burnish'd with Golden Rind; Whose shining outside glittered like polish'd Gold, the Mala Aurea & Citrea of the Poets.

Tum Canit Hesperidum Miratam Mala puellam. Virg. Ecl. 6.
—Medio nitet arbor in arvo;
Fulva comam, fulvo ramis crepitantibus auro.
Hinc tria forte meâ veniens decerpta ferebam
Aurea Poma Manu. Ovid. Metam. 10.

Burnish'd; Polish'd, of Burnir, Fr. to give a Lustre to, to Furbish or Polish. Amiable, love­ly, amabilis, Lat.

[Page 140] V. 252. Lawns; Uncultivated, rude, shrubby Plains, of the Fr. Lande, a Plain in a Park.

Ibid. Level Downs; Even Plains: The Downs have their Name of Saxon original of Dune, a Mountain, they being Plains spread on the tops of Hills.

V. 254. Or Palmy Hillock; Or some small Hill with Palm-Trees crown'd. Hillock, a Dimi­nutive of Hill, as Bullock, of Bull.

V. 255. Of some Irriguous Valley; Of some well-water'd Valley, set to shew her blest Abun­dance. Irriguous, Irriguus, Lat. full of Springs and Rills; it is the Epither of a Garden in Horace, Irriguo nihil est elutius horto. Sat. Lib. 2. 4.’

Of a Fountain in Virgil, Irriguumque bibant violaria Fontem. Georg. 4.’

V. 256. Without Thorn the Rose; According to the general Supposition, that the Earth, be­fore it was accurs'd for Mans Sin and Punishment, brought forth no Thorns, Gen. 3. Vers. 18. But whether the charming Rose had not its Guard about it originally, that every rude Hand might not sully and prostitute its blushing Beauties, is not determinable.

V. 257. Umbrageous Grots; Cool Shady Arbors: Umbrageous, Shady; Ombragieux, Fr. as Umbrage, all of Umbraculum & Umbra, Lat. Shade. A Grot is a Cave, a Hiding-place from the heat of the Sun; of the Fr. Grotte, the Corruption of the Lat. Crypta, a Derivative of [...], to hide.

V. 258. The Mantling Vine; The spreading Vine exposes to the Sun her Purple Fruit, and by degrees [...]eeps up, wantoning and extravagant. Mantling, of Mantle, and this of the Fr. Manteau, of the Lat. Mantelum, used by Plautus for a Cloak; so the Mantling Vine from its covering any thing it grows against, or overspreads; so Sibma, a Place abounding in Vineyards, is said to be Clad with Vines, Book 1. Vers. 410. So our Author in his Description of Raphael says, The Pair (of Wings) that clad each Shoulder broad came Mantling o'er his Breast with Regal Ornament, Book 5. Vers. 279. That is, The Wings that cover'd his Shoulders, came o'er his Bo­som, like a Royal Mantle. Luxuriant, growing rank, and running out into Leaves and curling Tendrils, of the Lat. Luxuriare, to grow rank. At si Luxuriâ Foliorum exuberat umbra, in the same sense, Geo. 1.’

That is bolder of the Horses broad Breast; Luxuriatque toris animosum pectus. Geo. 3.’

V. 260. Murmuring Waters fall down the slope Hills; The Purling Streams run down the sideling Hills. Murmuring, of Murmurare, of [...], Gr. a word made in imitation of the sound of Running Streams, when troubled with the Stone or Gravel: How short, and yet how expressive or Virg.

Ecce, supercilio Clivosi tramitis undam
Eli [...] Illa cadens raucum per levia murmur
Sa [...] ciet. Geor. 1.

The Etymologists will have Slope derived of the Bel. Slap, loose, remiss, because a Rope stretch'd tight, makes a direct, but hanging loose, an oblique Line.

V. 263. Her Chrystal Mirrour holds; Or assemble in a smooth Lake, that in his shining Sur­face, like a Looking-Glass, shews the Green Bank befringed with Flowers, and beset with sweet smelling Mirtles. Mirror, of the Fr. Miroir, a Looking-Glass.

Myrtle, is a little Tree, or rather a Shrub, whose Leaves and Berries yield a pleasing Fra­grancy, cloathed with perpetual Verdure, of its Greek Appellation [...], still retaining its antient Name.—Et amantes littora Myrtos, was the Observation in Virgil's time.

V. 264. Aires, Vernal Aires; Soft Breaths and gentle Gales, perfumed by Flowry Fields and Orange Groves, move the Trees trembling Leaves into a Tune, consorting with the Fea­ther'd Quire. Aires seem here to be meant of Musical Airs, sweet and yet brisk, which have their Derivation of the Gr. [...], the Air; for all Musick, either Vocal or Instrumental, is but the beating and breaking of the Air, according to various Measures and Modulations. Attune, a word of our Authors Coinage, of Time, which as before of [...], Gr. Intensie. Avia tum resonant avibus Virgulta canoris. Georg. 2.’

V. 266. While Universal Pan, &c. While Universal Nature link'd with the Graceful, and the Flowery Season danc'd a perpetual Round, and throughout the Earth, yet unpolluted led Eternal Spring. All the Poets favour the Opinion of the Worlds Creation in the Spring.

[Page 141]
—Ver illuderat, ver magnus agebat
Orbis, & Hyberni parcebant Flatibus Euri;
Cum primum lucem pecudes hausere, virûmque
Ferrea progenies duris caput extulit arvis
Immissaeque ferae Sylvis, & sidera Coelo.—
Et exciperet Coeli Indulgentia terras. Virg. Geor. 2.
Ver erat aeternum, placidique tepentibus auris
Mulcebant Zephyri natos sine semine flores. Meta. 1.

Pan; [...], Interpreted by Macrobius, Universae substantiae Materialis Do­minator, the Universal Nature, as the Gr. [...] signifies, All, the whole Frame of Nature, the Universe. [...]. Hom. in Pana.’

Hence in the Days of Heathenism taken for the Sun, the visible, most powerful, and glo­rious God of the World, governed (as to appearance) by his Eternal Influence. Suitable to this Opinion Orpheus styles him the powerful Deity, and makes Heaven, Earth, the Sea, and Immortal Fire, Members of his Immense Body.

[...],
[...],
[...]. Orph. in Pana.

Exactly well therefore does our Poet give him the Title of Universal Pan, and joyn him with the dancing Hours and Graces, the Fruits of the Earth, and their Seasons depending on his enlivening Lamp, and the Measures of his Motion.

V. 267. Knit with the Graces and the Hours; By the Graces and the Hours, are here meant the Flowers and fruitful Seasons, produced on Earth by the Suns Universal Heat, and the dif­ference made by the Accesses and Recesses of his Inspiriting Influence. The Graces are reckon'd three, the Off-spring of Jupiter and Eurynome, the Daughter of the Ocean, (that is, of Heat and Moisture) the Composition of all things.

[...],
[...],
[...]. Hesiod. Theog.

That these Graces were taken for the beautiful Seasons, in which all things seem to dance and smile, in an Universal Joy, is plain from Horace:

Diffugere nives; Redeunt jam Gramina Campis, &c.
Gratia cum Nymphis, Geminisque sororibus audet
Ducere nuda Choros. Od. 7. Carm. Lib. 4.

Aratus calls the Hours [...], Fruitful, Time being requisite to the Maturity of all Things. ‘— [...].’

Homer gives 'em the Power of shutting and opening of Heaven; that is, of fair and foul Weather, equally requisite.

[...],
[...]
[...].

And he joyns both the Graces and the Hours Hand in Hand, with Harmony, Youth and Venus, three Charming Companions;

[...]
[...],
[...].

V. 269. Of Enna where Proserpin, &c. Proserpina was the Daughter of Jupiter and Ceres, carried away by Pluto the Subterranean God, as she was gathering Flowers on the top of En­na, a beauteous Plain, on an Hill not far from a City of the same Name in the middle of the Island of Sicily.

Haud procul Hennaeis locus est à maenibus, altae
Nomine Pergus, aquae. Non illo plura Caystros
[Page 142] Carmina Cygnorum labentibus audit in undis.
Sylva Coronat aquas, cingens latus omne, suisque
Frondibus, ut velo, Phoebêos submovet ignes.
Frigora dant rami, Tyrios humus humida Flores.
Perpetuum ver est. Quo dum Proserpina luco
Ludit, & aut violas, aut candida lilia carpit;
Poene simul visa est, dilectaque raptaque Diti. Ovid. Meta. 5.

With him agrees the Neoterick Claudian:

Forma loci superat Flores: Curvata tumore
Parvo planities, & Mollibus edita clivis
Creverat in Collem, &c. de Raptu Proserp. Lib. 2.

He that would see more of this Place, may read the Florid Description Cicero has made of it in his sixth Invective against Verres: Vetus est haec Opinio Judices, &c.’

V. 270. By Gloomy Dis; By the black God of Hell. Dis à Divitiis, as his other Name Pluto, of [...], Gr. Riches, because the most Pretious Metals are found and dug under ground, out of the Subterranean Vaults and Neighbourhood of Hell.

Ceres, the Daughter of Saturn and Ops, Sister to Pluto, Jove, Juno and Neptune, the first that taught Mankind the Art of Ploughing and Sowing.

Prima Ceres ferro Mortales vertere terram
Instituit. Virg. Georg. 1.
Prima Ceres unco glebam dimovit aratro;
Prima dedit fruges, alimentaque mitia terris. Meta. Lib. 5.
Quas dea per terras, & quoe erraverit undos
Dicere longa mora est, quoerenti defuit Orbis. Ibid.

Dis, or Pluto, being refused by all the Goddesses, because of his ill Looks, dark Kingdom, and darker Complexion, was forc'd to make his way through the Earth into the fair Ennean Field, where, in his Ebon Chariot, he snatch'd up Ceres her beautiful Daughter, who, igno­rant what was become of her, wandred all the World over to seek her; and as she made her Enquiries, taught Mankind the Art of Tillage.

V. 273. Of Daphne by Orontes. Daphne was the most celebrated and delicious Suburbs of Antioch, the Capital of Syria, or rather of the East, seated on both the Banks of Oron­tes: It was a vast Grove of Lawrels, (whence it took the Name [...], Gr. a Lawrel) in­termixt with tall Cypress-Trees, defying the Suns piercing Rays, under whose thick Shade ne­vertheless, the Earth was Luxuriant in Flowers, it was full of Fountains, and had one suppo­sed to derive its Waters from the Castalian Spring, and endued with the same Power of pro­moting the Spirit of Divination in its Drinkers, as well as that at Delphos; Zozom. in his De­scription of Daphne. Orteliu [...] has an exact Delineation of this bounteous Grove in the end of his Maps.

Orontes, a beautiful River of Syria, springing out of Mount Libanus, and running to Antioch.

I am pridem Syrus in Tyberim defluxit Orontes. Juv. Sat. 3.
En quantum Tygris, quantum celer ambit Orontes. Luc. Lib. 6.

V. 274. Inspir'd Castalian Spring; Was a Fountain at the Foot of the Hill Parnassus, so na­med of Castalia, a Virgin Mistress of Apollo, turned into this cold Stream, for refusing his Flames; those that pretended to Poetry or Prophesie, wash'd their Eyes in this Chaste Fountain, to which the enamour'd Deity gave the Power of Inspiration. Inspiratus, Lat. one endowed with preternatural Knowledge.—Numine afflatus

Qui rore puro Castaliae lavit
Crines solutos. Hor. Car. Lib. 3. Od. 4.
—Quâ nulla priorum
Castaliam molli divertitur Orbita clivo. Geor. 3.

V. 275. Nor that Nyseian Isle girt with the River Triton. Nysa was a City in an Island of the same Name, encompass'd and begirt by the River Triton in Affrica, from which Pallos took her Name Tritonia, of her appearing first on its Banks. Et Pallas Lybicis Tritonides edita Lymphis. Sil. Ita. Lib. 9.’

[Page 143] This Island, for its Fertility, the Goodness of the Air and Soil, and for the Production of the choicest and most delicious Fruits, the coolest Fountains and most delightful Shades, as well as for abundance of the choicest Vines naturally growing there, was extreamly celebrated.

[...]
[...]. Hom. in Bacch.
[...]
[...]
[...]
[...]. Ibid.
—Inde datum Nymphae Nyseides antris
Occuluere suis, lactisque alimenta dedere. Meta. Lib. 3.

V. 276. Where old Cham—Ammon call and Lybian Jove. Cham, or Ham, the second Son of Noah, (therefore styled Old) Peopled Egypt and Lybia, and was the most Ancient and Re­nowned of all the Jupiters: He of the Grecians and Romans, being an Upstart in Comparison, living not long before the Trojan War, as is evident by his Sons, Castor, Pollux, Hercules, Sar­pedon, and others employed in it. Ammon therefore is not to be fetch'd of [...], Gr. Sand, because his famous Temple was seated in the Sandy Desarts of Lybia, but of Ham, with the Greek Termination made Hammon, and so Ammon. Chammon, or Chammoun in the Coptick Tongue, though a seeming Derivative of the Heb. [...], Heat, is undoubtedly to be referr'd to this great Cham.

—Templum Lybicis quod Gentibus unum, &c.
Quamvis AEthiopum Populis, Arabumque Beatis
Gentibus, atque Indis unus fit Jupiter Ammon. Luc. Lib. 9.

See the Description of this Temple in Q. Curt. Lib. 4.

Gentiles; Gentes, Lat. the Nations, [...], the People that knew not the true God, the Heathen Idolaters.

V. 278. Hid Amalthea and her Florid Son, &c. Our Author follows the relation of Diodorus Siculus, Lib. 2. Cap. 5. of this Lybian Jupiter, who is said to have been a King of that Coun­try, Married to Rea the Daughter of Saturn, from whose Jealous Eyes he hid his Mistress A­malthea and her Son Bacchus, the Planter of Vines, and Deity of Drunkards, in the beautiful Island Nyse, lying in the River Triton: The same Story is translated by Sir Walter Rawleigh, History of the World, Book 1. Chap. 6. Sect. 5.

Amalthea; [...], Gr. was a beautiful Lady, whom in recompence of her Favours, her beloved Jupiter made Queen of a fruitful Country, which lying in the shape of a Bulls Horn, gave occasion to the Proverb Amaltheae Cornu, and [...], Gr. to grow rich. Florid, Flo­ridus, Lat. gay, Iusty.

V. 279. Young Bacchus; The famous God of Wine, too well known all over the World, and too much worshipp'd. The Poets generally report him the Son of Jupiter and Semele, &c. as also Rhea the Wife of Saturn and Mother of Jupiter, confounding their fabulous Histories of their dark Idolatries. Stepdame, a Mother in Law, of Stief, Belg. and Dame, Fr. a Mistress, a ri­gid, stiff, and cruel Mother.

V. 280. Where Abassin Kings; Where the Kings of Ethiopia kept under sweet retirement their Royal Sons on Mount Amara, encompass'd round with Alabaster Rocks a whole Days Journey high; though this by some was taken to be Paradise under the burning Line, by Niles long-hidden Head, but distant far from this fair Syrian Garden, &c. The Upper Ethiopia, (the Dominion of Prester John) was anciently called Abassine, of its chief River Abas, and Abissi­nia is the Name of one of its Kingdoms. Issue, of the Fr. Issue, Children, Successors, of Issir, and this of the Lat. Exire, to go out from, to proceed from, as Children from their Parents. Guard, keep under Confinement, of the Fr. Garder, to watch, to secure.

V. 281. Mount Amara: Amara is a Province about the middle of the higher Ethiopia, and one of the 70 petty Kingdoms formerly Tributary, and now annext to the Abassin Empire: In it there is a Mountain of the same Name (Hamhar,) about 90 Miles in compass, and a Day [...] Journey high, with one only access, and that impregnably fortified: The Summit of this shi­ning Rock is adorned with many beautiful Palaces, a most delightful Place, and charming Pro­spect, where the Emperours Sons are carefully guarded, and as diligently educated, from whence the Eldest is taken to succeed his Father, and others to succeed him if he die Child­less.

V. 282. Under the Ethiop Line; Under the Equinoctial Line, the Fertility and won­derful Pleasantness of the Country, giving occasion to Tertullian, Bonaventure, and Duran­dus, to place Paradise under this Burning Line, formerly thought uninhabitable, though by Experience found to be fanned daily by a Cool Eastern Breeze, the Nights being temperate by the entire Interposition of the Earth, that no place is to be found on Earth that approaches [Page 144] nearer to the Nature, Beauty, and Abundance of Paradise, than this Climate. This Country of the Abissins lies under the Torrid Zone, stretching from the Tropick of Cancer beyond the Equator. Ethiop, [...], Gr. scorch'd, and thence black and burnt, according to the Com­plexions of its discoloured Inhabitants, of [...], to burn, and [...], the Countenance.

V. 283. By Nilus Head; Near the Fountains of the Nile, sought after by Sesostris, Cambyses, Alexander the Great, and others, though with small Satisfaction.

—Non Fabula Mendax
Ausa loqui de fonte tuo est, ubicunque videris,
Quaereris: Et nulli contingit Gloria genti,
Ut Nilo sit laeta suo. Luc. Lib. 10.

M. Thevenot tells us, from the Report of an Ethiopian Ambassador he met at Grand Cairo, that Nile has his Head in a great Well, casting up its Water very high out of the Ground in a large Plain called Ovembromma in the Province of Ago: This Well is 12 Days Journey from Gouthar, the Capital of Ethiopia; the Waters take their course Northward, and pass by seven Cataracts before they enter Egypt: The Country about this Well is so plain, that there are no Mountains near it by three Weeks Journey. It is on all Hands confirmed, that the Cause of the Niles Annual Inundation, is from the excessive Rains that fall in Ethiopia for three Months together in their Winter, but the Egyptian Summer; well affirm'd by Bapt. Scortia, Lib. 2. Cap. 17. de Increm. Nili. Of Ethiopia being the Native Country of the Nile, and of its rising by Rains, the Ancients were of Opinion, though not well assured,

AEthiopumque feris alieno gurgite Campos:
Et te terrarum nescit cui debeat Orbis.
Arcanum Natura Caput, non prodidit ulli,
Nec licuit populis parvum te, Nile, videre,
Amovitque sinus, & gentes maluit ortus
Mirari, quam nosse tuos. Consurgere in ipsis
Jus tibi Solstitiis, alienâ crescere brumâ, Luc. Lib. 10.

V. 284. Wide remote; Far removed: Remotus, Lat. Assyrian Garden, planted in Eden, af­terwards call'd Assyria, bordering on Mesopotamia.

V. 289. Godlike erect; Upright and tall, not groveling on the Ground like other Creatures, according to Ovid.

Os homini sublime dedit, Coelumque tueri
Jussi, & erectos ad sidera tollere vultus. Meta. Lib. 1.

Well may he term our first Parents Godlike, the Originals of Mankind, made by God him­self, after his own Image, it better suiting the Protoplast than its correspondent [...], any of the Homerick Heroes. Erectus, Lat. upright.

V. 290. In Naked Majesty; A glorious Nakedness, heightned and set off by spotless Innocence, preferable to all the gawdy Disguises, worn by Mankind since the sad Concealments of our Shame. For in the State of Innocence, there was such an Agreement between Soul and Body, so exact an Obedience paid by the Sensual to the Rational and Sovereign part, that no audacious, unbecoming thought could with a guilty Blush have stain'd the Cheek of Adam, Majestick even in Nakedness. And they were both Naked, the Man and his Wife, and were not ashamed, Gen. 2. Vers. 25. Lords of all, according to the Dominion delegated to them by the Lord of all things; Be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the Earth, and subdue it, and have Dominion over the Fish of the Sea, and over the fowl of the Air, and over every living thing that moveth on the Earth, Gen. 1. Vers. 28.

V. 293. Truth, Wisdom, Sanctitude severe, &c. Truth and Wisdom, and pure and strict Uprightness, the absolute Image of their Glorious Creator, shone in their Heavenly Looks. Sanctitude severe, Severa Sanctitudo, that strict Conformity to their Makers Commands, exact and conformable to the Rectitude by him implanted in their Nature, and left subordinate to the Government and Guidance of their innate Free-Will. Sanctitudo, Lat. Uprightness: Se­verus, Lat. strict, exact.

V. 294. In true Filial Freedom plac'd; Consisting in that Frank and ready Obedience that Sons pay to their Fathers, in which is founded all the Authority of Mankind, as being the re­sult of Obedience from Children due to Parents, grounded on Paternal Authority, in respect of Prudence, Truth and Sanctitude.

V. 298. And sweet Attractive Grace; And sweet alluring Charms, from her pleasing and winning Behaviour. Attractive, alluring, winning, of the Lat. Attrahere, to draw to, to en­tice.

V. 299. He for God only, she for God in him; This Asseveration of our Author seems main­tainable from St. Paul's Doctrine, The Head of every Man is Christ, and the Head of the Woman is the Man, and the Head of Christ is God, 1 Cor. 11. Vers. 3. and at Vers. 7. Man is the Image [Page 145] and Glory of God: But the Woman is the Glory of the Man. And Vers. 9. Neither is the Man created for the Woman, but the Woman for the Man. The manifest import of all which is, that Man is the Glorious and Majestick Image of his Maker, his Vicegerent on Earth, exercising Rule and Dominion over the Creation: And that Woman is the Glory of the Man; that is, for his Glory, Satisfaction and Delight, out of him made his Companion, and as it were his Image, according to our Poets Explanation, Book 8. Vers. 540.

For well I understand in the Prime End
Of Nature her th' Inferiour, in the Mind
And inward Faculties, which most excel;
In outward also her resembling less
His Image who made both, and less expressing
The Character of the Dominion given
O'er other Creatures.

V. 301. Hyacinthin Locks; His dark brown Hair hung parted from his Forehead, curling round, Manly and Majestick. Thus Homer describes Ulysses, aided by Minerva to render him more Charming.

[...]
[...].

He had curled Hair, for Colour like a Hyacinth Flower; that Hyacinthin ought to be un­derstood of black, or very dark-coloured Hair, will be manifest from the Colour and Descri­ption of this Flower. Hyacinthus est genus Violae vernae, colore obscurae purpurae, quam Romani vac­cinium vocant, Fulg. Lib. 3. So Theocritus,

[...]
[...].

Which Virgil imitating,

Alba ligustra cadunt, vaccinia nigra leguntur. Ecl. 2.
Et Suave-rubens Hyacinthus. Ecl. 3.
Ferrugineos Hyacinthos. Geo. 4.

From whence we are informed, that the Poets attributed to this Flower, Black, Red, and a Colour of these mixt, that of rusty Iron: But the most Judicious interpret Ferrugineus to be that Colour, which polish'd Iron, when grown cold, after having been red hot, represents, which is a sort of Violet, not well suiting with good colour'd Hair. It is very observable, that such Epithets as this are not to be taken in too strict a sense; for Gold being the most ex­cellent among Metals, Purple among Colours, the Rose, and anciently the Hyacinth, among Flowers; hence Venus Aurea, AEn. 10. Rosea cervix. & lumenque juventae Purpureum, AEn. 1. and this Hyacinthin Hair. Of Apollo's beloved Boy turned into this Flower, read Meta. 10. ‘Te quoque Amyclide, posuisset in aethere Phoebus.’

V. 303. Clustring; Curling in Rings, curl'd round in Clusters like the Vines swelling Bunch. Cluster, of the Sax. Clurster, a Bunch of Grapes.

V. 304. She as a Vail, &c. She wore her Yellow Locks, loose and free from all Ornaments, hanging down to her small slender Waste, like Natures Vail, but circled into wanton little Rings, like the Vines tender Curls, which betoken soft Subjection, or Submission rather, to her Husbands sway. Vail, Fr. Voile, of the Lat. Velum.

V. 305. Golden Tresses; Golden Yellow Locks, in ancient times of great esteem.

Aurea Caesaries Ollis. AEn. 8.
—Nudo citi vertice fulva
Caesaries. AEn. 11.

[...], Auricomus, Golden Locks, is a Commendation as old as Hesiod, in his [...]. Tresses, of the Fr. Tresse de Cheveux, a Lock of Hair.

V. 306. Dishevel'd Hair; Dischevele, Fr. loose, hanging down at length.

V. 307. As the Vine curls her Tendrils; As the Vine twists her tender Rings. Tendrils are those little curling Shoots that catch hold of the Branches of a Vine, or any thing set to sup­port it; so called à tendendo, from its creeping forward by that means; others say, à tenendo.

V. 308. Which imply'd Subjection: St. Paul tells us, That even Nature it self teacheth, that for Men to wear long Hair is a shame; that is, a disgrace, and sign of a soft and effeminate temper: But if a Woman have long Hair, it is a Glory to her; for her Hair is given her for a Vail, 1 Cor. 11. Vers. 14, 15. [...], pro velamine. The Romans, and most other Nati­ons; [Page 146] seem to have learn'd the Custom of Vailing Women, especially at their Marriages, from this dictate of Nature, and the word nubere always applyed to Women, was taken à nubendo, from Vailing them, when Married and put into their Husbands Power; whence the witty Martial says, Uxori nubere nolo meae. Now this Natural Vail of Womankind, is by the Apostle in the Chapter above-cited, used as an Argument and Indication of their Subjection, but as our Poet sweetens it, to be required with gentle sway, on soft and easie terms, to be grounded on Reason, on just and fit, and supported and maintained by all imaginable Tenderness, and soft Endear­ments.

V. 310. Yielded with Coy Submission, &c.

Yielded with shy surrender, meek disdain,
And faint refusal, endearing loves delays.

Modest Pride, seems to imply, that just Value and modest Self-esteem, that the Fair Sex ought to regard; that Conscience of their Worth, which if well managed, sets off the soft Sub­mission of a kind Companion, and differences it from the dull forc'd Obedience of a Slave. This pretty mixture of Modesty and Pride, is the Safeguard of the Sex, not too stiff and in­compliant, yet inflexible, and disdaining to descend to any Indecency or Indiscretion; a little Pride being a necessary Ingredient to preserve both Body and Mind in their Native Cleanliness and Purity.

Coy; Shy, or Schewen, Bel. to shun, to avoid. Reluctant, of Reluctans, Lat. struggling; of Reluctari, Lat. to strive.

V. 312. Nor those Mysterious Parts, &c. Those Privy Parts then were not hid. All the Se­crets of Heathen Religion and Philosophy were carefully concealed from the Vulgar, and therefore called [...], Mysteries, not exposed to common and profane Eyes, but by con­stant Concealment made more Awful and Majestick. Our Author has well applyed it to those Parts, which all Civilized Nations are justly concerned to conceal. Concealed, of con and celare, Lat. to hide.

V. 313. Guilty—Dishonest Shame; Unseemly Shame, the Off-spring of Guilt and Sin: Dif­honest, ugly, disgraceful, of dis, the Privative Particle, and honestus, Lat. comely. Shame, of the Gr. [...], because discoverable in the Face, disordered by the guilty Blush.

V. 314. Honour dishonourable; Nihil Naturale turpe, is an Axiom most true, That none of the Works and Acts of Nature are disgraceful; yet Sinful Mankind have introduced among them Dishonest Shame, and a Dishonourable sort of Honour, the meer Shews and Pretences of Pu­rity, which in their first state of Simplicity and Innocence, were Strangers to the World, when Man, absolute Master of himself, of all his Thoughts and Passions, that obey'd the Sovereignty of Reason, dreaded no Indecency, though naked, because innocent; still visible in Children, that play naked without the Crimson Coverture of a Blush, till they attain the sense of Guilty Shame.

V. 323. Adam the goodliest Man of Men, &c. That the Protoplast, the first Man, came most com­pleat out of the Hand of his Creator, perfect in all the Powers and Faculties both of Body and Soul: That his Consort and Derivative Eve was also accomplish'd in like manner, in the full Bloom of Beauty, and all the Charming Ornaments of which her Sex was capable, is beyond all question: That they were of Growth fit for Propagation, and of Understanding capable of GOD's Commands, is evident from the Benediction bestowed on 'em, Gen. 1. Vers. 28. and the Injunction Gen. 2. Vers. 17. which gave rise to that Opinion of the Fathers, that Adam was created of the Size that his Sons might arrive at about Fifty Years old, (Childhood and Youth inlarging and lessening in the times of different Longaevity;) and therefore doubtless they did not only excel all their Descendents, as the first Originals of Mankind, but as the most ex­act Image of their Maker, while they continued in glorious Innocence, which in their sinful Posterity is so defaced, that the most accomplish'd of either Sex, is but a dull dry Copy of those Master-Pieces of the Almighty.

There is in these two Verses something so plain, and yet so full and so close couched, that it is hard to be exprest so fully, and yet so concisely.

Omnes stirpe suâ genitos, superavit Adamus
Frontis honore sui; & nivei dulcedine vultûs,
Omnes stirpe suâ genitas, superaverat Eva. Hog.
—Adamus
Ante homines, à se genitos, pulcherrimus unus,
Inter formosas Eva formosissima natas.

Both short of the Beauty, as well as Brevity of the Original.

V. 325. Under a Tuft of Shade; Under a shady Grove, that on a Green allowed the wanton Winds a whispering place, &c. Tuft, of the Fr. Touffe de bois, a little Grove, Trees growing thick about a Country Seat.

[Page 147] V. 329. To recommend cool Zephyr; To make the soft West-Wind more pleasing. Zephyr, [...], as if [...], the reviving Wind that awakens the Spring, in Lat. Favonius:

Genitalis Mundi Spiritus à fovendo dictus. Plin. Lib. 16. 25. The Favourite of the Poets, the Inhabitant of Alcinous his Garden celebrated by Homer.

[...]
[...].
Sive sub incertas Zephyris motantibus umbras. Virg. Ecl. 5.

V. 330. Appetite more grateful; Hunger more pleasant in being satisfied: Hunger the best Sawce, tho' seldom served to the best furnish'd Tables. Appetite, Appetitus, Lat. of Appetere, to desire, to crave.

V. 332. Nectarine Fruits, &c. Delicious Fruits, which the o'er-loaded bending Boughs, reach'd down to them, as leaning, sidelong they sate, on the soft yielding Bank, bestrew'd with Flowers. Ne­ctarine, of Nectareus, Lat. [...], sweet like Nectar, better suiting the delicious Fruits of Paradise than Helens perfumed Petticoat in Homer: [...].’

Compliant, willing, yielding, of the Verb to comply, that is, to yield, to agree to.

V. 333. Sate recline; Sate leaning, as the manner of the Ancients was, whence accumbere, Lat. to dine. Recline, Reclinus, Lat. leaning, lying down on. Defigunt tellure hastās & Scuta reclinant. AEn. 12.’

V. 334. Damask'd with Flowers; Cover'd all o'er with Flowers. Damask'd, of Damassé, Fr. to be wrought in Flowers, like Silk, or Linnen, first so made at Damascus, a Syrian City of great Fame, now call'd Damas.

V. 335. The savoury Pulp they chew; They eat the soft Juicy inside of the Fruit. Savoury, pleasant to the taste, of savour, sapor, Lat. taste. Pulp, of Pulpa, Lat. the Pith or inside of any thing that is soft, as Pulpa Cassiae, Jun.

V. 336. Scoop the Brimming Stream; And in the hollow Rind lave and take up the Brimful Stream, an expedient more seemly than that of Diogenes Drinking out of his Hand.

V. 338. Nor Youthful Dalliance, &c. Nor Sportiveness and Youthful Pleasure, such as becomes Young Persons joyn'd in Matrimonial State, when by themselves alone. Dalliance, Pleasure, of the Verb to Dally, to play, to divert one, derived by some, of [...], Gr. to flourish, Youth be­ing the fittest time for Dalliance; others of Delay, to while, and pass the time away, alluding to the Fr. Phrase, Passer son envie. Nuptial League, Marriage, the Covenant enter'd into by the Married Couple. Nuptialis, Lat. of Nuptiae, Lat. a Wedding.

V. 340. Frisking play'd; Danced and play'd about 'em, endeavouring to divert their Lords. Frisque, Fr. brisk, lively, nimble.

V. 341. Of all Chase; Of all sorts of Game, such as are hunted since either for Sport or Prey, of Chasser, Fr. to hunt, to pursue.

V. 343. Sporting the Lyon Ramp'd; The Lyon ramping, sported and play'd standing upright. A Lyon Rampant is by the Heralds drawn standing on his hinder Legs, and pawing with the other two, although it be derivable of the Fr. Remper, to creep.

V. 344. Dandl'd the Kid; Play'd with, and danc'd the Kid, of the Ger. Danten, or the Fr. Dandiner, to play with, as Nurses do with Children. 'Tis the general Opinion, and highly probable, that before Adam violated the Command of his Maker, there was an Universal Peace, even among the fiercest Beasts, throughout the whole Creation; but Sin being the Pa­rent of Death, disturbed that happy Concord and Harmony of Nature, and in order to De­struction, introduced Violence and Slaughter first among the Brutes and Irrational Beings, and early too among the Sons of Adam. Ifaiah describing the Peaceful Kingdom of the Messiah, expresses it by the same Similitudes: The Wolf also shall dwell with the Lamb, and the Leopard shall lie down with the Kid, and the Calf, and the young Lyon, and the Fatling together, and a lit­tle Child shall lead them, &c. Chap. 11. Vers. 6, and 7. and Chap. 65. Vers. 25. The Metrick Similies are much the same:

[...]
[...]. Theo. Idul. 31.
Nec Lupus insidias pecori, nec retia cervis
Ulla dolum meditantur, as render'd by Virg. Ecl. 5.

Ibid. Tygers; A Tyger is a swift and very fierce Beast; Tigris is an Armenian word for swift, signifying this Beast, an Arrow, and the Famous River of that Name, all from their swiftness and impetuosity. Hence Virgil, Armenias curru subjungere Tigres, Ecl. 5.

[Page 148] Claudian describes the manner of taking this furious Creature;

Arduus Hyrcanâ quatitur sic Matre Niphates,
Cujus Achaemenio Regi ludibria natos
Avexit tremebundus eques, fremit illa Marito
Mobilior Zephyro, totamque vìrentibus iram
Dispergit Maculis, jam jamque hausur a profundo
Ore virum, vitreae tardatur imagine formae. De Rup. Pros. Lib. 3.

Ibid. Ounces; An Ounce is a Beast engendred between a Wolf and a Stag, therefore è lupo­rum cervariorum genere, éxceeding quick of sight, his Skin speckled and spotted with various Colours. Ounce, of the Span. Lonza, the Corruption of the Ablat. Lynce, of Lynx, and this of the Gr. [...], or [...]. Quid Lynces, Bacchi variae, & genus acre Luporum? Georg. 3.’

Ibid. Pards; Pardi, Lat. the Masse Panthers, or Leopards, covered with Skins curiously spotted. Pardus is a Derivative of [...], from the ill savour issuing from the Beast, or as others of [...], Gr. to destroy, from its Fierceness and Cruelty.

V. 345. Gambold, &c. Play'd all their tumbling Tricks before 'em. To Gambol, is of the Fr. Gambader, to shew Tricks, and Gambadeur, Fr. for a Tumbler, of Jambe, Fr. the Leg.

V. 347. Wreathed his lithe Proboscis, the huge o'ergrown Elephant twisted his Limber Snout to please and divert 'em. Unweildy, overgrown, not able to bear his Bulk, of the Particle un Privative, and the Sax. Wildan, to Govern, or Manage. Elephant, of [...], Gr. for the Bulky Beast so called, frequent in India, and famous in many Battels, with their Castles of Armed Men on their Backs. Wreathed, turn'd round, twisted, of the Sax. Wrydan, to twist, whence Wreathe, a Garland.

Lithe Proboscis, his Limber Trunk. Lithe, of the Sax. Lid, gentle, pliable, soft. Proboscis, [...], Gr. the Elephants Trunk, so pliant and useful to him, that Cicero styles it Elephan­ [...]orum Manum, common to this Creature with others much his Inferiours, Flies and Fleas. 'Tis derived of [...], Gr. to feed.

V. 348. The Serpent sly insinuating; The cunning Serpent wrapping himself up close together, with many intricate and subtile Turnings, twisted his braided Tail. Insinuating, insinuans sese, Lat. wrapping, or rolling up, and as it were embosoming himself: Sinuosus and Sinuare, are words often used by Virgil, to express the winding Motions of this wily Animal.

Sinuatque immensa volumine terga. AEn. 2.
Saucius at Serpens sinuosa volumina versat. AEn. 11.

Ibid. With Gordian Twine; With many intricate Turnings, twisted and involved like the Famous Gordlan Knot, hung up in Apollo's Temple, by Gordius King of Phrygia, but formerly a Hus­bandman, who coming first on a fatal Day into the Temple, was by the Oracle declared King of that Country, and in memory of his Preferment, hung up the Ropes that formerly fasten'd his Team to the Plough, pleated in so strange a manner, that the Sovereignty of those Coun­tries (some say of the World) was predicted to any one that could untie the intricate and per­plext Knot, whence the Proverb, Nodus Gordianus, for an inextricable Difficulty; and Horace, Dignus vindice Nodus. Art. Poet.’

Alexander the Great cut it in pieces with his Sword, resolving to frustrate, if he could not fulfil the Prophesie. Twine, of the Belg. Tweyn, Thread, of Tweynen, to twist, a Twine Thread.

V. 349. His Breaded Train; His Platted Tail. Breaded, or Braided, is of Bryden, Bel to Weave. Train, of the Fr. Traisner, to draw after, à Trahendo, Lat.

V. 351. Couch'd or ruminating; Laid on the Grass. Couchez, Fr. of Coucher, to lie down, or chewing of the Cud before they go to rest. Ruminare, Lat. to chew the Cud as many Beasts do, hence Hostiae Ruminales, Plin. Sacrifices of such Creatures, this Ruminating being one of the Characteristicks of their Cleanness, Levit. 11.

V. 354. To th'Occan Isles; To the Islands sprinkled o'er the Western Ocean. [...], of [...]. For now the Setting-Sun, making more speed down-Hill, towards the Sea, drew near declining, and on the other side of Heaven, the Stars that wait upon the Evening rose. Declin'd, of Declinare, Lat. to grow low, was drawing lower near the Western part of the Horizon. That the Sun set in, and arose out of the Sea, was at least the Poetick Opinion of the Ancients.

[...].
[...].
[...].

[Page 149]
—Cum Sol
Praecipitem Oceani rubro lavit aequore currum. Geo. 3.
Quid tantum Oceano properent se tingere Soles
Hyberni. Geo. 2.
Cùm primùm alto se gurgite tollunt
Solis equi. AEn. 12.
—Lux tardè discedere visa
Praecipitatur aquis & aquis nox surgit ab isdem. Meta. 4.

So our Author, The Sun at Even sups with the Ocean. Book 5. Vers. 425.’

Ibid. And in th' ascending Scale; And on the rising side of Heaven: The ascending, of as­cendere, Lat. to climb, to get up, the side on which the Sun climbs to his Noon-tyde heighth.

At the Vernal and Autumnal Equinoxes, the Days and Nights being of equal length, seem to be weighed in AEquilibrio, and to stand in even Balance: But at other times, the measure of 'em (caused by the inequality of the Suns Compass and Career) being different, at his setting, that is, going down into the lower Hemisphere, the Evening-Stars, fore-runners of the Night, rise and appear earlier or later in the other half of Heaven, as that bright Being, turns the Scales of Day and Night.

V. 355. That usher Evening is That go before, that precede the Evening, one extreamly bright, being thence named the Evening-Star. To usher, is to wait on, to introduce. Usher, Huissier, Fr. of Huis, Fr. a Gate, a Door, where he stood to do his Office.

V. 360. Earth-born perhaps; And the Lord God formed Man of the Dust of the Ground, Gen. 2. 7. That Mankind was created to repair the Ruine of the Rebellious Angels, and to repeople the Heavenly Palaces, depopulated by many Millions of the Coelestial Tribes, (the ancient Inhabi­tants of those blest Abodes) was the Opinion of Rupertus. But Pererius and others conceive, that this World, and Man the heighth of the Terrestrial Creation, had in the Almighties ap­pointed time, been made, although the whole Angelick Nature had stood firm and obedient in their holy state; which our Poet has intimated in Book 1. Vers. 651.

New Worlds—
—Whereof so rife,
There went a Fame in Heav'n, that he ere long
Intended to create, and therein plant
A Generation, whom his choice regard
Should favour equal to the Sons of Heav'n.

Now there being three distinct Degrees of Nature, the first and highest, of Angelick and In­corporeal Beings; the last and lowest, of Corporeal Substances, Plants and Animals; it seems reasonable, that a third was always intended, participating of both, Man the Mixture and Mean of these two Extreams, a Being both Corporeal and Incorporeal, not made as a Supple­ment, but rather as the Completion and Commander of the Creation under him, Gen. 1. Vers. 28.

V. 389. Melt; Men are said to Melt into Compassion, Metaphorically from the dissolving into Tenderness and Pity, as Metals are melted down by Fire. Melt, of the Ger. Smelten, or perhaps of the Gr. [...], Liquefacere.

V. 390. Honour and Empire, &c. Revenge, Glory, Empire, Honour, and such like Rea­sons of State, are Arguments better becoming this Grand Destroyer, the Arch-Enemy of all Mankind, than any Earthly and Vain-glorious Monarch.

V. 395. On that high Tree; The Tree of Life, where our Poet pearch'd him, at V. 195.

V. 402. He stalks with fierie Glare; Now like a Lyon with sparkling Eyes, Majestickly he walks about 'em. Glare, and to Glare, is of the Fr. Esclairer, to sparkle, to glitter as the Eyes of Ly­ons, Tygers, Cats, and other fierie, furious Beasts do. To stalk, is properly to move gravely, step by step, resembling the Gr. [...], to walk-in order.

V. 406. Changes his couchant Watch; Shifts his Place, alters his wary Watch. Couchant, lying close, of coucher, Fr. to lie down. Satan is well compared to a furious ravenous Tyger: Se­neca the Tragedian useth it in the same words almost in Latin;

Jejuna Sylvis qualis in Gangeticis
Inter Juvencos Tygris erravit duos
Utriusque praedae Cupida, quo primos ferat
Incerta Morsus, flectit huc rictus suos,
Illo reflectit, & famem dubiam tenet. Sen. Thyestes.

V. 408. Grip'd in each Paw; Seized in his Claws: Grip'd, of the Fr. Gripper, to snatch, to lay violent hold on; or of Griffe, Fr. a Claw, an Eagles Tallon. It has a Similitude of sound with the Gr. [...], to catch. Paw, of the Fr. Patte, a Claw, the Foot of a Bird or Beast; originally of Pes, Lat, the Foot, or perhaps of [...], Gr. from its distinction into several parts.

[Page 150] V. 419. Aught; Any thing, generally Ought, of the Sax. Uht.

V. 433. One easie Prohibition; This one easie Injunction; easie, because but one: Prohibitio, Lat. a Forbiddance, of prohibere, Lat. to forbid, to command to the contrary.

V. 438. To prune; To cut, to lop off the superfluous Branches, of the Fr. Provin, the Lux­uriant Shoot of a Vine.

V. 447. Prae-eminent by so much Odds; More excellent by divers degrees; raised above me by so many degrees. Praeeminens, Lat. raised, high, excellent, of praeeminere, Lat. to excel. Consort, Companion, of the Lat. Consors, of the same Size and Condition; hence, a Wife, and especially that of a King, called Queen Consort, attaining that Title by her Marriage with a So­veraign Prince.

V. 450. When from Sleep I first awak'd; The entrance on Life, may well be resembled to waking when our Exit Death, is so fitly and frequently compared to Sleep. Our Author, in this Place and its Parallel, Book 8. Vers. 250. where Adam relates the first Thoughts and Sen­timents he had of himself, and that Great Being that gave him, his; has litt upon something so new and strange, that as it cannot square with any Persons but those of our two first Proge­nitors, so it is exactly suitable to them, created certainly at full growth, perfect in Body, Mind and Memory. Otherwise what he says in his Introduction,

For Man to tell how Human Life began,
Is hard; For who himself beginning knew? Book 8. Vers. 250.

It had not only been hard, but impossible for any other Man, to have given a Relation of his Be­ginning.

Ibid. Repos'd, &c. Laid under a Flow'ry Shade: Repos'd, repositus, Lat. of the Verb reponere, used by the wary Virgil in the same sense;

—Collapsaque Membra
Marmoreo referunt Thalamo, stratisque reponunt. AEn. 4.

V. 455. Into a Liquid Plain; Into a smooth moist Plain, of the Lat. Planus, smooth, even, whence Planities.

V. 456. Pure as th' Expanse of Heav'n; Clear at the out-spread Skie. Expansum, Lat. the Fir­mament, answering to the Hebr. [...], the vast and out-streach'd Firmament, Gen. 1. Vers. 6. of [...], Expandere, to stretch, or spread out.

V. 459. Into the clear smooth Lake; This Natural Looking-Glass, Virgil and Ovid, as well as our Author, borrowed of Theocritus. [...]. Id. 7.’

—Nuper me in littore vidi
Cum placidum ventis staret mare. Virg. Ecl. 2.
Certè ego me novi, liquidaeque in imagine vidi
Nuper aquae. As Ovid translates it.

V. 461. Within the Watry Gleam; Within the Shining Surface of the Water. Gleam, of the Sax. Leoma, Light, and Leoman, to shine, both of Lumen, Lat. Light, warm Gleams, the hot Shinings out of the Sun after Showers. Milton has improved the Fable of Ovid, by represent­ing Eve like a She Narcissus admiring her self; and has made it much more probable, that a Person who had never seen any thing like her self, should be in love with her own faint re­flected Resemblance, than that a Man acquainted with the World and himself, should be un­done by so dull a Dotage.

Se Cupit imprudens, & quae probat, ipsa probatur,
Dumque petit, petitur, pariterque accendit & ardet. Meta. 3.

V. 465. Of Sympathy and Love; With Looks betokening Love and mutual Affection. Sym­pathy, [...], Gr. Compassion, of [...] and [...], to suffer together, to be alike affected.

Quod petis, est nusquam: Quod amas, avertere perdes.
Cupit ipse teneri
Nam quoties liquidis porreximus oscula Lymphis
Hic toties ad me resupino nititur ore. Meta. Lib. 1.

V. 469. With thee it came and goes.

Ista repercussae, quam cernis, imaginis umbra est.
Nil habet ista sui, tecum venitque manetque,
Tecum discedat; si tu discedere possis. Meta. Lib. 3.

[Page 151] V. 478. Under a Platan; [...], the Plane-Tree, so named from the breadth of its Leaves. [...]. Gr. broad, a Tree useful and delightful for its extraordinary Shade. Jamque Ministrantem Platanum potentibus umbram. Geor. 4.’

V. 485. Nearest my Heart, substantial Life, to give thee Being, I l [...]nt one of my Ribs nearest my Heart, whereof thou wast made a living Creature. Nearest my Heart, as being made of one of his Ribs, whose enclosure surrounds it, Gen. 2. Vers. 22. Substantialis, Lat. belonging to substance, firm, solid, assured.

V. 486. An Individual Solace; An Inseparable Companion and Comfort, made of a part taken out of Adam's Side, as intended for his Associate, not his Servant. Individual, Indivi­duus, Lat. inseparable. Solace, Solatium, Lat. Comfort.

V. 491. Wisdom; The Character of our Saviour himself: And the Child grew, and waxed strong in Spirit, filled with Wisdom. And JESUS increased in Wisdom and Stature, and in Favour with God and Man, Luk. 2. Vers. 40, and 52.

V. 492. Of Conjugal Attraction; So said our Universal Mother, and with Eyes blameless, though full of Matrimonial Love, and Charming Sweetness, with soft Submission mixt, &c. Conjugal, Con­jugalis, Lat. belonging to Marriage. Attraction, Attractio, Lat. a drawing to, allurement. Meek surrender, gentle yielding, meekly giving up her Person to his disposal, of the old Fr. surrendre, to yield.

V. 500. As Jupiter on Juno smiles, &c. As the Air smiles upon the Earth, when it makes the Clouds fruitful in seasonable Showres and pretious Dews, which produce May's perfumed Flowery Off­spring. By Jupiter and Juno the Poets represent the Air and Earth, and though of Kin before, as Et Soror & Conjux, yet Marry 'em together. So Virg.

Tum Pater Omnipotens foecundis imbril us aether
Conjugis in Gremium laetae descendit, & omnes
Magnus alit, magno Commistus corpore, foetus. Geor. 2.

Impregns; Makes fruitful, of Impregnare, Lat. to get with Young.

V. 501. Her Matron Lip; His Wives Lip: Her Married Lips. Matron, of the Lat. Ma­trona à Matre, or Quasi Mater nati; for Women as soon as Married were esteemed Matrons; as being obliged to a way of living more reserv'd and modest. Si Matrem familias secus quam Matronarum dignitas postulat, nominamus. Cicer. pro Coelio.

V. 504. With Jealous Leer Malign Ey'd them askane; With Envious and Malicious Look, Eyed 'em askew. Jealous, of the Fr. Jaloux. Leer, of the Verb To Leer, to look slyly out of the corners of the Eyes, of the Teut. Lauren, to observe, so, as not to be seen to do it. Askance, Askew, side-ways, of skaunt, Fr. Canton, a Corner. Thus plain'd, thus complained, of the Fr. plaindre, to bemoan one self.

V. 506. Imparadis'd; Enjoying a new, another Paradise in each others Lovely Embraces. Im­paradis'd, plac'd in a state of extraordinary Happiness; a word coin'd by our Author, from that superlatively happy place so named.

V. 519. And do they only stand by Ignorance? By Ignorance, Satan would here insinuate, such a want of Knowledge, as was necessary to secure their happy and harmless Condition: Under so gross a want of Understanding our first most perfect Patterns were not created; all the happy Ignorance they were in, was only want of knowing Ill, by the Commission of it, at once innocent and secure.

V. 522. Hence I will excite; Here is a fair occasion offer'd me, to move in their Minds an itching and inordinate desire of dangerous and daring Knowledge. Excite, of the Lat. excitare, to raise, to stir up.

V. 523. To reject Envious Commands; To despise and contemn the Command of their Ma­ker, who seems to grudge, and therefore to forbid 'em all Knowledge that might raise 'em above their low terrene Estate. To reject, of the Lat. rejicere, to throw away, to refuse.

V. 537. With sly Circumspection; with heedful Wariness, with cunning Caution: Sly, of the Sax. Slidan, to slip, or be slippery. Circumspection, Circumspectio, Lat. heedfulness, of Cir­cumspicere, Lat. to look well about one.

V. 338. Through waste; Through every by-place. Waste, of the Get. Wust, desolate, or of the Lat. Vastus and Vastare.

V. 539. Mean while in utmost Longitude; In the mean while, that Satan was thus prowling up and down, the Sun, at utmost distance, where the Heav'n with Earth and Sea seemingly joyn, was by Degrees drawing tow'rds his setting place. Where Heav'n with Earth and Ocean meet; an exact Description of the Horizon of Paradise, where the Sky, and Earth, and Ocean, (if in view) seemed at the utmost endeavour of his Eyes to joyn and meet each other. Descended, went down to the lower World beneath, of descendere, Lat. to go down. Longitudo, Lat. length, distance.

V. 541. And with right Aspect; With his Face directly against; With full Face. Right, of Rectus, Lat. right against. Aspectus, Lat. the Countenance.

[Page 152] V. 543. Levell'd his Evening Rays; Shot directly his Evening Beams. Levell'd, of the Fr. Livel and Liveller, to lay even.

V. 544. It was a Rock of Alabaster; It was a white shining Marble Rock, heaped up among the Clouds, and visible far off, approachable from below but by one winding away, on whose Top the lofty Entrance was placed; on all sides else 'twas ragged Rock and broken Cliffs, that as they rose above, so overhung each other, and render'd it impossible to be ascended any other way. Alabaster, [...], a kind of White Marble described by Diosc. Lib. 5.

V. 545. With one ascent accessible; To be mounted only one way. Ascensus, Lat. a going up. Accessible, Accessus, Lat. that may be come to. Cliff, of the word to Cleave, Clift or Cliff, being a ragged, broken Rock.

V. 549. Gabriel; One of the Arch-Angels sent to shew Daniel the Vision of the Four Mo­narchies and the Seventy Weeks, Dan. Chap. 4. and 9. and to the Virgin Mary to reveal the Incarnation of our Saviour, Luk. 1. Vers. 26. I am Gabriel that stand in the Presence of God: His Name [...], in the Heb. sounds, the Man of God, or the Strength and Power of God, well by our Author posted as chief of the Angelick Guards placed about Paradise.

V. 551. Exercised Heroick Games; Exercised themselves in Noble Sports and Pastimes, an Allusion to the four celebrated Games of Greece, th'Olympick, Pythian, Isthmian and Nemaean. Heroick, [...], Gr. such as Hero's and greater Persons use.

V. 554. Helms with Diamond Flaming and with Gold; Flaming Helms, the Lustre and Brightness of Polish'd Shields and Helms, is by most of the Poets linken'd to Fire.

[...]
[...],
Of Diomedes's Armour. [...].

So the shining Shield of Achilles is described:

[...]
[...],
[...].
Ardet apex capiti, cristisque à vertice flamma
Funditur, & vastos umbo vomit aureus ignes. AEn. 10.
Clypeum tum deinde sinistra
Extulit ardentem. AEn. 10.
AEgidaque Horrificam, turbatae Palladis, arma,
Certatim squamis serpentum, auroque polibant. AEn. 8.

V. 555. Gliding through the Even; Swiftly passing about Evening-Tide. Gliding, of the Verb to Glide, of the Fr. Glisser, to slip and slide swiftly away as silent Rivers do.

V. 556. Swift as a shooting Star, &c. Swift like a darting Star, that in the Autumn crosses the Night, when Fat and Oily Vapours taking Fire, with their Activity, hurry the Air into Violence, and by their shining Path direct the Seaman, from what Quarter of the Heavens to beware of stor­my, boisterous Winds. So Virgil,

Saepe etiam Stellas, vento impendente, videbis
Praecipites Coelo labi: Noctisque per umbram
Flammarum longos à tergo albescere tractus. Georg. 1.

That the Stars do not shoot, or fall from their Spheres, according to vulgar Opinion, is the Tenent of Philosophy: But that their shooting is the Redundancy of their Nutritive Liquor, which sometimes blurts from them as Oyl from Lighted Lamps. Plin. Lib. 1. Cap. 8. Servius thought those descending Traces of Light, were Particles of the AEtherial Fire blown and fore'd down by softy and vehement Winds. But according to Aristotle they were esteem'd Fat and Oyly Exhalations, drawn up from the Earth into the middle Region of the Air, and there by the extraordinary Cold so compress'd and condens'd, that they took Fire by his un­intelligible Antiperistasis; or by their own violent Circumgyration.

—Longoque per aëra tractu
Fertur; ut interdum de Coelo Stella sereno,
Ersi non cecidit, potuit cecidisse videri. Meta. 2.

Well might the bright Angel Uriel, Regent of the Sun, and mounted on a Sun-Beam, be compared to a Sho [...]ting Star, when Homer likens Achilles in his Brazen Armour to the same Il­lustrious Meteor.

[Page 153]
[...],
[...]
[...].
[...],
[...].
[...].

The same Comparison is applyed to the Armed Diomede, and the Fiery Reflection shot from his Shining Shield, and Flaming Helmet.

[...]
[...].

But the most Parallel place, at which our Authors imitation seems to have aim'd, and to have outdone, is the Description of Minerva's Descent from Heaven into the Trojan Camp.

[...],
[...]
[...]
[...].

V. 557. In Autumn thwarts the Night; Comes across the Night, thwarts and affronts the dis­mal darkness of the Night. In Autumn, Lat. Autumnus, when the Heats are great. —Totoque Autumni incanduit aestu. Geor. 3.’

V. 558. When Vapours fired impress the Air; Here we have the Philosophy of these shooting Stars, that they are Unctuous Exhalations, which being fired, a [...]ault the Air, and move it violently. Impress, of imprimere, Lat. to use force upon, to make impression on, and in this sense Impressio, signifies an Assault, an Onset given by engaging Armies.

Ibid. Shews the Mariner; Marinier, Fr. the Sailer, the Seaman, of Marinus and Ma [...]e, Lat. the Sea.

V. 559. From what Point of his Compass; From what part of the Sky, from what Quarter of the Heav'n: The Compass here meant is a Circle set round with the 32 different Points from which the Winds have their Denominations.

V. 561. Thy Course by Lot; Gabriel is supposed to have the Guard of Paradise fallen to him by Lot. Thus the Promised Land was divided to the Israeli [...]es; Notwithstanding the L [...]na shall be divided by Lot, Numb. 26. Vers. 55. Every Man's Inheritance shall be where is Lot falleth, Chap. 33. Vers. 54. In the same manner Matthias was chosen and numbred with the Apostles, And they gave forth their Lots, and the Lot fell upon Ma [...]thias, Acts 1. Vers. 26.

V. 567. Gods latest Image; The newest, the last Image God was pleased to make of Him­self: For it is not to be doubted, that if Man in part of a Corporeal Substance, yet bears his Maker's Image; the Angels, those much more Pure and Spiritual Beings, are more exact Re­semblances of that Eternal Purity and Perfection that Created them, as being more perfect Ap­proximations to their Maker.

V. 568. And mark'd his AEry Gate; Observ'd his speedy March, or his passage through the Air, or his giddy and indecent Carriage, not well suiting a Spirit seemingly so zealous. AEry, AErius, Lat. of the Air, the Epither of Birds that mount into it. —AEriae quò congessere palumbes. Ecl. 3.’

Gate; Walk, Passage, March, of the Sax. Gan, to go.

V. 569. That lies from Eden North; That lies on the North-side of Eden, the Mountain Ni­phates on which Satan alight, Book 3. Vers. 742. where his Hellish Conscience and Devilish Despair disfigured him, and discovered his seeming Saintship, Vers. 23. of this Book 4.

V. 571. Alien from Heav'n, &c. I soon beheld his Countenance, contrary to that of Heaven­ly Spirits, clouded and overcast with dismal Storms of Passions wild and ungovernable. Alien from Heav'n, estranged from God and all Goodness, of Alienus, a Stranger; Obscur'd, darken'd, of Obscurus, Lat. hid, dark.

V. 574. Of the Banish'd Crew; One of the condemn'd Crew, thrown out of Heaven, and banish'd, of Bannir, Fr. to expel.

V. 576. The Winged Warriour; The Archangel Gabriel, according to the usual Description of Angels, adorn'd with Wings, to denote the Swiftness and Agility of Spiritual Beings, and as Satan in the assumed shape of a Cherubim is painted.

[Page 154]
—Wings he wore
Of many colour'd P [...]me sprinkled with Gold. Book 3. Vers. 641.

V. 580. The Vigilance here plac'd; The Watch here kept. Vigilance, Vigilantia, Lat. Watch­ [...]n [...]ss; Vigi [...]i [...]e Lat. the Watch.

V. 585 Spiritual Substance, &c. 'Tis hard to restrain and keep out Spirits and Immaterial [...] wi [...] Corporeal and Bodily Bars. Corp [...]real, Corporea [...]is, Lat. of C [...]pus, Lat. a Body.

V 5 [...]. In whats [...]ever s [...]ape he lurk; In what disguise [...]o [...]ver he lies hid: To lurk, is to hide ones [...]elf, to lie in wait, of the Bel. Loeren, to lie in Ambush, or the Fr. Lerre, (an old word) Larron, Fr. Latro, Lat. a Thief.

V. 592. Bene [...]th th' Azores; To the Sun now gone down below the Western Islands: The Azores are Islands of the Western Atlantick Ocean, Nine in Number, commonly called the Ter­cera's, of Tercera, the largest of 'em, Heylin's Geo. others confound 'em with the Canaries, Bo­hun's Geog. Dict.

Ibid. Whither the Prime Orb, &c. Uriel return'd on the bright Beam that brought him; whose Point now mounted and raised, carried him, fliding back to the Sun now sunk below the Western Is [...]es, to which the first Orb, swift beyond all belief, had hurried him in a Days space, or this our Earth, less likely to turn round, taking a shorter and more easie turn East­ward, left him now on her West-side, gilding and adorning with various Colours and gay Re­flections, the Clouds that wait upon his Western Throne. Prime Orb, Primus Orbis, Lat. the first, the chief Circle, the Primum Mobile.

V. 594. Diurnal, Volubil; Diurnal, Diurnus, Lat. belonging to a Day, of a Days length or continuance. Volubil, Volubilis, Lat. that may be turn'd round; à volvendo, turning or running round.

V. 598. Twilight gray, &c. Now the quiet Evening came on, and dusky Twilight with her grave Livery cover'd every thing: The Sun was described according to his high Quality, ar­raying the Clouds with reflected Gold and Royal Purple. Here the Evening is as exactly de­lineated suitable to her obscure Condition, habited in Gray, and bestowing her sad-colour'd Livery on her Attendants. Sober Livery, Grave Habit, of Sobrius, Lat. not drunk, thence grave and serious. Livery, of the Fr. Livrée, Cloaths deliver'd to Servants, by whose Colour and Ornaments they are known to whom they belong.

V. 601. To their Grassie Couch; To their Beds of Grass. Couch, of Coucher, Fr. to lie down. Slunk, of the Sax. Slincan, to creep, to steal away.

V. 603. Her Amorous Descant sung; She all Night long repeated her Love-Song. Descant, of Discantare, Lat to sing over again, to vary, in repeating a strain in Musick. Silence was pleased, such and so delightful was the Harmony, that the husht Night and Silence it self was pleased with it.

V. 604. Now G [...]ow'd the Firmament with living Saphirs; And now the Firmament seemed all on Fire with Burning Lamps, like shining Saphirs. The Firmament, the Sphere of the Fixt Stars. Living Saphirs, because shining as if they burnt, as we use the same word, a live Coal. Glow'd, of the Bel. Gloeyen, to burn.

V. 605. Hesperus that lead, &c. [...], the Evening-Star, Venus so called when she follows the Sun, [...], as [...], the Forerunner of Light when preceding him.

[...]
[...].

Hence the Evening Vesper had its Name. —Accendit Lumina Vesper. Geor. 1.’

V. 608. Apparent Queen, &c. Undoubted Sovereign of the Night display'd her matchless Light. She is said to rise in Clouded Majesty, in respect of the gross Mists and Vapours that hang about the Horizon, hiding and veiling her fair Face, till she get higher and emerge from among them. Apparent, Apparens, Lat. visible, clear, manifest: An exact and curious Descri­ption of a Moon-Light Night.

V. 609. And with her Silver Mantle; And with her Silver Robe array'd the Night.

—Nec candida cursum
Luna negat; splendet tremulo sub lumine P [...]ntus. AEn. 7.

V. 612. Mind us of like repose; Put us in mind of rest, as reasonable and suitable for us. Repose, Rest, Ease, of the Fr. Repos, of the Lat. Pausa, a stop: of [...], Gr. to cease from acting, to give over.

V. 614. As Day and Night successive; That follow and succeed one another, taking their turns, of successivus, Lat. that follows, or comes into the Place of another, of succedere.

Ibid. The timely Dew of Sleep; Seasonable Sleep is compared to a gentle refreshing Dew, [Page 155] from its stealing on us, as that descends upon the Earth, at the same time, and as imperceivably. Virgil hints at this moist Metaphor: —Fessos sopor irrigat artus. AEn.