HUGO GROTIUS, De Rebus Belgicis: OR, THE ANNALS, AND HISTORY OF THE Low-Countrey-WARRS.

Wherein is manifested, That the United Netherlands, are Indebted for the Glory of Their Conquests, to the Valour of the English; under whose Protection the Poor Distressed States, have Exalted Themselves to the Title of the HIGH and MIGHTY.

Faithfully Rendered into English, by T. M. of the Middle-Temple.

London, Printed for Henry Twyford in Vine-Court Middle-Temple; and Robert Paulet at the Bible in Chancery-Lane, 1665.

Licensed,

ROGER LESTRANGE,

TO THE Right HONOURABLE, CHARLES Viscount Fitz-Harding, AND Earl of Falmouth.

MEN, as the Philosopher saith, Most Noble Sir, are rude, barbarous, and worthy of nothing but Contempt, unless their Natures be refined by Learning and Knowledg; a main Instrument for the attaining whereof is History; which, as the Learned Livy saith, Hoc illa praecipuè agit in rerum cognitione salubre et frugiferum, omnis te exempli documenta in illu­stri posita monumento, intueri, unde Tibi tuae (que) Rei­pub: quod imites capias, unde foedum incaeptu, foedum exitu, quod vites: This I take to be meant by him in general of History; which, without offence of the more Learned, I hope may be extended to the various [Page] Discourses of particular Countries; especially such, whose near vicinity, as to Friendship or Enmity, is requisite to be known, as well in its greatness, as mean beginning: A Wise-man ought not to find fault with those things, which he sees written, because he doth not approve there­of, but rather will set a high esteem thereon, because others are experienced in those things whereof he is ignorant; wherein the Candor of your Lordships Judgment appears glorious, as using to try all things rather by the measure of unerring Truth, than the deceitful Fancy of a byassed Judgment.

The famous Author Hugo Grotius, though eminent for Learning in his Country, and by his own Repute able to bear up against the Malevolent Blusters of Envy, yet were his Posthume Works glad to crave the Protection of Superiours, by whose Approbation, they have gone through the World, meriting the highest Applause. And there­fore, I humbly hope, the unworthiness of the Translator, in his being unknown to your Honour, will not in any measure lessen the well-known Repute of the Author, whose Impartial Pen, hath with that Candor deliver'd his Countrey-mens Actions, as gives not the Credit of their Greatness, to their own Policy or Strength, but yields a deserved Lawrel to the honour of the English, whose Aid was not onely as a Hand to uphold, but a vi­vifying Medicine to a fainting Body, that recals and gives new Spirit to a formless and cadaverous Lump. I shall not trouble your Lordship with the Reasons inducing to this Translation at this time, as well-knowing it would be too great an Intrenchment upon the full Occasions, which hardly afford your Honour any time of Repose: [Page] And therefore I humbly crave your Lordships Pardon, for this bold Intrusion, beseeching your favourable Re­spect to Patronize this Translation, which I prostrate to you, as the most hopeful Stem of Rising Nobility, as being replete with all the Advantages flowing from a large and plentiful Fortune; wherewith not onely your Body is enriched, but your Mind copiously embelished, with all the Helps both of Art and Nature. Accept then hereof, and make it receive a value, if not from its own Worth, yet from your Approbation: Which that it may do, is the Desire of,

MY LORD,
Your Lordships in all service to be commanded, T. MANLEY.

To the READER.

IT is a Crime too incident to Humane Frailty to be finding fault, though they undergo the Lash of the Satyrical Poet for it, Turpe est Doctori cum culpae redarguit ipsum; And I cannot expect to be free from such Calumniators: But I hope better things from the Ingenious Readers, who, if I flatter not my self, will be inforced to acknowledge, That if I have not arrived at the highest Pitch of the Author's Fancy, yet that I have not deviated from the same.

You have here the first Rise of the Quondam Poor Distressed States; which, as the Author confesseth, was by a Revolt from their Lawful Soveraign: And the Sacred Scripture parallels Rebellion to the Sin of Witchcraft. But, Success brought in that Pagan Principle, Prosperum Scelus vocatur Virtus: And from this Step they assumed the Title of High and Mighty: Yet is it not forgot, that Babel should have reach'd to Heaven, but was destroyed.

Our Author, as he ingeniously acknowledgeth the Rise and Growth, so he often brings them forth with their Humble Suit for Aid and Assistance; and afterwards, with the Expressions of their humble and hearty Acknowledgments to Queen Elizabeth, as their main Support, in their most distressed Condi­tion: And with more Humble supplications to her, [Page] Not to leave them to the Rage of their Enemies, but to continue them under the Wings of Her Protection; unto which Protection, out of her meer Mercy and Compassion, she admitted them; Because of the Inhumane Cruelties committed upon them by the Bloody Duke D' Alva: And though They in all humility offered unto her Submission, as to their Prince, (such was their low Condition) yet, notwithstanding their Preservation by the English Nation, so often acknowledged by Them­selves; they, like the ungrateful Snake, endea­vour to destroy their Foster-Father, forgetting all their Obligations to England, and offering all the Violencies imaginable, which, with Amboyna, shall not now be particularized.

These are the Wars, which most Christian Prin­ces were concerned in: writ they have been by others; but this the onely Protestant Writer, whose Impartial Pen needs onely to be named to give in Credit.

And how season [...]ly Translated at this Juncture of Time, their own Confessions in those past, and their unjust Proceedings in the present Affairs, will sufficiently testifie.

T. M.

GROTIUS OF THE Affairs of the Netherlands. The ANNALS of Hugo Grotius, concerning the Dutch Affairs, from the Departure of King PHILIP.

The F [...]rst B [...].

I Intend to Discourse the most famous Warre of our Times, and which may no improperly be c [...]lled So­ciall, or a Warre of Confederates, while the Spaniard and Dutch, People accustomed to live under one Go­vernment, and who had as well been Victors, as Compani­ons in Arms, differ between themselves, nor wanteth Rea­son why it may not be termed a Civil War, the Parties here­in concerned under the several Title of the P [...]ince, and the Laws being Domestick: And whe [...]her we mind the Policies either of Civil or Military Government, we shall not find a [Page 2] more fertile Field of Examples, nor in any Age more fierce and tedious Conflicts, in such an unequal Quarrel: You would admire how the Seeds of this Hostility were long be­fore sown, but after they began to grow up and appear, it would even tire Curiosity to observe the great Mens Power and Craft, the desperation of the meaner sort, the new Leagues, and immediately the Home-Discords, and at last the unhappy endeavouring of Forraign Aid; whereto, in short time after, were added the frequent Assaults, takings, and re-takings of Towns and Castles, Marches and Re-Marches of Armies, till sometimes they met to Battel, Passa­ges to and fro by Sea, long Sieges, and indeed all kind of Martial Discipline, improved to the utmost, by signal Experi­ment: But these things being done in publike, whereby each Party strengthned his own Affairs, and turned all occa­sions into Force, I shall more easily accomplish, in regard I have them, as nearer, so more certain, and consequently not to be prevented, much less amended by others at a greater distance. The beginnings of this War, though very incertain, because much unknown and dark in its occasion, many fa­mous Writers have undertaken, even in the Latine Tongue, to describe: But in regard you cannot well understand those without some further Director, I thought it not amiss to de­clare at large, the first Causes of those Tumultuous Proceed­ings, which intervened there from the beginning, that at one short View, Counsels and Policies may be compa [...]ed one with the other, together with the Event produced by the same. And in truth, so great and famous have the Actions there done, been, that even Strangers have been cu [...]ious in writing thereof; and therefore we certainly should be ac­counted most ingrate to our Countre, and envious of the good of our Posterity, if we should not give them a most ex­act Relation of those things which hapned so near them; E­specially since most of our Modern Writers have too fre­quently deluded their Readers Credulity, with vain and un­certain [Page 3] Rumours, as either Party, for their own advantage, published the same; or else if any had Desire or Opportuni­ty of knowing the Truth, even such contented themselves to write onely a Diurnall; My Design is to lay open and discuss the Peoples Commotions, the Consultations of the great Ones and Governours, and whence a new Soveraignty sprang, where the first determined.

The People that [...] h [...]bit the Land within the Rhene as also on both sides thereof, to [...]he Se [...] of [...]he Morim, and the River Amasius, on this side called Germany, on the other, Old Bel­gium, their Country; but most of them are beholding to Ger­many, as well for their Language, as their Original; whence it was, that while the Romans strove to bring in their Arts and Commerce these jointly taking Care, both of their Liber­ty, and the Warre, at once, were Companions in Loss or Conquerours: Neither did they ever l [...]se the Repute of good Warriors, though they most shewed their V [...]lours, ei­ther in others Ayd, or their own Rebellions. But when the Generality of People, as it were upon one S [...]gnal, made vio­lent Incursions into the Roman Empire, all this [...]ract fel [...] to the share of the Franks; until in the Division of their Power, part became the Possessions of the Kings of France, and other part the Emperors of Germany claimed as their Right. But both, when they themselves were from thence far distant, s [...]t Governors, by the Names of Earls, Dukes, and the like, to rule and defend all the Cities therein, saving onely such as for the sake of Religion, were given unto Bishops, when Christiani­ty began to increase and flourish: Such as were sent forth to the Wars in Command, were called Dukes, to whom Earles or Counts were such as took Care of the Accounts of Subsi­dies, and other Taxes, for the Souldiers Pay, and were chief Judges: But it is a thing hardly credible, how both these and those did augment their Power in a short time, by these three means, their own Valour and Vertue, their Princes neglect and Carelessness, and the Favour and Good-will of the Pro­vincials. [Page 4] For first, they got themselves Power and Authority, by doing good to all; nor did they shew more Audacity and Courage in time of War, than Moderation and Religion in Times of Peace. In this manner strengthning themselves, in­stead of a Lieutenantship, (which was all they had at first) they attain to themselves a perpetual and Hereditary Domi­nion, which was with the more Facility and Complyance granted to them, because when any Wars broke out in those Parts, they were the more ready to meet and undergo the Dangers and Hazards thereof, in regard they defended their own Territories: For, in those Times, the Seas were almost covered and the Shores even beset and filled with Danish and Norman Fleets: Not long after, taking a Priviledge, either from the Fear or Favour of their Followers, or the Breach and Decay of a greater Lordship, though they kept the same Re­semblance still in Name, yet they established a Soveraign and lawful Authority even with the Peoples good-will. Lands are set apart for the Princes, and moderate Tributes: yet e­nough to support and maintain their Dignity; for they gave not themselves over to Covetousness and luxury, or those o­ther Crimes, which in the Innocency of that Age were scarce known to the World: Onely the Desire of Rule, and Thirst of Dominion (aged almost as Nature) they could not ex­cuse themselves from. Hence it was, they had perpetuall Wars, either among themselves, or with their Bordering Neighbors; for managing whereof, they never hired Forrein Souldiers, but used their own People, who for the safe keep­ing of their Borders, would strive who should be foremost in the Watch; and if Ambition or Honour had invited the Prince beyond, they forthwith followed him with Alacrity, moved thereto as well by the hopes of Praise, as Reward: The Conquerour bestowing in Gift on his Noblest Souldiers, Lands in Fee-Farm, and confirming on Cities and Citizens, their Franchises, Customs. Laws, and Magistracy, the sure Guards and Defences of their Liberty. Nor did their Successors [Page 5] take upon them the full power of Government, before they had confirm'd by Oath these Grants, on whom they were at first bestowed.

The whole Charge of the Common-Wealth, was of old said upon the Shoulders of the Nobility and Governours of Towns, which consisted of the Communalty, to whom in some places the Clergy were added: These, where it was necessary, met together concerring Embassies; These Consulted of the great Affairs of State; nor was it lawful, without the general Consent of all, to set a Tribute or Tax, to alter the present state of Affairs, nor to much as enhance or debase the value of Coy [...]. So much Caution was there used, even when they had good Princes, to prevent the encroaching of Evil Ones. The most Noble and Vertuous amongst the Citizens, underwent and performed all publike Offices, and all Strangers were kept out of the Princes Court, the Senate, and all other places, ei­ther of Honour or Profit. By the observance of these good Customs, long did the Common-Wealth continue fix't on a good Basis. But at length by little and little Seditions grow­ing up, wasted this flourishing and rich People, untill by ma­ny Victories, Affinities, and Treaties, most of them were glad to submit to the Burgundian Government, who being sprung from a Royal House, Warlike, Crafty, and dating, to under­take any thing, to Arm his Power from the D [...]ss [...]n [...]ions of the Nobles, Promises to one, Threatens another, and give Re­wards to a Third: Thus, in a short time, all things bow, ei­ther for Reward, or fear of Punishment; and he is ready to destroy the Force of their promiscuous Liberty, by an extra­ordinary Act of Authority, according to the French Exem­plar: For every several Nation hath his own Senate appoint­ed him, but all were to attend the Common Justice of M [...]ck­lin, by which means they more easily represented the Form of one City: A Colledge also, or Fraternity, by the Name of the Golden Fleece, was Erected, whereby he obliged the Princes admitted into the same, that were famous both for [Page 6] their Extract and Merits, to be to him both an Honour and a Safeguard. Among all these Policies, the States maintain­ed the Peoples Right, whom out of the several Nations, he called to meet in one Common-Councel, as oft as the Com­mon Treasury was drained by his Wars, or other Necessity required the same: Being sent thither, they oft-times did great things for the Common-Wealth; and that which added to their Courage was, that they might speak what they had in Commission. There was not a Castle, nor in time of Peace a Souldier, except a few Garrisons upon the uttermost Borders, suspected from the frequent Motions of the French; toge­ther with Three Thousand Horsemen, the Flower of all the Nobility, yet Commanded by the Chief of the Popularity, and were in readiness against any sudden Incursions, and such a Number of private Ships, ready upon my unexpected Occasion, as would over- [...]umber a good Fleet.

This great Accumulation of Fortune, being transposed un­to the Austrian Family, though it made the Power of Spain greatly to increase, yet the mild Natures of those in Autho­rity, by their Moderation, augmented their Power; and cer­tainly, sooner by this Act is Liberty overthrown and con­quered, than by Force: For Fierceness grows into Fury, while it resists Compulsion, when Meekness and Courteries will even hand men into Obedience; untill accustomed Du­ties being commanded, the long License of Evil Habits, makes that Obedience seem to be Slavery. In the mean time, to the Commons who meddle not with Arms, the Benefits of Merchandizing and Trades is frequently shewn, whereby the Customes and Tributes are encreased, and that private men grown rich, if they would be innocent, must with Care shun publike Imployments. This Spanish Conjunction, was a very great Augmentation: But now, as if grown more wise, as the Wealth of those in Superiority over them mightily increased, they began to suspect with a kind of Dread, from the Spaniards Behaviour, which they had Opportunity [Page 7] enough to look into, in the time of their Service together in the Wars; as also, from the Difference between them, a Change of their Common-Wealth: For while Bordering Nations have from a like Stock, by the same Endeavours in­creased, they easily agree between themselves, engaged there­unto by a kind of Brotherly Relation: But the Spaniard and Dutch differ in many, nay in most things; and in those they agree, they meet with too much vehemency. Both have been famous in Martial Exploits for many Ages, unless that these have disused, those by Italian, and other Forreign Expeditions, are encouraged through long Discipline and Rewards.

The Dutch are very sedulous and diligent, and, for the hope of gain willing to undergo any labour, do by that means ac­quire both Trade and Peace; yet do they not use to take and put up Injuries: and as they are greedy after other mens goods, so in defence of their own they will contend to the uttermost; which hath been the cause, that in this single Re­gion there are so many Cities, and those that are scituate near the Sea, or any other River, strongly fortified, and every where else so replenished by their own, and a mixt multitude of persons from other Countries: Thus since those monstrous Incursions from the Northern Parts of the Earth were blown over, have they for Eight Ages continued unconquered and free from the spoyls of forreign Armies. But Spain, after it had contracted from the variety of its Victors, many of their Customes, and great diversity in their manners, at last was forced to yield her Neck to the Gothish Servitude: by which mixt cohabitation and intermingled breeding, they came even to unite in nature and disposition, of whom both Ancient and Modern Authors have given us this Character, That they were of invincible spirits to undergo all manner of hardships and dangers, whereby it was scrupled by the rest of the World, Whether they were more greedy of Ho­nour or Wealth? They are proud and arrogant beyond mea­ure, even to the contempt of all others; they are very great [Page 8] honourers of things Sacred, having Religion in high esteem, which makes them neither unmindful of nor ungrateful for benefits received; but in revenge so furious is their heat, and in victory, so barbarous their cruelty, that they think nothing in such case done to an enemy either unlawful or dishonoura­ble. The [...]e things are quite contrary to the Dutch a Nation innocently crafty, and after the manner of their scituation which is between France and Germany they are moderate both in their Customes and Conditions, in some measure participating of the Vices of both, yet not altogether with­out some of their Vertues: You cannot easily deceive them, you must nor unadvisedly insult over them. Nor in matters of Divine Worship, in former time did they in ought come behind the Spaniard, being unanimous eve [...] since they first put on Christianity; not so terrified by the Norman Arms as to change their profession, nor yet ever infected with any damnable errour: They bestowed so much upon Religion, that the very Priests themselves were necessiated to prescribe bounds to what they might possess; They learnt from both, between whom they seemed engrafted, to honour and reve­rence their Princes: But the Dutch thought the Law ever above them, from which pretence sprung many troubles. The Castilians love to govern, somewhat more strictly than other Nations, and yet what liberty soever they usurp to themselves, they will not allow the like to others: Hence arose very great danger, because as in two divided Empires, neither for Fear or Love to prevent the trouble or win the favour of their Princes, would the Dutch en [...]ure any superior, nor the Spaniards an equall.

Al People h [...] labour with the thirst and ambition of Rule, if their first actions thrive into a Success, their next Work is to draw the Nations with whom they converse or hold cor­respondence under the subjection of their Law, to appoint Ju [...]g [...] and Governours, to assess and impose Tributes and Taxe [...], that it may be at their option and pleasure to use and [Page 9] command the common strength: Thus the Spaniards, accu­stomed to domineer in Italy, and at their will to lay waste and destroy in America, sought either the same power, or else, for denyall thereof, a cause of Quarrell with the Dutch, who, by a long succession of Princes, were even united in an indisso­luble league. Neither did Adrian, shortly after Pope, a holy and just man, and yet a Hollander, forget the hateful authority of the Spaniard, the lofty pride of Crojac, and rapacious dealing of Ceury, among whom all things whether temporal­ly honourable, or Ecclesiastically Sacred, were sold; yet not thinking (though scarcely by force withhel [...]) when they laid down their Command, that they had done ought amiss. Wherefore by soothing up those that were most powerfull, they made a mock of that vain shadow of Empire, where Magistracy must either be by the favour or for the good of the People, & where the Princes can hardly with the most gentle and perswasive blandishments obtain for their most necessary and difficult affairs, an inconsiderable pecuniary ayd. In vain it is, without doubt, to talk of the limit of Dominion be­yond the Tyrrhene Sea, and utmost extents of the main Ocean; if the subject must become slaves to their Lords at home. Nor yet did they deceive or turn upon those whom their own Country's scarcity, and the known modesty of this Nation had drawn into these Netherlands; Although the Emperour Charles seriously consulted of the alteration of the State, and erecting a Kingdom out of the Cities, especially where the Victory at Pavy had in a manner half brought to pass his de­sire over Flanders and Artoys, which by that were totally rent from the French possessions, but deterred he was by di­vers settled Laws and Customs, which he durst not abro­gate. On the other side, he would not so make the Spanish Pro­vinces, he himself having often averred, That if their Pride were joyned with the Dutch Patience, they would certainly pro­duce some eminent mischief: much blaming his Son, who spend­ing his Youth among the Spaniards, took no notice of the [Page 10] nature of these people, but rather slighted all conveniencies that were offered him for the survey and knowledg of these Regions. He was indeed an equal Judge of Vertues, and sharer of Honours, behaving himself as one and the same Prince to all his People, not suffering such daily usurpations here, as the Spaniards were free to in their new gained King­doms, whereat they were troubled; endeavouring to be pre­sent in these his Netherlands, if his Affairs would bear it, and it hindred not his taking care for his more immediate necessi­ties.

He that was he [...]e the Princes Lieutenant, had a threefold Classis of Counsellors. To the first of whom, was the care and managery of Peace and Warr. To the second, the di­stribution of Justice according to Law, with the moderation thereof by equity; as also the power of judging and deter­mining the publick Controversies of those Regions. The third supervised the Treasury, and therein took care of the Prince's Wealth, or to supply his Necessities.

That first Councell or Assembly customarily made up of the most noble of the Dutch, and eminent and famous for the many great and weighty Affairs there frequently handled, we will call by a proper name, The Senate; To which Philip between the greatness of his Kingdoms, and the insi­nuations of such who flattered the actions of his Youth, form­ing himself to the Spanish Mode, and using no other language, used to come with an assumed austere gravity, few words, and eschewing of much company. And when his Father had withdrawn himself, that he might spend his old age in a pri­vate retirement they presently urge him to raise new Im­posts, in whom the old ambition and thirst of Rule, not yet repressed by experiments, was such, as would scarcely suffer either measure or bounds. Nor is it to be doubted, but that most beautiful order of Government gave credit to the faith and vertue of the Spaniards: How great a desire harboured in the Breasts of Princes to subvert the Law, which kept un­der [Page 11] the violent ebullitions of their power; the notable ruines both of Princes and People have left us too many both new and old pregnant examples.

Of this endeavour and intention of Philip, some of the Spaniards themselves were afterwards sensible, but the Ne­therlanders (for so for the greater part of them, are they to be called) being now mastered into obedience, but yet not willing to bear an arbitrary Government, though they would seem to bear the yoke the better, from a long use, so that hence were hoped many great and seasonable opportunities against Neighbour Kingdoms both by Sea and Land. Nor was there wanting the seeds of future discord: for when Philip had undertaken the French Warr, invited thereto ra­ther by their Civill Discords, than the Peoples will or assi­stance, after many delayes and controvertings, a Tax was granted by the States; but so, as if they had had a power to have denyed it, ordaining, That the very Collectors & Recei­vers thereof should pay towards the same: This was charged upon them as an unaccustomed thing, and a crime by them committed against their Liberty, which indeed then was but small. Hereupon the meeting of the States being interpreted as a Meeting of confederacy, was strictly forbidden: Nor did the Spaniards doubt to make the offence seem greater, some of them [...]ffecting honour, others minding only rapine, which while the Lawes stood, they knew would not admit them. How necessary it is for wise Princes to keep in pos­session, since by their presence not only the Netherlands formerly, but even Spain it self, had been kept in good order; yet notwithstanding Phillip is perswaded, the Peace with France being concluded, to take a Journey into Spain, or other parts of his Dominions, as well because he feared some Troubles in that Kingdom, and the encrease of the Turks power at Sea, as also because he should be nearer to take a ca [...]e of and secure his American Treasures. At this time also the ancient and magnificent Nobles appeared glorious in [Page 12] their Dignities, but were mean in their Estates, either by their own Luxury, or the Prince's Policy, who under pre­tence of Honours, had by extraordinary Charges exhausted every honourable Person. Among all whom, William, by suc­cession of the Cabellonian Family, Prince of Aurange within a Province of France, did excell the rest in diligence, curtesie and policy; but originally descended from the ancient Fa­mily of Nassaw in Germany, which formerly having contested with the Austrian Family for the Imperiall Wreath, after­wards submitted himself under the Patronage of the more fortunate overcomer. He was from his tenderest Infancy separated and taken from his Father, who professed the Ger­man Religion; he was the Courts softer-Child, and by Charles admitted into his Councells, became not only skilled, and imployed in the conduct of Warre, but in very great Em­bassies: he was renowned by an antient stock of Nobility, had many large and rich Possessions in the Netherlands, of a great Spirit, which embellished it self, his wisdom and Pru­dence equalling his height of Spirit, so that he was capable even of the greatest Fortune; cruelty and covetousness were absolute strangers with him: Valiant in the search of the re­motest matters, and when found a memory so faithful as ever to retain them, by most pleasing allurements growing potent with the People. He had the Government of Holland, Zea­land and Ʋtrecht, and within those bounds, his care and power managed all the affairs both of Warre and Peace, the Law and the Sword; but Lamoral Count of Egmond, go­verned Flanders and Artoyes, a man of a more open nature, and like a Souldier, somewhat fierce, trusting much to his wealth and strength, much to his fame; and the truth is, (had he not too much blamed others) in those two famous Victories ob­tained against the French at St. Quintius and Gravelin, he merited an immortal wreath of Honour and Renown.

These two far outwent all the rest, both in the greatness of their charges and honour; for Brabant being a common part [Page 13] of the Empire, had no proper Governour: the rest of the Provinces are mentioned hereafter. The Command of the Sea, which in it self is most honourable, rested advantaged in Mommorency Count of Horn, sprung from a noble Family in France. These great men thus qualified, the Spaniard found he must remove before he should enjoy the Netherlands, ac­cording to his aym; and it seemed the more easie to be done, because while they wholly endeavour to attain estimation and Authority, and to that end, cavel at the Spaniards haughtiness and pride, they had already made a breach in friendship: in li [...]e manner, the rest of the Nobles in no manner (though but) comparatively wealthy, made factions, and most of the mea­ner sort had shipwrack't their credit, either by luxury, or a­mong a wanting and necessitated Souldiery. In which streights they were not continually thrust out of their power, as their enemies expected, but they used all their industry and diligence, by all wayes and meanes to maintain their dignity: many in these publick distempers, seeking either to hide or amend their own, the vulgar rout were ready for mischief, and would commit spoyls on others, as they were led there­unto, either by their hope or desperation. These bickerings among the Belgick Peers and Nobility, discording in af­fection, did in some manner for a while, put a stop to the ca­reere of the audacious Spaniard, while part take part with the Prince of Aurange, and the others before named, others follow the factions of severall great Houses. But neither the hatted of Warre, the suffering and undergoing its evills, the love of peace, nor the loss of honours, no whit moved the Commons, whose whole study was Merchandizing and feasting; by the first to get money, and by the second, prodigally to spend it: But they took it heavily to heart, that men should be tor­mented or killed for any manner of worship of God, and this was irksome, even to those that were not within the fear or danger of that cruelty. Long did grief stand wavering be­tween sighes and teares, before the incitements of good could [Page 14] make it burst out. Of this matter, because to some it gave cause, to others onely pretence, I will discover it fully from the very beginning.

Christian Religion, that of old was reverenced for its naked simplicity, was shortly after set out with the various flourishe [...] of congregated Philosophers, by the additions of each, ac­cording to their severall fancies, among whom also Jewes, Greeks, and others, cast in the severall Ceremonies of their particular Countries, that so the Majesty of their Religion might the more splendidly appear (nor indeed was it with­out reason), but these continuing long free to be used or left, at last admitted by the Opinions of some private Families, or the advice and judgment of some Churches, by little and little encreased by use, till the Eloquence of the Learned, and the suffrages and Decrees of Counsels, changed them into necessity and Law: which, through the ignorance of succee­ding times, and by subtle and dark disputations and circumlo­quutions, have been ever since defended. In which Interim, the Bishops of Rome, men of an unlimited Authority, emulous Constantinople being removed, as also the Cities of Asia and Aegypt, established a kind of Ecclesiastical Kingdom, where­in the Cardinalls being as Judges Laterall, they have assumed the height of Empire, and have continued in a long Series of Dominion, none in any manner contradicting them, because most of the European Nations had received their Christianity from instructors sent from Rome. Hence it was that the Rites and Ceremonies of the Latine Church were all received, and the Latine Tongue onely used in all acts of devotion by the Church. But they, after they had thus brought all things Sa­cred within their own reach, set forth new Decrees, interpret the old, take the holy Scripture out of the hands of the vulgar, protesting it a most pernicious thing, if an unlearned curio­sity should dive into the understanding of so great a Mystery. Thus turning all things [...]o their own honour and profit, and so great a liberty is given by the Priests, that vice is come to that [Page 15] pitch, as they themselves confess it wants correcting. But by a sudden breaking forth of Learning, which dispelled, by a new way of preaching, the darkness of that age: there did ap­pear, some who promised as well to reform Religion as the arts, and to call all things relating to Religion, to the Test of the holy Scripture.

This was well pleasing to the People, who weary of the charges and injuries they underwent, did exceedingly re­joyce, that now they should no longer serve God, and seek for Heaven, with anxious dread, and in blind obedience, but with a more firm and setled confidence, and with fewer Pre­cepts. Neither were some Princes backward in breaking in upon this Priestly Power, which had now almost subjected unto it self the Kingly Diadem. But here the Proverb was truly manifested, the hand alwayes followes the hurt, certain people of troublesome natures, that could not endure any quiet: what was publickly to be desired, they will though pri­vate persons, extort, and now they fall together by the ears about the manner, nor will they admit any to compose the differences. But it was no easie matter to pull asunder those joynts which for so many Ages had grown together. And the discomposed face of Affairs was very displeasing, the peoples minds being set a madding, and no apparent way to bring them into order again: for here were revived the opinions of Husse in Germany, of Wicliffe in England, of the Wal­denses in France, whence by the meetings of their severall Inhabitants by the company of the forreign Souldiers, and by commerce and Trading, they were transpersed over the Netherlands, and grew common. And liberty being allowed of once, changing brought in many impious and nefarious Sects: Nor would any one believe, that here was any Land more fertile in the producing such kinds of Monsters in those times, than the Netherlands, if he should but throughly look over the villanous and reproachful Speeches of David George of Delph, and the seditious sayings of John Bucoldus of Leyden [Page 10] [...] of these people, but rather slighted all convenience that were offered him for the survey and knowledg of their Regions. He was indeed an equal Judge of Vertues, and shares of Honours, behaving himself as one and the [...] Prince to all his People not suffering such daily [...] [...] Spaniards were [...] to in their [...] [...], endeavouring to be pre­sent in these his Netherlands, if his Affairs would bear it, and is hindred not his taking care for his more immediate [...].

He that was here the Princes Lieutenant, had a [...] Glass [...] of Counsellors. To the first of whom, was the care and managery of Peace and Warr. To the second, the di­stribution of Justice according to Law, with the moderation thereof by equity; as also the power of judging and deter­mining the publick Controversies of those Regions. The third supervised the Treasury, and therein took care of the [...] Wealth, or to supply his Necessities.

That first Councell or Assembly customarily made up of the most noble of the Dutch, and eminent and famous for the many great and weighty Affairs there frequently handled, we will call by a proper name, The Senate; To which Philip between the greatness of his Kingdoms, and the infor­mations of such who flattered the actions of his Youth, form­ing himself to the Spanish Mode, and using no other language, used to come with an assumed a [...]stere gravity, few words, and eschewing of much company. And when his Father had withdrawn himself, that he might spend his old age in a pri­vate retirement, they presently urge him to raise new Im­posts, in whom the old ambition and thirst of Rule, not yet repressed by experiments, was such, as would scarcely suffer either measure or bounds. Nor is it to be doubted, but that most beautiful order of Government gave credit to the faith and vertue of the Spaniards: How great a desire harboured in the Breasts of Princes to subvert the Law, which kept un­der [Page 11] the violent abullitions of their power; the notable ruines both of Princes and People have left us too many both new and old pregnant examples.

Of this endeavour and intention of Philip, some of the Spaniards themselves were afterwards sensible, but the Ne­therlanders (for so for the greater part of them, are they to be called) being now mastered into obedience, but yet not willing to bear an arbitrary Government, though they would seem to bear the yoke the better, from a long use, so that hence were hoped many great and seasonable opportunities against Neighbour Kingdome both by Sea and Land. Nor was there wanting the seeds of future discord: for when Philip had undertaken the French Warr, invited thereto ra­ther by their Civill Discords, than the Peoples will or assi­stance, after many delayes and controvertings, a Tax was granted by the States; but so, as if they had had a power to have denyed it, ordaining. That the very Collectors & Recei­vers thereof should pay towards the same: This was charged upon them as an unaccustomed thing, and a crime by them committed against their Liberty, which indeed then was but small. Hereupon the meeting of the States being interpreted as a Meeting of confederacy, was strictly forbidden: Nor did the Spaniards doubt to make the offence seem greater, some of them affecting honour, others minding only rapine, which while the Lawes stood, they knew would not admit them. How necessary it is for wise Princes to keep in pos­session, since by their presence not only the Netherlands formerly, but even Spain it self, had been kept in good order; yet notwithstanding Phillip is perswaded, the Peace with France being concluded; to take a Journey into Spain, or other parts of his Dominions, as well because he feared some Troubles in that Kingdom, and the encrease of the Turks power at Sea, as also because he should be nearer to take a care of and secure his American Treasures. At this time also the antient and magnificent Nobles appeared glorious in [Page 12] their Dignities, but were mean in their Estates, either by their own Luxury, or the Prince's Policy, who under pre­tence of Honours, had by extraordinary Charges exhausted every honourable Person. Among all whom, William, by suc­cession of the Cabellonian Family, Prince of Aurange within Province of France, did excell the rest in diligence, curtesie and policy▪ but originally descended from the ancient Fa­mily of Nassau in Germany, which formerly having contested with the Austrian Family for the Imperiall Wreath, after­wards submitted himself under the Patronage of the more fortunate overcomer. He was from his tenderest Infancy separated and taken from his Father, who professed the Ger­man Religion; he was the Courts foster-Child, and by Charles admitted into his Councells, became not only skilled, and imployed in the conduct of Warre, but in very great Em­bassies: he was renowned by an antient stock of Nobility, had many large and rich Possessions in the Netherlands, of a great Spirit, which embellished it self, his wisdom and Pru­dence equalling his height of Spirit, so that he was capable even of the greatest Fortune; cruelty and covetousness were absolute strangers with him: Valiant in the search of the re­morest matters, and when found a memory so faithful as ever is retain them, by most pleasing allurements growing potent with the People. He had the Government of Holland, Zea­land and Ʋtrecht, and within those bounds, his care and power managed all the affairs both of Warre and Peace, the Law and the Sword; but Lamoral Count of Egmond, go­verned Flanders and Artoyes, a man of a more open nature, and like a Souldier, somewhat fierce, trusting much to his wealth and strength, much to his fame; and the truth is, (had he not too much blamed others) in those two famous Victories ob­tained against the French at St. Quintius and Gravelin, he merited an immortal wreath of Honour and Renown.

These two far outwent all the rest, both in the greatness of their charges and honour; for Brabant being a common part [Page 13] of the Empire, had no proper Governour: the rest of the Provinces are mentioned hereafter. The Command of the Sea, which in it self is most honourable, rested advantaged in Mommorency Court of Horn, sprung from a noble Family in France. These great men thus qualified, the Spaniard found he must remove before he should enjoy the Netherlands, ac­cording to his aym [...] and it seemed the more easie to be done, because while they wholly endeavour to attain estimation and Authority, and to that end, cavel at the Spaniards haughtiness and pride, they had already made a breach in friendship: in li [...] manner; the rest of the Nobles in no manner (though but) comparatively wealthy, made factions, and most of the mea­ner sort had shipwrack't their credit, either by luxury, or a­mong a wanting and necessitated Souldiery. In which streights they were not continually thrust out of their power, as their enemies expected, but they used all their industry and diligence, by all wayes and meanes to maintain their dignity: many in these publick distempers, seeking either to hide or amend their own, the vulgar tout were ready for mischief, and would commit spoyls on others, as they were led there­unto, either by their hope or desperation. These bickerings among the Belgick Pee [...]s and Nobility, discording in af­fection, did in some manner, for a while, put a stop to the ca­reere of the audacious Spaniard, while part take part with the Prince of Aurange, and the others before named, others follow the factions of severall great Houses. But neither the hatred of Warre, the suffering and undergoing its evills, the love of peace, nor the loss of honours, no whit moved the Commons, whose whole study was Merchandizing and feasting; by the first to get money, and by the second, prodigally to spend it: But they took it heavily to heart, that men should be tor­mented or killed for any manner of worship of God, and this was irksome, even to those that were not within the fear or danger of that cruelty. Long did grief stand wavering be­tween sighes and teares, before the incitements of good could [Page 14] [...] it [...] out. Of this matter, because to some it [...] [...], to other onely pretence, I will discover it fully [...] the very beginning.

Christian Religion, that of old was reverenced for its no [...] simplicity, was shortly after set out with the various flourish [...] of congregated Philosophers, by the additions of each, ac­cording to their severall fancies, among whom also Je [...] Greeks, and others, cast in the severall Ceremonies of the particular Countries, that so the Majesty of their Religion might the more splendidly appear (nor indeed was it with­out reason), but these continuing long free to be used or [...] at last admitted by the Opinions of some private Families, [...] the advice and judgment of some Churches, by little and little encreased by use, till the Eloquence of the Learned and the suffrages and Decrees of Counsels, changed them into necessity and Law: which, through the ignorance of succee­ding times, and by subtle and dark disputations and circum [...] q [...]utions, have been ever since defended. In which Interi [...] the Bishops of Rome, men of an unlimited Authority, emulo [...] Constantinople being removed, as also the Cities of Asia and Aegypt, established a kind of Ecclesiastical Kingdom, where in the Cardinalls being as Judges Laterall, they have assume the height of Empire, and have continued in a long Series of Dominion, none in any manner contradicting them, because most of the European Nations had received their Christianity from instructors sent from Rome. Hence it was, that the Ri [...] and Ceremonies of the Latine Church were all received, and the Latine Tongue onely used in all acts of devotion by the Church [...] they, after they had thus brought all things Sa­cred [...] their own reach, set forth new Decrees, interp [...] the old, take the holy Scripture out of the hands of the vulga [...] protesting it a most p [...]cious thing, if an unlearned curio­sity should dive into the understanding of so great a Mystery. Thus turning all things to their own honour and profit, and so great a liberty is given by the Priests, that vice is come to the [Page 15] pitch, as they themselves confess it wants correcting. But by a sudden breaking forth of Learning, which dispelled, by a new way of preaching, the darkness of that age: there did ap­pear, some who promised as well to reform Religion as the [...], and to call all things relating to Religion, to the Test of the holy Scripture.

This was well pleasing to the People, who weary of the charges and injuries they underwent, did exceedingly re­joyce, that now they should no longer serve God, and seek for Heaven, with anxious dread, and in blind obedience, but with a more firm and setled confidence, and with fewer Pre­cepts. Neither were some Princes backward in breaking in upon this Priestly Power, which had now almost subjected unto it self the Kingly Diadem. But here the Proverb was truly manifested, the hand alwayes followes the hurt, certain people of troublesome natures, that could not endure any quiet: what was publickly to be desired, they will, though pri­vate persons, extort, and now they fall together by the ears about the manner, nor will they admit any to compose the differences. But it was no easie matter to pull asunder those joynts which for so many Ages had grown together. And the discomposed face of Affairs was very displeasing, the peoples minds being set a mad [...]ing, and no apparent way to bring them into order again: for here were revived the opinions of Husse in Germany, of Wicliffe in England, of the Wal­denses in France, whence by the meeting [...] their severall inhabitants, by the company of the forreig [...] [...] [...]diers, and by commerce and Trading, they were transpersed over the Netherlands, and grew common. And liberty being allowed of once, changing brought in many impious and nefarious Sects: Nor would any one believe, that there was any Land more fertile in the producing such kinds of Monsters in those times, than the Netherlands, if he should but throughly look over the villanous and reproachful Speeches of David George of Delph, and the seditious sayings of John Bucoldus of Loydem [Page 16] against Christ: Both which being Hollanders, the one being a Painter of Glass, by counterfeiting divine inspirations, [...] more than an ordinary living, and begot a Sect to survive him. The other, a kind of a Taylor, who began a Warre, and also to set up a Kingdom at Muister, but both with unlucky (though deserved) event.

I have observed the wisest of Princes, to have endeavou­red remedies, by way of prevention, against these contraries in Religion, in regard of the greatness of the error, and the multitude of the errings; As when there hath been equall power, sometimes two of a Sect have been brought forth into publick, under strict custody of the Law, that they might not by that pretence make a disturbance.

Another time, when the Emperour and his Councel have, upon heating, found cause to condemn any, such have been excommunicate, and thrown out of the Church. And if there were any more haynous mistrust lay upon them, then were they also deba [...]red from private meetings: But we may not utterly condemn those, who punished such as held forth Do­ctrines obnoxious, and dissonant to good manners, either by banishment, or Sequestration of their Honours and Estates: But that Judgment belonged to the Magistrate, who, by such punishments, cannot be said to revenge their own injuries. It is granted, that Priests may correct those that deviate through ignorance, & to keep them from participating of the Sacred Mysteries; and then too, there was a lawful course used for discovery therof, facts were punished, thoughts went free; but to rage and tyranize over the lives of those, who have neither forfeited their faith to God nor their Princes, seems barbarously inhumane in Bishops, and not altogether safe for Princes themselves. But the Roman Bishops, crept on by little and little, to that heighth, that they strengthned that Law by terror, which was obtained by subtlety, which secular Princes, favouring too much their greatness, made sharp and rigorous as against Traytors; for nothing would satisfie them, but to [Page 17] have as sharp Laws against such as usurped at their Decrees, as if they had Rebelled against God himself by Blasphemy. Nor was it onely enjoyned to Bishops, to visit their Dio­cesses; but also they were wont, when they thought it meet, to send Inquisitors, with a most ample Power, (which first began about Four Hundred Years since) and these chose to be assistant unto whom they pleased; who had Autho­rity to examine upon Oath any person whatsoever, whereso­ever, or under whose Obedience soever he lived: And by these subtle Dealings, they not onely did wind themselves into the Secrets of Families, but dived into the Closet of Mens Hearts; for as any one was more or less Conscienti­ously fearful of Perjury, so did he accordingly, more or less, by closer or more open Discoveries, betray himself. But if this were not, yet were it a hard matter for men to conceal themselves there, where it is accounted Religion to fall down before the Shrines of Saints, their Host exposed in the Churches, or else when it is openly carryed about. Suspi­cion sends a man to Prison; but the meanest Discovery is enough to commit him to Torture. Nor is it permitted, for the Accused Person, Guiltless or Guilty, to hear or re­fute the Witness; as if such Allowance would be danger­ous to the Witnesses, and destructive to Truth it self. The Temporal Judges are commanded to punish all that are con­demned, although it onely proceed from Ecclesiastical Cen­ [...]ure, in the cruel executing whereof, many strive to shew their Zeal and Piety: Others there were, who did foresee these manner of Judgments, to be subject not onely to Scandal and Hatred, but Covetousness; because when Goods happened not to be Confiscate, they would not suffer them to be taken out of their Cognizance and Power, to the use of the Parties, untill they had satisfied the Charge of the Complaint: But the Spanish Inquisition, for Sharpness and Cruelty, exceeds all other; for the management whereof, some Monks, of the Order of St. Dominike are chosen; and [Page 18] it was of old, and originally, instituted against the Jews and Moors; who being, by their Kings, compelled to own and profess Christianity, did yet clandestinely relapse into the abj [...]d Errours.

This, at first, was, not unworthily, made use of against those Barbarous Nations, though with their Hatred; but af­terwards it was by a wondrous Sagacity of Inquiry, laid pre­miscuously as a Burden upon all. For the most wary spee­ches, nay, silence it self, Decoles and Treacheries in Friend­ship; nay, sideling and oblique Accusations were admitted so that it was plainly evident, no man could behave himself with Innocency, as could preserve his Safety and Honour, if they were minded to question it; which makes me think that they are not to be mistrusted for Forging, who say onely the real Truth, not out of Envy, that they have heard in Spain it self, and almost all over Italy, most grievous Complaint of this Inquisition, made by Romanists themselves in the very City of Rome.

In the Netherlands, the Emperour Charles first set out a [...] Edict concerning Religion, after he had condemned Luther upon a full Hearing before the Synod of Wormes in Germany and here it began from pecuniary Mults, and other Corpo­real Sufferings, to punish with Death; and by reason of the Lenity of the Judges, the laws were site ched, and seve [...] times proclaimed. There was likewise great Care taken that no Books should be published, but what had the Appro­bation of the Doctors of Lonvayne: They who would Preach, or argue out of the Scriptures, were fain to meet [...] private Assemblies; Death, by the Sword, was threat [...] unto Men, and to Women Inhumation, or Burial alive, toge­ther with the Confiscation of their Goods: yet so, that the [...]ight first come in, and acknowledge their Errour, for the Obstinate were to be burned. Also, if any detected [...] [...] false Opinions, and innocent in the rest; wo [...] repeat, he should be degraded from all his Dignities: They [Page 19] who harboured such, and did not bring them forth, should be lyable to the same punishments, as the guilty themselves, but Rewards and Impurity to all Accusess. Many severe Edicts were set forth against suspected Persons, and such as fled, but most terrible against Relapsers: And the very Judges, though terrified by Penalties, yet, least, under the pretence of Pitty, they should moderate the Laws, had In­quisitors, fully instructed by Caesar himself joyned to them; Onely the City of Antwerp, whom a moderate Liberty, toge­ther with extraordinary Obedience had mightily enriched, daring to complain to the Germans and English, that the Se­verity of that Edict, had driven away the best part of her Commerce, obtained, that Strangers should be a little more kindly used; and that, that part of the Decree whereby Alie­nations, and Testaments of Delinquents, even before Judgment, should be rescinded, (an evident Ruine of all Merchandi­sing) should not in that City be of any force: These Laws being Dictated by a Disposition, or Nature, in it self other­wise not at all cruel, we may the less wonder, that the strength of Religion made them, being impatient of any Dissentors; which, as in it self, should rather mollifie and unite mens minds, yet is, by the wickedness of Humane Frailty, made the main Cause of most bitter Discords and Factions: Most of the Princes made it their Business, to bind up the United Body of the Commonwealth in one Religion, as in one Heart, and to be as well fixt, and well satisfied in the Reason of Sa­cred, and of Profane Laws; which might, certainly, if they were not so commonly admitted to vulgar handling: whereby Caesar also was the more easily perswaded, after the German Method, that they might not with the Despised Reverence of the Clergy, cast off the Bond of their Obedience to him, by some few Penalties, to take away the strength of that Poy­son, which had its only Aliment from Liberty. But the Event proved quite contrary, for though many suffered and pe­rished, by putting this in effect; yet instead of a Decrease [Page 20] from thence, they infinitely multiplyed; and the Reason hereof might be, because those things which we corporally act onely, by the Fear and Threatning of Death and Tor­ments, are obnoxious to Authority and Power: But the Mind, as it is free, and not to be limited or bound up, if it receive any Principles or Documents into it self, it will not be evinced either by Fire or Sword, but rather incites and scores danger, accounting it a Blessed and Glorious thing, to suffer. Ignominies and Cruelty, not being Conscious to themselves of having committed Evil, which they learnt not onely from the Primitive Christians, but many Examples of these very Times. For after the Butchery of no less than One Hundred Thousand Men, to make a Triall if this Fire were to be quenched with Bloud, such vast Multitudes made In­surrections all over the Netherlands, that sometimes the pub­like Executions, especially if upon any more eminent Cri­minal or Exemplary Torments, were hindred and impeded by Seditions. And this moved the Queen of Hungary, that had the Government of these Netherlands, under her Bro­ther Charles, to go to him while he yet staid in Germany, and to let him know, how great a slaughter those things, which were pretended for Remedies, had made.

But Philip, not at all moved or frighted with these things, did more earnestly press what his Father had begun, by sharp and threatning Edicts, and preparing other Remedies, which might repress this Evil now getting Age: The Cause, above all others, and which we may with most Reason conjecture, was the Pope's Authority, by which he had ordered many of these things to be done; For having obtained, by the gene­ral Consent of so many Nations, to Distribute of Kingdoms, and to be a Moderator, and Judge of Law, Equity and Right, while he by submissive Obedience, and large Gifts, was made their Friend and Ally, they might confidently rest assured, in the Success of their Affairs, which he had throughly learned by his Fathers, and his own Experiments, [Page 21] How terrible it was, and injurious to his, Affairs, to have that Power adverse to him, from which, even they who had Con­quered it in War, were glad to crave a Pardon: These were the state of Affairs, and these the Conditions of the People, when, upon the Departure of King Philip, strife began about the Chief Government. In the attaining whereof, both the Prince of Aurange, and Count Egmond, had pitched their Hopes and Expectancie; but neither of them had it, for this Reason, least either of them singly being preferr'd, should, by perpetual private Feudes, disturb the Peace of the Common­wealth.

There was likewise Ambitions of the same sort among Women, to wit, Christian that had marryed Francis Duke of Lorrain, Uncle of the Emperour Charles and Margaret, base Daughter of the said Charles, first marryed to Alexander Medices, afterwards to Octavius Farnese Duke of Parma. The Prince of Aurange, and the Netherlanders, endeavoured by all means to promote Christian: but Ferdinande Alvares of Toledo, Duke of Alva, and Anthony Perenot Granvell Bishop of Artoyes, having been jointly Servants and Coun­sellors to his Father in his greatest Affairs, and by Philip re­ceived with the like Honour, were of a contrary Opinion, for Margaret. Alva, one of the greatest and noblest Spani­ards, in many places esteemed a great and famous Souldier, by the getting some notable Victories for the Emperour, had won great Renown: Perenottes Father, one Nicholas a Bur­gundian, as he was of a mean Stock, so he was more readily obsequious, and by his extraordinary Watchfulness and In­dustry, so acquired the Humour of the Court, that he became a Privy Counsellour, and had the keeping of the Emperours Seal; in which, having performed his Duty, by the space of Twenty Years, he at last left the same to the enjoyment of his Son.

But as Alva's proud and cruel Nature, so Perenottes subtle Disposition, while they onely seek to inlarge the Grandezza [Page 22] of the Prince, who likewise desired nothing so much, they do both of them find fault with as many Nations as they knew, especially the Germans; who imputing the Landgrave's Imprisonment, to no other than their Counsels, did esteem and reckon their too great Power, among the principal Cau­ses of the War. Again, when it came to the Point of giving the Government of the Netherlands to Margaret, although there wanted not specious Causes enough for the giving of that Counsel, as such a Tye of Bloud, and that her Husband would be a Pledge for her Fidelity, and her Person be in the Command of the Spaniards, both in the City and Castle: Yet the departure of the King, no less suspected by the Great Ones, than bewailed by the meaner sort inflamed the angry Minds of the Nobles. And that very Day was the chief, in which Philip was sollicited for Liberty, and that the Nether­landers shewed themselves contumacious or sawcie towards their Prince: For just upon his Departure, resolving to leave a Garrison of above Three Thousand Spaniards, under pre­tence of defending the Borders against the French; but, in truth, that he might, at his pleasure, bridle the Licentiousness in Religion, which had been increased by a Company of Forraign Souldiers in the Wars: The Prince of Aurange, and Count Egmond, whom he appointed Commanders of those Forces, on purpose to asswage their Envy, refused the Charge as being contrary to their Laws: and at the very instant of the Kings going away, the Assembly of the States, whom he had onely called together; to give a Farewel to, asked him, That he wou'd remove away with him those Souldiers, when they would not endure; adding also, a Warning, or Monition, That he should use the Counsell of none but Netherlanders, in the Go­vernment of the Netherlands. And from hence, there sprung an implacable Hatred, because they seemed to give out, as if they understood the Art of Governing, and fore-saw the approaching Tyranny. But openly He agreed to their Re­quest, and thereupon forbore to adde Gemessa Figueroa [...] [Page 23] Spaniard, and Earl of Feria, unto that Great Councel, though lately destined to that Intent. But in this Dissimu­lation, he nourished Anger in his Heart, and in his Mind stu­died nothing but Revenge: So departing, but disdaining to pass the Borders of Strangers, he went by Sea, where in the Shipwrack of his Fleet, through many great and immi­nent Dangers, with much ado he got safe to the Port of Gal­licia.

The Souldiery for a little while after remained there, but very unruly and burdensom, untill at Gerbis, or the Island of Gelues, (called by the Antients Meninx) having received a loss by the Turks, they were taken from them (as the Ne­therlanders interpreted it) not so in favour of them, as to supply the Loss there received. In the mean while, the Government of the Netherlands. Nominally was in Marga­ret, but in Deed and Power in Granuel; in whom, Industry, Vigilance, Ambition, Luxury, Covetousness, and, in truth, all manner both of Good and Evil, were eminently to be seen. Nor did he advantage himself more by his own Prudence, than by the Folly and Sloth of Others; who growing weak by Riot, had let slip those Opportunities of present Power, which, of old, was not without great difficulty and hazard to be attained. He therefore minding cunningly, to oblige his Prince, by diving into Secrets, and by advancing his Fol­lowers, contracted unto himself, the Intriques of all Embassies, and all sorts of Characters, and what ever else was to be known, either by Spies, or Pensioners.

Between this Grandee, and Count Horn, there were some old Gudges; first, concerning Lalayn. Count Horn's Sisters Husband, whom he taxed with the Crime of an ill performed Embassie; Another was, that Horn had missed the Praefectureship, or Lieutenancy of Gelderland, (which he had much sought after) for want onely of one word's speak­ing of his.

[Page 24]He had not yet Declared himself to the Prince of Au­range, the onely hope of increasing his Dignities resting up­on him; but, as the Custom of Ambition is, had hitherto onely looked upon him with an evil Eye, least he should grow too great for him: For which cause when Magistrates were to be chosen at Antwerp, he had endeavoured to pro­cure him to be absent: But the Prince of Aurange, who above all things, the empty Boast or bare Title of Honour, and that one Man, a stranger, and of men Extract, should possess what he listed, not without the disgrace both of him­self and others, stirred up with many provocations Count Egmond, who then by chance had observed himself to have received some Injuries from Granuel in assuming to himself, and not bestowing the Governorship of H [...]sdin, and the Ab­bacy of Trully, which Egmond had desired for his Kinsman, and by him was denied: Hereupon, many of the Compa­nions of the Order of the Golden Fleece, (for at this time they were often called to meet together by Margaret, that they might Consult about Defending and Fortifying the Borders, drew their Collegues into Parties, as if these Managements of Affairs tended wholly to all their Disparagements, by whose Counsels formerly the Princes Business had so well succeeded: After which, these Three Noble-men, to shun any further Converse with Anthony Granuel, whereas they used to sit together in the Senate, publikely sell out with him. Antony seeing this, began to bestir himself, to be able to re­sist those men, who were not onely powerful in themselves, but strengthned by the Love and Favour of the People: To which purpose, he drew to his Side, by Benefits and Favours, Men active and ingenuous; among whom, were Charles Bar­lamont, and Viglius Zuich [...]m, which were also of the same Senate, He being the Chief of the Treasury. This, though not of any great Family, yet famous for his Understanding, and Knowledge of Affairs, was the Chief of the Judges of the Law, who by their secret Meetings, and private Conferen­ces, [Page 25] concerning unknown matters, made such an exulcerated Odium appear against them, as became the publick sign and token of faction.

Now Philip, before his departure, that he might the better settle affairs of Religion, had obtained from Paul the fourth then Pope, that all His Provinces of the Netherlands, should be exempt from the care and charge of forraign Bishops. For the Archbishops of Colen and Rhomes, which were, of old, chief Cities, that of Lower Germany, this of Gallia Belgica, had nothing now left them of that so antique division besides the name. Their Jurisdiction therefore being taken away, together with the Bishops of Leige, Triers, Oiuburgh, Mun­ster, and Paterborgh, losing also part of their Command, and three Bishops in upper Burgundy, to wit of Mechlin, Utrecht, and Cambray, renounced, and under these many more, of whom in the Borders of Brabant, Antwerp, and Senlis: of Gelderland, Rurimunde: of Flanders, Gaunt, Ipro, and Bruges: of Holland, Harlem: of Zeland, Middleburgh: of Overissel, Daventry: of Artoyes also with Audornarum: thence Na­mur, Groining and Torney, Cities that bear the names of the Countries they stand in. This was an antient Custom, and much used by the Popes, upon the multiplying of people, and that Religion might be the more easily taken care of, to erect new Bishops Seas, so to share among many the burden which grew too great for one, and the Emperour Charles minding other things, had omitted this care which of old was taken by the Princes of the Austrian Family. But the causes of the reviving this Policy or appointment were hated and grown odious almost to all. One was, that they who should overlook and inquire into the manners of the Clergy, and the peoples errors, might be more in number and neerer, and this the very Authours thereof openly professed, complaining that vices did mightily increase by the neglect or connivence of those who should take care to prevent the same.

[Page 26]Another was imputed to Granvell's cunning, who had take from Rome, both the Bishoprick of Mechlin, and the Digni­ty of a Cardinall, most men guessing in the future, that would be as when Priests of old had by Prerogative a right [...] suffrage in the Assembly of the States, that he being the chi [...] of that number, with others which he should, by his mea [...] and endeavours, allure (for the right of naming Bishops w [...] by the Popes granted to the King, reserving to themselves onely the right of approbation) might, by an under-hand con­federacy with the Spaniards, suppress their liberty. When Revenues were to have been setled upon Bishops, out of Monasticall Possessions, the Abbots were the first that gain sayed that purpose, of which society, at that time, all, with free and unanimous consent, avowed, they would not admit underminers of their Wealth and Authority: The Brabander [...] confederates with these, by Books, commend the care of the Laws to the Prince, wherein they advise, that Ecclesiastical Promotions should not be increased without the consent of the Nobility and Commons; Hereto we e added many an­swers of men professing Justice, That it was an act of irre­ligion and profaneness to tear away the pious and charitable liberalities of other men, and to question the judgements and integrity of dying persons, by diverting their gifts to other uses than they intended them. And some of the ancient Bi­shops, especially He of Leige, cryed out, the Pope was cir­cumvented, and with all eagerness prosecuted their right. Hereupon many other Cities refused to receive their new Bi­shops, and who were admitted, were so generally hated, that they could never officiate without mocks and taunts. Now the Nobles taking notice of the generall hate of the Nether­landers against Granvell, did think it most necessary, for the better managing of their publick affairs; That there should be a generall Assembly of the State: Therefore as often as there hapned complaints of the poverty of their Treasury, or of the fear of Seditions (for there was much pay behind, and [Page 27] due to the Souldier both Horse and Foot, and Merchants be­gan to be restrained among Forreigners for publick debts, and the Tributes promised for nine years were even now at an end.) They began to cry up the old Custom, of which (they said) good Princes would never think amiss.

What marvel is it now, that all things were in a deplora­ble Condition, when, in all their evills, the basest flattery could rob them of their onely remedy. The adverse party took notice of all, to little purpose, therefore it was for them to dissemble how far their malice tended, in prosecuting, with hatred, the man that had been industrious for the King, more than they would have had; and therefore, the Ministers of State, under Philip, were to inquire out any that were emulous of the Princes Power, and who those should be, to whom all would submit in this great alteration, the Abbots were trou­bled for their own private lucre sake. The Nobility were ob­noxious to these; and the rest, under the notion of the States, were doubtfull, and in suspence, for the use of their temporal usages. So that dissembling here modesty and obedience, their fore-sight of, and providing against dangers, and the Lawes left to them by their Ancestors, and vertuous Discour­ses, every one did strive to make himself greatest; Further­more, those three before named, taking the boldness to write Letters to the King, denyed it possible to divert the publick ruine of the State, unless Perenotte were removed from his abominated Power, praying also for themselves, an exempti­on from the Assembly of States: but promising very largely, as to his Government, his Sisters Dignity, and the mainte­nance of the Roman Religion.

Philip sends them an answer, full of courteous Language, wherein he said, that he did not use to set aside Ministers of State, without hearing and perpending their cause of Com­plaint; but if he could not have his Revenue, upon whose payment he did depend, he would that some of them should come to him, from whom, being present, he would take cog­nizance [Page 28] of the whole matter. They earnestly write back a­gain, That it was not for them to lay crimes to any ones charge but they believed it was a part of his duty, rightly and truly [...] have informed his Prince, but whether he had so done or not, the imminent danger, if they should be silent, would speak; and they hoped, that their Births and Merits would gain no lesse credit [...] their betters, than their words; but now chiefty, when the absen [...] of Governours from their Charges could not be well admitted.

The King was much moved at these lines, but finding necessary a little to yield, he sends secretly to Grannell (whom now these fore-going passages began to vex, partly a [...] a by-stander, and partly as being guilty to himself of the deadly hatred of the people towards him) commanding him to depart into Burgundy, whither he was ordered to retire for avoyding the danger of his life so much fought and layd wait for by his enemies. And a long time after, he kept all the Netherlands, or the greatest part, in fear of his return, but few joyning with him in his hopes, till at length, either by Command, or his own free will, he went to Rome. There they who hitherto had been kept out of office, were, at the Request of the Regent Margaret, recalled in the Senate of Assembly, and that they might give some proofs of them­selves, they begin with all diligence to advise and take no­tice of choice things; of others there was no great need. And the praise and thanks of dissembling their Crimes, was so much the greater towards them, by how much he would divert them from the sense of their evill, so that now, acting wholly as Victors, they had taken all things into their own hands, whether belonging to publick accounts, or to the Law, saying, it was the Soveraign pleasure of the Senate, and that to it all the other Assemblies ought their Service and Obedience.

But how many faults do attend where some few bear the Sway, and in how little time do they grow ripe? The Kings Revenew neglected, the Authority of the Law among po­tent [Page 29] discords laid aside, the greatest Crimes and villanies unpunished, Honours given for favour, either much done through ambition, by such as coveted the praise of all, or else evils, never to be remedied, overcharge the Credit of the great ones; They dissembled less in point of Religion, main­taining it was better taught by perswasion than compulsion, till at length they found, what they supposed as remedies, proved rather food to nourish the Disease: But when they granted this in favour of the People, whether it were out of their own disposition averse from cruelty, or that they suspe­cted under the veil of the Inquisition, that there lay hid sla­very or danger to the valiantest men, I will not undertake to discover: But this is most evident, that they themselves did not depart from the Ceremonies of the Church of Rome, and he who was the chief in all these Consultations, in his own Principality of Aurange, would suffer nothing in matters of Religion to be changed. Besides this, and for other weighty Causes, Egmond was sent into Spain, to pry into the Kings nature and affections, and is there received with so much Honour, and such high Gifts, as no man before him ever had the like.

Here Philip protests much of affection to the Netherlan­ders, and that he may prevent any desire of his return to them again, he sayes, he hath resolved in himself for the Turkish Warre, and likewise gave him some hope, that he would moderate the rigour of the Sentence, and Edict of the Bishops; least either by severity or impunity, he might pro­voke the Secturies licentiousness, whereas in truth he intend­ed to make it far more strict: For when first he came into Spain, and found there many, and some of the chief, of the Covent of St. Isidore, to think otherwise than they ought of the received Rites and Doctrine, he was not onely content to have commanded into the fire, Learned men and noble Women, but rejoyced to see the same; with the terrour whereof, having appeased the discords there, he believed [Page 30] either the sloth or timidity of his Judges hindred, if not en­vyed him the like success in the Netherlands; And at this time Elizabeth his Wife, Sister of Charles King of France being sent, together with the Duke of Alva, to [...]ajon, whe­ther the same Charles and his Mother Medicos, met at a Con­ference, for rooting out innovators and disturbers of Religi­on, he bound himself by some private Covenants, to be as­sistant equally therein: The like League was made between Henry and Philip, after the Peace of Cambray, and this being by the imprudence of Henry, discovered to the Prince of Orenge in his Embassy into France, as he was by chance [...] hunting, made him often assert with Protestations, that he onely feared those Counsels which were concealed,

Egmond was scarce returned, full of his vain hope, but the Kings Letters immediately followed, cruelly commanding the Inquisitors to execute judgement upon violators, and no­velties in Religion, adding certain other Assistants to the number of the Judges; and though Viglius, and many with him, perswaded the contrary, presently they were published, to the great trouble of all mens mindes, and shortly after, were the Decrees of the Councel of Trent put forth: by whom nothing being amended, either in Doctrine or Cere­monies, some whole Nations separated and fell off from the Church of Rome; onely there was a Decree made for re­formation of Priests Lives and Manners, wherewith indeed they were offended, but never cured. And truly in the Ne­therlands, those mens lives were most vicious, who being ad­mitted into the Sacred Order of Priesthood, got nothing thereby but the name and Revenues, yet were these men most fierce for the publishing of these Decrees, which in some places were obeyed, but with exception underwritten to which Philip had consented, that they should not derogate from any mans right, which was added, by reason of Patrona­ges of Churches, and bounds of Jurisdictions.

[Page 31]But the Brabanders, with one free consent, went further: First, their Cities, and afterwards the Senate or States of their Nation, did Declare, That this Custome of the Inquisi­tion, insensibly creeping in daily in a high manner into their Coun­tries, was against the Law, by which all their Judgments should be directed, and which should set Bounds to the Priesthood wherein they should walk. The Constancy of these, was followed by others; but especially the Common People were infinitely perplexed, with the Terrible Rumour of the Spanish Inquisi­tion, whose Authority with the King, though manifest, and its Usage and Example in all Kingdoms how profitable, and though commended by the French, yet the Name of it in the Netherlands, with great Regret of Spirit, was abominated: There were, who at this time wrote to the King, the whole Sum of this Discipline, which he, under the Name of Here­sie, gave hearing to, with an evil Will, least he should in any manner give Credit, to a thing so profane and detest­able, however glosed over by those malitious People. Here, by the Industry of the Prince of Aurange, were excited George Cassander, and Francis Balduin of Artoyes, Men well skilled in Antiquity, and that perswaded to Moderation: There is of this Mans extant, an eloquent Oration, desiring the free use of that Religion, who now, by being grown strong, could not be esteemed a Disturber of the Peace, with whose Interest such a Liberty would be consistent, as well as with that of Commerce: The Pope having, in these inferior things, to the very Jews given leave to purchase Impunity, for the Exercise of their Religious Rites: But all these things pro­ving of no effect, some for fear of punishment, others desi­rous of novelty, cast out ambiguous and doubtful Speeches, send abroad Libels, the onely Allurements of the Vulgar; and, as a thing indifferent, there being no War to retain the Assertors of the German Religion: The Romane Superstition is again thrown out of England; as also, by the Danes and Swedes: Nor in France do Slaughters pass unrevenged, [Page 32] where not being able to bear the cruel Natures of those who Tyrannized over them, they Resolved openly, to defen [...] their Safety, either by Peace or Warre, there being no other Mediums for their Liberty: For certainly, there is nothing can more strictly oblige the People to their Duty, than the Prince to a moderate and just Government.

By making use of these Alterations, the Minds of the No­bles were confirmed, who already judged themselves in their own Thoughts, to stand condemned in the Kings; and some of them being married to Women, that were Forraigners well by Countrey, as by Religion; as the Prince of Aurange to a Saxon, and Count Horn to a Nionarian, gave the Cr [...] ­dulous King also from thence also cause of Suspition, which they were not insensible of; because the King had already shewed his Dislike, against the new power of the Senat [...] which they had introduced and assumed. And therefore that they might the better strengthen their Cause, by the As­sistance of the Vulgar, they endeavour to quiet Religion and if they cannot firm a publike Peace, at least to settle Domestike One, they making the fear of the ensuing Mis­chiefs so much the greater, by how much the rest did under valuingly sleight them, they endeavour to hide these Practi­ces, under the Notion of Civil Disturbances, which they also themselves were partly the cause of; or else by these means they hoped to move the King: however, they doubted not in these Novelties of Assistance, if not out of Love to them yet out of Envy to the Spanish Greatness. Departing there­fore from the Senate, as if they had fore-seen Commotions, which they were unable to help, now under pretence of So­lemnizing Marriages; another time, intermingling Festiv Societies, to make them seem the more solemn, they gather­ed together, and obliged to them many, either by the Ties of Bloud, or the Obligations of Friendship. But long it was not, ere the main matter, at which all these things aimed, burst out; for after it was perceived, that there were many [Page 33] which looked that way, while they sollicite much both the Commander and Souldier, find fault that a Woman should be chief in Authority, disswade the States and Governours of Cities from Cruelty, and to suffer patiently. Many other Noble men, but all wi [...] [...] any Government or Command, among whom were some of the Romane Religion, made a [...], which was drawn up by one Marnye, against the In­ [...]sition, wherein they promised to aid and assist one another, [...] any of them should thereby be questioned, or brought into [...]nger; And that it might not be unknown upon what main strength they relyed, among the Leaders of that Faction, the most eminent was Lewis of Nassau, Brother to the Prince of Aurange, an open Dissentor from the Romane Profession. So [...] now it was no difficult matter to understand, that al­though the reall and greatest Heads of the Faction, did not yet appear, yet to judge who they were, that, when time should serve, would uphold them, whose Interest and Autho­rity, in the mean while, was a sure Safeguard to all Preten­ders for the rest, against the bitter Invectives and Tyranny of [...]hose, who by Arms would endeavour to stifle or suppress this growing Rebellion.

There joyned with the before-named Lewis, the Counts of Herenburgh, and Culemburgh, and Henry Brederode, of an [...]ntient Family of the greatest Nobility of Holland, and ge­nerally beloved of the People, whose hopes were blown up too high, and were vain and incertain, unless more had ap­peared.

These, accompanied with Four Hundred Confederates, the fifth Day of April, 1566. came all unarmed to the Court of [...]ruxels, where then the Prince of Aurange, & the rest, scarce­ly intreated by the Lady Margaret the Regent, to return [...]hither, had taken their Places and were sitting: These were their Desires (for so they called them) That the King's Edicts concerning Religion, might, by the Order of the States of the Netherlands, be changed, and that they would acquiesce till it, [Page 34] could be done. The one of which, when the Regent promise she would recommend to the King, and protested the other not in her power; they urged the same with an earnestne [...] rather befitting Judges or Justices who had power of Com­mand, than Petitioners, who knew to [...] [...]rate their Zeal w [...] Temperance. Then first was heard of that name of Guise, [...] ­terwards no less famous than those of Protestants and H [...] ­gonets, when therefore some had cast into the Teeth of the Confederates, their broken and decaid Fortunes, they not the king notice of the happy Fortune of that Name, but whol­led by Honour, confirmed their Faith to the King, to sta [...] by him, even to the hazard of their Estates: Which thing being now evident to the whole World, there were various Consultations both in Spain and the Netherlands: Of the [...] who were attendant upon the Councels and Person of t [...] Lady Margaret, some reputed those Requests, or rather De­mands of the Confederate Nobles, to be just: Others thought them onely necessary: But some of the Great Ones, who be­gan to suspect the Cruelty of the King's Intentions toward them, without any Dissembling, demanded Pledges for the Security, and to prevent the fear of suffering punishment which otherwise might happen to be the cause of a War and if these things were denied, they having under the Commands most valiant People of several Nations, a [...] likewise some Troops of Natives, which would prove the main Props of the War, would not draw a Sword in Defend of those Laws, by which the Citizens being slain by each o­thers hand, should fall onely for the pleasure and advantage of the Spaniards.

After many several Letters sent to the King, at last John Montigniac the Brother of Count Horn, and John Marquess of Berghen op Zome, glad of the Honour of their Embassie, that they might clear themselves of the former, and take them­selves off from the future Troubles, came to him; who, trou­bled every day with fresh Messengers, and bad News, di [...] [Page 35] often advise with the chief of those Spaniards, who had been in the Netherlands, and of the Senate there, what was best to be done.

The Form of Laws (wherein was contained, that Mi­nisters teaching Heretical Doctrine, Receivers and Abettora of Conventicles, and such as by their evil Examples, had done great harm to the Publike, should suffer Death, either by the Halter or Sword, and the rest either abjure their Errours, or fly▪) of which, amendment and moderation was desired, and transmitted from the States, was altogether unpleasing, be­cause he was more careful of his own Dignity, than fearful of any Danger, in that he would not seem to be compelled by Threatnings, to grant such things as were contrary to his Nature and Will: But hitherto he seemed to bear there­with, that the Authority of the Bishops might be well set­led, whose Duty it was, if any Trouble should happen, dili­gently to take care to prevent the same; otherwise, by the Pope's express Command, they were not, without Order, to meddle further. He refused to grant any Pardon, without Examination of the Cause; and unless he might with more Severity, take notice of the Confederacy, than those times would bear, though formerly he would willingly have grant­ed them more; yet he promised they should partake both of his Presence and Climency: But to call a General Meet­ing of the States, though the Cities most faithful and Loyal to him desired, the whole Netherlanders perswaded, his Sister urged, and without which it was almost impossible for him to keep his Government there, he most obstinately denied, rather commanding them to take Arms; and the easier and more readily to raise an Army, to take the Germans into pre­sent Pay. Adding moreover, That he doubted not, but th [...] as his Father had often had Experience of the Fidelity of the Dutch Nobles, so he should likewise find them ready and obedient to him, desiring onely to put in Execution, the Laws made by his Father: For though any man may dissent in O­pinion, [Page 36] yet still the Decision and Judgment thereof is left to the Prince, and Obedience onely to the Subjects. But o [...] the contrary, they had so brought it about, that no Force could be raised, by laying open the Poverty of the Treasu­ries; and if there were any gotten together, the Confederate Noble-man anticipated the same; giving out also, that For­reign Souldiers on all hands offered to serve under them Which Rumour, as it was spread to terrifie the other Party so was it altogether dissonant to the Truth. For they re­check the Haughty and Tyrannical Humour of Philip, boast­ed, that they had both the Strength and Wealth of some of their Neighbors, who, either in Point of Religion, were of the same Mind with them, or very little differing, to ass [...] them, by which means they proceeded at Home, both with greater Surety and Safety.

Now of those who denied the Authority of the Pope, there were three sorts in the Netherlands; the Anabaptists, whereof many were in Frizeland, and the Neighbouring Parts, were not greatly to be feared, by reason of their rash­ness, and infinite Disorders amongst themselves; as also, be­cause they did renounce both Magistracy and Arms: But that Profession, which received its Name from Luther, and the Augustane Synod, was maintained and upheld by the [...] king and favour of many of the German Princes, and a certain Form of Law: Now because the Emperour Charles had ta­ken these his Netherlands into the German League, and tha [...] this Part had upheld the Majesty of his Empire; there were that said, that the Settlement of Religion was also included which may be easily answer'd thus; That although the Ne­therlands might participate with Germany, both in Tribute and Immunities; yet it was very well known, that for man Ages last past, they were neither subject to their Laws, no [...] the Decrees of their Synods: Not much differing from this Doctrine, there is another, illustrated chiefly by the Ingenuity of Zuinglius, and Calvin, and now for some time growing [Page 37] up together with the Augustane; unless it may be said of Religions, that they are all made more subject to Obstinacy in Opinion, or Singularity, rather than Concord: That (to wit, of Zuinglius) part of Germany and Switzerland follow; but the other of Calvin, onely the famous City of Geneva, within the Dukedom of Savoy allows of: The same was also used in England, different onely in the Retention of some of the antient Rites; but the main and violent Followers of this Sect were in France; nor did the rest come near them in number: and therefore, both those and these, to wit, Zuing­lians and Calvinists, judged this new Ordinance proposed by Philip, no less cruel, than he himself esteemed it mild▪ There was too another Complaint, that in stead of the desired Meet­ings of the States General, the Judgments of the several Pro­vinces were separately required, and that too but partially, not of all, not after the accustomed manner: In which Com­motions, while the Regent expected further Orders from the King, and either to receive from him Souldiers, or Money to levy Souldiers, hoping Delays would blow over, or else mi­tigate the greatness of the Danger; behold, on the contrary, the Vulgar, who till now had been frighted with the noise of Fire and Sword, begin now to affright others. They come out of their Corners, and appear in publike: they Celebrate their Devotions, and preach after the new Mode, as if they would publikely convince their Enemies of those Lies, wherewith they had slandered their private Meetings; Ex­iles also, and such as had been persecuted onely for Reli­gion, of whom there were not a few, even weary of their Lives, joyned with Straglers and Fugitives from Monaste­ries: So that now there did appear a Formidable Multitude and so great, beyond Expectation, that those who had fre­quented and used their Meetings, could hardly believe the same.

This over-much assumed Liberty confirmed their Presum­ption; for now, if at any time they fear Danger, they go [Page 38] Armed: All which Rabble, the Confederate Nobles receive into their Protection, and arm them, as the common Vogue was, but that is not always infallible. And not long after, a great Sedition began of the Rascality of the People, but by whose Instigation is uncertain, wherein were seen many known Thieves: This is not medling with Towns or Fields, invades the Churches, where onely the Altars and their Furnitures, with the Shrines of Saints, went to wrack; re­sembling herein the like Commotions of the Jews, and alto­gether imitating that Barbarous Tempest of Image-hate [...] that over-ran Greece; for their Savage Rudeness did not ab­stain from the Persons of Priests, and Religious Men, but vented it self further on their Books and Sepulchres; as if in this so suddain a Rebellion (for other it cannot be called) there had been one general Agreement, to set all the Nether­lands into a Combustion: in some places the Magistrates by either Civil or Armed Authority hardly prevailing: Onely the Inhabitants of Antoyes, Heynault, Luxemburgh, and those adjoyning to them, kept their Faith and Allegiance, both to the Romane Church, and the King, unspotted and un­tainted, in the midst of this Horrid Contagion.

In some places, the Magistrates, to prevent the Licention Fury of the People, did first begin to remove and take away Images; to some of whom boasting of their Service, Viglim said very ingeniously, That they too were mad but with a shew of Reason.

Many things which were thus stollen from Churches, the Teachers urged, might be restored, but without any effect to the great Scandal of their Religion, which by these mean had contracted new Infamy.

The Lady Margaret, in this great Perturbation of Affairs, being vehemently affrighted, was not able now so well to obey the King's Commands, who, though too late, had heard all these things at a distance, in regard of the imminent dan­ge, because she was forced to give place to the Times, and [Page 39] submit to the Counsels of the Confederate Lords; without whose Authority, they could not endure to hear of any thing.

At length therefore, though with much Reluctancy, she was drawn to this; that she promised the Lords, that none of those former Actions should be drawn into question. They, now one, now another, as long as they could have any Secu­rity, renounced the League, under this condition, That all that slighted the Name of the Romish Religion, or moderating thereof, should not be de [...]ied Pardon. And now, while the Peo­ple lay aside their Arms and Faults together, they are allow­ed to have Sermons in those places, which even till that time, they had had for their Instruction; and the Edicts were laid aside, until the King and the States should take other Order in that behalf. Presently Messengers were sent to se­veral places, to prohibite any further Force, who did affirm, they had obtained this by Treaty, which in truth they extort­ed by violence.

First, the Prince of Aurange sent to Antwerp, being th [...]n troubled with a dangerous Sedition; where, having obtained the Name of Viscount, or Sheriff, as due unto him from his Predecessors, he quickly brought that most strong City to his own Will, where not so much minding the necessity of the time, as to shun the Regents displeasure, he caused not onely the new Discipline, but Sermons also to cease; not onely in the Fields, as in other Places but within the very Walls. The same also did Count Horn, and others, whose Brother being now returned out of Spain, related unto him the Kings im­placable Anger: But the Letters sent to the Lady Marga­ret, and by them surprized, troubled them beyond measure, they being thereby destined to Accusation and Destructions whereupon they all meet to counsel at Dendremond, where Count Egmond was the chief man looked upon, as being well-skilled in Warlike Affairs, and well-beloved of the Souldiery.

[Page 40]But he, whether allured by fair promises, or mindfull of his duty, affirmed he would not in any thing be wanting in his Allegiance to his Prince, let him do what he would, but would rather seek to appease his mind with good Counsel and wipe away former errors by future fidelity. Unwise man that would not take notice, that when great things, in disobe­dience to Princes, are begun with danger, after the first set­ting out, the [...] of reward and safety, is in going on, for revenge attends every step backward; But the Prince of Aurange had a more prudent foresight, for seeing these begun undertakings failed, he writ Letters to the King, humbly desiring, that he permit to lay down all Offices, and that he might betake himself to peace and rest in some pri­vate part of Germany.

To whom Philip craftily sent answer, (and how far will deceit prevail under the mask of simplicity?) intreating him, that he would not now desert him, while his Affairs were in such an unsetled Estate, and when there was most need of his help; withall advising him, that he should for a time send away from him his Brother, who was suspected of innovation in Religion, untill all things should be better con­sidered off. But Aurange the more crafty and subtle of the two, still urges for Licence to depart, and in the mean time, going back into the places under his own Government, for­bidding all severity, and to prevent his surprise of the fortifi­cations within those Provinces, by forreign Souldiers that might to that end be provided, under the pretence of liberty, he by his single industry and policy, stirred up all the valiant and couragious people to be at his Command.

1567. He set forth also in writing, the Counsel which he had given to the King, to this effect, That unless he gave Toleration to these Religions, which the Neighbouring Nations had granted as necessary, it would be a matter of dangerous consequence: for at the best, his Conquest would be attended with great mischief, in ex­hausting the wealth, and destroying the people of the Country.

[Page 41]But Count Horne retreated to his own home, and there betook himself to a private life. These thus dispersed, the Regent, easily perceiving whence at first these perturbations did arise, betook her self to Viglius his former Counsels, which had been slighted, to wit, to break the connexion and band which was between the Lords, and the better and infe­riour sort of the people; which she brought to passe, either by her self or others, with them that so receded, first by cavil­ling, by and by more openly, as if she had been terrified thereby, would cast out the falling away of others; for no sooner was she advertised by the private order of the Judges, that they had proceeded against the persons who had committed Sacriledge in the tumult before mentioned, who had gone beyond words against the publick rites, even to the taking up of Arms, the rest, knowing themselves not able to go through with the management of their cause, and like­wise that they differed among themselves in point of Religi­on, broke up their strength. Nor did the confederate Lords, either by hope or fear, divided among themselves, lesse be­tray the Weal-publick: for Conscience a little accusing for their evill deeds, some of them running over and submitting, obtained Pardon; others disswade the gathering of Taxes, and levying Bands of Souldiers, as things not fit for private men to undertake; another sort, while thus every one was mind­ing his own particular, are forgotten by all. And now, for the better maintaining the peace of the State, the Regent, be­side the German Souldiers, under the Command of Ericus of Brunswick, commanded another Regiment of Walloons to be forthwith raised; for by that name, the people in that part of the Netherlands, which borders upon France, are called, and are distinguished from the others, by the use of the French Tongue, and beside, are more valiant, and not so dull-witted as the rest; And that she might the better choose able Com­manders over them, she caused them to take an Oath, to that purpose contrived, that they should take all persons without [Page 42] exception, for enemies, whom the King should so de­clare.

This Oath was taken by Count Egmond, Charles Arscot of Croya, a person quite unconcerned in the former troubles. Charles Baylaymont and his Brothers; the Counts Peter Mans­field, Governour of Lutzenburgh, Count Megem, Governour of Gelderland, Count Aremberg, Governour of Frizeland, and the Count of Noricum, that in Henault held the place of the Marquess of Berghen: And quickly did they begin to make the truth of their Oath appear by their actions; Eg­mond infesting those in Flanders, the safeguard of whom he had undertaken.

The Count of Noricum marcheth against Valenciennes, where were others of the Rebels, and by Siege forcing them to sur­render, punished them with great severity: by which ex­amples terrified, the best and greatest Cities, the troubles being thus for a time ended, received their appointed Garri­son, the rest destroying and slaughtering all the remains of those mad people, that they could find any where together: onely the Prince of Aurange and Hochstraten, denyed to change their old Oath, by which they were obliged to de­fend the King and Laws, for any other; Aurange adding further, that his Wife was one of that number, which by that Oath were destined to destruction.

While these things were in agitation, the Spaniards (as they can see when they have an opportunity) did not slug­gishly manage that happy occasion. And first, while the danger was yet scarcely removed, it was agreed almost on all hands, that the Presence and Majesty of the Prince would be very available for the quieting and composing of all par­ties; the most faithfull and loyall among all the Netherlan­ders, telling and assuring, that if the King should send ano­ther, and not come himself, it would produce more hate and lesse obedience; which the Emperour Charles, the Kings Father, well knew, when upon a small disturbance, onely in [Page 43] the City of Gaunt, he made no delay to come thither imme­diately, though at that time France even yet breathed out Warre against him; But now a great deal of time was wast­ed in vain and frivolous Discourses, which was the safest way for him to passe by, for they suspected France would hardly afford him passage either with or without any Army, and a Voyage by Sea was not judged fit, in regard of the many certain hazards thereof, besides his landing in Zeland might be doubted, for they could nor tell how far either the Prince of Aurange, or the English might attempt upon his person. Therefore the Resolution was, that he passe over into Liguria, and thence into Germany, and there to speak with the Emperour, and to try his pulse.

The Emperour then was Maximilian, the Son of Ferdi­nand, who upon consideration had of the Dutch Affaires, said, that unless Philip would in some measure give place to the present necessity of the times, it would be a dangerous un­dertaking for him, by reason of the Princes of the Augusta [...] Confession, that were bound to the Dutch Lords by many tyes of friendship, allyance and benefits; but if any way of moderation might be proposed, he offered himself as a Peace­maker between them; but this was somewhat ill resented, as Augustus Elector of Saxony said, who was very great in Cae­sars favour, and allied to the Prince of Aurange by his Bro­thers Daughter.

Letters now are sent to the Lady Margaret, which decla­red the Kings approach, but not without an Army, for so it befitted his Majesty to keep up his Dignity among strangers; as also either, by the terror thereof, to appease all tumults, or if any durst stand to contest with him, that then he was pre­pared for the future, not to receive, but to give Lawes. And indeed a little time made it manifest, that the Spaniards not content that they were quiet, began to look back for revenge, by making th [...] Kings anger the meanes to compass their pri­vate ends and advantages, for they offered as a pretence for [Page 44] enslaving the Dutch, that they were all to be looked upon as Traytors, either because they had began those novel mis­chiefs in Church and State, or else because they had not brought the persons that durst do such things unto condigne punishment; There are also that add, the Authority of an Oath formerly made by the Pope to Philip, when underta­king the Government, he bound himself up to the Lawes, that the Netherlands should be governed as America, and the greatest part of Italy were; And the great credit given to the Duke of Alva's Counsels (who was no new fomenter of Tyranny) made all men believe, that unless so horrid an Ex­ample of Rebellion were signally corrected with some re­markable punishments, that it would cause others of his Sub­jects to kick off their Allegiance, and therefore that not only the present force, but fear of like reward should keep them within their bounds: Nor was this so fit time of subjecting the Netherlands to be lost or neglected, for all the King­doms lying round about, do faithfully observe the peace they have made with him, and if there were any thought of troubles, it was domestick, and arise at home.

Thus were they over-ruled, who perswaded Peace and mo­deration, Prince Charles the Son of Philip, offering his endea­vour for the pacifying and ruling the Netherlands, but so much in vain, that it did prove to his harm, by encreasing those suspitions before conceived against him. At last, it was declared, the King having retired, as if upon matters of grea­ter concernment, or else upon pretence that he might not be in danger, that the Duke of Alva should be sent thither with most ample Authority, nor is it to be doubted with what In­structions, he being a man alwayes used to Warre and Blood­shed, to whom being in Italy, the Messengers reported the Companies of old Spanish Souldiers from Naples, Scicily, Sar­dinia, and Millaine, to be joyned with the Horse; the Prince of Aurange not thinking it fit to stay any longer, goes to Nassau, being then possessed by his Brother, protesting o­penly [Page 45] at his departure, before a great multitude of people that followed him, that he would not stir one foot further in this difference, unless he were assaulted or damnified.

In whose absence, the Lady Regent commanded Maxi­milian, Earl of Bossu, to take charge of his Lieutenancies. Brederode, when he had fortified what was his, and hovered about Ʋtrecht, near the Rhene and Amsterdam, two very wealthy Cities, (the Prince of Aurange favouring his first attempts) either by an under-hand assistance, or deceit, is shortly after forcibly driven out of the Country.

Egmond, and some other meaner Lords, whose minds and fortunes could not suffer banishment, were led about with the hope of living, till they were brought to their ends un­timely; but most of the Nobles, and many of the Commo­nalty, for fear of the Spaniard, (though part of them fearing punishment returned, being not prepared to fly for Religion) went some into the next parts of Germany, some into Eng­land, and some into farther distant Countries: the Regent, enforcing them by one Edict to fly, commands them by ano­ther to stay. So that they being voluntarily departed, who were displeased at the present carriage of Affairs, and other matters, by the notable cunning of a Woman set in order, there was a setled Peace, such, as if nothing further had been coveted, might have longer continued.

The second Book of the Dutch Annals.

1568.BUT the Duke of Alva, retarded somewhat by his Disease, but more by the exceeding cold­ness of the Alps, at last being past Savoy, reached Burgundy, by a Journey not onely tedious and [Page 46] troublesome, but accompanied with great wants; but there was some satisfaction for the same, by the present amend­ment of his quarters here, by whose pleasantness and delight his Army was well increased; which, notwithstanding there were therein above eight thousand men, he kept in a mo [...] orderly and strict Discipline; The Spaniards then being first shewed the way, through so great a Continent of Land. After this he met with no kind of stop, as far as Lutzemburg [...] the chief of whose Governours, he had (the King being not wholly ignorant thereof) drawn to his party, for the better upholding the strength of that broken and disjoynted Domi­nion. At this time, as if it had been by agreement, Warres broke out in France, the King having levyed and taken into pay certain Companies of Switzers, under pretence of sus­pecting some soul play upon his Borders. And the truth is, Alva's Army had been scouring the places thereabout, of all such as took part with, and upheld that new Religion so much hated by them.

All this while, there was not a Netherlander stirred, whe­ther out of an extraordinary Panick fear, or too great Securi­ty, is doubtful, to resist or withstand this furious Invasion; for though coming as a Generall in Warre unto a quiet People, he was received by the concourse of the People, not seeming at all discontented; for at the beginning, he took to himself no other Title, untill Margaret, weary of this empty shadow of troublesom honour, and thought also to have done much harm to the Government, by her feminine imbecillity; and so much the rather, because she had by po­lite and well composed Letters, presaging many of the fu­ture evills, disswaded the sending of Alva with an Army; by her departure thence, wholly left the Regency of the Ne­therlands to his care and ordering, none now doubting, but he would now make himself a Magistrate contrary to those Laws, by whose rule, and with whose safety he could not at­tain thereto; It being provided therein, cautiously from an­tiquity, [Page 47] that none but a Netherlander, or a Prince of the blood, could take that upon him.

The first Experiment of his Tyrannizing Authority, was shewed upon Egmond and Horn, who being by Policy wrought to come in [...]o the Court, were apprehended, and put into Custody; and when they demanded the Priviledge of the Golden Fleece, to be judged onely by the Companions of that Order, their Peers, it was not onely denied to them, but they were sent out of Brabant with a strict Guard, con­trary to the Rights and Liberties granted even to the meanest of the Commons: And, from this time, Garrisons were set in the prime Cities of the Netherlands, which consisted chief­ly of Spaniards, who were almost the onely men thereof; for other Souldiers were made use of onely in times of danger, and upon extraordinary occasions: Nay further, the Troops of Horse, which were mostly made up of the Netherlandish Gentry, having some Spaniards thrust in amongst them, were sent into France, under the Leading of Count Aremberg, that by a present Supply, they might confirm the League made with King Charles: In the interim, the Castles are begun to be filled, with unarmed and peaceable Citizens; and which was most grievous to them of all, was, That their Thraldom was made use of, to raise Monies for supply of their Enemies Expences and Charges: When Things had proceed­ed thus far without any gain-saying, there were almost Twelve Judges, the greatest part of them Spaniards, the rest but Servants to them, and in that regard, as cruel, if not worse then they, appointed to call before them all such as had any any hands in the late Commotions, or but seemed to wink thereat, and to punish them as they saw fit; not in the least manner taking notice of them, who, by the Laws of the Coun­try, had a Jurisdiction proper thereunto: And this very Thing, of enjoying the Judicial Power, and consequently, that of Life and Death, was the main prop of their Authori­ty; which adding a Majesty to the Religion before violated, [Page 48] Recriminations, as hateful to good Princes, as they are com­modious to Tyrants, urge, That all Guilty Persons should be p [...] out of the Protection of the Law, and that onely the Cruelty [...] Alva's Name might be sufficient almost to convince them. Th [...] strictness of the Guards, set upon the Guilty Persons, wa [...] the cause of the Death of very many People; so that every place carryed the Resemblance of a City sacked, and taken by the Sword: For there were not onely Armies, but by rea­son of the Troubles, many sought Refuge, and here put in practice their ill-boding Counsels: Here also were some earnestly labouring for Honour; and others, on the other side, by all means avoiding it, while the slaughter of the Nobles, and all others, whose Wealth or Authority grieved them, made great Additions by their Deaths to the Authority, and by their Fortunes, to the Treasury and Prey of the Spa­niards: And the truth is, Alva never dissembled his Inten­tions; for from the very first, he protested, with great Threats, suitable to the Cruelty of his Nature, that a few Sal­mons Heads were of more worth than many Thousands of little Fishes; Thus after a new Mode, making use of that old Sentence, which teaches, to strengthen a Kingdom, by taking away some of the Heads of the chiefest Common-wealths Men.

All the Mischiefs which had intervened here, since the first Breach with Granvel, unto this time, were now objected against Egmond and Horn, together with a shrewd Suspition of a Conspiracy, between them and the Prince of Aurange, to throw the King, by Force, out of his Dominion over the Ne­therlands, and then to divide them among themselves. These two, that by all mens confession, were most eminent men, and as well Renowned by their Actions, as the Nobility of their Birth, at Bruxels, after Divine Service, according to the Ro­mane manner, had been performed, in the publike place of Execution, yielded their Necks to the Sword of the Heads­man, and their Heads for a while after fixed upon Poles, was to the Dutch both a lamentable and terrible Spectacle; and [Page 49] although the Souldiers every where about in Arms, watched but for an Opportunity from the Words, and almost Looks of the People; yet they bearing the same deeply in Mind, the pity of all, but the Revenge of the more valiant, be­came setled, when the Solemnities of their Funerals were Celebrated, and their very Coffins washed with the Tears and Kisses of an incredible Multitude of the common Peo­ple, while others, after the old manner of Mourning, in a vowed Habit, promise and swear, Never to cut their Hair, untill they had revenged the Blood of those Noble-men.

The Prince of Aurange, with many others, are cited by a Proclamation to appear; and because being absent, and out of their reach, he laughed at their Threats of Punishment; all his Goods are confiscated, and his Son which was bred up at Levain, in the Study of the Arts, is seized upon, and carried Prisoner into Spain.

It was a very sad thing to take notice of the Desolation and Wast that was here made, partly by Slaughters, and partly by Flight: Some few, whose exceeding Poverty would not bear out their Banishment, retired into the Woods, and there hiding themselves, where they lived like Salvages upon the daily Spoils committed upon Priests, not taking Notice of the Magistrates, who came to suppress them by Force, but robbing and killing them, as they could find advantage; un­til at last they were destroyed and driven away by the greater and more powerful strength of Alva: So also, at the Rivers Maze and Rhene, a few unadvised persons being scatteredly met together, and having sworn the Dukes death, at the very first Rencounter, were all overcome and slain: And to cut off all thoughts of hope, the Messengers and Curriers from Spain brought word, that then was nothing of moderation more to be expected from the King than from Alva, for that a publike punishment was there inflicted upon Montaigne, who was sent thi­ther, in vain bearing with him the Name of an Embassador as to Enemies, which among all Nations is sacred, and not to be vio­lated; [Page 50] for it was not thought fit for Subjects, to treat or deal with their Prince after such a manner, and so positively denied. The Marquess of Berghen, by a seasonable Death, prevented to himself the like Fate, though not without Suspition of Poy­son: But the very Thoughts of such a thing was condemned as a Crime, because Alva had a hand therein.

There was about the same time a louder, though more my­stical Rumour of the Death of Charles the Kings Son: It was evident, that he, though the Heir of so many Great King­doms, was put into Ward; whether his too much forward­ness in his Youth, had raised a Suspition of him, that he was ambitious of Rule, as if his Care for the Netherlanders had been too great for his Interest there; or whether the same Crime were laid to his Charge, which had taken off his Step-Mother, is uncertain: But this is sure, that shortly after he died, though still very dubious, what Causes could so provoke the Fathers Wrath to that heighth, as to work his Sonne death.

The Exiles, who now, though at distance, were every where against their Wills, and in Poverty, being much grie­ved at the Oppression of their Country, did earnestly sollicies the Prince of Aurange to take up Arms, which of his own accord, he was not at all propense to do; willing rather, the the Spaniard should over-un all, until all his Counsels were laid open, and there might be hoped a more safe Opportunity for the Distressed to gather and unite a Force, while the King should, for the most part, be taken up with other Wars. Nevertheless, some of the Exiles, at present, being drawn together, under the Leading of Lewis of Nass [...] brake into Frizeland: There, by the Death of Arembery there slain, whom the heat and reviling of his Souldiers com­p [...]lled to fight (though he thought it more Prudence [...] weary them out by Delays) by the Rout and Overthrow his Forces, became Conquerours; but staying, with a fruitle [...] Expectation of some Towns falling off to them, their Mo [...]e [...]fell [Page 51] short for the Souldiers Pay, so that all Discipline was neglected, when suddaintly by the Surprize of Alva, they were almost all slain, Adolph, the Prince of Aurange his Bro­ther, and Lewis his also, being killed in the former Skirmish, they had tincted the War alternately, both with their own, and their Enemies Bloud.

The Prince of Aurange, being throughly moved with this Carriage of Affairs, that he might be the better able to relieve his Parties, both by strength, and the Justice of their Govern­ment, he sets forth in Books a Narrative, the Reasons, Causes, and Justice, of their taking up Arms; refuting, at once, both the Judge, and the Crimes objected against him; not dissem­bling, That now being taught better things, he had l [...]ft the Church of Rome; yet calling God to Witness, That he took Arms for the Publike Weal, and freeing his Countrey from Sla­very: That this was the Duty of every good Citizen, much more of a Noble-man: Of Philip he spoke honourably, whose Goodness (he said) was perverted by the Spanish Counsels; and that he did not yet despair, but that he would, at length, resume better thoughts of his faithful Subjects, and uphold their sworn and setled Laws. In the mean while, according to the Law of Brabant, in regard of his many Errours in Government, O­bedience was due unto him, as to their Soveraign. Lastly, that which seems to make most for the Justice of their Cause, was this; The Brabanders, as they had a more special and wary care than the rest, for the maintaining their Liberty; so likewise to prevent the Incroachm [...]nt of their Princes, who, under pretence of the Publike, did not stick som [...]times, to break up and dissolve their State-Conventions; they used to Covenant of their own proper Right, that when any Prince infringed the Laws, they should be free from the Bonds of their Fidelity and Obedience to him un­till the Wrongs so done should be removed and satisfied. And this confirmed by many Examples of their Ancestors, who when formerly some of their Princes, either through their own weakness, or the Delusions of Flatterers, had been drawn [Page 52] away, they drew to more moderation (among whom the most remarkable was, John the Second of that Name) ei­ther by Force, or strong Decrees, by them drawn up; which, before they would conclude any Peace, they made the Princes freely promise, That they would without any violation confirm and establish the same. Now, the Prince of Aurange, though born in Germany, yet had obtained many most Noble Heri­ditary Jurisdictions in Brabant; to the Lords, or Possessors whereof, antient Custom had given the Dignity of being a Peer, or chief Governour; by which Right, he urged, That is did belong to him, not onely to see the Laws well executed, but also to defend and maintain them.

But here it is not to be omitted, that the same Right was claimed by the like Customs, by divers other of the Nether­landish Provinces; and also, that the Decrees of Maximilia of Austria and Mary of Burgundy, were to be taken no­tice of; which had made them, by the same Sanction of the Laws, individually equally with the Brabanders themselves: And this appears, by what the People of Frizeland, Utrech [...], and Gelderland did, in the time of the Emperour Charles their Prince; when, among many other peculiar Agreements and Covenants, there was this one common and general, That they might never be divided from Brabant and Holland. While these Matters were argued pro & contra, Maximilian the Em­perour much troubled thereat; and also taking into commise­ration, the Prince of Aurarge his Condition, so suddainly thrust out by violence from such great Estates and Prehem­nences, (though that Design of his, wrought no milder Tem­per toward those Dominions) sent his Brother Charles into Spain, to inform the King in his (to wit, the Emperours) Name, and the rest of the Princes of Germany, That they thought it not convenient for the Publike Good, that the Nether­landers should be used so harshly any longer.

But Philip, as well as he could, dissembling his Anger; yet churlishly commanded, to be returned for Answer, That [Page 53] the Care of managing his own Affairs, belonged properly to him­self; who, as he knew when it was fit to shew Mercy, so likewise he was not to learn, when to use Severity to such, who having first laid aside their Duty towards God, would, in a short time, not fear to shake Hands with Obedience to their Prince; and that it would be an Action more safe and honourable for them, if they would desist to intermeddle in Affairs, in which they were altoge­ther unconcerned.

There were some, that counselled the regaining of those Parts of Lower Germany by Warre, which had been torn from the Body by the strong Hand of their Lords: But the Em­perour, of his own Nature, always loving Peace; and being lately allyed to the Spaniard, by a new Tye of Affinity sate down, and medled no more: But a few of the Germans, ei­ther out of their regard to Piety, Envy of the Spanish Great­ness, or Hatred of Alva, too well known among them, did aid the Prince of Aurange with Men and Money; and it may be also moved with Suspition, that Alva had a Design upon some Cities, near the Rivers Rhene and Amasis, to sub­ject them to his Master, because they had been Receptacles to many of the Netherlanders, banished for their Religion: Ma­ny of the Neighbouring People, had bound themselves by Hostages, to be true to, and assist the Prince of Aurange in his Expedition; and something also was given by the Ne­therlanders, who now being compelled to inhabit abroad, either the Desire of return to their Country, or private Wishes of enjoying Liberty at Home, prompted: But many of those Promises failed in their Event; so that having, by the Dictates of his own Judgment and Fore-sight, gathered together Six Thousand Horse, and Fourteen Thousand Foot, chiefly, and the greatest part out of Germany, where great Multitudes of Men, caught with the Bait of present ready Money, never thought of the future, nor minded whose part they took, but were ready for any that would hire them best, the remainder of the said Army was made up partly of Ne­therlanders [Page 54] themselves, and partly of French: These Forces letting slip the first Opportunity of fighting Alva, at the Passage of the Maze, being then unprovided, were afterward by him easily weakned, and brought to nothing, by not fight­ing getting the more noble sort of Victory: Which Policy of evading Fight, had before that been fortunate to him [...] Italy, when he stood in opposition to the Duke of Guise Therefore, for three and twenty days together, he lay stil [...] in the Rear of them, as they marched, with his Camp so cir­cumspectly, and with Prudence, fortified toward the Ene­my, that they could never force him to fight with their De­speration: Then was put in practice that Villany, which will never be left off; to wit, that both Parties should main­tain their Right, by Countries living in Peace; for whether a Passage was given, or denied, through the Lands of Cleve or Leige, always the one Party would revenge it self, either by robbing the Country, or burning it: However, at last this great Army, being neither admitted by one City, nor relie­ved with any Provision, in a short time mouldred away, through an extream want of all things, but chiefly of Pay; with the slender Remains whereof, the Prince of Aurange being hardly able to march into France, carryed thither, to­gether with it all his Hopes; where, for some time, finding Employment in that Forreign Warre, 1569. though the cause thereof were something his, (for Alva had sent thither Forces also to help the King) yet by the suddain making of Peace, he was disappointed; and not onely so, but Traps laid to insnare him.

The Army being thus broken, whereby, without doubt, the Nassauian Strength was much impaired and exhausted, as he grew very wary how he ran into Dangers: So Alva, great now with Success, esteeming himself a Conquerour of those People, whom he had yet never felt as Enemies, did ambitiously desire the Glory of his Authority, thus won (as he supposed) by Conquest: And under this Notion, and [Page 55] Name of Conquerour, he is presented with a Consecrated Sword from the Pope, with an Inscription of his Deeds, as Fame had reported them: which being a Piece of most ex­cellent Workmanship, he placed in the beautiful Castle of Antwerp, that serves to no other use, than to keep under the People; as the Scituation thereof, averted from the River, doth plainly testifie: Moreover, he erects a Statue in his Honour, with a large Eulogy thereon; to wit, that by appea­sing the Sedition, destroying and punishing the Rebels, and promoting of Justice, he had restored Peace to these Provin­ces.

At this time he setled many things, no lesse profitable than specious, as concerning money, Merchandises, punishment of vices and enormities, and rash divulging of Books, works in themselves so good, that they will never be forgotten; un­less by the Odium of his name, who was the first settler thereof: But now the Inquisition, as to matters of Religion, the Acts of the Councel of Trent, the new Bishops, and things hitherto winked at, if not utterly repudiated, were re­ceived willingly as it were, for otherwise it was in sight that would compel them; their hatred being now grown to that heighth, that who over had been baptized by the Protestants, according to the Rules of Christianity, should yet be re-bap­tized, though contrary to the institution and practice of the Antients; Nor did this new Tribunall grow lesse furious a­gainst the old crimes of Treason, to the number of whom, were added all such as were but suspected to have wished good success to the late undertakings of the Prince of Au­range, or to have grieved at the ill fortune and miscarriage thereof; yet while these things are thus doing, there was a way studied, how to make their Victory seem more honou­rable, by the report of Clemency; which was this, By set­ting out an Edict in the Kings name, wherein a Pardon should be granted to all that would come in and confess their former mis­deeds, but still excepting and reserving to punishment, all Teach­ers [Page 56] and Ministers of Religion, and those which did assist or har [...] them; all those whose impious villanies violated the Sacred [...] ­cesses of Churches, or holy places, and all such as here Arms, [...] took preferment, or were consenting to the confederacy of t [...] Nobles s certainly, a goodly Company of Exceptions, the Liberties also of Towns and Universities, and whatsoever the Kings Treasury was indebted to any man, being reserved to the Kings pleasure.

Now having thus laid aside all fear and shame, the ve [...] utmost intentions and designs of the Spaniards were laid [...] pen in their open boastings, for the bringing to passe therof that not onely the charges of the Government, but if ne [...] were, Warre should be maintained at the charge of the [...] Provinces; and to make this good, Alva commands for th [...] present, the hundreth part of all the Revenues of the people to be levyed; which in it self was very grievous, because [...] was forcibly commanded by the Souldier, which ought [...] have been collected according to the Custom of the Coun­try; nor did he exempt the Priests from this payment: af [...]ter this be takes the twentieth part of Lands, and the tenth of all other thing whatsoever, sold upon every alienation, af­firming to the Spaniards, that it was necessary thus to tax the Netherlanders, that they might the rather think themselve [...] bound in equity to obey, being bound by the Law, and co [...] ­quered by Arms, and not otherwise capable of Pardon.

It may easily be imagined, that these Impositions ha [...] spoyled Merchandizing, and broken the connexion of most Arts and Trades, by the flight of so many, so that the chiefe [...] support of the People was utterly gone; for the profit ac­crewing by buying and selling of Wares, using to be disper­sed into severall Channels, if so great a burden should be come to be a part, of the price, there would be no Chapmes found to buy, when in another place, they might have them so much cheaper; And if any durst be so bold as to find streight they were seized on by Souldiers, and most exqui­sitely [Page 57] punished. Nay, some Provinces and Cities being somewhat stubborn and self-willed, were sometimes majesti­cally summoned and questioned, both what they had done themselves, and what they had suffered others to do against the Kings Edicts, being objected against them; and though the madness of some private persons, for the common cause, were not compelled to their evill deeds, yet were they sen­tenced, that they should be out of the protection of the Law, excluded from all publick Counsels, and for the future, be governed by no other Law than that of the Kings will. Nay, some were punished for appealing to the King, and the intercessions of the Magistrates were restrained by a mulct, which they should pay out of their own Estates upon forfei­ture; with the severity of which examples, the rest being terrified, did endeavour to redeem themselves from this infi­nite oppression with a certain sum of money. And yet for all these so many and great afflictions, the wrath of God was not yet appeased towards these people for their sins; but as if the cruelty and avarice of men had not been sufficient for the persecution of a Land, most flourishing and opulent, both in Wealth and Inhabitants: the Ocean breaking o­ver its bounds with such an overflux,1570. as the like hath scarce ever been seen before, by its inundation, made one great slaughter of men, and foretold another. For this was the time, in the small Punctillio whereof, the basest of servitude, and the highest point of liberty being divided, by both names continued equall miseries and misfortunes: And now anger suggesting unto the oppressed, the desire to free, or revenge themselves by Arms, they were taught, there was no concord so firm and stable, as that which is contained within the Bond of private concerns.

And now that Nation which had so patiently seen her Ci­tizens burnt, her Governours slain, her Laws, Religion, and Common-wealth almost to be violently taken away and de­voured, first consented to take vengeance for the former, and [Page 58] to prevent and keep off th [...]se evills that immediately h [...]ng over their heads.

And so in the City of Bruxels, though Alva himself were present, and with a strong Guard did sternly exact the tenth, yet every one shut up their Shops and Ware-houses, scorning to own or confess their slavery, though with the perill of their Heads. Now were Gibbets and Hangmen prepared for the Rebels (as they were termed) when news came of the Commotions in Holland, which I shall presently declare to you, and put a stop to their cruelty; The fury and indignation of the People increasing, infused new Courage into the Prince of Aurange, that he might once more try the fortune of Warre, though yet his Confidence flagged, till his Resolution became setled, by con­sidering, that part of Philips Forces were imployed against the Turk, and that Spain it self was yet scarce quiet from the distur­bances and incursions of the Moors; if therefore he could but get Arms, himself would be Captain, and he hoped through their dis­sentions, he should be able to find or make a way.

1571. To that purpose, he sends choyce persons to all Princes, that professed themselves Reformers of Religion, praying them, either publickly to take his part, or at least to grant him private Ayds towards the support of the common Cause.

The Dea [...] and Swede positively deny him, as fearing to cope with an Adversary more powerful than themselves; not durst the Queen of England disturb her Neighbours great­ness, although the Pope had given Her over to be a prey, and Alva for the Genoa Merchants money, detained in England for present use, and under assurance of repayment, begin­ning a difference, and bringing it almost to Pledges, sought long agoe a Cause of Warre against that rich Island, as was suspected; and now lately, when there were some troubles in the North part of that Kingdom, he sent some to view the Ports, that might, if opportunity succeeded to his desires, upon such occasion be leaders; and without peradventure he [Page 59] was a great encourager of the Endeavours of the Queen of Scots against Elizabeth; the knowledge of all which things, were for the present so dissembled, and Spain so far obliged, that the Nassavian Messengers were commanded without any delay, by a certain day, to depart out of the English Territo­ries: But in France, they who had laid aside the Rites of the Latine Church, that they might give credit to the Peace they had, were admitted into the Grace and favour of the King; and therefore, that they might be the better able to assist the Prince of Aurange, they add fresh fire to [...]e old Burgundian fuel, repeating the Controversie that first [...]ose in the Coun­cil of Trent, between these Kings for priority of place; ur­ging also against Philip, the poysoning of his Wife Elizabeth, whose murder ought to be revenged, and that he was in Ho­nour obliged to the like for satisfaction of those French Sub­jects, murdered by the Spaniards in Florida, a Province of America; which Counsel, King Charles listning to with greedy ears, would have to believe that he was sensible there­of; another motive wherewith they enveighed him, was upon the Marriage of his Sister, agreed with the King of Navarre, they gave him cause to think himself deceived therein: It was good Counsel, to meet a powerful Foe with the Con­junction of Neighbours, and here the ingenuity of the French, found it needful to have Warre that they might keep peace.

It was cast out as a Secret, but with great diligence, the League being broken, what the Emperour Charles said to the King, being his Prisoner, in repro [...]ch of the name and Ho­nour of France, That the old limits of France should be restored, and the Empire extend even to the Rhene; what was beyond, the Prince of Aurange in words had already assumed to himself, as the reward of all his pains. By these instigations, the King was so wrought upon, that moneys are speedily dispatched to him, together with Counsel and advice by Lewis, who went between them; whom Caspar Colimac, a chief Leader in the [Page 60] new Religion, had brought to treat and discourse with the King.

The Kings Navy also, upon the Coast of Guyen, was fit­ted and prepared, and Prizes taken in Spanish Vessels were publickly sold in the City of Rochel; The Spanish Embassa­dor in vain complaining, made their confidence increase by their deceits: In the interim, the Prince of Aurange full fraught with the same and repute of so potent an Allye, either by Embassies or Letters, promiseth to the banished Nether­landers, resettlem [...] in their own Country, and to those that are oppressed at [...]me, Liberty: and doth perswade many Governours of Cities, either to mutiny or revolt, not valuing either the force, fear, or hate of Alva. Thus relying on his strength, and the industry of his People, he made a good force at Sea; for every banished Netherlander, who had any Courage, and all those more indigent people, that were a­fraid of banishment, got aboard into some kind of Ships, and taking others, which they met, by force from their owners, they much increased their number, they hovered to and again upon the Coast, and not onely there, but even in the very O­cean or high Sea, as Pyrates, got their Living, by robbing all they could seize on.

The Prince of Aurange had the shew of Authority and Command over this insolent multitude (though indeed, there was neither civility nor Government among them) by Let­ters missive, and the like, authorizing them as by Com­mission.

The Admirall of this Fleet, William Count Marque, Sur­named Lumey, of a disposition that rather inclined to cru­elty then Courage, which was accounted his chiefest vertue, his Counsel to most of his Companions and followers, as well as his own minde, intended nothing but depredations. Thus accoutred and followed, as it seemed good to the Su­preme Providence, whom it had pleased hitherto in the Af­fairs of these Countries, so to frustrate humane Confidence, [Page 61] and Counsels, that great and over-blown hopes should never be attended with happy success.

1572. Twenty four indifferent Ships, being Com­manded off the English Coasts, Sail towards West-Frizeland, to try their Fortune in the beginning a Warre against the chiefest Potentate of Christendom; but the Wind being a­gainst them, drove them through an extream scarcity of ne­cessaries, on one of the biggest Isles, they call it Vorne, and there is the mouth of the River Maze, where the Souldiers and Seamen between fear and Courage, with a sudden fury set upon the Town of Brill: not that they intended to make any long stay there, but onely intended it as a place of re­freshment for a few dayes; But the more prudent of them, together with the conveniency of the place, desired that they might become sensible of their Victory, in the retenti­on of the place: Thus all things among them hapning by chance, except difference in opinions, insomuch, that when some Bands of Spanish Souldiers entred the Island, under the Command of Maximilian Bossu, their Captain, who then was Governour of Holland; the Invaders, as if they had been distracted by a suddain fear, fled, not one of them da­ring to go against him; and this, forsooth, because the Townsmen had set fire upon their ships.

Bossu, in his return from hence, required passage through Roterdam; which they, sensible of the Mischiefs of a Garri­son, granted; but with this Proviso, that the greatest part of the Souldiery being sent away, the rest should enter: But contrary to these Covenants, the Souldiery forthwith broke in, and made a great slaughter of the Inhabitants within the Town.

This Barbarous Treachery so incensed the inraged Minds of the Hollanders, that most of them voluntarily, part forced by the violence of the People, the appearance of their Neigh­bours in Arms, or else by the necessity of Commerce, openly declared their great Affection to the Exiles, and their wil­lingness [Page 62] to admit them: For the Duke of Alva had [...] no Castles here, believing himself safe enough, in the de [...] right simplicity of the People, who having hitherto bin [...] quiet then all the rest, did now, being abused, break out [...] the greater Fury. Besides, part of the Spanish Forces, b [...] little before, had been drawn thence to punish Ʋtrecht, her Warlike Injuries done them; for that City, under Confidence of her Religion, had most vehemently withst [...] the commanded Impositions: And Alva, at the first Ne [...] of this Tumultuous Insurrection, had sent for those who we in Roterdam, vainly fearing they should have been Besiege there.

The Town of Flushing followed the Example of Holland being greatly disturbed with the sight of the Castle, which was in Building, to keep them in awe, and not willing to re­ceive a Garrison, which was intended to be placed among them: These having seized Bacies a Savoyard, the most ex­cellent Surveyor of Alva's Works, and hurried him away [...] punishment, they Declare Themselves for the Common Cause.

In like manner, others in Zeland turned out the Spaniards so that now from this new Face of Affairs, and the Assist­ance that daily almost came to them, out of the Kingdoms o [...] France and England, they began to hope for Liberty. Cou [...] William, who was by affinity related to the Prince of Au­range, rather trusting to the Honour of that Name, than b [...] own strength, assures Gelders, and Over-Issel: Hereupon Ne­derwormter, and shortly after Schoneberge, make Incursions in­to Frizeland, being admitted into their strongest and best Ci­ties, with the free good-will of the Citizens: The Prince of Aurange did not much rejoyce, when he received the News of these Commotions of the People, complaining, That he was prevented by such a Chance, and that his Force was not as ready, as his Consent with them. In this disordered an unsetled Body, some of the Nobles of Holland, and Commis­sioners [Page 63] of the Chief Cities, meeting at Dordrecht, assumed and put on the first Species or Habit of a Common-Wealth: Hi­ther did the Prince of Aurange send, whom the States of Holland, although absent, because his Lieutenancy and Go­vernourship was taken from him, without any lawful cause, chose to be their Governour, as also to be the General and Manager of the War, against the proud Domineering of [...]a.

Now there began to be daily Fights both at Sea and Land; wherein, as to the Land-Fights on Foot, the Spaniard was too hard for the other, being rude yet, and undisciplin'd, but at Sea was not able to meet, for it was their proper Sphere, in which they were as it were born. The Zelanders, in these parts, got many notable Victories thereby, and by their De­predations at Sea, relieving the Publike Wants. And the Duke of Medina-celi, being lately named Successor to Alva, that he might be made plyable to Intreaty, by Repentance, his Fleet being happily taken, wherein he was brought from Spain, and himself hardly escaping, refused to meddle in the Government, least in so great Differences of Affairs, he might reap to himself the blame and disgrace that another had merited.

Alva not at all moved with these Dangers, was as outra­gious as ever, and would neither look upon them as Enemies, nor take notice of their strength; but when at any time he got any into his power, he exercised his Malice upon them, as upon Rebels: And now Revenge, and a like Cruelty, raged upon all Prisoners on both Sides without Differences; so long as mutual Necessity, which of old had taught People that were Enemies, made them also know, that to spare the shedding of Bloud, was not available to the finishing of the Warre. Being now thus well acquainted at Land, with the use of Arms, the Nassauians coutagiously kept possession of the Sea: A space of Breathing is given to these of Holland and Zeland, where­by they may unite the stronger, while they are left to them­selves, [Page 64] and the greatest part of their Garrisons drawn off [...] Alva, to the Siege of Mons a City in Henalt, which Lewis [...] Nassau had taken by a Military Stratagem; the Souldiers [...] Valenciennes turned out of their Neighborhood to them in t [...] Castle, being also come to the Spaniard: For the Relief [...] Nassau, who defended Mons in Henault, there came out o [...] France Five Hundred Horse, and Five Thousand Foot, th [...] King taking no notice thereof; which was them looked [...] on as a Confirmation of their private League: The Pri [...] of Aurange came likewise out of Germany with an Army greater than that he had in his first Expedition; It was pro­bable, that this War might have spread it self far abroad with greater Terrour, if the Spaniards had not intercepted the un­wary French, in their well-known March, by Surprize; whereby they took Prisoner their Captain Jenlisius, the Ge­neral of the whole Army, and divers other Nobles, for who t [...] Safety King Charles earnestly interceding, was the last Act of this Jained D [...]vise: for suddainly a Messenger brings the Prince of Aurange the terrible News of the French Treache­ries, and informs him also of the Imprisonments, both of Navarre, and Conde; and that the Confederate Power of the Faction of Guise, having first seasoned it self with the Bloud of Coliniac, proceeded thence over all the Kingdom, whose onely Law then vvas Murder; and the Hatred of the mad­ding Vulgar, doubly armed against the Followers of the new and abominated Religion.

This was the end of that dissembled Peace, of that deplorable Marriage, and of all those Delusions of their Friendship and Society.

Being thus deprived of his main Hope, the King of Franc [...] having thus broken his Promises, to clear himself to Philip, and regain his Friendship, he pays off some of his Troops, and by such Counsels and Actions getteth it: The Prince is forced to Disband his Army, and scarce avoiding a Mutiny, with what Fortune had left him, goes into Holland, where, [Page 65] being disappointed of all his Hopes and Endeavours, he ac­cepts of what they, beyond his Expecta [...]n, had freely cast upon him: The Surrender of Mons f [...]ws not long after, with which Victory flesht, they insulted over Mechlin, and other Cities, which had either assisted the Prince of Aurange, in his passage by them, with Money or Provision, as if they had been absolute Conquerours of them: Thence the Ter­rour of them spreading further all those Places, that we men­tioned before to be seized in Frizeland, and near the River Issel, were, by the Cowardliness of their Governours, left to be new Garrisoned by the Spaniards: Zutphen also is taken by Frederick, the Duke of Alva's Son, while they [...] to surrender; where raging in Bloud, after [...] all manner of Villanies and Rape [...], upon the [...] the Town, they slew all, without any regard either [...] Age.

Not long after, Narda, a Town of Holland, rece [...] like Barbarous usage, and their Walls are pulled [...]o [...] sides, after the method of Revenge taken by the Anti [...] The Spaniards were wont, in other Wars, to do tha [...] believing these Crueltes were convenient, for the accelerat­ing and speeding their Victory; when, on the contrary, Ex­perience affirms, that men are overcome by no means so soon as Cleme [...]cy, when the other doth rather heighten mens spleen and courage, when all trust and hope of Pardon being taken away, they fear the Mischiefs of Peace greater and heavier than those of Warre; by which means, their Desperation car­rying them beyond Hope, their Counsels are more delibe­rate and their Actions valiant; so that after this, no City ever will be rendred, until it hath suffer'd the uttermost Ex­tremities.

I suppose it very convenient, to take a View of all the Parts together, of this growing Commonwealth, when in this Tempestuous Storm, there is a strong Contention begun by Warre for Liberty, which then no mortal man could judge, [Page 66] would be so long time before they ended. The Hollanders onely and those of Zaeland continued still in Arms, the Sci­tuation of which People, together both with their Artie [...] and Modern Names, I will declare, that they may the better be understood, throughout the whole Series of this Discourse This was, in Elder Times, the most famous Isle of the Batavi, in the middle between Germany and the Gaules, most fitly scituated, for the transmitting and carrying over of Warre The Inhabitants took both their Name and Original from the Catti; on the Out-sides and Skirts thereof much frequented by the Romanes, and partaking of their Civility, which the rest wanted: For their Skill in Horsemanship and Swim­ming, and the Fidelity and Valour of their Auxiliary For­ces, most famous: Nor were they less than eminent in that Warre, which beginning in the Emperout Vespatians time, stirred up the Gaules to seek their Liberty. After which, sometimes the Frankes, other whiles the Saxons; and lastly the Angles, or English, seated themselves in these Parts [...] some others, the Slavonians and Varni. The Rhene distin­guished into two Channels, one of its own Name; the other called Wale, and running chiefly in two great Streams to the Ocean, surround this Island: That on the Right-side, wer [...] out not far from Leyden, of old but small; but after obstructed with Satid, brought thither by the Force of Tempestuous Wea­ther, turned his Waters into the Leck. On the Left, the Wale being mix'd with the Maze, was kept in by Banks: At this day, before it comes thither, by the interposition of sundry Islands, and its often overflowings, it may almost pass for a Sea.

The Third Mouth of the Rhene, which from the Right run further into the North, Drusus opened; for a River being brought by the Souldiers Labour, in the Floud of Issel, and thence drowning it self in a Lake, which bounded the Fri­sons, and incurvating it self toward the Island Flie, runs into the Sea by this same first received Name.

[Page 67]But the Face of Things and Places here are now so chang'd, that there can be no River seen; but on the contrary, the Sea hath broke in upon the Land; and though at first it seem from a narrow Entrance, but a little to increase, yet a little further, you may presently see it open like a great Gulph. The beginning therefore of this Country of old, called Batavia, retains in part its old Name, and is called Geldres, whose Lordship growing into wideness, is bounded by the River Maze and Issel. Over-Issel joyns in Neighbor­hood to thi;, having on its side the Greater Frizeland running out as far as the River Eemes, then turns about its back to other Parts of Germany: Below Geldres, where it is called Welawe, is Utrecht, with some Neighbouring Towns, which are under the Rule of a Bishop, as likewise all Over-Issel; untill the Emperour Charles first of all added them to his own Government: Next, we find Holland now most plen­tifully stored both with Cities and Villages, running out with two Corners in the Wale, and the before-mentioned Gulph, by little and little getting from the Water on both sides: It spreads a large Shore to the Ocean, whose more Northerly Parts, were sometimes part of Frizeland; but part­ly by Arms, and partly by Agreement, now joyned to Hol­land; who lying over against the Flie on the West, have kept the Speech of West-Frizeland. All the Country of Holland is full of many Arms of Rivers, and Inlets of Lakes, and Wa­ter-Courses made by Art and Labour, and is more fertile in Pastures than Corn; there no is Country abounds more in Fishing and Navigation, both in Rivers and the Sea, than this Zeland, divided into several Islands, borders on this, being environed with the two Rivers Maze and Scalde, on the Back also joyned with Brabant by Honta, and by the Ri­ver Scalde divided from Flanders; which, among Forreigners, hath merited to give the Name to all the Netherlands: This Tract of Land, lies all upon and open to the Sea, even unto Calais, and is that part of the Netherlands, which is now [Page 68] under the Dominion of the French. Some have conjectured, that the Danes plying up and down these parts as Pira [...] have left some Reliques of their Speech behind them, in the names both of Holland and Zeland; but I having perused many Monuments of Antiquity, finde this a common name to all the Islands; but I believe it was a more proper and pe­culiar name, to a small Region, not far from Leyden, barred and rough, by reason of thick Woods, for the name signifie [...] so much.

This is clear, that when those Northern Nations raged o­ver all these parts of the World, committing Rapes, Mur­thers, and daily depopulations, it made these people for their own safety, advise together concerning the choosing [...] accepting of Princes, which they did by the name of E [...] or Counts, who at first were bound to observe their dutie [...] with so much strictness to the French, and afterwards to the Emperours of Germany, that they had no Lawes of their own distinct: Very uncertain it is, of what House sprung or [...] what Antiquity their first Princes were; There is an Opi­nion vulgarly received, that they were sent out of Acq [...] ­tayne; but there are better and stronger proofs, that the [...] were Natives, who of old in the same place, now known b [...] the name of Holland, had but narrow limits to their Dom­nion, till by little and little, they became so much inlarge as they have been, while by Claims from the Female it had severally descended unto the Lords of Henalt, Bavaria, Bur­gundy and Austria; of which last is come King Philip the Second, but in the number of Earls is reckoned the one and thirtieth.

At this time the greatest difficulty and evill that attended the Warre, was that Amsterdam in Holland, and Middleburg [...] in Zeland, two most flourishing Cities, were both repugnan [...] to all the undertakings of both these Provinces; their big­ness making them beyond Command of the yongling Com­mon-wealth, especially because all Alva's care was fixe [...] [Page 69] for their preservation, not onely placing in them choyce Governours, but strong Garisons of Souldiers. On the other side, the Isle of Bommell, belonging to Geldres, encompassed by the Rivers Wale and Maze, was drawn into the associati­on, and fortified for the defence of Holland: Certainly, there was not any thing could have fallen out more happily to the management of these Affairs, then the coming of the Prince of Aurange; for he being well skilled in what was necessa­ry for a good Government, made a quiet settlement of what­ever was out of order, and by discretion, and his innate mo­deration, kept their strength together, which otherwise would have quickly come to nothing, which vertues his very ene­mies applauded in him; for Marquius, while he managed the Government of Holland in his absence, by his cruelty towards Priests, and all other kinds of immodesty, had brought a great scandall upon their now growing Liberty, for being of a cruel nature himself, he spurred on the French, who being accustomed to blood and licentiousness, reven­ged the evills, which they escaped at home, in forraign Ser­vice: for this Cause, as also, for some Act of disobedience, by the Prince of Aurange his Command, he is suddenly taker, and accusations framed against him; but the times would not permit him to have any further punishment.

But the Prince of Aurange laying aside his Name of Prince, and embracing his Power, began, with a selected Counsel, to bestow Commands, set forth Lawes and Constitutions, to order and direct the Affaires relating to the Warre, both by Sea and Land; and in brief, to settle all things in the Com­mon-wealth; and if any matter of greater moment then ordi­nary fell out, it was taken into consideration by the great As­semby of the States, among whom he sate President. Whose frequent meetings, besides the shew of a popular State, were very advantageous in this, that more of the whole number might be knit together by parts; & to that end, where before onely six Cities of Holland, together with the Nobility, did [Page 70] consult of most matters; which six Cities were, Dordrecht, Harlem, Delfe, Leyden, Amsterdam and Gaunte, now the Prince of Aurange did admit of twelve more less Towns, which without doubt would be faithful to him, by whose fa­vour they had obtained the Priviledge of a Suffrage: Not truly was it without great foresight, that these were made Partners in Counsels, in regard they would the more willing­ly help to bear that burthen, of whose use and necessity themselves were Judges; their Names and Order follow thus.

In the South part, Rotterdam, Gorrich [...]m, Scydam, Schon­houen; and in the Isle of Maze, Brill. In the North, Alema [...] Horne, Enchaysen; and also in the Marshes there, which a [...] called Waterland, Edam and Monkedam, and not far thence Medemleke, and Purmeren: In the place of them that refu­sed to come, by publick Judgement and Choyce, he appoint­ed other Substitutes.

There was a great scarcity of men, that did either desi [...] or deserve these savours, when most of them, seeing the smallness of their strength, or out of scruple of Conscience would endeavour to exempt themselves from these matter [...] which seemed to them troublesome and unsafe: And tha [...] they might avoid the Odium of falling rashly from their obe­dience, being underpropped by no allyance, the name [...] Phillip is used in all Cases, though positively in opposition to Philips Commands; Nor wanted they a President for this even from the Spaniards themselves, who being beyond mea­sure oppressed with Taxes, when the Emperour Charles was gone into Germany, opposed the Kings Deputies, or V [...] ­roy [...]s.

By such and the like practices did the Germans at f [...] strengthen and associate themselves in the Smalcalde Leagy for the Cause of Religion; After whom, the French Nobi­lity had by many Writings declared, that inferior Magi­strates did not falsifie their Allegiance, when they fight fo [...] [Page 71] the defence of Religion, and the Laws, and to Protect the lives of Innocents, although therein they not onely disobey the Kings Command, but resist his Person. This did in some small measure help the Nassavians, because they took Arms against Alva, the King being absent, which they would have let alone, if he had been there; But they, who, in defence of the Kings Power and Greatness, boasted, that they would lay down their lives, were, by a more fatall necessity, compel­led not onely to bear Arms, but to fight many bloody Battels against the same.

Now were the Roman Ceremonies quite cast out of their Churches, and who were of that Judgement, were not easily admitted unto any great Offices or Imployments; not that there was any Law against them, but it was so ordered cut of common Prudence, least they bearing a grudge to all that dissented from them, might, by that Licence, probably dis­joyn and seperate their own from the publick Cause, and the Discipline which was taught at Geneva, and here and there dispersedly in the Palatinate of Germany, was publickly re­ceived and owned; but with this difference, that many of the same Religion vary in the toleration of divers things; for the teachers in this say, not onely that Cities and Magi­strates were ordained of God, for prevention of injuries, either to mens Persons or Estates, but that he commanded in what manner he would be worshipped; but that saith, it is enough to worship at large; of which duty, many being neg­ligent, had drawn upon themselves the punishments due for the impieties of other men. But on the contrary, those people judged it not onely fit to give them all ayd, but all of the Religion voluntarily did abhorre the very name of the Laws of the Inquisition; and from thenceforth did dispute, that no man would willingly go astray, neither could any man be forced to believe against his will; And that a true opinion in matters of Religion, was onely by God infused into the minds of men; no devotion being acceptable to [Page 72] him, but what is voluntary. And that it hath been found true, that erroneous opinions have not been stifled so well by force and humane Laws, as eaten out by length and process of time; Under these pretences and vizors, not onely the publick Rites of Religion were despised without punish­ment, but sometimes absurd and impious discourses would be published among these evills of too much liberty.

Now were the Tributes and Revenues of the Prince, Priests and Monasteries, together with the Estates of all such as were fled, and lived in the Enemies Country, and also all Prizes taken at Sea, brought into a common Treasury for the publick use.

1573. Then were found out the severall names of Taxes imposed on mens Heads and Estates; then were invented exactions under the names of Loanes, and Impositions laid, even on those things which were consumed by use; and all these increased more and more, as the Warre grew more fierce. They bore so great a spleen against Tyrannical So­veraignty, that they had rather part with all, then pay the Tenth before spoken of.

There was also found out a new way of gaining from the Enemy, which by selling Licences, that Provisions, and other Commodities might be transported; and this profitable Custom is used yet, both publickly and privately; and though many times forbidden, yet never left off.

There was somewhat also payd out of Merchandizes, for Ships of Convoy, when Merchants Ships were attended at Sea for their security by Ships of Warre. All these things thus setled, the lack of money notwithstanding was the main matter; because the Spaniards might make incursions into the Hollanders Country, first by Ʋtrecht and Amsterdam and then through Narde, (for that is the way [...]ut of Geller­land.) Most matters were atchieved by the valour and indu­stry of the Citizens, not by hired and forraign Souldiers; for there was hardly Provision enough for those already in Ser­vice: [Page 73] The Captains were yet not skilled in managing their Men, and the Men were untoward to be commanded: This onely helped them, that they had as much skill in the as­saulting and taking of Towns, as their Enemy: Hence it proceeded, that Sieges became so long, and the main force they used, was to starve the Enemy out; till by many slaugh­ters and wounds, they became more expert, having out of each others blood learned perfectly the art of Warre.

Great was the over-sight of Alva, that he did not bend all his force against Zeland, in the instant, while all things were discomposed and out of order; but he was frighted by them, as being ignorant of the way of such fights.

The Spanish Army lay seven moneths about Harlem, a City of Holland, loosing many thousands of their men, as well by the sharpness of the Winter, as by the Sword: and that time both strengthned and confirmed the minds of men, and the State of Affairs; and though by a long Siege, yet at last, after a late and unhappy relief, the besieged fell into the cruel hands of their enemies; a great part of whom they either hanged or drowned: But by this it appeared, that it was impossible to overcome them, who had been so long getting a Victory; and least their Successes should have gone on, while the amazement for the late loss continued, their own dissertions put an obstacle in the way, by a mutiny for want of pay: which was an unavoydable evill in those parts, though in wages under a most wealthy King.

By the sufferings and punishments of the Inhabitants of Harlem, the Peoples rage was again set on fire, in which fu­ry, Alemar, a Town of Holland, lying to the North, first made a breach upon the Spaniards strength, by beating them off from their Siege; and afterwards, they received more comforts in their misery, for the Nassavians took G [...]eretruy­denburgh by force, a Town of Holland, extending it self to Brabant, and Bossu himself, with his whole Fleet, was taken, while, both at Sea and Land, he daily did infest West-Frize­land [Page 74] with Warre. The Spaniards had given this Fleet, the name of the Praetorian Inquisition, arrogantly thereby hind [...] with scorn at the Cause of the Warre.

Alva now grown old, and solicitous to preserve his fam [...] upon his humble Request in that behalf made to Philip, is b [...] him recalled, perceiving that his violent proceedings di [...] little good, and that as long as his memory remained, [...] would be an obstacle to any other meanes that should be [...] sed, without any notice taken of his desire, that his Son might succeed him, who was partaker as well of the hatred con­tracted against his Father, as of his actions.

1574. Five years and a little more, he governed here being wont to boast, that in that time, he had caused the ex­ecution and slaughter of eighteen thousand men: His Acts especially that for the Tenth, the King durst neither openly approve and confirm it, nor positively repeal it. He remained in the Court, without any question, and with Honour, until after some years, he was, together with his Son, who had com­mitted a Rape upon a Noble Virgin, thrown into Prison, whence he did not get free untill the Portugall Warre re­quired the presence of an expert and knowing Captain.

Lewis de Requesens, was sent to succeed him in the Go­vernment of the Netherlands, who insnared divers by cun­ning and more remiss dealings; Liberall and milde beyond the Spanish guise, but nothing so subtle as Alva. He was no [...] quite ignorant in Military Affairs, as witnessed that famous Victory obtained at the Echinades, in the Honour whereof he had a great share; and his bringing under of Granado, and breach of promise there with his enemies, when they grum­bled against the Inquisition, the same whereof went before him; but the first thing by which he endeavoured to get the favour of the Netherlanders was, the pulling down Alva's Statue.

About this time, Middleburg, by a long Famine, which did almost afflict the Be [...]iegers as besieged, and the Spanish [Page 75] Fleet being broken and vanquished in many sharp Conflicts, surrendred to the Z [...]landers, and regained thereby her wast­ed Wealth. But Lewis of Nassau, endeavouring to draw the Enemy off from Holland, was slain near Nimmeghen, toge­ther with the Troops which he brought to his Brother, which did happen by the folly of the Souldiers; for just as the E­nemy was upon them with drawn Swords, they began im­portunately to cry out to their Captain for money. This was the end of that Captain, who, both for Valour and Policy, might be ranked among the most prayse-worthy; as also of his Brother Henry, and Christopher, Son of the Prince Palatine.

The same mischief, which had been the ruine of these, fell upon the Conquerour's Army; for they likewise began to mutiny against their Officers, and to command their pay, the wages due for their blood.

This madness fell upon Antwerp, a City of Brabant, most happy in times of peace, in the enjoyment of a great Trade by Merchants, and the acquiring of what naturally flowes thence, Wealth, which is the whole work of Peace, while on the contrary, where Warre hath once given a liberty to all things, the basest poverty cannot sometimes secure her raggs; here did they insult by all meanes, till by force and threats, they extorted from the Citizens there four hundred thousand Florens: which it was thought, Don Requesens was well enough content with, because he Commanded they should not be resisted or denyed. And in a very short time after, he granted them a generall Pardon, rejoycing as it were, that money was any way gotten, though it was not im­probable he might have had it willingly, if he had but de­manded it; for while the States of those parts refused to pay any Taxes toward the Warre, unless the Tenth might be ta­ken away by a solemn Edict, it happened, that either by the Kings obstinacy, or the Governours, their Designs in both were frustrated. Which covetousness of Reward, or rather [Page 76] indeed over-pay is greater among the Spaniard, than an [...] other Nation almost: For this, they will mutiny in a mo [...] notorious manner; and yet, as it were by a certain Pre [...] ­dence, still stick to the King's Interest. Thus by an under­hand Confederacy of the Commanders, they fall to pla [...] Robbery, which the Souldier calls his Wages, or Hire, and the People name it Necessity: Neither were these Sub [...] ­ties here first used; for in others Wars it had been custom a [...] with the Spaniard to use the same Trade.

This Violence and Injury, had mightily turned the Lo [...] of the People to the Prince of Aurange; and th [...] at the next following Council among them,1575. made his Requests, and their Desires, to be as it were [...] one; for they began to mention a Treaty of Peace before Al­degondius, who was a Prisoner, (but a man of great Learning and Ingenuity, and withall very intimate and prevalent with the Prince of Aurange) whom they would send with L [...] ­ters to that purpose, associated with Campigny; between whom, and his Brother Granvel, there was a Domestical Quar­rel, and such an Enmity, as in like Cases uses to be between Relations: At last, the Legates on both sides met at Br [...] ­da, whither the Emperour sent Count Suartzburge, a Kins­man of the Prince of Aurange, to be a Moderator between both Parties.

The Prince of Aurange, and they who were under his Authority, had given these Instructions; That they were ac­counted, without desert, Rebels and irreligious Persons, by their Enemies; for that they understood the Nature of their Duty, both to God and their Prince; That they had never taken up Arms against Philip; and that the onely cause, that hindred the Peace, was, that they were governed by Strangers; And that if the Spa­nish Souldiers might be removed away, which was very necessa­ry, both as to Matters of Religion, and all other things; that they would Declare themselves satisfied, by the Judgment of all the States of the Netherlands.

[Page 77]Hereto it was answered, That they had not well done, chis­sing rather to stand upon their own Defence, than to submit them­selves; That yet they should have free Pardon and Impunity, so as the Disturbers of Religion, might, within a time limited, be Ba­nished the Country: for they conceived unjust, that so great a King should be denyed the Power to settle Religion, which to the petty Princes of Germany was never scrupled; And as to the rest, that the King would willingly agree, so as they would first deliver up to him the Cities and Castles; as also all things, with their Furniture, and other Engines and Provisions of War, which they now had in their Possession.

These Conditions were not at all pleasing, as being more rigorous than they could inforce by Arms; whereupon they desired a Truce, that Acts of Hostility might cease, and that for some years there might be a Toleration of Religi­on: But neither could this be obtained; yet Requesens, by a few late Successes, being more than ordinarily puffed up, prolonged the Treaty, that in the mean time, he might the more easily get an opportunity to do them a mischief, while they yet neglected, and thought nothing of War: For at this very time, wherein they were Treating of Peace, the Spanish Armies had strange and strong Designs on foot, which in some places succeeded well, by reason of unexpected Celerity; but in other, were with admirable Valour and Resolution, broken and brought to nothing: As particularly, in West-Frizeland, where several Companies of the King's Souldiers making Inroads, the Country People meeting them disper­sed up and down, which hapned by their ignorance of the Places and Wayes, took, and without mercy killed them: In this variety of Affairs, the Siege of Leyden, begun before, continued a little while, making all things tremble for fear; for the Spaniards were then in the very Heart of Holland, nor had they any Forces to resist them, but onely relyed upon the Divine Help, and the never-to-be-reconciled Hatred of the People, against this Treacherous and Tyrannical Govern­ment; [Page 78] which in this troublesome time appeared so evident that there was a Sea-man, or Marriner found, who have torn a Spaniards Heart out of his Body, bit the same in pie [...] with his Teeth: Therefore, after they had quite wearied o [...] their Hope, and Famine as yet had wrought nothing up [...] them, many of them being consumed, either by the Sword Sickness, according to the Example of Modena, the Besiege making use of Birds for Messengers, digging through the Fortifications, opening the Banks of their Rivers, and so le [...] ­ting the Sea overflow the Land; which hapning at a Full Moon, made the Water rise much higher, the Wind also won­derfully favouring the Design, they preserved themselves Nay, the Ruinousness of their Walls, which to other Ci [...] is a great Evil, was an Advantage to this, thereby the No [...] of a great Eruption coming to their Enemies Ears, which both frighted and deceived them.

The Siege being thus raised from Leyden, and the Souldier taking with them one Baldes, a Captain whom they had ta­ken, coming to Utrecht a City of their Party, which they h [...] destined to be a Prey to them, under the pretence of a Mu­tiny, they were over-master'd in their Design, and beu [...] from their Assault. Then the Spaniard attempted to bre [...] into Holland, on the left side, by the Maze, and the Leck, where having taken some Towns on the Banks thereof, a­mong which Oudwater, (so the Town is named) the Noble Victor shewed his Cruelty: Nor could they be repressed or beaten back, untill they had harrased even to a place cal­led Coblente, near which there is a Village named Cry [...] ­pen.

At the same time also, Peter Melendes a Biscayan, the Con­queror of Florida; but by a most villainous piece of Treache­ry, and infamous amongst his own Countrey-men, when he had with little Judgment compared the American and Ne­therlandish Affairs, boasted, that he would easily bring both Brill, and other Ports, into their subjection: And now some [Page 79] ships being made ready, an Embassie was sent into England, to desire the Friendship of their Shore, and Entertainment, [...]f their Fleet should chance to be driven thither, by any Im­petousity of the Winds or Seas, But a suddain Contagious Disease scattered their Mariners, and the Captain himself being told of the Vanity of his promised Undertaking, dyed, as many think, for shame, but more for fear: And the Spa­niards that had been drawn together, being by the Hollan­ders Forces dispersed, and their ships destroyed, that kept Guard at Antwerp, and a new Face of Affairs presently fol­lowing, made them lay aside their Sea-Coast Design for many years.

After this, the Requesenians enter an Isle of Zeland, called Schouvum (of old Scaldia) in the Confines of Holland, and is so named from the River that runs by the left side of it, by ships partly, and partly through the Fords; but whether with more Fortune or Courage, is more questionable: However, they, to make the Action more famous, feigned Mira­cles (such as they had heard mentioned in old Wives Tales) giving out, that the very Stars gave more Light than ordinary, to guide them while they went abroad. Here winning by As­sault, the Port of Bommenede, which was a place kept by a small Garrison, after a valiant Defence, they afterward get into their Power, by a Nine Moneths Siege, Zyrixee, the chief Town of the Island. To this grievous Mischief, of having an Enemy in the midst of two Provinces united by League, and they both in want of Men and Money to repell them, was added another, as great as the former; and that was, That they did in vain pray the Aid and Friendship of Forreign Princes; Either for that the Example did not please them, or else because they stood in fear of the Spanish Power: For the Queen of England, refused either to make a League with them, or to take the Soveraignty over them, which they offer'd her, it belonging to ano [...]her; although they boasted, Her Alliance in Bloud to the former Princes and Rulers of Holland, [Page 80] and that they had but one common Religion, and that she was s [...] Lady and Mistress of the Sea. Yet all this notwithstanding she supplyed them with Money sometimes, but for what the asked unseasonably, it might rather turn to their greater Da­mage.

Henry, the Brother of Charles, was then King of France, who well knowing before the Spanish Treacheries, and in­tending to meet him in the like sort, was pleased to ass [...] those who endeavoured to break his strength, but with a [...] privacy possibly imaginable; wherein is not to be so gotten the Subtilty of that almost Piratical Invention, by which is was agreed with the King, That the Nassauian Treasure of Warre at Calais, a City of France, should sell Commissi­ons, or Licenses, to sail in the Neighbouring Sea, to get Re­stitution for the Injuries, suffered by both People; and what was so gotten, they might freely sell there: for hitherto, whe­ther they went with any Prey gotten from the Hollanders, either to their Enemies, or elsewhere; yet they were brought to Tryals and Examinations, and many times were forced to run the hazard of a Damageable Suit before strange Judges▪ And the Covenant of preventing Danger (commonly called Insurance) frequent among Merchants, added a Shadow of Law; whereby the incertainty of the Event is usually trans­ferred to another, with some certain Reward. And the Mo­ney growing from this one Tribute, was not much inferior to the great Expences of the Warre; unless the whole Ro [...] of Sea-men, a sort of Creatures to be kept under by Laws, should return to their old Liberty, and take their proper pro­fit out of all Prizes: This unexpected good Fortune, re­stored Vigour to their Affairs, which were almost grown de­sperate, when by a suddain Disease Requesens cies; by which the Administration of the Government did revert into the Senate of those Parts, under the King's Dominion. Joa­chi [...] Hopper a Frison, whose Power, being then an Agent in Spain, did increase; because Counsels by him rejected and [Page 81] disallowed, had ill succeeded; so that, though a Netherlan­der, he had gained the Name and Repute of a Wise, in the esteem of the Spaniards, thought that would be pleasing to the People, for the retaining of those they already had, and for the pacifying of those that were fallen off: But no man was ever so wise, whom Fortune at one time or other hath not deceived: For the Prince of Aurange had before this, by under-hand Policies, and insinuating Intelligence, gain'd the Hearts of the Brabanders, declaring, That he desired no­thing, that might singly tend to his own particular advantage, but wholly minded the Publike Good. And they again, of their own accord, consented, while Requesens was busie abroad with his Forces, or dissembled Lenity, with intent, to raise his Authority higher than he had ever abated it: For the Re­gent himself very indiscre [...]tly commanded the Countrey­men to take Arms, to repress the Tumultuous Mutinies of the Souldiers; which very thing, was the first beginning of their Liberty in tho [...]e Parts: For now the Names imposed by Alva being forgotten, the Laws, and the Rights of the States, were cryed up by the Voyces of all Men: Flanders also from hence learned Wit, a People very unquiet, and hardly able of old to endure their Princes, when they were onely Princes.

These confidently denied Tribute to Don Requesens, be­cause there was exacted from them, more than was necessa­ry: But as there were in that Senate some Spaniards; so were there also many Netherlanders, from whom the Prince of Aurange hoped, that he might desire, that they would rather bestow those Monies to defend their Country, than betray it. And this Counsel, so full of sound Care, did greatly help forward in that Case: For this War had so extreamly drained the Spanish Wealth, though very great, that the King being greatly indebted, was fain to take by force his Pos­sessions from the Ʋsurers, under the pretence of a general Discharge, by common Authority, of all Debts and Bonds [Page 82] before that time, without any payment or satisfaction for the same. And by chance, the Turks (whose Power hath ever grown greater by the Christians Discords) while Philip turns all his strength against the Netherlands, enjoying the Kingdom of Tunis, fell violently into all the rest of Africa, both by Sea and Land, which the Spaniards held: By means of which straits, it came to pass, that the Spanish Souldiers in the Low-Countries, had no Pay for many Moneths; who thereupon according to Custom by them long received, ca­sting off Obedience, become Licentious, and wish for nothing more than for Pillage: Wherefore Bruxels, the Me­tropolis of those Dominions, was destined for Plunder, and so had been, if the common People, mindful of former Vil­lanies, and almost astonished at the greatness of the immi­nent Danger, had not betaken them to Arms, and advertised the Magistrates, and those who had the Management of the Laws thereof: These presently summoned the Senate, to whom, we told you before, the Administration of the Go­vernment was fallen, to condemn these impudent Souldi­ers, as Enemies to the Prince and Country; which being o­penly done, the Sedition was believed to be privily foment­ed by the Counsels of a few, whose Wealth grew from For­reign Tyranny.

But when the Confederate Regiments, turning out their Commanders, had forcibly entred Alost, a Town in that part of Flanders, which of old stuck to the German Empire, and was never, as the rest, subject to France, and thence had wa­sted the Country round about them, there being none to take Vengeance of them; some of the Nobles of Brabant, not by any publike Advice, but struck with the Fear and Memory of the Example of Antwerp, sent some who should keep toge­ther the Senate, (that is, the Head of the Commonwealth) in their Court and Session. Anon, least the Government should fail, for want of a lawful Authority, they discriminated the Innocent from such as were Suspicious, restraining all whose [Page 83] Treachery or Sluggishness would produce the effect, that no Strength should be made ready against the insulting Envy and Malice of the Spaniards: And not onely so, but the Na­tives that were Souldiers, were, as much as might be, picked out, and sent into several parts, and then joyned in League with Flanders, and other Cities, against them, as against a Common Enemy. Nor did they onely think of these new Di­sturbances of the Publike Peace; but called also to [...] the Oppressions in Alva's time, such as the Tenths, Inquisition, Punishments of the Guiltless,, Robbing them of that by Force and War, which they laboured for in Times of Peace, and their frequent Slaughters and Executions, by colour of the E­dicts.

And now Matters began to seem not onely to take notice of such as had traduced the Government, but of the whole Spanish Nation: Whereupon, one Rode made himself Cap­tain of certain Companies of Spaniards, that now went out of Holland, never to return thither again; part of the Senate before, and which then was gone over to the Souldiers usu [...]p­ing to themselves all Right of Government: But now [...]he whole Colledge as it were re-uniting; The German Souldiers too joyned themselvs, hoping to do what they listed; & [...] thus joyned together, they sacked Ʋtrecht by he Maze, [...] most noble City, and not long after, powering themselves out of the Castle into the City of Antwerp; where, for some days, having beaten out the Defendants, they glutted their Wrath and Avarice with the Slaughter o [...] the Townsmen, the burning of Houses, and an exceeding great Booty. Among all which M [...]series, the Netherlanders durst not rely upon the strength and valour of their new and unexperienced Soul­diers against those Weather-beaten and old ones, who had also Fortifications and Castles: not knowing well therefore what to do, and considering, that it would be too tedious to [...]ove o [...]her Princes to aid them, they resolved at last to accept of the next Forces, which belonged to the Prince of Aurange, [Page 84] & were by him freely offered them, being conscious to them­selves, that they should be looked upon however, as guilty of the like Crimes, and that they must either purge themselves together by Force, or suffer together: Wherefore, resuming the Treaty of Peace, which was broken off at Breda, as is be­fore related, and as Fellow-Citizens, consulting against a Common Enemy, they easily agree; and it was provided, that for the obliterating the Memory of former Differences, no one should be questioned concerning Religion, nor that any Judgments should be confirmed, which were given con­cerning the same, but that all things confiscated, should be re­stored to their Owners; or if they were sold, certain select Apprizers should set a value both upon Possessions, and other things wrongfully detained, and to restore to the one the thing it self, to wit, the Possessions; to the other, the value or price thereof, that every one for the future might use what Religion he pleased; and so as to those things, which they of Holland and Zealand took, detained in the time of the War, which belonged to the King; and they also agreed, That what Money the Prince of Aurange had expended in his two Ex­peditions, or so much thereof as belonged to him, the rest of the Provinces should be equally contributary to the re-imbursing, after the Commonwealth was freed from Forreigners, according to the Judgment of the General States of the Netherlands. In the in­terim, Trading should be incouraged, both Parties should use the present Form of Jurisdiction, and the Religions they already hold; And that it should not be lawful for the Hollanders, or their As­sociates, to alter any thing in Religion, without their own Bounds; onely granting the Prince of Aurange Power of ordering the Ci­ties belonging to his particular Government.

Upon these Agreements, a Peace was concluded at Gaunt▪ between the Nassauian Party, and the People of Brabant, Flanders, Artoys, Henault, and other Provinces, onely Lut­zenburge excepted, whose Governours were privately obe­dient and affectionate to the Name of Spaniard, and the Peo­ple [Page 85] ever most firm in their Fidelity to their Princes: But the Frisons came in, having imprisoned their Governour Caspar Roblese a Portugeze, because he resisted them. Thus th [...]owing down the Castles every where, they threw off their Yoke of Slavery: And because Antwerp, being possessed by the Spaniards, hindred the mutual Commerce of the Provinces, they made great Banks of Defence near the Sceld, that under their Safeguard ships might pass safely. Afterwards, this League was entred into again at Bruxels, and the Agreement of War against the Spaniards, 1577. confirmed by the Oath of the Clergy, Nobility, and Com­mons, and fully assented to by the Senate. And this was the onely time, from whence any one might with Reason, hope well of the Low-Country Affairs, if they had laid aside their Feuds, as well as their Arms: And, to speak clearly, the Emulation and Ambition of the Lords, was the undoubted Fountain of all their Evils; and the Fault of the People was not much unlike this, for such was their Frantick Zeal in their Religion, that they would never stick to any Agree­ments or Covenants, nor be contented with their present Condition; and while these Vices keep their Footing, there will never be Person; nor Instruments wanting to undermine Liberty.

Therefore King Philip, when these Conditions were brought to him, being informed, that they were approved by the ge­neral Consent of all, and that they would have Forreign Aid, if he should continue to deal harshly with them, thought it fit to yield to Necessity; and so making a Law in confirmation of the said League and Agreements, in the mean while, un­der-hand, he determines to wait all Opportunities, either to break, or at least distract this Alliance, and kept the Prince of Aurange's Son, who, according to the said League, ought to have been set at Liberty, as an Hostage for his Fathers Actions.

[Page 86]Now is Don John of Austria, base Son of the Emperour Charles, sent Governour into the Low-Countries, that so, be­ing a young man of a sharp Wit, famous for a Sea-fight against the Turks, and high in the Pope's Favour, he might divert his Mind from the thought of higher things: And this also he pretended he did, to shew his Intent, for the future, of maintaining the Laws, when he sent one so near to him by Bloud, to govern them: And indeed, in publike, he would own nothing, that might seem to intrench on the Peace, though privately he commanded, to follow Rode's Counsel, who was (as we before declared) the Leader in the Spanish Sedition: But not cunning enough, to conceal these Matters long, for the Hatred which he had drawn upon himself, the impatien­cy of the Age, together wi [...]h some intercepted Letters, made publike the most secret of all their Counsels and Designs: Which the Prince of Aurange conside [...]ing, and earnest that Extreams might not damnitie so increasing Fortune; be counselled the Netherlanders, that weighing how much they had offen [...]ed Philip, in the Peace they had made, they should by War keep out, that manifest Officer of his Wrath, while yet he was without strength, and upon their Borders. This was gain-said by many of the prime Nobility, that did not hear­tily love the Prince of Aurange, either out of an old Grudge, or for some new sprung Envy; many in this Tempest of Af­fairs, who were by Advice in ermingled in general Parties, for Reverence of the Prince, continued in their Arms, under the pretence of Necessity to defend themselves.

Thus Peace being made, in a Town of Lutzenburge, call'd Marsa, the Government was granted to Don John of Austria, if he would first Disband, and send away the Spanish, and then all other Forreign Souldiers; although the Hollanders, and all that of their Party, did earnestly labour the contra­ry.

All fear was now banished, and an incredible joy sur­prized the hearts of all, because the Spanish Army was by [Page 87] Covenant to go out of their Cities, although carrying with it many barbarous spoyls, and the Rapines of ten years; and boasting, that within the last six moneths, they had killed thirty thousand Netherlanders, of the meaner sort question­less, when they denyed, that within the same time, that they had lost above threescore; nor were they long gone, or far, some of them being stayd at Millayne, and others nearer, till Don John might recall them to a War prepared for them; For this Austrian being received into the Government, with the highest Honour possible, but youthfully impatient of all delay, suddenly besets the entrances of the Country, and in short time breaks through them, taking Namur, and some o­ther Towns on that Border; and further, solicites the Ger­man Bands, which were not yet gone out of the Netherlands, for want of their pay, to render up the Cities they were in: and their treachery was easie enough to be wrought on; But, whether they were either frighted with threats, or tempted with promises, the dulness of their Spirits, or flexibleness of their Natures, quickly broke off their design.

By this meanes, most of Brabant was preserved, the Soul­diers not onely delivering the Garrisons into the power of the States, but their Commanders also; the Embassadors of the Provinces at the General Council, used the name of the States, to whom, after the Power of the Regall Senate was abolished, most of the business of the Common-wealth was brought; And yet there was no War, but the States did ac­cuse Don John to the King and other Princes, that he had pub­lickly broken the Peace: He again casts the blame upon the Prince of Aurange, [...]hat he would set up new Customs, con­trary to the Covenants of the League in the Cities, which subjected to his Dominion, by Contracts and Agreements. Notwithstanding which Calumnies, he was by all the Cities of the Netherlands, looked upon with an high esteem, as the Authour of their liberty, and of such a noble disposition, as is wont to win all mens affections. He strengthned by com­placence, [Page 88] that power which he would seem to diminish, so great was his prudence and moderation; and because by di­ligent inquiries and pains, and by intercepted Letters, he had demonstrated, that the Austrian Snares were laid first for him, and his, and afterwards for all the rest, by breaking the Band of the League; he so won the favour of all the people, that he was by the Brabanders chosen to be their Governour.

This was taken very ill by Arscot [...], who at that time, was President of Flanders, Lalayne, Champigny, and divers others, who could not digest that the chief management of all Af­faires should rest in the Prince of Aurange, with whom few were equall in birth, none of them like him in Wisdom and Authority. Therefore because they see themselves never able to compass the Peoples love, as he hath done, and that they must come far short of him, they begin to fear, that if he should come to enjoy, that Dignity, that he would bring Religion to his own bent; and to prevent that, they seek to prevent his glory, by the splendor of a greater name.

Rodolphus was chosen Emperour of Germany, in the stead of Maximilian his Father who was lately dead: His Brother Matthias, they by many great promises, intreat from the Court, not by any open consent of the Emperor, for fear of offending the Spaniard. The'e men, because they had strong Cities and Arms in their power, imagined they could easily bring to passe, that by their bringing in of this young man, who must be beholding to them for that great Honour, they should have all things in their power, and might in his name execute their own Commands, and do what they list [...] all which, the Prince of Aurange foreseeing, he removed some of these guilty persons from, that Council, and assured them, that they might more confidently hope for a just Government in the lawful Dominion of the States, than the particular power of some few. And by chance also at this time it fortuned, that Arscot, the chief Emulator of the [Page 89] House of Nassau, swolne big with vain hope, offended the Commonalty of Gaunt, by some insolent Speeches; the people of which City, being the most noble of all Flanders, but the most averse to Nobility, threw him and all his Train into Custody. But the Prince of Aurange, although Matthias was called in by his Enemies, and had come contrary to his desire, and that the rest of the Netherlanders had a greater re­spect towards France, yet having regard to the moderation of his Carriage, he himself moved the States, that they would accept the young man, eminent in his Brothers Majesty, and of Kindred to the King, to protect their Cause; wherewith they were thus far pleased, that the Government of the Ne­therlands should be in Matthias, but that the Prince of Au­range should be Deputy Governour, which at length, though unwillingly, he accepted; by which means, their fury, who had sought out Matthias, onely with hope to have made themselves great by his Dignity, was more enflamed. The Regency of Matthias, is bounded and limited by Laws and Counsellors: nor had he power to use any thing suitable to his greatness, besides the State and splendor of his life.

The third Book of the Dutch Annals.

ALL matters being in this manner setled, Warre is proclaimed against Don John, at which time, the Monethly Revenues arising from Provisions of Victuals, amounting to six hundred thousand Florens, was brought into the publick Treasury; the free disposing where­of, as also of Musters and Councels relating to the Warre, that they might be the freer from discovery, were by the States, left wholly to the Senate. Then at length, the Queen [Page 90] of England began to think the forces of the Netherlanders worthy of her favour, though yet she was not without a pe­culiar fear of troubles in her own State, because Don John moved a Marriage with the Queen of Scots, by which, and the help of his Arms, he hoped to get to himself the King­dom of Britain, and this was evident by no small demonstra­tions; wherefore she promised them both men and money, for their assistance, they giving caution for repayments; but yet still they should stick to their pretence, that the Nether­landers Provinces would be obedient to Philip. And so she interwove her self into that Common-wealth, that no matter of any importance, could be done without her knowledge and approbation, endeavouring also to strengthen these new Settlements by an universal Concord, (though some of the Netherlanders laboured earnestly, but in vain, to provoke the Queen against the Prince of Aurange;) and perswading now one, now another, by laying before them the greatness of the danger, least they should incline to re-settle the old Possessi­on of the Roman Religion, She therefore would give them ayd.

When She had effected these things, She sends Letters to the King, desiring him therein to hearken to peace, and to moderate his Government by the Rule of the Law; but if he would compel his Subjects to take Arms, he should not take it ill at her hands, the French long since being intent thereto, if she prevented the Dutch allyance with that People who were her Enemies; and in the interim, she did with great pains strive to clear her self from affecting the Soveraignty that belonged to another.

Henry King of France, Sebastian King of Portugall, and the Emperour himself, were, in like manner, solicited by the States, to move Philip to moderation towards them, the last also being s [...]ed to for assistance in their Cause, which at that time was in vain; In the interim private grudgings and dis­cords, increased among the great Ones, so that many went [Page 91] thence into Castles, and strong Holds scituate in Lutzenburg, upon various pretences; but the true cause was, they inter­preted, the Honours given to others, to be an affront and disparagement to them. But Don John, being recruited with the coming of the Spanish Forces, and a great many Compa­nies of Souldiers brought to him by the Duke of Parma, the Son of Margaret, late Governess of the Netherlands, out of Italy, 1578. overthrew the Dutch Army, which was daily weakened by the going away of their Captains, and retreating into Brabant, at a place called Gemblim. Nor was the Prey gotten by the Victory small, especially, if we consider it in the success, because Lovayne, which layd open Brabant on that side Limburg, a famous Dutchy, and the Metropolis of the Dominion, bearing the same name, using to make excursions even into Germany and Phillippolis, which City, the Prince of Aurange, when formerly he was Gene­rall of the Kings Army, had fortified with new and strong Bulwarks against the French, when onely forraign Warres were fea [...]ed; as also many other adjacent Towns, came in and submitted.

The King having [...]hus conquered them, yet thought fit to try them with the hope of Peace, the Baron Selles carrying Conditions out of Spain, for differing from those made at Gaunt, and for which Don John would not alter a tittle, which then was enough to make it seem re [...]sonable why they should be denyed; for now the Netherlanders began first to know themselves, and several Princes did augment their con­fidence, by striving who should first offer them Souldiers and other ayd: Here Francis of Valoys, Duke of Anjon, and B [...]other to the King of France, both before the Peace made at Gaunt, and after, was often sued to by the Belgick Nobles. There Casimire, who possessed the Palatinate of Germany; both of them by reason of thei [...] yonger Birth, being laid side at ho [...]e, and therefore the more desirous to augment both their Fame and Wealth by forraign Service and acquisitions [Page 92] Francis, who was of a disposition not to be despised, but altogether unrestful in spirit, offered himself to be their Ge­nerall in the Warre, which was said in France, to be for the restoring of liberty, against the wrongs and oppressions of the Court, and for the settlement of Religion in peace; which he did either out of hatred to his Brother, who, though weak and barren, yet kept the Kingdom, or else he was an Instru­ment of his Mothers subtilty; for averting the feuds of par­ties; and surely he might have gained the love of the People very much in the supporting that Cause, and would, upon a Peace made, have had most ample possessions. But he be­coming the Minister of anothers cruelty, in a short time soyl­ed all his Renown by turning his Arms upon his Allyes.

About which [...], Margaret of Valoyes, the King of Na­varres Wife, that she might be clear of the Warres of her Husband, and her Brother, and veyling the desire of her ab­sence, with the pretence of going to the Waters at the Spaw, as she passed by Cambray and Moniz, taking hold of oppor­tunity, She highly commended the Duke of Anjou, in those two strong places, that differed not much either in Customs or Speech from the French, and very little in Religion; But Casimire, who had at that time been a great support to the party of Navarre, remitted the Agreement that privately had been made with him, thereby giving the testimony of a just and Religious mind.

The Common-wealth, like an indigested Chaos, was now on every side in confusion, nor was there any Symmetry in its parts, while each one catches at the Government, as if it were void, and in the prosecuting thereof, steer a severall way; And truly, the main use of Arms by all, was against a Kingdom; but some praised the Principality and Laws, others admired and preferred their forces before those of the Venetian or Switzerland, without any consideration of their inequality or disproportion; And thus under the name of Noblemen, they distracted and tore in pieces the Govern­ment, [Page 93] or else because they fell short of others in dignity; the Pl [...]beyan strength also approaching, stirred up the vulgar by words, whereby becoming unruly, and not to be led, their suspicions egged them to cruelty, so that nothing would con­tent them but free liberty, without any exception; within and without, abroad and at home, there was nothing but facti­on and sedition: Nor by this was the Warre lossened, onely it was delayed, and not vehement enough for the time, be­cause the Armies were ordered according to severall Opi­nions.

Amsterdam, which, as we told you, was one of the greatest Cities in Holland, and had not stood up for liberty as the rest, was then much favoured, because it inclined to Don John: But because the Nassavians had environed, and in a maner besieged, that City, and in reg [...]d there was no hope of relief in a long time, they came to Articles, whereby all that were banished for Religion were restored to their Country, but they should not have the exercise thereof within the Walls: But when the men of the Roman Opinion, who wa­vered in the performance of their promises, seemed some­times as if they would become enemies again; the Exiles driving out the Magistrates, and all those that praesided Re­ligion, enjoyed all in publick.

The same at divers times, and for the like causes almost happened in divers other Towns of Holland, as at Ʋtrecht and Harl [...]m: taking occasion by their breach of Faith, from Magistrates instructed in this, that whatever they approved should never be contradicted by the City; which among themselves was very conducing to concord among them, but was offensive to the stomacks of their fellows, who adhering to the Pope, suspected that strength would suppress them.

John of Nassau had the Government of Gueldres, the Prince of Aurange appointing him to that charge, that so he might stand the more strongly guarded: But in Frizeland, [Page 94] whereof Rennerberge then was made Governour; the old Dis­sentions of Groningen City, and the Country adjacent, began anew to flame, for the carrying forth of their Reve [...]ues, though for the maintaining their Peace; questionable, if not with the Governours Desire, that he might the more surely Command.

The Commons of the City bound the Deputies of the adverse Party to themselves; and the same, after both Sides bad shewed their Valour, in their privnte Darings, came off Victor: However, all Prisoners taken were set at Liberty; yet did Animosities remain, untill they came to be inter­mingled in the Publike Contention; although both Matthias, and the Prince of Aurange, interposed to settle them Rennerberg also commanded some of the Senators of Frize­land to be removed, and diligently watched, who had shewed themselves well pleased at the Spanish Victory, and substitu­ted others in their Room; the like also he did by the Bishop of Leuwarden: For these Merits, and good Works, he is cho­sen Captain, particularly for the Ruling and subjecting Over-Issel, for the German Souldiers, hired by Don John, held both Campen, and Daventry; both which Cities, were soon after yielded: But the Army staying something longer at Daven­try, Casimire came to them with a fresh Recruit of Eight Thousand Foot, and almost as many Horse; For the Queen of England, instead of the Money she did promise, sent Soul­diers, whose Number, he of his own free Will increased, as if he had been obliged: Which the Chiefrains of the Romane Religion looked upon as very ominous; and therefore they forthwith laboured by all means, to intreat and win Francis of Valois to be the Head of their Sect; which the Prince of Aurange, as well as others, saw, but would seem to take no Notice thereof, because they would not draw new Suspitions upon themselves: Wherefore Francis, by the Decree of the States, is named, The Defender of the Belgick Liberty: And moreover, Provision was made for Imbursement of all [Page 95] Charges, by giving to him, as a Reward or Gratuity of their Alliance, whatever Towns the Enemy held beyond the Maze.

While these things are doing, and the Inferiour differ about Fancies in Religion, and the Great Ones quarrel about Realities in Dominion, the Followers of the Innovated Religion, obtain a Power very safe to themselves, but hazar­dous to the Commonwealth; for the Right of Ruling, being in the hands of many, there was no higher Power to restrain or keep under particular Animosities and Feuds; They Petition Matthias, and the Prince of Aurange, who was not ignorant thereof before; wherein they set forth, That they never ha­ving been Servants to Tyranny, but rather Marks for the Cruelty of the Spaniards, who had designed the Ruine of the Com­monwealth, by robbing her of the best part of her Citizens, were not more maligned by her Enemies abroad; Though they had this most certain Pledge of their Faith, that their onely hope rested in the Publike Safety: for if the old Ceremonies should return, as the rest of the People can expect nothing but Penury and Slavery: so they are sure to have no other pity than that of Torments, Fire, and Death; Meritedly therefore, they desire an equal share of Li­berty since nothing can be by them expected from a Kingdom but Tyranny. They looked not after rich Benefices, and ample Re­venues, but were content others should enjoy them; onely they beg­ged they might not be banished both from the Church and Court as profane Persons. That they never were Apostates, either in their Piety towards God, or their Fidelity towards their Coun­try.

Some doubt there was a while, how to Resolve; but at last praising the Examples of Germany and Poland, agreeing many old Customs, it was concluded by the Counsell of those, who had put forward these things: That it was very necessary, for the maintaining of Unity and Concord, that these just Desires should not be rejected; for they could not have an Army of any value or strength, but it must chiefly consist of them; and [Page 96] they found by Experiment, that no Persons might be with [...] safety trusted with the care and management of Affairs, that they.

In this Vicissitude of Affairs, it came to pass, that several of the Romane Opinion, especially those who took to them selves the Names of Jesuits, could not be drawn to take [...] Oath against Dan John; and no small part, whose hope ma [...] depended upon the King's Success, voluntarily defend them: But many of the Magistrates, though so instructed [...] if they had fore-seen the Rising Authority of that Side, em­braced that Form of Worship, which the Nassanians helds And for these Causes, Honours were communicative to them, and in some places, no less than a hundred Families de­sired they might have, by Command, places see apart for the [...] Publike Worship, on the same Condition, That the like should be granted to those who preferred the Doctrine of the Latin Church through Holland and Zealand, which yet was never af­fected. The things which followed after this, are not to [...] passed by, without Compassion or a sad Remembrance; Such Commotions, such Hatreds, and such Troubles, one still fol­lowing another: For as the Romanists would grant nothing at all to the other, so they not satisfied so much now with their Impunity and privacy, upon their own private account took by force the Administration of the Law, from the more violent and stubborn Magistrates; and after they had therein prevailed, they began to look at Revenge: So that they wh [...] but lately wished ill to the Spaniard, now of a suddain jo [...] both their Purses and Counsels against them; Citizens now against Citizens, standing armed in the very Cities; which being free from their Publike Enemies, they endeavoured [...] drive away their private Adversaries; there was not m [...] need here of the Souldier his help, being onely necessary preserve Domestick Peace. And as they which labour of a Deadly Disease, for the most part despise all Remedies; [...] here, they who were Lovers and Promoters of Peace and [Page 97] and Concord, were on all hands hated by these strong Pro­moters of Sedition. And indeed, they ought to have studied nothing but Patience, to see such persons, by whom the com­mon Plague of this Age was scattered into both Parties, and the Names of all things inverted: So that a blind and per­verse Obstinacy in Discord, was called a Holy Zeal, and Mo­desty and meekness of Mind, Sloth; nay, sometimes Trea­son.

The People of Gaunt now grown to that heighth of Licen­tiousness, that they could not hope for Pardon or Impunity, but from the monstrous Greatness of their Villany, being still egg'd on further by that Boutefeu Imbis, who had crept up into Power by a Thredbare Journey formerly to openly detract the Government: They protest, they will no longer so much as see those Romane Superstitions, that have invented so many Wickednesses and Cruelties; not that the Authors or Fomenters of the Sedition esteemed much of any Religion, for they would raise Tumults under the pre­tence of both; but onely they preferr'd Novelties, before things received from Antiquity, and their own Fancies, be­fore any Truth that could be taught them; and having by chance convicted some Monks of detestable Sensualities, first they expelled that Order, yet groaning under the Weight of their fresh Malice and furious Hatred, and afterwards all Priests. Then being conscious to themselves, of what they had begun, they begin to fortifie their City with strong Bul­warks and Rampires; which being of a vast compass, equal almost to the greatest Cities, was not totally inhabited; for having been often besieged, and fearing the like again, from the vileness of their Action in time to come, they inclosed many Fields within their Works or W [...]ll: And the more their Fortification proceeded, and came nearer the finishing, so much less they did hearken to the Commands, either of Matthias, or the States, or take notice of their vain objecting their Crimes against them; seeking backward still for new [Page 98] Pretences, out of those very things which they had stirred [...] against themselves: Neither could the Prince of Aurange's Authority any whit prevail with them, though by his Inter­cession the same People of Gaunt had obtained again their Antient Laws, which they had before forfeited by a Rebelli­on against the Emperour Charles: But the Mischief rather increased and spread into other Cities of Flanders: On the contrary, those of Artoys and Henault, were more constant and stedfast to the Romane Religion, for most of them were of that Judgment: And the Lords being averse to the Prince of Aurange, with a kind of civil Objuration, refused to hear of the New Law; for they said, that it was specified in the League, that nothing should be altered in Religion, while the We continued.

Some did advise, that the City of Gaunt, being by this Sedition lyable to Treachery, should by War be compelled to Obedience: But neither the Prince of Aurange, nor seve­ral other of the Nobles, would consent to that, to turn the [...] Arms or Forces against Citizens, how ill deserving soever while the Spaniard, their Enemy, with a powerful Army lay almost in the middle of their Country; for that, indeed, were to make good that, which some of the wisest of their Enemies had fore-told of them, that their own Discord w [...] destroy them. But while it was dangerous to inforce them, they slighted all Commands, Counsels, and Intreaties, look­ing upon them onely as predetermined Malice. At this ti [...] Bossis, whom we formerly mention'd to have been taken in the Sea of Frizeland, when he commanded the scatter'd Re­mains of Holland under Alva, was General of the gre [...] Army of the Netherlanders, the States having taken that Ho­nour from Lalain; because at the unhappy Battel of Ge [...] he forsook the Camp, without their Leave or Commandment▪ The Viscount of Gaunt was Commander in Chief of the Horse; Lanove, who had won great Renown in the Civil Wars of France, was Camp-Master General.

[Page 99] Don John assaulted their Camp, scituate not far from Mech­lin, at a Village called Rimenen, and was onely Repulsed, there being, as many both believed and said, a great Errour committed, in that they did not follow them in the Rear, as they marched off; which had they done, that onely Day had scatter'd and broken all the Spanish Forces. But that Year might have been spent in the Besieging of Towns, if the Cap­tains Prudence and Fore-sight had provided Pioneers, and such other like People, as are fit to attend an Army for such Work.

Among all these Changes of Affairs, there intervened some Discourses of Peace; for some Forreign Princes, being desired to propose some way to make a Peace, did perswade Don John, that in regard the Forces of the Netherlanders far exceeded his, he might yet go off with an unblemished Re­putation, and let his hope hereafter wait for more happy op­portunity; and as to the King, that he would do much more discreetly, if he minded to win the love of so Valiant and Warlike a People, and not rashly to cast away so large a Do­minion, that he would now accept of them, while they were willing to come to reasonable terms; that it was necessary, for the obtaining thereof, (to wit, of Peace) that the League made at Gaunt should be confirmed; and in that, the Clause particularly, that Religion should be left to every Man's free Will: That it was most just, that all Prisoners should be set at liberty, and among them chiefly, the Prince of Aurange's Son; That whosoever intended to make a Peace with the States: must comprehend therein all these particulars; by which means all might be reconciled.

To these, Don John answer'd, That unless the Prince of Au­range might be banished into Holland, there could be no hopes to make Peace; That he would grant nothing as to matter of Re­ligion, onely he seemed to incline to a Truce. The truth is, Peace is generally made, according to the pleasure and liking of the strongest; and to the Weaker, every Delay in point of [Page 100] War, is very advantageous: but when he was re-inforced with Thirty Thousand Foot, and Six Thousand Horse; so that he believed himself in a manner as strong as the Netherlan­ders, especially as they had Discords among themselves, pitching his Camp in the Mountain Bonga, which is near to Namur, he broke off the Treaty, all thought of Pacification being laid aside in his Commanding Breast. Casimire, in the mean time, by a stay longer than ordinary in Gelderland, be­ing unfurnished of Money, though very slowly, yet at last got together a great Army: By his Conjunction, the Army of the Netherlanders consisted of Forty Thousand Foot, and Twenty Thousand Horse; with which strength, it was re­solved to stay for the Aids of Francis of Valois, when (but too late) they intended to besiege Don John, being full of hopes, if they could but once begin it, to bring it to perfecti­on: But the sins of the former Time, too much greediness and Ambition, after Wealth, Honour, and their Licentious­ness, in the abusing both, which had before been the cause of the Netherlanders Slavery to the Spaniards, was now again the main Obstacle and Diversion of the Liberty, which was even in their sight, and almost come to their possession: For the Differences of those of Henault and Artois, with them of Flanders, was come to that heighth, that without any Care of the Publike Good, the particular People of each Province, would reserve and keep all Taxes and Tributes unto their proper uses: And this Example spreading it self further, certain Bands of Souldiers, lately grown wanton with Ease, being a little defalked or delayed in their Pay, left the Ser­vice of the Commonwealth, by a secret complotting and con­trivance of the Captains, who thought they had not prefer­ment suiting to, or proportionable with, their Worth and Me­rits: These Souldiers therefore seizing Mayn (a Free Town in Flanders) forrage and risle all the adjoyning Coun­try.

Hitherto it was hoped, that this Storm would have been [Page 101] kept within their own Bounds, when of a suddain Montigny, a Man of great Authority among the Captains, undertook the Government, and went over to the Artoysian Faction: The Gauntoys listed divers Companies, to repel the Injuries of­fered by those: But these Souldiers, though at Home fierce and untractable, yet unexpert in War, were not of strength sufficient to hinder the Enemies depopulating the Country: For they gave it out in Speech, that the Priests, which by Force and Sedition were thrust out of Gaunt, lived in Banish­ment among them; and that they could not reasonably deny nourishment to so great a Company of poor Supplyants, ei­ther for the Sanctity of their Order, or the meanness of their present Fortune; but also, since there was no place left for Equity and Justice, to demand and regain by Arms those things whereof they were robbed by those Barbarous Spoilers: Under this pretence of War, (for now these private Quarrels were broke out into open Hostility) great Spoil was daily made, until the Flandrians, at the instigation of Casimire, re­ceived Souldiers from him, promising Pay out of his own Store, for then the whole Country was even brought to Po­verty: It was supposed, that he hoped for the Government, but he was deluded therein by the Peoples Inconstancy, as well as other Events of Matters.

But in all these Vicissitudes, the Towns of Henault re­ceived Francis of Valois, who knowing by whose means it came to pass, gratified Lalayn, the Governour of that Pro­vince for it. He had with him, something more than Eight Hundred Horse, and Six Thousand Foot, the Refuse and Remains of the French Troubles and Tumults; whom, after a very hard Journey, and Plunders committed every where as they passed, having first taken some Castles; and Autumn now coming on apace, he brought to the Town of Bingen. This came under his Subjection by Storm and Siege, but proved a very mean Reward for the Expence of his time: He staid for the most part at Monts, a City in Henault, but [Page 102] but not without great Indignation, that the Townsmen refu­sed to deliver up the appointed Towns to his Souldiers to be Garrisoned; and when he was desired to come to the Ar­my by the Netherlanders, he at first denied it, until Casimire did the same; with whose progress and success at Gaunt, he was greatly offended, so much, that being before his Friend, and afterwards his Competitor, now he hated him with so much Malice, as could not forbear to vent it self in contumelious Speeches: Nor would he be removed from the same, although both the Regent Matthias, the Prince of Aurange, and the Queen of England, declared themselves unsatisfied, in the Actions both of Casimere, and the Flandrians, but that he willingly suffers his Souldiers to run over to the Companie and Troops of Montigny.

Thus these two Captains, both promising generally Aid [...] the Netherlanders, came both into their Dominions, rather is damnifie them: But not long after, the Duke of Anjou de­parted to France, and Casimere went to England, both leaving this Commonwealth, whereto they had no Right, to her own good or evil Fate: But the Netherlanders, upon the depar­ture of this great French-man, (though himself, and other Princes in his behalf, had accused them of Ingratitude) pro­mised, That if they could compass any Peace with Philip, [...] should have Statues, Orations, and other things; in truth, but [...] Sounds, and meer Trisles of Honour; but if he would come to other Resolutions, that he should, before any others, have that respect which his Dignity and the well-weighed Advantage of the Common­wealth, in that exigent of time, could require.

This was the state of Affairs, when the Violence of Death, suddainly sn [...]tched away Don John of Austria, which might be hastned the more early, in regard that with Grief [...] Mind he repined at his Fortune: For when he endeavoured to make our, that he gained the Victory by his own Valo [...] and Conduct, not the Debates or Failings of the Enemy, t [...] see his Glory impeded, and darkned by his Foes, which i [...] [Page 103] the Spanish Court were many, he grew Cholerick, beyond either what his Nature, or the strength of his Body would beat: And surely, in some intercepted Letters, there ap­peared contumacious Desperation: And a little before, Phi­lip had privily commanded Scovedo to be killed, that used to take care of his private and most secret Affairs, as being dan­gerously subtle, in the managing of the Intents of that Noble and great-spirited Young-man: For being known to have aimed at, beyond the condition and quality of his Birth, for­merly the Kingdom of Tunis, and afterwards that of England, and also to have had intercourse of Counsels with the most powerful Lorrainers in the French Court, he was privately feared by Philip, least he should not onely continue against his Person, but seek to confirm to himself these Provinces of the Netherlands; from whence arose a great Suspition of Poyson, though but uncertainly pressed, who should cause it to be given; there being some Priests of the Romane Religion, who stuck not to cast upon the Country an Imputation of endeavouring such a thing: Others, suspected some Eng­lish, who were sent from thence against him, and were there­fore called Murtherers.

The Duke of Parma took the Conduct of the Army, and the Government of the residue of the Cities and Towns; first, at the Desire of Don John himself, and with the good liking of all the Souldiery, and afterwards by the King's Command: He was of a more reserved and close Nature, bringing out of Italy with him, the practice of making large Promises, and the Art of Dissimulation: He knew the [...]ue way to catch the Dutch to wit, either with great Words to fright, or with smooth Words to seem to excuse, them: Therefore, as Spain was not so much beholding to any mans Arms, yet he gained more by the Favour of the People. By this man's occult and close Provocations, he mightily augmented the Differ­ences among the Provinces, which began to burst out more and more, especially after there had been some punishment in­flicted [Page 104] upon divers Citizens; who, to reduce to Unity a City of Artoys, durst make an Intestine Commotion: Nor did the Prince of Aurange leave any Stone unturned, to find a Remedy for all these Mischiefs; He becomes more sharp in punishing those whose Crimes grew great be­yond his Envy.

And now he had perswaded the Gauntors, that restoring and receiving their Priests, they should return and submit to the Covenants and Articles of the League, then he turned his Endeavours to Montignie's Souldiers, and the Artoysians, for the reconciling of them.

But it appeared, that the chief men had willingly laid hold of the Causes of this Defection, and therefore that they were implacable; which so instigated anew the Minds of the Flandrians, that Imbis took to himself by force the chief Magistracy of Gaunt, and after bestowed, on whom he plea­sed, the rest of the Names and Titles of Honour. In the interim, the Duke of Parma gave safe Conduct and Pas­sage for all Casimire's Horse to go out of the Country; so that taking himself thereby to be secure from any E­nemy, he besiegeth Mastricht, that had never been weak­ned with any Garison, and makes Approaches to assault it.

During the Siege of this City, the Emperour, to whom the Treaty we before mentioned, was submitted, had sent his Embassadors to Colen: Thither came also with the King's Commands the Spanish Duke of Terranova in Ame­rica, and for the Netherlanders Areschot, and others. But the Prince of Aurange, who ever was of Opinion, that all Peace made with the King must be to the hazard of his Head, in this Division of the Netherlands, he being in the midst of so many Parties, and hated by all, did not vainly fear, least he should be delivered up a Prey, both to his Ene­mies, and to Strangers.

[Page 105]But it would be resented grievously, and redound much to his dishonour, to hinder the meeting and Treaty, or to impugne the German Moderators; but that it might be co­vertly brought to passe, he urged the points concerning Re­ligion, to be firmly insisted, and severall others, whereto there was no hope the King would ever condescend: Many did believe that at that time, Conditions moderate enough might have been obtained, but that some for their private ad­vantage, had broken the publick Peace; And the Duke of Parma, though intent upon Warre, yet never ceased to ad­monish all desirers of novelty, that they seek to regain the Kings Favour and Pardon, by speedy repentance and sub­mission.

The first of all that reconciled himself to Philip, was La­mot, which he did, by surrendring the Town of Gravelin in Flanders, whereof he was Governour, to the Kings Power; and having accepted Power of Covenanting with the other, he allured over many others, manifesting himself a mighty applauder and example of the Kings Clemency. Afterwards, Montigny bringing over all his Forces (which were eight thousand) added no small strength to that party, though his men were very poor; and this he did as well for that rea­son of poverty, as for fear of punishment, which he knew he had meritedly deserved from the Netherlanders, Lamot being ready to fall upon them. They of Artoys and He­nault for a while were in suspence: at length, prescribing certain Conditions to the rest of the Netherlanders, which they would should be used if they listed, they notwithstand­ing came to an agreement with the Duke of Parma; the like did Issel, Doway, and Orchan, Cities in that part of Flanders, which the French a long time possessed, and after­wards returned to the obedience of their own Princes, but yet they retain the French Tongue; with whom this was the cause of their private falling off from the rest of the Netherlanders, [Page 106] because they could not obtain a proper voyce, or suffrage in Councel.

The Articles of the Peace contained these Heads, The Latine or Roman Religion, their accustomed duty to their Prince and the approbation of the League made at Gaunt, and that i [...] might be perfect, the forraign Souldiers to be sent away within a short time, receiving their pay out of the Kings Treasury, [...] which the Provinces subject to the Regency, should be contributary and in all things where any defence was required an Army of Na­tives might be raised; The King would consider of a Regent, and in the mean while, all to obey the Duke of Parma.

Thus the Walloons made a great addition of power to the Kings party: A People taking delight in Warre? and who [...] the Spaniard might safely make use of in all dangers; And this was altogether the conclusion of the Netherlanders against forraign Dominion: Certainly, that Society must needs be firm, which hath the same hopes, or more Obligations to a­gree than causes of dissention. There is scarce any thing com­mon with the Netherlanders, which the Spaniards hate not; by which meanes, as enforced, they made the Peace at Gaunt, the Priests being the chief perswaders thereunto; notwithstanding all which, anon, every one endeavours to draw to himself as much power as he can, though by contrary and indirect meanes: For the Prince of Aurange, and all those, who with him were conscious to themselves, to have deserved the same things that the Counts of Egmond and Horn suffered, durst nor to trust the King: Hence it was, that they sought after all Counsel and Advise, which might establish themselves and the Sect of their Religion, as also to attain favour with forraign Princes.

Another party there was, whose Crimes had been no causes of the beginning of the Warre, who willing to preserve their Loyalty to their Prince, and their duty and zeal to the Roman Religion, were very much in fear, least by others violence they should be hurried from the same.

[Page 107]It would be an easie matter for Philip thus to break asun­der these cash and ill co-hering People. If he would remove but this one thing, from all such as should be imployed therein, to wit, the dread of the Spaniards. Where he gave satisfaction to the desire of these, the rest would follow of course; for all those things that for a long time continued among the Netherlanders, as bare suspitions, were afterwards converted into Hostility, nor ever after did the severall Reli­gions increase, or ciment again together.

At last there hapned, when once they came to divide into parties, a thing not very strange, that who would not submit to Citizens, should, without any regard of Covenants, be compelled to serve under a forraign Power. But the Prince of Aurange did easily foresee, that while the minds of men were inclinable to Peace, by the imprudence of some per­sons, the Common-wealth would be destroyed, unless timely prevented: Wherefore using his wonted diligence, he goes to Ʋtrecht in Holland, and there with most wholesome Coun­sel, he bindes all the States, being there called together, as well of that Province, as of Gelderland, Holland, Zeland, and that part of Frizeland, which lies near the River Lecke, and the other part, between the same River and the River of Eemes, each to the other, in a more strict League and Bond of Allyance; the sum whereof was this, That they would re­main joyned and inseperable, have no other Common-wealth than as if they were one People, and that they would neither make Peace, Truce, new Warres, pay nor raise Tributes, but by the generall Command and Consent of all; That in making Leagues and Al­lyances, and other matters of Consultation, the greater number of Voyces should be binding; and if any dissentions did arise, they should be reffered to the judgement and determination of the Coun­cill or Deputies: That all places in any danger of the Enemy, should be fortified, and no man should refuse to give his assistance in his Arms; and that they should every one joyntly and severally endeavour, that equality be observed in rating of Taxes, and all [Page 108] other things relating to the raising of money. To the Hollanders and Zelanders, the use of their Religion (one being common be­tween them) was freely granted in publick. To the rest of the Provinces, Toleration either to use the same, or any other, or both, was allowed according to their pleasure. The Governours were set forth in these words, The Magistrates, Council of every City and the Commonalty: for by an antient Law, the chief of the Townsmen, whose Age made them able to bear Arms, were went to be enrolled into certain Companies, like Bands of Souldiers; and this in time of Warre, was for Garison and defence, and in time of Peace, for a Fortification to maintain it; when yet the art of Prin­cipality had not arrived to the Coufidence of relying on forraign helps: This Custom and Badge of neglected Vertue, yet re­mains, and the use is by these late Commotions in some man­ner restored, while their faithful pains hath been imployed oftentimes against the Enemy, and for the allaying Sedi­tions.

In this manner, the Provinces which I mentioned before, took their Oath for performance of these Covenants, agreed on at Utrecht: And that they might the better be able to judge of their strength, they commanded all the people, between the Ages of eighteen and threescore, to be numbred, as well of men inhabiting in Cities and Towns, as in Villages, and in all other parts whatsoever of the Country.

But among those Provinces, which were not present at the making this League: what, and how great troubles and dissentions had they, while some part will concern themselves in the care neither of the common Religion, or their Country, and others are drawn away by the vain hope either of ap­proaching Peace, or the desire and love of contention?

The Romanists held Boisledue, deserted by the vain fear of the other party; they that remained, contracted with the Duke of Parma, that he would grant them that proper Cove­nant of the Peace, that they should never be garrisoned with­out their free consent: It hapned quite contrary at Antwerp, [Page 109] for the common people of the adverse faction remained their Superior, in a threatning posture, setting upon all such as had been imployed in the Solemnities of punishments: Not could the Prince of Aurange restrain his People, or hinder them from throwing out the Priests by force; though his Enemies interpreted to have been acted by his consent and will, what he could not by any meanes resist or with­stand: for he was not given to cruelty, but was one, who would wisely make use of an occasion given, and for the gaining mens love to him, would lay before them long before the advantages they should thereafter receive: But this made many of the people, who were deprived of their way of Worship in Religion, to wish evill, and combine against the Common-wealth, because they believed the Servitude they un­derwent to the King to be more moderate; nay, some of the Nobles from hence also took occasion to go over to the King. Among whom, Charles, the Son of Count Egmond, was one, who when he endeavoured to take Bruxells, Matthias, as was said, not ignorant thereof, by the unlucky help of those that followed the Roman Religion, the rest in­closed him in the Market-place, as if he had been there be­sieged; where then his own guilt, the Image of his Fathers death, and unrevenged Ghost, were all become tormentors to him; for there were them who objected, (and not with­out some admiration of the chance,) that in the same place, that very day, eleven years before, the Father dyed by the hand of the Executioner, through the cruelty of that people, among whom the Son was now come as a Traytor to his Country: but at last, by the pitty of the Townsmen, he got thence away, and came safe to Nienove, who being received by the Dutch, was after by the power of his own People, as we shall relate, made Prisoner.

At Bruges, there was a sharp and dangerous tumult, so that Arms were taken, and bloodshed very hardly prevented; both the parties having set forth Souldiers that belonged to [Page 110] them, the Bands of the United Provinces came first, being hastned by the Magistrates; and this was the end of the dis­sention: the Tumults of other Cities were prevented by Garrisons; Ipre of its own accord, came and joyned it self to the League of Union, and the like did Gaunt; and a little after the Prince of Aurange came into that City, by the fa­vour and good will of all the multitude.

So great inconstancy was there in the resolutions of the vulgar rout, and their levity being the same both in good things and bad: there, removing such from Authority as had by violence intruded themselves, he gave the Honour to others: Most of the Prisoners, which we mentioned to be there detained, being carelesly looked to, had broke out; the rest that remained, the Prince set at liberty.

And another thing, which proved as well to augment his Honour, as revive envy against him, was, That the Govern­ment of Flanders was put upon him, notwithstanding his many re­fusalls to accept thereof: In the Embassey to Colen, there was nothing done, but what the Spaniard was well pleased with, to wit, that minds distracted to the hope of Peace, should never advise well concerning the publick good: The Em­bassadors of both sides complaining mutually, that their Collegues, by private agreements, were solicited against the peace, disturbed by new Confederacies, not minding the Re­pute or Esteem of the Treaty; But the Dutch, because of the present danger, for that the Duke of Parma had gained much upon Maestricht, a City partly belonging to Brabant, and partly to the Jurisdiction of Leige, as being scituate upon the Confines of both; and they could not get an opportu­nity of relieving it, either with Souldiers or Provision, they desired the time of the pacification might be freed from War, and they hoped the Emperour's Embassadors would assist them herein: But the Duke of Terranova denied that he had received any such power.

[Page 111]Thus while a Truce is asked and denyed, while Conditi­ons of Peace begin to be offered, while the Instructions of the Dutch are found fault with, as being not free, but bound up to new Orders and Commands, the Duke of Parma had crept under the very Walls of Maestricht: when, after a four moneths Siege, he took the City by force, though the same were valiantly defended, and his own strength not very great: But at Winter, he sent away almost all the German, Spanish, and Italian Souldiers, retaining onely the Captains, and one Wing of Italian Cavalry, though later than was agreed by the Covenants made in Artoys; but yet this gain­ed to him Mechlin, with Valenciennes, and the City of Issell.

In some convenient places, he set Garrisons of Walloons; Of these, as every one was grievously annoyed, or else of his own accord had offended his Neighbour, so was he esteem'd most safe from danger: and for this benefit, they confirmed on the Duke of Parma the Lieutenancy; not throughly un­derstanding, that a General of an Army might, when he pleased, recall to their Assistance any Forreign Souldiers: But the Confederate Dutch, though by the conjunction of so many People and Cities, had lost all hopes of Peace; yet that they might seem not so to hate it, as to despair of it, they sent the Articles of Composition and Agreement offer'd by Philip, unto every Town, that they might be consider'd of in publike Council: Which being objected against, as unjust and fall [...] ­cious, were these:

The Acts of Matthias were not otherwise confirmed, but as they had no Relation to the Supream Authority of the Prince, or the Injuries of others; That whatever Regent Philip should ap­point over the Netherlanders, to him constantly should be deliver­ed all Cities, Castles, Magazines, and Instruments of Warre; He, together with the Senate should take Cognizance of all things, (there was no mention of the States) That all displaced and ejected [Page 112] Priests should be restored; as also, all others that had born Of­fices of Honour or Magistracy.

All which things seemed to tend to this; That the Laws being restored in shew, by the endeavour of them, who would enjoy the Benefit and Trust of the Commonwealth, they should shortly be abrogated, and the People being disarmed, redu­ced to slavery; for there is no fortification, for maintainance of Liberty, so weak as that of Kingly Jurisdiction.

As to matter of Religion, the Settlement whereof w [...] the matter of greatest Difficulty and Controversie, it pleased the King to grant, that there should be but one Religion throughout all the Netherlands, which should be confirmed by the Authority of the Pope, unless in such places, where [...] this time other Rites were used; and this confirmed the League made at Gaunt. Without those Bounds, a time was limited to men of different Judgments, wherein they might settle their Affairs; and after their departure out of the Ne­therlands, their Goods should not be medled with, so long as they would commit the Administration thereof, to the pr [...] ­curation of such as were of the Romane Religion.

But this was looked upon, as very hard by all, and in a [...] manner convenient for the Publike Peace, because it would turn upside down the present state of so many Cities, banish and expel from their Country so many Thousand Men: Nor should it be free for any man to believe, what his Conscience bore him Witness was the Truth. And what Country was able to receive all that should be Exiled? and if any could yet what safety could it hope for in such Multitudes? Where could they, whom their own Country thought fit to expel [...] hope for quiet in a strange Land?

But the Governours and Chiefs, without the deepest Brand of Ignominy and Villany, could not consent to be­tray, for fear that Religion they were taught to be true, in what manner soever it first brought forth.

[Page 113]Neither the Hollander nor Zealander think that Proviso sufficient for them, for they had some strong Cities which dis­senced from the Common-wealth, in the use of that Religion, to be revoked to those very times: From whence they might well doubt new Tumults, and their good will to become su­spected, that their Cause was separated from the rest. They also laboured to work upon the Prince of Aurange apart, and by himself; when, though seemingly aloof off, there was offered to his Son, not onely Liberty, but the Governments belonging to (him) his Father, to himself, as many Goods is he had ever before possessed, so as he would go out of the Netherlands, and spend his Old Age quie [...]ly in Germany. But besides, the other cause of Diffidence, his Mind, that ne­ver was greedy after Wealth, and, in that respect, unsullied and upright, was greatly satisfied, to perceive, with what great Expence the Spaniard would gladly free himself from the Dread of him.

The Treaty at Colen being ended, Areschet and some Priests fell off to the King, from some of those Parts, whence Legates had come; for understanding, that they must for the future else be Enemies to the King, being reconciled by Letters, and accepting the same Articles, which they of Artoys had: But all those Councils, either of War or Peace, which they had Registred and taken Notice of, were scorned by the Spa­niards, and by that Nation (that never likes any Forreign Thing) made a meer May-Game of. In that Treaty, it plain­ly appeared, how great a Difference there is between the Aims and Intentional Designs of the Prince and the Peo­ple. Of old time, when first the Nobility here made Insur­rections, for fear of Forreign Lords and Tyrants, the Evil was not incurable: But afterwards, being more obstinately op­pressed, they drew the Commons into Parties, under pretence of Religion; and the Vulgar Rout learning, that they were they that kept Kings in awe, or made them to be Reveren­ced, and that they could be caught by nothing but Cre­dulity, [Page 114] presently imagined, that Despair of Pardon, was the fir [...] Step to Liberty. Hence they did not act indifferently, or mo­derately, but would onely do such things as were too fool to admit of Repentance, and going back; and by this means they arrived at that height, that afterwards they would debate the Commodities of Peace, but never mind the Hazards of Warre: They go beyond the wonted Custom, with Dome­stick and Intestine Arms, while thence ariseth and springs the unlimitable Thirst of Rule and Revenge. This makes a kind of Pleasure even in Danger, and there is somewhat of Honour in the Depth of Misery. But then surely, there was not one general Army, but the Warre was scattered here and there by small Parties, and every several Nation almost had his own distinct Warriers

This Fault of the Commonwealth did quickly shew it self; for there not being a Soveraign Power vested in one chief City (as there was in the Antient States, both of the Greek and Romans, and is at this day in most flourishing Do­minions) but an equal Power residing among many Cities, itit comes to pass, that what should be properly the care of every one, from the Nations Industry, exercised in the getting and keeping of Riches, under the false Name of the Publike, the Common Benefit is perverted, and car­ryed into a wrong Channel. Thus Moneys could very hardly be gotten, by reason whereof the Netherlands might have been in great danger, had not the Enemy been infected with the same Disease; for Portugal eat up all the Kings Money, as well by War, as by seeking to win the Love of the Nobles. For Sebastian the King, being lost in the great African Bat­tel, and his Successour Henry being dead, the People had Ele­cted Anthony, who was sprung from the Royal Stock, to be King, because they were infested by the Castilians according to the Evil Custom of Bordering Nations. But Philip ad­vancing the Propinquity of his Bloud, among and before others, sent thither the Duke of Alva with an Army, to con­quer [Page 115] and bring into subjection by Force, those that would not submit willingly; and, at last, by his Endeavours, the King­dom of Portugal was added to the King his Master: By whom, before he had lost the Netherlands, so much more easie was it to win a Kingdom. Nor indeed, could any thing have fallen out more happily for Philip, not onely be­cause all Spain was now reduced under one Government, but because the Portugeze, who had by long Navigations, com­passed the greatest part of the World, possessed the great Islands of the Mediterranean Sea; and, by Command, or Traffike, was Seated and Inhabitant on trie Coasts both of Aethiopia, and the Indies: By the Event hereof, the Nether­landers, who might hope for some Ease to themselves, while the Wars in Portugal lasted, besides the increase of their strength, found also another greater discommodity, which was, That the Spaniards would now hinder all the Trade thence, wherein the main Wealth of their Cities did con­sist; for although hitherto the Ports of the Kingdom of Ca­stile, had not forbidden or denied them, as if there had been no cause of Arms or War, out of the Bounds of the Nether­lands; yet there was from the Clergy great danger, and in­jurious detentions of Ships sometimes used by Kings, even toward Strangers, dis-incouraged them, which the Portuge­zes had promised they would never do: Nay more, there was Provision made, that they should be bound to appear in Judgment, before suspected Judges, or forced to any long Suits. But after both Kingdoms were joyned in one; and yet the Necessity of the one not at all lessened, by the enjoy­ment of the others Trade; both having the same King, by various Names of Extortion and Force, the Sea-men and Masters of Ships were defrauded of the greatest part of their Gain; but yet not by a continual Trouble, but by such In­tervals and Breathings, that under hope of amendment, and by the unconscionable Avarice of the Merchants to get all, [Page 116] ever some new Booty came in afresh. In the mean time, by reason of the want of Money, there hapned many Sedi­tions, on both Sides, in the Netherlands: But the Spaniards had the advantage, in the more easie appeasing and suppres­sing those on their part; because, in lieu of Pay, they gave them Licence to do what they would, and Impunity for the same: However, the Duke of Parma got some small Towns in Henalt, 1580. which the Confederate Pr [...] ­virces had Garrison'd, and not long after surpriz'd Courtray in Flanders: Altpen delivers Breda also to him, the Castle on a suddain, whence he easily set upon and got the rest.1581. Lanove, on the other hand, to whom the chief Care of the War, in those Parts, was committed, regained from the Enemy Nienove, and other places in Flanders. At this time it fortuned, that some emi­nent and brave men were taken prisoners; as Egmond and Selley, in Towns that were taken; and contrarily, La [...] himself who was taken at an unhappy Fight, in a Siege, be­fore a certain Castle; and was esteemed by the Enemy of so great quality, that they would not exchange him for [...] others.

The English who were in Pay with, and fought for, the Ʋnited Provinces, took Mechlin by Storm, whose Avarice was so prophanely expressed in their Victory, that they did not spare the very Sepulchres of the Dead, the Stones where­of they took away, and afterwards openly sold them in Eng­land. Many other Counsels and Resolutions, of sudd [...]n Actions, the more powerful Enemy diverted, very few To­kens of Victory remaining to the Dutch, by reason of the penury of them that fought in their Defence.

At this time, the Duke of Parma's Mother came to her Son at Namar, being sent to take the Government (wherein she had formerly been skilled); being by her Sex more mild and gracious, and, by the use of her Age, a crafty Moderat [...] for Peace.

[Page 117]But he, who had cut off the Follies and Enormities of Youth, to follow after Fame and Honour, telling her, It was no time for talk, there rather wanted Men and Arms, and that his Industry and Care was sufficient to win and keep the good-will both of the Souldiery and People. The Lady therefore went back again, and by that means did wipe away the impious Difference that otherwise might have fallen out between her self and Son. But in Frizeland, and the adjacent Regions, the Inconstancy of Renneberg, made, as it were, a particular War burst furiously out: This Man having with great Fi­delity, and an undanted Courage, long taken the part of the Nobles, together with all the Frisons at Utrecht, subscribed the League of Ʋnion; and, by a Siege, compelled the refusing Groningers, whom he had made hated by those that were pre­sent, to swear to perform the same: But after, being over­born by the Authority of his Kinred, who had all of their Re­volted to Spain; who, the better to kindle the Coals of Dis­sention, suffer'd the Country-people, who inhabited round about the Country, to repel the Injuries offer'd to them by the Souldiers: Upon a Sign given, a great Multitude of the Boors met to take their Revenge; and th [...]y were the mo [...]e cruel in what they did, because now they fought in De­fence of all the Remains Fortune had left them. But Hohenlo, sent thither by the P [...]ince of Aurange, after some small Fights, dispersed this disordered Multitude not fit for War: And the Frisons, suspecting their Governours Fidelity, set upon the Castles that remained, and, in little time, made them equal with the ground: The Prince of Aurange himself, being constrained to go with strong Guards to re-settle Ove [...]-Issel, that had likewise bin sollicited to Revolt, and through Home-Discords stagger'd, not Resolved what to do. Then he, (to wit, Rennebergh) laying aside any further Dissi­mulation, delivered Groninghen, which he then had the pos­session of, into the King's Power.

[Page 118]Thence wasting his Forces over the Rhine, they carryed in thither with them frequent and mutual Slaughters, and a ter­rible misery of fifteen years continuance.

For the regaining of this Town of Groninghen, first Barto­lus Entes, formerly the Companion of Marques, whom, af­ter the taking of many great Prizes, by Sea and Land, and while his Thoughts were filled with the hopes of great Mat­ters out of these Troubles, Death nipped all in the Bud a this Siege. The Duke of Parma sent Schenck to relieve it, who had formerly been a Souldier in these Parts, to which he was now returned, when he could not obtain the desired Re­wards of his going away: But then he employed his whole Study and Endeavour for his General; for by his Ver [...] and Judgment, the Siege was broke up, when the greate Commanders were all in despair thereof, and all Hon [...]'s men scattered and slain; whom afterwards, as they were re­inforcing their Fortune, by some of the dispersed Troops Rennebergh again utterly overthrew; and having thus of comfited the Enemy, be over-ran many of their Fortific­ations, both at Passes and Rivers: But when he strove [...] turn all the whole Fury of the War, for five Moneths, upon Steenwic, a City of Over-Issel, he was Overthrown and Con­quered by the Nassauian Commanders; when considering with Regret, his Misery, with how great Loss of his [...] and Repute, he had reduced himself from great Wealth, [...] a horrid Incertainty, he was seized by a Disease, which quick­ly brought him to his End. Verdugo, a Spaniard, succeed­ed him, and got the better of Norris, in a certain Fight; be it advantaged him nothing, the Fields now growing we with Autumn's Dews and Foggs: Now were the poor Souldiers plagued both with Hunger and Sickness.

Now there lay open to the Duke of Parma, a Possession large enough, and worthy to be taken care of, if he had plead­ed to make use of so many Victories in that part; but while the Forces were employed elsewhere, and long scattered [Page 119] here and there, they who then might have been forced to sub­mit, had now drawn the ambiguity of their fortune into bet­ter times. In the Interim, some tumults there were, and they such as might almost be called a Sedition, both in Brabant, and also in some Cities of Over-Issel, plotted in the Kings behalf, by the design of that multitude, which followed the Rites of the Roman Church; whereupon it came to passe, that all Images, wheresoever they remained, were taken away from publick use: nay▪ they were hardly suffered to meet in private, for the exercise of their devotion, for fear of Con­spiracies.

The Warre therefore being spread abroad on every side, the number of Souldiers for defence, was by the States in­creased, as much as the Tributes were decreased, and fell short; and which was most difficult of all, the Souldier in­clining to richer Pillage than his Pay, neither the Country could be freed without money, nor money be raised, while the Country was thus beset; for now the Cities began to dread their Garrisons: the Captains could neither shew their Authority, nor uphold any Discipline within their Castles, but are like an incurable Disease, while they esteem luxury, and all other licentiousness, as Military Gallantry. By rea­son of which great streights, this Government of many be­came hated by the Citizens, the Prince of Aurange having ordered many things, as well concerning Law as Tributes, and the Souldiery, which were necessary for the present State of Affairs, then in the Councel of the States, he moved this, That because the necessities of the Warre were sudden, and would not be delayed, and the ayds of the Assemblies of Deputies came in so very slow, they would Elect and chuse a Senate, that might among themselves consult of the chief matters of State.

Affairs being thus setled, as he saw all things incline to him, by the eye of that Religion which Philip had condemn­ed, and that the valiantest of the dissenters were revolted to [Page 120] the other part, he began to discourse to them, the Reason why hitherto, while they had any hopes of peace, they made use of the Kings Name; but now, since he is grown impla­cable towards them as to Rebels, and that it was eviden [...] [...] any man was fierce and bitter against the Netherlanders, th [...] he was looked upon in Spain with such favour, that he gre [...] famous and honourable thereby; why would they any longer suffer the people to be led blind-fold With the voyd Re­gion of an old Oath? whence come all these troubles [...] Commotions, but from thence, that our fidelity hangs ambi­guous between our Country and the Prince?

But it is not a strange thing among wise men, who will grant, that all Powers are setled for the Peoples good, by the peoples consent, that though they are greater then each parti­cular, yet they are less than a Conjunct Universall, who [...] perverted, and neglected the care of the publick for t [...] private ends, the People, that it to say, the States rightly [...] ­sembled, have power to judge thereof, and to punish the same. Nor were most Kingdoms any otherwise subject [...] their present Kings, unless that the People, tyred either wi [...] the injuries or sloath of the former, have translated them [...] other hands: How much more then should these things pre­vail in the Netherlands, to whom the very name of King is unacquainted, and their manner of obedience such, that they never took any Oath, unless the Prince had first obliged himself according to their desires, to maintain the Law: It is the Law of Nations, that mutuall Obligations are dissolved by the tricks and wickedness of either party.

And having laid aside Philip, they would seek them ano­ther Prince: And they needed not to doubt those things, which would easily be maintained against the Spanish great­ness by their Wealth: There was need of a present Captain, and of such a one, who, when mischief raged every where, would, though with the neglect of his own safety, incourage the Netherlanders: That he had clearly cast out of his thought [Page 121] all hopes from Germany. There remains then but one thing, and that is, that Francis of Valois, be chosen to the Govern­ments whom they could not deny already to have given [...] certain proof: Nor was it a little material, to their advan­tage, if that young Prince, who was next Heir to the highest Fortune, should begin his growth from hence: In the In­terim, he was sure of the Brother-hood of France, and in pro­bability, the good affections of England would not be want­ing; against whom, the Spaniard of [...]a [...]e had prepared a Fleet, which partly by Tempest, and partly by the Portugall Warre, had been destroyed; and further, he had newly given ayd and incouragement to the Rebels in Ireland, nor had the English spared him in the new World of America, the Wealth which they took there from the Spaniards, and brought into their own Country, having laid the foundation of a future Warre.

After a long doubting, and much hesitation, the Counsel was approved, with a greater fear of the Spaniard, than af­fection or confidence in Mounsieur Francis and Philip, for violating and inf [...]inging the Laws, by the States of the Pro­vinces of the Union is thrown off from the Government, and nor that sentence is brought forth, wherewith, if we may speak the truth, the Warre had now been in labour for the space of nine years; but thenceforth was his name, and all marks of Honours utterly left off and denyed, and the words of their solemn Oath made to him, absolutely altered; so that thereby, he who had of late been their Prince, was now de­clared an Enemy. The putting in execution of this Counsel, was, to Neighbour Nations, guilded over with the severall excuses of necessity, and the severall fruitless Requests they had made to him: yet the Spaniards did not cease highly to Brand it as infamous, it seems altogether forgetful, that their own Predecessors had deposed a King from his Kingdom, for his too great cruelty, and that they preferred before him a Bastard, slip-sprung from an unlawful coition.

[Page 122]We will not mention old Examples of the like kind is France, nor any of fresher memory transacted in England, nor those newest of all of the Danes and Swedes, laying aside their Kings: But to return to the purpose, Matthias was dis­missed with much affection, and great Rewards; And this being a matter of so great concernment, neither did the greatness of the action it self, nor the Authour, remain un­known to the Spaniard; whence perceiving that the life of one single Person was the onely obstacle to his desired great­ness, therfore, though he had fair Law against him in the field, yet he, in the first place, proscribes him, and then by the habits of Wealth, Honnur, and impunity, as well of all forme faults, as of that, invites some body to assassinate him: A­gainst this new fashioned Edict, the Prince of Aurange makes his Defence in a Book on purpose set forth, as well to the States of the Netherlands, as to other Princes of Christendom; which Book was penned by the help of Peter Villier, a Frenchman, who having the Study of the Laws, wherein he had been bred up, first fell to be a teacher of the new Reli­gion, and thence came to be admitted into the secretest Counsels of the Prince of Aurange: The Declarations on both sides are yet extant, full of equall bitterness, wherein after re­petition of the Crimes relating to the Cause, on the Kings part is objected to the Prince Ingratitude and Treason; he, on the other side, retorts on the Kings Treachery and Ty­ranny, and so intermixing many true, and some false Relati­ons, at length they directly fall to terms of scurrility, like scolding Women; for, because the Prince of Aurange being seperated from his Saxon Wife, for Causes well approved by all her Kindred, and having marryed the Daughter of Mont­pensier, who had been devoted for a Nun, was accused both as an Adulterer, and Sacrilegious Person.

On the other, greater Adulteries were objected to Philip, nor was he forgotten to be charged with the severall deaths of his Wife and his Son, from the guilt whereof not yet [Page 123] cleared, he had married his Neece in blood; for the then Wife of the King, was the Emperour Maximilians Daughter, by the Kings Sister; which Conjunction, the Pope by his Au­thority, (though many judged contrary to the Divine Law) confirmed. Nor was it smothered in silence, how former­ly he attempted by his great Minister of State Granvell, to have poysoned Maximilian himself, being his near Kinsman by the Fathers side, but then his Father in Law. Whereupon, the States contemning both the malice and insinuations of Philip, who layed the fault of this great defection onely upon one, by publick Testimony vindicated the Prince of Au­ranges innocency, adding moreover, for the safety of his Per­son, a Troop of Horse to the old Guard.

The Embassie of the Netherlanders, was most acceptable to Francis of Valois, being thereby called to the Government, and very pleasing to his Mother, who endeavoured by for­raign Honours, to indulge her Sons, already too ambitious by their over-swelling hope; But the Kings Ayd and Consent was requested, before it was convenient, and so did not an­swer their expectation: onely the King wrote to them, that he would not have a respect to his Brothers greatness, but would also give help and succour to himself, and all those which were under his Dominion: which that he might more readily perform, he wished to his own Kingdom Peace, and to his Brother all happiness and prosperity.

The present necessity forced the United Dutch to rest sa­tisfied onely with words, and only to hope for the rest. And presently Valois, that he might the more strongly work him­self into their Affections, understanding that Cambray be­sieged by Horse and Foot, and fortified in their Camps, had undergone great hardships and extremities; He sets forward thither with an Army, for the maintenance whereof Queen Elizabeth had supplyed them with a great sum of money, and raised the Siege, and thereupon is presently saluted, Prince of the delivered City. Nor did he then intend further, because [Page 124] the greatest part of the Army was in the hands of particular Leaders, that followed him voluntarily, and would not long stay with him.

Cambray is scituate in the Borders of the Netherlands, the proper Seat of a Bishop, but was reckoned under the Com­mands of both Dominions, for the Germane Emperours, and French Kings, had often contended for it by War: But in the last War with France, the Emperour Charles detained it, and built therein a Castle; the Souldiers in Garrison where­of imprisoning their Governour, joyned themselves, and be­came Parties in the League made at Gaunt. But Torney, a Town in Flanders, having been some while Beleaguerd, in the absence of the Governour the Prince of Spina, whose Wife, besieged therein, shewed a singular Example of Femi­nine Constancy, at last fell into the power of the Duke of Parma.

The Fourth BOOK of the Dutch ANNALS.

FRANCIS of Valois went over into England, where, that he might strengthen his Friendship, by a future Principality, either himself, or the hopes from him of a grea­ter Fortune, so pleased the Queen, that notwithstanding the Difference in Religion, there was a Treaty of Mar­riage, upon certain Conditions, admitted: The Report hereof was very pleasing to the Dutch, but it proved vain, being founded either on a Dissimulation altoge [...]her fraudu­lent, or else hindred by the Displeasure and Wrongs done by his Brother: Or lastly, his own unhappy Temerity, [Page 125] which had rather win all things by Force: Return­ing into the Netherlands, 1582. with a Solemn State and Magnificent Attendance, he undertakes the Govern­ment, by the Name of Duke of Brabant, and Earl of Flan­ders.

Besides the Old Laws, there were some new ones added, for limiting the Government, according to the League made at Burdeaux, to wit, That once every Year, the States Gene­ral of the United Provinces should be Assembled; without whose Consent, no League might be made with the Spaniard, by any Chief Commander in the War; and, at whose Request, all Forreign Souldiers should be Disbanded. In the ordering Mat­ters of Religion, and setling Forreign Garrisons, every Province should be alike concerned: The same should nominate Three Persons, out of whom their Governors should be chosen: And if any Difference happened among them, the Duke should have the Hearing and Determining thereof: That two French-men should be admitted into the Senate; the rest, at the present, to be be chosen by the States, hereafter by the Duke; But of those nominated, as is beforesaid: And that the Netherlanders should have all chief Offices belonging to the Court. Four and Twenty Hundred Thousand Florens a Year, were promised every Year to the support of the War, out of the Prince's Patrimony, and that what wanted more, was to be supplyed out of the private Trea­sure of the Duke, or the King his Brother.

Now there was some hope, that the Men of both Religi­ons would continue faithful, as well those who were of one Judgment with the Prince of Aurange, as they who with Valois followed the Romane Opinion: And these had To­leration, to use their own Rites at Antwerp, but no where further, until they should take the common Oath of the Ne­therlanders, concerning the New Government: Nothing was expressed in publike, but signs of Joy, and he, with much discretion, carryed a sweet mildness in his Countenance, and an affable moderation in his Speech.

[Page 162]Those that remained of the Nobility, were inward much vexed when constrained to observe in the Throne [...] the Burgundian Princes, one of another Nation, and that ha [...] long been an Enemy to that Family, to wit, their change [...] Lord; and that they should intermingle among the Nether­landers, with whom they never had any safe Peace, and be­tween whom the Hatred and Animosity even yet continue unto another Generation, and is still attended with danger­ous and unlucky Omens. And the lawfulness of the former Oath, and the Respect and Duty due to their Prince (be [...] what he would) was not easily rooted out of the Minds of the Vulgar. But on the contrary, some there were, wh [...] would object to them their New Religion, and that they should not contaminate so pious a Cause, by the help of such as dissented from them. The wiser sort feared Danger from this Discord, and thence to find the French-mens Rigor: But when it appeared, that it had been privately agreed, The Valois should have nothing but a Nominal and Temporary Right over the Hollander and Zelander, though he had taken the Go­vernment of the Netherlands; then the Prince of Aurange who had been the Original of that Council, was found s [...] with, as sharing in the Government, and that he had from the first beginning of the Troubles, always reserved the strong­est and best Fortified Provinces to himself. Notwithstanding his Name was affixed to all Laws and Publike Acts; not ha [...] he barely a Lieutenancy, or Governourship, but an absolute Do­minion and Authority. And the Name of Earl, within those Provinces, by most offer'd to him; there wanted but a few Suffrages, to win him to accept it when his Death hereafter, shortly to be related, took him off, now drawing near to re­ceive the Rewards of his long and unwearied Labour.

But others rather troubled hereat, that they should be se­parately subjected to the French Power, had rather choose to submit to the Prince of Aurange his Authority; who, be­cause he was unable of himself to Desend all, had therefore [Page 127] not unworthily taken to himself a Partner. It really appear­ed, in the time of his Infirmity, how great the Affection of the Multitude was towards him; For when he lay very weak at Antwerp of the Wound, which the King of Spain's Assassine had given him, the whole City powred forth with sorrow, both Prayers and Tears in their Churches for him, That God would avert his Fury from them, as is usual in Ca­ses, where the Publike Parent of the Country is in danger. And at that time he did recover his Health; yet the Re­mainder of his life, was always attended with Spanish Con­spiracies to destroy him, there being many times taken per­sons, that lay in wait for the Lives, both of Him, and of Va­lois.

While the Duke's Forces drew together slowly, Parma led his Army into Flanders, where he took Oudenarde, (a City so called, from the Antient Neraii, who formerly In­habited those Parts that Bordered upon the Schelde) by a Three Moneths Siege, and a Storm; which he effected the more easily, because the Townsmen refused the Garrison, which would have maintained it. Thence, after he had en­camped in all the Parts adjacent to Bruxels, endeavouring to straiten the City, by wasting and consuming all the Fruits of the Ground, wearied out by the sharpness of Winter, at last he withdrew, and retired from thence.

In many things how much doth Expedition prevail; for thereby Valois, on a suddain, among other Towns, won Alost from the Enemy; and Parma's Souldiery, by Treachery of the Garrison, won Lyra: This place was of great Concern­ment to the War, in regard it was so near Neighbour to Ant­werp: In the mean time also, were some small Skirmishes, with little Advantage to either side; and not a few English turning Renegades, and being contemned by the Spaniard, were a good Example, to teach others to be faithful to that Party under whom they first served.

[Page 128] Anon Verdugo was forced to leave Lochem, a little To [...] in Geldars, not far from Zutphen, which he endeavoured [...] win by starving; because while he was about it, it was th [...]i relieved with fresh Provisions; but presently won Ste [...] (which before had cost so many Lives) without any dan­ger, by the help of Night, and the Townsmens Folly. At the time Philip, having Valois his Opposit, thought he now wa [...] ­ed more strength and care than heretofore, and therefore sends to Parma a Recruit of Spanish and Italian Souldiers nor durst any be so bold as to contradict the same, notwith­standing the Artoysian Treaty and Agreements; averring, Th [...] in that Treaty the Obedience of the whole Netherlands was in­tended; of which hope he being defrauded, the Bond of the Obliga­tion ceased, together with the Cause. The Summe of this Army, upon Muster, was Threescore Thousand Foot, Four Thousand of whom would make good Horsemen: and these Number remain, or rather are increased to this very time; wh [...] Monthly Pay amounted to, or rather was supposed to exce [...] Seven Hundred Thousand Florens, and that the other Charge of the War came to no less than half as much: That there­fore Philip sent thither every year, over and above the Tri­butes there raised, above Twenty Hundred Thousand; so much was consumed by the Spaniard upon the Netherlan­ders: And that no more Money should be carryed over thi­ther, they, who feared bad Success, by the ill Carriage of Affairs there, were believed to have hindred it. On the other side, the States, that they might win fame to their new Commonwealth by great and noble beginnings, advanced their Yearly Pensions and Tributes, which were at present but Four and Twenty, to Fourty Hundred Thousand; with which Money, they raised Souldiers, and then had in Arms, under the Conduct of Francis of Valois, besides Netherlanders, French, Germans, English, and Scots: The Forces, on both sides, were very strong, but the greatest part of them lay in Garrisons; because there being no determined Bounds [Page 129] they were, as the Fortune of War required, put into Towns, which many times even joyned one to another, but still kept their Opposition. Hitherto Valois hoped for Succours from his Brother, for the wasting of those Riches, against or for which, the Kings of France had for the space of Two Hun­dred years contested by War, to suffering of much hardship, yes, to the loss of their Bloud, and now, by Conditions of Peace, had made their Enemy equal to themselves. But the King himself had no mind openly to denounce War, nor privily to send the expected Forces, although his Mother Medices had assailed and disturbed the possession of the Portugal Sea: And the truth is, Philip had prevented him, having purcha­sed a means to make Debate, wherewith he might perturb the then peaceable Estate of France: The stronger Party there­fore did openly possess the King with fear, advising withall, That he should turn his strength against none, but the Enemies of the Romane Religion; another Party being politickly deceit­ful; under pretence of more wise Counsel, denyed, that it was [...]ther just or profitable for the King, who was yet not satisfied i [...] his Successor, to exhaust and consume his Treasure for the use of strangers, but that he should rather leave both the Netherlan­ders, and the Duke himself too, to their poverty, untill being drawn dry, they would fall from their Capitulations, and Contests for Government, and submit themselves to the Laws; as for the Spaniard, though he could not be conquered by others, yet he might, in good time, be overcome by a Neighbour Kingdom.

These were the Counsels, but indeed, the King was of his own nature averse to his Brother, not that he was offended by him, but rather had offended him, and mindfull, that he had once committed him to hard and close Custody, more out of suspition, than for any Crimes.

This cast the Duke head-long upon Counsels, dangerous, and full of desperation, and fatall, both to himself, and the Netherlanders; for when he perceived, that they would ea­sily set him at naught, since he could not perform with them [Page 130] in the promised ayds, and that he was burdened with an [...] profitable Principality, not forgetting that he ruled onely [...] pleasure, and that afterward that he was restrained and kept under by the Laws and Authorities of others, (which is very grievous to them that have been bred in a Kingdom) having divers times desired an alteration of the same, but not ob­taining it, he resolves to erect a peculiar power by force, and to that end, assigns the Towns of Flanders, to be possessed and held by the most trusty Garrisons of his Captains: An­werp he takes to himself, as the biggest City, and that which most favoured the Prince of Aurange, to whom he knew he did owe a part of his power, by an implicit agreement, and where the Deputies of the States were present, who were the impediments of his greatness.

1583. It is probable, the main inciters to this rashness were, not onely some secret spies, that held Intelligence with the Enemy, having their Faith corrupted by mo [...] who offered to the Duke an unquestionable right of Domi­nion by a Spanish Marriage; but also the Frenchmen, who p [...]oposed to themselves the ransacking of Cities, or gre [...] Booty, Honours, which by the Laws they were cebarred [...] of which covetousness, there are as many Nations found guilty, as the Netherlanders had Allyes or Confederates.

The success answered the Design where the French Gar­risons were prevalent, and Veward, Dendremunde, Dixmay [...] and Dunkirk, a Sea-cost Town of Flanders, excellently seated for French Trassique, were taken. At Bruges, b [...] the old and new Governours, were outwitted by the extraor­dinary, and most politick ingenuity of the Magistrates, w [...] desiring under pretence of consultation, the Captains and Leaders to go to the Town-house: there kept and detaine [...] them, till they had by their Letters, Commanded the Soul­diers to march out from thence; which they for fear of the Armed multitude, without grudging, did accordingly: The danger of Antwerp was greater, though some Signs of the [Page 131] bloody event burst forth, and with a dissembled suspition of somewhat, he did as much as he could hide the concourse of his People from the Prince of Aurange, and the Governours of the Town, There was the Army both of French and Switzers assembled, that the Fort of Endouen being left, and the Enemy fled, the whole possession of Brabant might be regained.

To these, the Duke going out under the very Walls, as if to number them, with his Customary Retinue onely about him, he Commands the Watches immediately to be killed, and the Ports to be set up and seized, that so the rest of his Army might have the easier entrance. And now seventeen Companies of men fly about the Streets of the City, like Conquerours, crying out, The Mass used in the Roman Reli­gion is holy, (for this was the Signall of the Combination) when the Townsmen running from their Tables (for they were at dinner) take their Arms against this sudden tumult; the first that went out meeting the Valoysians, Body to Body, hindered their endea­vour of passing further; And in a moment, more and more ga­thering together, on every side (fighting in defence of their Fami­lies and Fortunes) with notable Courage and Concord, they beat all that entred into the City, back to the Port whereat they came in.

There was a horrible slaughter, for in that straight, they stopped out, and hindred the living, and those that sled could not escape their pursuers: But Valois himself, when he un­derstood the infamous madness of his undertaking by the E­vent, made with shame and terrour of Conscience, and want­ing all things, with as many of his Forces as he could get to­gether, among many hazards of his life, and the grievous loss of what belonged to him, he sled by the marshes of the Fields, beyond the River Dila.

This notorious and apparent injury, most vehemently in­censed the minds of many, who before were no lovers of the name of France: Nor did Parma and the Netherlanders that [Page 132] were with him, omit by Letters to terrifie them, laying be­fore them their abominable defection and Revolt, and to the oppressions of their new Government were more grie­vous, than of that they shook off; saying further, that they must bear with the dispositions of their Superiours; for a people could be safe, that rebelled among so many King­doms: But if now from this sad experience, they would re­turn to their obedience, he offered them not onely equall as just Laws, but also the Kings mercy and Pardon. The Prince of Aurange was sensible, that this time of appeasing this [...] ­chief, was too fit to be laid hold on for the Spanish Affairs and therefore, though his Counsel had once proved unfortu­nate, whereby he had lost the main part of his power, the Peoples favour, yet being asked his Opinion, he declares the same, with many acknowledgements of error to ave envy the more easily.

If the Common-wealth could by its own meanes be govern­ed with the same unanimity as the King: there would be [...] dispute, but that we might very well be without the Govern­ment of a single Person, especially if he be a Forraigne Neither is it now to be enquired after, if it be lawfull to de­sert him, who first violated all publick Rights, and Law it self: of which there was so great care taken by Covenance and pact: but they were to minde and observe his strength 'Tis truth, he hath no great Army, but there were in [...] (to wit the Dukes) Possession, severall strong and well forti­fied Cities. And the Netherlanders were now to advise, whe­ther they had rather continue their Possession to themselves or necessitate their delivery to the Enemy. That it was much more convenient, since they were by both abused, that they should be in the French than the Spanish power: for the Spaniards Dominion being well knit together by age, would always find Instruments to oppress and enslave them: where as the French, if they should endeavour such a thing, were not able to fit themselves with properties to serve their de­signs. [Page 133] It were better therefore, and more safe to assay and try the French, who having been once taken tardy, will never hereafter seek such an opportunity; or if they should, would never have impudence enough, or courage to put it into acti­on. They ought alternately to weigh, that in lieu of his own offence, the Duke hath done them many kindnesses, and to remember, that for the last years, his single care and pains had both defended their Cities, and frustrated the Enemies designs. That thus they would not onely revive, but altoge­ther such unity as their Warre required, if Valois remembred his offence, and they forgot it.

This Speech was seconded by others, excusing the impru­dence and rashness of Youth, adding withall, that it may be the greatness of his minde, being sprung of Royall Blood, and never made stoop to the humility of obedience, and per­chance too, incensed by some contumacious persons, he had taken that unfortunate way, not with intent to kill and plun­der, but as their wickedness and mischievous Counsel inform­ed him, onely to secure his power and greatness. And the King of France, had with his promises, and some implicite threats, commended his Brother herein. That therefore the Duke was to be treated with, to restore the Towns he had in his power, and to withdraw to Dunkirk, whither the rest of his men, who compounded for the other Towns they had, should come to him. In the Interim, after many and long delayes (and while he disputes the restitution of the Towns, and Provisions begun to sail the Netherlandish Souldiers, that were with him) for fear of the multiude, who mindful yet of their late danger, doubted newer and greater matters, and were scarcely satisfied.

Biron is sent thither Generall of an Army of French, to stop the Duke of Parma's Carreer, who then by the taking of some Towns, had mightily infested, and did over-run Bra­bant. But yet the Warre did not go on as it should in his hand, who, with much adoe, was drawn to a kind of Treaty: [Page 134] Valois of his own accord, finding fault, that he had onely the bare name of a Prince, that the account and disposall of mo­nies, and all other great affairs were concealed from him, so that he was not able to gratifie any person; And it was no wonder, if (after the examples of so many others, who had been called in by the Netherlanders, to assist them, and they had found sad experiments of changed desires) they had found him, who, long continuing in suspence concerning it, would now depend upon the beck of another; but he chiefly, and with much regret, insisted upon this, That they denyed to him onely, what was allowed to all other Princes; namely, that out of the Senate he might have a domestick Councel▪ The use of which Custom, John Bodin, their Master of Re­quests, had praysed above all others, he being a man, whose wisdom and affection was well known by his Writing: but on the other side, the Netherlanders feared nothing so much; also the French offered somewhat in favour of the Roman Re­ligion.

Among all these Disputes, Valois being well nigh shut up in Dunkirk, when now a new affliction was added to re­new his old grief, multitudes dying in the Town by sickness, he goes thence into France, either that he might refresh him­self by the change of Ayr, or which is most probable, that he might recover his Brothers favour, between whom yet re­mained some Seeds of discontent: Certainly, this Journey was made onely for a time: And the Netherlanders, as long as he lived, never left off sending to him Emb [...]ssies to intreat him to send ayd to Flanders, in a staggering condi­tion. Earnestly beseeching the King also, that he publickly would own his Brothers Cause; but if he could not do that, yet that he would at least assist with men and money, and that he should stop all the passages from France, into the Enemies Country. Which if they might request, they did not fear to foretell to the King thereby, a future Succession in his Kingdom, so that he should according to the Laws of [Page 135] France, for many Ages, not want an Heir of his Body to go­vern the same: But these Communications were shortly after quite broken off by the badness of the following times, and the death of Francis de Valois. He over-lived his Ho­nour and disgrace not above seventeen moneths, brought to his end as some though [...], by his lusts, others by poyson; but most believed he dyed with grief of mind, the common end almost of all, who either before or after him, took a pride to aggravate the miseries of unfortunate people: His Fune all was not attended with any Ensigns of his Belgike Govern­ment, all his actions there with himself passing in oblivion, while the King his Brother, avoyded to incense with such toyes, whom he durst not move with realities.

As soon as Valois was departed from Dunkirk, the French Companies left there in Garrison, accepting their pay, marched away, not daring to trust a People whom they had so mischieved. Whereupon, the Duke of Parma, sends his inferiour Captains to besiege the Town, thus destitute both of Souldiers and Shipping, and anon after, comes himself with an indifferent Army, to strengthen the Siege; Biron was commanded to follow the Enemy and fight him: But the Gauntoys, out of an old grudge they bore to Valois, and ma­king a shew of tumult, denyed him passage; alledging, that it was unjust and unreasonable, to use his Forces, whom they neither took for their Prince, nor scarcely their friends: By the stubbornness therefore of those men, Dunkirk came into the Spaniards power; by which meanes, the Sea ever after became dangerous and troublesome; for upon that shore, where there were no Havens or Ports, there was scarce any refuge for small foysts: hence, as they saw it convenient, or for their profit, observing the passage out, the Pyrates were wont to set upon the Dutch Ships, as they sailed by, either to fishing, or with Merchandize, where England being di­rectly opposite, doth narrow and streighten the Sea, and they could easily escape by flight, from the great Ships of War [...]e, [Page 136] either by their lightness and swiftness on the open S [...] or else by helps of the flats and Sands, whereof that part of the Ocean is full; yet this losse of so eminent a Town, could not mitigate or take away their dissentions; but it was necessary, that Biron with his Army, should be sent out of the Country, (though the Prince of Auraage most earnestly urged the con­trary) for fear least they should betray the Common-wealth to their Enemy, now in heart, and attended with success: so much mistrust had all of the French. Nay, the Prince himself was scandalized for them, so that at Antwerp, they all [...] to their Arms, upon a lye that was divulged, that the Prince had brought the French into the Castles, on purpose to be near to, and command the City. But he to whom nothing was so unusual and bitter, as to live feared of his Citizens, could not bear their changed countenances, and suspitious ill bo­ding silence, instead of joyfull acclamations; but leaving the place, having lived there six years, he went to Zeland, and the more assured places of the Common-wealth, thereby ex­empt from many eminent dangers, and free from their ingra­titude. But the Duke of Parma, having gotten spare [...] for Conquest, gained by surrender, and otherwise, Nemp [...] scituate on the same shore, but to the right hand of Dunkirk and more inward upon the Land, Dixmuyde, Voorne, and Berghen, that are called Winow. Thence in Flanders, the peoples hatred so increased against the Warre daily, and many so highly resented the late actions, that they would even take part with the Spaniards against the French.

About this time, there was a certain base Fellow, he was generally called Hog, that by Discourse and Writing began to trouble Holland; who, notwithstandidg his Mothers vile­ness, and his own mishapen Form, yet vainly boasted the Honour and Greatness of his Bloud, as being (from his own Relation) Son to the Emperour Charles. Hence, fed up with a foolish hope by some Spaniard, that Philip would acknow­ledge him for his Brother, he withdrew some led away with [Page 137] Novelties; and others, that were not pleased with the pre­sent ordring of Affairs, from their then Principles, to a hope of Peace and Submission to the Austrian Family. But the Con­spiracy being yet green, and but in the Bud, was, by the pu­nishment of its Author, quickly nipped. Now also a War did begin in the Jurisdiction of Colen, which was offered, toge­ther with the Bishoprick, to Ernestus of Bavaria, for the Marriage of Truxiors: For being Bishop of that place be­fore, and being taken exceedingly with the Love of a Noble Woman, had made hast to lay aside his Vow of single Life, (for by the Rules of the Latine Church, no Priest may marry) which in the Heat of his promiscuous Lusts was ea­sily connived at: Wherefore, setting Humane Decrees, in opposition to Divine Laws, and finding himself unfit for such Charges, by Casimire, and Nienar, Count of Nursa, both Generals for indifferent Armies, keeps the Cities, until by his Enemies Forces, and his own Mens Treacheries, most of his Garrisons were taken from him; and then making a League with the Dutch, he fled to the Prince of Aurange, whence he revenged him, as well as he could, by laying wast the Country: And this War brings on a greater, wherewith the Spaniard was well pleased, because he might thereby the more colourably involve the Frontier Towns of Germany, which were old Receptacles of Netherlandish Fugitives in the same: And this every day augmented the growing Fortune of the Duke of Parma, especially one Tasso, a Captain, win­ning by Surprize, the Town of Zutphen, held by a weak and ill agreeing Garrison, and that by the help onely of one common Souldier that was his Prisoner: From hence all the Country, between the Rivers Issel and the Rhine, were daily infested and harrased by Spanish Incursions, nor could they at any time be hindred in their going off; and the City it self was besieged, but in vain.

Thus did the Netherlanders, at this time, lose both their Forces, and other Opportunities; And as a further mischief, [Page 138] (many of Noblemen and Chiefs, utterly despairing any Re­medy) privately sought their own Security, from the Grace and Pardon of the King, which they knew was not to be ho­ped for by some heinous Adventure. Therefore, William of Heremberge, who by Marriage of the Prince of Aurange's Sister, was the sole Companion of his Hopes and Dangers, inconsiderately, and without Reason, Resolved to deliver up Gelders, which he then Governed, to the Conquerours: But his Treachery being prevented, and Promise taken for his Fidelity, he was dismissed; yet notwithstanding, he fled to the Enemy, conferring nothing more of strength to their Party, than that of his Sons, whom he compelled to Revolt with him, though not intangled or sullied with his Crimes, nor insensible of their Honours.

Now was the state of Flanders very miserable; Ipre was Besieged by Parma: The Gauntoys had recalled Imbis, for no other Reason, than to revive old Enmities, and conte [...] with the Prince of Aurange and the French; who eft-sorts attaining the prime Degree of Magistracy, by some pests ferous and turbulent Predicators, did unsettle the Minds of the Vulgar. The City of Bruges, now Flanders was all in Combustion, had chosen for their Governour Charles of Ci­maca. He was the Son of Areschot, and dive [...]s times had charged Parties out of Fortune; afterwards forsaking his Fa­ther, in a voluntary Exile, he professed to follow the New Religion, and seemed most vehement therein, meerly to hide his Dissimulation. By these Subtilties, creeping into the thoughts of those that interpreted the holy Scriptures to the People, he deluded the simplicity of such as were not very circumspect, but well meaning men, and by them was wrought into the affections of the vulgar.

Now this Charles held no lesse Correspondence, and pri­vate Intelligence with the Romanists, than Imbis did, though openly both of them, imprison some of them, and not let them so much as come together.

[Page 139]In the Interim, they had so obliged another part of the People to them, by a faigned zeal in Religion, that whoever did but suspect, or sinistrously interpret any of their actions, was sure to incur a generall hatred: These were the two, who undertook to betray into the enemies hand, all Flanders, a most noble Province, and then strengthned with so many Cities: And first, that they might take the necessity of re­calling the French they began to talk of Casimire, & Truxius, making a League with Germany, not that there did any such hopes appear, but that by the losse of time being left reme­diless, there should remain nothing to be done but to submit.

Thus these Commanders of Peace, first had onely licence to parley; but afterwards, they had Authority to conclude; but they had so ordered their business, and informed the People, as if a Peace had been made, not with the Duke of Parma and the Spaniards, but with the Netherlandish Cities which had revolted, for that bayt was more popular, and easie to be swallowed; adding moreover, that the King was satisfied therewith, and content with that obedience which was due to him, would not rob God, but leave to him all things Divine.

Now are both Books and speeches cast up and down, stuff­ed with bitter railings against the French and others, who had so long consumed, as well the private as publike Wealth of the Netherlanders, in so unequall a Dispute: That now they had no Forces, nor the hope of any allyance or ayd from abroad, and the Victorious Armies of a most potent King, had in a manner, inclosed them round. That now it was manifest, that God was displeased to have Religion profaned with blood, and that the use of Divine Mysteries should be maintained by force and slaughters: That certainly, the Pri­mitive Christians lived peaceably under the Government of profane Princes, even in the greatest persecutions, as a strict Command laid by God upon them, and when he thought fit [Page 140] to alter their Condition: He took away their Princes, but never allowed a Sword in their Hand to remove them; That when the power of Warre and Peace was once given to Prin­ces, there was nothing left to the Subjects, but Patience and their Prayers: Nay, that Piety it self did rather chuse to strengthen it self by Persecution, than weaken it self by Licu­tiousness: Did there many suffer Death by Law, under the Emperour Charles, and Ring Philip? How many more have perished now by the Sword? And surely, they are most happy, who dyed not in their sinne: In the Fury of Citizens, there is no distinction, all are alike miserable; as wel they who do such things, as they who suffer them: To an Understand­ing Spectator, there will not appear to be the Causes of a War, as they are called; but the Ambition of a few, who by Domestick Dangers, have exposed their Country to Ru­ine.

The Duke of Parma observing all these Occurrences, takes Time by the Fore-lock; and besieging Ipre with strong Bul­warks and Forts, that it might want the fewer Forces, be sends his Army under the Leading of the Viscount of Ga [...] and Montigny, into the North part of Flanders, that he might confirm the Minds of the Netherlandish Lords, already inclining towards him; and that they who would not come in of their own accord, might be forced to Submission, all hopes of Relief or Assistance being utterly taken away from them.

There is in the furthest part of Flanders, which the there undivided River Scheld divides from Brabant, and af­terwards separated by a Cut or Drain of the same from Beve­land, a Southerly Isle of Zeland, and inclosed with the Bend­ing thereof, a place called the Waese, which then Steland Go­verned, of the same Mind towards his Country with Are­schots Son, Charles and Imbisius. Hither, when the Cap­tains of the King's Army were arrived, the Governours forth­with deliver to them all the whole Region, together with [Page 141] the Towns of Hulst and Axel, and the Castle of Rupelmund, famous in Antient Histories of Flanders. The Original of this Castle's Name was taken from the little River called Rupell, that runneth into the Schelde, and whence not far off, upon the other Bank, stands Antwerp. A little more inwardly is Alost seated; to the Garrison Souldiers whereof, a pretty Sum of Money being due for their Pay (being Forreign Soul­diers out of England) and neglected to be given to them by the Flandrians, they were sollicited, as Souldiers, by the E­nemies strength, their own penury, and the Example of their Neighbors, to surrender, which not long after was done: But the Brabanders and Zelanders presently threw down their Banks and Cawseyes, to let out the River Schelde, and beyond it to Repair and Fortifie Castles and Forts, to defend their side of the Banks or Shore, and to offend their Enemies on the other side.

1584. In the mean time, the Duke of Parma's Captains, that they might the better be able to blow up into a flame the Sedition of those two potent Cities, pitched their Camp be­tween Gaunt and Bruges, stopping up all Passages by Water, to hinder Commerce: Wherefore, the Romanists on both sides, and divers others who adhered to the Spaniards, under the Name of Peace, either out of Design, or Simplicity, no longer mutter'd, or sought private Meetings; but being bac­ked with great and publike Authority, endeavoured to draw all to their Opinion, some by perswasions, others by fear: At last these, by the departure of the rest, prevailed at Bruges; and the Lord of Cimace (Areschots Son) broke out at the same time; which as soon as the Prince of Aurange had re­ceived Information of from the Magistrates, that continued faithful, he laboured, that he might be suddainly taken by the Commander in Chief of the Forces of the Garrison: But the Lord of Cimace took him off with Gifts, and laying hold on that present Opportunity, by giving out to the Common [Page 142] People, That both himself and the City, were to be betrayed into the Enemies hands.

He conferreth all Publike Offices, and the Honours like­wise which he took from others, upon those who were with him associated in Council: And by the help of these, be subjected the City to the Romanists, and so in them to the King's Obedience. In the like manner, the Town of Damm [...] was surrendred, and the Free Ʋniversity, which of old being exempt from the Command of Bruges, and other more Bur­thensome Duties of the Country, is called by the Name of Frankenland; And in all Assemblies of State in Flanders, hath an equal Voice with the best Cities: Nor would Ipre, the Third City of Bulk in Flanders, being next of all to Ga [...] and Bruges, any longer wait upon the Hopes of a Common Pacification, and endure the miseries of a hard Siege. The Gauntoys themselves came to Treat by their Deputies, offer­ing Pledges, and desiring a Truce: But Imbisius his un­dissembled Treachery preserved the City; for he would have delivered to the Spaniard the Town of Dendremund, which Rikovius, by the Prince of Aurange's Command, stoutly de­fended; and this, out of a vain hope of greater favour, he acted so openly, that it could not be hid: And when he was hindred in so base and nefarious a Counsel, he would have besieged the Senate House, with the Senators therein, with a Regiment of Souldiers, which he had taken into the Garri­son, to serve his own Designs: These two heinous Faults, so utterly alienated the Peoples Minds from him, that they con­sidered among themselves to punish him, being thus convi­cted of Treachery, with the loss of his Head: A notable Example, of unfortunate Ambition, that he who was grown old, had been loaden with the highest Honours, and enjoyed so long the prosperous Affections of the Common People, whom Civil Contentions had carryed so far beyond Reason, that the greatness of their Crimes had devoured their Com­passion: [Page 143] This Ring-Leader of Faction was destroyed, though the Tumults were not quite extinct; yet, for some time, they who insisted upon the deceitfulness of the Pacification, grew stronger.

But the Duke of Parma, having almost inclosed the City, and besieged it strongly with Warlike Troops, was well sa­tisfied not to assail them, otherwise than by Hunger; and to leave their Fate to the punishment of their own Discords. But he had a better hope, and therefore took more pains to get Sceldt, and Antwerp, scituate upon the same River, the Noblest City of all the Netherlands, which disperses all over Brabant the Merchandizes brought out of Zeland; in regard his Troops were fresh, and that he in breaking up the Siege at Zutphen, had much weakned the strength of the Con­federate Provinces: By this means, the one of these Cities was quickly won by force, the other gained by fear: Setting over therefore part of his Army, he drives away those Netherlandish Ships that lay thereabouts as Guards, and on each side of the River plants Artillery and Souldiers. But the Antwerpers, understanding that the Enemy did not lye upon the Coast over against Flanders, built from the Ground, for the safeguard of their Shipping, two Castles or Forts; the one, below the City, at the Village called Lillow; the other, upon the Coast of Flanders; on the Backside over­looked as it were Hulst, a Town of Waes. This, in regard it was not half finished, being assaulted, was taken; but the other was gallantly defended, with a great slaughter of Spa­niards, by Teling, the Son of Lenove, a noble Imitator of his Fathers Vertues: But all these imminent Dangers, were by the Prince of Aurange's Death too much hastned, and in a time most inconvenient, if we mind the Netherlanders; be­cause by his single Counsel and Conduct, all their Affairs, though at the present so full of Trouble and Vexation, would have been brought to a setled Method: But he, to have been in a good Season, as to himself, because thereby he was taken [Page 144] from the growing Evils of the Publike; to the Defence whereof, he had most strictly bound himself: For after his Death, the Commonwealth, partly with Intestine Seditions, and partly by continual Victories of the Enemies, was brought even to the last Gasp; nor could it recover, till by the appearance of his Son, fresh Vigour was infused thereto, and the half-for­gotten Father's Memory, revived in the Heroick Actions [...] his Son.

He was shot with a Bullet at Delph in Holland, by o [...] Balthasar Gerard a Burgundian; who moved thereto, either with the hopes of the Reward promised in his Proscription [...] else by the Zeal of his Party, with a wonderful Cond [...] bore up his Spirit, as to the committing the Fact, so to [...] suffering the Torments inflicted on him for the same; [...] did there want some, who much applauded his Resolution▪ although the Duke of Parma, an Italian, being desired leave that some publike Demonstrations of Joy might be shewed▪ because their Grand Enemy was gone, fearing to blast [...] Fame, and cast an Odium upon the Justice of the War, bl [...] ­shed to suffer it.

The onely Expression of this dying Patriot sent, together with his last Breath to the Almighty, was this; O Lord; be mercifull to this poor People: And all those who were more intimately acquainted with him, now growing into years were well assured, That the many Varieties and Changes of Fortune, which, from his Youth he had for above fifty years un­dergone, and chiefly the Burthen of the present Cause, attended with daily Envy, replete with many Difficulties, fought against with the Passion and Valour of the Great Ones, murmur'd against by those of an inferiour Degree, and oftentimes hazarded by the rashness of the Vulgar; as it had inabled him to bear the greatest brunt of Humane Affairs, so it had setled his Devotion and Religion on a firm Basis. And this was the cause, that he un­derwent all Businesses with a Mind so Resolute, and a Body so indefatigable, that he was observed never to be da [...]ced in [Page 145] Adversity, nor elated or puffed up in Prosperity. I do not hold it fit to bury in silence, as a Token of his Abstinency, and even (as it may be called) Infelicity, that there was no­thing so much by him neglected, (excepted the Glory he gained from the Civil War) as his own private and particu­lar Affairs, which he freely assisted the Commonwealth with, but left it much disturbed by the several Issues of a four-fold Marriage. His first Wife was the Daughter of Count Eg­mond, by whom he had Philip, his Son whom the Spaniards carryed Prisoner into Spain, and Mary a Daughter, after­wards marryed to Count Hohenlo: By another of his Wives, which was the Second, being Daughter to the Duke of Saxo­ny, one of the Electors of Germany, he had one Son named Maurice, and one Daughter. His Third Wife was of the Family or Burbon, Daughter to the Duke of Mompensier, by whom he had Children, many Daughters, but no Son: By these Daughters he obtained many great Alliances, both in Germany and France. His Fourth and last Wife, was the Daughter of the famous Coligny, sometime Admiral at Sea for the French, and a Captain in his Party; and she was Mo­ther of Henry Frederick: Never was any Funerall follow'd with so great a Sorrow, even almost to Desperation, of all sorts of People; there onely remained this comfort, that by in­vesting with the Care of the Publike his Son Maurice, who then, about 18 years of Age, follow'd his Studies at Leyden, with a free Inclination to vertuous Principles, that so by a grateful Remembrance, they might, in some sort, gratifie the first Author and Parent of their Liberty: His Father had assigned to him, in the Division of his Inheritance, among other possessions, the Town of Flushing, by its Scituation in­vincible, together with Veria, Towns in Zealand, bought of those who held the same by the Title of The Marquess of the Empire; and, by that Name, took a principal place there in the General Assembly of the States: Besides which, those two very Towns had gotten to themselvs a Right of Suffrage, [Page 146] as well as Middleburgh, Ziriezet, Tergoes, and Thol, [...] their Abbots, who in former days were wont to have the [...] Vote, though by a Right, whose Original was almost forgot­ten.

And because the chief Government of all was sought [...] from abroad, the particular Government of Holland and Ze­land was given to the young Prince of Aurange, under [...] the Count Hohenlo, a Man famous for many Warlike a­chievments, was Lieutenant or Deputy: But Frizeland [...] the greater Honour of that Illustrious Family, whereby [...] Common-wealth had won an esteem among Forreign Pr [...] was bestowed on William the Son of John of Nassau, [...] his Uncle had before that sent into those Parts although [...] were some, who had rather have the Governing of Ci [...] being exceedingly covetous of Liberty, though not of [...] ­ciency to manage it, which soon made them run into P [...] ­ons, while taking to themselves the greatest charge [...] fairs: Here the Judges meeting together, drawing [...] Example, a Custom introduced under the Burgundian Pr [...] ­pality; there the Deputies of the States of Frizeland, [...] newly setled as a Publike Assembly, according to the P [...] of Aurange's Counsel, and their Neighbors Example; [...] first, trust onely to the strength of their Cities; the la [...]e [...] [...] on the Wealth of the Nobles, and all others who are O [...] of Land.

But Count William behaving himself with an indiffe [...] Moderation, hindered the first Enterprizes of those quan­some Dissenters, which seemed to be most eager. And in [...] mean time, was ready at all Assays on the Borders, where the Enemy got nothing from him, but were rather inf [...] with his frequent Excursions, wasting and destroying the Countries. By this means, Oppurtunity was gotten compose the begun Differences, either by Argument or Au­thority; The Deputies of the States had time to look after [...] Execution of all things commanded to, or by their Assembly [Page 147] and to take care of the daily Affairs of the Commonwealth; the Judges were ordered to examine, after all other concern­ing Debate, about the Bounds of Lands, as they were wont under the Burgundian Scepter to do▪ and also with the Gover­nour, to oversee the Elections of Burgers, and Burgomasters, that they might be such as were most free from factions, Part­takings, onely Leonard, and Franecre kept to themselvs their Right of Free Choice. Those Towns, which long since were no other than Villages, divided into three parts, Ostergoo, Westergoo, and the Seven Woods, had among them but one voyce: Now, by the War, their Use and Authority being increased, they had gotten the Third Part of the Authority, as well in the Sessions of the Judges, as in the New Assembly of the States Deputies, not so much by the Repute of their Concord and Unanimity; for sometimes there would burst out bitter [...]ends among them, especially in Arguments that related to the raising or imposing New Levies of Monies; in which Cases, here the consent of the Major Part was of no value, as it was among other Nations their Neighbours: This surely was a Custom, brought with much Prudence among them, in time of their Princes, and very dangerous to Liberty; unless it be allowed, that Prudence, and Love of the Publike, should succeed in the place of Claim and Interest; which makes me with the more admiration to behold, through the whole Series of the History of this War, and especially in those Times, the Valour and Courage of the Hollanders, whom neither the Defections of their Confederates on every side, nor the multiplyed Tributes, which, among such conti­nual Slaughters they raised were never able to destroy, nor the Death of their Chief Support, their Leader, bow to de­sire a Peace; but rather confirmed, by the Attractive of his Name, to a strong Aversion from any Submission: But the Duke of Parma, (as if he had hitherto onely Warred with the Prince of Aurange, whom now (he said) the Divine [Page 148] Vengeance had met with, for having been the Author of their Defection, and breaking so many Leagues) advised them of Repentance, and consequently, to return to their old Duty and Allegeance: Which Offers, when he saw so constantly refu­sed, and that any further Trials, in the like sort, would be [...] vain, intending to perfect the Siege he had began at Scol [...], he raiseth Forts and strong Holds all along the Ways and Passages of Brabant, and in some convenient places open the Banks, to make the River overflow all the Parts ad [...] ­cent.

Afterwards, departing from Lillow, which he had [...] some time in vain besieged, on a suddain he posts away with his Army towards Deudremund, (this is that part of Flan­ders, for which the Earls thereof formerly owed no Service, nor did Homage to either Kingdom) and drawing the Wa­ter from the Walls, he compelled them to Surrender, when leaving some of his Army in Garrison, with the rest he pas­seth the Scholde; with part of whom, he endeavours to [...] all Commerce between Bruxels and Antwerp, and with the other part takes Viluorde, which lyes between that and the River Sinna: The Gauntoys too, because the Hollander Forces were otherwhere employed, and they had no hope of Assistance, prevent the imminent greatness of their Danger, by a suddain and forward Submission; and this, by the Coun­sel of the Lord Campiny who being Prisoner in that City, and set freely at Liberty, safely undertook the Office of a Mes­senger on that behalf. But the Policy of Richardot is very memorable; for he proposing Articles of Surrender, being about to repudiate difference of Religion, he would not seem to take any notice thereof, untill he had so brought all their Minds to the desire of Peace, that it was not safe to go back: And this was another Devise of his; He had left S [...] of the Citizens to the Duke of Parma's pleasure, to fulfill his Revenge; and it was of very great moment, for the Danger [Page 149] being equal and alike to all, made every one seek, by all means, to save himself: Nor did Parma omit, as having knowledge of the former Actions, and provident to prevent the like in time to come, to build a Castle, that might bridle and keep under the unruliness of the City. And now all Flanders being Reduced under his Command (save onely Ostend and Scluys, two Sea-Port Towns) he forwards the increase of Provisions; and, to ease the Passage of all Soul­diers coming thence, or going thither, he digged a deep Ditch to that part of the Bank, where he had pitched his Tents: Among all these things, those who had the Care of Government in Antwerp, implored the Aid of their Allies, set new Taxes, and raised Souldiers daily, both in England, and the Netherlands; and certainly, the Besieged had not like plenty of any thing; for, besides Sea-men, there were Fourscore full Companies of Foot, and Sixteen Troops of Horse, that defended Brabant. But the Senators, Magi­strates, Captains, and other Superiour Military Officers, too great a Number to Rule well, distracted the unse [...]led Govern­ment of the City: And this Mischief was so much the more pernicious, in that the letting in of the Waters, and other things necessary to be done, for the publick Advantage, were hindred and gain-said, for fear (forsooth) of private Dam­mage.

The Neighbours, who were not so nearly concerned in the danger of the City, looking one upon another, let slip the Opportunity of relieving the same, while yet the Enemy was unsetled, and not warm in his Seat: When they were at the utmost pinch of Extremity, then too late they pleased to be prodigal, both of Wealth and Life, when it could not advantage any one: Truly, the vain Expectation of Forreign Aid did chiefly frustrate the Counsels of the Netherlanders, who were now driven to such a strait, that they would have subjected themselves to other Kingdoms, but could not be ac­cepted.

[Page 150]The King of Spain's Forces were in a short time mightily increased, and if he should recover the Netherlands, [...] should be eased of the Toil and Charge of War, they would become Formidable to all near and about them: Neither was there now a Prince of Aurange to support them, [...] fainting under the Burthers, or to erect and stir up their Courages, quite tyred out with Slaughters, unto a hope [...] better Times, by his own Prudence and Constancy of Mi [...] For, in truth, he was of so mild a Nature, and withall [...] popular, that he never seemed to be grateful enough to and for his Liberty and Honour, nor would he hide Vices the were fit to be spoken of: Above all things, he avoided the Suspition of Covetousness, for which most did esteem h [...] Judiciously, many customarily, a person admirable, and worthy the highest Honour and Respect, in regard of his Age Stock of Nobility and Experience. He being gone, [...] Obedience vanished; so that it could not be restored with­out the main Pillar of Forreign Aid to support it: For the Common People did not onely begin to contemn the Autho­rity of the Lords, eminent by no powerful Resulgency, and lately decayed by so many unfortunate Actions; but the Soul­diers also grew Refractory to Command, and had lost their wonted Diligence and Duty towards their Leaders. A [...] all which Mischances, a ready Way was opened to the Pa­meneian Subtilty, to cover the Slavery he intended, under very specious Names. Wherefore, now Affairs being as it were utterly desperate, both the King of France, and the Queen of England, sent to them such as should not onely condole with them, for the Loss of the Prince of Aurange, their Cap­tain; but should likewise comfort them, concerning the Sor­row and Mishap of their other Businesses: And this was a Noble Argument, that the Neighbour Princes, though they would sometimes leave off to Aid the Hollanders with their Wealth and Constancy, yet they would not utterly forfi [...] them in time of danger. But it was much disputed of their [Page 151] two, which they should choose for their Defender, for the bated Rule and Dominion of the French, was freshly remem­bred in Italy, and the Lordly domineering of the English, was not forgotten in France, and Ireland tasted thereof to this day.

Among these, the People being called to Counsel, they are very sparing in imposing and granting Subsidies, for there the Laws are of great force, and the Monarchical Power is not unlimited: But with the French, all their Customs are corrupted for mony, and he that desires to serve his Country, must buy the Employment at a great price: The English love hardship, and their Laws are very pinching upon words: yet no sooner are evills taken care for, either to be prevented or removed, but immediately, by little and little, the same is balk­ed by example; But the English Religion was the same with theirs, which in France, by cruel and persidious dealings, was laboured to be torn in pieces, or utterly extinguished; yet on the contrary, there were some hopes from the Family of Burbon, that valiantly defended that Religion which they professed; out these were suddenly dashed, in the conside­ration of the ambiguity of succession there, among the pre­tenders whereto was the Queen of Scots, that was wholly devoted to Rome and Spain. Thus were present Affairs scan­ned, and the events of future danger rationally deliberated: The French prepared a great Power, almost equall to that of the Enemy, the English raised but small Forces, but they were for Sea-service: France is preferred, but by the voluntary perswasions of the English, who confessing themselves the weaker party, offered onely necessary ayd in extremity, and received their Pledges.

Thus the necessity of the times prevailed, to the forget­ting, or at least, the laying aside those old animosities, which had lately been brought freshly into memory by the Duke of Anjou: And hence a great Secret was publickly discover­ed to the World, to wit, That the Netherlanders could be [Page 152] subject to a Lord, but would not bow to the Spaniards. [...] the demands and particulars were by many degrees more mo­derate and reasonable, then those whereto Francis of Val [...] was formerly obliged; and whatsoever their Legates had of private instructions, they quickly declared for fear of offence.

There were taken away also from those things, what made their liberty seem hated, to wit, That it might be lawful for the States to meet without the Kings Command; That the Se­nate should consist all of the Netherlanders; That the Gover­nours and Magistrates should be chosen out of those that un­named; and that in conferring and bestowing of all Ho [...] great respect should be had to those of that Religion, which [...] then onely received in all those parts. But some of the Province would not consent to the obliterating of those things; After many tedious Disputes of these things, and longer Consulta­tions than the necessity of Affairs would bear, at present, [...] lesse against the Kings will than the Netherlanders, it was a­greed, that though they were not as then joyned against the Spaniard now approaching, yet they should by one another help, settle and confirm their Affairs and States.

King Henry seemed to receive a great deal of satisfaction from the honour they did him, and shewed himself very wil­ling and forward to accept and use the same, but that he was hindred by intestine troubles: for Philip, fearing the dimi­nution of his strength, had at this time chiefly by private gifts and Wealth, blown up into swelling hopes the Family of Lorrain, whose power had for a long time been envyed by all France, who, having made a great Conspiracy, and boast­ing the defence of the Roman Religion, the punishments of Hereticks, and dissenters there from, the easing of Taxes and Tributes, and such like things as were taking with the com­mon people, grew so much more insolent in their contempt of the King (who was surprized with fear) as he was willing by large concessions, to gratifie their unreasonable demands [Page 153] And afterwards, finding that his want of Children, his Bro­thers death, that his next Kinsman Charles Burbon, was unfit, as well in regard of his Age, as his Priesthood, and the rest being excommunicate by the Pope, had made the Succession doubtful; at length, they openly declared, that he, to wit, the Lorrainer was sprung from the Royall Blood of Charle­main, whose Issue was put by, and the Kingly Seat wrong­fully possessed by the off-spring of Capet for six Ages.

Henry pretending by his unwillingness to stir a hope of Peace, to the ambitions of these men, suffers himself a great while to be urged and provoked, untill the debates and quar­rels breaking into open Rebellion, he too late learned, that presumption was not lessened, but rather made more heady, by being yielded unto. Therefore, the King troubled by these Impediments, would not consent to that pretence, as his Mother and the King of Havarre had appointed, but as it were, minding onely his benefit and advantage, and that by stopping up all the passages of France, he might bring his Enemies into a mean and low condition.

The Fifth BOOK of the Dutch ANNALS.

AFter the losse of so long time, which would have been of great advantage, and the damage received by this delay from France, they come again to Queen Elizabeth, being much incensed, that she should be sued to but in the second place, which might be some cause of their late answer; for so long were the Articles of the League there agreeing upon, that some strong Cities, for want of [Page 160] timely assistance, revolted from the Common-wealth: And yet for all this Hostility and subtle devices of the Spaniard Ships are laden from Holland and Zeland, with Provision which, as the Wind would suffer, were carryed up the Sch [...] to the Town of Antwerp, in such plenty, that by an unrea­sonable frugality of the Magistrates, while they abated the prices of necessary Commodities, it was reported, that then was Corn enough to have sufficed for a very long time. A [...] the Duke of Parma, being weaker than the besieged, w [...] not able, nor hoped to get the Victory, but by Famine, and hindering them of this Relief; whereas the great breadthe [...] the River below the City, where it opens its mouth into the Sea, and the ebbing and flowing of the Tide, which is call­ed there by the Ocean, terrified him from making any at­tempt thereupon, to hinder the Ships: yet because, the seemed to be the main Reason of the Siege, he resolved [...] use all possible diligence, and in something to relye upon his Fortune, which he had not yet found averse to him: For while Nature was believed to be repugnant to the design of the Siege, the Netherlanders neglected many opportunities of breaking down Works made up against them; and this it becomes most easie, while it is esteemed most difficult. For by making great Dams that extended from each Bank, farr into the water, the River was straitned, and the passage thereof grew very narrow between Ordans and Callow: the middle of it was filled with Boats, which were made fast one to another with Anchors, Cables, and the like, and so being covered over, had the resemblance, and served by use as a Bridge: Besides, on the Banks were raised Forts and Plat­forms, and for defence of the Work, Ships of Warre. Above and below it in the River, were many pieces of Timber p [...]o­ned together with stakes standing upright, that if any thing should be offered for the breaking or spoyling the Works, it might be hindered by those obstacles that lay in the way to the same purpose.

[Page 161]It is not to be doubted, but many Inventions might have been found, wherewith this imperfect Work might very ad­vantagiously have been dampnified, if the endeavours of such as were Engineers, and practised the overthrowing of such Politick Inventions, had equalled the diligence of the Netherlanders.

But all this whole Winter, the Duke of Parma was not disturbed; and the Spaniard intending to stir up his dili­gence and Obligation to him, by some fresh benefit, deli­vers up to him the Castle of Placentia, which hitherto had been held by a Garrison of Spaniards.

1585. Truly, a man at first would rather stand amazed at the stupendious Work, than hope to remove it, or beat it down, in regard those thick and strongly compact Damns and Engines on either Bank hindred any access: And the Ships filled with Gunpowder and Stones, and other Experi­ments used too late, partly by the incertainty of the times and significations wherewith the Besieged gave notice to their Allyes of their Condition, and partly, by the evill ma­nagery of those imployed, lost the success of what they were designed for.

Nothing more remained now that the Schelde was thus bridged, but that they might bring Provisions over the Fields, which the River had overflowed, which Navigation was hin­dred by the Caudestine Causey, which the Enemy got first, and secured by strong Holds and Forts, which the Netherlanders ought to have done; because it passed through (and was a little raised higher than) all the watry Meadows and Pa­stures of Brabant. This place was assaulted not onely by the Antwerpers, but by those also of Zeland, and with that Cou­rage, that now they had won it; but while they were thus valiantly fighting, they were cut off by the Guns, at a great distance, and so spoiled with shot, that they were glad at last again to quit the place.

[Page 156]By this unhappy event, the last of their hopes were [...] end, and at length, the City accustomed to Trading [...] plenty, when they saw all their Relief intercepted, not [...] ­ling to endure the straights of Famine in the want of Br [...] when a little before the like necessity, and some Soul [...] sent out to disturb them, had reduced Bruxells and Mech [...] surrendred it self into the Duke of Parma's hands; wh [...] case was something the harder, because by the abrogating their Laws, the King had brought them as it were into Servi­tude: Therefore when nothing now could be looked for [...] Antwerp but extremity, behold it redeemed from that, by [...] Conquerours Clemency, who being of himself covetous to [...] Renown, and that he might by the example of mercy sh [...] ­ed here, allure other places to more easie submissions, g [...] toleration to many things, only this one he excepted, [...] that they who for the last four years had gone astray from the Roman Religion, should, having convenient time to sen [...] their domestick Affairs, be commanded to depart the City And soon after, the Duke of Parma, as a reward of [...] Victory, was by the Kings Command, received into the Order of the Golden Fleece, and then put on the Cognizance thereof upon that very Bridge, which he had made, and was a work worthy of remembrance in after Ages; and in a little time following, he rebuilds and fortifies the Fort or Castle, which over-looks the City, and had formerly in the quest of Liberty been demolished.

This so renouned City, added as well much Honour as Strength to the Spaniards in these parts; but yet not so much, as many thought, who imagined she would carry the greatest matters of concernment with her. Which was so dis­proved by the Event, that the Hollanders, who had taken extraordinary pains, and been at great charge for relief of the City, yet could not escape free from the slander, or at least the suspition of having betrayed the Faith of their con­federate [Page 157] Allyance, as if they should get advantage, by the mischiefs which others should receive, and suffer.

But on the contrary, they layd the fault upon the Lord of Aldegund, (for he was Governour of the City) who return­ed to Zeland, whom he had suffered but the first invasion and guards of the Assailers, yet afterwards worthily esteemed, though never imployed in any part of the Commonwealth; for his disposition being more fit for Peace than War, he with­drew his old Age within the compass of private Solitudes, and the tranquility of retired Studies. And the Valour of the Souldiers, by so many evills, was quite worn out; for they, when yet there was hope of removing the Enemy from Antwerp, having under the Leading of Count Hohenlo, hap­pily got Boi [...]ledno, yet forthwith, through fear and folly, they [...]led, while they fall upon the Pray, neither minding the Enemy, nor the receiving the Port. But the Romanists, assisted by the fortune of their party, brought into the Con­querours hand, Nicumegen, a City of Guelderland, with the Town of Dewsburgh: and filled all these parts round about with slaughters, which happen'd either through the Captains rashness, or the Souldiers carelesness.

In all which things, nothing more augmented the publick sorrow, than those miserable People of Brabant and Flanders, banished for Religion, or because they durst not trust to the Articles granted, having such malicious Interpreters thereof, and in brief, for want of Trade, or means to get a Living, scattered over Holland and the Isles, who yet increased the Cities and Forces exhausted by War, into a greater number, which shortly proved a great Omen of their future good fortune.

In this interim, scarce did the longing Expectation of the League, concluded with England, keep up their Hearts: We have already related to you, the Offer of their Govern­ment, made to Queen Elizabeth: But that prudent Lady [Page 164] shifted off the Envy of that Dominion so craftily obtained Nor would she, in that ambiguous Estate of Affairs, intangle and wrap up both her Fame and Fortunes in a strict Con­federacy and Allyance: It was conceived more agreeable both to Wisdom and Policy, to have some strong Holos in the Netherlands set apart for Her, wherein to settle some indif­ferent strength of Men, and also to send again some Ships to the Coasts of America, there to infest the Spaniard, all weary him, till he should be willing to incline to Peace, and remove his Armies so long complained of, and contested a­gainst.

But She promised them some Aid, protesting in Writing in a Publick Declaration, She did it meerly out of a Sense [...] Right, by which she was put in Mind of that Custom of Pri [...] to defend the Oppressed; and remembred therein, the An [...] Contracts, and Leagues of Friendship, between the Dutch and English; with some short Hints of Spanish Extravagance. Religion also was made mention of the Security where commended to her Case; She had made good both in the Concerns of France and Scotland, without any desire of what did not belong to Her: The concluded Articles of the Peace were for the most part the same, by which the first Alliance had been setled; and that Five Thousand Foot, and a Thou­sand Horse, should be sent to fight for the Netherlanders, and be paid by the Queen; That the Embassador, who should be Commander in Chief of those Forces, with two other English-men, should be received into the Senate, and be pre­sent in all Councils, relating either to the War, or other pub­lick Matters of State; That the Netherlanders should set on a Fleet of equal Number with tho Queens, and to joyn with them: And that for the re-imbursing of the Charges, at the end of the War, the Sea-Port Towns of the Briel and Flush­ing, (of whose Government nothing was to be changed) toge­ther with the Castle of Zeburgh in Walcheren, were divided into the Custody of English Garrisons, as Pledges; not with­out [Page 165] fear, for the future, though their present necessity made them cast it aside.

Of this Auxiliary Army sent to the Dutch, Robert Earl of Leicester was made Generall, a great Pretender to Virtue, and who hid the unhappy and hated Spirit of the Family of the Dudleys (whereof he was a Branch) with an acceptable and courteous Behaviour. The Original of the Greatness of his Fortune, began first in a Prison (for the Greatness of his Stock, had not exempted him from Troubles) wherein the Lady Elizabeth was then also confined, by the Suspitions of her Sister Queen Mary. In this place he gave great Reve­rence to the young Lady, though not in regard of the condi­tion of her Affairs at that time: From whence, by obsequi­ousness, and partaking of Misfortune, a commiseration and loving kind of pity arose; wherewith she behaved her self with such a Womanly Indulgence, yet so that he might nor forget his more Manlike Care, that his Mind was so ele­vated into a flattered Conceit of himself, as he imagined she would chuse him for her Husband, being Queen; which though he could never obtain, by the Emulation of those who loved him not, yet was he raised even to the highest Pitch of Honour; and though surrounded with Envy, yet amongst the most powerful of his Enemies, he passed without Affront or Molestation. When he first came among the Hollanders, he was followed by the Love and Affection of the People, and courted with the Flattery of the Great Men; for there was a certain pleasant and winning Majesty, both in his Countenance, and Speech; and he was really looked upon, as the onely Restorer of their lost and decayed For­tune. He used an excellent Freedom and Liberality, both in his Letters and Martiall Acts; wherewith the Netherlan­ders were so taken, that in all hast, to this person, though a Forraigner, and among his own people, not altogether e­steemed a Virtuoso, before any tryall of his disposition, the Government of the whole Netherlands, as it was in the times [Page 166] of the Emperour Charles, together with the whole Command both at Sea and Land, and the ordering and disposing of publike moneys was committed; The Senate also were so addicted to him, that they suffered him alone to choose Assi­stants out of those named, and in some manner, he alone eq [...] ­poized the notes and suffrages of them all. But his outward zeal in matters of Religion, was the great inticement of all beginning his Government with the settlement thereof: And the yet fresh hatred of Valois for the contrary, made him the more beloved. And there were some, who preferred him be­fore the Prince of Aurange, hoping he would not exact so much, in regard the way now to seek their right, was become shorter, in regard of their own Wealth, and the powerfull friendship of so excellent a Prince.

But these two great Honours, some judged to be bestowed on him, to satisfie his ambition; but the more simply ho­nest, only looked at them, as done with intent only to oblige the Queen further to them; but it fell out otherwise, for she urged them to excuse her, seeming as if she were afraid, that they would unawares in the person of the Earl of Leicester, throw upon her the Government, which she had before refused. But probably she had, as knowing his dispo­sition, some higher suspition of him. Presently, that atten­dant evill of all power and greatness, flatterers incroached into his Bosom, by whose insinuations, and his own ambition, (as there is nothing more naturall to a man) being envyed, when he was desired by the States, to take the accustomed Oath in Solemn manner, and to receive the Ensigns of the Commonwealth; he turns their favours against them, and, as it were, going into a Province, he enters into Consultation with divers, but chiefly Englishmen, how, and by what means he might compass the Soveraignty.

It is here to be understood, that there is very great diffe­rence between the Natures and Dispositions, manners and Customs of those two Nations; for the English, as they serve [Page 167] faithfully, so when they are raised to Honour, they recom­pence their former humility with much insolence and pride; But the Netherlanders obey and command in one equall de­gree, no Nation having men of Eminency in greater esteem, not hating, with a more implacable malice, those who they find contemn them. Which Leicester not considering, and not acquainted with the Authority wherewith he was trusted, not taking notice of those who trusted him with it, began to fling off all thoughts of resenting, and to grow obstinate in his Opinion (such was his Confidence in the English Soul­diery, and his present Grandeur.) And this was so much the more dangerous, because he himself knew nothing of the Intrigues of the Belgick Affairs of State, nor would hearken to such as had some insight therein. Nay, the Netherlanders themselves some of them took his part, but they were onely either such whose Estates at home being wasted by their own ill Husbandry, or the Wars cruelty, whatsoever slavery they fell into, chose it rather than poverty, the greatest mis­chief of all, or else, who in the Country taken from them, having been bred in Honour, were now impatient to lead a private life, and saw no other way than that, again to rise by; the rest meerly lovers of novelty, for no reason, but because it is new, to whom, in brief, as it always happens in like cases of Sedition, all the loose and villainous persons joyned themselves.

With such a Company was the President of the Nether­lands followed; and first, they began to cast out oblique scan­dalls against the States, which if they saw received with gree­dy ears, then presently they fell to more open railings, accu­sing all of the faults, which it may be, some few were guilty of, as if all things had been known and understood by this over-busie multitude, that conduced to their good.

They advised him also to a too hasty and over-weening hope of the Dictatorship, after the Example of the Prince of Aurange, and he credulous of every thing, as having his [Page 168] Judgment weakened by long felicity, and not well discen­ing how great a difference there was in obtaining the favo [...] of a Woman, and seeking the Soveraignty over a free People But the vulgar being incited against the States, who genera [...] of their own accord, hate the Governours under whom they suffer any thing; He undertakes the defence of the Treasury a very popular matter, when yet in the managing thereof, [...] was as true, that the Earl of Leicesters Servants wanted fide­lity, as well as himself quickness of understanding and fo [...] ­sight. Nor resteth be here, but presently offends almost [...] the People, by an Edict, wherein he not only did forbid a Commerce and Dealing with the conquered Belgick Prin­ces, and the Spaniards, which had hitherto been tolerated, [...] ­less upon some Emergencies of Affairs and times: also it would not suffer any Merchandizes to be carried or tran [...] ­ported into France, or the Sea-port Towns of Germany, pre­tending, that he could conquer and distress the Enemy, by a want of Commodities, if he should not be furnished out [...] Britain or the Netherlands; but never at all weighing, [...] there are many kinds of Merchandizes and Commodities whereof the Enemy had no need, and yet the Holland abounded with the same.

Wiser Heads believed, that he gave way to the covetous­ness of Sycophants about him, who had already in their minds, anticipated the power that he had reserved of selling Licences, and swallow the gain that should arise from thence for exportation; and their belief was very much increased, when Ringaltius, formerly imployed as Treasurer or Receiver, both under Alva and Requesens, and after aco­sed for cheating the Exchequer, but then very high in the Earl of Leicesters favour, had Authority given him by an E­dict, to inquire into the Letters and Journalls of Merchant contrary to the antient Laws, which looked upon this as o [...] main part of their liberty, that there should be no search of, or inspector into, any mens private Affairs.

[Page 169]Therefore, when other of the Provinces, that were altoge­ther unconcerned in the War, could not be bound from put­ting to Sea and Commerce with the Enemy, this way of Gain and Livelyhood being onely taken away from, or debarred to the Hollanders, by which onely hitherto they had been able to carry on all their Affairs; their greatest and best Merchants, especially considering their number, went away from their Native to Forreign Countries and Cities. For the English took their loss of Trade more patiently, because a Nation more gi­ven to Depredation; and then going to Sea, under the specious pretext of War, assailed and made Incursions and Rodes upon all Spanish Ships, and other places whatsoever under their Obedience: Nor did they spare the very Hollanders them­selves, if some by chance at any time were set forth under feigned Owners, and endeavoured to go towards the We­stern Parts of the World by those Seas. From whence it was found afterward, that although they could escape all the wait laid for them by Pirates, in that vast and scarcely fre­quented Sea, they should be brought back to the Island of Britain: Nor were Commodities at Home onely of small va­lue; but those things which were wont to be fetched from far Countries, by this forbidden Exportation, became of no esteem, in such sort, that the States could find no other Remedy for this grand Mischief, than by a publike Decree to lay a Re­straint upon all Corn: By which means, those who had been the main Promoters of this hitherto unknown Necessity, and who constiued all things in the worst Sense, began malitious­ly to alleadge, That the aim hereof was to bring a Dearth upon England. A like Project was this: The Earl of Leicester was of Opinion, and so determined, that the Enemies Lands, though they paid Contribution, should be laid wast and desar [...]: This, besides the fear of Revenge, was very grievous to all; who, though at present, by Force or Treachery, driven from their Native Soil, yet, at some time or other, hoped to return thither again. The Souldiery also began to Mutiny, because [Page 170] English Captains were put in Command of Companies of Souldiers from Forreign Places: But Hohenlo coming thi­ther who hastned those that before lingred upon the Earl of Leicester's words; He undertook the Cause, and would [...] suffer a mixture of Officers, but would that each should [...] the Reward of their Arms and Valour: And neither terrified with the Hatred, either of that People, or their Leader; as [...] was not to be corrupted with the greatest Promises, so [...] openly took the part of the Noble-men, in a generous open heartedness, hating Dissimulation, and in a vehency of Spi­rit, not caring to conceal any thing.

The Care of the War now beginning afresh to breaken did, in some measure, lay asleep this new arising Difference For the Duke of Parma having, during the Winter, had some small Skirmishes, and several Castles about the Rhine being taken on both sides; and now, upon the News of the Le [...] between the English and Hollanders, Recruited from the King both with Men and Money, that he might perfect [...] Conquest of Brabant, besiegeth Grave, a Town scitune [...] the Bank, on the left side of the Maes, and surrounded with the River both above and below; which he often before [...] and now again experimented, to be fortunate to him in stop­ping up the Passages, and hindring Dealing. But Count Ho­henlo, sent with a select Party of Souldiers, brake through the Enemies Trenches, and did them great Damage; and a [...] onely so, but helped with the vernal increase of the River, [...] relieved the Town, that he deliver'd the Besieged, as [...] from the fear of Famine, as all other wants whatsoever.

But the Enemy nevertheless, with a greater Army, ob [...]ti­nately continued their Siege and Assaults of the Town, [...] especially one general Storm was intended; which, the Ene­my being upon the point to fall on, H [...]merta, a Dutch- [...] of Noble Bloud (and left there Governour by Hohenlo) pre­vented, by an over-hasty and cowardly Surrender; when [...] new Supplies were ready just at hand to relieve him: Soli­cited [Page 171] and won thereto, as was believed, by the Inticements of a Harlot; for the Expiation of which Crime, the Earl of Leicester soon after put him to death. They who were Im­partial, called this Discipline; but others imputed it to his Hatred of the Dutch in general; because Rowland York ha­ving a hand heretofore in the mischievous Counsel of Imbi­sius, and many o [...]her English, of no better Repute in any thing, at leastwise guilty of Cowardose, not onely came off safe, but were looked upon as fit to be admitted into the grea­test Trusts: Venloo, a Town nearer to Gelderland, and sci­tuate on the other Bank, followed Grave, the Common Peo­ple betraying it, in spight of all the Souldiers Endeavours. In the interim, those loose Bands wasted the Enemies Country, and Prince Maurice, for his first Assay, won Axell by As­sault; which going from Tornay (this strong Town the United States held in the Coasts of Flanders) he got by Night, get­ting thereinto with Ladders.

But the War, in the Bishoprick of Colen, whereof somthing was spoken before grew very hot, not so much by the great­ness of the Forces as the expert Valour of the Captains: For now Collonel Schenck had left the Duke of Parma's Service, and was gone over to Truxius; this man won and got For­tresses every where, and destroyed with Fire and Sword what­soever was subject to the Command of the Bishop thereof: Afterwards, by the Command of the Earl of Leicester, he Fortifies the Isle called Graveward, which lyes upon the left hand of Holland, just at the dividing of the Rhine, and now that is the best Defence of all those Quarters under that Go­vernment: But the Count Nienarius, who was Commander in Chief in those Parts, took by surprize, and on a suddain, Nuiss, a Town famous for its Antiquity; for which the Duke of Parma, intreated by the Bavarian, and ambitious to con­tend in Honour with the most Fortunate Captains, did con­tend: For this place repressed and altered the (before that) most happy Fortune of Charles Duke of Burgundy: But Par­ma [Page 172] more Fortunately Assaulted the same, and obtained a glo­rious Victory, his Entrance into the City being gratulated with Multitudes of Bone-fires: Anon, after this, Alpa Creveceur, and Mursa, being taken into his Possession, he makes a stop at Bergen, defended by Schenck beyond hope and at length was forced to march off, upon the Earl of Lei­cester's Approach to Zutphen, after the taking of Dewesburg But yet it seemed to him a piece of little less than Coward [...]e, to stop up the Passages, and Fortifie his Camp: No, like a Noble Enemy rather he returned, bringing with him all his Provision, by this means giving occasion of a Battel; which, In its Issue, proved fortunate enough to the English, had it [...] been sullied by the Death of Sir Philip Sydney, a young Gen­tleman, born with the greatest Advantage of all things [...] as who had honoured the Nobility of his Birth, and greatness of his Wealth, by the true Splendor of all Beautifying Learn­ing, in this excelling his Uncle the Earl of Leicester, to wh [...], and his Fortune, how great soever it might come to be in the future, he was intended Successour. Not long after this, Lei­cester got a Castle over against Zutphen, on the other side the River; which was begun by the Netherlanders; who, being forced thence by the increase and overflowing of the River, left it to be finished by the Enemy. The Charge of [...] his with all the Land of Welaw, was given by the Earl of Leicester to Rowland York before-named; the Government of Dave [...]ry which he had before provoked to Madness, by a Garrison [...] Irish Souldiers, st [...]angers both to Humanity and Civility, upon Suspition of Revolt, he committed to William Stanley; and both these were done against the positive Will of the State who, for divers weighty Reasons, best known to themselves and, as the Event proved, feared the Treachery of those Men.

I would not be taken here to accuse the Earl of Leicester of any unfaithfulness; but onely will note, that although he were very stern to others, he was easie to Flatterers and Sy [...] ­phants, [Page 173] and would give too much credit to pretended Friend­ships, without any Trial. Nor were these the onely men to be found fault with about him; there were others very inti­mate with him, and privy to all his Counsels, whose Factious Designs were soon discover'd. Among whom, Ringaltius, one eminent in the Guilt of the Conspiracy, refused all the Tribunals of Judges; until at last, as a Renegado and a Tray­tor, he ended his infamous Life among the Enemies, in a miserable poor condition: Wherefore, now innumerable Complaints, as it were all at once, were made to the Gene­rall; returning from the War, to wit, That Warro and Garri­sons being not possible to be Governed, without the Injury of the Citizens, against this, such should be put into Command as the People were pleased with: And there was added, That the Office and Dignity of Treasurer, or Receiver Ge­nerall, was given to Strangers, by whom it was deceitfully managed; That the Price and Value of Money was unsetled, and the Souldiers and other Charges of the Common-wealth, were not compared with the Treasury, That the Commands of the Sea was betrayed, by the exhausting the Navall Re­venues; That Trading and all Commerce decayed; That Ho­nours were bestowed on those, who in no wise merited them; That the Authority of all inferiour Lieutenancies was destroy­ed by him; and their Right, so many years maintained, ce­voured and swallowed up in Garrisons: Nor was it passed in silence, that the Souldiers at that time hired, did not come, (concerning which, there was a Suspition, that the English had been the cause thereof; as willing rather, that their own Forces and proper strength should be brought in) in regard the Numbers of them were small, when the Covetousness of the Commanders or Paymasters had exhausted the Auxiliary Numbers; so much, that they were necessitated to give way to the Enemy, not being able to withstand his Victories.

These things were thus related, by Direction of the States then Confederate, who, from that time, began to Assemble, and [Page 174] meet more frequently than formerly, that those Things might be Transacted without the Senate, which should keep in awe the Guilty Consciences of the English, as Hollanders; and pri­vately complaining of many Things, both in relation to them­selves, and to Prince Maurice, they took into their Cogni­zance and Care most ordinary Matters.

This the Earl of Leicester took very ill; that Men from Shops and Taverns, should come to make a Judicatory, who could bring nothing thither with them, but sordid and me­chanick Arts, and Minds prostituted to Lucre and Gain▪ and that he, a Man of that Birth and Quality, should receive Laws from the Ignorant, and despicable Vulgar, and fight under the Banner and Command of Strangers. Much vexed hereat, he thought it would be a Work well worth his pains, if he could possible, to remove such Clowns from the Stern of Government; for there is nothing more hateful to Nobility, than the Dominion of Peasants, being generally sharp Ob­servers of Oppressors: And this he thought might the more easily be brought to pass, because Strangers, and the multitude of Citizens, (which is far the greater) having no share in the Government (as was supposed) would gladly hearken to this Equality.

But I revolving in my Mind the worthy Precepts of wise men, and antient Forms of Cities, do rather think, that as many as would exclude that part of the People from Ho­nours, for whose common Utility, the advantage of all things chiefly redounds, do conceit Matters of that difficulty, as are better to be, walked after in Discourse, than Practice: For, not to speak of Nations, Bordering upon the Sea, amongst whom the Commons had the Superiority, the Spartans De­mocracy as being free from Flattery, equalled almost the greatest Kingdoms: Nor had Rome any peaceable or setled Government, untill the Commons were admitted to have a sh [...]re therein.

[Page 175]And, at this day, in many most flourishing Cities, where the Government is Aristocratical, the Ʋnderlings of the Sena­tors, in the Name of the Common People, exercise all Offices: Neither is this Order forbidden in that Commonwealth, who is indebted to the Water for all it hath; and, by the Dignity of Trades and Merchandizing, grown much greater than of old, so that the whole World hath participated of her Na­vigations: And all the Wealth is almost in their Hands, whereof an Account is exacted, where Honours are to be bestowed, according to the Judgment of Antient and severe Legislators. And surely, Covetousness and Wealth, are no where less to be suspected, than where the Dominion is not perpetual, and as it were limited within Bounds.

But the Earl of Leicester, prepared to alter both these, and other long-continued Practices; not so much in a ridiculous Affectation of Novelty, but that by separating the Nobility, and others, for Wisdom eminent, from the rest, he might draw them into Parties. And first he took to him as Chap­lains, some Interpreters of Scripture, (for in this Age they alone carry the liars and Affection of the Multitude) such as were eminent for their outward Profession of Zeal, and dif­fered from others: For, at first, in the Commonwealth, Re­ligion being less esteemed than was fit, was reported to be the onely cause of the Troubles; and things more earnestly longed for, because forbidden, upon pain of punishment, be­came neglected, when they might be used with Impunity: Reverence to Things Sacred, was, to all that shewed it, dan­gerous: No Honour was given to Priesthood; nay, there were, who would not allow any Right of Ecclesiasticall Cen­sures, but would utterly abrogate it; and all this, when they remembred with Canker'd Hearts, and imbitter'd Minds, the Lordlyness of Priests formerly; and so, in a venomous Ma­lice to Old Things, they made all Things New. But Lie­cester, on the contrary, by his Example, shewing to them Au­thority, and other Advantages of England, which they should [Page 176] enjoy, first won the Applause of his Preachers, and by them gained the Affections of the People; committing and trust­ing many Affairs of the Commonwealth not to the Magistrates, but to those who were in some way or other conversant with things Divine, or else concerned among the Plebeians; who, though willing, yet could never attain to right use and know­ledge of things: And now many whose Counsels had been sound and faithful to their Country, were openly put back from their Honours, because they agreed with the Church of Rome, either in all Points, or at least in some; little re­garding, how this matter would disturb the Peace, if once it were published abroad, That they had received such a Reli­gion, which would admit of no Companions in the Common­wealth, except of the same Gang. This had not long conti­nued, but among the Frizons, and in Utrecht, where the Inha­bitants had taken away the power from the Magistrates to themselves; and, in other Cities, which had formerly been Tumultuous, and ruled by the too great strength of the Mul­titude, the Name of the States began to be murmured at, and he c [...]yed up for the onely Vindicator of Religion, the onely Conquerour of their Enemies, and punisher of Intestine Ambi­tion and Covetousness. Moreover, he placed English Soul­diers in Forts, Islands, in or near the Sea, and other Bordering Parts: Neither had he less Confidence in Sonojus, who, for some famous Actions, having merited the Government of West-Frizeland, under the Prince of Aurange, now hoped to confirm the same to himself, by the Favour of Leicester, and that he should attain the Command next under his Great­ness, and so to tear this Province, and some other Garrisons, from the greedy Dominion of Holland, and the Charge and Care of Prince Maurice, who bridled, and hid in a Resolved Silence, the greatness of his vertuous Disposition, when at the same time he was sollicited, to perpetrate most false Crimes, and that under the Vizor of Friendship. Thus pre­pared, the Earl of Leicester having preferr'd many out of his [Page 177] own Number, and the Plebeians every where were in doubt of Discords, the greater part of them would follow him, he believed now he had not much to do to possess himself of his desired Dominion; especially, if he continued in the Queens Favour still as formerly. Wherefore, least he might by too long absence, give Opportunity to his Enemies, as knowing the nearest Intrigues of that Court, he goes home: The Reason whereof pretended to the States was, that he was called thence to the Council of England, where he would not forget to help forward the Belgick Affairs: But the Commons were otherwise informed; for to them he pretended the In­dignities offer'd him by the States, were the cause of his de­parture, threatning never to return, unless the Face of Affairs were new moulded: And this, together with some Letters scatter'd among the people, [...]inraged many; the matters there­in contained setting forth either the bitterness of the States, or else Leicester's Merits, and affectionate Endeavours for the peoples good. A Rumour also being spread, that the Queen would not refuse the Dominion and Soveraignty of the Netherlands, unless she, frighted from it by the Experi­ment of the first Confederacy, and innumerable Laws, Ar­ticles, and Covenants, whereby even the justest Government was eluded, and came to nothing. By these means, it came to such pass, that at Ʋtrecht the New Magistrates, and in Frizeland the private persons, in the name of the Publique, took the Confidence to send to the Queen Deputies, who should not so much offer as receive from her the Conditions and Form of a Principality: But she absolutely refused them, though the Parliament of England then sitting, promi­sed, If she pleased, to give some Aids of Money on that behalf: Yet for all this, she could not escape the Suspitions of some, that she had rather have received this Honour from the Sedi­tions and Tumults of the Souldiers and People, than from the free Consent wherewith it was publikely offered, and by her refused.

[Page 178]The Earl of Leicester now departing, left to the Senate the care of the Commonwealth, but not long after, a Writing was produced, wherein he had reserved to himself the Com­mand of all Garrisons, and other chief points relating to the Government. Hereupon, some were sent into England, who should complain of their lame form of dominion, and that if any sudden stirs or commotions should happen, there was no present power to remedy the same. But they stayd in England a long time,1587. in regard of some present troubles, wherein that Kingdom was involved. For the Queen of Scotland, being driven out of her Kingdom by her Subjects, fled to the protection of Queen Elizabeth, as a Supplyant, being related to her, by a near consanguinity, beside the allyance of Honour, as her Sister Queen; There she being puffed up with great flocking to her of the Roma­nists, and believed, or at least imagined to have conceived a hope, not only of regaining her former fortune, but that there was a private kind of danger that threatned the Queens safe­ty from her, by her laying claim to the Crown; first she i [...] committed into strong Custody; but there, the fear and dan­ger of her yet continuing, she was at last put to death. In this mean while, among the Hollanders, were bloody tu­mults, and as either party prevailed, so were bonds and ba­nishments inflicted; But where William Stanley delivered Davoury, and Rowland York, the Fort opposite to Zurphen, to Taxis a Spaniard, who accepted of the Treachery, but dis­dained the persons, though both very intimate with the Earl of Leicester; then many of the common people extolled the wisdom of the States, and highly condemned their Treachery.

But there were some Englishmen, who to take away the Infamy of their Nation, said it was done by the Command of their Superiors. Yet there was one Allen, afterwards a Cardinall, who though an Englishman, in a Book concerning the same set out, would seem to defend the villany, by the [Page 179] pretence of Religion; which notwithstanding his defence, remained still as it was, a most perfidious Treachery, and wicked Example, no less scandalous to it self, than fatall to the Authour of it. For after falling out between themselves, it was said, that York, a Man of an undaunted boldness to do any thing, was poysoned, and that Stanley being removed from Daventry, went into Spain, with his Company which he carryed with him, his Pay being taken away and gone. Nor did he find the Rewards he hoped for there, no one daring, or at least willing to lay any Confidence on him.

But the Confederate States, taking in their own behalf, the voluntary submission of the People, as well as of the Soul­diery, that the Calamity wherein the Common-wealth was in­volved, though for the present great, might be turned to good; they incited Prince Maurice to the affections of his Father, and now in the absence of the chief Governour, they give him the whole Command of the War: Besides, they required both the Governours of Provinces, and the Souldiers, to take an Oath to the States, which hitherto had been neg­lected, but was by the Traytors, and all other seditious per­sons, that they might thereby the better conceal their crimes, and by the more ignorant, interpreted to the Honour of the Earl of Leicester, as if it had been the Oath to the Queen.

This done, the Edict against Exportations was reviewed, and moderated; so that to the peaceable Provinces, all things but only necessaries for War, might be carried. And to Provinces in Hostility with them, and the places border­ing thereupon, they might export any thing, but Materials for War and Corn. And this Law was afterward, according as the necessity of the times required, oftentimes enlarged and contracted.

At this time, many things were done in the Netherlands, with much variety and charge of Fortune; for the Provinces [Page 180] of Brabant and Flanders, by the smallness of Trade, little converse, and the perpetual lying wast of their Fields, being quite exhausted, suffered extreme penury; those men which of late had good Estates, and a sufficiency of Wealth, being reduced to the meanest beggery, ready to starve for want; yet this fear, and the Royalists Forces lying round about them, were hardly able to restrain the People from revolting. On the other side, you might see the Towns of Holland, enlarg­ing themselves within their forbidden bounds, and without; and in the Sea-Ships lye up and down on every Coast. And really, I think this almost to be the only Nation which hath thriven by Trading and Commerce, more in the War, than it could have done in time of Peace, and therefore to be ac­counted most fortunate, if the beginnings its of greatness had not been held back, and wasted by civil discords (while they had also a powerful Enemy within their bowels) the usuall end of old States, and decaying Fortunes.

Altapen, a Captain of the Spanish Party, after he had drawn over the Town of Geldres, whence the whole Province of Gelderland takes its name, with the Governour thereof, by Covenants, was slain at Boisledue, by Count Hohenlo: he left him a Castle to take near the Town, which from that slaugh­ter committed there, took the name of Crevicour. But the Duke of Parma, with a violent, and almost incredible force of Guns, and other Warlike Engines, mightily weakened and damnified Sluys, a Town by him then besieged, in the furthest Coast of Flanders by the Sea-side, that fronts Zeland, an Isle, called Catzen, lying on the back thereof. Which when the Earl of Leicester understood, returning without any de­lay, he resolves but in vain to break into the Haven; but when his mind was altered, going to Ostend, because of the Enemy, he pitched his Tents, and fame increasing the num­ber of his Army (whose bigness was not yet known) it ap­peared at last, that each of them had been afraid of the others Forces more than they needed: The Earl of Leicester [Page 181] marching away first, imputed the losse of the Town, which was very ill resented by all, not to the Enemies valour, nor the endeavours of their party, yet not well agreeing, in re­gard of suspitions: for now his whole study was anew to prosecute and revive the long covered, and almost forgotten dissentions, and to lay the fault upon the States.

To this purpose, he gives out, that when he went about to repell and drive away the Enemy, that both Souldiers, Mony, and all things else were afforded him with evill will; and what at last they sent, was hardly enough for Garrisons and Forts, not proportionable in any respect for an Army: And if their poverty was such they could afford no more, why did they still involve the Common-wealth in such a desperate Case, to the mischiefs of an unhappy and lingring Warre? for now the Spaniard began to use his accustomed Policies after Victory, and the Queen her self seemed to incline to Peace: although a Fleet sent out under the Conduct of Captain Drake, by wasting and spoiling the Coasts of Spain declared to the World, how weak that Kingdom was at home, that was feared so much abroad, and another Fleet un­der Cavendish, had roved over another Coast of America, and fallen upon the Molucca Islands, bringing away great advan­tage: But many things now frighted her, being a Woman, and growing into years, as, the frequent Rebellions of the Irish, who had now in the Belgick Warres become well skill­ed in Military Discipline; That Scotland was suspected as a private foe, while the Spaniard declared himself a publick E­nemy; That France had no kindness for her, and not a few in England were desirous of novelty. But the States, know­ing how much it had otherwise prejudiced their Affairs, throwing off, as much as they could, any mention of a Trea­ty: if the Treasury could be faithfully managed, they de­nyed the annual pay of thirty Florens (for that was properly the Wages of all the Forces, except the English Auxiliaries, and Souldiers for Sea-Service) to be despised as such an in­considerable [Page 182] allowance, when the Prince of Aurange had oftentimes brought greater matters to passe, with less charge and fewer men; adding further, That wise and considerate [...] knew how to make the best use of a little, whereas when men ca [...] lightly and easily by money, yet they are never satisfied, though they have too much.

Afterwards, some Letters of the Earl of Leicesters, to his Friends, being found, wherein they were accused, that they had forgot their duty, and unjustly busied themselves in mat­ters of importance, not belonging to them; they, to wit, the States, do by an Edict set forth and declare, that of old, the Peoples Right was in them, and of late, the Princes Right was translated over to them, that they still kept both, notwith­standing the delated Lieutenancy, and divers other things they spoke of, relating to the honour of their Convention, and whereby they might clear themselves from the objected crime of ambition. But Leicesters hopes were now grows higher, than to stand upon delaying niceties and policies that were understood; wherefore scorning, that the People should any longer have a voyce among the Magistrates, with an ha­sty over-ruling Confidence, he prepares by faction and Gar­risons, to bring under his Yoak, the Cities that stood more inward upon the Land, and thence to throw a sudden terrour upon the rest, not taking warning by the example of Valois, whom such an endeavoured violence thrust out of the Go­vernment, though setled therein by Contract and Agreement. But before the danger, the whole Plot laid by the Inhabitant strangers of Leyden was discovered, many of whom, suffered death as a worthy punishment, for seeking to induce novelty in a State, where they were strangers. And although per­chance some of these might be offenders, rather out of igno­rance than malice, yet was that severity towards them very necessary, and broke the whole design of all, either begun or intended, commotions; Thus at last being openly discover­ed guilty of an unworthy and unlawful ambition, he went [Page 183] away into England. And there the Queen, after she had sent the Lord Buckhurst, no great Friend of his, to inquire in­to the Affairs of the Low-Countries, that the less notice might be taken thereof in the Council, protected him by her Royall Power, yet made him to abjure all Authority over the Ne­therlands. But while he yet supported his old Partakers with Letters, and was after laid aside from Military Affairs by England, he lived not out a full year, uncertain whether taken off by his Wives Treachery, who, as it were, confessed her Adultery in his Life, by her unequal Marriage after his death, or by any other means unnatural, or the common Fate. However it was, his death was not so much lamented by the Queen, as it was rejoyced at by the Low-Country men, who were thereby once more freed from a Danger, than which, a greater, in all their Affairs, never hung over them.

In the interim of these Affairs, Collonel Schenck took by Surprize Bonne, a City of Germany, scituate on this side the Rhine, and then possessed by the Bavarian. Now was there (as one may say) a Cessation of Arms throughout the Ne­therlands; for the Duke of Parma did not, as he was wont, with so much intention break in by War upon those Discord­ing Provinces. A great Design against England had taken his Thoughts and Endeavours, it being accounted a more no­ble, and less difficult Enterprise.

Most of the great Souldiers, who had fought for the King of Spain, looked upon that Island as the amends of their Me­rits, and the Reward of their Labours; and as it was near to France and Germany upon occasion of War, so the Counsel was, That being a Transmarine Kingdom, it should be gotten by War: But these Counsellors, every one by his own For­tune, or by Death hindred, at this time, as it were by the Ju­stice of Revenge, after a League concluded, & Aid sent open­ly to the Rebels in Ireland: A great Fleet was prepared in Spain against the next Summer; The Duke of Parma prepa­red all his Garrisons against that time to man it; and so far [Page 184] did his hopeful Imaginations carry him, that he concluded this English Expedition would be a worthy Catastrophe of his Ten Years Victories, and make his Name equal in the Regi­ster of Honour, with those of the most famous Emperours. But the Spaniard endeavoured to stifle the Rumour of this immi­nent Danger, with the Noise of a pretended Peace; For the composing whereof, the Dane, as a Mediator, came to pro­pound Mediums; and Cains Ransovius sent to the Duke of Parma, whom the Souldiers of Holland intercepted by the way, as he passed with a Warlike Train, and not distinguish­able among those that fought: But the King adjudging that they wittingly had, contrary to the Laws of Nations, viola­ted his Ambassador; and chiefly, because his Letters were broke open, took so sharp a Revenge, that he laid an Arrest [...] Restraint upon seven hundred ships, that were passing back­ward and forward in Trade for Corn; by which means, [...] the people then living in these parts, were wonderfully terri­fied with the fear of Famine, having never before, by any like Example, been disturbed. But this Scarcity was helped by necessary Counsel, that French and English Vessels coming from the same Seas, should go to the Ports and Markers of Holland. Thus was that Danger escaped, onely with the Ex­pence of some Money, forced from them by the Danes; which notwithstanding, and for that the King would not vouchsafe to give Audience to the Embassadors. sent to him, stuck highly in the Stomachs of many, who thought it very hard, that the Lesser Dominions should still be obnoxious to Damage, at the will and pleasure of the greater. While these things were doing there, there was likewise a kind of Tre [...]y with the English in King Philip's Name, because the Queen was looked upon as the onely Support of all the Low-Country Affairs, to this purpose. That all Jealousies and Fears should be thrown away in the laying down of Arms, if the Provinces which had Rebelled would return to their pristine Obedience; Th [...] as she took off all things concerning Religion in England, so in the [Page 185] Netherlands Religion should be ordered according to the Mind of the Spaniard, though there had been taught a pernicious Doctrine, that Matters relating to Religion, were to be determined by other Judges than Princes. This proposed Pacification was listned to by Queen Elizabeth, with no less Subtilty than it, was of­fered, chiefly aiming, that by this Pretext of Compounding Business, she might spin away, and divert the time of dan­ger, for she now had Intelligence of the Fleet. And dissembling her Fear, she onely pretended a pious desire of Peace and Commerce among, and with the Provinces; and, to that end, sending some so instructed out of England, to command the Hollanders, that they should, without any murmuring, hearken thereto, and that they would draw upon themselves so great Envy, as to be esteemed by their cruel Obstinacy, the Authors of perpetual War and Bloud-shed. But they revolved with themselves, and a fresh remembred all the Treachery Blan­dishments of the Spaniard; for what Event had the Treaty with Requesens, but that all the Forts being taken, the more considerable Cities might the easilyer be besieged? At the Pacification at Colen, how was the hopes of a reall Peace blast­ed, by solliciting so many Provinces to Revolt; and so was Flanders, by the like kind of Colloquies, betraid: And at last, the Enemy got so much Recruit of strength, while he falla­ciously promised Tolleration of Religion, that now he dares absolutely deny it. Now to speak of Peace, when there were such Civil Discords among the Citizens, were just to strike their Arms out of their Hands, that others might, as they saw convenient, submit to what they pleased; but let heed be ta­ken, that they used not more hast than good speed. And though things might be composed upon equal Terms, yet neither the League made at Gaunt, nor Don John's Treachery could be forgotten. That to Kings, whom the Bishops of Rome would dispence with, or absolves from the Sacred Tye of an Oath, every Covenant made with Subjects, would be reckoned all one as a Victory.

[Page 186]And there would never be wanting men, that would seek, to raise themselves and their Fortunes, by the slavery of their Country: And in these things, every one openly, as doubt­ful, spent the time, because they saw she perswaded to Peace that might compell. And as often as the Queen per­swaded them not to delay, they beseeched her, That she would not cast off that Cause of God and Men, and leave Threescore Ci­ties and a People, ready, if their present Treasure were not enough, to increase the Publike Stock with their private Wealth, a Prey to the Malice and Avarice of the Treacherous Spaniard. Here­upon the Cities unanimously agreed, (for this Consultation was related to every particular City) That no Embassador, should be sent to the Enemy: Onely the Queen, Winter grow­ing on apace, sent into Flanders, to make, if she could, a Peace, though not suitable to her Wishes. Here, while they discourse of the place of the meeing, and of their Commissi­ons, the English asking a Truce, the Duke of Parma defiying, Three Moneths are elapsed: Queen Elizabeth demanded for the Netherlanders Pardon, their Antient Laws and Go­vernments of their Cities; for her Self, the continuance of the Old Leagues, the Re-imbursement of all her Charges, and Security for the same, the Souldiers on both sides being dis­banded: But as to Religion, and the Form of Worship, she moved so faintly, as if she would seem not to meddle there­with. For now she was come to this, That she onely desired two years for the performance of her Demands: As to the Towns, which the English held, either by Covenant, or other Occasi­ons, she refused not to deliver them, upon the Receipt of her Ch [...]rges.

The Spaniards, while they utterly deny any Tolleration of Religion, and will have all Affairs of the Netherlands left to King Philip's pleasure; objecting, instead of payment of the English Disbursements, That thereby the English had been the cause to them of greater Expence; and as they extenuate that, they amplifying other Things, did now appear plainly to the [Page 187] World, that though they sought a Treaty, yet they never in­tended a Peace: And Arguments of their Hostile D [...]signs, and Warlike Preparations, every day broke out clearer and clearer; until at last, the so long feared Fl [...]et, set an end to the one sides hope,1588. and the other sides dissi­mulation. But Dissention and Factions, with By-names, went not out of Holland with the Earl of Leicester; but under this pretence, the Garrison Souldiers, both of Cities and Ca­stles, made Disturbances, robbing and pilling every where; especially they, that, by ill-ordering of the Treasury, were behind in their Pay, for fear of Peace, hasted by Rapine to repay their Labour in the War. At which time, some were pleased, that the third part of Pay should be offer'd, which by the Custom of the Netherlands is always in Bank, and ne­ver used to be disbursed, but upon very good occasions: Which, because it could not speedily be obtained, in regard it was the Remains of many Years, and to be demanded of many, they forthwith every one took to himself, what Liber­ty or Licentiousness he pleased, being defended a while by some English the Queen had sent; As if the Name of Eng­lish, would have made these Crimes pass more currant: The Souldiery of Geertruydenburg, upon the receiving a great Sum of Money, seemed cotented; but into what an un [...]ly Baseness and T [...]eachery, they afterwards backe on I w [...]li [...]m its proper place relate. Sonoi, in the City of Medem like, [...]ci­tuate on the Western Shore of the Frizian Gulph, by the Rebel­lion of his Souldiers against him, suffer'd the punishment of denying Obedience to Superiours; Prince Maurice by Siege, reduced these to the Obedience of himself and the States. [...]s­sel also, Governour of the Garrison in Flushing, hoping to command in Chief all the Souldiers in Zeland, and drawing to his Party Veren and Armuyden, Towns in the sle of W [...]l­cheren, with an Ambition of Rule, was at length, [...] Queen's Commands, who understood he [...] things a [...] Renunciation of the Earl of Leicester, which now [...] [Page 188] heard of, forced to desist. In other places, the Seditions were appeased with less danger, but every where with great Ex­pence of Money. These things, though not bursting out till the following year, I have mention'd in this place, because they are coherent with the matter. But before I settle my self, to proceed in my impartial Relation, of the following Troubles, I think it will be a digression, both satisfactory and pleasant to the Reader, if I take a short View chiefly, of such Domestick Affairs of our own, as is necessary for other Nations to come to the knowledge; such as was that War, when a few People, and they living in a narrow compass of Land, and shaken with many grievous Slaughters, should yet raise it self to such a Greatness, against so mighty a Power as that of Spain. Therefore, I will compare what Bounds, what Form of Commonwealth, what Number of Forces, and what Natural Dispositions, and Inclinations, were in this middle Time most usual, with both these People.

After the Liberty confirmed by the League at Gaunt, Don John of Austria had Conquer'd Namur, Lutzenburg, and Limburge; The Duke of Parma gained by particular Agree­ments Artois and Henault; by Treachery he obtained Flan­ders; and Brabant and Mechlin he subdued by Famine, except­ing that in Flanders the Town of Ostend; in Brabant Berge [...] ­op-Zoom and Williamstedt, (so called from the Prince of Au­range) together with some Castles, all lying upon the Sea-Coast, or by the sides of Rivers. Frizeland and Over-Issell, were in the power of the Ʋnited States, onely the Spaniard had Groningen: The rest, Steanwic and Daventry excepted, with as many other Fortresses, were divided with the Enemy; And they wanted not many Towns in Gelderland, besides Arnheim, Geldres, Ni [...]umegen, Zutphen, principal Cities, and some less Carrisons held by the Spaniard. Prince Mau­rice did wholly govern and Zeland; after the rest, there came under his Command, beyond the Frizons, the Dominion of the Sea, and all other places, which continued faithful to the [Page 189] States in the Enemies Country. They took away every where the great President, of having proper and peculiar Governours in Cities, suffering none such, but in the very uttermost Bor­ders: Nor must I omit to say something of their Neighbors. Beyond the River Eomes, is the County of East-Frizeland, commonly called Embden-Land; By the Maes and Rhine, the Bishopricks of Colen and Leige, the Governour whereof a Bavarian, a Kinsman of King Philips, who encompassing al­most all the Belgike Provinces, by divers Names of Ecclesia­sticall Dignities, possesseth most large Territories; and although the Court of the Prince of Cleves and Juilliers, had not yet been claimed by War; yet either by infused Dread, together with the pretence of the Burgundian Alliances, it seems to in­cline towards the Spaniard; and then if any of those Cities should fall to the like Religion as the Hollanders, they had an Enemy close by them, that would be no less implacable than theirs. But Cambray, which, after the Defection of the Neighbour Cities, being clogg'd and annoy'd with its own Garrison, Valois had, by his last Directions, commended to the Kingdom of France his Protection; Baligny, who was ap­pointed Governour thereof, by the King's Mother, Catharine, kept after both their Deaths; and he now joyning himself to the Guisian Faction, while the Duke of Parma rejoyced at the prolonging of the War, thereby to recover satisfaction for the wasting of the Country; and King Henry, driven out of his own Cities, had no peace nor vacant time to mind these beginnings, took to himself an Authority, though he knew it could be of no long continuance: These were their Bounds and Limits. Now let us consider their Polity; the Ʋnited States, among whom the Prince of Aurange, for a long time, had the chief Authority in the King's Name, and then in his own; afterwards, both his, and the States Power, sliding into the Earl of Leicester's Dominion, were taught by Experience, that the strength of the Empire, divided into many Hands, though it may suit better with Liberty, yet is it more subject [Page 190] to discord, if the fear of the publick Enemy be but abated; but the Government it self lost nothing, for what was sub­stracted by any means from its power, was doubly regained in the benevolence and affection of the People, for Honours and Licences were wholly granted by it, whereas Impositi­ons of Taxes and Subsidies, and other burthens were laid up­on the People by another hand. And besides, such is the na­ture of the common People, that they will generally lay the fault of all miscarriages upon those who are most active in the Common-wealth, and yet for Victories they will only acknow­ledge one.

The Nobles and more potent men, were wont by an anti­ent Custom, according to the hereditary right of their Pos­sessions, to govern the Country, and the Inhabitants therein, but Towns were left to be ruled by selected and choyce Citizens; and the Reason was, because the People imploy­ing themselves in multiplicity of Affairs, did not desire to be called together, and assembled upon every occasion of electing Officers, or making Laws; but out of them forty, or sometimes fewer were picked, who afterwards meeting together, did consult and deliberate of all things that con­cerned the Commonwealth, and these were called, The wise and sober men. And if death or banishment, took any one or more of them away, others are forthwith chosen into the va­cant places, who are eminent for their Prudence and Riches; and the Laws and Ordinances made by this Assembly or Common-Council, are, by the Consent of the whole City, obliging to all, so that it is hardly found in an Age, that any People gainsay them, but are ready rather to fight in defence of the Authority of their Governours.

These every year nominate severall, out of whom are cho­sen Praefects, (this Power formerly belonged to the Prince) who are to maintain and defend the publick Peace, and are called by the People, Masters, and these at most were four. There are seven others, that are called by the name of Esche­vins, [Page 191] do passe Judgment in all differences of private con­cernment, as likewise in criminall matters: These Offices are undertaken and performed as a duty incumbent upon them in behalf of their Country, with little or no Reward or Salary: And to these mens Power, and the Counsel of some that are their Assistants, who must be well read in the Civill Law, all the business of Towns and Cities is referred, and by them dispatched, with this additional Power allowed to them, of making Laws, and raising moderate Sums of mony within the verge of their own Jurisdiction; from hence the whole Empire, as it were, assembling these Chiefs together in one Body, they who before singly governed the Parts, thus associated and conjunct, do praeside and rule the whole Nati­on. For three or four times in the year, or oftner, as the E­mergencies of Affairs require, there is a Council summoned out of both degrees of the People, which is called the Con­vention of the States: But the Nobility, because they cannot easily meet from their several Remote Habitations, have conferred their Power and Authority upon some few, whose Riches and Honour is greater than the rest, and they meet in that Great Council in the behalf of all.

To these, in respect of their Quality, is only given the priority of suffrage; for every one of the meaner Ranks have a Vote equall to them: When therefore the Common-Council of any Town hath deliberated at home, concerning matters there proposed, the Magistrates, and some of the Assistants, are sent to the great Convention, to give them ac­count of what they have so done, and thereupon to obtain their permission: all other things that may happen, either by accident or conveniency, are left to their Prudence and Fi­delity. Wherefore in this great Assembly, as all things are discussed, which formerly the Princes used to take care and Cognizance of, so they assess what Taxes, Assesments, or other Customs, are necessary every year, for the bearing and carrying on the Burthen and Charge of the War, which is [Page 192] proportionably rated upon every Province according [...] their Forces. But because this Great Convention is ag [...] quickly dissolved, the Nobility and chief Magistrates of great Cities, may chuse fit men out of themselves, that they sitting at the Helm of Government, may put in execution the Ed [...], and Decrees of the States, and oversee all other quotid [...] business, and in sudden Cases to provide remedy; and [...] any thing happen, that requires a greater care, they may by a Proclamation in Writing, summon the Great Assembly of the States: This Honour doth generally continue but for time limited; But the Dignity of Advocate of Holland, is per­petuall.

He in the times of the Princes was the only assertor of the Publick Liberty, and as then is dangers, so now, the form of the Commonwealth being changed, he is in the Conver­tion of the States, and in the meetings of the Deputies, he de­mands their Advice and Judgment, he by perswasive Speeches draws points to a head, and composeth any diffe­rence like to fall out among them: This Office was executed very prayse-worthily, from the beginning of the War, by Paul Busius: and after him John Olden Barnevelt had the same, and much honoured the same by his proper vertues, whereof he gave a most excellent Testimony against the Earl of Leicesters Threats and Policies, manifesting himself both a faithfull Counsellor, and a person of an invincible Spirit. This is in effect, the Form of the Government in Hol­land, from whence the Customs of other of the Provinces, are not much different. Every place hath its proper Over­seers of all penalties and forfeitures belonging to the publick Treasury, and Judges, who are men well skilled in the Laws, to whom Appeals might be made from the inferiour Courts of the Town. These are they who obtain all lasting and con­tinuall Dignities, out of whose number, a Prefect is chosen, and these are always nominated by the States only. But now, the Senate takes Cognizance of all things relating to the con­federated [Page 193] Union, and provides all-things necessary for the War; and all that are admitted into it, do swear, That with­out any respect of them from whom they are sent, they shall ad­vise what shall be most advantagious to the Publick good. Now it is to be observed, that hither are sent from every Province some, particularly from Holland three, from Zeland two, from Frizeland the like; and from every one of the rest, one. Hi­thet, when there is any more grave and serious matter to be debated, the Governours of Provinces are sent for and admitted: But because matters of the greatest concornment, were from all Antiquity, never dispatched, without the consent of e­very severall Province, and that was found, by reason of the infinite multitude of business, and the hazard of long delays, to be inconvenient; therefore it was agreed, that Deputies should be sent with free Commission, who should always at­tend the chief business of State; and if any thing hapned there, that required more deliberate Consultation, and meri­ted maturer judgement, that forthwith every one should con­sult the States of his own Province. Every Province, which now according to the League, sends out of their chief Cities some, hath an equall right of suffrage; And by turns, they successively come to be Presidents. And at that time, these were the Provinces, Guelderland, Holland, Zeland, Ʋtreche, Frizeland, within the Ʋlye and the Lecke, and Over-Issel.

This Deputation hath by little and little assumed to it self the nature of a perpetual Assembly, resembling the Confede­rate or United States, and doth frequently use that name. And the Power here included, and vested in the Deputies for a prelimited time, is not prolonged, unless by the pleasure and Authority of their Superiours, by whom they were in­trusted.

In like manner, others of an inferiour Rank, are chosen for Sea-Ports, and other Towns lying on the Sea-Coast, who are by their Judgments and Counsels, to order and settle all Navall matters.

[Page 194]This in brief, is the Method and Form of that Common­wealth; nor is it congruous, only to mind the meaner sort which means, as the Government grows famous, being [...] bounded among a few Families, so neither is altogether popular, as to be made up out of the multitude. The Autho­rity of the Nobles being left to themselves, and all our power residing in the chief Citizens of the more Noble Ci­ties. Hence as it were, by certain steps were they elected who were to govern the Provinces, and to look after all other publike business, not as in a meer Democratical form, by promiscuous and accidentall choyce, but by having a rega [...] to their descent and Progenitors, the acquisition of their Wealth, and their other laudable dispositions, and vertuous qualities: Nor was the Provision for securing liberty herein▪ any whit mistaken, while things of greatest difficulty and concernment, were ordered by the judgment of many, and the chiefest Authority passeth from hand to hand, which [...]s the cause, that many without the hope of continuing their greatness, have made it their study, to learn and put in pra­ctice the true manner of well governing. I have found it an experimented truth, even when Wars were maintained a­gainst the Romans, that the People both of France, Germany, and Britain, were wont to examine and discuss their more weighty matters, by the Peers of the Land, and such choyces made by the Cities, and that some remainders thereof ap­pear, even where Kingdoms have been since long setled. But if we may dive into Records of greater Antiquity in Greece, we shall find the like settlement among them, under the name of Amphyctiones, by whose unanimity, the almost incredible power of the Median Monarch, was both resisted and con­quered. And so in Achaja, whose strength at first, though inconsiderable, yet by an harmonious Agreement waxed for­midable.

But to proceed, though every Province hath a Metropolitical [Page 195] City of its own; yet now the chief and common Seat of Empire, is among the Hollanders, who as they far out vye the rest of their Confederates in Wealth, so they do not a little go beyond them in Authority. The Hague is a Village, and the Seat of Prince Maurice, exceedingly and choycely pleasant, with delightful Woods and Groves, and its neigh­bouring Bank.

The State of the Commonwealth, in the Provinces under the Kings Command, differeth not much from the other, but that the great Assembly of the States, for those parts, are sel­dom called together, except it be for setling of Taxes, and raising Mony; some few are selected to manage the private Affairs of every Province: but the Senate with the Regent, and the rest assistant thereunto, as the Judges of Law and Treasury, have the whole Government of all things; and whoever is admitted into any Office, he continues therein without alteration or change.

The Revenues of the United Provinces, what they were, is before declared: afterward when they had shaken off all fear of Tyranny, they began to settle Tributes for their own Commonwealth, and when their Trading and Merchandizing encreased by the decay of Brabant, their Spirits were aug­mented as their Riches, and their undertakings were at­tended with success; their confidence boldly venturing upon the greatest attempts, enlarged their charges and expences: their Fields, Houses, Victuals, Cloaths, nay their very Heads were not free, but made lyable for payments of Mony. They had the Sea open to bring them most certain Customs, which not lyable to the hazard of War, as other things, though it was the endeavour of those in Power, not to hinder Trassique, if possible, least Commodities of great value might by incertainty and hazards be carryed else­where.

[Page 196]But the Wealth of the Spanish Provinces, though consisted much of Taxes, very hardly, and with an ill will gotten, [...] by the accession of great Sums of Mony from the King, of exceed very far the other; but that the multitude of [...] who were interested in the receiving and payment of the same, and the easiness of fraudulent dealing therein, inter­cepted and devoured the greatest part thereof, before it ca [...] to the uses for which it was designed, while some of the [...] would keep it as their own, and others as profusely and pro­digally wast it.

The Souldiery of the Hollanders, consisting of Citizens, Allyes and strangers, besides the Auxiliary English Forces▪ did not at this time exceed eighteen thousand Foot, with a indifferent Cavallery, the greatest part of whom, lay in Ga [...] ­risons, and were far short of their Enemies in multitude, before France had made him divide his strength: But the Earl of Leicester's neglect, and their other many Seditions, had taught them, that it was better and more safe for them, to defend themselves with small Armies, than by exceeding their Treasure under the name of Souldiers, to raise them­selves enemies. And now every day they brought their Dis­cipline to be more strict, that those Citizens and neighbour­ing Provinces, and others that redeemed their Lands, lying partly in the Enemies Country, from spoil and pillage, by paying mony for Composition, might not be injuriously ve [...] ­ed; and when the Souldiers were drawn into Winter Quar­ters, they were not to take any mony under-hand, while they were there, but the Commonwealth did defray all char­ges during their stay; by this equality a wonderfull thing was brought to passe, that every house was glad and willing to entertain them. All the Infantry was divided into Regi­ments, (for so we will call them,) every Regiment contain­ing ten Ensigns, and seldom more. Under every Ensign, were to march an hundred men; 'tis true, some Companies were at first greater; but, if you will look upon them ge­nerally, [Page 197] what with Death, and running away, and what with the Captains false Musters, they hardly arose to that Num­ber. Every Troop likewise was to contain so many Horse­men, and three of these Troops, as it were a Wing, had but one common Commander.

And that all these might with the more ease be paid, every Province took to themselves certain Companies of Foot, and Troops of Horse, to whom out of their proper Treasure, they constantly gave their Pay: And as every Province thus an­swer'd his proportion, so they began a new Custom, which was, That they would in Vacancies, name the Captains, and other inferiour Officers under their Pay. The Captains themselves managed the meaner Services; but they who governed the Commonwealth, either for their Vertue, or out of Favour, would appear in such as were more eminent. The Forces of the Enemy were much more numerous than the other, where­by they kept in awe, what, or whosoever they suspected, and guarded their Borders, though of a very great Extent. The Common Souldiers Pay was alike on both sides; but they had greater and more extraordinary Advantages with the Spaniard, with whom also there were a great number of per­sons who had double Pay; yet were they not less burthen­some, either to Towns or Countries, whether in the Camp or in Garrison, so that they were more than doubly destructive to the Treasury: And their Military Discipline was much neglected by their private Emulations.

On the contrary, Prince Maurice, upon whom, chiefly, the whole Care and Weight of the War lay, pretermitted none of those things which had been used by Antiquity in the Art Military, or that were grown Customary by Modern Practice and Experience: He diligently encouraged his Souldiers, to attend all the Enemies Motions; and though he sat in the Highest Seat of Power, yet he would not suffer the meanest things to pass without his Care: So that it was admirable, to see this great and Warlike Instructor, who had [Page 198] never had any Master, by discreet Considerations, establish all things for the War, that Guards might be diligently kept, and Cities well Fortified; he causes sound men to instruct the Souldiers, how readily to pitch their Camp, and to use all sorts of Engines and Instruments for Assaults; and in re­gard they were yet unexperienced in Battels, Sieges, and Forti­fications, he hath them caught to manage Horses, to observe their Ranks, to carry Provision, and to raise Works, not ac­cording to the Method of this Age. At first, these Endea­vours were laughed at, by the Ignorance of those who are ashamed to learn what they understand not; but after the Success of some Experiments, they were admired; because hereby they that had turned their Backs in many Fights, now durst stand and look the Enemy in the Face, and reduce by strength Towns that they had lost: So that now all did plain­ly confess, That as no man excelled his Father, in gaining the love of the People, and laying the Foundation of a Commonwealth; so by the great Blessing of Heaven, the Son was as famous, for the increasing and defending the same. But how much the manner of the War was alter'd from the first use, will easily be un­derstood in the Context of the following Work. A consider­able Number of Ships are sent to infest the Enemies Towns that lay by the Sea-side, and to guard the Passages of Rivers: Some go out, as a safe Convoy for Merchants, and to secure the Fishing Trade: Others sail up and down, to scour the Sea of Pyrates: Without all doubt, in this, the Enemy was inferiour, who had very few Ports, and they incommodious, and not many Ships, which onely waited upon Towns. The Nobility on both side, either contented themselves in an un­profitable carelesness, or the peaceable enjoyment of their Honours, with a kind of Neutrality for Envy, of the Com­mons on one side, and of the Spaniards on the other; or else out of an inveterate Stupidity, because some cunning Princes, changing the Execution of their Military Offices, into He­reditary Possessions, had taken all from them, and given them as [Page 199] a Favour to the other. Some few there were, that either out of Love and Thirst of Renown, or their particular Discontents, did take up Arms, and do Service suitable to their Births and Qualities. Among the Commons, the young men, and such as onely knew the Evil of the present Times, because they had never seen Peace, were content with any condition of Affairs, not being sensible of the War, otherwise than by Rumors, and paying Taxes; and many, because the Religion publikely received was not affected by them, for no other cause, followed the Cry. But the Laws of Holland, though many of them not very harsh in their Sanction, did sorbid to the Catholikes, even the use of their Religion in private, not­withstanding the like Orders had been the cause of so many former Tumults: The same also, by a kind of implicite man­ner, put them from the chief Honours: But the States allow­ed some mean Allowance to Priests and Nuns, so long as they lived quietly, because in many places their Possessions were laid wast; but it pleased, by connivance, to suffer the Meet­ings of other Sects. The Ministers of the Publike Religion, were admitted on neither side into the Council; nay, the whole Throng of Ecclesiastical Persons were beyond the In­spection of the Magistrates. Finally, if the nearest Troubles had been appeased, there would have been no suddain fear of new ones.

On the other side, There was another Party of Netherlan­ders, whose long Experience, and continual Converse among Troubles, had made them now not gainsay the Causes there­of. There was onely a Shadow of those Laws in use before the War, nor was the Duke of Parma's Modesty alike con­stant to all: Some Cities were kept under by Garrisons, but all were cu [...]hed by the Authority of Governours. And although the Bishops enjoyed the Seats, the Lady Regent for­merly, being the Duke of Parma's Mother, and Alva had setled them in, and many other Things were done for the Jesuits sake; yet the Inquisition, and all punishments inflicted [Page 200] thereby, were either suspended or moderated, in regard of the War, and respect to the Enemy; because the greatest part having fled, that were Disseuters, the rest had learned to obey, rather out of fear than punishment. On both sides, Traffike and Merchandizing, together with the increase of Work-mens Wages, did readily supply the dearne's of Vic­tuals, and other Things necessary for Man's Life; and also, the Prices set upon greater Commodities, and the Fruits of the Field, which were somewhat scarce. Among the Hollanders, the Merchants Trade flourished, which is the Nurse of all Inferiour Manufactures; Amsterdam alone equallizing the greatest Mart-Towns, either of this present, or of former Ages. In the mean while, as the Benefits of Peace were re­ceived, notwithstanding the War, so the Evils thereof were not quite vanished; for Men's Minds were not so much na­turalized to Cruelty by the use of Arms, as to run into contrary Extreams; For all such as fled hither for safety, and had se­cured themselves from a necessitated Banishment, by a com­petent Provision, by the Company and Society of Forreign­ers, and imitating the better sort of them, no Check of the Laws being able to restrain them, would run into a supers [...]ous Excess and Vanity of Clothes and Dyet, until they had by this means drawn in others to the same, to avoid the shame of Poverty, though they were in no way able to bear the same And therefore, then that old and constant simplicity of the Hollanders, and their uncorrupted Frugality, was changed into Luxury and Profuseness, which though it might advan­tage the Treasure, yet was (I am sure) very pernicious and destructive to all good Manners; because as Avarice, as old overgrown Evil, grows into Confidence, it will not let Na­tions Conquer'd think so as long as they can live at such heighth. But the Vices of the Enemy, made these seem Vir­tues, whose more wastful and abominable Prodigality, was [...] to be curbed even by Poverty it self.

The End of the Annals of the Netherlands.

THE HISTORY OF THE Low-Countrey's Affairs; WRITTEN By HUGO GROTIUS.

The First BOOK.

I Shall here begin to Declare that more setled Course of Affairs, wherein Prince Maurice, having attained the Chief Command of the Army, drew up himself the whole Managery of all Businesses. The Commonwealth had still the same Face, Religion was controverted with like Animosity, the War sharply maintained with equal Obsti­nacy, and all hopes of Peace utterly laid aside; so that now the Series of Things was indeed, in respect of its Actions, [Page 202] various, but in it self, not at all intricate: England was as­saulted by Spanish Forces, and France greedily thirsted after, not with a covetous Eye, or vain Wish onely, but by the sad Threats of a Malicious War. It cannot be denied, but that his Treasury is exceeding great, yet not sufficient to maintain so many Wars at once; from hence becoming sensible, of all the Evils of Poverty. During this time, both the Minds and Forces of the Low-Countrymen, had some ease and respite, Leagues and Alliances were begun with several Kingdome, and in part again broken off: There the Praefects and Gover­nours often changed, and at last the Regent himself; Confi­dence not resting assured in the meanness of her Guard, and Treacheries most ignoble abounding every where: Whereas here, by the Vigilance and Ingenuity of one Captain, not onely Danger was escaped, but Arms advantaged; the Na­vall and Maritime Power increased infinitely, and at once in Strength against the Enemy, and in Reputation amongst others: so that now it might credibly be believed, that in the Equa­lity of both Parties, the War would now grow doubtful; for this time made it appear, that the smallest things might be waited on with humane hope, and that it was never too late to be helped by a Miracle. I am about to publish, according to the Method of History, what things have certainly been seen and heard; nor am I ignorant, how odious it is afresh to being in mind these things among them, whose Hatred is yet raging; where by the positive and impartial Assertions of Truth, you may happily by the Enemy be accused of Flattery, and to your own Side not seem altogether free from untruths: But the Judgment and Reward of my Fidelity will proceed from Posterity; And if God have, in Mercy, appointed any End to this grievous and bloudy War, it may chance there will be some, who drawing Arguments from hence, may give an Account thereof with greater Security, and more Elo­quence. In the interim, let it be for the benefit of such, as being far remote from the knowledge of our Troubles, may [Page 203] know the value of their own Peace, from the Evils suffer'd by others, and may hence learn Documents of War, whereof, though not in Civil Discords, they may the more fortunately make use of against a Barbarous Enemy. But it is very dif­ficult to set down Things as they were really done, because the absent, many times, are quite forgot, and the present too much praised: As that most offends the Reader, so this makes the Writer more blame-worthy. Besides, the follow­ing Age doth many times, either out of forgetfulness, or the potency of the Conquerour, leave out, or at least fall short of, the exact Discovery of their Knowledg: But if it be necessa­ry for those Things to be publikely mention'd, it will be ad­vantageous to the Writer, that he lived among those, who may well be ashamed, if they allow not to him that Liberty, which they promised to all. Adde also, that many of the Events happen'd hereabouts; and he hath the greater advantage and reason to admire the mean beginnings of this increasing Common-wealth.

1588.THE Great Year, according to the Account of Christendom, One Thousand Five Hundred Eighty and Eight, and which Astrologers had sore-told to be the last of the World, was now come: Certainly, either that Art is vain, and it must be reckon'd among the Follies of our rash Credulities, that we suppose our selves able to comprehend Futurity, or else it is an Errour of such, who do not rightly understand the many vast Intriques of Destiny: As a part of the Caelestiall Threats, the Spanish Great Fleet was looked up­on, which, while he had Peace with the Turk, and saw France embroiled in a Civil War at Home, he made great hast to set out: For it was not enough, that they who had been Conquerors of so many Kingdoms, and subjected the New World so long, should win a little Nation to their Empire by mutual Conflicts, unless with Scandalous Language, they abused the Government thereof by a Woman. But the English­mens [Page 204] Confidence, encouraged the Low-Country men, and the Bulwark of the Sea made the English-men confident to repell Force by Force; for they had not yet forgotten the Names of Saxons, Danes, and Normans; nor were insensible, that whoever entred an Island, seldom failed to win the possession thereof: For the Kings of England, because they had been troubled with Civil Wars, to prevent future danger in time to come, upon like occasions, dismantling all Garrisons, Forts, and Castles, had laid the Kingdom open to Forreign Invasion; Then besides, what signified their weak Bodies, and Minds made effeminate by a long Peace and Luxury, being without Leaders, without Cavalry, against the well-disciplin'd Power of the Spaniard; and those that under the Duke of Parma's Conduct, had for so many years been Victorious? Thus did they threaten Revenge to such as should not assist them, but the rest some Respite should be given to. Now, as it is the Cu­stom of greedily ambitious and covetous men, promising their Hopes a larger and more extended progress, they destin'd to themselves the interdicted and excommunicated Kingdom of Scotland and Denmark, intending afterwards to make use of English Force [...], and withall of their Natural Hatred against France, at such time as that Kingdom should be em­brewed and even lye wallowing in her own Bloud: As for the rest of Europe, divided among so many Petty Princes, and never like to be united or cemented, by any good Corre­spondence or Harmony, it would of course become a Prey to their Conquering Swords. But men of more serious and modest Judgments could not believe they were so vain, as to promise themselves so great Success, though but in Imagina­tion; but rather supposed they might endeavour to try their Fortune at Sea against all Nations on the Coasts thereof, and to spread abroad among all People, a great, though not a cer­tain Terrour of them; or else, for a time, to compell all Py­rates to keep within their lurking Places, and themselves to bear away all commerce. And the Pope (whose name at this time [Page 205] was Sixtus the 5th) had encouraged & set on the Spaniard by his Bulls to Conquer England, which the Simplicity of some of her former Kings had made Tributary (as was said) to his Triple-Crown. He therefore following the Examples of many Popes his Predecessors, who first, by the Discords of Princes, had usurped a Right over Kingdoms, and then over Kings themselves, exposed England to the Conquest of whoever would undertake it; as if Queen Elizabeth had taken the Go­vernment thereof without any Right, and detained the same by the Slaughter of the Nobles, and the slavish fear of the People; urging moreover, besides the Crime of her Heresie, the stain of Bastardy, as being born in Adultery, which had been endeavour'd to be concealed with the Veil of a Di­vorce. These, and many other things were mention'd in the Ball, inviting all men to be assistant to such an Expedition, and absolving from all Tyes her Subjects, whether of Oath, or othe [...]wise; That they should seize and take her alive, if possible; but if that could not be, then to kill her. And, as a Reward, to en­courage the perpetrating so nefarious an Act, Impunity was granted for the same on Earth, and Pardon from God, and other such like Enormous Fooleries, which now are onely imposed upon the Ignorant, as a Shadow of Power; and in­deed, are no otherwise looked upon by them. However, this may surely be believed, that there were many principal men in England, who were much troubled at the present state of Affairs there, whose Affection to the Spaniard, Bernardinus Mendosa, who, under the Name of an Embassadour, had lain there for many years, as a Spy in the Court, by his vain Boast­ings had discovered: But whatever his Thoughts were, it appeared true afterward, that however the English Catholicks might differ in Religion, yet there was none of them so im­prudent, as to trust their Lives and Fortunes to the undistin­guishing Sword of a Forreign Conquerour. In all the Parts and Coasts of Spain, and in Italy where the Spaniard had Command, there were raised and armed Twenty Thousand [Page 206] Men, and One Hundred and Fourty Ships, part of them of an almost incredible Bulk and Burthen, which afterwards pro­ved the main cause of their Destruction. Among these, there were many Galeons, and Galeasses, which built high, with many Turrets and Cabines, like Cities or Castles ra­ther than Ships, were Rowed with Three Hundred Oars, co­ver'd over Head against the Shot, and casting of Darts, or other like things, and their Belly and Sides made very strong, the better to be able to bear the Violence of the Waves: Marriners were hired almost from all Nations to put into them, and they were Victualled with full Provisions for Six Moneths, besides a very great Mass of Coin, provi­ded for a War at Land, was in them, and Cannon, and other great Guns for the Land-Service, to the Number of Five and Twenty Hundred. And all this Preparation, the Work of so many Years, was publish'd in Print, to their own Glory, and the Terrour of others, that it might evidently appear a suffi­cient Demonstration of the Spaniard's Wealth and Great­ness.

Now though there were some that would have had Warre proclaimed with a Herald, yet others thought the Right of Claim from the Pope's Sentence, would make out but a lame Title. But so great was their Confidence, that the whole­some Counsel both of the Duke of Parma, and the Marquess of Santa Cruz, was disapproved; which was, That the first Care should be to get some Part belonging to the Hollanders, be­cause all Flanders could not yield one safe Harbour for a Fleet, against the Hazards both of Warre, and the Sea: But most advised, That the surest Victory would be gotten by Delay, un­less the Army were presently landed at the Thames, to assault the City of London.

The Charge and Command of this whole Fleet was com­mitted to Don Alphonso Perez Gusman. Duke of Medina Si­donia, a Person meriting that Honour, as well by the Nobility of his Bloud, as any other thing whatsoever; and, under him, [Page 207] many Gentlemen of the noblest Families in Spain, and infi­nite others of inferior Gentry, had entred themselves as Soul­diers, but at their own charges, induced as was supposed, not so much by the covetousness, as the assurance of getting very great booties. It was constantly reported, that they divided among themselves, as the reward of their pains in the War, beforehand, as well Honours, as Lands and Houses. There were taken among the spoyls of their Ships, many Ropes, Halters, and other Instruments of death and slavery, which they, as not doubting the Event, had prepared for such as they should conquer.

The Spring growing now very forward, they met at Lis­bone, whence driven into a Haven in Gallicia, they wanted three Ships, which by a cruel Tempest, together with Slaves that rowed them, getting their liberty, were thrown upon the Coast of France; In the mean while, the Duke of Parma, upon whom depended the principal part of the Expedition, with above thirty thousand Horse and Foot, lay in Flanders, having cut great Ditches, for the easier carriage of all his Forces to the Sea-Towns. He had brought thither eight and twenty Vessels, serving to ayd other Ships of Burthen, and to hold his men, besides near four hundred Flat-bottomed Boats, that might without hindrance come close to the Shore, part of them being bought, and the rest built by inces­sant Labour and working night and day; He had ready also, Bridges for the better and more safe transporting Horses and Men on a sudden, as soon as the Spanish Fleet had entred the Sea; But neither the English or Hollander made any provi­sion to prevent the danger of so great a War approaching, thinking they had been driven back by the Wind, or else vainly imagining, that Ships of such Bulk and Burthen, would never venter, or run the hazard of their narrow Seas. Finally, some did not stick to affirm, that this was only a Convoy for the Indian Fleets return, although the King of [Page 208] France, upon very good Intelligence, publickly declared, both the strength and intent of the Fleet.

Thus did they flatter themselves with Reports and Con­jectures, not sensible of the greatness of the danger they were in, till it was afterwards avoyded. The Hollanders, notwith­standing, mustred all their Ships and Seamen, as well private as publick, and fitted them for War, and when they had so done, they in a manner besieged all the Ports of Flanders, that they might stop the Duke of Parma from coming forth; of the rest they had no great doubt: At last, and almost too late, the Queen, who had hitherto been lulled into security by a Treaty of Peace, now claps all that were suspected to wish innovation in Religion, either into Islands, or Marsh­lands, and fills the Thames Banks on both sides, whereever it was thought the Enemy might land, with Horse and Foot on a sudden gotten together; She comes also and views, yea by words, encourages the multitude, that made indeed a goodly appearance, but had been much inferiour in the use of their Arms, to the Duke of Parma's Souldiers, if he could have come: However, to animate all, there were some who compared all the Queens actions, with those of the most fa­mous Women, however fabulous; n [...]y, they did not stick to equall her to Tomyris her self, or the Queens of the Ama­zons, or that notable piece of Feminine Valour in the same Island of old, Queen Boadicia. Her Fleet, whereinto also she had taken all private Ships fit for Service, She thus disposed.

The Lord Seymor, had the Command and Conduct of the lesser Vessels, in the Downs, and at the Thames mouth; the greater being in number one hundred Ships, and which for the most part traded up and down in the Spanish Seas, were in Harbour at Plymouth, from whence, when occasion should be, they could with ease come out to meet and fight the E­nemy, over whom, the chief Command, as Admirall, was [Page 209] given to the Lord Charles Howard, Earl of [...] . The Vice Admirall was Francis Drake, (afterwards Knighted,) a Man eminently famous for his Victories at Sea, the fame whereof, he carryed with him in the compassing of the World, and most worthy in this great danger, to be called by his Country to her assistance. The Enemies Fleet was not far off from England, when the Queen, who herein had been deceived by false Rumours on purpose invented and sent out of Spain, Commands by her Letter, the Lord Admi­rall Howard, that in regard She was informed, that the Fleet was not coming, or at least would be a long time before they came, that he should unarm and discharge the best of her Ships. He had scarcely performed her Command, before the Spanish Fleet appeared, when it was no small care and pains to the Admirall, to recall his Souldiers, who had without or­der or fear, taken liberty to be absent from their Quarters and duty, as supposing they had leave to do so. And no less was the Spaniard over-seen, in that he did not immediately fall on, when he might have taken them so unprovided, and at unawares. But the Commanders that were afterwards taken Prison is, though they blamed themselves for that over-sight and folly, yet were heard to excuse the same, by the strict­ness of the orders laid upon them, and the nicities they were to observe in all points prescribed, then which nothing hath caused the loss of more fair opportunities. For Philip would not have his Fleet run any hazard, untill the Duke of Parma, by putting likewise to Sea, had doubled the terrour of their approach. But the Lord Seymor, and the Hollanders Ships joyning together, kept him close in Dunkirk, that he durst not venter to break through with his smaller Vessels; nor could the Spanish Fleet, though by that means it had escaped the following disasters, come so near the shore, being full of shelves and Quick-sands, as to drive away the Enemies Ships, that were much more light and nimble: And that was a thing of great consequence at that time, that no men did so [Page 210] much as suspect, that the Spaniards (possessed as it were with a fatall and stupid blindness to their own ruine) had neg­lected to furnish their Ships with many things which were necessary for them, out of hopes to have them from the Duke of Parma.

Now it is to be noted, that his Ships, or the greatest part of them, had few or no Seamen, and the Reason thereof might be, besides the avarice of their Prefects and Gover­nours, that there were very few Seamen, either bred in, or be­longing to any of those Netherlandish Cities under his Domi­nion. And the Baltick Cities were not able to supply the number he wanted; and especially, for that all who were forced aboard by the Spaniards, took the first opportunity they could find to run away.

In this Interim, the English Fleet was gotten together a­gain, and with very much difficulty, and hard Labour, by reason of a cross Wind, at last got out from Plymouth, that they might at a distance annoy the Enemy. In which kind of fight, it easily appeared, whether was more advantageous, the Ships of great and heavy Burthen, or Vessels more nim­ble and expeditions to turn and wind at all Assayes, for few of the English Ships were equall in bigness, to those of the Spaniard, but being more nimble, and apt to sail, they could at any time get the wind of the Enemy, and either go for­ward or backward at pleasure; and if the Wind changing, drove them as it were upon the Enemy, by fetching a com­pass, they eluded their expectation. And now there being a calm, so that the Enemy could easily come forward by the help of their Oars, they did not shoot common round Bul­lets, but chained shot, wherewith expanding themselves, they not only tore their Sails and Tackle, but broke their Oars: by which means the Spaniards could not come forward, or if they could, yet they kept back, not having a mind to fight. Their Ships were drawn into a long Rank, with extended horns, which as it made their Progress very slow, so also it [Page 211] made them more lyable to the English Cannon to be spoyl­ed; And then if any Guns more sharply annoyed them, they drew in their Mooned and crescent Squadrons into the Body of the Fleet, and that one might not go before another, bore less Sayl, neither could this be done altogether with safety, as was experimentally found by them, their Ships often falling foul upon one another, in their making such Tryals. And this hapned to Valdez, a great Spanish Captain, and of the same Family with that Valdez who is memorable for the Siege of Leyden. For a Ship of Sevill, carrying eight hundred men, under his Commadd, fell foul upon another with such impetuosity, that the Fleet was necessitated to leave it, having lost her Mast, that she alone might not hinder the course of the rest.

This being encompassed and assayled on every side, yield­ed it self to Sir Francis Drake, and the Men in her, saved by his mercy, contended in prayse of their Conquerour, even to flattery. At the same time, the best Ship of Biscay, whereof Michael Oquendo was Captain, took fire. Some report, that the Man being a Netherlander, and that either mindful of his Country, or angry that he saw himself suspected, toge­ther with those that begun the fire, upon the approaching of the flame, leaped into the Sea. Few of the Men were saved, but the lower parts of it, being untouched by the fire, became a booty to the English. Presently after, they missed a Ship of Venice, and severall other smaller Vessels.

During this, the English Fleet augmented with Recruits, and the flocking thither of the Nobility, who did strive by their forwardness to manifest their affection to the Queen, was in many divisions spread over the Sea, so that which way soever the Enemy steered his course, he was still sur­rounded, and in every place torn with continuall shooting; wherewith so much Gunpowder had been spent, that the [...]e began to be a great scarcity thereof; and with that want, they were ever after, during the whole Conflict, oppressed; till [Page 212] at length, some was gotten from Holland: without which the Kingdom of England at that time could not have bee [...] defended.

Now had the fight continued without ceasing, at a distance, for the space of eight dayes (for the English Souldiers being fewer, and not able to cope with the Spaniard, had shunned, by all means, a close fight) and on the eighth of the Ides of August, Au. 6. they were come to the Streights of the narrow Sea, between England and France; Here the English Fleet, which you may remember, I told you be­fore, was divided, met altogether, containing of Seamen and Souldiers, together eleven thousand, and having left the Ha­landers to guard the Coast of Flanders: The Spaniards cast­ing Anchor, waited for the Duke of Parma, and with him some lighter Ships, near to Calais, when he in the mean while, void of all hope, and not knowing what to do, makes proces­sion about the Churches, attended with many vowes; In this perplexity of mind, whether he aymed at the Lieute­nancy of Britain, or any higher Title, since it hapned other­wise, and is variously reported, I will leave it to every mans opinion: But now the Spaniards sent from their Fleet into Flanders, severall Noblemen, among whom, was the Prince of Asculum, (whose Mother careless of her own Credit, had made the King suspicious of his being true born) to consult of the common affair, whose passage being hindred, that they could not return, by that means they escaped that gene­rall ruine, wherein so many were afterward involved; for by the Queens Command, who now began to be in no doubt, but the Enemy, as soon as the Moon left shining, chusing a duskish night, would if possible, joyn their Forces, in this manner brought a great confusion into the Spanish Fleet, that had set up their rest another night in that narrow Sea.

Eight English Ships filled with Engines, containing Stones and Gun-powder, and other combustible matter were, being fust fired, sent among the Enemy, the Sea and Wind both [Page 213] favouring the Design: But the Spaniards, being mightily amazed with the glistering of the Flame (for they percei­ved it came towards them, and gave a great Light over all the Sea) cut their Cables, and get out to Sea: In which Surprize, and violent Fear, one of the greatest Ships, com­manded by Hugh Moncada, entangled with another Ships Cables and forced thereby to a Disorder, was by the Violence of the Sea, and Force of the Wind, driven aground on the French Coast, and there the Sea-men and Souldiers, of whom there were in her, besides those that Rowed with Oars, Four Hundred, hoping for some Relief from the Continent, held the English, now invading and assaulting them with Ladders, in a long Fight, till Moncada, and many others, being kill'd, the Ship was taken, and by the space of three whole hours spoiled.

But the Governour of Calais would not suffer it to be bur­ned, that he might preserve the Shadow of a Friendship, the King of Spain not having yet publikely professed himself an Enemy to France, though it was believed, he had at this time a Design upon that very Town. The King lost there in rea­dy Money Fifty Thousand Ducats, and Three Hundred Slaves were set at liberty. A few of the Ship-men escaped out by swimming, and were the first that brought into Spain the News of the Miscarriage of the whole Voyage.

The Fleet, thus scatter'd with a Panick Fear, is Rallyed again near Gravelin, the next Town of Flanders; and though very much gall'd and batter'd with the Guns, and other Mi­litary Engines of the English, yet they could not be forced to break their Orders any more: In this Conflict chiefly, the Spanish Design was ruin'd, and brought to nothing; for divers of their Ships being shot through with great Bullets, for that they could neither plug up the Holes or Breaches, nor free them from Water by their Pumps, were swallow'd up in the devouring and merciless Waves; Particularly, one Biscayan Ship, that was very fiercely assaulted, while the Captains [Page 214] within it, between Valour and Necessity, dissent in Counsel even to their Extremity, was immerged in the Sea. Two Por­tugeze Vessels, being brought into the Mouth of the Ʋly [...], (for the Wind had driven them thither, they in vain striving to get out to Sea) fell upon the Coasts of Zealand, as if it had been the Design of Providence, that they who were equal­ly ingaged in the Danger, should likewise between them di­vide the spoil.

The one of these Ships was called the Philip; the other, was named the Matthew. Didaco Piementel commanded this, and Francisco de Toledo the other, both of them Collonels▪ that, the chief men in it being gotten away in the Ship-Boat, the Flushingers had; but Piementel scorning to fly, and refusing the Boat sent to him for that purpose, after he had, with the loss of many of his Men, endured great Extremity from their Guns, deliver'd himself Prisoner to the Power and Protecti­on of Peter Douse, who being Commander in Chief of the Holland Ships in these Parts, hung up in the Church at Ley­den an Ensign taken from the Spaniards, of an unusual Big­ness, as a Trophy for the Peoples Insultation. Both these Ships, all things being taken out of them that were fit for use, were left to the Submersion of the Ocean. And now the Hollanders and Frizelanders were informed, that the whole Fleet of the Enemy was passing along by their Coasts, where­upon they fearing, that they intended to get into the Mouth of the Eemes, hasted to take away all Land-Marks, by the sight whereof, Men sailing at Sea, avoided the Shallows of those Places.

The Spanish Commanders, thus worsted in so many En­counters, and all throwing the blame from themselves, upon the Duke of Parma, began to consult about their Departure; although they plainly saw, that the danger thereof must be overcome with many other Hazards: For back again, all the Narrow Seas were beset; so that there remained but one help, which was to compass all the Northern Parts of Bri­tain, [Page 215] where the Rugged Ocean, not broken by the Land, is not onely boysterous, but very seldom passed without the danger of Shipwrack. And if they had then been hindred, so great a Fear, both of the Sea, and their Enemies, had seized upon them, that it was reported, the Duke of Medina-Sidonia be­gan to advise, whether he should yield up the Fleet, and make Propositions for saving their Lives. But the English, onely watching what course they took, least they should fall upon Scotland, or enter the Danish Seas, as soon as they perceived them leave all that Coast, would not, by following them, ran into the same danger with them, since they onely sought a way for their flight through that great Ocean, resting very well content with the Honour of driving away the Fleet, and saving their Country. For when they would eagerly have pur­sued them, they were (as I told you before) hindred, for want of Gun-powder. But they sent the Lord Seymor back in good time, that he, joyning with the Hollanders Fleet, should repel all the Duke of Parma's Endeavours; the rest, having for a while been tossed with a Tempest, at length got safe into England, though not without danger.

The Glory of the Greeks and Romans, who, of Old, made good all their greatest Affairs by Navall Victories, was, with­out doubt, at this time, equalled by the Fortune and Valour of the English, though the Conquest was slowly and safely gotten, without the joyning in a close and intermingled Battel. And, in the event of this Contest, it is very remark­able, that in all the time they fought with the Spaniards, there was not one considerable Ship lost, nor above one hun­dred killed or destroyed, either by the Sea, or the War; when all this while, the Spaniards underwent all kinds of miseries; for having lost near five Thousand Men, and their best Ships, many of those that remained, being either sick or wounded, and wanting all things, they were at length glad to throw themselves, for safety, into the merciless Fury of a most impetuous and stormy Sea, where they threw over­board [Page 216] their Horses, Cattel, and much other Goods, to lighten their Ships against the insulting Waves. Then the Duke of Medina Sidonia gave Order to such as came up to him, that they should steer their Course between the Orcades, and some other Islands in that Sea, to the Ports of Biscay. Himself with some few Ships that were in better case than the rest, makes his way to the Great Sea, the rest went not far off from Ireland; some of whom, by various stress of Weather, brought back again, were cast, some upon the Coast of Eng­land, some of France: Many driven into Norway, were then dashed in pieces against the Rocks; and another part there­of, by a boysterous and raging Storm, was whi [...]led into the furthest part of the North, and the yet unknown World. The King of Scotland performed the Laws of Peace and Hospita­lity to all that were cast upon his Dominions; Two and Thirty were cast away upon the Irish Flatts, and the adja­cent Sea, and the men labouring to save themselves, we [...] slain by the Inhabitants, because they were more in number, than consisted with their safety to shew mercy to; the rest were followed even into their Country, by the implacable. Fury of Revengeful Fate, where two of them were burnt i [...] the very Port or Harbour; and others, by like Mischances, destroyed; onely Thirty remained, that carryed Provisions, and of Ships of War, out one of all that late so great Fleer, bringing home the Commander in Chief. Many of the No­bles, and not a few of the common sort, died soon after their Return, either by the Diseases they contracted in so trouble­some and unfortunate a Voyage, or else out of grief of Mind, that while they looked upon themselves as Conquerours, they should be subdued by the peevishness of Fortune. The great­ness of their Loss appeared in this, that the King was forced to shorten the time of Mourning by Edict, that he might hide from the publick view the Misfortune thereof, that had filled so many Noble Families, with Funerall Obse­quies.

[Page 217]Some of the Prisoners, both in England and Holland, were Ransomed; others had their Liberty given them freely. Ma­ny times men learn Piety from Fear, and the Event of a Thing hanging in doubtful suspence, makes them run to their Prayers: But here Publick Thanksgivings were Ordered to be given to God for this Victory: and the Queen her Self, being carryed in Triumph, according to the antient manner, made a Speech to the People; wherein she shewed, That a greater benefit could never be received from the Divine and Eter­nal Providence of God, whereby to make out, how weak and vain all Humane Strength is, against the Power of Heaven. And the Hollanders reaped another Benefit from this common Dan­ger, because, after this, they had the more Friendly Society of the English, who hitherto were wont to boast, that they had supported those Allies onely out of meer Humanity.

But the Duke of Parma, while the Remainders of the Shipwrackt Fleet were getting home to Spain, being cast from his accustomed Felicity, into a Gulph of Misery, and thrown from the heighth of Confidence, to the bottom of Despair, rather by the impulse of others, than his own Ad­vice, because he began to be hated, is drawn to besiege Ber­ [...]op. Zome; The Brabanters urged him, That he should not suffer one Town, whence daily Inroads were made by their Troops of Horse into their Country, and laid wast their Fields, to infest them, and put a stop to all his Victories. Although he was not well pleased to remove the Army, now burthensom to ex­hausted Flanders, to any other place, least out of Shame or Fear, if it should refuse, it should seem there was no rely­ing upon their Assistance: But if Fortune would once more become favourable, and the Design should succeed, thereby a way would be made into the Isles of Zeland, and so to carry the War into Holland, the next way, as he thought, to revive those hope, which he had too confidently before relyed on, and lost. For that Town being rarely scituated on the Bor­ders of Brabant, at a little distance overlooks Zeland; not [Page 218] far thence is the River Schelde, into which the Zome (from whence the Town is so named) falleth, whereby the Town hath a long, but somewhat inversed, or winding, Haven. It was in a very flourishing condition, by continual Commerce, under the Command of a Noble Family, bearing its Surname, untill by the Neighborhood of Antwerp, and the Mischiefs of War, it decayed; having been taught woful Experience, both by the Enemy, and those who remained there in Garri­son. But when it came to be annexed to the Ʋnited States, though sometimes indanger'd by Treachery, yet now was [...] first [...]et upon by Force and a Siege. Thol, an Isle and Town of Zeland, is divided from the Territory of Berghen, by an Arm or Branch of the Scheld; which being convenient, for the passage of the Forces, least, if it should be left to the Hollanders, it might hinder the Siege, Montig [...]y and Octa­vius, of Kindred to the Count Mansfeldt, were sent before to possess it; who, coming upon a suddain, together with fly­ing Reports given out, as if the War were intended against Hosden, they lead Eight Hundred Souldiers over the Fords, hoping to have privily surprized the Coast or Border of Ze­land; but the time of the Waters slowing being not well ob­served, (for then it flowed) a few men easily worsted all those Defendants, endeavouring with staggering Foot-steps, by reason of the Mud, to go forward: In the mean time, the M [...]sketiers they had left in Brabant, de [...]ended themselves under the Defence and Shield of the Bank (for so the place proved to them) But presently, by the care of George Eb [...]rard, Count Solmes, that was Governour of the Island, and the noi­sing abroad of the danger, the multitude of his men increa­sing put the Enemy to flight, and drove them into the Whirl­pools, where, without possibility of help, they perished; the Captains themselves hardly escaped by swimming. The natural Marishness of the place, being very Watry, and some­what deep, destroyed, as some report, Four Hundred Men; and if any part of their Bodies, being yet alive, appeared [Page 219] above Water, presently with Darts, or other Things cast at them, they were killed; in all this Encounter, there being of the adverse Side but one man kill'd, which is almost miracu­lous to relate; and from thenceforth the Island was strength­ned with Castles, Guards, and other Military Engines of De­fence. Hereupon, the Duke of Parma taking another Reso­lution, that by shutting up their Haven, he might straighten the Townsmen of Provision, with his great Army he besieg­ed their Works, placing Guards in all places near about them; and where his Men were by any means separated, he made Bridges, to unite the passages to each other. With all which, the Citizens of Berghen were nothing terrified, nor were as if they had been besieged, because both Souldiers and Aid, with all other things necessary for Defence, were plentifully brought to them out of Zeland, and the Neigh­bouring Cities of Holland, they fought either with Horse or Foot, as if it had been two Camps one against another, many light Skirmishes, but never without drawing bloud from the Enemy: Nor was the Souldiers Valour onely exemplary, but the Townsmens Labour, spent in fortifying the place, was notable; but most laudable of all, was the Concord between the Captains and the Magistrates, whereby they raised Mo­ney without grumbling by extraordinary Taxes. But a differ­ence beginning among the English Commanders (who had a great strength in that Garrison) and every thing else, be­sides that of Trouble, was publikely setled by Prince Mau­rice, and the Deputies of the States, brought thither by a strong and safe Convoy. Between the Town and the River Scheld were two Castles; on the one side sufficiently defended by Bulwarks; on the other, by the Estuary of the Sea; and for the Battery on that of the North side, the Duke of Parma did, though in vain, endeavour by his great Guns to divide it from the Town, to hinder all passage and Trade by Sea; and he was induced to that Care and Charge by the hope of Treachery, which the Italian Policy is often eluded by: Two [Page 220] Spanish Captives sollicited a Cook or Victualler, at whose house they were kept, and an English Souldier that used to frequent the house, (his name was Grimston) to betray the Castle; which passage, because it is worthy to be known, I will relate. They, although they could well enough in their own Natures digest any kind of Lucre, yet so they resolved, that if they could get any thing, they would rather cozen their Enemies than their Friends; and with this conclusion, they come to the Governour, tell him of the Design, and de­sire his Instructions, which he gives them in this manner, That both of them should take opportunity to go to the Duke of Parma, that he might not flight their Endeavours; or rather, which hapned, that he might under the Vizor of Observance be cir­cumvented. The Duke binds them to him by Oath, and for their present Fortune, loads them both with Gifts and Promises; and when yet he durst hardly trust them, unless themselves in the Plot incurred some personal danger, it was agreed, that they should be bound between two Armed Souldiers, with naked Daggers in their Hands, that should go to the Fort, but kill them before, if they perceived any Intention of De­ceit.

Thus imagining there had been caution enough used, and that having slighted their own, they would not decline the Aid and Protection of Strangers: Upon this Confidence therefore Three Thousand Men, and among them many of great quality, were drawn out to undertake the seizing of the Castle; The Gate was open, till fifty were entred, and thus far the Event made good their Promises: But then presently a Port-Cullis, the Ropes that held it being cut, was let down, and all that were come in, were kill'd or taken; nor did the Spanish Keepers mind the killing of the two bound Traytors, being amazed with suddain fear, and dreading the Fury of present Revenge. But the excluded Multitude, seeing they could not make any way back, though they pressed and thronged with all their might, turning Despair into Valour, [Page 221] they scaled the Bulwark, running through the Trench which was now empty, by reason of the Ebbe, and were now past the first Palisadoes, through the Breast-work within, whence driven with Fire-Balls, Hand-Granadoes, and their Fire­works, prepared by those within, fore-warned of the Design, and flying whither they could, fell into Ambuscadoes, and other Traps laid for them, and so were destroy'd; a great part of them were slain, and they that escaped slaughter, the Tide now coming in, and by their ignorance of the place were smother'd in the Mud: The Duke of Parma finding himself thus deceived, and that the Cruelty of the Weather wore out his men by Diseases and Death, when now, in the latter part of Autumn, the Plains were, by frequent Rains, turned into Pools, and the Rampires ready to fall, by reason of the Mire, first he left his Works, then deserted his Camp, and a long time afflicted with the scarcity of many things, but at last with the want of all, but especially of fresh Water, he was forced, by little and little, to break up his Siege, which he had for six Weeks vainly continued: but least it should seem that he had done nothing, he left some few places forti­fyed against Excursions. But the Townsmen of Berghen, nothing hindred thereby, after that very much inriched them­selves, by frequent Booties taken from the Enemy, and began again to re-flourish, being under the peculiar Obedience of Prince Maurico; for the States gave him this, and other places, which had follow'd the Enemies part, in lieu of those paternal Inheritances of his own, which the Spaniard held from him. The Duke of Parma all this Winter, quarter'd his men in the Village of Brabant, by means whereof that Country was wasted, though not so soon as Flanders.

At the beginning of the Spring, the Lord of Cimace (the Duke Areschots Son) was sent by the Prince of Parma, with a Selected Band of Souldiers, to besiege Bonne, where Schenck not having men enough to defend it, but sending to the Prin­ces of Germany for Aid, laying before them the danger of [Page 222] that famous City, when they returned neither to himself, not to Truxius, any Forces to resist the Enemy, it being their In­terest, that under the pretence of War in the Netherlands, the Spanish Power should not invade all that was near them, and by that means, by little and little, incroach upon their Right; for powerful Empires are wont to take first one thing, then another, till at length they seize the whole; their being now no Remedy to help themselves, but by sending him present Supplies, and out of the common fear to asso­ciate and joyn their Powers; concluding thus, That if they would defend and protect him, he would preserve and keep Bonne for them: But this Rhetorical Demand; was answer'd with a Souldier-like Resolution, in the Name of the Germans, [...] such Tearms as he little expected. [But We, say they shal not embroyl our selves in other mens Quarrels for your sake, ha­ving been better instructed by the many improspering Aids so often into France: The Differences of the Provinces are ambi­guous among themselves, but would prove certainly very dan­gerous to any Forreigners that should interlope. Some of our Number have never medled with the Netherlands, the benefit whereof they are well satisfied in, not willing to be rewarded as the King of France was, for sending his Brother thither; and Katharine of Medices, for aiding Antonio. And now, when the same Spaniards seek Amity and a League, shall we go to incense Philip? who himself being a part of us, by his great Pos­sessions in Germany, restored to their Seats the German Bi­shops: Nay, rather it behoves us to submit to his Potency, with the desire of Peace, than exasperate his Fury to the Triall of a Warre.]

Thus being frustrate of his hope, while both the English and Hollanders being otherwise taken up, denyed relief to greater necessities, as well as to him: he exhorts the Souldi­ers left in the Garrison, to keep off the Enemy, which they might with safety, and valiantly to endure the Siege; which accordingly they did, and killing Baptista Taxis, an eminent [Page 223] Spanish Commander, and comming off Victors in many Sal­lies, after the Enemy with six moneths toyl and hazard, had in a manner beaten down all the Fortifications, and the be­sieged suffered great hunger, he delivered the City upon ho­nourable Conditions, into the Power of the Bishop, a Bava­rian, for that name was used, though Spanish Souldiers entred into, and held the City. Hence Count Mansfeldt is com­manded, who in the beginning of Autumn, had carryed a Recruit to the Lord Cimace's Forces, the Siege being now ended, to attaque with part of the same Wacttendonc, a Town that lies in the upper part of Gelderland, near the little River Nersa; The Garrison consisted of some Companies of Shenckes men, and the scituation of the place being very marshy, and the depth of Winter made the coming to an assault very difficult. But the ground being raised by the Be­siegers, unto the heighth of a little Hill, from whence they should look down upon the Houses, and the Bullets shot from that place at some times, and at other times fire cast thence into the Town, so infested the Townsmen, whom another fear had likewise possessed, least the coming of a great Frost should make all those moyst and wet places, by Ice, passea­ble for the Enemy, that they perswaded the Souldiers not to stand out, hopeless of any second Relief, (because the For­ces of their Allyes were small, and a great way off) and ha­zard all their lives and fortunes. However, the Town was defended till the very end of the year, the continuing of the Siege till which time, what with the extremity of the wea­ther, and what with want of necessaries, cost many thousand of the Besiegers lives, though at last they compassed their in­tentions, by the getting of the Town.

At this time, by reason of the great expense, charge, da­mage, and losse of the Spanish Fleet, which had wonderfully exhausted the Kings Treasure, the Army had been a long time without any pay, by reason whereof, there were fre­quent Seditions; and the hopes of great plunder allured [Page 224] many to revolt to the Enemy, so that the Hollanders, safe with­in their Rivers, a little enlarging their bounds, did without danger or detriment, make incursions into the Enemies Country. But the States of these parts, while they shunned new, fell into their old, pressures: for some who had been in Arms under the Arch-Duke Matthias, and the Duke of Anjon, Francis de Valois, and boldly usurping the name of Princes strangers, by publick Authority, seized all the Dutch Ships that were in or about Scotland: But an Embasse being sent to the Princes, informed them of their error, as [...] understanding the Customs of Holland; for the Hollanders though they assisted divers Cities with their Forces, yet they never made themselves lyable to any debts by them contract­ed, for they were only subject to the Authority of the Prince of Aurange. Neither did they now rightly demand from the confederate States, what those Provinces did owe, which had receded from the League.

This I thought fit to insert, because by such Speeches, [...] did refell those prejudicial exactions, and occasion there was given, of covenanting with the Commanders that re­mained, with an Oath, concerning their old debts to be paid by certain portions, to the great ease of the Commonwealth.

Among these things, partly by a common fear, and partly by the Prisoners of Utrecht, who thought to remedy their folly by pertinacy, the differences begun by the Earl of Leicester burst out fresh.1589. But the Carrison Souldiers of Gertruydenburg, consisting of one thousand five hundred Foot, and three hundred Horse, because they had u­surped a greater Licence from the occasion of the discords, than they supposed could be pardoned, and fearing an Infamy among their fellow Souldiers, would not be reduced to order, but remained arrogant by the Neighbour-hood of the Enemy. At the beginning of their Sedition, though they turned out their present Officers, and elected whom they pleased, yet they would not hearken either to the Duke of Parma's Let­ters [Page 225] or Messengers: Afterwards some Agents for the Enemy, being mingled amongst them, their ignorance not minding them, and those Agents sent to the Hollanders to treat with them, upon their return, setting forth the threats they had heard, to the worst, with the fear of punishment, they not only became enemies themselves, but provoked others to be so; so that contempt made them outragious, after Willoughby, the Colonel of the English Auxiliarias, under pretence of appeasing the Souldiery, had in truth made his Kinsman Wingfield the head of the Sedition, according to the Advice of the Town, and bestowed the pay sent by the States so as he might oblige, or make sure, such as were suspected, not by any certain Rule, but as he hoped to have them upon occasion, whereupon the Souldiers mocked at them, as being deceived by them, and abused what they had, as if it had been booty. And as soon as the Captains, and the Souldiers, by their ex­ample, had spent this money in riot and excess, they sent forth parties of Horse every way, to plunder and bring in booty from the Country. Nay, they retained all Ships that came within their reach, without any distinction of friend or foe; nor did they spare the Provinces that were absolutely at peace.

Thus passing the Winter, they were solicited to treache-which would procure an easie Pardon for all their crimes, by Odourdo Lanzavecchia, the Governour of Breda: for (as he said true,) the manner of their offending was dangerous, and that might be urged for an excuse to the Duke of Parma, which neither the English, or Hollander, would ever admit of. This Counsel, they, being now ready to receive any impres­sion of evill, hearkened to, and according to the Custom of Sedition, were inraged with all that perswaded otherwise: And forthwith all of them, as it were possessed with a sudden Frenzy, seize all the Townsmens Arms, some few in that mad multitude not daring to speak for fear. The name of Englishmen is pre ended for all this uproar, as well by the [Page 226] Captain [...], and most others of that Nation, as by the D [...] Souldiers themselves. And the more insolent they grow, [...] more is impunity offered to them by Letters from the States, who began to fear the worst, desiring them to return to their Colours, forgetting all those discords which publike erro [...] and the malice of fate had thrown amongst them, and that they would do an acceptable piece of Service to the Common­wealth, if they would put an end to those disturbances, al­though they did not begin them. But their Consciences acc [...] ­sing them of all their evill deeds, made them afraid to give credit to this Invitation. Hereupon, it was put to the questi­on on, if an Army should be prepared against these Rebels, who so arrogantly slighted the Commands and Authority both of the States, and of Prince Maurice. Some would not have the Souldier to be further incensed with danger, alleadging, time and opportunity would better cure such distempers, whose violence cannot long continue.

On the other side, it was affirmed, that they made a mock­ery at patience and lenity, and should they stay till the ene­my, with whom even then they privately treated, was admit­ted openly into the Town? if Pardon were offered to them, with terrour attending it, as it would encourage the good, so would it compel the rest to repent: Thus of late, Mede [...]leks was restored by the penitence of the Souldiery, after the E­nemy had long hoped for it, with a fruitless expectation; It matters not, said others, which course is taken to save the place, for men resolved to be treacherous, would still con­tinue in the same mind, whether you leave them to them­selves, or seek to win them by perswasions. Wherefore, it the beginning of the Spring, Prince Maurice gathered toge­ther, as many Forces as he could, both by Sea and Land, though not sufficient for a Siege, and with them marches thi­therward: At the first approach, a battery was made against the Town with Cannon, which was answered with the like by the Rebels, little being then done, but that among the rest, [Page 227] Justus Villiers was killed, who was a great Souldier, for­merly Governour of Ʋtrecht, and now Camp-master, and the Person that had instructed the Princes youth in Military Dis­cipline, and all Warlike Affairs. And when they perceived the Prince intended to storm the place forthwith, having now beaten down the Bulwark, and laid open the Town, they di­verted that eminent danger, and turned it aside under the cloak of a Treaty, and the day following, what with the over­flowing of the Rivers, and what with the Rayn, the intended agreement was never perfected: Besides, there was news, that Lanzavecchia, with a select number of Souldiers, was approaching at the instigation of Wingfield; nor did that Englishman want words to perswade the accomplishment of the Treason. But calling the people together, speaks to them to this effect, [Yon see them here (saith he) whose Bul­lets and fire never were thrown with like fury against the Walls of an Enemy, and therefore have been so much more dangerous to as, and now they threaten as presently with the Sword, and we all as enemies, by their unanimous consent, are designed either to slaughter or punishment, But yonder are they who come to preserve us, from whom we many merit both favour and reward: It is no [...] is your hand fellow Souldiers, whether to run the hazard of yielding to the one, or to give and receive a benefit from the others.]

This Oration was applauded generally, they who were near with their words, and the rest with a kind of soft and whispering noyse, signifying their consent.

Prince Maurice being not prepared for a long Siege, re­solved to depart, and the rather, because he would not seem to necessitate that treacherous yielding of the Town to the Enemy, which he could not prevent or hinder. But yet he sent Letters to them, to try if either respect of honesty, or fear of Infamy, could yet prevail on any of them.

[Page 228]But that mercinary People received them with scorn, es­pecially for that the Duke of Parma, had, besides payment of their so long elapsed Wages, bestowed among them also a Donative. It is reported, that then he began to clear up his countenance, which had been long clouded with grief, wh [...] from a high Tower in the taken City, he could see Dort, and those other places of his hope, at the beginning of the Wa [...] It pleased him to look upon, and Command the first of all the Holland Cities, after 12. years reduced into his power. And such was the over-hastiness of his exaltation, that the [...] being yet none of his Souldiers entred the Town, he trusted his person to them, whom of all other, being admitted; [...] ought for that very cause, to have suspected, and some w [...] in very great fear, lest taking hold of so great an opportuni­ty, they should again have proved treacherous to him: Be there was no time to mention such a thing, and therefore [...] have been dangerous to be spoken of; They delivered the Town to him, not to his party, least they should deceive both. Few of the men either returned to England, or their old obedience, though some did; but the rest, according to their number, as the Duke of Parma had seperated them; did very great service in the Warres, never assuming to them­selves any but in Victory; for being prescribed as Traytors, and Renegadoes, they had forfeited all their priviledges of Souldiers by their crimes. Nay, their villany was condemn­ed by those who re [...]ped the benefit of their Treason, by whom they were long after yeered with the name of Mer­chants, scarce any of them coming to a naturall and timely death; and if so, yet not without Infamy. Many were af­terwards taken in other Cities, and according to Martial Law executed.

The Souldiery to whom the Duke of Parma delivered the possession of the City, made many valiant excursions, and severall times in a short space fought very fortunately, sur­prizing three Troops of Prince Maurices Horse, as they were [Page 229] negligently scattered up and down near Boisledue. From hence it appeared very necessary to take in all the adjacent places, and accordingly, the care thereof was committed to the in­feriour Commanders. Besides Gertruydenburg, there are two other Towns belonging to the jurisdiction of Holland, and lye now beyond the Maes. But Hesdin, formerly was con­tained in the Maes [...] before the waters were conveighed away by a new Channel, reputed a part of the antient County of Teisterbant, under the Allegiance and Patronage of the Prin­ces of Cl [...]ve, who afterwards transferred their might to the Hollander. But the Town of Settenberg, of old part of Stri­de [...]land, it is seperated by a River, and therefore, as to the matters of Religion, it is under the care of the Bishop of Leige, nor of the Bishop of Ʋtrecht, as the rest of Holland is; It had proper Princes of its own, yet so, as they were to do homage to the Princes of Holland, and severall Villages above Gertruydenburgh have very antiently been subject to them; is having been the Custom of valiant Nations, when they conquer, to passe the next River, and make the further Banks thereof the bounds of their Empire; notwithstanding all which, the Br [...]banters have a long time, but to no purpose, challenged both Gertruydenburgh and Hesdin, to belong to them: But now Count Aremberg with ease prevailed over Settenberg, being very meanly fortifyed, and so the more rea­dy to be spoyled by any Armies; but he could not keep it, because the Hollanders were in possession of Nordam, and the other adjacent places.

Charles Mansfelt being sent against Hesdin, attempted also Bommel, the head of the adjoyning Isle, and encompassed with double branches of the Maes and Wael, there meeting, by the guilt and treacheries of some of the Townsmen: But the Treason being discovered and punished, he straightly be­sieged it as he had begun, resolutely keeping his first design­ed Station near to Hemerte Castle, though the River breaking over his bounds, had, by its excessive increase, over-flowed all [Page 230] the Fields: And now Hesdin whs not so much afraid of Fo [...] as Famine, it being defended against the Enemy, who had encompassed it about at a great distance by Famarsh, who was a man of undanted Resolution, and would not doubt to undergo the greatest Extremities: But Prince Ma [...]ia prevented it, who gathering a sufficient Number of Men from the next Garrisons, brake through where the Enemy was thinnest, bringing in all things, whose want was feared. These things thus done; Mansfeldt with Ships, Guns, and other Warlike Engines, set upon, having carryed thither some part of his Army, the Castle Holow, in the Isle of Bommel. In this place there was Endeavour, strength, and sufficiency of Defence; but Sidenborg, by a too hasty yielding, took away all occasions both of Hope and Fear; He seemed to lay [...] fault thereof upon the Souldiers, and that with the great Confidence, because many of them had been kill'd; the Spa­niard, as they marched out, cruelly butchering them, without the Knowledg or Consent of their Captains, with the Gar­rison of this place, and of Creveceur over against it; which being destroy'd by Count Hohenlo, the King's Officers had re-builded, entring the Island at the meeting of the River Maes, and a little Rivulet call'd Dise; they wasted the open Fields, and all other indefensible places, both of Forts and Castles, not well knowing which way they should evade; the Rivers being swell'd with Showers; tearing down the Fortifications begun, at the very ending of the Island, over against Gorrichou. Afterwards, by other Directions, invading divers places beyond the Wael; now they come to Gelder­land, anon they trouble Ʋtrecht, and last of all the Island Vo [...]rne, not far from Bommel; and two years before strength­ned by the Nassauians with a Castle, where hearing this Count Hohenlo, with a selected Party of Horse and Fod [...] drew nigh, with an intent to fight them, Mansfeldt afraid of the Report, in regard there was no possibility of his stays after he had consumed the Spring and the Summer in vain; [Page 231] [...]at the best, but Trivial Matters; wherefore re-passing the Maes, by the suddain madness and fury of a Spanish Regi­ment, for want of their Pay, which he endeavour'd to appease, was like to have been slain. Saurius Laeva was their Col­lonel, and beloved as well by the Souldiers as by Mansfeldt himself, though they had lately had some difference in words: Nay, there were some that did believe the Prince of Ascu­lus, and Duke of Pastrana, had under-hand, in hatred to the Duke of Parma, encouraged the Sedition. Without doubt, the Parmian Prince, excelling all the Spanish Commanders in Glory, and the Greatness of his Atchievments, had contract­ed upon himself great Envy; and the rather, because he openly shew'd a greater Respect to, and put a stronger Con­fidence in the Italians; from whence it came to pass, that some would no less find fault with his Vertues, than Mis­carriages which were but accidental; openly affirming, that he betray'd the Spanish Fleet; that all his Endeavours against the Netherlanders were nothing worth; and many other such like Things.

But his Conquering so many of the Provinces, being the greatest part of the Netherlands, and the unwearied and stre­nuous Labour taken by that People against him, were clan­destinely represented to the King, as much as might be, to his disadvantage, though under the shew of praise and admira­tion: Nor had their fear of him been vain, if his Life had been prolong'd, to the detriment of the Spanish Empire, least being famous for War, and his Clemency in Governing, for which even his Enemies loved him, he should (as many then Reported) alter and change his present Possession for Portu­gall, belonging of Right to his Son. Certainly, either Philip, as it is the Nature of Kings, being apt to be timorous and suspectful, himself frustrated his Fortune, while he over-char­ged him with Honour, or else necessitated by reall Poverty, did restrain his excessive Charges: However it was, the Prince of Parma, on the one side, by Care to provide against [Page 232] all those Evils that Penury uses to bring forth, and on the other, over-toiled with the Weight of present Affairs, fell sick, which caused him to go into Germany, to the Span Wa­ters: And after this time, he was never perfectly in Health, nor was fortunate in his Undertakings, as before. For which cause the Italians, a Nation infinitely jealous, and taking for Truth, whatever they imagine, reported that the Spaniards had poyson'd the Duke; and the Bruic thereof, seeming to be made out by their other Cruelties prevailed; but chiefly, because every one is willing to believe any Evil of a Spa­niard: But this was not without some shew of Reason; [...] Prince Maurice having intercepted divers Letters, among the rest had those, wherein Parma was grievously accused [...] King Philip, which the Prince sent to him. But he, as it were, not minding this Kindness of his Enemy, nor returning [...] Thanks, invited the Inditer of those Letters, one John M [...] to a Feast, which he did not long over-live, which gave new matter for Discourse. (This More was he, that with great Cunning, Policy, and many Largesses and Bribes, had pro­moted the Spanish Affairs in France) and this manner of Talk was the more frequent, because he, who was believed the Minister of Revenge, had not any Reward, but rather was cast out of Favour. Upon this occasion, the Duke sent [...] ­chardot into Spain, to clear him of those Aspersions cast upon him, because he did not aid the Spanish Fleet; The King publikely heard him, and the Duke of Medina-Sidonia that was likewise accused, and seemed to pardon both the Dukes.

The Tumult of the Souldiers, a little before mention'd, being appeased, with the punishment of a few, and the Re­giment disbanded, though it had been long in the War, M [...] ­feldt was commanded, with seventy compleat Ensigns, to [...] directly thence to take Berck on a suddain. That City belong­ing to the Bishop of Colen, had now been strongly fortifies three years, from the time the Duke of Parma depart [...] [Page 333] thence: Truxius and Nienarius, having lately gotten it, That having referred his cause, This his Quarrell, to the Ʋni­ted States, had deliver'd the disputed Possession thereof to them, as indifferent Judges and Moderators between them. But at the beginning of this Year, the Hollanders being stron­ger than they in Horse, made a Bridge over the Rhine, and furnish'd it with Souldiers and Provisions: For this cause, at the Request of the Bishop (who came in person to the Duke of Parma) Varembonius, the Governour of Gelderland for the King, was sent with part of the Army, to see if he could reduce it, either by force of starving. In their Journey thi­ther, he fell upon, but not without loss, the Castle of Blybeke, (this place Collonel Schenck, not minding propriety, chal­lenged to himself, as his own by Conquest) for the Garrison, consisting of old and well-disciplin'd Souldiers, a whole Moneth endured the Thunder of their Cannon and other Guns, valiantly returning them the like, had made a more than equal Slaughter, untill a greater loss hapning upon some few, and by the Death of their Captains, being at variance, (after they had turned out the rest) and their Ammunition beginning to fail, they let the En [...]my have the place. One Remarkable Thing was observed in this Victory, to wit, a Woman found among the dead Bodies, that had, in Man's Habit, and with a Masculine Courage, followed the Warre: The like to this was frequently observed at the beginning of the Troubles; nor did any Age formerly produce so many such Examples: For as the Minds of People were stirred up to the War, by the frequent naming of God, the Country, and the Prince, so even the distinction of the Sexes was laid aside, that the practice of Hatred and Revenge, might with more freedom be made use of: But Schenck's Nature always inclined to Cruelty, w [...]th the Conjunction of his Loss and Shame together, was now more inraged: This pl [...]ace, taking away his Goods, he set on fire; but chafed without measure because he had not Souldiers enough to relieve the Besieged [Page 234] in Berck, however drawing together all both Horse and Foot that he could make, he fortified a place upon the Bank of the Rhine, not far from the Town call'd Reux, in spight of all Varembonius his Endeavours to the contrary, from whence he conveyed into the Town of Berck all the Forces he had received. Afterwards, receiving Intelligence, that Ver­dugo was coming with more Forces, by speedy Matches be came upon them at unawares, at the River Lup, in the Fields of Westfalia, with a furious slaughter; so that they fled, and left to him the Money that they were carrying into Frize­land to pay the Souldiers. Not content herewith, but grows more confident by his Success, he threatned to storm and sack Nieumegen by Night, (for he bore a spleen to the Town;) and, to that purpose, in a Dark chosen for that end, sending his Cavallery before, and some few Ferry-Boats, which the Souldiers carryed, and passing the Wael, he came to that part of the City, which was onely strong by the Rivers Curr [...] that way: commanding his nimblest men to break down the Fences of one of the Houses that stood backward upon the Bank, that entring there, they might disperse themselves through the City in Troops, and so set upon and win the Gates: But by chance, in the House where this Stratag [...] was executed, (for it was not the same House which Schenck had before marked, the mistake being easily made by the darkness of the Night) there was a Wedding; so that im­mediatly a great Outery being made there, the Townsmen were Allarm'd, and beset the House, driving back such as came out thence with Arms, and shooting at them with Guns: The Multitude got new Courage with the approach of Day; but Schenck's Men being few, in the narrow passa­ges were shut, and not knowing which way to go for fear, cruelly slain: Their Collonel himself standing upon the Bank, was not able to withstand their flight; sometimes en­couraging all; another time, some particular persons by Name, That they would go through with their Noble Underta­kings, [Page 235] and by a valiant Assault, open the way for others to follow them. But all would not make them stop their flight: And to perfect their Ruine, there hapned another fatal Mischance to them; for the Boats which they had brought with them from their Garrison, were by the force of the stream of the Water, carryed before it was Day below the City, so that such as fled Could not come at them.

This over-born with the strength and Weapons of their Enemies, and the few Boats that were left, not able to con­tain all with the Weight and Tumult of those that crowded into them, sunk, and many of them were drowned in the Ri­ver, among whom their Collonel, heavily laden with Arms, was one. This was the end of Collonel Schencke, a man, exceeding most of his time in noble and generous Courage; his Family and Descent was not mean, but yet the Glory of it was much inlarged under the Prince of Parma. Afterwards the Earl of Leicester made him a Knight, and bestow'd on him many other Military Honours; for Wisdom and Va­lour he merited high esteem, but yet would subject himself neither to Laws nor Customs; for which, the Souldiers of For­tune honoured him, but the Magistrates and Common People hated his Name; his Disposition, though it had been fierce and untract [...]ble in his Youth, yet now, in his latter time, it began to grow more mild and flexible: His Body, when found by the Victors, because he had left them, and gone over to the States, was exposed to publike shame and laughter. But the Revenge of the Souldiery, forced them to alter the Scene, for they severely punished all Captives that came to their hands, belonging to Nieumegen: Yet for all that two years it lay unburied, untill by the taking of the Town by Prince Maurice, it had a decent Interment. Nienarius also, about the same time, was kill'd by chance, while he was care­lesly viewing some Instruments or Engines of War: A Man certainly, of an unblameable Conversation, though at last coming into the War. Truxius thus deprived of both his [Page 236] Chief Commanders, by whose Valour and Conduct, the good Fortune of his Party had hitherto been upheld, at length left off the War, but especially because the Enemy had won Berck, where a long Siege, spun out until the following year, with the loss of much Bloud, at last got the Victory for the Spaniards: But Schemk's Souldiers, though they had re­ceived heir Arrears, and were entertained into Pay anew among the rest, yet mad with grief for the loss of their Col­lonel, in earned a Sedition; because that Island being in their hands, would easily procure them a Chapman within the Bounds of the Rhine. Nothwithstanding this, the Hollanders took great Care afterwards to relieve Berck, though with no other hope, than to make the Enemy lose time, since they could not hinder his taking the City: Count Falcosteine be­ing sent with Two Thousand Men, besides some choice Horse, according to this Advice, was follow'd by Varen [...] ­nius, as soon as in his Journey, having taken the Castle be­fore-mention'd, he had passed the River, yet with no intent to fight, though he were much the stronger, but onely design­ing to fall upon their Rear as they marched; and finding [...] Opportunity for the same, was at the first received by [...] Francis Vere, commanding then two English Companies new­ly raised, with which he sustained the Brunt and Heat of the Charge, until the Horse came in, and shortly after all the Foot Colours. Here was a great slaughter, considering the Number of Combatants; and the choicest the best men of the Enemies being slain, there were taken a great number of Horse, with one Cornet, and Ten Foot Colours: Some few fled, and escaped with their Captain. Vere having given this famous Testimony of his Valour and Judgment, was shortly after prefer'd to the highest Dignitie, to his great Renown.

Varembunius laid the blame upon Charles Mansfield, (for he was present also) for the greatest part of this loss, though he had brought to him, at the time of this Fight, some Com­panies [Page 237] out of the Isle of Bommell; because lately, both of them suing for the same Command, wherein Charles being denyed and the other preferred, it was said, he now deserted him, a emulous of his Glory. But by this means, the Conquerour-afterwards brought in safely to the Besieged all their Car­riages, both with Provision and Men; they also having near the same time made a lucky Sally into the next Quarter of the Enemies Leaguer; and this done, returning through by­ways, they escaped any danger intended to them by the Enemy. And now the Besieged were in so good condition, that they slighted the Enemies Forces, though of late much recruited, until the Spaniard had by force taken a Castle near to Rees, that was their onely hopes of Succour, and supply of Provisions: Three Months after this, in the next year, the Winter continued, when the Hollanders, considering seriously with themselves, that they had not Forces enough to relieve a place so far distant from them, as occasion would require, came at length to this last Result; That the Town should be surrendred upon Honourable Conditions: And thus the Duke of Parma obtained Berck, and not so contented, he clandestine­ly sought to get Bonne and Nuisse, Cities belonging to the Dutchy of Cleves; and this he did with the more Confidence, in regard of the Prince's Age and Infirmity, having also won many of the Nobles to be his Pensioners. Thus he got Pos­session of Arnhem, not far from the Rhine; Not was Aquis­grave, a free City of the German Empire, let alone at peace, among so many broils; for Philip claiming the Custody of that City, as antiently belonging to the Princes of Brabant, (for he endeavour'd to hide his Ambition of being Lord, under the Title of Guardian thereof) by his Edict banish'd many of the Inhabitants, who had forsaken the Roman Reli­gion: But their stay being bought off, with a Sum of Money given to the King's Commanders, content onely to have wa­sted and forrag'd the Fields, left the City, until many years [Page 238] after, the Fury of several Parties falling upon, Germany, this City, among the rest, was seized, under the pretence of Right.

While the Armies thus range about the Maes and the Rhine, and meeting Parties skirmish and fight every where, the Mauricians got exceeding much Booty: for the Hope wasted all the Enemies Country with Fire and Sword, car­rying away all manner of Provisions, having either kill'd or driven away all those [...]hat defended it. But notwithstanding all this, the most cruel Battails were at Sea, because the Hol­landers being stronger there, had absolutely taken away all things that were wont to be Chaffer between Equals in Power, by which means, the Spaniard had lost all benefit of Exchange. After this, if any Enemies could prevail so much in strength, as to infest all that Traded at Sea by Rob­bery, they were called Pyrates. Hence it came, that the Fl [...] ­drians, provoked by their frequent Losses, and such as fled out of the Hollanders Ships, conscious to themselves of any great Crime, (as such men generally are fierce) out of a desire both of Revenge and Prey, put to Sea, and not onely seized unarm'd Trading Ships, but many times indanger'd the more able: Many times it fell out, (and it is not to be forgotten, be­cause it equall'd the greatest Adventures of Antiquity) that when any one part had, by Boarding the others Vessel, inter­mingled their Companies, they in danger, rather than be ta­ken, would, with Gun-powder, blow up both themselves and the Enemy; so much do they care, who despair of Life, not to dye unrevenged.

The Kingdom of Spain, which hither [...]o had been undistur­bed, in the midst of all her Neighbour's Troubles, now first began to be sensible of a War brought Home to her; for the English, accompanied with the Hollander's Ships and Soul­diers, adven [...]urously Forage all the Sea-Coasts of Gallicia; afterwards they re-settle Don Antonio in his Kingdom, pitch­ing [Page 239] their Camp about Lisbone: The Queen sent out six of her Ships on this Design; the rest being One Hundred and Twenty, Sir Francis Drake Commanded: General Norris had the Conduct of the Foot Souldiers; the Prey taken, to be divided between them: And so great was their good Suc­cess at the beginning, that Albertus of Austria, who was Governour of the City, in the Name of King Philip, had pre­pared himself for flight: But by the Advice of some private persons, in regard of the doubtfulness of the Portugezes Al­legiance, the small Provision they had of things necessary, and that several Diseases raged among them, springing chiefly from intemperate Drinking, they went away, and left all things unsetled; whether because King Antonio was not able to perform the vain Promises he made of the Peoples Affe­ction to, and the Moors Assistance of him; or that their too suddain Departure spoiled the Design, is yet in doubt.

But sure it is, the Hollanders were not hearkned to, who had both offered and shewed themselves ready, to defend and keep all the Castles and Forts on the Sea-Coast, as well as the Entrance into the Kingdom.

As soon as ever the Siege was broke up, presently all who had at this time been observed by the Spaniard, to wish for a Change, were very severely punished. But the English did nothing more, unless that they made appear the weakness of the Spanish Grandezza, in that they were never hindred by them, either at their Landing, or during their stay; nor ever resisted them in the Demand or taking of their Forts or Castles; and a Fleet of Germans coming from the Baltick Ci­ties, being met and taken as Prize, gave occasion to those Peo­ple, by Legates, and Writing to contest among themselves, whether Provisions, wherewith People being at Peace with them, do help the Enemy, may rightfully be taken as Prize, and disposed of accordingly.

[Page 240]And now France, divided into parties, was ingaged in [...] like quarrel, after the King had caused to be slain the Duke of Guise, the head of that publike defection, nor did the King long survive Guise, being soon after assassined by a Monk; he was the last of the name and Family of Valois, in whose re­venge, as also of the Duke of Guise, the whole Kingdom was divided into Arms. Without doubt, by the Customs of France, the right of Succession belonged to the Family of Bour [...], But Henry the head thereof, Prince of Bearne, who was call­ed by the name of King of Navarre, though hardly enjoying any thing besides the name, for that the Spaniard had vio­lently wrested it away, he, I say, professing the Religion which they call Reformed, though he promised equall Ju­stice to both, had drawn to him all the Nobility, but the Cities and Towns would not receive or own him; But when he de­clared himself a Catholike, the face of Affairs were on a sud­den very much changed, for the fault of the defection from, and aversion to, the Kings Name and Title, was wholly call on the other; yet was not Philip terrified by this example, but that he now assisted the Duke of Guise his Brother (who made use of a double pretence of Piety) not in private, but in the view of the whole World, not that he so loved him, but that he might keep involved in discords that Kingdom, which ly­ing between him and the Low-Countries, had formerly been very dangerous and troublesome to him; and if his designs were crowned with success, he would commit the same to some one of his own Allyance, with a fiduciary Power: And the Reason by him pretended for this, was, because he mar­ryed Isabella, the Daughter of Henry the Second, King of France, by whom he had a Daughter, a Person most fit to go­vern that Kingdom, either in regard to her Fathers Merits, or her Mothers Blood; and so much the rather, because the Dukedom of Bretaigne, as severall other Principalities of France were known to have been fortunately ruled by a Wo­man's hand.

[Page 241]On the other side, the Duke of Savoy, the Spaniard's Son in Law, enlarged his Borders to the very opening of the Alps; The Queen of England being informed by a particu­lar Envoy, that the Duke of Parma had sent Lamot into France, with an Army both of Horse and Foot, forthwith ordered a supply of mony to the King of France, together, with four thousand English Souldiers. Neither were the States of the United Provinces backwards in granting him Assistance; for first they sent Ships with Provisions, and all other neces­sary Munitions for War, then adding thereto mony far more liberally than the present exigencies of their Affairs would permit, and this only in hope of a future benefit: It was certainly, a noble and an honourable act, and that raised an emulation towards their moderated Liberty, that they having so newly erected themselves into a Commonwealth, should yet by their Riches, support and help a Kingdom; the success thereof proving no less advantagious to the French, than di­structive to their Enemies, while the Walloons Country, to whom formerly they committed their cause, lying open, and exposed to the mischief of War, was equally damnifyed, whether assaulted by the French, or their own Souldiers: Af­terwards, the Spanish Forces, France putting a stop to their victorious times, lay open to the Hollander, who for eight years together, increased their Treasury, enlarged their bounds, and augmented their Armies, untill the Bourbonian, by his own vertue and valour, waded through all the threat­ning billows raised against him by his obstinate adversaries, and himself at last becoming a Catholike, brought under his subjection all parties, rather laying aside his Arms, than the memory of that Pristine League.

It seems here very convenient, now we are relating the French Affairs, to search, as far as humane Reason can direct us, how the Belgick troubles having the like beginnings, should yet have so different a Progress. For a Peace being setled formerly between King Philip and the King of France, [Page 242] these two Princes seemed to be of one mind, having conclu­ded a mutual League to extirpate all Religions which had be­gun or increased, either by impunity or War. But the French Peers, hating the Guisian Potency, that they might not be­come contemptible, as the Netherlanders to the Spaniards, took occasion to draw the multitude, now contending about Religion, into Tumults and Arms; but the Events were most unlike: for there the Subjects obedience was preserved entire, and consequently, the Roman Catholique Religion car­ryed the day, but so only as to keep under, not oppress the other. But here the old Form of Government is altered, the differing Rites grow insociable, neither allowing the other, and so between Servitude and liberty become divided. The cause whereof I suppose may be, that the Guises or Lorraines being by themselves in private but weak, did afterwards re­ceive from abroad such small help, as might indeed follow, but not force their Fortune. So that the main of their strength either consisted under the pretence of the Kings name, or the affections of the vulgar, which are mean supports, and of no duration, where there is any experiment of utility on the o­ther side. And the Kings of France have within themselves, the whole strength of that one People; so that they diminish their own Authority by tyrannizing, and wholly loose what is spent in revenge. And the very Commons, though highly offended with the differences in Religion, yet when once they became sensible of the miseries of War, were not so de­sirous of revenge as Peace.

Hence proceeded those Edicts of Peace so often hastned, so often withstood by the now divided affections of the People, who might rather be said to lay aside War, than to make and observe a Peace; for being weary of a long War, they were driven to force and treachery, by the impulse of others, not their own obstinacy, and being always accustom­ed to a Kingly Government, they might have been composed before, if the one King, famously knowing in the Arts both [Page 243] of War and Peace, had tempered himself and his Laws, ac­cording to the strength and prevalence of parties. They who were newly gotten into power, being ignorant how to use the time, nourished discords by variety of evill deeds, while they of a more active Spirit, or such whose Riot inca­pacitated them, either got or lost all, and this was the only hindrance of Peace. But on the other side, the Spaniards ha­ving a King that wished the same things in hatred to the Bel­gick liberty, and who was now grown old in the enjoyment of his Territories, by the keeping abroad so great Forces, ne­ver feared the Netherlandish Solitudes, especially having Pre­sidents, both in Italy and America, that where they could not subject into Provinces, they should settle Colonies. But the French were highly offended with the pride, avarice, and cruelty of this forraign Nation, the very Catholikes them­selves, who had never faltered in point of Religion, disliking their Customs, some of whom having been before circum­vented and deluded with the hope of better things, becom­ing an example to the rest, that they would with all violence exercise their malice, as mistrusting the breach of Peace, un­der that notion, to hide their revenge.

Thus a War, no less cruel than civill Wars use to be, con­tinued, but still looked as forraign. But Count William in Frizeland, straitned the City of Groning, not able to resist the greatness of his endeavours, by scarcity and death, having wasted all their Provision about the Country; he got also Reide, a Peninsula of a very convenient Scituation between the River E [...]mes and the Bay of Dullart. The City being suspected for this mischief, cast it upon Verdugo, because he had refused a Garrison: from thence being both recruited, this with a new addition of Foot, and Nassau with more Horse, sometimes with mutual fear, sometimes taking oppor­tunities of daring one another, they spent the remainder of the Year.

The Second BOOK of the History of the Dutch AFFAIRES.

1590.THE whole burden of the War was ready to have been thrown upon Frizeland, if the ta­king of Breda had not diverted the Army. [...] is a Town of Brabant, and hath ever been so esteemed though scituate in a fertile Soyl, upon the Confines of Hol­land, and commanding over seventeen Villages. The River Aa, now having changed his name into Merca, and being of a reasonable breadth, washeth the Walls thereof, and shortly after, passing by the Town of Sevenberg, falls into an Arm of the Sea; The Family of Pole, bought it with the Title of Baron thereof, from whom it descended to the House of Nassau, by the Marriage of Engelbert, whose Nephews Son, named Henry, added to it a strong rampire and ditches, to­gether with a most noble Castle, serving as well for beauty as strength. And since that the continual practices of War in those latter times, hath not only annexed thereto strong Bulwarks, and other defences for keeping out, or repelling of an Enemy, but also the glory of resistance of a most vio­lent storm given to it; A Marriner taught the way how to take it by Policy or Stratagem, in manner following.

By the Command of Philip of Nassau (he was the Son of John, who coming into this National War, had the Com­mand of some Souldiers, and the government of a few Towns at the Maes) one Heraugier, a Captain of Cam­bray, began first to consult of this Enterprise, adopting into Society, for performance of this Noble Exploit, one Lambert [Page 245] Charly, a valiant and painful Souldier: The Vessell used for the Plot, was that which was wont, upon the Publique Ac­count, to pass backward and forward between both Parties, to carry Fuel to Breda; which Fuel was no other, than the muddy Oze growing in the Marishes of Holland, hardned by the Sun, and cut out into Turf, and so served in stead of Wood; for the He [...]t being inclosed in the E [...]rth makes one like Nature and Disposition in Bitumen and Sulphur; which, as in other places, hath caused Mountains to burn and flame, so here sometimes they have made a very lightsome Fire, un­less by chance some old Wood, beaten down with the force of the Sea and Tempests, and lying long cover'd with Earth, and grown rotten, onely changing his Form, yet retains its Nature: In this Boat, being of an indifferent length, were placed some young men, selected out of several Companies, and such as feared no danger whatsoever, to the number of Seventy, that were to be cover'd with a slight quantity of Tutfs, so as nothing else might be discerned: A long time it was, ere Fortune would favour this bold and dangerous At­tempt, so that their Endeavours were contradicted and hin­dred, even by such things as they had no doubt of: The cros­ness of the Wind, and bitterness of the Cold, though at the very end of Winter; and, last of all, want of Victuals, which their stay had consumed, spoiled their first Assay: And certainly, among all these Delays, it was a very hard matter, to conceal such a Design as appear'd by certain Rumors writ­ten out of England, that it was accomplish'd. However, at length, after they had refreshed themselves, and Herangier had comforted and encouraged them with good words, send­ing a Messenger to Prince Maurice, to request him, to convey secretly some Souldiers into the next Island, not far from Breda, they once more set forward: Being brought within a Lock of the River or Scluse, near the Castle, from whence there was no possibility of going back, they were beset with a new Calamity; for either by the extraordinary Ebbe of the River, [Page 246] or else by the grating force of the Ice, the bottom of the Boat was so cracked, that it began to take Water very fast: Th [...] did the hidden Souldiers tremble for fear, cursing the Bo [...] unfortunate Ribs, that could no better secure them, and all in Water up to the Knees; but at length, the Vessel eased by the Tides coming in, without any humane help, ceased to Leak. And now the Governours and Commanders of the Garrison, as it were out of an over-curious Care, more from the Use and Custom of Discipline, than any Necessity they thought of, had relieved the Guards, and appointed every inferiour Officer to his Post. Thus the Duty of searching the Boat, by the Negligence of many, was wholly thrown upon the Corporal, who likewise being careless, according to the Example of his Superiour Officers, viewing the same very slightly, made no more ado: And by good chance it for­tuned, that the Cold had not forced any one to Cough, which at another time they could hardly have refrained. The Speech of one of the Souldiers, upon that occasion, deserves never to be forgotten; who fearing, least by his violent Noise in Coughing▪ (though he did repress it) he should, together with himself, betray his Companions: Kill me (saith be) Fellow-Souldiers, least we be all killed. But to proceed, after the search, the very Souldiers of the Garrison, drew the Boat into the Castle, that it might have Water, in regard the Ice was too thick abroad; by which means, they came into ano­ther great Hazard, because the Danger so near and imminent, had put them all into a fear; so that they were ready to com­plain of Herangier, as one who, desperate of his own Life, had brought them to the slaughter. Part of them being at the very Brink of Despair, would not stay for their hopes of safety, till the darkness of the Night, but since they must die, they would take the Day, that they might see the Enemy they were to encounter, least they should be found in that Prison, where they were penned up, and from thence be drag­ged to punishment and Death. Others were utterly asto­nished; [Page 247] and certainly, it was rather Desperation made them accomplish their Undertaking, than any Exho [...]tations of their Captain to Valour and Glory: Part of the Turf being unloa­ded, and to prevent any further lightning of the Boat, least he should discover the Design, by laying open the Souldiers within, the Boat-man cunningly dissembled himself weary; and to that purpose, he put on a Garb and Tone, both of Voice and Countenance, even to Admiration: And now it was near Midnight, but with some glimmering of the Moon, when the Captain thought fit to bring forth the Souldiers; first, admonishing them to behave themselves valiantly, which would not onely be for their everlasting Honour, but Enrichment: But if any of them should now leave him in his adventurous Attempt, he would be so far from enjoying an honourable Life, that he merited an ignominious Death. By the working of the Pump, the Enemies Ears were stopped, so that they all went out, and not one of them discerned by the Sentinels, which was almost miraculous. Part of these Soul­diers passing by the Armory, first killed those of the Watch they met with, and afterwards slew in their very Guard, those that kept the Gate which led into the Town, onely an En­sign endeavouring violently to break through, and aiming with his Sword dangerously to have wounded Herangier, fell down, and was killed valiantly fighting: But Charly, to whom was given the Command of the other part of the Souldiers, drove the Enemies Garrison into the innermost part of the Castle, which was incompassed round with Wa­ter.

These were kept in hope, to the very utmost, by Paulo Antonio Lanzavecchia, who was Deputy-Governour of Breda, under his Father, a young Man, and utterly ignorant in Stra­tagems of War. Odoardo Lanzavecchia the Father, Prince Maurice had caused to stay at Geertruydenburg, three miles di­stant from Breda, seeming as if he would draw thither his Fortes, and Carriages; and, to that purpose, some were sent [Page 248] under the notion of Spyes, who by spreading a false Rumour, should make them insensible of the Truth: And surely, the Duke of Parma was very much over-seen, who had commit­ted two Towns to one Man's keeping, when one Man is hardly able to defend one Town, and let other Rewards, without Danger, be for such as deserve well therein.

But Paulo Lanzavecchia, to try if, by chance, he could force this small Company out by Battel, passing out over the Bridge, sallyes upon the Enemy, with a Company of Men crowded together, (they were about Thirty and Six). But they were soon vanquish'd by them, who could not at that time be overcome, and himself sorely wounded, most of his men being kill'd, he fled back the same way he came. By this time, they heard a Noise of People, fighting within the City, and the Townsmen came to break open the Castle Gates that Heraugier's Souldiers might not drive away with their Shot out of the Gallery above the People, and clear the ad­joyning Parts. At last the sign being given, that the Design had taken, Count Hohenlo presently marched up with a part of Prince Maurice his Army, who were not far off upon the Espy [...]l; being come to the Gate, and perceiving the [...] made them lose time, they passed over the Lock or Damne, beyond the Palizadoes; nor did Paulo Lanzavecchia de [...]e [...] to Covenant for his own Safety, by the Surrender of what he held in the Castle.

The Prince himself immediatly follow'd Hohenlo, with a­nother greater part of the Army, consisting both of Horse and Foot, who, coming to the Gates, threatned to force them open: Then the City trembling, and deprived of the Gar­rison that should have defended it, redeemed their Pillage with two Months Pay to the Souldiers; for the Italians, [...] whom the Guard and Defence of the Town was committed (being six Companies of Foot, and one Troop of Hor [...]) whose Duty it had been to have broken the Bridge, be [...] the Town and the Castle, or at least to have kept the Gate [Page 249] from being seized by the Enemy, being struck into an amaze, at the noise and clattering of Arms in the Castle; and with­all, not well agreeing among themselves, were easily wrought to fly, and leave all to the Enemy; and which, possibly, might be another Reason to the same purpose, being the more afraid of the Enemy, by how much they were generally ha­ted by their Hosts who had quarter'd them; for that while they enjoyed the Town, they abstained from no sort of Vil­lany, but raged in all kinds of Lusts.

Therefore, when the Duke of Parma set himself to Re­venge this popular Errour and Crime of the Souldiers, to take the shame from himself, all that were designed for pu­nishment, as Fugitives and Renegadoes, though late, suffered the punishment inflicted on them for thei [...] Fault, excepting onely one Intemelio, for whom his Youth and Nobility obtain­ed a Pardon; and Odardo Lanzavecchia, as it were in pu­nishment of himself, left off, and surrendred the Governorship of Geriruydenburg.

Prince Maurice now entring the City, took into Com­mand and Tuition, those his Antient, Paternal, and Heredi­tary Possessions, and all the Citizens living therein; his Youth­ful Modesty rather grieving at, than accusing the City, char­ged with the Payment of the Souldiers Wages, (and many many more of them had their Names in the List, than were present in the Service) for the Prince would not seem to mind those private things, although the Sum amounted to a Hundred Thousand Florens, when Antwerp paid to the Duke of Parma but Four Hundred.

These things thus done, the Government of the Town was bestowed upon Heraugier, and the rest were all of them af­terwards both rewarded, and preferred to Honourable Com­mands. The States Decreed Publike Feasting, and other Testimonies of Rejoycing, and that there should be Prices of Money Coined, which should be as a General Record to Po­sterity of this first Victory obtained by their Prince, with­out [Page 250] the effusion of his Souldiers Bloud; which afterwards was drawn into Example by Custom, as oft as any great and prosperous Success crown'd their Actions. And there were not wanting some Wits, who Celebrated the Prince's Au­spitious Beginnings, and magnified the Gallantry of the Design; averring, That the entring of Troy by Graecian Lords, in a Wooden Horse, was a Stratagem very like this, or, it may be, was an Eminent Ship so called. They compared the For­tune of the Place, which nine years before, by the Absence of the Garrison, the Treachery of the Watch, and Slaughter of the Citizens, Altapen (Count Berlaymont's Son) surprized and took: Thus every Man's Fancy was in Agitation, but we must not dwell here.

The Companies being left in the Town, which were to defend it, and some Troops of Horse, on purpose to make Incursions into the Villages of Brabant, the Army marched away: And the Provisions carryed in, by provident Care of those, whom the Prince knew had been privy to the De­sign, served the place a long time: But as soon as a Messen­ger brought News thereof into Germany, to the Prince of Parma; who, now weary of the Toil of War, it may be, by Advice, had desisted from Hostility, until he received Letters from Spain, least he should suffer, without taking Revenge, the Country to be spoiled, he commanded Charles Mansfeldt, who had Reduced Berck, to go thence with some part of his Forces, and to shut up all the Passages to Breda, in order to [...] Siege; being moved thereto by a false hope, that there was onely a few Days Provision in the Town; and besides, ima­gining that the Townsmen would not be yet contentedly set­led under their New Lords. On the one side therefore, Gertruydenberg straitned it; the rest Mansfeldt surrounded with strong Guards, yet they feared Relief would be brought thither from behind; for the River Merck runneth into the Maes, and maketh hard by many little Islands, which Prince [...] Maurice had fill'd with Souldiers: And the River it self [Page 251] where it runs by Breda, he had inclosed with a Bridge, and a strong Castle, at a place called Terheiden. From hence the Souldiers, highly enraged, match out to Sevenberg, a Town scituate in the further part of that Continent, and force it, to­gether with a weak Castle belonging to it; their greatest la­bour was spent about Nordam, which is a Castle scituate in a very moyst ground, and in former times, hath been often girt about with ditches, whereinto the Sea floweth, especially on the North part, and there is also a Redout, and the whole, by cutting away a part of the Bank, is washed by the Estuary of the Maes, like an Island; It was at this time defended by Matthias Hellye, one of the famous Adventurers in the ta­king of Breda, who had as many Souldiers as he thought fit, out of the next Islands: After the Parmensians had spent some dayes in battering the place to no purpose, they prepared Bridges, and other Engines, and materials, for an assault, and therewithall, a Ship was set into the water, and Armed men stood round about in the Station, at the top of the Mast, that were, by the continual casting of Darts, to drive away the De­fendants; The besieged, as soon as they saw it approaching, sent out in opposition to it, Boats set on fire; but the Wind averted that danger, and drove it (the Enemies Ship) to the Banck: And as it drew near, the strong eddy or Whirle­poole of the River, turning it round, brought it into the Trench; some set upon it, as it lay upon the Shallowes, o her [...] cast flaming fire-brands into it, and the Souldiers from the top of the Mast, are thrown down, lying open to all wounds, being obvious to the Enemy, on the contrary side was in­tended; and so this stratagem wrought not its effect.

Mansfeldt observing the great slaughter of his men, and the resolute fidelity of the Garrison, as also that he was no lesse worsted in the adjacent little Islands, began to doubt and de­spair as well of the Siege of Breda, as of its being betrayed: And in the mean time, while he lingers in vain about the Town, the Horse that were therein, wearied him out with [Page 252] daily Sallies and Skirmishes. But Prince Maurice, recollect­ing his Souldiers, and though he had but a small Army (a­bout four thousand Foot, and very few Horse) marched into Gelderland, as if he had had a design upon Nimmeghen.

But the Engine prepared to the sudden assault, by the use whereof against the walls they would have fallen down, mis­sed of its hoped success; this Engine was found among some French materials, it was in the form of a Hat, wherein were included Gunpowder, Bullets, and square pieces of Iron; thenceforth knowing the weakness of his Forces, and finding himself not fit for a Siege, because from the adja­cent places, both Arms and Provision were daily brought into the City, he resolved to draw off, yet for a time he con­tinued there, and wearied them at a distance, to try, if by that meanes he could possibly withdraw the Enemy fro [...] Breda? which happened according to his expectation; for after both of them had thus vainly spent their time in Sieges, Mansfeldt, with his encreased forces, striving to help the neighbouring parts, because the City, in regard of the Soul­diers known effeminacy, scorned his most able defences, pitched between the Maes and the Wael. But Prince Mau­rice kept his Army within the Isle of Helland, and to prevent the Enemies passing over the River, he sent Ships into the Wael, and fortified the whole Bank of the River with Forts and Guards, from the division of the Rh [...]ne, unto the place where the Maes falls into it, in which place Count Sob [...] (who commanded some Select Companies given to him by Prince Maurice) was ordered to intrench himself in the Isle of Voorne, as if he had been about to incamp. And a large cut was made from the Wa [...]l into the Rhine, whereby, without danger from Nimmeghen, any Forces or Provisions might be brought from, or carryed into Germany, and several great Banks erected to restrain the overflowings of the Rivers chiefly at the charge, and by the pains of the Hollanders, [...] were greatly benefitted thereby, as well in point of Security [Page 253] as Trade; and Prince Maurice, at the same time, getting this safe defence, over against Nimmeghen, built a continuing Station for his Camp. The Souldiers gave it the name of Kn [...]dsenburg; from thence into the City, which pleasantly ariseth as it were out of the Bank, and from the City against the Workmen, there was a vast, nay almost an infinite ex­change of Bullets. But they that wrought in the building of the Castle, did either work in the night, or were fain to set up blindes to preserve them from the Shot: But the greatest mischief afflicting the Townsmen, was the falling down of Towers, Steeples, and other eminent Structures, upon their heads, and ready with their falls to destroy them: So that now there was no safe Habitation in all the Town, and the River was quite taken from them; by which inconveniencies, being a People not used to War, and desirous of Commerce and Trade, by little and little, they were drawn to change their Masters.

Thus was the Summer spent at Nimmeghen, when the Duke of Parma, having been again to drink the Spaw wa­ters, and the success of his Affairs more luckily suiting his desires, began a little to recover his health; For Ricardot, a constant participater with the Duke, of all his Counsels, had brought back out of Spain to him very gracious and well-pleasing Letters, wherein, after his confirmation in his old Government, he received Orders concerning the French War; for the King was of opinion, that that being near, he would not refuse it, and that the difficulty of the underta­king would make him forget his present cares; But the Duke of Parma was of another mind, which was, to leave the French to the division of their own quarrel, untill the Netherlands were wholly reduced or quieted. But well know­ing, that Princes humours must be born by one that is enga­ged, he made a vertue of necessity, imagining Honour offered him, which by himself must be made glorious by dangerous enterprises. Wherefore going into Henalt, that by his vici­nity, [Page 254] he might take care the more easily, Messengers follow­ed him thither, with the news of Egmonds overthrowes, w [...] the slaughter of his Auxiliaries at Eureux, and that the Con­querours Army pressed hard upon the Parisians. And not l [...] after, the Duke of Guise's Brother and Successor coming on him, to associate Counsels, he did publickly testifie that ill fortune of their parties: At last, after several debates, and private Consultations with the chief Commanders, concern­ing the managery of the War, the Duke of Parma, towards the end of Summer, lead all the choyce and picked Souldi­ers of the Kings Army into France. And new Levies fol­lowed out of Germany, and those other Spanish Mutinee [...]s from Courtray and Menin, but before their departure, they compelled the Townsmen to give them part of their pay, and the rest they had from the King, and then was that presi­dent instituted for perpetuity, that a Scu [...]e in payment to the Souldier, should be currant for ten Royals. The whole num­ber of Foot was twelve thousand, and of Cavalry there were three thousand.

The chief care of all Affairs in the Netherlands, was left to Peter Ernest, Count Mansfeldt, as Deputy Regent, the rest of the Souldiers left behind were committed to his S [...] Charles, with order to put them into Garrisons, left any of them, by the want of their appointed strength, should inc [...]r any danger: As soon as Prince Maurice throughly under­stood these things, he sent some, even as far as Germany, to take possession of the places they had left. All those Fornifi­cations were taken, wherewith the Spaniard had beset the Banks, and passages of Journies, and the Works they had erected in that peaceable Country, by the Rhine and the Maes, were all defaced and overthrown: Another part of the Army made inrodes into Brabant and Flanders, being near to them, and brought thence booty, even out of the middle of the Country, and not only the Dorps and Villages, but the weaker Towns were assaulted, wo [...], and wasted▪ [Page 255] Thus in Autumn, he easily recovered what ever had been conquered by, or yielded to, Mansfoldt, the former year, by the side of the Maes, or about Breda, and utterly subverted all that was unnecessary: Besides these, he annexed his pa­ternal Town of Steeneberg, famous of old for a Harbour; for it lies just upon a turning of the Merowe.

Now the French War raged destructively, both at Sea and Land; the Governours of the Norman Coasts, having fought luckily against the King of France's Enemies in a Sea-fight; nor was any Policy omitted to facilitate the Victory. The Prince of Orange his men assaulted Dunkirk, both with Ships from Sea, and scaling Ladders at Land, and the Spani­ards invaded Lochem by treachery, but both, by fore-know­ledge, prevented their fate.

There was a great rumour this year, of the Germans pre­paring for a War, to vindicate and revenge their Borders, vi­olated by the incroaching of their Neighbours; Now they, who began to meet in parties to take to either side, interpre­ted all things to applause or contempt, every one as his Con­science, or hatred to the Enemy, led him: For the Spaniards having gotten the furthest part of Frizeland, wasted both Vil­lages, and the whole Country beyond the Rhine; Nor were the Garrison Souldiers of Gelderland, which lay about the Dukedoms of Cleues and Juilliers, any moderater, but rob­bing that Country lying beyond them, they brought all the prey they got, into the Castles & Cities, where they were not questionable for the same. Then the Hollanders Horsemen, imit [...]ted the same licentiousness, when ever, having worsted the Enemy, they followed the pursuit: Thus being circum­vented, now with hope of Peace, anon with the cruelty of War, they summoned a Dyet; where, after tedious delays, (as it is indeed the custom of that Nation) by protracting Counsels, sometimes even with threats, they rather delayed the remedies, than removed the evills.

[Page 256]At last, an Embassie was agreed upon, and Decreed; [...] to expostulate the Wrongs, and then to command them [...] desist from War, and all Acts of Hostility, unless within the Borders of the particular Adversaries. And, to this purpose they very carefully and judiciously debated the Point with the Duke of Parma, at the time he was going upon the French Expedition. Whereto he answer'd very sharply, being ac­customed otherwise to shift off all Complaints of that na [...] to wit, either by rejecting them absolutely, or answering them ambiguously: But this was the effect of his present Reply,

That there had been many antient Differences continued among the Provinces, by reason of former Losses upon their Borders, and that now it was not in the General's power to set a form of War; but as they endured casuall Fires, Innundations of Waters, and other Evils either of Nature, or Fate; so they had better [...] bear with the present necessities of the Times, than to begin a Qua­rell with the impatient undergoing thereof: But if former Enemies would depart thence, with all Strangers, then he also would re­store what property belonged to the Germans; always provided, that the Money which was expended in the War of Colen, a secured to the King: In the interim, they should consider, that there were a necessity that they must suffer, certainly the old Reli­gion best merited their Patience, for whose onely sake he was s [...] for into Germany. What, is the Example grown dubious, by increased Liberty, whom to regard best? Of old, these Warlike People have been wont to observe all the Motions of their Neigh­bours, and to have a care of their own strength, that they might cast down any Neighbour Paince that were weaker, much more now when they dare so much against a Powerfull King. You ought rather to pray to God, that whoever is in the fault of the War may being either overcome in Battel, or conquered with Repentance, be forced to return to their first Obedience and Duty; and that th [...] would not be long a doing, if by the deniall, and cutting off all Tra­ding [Page 257] and Provision, they were couped up within their own narrow Limits.

With this Answer being dispatched, they go to the Con­federate Provinces with greater Confidence, and more mala­pert Demands: For first, they required the delivery of the Island of Gravewaerdt, together with all other things which they possessed on their Borders: And after, that the Passa­ges of the Rhine be free, and without Guards and Forts; and neither the Rhine, nor the Ems, being both German Ri­vers, to be thereafter encombred with the Terrour of Fleets, nor the Payment of Tributes.

To this, the States answer'd, That they hoped they should make their Endeavours appear more just, and should truly lay the blame of disturbing the Peace upon the Enemy, which they, without Reason, aspersed them withall: And so beginning with the Causes arising from the Inquisition, and the grievous punish­ment inflicted by it, they proceeded with their throwing off Bishops, and at large demonstrated the Murther of the Nobles, the Oppressions of the Commons, and the other Miseries of Slavery. By these Injuries (say they) being neces­sitated to take Arms, we seek no other thing, by this so tedious and dangerous War, but to free our Bloud and Relations, o [...] Wives and Daughters Bodies, from Barbarous Cruelty, and Be­stiall Abuse and Muckery. This onely is the hope, this the end, of all our Fighting; and we hope our Poverty will be no more spigh­ted or envyed, than the strong Commonwealth of Switzerland, which is terrible to its Neighbours. It is more reason to fear, and more just to resist, those great Robbers of the whole World, whom neither the vast Solitudes of America, the Slaughters of People, both in Granata, and the Netherlands, nor the Servitude of Portugal, and a great part of Italy, is able to satisfie: And as both among Beasts and Fishes, the greater and more ravenous sort live upon Prey, so inferiour States are always obnoxious to the Hatred and Fury of greater Empires. Is it a thing unknown, by whose Design chiefly the English were sollicited to Sedition? Who [Page 258] made Ireland Rebell, and caused the French oppose their law­full King? It behaves you therefore to be wary; for even among you the Spaniard hath such, as, hired by him, are ready [...] advise or act what suits best to his Advantage: Nay, they [...] hath their sight, are yet, out of fear, compelled to obey them, [...] may be observed among the Indians, who reverence them as they do Evil Spirits, that they may not hurt them. He, (to wit, Pa­ [...]a) without blame undermines by Treachery the Cities of Cle [...] Others are voluntarily delivered as a Pledge of Friendship, by him whose due they were, as the Revenue of his Ecclesiastical Pro [...] ­tions, as is said, which now are really become trusty Recep [...] ­cles of Villany, and so many Dens for Robbery. Nay, the most opulent and wealthy Prince, when his Souldiers want Money p [...]ts out you for their Pay Masters, and whole Regiments of Souldiers, as well as others, are made fat with German Tri­butes. We, at this time, onely strive for this that we may not suf­fer an unlike Fortune, in a like Cause: We, certainly, if ever [...] People, labour to keep our Souldiery unblameable, and peaceable to­wards all our Neighbours, by our constant Pay to them: Our Sub­jects bear us Witness, and the Legal Punishments inflicted on [...] that are guilty, that as far as War is to be Governed, we strive [...] preserve the Peace of all that do not disturb us: Onely herein, [...] hope, you will pardon us, if sometimes the Souldier takes may upon him, than the Officers or Magistrates. We have hitherto maintained the antient Estimation of Holland, even in the Mis­chiefs of War, among the most remote Nations; much less shal we, the antient Companions and Followers of the Romane Pro­wess, and so near allied in Bloud to the Germans, by any Perfidy violate that Great Parent, which always furnished us with Cap­tains, instructed us in Vertue, and shewed us the Example of Li­berty. As for Gravewaerdt, the chief Government of it long before the War, and Charges of a Disputed Right, belonged to Gelderland, as standing in that Jurisdiction; We hold it not to injure others, but to defend our Selvss, and our Borders; And for the rest of the Towns and Castles, although being taken from [Page 259] the Enemy, they lost their Priviledge of Peace, yet we shall wil­lingly yield them; that as Force first began from the Spaniard, so with us Right shall be both a beginning and Example. The Bur­den laid upon Trade, that passeth our Borders, is nothing so heavy to our Neighbouring Nations, as to our own People; they have necessitated by War, though they be no other than such as are fre­quently demanded and taken by most Potent Princes; And to re­move our Guards of Shipping, when the Enemy lies all about the Rivers, is not consistent in Policy with Safety; but they are rather Safeguards to all such as pass that way, and likewise defend you, as well as our Selves.

About this time, there came also an Embassie both from Colen and Leige, Bojoarus was Bishop of both places: Where­fore the States, not medling with the cause of Truxius his Quarrel, they complained of many things against the Bi­shop, whose unasatiable Avarice took Confidence onely from the Spanish Greatness assisting him: However, they as­sured to Colonian's Safety and Peace, if (as standing in the middle) they would onely converse with Parties, as Neu­ters: But the Condition of them of Leige was far different, having both done and suffer'd, by connivence, many Acts of Hostility: Against them also was objected, the punishment of such as were innocent, under colour of vindicating Reli­gion; and afterwards, when the rest of the Netherlands were possessed by the Spaniards intermixedly, they so openly set out for them Winter-quarters, and raised Summer Provisions, that, if we may not plainly say, it was a Voluntary Act; yet we may well say, it was not Compulsory: And therefore, to hope for Peace, where they had so deserved; and in the interim, upon Order, to send away their Prisoners, there was little Reason.

It would not be amiss, or any ways absurd, to dive further into these Matters; that both the Reason of War, against the adjoyning Cities, and what Peace they may expect, may be understood: And indeed, after this, there was Freedom ta­ken [Page 260] both for Rapine and Injuries, as every Province inclined hither or thither, out of fear of Danger, or sometimes out of Design. They hardly ever took a Voyage free from Arms and Force, while both endeavouring to get away, by that very means drew on the Enemy. Thus, in several renewed Em­bassies, there was nothing but the same over again heard at spoken: But the Hollander yielded up several strong Holds, as desired; but, in truth, because they were so far distant, that they could not easily be maintained, or defended; and that they might thereby heap upon the Spaniard Envy, if not bring upon him a War, because he would perform none of those things, which before he had agreed to: And there were some in the German Dyet, who would have nothing but Force and Arms used against them, for neglect of performing their Promise.

But the other Princes and Bishops, who continued all in one Society of the Catholike Religion, or were otherwise ob­liged to one another, broke the strength of that Design to use Force, by procrastinating Consultations, and the hope of a Pacification with the Netherlands. And now some were sent from the Confederate States to complain, that they were be­trayed by the Treachery of their Enemies, and the careless Sloth and Neglect of their Friends; They having given a­way from themselves the Rewards of their Pains and Charge in the War, (for as yet Truxius did not appear) while Phi­lip, yet unquestion'd, kept possession of all the Cities near the Rhine: Nor could they obtain of the Emperour any whit the less every year, to forbear to assist the Spaniard with Arms, though he saw them averse to the desired Peace. At the end of the year, the Duke of Parma returning from France, was afflicted and vexed with many things, though he brought with him the Honour of having freed Paris from a cruel Siege, and bringing his Army Home safe, from among so many dangerous and mortal Enemies: For both himself, and his Army were hated by the French Commons, and the [Page 261] Cities would not receive Garrisons of his Men, for fear of Forreign Servitude; so that here all Philip's hopes were bla­sted, and he found there was no relying on such uncertain Friendship.

Another of his Vexations, was, That by the Enemies Ex­cursions, most of the Fortifications, through the whole Ne­therlands, had been Reduced; That Verdugo in Frizeland▪ onely taking the small Castle of Ementell, had in all other Ma [...]ters of War been unfortunate, and the Souldiers at that present were ready to Mutiny: And the Townsmen of Ven [...]e (a place in Gelderland, near the Maes) startled him; for they being perplexed with the tedious Evils of a double Garrison; first, by the help of the German Souldiers, drove out the Italians, and afterwards taking more courage, be­came too strong for them, and turned them out. Besides an­other Sedition grew more violent among the selected men, hastned through Germany by Mansfeldt, to hinder Prince Maurice his Progress, because he had provided for the new raised men, part of their wages, and debarred the rest from any: This Mansfeldt was an old Commander in the War, & that made them rage against him more furiously. Thus being about Herentals, and other adjacent Towns of Brabant, as if they had been Enemies, they spoiled all that part of the Coun­try, which is called Kempenlandt, yet pretended themselves the Kings Souldiers; and if any resistance was made against them, neither Rapes, Murthers, or any other villany, was by them accounted unlawfull.

Thus while they harassed the Fields, though the pay de­creased, yet their number that demanded it, was increased. But the Duke of Parma said, that he suspected, the Souldiery ought to have been dispersed into severall fortifyed Cities, and there mixed with the new raised men; Indeed, it was time to shut the Stable-door; when the Horse was stollen; And this Counsel coming too late, served to little purpose otherwise, for surely, the onely removing of the mischief to [Page 262] another place, was but miserable comfort to a publick [...] ­lamity. But this Advise brought not to them so much [...] but instead thereof, more seditious Souldiers daily came to­gether, who being wearied with a hard and pinching J [...] quickly laid hold of that opportunity, to ease themselves and forcibly to seize those rewards which their Command [...] had formerly denyed them; But the Duke of Parma had [...] some Companies in France, with the chief Commander of the Guisian Faction, to whom the Prince of Ascoli was com­manded to conduct some more, according to their desire.

1591. The Enemies Forces being in this manner divided and the Souldiery remaining at home, disobedient and [...] ­fractory, or else but lately raised: the confederate Pro [...] ­ces, fleshed with the last years success, now took heart, and they who before could scarce defend their own bounds with­out great fear and hazard, now resolve to invade others.

Some perswaded them to forbear, till the Duke of Par [...] was gone into France; but others thought it best to lay [...] of all opportunities; and if they did nothing else, yet it [...] well worth their time and labour, to hinder the Duke of Par­ma's Journy into France. Neither did they continue long [...] suspence, from what part to begin their business; for although the Frizo [...]s desired their ayd, yet it was of great concern­ment to them, to free Issell from Garrisons of Spaniards, to whom all Gelderland, as well the Betuwe, as the Velume, and the others that were near, for fear of the Hollanders incu [...] ­ons were tributary, the which, grievously enslaved, ever since the Prince of Aurange his time, they had omitted, hindered either by their own weakness, or the Enemies power. As soon therefore as the time of going abroad to forage was come, and the Souldiers numbers compleated, and their pay ordered among them, Sir Francis Vere, (whom the Queen had made her General of the English) first went toward De [...] ­burg. Some few of his men in the habit of Country-women with Baskets, running as if they fled from a following Ene­my, [Page 263] got into the Fort that lies over against Zutphen, onely se­parated by the River, whereinto they were no sooner entred, but quickly laying hands on their Weapons, which were hid under their Cloaths, partly with the [...], and partly with Wea­pons taken there, they killed the first Sentinels, ere they were aware, and afterwards, the rest surprized with amaze and fear, were easily either killed or taken.

Vere, had not held the Fort above one day, when Prince Maurice came thither with all his Army of eight thousand Foot, and two Wings of Horse, making two thousand; they brought with them, all things necessary for the assault of a Town: And for the more ease of the P [...]ince, there attended a Selected Counsel of the Senate, to the Companions of his Cares.

But fame hereof coming to the Enemy, it was believed, the Army was bent against the Cities of Brabant▪ or el [...]e to take Gertruydenberg, because a few dayes before, the S [...]u [...]i­ers had in those parts taken Forts and Castles: And [...]he Prince forwarded in them this error, at first, by a doub [...]full march; as if he intended to go to the Maes; but on a sudden, at the winding of the Rhine, turning into Issell, there met him Count William, and two thousand Frizons, drawn out of the Garrisons. Here Intelligence was received, both from Sir Francis Vere, and some Prisoners, that the Banck was to be possessed. Here the Enemy was secure, in other places he was afraid; and therefore, that the City was neither well fortifyed, nor victualled but for a few dayes; That the be­sieged, before any Relief or Provisions could be brought to them, might be taken by fo [...]ce, there no being in the Town above six hundred Armed men, and nothing considerable of force, could be raised by the Citizens, most of them having formerly left the place, to avoid the Souldiers insultations. At the very first Skirmish, Count Falcosteyne, the chiefest of all Truxius his Commanders was slain, while he too furiously pursued the beaten Enemy flying into the Town, but his body [Page 264] was fetched off, and rescued from villanous usage. Upon the River were placed Ships, fixed with Anchors, in form of [...] Bridge, which reaching orderly from Banck to Banck, joyn [...] the Souldiers Quarters together with a safe passage; [...] from thence, others were commanded to dismantle all [...] Guards upon the wayes; and another part were ordered [...] draw oblike and crooked Trenches up to the Castle, that [...] the casting up of the Earth, they might come, safe from the Enemies Darts or Shot, up to undermine the very Walls and to this work, the night was designed.

The Seamen and Marriners, whose readiness and co [...] in Maritime Affairs, was here of very great use, for th [...] brought thirty great Guns, with more celerity, than Horse part into a little Island in the River, and part against the main Buildings of the City, that they might with the conti­nuall Thunder thereof, shake and, overthrow that part of the Works which was weakest, in regard the River was of it [...] a strong defence. But in the City, though struck with a s [...] ­den fear, yet they ran up and down every where, to prev [...] the Enemies endeavours, they increased the Rampi [...]es at the Gate, shut up by the foe, and within began new Works, by which time, a certain number of Cannon being shot off, ac­cording to Military Custom, Messengers were sent by the Prince, with threats of the greatest extremity, unless they would submit and render the Town: They pray a time to consult, but that would not be granted; whereupon, consci­ous to themselves, of the want of many things, and how f [...] they were to defend the large circuit of the Walls, they [...] rendered upon Articles, that the Souldiers should march a­way safe and undisturbed, and the Townsmen, if they ple [...] ­ed, might stay, being ordered and governed according to the Laws and Customs of the confederate Cities. According to which conclusion, many Sieges afterwards being ended we shall not so often repeat the same.

[Page 265]The Spaniards found fault with the too hasty rendition of the Town, and therefore the Governour of it, as long as the Duke of Parma lived, was never suffered to come to Court. The fifth day, after the beginning of the Siege, was Zutphen delivered: it stands in an excellent Scituation, the River Bark [...] runs through it, Issell passeth by it, as it comes from [...]phalia, and not far off falling into the Rhine, by the la­bour of Drasus, as it is believed. This with her neighbour-Towns and Country was of old subject to the Princes there­of, who were called Earls; and there remains a distinct [...] of Jurisdiction, though it be now united to the body of G [...]lderland, not so much, by reason of its scituation be­yond the Rhine, as by the intermarriages of Princes: Upon the same Banck stands Deventer, formerly a free City of the Aus [...]ike League, and the Metropolis of Over-Issell, under the Bishops power: Hither when the Army came with a swift march, at the very sight thereof, they were at a non-plus, not knowing what to do. But the strong Fortifications of the City, and the greatness of the Garrison, whereof the Army had Intelligence, being one hundred Horse, and fourteen Ensigns of Foot, made the Prince at a stand. Herman, Count Her [...]nberg, was Governour thereof, both an instructer, and an example of vertue and fidelity, he was neerly allyed by blo [...]d to Prince Maurice himself, as being born of his Aunt, and therefore so much the more envying the glory and splen­dor of his Kinsman: Above all, the Duke of Parma was feared, least he should draw together Forces, and come and disturb them in their Siege, which if it should happen, there would be a necessity for them, either shamefully to fly, or doubtfully run the hazard of a battel.

And the taking of Zutphen, as it was a great incourage­ment to all that hoped well, so was it a warning to others, that they should not endanger their gotten Honour, but ra­ther preserve it for more certain advantages: On the other side, some that fled out of the City, brought Intelligence, that [Page 266] the Souldiers were ready to mutinie, that there was not Vi­ctuals to serve against a long Siege; nay, that they had not Gunpowder enough in any proportion for their Guns: which being understood, the middle course was resolved on, to wit, that they should with all speed, fortisie their Camp, stop [...] all passages both by Land and Water, that no Messenge [...] might be able to get to them with newes of Relief: But if the Enemy should hold out, it would be sufficient, that all the Bancks being guarded, they might for the future; easily passe to the other side, and force them, and this was the sum of the Counsel, before the expedition was undertaken.

Prince Maurice making a continual battery against the Town, upon the ninth day, to try the mindes of the besieged, drew up his Army before the Walls; then commands some Ships to be forthwith carried into the Channel, where the River passing by the City, is somewhat stopped, and to place them near the shore: These, in regard they could not be rowed, because of the narrowness of the River, some Seam [...] drew under the very Walls with their hands, in spight of al the Enemies Shot; an undertaking certainly of such a na­ture, as many couragious men, would have shrunk at: The Boats being placed in the very trench, and a Bridge made over them, every one was ready to take upon him the sho [...] and assault, to merit the Princes prayse, who called it an ho­nourable piece of Service, though it was not a work for or­dinary Valour; Thus while they made so much hast, they hindred the Engineers, and the Bridge it self being a little too short, did not reach over to the other Bancks; The Wall is this place, together with an adjoyning Tower, was partly beaten down by the force of the battery, part of it yet being supported by Arches (for it was an antient Structure) and heaps of Earth thrown into the hollow places thereof; The choyce men that were to give the onset, and if they entred, to make good the place, were many of them drowned, some few onely attaining the shore by leaping.

[Page 267]I cannot in this place, passe by the glorious emulation of two Ensigns, the one of whom being killed upon the top of the Walls the other brought off both his own Colours, and those of his slaughtered Companion; But all this time, the Cannon did the greatest harm to the Enemy, yet could not force them from the Walls; for being full of Wine, they made rather a desperate than a valiant defence; Here in the first place, Count Herman fought with more than necessary Valour (in regard he was the Governour of the Town) but he did it to make good his Honour and fidelity. (For some Spaniards had not stuck to report, that it was an agreed de­sign between the two Kinsmen.) Nor did he go away before the showres of Bullets yet continuing thick, he was in the darkness wounded. All night, the Princes men were fain to defend the Bridge from being burned, for the Enemy conti­nually cast fire at it.

As soon as the Day again appear'd, and the Enemy now grown sober, saw plainly the Prince's Army before them in Battel Array, and the Bridge whole, the sight being also rea­dy to begin again; then they considered their danger, espe­cially upon the Return of some that had been sent as Spies; who reporting the Prince's strength, with the greatest Ad­vantage, made their disgrace (in case they surrendred) to seem the less: Count Herman alone would not consent to surrender, but he being very ill with his Wounds (though he might suffer the Rendition, yet) could not hinder it: For the Townsmen now called to the Souldiers that guarded the Bridge, that they might have liberty to Treat; whereof the Prince being informed, and receiving from him safe Con­duct, they went out: The Townsmen were left to the Con­querours Mercy, and that thereafter they should have Magi­strates appointed, not according to their own Laws and Cu­stoms, but as should be thought convenient by the Ʋnited States of the Reformed Religion: And it appeared, that as Zutphen, so also Deventer, did not reckon the Spaniards [Page 268] should dwell amongst them for ever; for that before the Siege they burnt their Huts, although they had not long be­fore Wood enough: Before their departure, all the Captains and Officers were deliver'd bound, in vain lamenting the own Necessities, and the Civil Discords: But Count H [...] would not believe, that the States were able to raise such numerous Forces; yet he, having been Governour, durst not go into the Spanish Quarters, fearing bitter and invete [...] Accusers, and prepossessed Judges. Fit Garrisons being [...] placed in the Cities lately taken, the Frizons beseeched [...] That now at last he would think of them, whose Peace was di [...] bed by the pertinacious Obstinacy of one single City; and that [...] remained now but a few Towns and Castles, which if they were ta­ken, the whole Country, between the Rivers Issel and Ems, would be free from the Enemies Incumbrances, and be intirely in the States Power: So much was their hope advanced, by these first Successes, that they, who till this time hardly durst un­dertake any thing, now on a suddain, did not boggle at the most adventurous Enterprizes. With great speed therefore, an Expedition into Frizeland was begun; and least, in the absence of the Army, the Enemy should make any Im [...] ­ons, the Regiments lately raised in Holland, were ordered to keep good and strong Guards upon the Wael. The Prouisions of War, and all other Things that might impede their Jour­ney, being put aboard some Ships, were carryed out of the Is­sel into the Zuyderzee, and so through the Ocean to the River Ems.

The Souldiery, by this means, free from Porsage, onely in passing over the Marshes, they carryed, besides their Daily Provision, Faggots, were led into that part of Over-Issels which is called Drent, where the People had inclosed their Marshy Grounds, with a great many young Shoots of Places growing together; for the Enemy stopped the better way, being possessed of Coevorden, which some did advise the Ar­my to take as they went, least from thence the Enemy should [Page 269] p [...]e them in the Rear; averring, that Verdugo, who kept that Castle, might easily be beaten thence, either by some Stratagems, publike Force, or want of Victuals: But this C [...]el was not approved, by reason of the difficult bring­ing either of great Carriages for Battery in a Land-March; and also, because there was less necessity of fighting at Groe­ [...]g.

Among many other inconveniencies, the Army met with, in their March thither, one was a Meor, containing in [...] Three Thousand five hundred Paces: And though the upper Crustiness of the Turf was so hardned, notwith­standing Natural Moisture underneath, that it would endure a few to go over it; yet such as follow'd in the Third or Fourth Rank, sunk so deep into the yielding Mud, that they could hardly be drawn out, though sometimes their Captains came, and gave their helping hand to them, that so the Toil might not seem so grievous to the Souldier; and in a few hours the whole Army had passed it, which all the Inhabitants thereabouts had thought impossible to be done: But the Soul­diers could not be restrained, by any Authority, to forbear Injuring to the Country as they marched, according to the Evil Custom of Armies, their pilfering, stealing, and wasting of what would have served for many days, had almost cau­sed want of Provision; and that would have bred a Sedition, but that the Ships came in season, loaded with Provision, to prevent the same. Now were all the Tents pitched about Groening, where the Prince conceived a good hope of Suc­cess, from the variable and unconstant behaviour of the Vul­gar, against those in Authority, as also from the Discords within the City: But indeed, too confident in their words, by Relations above Truth, had for their own advantage drawn the Army thither: 'Tis true, there were some with­in, who remembred the League of Union, but they were over-powred by the adverse Faction. Moreover, Verdugo, upon the Report of the Armies coming into those Parts, had [Page 270] strengthned both Steo [...]wic, and Coevorden, with Garrisons; and with the Remainder of his Forces was come to Groening before Prince Maurice; yet was not for all that admitt [...] within the Gates, (for the City when it first submitted, ex­cepted that one particular) but kept his proper Guards in the Suburbs, as well to the Terrour, as the Aid of the City. The Prince not staying above six days there; for fear the City should, as out of Necessity, admit that Garrison within their Walls, and so, for the future, all their hopes be utterly lost; an likewise because he heard the Duke of Parma was pre­paring an Army to raise the Siege, on a suddain falls upon all the circumjacent Forts, whereby all the Ways and Passages of Rivers were stopped: And which had in the Series of this long War, been often subverted by the Frizons, and as often re-built.

Great was the Fear and Dread of the Souldiers, as having been more accustomed to Theft and Depopulations, than Fighting; few of them en [...]uring more than the very sight of the Ca [...]on and the weake places they left without any Siege at all: The greatest Castle of all named Delfeziel, and famous for a H [...]ven, where Fivel falls into the Ems, was held by Souldiers of Groening; the conveniency of the place, had, of old, w [...]ough upon all, that desired the Dominion of the City, to get or keep i [...]; which the Duke of Alva attempted, but was hindred by the Times. The States now having got­ten this place, inlarged the Old, and strengthned it with new Works making the Tributes of the places near thereto, bear the Charge; dividing the Sea-Bank from the Rampire, and building Houses therein, threa [...]ning Groening; That unless they repented, they would not leave it any Inhabitants. And at the same time, a great w [...] of all Things shrewdly tempted the inclosed to alter their Faith, and consequently their Lords: But after the Prince had drawn away his Army, Ver­dugo making his way by force, through the weakest Fort, opened a Passage to the City, out of Westfalia, by Bourtange: [Page 271] But the Duke of Parma coming too late, to help either Zut­ [...], or Deventer and imagining the Enemy durst not have [...]uted so far, for that many of the Spaniards, by reason of their ill pay, would not be commanded, doubtful whither he should lead his Forces, being now met together about the Maes and the Rhine, either to distract the Enemy in his De­sign or to match after him voluntarily, which would be the more noble, and so to help Groening, as he was desired: he was deterred from the latter, by the excessive greatness of the Iourney; and besides, all the Country lying between, was wasted and spoiled, either by the Frizon Souldiers, or his own. Wherefore, at last, he resolved to answer the desire of Nimmeghen; whither being come, he commanded the River to be passed over, and the Fort, which Prince Maurice had the former year begun, to be besieged; himself would do all that was necessary in the City: Count Barlaymont lay up­on that side of Knodsenburg, which looks Eastward: Another was Beleague [...]'d by Octavius, Count Mansfeldt, who was shortly after shot by the Besieged, and dyed of the Wound: He was a Noble Person, and although but young, yet ambi­tious of Honour, and for the winning thereof, would shun no danger. The back-side of the Fort was inclosed by the Horse, and some other Regiments. Lamotte brought thither the Artillery with ease, by the help of the Rising Bank; He af­terwards finding the Bulwark too strong for the Cannon, though a great part of the Ravelin was beaten down, and see­ing the Enemy were not terrified, at the sight of the Army drawn up in Battel Array against them, filled the Trench with Oziers, and other Boughs, and after that sends some privately to undermine the Bulwark; they, in the mean time, who were to fill the Ditch, helping the Work forward, with many of their dead Bodies. But the Defendants, that were Six Hundred, under the Command of Gerard Junius, a Man of great Courage, were ready in all places, to answer the Force or Policy of the Enemy with Shot, and otherwise; [Page 272] many times, by successful Sarlies, disturbing their enterp [...] ­sed beginnings.

At this time Prince Maurice had left Groening, and was going against Steenewie, when heating of the Siege of K [...] ­senburg, he left Count William to defend the Frizons, and himself, with a flying Army, coming to Arnheynie, an I [...]e of Holland, by Signs, encouraged the Besieged; and likewise from thence sent Messengers, that got through the adverse Army, unespy'd by Night in a Boat: But the Nassania [...] Commanders differ'd in Opinion, whether they should [...] the Enemy in the Field, and fight him; or, passing the Ri­ver Wael, should fortifie themselves, and hinder their Adver­saries of Provision, and make them leave the Works and Guns, they had setled upon the side of the Hill by Ni [...] ­ghen: There was difficulty and danger in both these At­tempts; for, without all doubt, the Enemy was stronger in Horse, whose Force and Valour they had often tryed, both in Fight and Forraging. At length Fortune determin'd their Doubt, which many times is as profitable as Prudence; for the Prince, with Count Solms, and Sir Francis Vere, being brought near the Enemies Camp, hid part of the forwardest Regiments, with some Troops, among the Thickets adjoyn­ing to the way: Other part of the Horse were commanded to march a good way forward, to draw on the Enemy, upon whose approach, they were to seem to fly, as if they were overpower'd, (for most of the Italians in Ten Troops, among whom was the Duke of Parma's own Lifeguard were come out to pursue them) and they were not to face about, till they had drawn the Pursuers beyond the River, and a narrow Bridge that went over it; which being brought to pass, according to expectation, suddainly they that fled, tur­ned again; and the others that lay in Ambush coming in, they were inclosed, and every valiant man among them dyed in the place he stood; the rest were scatteringly slain, as they [Page 273] were met with, onely some few, while the Conquerours took the Ensigns, and some prisoners alive, and the Horses, escaped and fled to the Camp: With the grief whereof, and the loss of so many noble and valiant men, not thinking it safe any longer to stay in the Enemies quarters, he gave over his vain Siege; but pretending, that he was commanded to march once more into France, and that the great Affairs of the [...] Kingdom were not to be neglected, in striving to win a few Forts or Castles in Holland: Wherefore, sending the Car­riages before, he Transported his Army, having onely built some slight Works upon the River, to keep the Nassauians in play, least they should fall upon his Rear; and as soon as his Army was all over the Water, he commanded them to make a stand, that they might secure the ships coming after them: But the City was highly displeased at his departure; some few spoke of him favourably; most smother'd their Anger in a threatning silence; but the baser sort of people cover'd nothing of their Madness, but shew'd their Fury in their Speeches; as if they could by them draw back an Old General, that fled at the sight of a stripling Enemy.

Undoubtedly, Parma's Mind, having always been accu­stomed to win Honour, was grievously afflicted with this Disgrace; so that his former Disease, now again increasing, be, together with his Son Ranutio (who lately came out of Italy, augmented his Fathers Vexation, that he should be a Witness of his Misfortune) went to the Spaw; there, among the variety of his present Discontent, and former Fortune, to drink of the Waters. From thence he sent to the Mutinous Spaniards at Diest; for pacifying whom, he gave a very pre­judicial Example, to wit, That Emanuel Vega a Captain, who was more severe, than the Villany of the Souldiers would bear, should be displaced, and another put into his room.

The Citizens of Nimmeghen did many of them begin to look after Liberty, especially after Desperation had multiplied those Evils, which before they had scarcely undergone, with [Page 274] the Promises and Expectation of better Things: For six years before, following the Duke of Parma's good Fortune; [...] by a general Consent, but the Faction of a small Party, when the Government of the United States, after a long time, and by much care, came to be setled, (without whose Consent, what­ever Duty or Obedience they shewed, was without any Af­fection) yet they chose Safety and Profit: And from that time, there began a mutual Commerce between them and the Hollanders, who suffer'd the Ships of Nimmeghen to go through the Wael; because then the Channel of the R [...] wanted Depth of Water to bear them. But in the Garrison were Three Companies, one of Forreigners, two of men [...]i­sed within the Town, (for they positively refused to admit of more) and as any one offended more heinously the parties of the great Ones, they would, by vertue of their received Power, threatningly restrain or punish the Offenders. There wanted now onely a close Siege, least the Enemies Forces should lye at lurch about the Maes; and that was onely de­layed by the excessive increase of Water in the Wael, so that there could not be had any use of a Bridge: However, the Souldier rested not long quiet in his Winter-quarters, though they were purposely at a great distance, the more to increase the Conquering Enemies Security: For Prince Maurice, prosecuting his good Fortune, draws out of his Garrisons part of the Regiments, and with them marches over the Scheldt into the Land of Wase; and at the same time, the Horse made an Intoad into Brabant: And the fifth day after, ha­ving taken all the Forts thereabouts, Hulst, a Town in that Province, was deliver'd to him: The suddainness of the Action amazed the Garrison Souldiers, (for the Governor, by chance, was gone out of Town before the Siege, upon private occasions of his own) and also, because the Prince had digged through the Bank, to make the River overflow all the adjacent places, and by that means stopped the Enemy from assisting them.

[Page 275]The whole Land of Wase was given to the Souldiers, to spoil and pillage, until they promised Tribute, and sent Ho­stages to the States, for payment of the same: But the Neigh­bours of the Hollanders, seeing all the best of their Fruits, and other Provisions, possessed by the Enemy, Prince Maurice's Army being gone, as fearing to have bin met with unawares in the Enemies Country by the Duke of Parma, cause Mon­drag [...]io, the Governour of the Castle at Antwerp, to take Arms; who, accordingly, with the next Souldiers he could get, and such as lived about the Maes, goes over the Scheldt, but not daring to look upon any Town, (for Count Solms defended them, and Repaired the Works) he reco­vered the Forts and Sconces in the Country, and Erected some n [...]w ones, for the straitning or cutting off Excursi­ons.

Hereupon, the Inhabitants of the Country denyed their promised Tribute, supposing, and not without Reason, that the Clemency of the Enemy would not break its wonted bounds, and revenge the injury upon the innocent pledges. All things succeeding thus, even beyond his wishes, the Prince once again drawing his Souldiers out of their winter-quarters, goes into Gelderland, which the Enemy had quitted; In this hasty Progress, some of his Ships, falling upon the shelves, he was constrained to burn; shortly after, recruited with the Forces of Count William (being twelve Ensigns) he entred the Wael, and united the Island, and the main Land, together with a Bridge. The Camp on both sides, was sorti­fied against any Enemy that should come on their backs: The upper part of the Town, where the Walls were not lined with banks, he thought fit to batter, and because it seemed a great way to draw the Artillery, and incommodious withall, they were carried before the Town in the night, and by that meanes, the Defendants in Nimmeghen, for that in the dark they could not discern the quick motion of the Ships, spent all their Shot and Darts in vain.

[Page 276]At the same time, beyond the River, on the other Bank, there were other Military Engines to shoot into the Town At first, they resolved couragiously to defend the Town, and being not yet quite enclosed round, they sent to Verdugo, de­siring him not to forsake them in that their extreme danger; for at this time, he was commanded to defend Gelderland, [...] had no forces, so that he might not immeritedly complain [...] have onely forsaken places under his charge. After this, be­cause they feared their Fortifications might be defective, al hand, of all Sexes and Ages, were imployed to make a [...] Work more inwards. There is a Castle in this place, [...] not so much because it is impregnable by the Military [...]is­cipline of this Age, as for its being a Monument of ant [...] greatness and prowess: The Townsmen attribute the glory of the Work to Julius Caesar, warring in these parts against Gaul. They tell us also, that the Catti built the City, who when of old they left their own Country, possessed this Island of the Rhine, and all the Neighbouring parts of Belgia. But it is evident to me in my search of old Authours, that here up­peared no kind of City, either in the dayes of Caesar, or of Trajan, in whose Reign, Tacitus wrote in the Roman I [...] ­rary, written by Antoninus; this Nimmeghen began first to peep up her Head at the Wael, and that Charlemayne built a Palace therein, the French Chronicles declare, assuring us with­all, that by the Normans, it was utterly consumed with fire; but the Germans not long after growing prevalent, it became a free City, and was a great while the Selected Seat of those Emperours. Untill by the Articles of the Pope, it was torn from the German Empire, in the divisions thereof, when William Earl of Holland got his share, and want of money still produced new occasions, it was pawned to Oth [...], [...]h [...]n Earl of Gelderland, from which time, being by reason of its so near vicinity to the Province of Geldres annexed thereto, it hath increased in power, growing rich by the long enjoy­ment of peace, and having brought forth many ingenious [Page 277] man; But to return to the Siege. As soon as the Cannon and Gra [...]e [...], and other private Stratagems, by Mines and the like, had now made the danger alike in every place, being once more summoned, they were divided into factions. The G [...] [...]n [...]s, and men in Power, boasted of the Kings Power, and that an Army was coming to their relief, both out of Frizeland and Flanders, there being no Reason, why Rene­gadoes should have their revenge; But the common People gathering together with a sudden fury, broke into the Court, where after a long murmur, and humming noyse, at length, [...] burst forth into words to this effect, first setting forth their misery in the stopping up of the River, their wasted lands, their ruined Houses, and the approach of Famine. [Neither, saith he, is this the first time, that we have by a Siege been forced to yield to our fortune; It is now a Year and upwards, [...] we have here lived in a wretched condition among these dan­gers, glad to sock any corner to hide our selves in for safety; and the continued Series of our miseries is thus much more increased, for that we have unworthily and treacherously violated all Cove­nant: But we unworthy of any help, and neglected by our Lords, of whom we have merited better things have received a very Sig­nall favour from the Enemy unless perhaps now, us if bound to suffer the extremity, we still wait for relief from them, who refu­sed to help us while they might; or which is as vain, that we should think with our own strength, and three little Bands of Souldiers, to overthrow those mountainous Fortifications, and raise a Siege which is so strongly setled and maintained. We shall be left as Zu [...] ­phen and Deventer; We have against all Reason, protracted the time beyond Hulste, and what hope have we? what Reward shall we receive of our obstinacy? Alas, wretches! nothing but to be conquered: Let us now at length shake off the Chains of a based and ingratefull Kingdom, while we receive him who now is reputed our Adversary, not as a powerfull foe, but a mercifull Conquerour. There is a sort of People, who alwayes wage War, that they may not be enslaved by others, yet never have any hope of [Page 278] setling a Government among themselves; To these all Rivers [...] Seas are open, they sail to all places for Commerce; their [...] flourish as in the undisturbed enjoyment of a continuall Peace; [...] are not impoverished either by their Governours and Magist [...] avarice or the rude licentiousness of Souldiers: while we pay [...] less Tributes for the upholding our slavery, than for the [...] of our Laws and Customs: Let us become free among Fr [...] and in enjoying that happy Name of a Common-wealth, instead of being conquered we shall be equall Conquerours, and have [...] ­qual share both in Command and Government.]

This Speech being ended, many of the People did threa­ningly murmur the same things, so that they who at the be­ginning were averse, now went away, as consenting either out of fear, or for that they believed what was spoken was [...] truth; And the Souldiery durst not resist, being well con­tented, in regard of their inability, to have their lives saved; The City desired they might be permitted the use of the Ro­man Catholick Religion, but it would not be granted: As so [...]n as it was delivered, Prince Maurice sent in a Garrison, and appointed a new Magistrate, and this privilege he took [...] himself, during the War, abrogating the power of incor­rupted Fraternities, as the onely nurse of Sedition, for [...] the Neighbouring Towns were ruled by a Senate, unless th [...] for the dispatch of more weighty Affaires, some were by chance elected from among the People: Thus enjoying the greatest part of Gelderland, he restored the antient splendor of his Family, for that formerly, the Princes of the Name and Blood of Nassau had governed that Province.

The Siege of Steenwic was thought fit to be deferred, be­cause the Winter was now come, very hurtfull, by the Frost and Ice, to marches and obnoxious to carriages, nor would it have been any thing better, if it should either rain or snow, because the natural moysture and marishness of the ground would be exceedingly increased; wherefore the Prince re­turning Victor into Holland, loaden with honourable fame, [Page 279] even among forraign Nations, he was received by the [...], even with an excess of joy.

The people of old were wont to rejoyce at their Princes good fortune, as from Command, not obliged by duty. They had known the former Prince of Aurang onely in disguise, under the Cloud of adverse fortune. And in the Earl of Lei­cester's time, they were perplexed between private discords, and publick murthers: Now only they saw their bounds en­larged by Arms, and their Government setled by Rivers, and strengthned with fortifyed Towns, and yet their Leader re­quiring no other satisfaction for all his pains and labour, than the glory thereof, the benefit of the success being wholly left to the Country; which looked not only with hope. [...]ut ad­ [...]tion at his youth, as if it had been on purpose, set apart by the divine Providence, for such weighty undertakings.

And then again, casting their unsatisfied eyes upon his countenance, they gratefully reverenced that tender Age, and [...] Blood, which had so often thrown it self upon dangers for their defence. And without all doubt, the Princes good fortune was much forwarded by celerity; besides, he had learned the exquisite Arts of Fortification, both as to the of sensive and defensive part, the besieging or defending Towns, and as far as the present Age was able to instruct him, was well practised in the encamping of an Army.

The Enemies were nothing so industrious, their confi­dence (as it is generally observed) breeding carelesness and slouth, and sometimes overweening Temeri [...]y. They who are weakest in power, are for the most part strongest in Coun­sel, as ayming to supply by prudent Resolutions and Indu­stry, what is deficient in strength. Fame also is a great assi­stant, where the first happy events are multiplyed to the great supportation of liberty. But the mayn of all, was the strength of Shipping among so many Rivers, without which the rest would have profited but little.

[Page 280]According to Custom, the Souldiers wintered in Garri­sons, from whence many times, small parties going out wi [...]h various success, brought in booty, or were circumvented by the Enemy. During which times also, stratagems were fre­quently used for getting of Towns; such were they, where­by here Gertruydenburg, Maestrict, and Scluys, were offered at; and in another part, Breda was endeavoured to be taken but the Ambushy being discovered, the Armies marched back, frustrate of their designs. Now was the Sea scowned from Pyrates, and the Duke of Parma being for France, re­ceived joyfully an Embassie sent from the Emperour, to m [...] and mediate a Peace: But the United Provinces, suspected it,1592. as they had reason; but chiefly, be­cause they had intercepted Letters from the King of Spain, written concerning it: wherefore they shut their e [...] against those old deceits, warned by the fresh example of the Arragonians, who, while they unwarily discoursed of li­berty, were surprised by craft, and drawn into slavery and ruine.

These People of Spain, of old called Tarraconia, now [...] ­garly Arragon, first getting possession of that part of the Country by Arms, which barbarous Nations, from the other side of the Sea, had invaded, by the Counsel of such as we [...] esteemed wise among them, erected a Commonwealth; At the beginning, Kings (that name and honour being given to a li­mited power) were chosen here by the suffrages of the people, afterwards by the Custom of several Nations, their Heirs were admitted by Succession to the Government, yet obliging them to the observance of the Law, whereby they who were then eminent, as foreseeing the inconveniencies of a Kingdom, conveyed some power to the people whose Au­thority was to be used in publick Counsels, and gave a privi­ledge of Supreme Magistracy, even over the Kings them­selves, and these boundaries were well observed, as long as the Princes were careful to do Right and Justice, and made [Page 281] use of no Forces to defend Crimes. But afterwards there hap­pening a Conjunction of Kingdoms, and all Spain, by that means, becoming subject to King Philip, all mens patience was tryed by the severity of the Inquisition, and every thing by new forms of Judgment was disposed, and they rather fit­ted to the pleasure of the Court and Courtiers, then squared by the Rule of the antient Law, or Prescript order of Justice. The Case of Anthony Perez was greatly commiserated by the People, who having been employed by King Philip, about E [...]o [...]vedo's death, was yet by him falsly accused of but an ordinary fault, for which deprived of all Authority, and fly­ing from Castile, he was yet prosecuted by the Kings rage, in­to this Region, for the King hated him, because he had been active as a procurer in matters of Love. And when he In­struments of wrath, impudently opposed the Laws, and would by no means suffer Justice, they were resisted by force, and the first commotions being provoked by force, were after­wards nourished by gentle endeavours and dissimulation; And as the Tumults begun under a malevolent constellation, so the City was perswaded under pretence of the French War, to suffer the Kings Army to come through its Borders, and to march through Sarragosa, the Metropolis of that Region, and so to go over the Pyrenean Mountains: But instead thereof, the Nobles were murthered, and every one, that ei­ther with Tongue or hand, had been forward to advance li­berty was by revenge marked and for the future, nothing re­mained, but a prospect of Tyranny and slavery.

Although these things are not suitable to my purpose, yet I have not neglected to insert them here, at such times as they happened, that Posterity may compare their fortune, and the Netherlanders together, that as well the faults of Princes may be known, as the People may be instructed, that many times the cause is no less to be minded, than the Forces of a King.

While these Transactions were a foot otherwhere, the [Page 282] King of France being recruited with German Souldiers, and English Auxiliaries, besieged Roan, Queen Elizabeth desi­ring that he would inclose the Enemy between the River Seine, and the British Ocean: this made the French Confe­derates with Parma, take his long stay the worse, who being slow in making ready his Warlike preparations, or else con­sulting of some higher design, how to augment the dangers, at last, though late in the year, having first received the Town of Fer in pledge, he drew near to the Borders of Nor­mandy; There were in his Army several new raised men, and those Regiments which had lately fallen into a mutiny, but now were restored to their Colours, being full of booty, and having also received their pay, which the Duke of Parma very hardly extorted by the encrease of Tributes, and selling the right of Commerce to the Enemies, the Netherlanders not without cause complaining, that their Borders were left na­ked, and their mony and strongest men carryed away to help strangers.

Pope Gregory sent also Assistance to the French Rebels, [...] thing not used by his Predecessors, terrifying also their foes with cursings and threats, such as might have frighted a for­mer Age; but such as either feared damage, or loved profit, forbore to meddle; and such as really intended help, were soon taken off by old age. It is manifest, that Sixtus, with­holden by envy to the Spaniard, and rather than he would augment his Wealth, inclined to the French King, and this many suspected to be a cause of hastning his death.

Against the plague of this concuring War, the United States rigged a Fleet, and sent to the King for a Guard, of the very [...]lower of all their Regiments, ten Ensigns of Scott, and the like number of Netherlanders, under the Command of Philip Nassau: But when the Duke of Parma (for now he mustered his Army) long delayed his March. King Henry dismissed for the Winter, most of the Nobility that were faithful to him, and the only support of his necessitated War, [Page 283] that he might have them the more ready another time; They were scarce departed, when the King hearing of the Ene­mies approach to assault him, was compelled to draw his Forces together, and by that means, the Siege was raised. But when the entrance of the Spring had brought him a Recruit of Horse he pressed upon the Enemy, and forcing him beyond the River, pinched him with Famine, for he was impatient of any longer delay, and ready to decide the cause by Bat­tel, if the Duke of Parma silently repassing the River, had not marched towards Paris. Wherefore the King leaving Ro [...]n, and taking some other Ports on that Coast into his power, and fortifying them where they wanted, he brought to passe, that thereafter he could not be hindred of any assistance coming to him by Sea. In this Interim, there were some light skir­mishes, famous only in this, that in one the King was woun­ded, and in another, the Duke of Parma, which wound trou­bled him mo [...]e than his old Disease, for cure whereof, he had gone to the Spaw: And now wearied with France, about the latter end of Summer, he brings his ragged Regiments through Vermandois, the nearest way to the Netherlands.

At this time, the English, while the Spaniards passed back­wards and forwards in America and other places, very much annoyed them, both the Wind and the Sea conspiring against them, to deliver them up as a publick Enemy. And whils they have spoiled one another, the tempestuous Sea spared neither.

And now also, that anniversary plague of mutinous parties returned into the Netherlands, and that with the more vio­lence, because the Mutineers not only wanted their pay, but were pinched with the miseries of Winter. Some that were quartered about the Cities of Colen grew very outragious, as looking upon Germany, as able to yield them booty enough; But such as remained about Leige, and the Country near thereto, after they had by a long stay wasted all the Country about, part ran away to other parts, but most of them perish­ed [Page 284] either by poverty or Diseases; and if any yet continued healthy, they were so accustomed to discord, that they would range far and wide to wast and destroy; and by this meanes, more was to be maintained, yet there were fewer to defend it. But the Land, under the United States, was more restrain­ed, having for defence in most places, Rivers running round about it, and the Sea securing another part. Besides the va­lour and vertue of the Citizens was well known, that they who were raised in the inner part of the Country, would help to defend the furthest parts thereof, and be faithful Sup­plies to the Regiments abroad. Hence it was, that there was a desire to go out with some part of the present Forces, while the Duke of Parma was not yet returned; and if they had made hast, without doubt, many of his men wearied with Travel, and worn out with Battels, and then also coming from a strange Country in the Winter, would not have been able to have encountred half the number of their Enemies. But laying aside talk, they began to think of action. Holland in­sisted upon the Siege of Gertruydenburg. But the Frizons were preferred before all, that the prosperous beginnings of the last year might be perfected in this, themselves also offering their own Souldiers, of whom they never need to fear a scar­city, if there be a War continued for any time: And indeed, these were the main strength of the Union, as long as the other Regiments attended the War in France.

About this time, some Letters written by the Groningers, to Count Mansfeldt, were intercepted, which declared the necessity of their condition, and how want of all things grew upon them: Moreover, they sent some selected Deputies to the Emperour, to tell him, they had not fled to the greatness of the House of Austria, when they were free, that now they should be left undefended to the Government of Deputies, and laid open to the injuries of their Enemies: should they never be so happy, as to see their General and his Army, at least for example sake, that no people might seem to have fol­lowed [Page 285] the fortune of that great House, without Reason, or unadvisedly? Which complaints being sent into Spain, pro­duced yet no other effect, than Exhortations to fidelity, and great promises, that an Army should come, and cut open their passages with the Sword. One Regiment was added for defence of those places held beyond the Rhine. And while Verdugo endeavours by all means to encrease his Forces, Her­man Count Heremberg, daring nothing further, infested only the lesser Fortifications about Issell, from whence the Inha­bitants took an occasion to contract, that they would under­go the sudden brunt of both sides, and that they should enjoy by the levelling of the Castles, a common possession of their Lands, untill both Armies had decided their quarrel by a pitched Battel in the Field. At this time, as it were on pur­pose to hinder Prince Maurice his March, the newes of the Ʋtrecht Factions came to his Ears, for that unquiet City had not yet forgotten those differences in Religion, which were begun in the Earl of Leicesters time: And Zeland lying far from the reach or defence of his Sword, began to deny the payment of their Taxes and Assesments; but these being all by him easily and with speed composed, in that same Spring he marched out, not with any new raised Bands, but for his supply and recruit, he had sent Orders to several Captains: And thus he did muster of Hollanders and Frizons, eight thou­sand Foot very near, and five hundred Horse, and of Artil­lery, greater and less, fifty.

As soon as they were come to the utmost Border of Over-Issell, which looks towards Frizeland, the Walls of Steenwic were in sight, the greatness of whose strength & Fortification, as well as the fame of the Town, took up all their thoughts: And some of the States being of late terrified therewith, as also divers forreign Princes, judged it a very rash undertaking; for they remembred, that this was the place from whence they had driven Renneberg, after a Siege of three months, nor had he then a less Army, nor wanted any defences, that were [Page 286] found necessary, either by custom or fear; for the Spaniard after he had taken it by stratagem, supposing that Frizeland would thereby be as it were shut up, and that the Zuydare might be sufficiently molested with Ships, added to the mo­dern fortification, what ever might be advantagious against all those violences, whereof the Wars of former Ages w [...] ignorant. On that side which looks towards the Sea, was only a low marshy ground, scarcely bearing any to wa [...] thereon, much less fit for the drawing of Carriages with great Guns, or serviceable to raise Batteries: wherefore this ground being lightly thrown up, did rather inclose, this strengthen the Town on that side.

Another part was encompassed with a Rampire made of a stiff Clay, intermingled and made strong with Timber-logs, piled one upon another, so that it was consolidated without any possibility, almost of divulsion. There were two great Forts, and between these two little ones, excellently raised by Art, so that on every part they flanked the Assaylants; and besides the [...]e there was a Gallery for the Defendants, and at the bottom of the Fortifications, to stop all that should come to scale, there was a continued rank of Palisadoes: from hence the Trench began, a hundred foot in bredth, whereinto wa­ter was drawn to fill it with a Mill, from a small River, which cometh out of Drente, and being a little shallower than the Trench, passes thence to the Blocksile Port, it falls into the Zuyderzee.

Beyond the Trench, there is another Work, or Counter­mure, kept by continual Guards day and night, and is fit to make Sallies, being moderately hollow and bending; for the other Bulwarks that lay further off, and divided from the Town, they were taken without any difficuly. The Besieged were sufficiently supplyed with two things, to wit, number of men, and obstinacy, for the Town (which is not very large) had in it, a thousand well Armed Foot, and six hun­dred Horse, who all resolved to suffer the greatest extremi­ties [Page 287] imaginable, rather than render the Garrison: He who was Governour, named Anthonio C [...]quelle, had bound them all by Oath, that they should thereafter, never fear for any necessity that should follow: Neither were they more con­firmed by their own strength, and the hope of timely Relief, tha [...] by their Enemies small number; And some of them, out of their own proper sence of their crimes, committed at Gertruydenberg, by the desperation of life, contemned death.

The difficulty of the Enterprize, very much incited Prince William, as well with the hope of Honour and prayse, at the present, as of terrour and dread for the future: The Leaguer was well fortified, wherein there was not only an abundance of Victuals, but the same was very cheap: Then the passage was cut off by many turnings, by which means, the Souldier went as it were, under coverture, and defended against the Shot of the Town; Sometimes the Besieged made Sallies, and not altogether without success, while for the most part, they found the Besiegers either drunk, unarmed, or half asleep; but this did not happen very often, because the infinite da­mage of the besieged Souldiers, and the State of Affairs in the Town, could not be learned by any fear or threats, no not from such as were taken Captive. Daily did the Besieged calumniate and rail against both the Prince and his Army, al­though on both sides the Cannon, with perpetual Thunder, spoke even sufficient hatred, and a new Bulwark, whose hilly rising twenty foot high, and more, threatned some great dan­ger to the Town, this new Work, at the very top of it, con­tained in length, threescore foot, and in bredth, fifty foot, from whence they could shoot into the very innermost parts of the Town: yet for all this, and the loss of so many of their men, they were nothing moved, among whom was slain Lewis, Brother to Count Herembergh. At this time, the Be­siegers erected a great Tower of Wood, after the manner of Antiquity, to drive away the Defendants from their Stations, [Page 288] and to overlook their Works, this the Besieged, finding [...]he could not reach the heighth thereof with their other Engines, endeavoured to break it with their great Bullets: The Prince, when he perceived the terrible noyse of his Shot to be a vain, though with great cost and labour, and that the Besieges were rather encouraged to see their Town thus vainly at­tempted, least the intervenient places should be possessed, he falls to other devises, as where the Land was more solid, and would endure Mining, he commands thither Pioneers, with Matrocks and other Instruments for digging, and orders them to undermine the place. And so the outward Work be­ing pierced (though the Cannon could not hurt it) they were now come to the Trench, which they filled up with Faggots and Bavins: the Besieged all this while, mocking at the Princes Souldiers that would submit to such terrible labours.

Then what could not privily be wrought further, the great Guns, brought through the Mines and Galleries, easily laid flat. And now the very Rampires that encompassed the Town came to be Mined, when a suddain Infection dissolved all the Defendants Courages, and involved them in such a Pannick Terrour, that they knew not what to shun, nor what to defend. They were chiefly disanimated by the want of Gunpowder, of which having by Letters before complained to Count Mansfeldt, they had not received any Answer, for that he himself daily expected Forces, and they looked for Money, and that was not to be had till the Duke of Parma's Return: Hereupon a Treaty is desired, and accordingly Commissioners admitted and heard. The Prince required all Renegado's to be deliver'd to him, that they might be punish'd according to their deserts, and that the rest should take an Oath, that for six Moneths they would not take up Arms be­yond the Rhine. And this was to them an Example o [...] Testi­mony of his power. But the Commissioners, looking upon themselves as yet in a Conquerour's power, whereby they should be forced to submit to such hard Laws, go away full [Page 289] of Contumacy and Malice; as if they had resolved, since they could not freely live, that they would fairly die: But some believed, that this Treaty was set a foot without any ne­cessity, that the Besieged might not be aware of the ap­proaching Relief, which Verdugo the next Night following sent to them, to the number of Three Hundred Men, two hundred having a little before gotten to them over the Mar­shes: But Prince Maurice, having pre-instructed his Men in what he designed to do privately, shews his Army in Bat­tel-Array, as if about to storm, they had been brought to the place; appointed for them; and that he might draw the Be­sieged into an ambiguous fear to their Ruine, he had hidden in two places the famousest Engine of War now used, of whose use, the Antients were utterly ignorant; but our Age, abounding more with Malice and Cunning, have found it out. It is thus made: Coals mixed with Sulphur and Salt-Peter, very much dryed, if you put fire thereto, will swell exceedingly, and cannot be inclosed, but will force its way through all Obstacles, Guns, and other Military Instru­ments filled herewith, by the force thereof throw Gads and pieces of Iron and Bullets to a very great distance; and if it be laid into the Ground, and cover'd with Earth, it will throw far and wide abroad all that lyes upon or near it. We call it commonly Gun-powder: Several great Vessels fill'd herewith were placed in the Mines; which Vessels being bound about with Match of a great length, upon the Enemies approach to the Mine, being lighted with like powder, car­ryes the fire to all the rest, which in the bursting, maketh a dreadful Noise, carrying up into the Air, in a thick Cloud of Smoke, intermingled with Fire, all about it, and upon a sud­dain, overthrowing all the Works, with the certain Ruine of all persons st [...]nding in defence of the same: But many of the Enemy, fearing such a danger, in time stood off; yet at the springing of that Mine, Bodies of Men might have been seen hovering piece-meal in the Air, the torn and divided [Page 290] Members, yet retaining their decaying vigour and mode [...], and, instead of Darts, proved Instruments of Death to other.

But the other Mine, having cast down a part of the R [...] ­pire, and the Mouth not being well closed, or else for that the old Foundation of the Work reverberated the Force, the main operative strength of the Powder flew backward, where­by divers of them that went before the Banners, were either by the fall, or flying of the Earth, thrown up into the Air, or buried in an untimely Grave; Some also not escaping the very fire: And now the Army began to prepare to scale the Walls; and another Company thereof endeavour'd to break the Bars and Fastnings of the Gates, when Prince Maurice coming a little too near to take a view, was wounded by; Bullet shot from the Town, which News presently ran from hand to hand, yet he nothing changed therewith, staid and maintained his Commands, and gave Orders to his Captains as he was wont at other times: But in the hinder part of the Army, the Report thereof was made much worse, insomuch that the Army began to be amazed at it, every one feigning to himself as present, the Evil which he most feared: Where­fore the Assault being for a while forbidden, least the danger falsly believed, might open an occasion to further damage re­ally; and because also, many of the Souldiers were wounded, and the inner parts of the Town were not sufficiently disco­vered, though the Wooden Tower before-mention'd, were gotten very near: But the Rage of the Souldiery scarcely began to be appeased, when upon another view of the Town the difficulty of the Assault appeared: However, the Be­siegers possessed all the ruinous places, which the Mines had made, and turned into heaps, placing thereon their Ensigns; but the Remainders of the Bulwarks were yet defended, which Prince Maurice labour'd also to undermine, and there­upon to give an Assault: In this interim, the Besieged had drawn a Trench about the Market-place, not that they hoped thereby to save the place, but onely by such delays to work [Page 291] for themselves an opportunity to obtain Articles. They saw Artillery brought thither, and knew there was little help or safety in that Entrenchment, but that the same would rather be a Defence to their Enemies, and that if they should joyn in Fight, they being the fewer in number, must needs perish. Thus being subdued in all ways, before their Resolutions stooped, they obtained Articles that were neither hard nor dishonourable: Particular care being taken for one Samarin [...] his safety, who was a Noble Person among the Jesuits; and for the granting of these Articles, the Authors thereof were they of the Senate, that were present with Prince Maurice, and of his Council; who considering the necessity of the time, for they understood that Mondragonio was mustering the Spanish Army, rather chose, that the Souldiers Minds should be in­flamed with a gotten Victory, then held any longer in su­spence; and whoever offer'd injury to the Souldiers, as they marched out, was severely punish'd. There went six hun­dred intire, beside two hundred sick and wounded; so that by various kinds of death, near five hundred perish'd. Above twenty days were spent in repairing the Works about Steene­wi [...], and various Debates in Council, while the Hollanders, and such as lived at distance from the War, adjudged they had won honour enough, and would not have the now wearied Army go to stir up, or meet any fresh Dangers: But indeed, being privately afraid, least the Frizons, together with their Fear, should also cast off their Obligations, and refuse to bear a share in the Burthen of the War.

At this time, there fell out another Impediment unexpe­cted; for Queen Elizabeth recall'd all her Souldiers, to drive the Spaniards from the Coasts of Bretaign in France, not without upbraiding the States, concerning those Auxi­liaries they sent the French King, without her Knowledge or Counsel. Notwithstanding all which hindrances, yet all they that lived beyond the Rhine, as also the desire of continuing their Honour, moved them to attaque Coevorden, a Town and [Page 292] Castle seated so, as not easily to be approached, and for that famous for many Ages. In the Wars of our Ancestors, and even in this among our selves, every one as he possessed the Country, beyond or more inward, either lessned or increased the Works: At last, the Spaniards fortified throughly; to be as a Defensive Bulwark, both to Drente and Groe [...]ngen, and likewise to secure a Passage into Germany; Five great For [...] stood out beyond the Rampires, and there were little Mo [...]es raised for advancing the Cannon; the Trench was an hun­dred Foot wide, and fenced before with Pallisado's; and that which added strength to all these was, the nature of the place it self; for upon the two sides thereof, to wit, between the Zuyderzee, and the Bay of Dullart, in which space is comprehended Frizeland, Drente, the Territory of Gro [...] ­gen, and part of Over-Issel; the one among the Marishes, and lyes between that and a little Bay, whereby the Country people used to send over their Oxen and Cows into B [...] ­theime, a little County in Germany; and from thence, at first, was the Original of Coevorden. This therefore being taken, both Groening might be quite closed up, there being no other coming thither, than what was Artificial, and also the whole County of Frizeland might be freed from the Incursions of the Enemy.

The whole Face of the Country is very plain and exceed­ing Moory, and full of Mud, which is never hard or dry e­nough to bear any Weight by the greatest heat of Summer, or violentest burning of the Dog-Star: For the securing of Provisions, because the Bounds of the United Provinces were as yet far distant, and there was no River, but onely a little Ri­vulet which runs by Coevorden like a Trench, it pleased the Prince to Garrison Otmarsen. This Town lyes in the ex­treamest part of the Country of the Tubantes; whither the Prince being come with part of his Army, while the Camp and Leaguer were Fortifying, he drove away the Spaniards with his Guns, whose Horse, rather than they would be Be­sieged [Page 293] there, broke through the middle of the Enemies. Here was kill'd by the Enemies shot Charles Levinus Famarsh, who having, for a long time, taken the part of the Confederate Nobility, at this time was General of the Ordnance, a Man excellently skill'd, as well in the understanding and manage­ment of doubtful and difficult Affairs, as the most pro­sperous.

Now was a very handsom Sally made out of Coevorden, wherein many were slain, whose Bodies the Besieged desi­ring, that they might have Christian Burial, they were deli­ver'd to them: Frederick Count Heremberg, with six hun­dred Souldiers, part of whom were sent to him through the Marshes, defended the Castle, but he burned the Town, least it should defend the Enemy, in their Battery and breaking down of the Walls, or else should be burdensom to him to keep: yet he seemed to maintain the Ground-plat thereof, though onely out of design to protract time; untill the Prince by digging entred it, and beat out those who stayed to fight in defence thereof, and then raising a Mount, he plant­ed his Cannon for battery.

The Works which were without the Trench round about the Castle, being over-hasty deserted, the Besieged them­selves, voluntarily set on fire the Bridge: And now as soon as they were gotten to the Trench, the Prince received In­telligence, what plenty of all things the Besieged had, onely they had but one Well of water to drink off, so that in the night, they were forced to come to the Trench for water, the same environing the Castle with a very great deepness: This he found might be dryed up with Engines, and likewise the Springs of the Well be stopped, or at least intercepted. But at the beginning of the work, it appeared, that there was an encrease of Water under the ground, through continual bub­ling Springs, which according to the nature of that Element, will follow, whithersoever the Workman can design to draw it; Not was it long, before divers falling shoures yielded [Page 294] comfort to the Thirsty Besieged, and put a stop to [...] But the French, which was fed by certain little C [...] brought from the Marishes, was drawn dry and fill'd; and [...] more safe passage, had placed thereon Devices, made of [...] ­ber and Hurdles, so that the Souldiers might come safely [...] the very Walls; the Flanks and Fronts of the Builders [...] secured, either by the darkness of the Night, or a Line [...] beyond them: Between which Coverts, great Posts [...] indifferent distance being fixed, were cover'd with Pl [...] and Earth cast thereupon, to prevent the Enemies shot, [...] preserve them against fire: Being thus conveyed, they [...] ­dermined the Rampire at the very Bottom; but the Can­non, from more convenient places, had beaten down all the Curtain, and driven away the Defendants.

While these things were doing here, Mondragonia, in the mean while, furnish'd divers little Castles and Forts in the Country of Brabant; by the taking and forcing of which, the Hollanders, for some years past, had fetched thence, a [...] well great Booty, as exacted Tributes: This was his [...] Care, while the main strength of the Government beyond th [...] Rhine, was by the hands of Assailants and Defendants eve [...] almost destroyed. But as soon as the Duke of Parma re­turned from France, Verdugo was very earnest with him, to carry his Army that way: But the Souldier was over- [...] ­ryed with Travail, and besides required, before he would stir any more, the Pay that was due and in Arrear: Yet neverthe­less he obtained, that Ten Thousand Foot, should be drawn together from sundry parts, and 7 Cornets of Horse should be deliver'd to him, to undertake that Journey, and if he saw convenient to fight the Enemy; besides, he was to be Re­cruited with Three Thousand more out of the Garrisons be­yond the Rhine.

Prince Maurice receiving Intelligence of these preparati­ons, in regard the compass of the Leaguer was greater than he could safely make good against the Besieged, and withall [Page 295] defend himself from an External Force that might come at his [...]ack; he therefore began new Works more inward, lea­ving and dismantling the former: There came also to him out [...] the Regiment of Collonel Stolberg, as a Supply for these Souldiers, which the prosperous, though not unbloudy S [...] of S [...]nic, had consumed and wearied: The English Regiments also returned, and the Hollander's Auxiliaries which had been in the French Service; Count Philip of Nas­sau being order'd to bestow the wearied men into Garrisons, [...] to draw out in their stead such as were fresh, with which he should defend Gravewaert, the Watch Tower for the V [...]r, and turn towards the Enemy, if by chance he should ch [...]fe the Isle of Holland, or either of the Coasts adjoyning, or near thereto, for the Seat of the War, and to follow him whi­thersoever he went: Also, Frederick Count Heremberg, either from Intelligence, or Conjecture, had conceived to him aforehand, the hope of Relief that would suddainly come to him; and therefore being required to deliver up the Castle, he answer'd, That they must stay yet some Moneths first. A few [...]ts before, the English Regiments, and the other Forces un­der Count Philip of Nassau, did arrive at the Camp or Lea­gue [...]; Verdugo having got past the Rhine, by taking a long Circuit as far as Berck, had pitched not far from Prince Maurice, at a place called Emlichem, prying with all dili­gence into the scite and manner of the Prince's Camp; and not onely with his Eyes, but by the Treachery of a Noble Person, with whom the Prince, at that time, was very fami­liar; whose fault also the Prince afterwards pardon'd, though it were manifestly proved: The Enemy had conceiv'd a hope of straitning the Prince's Army of Victuals, but when they knew there were two ways to supply him, and that the Marishes lay between them; and because his Forces were not enough numerous to be divided, he resolved to try the strength of his Weapons and Men in an intire Body.

[Page 296]Now were Fires seen frequently, whereby he admonish'd, the Besieged, that they should not be wanting to his Design, being altogether ignorant, that they could not sally, because their Bridge was broken down: But Night drawing on a­pace, the Spaniards, notwithstanding the delay in their pas­sage from the Bridge, over the River Vecht, assault the ou [...]e [...] Camp, where the Prince had placed Stolberg with his Regi­ment, and a strong party of Horse, in a place very convenient, for as well in regard of the Trees as the Waters. The Ene­my had chosen to assault this place, because they guessed the Horse-Guards would not be over-diligent in their Watch▪ and the new Regiment was hoped to be unskill'd in all things belonging to War; and thereupon they began to creep o [...] the Trenches in every part, to attempt to scale the Rampire, and successively climbed up one in the Foot-steps of ano­ther.

But the Nassauians, although they suspected that Night, as if with the light security returned to them went to sleep, till they were suddainly awaked with the noise of their Enemies Voices, at a distance, threatning [...]errour, and crying out, that the Camp was taken: Nor could the Battel be discover'd, either by hastning thither, or the place: They who were unready, or half asleep, catching up presently such Weapons as came next to hand, by chance made a stand at the doors of their little Huts, while the Horse fought with the Enemies Foot: Certainly, this danger was averted, chiefly by the Valour of the Commanders, who gather'd together from the innermost Tents, the most couragious Souldiers, to make strong Defence; Above the rest, Coun. William of Nassau ▪ who was the more careful in this regard, for that he contrary to the Opinions of many, had perswaded the beginning of this Siege, bringing out beyond the Camp, as many Horse as he could get together, fell in upon the Enemies Flank: Al [...] they that entred the Camp were slain; and they that follow▪ them were stopped and driven back; and by this time, the [Page 297] clear Day light appearing, turned the Invention of their di­stinguishable Mark against themselves; for being thereby certainly known, they were as certainly slain: But they who were without, stood round about the Camp in a Ring, as if they were yet ready, or resolved to take the same, puft up indeed with a vain Confidence, because they had been used to Conquer, and for fifteen years together had onely seen the Backs of their Adversaries, or their places of abode. But now the whole Army of the United States being together in Arms, easily beat off the rash Assailants, sometimes in one place, sometimes in another; yet for all their Repulse, they retreated in good order, not betaking themselves to flight, though they were most cruelly gall'd by the Cannon, which was a great means of their future safety, after such a bloudy B [...]cketing: And Prince Maurice, contenting himself pru­dently to have won the Victory, commanded his men not to pursue the Spaniards in their Retreat. In the Camp, (a strange and incredible thing to be fore-told) onely two or three were kill'd, but many were wounded, among whom was Count William the Governour of Frizeland; Many days afterwards, the Spaniard vauntingly drawing his men into Battalia, challeng [...] as it were into the field, the other Army, who were not over-hasty to run into danger, as being ruled by more sound Advice. And now was the hope of the Be­sieged turned into fear, when they saw their Companions beaten off from those Works, where they had at first gained; and the rather too, because the Top of the Fortress, that was to be seen above the Rampire, was overthrown, and another which the Besiegers had substituted, was endanger'd by the Pioneers. Hereupon, the other Officers and Souldiers also earnestly perswaded Frederick to surrender, who was very unwilling thereto, blaming him further, as not understanding the danger they were in: They desired, that they might have leave to consult with Verdugo, but that would not be grant­ed.

[Page 298]But the Princes granted the rest of their Desires the more readily, because the moist Temperature of the Heaven, and inclination of the Air to Rain, would cause a difficulty, in bringing Provisions to himself, and his own Army. Thus was Coevorden surrendred, and committed by the Prince to the keeping of the Prizons, though they of Over-Issel denied their consent to the same; maintaining, that as well the Castle, as the whole Region belonged to them, and they of Dre [...]te af­firming to be part of their Jurisdiction, and never to have belonged by any Antiquity to them of Over-Issel, unless that they might not transmit their Enemy through their Bor­ders.

The Armies were not yet departed from one another, but lay idle, out of a mutual fear; the States gave theirs to the King of France, for that the Burden of the War lay more hea­vy upon him: Shortly after, when Autumn had made an end of all those that were ill before, by choaking them up with Rheums and Catarrhs, the Duke of Parma, though much in­disposed as to bodily health, yet undertakes a new Journey into France, that he being present with an Army, might mo­derate and sway the Parliaments of that Kingdom, which the Companions and Allies of the Spaniards had summon'd to meet the next Year: But his strength failed him, not being able to undergo so great Toil, in the Borders of Artois; where, either by the increasing of his Disease, or (as some suppo­sed) by poyson, he ended his Life: For some who pleas'd themselves with the worst of Rumour, stuck not to believe so.

This time of his death, agreed with the coming of Fu­ [...]ain to King Philip; who, hearing by accident of the Duke of Parma's Infirmity, had commanded him, that is, Fontayn, to oversee the Netherlandish Affairs, that he might settle any neglect, caused by the Duke's sickness, and compose any Troubles arising by his Death. This Person was a man of a very harsh Nature, and privately hated by the Duke of Par­ma; [Page 299] And there were some, who, not long before, did fore-tell either the Duke's Death, or Restraint. The truth is, many Things began to be discover'd, that manifested the King to be suspitious of, if not highly displeased with him: For he alone was looked upon, to have hindred his Kinsman Far­neze, from being Elected Pope; And of late had commanded, That the Duke should not take up any Money at Interest, unless by the Counsel and Consent of those, who were set up rather as Spies or Guardians, than Counsellors. His Physitians said his Disease proceeded from the hard swelling of the Spleen, and Hydropical Humour, between the Skin and the Flesh; of the growing of which Disease, it appears he was sensible, for that be abstain'd from Wine, and accustom'd himself to drink Water: and for avoiding the Gout, and other pains of the Joynts, he drank little of that too, or else it may be he was suspitious of Poyson: Most believe, that he had Poyson gi­ven him more than once: But herein Authors very much differ.

Thus dyed Alexander Farneze, even in the most flourish­ing time of his Age, being but seven and forty years old, of which he had spent fourteen in the managery of this War: his last five years had much decayed his Reputation, nor in­deed did he use the like diligence then as formerly▪ whether that after the business of Antwerp, as being glutted with Ho­nour, he gave himself over to pleasures, or that being advi­sed of Philips jealousie, he sought by sloath and stupidness, to procure a Remedy to allay the greatness of his fame; He was descended from a Family, as potent as antient, drawing his Originall and greatness from Pope Paul the third; At first, being a young man, under his Mothers tuition, he spent his time in the Low-Countries, without any honourable Em­ployment, and was so contemned, that he was said to be of a heavy Spirit. There is scarce any man that can say, his pub­like and open Judgments were ever dissembled; The first Warlike Honour he atchieved, was at the winning Navarre, [Page 300] when he fought for the Spaniard, under the Binner of his Uncle Don John of Austria, against the Turk; Being made Commander in the Belgike War, he shewed how great he could be; In the quest of Honour, he was indefatigible, ease and courteous in his access, mercifull towards his Enemies and for as much as could ever be discerned by his outward appearance, faithfull to the King, and not to be corrupted against his own Honour, and the Peoples affection. He was very conformable to Counsel, but was tyed up more strictly than ordinary, to an Opinion once affirmed, and would not endure such as dissented. And then from the success of Af­fairs, he took too much to himself; and that very thing rais­ed him many Enemies, and caused much of His contrary for­tune, which indeed he took gently, though, which is [...] more difficult, he bore his good fortune with a great Spirit. Some do observe, that for a long time he followed the advise and Instructions of Caspar Robless, a most ingenious and wise man. And that after his death, no one being prev [...]k [...] with him, among variety of Counsellors, differing in opinion he became unconstant, and wavering in his Resolutions, a [...] that from thence his Fortune reculed from him. His ma [...]er of speech was Majestick, but withall, amiably pleasant. H [...] Stature and other parts of his Body, but of a middle size, his Eye sharp and penetrating, the true Emblem of a watch [...] disposition. The rest of his, was not his own naturally, [...] may be rather called the faults of the Court and the Age. The detractors of his fame, among whom Campigny was one, com­manded lately by him to a recess in Burgundy, attributed i [...] to the power of the Kings Forces, or the wants and disco [...] of the Enemy: Both whose Conditions being changed, [...] also was the fortune of the War: On the other side; so [...] wisely considering both, affirmed that there was no small dif­ficulty, to govern with an equall hand, and keep in order [...] many several Nations in one Army, some whereof, were a [...] most insociable, repressing therein all Animosities, which ne­vertheless, [Page 301] broke out soon after his death, and so from time to time more bitterly. Even in the greatest extremities, he car­ryed security in his presence, so that most of the Seditions of his time were begun in his absence. 'Tis true, many Towns were lost, but it was, when he was employed other-where, and as Fortune was pleased to wait on the Armies: But how great a part of them did he conquer? and certainly he could not resist the same Enemy afterwards, with any o­ther Design, nor with naked Forces. Without doubt, all Dis­cipline perish'd with him. His Funerals were celebrated even with the Tears of the Netherlanders, who wished such as would not grieve for him, the Reward of the Severity of for­mer Governours.

The Third BOOK of the History of the Dutch AFFAIRES.

1593.BY the Duke of Parma's Death, the Expedition in­to France was broken off, and the Regiments stay­ing upon the Borders, took some French Castles lying near them; and not long after, the Town of Nayon, the 16th day after it had been besieged, the French being first filled up, and the Works that were interposed, begun to be undermi­ned. But the King of Spain was willing now to make a Peace, that he might the better employ his whole Endeavours a­gainst the Low-Countrey-mens present good Fortune; and for the winning their good will, he confers greater Honours on those Noble-men, who, by their continued Obedience, were known faithful to him: Bestowing upon them the Command of several Provinces, and while one could be pitched upon [Page 302] for the chief Regency, Peter Count Mansfeld [...] obtain'd the Name of Governour, a man, as well in Age, as Experience▪ before others, being now in the Eightieth Year of his A [...] ▪ The Chief in the Council were Peter Herrique Count F [...] ­tayn, and Stephen Ibarra, both Spaniards. This, in the Ag [...] ­ment of Artois, formerly had consented, That the Publike Go­vernment should be in the Citizens: But discovering the Fra [...] he prevail'd for the Institution of a Council of War, that might by degrees, though not directly, draw all Things under th [...] Care and Cognizance: That Council consisted for the [...] part of Spaniards; to whom, at this time, were added Fon­tayn and Ibarra; who had Order, by Command, to moder [...] the publike Charges, and to overlook the Treasury, which it was rumour'd in Spain that he had perform'd with fidelity: The cause of believing this might be, as it then hapned, the unexpected Charges of the War, though oftentimes under that pretence, are hidden all manner of Deceit and Polling; and the Mind being never throughly purged, but the stain still increasing, so that at last it becomes past all hope of Re­medy. They said, who cast an Eye backward to those Things, that the States did more with Two Hundred Thousand [...] ­rens a Moneth, than was done on the King's behalf with nine hundred thousand, while Interest, superstuous Sallaries, and private Defraudations, scarce left the third part of the Re­ceits, for the true intended purposes; That King Philip's For­ces were sufficient both to Conquer the Netherlands, and to assist the French, if they were rightly look'd after, because his Father Charles the Fifth, with far less Wealth, had oftentimes maintained many great Armies, in several parts of the World. Therefore, that there might be setled in the new acquired Empire of the Provinces a greater Authority, or because the Regent should not be in fear, there were added several Regi­ments, and Money sent thither in abundance; and this was no more than necessary, because the Sea-men, that were con­tinually to Guard Antwerp, unless they had present satisfa­ction, [Page 303] would be ready to mutiny for their Pay, and threaten to behave themselves as Enemies. And the Garrisons of [...] and Berck were no less audacious than they: But the Spaniards who were newly come, as they were ignorant of many things, so they endeavour'd all they could, to repair what they saw amiss, that so they might creep into grace and favour. And, upon a certain day, Fontayn coming into the Senate, was the Author of a cruel Sentence; and calling that them, which was inforced by Necessity, he began to abolish all the Customs of War; for he said, That the Dispute had his been thus long maintained by the Wealth or Valour of the Hol­landers; But that mean and inconsiderable people, and if they were looked upon with the Eye of Reason far unequal to the whole Netherlandes, did thrive and increase, not onely by the Spani­ard's Treasure, but by their very Forces and Vices: That their own negligence and ignorance was the great hinderance of their own fortune, and that they fearfully wrought any Evil against a pub­like Enemy: That the vast compass of Ground, among the Cities, under the King's power, do yield Tribute to the Enemy without danger; as if it were an easier matter to do an injury by Arms, than to repell it. Rather then so, let all the Inhabitants be forced to take up Arms and so by doing, and suffering all Acts of Hosti­lity become liable to the same batred with the Souldiery, that they alone among all hazards, may not go free distributing their Affe­ctions at their pleasure, but should behold the fortune of both Par­ties in one anothers bloud: But if the Enemy could not be withstood in all places, yet certainly it were better, that the whole Country should lye wast, and be altogether uninhabited, than as it is now to lye open to the Enemies Invasion, and yield them Contribution, and other means of Treachery, to know all is done: That now all the Regiments were weakned and corrupted, as it were by a Contract of Sluggishness, while every one laying aside Arms, seeks by Obli­gation of others to confirm his own safety. Hence it proceeds, that they are ready to flee at the thought of a Battel, and chuse rather the Trade of a City, than to indure the first shock of their Enemy. [Page 304] The Romans, who were the perfect Exemplars of Military Disci­plines, always took care, that no Souldier should have [...] Employment than that of his Arms: How oft it hath been [...] that even the stoutest Minds have been worn out of Courage [...] the hope of Safety, when on the other side, the most time [...] ­dants, have, by Desperation, become Valiant: The Souldier, [...] der his Colours, should be taught, that there is no third thing [...] tween Death and Victory, to be admitted among them: [...] Peace mix'd with War, is nothing else but a hindrance of p [...] Peace, and a means to yield daily nourishment to War.] W [...] words being deliver'd in a fierce Tone, drew many to [...] with him by his Authority, and the pretence of his well-b [...] Counsel: On the other side, some few who had Experie [...] of those things, and did mind the Duke of Alva's Seve [...] how it was repressed; averred, That all things were not c [...] venient at all times; that the Customs of this Age were far [...] for such a Discipline especially now when no man will take [...] Oath, unless he be allured thereto by Reward, and the easie [...]s;e [...] vice of the War; That such Rigour is not the way to Peac [...] Concord; nor is the War with the Bordering Neighbours so [...] tal, that it must needs be managed with the utter Reine of [...] and Depopulation of the Country; but as in the frequent Differen­ces of Neighbours and Companions, all hope of Reconciliation [...] to be thrown away; so in civil Discords, there is a moderation be used as being all under the pleasure of Fortune. Nor [...] the Rule both of Commanders and Souldiers be wanting, if [...] Dispute may be argued by Examples, who would never execute [...] Severity of War upon any, but in the heat of Battel; And the [...] ring of Corn, releasing Captives without Ransome hath for a [...] Ages made their Clemency adde a Lustre to their Fame a [...] Prosperity.

Discourses thus bandied pro and con, at last it hapned be [...] as it doth too often in many Businesses, that the majo [...] carryed from the better. And therefore, Count Ma [...] [Page 305] made it a Law, That all Prisoners taken in War, should be con­demned to some corporall punishment, and so should all that assist­ed the Enemy, by payment of Contribution.

The United States, as they were necessitated, set forth an Edict to the same purpose, That within a certain time, this Cru­elty of the Spaniards, with bitter Invectives, might be resented. And now the Villages and Fields were Forraged with wan­dring Incursions; the Souldiers, so soon as taken, were hang­ed, and many Examples of strange Fortune were shew'd up­on all.

First of all, the Priests and Nobility, intreat the Removal of this miserable Destruction from their Possessions, in re­gard they could not always be provided, to resist a suddain violence upon their Fields, lying open to be invaded. But the Souldiery decreased, and such as remained, fearfully en­deavoured by all means, to shun any meeting with the Ene­my, if they could but hear one anothers Voices at a distance. Beside, they cryed out, That they sold their Lives but for a little Money▪ and yet could never have that when it was due; but whether they had or no, they were sure to be drawn out to fight, and must venture all manner of Wounds, and the Victory it self yielded them little advantage.

If at any time, by the Averseness of Fortune, a Souldier sell into the Enemies hands, while he was suffering death by the Executioner's hand, he was laughed at, because he had not fled in time.

The Captains and Tribunes, trembled in silence to think, that the more fortunate they had been, the greater was their hazard.

These things made them admire Antiquity, in the Obe­dience of the present Times, and at last made them return to their old Custom, to redeem their Lands with Tribute, to make Exchange of Prisoners; and that he who Ransom'd himself, should, for the same, give a Months Pay.

[Page 306]Which for the future was punctually observed, and if [...] one violated these priviledges, the same severity was [...] to him by the Enemy. Thus with an equall terrour, and punishments of some innocent persons, the Laws of [...] were re-established.

In the Winter, some Horse, and a few Foot, under the Com­mand of Philip of Nassau, were sent out to constrain [...] zenburg, and the outside skirts of the Netherlands to [...] Tribute, and they wanted but a little of winning the To [...] of St. Vit, the fault of missing it, being wholly in the Sco [...] who brought word, that on that side which they intended [...] fall upon, they had onely two Gates to hinder them▪ when as they found a third after the two other were beaten down. After they had continued abroad full fourteen dayes a [...] raging, the Enemies Garrisons all the while as occasion o [...] fered, picquering with them, when either taking away, [...] burning whatever came in their way, they returned safe [...] their Quarters, and loaden with spoyl. The Condition o [...] the Borders at this time, was most miserable, for a select [...] ­ty of Count Mansfeldts men, wasted and took away whatever the Nassavians had left; the noyse of the French W [...] being also at the same time rumoured, which by triviall di [...] ­cords, threw both Lorrain and Strasburg into a vast abys [...] of mischiefs. Hence arose innumerable Complaints▪ but the [...] got very little remedy or redress.

As soon as the conveniency of the season permitted, the Hollanders being the chief of the Union, turned their mind from forreign business, to domestick cares. They concluded that without doubt, it was very necessary to take Gertruyde [...] burg, for that one Town being torn from their Body, [...] much torment Holland: Therefore while it was yet Winter they hastned to prepare all things fit to that future intend least either the Enemy should prevent them, or the Friz [...] should draw their Forces that way. But now the Fortifica­tions, not so well proved of late in the former frustrated Siege [Page 307] of the place, were defended by a stout number of Souldiers, to wit, fifteen Ensigns of Walloons and Germans, and the con­tinued care of their Officers. And the Winterly Waters, and frequent shoures, had more than ordinary augmented the continual moysture of the Fields: Against all which, there [...]as onely hope in celerity, while the flower of the Enemies Army was yet detained upon the Borders of France: The [...]se out of Brabant, were commanded to environ the Town, and that their store might be diminished to stop all provisions going to them for succour. And forthwith the Prince, having prepared all things for for War, carried thi­ther in Ships all his Foot-forces, which in truth, could not be called many, (for the Frizons had their own men, and Prince Maurice in vain desired Count William to come thither to him with ayd.) A great Lake lies before the Town, and washes indeed the greater part of it, spreading it self back­ward from the mouth of the Maes, since the year one thou­sand four hundred twenty and one, at which time, the Sea in a most impetuous manner, broke through all its boundaries, and drowned seventy and two Villages.

This (they call it Merow, by one common name with the Channel of the Wael, and it is probable, that it first re­ceived that name from some of the antient Kings of France) is washed on the right side by the River Dungen, springing out of the fields thereabout adjacent. The Land on the other side of the Bank, is in the Jurisdiction of Holland, although for that it is doubtful, the Brabander lay a claim to it. It is part of the possessions of Nassau, by right of pledge. The Prince of Aurange, after the Peace made at Gaunt, fortified it as an entry or inlet into Brabant. There were famous Pools that abounded with Fish, but now the Fish is almost all gone, being driven thence, either by Fords and shallow Sands continually encreasing, or else by the voyce and thunder of War about them, and the daily mischiefs done them by men. In the Bank, which contains the water (for [Page 308] the rest onely hiding the water with a thin film of Earth, can­not be wrought to any thing) are many turnings and coverts which lead to the Works of the Town, lying beyond the Trench. But the Northerly blasts of the Spring, by tempest upon the Lake, had broken down that part of the Bank, it being weakened before by digging: And again, the same way (for there remained no other) the Darts and Shot out, of the Castle, which the Enemy yet held on the neighbouring Bank of Dungen, infested all that attempted it; This was dif­ficult in the access, but a kind of hurdles being made, and covered with Loam, were put there, that they might cover, and be as a Trench for such as should assault the place. And out of the Isle of Dungen, which is hard by, were made many Shot, and at the same time Count Hohenlo, least fresh men should be sent out of the Town to supply the Castle, invades the narrow and strait passage (a happy adventure) where­upon it was surrendred.

In these labours, and fortifying the Camp, almost a month was spent before Mansfeldt approached. He sent part of his Troops before to Turnehout, but Prince Maurice his Horse, voluntarily made an incursion upon them, while yet they were but coming together into a Body; for they being of no use among the Marshes, the Prince had quartered them in Town, so as they could well infest the Enemies marche. And Count Mansfeldts Son Charles, being safe returned from the Enemy, was in danger among his own men; for being called out of France, by hasty Messengers, where he had first taken Noyon, as is before mentioned, and afterwards Vallery, as he required a Centurion of a Spanish Band (being then in the Borders of Artoys) who had been found guilty of a Rape, to be brought forth to punishment, he scarcely escaped the fury and madness of the rest, himself being struck at with the Souldiers Weapons under his Command, they also casting off their Knapsacks, as if they had been going to fight: These tumultuary licentiousnesses, were customary in forreign pla­ces [Page 309] with them, in regard there was wages due to them for a [...]s;e [...] moneths. Mansfeldt being a German, and having a re­gard to his own Honour, and his Fathers greatness (which be perceived envyed,) was much vexed, wherefore leaving them in the Town of St. Paul, which they had set upon and gotten, himself, with some trusty Regiments slipping away, castle to the Army and augmented its number, which the Commande [...]s marched with [...]ll but very slowly, its own multitude hindering its speed. For having 12000 Foot, and about 3000 Horse, their Confidence was su [...]h, that they be­lieved immediately to over-run their Enemy, who was not all so strong as they, for Prince Maurice had not much a­bove 5000. Wherefore from this action, Honour was to be gained to the new Governour, and they hoped from hence, is to purchase glory to the one, so to strike terrour into the other. Neither did any suspect the immense largeness of the Fields, in regard there were such incertain bogs, and so ma­ny Moores scattered up and down among them, and they were so inclosed, that as the place yielded not room for the Armies to fight, so the Fords and shallowes afforded no place for stratagems or Ambuscadoes. Wherefore observing, I suppose, the face of the Siege, and in what manner the War was ma­naged, he thought fit only to venture with a few, because the other part of the Camp did not merit the like fame, either in the danger or event; and truly this first example of his, was given with a very true consideration, in praising the po­licy of the Antients, who ever made use of all things to the purpose, rather than for ostentation.

The Prince had pitched his two Camps in several Fields that had easie ascents, that he himself might defend the left side of the River and other places near to the City towards the West, the other part towards the East, Hohenlo had the charge of; the whole Leaguer, every Regiment having his proper Station and Tents, between which [Page 310] were the Ways and Markets, was like a City, and was on every side fortified with a strong incurvated Rampire, whe [...]e­on were planted many Cannon: This could not be much weakned at a distance, and the Enemy could not come near to fight, without great hazard and damage. Near the Trench that ran before it, wherein there was a double Rowe of Pa­lizadoes, headed with Iron, least the falling off of the Water should leave them bare; or, on the other side, by a too great increase, should overflow the Works: There were Seluces and Engines fitted on purpose, to let out the Water. Dungen being also fitted with two Bridges, by which means there was a very near way to the Camp, and a Cross-way being made over the Marishy places with Cawseys, where they were cover'd before with the Hurdles and Baskets, stuffed and cover'd with Mud and Loam; all that passed that way, were secured on one side: And then whatsoever part of the Fields had been more wet than was convenient, it soon be­came firm, by the throwing in of Faggots, Bavins, and other like Stuff; and, if any where they were hindred by Estuaries, and the force of the Waters, were like either to throw down, or carry away the great Heaps cast therein, immediatly the Border of the Bank was fastned with great Stakes headed with Iron: So that the places were no more like themselves, but quite changed; the Marishes were made solid, and where the Enemy formerly was afraid to fall into a Quagmire, there were now firm Fields. All the Ground lying between the Camps, was encompassed round with a large Rampire and Trench, hardly to be walked in three hours: Here and there scatteringly were some Watch-Towers set up, and in the more open places Forts, that frighted any from approach­ing them with Guns, and Darts thrown by the Souldiers: yet for all these things, the outwarder parts were never the more carelesly strowed with Calthraps, and digged full of Pits, which every where yielded nothing but danger, though from causes to them unknown; but the Horse especially, were [Page 311] on all hands afraid thereof: The Fords and Inclosures pro­mised easier Entrance on any part. Part of the Ships with long extended Horns, menaced the City, being tyed fast one to another, with strong Cables and Anchors: by which means, not onely Relief, but any Messengers, were kept out of the Town: Some Ʋessels also were thrust forth into the Quag-Mires, which, according to the Ebbe or Floud, either swo [...], or [...]ock fast, hiding other Boats, that served to carry Provision, and other things necessary for the War, to both Camps, in fit and convenient Creeks; and the Marriners being com­manded to come a shore to assist Hohenlo, without murmur­ing, were very serviceable. Most of the Works boasted the Industry of the Souldiers, as being built by their hands, a great Novelty in that time, whose pains was a great saving to the greater charge of Day-Labourers; besides the Excuse of the Country-People, whose Mul [...]itude being forced from their common business in the Fields (as is usual with the Ene­my) rather procures an Envy in them to Liberty▪ or else be­ing slothful in time of danger, are by their unskilful Crowd rather burthensom, than helpful to an Army. But by the dili­gent Care of a strict Discipline, so far were the present Cu­stoms of the Country People different from those of former Ages, that here the Camp was both to themselves, and their Cattel, a place of Refuge. The Souldiers placed and secu­red them, they sold their Provisions, and received ready Mo­ney for the same, in whose Fields, if the Spanish Comman­ders had pitched, all the Money they could ever have raised, would hardly have been sufficient to have redeem'd them from spoil and injury. Whereas here, under the Fortifica­tions of the Camp, they Manured their Fields, and sowed them with Seed, as being assur'd of Security, not onely for the present, but the future time. And it was found by practice▪ that they who are L [...]vers of Justice and Honour, shall volunta­rily receive those advantages, which others shall hardly ex [...]et by Cruelty, and other thwarring Endeavours: It is scarcely [Page 312] credible, how much this Continent abated the price of Vi­ctuals, when they that forcibly commanded the same, were afflicted with all kind of Penury.

Mansfeldt having viewed all these strong Fortifications, grew much troubled; and, as it is the Custom of an exceed­ing great fear, resolved on nothing; and, among the rest, that which at first seem'd to please him best of all, was now most disliked: however, he fortified himself, not far from Prince Maurice, with so great a quantity of Artillery, and other En­gines, as if he had rather been going to assault a City, than a Camp: When he had staid there ten days, and the Horse coming out from Breda had straitned him in Provisions, bo­ping that all things might more readily be brought from Boisledue, he removed towards Count Hohenlo's Camp, pre­paring immediatly to drain the overflowing Lake, into the Channel of the Maes: But supposing that too great a Ta [...]k, anon he thought to drive away thence the Enemies Ships, or to break off the remainder of the Horse left there, that so be might the more freely enjoy, and have the benefit of Fo­tage.

At length he gathers together Faggots, Bavins, and other Brush-wood, as if he intended to break over the shallow Fordable places of the Marishes into the Town; not so much out of any certain hope, as that least he should seem to have no hope at all: Which while he vainly attempts, and that he ought not to try his Fortune in divers places, the sight of the Town, and the last hopes of the Besieged Souldiers forbad: By this Idleness, and lying still of the Enemy, Prince Mau­rice's Works were mightily forwarded; but the small num­ber of his Souldiers was the greatest Trouble he had, for that they were almost spent with continual Labour and Watch­ing: And the Frizons being again desired. That they having been helped before, would not now leave their Companions wanting Aid: Having for some time delayed, at last send four En­signs, but not before Verdugo was come with Three Thou­sand [Page 313] Men to Slochteren. While these things were doing, there were several light Skirmishes about the Fields, Count Ho­henlo being more ready thereto, than was necessary: No­thing more was done, because Prince Maurice being wary, beyond the Nature of Youth, would not hazard a danger in the open Field; and Mansfeldt was utterly out of hope of prevailing upon the Prince's Camp by Assault. But the Town however, was continually batter'd with the great Artillery, whose greater number being with Prince Maurice, had broken and spoiled the Houses, and made unserviceable most of the Cannon in the Town: So that now the Galleries plainly appeared, advanced as far as the main Bulwark, which stood before the Rampire: And on the South part unto the Fort, which was least of all feared, not for the joyning thereof to the Town, but because it was encompassed with a great Trench, a Bridge was made over in the Nigh [...], the Contex­ture where of was great Bull-Rushes. The Keepers hereof we [...]e easily surpriz'd, as they lay scatter'd here and there, and negligent by the industrious Souldiers; (for they that took upon them the confidence of being Spyes, and looking in thither, brought back such Intelligence) a few of that negligent Guard escaping into the Town, filled the same with great fear.

Before this time, there was no Obedience given to Com­mand; for, it seems, he that properly was the Governour of the Town, was then absent, being gone out a little before the beginning of the Siege, and there was none other in the place fit for that Employment: From whence it came to pass, that Works were often erected, and as often thrown down, ac­cording to the wavering Counsels of the several Comman­ders; of whom, two, to whom the Government of the Town had been committed during the Siege, dyed before; and now the Third, while he runs to meet the Noise of Terrour before-mention'd, being kill'd with the stroke of a Stone, clearly made an end of his Government. Thus there was no [Page 314] fear of any thing but the Enemy, which Prince Maurice did greatly augment in them; when having interposed Mans­feldt's Letters to them, which he might have detain'd, he yet sent them to them: For now Mansfeldt, having taken coun­sel to draw away, admonish'd the Besieged, That they should not therefore abate or diminish their Courage giving them (though falsly) an assurance, that he would, by some other means, divert the Enemy. But the Besieged staying no longer, Article for their Lives onely: They deliver'd to Prince Maurice fifteen Ensigns, there were six hundred that went out sound men, free either from Wounds or Diseases, who left behind them great store both of Provision and Ammunition. But they that had had any hand in the former betraying of the Town, were ex­cepted out of the Articles; both the Prince and Army being all new ex [...]sperated, by the memory of the Treachery, from the sight of the Town, and their former and present Labour and Toil in the regaining it. And so, the same day, the Prince took Gertruydenberg from the Buyers; he made the Sellers expiate their Crime with their Lives.

Count Mansfeldt understanding how matters went, know­ing that his old Age would be blamed, and much worse Coun­sels prevail after the Event, and that the Reports of these things would be tossed to and from in the Ears of the Peo­ple, was much afflicted; suspecting moreover, the Fidelity of the Town of B [...]isleden, least that the People thereof, being of a busie and crabbed Disposition, and having no Garrison to awe it, should fly from them, in a tottering and decaying con­dition, to their Enemies, crown'd with the growing Successes of smiling Fortune: For Prince Maurice's Souldiers, who then held the Castle of Creviceur, by making a Dam over­thwart the River Dies, which, at that City, runs into the Maes, had made it overflow all the adjacent places: from thence, Corn-Fruit, and Pasture for Cattel, being lost, by the damage of private persons, they molested the publike Peace: Wherefore it was thought fit to appease them with Benefits [Page 315] and Kindness, whom they were not able to restrain by Fear or Force: And the Prince finding that Mansfeldt made hast to besiege that Castle, prevented him, by sending before some Horse, which should hinder and stop the Enemy, at the Pas­sage over the Maes, and keep them out of the Isle of Bommel; and presently after, himself with his whole Army, coming by Water, places himself in the middle, between the Castle and Mansfeldt; and having fetched a convenient number of Cannons and Engines from the next Towns, there being no Rampire or Bulwark yet about the Castle, (for which cause be suspected the suddain surrender thereof) he compelled them, leaving their Tents behind, to take little less than a shameful flight into the Fields about [...]uyck-Anons placing a Bridge upon the Maes, as if he would fall up [...]n Boisledue: by that false fear, he put a stop to any n [...]w Endeavours of the Enemy. At last the Commanders departing, with part of the Forces towards Frizeland, began to make that the Seat of War.

Since the taking of Ste [...]nwic and Coevorden, scituate more inwards upon the Issel, and the other Frizon Cities and Ca­stles, had cut off from Groning, both the benefit of the Sea, and of Rivers; there remained onely one Passage out into Germany, and that was the Bourtang: The cross-way whereof is not very broad, and begins at the Bay of Dullart, not far from thence, running through great Marishes, environing the whole Country of Drent, with a long Circumference. The vio­lent coldness of the Winter, troubled also with cross Winds at the beginning of the Year, had hindred Count William of Nassau, who was contriving by what means he might fru­strate the Enemies last hope; but now the Spring being to­wards, he put to Sea, where, as he sailed, he spyed Verdugo, stirred up thereto by Messengers, to have possessed all the streights of the passages; and being forbidden to fight by Command, and considering, that it was an unadvised Act to proceed further than they were sure of Provisions, he landed [Page 316] in the next place; from whence, by opening the Schises, he might drown the Fields with Water; or shutting them [...] might, at his pleasure, hinder them, when overflow'd, to be drain'd; and thus, to retard the Enemies March. But when Verdugo had sent part of his Souldiers, to wast the Country of Frizeland, Count William not willing to suffer or pass by that Damage, least he should give matter of Complaint to that Faction of the Frizons, who did not love him (for there were some private Feuds broken out) he himself went thi­therward, and, where he could, fortified the Border against the like Incursions for the future: Here the Enemy being de­ceived with vain Rumors of other Attempts, the Count sup­plies Coevorden with all manner of Necessaries, which before was in great want of many Things.

Thus the Summer being spent, and the Enemy turning his Forces towards Gertruydenberg, after they were gone, Count William removes the Forces he had receiv'd, marching by Land, and taking into his power all the Castles between Coevorden and the Bourtang: Upon the very Bourtang it self, where there is a narrow passage between the Country of We­den, and the Lands belonging to Munster, the Marishes that are next being disjoyned, (for the Summer and Labour toge­ther had made this place more passable) by a kind of Sandy Cliff, he commanded five Companies of Souldiers, to erect some Huts against the Weather, and to raise a strong Fort: Himself, with the other part of the Forces, (because he had Intelligence of Recruits coming to the Enemy) went behind Greening, being induced thereto by an early conceived hope, that the City would Revolt to him, as soon as Verdugo was gone, who as yet lying in the Suburbs, waited for more help.

In this mean time, Frederick Count Heremberg was sent by Count Mansfeldt with a strong party of Souldiers, (because either the Enemies Garrisons, or the Nature of the place had precluded all other ways) to the Town of Otmarsen, and the [Page 317] Castles, which we told you before were deliver'd to Count William; and these he took with great Force, but not without the loss of some Bloud: From thence puffed up with that success, he went with Verdugo, to destroy the Fortifications, raised upon the Bourtang: But the greatness of the work, in so short a time, the inaccessibility of the Marishes frighted them from their Design; and Count William, being daily in­formed by his Scouts, that they were coming against him, augmented and strengthned the Fortifications of his Camp; wherein remaining safe, he slighted their Power abiding in the Fields: Nor did he march with any Colou [...]s, wisely con­sidering, there was no necessity thereof for him, and that every thing would infest the Enemy. With this kind of delay, and some light Skirmishes, the Enemy even wearied out, make towards Coevorden, through moist and troublesom ways; but finding there was firm Ground underneath, they dry'd up the upper moisture with great heaps of Bavins. And when the place made them know, that Stratagems and suddain Heats, would be to little purpose, with them who were ready to receive them, Verdugo goes away to the Castles, hoping the Souldiers inclosed therein would quickly want Victuals. But herein his In­telligence failed him; for they had been twice of late furni­shed with all Things possible: Then they tempted the Fide­lity of Caspar Ensem the Governour, both by Rewards and Terrour, but he was resolv'd against both.

But now the Year wasting very fast, the Spanish Forces be­tween Mud and Showers of Rain, were ready to sink to no­thing, besides there grew among them a scarcity of Victuals, and they had scarce received in 8 Months, so much Pay as was due for two, and they pillaged and wasted all the adja­cent places, running out even into Germany. Afterwards, the Cold that follow'd, added to their misery of Want, and both of them bred a sad Disease among them, with a great Flix.

[Page 318]Some part of the Souldiers fled both from their miseries, and the Siege together, and not as of old did they run away by single men, now one, and then one; but by whole Com­panies at once. And Count William did encourage them there­to, promising them rewards, who ever would come over to him. From hence the Besieged, began to gather both Cou­rage and Confidence, to make Sallies. Shortly after the Winter made them quiet, while both sides prepare Provisi­ons and other ayd for their friends: But the Friz [...]ns had Commanded Count William, to besiege the Castles that had been lost about Groiuingen: but now the lateness of the year, and the bitterness of the Weather, rather than their Officers Commands, hindred any further motion. Onely a part of the Regiment raised for Verdugo in Germany, being ignorant in the use of Arms, was met by some of Prince Maurice's Souldiers, and slain; But in several other accidental meetings, they fought variously, they being generally, either killed, or taken, that were loaden with Provision or Knapsacks. And Count Solmes harassed all the Land of Wase, that refused to pay Tribute, with the taking away of their Cattel, and some Prisoners: The Castles which he took in his passage, were after his return recovered by the Enemy, and Philip of Nassa [...] making a Road out of the City of Limburg, depopulated all the Country lying round about. But the ambushes layd by the Prince himself, to surprize Bruges, deceived him, at which time, passing by the Sea and divers Rivers, with the dewes and cold, he w [...]s thrown in [...]o a Disease, by meanes whereof, the [...]eturn of the Ships being hastned, one was cast away. The faul o [...] both these miscarriages, was in the Officers, who un­dertook the Conduct of them in the night.

But in the King [...] Army, where mony began again to grow scant, the Souldiers fell [...]o mutiny, the very Spaniards them­selves beginning the first Sedition: and so little Reverence did they shew to Charles Mansfeldt who commanded them, that they intercepted and kept the Provisions that were sent [Page 319] to [...] whose wickedness the Souldiers of other Nations, a great while detested, but soon after, observing that the Muti­nous received their pay, they refused any longer to be quiet, but inclined to the same courses, and turning out their Cap­taine, which they believed to dislike such tumultuous pro­ceedings, they set up the most abject among them, by the con­sent and choyce of the whole Bands: This Fellow was thus made a Lord over life and death, terrifies all, and feares all, but now will; no longer acknowledge his Authority from an­others will; but taking courage, he may now with equall danger, either take or refuse the Command: However, be­ing full of discord and cruelty, while they impose upon themselves, both Counsel and Laws, and there is no pardon admitted to any offence among them, they confess the neces­sity of a Law, themselves being witnesses of that good, which they chiefly violate.

There was another thing that added fuel to the fire of the Souldiers rage, and that was, the sudden and too great parsi­mony of those Spaniards, who managed and ordered the Trea­sury, in the revoking all augmentations of Wages, which the Duke of Parma had granted to any for their more wor­thy Service, or out of favour. And this mad mutinying frenzy was not onely in the consines of France, but among all the Garrisons of Germany, maintaining it self by Rapines and Tributes: At which time, the City of Nuisse, while part of the Souldiers there resident, were gone abroad to fetch in booty, turned out the rest: And this Rule was followed by as many as could, and served to the Souldiers for a Lesson, that either they should moderate their avarice, or increase their strength; In Berck, that was kept by seven Companies of Souldiers, who had cast off all their obedience, there the Mutineers would have no Captain, as the rest of the Souldi­ers, but chose out of themselves a Senate of one and twenty: nor was that Honour perpetual, but changed acco [...]ding to the times. They exacted Tribute of the Country, lying round a­bout [Page 320] them, but with a better Discipline, than of late was done under the Command of their Prefect.

This Revenue, which within fourteen moneths, had come to near an hundred thousand Florens, was divided among them as part of their pay. And the rest was afterwards given them together with indempnity: Upon such termes did Herm [...]n, Count Herenberg, make an Agreement with them: Many ac­cused the Bishop Bojarus his negligence, that might have re­covered his Town with a little charge, and chiefly, because the Duke of Parma onely had kept it: But now being forced to stay in expectation of the coming of the new Regent Er­nestus, in whose favour he was confirmed, he was for a while quiet. But the Hollanders, though they were free from all the before mentioned mischiefs, yet were afflicted by the angry countenance of the Heavens; for in the end of the year, a very grievous Tempest falling upon the Ulye, sunk in the angry Ocean, a Fleet of Ships lying there at Anchor, to the number of fifty Sayl, that were ready to go into Italy, among the Islands and Shelves filling all the adjoyning shores with Shipwracks and Lamentations.

1594. Ernestus Duke of Austria, sent at the beginning of this year, came into the Netherlands, and undertook the Go­vernment thereof, which proved fatall to himself, and very unfortunate and lamentable to the Spaniard. For the Frizons were absolutely taken from him; France withdrew it self: his Arms proved unsuccesful: the treacheries of his peace were infamous: the Enemies Affairs were famously happy and flourished, but the Spaniards under him, were poor and mutinous. All which evills prevailed, either to make life irk­som, or death to be necessitated. There were many causes that had procrastinated his coming, as the Turkish Affairs, want of money, and the Gout, a Disease familiar and custo­mary with him. But when he came, there were many solemn acts done by the Netherlanders, in Honour of the Regent, and with great shews of joy, such as they had hardly used in for­mer [Page 321] times to their Princes, even in the best of times; for now being almost tyred beyond all patience, they interpreted the diminutions of evill for great happiness. Neither had they now a Count Mansfelda, who under the vain shew of Au­thority, was equally ridiculous, both to his own Souldiers, and his Enemies: they had changed an old feeble man, for a person of great Nobility; and therefore they gloried at once, of that Honour, and their restored Laws, that according to the antient Custom, one was sent to govern them that was of Royal Blood, and by Kinred allyed to the King: They re­membred, that Alva and Requescuse had stirred up the War by their forraign Authority: And the Duke of Parma, (though otherwise we I enough liked) was maligned for his Country sake; That Don John, who had attained Royal Blood, by all wayes, both of Birth and Vertue, wanted rather the moderation, than the affection of the Nobles and People. But that now there was truly come, the off-spring of Empe­rours, with a German uprightness, neither infected with ha­tred or malice, and consequently, more prone to concord: He had governed in behalf of his Brother, the Emperour, both the Pan [...]nia's, or Hungary, beloved by the Subjects for his mildness, in the taking care of them, and the blandishments of his leisure time, not much provoking the Enemy, nor himself by them often provoked: Not averse from fighting, when the Barbarians urged him, by disturbing his peace, and it may seem, that he was the rather chosen, as one who might compose the Netherlandish Affairs, the Citizens being even tyred with War, and the King well knowing, that it would be in the Conquerours power, to make what Laws he pleased for the settlement of peace.

This Duke Ernestus, was of such gravity in Conversation, that the Netherlanders interpreted it to pride. But which is proper to his Countrymen, being not Superiour in his Af­fairs, he was easily ruled, either by Counsel or Command: With this mediocrity of disposition, he had so pleased Philip, [Page 322] that he intended to have married him to his Daughter, and strongly argued in the French Counsel by Embassadors, [...] confer upon him the Kingdom of France: fearing perchance, that if he should marry her to any Frenchman, and at any time after his Issue male should fail, that Spain, by access [...] to the Crown of France, would become a Province there [...]. But Providence provided otherwise in that affair, [...] brought Henry of Burbon, through divers variety of Fortune and setled him in the Kingdom: for he being grieved [...] himself, that being born to a Kingdom, he should onely [...] depelled for the oretext of Religion.

Many of the Princes protesting, they resisted him for [...] other causes, and by that means alone, could not submit their Fortunes to him; seeing his Forces almost consumed, and [...] other things that were the main supports of his hope: He [...] ­gan to grow unsetled in his mind, between some of his Friends, applauding his noble constancy, and others persua­ding for most advantage.

At length, either that he believed nothing more, sacred▪ than the Peace of a Kingdom, or that he had embraced his former kind of living, more out of Form than Judgement, he was Reconciled to the Church of Rome: which thing, was not of so much disadvantage to the Spaniard, but that for many years after, be continued his hatted and War against him, neither till of late, by the strong endeavours of Anmarle, were the Cities of Picardy, adjoyning to the Borders of the Netherlands, reduced unto his obedience. Nay, at Rome, a great while he incensed Pope Clement, and the most power­full in the conclave, by threats and force, least they should open, or propose a way for the Kings Repentance, and Re­conciliation, calling him a Renegado from Religion, and a dissembler of novel Piety.

But at the first being had in suspicion by both Parties, as well that he departed from, as that he came over to, after­wards by a sweet and well-constituted moderation, by giving to [Page 323] these the chiefest Power; to those, Safety, in the Exercise of their Religion, and some Honour, he exceeded both their [...], and made a Harmony between them, among whom before, there was nothing but Discord: So that now all were pleased, except a few, ignorant how great a benefit they had receiv'd, whom no Felicity could ever please, no Revenge sa­ [...].

In short, Trade and Commerce beginning, in this Cessation of Arms, and the People well pleas'd with this Quiet, it came to pass, that the strongest and most potent Cities, with the Metropolis of them all, Paris, and the chief Heads of the Fa­ction and Revolt, submitted to him, caused either by private [...]scords among themselves, or the fear of a Forreign Autho­rity.

The Spaniard hereupon, when the Duke de Mayn came to [...]xels, were of opinion to restrain him, as one that was averse to their Design; but the Regent Ernestus, having more regard to his Fame, hindred it; although it were known, he was the chief Instigator of the chief Leader of the Faction, to go in to the King, and merit thereby his Pardon: yet there were some, who detain'd by their own Covetousness, or the Spaniard's Policy did all they could to hinder Peace, delaying by the same the performance of their Expectations. Picardy chiefly, and the parts thereabouts near Henalt and Artots, were molested and perturbed by the Spanish Forces. And the first Spring Charles Mansfeldt, who made War in those parts, had forced Capelle, a free City there, having assaulted the Rampires, when the Trench was dry, to surrender, before King Henry could send thither any Succours. Shortly after, the King himself being conducted with some Troops to Lau­dune, staying upon those Confines: Towards the end of Sum­mer, Mansfeldt being driven away, who had indeavour'd to raise the Siege, the Town came again into the King's Power. The Confederate States, about this time, had given a Summe of Money to King Henry, upon condition, That he should [Page 324] turn his Force upon the Netherlands: But that Queen Eliza­beth would not hear of; who fore-saw that, together with the War, all use of him, and respect to him, would cease. This De­fection of the King from the New-Religion, was variously re­ported both in England and Holland; so as hardly any thing had bin further examined and discoursed, with more variety of Language, and freeness of Judgment: Others look'd upon it with Hatred and Detestation. The Catholikes hereby con­ceiv'd a hope, that in time, that other differing Religion Rites, though at present receiv'd in publike, might at last re­unite; and that as France had follow'd the Rule of German so the rest would follow the Pattern of France.

But all Leagues and Alliances with Neighbors, were by the King inviolably observ'd: And now the States being [...] by what private Policies the Enemy gain'd upon them, or­dered very diligent Care to be taken, That no sort of Writing that might prove dangerous to the Publike, might be foisted [...] the People; And that Masters which instructed Youth in Lean­ing should not instill into their Minds evill Opinions. Which done they turned all their Counsel to the carrying on of the war, while the Enemy would seem to seek after a peace: And be­cause Ernestus having recruited the Army, was reported to have enhanced the Fame and Terrour of his new Regency, be sent out some with Commissions, both into England, and into Germany, to raise Four Thousand Foot, and some few Horse: These Souldiers supposed to be met by the Enemy at the Rhine, though in vain, marched safely and unknown to the Enemy: But, on the contray, Ernestus his Musters were im­peded by want of Money, and other Casualties; for the Re­giment of Francis Saxon Lawrenburg assembling by little and little within the Territory of Munster, part of them being slain by the Hollanders, the rest melted away to nothing, and Count Oldenburg denied passage to those that remain'd toge­ther of them, through the Land.

[Page 325]The Lord of Cimace also gather'd Souldiers, consisting of Flandrians and Waloons, being partly promis'd, that he should be put into Garrison. But they that were Listed by Verdugo, a great part of them ran away; the rest were consumed either by Poverty or Diseases. Another Regiment belonging to [...]tzenburg, were kill'd, partly by the Enemy, and partly by the Boors, about Carpen and Aquisgrave. Others went a­ [...]y into Hungary to those Wars: So that the new raised men being either dispersed, or voluntarily departed, and the old Souldiers disobedient and refractory, all their hopes were [...] frustrated; and their boasting, That they would divide [...] Army of Thirty Thousand Men into two parts, and there­ [...]th at once make War on both sides the Rhine, came to nothing. Whereby Ernestus himself, by how much he had raised mens Expectations of him, by so much he fell into present Con­tempt; especially when Leasure and Pleasure, Idleness and Lust, began to be seen as publike stains upon him: So that he was lashed at by eminent and most bitter Invectives. Be­sides, he overcharged his Fame among the Netherlanders, in that he would have imposed Spanish Garrisons, upon several of their Cities: And was with great Contumacy refused, both by them of Namur and Lisle.

At the first beginning of the Spring, marching into the Field, Ambushes were laid, but in vain, for the surprize of two Ci [...]ies which would have been of great advantage; Bois­ledue was the one, which very seldom gave opportunity to such undertakings, and now preserved by fortune; for the Guards had no other notice of the Enemies approach, than the falling down of a Stone: Maestricht was the other, and there also was a miscarriage by the fear of the Captains which the Prince had sent before in a Ship, and because there were some Souldiers, who unskilled in such Expeditions, knew better to pillage than fight, unless by chance some­times, we have no more power to command our Courage, than Success, when a fatall Cowardise, and a suddain fear [Page 326] shall weaken, and infatuate the Counsel and Courage of those, who at another time, are Sons of Valour, and start back at no danger.

From hence Prince Maurice went beyond the Rhine, re­solving to set an end to all those great Enterprises formerly begun in Frizeland, to which purpose, not only Count Wil­liam's strength, but several new Companies were drawn into a Body; leaving behind only Count Hohenlo, with two Regiments to guard the Borders of Holland: Not long be­fore this, Verdugoe's Souldiers, while yet the Waters were all covered with Ice, assaulted Delphzile, a Castle scituate [...] the River Ecnus, they came on at first in a deep silence, [...] on a suddain, made hideous out-cryes, on purpose to re [...] the Defendants, and they rushed on so unadvisedly, that [...] the Maritime Bank, which by the unskilfulness of the Buil­ders, being carried beyond the Trench, reached the Bulwark, there was a sudden tumult, and long dubious Fight, untill a Neighbouring Ship coming in with Darts and Guns, and the valour of the Defendants beat off the assaylants with great slaughter.

Then the Groeningers sent to Ernestus Gifts, with humble Supplications, that he would not defer forthwith to send the General, and all the Strength of the Army so often promised, to avert and prevent the common ruine and destruction of the City.

But the Prince, knowing that he was feared in Brabant, and therefore that part of the Enemies Forces stayd there, and that another part was engaged in the French War, sending before him Pioneers and Engineers, as well to secure him in his march, as in a Battel, if need should be, steers his course towards Coevorden. He had ten thousand Foot divided into seven Bodies, every of whose Flanks and Rere, were guarded with Horse. It was a new divised Policy, that the Souldiers armed with Lances and Pikes, and a few Engines, or Guns in the Front, should break the Enemies Troops, (for Ver­dugo [Page 327] put the greatest confidence in that part of his Forces) and then the Cavallery being wearied, would easily be rout­ed. Upon the left side, were placed the Carriages and Wa­gons that brought Provisions to the Besieged, with some of the best and stoutest Regiments. At the right side they were [...]nclosed with Artillery, and the River Vidre; Verdugo also had drawn up his men in Battel-Array before the Works, as if he had desired to see the Strength and Courage of the E­nemy, knowing he could easily retire into the Coverts of his defences upon occasion. Here the Prince took Counsel, whe­ther he should break through the Fortified Marshes, to the Besieged, or seek a more secure way to get to the Castle. But [...] Spaniard, under the silence and covert of the night, draws of his Regiments cruelly shattred with long penury, and [...]y to mutiny at the eminent danger, together with the Duke of Parma's old Souldiers, marching with them towards Oldenzeel: there he pitched his Tents, and suffered the Soul­diers to glut themselves with prey, instead of pay, wasting the Fields of Germany, robbing and stealing with so much more greediness, for that they believed they should not stay long there, for fear of the Enemy.

Some of these Souldiers were sent beyond the Eems to Lugen, a Town under the King's Command. Others were dispatched away to Groening, that the common people, who are naturally unstable, might be kept in awe by them, and any danger, arising from sudden fear, be prevented: After the appearance of day had discovered the nocturnal slight, and that the Castle was open: and the deliverers and Be­sieged, had with joy among themselves, and extraordinary thinks to the Prince, saluted one another: the next thing in design was, what had hitherto been aimed at, to set upon Groening by force, which in the former years, they had so sorely te [...]tified. Although it was very strongly fortified both with Walls and Bulwarks, neither wanted any thing, either as to Victuals, or other Warlike preparations for defence: [Page 328] And not a few of the chief Frizons, had rather the City should have continued in the Enemies power, than come into their own, as believing it would draw the Trade from all parts thither. However, the Horse being sent away, that they might stop all passages against the Enemy, as well at Steenwic as at Coevorden, and the Bourtange, leaving only the Zu [...]phen Regiment, to trouble and restrain the Enemy, if need should be, the great Guns were carryed by Sea.

The Prince at his first setting out, came into those Fields, that formerly had been unfortunate in the great slaughter of many of his party: for he was descended originally by the Mothers side, from the Saxons, who dyed in the Siege of this place, or else his l [...]bour long in vain, compelled him to omit that unhappy possession▪ nor had it been of mean advantage to his Uncles, that the Civil War had invited them thither. The ancientest Inhabitants thereabout, and such as had sur­vived the many years of the troubles, shewed the very place, wherein Adolphus of Nassau dying, stained with his Noble Blood, the spo [...]l [...] taken from Count Aremberg, by him slain, and the first success in this quarrel: They could point out also the Castles, by whose Sieges, the Count Lewis of Nassau, in vain, hoped the defection of the Cities, and the peoples reciprocal endeavours for liberty. Then not far from thence, Lemmingere, and the Coast hard by, fatall for the slaughter of seven thousand men.

But the Prince and Count William (for they both com­manded alike, without either discord or emulation) as if ha­ving survived the glory of their Ancestors, they would re­move the unlucky Omen from those places, they take up their Quarters round about the Town, the Prince himself lying on that side, where Groening turning away, as it were from the Frizons, looks full upon Germany, but not any thing stronger in that part with Towers, Forts, or Rampires annexed to the Bulwarks, or with any out-lying Fortifications. But before I declare the Siege of this famous City, it will be worth our [Page 329] time, to shew the scituation of the place, and the several sorts of Nations, that frequently meet there on several occa­sions, and the rather, for that we have nothing any where else to this purpose.

The Nations beyond the Rhine, included within the River Eems, wi [...]hout all peradventure, are of famous Anti­quity: the greatness of whose Age, as is common with other people, was made fabulously incertain, before the Roman Empire propagated the fresh memory of things by their Ar­mies: then was the Valour and Fidelity of the Frizons highly renowned: The name of the Frankes was of a later Edition, part of whom lived, as is believed, by the River Salium, which the Antients named Sala, and we by adding a syllable to the word, call it Isala, or Issell. And from this River Sala, were the Salike Laws denominated. I cannot set forth the Foun­ders and Original of them, more then of all Germany, the Antients maintaining with a constant Opinion that they who lived there, were Aborigines, that is, at what time the Gene­rations of mankind increased, or ambition forced them to ha­zard, the Sea in quest of new Habitations, they were such as first possessed this utmost shore, or boundary of the Ocean: But in the mean time, I may not deny, that part of the Nor­mans and Saxons, and what other Nations frequent those Ma­ritine Coasts with their Fleets, being left in those places, grew up together into one Government, and used the same Cu­stoms; And afterwards, they by the same example, poured out the superabundance of their increased Generations, at further distance into the next, and also into remoter places: But chiefly it is to be observed, in two Kingdoms, to wit, of the French in Gaul, and of the Angles, or English in Britain, whose beginnings must be drawn from these and other bor­dering Nations: But I cannot asser [...] their manner of living, of what manner of Government they had in those ruder Ages, with any certainty, unless I should suppose they had alwayes bad Kings: but then that was not a name of arbitrary and [Page 330] unlimited power, but as it still is in Germany, where the chief managery of all great affairs, is as well residing in the people as the Princes. But afterwards, the Empires of Germany and France, being united (though quickly disjoyned) the middle people ran one way after liberty, the Princes drew another way, to subject them, by which means, all things became un­setled, and nothing stable. And then Christian Religion not being alike received by all Nations, as it disjoynted the Go­vernment, so it disaffected mens minds one towards another, while others assuming the vizor of Sanctity, made themselves Imperious Priests. The wiser sort, rather chuse themselves a Captain, and seek forreign Wars against Barbarians, in­croaching upon them by Sea and Land; from hence they fell to War among themselves, and though they agreed in Religion, yet there wanted not quarrels, which under the pretence of Piety, were at last disputed with fire and Sword Thus the Bishops and Counts, dividing the Hollanders among themselves, seized likewise at once, all the bordering Nati­ons they could gripe within their reach; for in the first place, Zutphen beyond Issell, was added to Gelderland: Hence, all that Region, which is properly called Over-Issell, and under that name the people of Twente, Zalland [...], and Drente, were all subjected to the Bishops of Ʋtrecht. But that part of Friza­land which lies within the Ulye, after a long contest and Re­bellion, submitted to the Jurisdiction and Customs of Hol­land. That part which lies beyond the Lake, and divided by it from the rest, was cruelly afflicted with War, and mortall Battels, being oftner beaten than subdued: because the Princes of Holland, scorned to rule at the pleasure of others. And the Frizons esteemed their liberties, both descending to them from th [...]ir Ancestors, and also confirmed by several Decrees of Emperours: Wherefore taking Counsel among themselves concerning a moderation, out of their own num­ber, they chose one to be a Moderator in their chief Affairs, giving him the name of a Podestate. But Groeningen, a most [Page 331] strong City, from all Antiquity, and the chief of Frizeland, was much advantaged by the conveniency of the River Eemes, and the Neighbour-hood of Germany. From thence of old, besides the fierceness of their n [...]ture, this City had nourished a certain hope, that as it was the Metropolis of that Region, so in time it should command over all the Coun­try of Over-Issell. Which being denyed by the Fortune of War, remaining yet great in its contracted Jurisdiction, ex­tended its bounds to the Rivers Leck and Eemes, and for­bidding any Merchandizes to be exported into other places, unless they were first brought, and offered to be sold in the City.

A Fortress of this Potency, after it had once gained Re­nown by Covenants, and the use of right sometimes chose for­reign Princes, and as oft changed, and cast them off, to whom they payd Tribute in Honour, as their defenders, but ever with a Salvo for preservation of their Laws; and this was well enough at present, while they endeavour to get favour; but when these Tributes were afterwards consumed in envy and prodigality, the mischief of the example appeared, it being natural to Princes, by any meanes to keep what they have gotten, and to increase by force, their beginning Wealth, if they be not absolutely obeyed; wherefore the City growing stubborn, and not contented with the liberty it enjoyed at present, but impatient of servitude, though at the same time shaken with many intestine discords, yet from the hatred of the present Lords, it still chose other, being ignorant of that good, for which Arms are taken away from the people.

Thus first experimenting the Bishop of Utrecht, it fled from them, for fear of the Saxons, to the protection of some living beyond the Ems, then to Gelders, and lately devolved to the House of Austria; yet the Groeningers kept to them­selves a power of chusing all Magistrates, one onely except­ed, who was the Prince's Legate or Deputy, who sate as Chief [Page 332] in the Supream Assembly of the Judges, that had Cogni­zance of the Rights of possession in Lands. In this Warre, wherein all things have been unrivetted, being vexed with most horrible Seditions, at last it consented to the Spanish Dominion, under the pretence of Liberty: This was not, as other Cities, tormented with Disterences in Religion; for when the Laws aged most furiously against all the Profes­sors of the New Religion, those that fled from all other pla­ces, found here a Refuge and shelter: But because there arose great Discords between them and the Citizens, the Confederate Lords, either out of a Love to Turth, or in favour of the Nobility, gave Sentence against the Citizens: But the Spaniard being more crafty, favoured the City, and there upon it submitted to his Government; being perswaded by this one thing, they rejected Religion, and all Leagues, to follow Renneberg, (so prevalent in all men is Thirst of Hatred and Revenge.)

It is to be remembred, as we before declared, that the Groeningers had refused a Garrison; for so they had agreed with the King, who also to gratifie them, indulged them with the freedom from many Burdens: But of the common for of Spaniards, they hired Three Thousand: The Forreign Soul­diers, to the number of Nine Hundred, kept the Suburbs: There was hardly any where to be found so great a quantity of Provisions, Guns, Gunpowder, and other Military Engines, as was here: The Camp was placed a great distance from the City, that the great Artillery might do the less harm to the Houses, but was most strongly fortified, both against In­vaders from within and without: A firm and wholesom Plain extended it self between the Rivers Horn and Scuy [...] ­diep; which Rivers beginning in the Marishes of Drente, [...] through the Trenches of Groeningen and intermingle with the Sea at a place called Reidiep. And because all the Army was not sufficient to incompass the City, therefore on this side they thought fit to make their Assaults and Approaches, be­ing [Page 333] here also able to receive the Enemy if he came, that so they might, by opening the Rivers, overflow all the circum­jacent parts: And it was found by Experiment, that the ad­joyning Waters were no less advantageous to the Tows, for keeping away the Enemy, than it was prejudicial to the in­closed Succours. And the Prince also carryed the Rivers so, that he might easily bring his great Guns over the Fields, against the scattering Forts: some whereof, being deserted, were easily won. But the best and noblest of them all named Adoardysel, when the Governour had defended it with more Resolution than the present necessity requir'd, the Bridges and Ladders being taken, it was assaulted by the Souldiers with so great fury, mad to revenge the slaughter of their Companions, made in the same place the Year before; that neither the too late delivery was accepted, nor the word of Command, how, and when to give the Onset was staid for: Thus they made a great slaughter, which was also increased by an accidental fire then hapning: This Fort being taken, provisions were more easily brought out of Frizeland into the Camp, the people of Embden sending in no small quantity, until Verdugo terrified them with Threats, bidding them take heed, they betrayed not their Affection: Some successful Sallies were made, both out of the Town and Suburbs, the Keepers of the New Works being tyred out with continual show [...]s; for those Works, out of a Military Ambition, were more hastily, than warily promoted.

The next and greatest Care was, by little and little, to un­dermine on both sides the Port; the one whereof was defen­ded by the Bulwark adjoyning to the Trench; the other, by an outlying Fo [...]t. The great Guns, on both sides, plaid very furiously; and however the Rampires, [...]nd other Works made of Earth, resisted the Force of the Attempt, yet the Bridges, Gates, Towers, and other Buildings, were utterly overthrown: And some Letters being taken, that were sent to Verdugo, it appear'd by them, that their store of Gunpowder, what be­tween [Page 334] a prodigal Expence thereof, and other Accidents, was well near consumed. They were advised therefore, least be­ing left by their Associates, some of whom were in France, and other continued mutinous and full of Sedition, that they would not, being thus shut up by the Army, rashly, and without reason, seek their own ruine.

To this it was answer'd, but not as if it came from the Be­sieged, but such as were proud with the Memory of their ol­der and more novel Affairs, That they should not be provoked by the greatest of their Commanders, without danger, although they were not all of one mind, but had many causes of difference among them. The Assemblies of the Commons, whose Authority was greater in the publike Affairs, than was necessary, had de­liver'd all their power to the Magistrates; and a little before the Siege they had sent Messengers, to get them some Suc­cours: But the Netherlandish Cities, took no Thought of their so great danger, all their Labours and Endeavours be­ing busied about the New Regent, they knew so profusely to wast their Money, as if they had not known, that by the want thereof many times, the greatest Affairs are hazarded, and Opportunities lost: Therefore, there were some who propo­sed, that the City should be deliver'd to the Duke of Bruns­wick; Hohenlo was a main stickler in that Advice, because, if it succeeded, he promis'd to himself, that he should be his Deputy-Governour. But the Siege utterly blew away all those Imaginitions, which being once begun, there follow'd fre­quent Treaties between the Besiegers, and Besieged; some­times, that they might bury their Dead; other times, that they might exchange Prisoners, and upon many the like occasions: Sometimes also, they made short Truces, which, at l [...]st, the Townsmen desire one to be continued, until they could send to Bruxels, for a more certain Reply, but it was meritedly re­fused.

Jorgius, who was the principal person among all the Ma­gistrates, before that the Co [...]sul, and now a Collonel, withstand­ing [Page 335] Peace, and confirm'd therein by the incouragement of the Jesuits, had drawn unto himself the Rout of the poorer sort of People, who had neither any hope or fear in the continuance or change of the Weal-publike: These threatned death to all Messengers that should come from the Enemy; and like­wise to every one else, who but spoke well of Peace; not ab­staining, in the interim, from committing Murthers and Rapines: But now the Ravelins, and other nearer places, be­gan to preach Ruine; among which Evils, it was far the most miserible Spectacle, when the Darkness of the Night was turned into Light, by the burning of Houses, fir'd by the Enemy throwing and shooting Fire-Works into the Town: And, as the People gather'd together in Heaps and Multi­tudes, to save their Houses and Estates, either were them­selves burned in the Houses, or else maimed and mangled with the Besiegers Bullets. At last, what should they now, being between Hope and Despair, avoid? or what should they defend? since all places were equally fill'd with Hor­rour and Lamentations: But, for all this, the Priests, and such as the Spaniard had obliged to him by Pension, attribute to this obstinate stubbornness of their peculiar Faction, the name of Constansy: Nay more, at this time, some out of the Gar­rison, that lay in the Suburbs, passing the Trench in little Boats, took the confidence to enter the City: These, on the one side, calling them in: those, on the other, forbidding them: from whence there arose a most violent Sedition, wherein, at the beginning, there was some bloud spilled, but soon after it abated, for fear of the Enemy abroad.

The Prince, that by the prosecution of the War vigorously, he might, at some time, force to thoughts of Peace, began to undermine the greatest of all their Forts within the Trench, wherein there remain'd some marks of the Fort or Castle, rai­sed there by the Duke of Alva; and that he might the better conceal the Policy, by some other more apparent Design, he seems to threaten the taking by storm of the Bulwarks alrea­dy [Page 336] batter'd and shaken. But when the Assailants saw the vast concourse of the Townsmen to the place, as if afraid to come on, they retired; at which instant, the Gunpowder that was hid in the Mine, being set on fire, the torn up Ground threw the dispersed Multitude into the adjacent Ditches and Trenches, and cast some, at a greater distance, into the very Camp or Leaguer: Others of them were swallow'd alive in­to the gaping Chasma of the disbowel'd Earth. Then might have been seen some Souldiers (Scots by Nation) whose Hast and Valour carryed them towards the City, together with such as fled, but hindred from entring it, because the Planks that made the Bridge passable were broken; how­ever, they maintain'd the place, opposing great Bags, fill'd with Sand, against all Shot and Darts thrown at them: And now all the whole Army burned with a desire of doing some­what more, earnestly requiring the Slaughter and Ruine of the City, which they said must be won by force: That this was the City, by whose wickedness all places beyond the Rhine, for 14 Years together, had either been exhausted by War, or at least spoil'd: Wherefo [...]e, now they ought to require in the punishment thereof, satisfaction for the Ruine of so many Castles, the laying wast of so many Fields, and the Bloud shed in so many cruel Battels: That this might be an Example unto the rest, that they should resist until they were subdued; and malapertly, with insulting Answers, scorn Mes­sages, and Offers of Peace: For what could be more glori­ous for a General, than to take the benefit of his Victory upon a Rebellious City, Triumphing in the S [...]aughter and Spoils of all that relate to him? But if he should prefer the pub­like good, before the Injuries offer'd to his Bloud, or the Re­venge of his Ancestors, yet this City was not to be preserv'd, having always been injurious to the Neighbours, untractable against the Laws, and perfidious to Liberty; against which, having for some time opposed, it had almost brought Ruine; and, at last, if it should be subjected, would yet be infamous.

[Page 337]These Things were publikely urged, as every one had be­fore-hand, in his Imagination, divided the Spoil of this most opulent City: But the Prince, and the Senators, who were present with him, thought it more convenient, for carrying on the Remainder of the War, that the Souldier should be restrain­ed from his licentiousness and cruelty against the Citizens: Thus Embassies and Prayers prevailed; within the Agreement were included several Degrees of Things; nay, the very Priests, who had departed out of the City, and all that belonged to them, consented to the League; and that they, together with their Companions, would, by an equal Right, be admitted within those Articles.

Thus they accepted a Garrison, while they were accustomed to this New Government, and Count William of Nassau was made their Governour, being before the Governour of Frize­land: Both the Forreign Souldiers, and those that belonged to the City, marched out safe the Seventh of the Calends of August, (that is, July the 26.) The Prince entring the City, restored the Protestant Religion, casting out all Images, and, as he had concluded, appointed MAgistrates, especi­ally chusing them out of those who bad before been banish'd for their Religion, the Laws, for the future, being in force: Concerning the Discords of the Natives, which formerly being disputed by Arms and Fighting, were not yet appea­sed; there was a Settlement made by the States of the Confe­derate Ʋnion.

And, in the interim, Otho Hartius, and Hierome Comannus, came from Bruxels to the Hague, as if they had been sent up­on private Business to the Lord of Cimace's Wife, who fly­ing from the Severity of her Husband, lived here, as it were, in Banishment among the Hollanders.

They did not Treat of Peace, as a Business of so high a Nature did deserve; but onely cursorily seemed to bring Letters from Ernestus, wherein were discover'd the Charges [Page 338] and Burdens of War, and the great Commodities of Antient Commerce and Obedience: That there were never any Discords had continued perpetually, but some few had been decided by War, but the greater part thereof setled by Peace: Wherefore, If they had hitherto been terrified by any Treacher­ous Dealings, yet he hoped they would not blame the well-known Reputation of the House of Austria, or have him in suspition, [...] desiring to be the Author of Peace: Nay, that he left his own Country and his Brother's House, with to other hope, than that he might restore a true and sincere Harmony and Concord among Christian Nations: That it would be seem the States, inter­changeably on their part, not to hazard the prosperous estate there­of, their Affairs, and the ambignous condition of their Adver­saries, upon the Danger and Fortune of an uncertain Warre, but rather take advantage from the present Times, wherein they may rather prescribe, than receive the Terms of a Peace.

Hereunto the States, being now more firmly setled, an­swer'd, as to their Cause, magnificently,

That it was for Religion and the Laws, which in the time of the Emperour Maximilian, the Arch-Duke Matthias, the Bro­ther of Ernestus, had by the Sword protected; That since that, by the implacable Malice of the Spaniards; having been forced to Arms, they have not been ignorant of the various Chances of Warre, but God had appeared for them, even gasping under the Burden of Oppression.

And now being raised by qreat Alliances, and their own Valour, they had rather chuse that (to wit, War) to be a Judge of the Event, than an Enemy so often found persidi­ous.

And as the Spaniard could not lay aside Arms, without the Consent of the Kings his Allies; so also the same Impe­diment lay upon them by several Leagues. And here they shewed several Examples, when Peace had either vainly or falsly been pretended to be sought; and they had no more [Page 339] Reason, at this time, to hope for better, of more safe pro­ceedings: For Philip was so far from remitting old Offen­ces, for advancement of the Peace of Christendom, that he would rather suffer the Barbarians to enjoy all Europe, than he himself would leave off, to infest and trouble other King­doms by Arms and Treachery.

That it was most evident, from Letters of the same Philip, written to William Clementius, wherein he was commanded to delude Caesar with fair Words and Promises: adding, That the Turkish Power would easily be diverted from the Spanish Empire by Gifts and Presents: Nor did the States forbear to signifie, That the power of concluding a Peace was Deputed unto the Praefects, but the Right and Power of preserving it was in the Lords.

In short, what hope could they have, while the Nether­lands were oppressed with Forreign Souldiers, and the Spa­niards, who still sit at the Helm, would by their nefarious and cruel Counsels, would absolutely reverse all the good which Ernestus intended.

The Opinion of many among the Romanists, in hatred of Pease, was too commonly cast abroad, That no Faith is to be held with such as differ from them: Meritedly sure was the Mischief of that Invention turned upon their own Heads, while they, by an endeavour of setting Men together by the Ears, break off and spoill all Commerce.

To all those that practice Equity and Honesty, they never alter their Evil Habit; and least they should enjoy their Perfidy too long, themselves became an Example against themselves: Nay, the very Common People, who, for the most part, are first weary of Warre, being inraged with the Memory of the late Villanies of the Enemy, would not by any means hearken or incline to any Thoughts of Peace.

[Page 340]And now the Spaniards fearing Prince Maurice's youth, grown famous by so many Victories, and the league of two Kingdoms, from the greatness of their terrour they so far con­temned infamy, that they hired murtherers by particular stabs to bring that to passe, which they were not able to com­pass with all their Armies: And without doubt, there was no time so detestible for such horrid wickedness, insomuch, that from hence, no one could expect from them any true peace, who by giving place to hatred and revenge, would even violate the Laws of Arms. For in this very year, wherein they desired a Treaty, first a Priest of Namar, afterwards another Renegado Souldier, were hired to become assassine [...], but prevented barely by suspicions, gathered from the extra­vagancies of their looks; but the designs of so great Treaso [...]s being once, though with difficulty, and but darkly, discerned, were soon after, for fear of the wrack, laid open, and the whole contexture of the horrid villany discovered; wherein first the Prince himself, then his Brother, Henry Frederick, and after them, several other persons, eminent in the Com­mon-wealth, were designed to be slain: and every one for a particular cause; as Leominus, bec [...]use he had revoked from the Kings party; Ald [...]gu [...]d, because he had excited the Duke of Parma to disloyal mistrusts of the King; Olden bar­ [...]evelt, because he was looked upon to be averse to peace.

The Traytors names were Michel Renichon, and Peter Furius: but let us see the Authours, who being persons in eminent place, and capable of Honour, yet had bound them­selves to the perpetrating this infamous act. And they were as fellows. First Fontayne and Ibarra, two Spaniards, Stanley the betrayer of Deventer, and of the Netherlanders; La- [...] and Barlaymont, the heyr of an inveterate hatred to the House of Nassau, and also Assonvile, of old suspected, for the murther of the former Prince of Aurange: Of all these, the Traytors gave particular accounts and demonstration, partly by force; but chiefly, by a voluntary confession, after [Page 341] they were condemned to die, and could not hope for any re­ward or favour, for casting aspersions upon others.

Nay more, the Promises and Exhortations of Ernestus him­self were related, to Renichon, by assuring a large Pension for his Reward: but to Furius in these very words. [If thou performest, what thou promisest me, and dost kill that Tyrant, thou shalt surely go the ready way to Paradise:] yet there wanted not some, who from hence would interpret, that the countenance of peace, which the Regent would seem to have put on, was but dissembled; averring, that he onely coun­terfeited a face of modesty, the more neatly to hide the cru­elty of his heart: However it was, 'tis certain, that Comannus and Hartius, who were in Holland, when this Treason of Re [...]ich [...]n was discovered, denyed Ernestus to be in any man­ner culpable therein: adding also, that Barlaymont would be ready, if they would give him a safe conduct to come and send pledges for his safe return, to appear and refute the before mentioned scandalls; but in regard he could be ad­mitted no otherwise, than to be punished, if he were con­vict, the conditions were refused.

About the same time, Lodowick Lopez, a Portuguese, but of Jewish extract, being a Physitian in England, was appre­hended, who was convict by proofs and Letters, to have un­dertaken to poyson Queen Elizabeth, for fifty thousand Du­cats promised to him by the Spaniard, for the same, for which he was, as he well deserved, put to death.

The Authours of the Treason, were said to be Christopher More, Fontayne and Stephen Ibarra, then residing at B [...]uxells, whom Queen Elizabeth contented her self, to have sharply reprehended in certain Letters to that purpose, sent to Er­nestus: wherein she gave the name of Jesuites, to the inciters of such villanies, and desired that they might be delivered to her, to be made a publick example: this she urged, not that she imagined to obtain her Request, but that she might thereby cast the greater ignominy on the Spaniard's Reputa­tion. [Page 342] There were several other Attempts of the like so [...] broke out not long after, from a sort of men, wonderfull by their vast increase, their Lenity being as ready to promise the perpetrating of a Crime, as to discover it.

Towards the end of the Year, the Order of Jesuits began to be infinitely hated through all France, by means of o [...] John Castel, a young man bred up and tutor'd among them, and perswaded by his Masters, that no Kingly Rights or Pri­viledges belonged to him that was separated from the Ro­mane Church: This Fellow, when the King returned out of Picardy to Paris, endeavour'd to have stab'd the King into the Neck; but the blow, by the bending of his Body, hit him upon the Tooth: The Parliament of Paris so abhorred the monstrous Fact, that they were not content with the punish­ment of the single Offender, but pulled down the House that nourished such a Viper, with all its Superstructures; they raised a Pillar to preserve the abominable Memory of so hor­rid a Fact, and from thenceforth banish'd the Jesuits. For to these, chiefly, both the English, Hollanders, and French, did impute the fostring of such Doctrines, on purpose breeding Youth, whom, under the Notions of Piety and Magnanimi­ty, they inflame, and incouraging them with Old and Ne [...] Examples, how often Tyrants, who are Enemies to the Pub­like, have been destroy'd by the Fortunate Darings of pri­vate Hands. Concerning this Order, because Opportunity presents it self, and others have spoken little concerning them, I intend succinctly to Discourse.

The first Founder of that Order was Ignatius Loyala, who being much weakned by a Wound received in the Ward Navarre at Pumpeiopolis withdrew his Mind, being yet War­like, and full of Courage, unto Businesses of a more peace­able Concern. Among the rest, he grew ambitious of Erect­ing a New Order: To which, in hope of its future Great­ness, he would not, according to Custom, give it the Name from some more famous Man or Woman, but even [Page 343] from JESUS himself. Being Assembled by Authority of them who can License such Novelties, they reverenced with incredible study two Things chiefly, to wit, the Pope's Power, and the Spaniard's Wealth: And at their beginning, they were main and eminent Props to the decaying Cause; indu­cing in defence thereof, what had hitherto been neglected, Manners unblameable, and sound Learning; they exercised themselves in frequent Disputes against divers Religions, which in those times had insulted over the Romane Name. They augmented their Glory both in America, and the In­dus, where, among Barbarous Nations, by the Teaching of Christianity, they adde mightily to Philip's Empire: yea, and many famous Miracles have been done by them, as is belie­ved with great facility from confident Asseverations; for that the Longinquity of places excludes further Tryals: how­ever, they are in abundance, whether in real Truth, or but pretended. They are the persons, in whom thou may'st re­quire fidelity and modesty; Their Authority with the Vul­gar is very great, by reason of their Sanctity of Life; and because they instruct Youth in Learning, and the Precepts of Wisdom, without taking any Reward for their pains: They have their Provincials in every City and Nation, and there is one Superiour over all the rest throughout the World, who is for the most part a Spaniard: They command with great Wisdom, and obey with equal Fidelity: They follow not the common Custom of other Orders to live all together: It see­med too poor to include within Walls their growing Socie­ty; They Baptize and solemnize Matrimony; and the first thing they are taught, is, To lay aside all Humane Affections, and to cast away the fear of Death: They chiefly take into their Society none but such as are very eminent, either for In­genuity, Bloud, or Riches; and they reap a great benefit from all those things: For, first, they distinguish Ingenuity no less prudently, than they chuse it, pitching always upon such whom they hope will grow famous, either for Eloquence, or digest­ing pious Meditations into Writing.

[Page 344]By their Nobility, they are admitted into the greatest Coun­cils, being of an incomparable Sagacity, in making Searches and Experiments; and because there is no Engine so strong as Religion, for the laying open of Secrets. And their Wealth fits them for Embassies, and all other publike Employments: By which Policies, though they are the youngest of all other Orders, yet they have far surpassed all the rest in a short time, both in Reputation and Wealth; and therefore are hated by them, and their manner of Life upbraided, as contrary to Rule: But they being above the Envy of their Emulators, even rule Prince's Houses, by a laudable moderation; for they ob­serve a mean between sordid submission and severe arrogant, neither totally eschewing, nor following other mens Vices. These are the main Wheel, whereon the Spanish Greatness and Empire moves, by which they maintain Peace at Home, and sow Trouble and Sedition abroad. For those Catholikes have receiv'd a portion of these mens Spirit, which through France and England, yea and Holland it self, do in the former maintain the Rights of a Kingdom, and in the last dispute against it. And although they are banish'd all those places, upon pain of Death, yet is that Danger no Obstacle to them, nor doth impede either their Confidence or Policy. But the Emperour did not forbear again to motion the making of Peace, although before refused, and stain'd with such mon­strous Actions, as we before related, upon the common pre­tence of Germany, viz. the Care of his Brother's Honour: Not did he seem onely to admonish them to it, but calling a Diet at Ratisbone, of the Princes and Cities of the Empire, he had caused it to be concluded, That they should be compelled ther [...] by Arms, for that they dampnified both themselves and the [...] Neighbours, by the perpetual miseries of War. But these things, as they made onely a Noise, never proceeding further than Words and Threats, so they were accordingly taken no­tice of; for the Turk then chiefly, being ready to fall upon the Cities of Hungary, as well the Care as the Forces of Ger­many, [Page 345] was taken up, and could not have leisure to mind the Affairs of such as belonged not to them.

This year also, the States of the United Provinces, received a very great and most honourable Signal of Affection from James King of Scotland, as well as the Kings of France, Eng­land, and Denmark, who were invited to the Baptizing of his Eldest Son, born by his Wife, who was the King of Den­mark's Daughter. And their Liberality was correspondent to the Honour done to them, as witnessed their most rich Pre­sents given to the Princely Infant, who was named Henry Fre­derick. They renewed their antient Amity with the Scots, and restored all the Rights of Trade and Commerce, and all other matters formerly concluded with the Princes of the Netherlands, and particularly with the last Charles: But a Partnership in Arms was in vain wished for by the Scot, and the Dane; and that the Princes of Germany should be inga­ged to the same Affinity; for their Peace was safe and un­molested, and there was no reason why they should go to thrust themselves into other Folks Troubles: 'Tis thought there was some hope gather'd from Scotland, not without cause, offended with the Spaniard, who had for many years disturbed the Peace of that Kingdom by Factions: From hence proceeded many of those sharp and severe Laws a­gainst Catholikes; and hence, by increasing hatred, came those who would transfer the most just Hope and Title of James to the Kingdom of England upon the Spaniard's D [...]ughter, but surely by most absurd and incongruous Arguments; but ne­vertheless, such as discover'd a mind ready to do him any in­jury. But as well the Scot, as the rest of the Princes, cast off from one to another the beginning to thwart a Power so for­midable to all. The Embassadors that had been sent into Scotland, returning by England, the chief whereof Waldgrave Br [...]derode, whose Noble Birth advanced the Honour and Worth of the Common-wealth, together with James Count Valquin, consul [...]ed of certain Matters, relating to the [Page 346] League: Then began to appear, how much those Presents were envyed, which had been bestowed, to gain the King of Scots Affection; the Queen of England objecting to them, Their unseasonable Magnificence, while yet themselves wanted Forreign Aid. Nor did it proceed so much from the Hu­mour of her Regal Disposition, that would endure none to vye with her, as that she being a wise and subtle Woman, and who would keep the Succession incertain, as one of the main strengths of her Kingdom, she would not, that a Prince, though next to her, both in Kingdom and Bloud, should be appointed her Heir by the Option of her Neighbours: There­fore, according to the Custom of angry persons, she requir'd a part of her old Debt, and if they gave her not satisfaction, she threatned War: Whereto a modest Excuse being made, they were at quiet for some time. And, in the mean time, that they might make amends for their Offence, upon her Request, They obey and grant, That they will adde some Mo­ney and Ships to her Fleet, for driving away the Spaniard from Bretaign in France: For the Enemy being setled in some strong Ports, lay at lurk upon both Shores, to get the posses­sion of that Sea, which passeth by both France and Spain: From whence proceeded the English-mens fear; nor could the Hollanders sail to the Westward with any safety: But now the English and Dutch Fleets being joyned, they drove the Enemy from most of the strong Holds scituate on the Sea-Coast.

But the War, after the taking of Groening, continued in the Countries beyond the Rhine, although there were other Things, which promised their Hope a Reward of their La­bours.

But at the instance of Mounsieur Buzanual, King Henry's Embassadour, it seemed more just, since their own Affairs had so well thriven, to look towards their Allies, because then there was sharp War upon the Borders, between the Nether­lands [Page 347] and France: Some there were that would not have sent Souldiers to the King, but Money, which Buzanuall withstood, affirming, That the King his Master had better learned to order Souldiers, than Money: And so far did his Reasons prevail, that he had not onely very great hopes, but the Charge likewise already begun, would forthwith be laid aside for a New Expedition thi­ther.

The Spanish Souldiers, who had hitherto made War upon the French Borders, after they had received their Money, and taken the benefit of what Licentiousness they pleased, being excluded from all Cities, lest they might grow more insolent by Idleness, under the Conduct of the Lord of Cimace, besieged Cambray: For that City, as is be­fore set forth, was delivered in the Name of the Kingdom of France, to Balagny, to be kept for King Philip; but he, on the contrary, usurped it to himself, from thence the Neigh­bouring Country was wasted: Nor had the Spaniards long continued the Siege, but they wanted all Things necessary, not excepting Provisions: However, lest that they might seem to do nothing, they surrounded the City at a distance, but with very careless Gua [...]; for being in their Friends Country, they supposed themselves terrible enough to the Enemy, being in no manner changed from what they were before; but onely in this, that now being under Command, yet they re-acted the Crimes of Sedition; among other of their Exploits, many times, fetching great Booty out of France.

But Henry, the greatest part of the Traytors being sub­dued, finding himself really King, and that he was so increa­sed in strength, that, though till this time he had been able but weakly to defend his, now he appeared able to vindicate himself, and to threaten an equal Return for Inju­ries.

[Page 348]He accused Philip in an Edict, That he had, without any probable Reason, broken the League that he had made with France five and twenty years before; That he being King of France, [...] content with the Dominion of his Ancestors, which by the Divine Providence, he now enjoyed, and being an august and magnificent Possession, he did not desire to intermeddle in the business of other Princes. That he would not seek a cause of War, against the Neighbouring Cities of the Netherlands, and hoped he should not be forced to one, by injuries put upon him: but since they had com­pelled him, he exhorted the People of Henalt and Attoys, and others his Subjects, to fall upon those forreign Souldiers, general [...]y hated and burthensome to all about them, whom none ever hated without danger but an Enemy, and to drive them out of the French Territories, and also from Cambray: which if it w [...] not done by a set day, he would bring thither his Armies, and t [...] his force upon them: This was all received in silence, as if it had been denyed, for the Cities durst make no answer: but Philip shortly after, mindfull of his affections to the Catholick Religion, and remembring the League himself had formerly made with France, declared that the Prince of Bearns, (for he would not vouchsafe the King of France any other name, who had vainly pretended himself an honourer of that Reli­gion which he had opposed, and now called himself King of France, was to be prosecuted with War on all hands: Be this came too late, for after they had for a whole year, dis­played their Ensign on the Netherlandish Borders, all after actions seemed to claim a shadow of right; But to this for­reign War, King Henry appointed Commander in Chief, Turnis Viscount Turen, who then raised the Repute of the name of Bulloyn, renowned also by Alliance to Prince Maurice, whose Sister Elizabeth descended by the Mothers side from the Royal Stock of Bourbon, he had marryed. And in this he would be more affectionately diligent, in that thereby he ad­vanced above the power of the League, a Prince bound [...] [Page 349] him by private Allyance, and also very high in the King's favour.

It was thought convenient, to carry the War into the Pro­vince of Lutzenburg, because this way he might have a pas­sage for his Italian and German Levies: for the Hollanders hoped, that if new forces were raised, it might be possible to bring to nought the old, being neither many, nor well agree­ing; and this either by the Netherlanders consent, of the conjunction of War: But a Messenger met Philip of Nassau, as he was hastening his march towards the French, with sup­plies, consisting of eight and twenty Foot-Companies (for the States having onely promised twenty, had now of their own accord, augmented the number) that they understood by four Switzers, whom they had taken, that Charles Mans­feldt, lay in the middle between them. Therefore for secu­ring the Journey, he took five Troops under the leading of Sir Francis Vere, and a well ordered number of Foot, least he should give any opportunity to Mansfeldt pressing upon him, and leads them beyond the River Moselle, to the Bor­ders of Metz, for the Enemy had prepossessed all the places more inward.

The greatest part of the Troops, having either gained by leave or force, a passage through Germany, returned into Holland, but the greatest strength of their Horses was consu­med in the length of their Journey. But the greatest damage that fell upon those was, that the Horsemen being far from home, became licentious, committing many robberies and Rapes, which either for that Reason, or else in regard of their Religion, or some other causes, mightily turned the Peoples hearts against the Hollanders: But the Earl of Bul­d [...]s having in charge matters of greater concernment, but his Forces not able to compass the same, not daring to be­siege Lutzenburg, after he had received the Auxiliary Forces, about the latter end of Autumn, went to Paris for further Counsel and Instructions.

[Page 350]And it appeared by the Event, that by reason of the con­stant allowance of Pillage and Rapine, the Strength sent for supplies were hastned, both with great damage at home, and other hazard: And that the Enemy came not into the very heart of Holland, during the sudden and most sharp Frost fol­lowing, was not the success of their Counsels in their own defence, but the evill Fortune and Discipline of their Ad­versaries. For Sedition had spread it self all over the Kings Army, and the end of one mutiny, was but the beginning of another.

This madness, as well for the generality thereof, as the se­verity of the remedies applyed thereto, far surpassed all be­fore it; because the Tumults began not in single Regiments, but several Nations at once: not in the Borders, but in the very Bowels of the Netherlands; for now hatred had enfla­med the Souldiers avarice, which is the prime cause of all such extravagancies: The Italians, a Nation by Nature emu­lous and spiteful, observing that the Spaniards had their Wa­ges payd them, in regard there was likewise at the same time, pay due to them, presently imagined themselves slight­ed and affronted: At first a few of them onely complained, That then they lost the esteem of their labours and blood, when the Duke of Parma, the chief columne of their party, and a most just rewarder of vertue in all, dyed; but although he were dead, yet from him the Spaniards possess the benefit and Grandeur, that at present makes them insolent: That they were now as despicable, hurried from place to place, at the option of a few, who make a stalking-Horse of Ernestus his good Nature, and the Kings Wealth: But it should sud­denly appear, that they had Arms, wherewith they could challenge their due against all those that defrauded the King of his Treasure; neither ought they (the Spaniards) to be displeased at the Example, since they themselves first broke the Ice: And if any one resisted them, he should find, what [Page 351] men Italy bred, who before this time, had brought in sub­jection the reall Spayn, not that which is now so called, be­ing an abominable sink of the basest Nations, who reckon Pride and cruelty, instead of all other Vertues.

These first threats were now seconded, not onely by Cor­porals and inferiour bands of men, but the valiantest of their Commanders began to speak the same Language: with which incouragements, as if they had been possessed with some sudden frenzy, all the Italian Souldiers marched with their Colours to Sichenen, a Town of Brabant, which, in re­gard of its strength and Scituation they seized, from whence they fetched in booty all about, even as far as Bruxels: with these, many Souldiers of other Nations joyned, as French, Irish, Epirots, and even from Italy, such as had formerly been in service for the Netherlanders, and all under pretence of peace, and hope of rewards, they refusing to entertain none but Spaniards onely.

At all these disturbances, the Officers were present, which, in tumults of such nature, is very rare, as if they had now been about to contest the honour of their Nation, not by any right of Authority, but so prevalent more or less, as they ap­proved themselves notably active in heading the Souldiers rage. New men were daily listed, and enrolled in the Com­panies: the mark and badge of their faction, was a swarm of Bees, before which stood the King, and this by a military jest, and facetious quip, they called the Common-wealth. They imposed Tribute upon Lands, and exacted Toll of all things that were carried out of the Country. Prince Maurice, and the Hollanders, politickly fomented this Sedition, for fear, least if they should reunite, they might receive thereby some unlooked for damage; and the rather, because there was a very great Frost, which had continued rear seventy dayes, and had covered with Ice, both the Marshes and Rivers, that they would bear the greatest and most weighty Carriages.

[Page 352]Thus while the Enemies Country, was tormented on one side with the French War, on the other side with mutinies of their own Souldiers, first precluding all places to reduce them to poverty, and afterwards, by raising all Provisions to an excessive price; The Treasury was taken into considera­tion: and therefore they being graciously heard, who were sent to Prince Maurice, declaring, that they were not obli­ged to the Spaniards by any right of Country, Kinred or Al­lyance, but only served them for pay; which not being given to them, they supposed themselves no longer tyed to their defrauders. And if any should come to assayl them, they would make use of the Law of Nature, which hath com­mended to all Creatures, even by instinct, self-preserva­tion.

Thus a Truce was made with them, but when they de­manded Tribute in the Land of Cuycke, where the Prince had some paternal Possessions, Herman Count Heremberg, was ready to defend the Country people denying the same, if the Prince upon his Request would have permitted him. But here also the Souldiers necessity, who could not so much weaken one side, was more prevalent, than all the Reason of the unarmed multitude, which things, when they came to be related at Court, as they were by the Spaniards represented to the worst, there was a division in Judgments thereupon, some averting a necessity of mercy; but others replyed, that although in some Cases gentleness was necessary to be used towards Souldiers, yet these being grown most insolent, and having also a national hatred, were to be made exemplary, least the Souldiery should make it a Custom to mutiny, and throw off their obedience, as often as they should fail of their pay, so soon as it was due. Besides this, the necessary of the time did incite and provoke the most moderate per­sons, because otherwise, when there was the greatest occasion for them, they would obey no orders or Commands.

[Page 353]Among all these advices, it was not concealed from them, what further rigour was thought upon for them; for they, according to the subtlety and craft of their Nation, had hired Spies, who gave them Intelligence of all that passed. Nay, and some of the Noblemen did voluntarily favour the Italians, out of hatred and impatiency of bearing with the Spaniards. Victualls, Ammunition, and all things else fit for War, were reasonably provided for them, when the Spaniards come into the same Province with a strong patty of Souldiers: at first they dissembled the cause of their coming; but when they were not able to come near the Italians in these Arts, they marched out seriously to shut them up in the Town, and being so inclosed, by Famine to reduce them to Reason.

Anon greater numbers are gathered together, and several Castles assaulted, with the loss of much blood, and so much cruelty was used, that they are reported to have been pri­vately slain in the Spanish Camp, that either by foresight, or other affection, repugned those Counsels. But now none would suffer it, that they should come to punish a fault in others, whereof themselves but lately, yea, and often before, had been guilty.

Thus on both parts, they shewed a most pernitious ex­ample. These, in that they would savagely shed the blood of those who had been mutually engaged with them, and were bound by the same sacred tye of an Oath: Those, that being taken for Enemies, they desired Ayd from Enemies indeed. For though they made their first Address to the King of France, yet he commended them to Prince Maurice as nearer, that so keeping the Sedition a foot, he might, when time should serve, have ayd from them, and enjoy the Va­lour of so many Couragious Men; whereupon, Pledges being delivered on both sides, they confirmed the Truce formerly made.

[Page 354]Then they delivered up the Forts and Castles, and because they durst not rely upon the Town, against an Army ap­proaching with Cannon, and other Artillery, the whole Bands, accompanied with their Wives and Children, march­ed away in the Covert and silence of the night, through pla­ces not infested by the Enemy.

They took up their Winter Quarters not far from B [...]i [...]le­due, being secure both in their Rear and Flanks, for that the City of Breda, Hesden, and Gertruydenburg, did inclose them, and were at all Essayes, places of refuge for them, when in danger; and in the Iuterim, for their more useless Company, places of aboad. If they wanted either Victuals, or Provisions of War, they were supplyed not otherwise than as Allies and Companions; And besides this, the Prince not despising the fame of liberality, even from Enemies, furnished them with Artillery, and added to them some Horse, that in their going abroad, they might more power­fully compell the Country to pay Tribute, or revenge them­selves upon occasion by depopulations. Thus daring to do even the greatest acts of Hostility, yet not positively become Renegadoes, they made up as it were, a third party in the War.

Things being at this passe, shortly after, the Regent Er­nestus sent Messengers to them, promising their pay, impu­nity, and a free P [...]sse-port; But when they understood by some intercepted Letters, that they should be circumvented and brought to punishment, a long time after they suspected all things: Nor were the onely troubles in these parts, round about they were as unquiet; for not a few, both Horse and Foot-Souldiers, when they fled from Verdugoes Camp, be­ing pinched with the extream want of all things, and help­ed by the People of Cleves, went beyond the Rhine, and so into the parts next unto Brabant. Besides the Garrisons of Dunkirk, and of St. Amand, and Capelle began to grow re­fractory to Commands: And to be brief, the very Spaniards themselves, but a little while before appeased, now again [Page 355] wanting their pay, had begun a Sedition in the Town of St. Paul. And the causes of all these evils, proceeded from that old negligence, and ill husbandry in the disposing of mony, and that Ernestus was not able to punish the meanest offen­ders. As also that the American Fleet was shattered and knised by cross Winds, and retarding diseases, almost into as forlorn a Condition, as the Spaniard's Credit: Moreover, there were other damages they suffered by the English, who although they were not so fortunate this year, in the South parts of America, yet in Brasile, their Voyage proved well, having taken the Town of Fernambuck, where they got a most wealthy and plentiful spoyl.

The following Winter, as it proved very dangerous by the fierceness of the Frost and cold, and other wants, to the Spaniards lying at the Siege of Cambray, so it gave oppor­tunity to Verdugo, to make a Journey into Frizeland, and the parts about Groeningen, wherein he only vented his malice, in wasting the Country, and burning the Villages. And now the Cavallery belonging to the United States, when he returned out of Germany, least he should often do the like, lay in the way to hinder him. This Winter also, the Hollanders suffered very great loss by inundations; for the Waters having been long frozen up in the Rivers, as soon as it began to thaw the force thereof, together with the Snow dissolving, and falling violently from the tops of the Hills, which was much in­creased by great Rains, made both the Maes and the Rhine s [...]ell over their Banks, and drown all the adjacent places, making a great destruction of Cattel, and doing infinite da­mage to the Country all about.

Towards the end of this Year, an uncertain expectation had attracted the mindes and eyes of all People, concerning a famous Judgment, while some think severity expedient, but others by too strict and nice a scrutiny, blame every pretence given to such as are studious in mischiefs.

[Page 356] Arnold Dorpius, sometime Governour of Zyriene [...], when it was besieged by the Spaniards, and familiarly convers [...] with the Prince of Aurange, with whom he was very free in Discourse, so managed both his own, and the publike Affairs, that he was become the Object of Envy, from the common peoples vanity, in giving him the Name of The Rich Dor­pine. He, at the Death of the Prince of Aurange, being laid aside, had received from Monenius, lately returned from a Danish Embassie, so of the Covenants agreed upon with the Dane: It fortuned, that the Embassadors sent from Ernestus shortly after to the Dane, objected the same things, that there might be an Alliance with them, whereby the Hollan­ders might be dispossessed of, at least disturbed in, their Nor­therly Navigations. Thus the Secret was known to have been disclosed by Dorpius: From hence a stronger suspicion was conceived of him, and while his Papers are perused over and over; at last, a Copy of the Letter is found, wherein he exhorted Ernestus, To put himself into a Disguise, and come to the Hague, where professing himself hitherto unconcerned in the War, but now the Author of Peace, he would strike a fear into his Enemies from the common people, and would win both to himself, and to all Lovers of Concord Repute and Trust. But when Dorpius constantly averred, That this Letter was written to [...] other purpose whatsoever, than to try his Wit, and exercise his In­genuity, he was freed from Prison, and confined to his own House; but afterwards, by giving in Pledges, he was dischar­ged; the heat of the Judgment, as is usual in such cases, vani­shing by little and little: and, as in the power of many, so at last he procured his Pardon. But Menenius, who descending from the great and publike Session of the Judges of Holland, to be an Assistant in Dort, had made himself a part of the Commonwealth: being now degraded from that, was put after­wards to write the Annals of his Country, and had therefore an Annual Pension; not so much for any great hopes of his La­bour, [Page 357] as that the Leisure of the Man, being of a great Inge­nuity, and well Learned, but of an active and restless Spirit, might seem to be employ'd in some Noble Affair.

The Fourth BOOK of the History of the Dutch AFFAIRES.

1595.AT the beginning of the Year, Ernestus called a Council at Bruxels, wherein he discoursed be­fore hand of the great Things he was wont to undertake; which, at a glance, were excellent Matters, as if he had inten­ded to confirm their Antient Laws and Customs: But power was not given to the States, according to the Old Custom, of judging concerning the Weal-publike: Onely the Bishops and Nobles were summon'd to meet, because the Nobility are an Ornament, and Authority to Soveraignty, and the Clergy are bound to be faithful by the Tye of Religion: The Commons are staggering and unconstant, being greedy of any kind of Peace; and therefore, except in the case of Tributes, are not to be hearkned to. As soon as he had gravely declared the great pains he had taken for the making Peace, in all other Things he desired their Counsel: Whereupon Areschot, a Noble-man of the first Rank in the Netherlands, is Report­ed to have made a Speech in these words:

Our Fore-Fathers, in precedent times, not in any manner byas­sed with Hatred, but onely because they were commanded, took up Arms against most valiant Nations, but chiefly the French; nor were they ever frighted at the Dangers, or started at the Evils [Page 358] that follow Warre, while they fought in Defence of their Princes Greatness: And therefore they brought to pass the most difficult. Matters by their Valour and Wisdom. But now our Arms and Counsels are at little use, our Miseries and Calamities are the things wherewith we are best acquainted: And this War, which is nick-named Civil, certainly cannot be believed such, especially in the contemplation of the Mortall Jars between Fellow-Citizens, and Countrey-men: What then! Do we desire Peace? Certainly, it had behoved us long since to have cared for that, while those things we would have had preserved, had yet remained in being, before our Cities were burned, our Fields wasted, and a generall want had surprized our Families, which is like (for ought I see otherwise) to lye upon them even to Futurity: But if yet, after thirty years continual slaughters, we have not deserved rest, yet at least free us from another War? Must we go against the French? first let us secure our Backs from the Hollanders: But if it seem more convenient, to take Vengeance on those first, and that surely is very necessary; let us not blow up our hopes with too much self-conceitedness, lest while we court what belongs to another we en­danger what is our own. But you will say, Peace is now offered to us: I answer, It is so indeed: But, pray consider, what cause of War hath the French? And how do the Hollanders drive of Peace? No surely, I rather believe, they are sensibly displeased, as well at ours, as their own sufferings. They cry out, let the For­reign Souldiers be all sent away, for they are full of cruelty and pride, and utterly discordant to our Customs, who have no shew of Modesty, nor more Fidelity or Conscience, than to serve their oc­casions: We say, these things are spoken maliciously, and by Ene­mies; true: yet those things we suffer by them is little else, than what Enemies use: Ask the people of Artois; Inquire of those of Henalt, and other Provinces near thereby, to whom the Proprietors impute the Dearth of such Fertile Countries: They will tell you, 'tis true, the French took away a little, but the Spaniards robb'd us of all; and the like may be said of all other Forreigners, who, [Page 359] however they disagree among themselves, yet unite to ruine the Ne­therlanders. Thus under the Names of War and Sedition, we [...] made a Prey; but the Injury done to us, leaves not off here, but we must be delivered to the Rule of Forreigners; so stupid [...] we our selves accounted by them, while our voluntary patience [...]kes us become their Laughing-stock; whose Lusts and Plea­sure, if they still prevail above our Complaints, and it be thought [...] to incourage wickedness, by conniving at it, we shall at last be forced to do that, which the necessity thereof will sufficiently ex­cuse, both to the Christian World, and to our Soveraign the best of Kings.

While he was yet speaking, the chief of every Degree once round about him with a general Consent, and rejoy­cing, That there was one found amongst them, that durst publike­ly speak the Troubles of their Minds. But the Spaniards were even mad against him with Fury; for divers of them were present: Fontain had avoided to be at the Assembly, because he was out of hope to be preferred before Areschot; and his Pride was too great to follow him: So really did he thirst after a real potency, that he would not slight the appearances thereof. I have observed, this very Areschot, through all the storms of this War, to have adhered to the Spaniard with great candor of heart, being such, as bearing an unspotted Fidelity to his Prince, yet would not make his Honour sub­servient to the Lusts and Pride of Strangers; and being sen­sible of his own Authority, was accustomed ever to use his freedom without check, mocking at the King's Ministers, be­cause their Arrogance was hated by all, but himself was ne­ver feared beyond words: Wherefore now secured, by the greatness of his old Age, he cast out those Words, which were looked upon as Oracles, so highly did they please the Peoples minds: Without doubt, the Netherlander's Hatred to the Spaniards, was never greater, since the Peace made at Gaunt; and some believed, that the Hollanders, as much as they could, heighthen'd it, if as formerly, under the old [Page 360] Prince of Aurange: So now the Government was not in ma­ny hands, but one Single Person managed the whole Frame of Authority, and all the Secrets of Leagues and Amity. The too great power of the Spaniards, and the Reciprocal Hatred, for the difference of their several Customs, were the first causes that inflamed the Netherlander's miseries. Fontayne given much to sleep and gluttony; and also, being taken in the very act of Adultery at Antwerp, was Reported to have very narrowly escaped Ruine. Stephen Ibarra was a Man of a more approved Ingenuity and Diligence, but all his good Qualities were sullied by Pride; which also was the cause of an irreconcilable difference between him and Charles Mansfeldt, insomuch that Charles had very nigh kill'd Ste­phen: And the Spanish Souldiers took hold of this Pretence, to cry out, They would be commanded by no other Officers, than those of their own Nation. Christopher More was a good Coun­sellour, and together with Idiaques, ruled Spain; but he u [...]urp­ed also the Right of Domestick Power: Yet Didaco Ibarra, a man of so bold a Spirit, that he complained to the King by Letters, of the small Authority the Spaniards had with Erne­stus, which he supposed the chief cause of all the present E­vils: Taxis was more subtle to p [...]y into Dangers, and did perswade to win the Netherlandish Nobles, with great Preten­sion; of Honour; but to keep the ordering of the King's Treasure still in the hands of the Spaniards, whereby, as with a private Knot, tie unto himself all other Mat­ters.

Ernestus having heard out Areschot, and being in his own Nature full of delay; and knowing that he could by that means best p [...]event their Violence, answer'd, He would ad­vise with the King, to whom he would also be an Intercessor, for attaining such things as related to the Peace. This hope support­ed their Minds, although their Evils were not yet remov'd: For after both the Kings of Spain and France had proclaimed War, the lesser Towns of Lutzenburg being possessed, which [Page 361] could not resist the Storm; the Count de Bulloin wasted all round about, nay, and ranged even to places far distant with Fire and Sword: But yet the Enemy met with four Troops belonging to Philip of Nassaw, which they either kil­led, or put to flight, being circumvented by Ambushes, and the overflowing of the Rivers; and afterwards, in a greater Battel of Horse, the Victors prosecuted their good Fortune: Against the more potent Cities, Policy was rather used than Force, yet the Success was not therefore answerable: There was Chance, which really might have increased more Parties to the War, and made it break out in all the Borders, if there had not been more difficulty in keeping, than acquiring; of which this is compassed often by Boldness and Temerity, but that must be maintained with Care, and many excellent Policies. Hoye is a Town of the Bishoprick of Leige, which Authors believe to be the Remains of a greater, and more Cities spoiled of old by the Incursions of the Barbarians; and the Scituation perswades this, from the running of the River Maes through it, which a Stream breaks into, that runs with more violence, than scantiness of Water maketh shew of; this Brook gives Name to the place: The Soil, that is all about it, is very rugged by reason of Iron Mines, and an­swers to the Nature of the People: It hath an Arched Bridg, the Rising Bank, on the right side, is over-looked by a large Castle, seated upon a little Hill: It is a choice place of Re­cess for the Bishops, in regard of its pleasantness; and no less difficult to be Assaulted, because of its steep Ascent. But while it was assured, both by Peace and Right, those few that by there in Garrison, and spent their time in Riot and Idle­ness, and did their Souldiery Duty as a Work of Supererogation: and by the like neglect all the Buildings Erected upon the Rock, were equal to the Foundation of the Castle. One of these Houses, by the consent of the Owner, Heraugier, the Inventor of such Stratagems, who was Governour of Breda, by him taken, commanded to be fill'd with Thirty Souldiers, [Page 362] who, in the Night, by the help of the Window and Ladders, going out, and first using silence, then by continual beating of Drums and Shouting, hindring the Prospect, they took the Keepers of the Castle, and bound them; in help of whom, while it was yet but the Dawning of the Day, their Captain came with six hundred Horse, and one Thousand five hun­dred Foot: But the Townsmen, though at the beginning of the Tumult, they ran to their Arms, when they saw so many Souldiers at their Gates, and others over their heads, affrighted with that double Terrour, losing their Courage, they submitted. Then Heraugier, placing therein a Garri­son, sent his Horse abroad into the Fields, and the Country within the Maes, which were subject to the Spaniard, to col­lect Tribute. This Exploit of War, committed against a Prince who was at Peace; and however he did not affect the Hollanders, yet in regard there had been no Hostility decla­red against him, according to the Custom of War, might with more facility be answer'd to the Spaniards, than excused to him. Not was it altogether unlike that of Bonne and Berck, which being formerly taken in War, should be retained, now that the whole Archbishoprick of Colen was in peace. When therefore Bojoarus, the Bishop of Leige and Colen, had sent to examine the matter, and it was answer'd by the States, That it was rather out of present Necessity, than any Right they claimed; neither would they do any Damage to his Government, or Subjects; but onely having taken a Town from the publike Enemy, they were ready to restore it, when Arms were laid down on both sides: And that Bojoarus did not deal justly with them, in suffering the Spaniard to enjoy it; and thereupon the Conditions were refused, wherewith they were sollicited to Renditi­on, being in themselves very reasonable, but that the conveniency of the place perswaded the contrary; for that Castle was a great Safeguard to their Journey, that the Holland and French Forces might the more securely meet; and in that Town they intended to place those Italians, which had formerly deserted the War, being [Page 363] far from the Borders of Holland, and in a rich Country, where they might have their fill of Plunder.

As soon as the Bishop saw himself slighted, or at least de­luded with Procrastiuation, gathering together some New Souldiers, whereto were added fifteen hundred Foot, seven hundred Horse, and fifteen pieces of Artillery, under the Leading of Lamot, he besieged the place on both sides; for the King's Commanders voluntatily gave their Assistance, their Interest being no less concerned, than the Bishops, lest thereby the Hollanders should come to possess all the parts have the Maes, and so connect the Country: Nor did the Spaniard's want an honest pretence, because the Country of Leige was fiduciary to the Princes of Brabant, by severall Leagues of Philip Duke of Burgundy, and Philip the First of Austria. The Town was easily gained by Scaling Ladders, and Breaches, for it was but meanly fortified, and all in it, that resisted, were slain. The greatest part fled into the Neighbouring Castle. But from the next Hill, which the Hol­landers had neglected to possess, being higher than the Foun­dation of the Castle, it was sorely batter'd, and below it was undermined: For there was present a great Number of the Native Inhabitants, who, being accustom'd to dig for Mettal in the Iron Mines, were very skilful in the Art of undermi­ning.

Heraugier judged, that the Garrison might have held the place longer; and with the hopes thereof, he had gather'd together Forces for their Relief: But fearing, at length, lest his Journey should be hindred, by the overflowings of the Rivers, although there were in the Castle Subterfuges and Seluces, to prevent the inraging of the Enemy, at the Siege the Castle was surrendred, being observed by many, that he was better at suddain Enterprizes, than the patient enduring of tedious Hazard. He complained, That the Succours pro­mised both from the French General, and the Italians at Sichem, [...] fell short of his hopes, in answering the Event, and that the [Page 364] Wall wherein they put their greatest trust for defence, was not, as it was supposed solid, but made up of two Walls, which gaped [...] in the middle, and that the innermost parts of the Castle, were, by the Enemies Battery, laid quite open. The Souldiers that march­ed out, that they might not be abused by the Bishop's men were protected by the Spanish Commanders, with so much ho­nour, that some of them drew their Swords for their Enemies▪ against their Companions in Arms: For Heraugier had Co­venanted with them, not immeritedly fearing, lost the Laws of Arms should not be observed by the Leig [...]ois: The Bishop was not content to have punish'd those, whom he thought guilty of the Stratagem, but he took from the City its Au [...] Liberty, as suspecting it to be unfaithful to him: Nor did he leave off to seek Revenge against Heraugier himself, object­ing to him Cowardliness, and sending a Transcript of so [...]e Letters to the States, wherein he had irreverently spoken a­gainst them.

Prince Maurice, and such as with him were conscious of the taking of Hoye, defended him chiefly among the rest, be­ing thus brought in question: The possession of this Forreign City was not kept long, it being regained the 41 day after it was taken; and the benefit of the Fact was lost, though the Envy thereof remained: And by chance it had hapned, that the same day, wherein afterwards a Messenger arrived with the News of the Rendition of the place, contrary to all men's Expectation; the States believing the strength and se­curity of the place, had given a rough Answer to the Bishop's Legate, to wit, That they would deliver Hoye, when the Enemy surrendred Berck. But the Spaniards added to the possession of Berck, that also of Hoye, and when they once had it, kept it, until their Wages were p [...]id, and the Enemy removed from those parts, and then they thought they might with safety enough deliver it.

Herein Philip sought the Fame of Piety, protesting, That he would rather bestow out of his own, upon the Church of Leige, the [Page 365] most antient in the Low-Countries, then that he would, under any pretence whatsoever, take ought away that was its proper right. Four hundred of them that marched out of Hoye with He­raugier, were slain by fourscore Horse of the Enemies, while being loaden with prey, and too covetous to preserve the same, they hindred themselves; In like manner, were they justly punished, who going out of the Garrisons in Over-Issell to plunder the Territory of Munster, were in the night by the Enemy surprized.

Among all these Affairs, King Henry, that he might com­pell the Enemy lying about Picardy, to look to his own busi­ness at home, commanded his Generall the Count de Bulloine, with as great an Army as he could make, to enter into that Burgundy which obeyeth the Spaniard, by the name of a County, taking opportunity, from the conveniency thereof, because there was the greatest passage for Traffique, both [...]t of Italy and Germany: The first Onsets were very vio­lent, with great terrour taking the Towns, and killing every where all such as came to resist, which, at the best, made but a tumultuary croud of the People of that Country, who had not, through the whole course of their lives, known what War was, so that it might rather be termed a Butchery, or Massacre, than a War or Fight. Yet did not all this make the Spaniard remove his Forces out of France, towards the Netherlands: but upon knowledge of the danger, Velasco, Constable of Castele, (which is an hereditary n [...]me of digni­ty) who then governed Millayne, for the Spaniard, with a Select number of Horse and Foot, drawn out of the Tran­salpine Garrisons, marched over those Mountains of Alpes, in the deep of Winter, while their tops were covered with Snow, and in the passage took some Cities, resting at the River S [...]one, where staying for a great Recruit of Horse, and other choyce Souldiers of Germany, and Spoleto in Italy, and hereby giving no opportunity of sight, the French Forces be­gan to moulder away.

[Page 366]Among these hazards, and flying Messengers,Ernestus his sickness grown more violent by the Winter weather, begin to get the upper hand, and besides, he knew he had incurred the Spaniards hatred, yet had not given any satisfaction to the Netherlanders, and that his Enemies accused him to the King, as a guilt stuck upon him, as well his endeavours of War as Peace, with the thoughts whereof, his grief so en­creased, that soon after worn away with a lingring Fever and Flux of blood he dyed. His death was suspected, as it is ge­nerally of all Princes, but was without any troubles or com­motions attending it, the hope of peace subjecting the idle and the tedious labour of a multiplyed War, employing the rest. The Physitians looking with great circumspection, into the true cause of his death, upon the dissection of his Body, delivered their Opinions, That there was a Worm in his Reigns then living, which gnawed all the parts lying near it.

The Vacant Government was by Philips Orders, supplyed by the Senate: among whom, the chief management of War and Peace, and all other business Foreign and Domestick, rested in Fontayne by the name of President; for Ernestus, a little before his death, had by writing, committed that charge to him pro tempore, by the advice of the other Spaniards, and shortly after, the King confirmed it. Nor was he unfit for so great a place of Honour, although otherwise vitious enough, as the Affairs of the Netherlands managed by his care, wit­nessed, as well as those of other places. But the Low-Country Noblemen, that could hardly bear him while his power was fat less, and but derivative from that of another, now receiv­ed and carryed with envy and disdain, the Ensigns of Ho­nour, which they took from his hand; crying out, that cer­tainly, their Fore-fathers were Prophets, when speaking of this their own Country, they foretold, that they should in time become a Province to the Spaniard, That after Alva, and Requesens, or which is later, Reda for a short time, and as it were for a shew, they had their own Laws, but the same [Page 367] arrogance of the Spaniard quickly returned: That now the whole power of peace was in strangers, who being equally vicious with their former Lords, yet came not near to them in Honour and Dignity.

Thus every one murmured to himself, and some of the more couragious stuck not to speak out to others, viz. That it was very grievous and ignominious to all people, to be subject to strangers: nor is the hatred of Kings so [...]it [...], that when the Governments of many several people is to be be­stowed, they will give to others the Command of them, who are willing to be in servitude. Therefore Charles Mansfeldt, out of a sense of Military Honour, finding himself to have been taken notice of with an eye of Enmity (as one who had contested first with the Duke of Parma, then with Ibarra, and now with Fontayne,) and that he was laid aside under the pretence of Honour; with those Regiments which Philip sent to the Emperour, he departed to fight against the Turk, who at that time grew very potent in Hungary. There being next of all to Matthias, who was General of his Brothers Army, he not long used his antient Valour and Policy, a­gainst the well-skilled Enemy, before among all the dangers of War, he was taken away by sickness. But Duke Areschot, that the Netherlanders might never see him inferiour to Fon­tayne, voluntarily exiled himself to Venice, protesting he went thither, where he would dye free, and where Fontayne should have nothing to do with the more happy People, because the Germane Souldiers, that kept Bruxells, making a small distur­bance, he had endeavoured wholly to possess the City by some Regiments of his own Countreymen.

This was odious to all, so that now the tumults of others were not more feared, than the modesty of the Spanish Soul­diers: And the rest of the Cities were possessed with the same fear: Hence grew a double distemper, from these com­plaining that they were excluded, from the others, that they were almost det [...]uded; however, upon this occasion, the [Page 368] Fields were harased by both. Whereupon, when a new mi­sery was added to the calamity of the former year, and with the very fear of want, the price of Victuals was inhansed, the common people took to themselves such liberty, as is proper to poverty, and thereby vented their griefs and sufferings: This made the mindes of all people of all degrees, more in­clinable to peace, the desire whereof had been first inflamed by the hopes of it given them by Ernestus: nor was Fontayne any longer able, by vain experiments, to resist the current of their resolved desires. The Family of Croy, was the most earnest of all in labouring for peace, of which Family, the Marquess of Haure, sent Letters to James Malery, of old allyed to their Stock, but then of great Eminency in Prince Maurice's Court, which were the very Index of his affecti­on, and being by Malery shewed the Prince, and by the Prince to the chiefest of the States, Malery was commanded to write back to the Marquess, that there would be hopes of peace conditionally, if the Spanish Souldiers going out, not onely of the bowels of the Netherlands, but Lutzenburg also, and Burgundy, would remove from them all cause of fear; whereto the Marquess returning a reply, but passing by that whole demand in silence therein, Malerye was again com­manded to write to him, that there might be means of agree­ment and Concord between the Ʋnited States, and the States of the other Provinces, be found out, but that they would have no Treaty with the Spaniards. Therefore an Embassey was prepared to be sent to Prince Maurice, in the name of the Belgick Noblemen (for at this time, Areschot was not re­tired to Venice) whereby they desired him to be just and fa­vourable to their allyed Nobilities.

To this Treaty, came Theodorick Liesveldt, sometimes Chancellour of Brabant, when Frances de Valeis held the Go­vernment, together with Masius and Hartye, all wife men and well skilled in the prudent manage of Affairs.

[Page 369]The Prince was then at Middleburg in Zeland, to whom being brought, they spoke seriously to him, to the effect fol­lowing.

When first the forreign Souldiers had made a prey upon the Netherlands, by means of intestine discords the Senate, who then had the Authority, determined that civill strife, and made the King agree to a League: Nor will it be any difficulty for them, after they have agreed among themselves, to free their Country from forreign Arms: Not long after that first League, many things intervened by the fault of both sides, or else by the wrath of the Divine Providence, which hindred the well-nigh cured wound, to heal and grow well as it should; but rather made it f [...]ster worse than before: At this time, the same Senate sits at the Helm of Government, and being we aried out with the same, or greater Calamities, do entreat for an end thereof from their Neighbours, and they might be confident, the Senate would not be wanting to give them satisfaction, and this they might expect with the more reason, because the Covenants were desired of them, while they were prosperous▪ and in a flourishing condition. That they had no doubt, but Prince Maurice, where such a thing may be with Honour, would rather chuse to leave his fortune, than by tyring it out, force it to forsake him, in regard there is no thing so much suspected by a wise man, as long prosperity. In good reason there­fore, they hoped, they came to advise with his Highness, who had outgone many of the most famous Souldiers, to preserve intire his gotten Renown; That he had many great Governments, and plenty of all other things, wherewith to content the greatness of his mind; That the Family of Nassau, was not onely famous for Arms, but had been generally renowned for other excell [...]nt Endowments of Peace; That it was their hope, he would embrace those Honours which should be attended by joy of all, and the teares of none, and that he would rather ex [...]ect obedience from the Princes of the same blood then compell any to execrate his Greatness. But if he was best pleased with such Honour, as was gotten with the expence of sweat and blood, there were honourable Warres, wherein he might [Page 370] advance his Standard against the Enemies of the name of Christ; so would his Prudence and Valour, arrive to that heighth of glory, as for the greatness and Honour of the Adventure, should ex­ceed the ambition of the present Age.

To which Prince Maurice, a few of the Deputies of the States being present, according to the usual Custom, made answer to this purpose. Wishing to God, that he might be so happy, as to set an end to these civill discords, both for the benefit of the present Age and Posterity; That he would account it more glorious, than the Name of a Conquerour, or then any Triumphed Garland. If therefore now at last, they were truly sensible of the smart of the Spaniards injurious dealing, they should then shew [...] Courage suitable to their own Honour, and the greatness of their Ancestors; So it would come to passe, that Freemen with Freemen, might make what Agreements they pleased; That by coming into the League of Ʋnion, they were not only vindicators of liberty, but would be Companions of Kings whose Authority they were now op­pressed under; Nor would the dissimilitude of Religion, be any greater obstacle to Concord, than it is now in France; But he would not prescribe any rule to them therein, the Judgement of Re­ligion being to be left to God, and the several Nations professing the same; Between the United Provinces, and the other parts of the Netherlands, there are many things common, as antient Ally­ances, right of consanguinity, and the Customs of the places: But between them and the King of Spain, all things were discordant and hostile, necessity continuing and increasing those things, which were begun at first, either to please his will or lust. That it was not possible for the Ʋnited States, to enter into Articles with that Enemy, whom they were forced to abandon, and renounce for their King, and indeed, such Covenants would not be called a peace, but a yielding; The malice of that Tyrannizing people is implacable, and there is no question to be made, how he would use his power is peace, who stretcheth it so in time of War. That time, and the [...]i­cissitude of Affairs, would bring many things to passe, which were but vain to hope for at present: But how should they ever give cre­dit [Page 371] to him, who thought it lawful to set to sale, the Heads of his most merited Enemies: That they would not rip up old sores, or [...] into President, former transactions: since all men remem­bred his Father the Prince of Aurange, and himself.

When Liesveldt, acknowledging himself to owe the Prince of Aurange all Honour and respect, began further to say, that is performance of Netherlandish Lords to him, neither they [...] the Spaniards, were consenting to those Counsels. The Prince, forewarned of his intent, putting his hand into Lies­veldts bosom, he pulled out the Writings whereby Fontayne gave him license to come, thus by an evident demonstration, confuting specious words: Thus the Embassey was dismis­sed, because they had not power of treating, unless in the Kings Name: This form of new answer, was variously de­scanted upon, not onely by the Tongues of the vulgar, but of the more prudent sort part; of whom, got both Honour and Wealth, by the War, and the other part wished for peace onely, because they earnestly desired it.

The Spaniards, and such as followed them, thought it was a sufficient offence against the Majesty of the King, if he to whom the care was committed, since these disastors sitting at the Helm, were called to treat upon their own accounts, should pardon them: What was the Event, say they, of such Embassies to the Union, but onely to make them more intol­lerably proud; for having but from mean success gotten cou­rage, they take the confidence, not onely themselves to shake off all Reverence and Obedience, but they instruct other Pro­vinces to do the like, to enter into Treaties, and do any thing without the King: yes, they should go again and hear the rebellious Hollanders proposing Laws, whereby they would make themselves Conquerours of King Philip: And if it were hitherto doubted, yet now certainly it was manifest, that they despised, nay hated Peace.

[Page 372]And according to the Example of Switzerland, waiting if any others would throw off their Allegiance to their Prince [...] Government, that they might grasp within their own fifts, There is but one kind of peace to be had with them, and that they must be compelled and beaten into by, Arms, and cer­tainly that would not be long about, if the Netherlanders have no less courage for duty and obedience, then is in the Union to maintain the contrary. But others, and they of the moderator sort, would by no means, that peace, so far pro­m [...]ed, should now be lost; for what marvel is it, say they, if the Hollanders had rather yield to the rest of their Brethren of the Netherlands than the King, whom they, conscious to themselves, of their guilt towards him, dreads as a terrible revenger? That nothing was demanded contrary to Reli­gion or Soveraignty, and the very particular concerning forreign Souldiers, was consonant to the desires of all, and is well advantagious to the War, as necessary for the Peace; That the Embassadors might be appointed, and instructed by the Kings Order, whose name soever was used in the sending them, and that the Netherlanders Fidelity was not so untry­ed, as to suppose they would annihilate that Power by Ar­ticles, for which they had so long maintained a War. That the Prince might far better connive at, and bear many things, then absolutely grant them. And if at last, expectation was not answered, it was lawful for the King to recede a little from the extremity of right for publick advantage; That be ought to cast an Eye of pitty upon their misery, and how ma­ny people lay even at the last gasp ready to expire. That the fortune of the War had been various, which had been waged on this side by doing, on the other by suffering damage. Out Enemies have Pastures, Manufactures, and the Fishing-Trade, to maintain their vast number.

And besides, whit is infinitely more then that, not onely Rivers and great floods, besides their efflux, and return thither as to their Head, but the boundless Ocean is traversed for ad­vantage: [Page 373] Hence is that multitude of strangers; and that whole Nations are included with their narrow bounds: They who rightly know them, say, 'tis necessary for them to have War. But on the other side of the Hispaniolized Netherlands, are robbed of the Stock of their Fields, have a dry shore, and dangerous to Shipping: yet are their burdens, and the scar­city of all things, hardly to be remedied, or made amends for by any gain: Moreover, all places are made wast and ex­hausted, and whatever remains, is never free from discords and trouble.

It might be disputed indeed, whether Peace can be made; the same needs not be questioned as to War; At last, after all this, there was another fear added, lest the People of the United Provinces, vexed with the endless toyl of their mise­ries, should choose a new Prince, wherein 'twas uncertain, whether they would admit a forreign Power, or content them­selves with the Vertues and Valour of some Domestick; there was yet some hope, that a vacancy in the Common­wealth should not be admitted; but if they once pitched upon a Prince, the War would either be inexplicable, or peace, if ever gotten, attained with loss and infamy.

In these varieties of Judgment and Discourses, some there were, that applauded a Truce, averring. That the Hollander's Affairs stood hither too upright, by their Ʋnanimity and Con­cord, and that their Concord was supported by Fear: These being once removed, the Vices of Equality would quickly succeed, and Emulation of Cities, which they could hardly restrain, even a­mong all the dangers of War: In the interim, with people covetous of Wealth, there must be a Traffick of Minds; and the great ones being corrupted, the Commons (according to their Nature) begin­ning once to love, would quickly cease to hate: Neither would they be willingly brought under the Burthen and Hazards of Warre again, if they were but once mollified by the immunity of some smal time of peace: In brief, the Word would quickly pass for Kings: The Hollanders being thus brought under, among whom is the [Page 374] chief strength, Councel and obstinacy. It will be easte for Philip to determine, in what manner to order his Forces against the lace­ [...]ated and torn Body of France, and the Womanlike Kingdom of Britaine, when that should onely support the War with consumed Wealth, and this fight only for fear.

This Counsel was confirmed by Lipsius, with many ex­amples out of antient History. However, Taxis believe [...] the greatest damage would accrue to the Netherlands, under the Kings obedience by a Truce. Thus in variety of Opini­ons, all things were destined otherwise than they happened, according to the Custom of Fortune, who being a great Ene­my to humane Prudence, for the most part keepeth secret [...] future Events: But lest the People, all their hopes of Peace being utterly cut off, should run into Sedition, Rumours we [...] scattered abroad, that the Treaty was prolonged, that thereby the Authority of Forreign Princes might intervene; And to that purpose, the Emperour sent Letters soon after, superscri­bed to the States of Holland, which they received, and [...] in their General Assembly, whereto they returned this An­swer. That they wished for Peace with their Neighbours, but had often declared why they could have no peace with the Spa­niards: nor had any thing happened, which should cause them to alter their mind unless after the Kings sending poyson and assas­sines to destroy them, they should therefore give credit to the Au­thour of such monstrous and barbarous actions: And together with these Letters, they sent others to the Emperour, written by Taxis to Philip, and by them intercepted, wherein as he confessed it necessary for the Netherland States, to make a Composition with the United States, as it were, upon equall tearms, so that he would refer all things to Fontaynes pleasure, setting forth may Evasions, and first of a disswading, that neither the Spanish Souldiers should be sent away, nor the Germans admitted as Mo­derators of Peace.

In these parts this year, Philip Count Hohenlo, and George Eberhard, Count Solmes, were solemnly marryed, and their [Page 375] Mariages celebrated, with Playes, Feasting, and publick Gifts. Hohenloes Wife was Mary; Count Solmes's, Sabina; this the Daughter of Lamoral Count Egmonde, that of the Prince of Aurange, both famous and well approved Matches, [...] well in regard of the great Merits of the Bridegrooms, as of the great Birth and Nobility of the Brides, both whose [...], as was yet fresh in memory, became Sacrifices for the liberty of their Country.

Among all the mischiefs of Civil War, this War one, that the value of money was mightily inhansed, and every Nation had converted the use of raising the same, even into a matter of [...]; which some were of Opinion, to restore to an equal Standard, according to the Trades and Commodities of the Provinces. But of a sudden, even they who forbad that growing licentiousness, failed and give over the attempt. And there remain strong Arguments of an unsetled Society, better against the Enemy, than their consent and vanquished La [...] agree among themselves. And besides, some Commo­tions among their Neighbours, had made them attentive, who unless they were shut out by right, even loved to be in­volved in a Neighbouring War, and making factions; for the Spaniards had openly declared their mindes and design; in claiming the Principalities of Cleves and Juilliers, as by the Minority and tender age of the former Prince, so by the sicknesse of his Son and Successor. The Government hereof, was snatched at on the one side by the Wife, a Woman of very insolent and shameless Conditions of the Family of Baden, and supported by the Austrian greatness: On the other side, by some Noblemen of the Country of Germany, as the Princes of Brandenburg and Newburg, who by their Wives, the Sisters of the Duke, took to themselves, the hope of so great an Inheritance; but altogether without the Em­perours knowledge or consent, who when a male line is ex­tinct, supposeth the right of bestowing those Principalities to be a new reverted to him.

[Page 376]These latter were favour'd by all the Protestants in those Regions, and by some Catholike also, who feated the Austria Families Pride, ever grievous to the Subjects, besides the vast Burthens of Tributes, with other Charges. These therefore using the Name of the States of Juilliers and Monts, they set free the Duke, who had been so inhumanely kept and hand­led, that the grief thereof was believed to be no small me [...] of increasing his Disease, and removed the Wife from the Guardianship, as one that endeavour'd mischief: In this i [...] ­te [...]im, Count Suartzenburge, hitherto a Follower of the Spa­niards, was observed to List Souldiers in those Quarters, to go, as himself gave out, to the Turkish Warre; but others c [...]ceited it was to strengthen the Austrian Faction, it not being probable, that Forces which were to be used in the further part of Hungary, should be raised in the most distant part of Germany, as if they were purposely to be wasted and con [...] ­med by a long March, after they had long been in pay to [...] purpose. But the Reverence of the German Empire, was the onely Obstacle that kept the Souldiers of Holland within compass and restrained their Incursions into the seatter'd and unprovided Country. At this time, the Elector of Br [...]denburgh, began to seek the Friendship and Alliance of the Ʋnited States. The same also did the Nobles of those Regi­ons, desiring the Loan of a Sum of Money for a short time which would soon and easily be paid, when they had dra [...] to themselves both the Government and Treasury. Some of the Hollanders would have speeded this; for by that means they should have peace with all those beyond the Rhine; and by the same Bond, their Armies and the French could quickly [...] joyned. Others, more prudently, averred, That so specio [...] a pretence for War, ought not to be given to so potent [...] Enemy in those Dukedoms; That there come to take part, not onely those who affect the Spaniard in Cleves, but the Neighbouring Bishops and Priests also, when of Money would be as well wanting to those that craved help, as [...]o [Page 377] themselves; nor could it possibly be defended by their For­ces, it being so far distant from them, and so scatter'd: Where­fore they must wait, till their Minds and Forces grew meet to undertake such a business.

At this time also, the City of Emblen had no less Troubles, a rich place scituate beyond the River Ems, into whose Mouth runs a little Rivulet: It is part of that Frized, which of old contained the Cauchi, an intermingled and broken S [...]ore, possessed part by the Hollanders, part by the Danes; from whence that Region is now called East-Frizeland, be­cause the antient Frizons on this Eemes, lye against it towards the West. Their Nature and Customs, were like the rest of the [...]; and, as to their Liberty, being left both by the French Kings, and the Emperours of Germany, when they could not bear Rule, they were content with any kind of Obedience. All publike Affairs were taken care of by Con­tentions of the people divided, and sometime in common of [...] whole Nation: Judgments were given by some; choice [...], as well in their greater as in their lesser Assemblies▪ Among these, all such as possessed Lands or Farms were [...] ­ [...]ul; and he who possessed most, had most honour, and for that was onely accounted noble: But these, when they had [...]lded Castles, and strong Holds, became not onely to them­selves, but to others, a Succour and Refuge, both in Domestick and Foreign Wars, yea, and kept always in readiness a stan­ding Force to repell any Injuries that should be offer'd to them.

The Moderators of the Conventions and their Judges, who were their Defence against Factions, by little and little, ei­ther through the Discords or Carelesness of the People; drew to themselves what they could possible; and when sometimes the memory of their Liberty returned to their Thoughts, they would fall into Civil Broils among them­selves, to be revenged one upon another. Among these, the Imerge of Graithe became most notable by Marriages, Inhe­ritances, [Page 378] and injoyment of many Lands, which from Custom became a Jurisdiction; Thus, at first, the Dorpes of Em [...] ­den were by him gotten, and afterwards growing more hardly from others, he took the Government of the Town being yet but mean: From this Off-Spring Ulderic, in the year 1454. first drawing privily to him others of the nobler sort, and un­der-hand working upon the people, from the Emperour Fre­derick, he took upon him the Rule of all that Tract of Land, which is stretched from the Eemes to the River Vueser, along by the Sea, by the Name of Earl, or Count, together withal Authority belonging thereto, as much as the Frizon Liberty would permit: And after ten years, he published certain Inst [...]uments in Writing, as Laws, but more contractedly that before, left the Rights of others, who began within those parts to grow ambitious, and to get honour by the same means, should be damnified. He moderated his Government with so much Benignity, either leaving or granting many Things to the people of Embden, and many Things to the Magistrates; and his Son Edsard, by adding more, grew [...] potent in the fidelity and love of his Subjects. that by the help he not onely hoped for the Dominion of Groeningen, and the Principality of the adjoyning Country, but also enjoyed and held the same, until the Saxons Arms, the Geldrians Re­bellion; and lastly, the Austrian Violence, invading [...] things beyond the Eemes, ejected and threw him out to all.

This man's Son, altogether unlike his Father, and so gover­ning, that he himself needed to be govern'd by others, in short time left both his Life and Dominion. At which time when the Christian World began to be shaken with Disser­tions about Religion, Embden following that Profession which in other Countries was sought after with Fire, and Sword, by the opportunity of the River, invited thither and maintained a great multitude of strangers, as well Dutch, as French and English. The Lady Anne of Oldenburg, was then [Page 379] Governess in the name of another Edsard, her Son, using with great Civility and Moderation the growing Principa­lity, and not according to the Custom of German Princes. She bore a great Reverence to the study of Religion and the Laws, which she judged not so much a safeguard to Liberty, as Authority: By this place of Refuge, together with her mildness and sweet behaviour, it is almost incredible, how much this City increased, containing therein no less than six Thousand: Soon after this follow'd all the Vices usual pre­dominant in a flourishing people; as among them Pride and Luxury; among the Magistrates, and those in Authority, En­vy and Emulation: Nor was it yet come to the height of force, so long as John, a younger Brother of Edsard, by counsel or fear, being of a mild nature, restrained his Bro­thers more furious Disposition: But John being dead, Ed­sard differing in Religion from the Townsmen (for he held the Augustane Confession, and the Town owned the Disci­pline of Geneva) began more and more to have in Suspition the Townsmens Felicity: His Wife descended of the Royal Stock of Sweden, and a Regal Inclination increased the Dif­ference; and, among other things, this was related as one c [...]u [...]e, That she detained to her own use some parcels of Houshold­stuff borrowed of the Townsmen under this pretence, that it exceed­ed the Rank of private men. Now by the instigations of those, who our of design of novelty, either flatter'd the Prince or People, a dangerous Contention arose, and came to that heighth, that the Earl interpreted the Assemblies and places of Meeting devoted to Religious Uses, Conventicles of Se­dicious persons, and with the Collections of Money, which the City made out of a pure intent of Charity to relieve the poor, he gave out, they designed to raise Force against him: But on the other side, a troublesom sort of Tumultuous per­sons crying out for Liberty, and (which is the most violent perswasive of all) Religion, being ignorant of all Civill Customs and Law, onely turbulent under that pretence of [Page 380] Religion, oftentimes do pervert a good cause by ill manag­ing. The unconquer'd Valour of their Progenitors, and the fresh and near Example of the Hollanders with the Frizons were mention'd: And what could they do more honourably, than to unite themselves into antient Name and League of those most valiant Nations? Now the Earl imposed Tributes and Burthens upon Merchandizes; now he so minds Af­fairs, that he imposed Magistrates upon them of his own no­mination: Hitherto the People's Rage and Fury, though fierce and obstinate, yet vented it self no other ways than in words; but when they saw a Garrison in the Castle, they threw off both at once Shame and Delay; and forthwith, un­de a private person, their Leader run, to Arms; they assault the Court, the Gates, and all other strong places in the City: Neither did they onely choose Collonels and Captains, but by the worst of Presidents, they set up new Magistrates, de­posing them, who withdrew themselves from the Troubles, in regard of the Oath taken to their Prince: The Keepers of the Castle were compelled, through Hunger, to desert the same; and all things being thus forcibly seized, they imme­diatly, without any Dispute, resolved to court the help of the United Provinces: Both Parties dispatch Legates to the Hague, to agree with the States: Those accused the rude and unruly multitude of Sedition, in whose Revenge and Exam­ple, the States were concerned, who flourish'd in Concord; and if Authority should thus be despised by the Vulgar, it would be to the injury of all Superiours. These, on the con­trary side, called to mind the Hatred of sincere Piety, violati­on of the Laws, unjust Taxations & a Dominion obtain'd by Arms and Faction; as if they demanded of the States, Whe­ther they thought such Things tollerable: And they humbly desired, That they would have compassion on their Associats, both in Religion and suffering: They added further, That its Count had endeavoured the Friendship, both of the Pope, and King Philip, by whose assistance he would oppress their Liberty, [Page 381] and receiving Possessions other where, deliver up the City to the Spa­niard as a Gift. And they were well informed by Spies, that the Enemy placed the main strength of his War therein, if he could but attain the River, and well-contrived Port, and indeed there is hardly any River more desireable, than that of the Eemes, which running into the Bay of Dullart, divides the Territories of Embden, from the Jurisdiction of Groenin­gen, and from the midst thereof, dischargeth it self into the Ocean with a large opening, capable of Ships of the greatest Burthen, and very safe by the interposition of several Islands; among which, its passage is somewhat incurvated; and this would make it easie for the Spaniard, to raise a new War in Frizeland, and to set forth a Navy to Sea, which hitherto in these parts, he could never attain to.

The Ʋnited States, who foresaw as well the Danger, as the Envy, if they should be resisted, dispatch'd away an Embassie with so much policy, as should neither cause the Earl to lay aside all fear of them, nor the People too confidently h [...]pe their Alliance: They commended Peace to bo [...]h, and if it seem'd convenient, they might, according to Law, decide the matter; for their taking up Arms, was but a greater cause of Suspition: That now they were Enemies to neither party, but if further Contentions did arise, they would declare them­selves such, in particular, to them that began the War: But when News was hastned by speedy Messengers,<