[Page] CHIROLOGIA: OR THE NATVRALL LANGVAGE OF THE HAND. Composed of the Speaking Moti­ons, and Discoursing Gestures thereof. Whereunto is added CHIRONOMIA: Or, the Art of MANVALL RHETORICKE. Consisting of the Naturall Expressions, di­gested by Art in the HAND, as the chiefest Instrument of Eloquence, BY HISTORICALL MANIFESTO'S, EXEMPLIFIED Out of the Authentique Registers of Common Life, and Civill Conversation. With TYPES, or CHYROGRAMS: A long-wish'd for illustration of this Argument. By J. B. Gent. Philochirosophus.

Manus membrum hominis loquacissimum.

LONDON, Printed by Tho. Harper, and are to be sold by R. Whitaker, at his shop in Pauls Church-yard. 1644.




WHen I first (according to my open and free manner of communi­cation to my Intellectuall Friendes) shewed you a Copie of my Idea, which ac­quainted you with my scope and generall projection upon Gesture; you were pleased (as in a Platonique extasie of ap­prehension) [Page] to admire the vast­nesse of the Designe, to applaud the rise thereof, and the promi­sing aspect it had to the ad­vancement of Learning; inso­much as fill'd with the benevo­lent influence and illustration of a Prophetique rapture, you turn'd Chiromancer, divining by the lines of life and prosperity, which appeared faire unto you in the first draught; that the Hand would be embraced and kissed by the more intelligent part of the world, and in time travell and learne to speake (as it doth naturally) so literally all Languages. This strong reflection of your conceits on [Page] my early undertakings, you have by the vivacity of a ma­stering phansie, oftentimes endeavoured to propagate in the opinions of your most generous Acquaintances, which as they were the friendly efforts of a subtle perspicacity of your Iudgement (which I have heard a Great Critique to ac­knowledge to be the genuine fe­licity of your intellect, whereby you are able to dissect the least atome of a Philosophicall proje­ction:) I have (though the raising of expectation proves many times an injurious cour­tesie) took as a good omen to advance upon. VVhat was [Page] then a cloud that had neither the shape, nor bignes of a mans Hand, is now growne fit to be held up, and by its owne suf­frage to chuse and confirme you its Patron: For, I affecting no Dedication that rises above the levell of Friendship, having in­tentionally consecrated all the issues of my recesse and leisure to certaine select Friends; This both by prescription and signio­rity of acquaintance as by a Prerogative, and by a recipro­cation of love for your affection to it, falls to your Tuition. I confesse some other of my di­gested thoughts strugled for precedencie, claiming by the [Page] analogie of Natures usuall course, and the Head would have had the priviledge of pri­mogeniture: But it fell out in the contention somewhat like as in the case of Tamars twins, where Zarah put forth his Hand, and the midwife said, This is come out first. However this Chiroso­phie or first Fruits of my Hand be accepted abroad, having put forth my Right Hand in signe of amity to you, and for perfor­mance of promise: there re­maines nothing (most noble Chirophilus) but that you take it between Yours in token of warranty and protection, as the tender off-spring of one who is

Your affectionate Friend, JOHN BULVVER.

TO THE Candid and Ingenious READER.
This Copy of my IDEA; OR THE Hint, Scope, and generall Projection.

THe consideration in ge­nerall, and at large of humane Nature, that great Light of Learning hath adjudged worthy Franc. L. Verul. V [...]s [...]ount St. Albans de Aug [...]. Scient. l 4. to bee emancipate and made a knowledge of it selfe. In which continent of Humanity hee hath noted (as a maine deficiencie) one Province not to have beene [Page] visited, and that is Gesture. Aristotle (saith he) ingeniosè & solertèr, corporis fabricam, dum quiescit, tractavit, eandem in motu, nimirum gestus corporis, omisit, that is, he hath very in­geniously and diligently handled the factures of the Body, but not the Gestures of the Body, which are no lesse comprehensible by Art, and of great use and advantage, as being no small part of civill prudence. For, the lineaments of the Body doe disclose the disposi­tion and inclination of the minde in generall; but the motions doe not only so, but doe further dis­close the present humour and state of the minde and will; for as the [Page] Tongue speaketh to the Eare, so Gesture speaketh to the Eye, and therefore a number of such per­sons whose Eyes doe dwell upon the Faces and fashions of men, do well know the advantage of this observation, as being most part of their ability; neither can it bee denied but that it is a great disco­verer of dissimulation, and great direction in businesse. For, after one manner almost we clappe our Hands in joy, wring them in sor­row, advance them in prayer and admiration; shake our Head in disdaine, wrinkle our Forehead in dislike, crispe our nose in anger, blush in shame, and so for the most part of the more subtile motions. [Page] Taking (therefore) from hence my Hint, I shal attempt to advance in the scrutinie and search after the scattered glances, and touches of Antiquity, tracing them through most classicall Authors, with in­tent to reduce them into one conti­nued and intire History, propoun­ding this form to my self, to handle Gesture, as the only speech and generall language of Humane Nature. For ballast to the sub­ject, and to make the matter in Hand more sollid and substan­tive, I shall annex consultations with Nature, affording a glosse of their causes: And for the fur­ther embellishing thereof, I shall inrich most points of expression [Page] with examples both of Sacred and prophane Authority, more espe­cially drawne from Poets and Historians, the only great Doctors in this point of Humane litera­ture; wherein, by the way, I shall lay claime to all metaphors, pro­verbiall translations or usurpati­ons, and all kinde of symbolicall Elegancies taken and borrowed from Gestures of the Body, with the depredations the subtiler Arts of Speech have made upon them for the advancement and ex­altation of their particular inven­tions and designes. All these (together with the civill rites, and ceremonious customes and fashions of divers Nations in their [Page] nationall expressions by Gesture, with the personall properties and genuine habits particular men) being but as so many severall lines that meet in an angle, and touch in this point; I intend to reduce and bring home to their fountaine and common parent the Body of man. Two Amphi­theaters there are in the Body, whereon most of these patheticall subtilties are exhibited by Na­ture, in way of discovery or im­pression, proceeding either from the effect of sufferance, or the vo­luntary motions of the Minde, which effect those impressions on the parts which wee call the Speaking Motions, or Discour­sing [Page] Gestures, and naturall Lan­guage of the Body, to wit, the Hand and the Head; in an­swer whereof, I intend two re­ceptacles of the observations, falling within the compasse of their particular Districts, under the generall Titles of Chirolo­gia and Cephalelogia, The naturall language of the Hand, and The naturall language of the Head; and these two com­prise the best part of the expressi­ons of Humane Nature. Chi­ronomia, or the Rule of the Hand is adjoyned as the perfecti­on and sublimation of Chirolo­gie; as Cephalenomia, or the Rule of the Head, is to appeare with [Page] Cephalelogia, as being the quali­fication of all Cephalicall expressi­ons, according to the Lawes of Civill Prudence. The personall or genuine expressions fall in with these. What I finde re­markable in the naturall expres­sions of the other parts, I shall refer to a generall Rendevouze, wherein I shall take a muster of the Postures and Gestures of the Body in generall. All that I shall have to say more to the Hand in point of Gesture, is un­der the Title of Chirethnicalo­gia, or the Nationall expression of the Hand. This I account my left Hand. By this Clavis (I suppose) the Intellectuall Rea­der [Page] will see that the Work wil be supplementall to Learning, and not of supererogation, New, and in regard of the generality of the Designe, never attempted by a­ny, affording profitable hints to such ingenious spirits, who desire to understand the mysterious pro­perties, of so admirable and im­portant a piece of themselves.

In candidissimam amicissimam (que) Johannis Bulweri Manum.

DA, Bulwere, Manū: cui reddāt oscula Musae,
Quam mirata velit Pallas, & esse suam.
Talem formosae Veneri pinxisset Apelles,
Hoc quoque Posteritas non imitetur opus.
Delicias Scenae nec Roscius ille movebat
Talem, visa fuit quae sine voce loqui.
Candidior non illa, volentem docta Senatum
Ducere, facundi quae Ciceronis erat.
Dignior ecce Manus tua formas induit omnes,
Invenit at (que) artes ingentosa novas.
Eloquii pandens nunc melleaflumina fundit,
Nunc contracta brevi rem ratione probat.
Nunc sublata Dei laudes ad sydera tollit,
Nunc conjuncta humiles mittit ab ore preces.
Jam demissa pavet; jam se complexa potitur
Voto; jam pectus, sed gemibunda quatit.
Quid mihi vel centum linguae sint, ora (que) centum,
Unica mille tua haec si Manus instar erit?
[Page] At tu Chirosophus Digito monstrabere, Palmā
Deferat, & plaudens jam Tibi cuncta manus.
Ad eundem.
ALciden pede cognoscamus, & ungue Leonem:
Gratulor ostendi Te potuisse MANU.

To his ingenious Friend the Authour; on his CHIROLOGIA.

THe Hands discoursing Gestures, ever rife,
Though not so much observ'd in common life,
(Notes wherein Historie delights to place
The circumstantiall beauties of her grace)
Thy Hand hath, like a cunning Motist, found
In all the Senses, wherein they abound:
Which in one Bundle with thy Language ty'de,
Ore-tops the poring Book-wormes highest pride.
At the first sight we learne to read; and then
By Natures rules to perce and construe Men:
So commenting upon their Gesture, finde
In them the truest copie of the Minde.
The Tongue and Heart th'intention oft divide:
The Hand and Meaning ever are ally'de.
All that are deafe and dumbe may here recrute
Their language, and then blesse Thee for the mute
[Page] Enlargemeut of Thy Alphabets, whose briefe
Expresses gave their Mindes so free reliefe.
And of this silent speech, Thy Hand doth shew
More to the World then ere it look'd to know.
He is (that does denie Thy Hand this right)
A Stoique or an Areopagite.

To his singular good and approved Friend: this Expresse or Signature of intellectuall Amitie, Upon his CHIROLOGIA.

I joy (deare friend) to see thy Palme display
A new Chirosophie, which hidden lay
In Natures Hieroglyphique grasp'd, the grand
And expresse Pantotype of Speech, the Hand.
Me thought thy Enchiridion, at first view,
Seem'd like that Manuall cloud, that swiftly grew,
Till the moyst Curtaine had the heavens ore-spread,
For straight waies it became th' Encycloped.
Who'll not beleeve, with deep Charon, that men
May have more senses then they erst did ken?
Since Speech, that doth within thy Hand commence,
Deserves the double honour of a Sense,
And may obteine unto a better end,
That, to which Lingua did in vaine pretend.
[Page] How might Antiquitie now blush to see
Such maine deficiencies supply'd by Thee?
Interpreters henceforth grow out of date,
While Politiques usurpe the Sultans state;
And (fellow-Communers) in dumbe disputes
Outv [...]e th'intelligence of all his Mutes.
The babe, whose harpe of Speech is yet unstrung,
Speakes sense and reason in this Infant-Tongue.
All Tribes shall now each other understand,
Which (though not of one lip) are of one Hand.
Chirologie redeemes from Babels doome,
And is the universall Idiome.
Ad eundem.
REmove the Pillars, and set out the Bar,
Th'old Ne plus ultra's narrow bounds, as far
As active Wit imployes a speaking Hand:
For, Science though it have an unknown land,
Yet there's no Straights or utmost Thule set,
Inventions new Discoveries to let.
Since the Great Instauration of the Arts
By Verulamian Socrates, whole parts
Advanced Learning to a perfect state.
Thou art the first that from his hints durst date
For Arts bemoan'd defects, a new supply;
(The hardest Province in Humanitie.)
Which doth in thy Projections ample spheare
Another Novum Organum appeare.
[Page] And as we much unto Thy Hand doe owe
For Augmentation, some as farre shall goe
Another way, to shew their learned might,
While Science, Crescent-like, extends her light.
Thus while the gratefull Age offer whole springs
Of Palme, my zeale an humble Dactyle brings:
Which lawfull pride (like Batrachus his name
He strove to fasten on Octavia's frame)
Shall be my highest glory: May I stand
But as Excrescence on thy well-limb'd Hand.

To his deservedly honour'd Friend, Mr. I. B. Upon his excellent piece, his CHIROLOGIA.

IN those Antique times, when men were good,
And studied the now vice call'd Gratitude:
Those that in Arts inventions first did shine,
Were honour'd with the Title of Divine.
[Page] Physick and Versing, in his flaming Chaire
Plac'd Phoebus, and bestow'd that blazing Haire:
Whence often it hath been observ'd and seen,
Physitians have the best of Poets been.
How should we honor Thee then, whose Hands gain
Hath added to his Gifts a higher veine?
In these consuming dayes, hast eas'd our Tongues,
And rais'd an Art in favour of the Lungs.
Let Bacons soule sleep sweet: the time is come
That Gesture shall no longer now be dumbe;
And Natures silent motions shall advance
Above the Vocall key of Utterance:
Where every Digit dictates, and doth reach
Unto our sense a mouth-excelling Speech.
Arts Perfector! What Babell did denie
To Lips and Eare, Th'ast given the Hand and Eye;
Hast reconcil'd the World, and its defect
Supply'd, by one unerring Dialect.
To Thee this boone we owe; for which great worth
We all desirous are to limb Thee forth:
But blushing, must confesse, none can command
A pencill worthy Thee, but Thy own Hand.

Ad eruditum CHIROLOGIAE Authorem, omnis (que) reconditioris Philosophiae Scrutatorem assiduum.

NOn priùs auditae Sophiae dasfercula Mystis,
Et Tua convivas excipit una MANVS.
Das quod pollicitus saepe es; laetor (que) videre
Te summam scriptis imposuisse Manum:
Expansâque Manu, Capitis mysteria pandes;
Hoc te facturum das mihi Chirographum.
Ad eundem.
Ad eundem.
SEe here appeares a Hand, one limbe alone,
Borne to the World, a perfect [...].
And marke how well 'tis muscled, how it speakes
Fresh from the Presses wombe? and view the freakes
Of this emphatique silence, which doth sound
Onely to'th Eye: beyond which ovall round
[Page] It roves not; and this mute Vocalitie
Is practic'd, where there wants abilitie
Of mutuall knowledge of each others tongue.
The Hand alone doth intimate our strong
Or faint desires: In this garbe long ago
We spake with th'Indian Apochankano.
Thus may we trade with the dumb Ginnie Drills
By Exercise: and make our secret wills
Known to those rationall Brutes; and thus we
May make the World one Vniversitie.
Bacon the Britaine-Stagerite, found fault
With all the Ancients, 'cause they never taught
This in their Schooles: Now the Worke is ended;
Which best of all is by it selfe commended.
So, our Briareus; of whose new designe
By Chiromancies leave I must divine:
He need not feare bold Atropos her knife,
For in his Hand each line's a line of life.
JO: HARMARUS, Oxoniensis [...].

To his excellent Friend the Author; on his CHIROLOGIA.

CAn swelling rage, without a Genius, streine
To the true pitch of a Poetique veine?
And shall not Loves harmonious heat inspire
My thoughts, and set them to Apollo's lyre?
[Page] I feele my Hand, deep struck in friendships veine,
With rich invention flowing out amaine.
And where such force the Pens ingagement drawes,
There an unskilfull Hand may give applause.
Were I Bellona's D [...]rling, I would fight:
But at that Spirits rate that Thou dar'st write;
Mercuriall valour in Thy conquering Pen
Equalls the Hand of War in ord'ring men.
I find Thee (Friend) well armed to repell
Th'affronts of any scoffing Ismael;
Whose carping Hand 'gainst ev'ry man is bent,
And each mans Hand 'gainst his Hands crosse intent.
Thou may'st such blowes without a Gauntlet ward,
Or any Second of Thy Fames lifes Guard:
But if a Viper through the glove invade
Thy harmlesse Hand; shake' [...] off, and to Thy aide
Raise Thy own new Militia, Thy Hands,
Natures best squadron, and Arts Trained Bands.
I. W.

Meissimo in deliciis, CHIROLOGIAE Au­thori; Amanuensi Musarum, Polihymniae Alumno, Motistarum Clarissimo, & MANUS publicè praehen­santium Candidato.

INdigitare tuas per ter tria nomina laudes,
Nomenelatorem Turma Novena jubet
Chirologus: manibus signas, gestuque loquaci
Exempla Historici multa notantis habes.
Chirophilus pangis rapti modulamen amoris,
Verbaque Palmari saepe canenda choro.
Chirocrates nodosa Manu subjecta potenti
Arguta Digiti calliditate valent
Chirographus miranda notas, subscripta colo­ras,
Talia nec poterit Penelopea Manus.
Chiromantis acutus ab apparentibus infers
Mores, & Manibus pectora ferre facis.
Chirocrites Criticis Digitalia dicta profaris,
Gestu Philologis Oedipus alter eris.
Chirimimus agis variatas dicere formas,
Pollice multiplicem Protea vincis acer.
[Page] Chiromysta orare doces, penetralia signi
Scrutaris, praxi stat pietatis honos.
Chirodorus opem Musis das munere Dextram,
Tendens doctrinae, magna docentis opus.
Sed palmata novo nutans Polihymnia voto
Omnia complectens, nomen & omen erit;
Assensere omnes, Palmis te digna locutum,
Pleronymi titulo dicere Chirosophum.
R. G. Nomenclator Chiro-musae.


IN all the declarative conceits of Gesture, whereby the Body, in­structed by Nature, can empha­tically vent, and communicate a thought, and in the propriety of its utterance expresse the si­lent agitations of the minde; the Hand, that bu­sie instrument, is most talkative, whose language is as easily perceived and understood, as if Man had another mouth or fountaine of discourse in his Hand. So proper and apt to make signes, and work great matters is the Hand of Man; It seems to me observable, that when Moses covertly de­sired Exod. 4. 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, verses. a signe of God, to make the Aegyptians be­lieve He had appeared unto him, God presently asked him what he had in his Hand? and com­mands him naturall gestures which had thence the force of miraculous signification: and to these signes, God attributes a voice, for He saith, If they will not hearken to the voice of the first [Page] signe, they will believe the voice of the latter signe: (and as there is in the supernaturall, so there is a signifying voyce in the naturall signes of the Hand.) Althusius calls these miraculous Althusius de civili conversa­tione, li. 1. expressions of the Hand, habitus portentosos, which by their rare and illustrious action denote and ex­presse some singular and memorable intention by the command of God, besides their naturall sig­nification. For, the Hand being the Substitute and Vicegerent of the Tongue, in a full, and ma­jestique way of expression, presents the signifying faculties of the soule, and the inward discourse of Reason: and as another Tongue, which we may justly call the Spokesman of the Body, it speakes for all the members thereof, denoting their Suf­frages, and including their Votes. So that what­soever thought can be delivered, or made signi­ficantly manifest, by the united motions and con­native endeavours of all the other members: the same may be as evidently exhibited by the sole devoyre, and discoursing gestures of the Hand. The intendments of which demonstrative ge­stures (being naturall signes) have no depen­dance on any ordinance or Statute of Art, which may be broken off, or taken in hand; as it is either repealed, or stands in force: but these being part of the unalterable Lawes and Institutes of Nature, are by their owne perpetuall constitu­tion, and by a native consequence significant. As smoke which in darke vapours expires from in­censed fuell is a certaine signe of fire; or as rich smells by whose aromatique breath the ayer's perfum'd, doe sweetly declare the presence of the ascended odour: and as the blushes of Aurora bewray the early approach of the bright Em­perour [Page 3] of the day: So that in these Art hath no Hand, since they proceed from the meere instinct of Nature: and all these motions and habits of the Hand are purely naturall, not positive; nor in their senses remote from the true nature of the things that are implyed. The naturall resem­blance and congruity of which expressions, re­sult from the habits of the minde, by the effort of an impetuous affection wrought in the invaded Hand, which is made very plyant for such im­pressions. But whereas these speaking Organs are couplets, an active paire; sometimes they both, and not seldome one alone doth by a neat insinuation of speech, make and accomplish the habit. Sometimes differing words, which visibly grow on one root of action, goe for Synonima's in gesture: and we shall sometimes see contra­rietie of patheticall expression, in identity of posture.

Nor doth the Hand in one speech or kinde of language serve to intimate and expresse our mind: It speakes all languages, and as an universall cha­racter of Reason, is generally understood and knowne by all Nations, among the formall dif­ferences of their Tongue. And being the onely speech that is naturall to Man, it may well be called the Tongue and generall language of Humane Nature, which, without teaching, men in all re­gions of the habitable world doe at the first sight most easily understand. This is evident by that trade and commerce with those salvage Nations who have long injoy'd the late discovered prin­cipalities of the West, with whom (although their Language be strange and unknowne) our Merchants barter and exchange their Wares, [Page 4] driving a rich and silent Trade, by signes, where­by many a dumb bargaine without the crafty Brocage of the Tongue, is advantageously made. Hence 'tis apparent, that there's no native law, or absolute necessity, that those thoughts which arise in our pregnant minde, must by mediation of our Tongue flow out in a vocall streame of words; unto which purpose we must attend the leisure of that inclosed instrument of speech: Since whatsoever is perceptible unto sense, and capable of a due and fitting difference; hath a naturall competency to expresse the motives and affections of the Minde; in whose labours, the Hand, which is a ready Midwife, takes often­times the thoughts from the forestalled Tongue, making a more quicke dispatch by gesture: for when the fancy hath once wrought upon the Hand, our conceptions are display'd and utter'd in the very moment of a thought. For, the ge­sture of the Hand many times gives a hint of our intention, and speakes out a good part of our meaning, before our words, which accompany or follow it, can put themselves into a vocall posture to be understood. And as in the report of a Piece, the eye being the nimbler sense, di­scernes the discharge before any intelligence by conduct of the vocall Wave arrive at the eare; although the flash and the report are twins born at the instant of the Pieces going off: so although Speech and Gesture are conceived together in the minde, yet the Hand first appearing in the de­livery, anticipates the Tongue, in so much as many times the Tongue perceiving her self fore­stall'd, spares it selfe a labour; to prevent a need­lesse Tautologie: And if words ensue upon the [Page 5] gesture, their addition serves but as a Comment for the fuller explication of the manuall Text of utterance; and implyes nothing over and above but a generall devoyre of the minde to be per­fectly understood. A notable argument we have of this discoursing facultie of the Hand in our com­mon Jesters, who without their voice, speaking onely by gestures, can counterfeit the manners, fashions, and significant actions of men. Which may be more confirm'd by that wonder of [...] ­cessity which Nature worketh in men that are borne deafe and dumbe; who can argue and dis­pute rhetorically by signes, and with a kinde of mute and logistique eloquence overcome their amaz'd opponents; wherein some are so ready & excellent, they seeme to want nothing to have their meanings perfectly understood. Tis parallel to this, what Natures grand Inquisitor reports of certaine Nations, that have no other language Plin. Hist. Nat. wherein to impart their mindes; the common tongue of Beasts, who by gestures declare their senses, and dumb affections. For although Seneca Seneca de Ira lib. 1. cap. 3. will not allow their motions to be affections, but certain characters & impressions ad similitudinem passionum, like unto passions in men, which he calleth impetus, the risings, forces and impulsions of Nature, upon the view of such objects as are apt to strike any impressions upon it: yet as Mon­taigne (in that elegant Essay of his, where he in Montaign Essay in Raimond Sebond. imitation of Plutarch, maintaines that Beasts participate with us in the rationality of their dis­courses) shewes, that even they that have no voyce at all, by their reciprocall kindnesse, which we see in them, we easily inferre there are some other meanes of entercommunication: their [Page 6] gestures treat, and their motions discourse.

Non alia longè ratione atque ipsa videtur
Protrahere ad Gestum, pueros infantia linguae.

No otherwise, then for they cannot speake,
Children are drawne by signes their mindes to breake.

And why not (saith he) as well as our dumbe men dispute and tell histories by signes? Cer­tainly (as he well observeth) there is a society and communion of justice, fellowship, good wil, and affection betweene us and Brutes: they be­ing not so remote from good nature, gentlenesse, and sweet converse, but that they can expresse their desire of honour, generositie, industrious sagacity, courage, magnanimity, and their love and feare; neither are they void of subtilty and wisedome. For by reason of their affinity as it were, and daily conversation with men, they get a tincture from us of our manners and fashi­ons, and consequently enjoy a kinde of nur­ture and teaching discipline, and apprentising by imitation, which does enable them to under­stand and expresse themselves in this language of gesture, teaching us by learning of us, that ca­pable they be not onely of the inward discourse of Reason, but of the outward gift of utterance by gesture: and if there be some gestures of ours that they doe not understand, so there are some of theirs which need an Interpretor, a greater Cri­tique in their language then Democritus Melam­pus, or Apollonius Thyaneus were, who under­stood all the idiomes of Birds and Beasts, to ex­pound them unto us. Plato in setting out the golden Age under Saturne, reckons among the chiefest advantages, this kinde of communica­tion. And indeed it is a kinde of knowledge that [Page 7] Adam partly lost with his innocency, yet might be repaired in us, by a diligent observation and marking of the outward effects of the inward and secret motions of beasts.

This naturall Language of the Hand, as it had the happinesse to escape the curse at the confu­sion of Babel: so it hath since been sanctified and made a holy language by the expressions of our Saviours Hands; whose gestures have given a sacred allowance to the naturall significations of ours. And God speakes to us by the signes of his Hand (as Bernard observes) when he works wonders, which are the proper signes of his Hand. Hic est Digitus Dei, say the astonished Magi, when they acknowledged the expression of a Divine Hand. These signes in Bernards lan­guage, Bernard. lib. 2. in Cantica. are notae stelliferae, blazing and Starrie ex­pressions. In another Dialect of his Divine Hand he expresses his revealed will to his Pro­phets by inspiration, as Ribera notes: which the Ribera comment. in Proph. M. Beda lib. de Indig tatione. Prophets in Scripture acknowledge to be the still voice of the Hand of the Lord. Bede takes notice of another Dialect or way of expression which God useth with his Hand, when he per­swades men, working upon them by the exam­ples of good workes. After this manner Christ our Lord to his doctrine added the signes of his Hand, that is, his workes: according to that of the Evangelist, Iesus began to doe and teach. And Act. 1. 1 as God speakes to us with his Hand by a super­naturall way: so we naturally speake to Him, as well as unto men, by the appeale of our Hands in admiration, attestation, and prayer. Nay when we are beyond the vocall lines of communica­tion with men, and that distance of place hath [Page 8] made the highest tone of our Tongue too low to reach the auditory nerve of one that is remote: or when the noise of some eare-deafing crowd hath rendred our Tongue unserviceable to de­clare our minde; we use the visible expressions of our Hand, as more loud and demonstrative, which are afarre off perceived and understood by those who were uncapable of an auricular inti­mation. And as concerning those manuall ex­pressions which we use to those are lesse distant from us, the Hand is so ready and cunning to ex­pound our intentions, abounding in a sense so copious, and so connaturall a kind of eloquence, wherein all things are so lively exprest; the Hand seemes to enter into contestation, and to vie ex­presses with the Tongue, and to over-match it in speaking labours, and the significant varietie of important motions, that it almost transcends the faculty of Art to enumerate the postures of the Hand, and the discoursing gestures which present the interpretation of the Minde. Whose manifest habits rise to so high an account in the Hand, that if their totall summe could be cast up, they would seeme to exceed the numericall store of words, and the flowry amplifications of Rhetoricall Phrases. For, with our Hands we

Sue, intreat, beseech, sollicite, call, allure, in­tice, dismisse, graunt, denie, reprove, are suppli­ant, feare, threaten, abhor, repent, pray, instruct, witnesse, accuse, declare our silence, condemne, absolve, shew our astonishment, profer, refuse, respect, give honour, adore, worship, despise, pro­hibit, reject, challenge, bargaine, vow, sweare, imprecate, humour, allow, give warning, com­mand, reconcile, submit, defie, affront, offer in­jury, [Page 9] complement, argue, dispute, explode, con­fute, exhort, admonish, affirme, distinguish, urge, doubt, reproch, mocke, approve, dislike, encou­rage, recommend, flatter, applaud, exalt, humble, insult, adjure, yeeld, confesse, cherish, demand, crave, covet, blesse, number, prove, confirme, congee, salute, congratulate, entertaine, give thankes, welcome, bid farewell, chide, brawle, consent, upbraid, envy, reward, offer force, paci­fie, invite, justifie, contemne, disdaine, disallow, forgive, offer peace, promise, performe, reply, in­voke, request, repell, charge, satisfie, deprecate, lament, condole, bemoane, put in minde, hinder, praise, commend, brag, boast, warrant, assure, enquire, direct, adopt, rejoyce, shew gladnesse, complaine, despaire, grieve, are sad and sorrow­full, cry out, bewaile, forbid, discomfort, ask, are angry, wonder, admire, pittie, assent, order, re­buke, favour, slight, dispraise, disparage, are ear­nest, importunate, referre, put to comprimise, plight our faith, make a league of friendship, strike one good luck, give handsell, take earnest, buy, barter, exchange, shew our agreement, ex­presse our liberality, shew our benevolence, are illiberall, aske mercy, exhibit grace, shew our displeasure, fret, chafe, fume, rage, revenge, crave audience, call for silence, prepare for an apology, give liberty of speech, bid one take notice, warne one to forbeare, keepe off and be gone; take ac­quaintance, confesse our selves deceived by a mis­take, make remonstrance of anothers errour, weepe, give a pledge of aid, comfort, relieve, de­monstrate, redargue, perswade, revolve, speake to, appeale, professe a willingnesse to strike, shew our selves convinced, say we know some­what [Page 10] which yet we will not tell, present a check for silence, promise secresie, protest our innocence, manifest our love, enmity, hate and despight; pro­voke, hyperbolically extoll, inlarge our mirth with jollity and triumphant acclamations of de­light, note and signifie anothers actions, the man­ner, place, and time, as how, where, when, &c.

A COROLLARIE Of the Speaking motions, discoursing gestures, or habits of the Hand. WITH AN Historicall Manifesto, exempli­fying the naturall significations of those Manuall Expressions.

Supplico. Gestus. I.

THE STRETCHING OUT OF THE HANDS is a na­turall expression of gesture, wherein wee are significantly importunate, intreat, request, sue, solicite, beseech, and ask mercy and grace at the Hands of others. History, the grave Mistris of the Rolls of Action and ma­nuall expressions, from whose Hand we receive the placard of Time, subscribed by the reverend Hand of Antiquity, and made letters Patents un­der the Broad-seale of Truth: as she is the most faithfull guide to the exemplary knowledge of any matter of Fact passed: so she presents a lively image of the Hands present estate, and by reflection of her light, affords subsidiarie presi­dents and patternes of significant actions to come. For, this Schoole-mistris of our discoursing [Page 12] gestures, contending with a high Hand, that no Chiramnestia or act of oblivion should passe a­gainst Nature, by transcripts out of her owne Chiridiographicall observations, hath sufficiently testified the naturall signification of this Chiri­diome, or proper form of speech in the beseeching Hand.

An example of this naturall gesture and ex­pression, we finde to have appeared in the Hand of Julius, who endeavouring to satisfie the de­sires of Constantius, but the souldiers forcing him to accept of the stile of Augustus, with a resolute and well grounded minde withstood them all Ammian. Marcellin. lib. 20. and some, one time shewing himself to be wroth and highly displeased, other whiles STRETCH­ING FORTH HIS HANDS, requesting and be­seeching them to forbeare their unseasonable of­fer. When Annibal after the battaile of Cannae had granted the Romanes the favour and liber­ty to redeeme their prisoners, and M. Junius had ended his Oration in the Senate, immediate­ly Livie lib. 22. the multitude that were gathered together in the common place, set up a lamentable and pi­teous cry, and HELD OUT THEIR HANDS to the Councell-house, beseeching the Lords of the Senate that they might have and injoy their children, their brethren, and kinsfolkes againe. The Noblemen in the behalfe of Coriolanus used Plutarch in the life of Corio­lanus. this gesture of the Hand when Sicinius the Tri­bune had pronounced sentence of death upon him, for, some of them HOLDING FORTH THEIR HANDS to the people, besought them not to handle them so cruelly. Thus Manlius and Ful­vius comming unto Tiberius with teares in their eyes, and HOLDING UP THEIR HANDS, be­sought [Page 13] him to let the Law Agraria alone, which Plut. in the life of Tiberius and Caius he would then have passed. And Plutarch in that notable description of Aemilius triumph relates, how King Perseus children were led prisoners with the traine of their Schoolmasters and other Officers and their servants, weeping and lamen­ting, HOLDING OUT THEIR HANDS unto Ib. in the life of Paulus Aemylius. the people that looked upon them, and taught the Kings young children to doe the like, to aske mercy and grace at the peoples Hands. The force of this expression hath sometimes remained in the Arme when the Hand hath beene lost. For Amynias the brother of Aeschylus the Tragedi­an, when the people of Athens would have sto­ned his brother for some impiety brought on the Aelian. var. Hist. lib. 5. cap. 19. Stage, he held up his Elbow and Arme without a Hand, lost at the fight at Salamis: by which spe­ctacle the Judges calling to minde the merits of Amynias, dismissed the Poet.

Scripture, the most sacred Spring of pregnant Metaphors, and lending gestures, among other of these kind of speaking apparitions, or divine ele­gancies, which are able to inrich a sanctified un­derstanding, the Hebraismes and mysterious no­tions resulting from the properties of the Hand, doe everywhere obtaine, by divine permission, an ineffable latitude of significations: whose vul­garismes varied through such multiplicity of sen­ses, are of that note and consequence, that they much conduce to the advancement of the digni­ty and reputation of the Hand. Among other remarkable expressions borrowed from the Hand, wherein God is pleased to condiscend to the capacity of man, and to cloath His expressi­ons in the naturall language of our Hand. That of [Page 14] the Prophesie of the Prophet Isaiah hath refe­rence to this requesting gesture, where the Lord Isai. 65. 2. complaining after the manner of men, saith, he had STRETCHED OUT HIS HANDS all day to a rebellious people.

Oro. Gestus II.

TO RAISE THE HAND CONIOYNED OR SPREAD OUT TOWARDS HEAVEN is the habit of Devotion, and a naturall and universall forme of Prayer, practised by those who are in adversity, and in bitter anguish of Minde; and by those who give publique thankes and praise to the most High. Thus we acknowledge our offen­ces, aske mercy, beg reliefe, pay our vowes, im­precate, complaine, submit, invoke, and are sup­pliant. Hence 'tis the Scriptures doe most em­phatically 1 Tim. 2. 8 define prayer by this outward signe, not that this speaking habit of the Hand is all or the most principall part of devotion, for, Hyppo­crites, as if fired with zeale, EXTEND THEIR ARMES AND HANDS, who yet but mock God by seeming to draw nigh unto Him, when their Hearts belie their Hands. But, this gesture is an outward helpe unto devotion, appointed by the ordinance of Nature to expresse the holy fervour of our affections. For since it is impossible by rea­son of our great infirmitie, we should with our soaring thoughts move beyond the centre of our bodies; we stand in need of some outward help to declare the ascension of our inward zeale, which we reveale by the EXTENSION OF OUR HANDS, which supplying the place of wings, helpe our hearts in their flight upward. For unlesse our hearts are polluted with the leaven of hypocrisie, they raise the heart to the [Page 15] throne of grace, before which we present our supplications. But the Soul being invisible, unles she shew her selfe by demonstration of gesture, the Hand was instituted Surrogate, and Vicar of of the Heart, to testifie by outward gesture, the offering and lifting up of the Heart, and that our prayers are seriously poured out from the bottome of our Breast. Hence in those sacred Monuments that keepe alive the memories of the Dead, whe­ther their effigies be exhibited in brasse or marble their monumentall Statues are commonly hew'd into this forme of prayer. From the practice and naturall propensity of the Hands to prayer, as from the premisses, Athanasius (as it is likely) drew this conclusion: That therefore man had Hands given him, that they might serve to neces­sary uses, and to be SPREAD FORTH AND LIF­TED UP in offering prayer to Him who made them. It being on all hands confest, that this ge­sture is an originall rite, and a piece of the disci­pline of Nature, polished also by the rule of rea­son, and solemniz'd by the examples and exhor­tations of wise men. For there was no Nation instructed in any kinde of piety, who did not know before hand by a tacite acknowledgement of a God, that the Hands in prayer were to bee LIFTED UP. Omnes homines Arist. lib. de Mund. tendimus manus ad Coelum cum [praeces fundimus,] sayes that Prince of Peripatetiques. And Gobrias in Xenophon seems to confirme the same.Xenoph. Cyr. Apuleius elegantly and roundly to this purpose. Habitus orantium hic est, ut Apuleius tit. de mundo.manibus extensis in coelum [praecemur.] To this purpose Horace.

Coelo supinas si tuleris manus.

And Lucretius of the same gesture,

[Page 16]
Lucret. lib. 5.
pandere palmas
Ante Deum delubra.—

And Pedo Albin. joyning in the harmony of all the Heathen Prophets.

At (que) aliquis de plebe pius, pro paupere nato
Ped. Al­bin. in carm. Cons. ad Liviam.
Sustulerat [timidas] sidera ad alta manus.

Hence Jarbas in Virgil is said

Multa Iovem
Virgil. Aeneid.
manibus [supplex orasse] supinis.

Thus Anchises in the same Poet,

At pater Anchises passis
Idem lib. 3. Aeneid.
de littore palmis
Numina magna vocat.—

So Cleanthus,

Idem li. 5.
palmas ponto tendens utras (que) Cleanthus
[Fudisset (que) praeces, divos (que) in vota vocasset.]

Thus Cressa in Ovid,

Ovid. lib. 8. Metam.
ad Sydera supplex
Cressa manus tollens

So Scipio in Sil. Italicus,

Sil. Ital. lib. 4.
Sublatis in Coelum manibus [praecatur.]

Their manner was to turne themselves to the East, with an erected countenance, HANDS O­PEN SPREAD, LIFTED UP, AND STRETCH­ED OUT TOWARDS HEAVEN. Whence Valerius Flaccus,

Imperat hinc
Valer. Flacc. li. 2.
alte Phoebi surgentis ad orbem Ferre manus——

In this posture we finde Antonius Plutarch in the life of Anto­nius. LIFTING UP HIS HANDS TO HEAVEN, making a cha­ritable prayer to the gods for his army when he was to encounter the Parthians. And M. Fu­rius Idem in the life of Camillus. Camillus used the same gesture of his Hands in his prayer at the taking of the Citie Veies.

Thus Alexander in his third battaile with Da­rius, Idem in the life of Alex. the great. before he gave charge upon the enemies, he tooke his Lance in his left hand, and HOLD­ING [Page 17] HIS RIGHT HAND UNTO HEAVEN, be­sought Idem in the life of Alex. the Great. the gods (as Calisthenes writeth) that if it were true he was begotten of Jupiter, that it would please them that day to helpe him, and to encourage the Grecians. And the Heathens when they came forth in the morning to plough, they laid one Hand upon the stilt of the plough, and LIFTED THE OTHER UP to Ceres the god­desse of Corne: beginning both their actions of warre and peace with this gesture. So remark­able was the mixt and double office wherein Nature hath interessed the Hand. For as we raise these to Heaven, so with them we worke; and the Hand thrives but ill that workes, unlesse it prayes: which these Heathens by the instinct of Nature were wrought to acknowledge. And the most desperate Atheists and Hypocrites, in some extremities and damages, doe LIFT UP THEIR IOYNED HANDS TO HEAVEN, as a signe and token of some devotion, though they have no faith nor beliefe. ¶ Thus also they gave thanks. It is reported that when Archidamas had overcome the Arcadians, and returned home Plutarch in the life of Agesi­laus. victorious to Sparta, from that tearlesse battaile; neither man nor woman would keepe the City, but came flocking down to the River side, HOL­DING UP THEIR HANDS TO HEAVEN, and thanked the gods, as if their City had redeemed and recovered her shame and lost honour, and began to rise againe as before it did. And to the signification of this gesture that of Virgil may be referred.

Virgil. Aeneid. 2.
Sustulit exutis vinclis ad sydera palmas.

The LIFTING UP THE HANDS in prayer, as it is a naturall expression, so it seems necessary, for, [Page 18] God requireth the whole man; there being a woe pronounced to fainting Hands, that is, which faint in prayer. When Moses HELD UP HIS HANDS, Israel prevailed: but when Moses LET Ex. 17. 11. HIS HANDS DOWN, Amalech prevailed. And when Moses Hands were heavie, they tooke a stone and put it under him, and he sate upon it: and Aaron and Hur stayd up his Hands the one on the one side, and the other on the other side; so his Hands were steady untill the going downe of the Sunne: and Josuah discomfited Amalech. Upon which Philo allegorizing, shewes that vi­ctorious Philo Ju­daeus in Exod. gesture of Moses Hands doth signifie that by the vertue and intention of prayer all things are overcome: or it implyes the elevation of the intellect to sublime contemplations, and then Amalech, that is, the affections are over­come.

Origen descanting upon the posture of Moses Origen Hom. 11. in Exod. Hands, observes that hee did elevate, not extend his Hands, that is his workes and actions to God, and had not his HANDS DEIECTED. He LIFTS UP HIS HANDS, that layes up trea­sure in heaven. For where we love, thither re­sorts the eye and the Hand. He that keepes the Law, orecomes; he that doth not, lets Amalech prevaile.

Elias Cretensis thus: This gesture of Moses Elias Cre­tens. com­ment. in opera Greg. Naz. Hands, if you looke to that which falls under the aspect of the eye signifies prayer. Hence in an old Scheme of Clodovaeus there are two armes e­rected to Heaven, supported by two others, with this Motto, TUTISSIMUS, with reference to the conquering Hands of Moses. To teach Com­manders, Sil. Petra Sanct. that piety strikes the greatest stroke in [Page 19] all battailes. G [...]ropius who with an over strai­ned Gorop. in Hierogl. lib. 9. phancie following his owne conceit, makes use of the naturall expressions of the Hand, for the exalting the Cimbrian or old Teutonique tongue into the preheminencies of the originall language, presen [...]s his superstitious observations thus: To joyne the hands in prayer, and so to applie their upper parts to the mouth, doth sig­nifie that men in prayer should seeke to be con­joyn'd to one that is most High: and because prayer proceeds from the mouth, and the Hands upright with the mouth transverse, seeme to deli­neate a Roman T, he hath another inference from that similitude.

The STRETCHING OUT THE HANDS TO GOD is sometimes taken in Scripture for the acknowledgement of an offence, as in the prayer 1 King. 8. 38. of Solomon at the consecration of the Temple: and Solomon praying, STRETCHED FORTH 1 King. 8. 22. HIS HANDS TO HEAVEN after this manner, And thus Moses praying STRSETCHED OUT Exod. 9. 29. & 33. HIS HANDS UNTO THE LORD. Thus Judas Macchabeus encountring the army of Nicanor, 2 Macch. 15. 21. STRETCHED OUT HIS HANDS TOWARDS HEAVEN, and called upon the Lord that wor­keth wonders. ¶ To the signification of anguish and affliction belongs that of the Prophet Jere­miah, Zion SPREADETH FORTH HER HANDS, Lament. 1. 17. and there is none to comfort her. For they who pray sometimes STRETCH OUT THEIR HANDS & somtimes LIFT THEM UP. Hence Lauretus, to SPREAD OUT, or EXTEND THE HAND, is to o­pen, dilate, and unfold that which was straitned Lauret. in Sylv. Al­leg. and folded in. To SPREAD OUT THE HAND is also to lift it up: but to EXTEND, is to erect and [Page 20] raise them up. So he expoundin [...] the sacred sense of these speaking gestures of prayer. S. Hillarie S. Hillar. in Psalm. very elegantly distinguisheth betweene the EX­PANSION and ELEVATION of the Hands, which in this matter of prayer are promiscuously used in Scripture. So upon that of the Psalmist, I will Psal. 63. 4. LIFT UP MY HANDS in thy Name, hee doth not take it for the habit of praying, but for a declara­tion of a worke of a high elevation. So likewise upon such a passage of another Psalme: Let my Psa. 140. 2. prayer be set forth before thee as incense, and the LIFTING UP OF MY HANDS as the evening Sacrifice. He shewes that the Apostle where he S. Paul to Timoth. exhorts them to LIFT UP pure Hands, hee does not appoint a habit of praying, but addes a rule of divine operation. So the noble Prophet, Isaiah. when you SPREAD FORTH YOUR HANDS, I will hide mine eyes from you; yea, when you make many prayers I will not heare: if you EX­TEND YOUR HANDS, not if you LIFT THEM UP; but if you EXTEND YOUR HANDS: because the habit of praier is in the SPREAD OUT HANDS; but the power of a perfect worke is in the ELE­VATION. Therefore the LIFTING UP THE HANDS is an Evening Sacrifice. But this, for all I can finde, is but the peculiar fancie of this Father. For surely the ELEVATION as well as the EXPANSION or STRETCHING OUT OF THE HANDS, are both significantly naturall in this sense. Indeed St. Hierome drawes these two S. Hier [...]m. in Exod. 9 and Job 11. gestures of prayer into Allegories, not much un­like, thus: TO SEND FORTH THE HAND to God, as it were to seeke out for reliefe, is to direct our actions to him, and not to worke for vain glory. He also SPREADS FORTH HIS HANDS to God, [Page 21] who dilates in the evaporation of a vain mouth: and who against the grace of the Giver, is proud of the virtue of his workes.

Calvin in his Comment upon Timothy, (upon Calvin. comment. in 1 Tim. 2. which place Cornelius à Lapide hath also noted many things,) observing that the Apostle hath put the signe of prayer for the thing signified, sayes that this expression of gesture is very a­greeable to true piety; so the verity that is figu­red thereby doe answer the signification; to wit, that being by nature admonished that God is to be sought for in heaven, that first wee should put off all terrene and carnall imaginations of Him, that nothing may hinder us in the raising of our selves above the world. Idolaters and Hy­pocrites, in LIFTING UP THEIR HANDS in prayer, are but Apes, who while they by the outward Symbol professe to have their mindes erected upwards, the first of them sticke in the wood and stone, as if God were inclosed there: the second sort intangled in vaine cares, or wic­ked cogitations, lye groveling on the earth, and by a contradiction of gesture, beare witnesse a­gainst themselves.

The Ancients are very copious in expressing these outward formes of devotion in the Hands, for they say, the HANDS STRETCHED OUT, PUT FORTH, HOLDEN ABROAD, EXPANSED and ERECTED, and all to imply the naturall piety of the Hand in this expression. With Tertullian the Hands thus affected are EX [...]ANS'D: with Virgil, HOLDEN ABROAD: as Nonnius interpreteth the action, they are the OPEN AND EXTENDED HANDS. And in this gesture many things are contained.

[Page 22] Maldonat conceives the meaning of this na­turall ELEVATION OF THE HANDS is to teach us that Heaven is the throne, and as it were the Cathedrall Temple of God. Pintus thinkes this gesture shewes that God is on high, and that all things are to be hoped for at His Hands.

Cresollius sayes, that this deportment of our Hands declares that we affectionately fly unto the protection of God our heavenly Father. Even as little children disabled by some fright with stretcht out Hands run into the lap of their pa­rents: or as men in the midst of shipwracke stretch out their Hands to some friendly Saviour. For, since the force of this Organum organorum, the Hand, the most excellent instrument of com­mon life doth chiefly consist in three things, in Giving, Doing, and Repelling, who LIFTS UP HIS HANDS seems wholy to deliver and commit him­self and all that he is into the sacred power of the Godhead, as if with David he had his soule in his Hand: from the Right-hand of Charity, and the Psal. 119. 109. [...] Sam. 19. 5. Judg. 9. 17 Job 13. 14. Left-hand of Zeale, both joyn'd together to make their intentions more acceptable, as from the living censer or incense-pan of prayer, there ascends, in a sweet kind of articulated silence, the speaking savour of these significations.

O Parent of the World! God, the maker of all things! this soule, all that I am, a thou­sand times due to thy majesty and gracious Goodnesse, I render and refer to its Fountaine and Originall. What e're my Hands can doe, or my tacite understanding and industry endeavour, let it be Thine! Thee (seduced by ill counsell) I have withstood, and like a wretch rejected thy [Page 23] Gifts, and by wicked machinations repelled and throwne them from mee. Behold my Hands! which it thou please command to be bound, and mee, an unworthy Traytor, (who have sinn'd with a high hand) to be drawne to punishment; who had not liv'd, unlesse Thou hadst lent mee life; which I have abus'd, and rebelliously stret­ched out my Hand against Thee, to my owne de­struction, and the reproach and dishonour of Thy Name. All these significant expressions (as Cresoll. in Mystag. lib. 3. Cresollius hath happily observ'd) are contain'd in this Gesture.

S. Augustine very elegantly and sweetly gives us the retionality and religious conveniency of this manuall expression. When men in prayer S. Aug. de cura pro mort. lib. 5. STRETCHT OUT THEIR HANDS, or use any visible expressions, they doe that which is agree­able to the case of a suppliant, although their in­visible will & intention of their heart be known to God; neither doth hee stand in need of such declarations that the minde of man should bee laid open before him: but by this gesture man doth more rouze up himselfe to pray and groane more humbly and fervently: And I know not how, whereas these motions of the body cannot be done, unlesse the inward motions of the mind precede, the same thing againe being made ex­ternally visible, that interiour invisible which caused them is increased, and by this the affection of the heart, which preceded as the cause before the effect, for so much as they are done, doth en­crease. And indeed this outward addition or ad­junct of Piety, the OPENING and LIFTING UP OF THE HANDS is a naturall manifestation of the uprightnesse and integrity of the heart, and [Page 24] of the sincerity of the affections. For deceit na­turally hath no wil, though hypocrisie sometimes may affect to dilate and extend the Hand. And the sympathy is so strong betweene the Heart and the Hand, that a holy thought can no sooner inlarge the erected Heart, but it workes upon the Hands which are RAISED to this expression, and EXTENDED OUT TO THE UTTERMOST OF THEIR CAPACITIES. Upon this naturall mo­tion or exposition of the minde, Saint Chryso­stome sets a morall glosse. This LIFTING UP OF OUR HANDS should put us in mind to take heed S. Chrys. Moral. of sin, lest we defile our Hands therewith. Since it is very absurd, that those who are to bee the Trouchmen and Interpretours of prayer and di­vine administrations, should also be the instru­ments of wickednesse: for if we say it is not ho­nest for a man to pray with dirty and unwashen Hands; how much more naughtinesse will that expression be tainted with, to LIFT UP HANDS not dirty, but defiled with the pollutions of sin. And in this sense washing of Hands was used by most Nations before prayer. This Manuall of Prayer as a helpe at Hand, the Christians in all ages have diversly used for the furthering their devotion, as may be collected out of the Eccle­siasticall records of Time. Tertullian renders a Tertul. de [...]rat. reason thereof thus: Christians pray with SPREAD OUT HANDS, because our Hands are harmlesse; bare-headed, because we are not a­shamed; and without a monitor, because we pray from the breast. For the most part they LIFTED TH [...]M UP. Which Tertullian would have mo­destly done, not as mad-men who pray Hand o­ver Head. For this grave Father reporting and [Page 25] praising the modesty and humility of the Primi­tive Christians, hath left this caution for a rule in prayer: Adoring with modestie and humilitie, we doe more commend our prayers to God, not so much as our Hands more loftily held up, but temperately and honestly erected. Sometimes Christians did not indeed lift up their Hands on high, but did EXTEND THEM OUT HERE AND THERE into the figure of Christs suffering. Hence in a Medall of Gordian the godly, there is Pierius in Hieroglyp. an Image LIFTING UP THE SPREAD OUT HANDS TO HEAVEN, with this inscription fitted to the device, Piet as Augusta. And Euse­bius Euseb. de vit. Const. lib. 4 c. 15. hath left a memoriall, that Constantine was wont to be figur'd in Coines and painted Tables with his HANDS HOLDEN ABROAD, and his eyes lift up to Heaven, which he calls The habit and composition of Prayer. Doctor Donne in re­ference to the Symbolicall signification of the Gesture calls it Constantines Catechisticall Coyne.

The same Author in a Sermon upon Iob 16. 17 Dr. Donn [...] Serm. 13. &c. upon these words, Not for any injustice in my Hands: also my Prayer is pure; accor­ding to his elegant way of descanting upon the emphaticall expressions of holy Writ, hath many notions about nocturnall and diur­nall cleannesse and foulnesse of Hands; and ob­serving that the holy Ghost hath so marshalled and disposed the qualifications of prayer in that place, as that there is no pure prayer without cleane Hands, which denote righteousnesse to­wards man; comming to speake of the ge­sture, and observing that Moses prayer had no effect longer then his HANDS WERE LIFTED [Page 26] u [...]: All this (saith he) perchance therefore espe­cially, that this LIFTING UP OF THE HANDS brings them into our sight, then we can see them, and see whether they be cleane, or no; and con­sider, that if we see impurity in our Hands, God sees impurity in our prayer. Can we thinke to re­ceive ease from God with that Hand that oppres­ses another? mercy from God with that Hand that exercises cruelty upon another? or bounty from God with that Hand that with-holds right from another? And to adde by a little enlarging his owne words in another place. How can we expect God should open with his Hands of bene­diction, who shut up our Hands, and that which is due to another, in them? How much more then, if we strike with those Hands by oppressi­on, or (as Esaiah) we lift up the bloudy Hands of cruelty.

At this day the common habit of praying in the Church, is, as pertaining to the Hands, TO IOYN THE HANDS, MODERATELY LIFT THEM up, or religiously cut them by ten parts into the forme of the letter X, holding them in that man­ner before the breast: which manner of prayer Cresollius calls Manus decussatas. In the Romish Church which doth superabound in the externall adjuncts of Devotion, and where the Rubriques direct to varying formes of manuall expressions at the word Oremus, there is alwayes annexed some emphaticall behaviour of the Hand. Hence in the Masse when the Priest saith Oremus, hee EXTENDETH, and then IOYNS HIS HANDS. By the extension of his Hands he gathereth as it were the hearts of the people: by the joyning of his Hands together, he doth amasse them into [Page 27] one; which is the glosse of Huelamus upon this Huelamus de cerem. Missae. Romish rite. The many gesticulations of the Hands and Fingers so ceremoniously troublesome in the Masse, whose mysterious senses Bellarmine, Durandus in ritibus Ecclesiae, and Gavantus in his large Comment upon their Rubriques, hath so copiously explained, was one thing that made the Masse so uneasie to bee said of old by the Hands of every Sir Iohn, as requiring one very well trained up in their Schoole of divine com­plements.

This is the Manuall of Prayer, and Practice of Picty, commended by Nature unto us, as a faith­full assistant to our private devotions; which ex­pressed in one of the most significant Dialects of the generall language of the Body, is more vo­call and effectuall, then the explications of the Tongue; and more religiously true to the soule in case of extremity, which is manifest by their use in [...]his Christian exercise, when the voice cannot expresse or performe her office: for, the Hand inabled by Nature to supply the defect of a vocall Interpretour, hath continued the act of prayer, and presented many visible petitions to the eye of Compassion, which understands the groaning Gestures and dumb ejaculations of the Hand. And this is often observed in religious men, in extremity of sicknesse, whose Hands in the time of health having beene used to accom­pany and exhibit their requests to heaven, as the last service they can doe the soule and body, of­fer themselves in this Evening Sacrifice of life. To passe by common instances, it is reported of that learned and reverend Doctor of our Church, that B. An­drewes. he was totus in his sacrifi [...]is, alwayes imploy'd in [Page 28] this reasonable service God requires at our Hands; and toward the time of his dissolution, his Hands were never empty of prayer; and when he could pray no longer voce, with his voice, yet manibus & oculis, by LIFTING UP THE HANDS and eyes, hee prayed still: and when weaknesse and necessity of Nature had excluded these ex­ternall accidents of devotion, the Hands and voyce failing in their function, with his heart he prayed still, as was perceived in him by some outward tokens.

Ploro. Gest. III.

TO WRING THE HANDS is a naturall ex­pression of excessive griefe, used by those who condole, bewaile, and lament. Of which Gesture that elegant Expositour of Nature hath Franc. L. Verulam Nat. Hist. assign'd this reason. Sorrow which diminisheth the body it affects, provokes by wringing of the minde, teares, the sad expressions of the eyes; which are produced and caused by the contra­ction of the spirits of the Braine, which contra­ction doth straine together the moisture of the Braine, constraining thereby teares into the eyes; from which compression of the Braine proceeds the HARD WRINGING OF THE HANDS, which is a Gesture of expression of moysture. This COMPECTINATION or WEE­PING CROSSE of the Hand, is elegantly descri­bed by Apulcius, in these words, Palmulis inter alternas digitorum vicissitudines super genua con­nexis, Apulcius lib. 3. Miles. sic grabatum cessim insidens ubertim flebam. Where, as Cresollins observes, hee hath rightly conjoyned this Gesture of the Hands with weep­ing and teares. For 'tis the declaration of a mind languishing for grief, and almost spent, and wea­ried [Page 29] with some vehement affliction. Which the brother of Basil the Great, elegantly setting out to our eyes, saith, Complodis manus, Gregor. Nyssen orat. 7. de beatitud. digitos com­plicas, atque tuis cogitationibus [angeris.] So also Dio Chrysostomus among the arguments and signes of mourning and lamentation, puts down Dio Pru­saeus orat. 16.manum complicationes, humilem (que) sessionem. Indeed the FOLDING and WRINGING OF THE HANDS in the naturall equipage of sorrow, hath ever passed for a note of lamentation. History, the mistris of life, and right Hand of experience, which is the mother of Prudence; holding up the Mirrour to Nature, wherein she may see her own actions represented in their true and lively co­lours, affords some confirming reflection of this Gesture. Wee reade that when Heliodorus that Ammian. Marcellin. lib. 20. hated favourite of the Emperour Valens was dead and his corps carried forth to bee buried by the Beir-bearers, Valens commanded that many should attend on foot bare-headed, yea, and some also with HAND IN HAND, and FINGERS CLUTCHED ONE WITHIN ANOTHER, to go before the cursed coarse of that bloudy villaine. Who (had not the Emperours command extor­ted this formality of sorrow from their Hands) had missed of so solemne exequies and interment.

Admiror. Gest. IV.

TO THROWUP THE HANDS TO HEAVEN is an expression of admiration, amazement, and astonishment, used also by those who flatter and wonderfully praise; and have others in high regard, or extoll anothers speech or action. The first time that this expression appeared in the Hand of Man, was certainly upon occasion of some new unexpected accident, for which they [Page 30] gave thankes to God, who had so apparently manifested the act of his beneficence. And as it is a signe of amazement. 'tis an appeale unto the Franc. Verul. nat. Hist. Deity from whose secret operation all those wonders proceed which so transcend our reason, which while wee cannot comprehend, wee RAISE OUR HANDS TO HEAVEN, thereby ac­knowledging the Hand and Finger of God. And that this is a naturall, and so by consequence an universall expression of the Hand, appeares by the generall use of this Gesture with all Nations. That passage of Catullus is well known. [Admi­rans] ait hac manus (que) tollens Dii boni! &c. To which intention of gesture Horace alludes,

Importunus amat [laudari] donec ohe jam
Horac. lib. 11. Sat. 5.
Ad coelum manibus sublatis! dixerit—

To this appertaines that of Cicero. Hortensius au­tē vehementer [admirans] quod quidem per petuo Lu­cullo loquente fecerat, ut etiamCicero in Academ.manus saepe tolleret! And that of his in another place. Idem lib. 7. epist. ad Caesarem. Sustulimus ma­nus ego ut Balbus! ut illud nescio quid, non fortuitum sed divinum videretur. And to this is referred that of Livie. Ad quam vocem cum clamor ingenti ala­critate sublatus esset ac nunc complexi inter se gra­tulentesque nuncLiv. lib. 24manus ad coelum tollentes! &c.

Applaudo Gest. V.

TO CLAP THE RAISED HANDS ONE A­GAINST ANOTHER, is an expression pro­per to them who applaud, congratulate, rejoice, assent, approve, and are well pleased, used by all Nations. For, applause as it is a vulgar note of encouragement, a signe of rejoycing, and a to­ken and signe of giving praise, and allowance, doth wholly consist in the Hands. Whence Ci­cero. Cicero ad A [...]ic. Populus Romanus manus suas non in defenden­da [Page 31] libertate, sed in plaudendo consumit. Which hee spake of theatricall applause exhibited by the Hand of old. Xenophon expresseth this affection Xenoph. Cyropaed. lib. 2. of the minde in a very cleare and eloquent kinde of speech, in these words: Primipulus qui nos proxime discumbebat, rem intuitus, manus invicem complosit, ridensque laetabatur. And Histaspas in the Idem Cyr. lib. 8. same Author speakes unto Cyrus in these words: Unum solum ignoro, quinam modo ostensurus sim me gaudere bonis tuis: utrum manuum concussione uten­dum est, an ridendum, an aliuà faciendum? This pub­lique token hath beene of old, and is so usuall in the assembly of a multitude, when they cannot contain their joy in silence, that there is nothing more common with them then by CLAPPING THEIR HANDS, to signifie their exceeding joy and gladnesse of heart, in so much as all Histories both prophane and sacred, abound with exam­ples of this expression: out of which infinite store I shall produce but one or two for confir­mation of this point. When Iehoiadah the Priest 2 Kings 11. 12. caused Ioash the sonne of Ahazia to be crowned King, and had brought him out, and given him the testimony, they made him King, and anoin­ted him, and they CLAPPED THEIR HANDS, and said, God save the King. Which gesture re­taines the same signification in divers other pla­ces So Nah. ult. of Scripture. When Caius Valerius entred the City of Rome ovant the affectionate favour of Psal. 47. 1. 98. 8. Isa. 55. 12. Liv. lib. 4. the people that stood in the streets appeared by CLAPPING OF HANDS, and great applause, striving a vie to exceed the songues chaunted by the Souldiers. When the Senate had granted the Plutarch in the life of Ca­millus. peoples desire that a Commoner should be cho­sen Consull with a Nobleman, and the Dicta­tor [Page 32] had published the Decree of the Senate, con­firming their desire; the common people were Plutarch in the life of Camil. so joyfull, that they brought Camillus home to his house with great shouts of joy, and CLAP­PING OF HANDS. When Alcibiades had one Idem in the life of Alcibiad. day in the market place given a largesse to the people out of his owne purse, the people were so glad at it, that they fell to shouting and CLAP­PING OF THEIR HANDS for thankfulnesse. The fourth day after the battaile fought by Per­seus King of Macedon, even as the Playes and Games were exhibited in the shew-place, there Liv. lib. 45 was heard suddenly at first a confused humming noise, which spread all over the companies of the spectators, that a field was fought in Mace­donie, and Perseus vanquished: afterwards a­rose a more cleare and evident voice, which grew at length to an open shout and CLAPPING HANDS, as if certaine newes had been brought of the same victory. The Magistrates wondred thereat, and made search after the author of so sudden a gladnesse, but none would be found: and then verily it passed away as the momentany joy of some vaine and uncertaine occurrence, howbeit a joyfull presage of some good luck set­led in mens hearts, and remained behinde, which was after confirmed by the true report of Fabius Lentulus and Metellus sent from the Consull.

Indignor. Gest. VI.

TO SMITE SUDDENLY ON THE LEFT HAND WITH THE RIGHT, is a declara­tion of some mistake, dolour, anger, or indigna­tion: for so our learned Humanicians understand this Gesture, usurping it often in this sense. Sene­ca attributes this passion of the Hand to anger: for [Page 33] in his description of an angry man he hath, Pa­rum explanatis vocibus, sermo praeruptus &Seneca de ira, lib. 1. cap. 1. com­pl [...]sae saepius manus. And in another place sha­dowing out anger in her proper colours, he sets her out thus: Dentes comprimuntur, horrent ac surriguntur capilli, spiritus coa [...]tus ac stridens,Idem li. 3.ar­ticulorum ipsos torquentium sonns. And in another place. Adjice articulorum crepitum cum seipsae manus frangunt.Idem cap. 4. de Ira.Petronius that great Doctor of iniquity and pleasure, conspiring in the like sense of the same expression, presents us with this ge­sture thus habited. Petron. Satyr. Manibus inter se usque ad ar­ticulorum strepitum contritis. And in another place he thus gives us the garb of anger and griefe, Petron. Satyr. In­fra [...]t is manibus ingemnit. Neither are examples wanting in Histories to confirme the senses of this naturall expression. Philo Judaeus of Caius the Emperour boiling with anger, and grievously fretting with indignation, [Excandescebat] legens, multam praese ferens [iracundiam] ubi vero desiit, Philo Ju­daeus de lege ad Caium.complosis manibus Euge! Petroni, inquit, non di­dicisti audire Imperatorem? To confirme the natu­rall practice here of by divine Authority and pre­sidents taken out of the most Sacred History. Thus Balack in token of anger smote his Hands Num. 24. 10. together when he was wroth with Balam that he would not curse the Israelites as hee desired. To which answers that of the Prophet Ezekiel. Thou Ezek. 21. 14. therefore Sonne of Man prophesie and SMITE HAND TO HAND, &c. that is, strike thy Hand as men in griefe and anguish are wont to doe. The same signification of gesture hath that of the Idem cap. 22. ver. 13. same Prophet. Behold therefore saith the Lord, I have smitten mine. Hands upon thy covetous­nesse that thou hast used, and upon the bloud that [Page 34] hath beene in the midst of thee: that is, in token of my wrath and vengeance.

Explodo. Gest. VII.

TO CLAP THE RIGHT FIST OFTEN ON THE LEFT PALME, is a naturall expres­sion used by those who mocke, chide, brawle, and insult, reproach, rebuke, and explode, or drive out with noise, commonly us'd by the vulgar in their bickerings, as being the Scolds saunting dialect, and the loud naturall Rhetorique of those who declame at Billingsgate. Hence Ovid not un­skilfull Ovid met. lib. 5. in this brawling property of the Haud; ve­ry ingeniously seignes the Plerides as they were about to scould, and to CLAP THEIR HANDS with a disgracefull noise, to have beene turned into Pies, and made Sylvan Scoulds. This (which is but the repetition of that stroake used in anger and indignation) is used in this sense by the mir­rour of patience, Every man shall CLAP THEIR HAND'S at him, and hisse at him out of their Job 27. 23 place. And the good man when his patience was tryed beyond sufferance, fell into this habit of contention with his miserable comforters, as appeares by the accusation of Elihu. He addeth rebellion unto his sinne, hee CLAPPETH HIS HANDS amongst us, and multiplieth his words a­gainst Job 34. 37 God: That is, as the glosse on our Bibles hath it, he standeth stubbornly in maintenance of his cause. To this may bee referred that of the Prophet Ieremiah; All that passe by CLAP THEIR HANDS: they hisse and wag the head at the Lam. 2. 15 daughter of Jerusalem. The same signification hath that of the Prophet Ezekiel, Because thou hast CLAPPED THINE HAND, and stamped Ezek. 25. 6 with the feet, and rejoyced in heart with all thy [Page 35] despite against the land of Israel; Behold▪ there­fore I will stretch out mine Hand upon thee.

Despero. Gestus VIII.

TO appeare with FAINTING AND DEIE­CTED HANDS, is a posture of feare, abase­ment of minde, an abject and vanquished courage, and of utter despaire. The Prophet Isaiah calls Esa. 13. 7. 35. 3. this habit of de [...]ection or consternation, the faint Hand, or the HAND FALLEN DOWNE. The Pro­phet Ezekiel and I [...]remiah call this apparition of Ezek. 7. 17 Jer. 6. 24. Heb. 12 12 feare the feeble Hand. And the Authour to the Hebrewes most appositely, THE HANDS THAT HANG DOWN. The old Annals of Time, and the Journalls and Diaries of common life, which containe a narration and exposition of things done, give the best patternes of the Hands ex­pressions, as being the most naturall Registers thereof; in so much as there are no interpretours so proper or able to informe us of the validity and use of this languishing carriage and behavi­our of the Hand. An expression by gesture wee finde to have appeared in the Hands of Prusias King of Bithynia, a man of a most faint heart and abject spirit, who when he came to Italy to see the mansion place of the Empire of the world, when he entred into the Senate, standing at the gate of the Court right over against the Fathers, DemissisPolybius.manibus limen salutavit: which are the words of Polybius rehearsing a thing un­worthy of Royall Majesty.

Otio in­dulgeo. Gest. IX.

TO FOLD THE HANDS, is a gesture of idle­nesse, an expression often seene in the Hands of lazy▪ Lubbers amus'd with [...]loath, who keepe their dull Hands so knit together, to maintain a [Page 36] drowsie league with sleepe: for being loath to forgoe the pleasure of ease, they by this gesture doe as it were allure and play the bawds to in­dulge and procure their lusts delight more sweet­ly to cease upon their lyther bodies. Hence the Aegyptian Priests when they would exhibit an Pier. Hie­roglyph. expresse character of lazinesse, or of a sluggish fellow good for nothing, one who would scarce entertaine a busie thought, lest it should worke some disturbance in his breast, or rowze his Hands from the complacency of their embosom'd rest; they use to decipher a dull Sloe-worme of this lowzy Tribe, with his Hands thus enterlac'd as parallels in his bosome, as if they had there ta­ken up their habitation, or did lye skulking to a­void worke, which is a Lion in their way. This gesture of the Hands as it is the sluggards com­mon guise, who demands a little more FOLDING OF THE HANDS, and out of love to ease often neglects what his mouth requires at his Hands, (contented so he have from Hand to mouth, as if hee hated the more provident extension of a thought) is significantly brought in Sacred Writ, by a metaphor to upbraid and note out the de­spicable state of fooles and sluggards, time-spen­ding loyterers of no esteeme, since the wisdome of man doth much consist in his Hands. Salomon unfolding the nature of a sloathfull person who Pro. 19. 24 FOLDETH UP HIS HANDS, (each Hand hold­ing as it were the other from worke) and hideth his Hand in his bosome, in this last posture, he ex­cellently sets out the nature, wickednesse, and Dr. Jerm. paraph, med. upon the place. punishment of floath. The nature of it, in noting the sweetnesse of it to a sluggard; in that his Hand is in his bosome, hugging as it were his [Page 37] owne lazinesse. The wickednesse of it, in that his Hand is hidden: sloathfulnesse being so shame­full a thing, that it needeth to be concealed. The punishment of it, in that the sloathfull man star­veth himselfe. And in another place he is said to Pro. 26. 15, 19. 24. hide his Hand in his bosome, that none might finde it, lest by taking him thereby, hee might raise him up: or else as if he feared some Cat [...] Censorius, who calling to see the Hands of men, refused those that had soft Hands, as unworthy to be Citizens of Rome. Emphatically in one place of the Proverbs of Salomon, the slacke Hand Pro. 10. 4. by Beda. of the sluggard is most directly translated, the Hand of deceit. Rightly doth the Originall call it a Hand of deceit, because, for the most part, the lazy Hand, being not able to sustaine it selfe, be­takes it selfe to cousenage and deceit. The ori­ginall word in the fore part of the verse, proper­ly signifies the bowing of the Hand: because deceit is hollow, and 'tis with the hollow of the Hand that the sleights of deceit are practised. In the latter part of the verse the word signifies the whole hand, the strength of the Hand, for that it is which dili­gence useth, and by that it maketh rich.

The garb of such men who sit crowching in the world with their arms a-crosse, their mouths gaping, and their feet in one shooe; leading ra­ther a bestiall then a humane life, a famous Law­yer doth graphically describe out of Eccles. thus:

En sedet ignavus
Jacobus Lectius.
manibus per mutua nexis
Pigritiae donec merces accedat egestas,
Praestat enim palmis, inquit, palma una duabus
Unica cui requies gemina quibus anxia cura.

To this personall character Westmerus and other [Page 38] Commentators referre that Anthropopeia of the Royall Prophet, Draw thy right Hand Westmer. in Psal. 74. 11. out of thy bosome.

Tristem animi re­cessum in­dico. Gest. X.

TO HOLD THE FINGERS INSERTED BETWEEN EACH OTHER A-CROSSE, is their sluggish expression who are fallen into a melancholy muse. To the signification of this Gesture accords the Oration of Sextus Tullius unto Sulpitius Dictator: You our Generall deem Liv. lib. 7. us your Army to be Handlesse, heartlesse, and ar­mourlesse, &c. for what else may we thinke of it, that you an old experienced Captaine, a most valiant Warriour, should sit as they say with one Hand in another, doing nothing. HenceEras. Adag manibus compressis sedere, in the Adage, is all one with [Nihil facere, otio indulgere, aliis obesse.] For, this gesture is thought to have a tacite force to damp the lively spirit of mirth and friendly communi­cation. Hence 'tis in vulgar practice to accuse such men whose Hands in company fall into this posture, as Remora's unto the happy birth and wish'd-for progresse of conceit; and for dull Schismatiques that deny themselves to those with whom they converse: for, such whose thoughts stray out of season, minding not what others doe or say, by a mentall sequestration withdraw their soules as 'twere from their bo­dies, and while they over-prise their private thoughts, (exprest oftentimes by this disrespect of the Hand,) they seeme no other then to make a Soloecisme in society. Hence this gesture by the superstitious Ancients was held a note of im­pediment, and hath passed time out of minde for a kinde of secret sorcery. Whereupon the Ro­mane [Page 39] Senate gave out a solemne prohibition, that in all consultations held by any Prince or Plin. nat. h [...]st. lib. 28. cap. 6. Pot [...]ntate, or any Generall of an Army, or any person that was present at any mysticall solem­nity, none should presume to fit or stand crosse­legged, or in the foresaid manner HAND IN HAND. Supposing this gesture did hinder the progresse and event of any act in Hand: or any consult which by advice was to bee ripened for an expedition. They thought it also witchcraft but to sit by one that had a practicall designe up­on health by the receit of any medicine, either inwardly or outwardly appli'd. Nay, they thought this posture was of force (alone) to hinder such who were in labour, and did then need Lucina's Hand, and that such could not bee delivered as long as any one present held the Hands thus mu­tually inwrapped: which piece of forcery was the worser, in case the party did hold them about one or both his knees. This was well seene by the Lady Alcmena, when jealous Juno set one Ovid Mer. lib. 8. CROSSE-HANDED and crosse-legged to hinder her delivery, as the story goes. But the contrary gesture implyed quicke labour, or the felicity of being delivered. Thus in a Medall of Julia the Pier Hie­roglyph. Godly, the happy fruitfulnesse of childbirth is implyed, wherein Venus holdeth a Javelin in her left hand, shewing her right Hand stretched out and spread, with this inscription, Venus genetrix. But this placing one Hand upon another was e­ver held unluckie. Whence Hippocrates derides certain superstitious and knavish Emperickes for quack-salving Cheats, who bid men against the Epilepsie, Nec p [...]dem p [...]diH [...]ppo [...]. de morbo sac [...]o.n [...] manum manui super­ponere.

Innocen­tiam o­stendo. Gest. XI.

TO IMITATE THE POSTURE OF WASHING THE HANDS BY RUBBING THE BACK OF ONE IN THE HOLLOW OF THE OTHER WITH A KIND OF DETERSIVE MOTION, is a ge­sture sometimes used by those who would pro­fesse their innocency, and declare they have no Hand in that foule businesse, not so much as by their manuall assent; as it were assuring by that gesture, that they will keepe their Hands unde­filed, and would wash their Hands of it: nor have any thing to doe therein. A gesture very significant, for the Hands naturally imply, as it were in Hieroglyphique, mens acts and opera­tions; and that cleansing motion denotes the cleannesse of their actions. As this expression is heightned by the addition of water, 'tis made by the Aegyptians the Hieroglyphique of innocen­cy. Pier. Hie­roglyph. In token (also) of innocency this gesture was commanded the Elders of the neighbour Deut. 21. 6 Cities in case of murther. And it was practised by Pilate when he would have transferred from himselfe unto the Jewes the guilt of our Saviours blood; who when he saw he could not prevaile with the multitude for the delivery of Christ, he called for water and washed his Hands, I am in­nocent, Mat. 27. 24. saith hee, of the bloud of this just man, looke you to it. To this gesture that of the Psal­mist referres, I will wash my Hands in innocen­cy. Psal. 26. 6. Eras. Adag And from this gesture came the Adage con­cerning mutuall good offices, Manus manum, di­giti interim digitos lavant.

Lucri ap­prehensio­nem plau­do. Gest. XII.

TO RUB THE PALMES OF THE HANDS TOGETHER, WITH A KIND OF APPLAUSE, MUCH AFTER THE MANNER AS SOME ARE [Page 41] WONT TO DO WHO TAKE PAINES TO HEAT THEIR HANDS, is an itching note of greedy haste, many times used by such who applaud some pleasing thought of deceit, that they have in their heads. This (I confesse) is somewhat a subtile no­tion: yet noted in some men by Phisiognomers, Hill Phi­siog. and to be found by an observation and marking of nature, for every minute thing if wee waite and watch the time of relation, will appeare an expression, from whose remonstrance wee may take arguments, for they issue out into notes, and breaking the barre of silence, by token speake and informe the eye.

Liberta­tē resigno. Gestus XIII.

TO HOLD FORTH THE HANDS TOGETHER, is their naturall expression who yeeld, sub­mit, and resigne up themselves with supplicati­on into the power of another. This with the Ancients was* manum dare. Hence Ovid,

Omnia te [metuent] ad teOvid. l. 1. eleg. 2.sua brachia tendent. To illustrate this by examples taken out of the ancient Registers of time. Thus Vercingetorix Dion. lib. 40. falling on his knees before Caesar, and HOLD­ING FORTH HIS HANDS, exhibited the ge­sture of a suppliant. And thus Diridates King of Idem lib. 36. Nero. Armenia exhibited the same obedience of gesture and submission to Nero. Thus the Legates of Decebalus with IOYNED HANDS after the man­ner Idem Tra­jano. of captives presented themselves unto the Senate; upon which, peace concluded, Trajan triumphed over the Dacians, and was sirnamed Dacieus. The Romanes that were in the Galley that were carrying the cup of gold to Delphos Plutarch in the life of Camil. made of the jewels of the Roman Ladies, when hard by the Island of Aeolus they were set upon [Page 42] by the Gallies of the Lipparians, they used this expression, for they HELD UP THEIR HANDS and intreated, making no resistance. But for the signification of this gesture in submission, Plu­tarch is very emphaticall, who declaring the pride and power of Tigranes King of Armenia, sayes that hee had ever many Kings in his Court Plu [...]. in the life of Lucullus. that waited on him: but amongst others he had foure Kings that waited continually on his per­son as footmen: for when he rode abroad any whither, they ran by his stirrop in their shirts. And when he was set in his Chaire of State o give audience, they stood on their feet about his chair HOLDING THEIR HANDS TOGETHER, which countenance shewed the most manifest consession and token of bondage that they could doe unto him. As if they had shewed thereby that they resigned all their liberty, and offered their bodies unto their Lord and Master, more ready to suffer, then any thing to doe.

Protego. Gest. XIV

TO EXTEND OUT THE RIGHT HAND BY THE ARME FORERIGHT, is the naturall habit wherein we sometimes allure, invite, speak to, cry after, call, or warne to come, bring into, exhort, give warning, admonish, protect, pacifie, rebuke, command, justifie, abow, enquire, direct, instruct, order, shew a generous confidence, har­dinesse, and authority; give free liberty of speech, manifest a readinesse to answer, and make an apalogy for our selves, and appeare to undertake a businesse. All which acceptions of this gesture, though they more easily fall in the compasse of observation then they can be exemplified by au­thenticall authority: yet Histories have taken [Page 43] notice of most of the expressions of this gesture of the Hand. That it is significant in the six first senses, may bee collected out of many ancient Writers. Thus Memnius Regulus the Consull, in the Senate and presence of the Senatours, called Sejanus unto him. For thus Dion sets it downe. [Inclamans] Dion Cass▪ in Tiberio.manu portenta, Sejane [ades hue.] And Cyrus when any of his friends were seene crowding towards him, as Xenophon hath recorded it, Xenoph: de Inst. Cyr. lib. 7. Esth. 5. 2. protensa manu [eos accersebat.] The same gesture of invitation Ahasuerus used to Esther, when he signified her comming was according to his will. Wisedome also cloathes Prov. 1. 24 her words in the language of this gesture. Be­cause I have called, & ye refused, I have STRET­CHED OUT MY HAND, and none would regard. The Psalmist acknowledges himselfe to have used this gesture. I have called upon Thee. I have Psal. 88. 9. STRETCHED OUT MY HANDS UNTO THEE. ¶ This indicative gesture of the Hand our Savior used to direct and instruct the Jewes who were Mat. 12. 49. his brethren, when STRETCHING OUT HIS HAND to his Disciples, he said, Behold my mo­ther, and my brethren. ¶ Flavius Flaccus made Plutarch in the life of Tibe­rius and Caius. use of this warning gesture of the Hand instead of speech; for when Mutius began to call the Tribes of the people to give their voices for the establishing of some new lawes, propounded by Tiberius Gracchus, in favour of the people, and he could not proceed according to accustomed order in the like case, for the great noise the hin­dermost made, thrusting forward, and being dri­ven backe, and one mingling with the other; in the meane time Flavius Flaccus one of the Sena­tours, got up into a place where all the people [Page 44] might see him, and when he saw his voice could not be heard of Tiberius, hee made a signe with his Hand that hee had some matter of great im­portance to tell him. Tiberius [who soone un­derstood this gesture of his Hand,] bade them make a lane through the preasse. So with much adoe Flavius came at length unto him, and be­wray'd a conspiracy against him. ¶ Valentinian Ammian. Marcellin lib. 20. with good successe used this gesture of pacifica­tion and rebuke, when hee was pronounced be­fore the whole Army Soveraigne Ruler of the Empire. For when hee addressed himselfe to make a premeditated speech, as he PUT FORTH HIS ARME that he might speake more readily, there arose a great mumbling that out of Hand there might a second Emperor be declared wth him: Va­lentinian fearing to what the Souldiers confident boldnes might prove, HOLDING UP HAPPILY HIS RIGHT HAND, as a most hardy and redoub­ted Prince, daring to rebuke some of them as se­ditious and stubborne, delivered his minde with­out interruption of any. The Emperour having ended his speech, which an unexpected autho­rity had made more confident, appeared them, and won them all to his minde; which was to choose his companion: who took afterwards un­to him to be Colleague in the Empire, his brother Valens. ¶ That this gesture is significant to protect appeares by most passages of holy Writ, intima­ting the powerfull and gracious protection of God. Where the expressions by an Anthropo­peia are taken from this gesture. Thus God having put Moses in the cleft of the rocke, covered him with his Hand while he passed by. And 'tis No­verinus Exod. 33. 23. [Page 45] his observation, that with the Hebrewes Noverin. in Elect. Sacr. Pagnin. in Lexico. Caph signifies both the Hand, or the hollownesse of the Hand, and a cloud. Hence Pagninus turns protegam te manu mea, into operiam te nube mea: a good coherens, saith he, manus & nubis nexus. In this sense that of the Prophet Isaiah is to bee Isa. 49. 2. taken, Under the shadow of his Hand hath he hid me. That is, he hath taken me into his protection and defence. And the Metaphors of an OUT­STRETCHED ARME and HIGH HAND are ve­ry frequent in Scripture to shadow out the po­werfull protection of God in the two degrees of it, the ordinary and extraordinary. For in this re­presentation of power, there is the Hand, and the Arme, the mighty Hand, and out STRETCHED ARME; two degrees of power, both great, but one greater: that of the Hand is great, but ordi­nary; that of the Arme is greater, and commeth forth but upon extraordinary occasions, every thing we put not to the Armes end. And their Hands are properly said to be shortned, that have lost the power to save and protect; a phrase much used in holy Writ by the Prophets speaking in His Name who made the Hand, the naturall Hie­roglyphique Isa. 50. 2. 59. 1. Num. 11. 23. of power. ¶ This gesture doth na­turally import command. Hence Kings are said to have LONG HANDS, as the Romane Poet,

Qui [...] nescit
longas Regibus esse manus?

The Hand found under the Table as Vespasian was Sueton. Vespas. at dinner, signified, as the Southsayers did then interpret, that command should one day come to his Hand; and this was before he was Emperor. And Crinagora [...] a Greeke Poet very learnedly praising Caesar, sayes, his Right Hand was mighty to command, which by its majestique power and autho­rity, [Page 46] did quell the fiercenesse and presumptu­ous audacity of barbarous men. The second 1 Sam. 2. 22. fall of Dagon the Idoll before the Arke of God, by a flat acknowledgement confirmes this naturall signification in the Hand. For his head falling off from his body, and the Hands from the armes, shewed that it had not power nor understanding in the presence of God; since the head fell off, which is the seat of Reason and knowledge, and the Hands (by which wee ex­ [...] strength) were sundred from the armes. ¶ In the sense of direction Jeroboam STRET­CHED 1 King. 13 OUT HIS HAND from the Altar, saying, Lay hold on him; but his Hand hee put forth a­gainst the Prophet, dried up, and hee could not pull it in againe unto him. ¶ Foelix the Gover­nour Act. 24. 10 made this signe unto Paul, to give him leave to speake. ¶ And thus when Agrippa said unto Act. 16. 1. Paul, Thou art permitted to speake for thy selfe: Paid STRETCHED OUT THE HAND and an­ [...]wered for himselfe.

Triumpho Gest. XV.

TO PUT OUT THE RAISED HAND, AND TO SHAKE IT AS IT WERE INTO A SHOUT, is their naturall expression who exalt, brag, boast, triumph, and by exultant gesture expresse the rap [...]ures of their joy; they also who would de­clare their high applause, or would congratulate; and they who have drunke, doe commonly use the same gesture. In congratulatory exclamations either in the behalfe of our selves or others wel­fare, it is usuall and naturall. Examples whereof are yet fresh in the life of Memory. For we read that when the Antiochians understood that Ti­ [...]ns was comming to their City, they could not [Page 47] containe themselves within their walls for [...]y, Joseph. of the wars of the Jewes, l. 7. but all went out to meet him, and not only men, but women and children, expecting his comming 30. stounds off; and when he approached neer [...] unto them, they HOLDING UP THEIR HAND [...] unto him [...]ai [...]ted him with great joy and acclama­tions. Hence Israel is said to have gone out of E [...]o. 14. 6. Aegypt with a HIGH HAND: that is, with great joy and boldnesse. And this [...]ROTENSION AND EXALATION OF THE HAND in signification of mirth, jollity, pleasure, and delight, is so groun­ded in Nature, that it is the common custome of all Nations, when they are tickled with joy, that cannot be contained from breaking out into ge­sture, OUT GOES THE HAND! So the Prince and Father of Poets,

[Deficiunt risu]
t [...]lluntque per aera palmas.

For, the Hand anointed as it were with the same oyle of gladnesse where with the heart is reple­nished, signifies its sensibility of the enlargement of the heart, by this amplification of gesture, and naturall periphra [...]s of joy.

Silentium postulo. Gest. XVI

THE BECKING WITH THE RAISED HAND hath beene ever with all Nations accounted a signe of tra [...]ing and [...], and intreating a fa­vourable silence. And how considerable an ex­pression this gesture of the Hand was ever ac­counted in this businesse, may be collected out of the office of the common Cryer, whom wee Xiphil▪ in Hadrian. finde in the monuments of the Ancients com­manding silence by the Hand alone, without the voice. Whence that of Dion may receive illu­stration. Prae [...]o cumDion Cas. in Hadr. lib. 69.manum porre [...]sset, esset que ob eam causam [silentium] consequutum, ut est consuetu­do, [Page 48] &c. Which gesture if it were used by the Cry­ers of Courts of Justice, would be more proper and significant to procure silence, then by making more noise, to engender peace, and their loud way of reclaiming one auricular disturbance with another. The learned inventions of the Ancients do ordinarily allude to this expression. Seneca that witty contriver of that abusive Play L. An [...] ­us Sen. de mor. Clan. C [...]s. of the death of Claudius Caesar, which he called Apocolocynthosis, or Immortality gotten by Mushromes, very elegantly brings in Claudian the Emperour commanding silence with this [...]CKING OF THE HAND. Heliodorus in his Heliod. Aethiop. Mist. li. 10. History which hee preferred before his Bishop­ricke, in that passage where the people (affected with joy and pittie at the strange hap that Cari­clia was knowne to be Hydaspes daughter) would not heare the Cryer that commanded silence, makes Hydaspes himselfe to STRETCH OUT HIS HAND to appeare them, and did them be still. And Barclay brings in Euphormio when there Barclay in his Eu­phormio. was a noise that he could not bee heard, with THIS GESTICULATION OF HIS HAND, sig­nifying that he had somewhat to say unto them. Prophane Histories that containe a relation of things really done, are not barren in this expres­sion of the Hand. For when Titus was returned to Rome, after the destruction of Jerusalem, and his Father Vespasian and hee triumphed in com­mon; Joseph. in the wars of the Jews, l. 7. as soone as they were set in their ivory Tri­bunals, the Souldiers with loud voice declared their valour and fortitude: Vespasian having re­ceived their prayses, they offering still to speake on in his commendations, he BECKNED WITH HIS HAND, and made a signe unto them to bee [Page 49] silent. When Commodus the Emperour was set in his throne to behold those famous Actors which were to celebrate a sacred Agon or Pageant in Herodian lib. 1. honour of Jupiter Capitolinus, and the Theater full of spectatours; before any thing was said or acted on the Stage, suddenly there starts out one in a Philosophers habit, with a staffe in his Hand, and a scrip on his shoulder (halfe naked) who running to the midst of the Stage, stood still, and B [...]CKONING WITH HIS HAND for silence, discovered the treason of Perennius to Commodus. Thus Drusus being sent to appease the rebellion Tacit Annal. l. [...] in Pannonia, standing up upon the Tribunall, BECKONED WITH HIS HAND for silence to be made. And after Constantine the Emperor was bap­tized, having caused a Throne to bee erected in the Palace of Trajan: he declared with the elo­quence of a Monarch the reason which had mo­ved him to alteration of Religion. His Oration being heard of all the world with great applause, Caus [...] Holy Court. in such sort that for the space of two houres the cryes of a great many were heard which made acclamations: at length the Emperour rose up, and MAKING A SIGNE WITH HIS HAND, re­quired silence, which instantly made all that great multitude hold their peace. The most sa­cred History is not without examples of holy men who have significantly made use of this ex­pression of the Hand. For wee reade that Peter Act. 12. 17. BECKOND with his Hand unto them that were gathered together in Maries house to hold their peace. Thus Paul stood up and BECKOND with Act. 13. 16. his Hand, and said, Men of Israel and ye that fear God, hearken, &c. And when Claudius Lysi [...] the chiefe Captaine had given Paul licence to [Page 50] speake unto the people, Paul stood upon the grei­ces of the Castle into which they were leading Act. 21. 40 him, and BECKOND unto the people, and when there was made a great silence, he began his Apo­logy in the Hebrew tongue. Alexander likewise Act. 19. 33 used this BECKING with the Hand, when hee would have excused the matter unto the people. In the Originall Peter is said [...] Manu silentio postulato, as one Translation: an­xuere manu ut tacerent, as Beza: in the others the word [...] is left out: for, the BECKING MO­TION OF THE HAND upon such occasions can­not well be understood otherwise then for a signe of reaving audience.

Juro. Gestus XVII.

TO LIFT UP THE RIGHT HAND TO HEA­VEN, is the naturall forme and ceremony of an oath, used by those who call God to witnesse, and would adjure, confirme, or assure by the ob­ligation of an oath. An expression first used by the Hands of the ancient Patriarchs, and is thought to have flowed from God himselfe, who in many places of holy Writ is brought in spea­king of himselfe, to have used this gesture for Thus Ex. 6. 8. Num. 14. 30. Deut. 32. 40. confirmation of his gracious promises by the out­ward solemnity of an oath. Hence it was that Abraham said unto the King of Sodome, I have LIFTED UP MY HAND UNTO THE LORD, that is, I have sworne, that I will not take from a Gen. 14. 22. thread, even to a shooe latchet, &c. Unto this naturall expression the Psalmist alludes, HE LIF­TED UP HIS HAND, that is, he swore. And to the signification of this gesture of the Hand, some Psal. 106. 26. referre that passage of the Psalmist: Whose Right Hand is a Right Hand of falshood: that is, they Psal. 144. 8. [Page 51] have forsworne and broke their vow. Hence by a forme of speech taken from this expression, TO LIFT UP THE HAND, in the Scripture phrase, is Ezek. 15. 23. 20. 5. 36. 7. 44. 12. 47. 14. Zach. 2. 9. Isai. 3. 7. the same as to sweare and take a solemne oath. With reference to the manifest attestation and significant & obligatory force of the Hand in this businesse, the late nationall Covenant was ex­presly ordered to be tooke with the Right Hand held up on high. The Angels also when they sweare doe it not without this manuall asseve­ration: for the Angell in the Apocalyps that Apoc. 10. 5. Iohn saw standing upon the sea and upon the earth, when he sware that there should be time no longer, lifted up his Hand to Heaven. ¶ This vowing expression of the Hand, Marius used in Plutarch. in the life of Marius. the battaile of the Cymbres, when he promised and vowed a Hecatomb or solemne sacrifice of an hundred Oxen. Thus also Catulus vowed to build a Temple to Fortune for that day.

Assevera­tione Deo attestor. Gestus XVIII.

TO EXTEND AND RAISE UP BOTH THE HANDS TO HEAVEN, is an expression of establishment, and a most strong kinde of asseve­ration, implying as it were a double [...]ath. There is a passage in the prophesie of the Prophet Da­niel Dan. 12 2. which doth confirme and illustrate this ex­pression. And I heard the man cloathed in lin­nen which was upon the waters of the rivers, when he HELD UP HIS RIGHT HAND AND HIS LEFT UNTO HEAVEN: which was a double oath, as our Glosse hath it. Lauretus upon this Lauretus i [...] verbo Altitudo. place saith, that the lifting up of the right and the left Hand, signifies an oath with a commination and a promise. Ovid well knowing this double forme of an oath, describing Philomela frighted [Page 52] at the comming of her sister Progne, as she strove Ovid Me­tamorph. lib. 6. to sweare and call the gods to witnesse to the pu­rity of her thoughts, and that she was compelled to that dishonourable fact, very elegantly makes her HOLD UP HER HANDS for spéech. Such an asseveration of gesture I lately observed in some at the publique taking of the last Nationall Covenant, who as I conceived rather out of a zealous earnestnesse to ingage themselves in the Cause, then out of any affectation or privity to this double formality of a Vow, tooke the Co­venant with BOTH THEIR HANDS HELD UP. In the same posture of expression we finde Gada­tas Xenop. de instit. Cyr lib. 5. the Eunuch in Xenophon LIFTING UP HIS HANDS TO HEAVEN, taking an oath.

Suffragor Gest. XIX

TO HOLD UP THE HAND is a naturall to­ken of approbation, consent, election, and of giving suffrage. An expression of the Hand so common, that Chirotonia which properly is this gesture of the Hand, is usurped per metalepsin con­nexi pro suffragio. To this declaration of the Hand that elegant metaphor of the Prophet Zephanie is referred: The deepes made a noise, and LIFT UP THEIR HANDS ON HIGH, that is, shewed Zephan. 3. 10. signes of their obedience and voluntary inclinati­on, as by LIFTING UP THEIR HANDS. And when Esàras blessed God, the people LIFTING UP THEIR HANDS, to their audible, added a Esdras. 1. cap 9. 47. kinde of visible Amen, signed by this gesture of assent, which is as much in the language of the Hand as So be it. Tully makes mention of this expression: If those Decrees that are received Cicero pro Flacco be rightly expressed, and singular excellent; not declared so by judgements nor authorities, nor [Page 53] bound by an oath, but by HOLDING UP THE HAND, and with great acclamation of the af­fected multitude. Hence both the phrase and practice of this gesture of approbation so fre­quently occurres in Xenophons Orations, who ha­ving made a proposition to the people, To whom Xenoph. de Cyr. minor. ex­ped. l. 3. & 4. this seemes good (saith he) let him HOLD UP HIS HAND, and all of them HELD UP THEIR HANDS. At the end of which Oration Chiriso­phus approving what Xenophon had said, requires the same expression at the peoples Hands in the same phrase, saying, He who approves of these things, let him signifie his assent by HOLDING UP HIS HAND. Then all of them HELD UP THEIR HANDS. And Xenophon arising againe to speake, concludes thus: Who assents to these things, let him HOLD UP HIS HAND, which they did accordingly. And so in many other places of his Oration. The signification of suf­frage in this gesture may be further illustrated by the practice of the Athenians in that passage of Thucidi­des lib. 3. Thucidides, where when Cleon and Diotatus had both delivered their opinions, the one most op­posite unto the other, about the alteration of the cruell Decree of the Athenians against the My­teleans, the Athenians were at contention which they should decree; and at the holding up of hands they were both sides almost equall. And one sort of the Athenian Magistrates were [...], Magistrates chosen by this gesture. Aes [...]hin. contr. Ctesiph. Which indeed, is a most significant expression of the Hand; so naturally doth the Hand imply the will and consent thereof; for, what wee put our Hand unto we are infallibly understood to will and intend, and with counsell and advice to [Page 54] undertake, and promise our concurrence.

Respuo. Gestus XX.

THE FLIRTING OUT OF THE BACK PART OF THE HAND, OR PUT-BY OF THE TUR­NING PALME, is their naturall expression who would refuse, deny, prohibit, repudiate, impute, or to lay to ones charge, reject or pretend to lay for an excuse, or would [...]wit and hit one in the teeth with a thing, and signifie disdaine. The minde of man being moved by distaste, in some significant gesture to utter and disclose her hatred and detestation: when she is displeased with any, she usually gives intelligence of her dislike in a discharge implyed by the significant dismission of the Hand, and such like signes, representing by gesture a willingnesse to rid her Hands of them. And this expression doth arise from the same cause that trembling and horrour do; name­ly My Lord Bacons Nat. hist. Cent. 8. from the retiring of the spirits, but in a lesse degree. For, the SHAKING OF THE HAND, is but a slow and definite trembling. And is a ge­sture of slight refusall and dislike, being used often by those who refuse a thing, or warne it away. This was the entertainment Antipater found at the Hands of his Father. For when he Joseph of the warres of the Jewes. boldly came neare as though he would have salu­ted him, Herod STRETCHED OUT HIS HAND, and shaking his head, gave him the repulse, tax­ing his presumption, for daring to offer to em­brace him, when he was guilty of so many trea­cheries against him. ¶ As it is a gesture that naturally without speech forbids, it was used by Augustus, when with his countenance and Hand he repressed those unseemly flatteries which Suet. Aug. cap. 53. were offered unto him. ¶ Caecina in his dreame [Page 55] used the like expression to the ghost of Quincti­lius Tacit. An­nal. lib. 2. Varus stretching out his inviting Hands to­wards him, which he THRUST BACKE, refu­sing to follow. ¶ And to this gesture, as I con­ceive, may that passage of the Prophet Zephanie Zeph. 2. [...]5 concerning the destruction of Nineveh bee re­ferred, Every one that passeth by her shall hisse and WAG HIS HAND; that is, shall expresse his detestation. Although Ribera and others give it Ribera in Isaiah. the sense of astonishment and insultation.

Invito. Gestus XXI.

TO SHEW FORTH THE HAND, AND SO FORTHWITH TO CALL BACKE AS IT WERE AND BRING IT AGAINE UNTO US WITH A WAVING MOTION, is a naturall Ge­sture, and a vulgar compellation, which we sig­nificantly use in calling for men whom we bid to come neare and approch unto us, which allu­ring habit in this matter is very naturall, ready, and commodious to explaine our minde and will, wherein there is a certain kind of forme or sem­blance of the thing signified. For wee seeme by this gesture to draw them to us. To the signifi­cation of this gesture appertaines that of the Prophet Isaiah: SHAKE THE HAND, that they Isai. 13. 2. may goe into the gates of the Nobles. That is, make a signe unto them to come by this inviting motion of the Hand. To this vocatiue, alluring and inticing compellation of the Hand, Proper­tius seemes to allude:

Et me defixum vacua patiatur in ora
Propert. Eleg. lib. 1
infesta saepe [vocare] manu.

Iovianus Pontanus brings in Mercurie and Peri­chalcas inflicting punishments upon certaine U­surers and prophane Churchmen, where Mercu­rie [Page 56] is inforced to leave the execution of some of their punishments to Pyrichalcas, for Char [...]n as he Jovian. Pontan. Charon. perceived stayed for him in the Port, and had a long time beckoned to him with his Hand, and he went to him to know wherefore hee called. Caecina the Generall in his expedition against the Germanes, stirred up by Arminius, had one night a heavie dreame, which drove him into a feare. For he thought he had seene Quinctilius Varus Tacitus Annal. l. 2. rising out of the bogs, embrued all in bloud, calling him by name, and STRETCHING OUT HIS HAND TOWARDS HIM, which he thrust backe, refu­sing to follow.

Dimitto. Gestus XXII.

TO WAG AND WAVE THE HAND FROM US, is an expression by gesture significant to prohibit, bid one be gone, keepe off, forbid, dis­misse, and bid farewell and adieu: in which there is a certaine forme of the thing signified; for we seeme by this gesture to put from us. Nothing more ordinary in the occurrences of common life then this gesture, practised in these senses, a common custome to bid one keepe on his way, and proceed who is returning to us; to SHAKE OUR HAND as farre as ever we can see, to bid our friends farewell and adieu. Ovid according the ingenious way of invention in Poets, to heighten their fictions, and to set an artificiall glosse of truth upon them, that they may seeme more probable, upon every occasion brings in the personages of his story using these naturall expressions of the Hand. Thus he brings in June Ovid Me­tamorph. lib. 11. bidding Iris hasten on a message on which shee was sending her, doing it by SHAKING HER HAND into this naturall expression. And bringing [Page 57] in Ceyx going to sea, and taking leave of his wife Alcynoe, when he was gone aboard and lanched Idem lib. eodem. out, she raising up her humid eyes, espyeth him in the poope of the ship, SHAKING HIS HAND, bidding her thereby adieu, which she answered by the same motion, and loving pursuit of Ge­sture the usuall consequence of expression with those who have formerly shewed themselves Ioath to depart. And bringing the ghost of Idem lib. codem. Ceyx appearing to his wife Alcynoe in a dream to be drowned, at the end of his imagi­nary speech, he seems to adde tears, and this departing gesture of his Hand, bidding her for ever farewell. Burton in his symptomes of Burt. Me­lanchol. par. 3. sect. 2. Love Melancholy, makes this [longum vale] of the Hand, a peculiar property of lovers. A lover loath to depart will take his leave againe and a­gaine, and then come backe againe, looke after, SHAKE HIS HAND, and wave his hat a far off.

Minor. Gestus XXIII.

TO SHEW AND SHAKE THE BENDED FIST AT ONE, is their habit who are angry, threaten, would strike terrour, menace, revenge, shew enmity, despite, contemn, humble, chalenge, defie, expresse hate, and offer injury, tell one what he must looke for at their Hands. When anger a fit of the invading appetite, hath tooke hold of our spirits, and that we are incensed by Franc. L. Ver. Nat. Hist. some affront we cannot brooke, we use to threa­ten, to call the trespasser to account by this ge­sture of the Hand, occasioned by the violent pro­pensity of the minde, and strong imagination of the act of revenge. ☜Hence Phisiognomists in re­ference ad morem apparentem, or according to their rule of apparence, observing the fashion of men [Page 58] in this effect of passion in the Hand, conclude such persons to be hasty, cholericke, revengefull, and apt to take or give offence, who customarily use to hold their Hand in this posture. If we should goe over the Chronicles of all ages, and trace this naturall gesture of the Hand through those records which beare witnesse of times and the manners of men; we should meet with many examples of this angry expression of the Hand. Some few copies of this originall affection will serve to confirme and illustrare the acception of this gesture, in this sense, and signification. Thus Leo Armenus Emperour entring into the prison Zonaras. by night, and seeing Michael Balbus, and the Warden of the prison with him, and almost a­sleep, declared his anger by the AGITATION OF HIS HAND. Papias the Warden fearing the anger of the Emperour, in conclusion conspired with the same Michael, and on the very night of the nativity of our Saviour slew the Emperour. Thus the Souldiers of Vitellius Army BENT Tacit. hist. lib. 1. THEIR FISTS against the Ambassadours of the Helvetians, who came to treat that their City might not be razed, which the Souldiers (gréedy of revenge) had importunately called for to be razed, and Vitellius for his part spared no threats. Thus the Senate BENT THEIR FISTS against Sarielenus Vocula, and ceased not to offer violence untill he had departed the house. Thus also A­grippina Idem. Hist lib. 4. mad and wilfull after her favourite Pal­las was displaced from the charge that Claudius had given him, gave out threatning and thunde­ring Idem An­nal. lib. 18 speeches, yea not forbearing the Princes eares, and after her bitter threats, BENT HER FIST toward Nero. Thus the Souldiers in Pan­nonia [Page 59] threatned with the FISTS those they met Annal. lib. 1. of the guard, or Caesars friends and familiars, as desirous to picke quarrells and raise sedition. Free-men, bond-slaves, also were feared, threat­ning Idem An­nal. 3. with words and FISTS, their Patrons and Masters. The Italian vulgar doe most resent the indignity of this minatory AGITATION OF THE HAND exhibited against them.

Mendico. Gestus XXIV.

TO HOLD OUT THE HAND HOLLOW IN MANNER OF A DISH, is their habit who crave, beg, covet, and shew a gréedy readinesse to receive; and there is a certaine forme or sem­blance of the thing implied, in this unusuall ca­pacity of the Hand. From the naturall significa­tion of this posture, that biting adage had its ori­ginall which taxeth the lucrativs gréedinesse, of the Athenians; Atheniensis, vel moriens, Eras. Adag.cavat manum. This gesture of receit to an ingenious and honest man hath been accounted a kinde of reproach, as appeares by the witty saying of Ju­lian the Emperour. For when by a certaine so­lemn order or custome, there were certaine Mes­sengers or Pursivants brought into the consisto­ry, Ammian. Martel. lib. 16. to receive gold; among others, one of the company tooke it, not as the manner is, in the lappet of his mantle spread abroad, but with the hollow ball of both Hands; and with that these Pursivants or Intelligencers (quoth the Empe­rour) can skill to catch, and not to latch money. Hence it was that the Hand of Ruffinus gover­nour of the East under Honorius the Emperour, Hieron. Zosimus. was carried about through new Rome, after his death, in mockery, fashioned after this manner, which Claudian hath elegantly expressed in his death:

Dextra quinetiam, ludo concessa vagatur.
[Aera petens] paenas (que) animi persolvit avari
Terribili lncro,
Claud. in caed Ruffi­ni.
vivos (que) imitata retentus,
Cogitur adductis digitos inflectere nervis.

Corippus very ingeniously shadows out the ra­pacity of a company of Plebeians inferred from this Gesture of the Hands:

Corip. A­fric. de Iaud. Just. lib. 4.
Palmas (que) capaces
Tendere; quo veniens late pluat aureus imber.

And a little before he said,

Corip. A­fric. de Iaud. Just. lib. 4.
Exertas [admunera] tendere dextras.

This entertainment Marcus Antoninus, the Im­periall Philosopher, received at the Hands of the Dion lib. 71. in vit. Anton. Phil. gréedy multitude when he came to Rome. For when in an oration, he made to the people, a­mong other things, he had said, that he had been absent in his travells many years; the mul­titude cried out, eight; and with STRETCHED OUT HANDS, signified how they craved that they might receive so many Aurei, for a congi­ary: at which the Emperour smiled, and said al­so, eight; and afterwards gave them eight Au­rei a piece; so great a summe, as they never re­ceived That is, 200. drachmes, as Dion. P [...]erius in Hieroglyp lib. 35. at any Emperours Hands before. Pierius saith he had seen the signe of Philemon in Rome, holding a booke shut, and tyed very streight in his left Hand, and his right Hand dish'd in this manner: so that he seem'd to demand the price, which unlesse they paid him downe in his Hand, they should not have his booke; for they report him to have beene a writer of Comedies, who was wont to sell his labours at a very deare rate. And Aristophanes hath a jest in one of his Co­medies, where Phidolus brings in the gods for Aristoph. in concio­natricibus. an example: To whom when we tender sup­plication [Page 61] for some good, they stand HOLDING THEIR HAND UPWARDS; not as they would give, but as they would receive somewhat. Bar­clay Barclay. Satyr. who is every where very elegant in his al­lusions to naturall gestures, reflecting upon the similitudes between this gesture, and the posture of the Hand in giving, brings in Euphormio des­cribing the statue of a goddesse, that held her left Hand very open, but stretched out her right Hand with such a womanish feigning and colourable pretence, that you could not tell whether she had rather give or take. This is the beggars cra­ving posture. Yet covetousnesse hath bowed the Hands even of Emperours to the significant pra­ctice thereof. For Suetonius reports that Octa­vius Sueton in the life of Octa. Aug. Caes. Augustus Caesar, by occasion of a vision by night, begged yearly upon a certaine day money of the people, and HELD OUT HIS HAND HOL­LOW to those who brought him brazen dodkins, or mites, called Asses. And the same Author hath observed as much in Vespasian, who was so Idem Ves­pasiano. famous for raising profit out of his Subjects urine and his dulcis odor lucri ex re qualibet. For when certaine Ambassadours brought him word that there was decreed for him at the common char­ges of thè state a Giant-like image that hee would cost no meane summe of money, he com­manded to raise the same immediately, SHEW­ING therewith HIS HAND HOLLOW. Here is the basis, quoth he, and pedestall for it ready.

Munero. Gestus XXV.

TO PUT FORTH THE RIGHT HAND SPREAD, is the habit of bunty, liberality, and a frée heart; thus we reward and friendly bestow our guists. Hence TO OPEN THE HAND [Page 62] in the Hebrew phrase implyes to be frée-hearted, munif [...]cent, and liberall. For, the Hebrewes when they would expresse a profuse munificence, they say Jadpethucha, that is, Manum apertàm: Leuncla­vius Hist. Mussel. lib. 4. Ecclesiast. 40. 14. from whence perchance the Turkes borrowing the conceit, are wont to set forth Liberality by an OPEN HAND. The sonne of Sirach knowing that the exercise of Bounty and Prodigality re­quires in a manner the like gesture and expression of the Hand; speaking of the unjust spend-thrift wasting of his goods, saith, That while he OPE­NETH HIS HAND he shall rejoyce. And the Greekes in old time (saith Pliny) called the span, or space of the Hand from the thumb to the little fin­gers Plin. Nat. Hist. end, Doron, which is the reason that gifts be in their language called Dora, because they bee presented with the Hand. Hence Phisiogno­mists say such who customarily use to hold the Hand extended out are of a liberall complexion of minde; arguing from this liberall property of the Hand. And there is a tradition our Mid­wives have concerning children borne OPEN HANDED, that such will prove of a bountifull disposition, and franke-handed. Infants indeed for the most part come into the world with their Hands clos'd; thereby notifying, as a Rabbi ob­serves, Buxtorph. that God hath given them the riches of this world, and as it were shut them up in their Hands: whereas on the contrary, dying men are wont to EXTEND AND STRETCH OUT THEIR HANDS AND FINGERS, thereby willing to sig­nifie that they relinquish the world, and have no longer to doe with the things thereof. Which is the only good action the close-handed Miser doth, who when death opens and unlockes his Hand, [Page 63] doth by this necessary posture of bounty, give a­way and bequeath, and as it were manumit what he could no longer with-hold from the next pos­sessor. Bellarmine relates a story of Stephen King Bellarm. in vit. S. Stophani. of Hungary, whose Hand was found whole and uncorrupt after his death. And casting in his minde what might be the reason why God was pleased miraculously to preserve his Right Hand onely, with the skinne, bones, and nerves, when the other members were resolved into their first elements, delivers his opinion, thus: Truly I thinke that in this miracle God was willing to shew the depth of his divine councell, that cha­rity excells all other vertues. Deservedly there­fore did the Right Hand of this holy King remain uncorrupt, which was alwayes flourishing with the blossomes of mercy, and which in relieving and distributing gifts to the poore, was never empty or indisposed. God (indeed) who OPENS' WITH HIS HAND, and filleth every living thing with his blessings, out of his infinite boun­ty deales out liberally his divine Almes to his creatures with both his Hands. Whence Divines distinguish the gifts of God into those of his Right Hand, and those of his Left, to wit, into spi­rituall and temporall. Dextra Dei est unde grata proveniunt. Hence the Aramites by a Right Hand understand the effuse [...]enignity of God. Maldo­nat Maldonat. Comment in Mat. 6. commenting upon the words of our Saviour, Let not thy left Hand know what thy right Hand doth, gives a reason why in this place, contrary to the enstome of Scripture, the Left Hand is na­med before the Right, and action attributed to the Right Hand, and knowledge to the Left. For it is therefore done (saith hee) because wee are [Page 64] wont to reach out our almes (which our Saviour there speakes of) with our Right Hand, hence called Manus eleemosinaria, and not with our left, and al other works that are done with the Hand, the Right Hand does them the Left as a helper doth assist; so that if it had eyes it could not bee ignorant what the Right Hand did: wherefore Christ would have us so to exercise this Hand with workes of charity, that our Left Hand (which is wont to be not onely conscious, but accessory to all the actions of the Right Hand,) should not so much as know or take notice there­of. Cresollius judiciously scanning these words of our Saviour, Let not thy left Hand know what thy Cresol. Anthol. Sacr. right Hand doth, tells us that it is a symbolicall expression very like to the Hieroglyphiques of the Aegyptians, and therefore the force and sense of this admonition, is to be sought out of the na­ture and usuall signification of both the Hands. As for the Right Hand, it is altogether OPEN, free, and manifestly put in action. Wherefore for its part it denotes an ingenuous candor and virtue, whose glory is most perspicuously set out by a­ction; but more especially the Right Hand signi­fieth liberality, and for that cause chosen to bee the hieroglyphique of a most beneficent and plen­tifull largesse: whereas the Left Hand hath a contrary Genius, and is observed to be of a close and retired nature: this Niggard out of a skulking disposition affecting secresie, and the subtile lei­sure of a thrifty vacation. So that this Symboll of our Saviour insinuates thus much: If thou art disposed to communicate thy goods to relieve the wants of thy brother, and to shew forth the liberality of thy minde, take not counsell of thy [Page 65] Left Hand: minde not what the covetous desire of goods, and the thirst of having, require at thy griping Hand; let the Right Hand prevaile with thee, the index of beneficence, and pledge of com­miseration, the accuser of covetousnesse. Let that muck-worme the Left Hand earth it selfe in ava­rice, and keepe silence by an uncharitable reten­tion, which doth not love to scatter, but to snatch away; not to bestow, but a long time to retaine. How many Scaevola's or Left-handed Donatists in matter of bounty doe our times afford, within the frozen hold of whose sparing Hand Charity is quite starv'd with cold? And how many who fearing the Moralists Bis dat qui cito dat, with the old Courtiers glosse, that the sooner suiters are dispatched, the sooner they will returne againe: by sinister delay hold them in suspence, while their courtesies hang to their fingers ends like Bird-lime, and will not come away? These the Heathen man would call viseata beneficia, we left-handed Senec [...]. favours. These men, as if they were re­strained by some sumptuary Law, made against the naturall munificence of the Right Hand, refer all matters of beneficence to the penurious dis­cretion of the Left Hand. Nay, are there not some, who as if they held ignorance to bee the mother of thrift, to elude this nesciat of the Gos­pel, have made their Hands strike a league toge­ther, and agree never to know any such thing one by the other?

Auxilium fero. Gestus XXVI.

TO EXTEND AND OFFER OUT THE RIGHT HAND UNTO ANY, is an expression of pity, and of an intention to afford comfort and reliefe: used also as a token of assurance, peace, security [Page 66] and promised safety, and salvation. An expression much desired by those who are in distresse, and are not able to shift for themselves, who use to call for the guift or auxiliary loan of this Hand; for thus Palinurus calls to Aeneas,

Da dextram misero & tecum me tolle per undas.
Virgil. Aeneid

Hence Eras. Ada. Dare manum alicui vel Eras. Ada.manum admovere sign. [opem & auxilium ferre.] Symmachus calls this [adjutricem] manum the helping Hand.Sym. l. 3. Epist. 67.Cas­siodorusCas. l. 4.Dextram [salutarem] the comfortable Hand; and with Isidor, it is the witnesse of sal­vation.Epist 26.Pierius makes this gesture the hierogly­phicke of fortitude and aid, in which sense it is Pier. Hier. lib. 35. very frequently used by the learned Romans. The same manner of expression hath prevailed also with the Greeks, and with the Hebrews like­wise; Proverb. 11. 21. for so saith the Scripture, The wicked lend one another the Hand, but in vaine; for though HAND IOYNE IN HAND, the wicked shall not scape unpunished. The like expression of gesture is frequent in sacred Writ. The Pro­phet Psal. 38. 7. 20. 6. 44. 3 139. 10. Isa. 16. 7. Isaiah in reference to the signification of comfort, saith, they shall not STRETCH OUT THE HANDS for them in the morning to comfort them for the dead: And Salomon speaking of the Proverb. 31. 20. vertuous woman, saith, She spreadeth out her Hands to the poore, and putteth forth her Hand to the needy. To this intent, Jesus immediately STRETCHED FORTH HIS HAND, and caught Matt. 14. 31. up sinking Peter crying out unto him to save him. And so significant and demonstrative to succour and support is this gesture, that Uzza for putting forth his Hand to stay the Arke of God, was smitten with death for that speaking errour 2 Sam. 6. 6 of his Hand. This gesture of succour and reliefe, [Page 67] hath been observed in ancient coines, stamped Pierius Hierogly. lib. 35. with the image of the goddesse Ops, by that po­sture, promising a willingnes to helpe all that in­voke her name. ¶ This gesture is (also) a na­turall token of assurance and promised safety. Pleth. Ge­nist rerum Graec. l. 2. Thus the King of Persia saved Mentors life by REACHING HIM HIS RIGHT HAND. Ammianus Marcellinus saith the same of one Nebridius, who was the only man that refused to conspire with others against Constantins, and Ammian. Marcellin. Hist. l. 21. cap. 4. therefore to save himselfe from the fury of the Souldiers who had drawne their swords upon him, flying with all speed he could make to Ju­lian, besought him, that for assurance he would vouchsafe to GIVE HIM HIS RIGHT HAND; whereunto Julian made answer, what shall I keep especially for my friends, in case thou touch my Hand? but goe thy wayes from hence whither thou wilt, in safety and security.

Commi­sereor. Gestus XXVII.

TO LET DOWN THE HAND with intent to reare some languishing creature from off the ground, is a greater expression of pity and com­miseration, then to afford a STRETCHED OUT HAND to one who riseth of his owne accord; for between these expressions the Learned have made a distinction: To this expression I finde that of the Psalmist referred, Send downe thy Psal. 144. 7. Hand from above.

Irascor. Gestus XXVIII.

TO STRIKE A TABLE OR SOME SUCH LIKE THING WITH THE HAND, is the gesture of one angry or grieved in minde, and very impati­ent. To which gesture that of the Prophet Eze­kiel Ezek. 6. 11 is referred, Thus saith the Lord God, SMITE [Page 68] WITH THINE HAND, &c. By this signe inci­ting the Prophet to signifie the great wrath and destruction to come. The natural reason of which gesture is, the minde fretted that it cannot meet with a revenge, doth out of Hand endeavour to My Lord Bacons Nat. Hist. quench her fervent heat some other way, to wit, by STROKES or noise, or some other remedy, which somewhat ease the minde. To descend downe into our owne Historie for an example of this patheticall motion of the Hand, a Royall Copie whereof we have in a Prince, whose pas­sions were, as himselfe, great, to wit, Henry the Godwyns Annals of Hen. 8. eight, who demanding of one of his Physicians whose patient Cardinall Woolsey was, what di­stemper Woolsey had, who then was sicke, the Doctor replyed, what disease soever he hath, hee will not live to the end of three dayes more. The King STRIKING THE TABLE WITH HIS HAND, cryed out, I had rather lose two thou­sand pounds then hee should dye, make haste therefore you and as many Physicians as are a­bout the Court, and by all meanes endeavour his recovery. Another example of this expression I finde in our Chronicles, before the times of this Sir Rich. Baker Chron. of the K. of England. Prince, and that is in the Duke of Gloster, Pro­tectour to young King Edward the fifth. For a­mong other passionate gestures which accom­panied his changed countenance, when he accu­sed the Queene Mother and her complices of plotting his death, and my Lord Hastings had ad­ventur'd to returne some answer to his fierce in­terrogatory, submissively saying, If the Queene have conspired,—The word was no sooner out of the Lord Hastings mouth, when the Pro­tectour CLAPPING HIS HAND UPON THE [Page 69] BOARD, and frowningly looking upon him, said, Tellest thou me of If and And, I tell thee, they, and none but they have done it, and thou thy self art partaker of the villany, &c.

Cohorto. Gestus XXIX.

TO HOLD UP THE HAND HOLLOW ABOVE THE SHOULDER POINTS, AND TO SHAKE IT IN ORBE BY THE TURNE AND RETURNE OF THE WREST, is their naturall expression who encourage, embolden, and exhort one to be of good chéere. Antonius in stead of speech signi­ficantly Plutarch in the life of Anto­nius. used this gesture. For it is written of him, that while he was setting his men in order of battaile at Actium, being resolved for a navall fight, to end the controversie betweene Octavius Caesar and him for the Monarchie of the world; there was a Captaine and a valiant man that had served Antonius in many battailes and conflicts, and had all his body hacked and cut: who as Antonius passed by him, cryed out unto him, and said: O noble Emperour, how commeth it to passe that you trust in these vile brittle ships? what, doe you mistrust these wounds of mine, and this sword? Let the Aegyptians and the Phoenicians fight by Sea, and set us on the main land, where we use to conquer, and to bee slaine on our feet. Antonius passed by him and said never a word, but only BECKOND TO HIM WITH HIS HAND and Head, as though he wil­led him to be of good courage, although indeed he had no great courage himselfe.

Praeclara aggedior. Gestus XXX.

TO EXALT OR LIFT UP THE STRETCH'D OUT HAND, is the habit of one attempting to doe and take some famous exploit in Hand: [Page 70] and is a naturall posture of an exalted and victo­rious power. Hence he is said to have his RIGHT HAND EXALTED who is made powerfull and glorious. Hence the Prophet Micha: Thy Mich. 5. 9. HAND SHALL BE LIFT UP upon thine adversa­ries: that is, Thou shalt overcome and be victo­rious. And to this gesture the Psalmist alludes, Thou hast SET UP THE RIGHT HAND of his ad­versaries. Psa. 89. 41 Deut. 32. 27. Wee reade in Deuteronomy, that the Lord would have scattered his people, but hee feared their enemies should wax proud, and say our HIGH HAND and not the Lord hath done all this. And that mirrour of patience: The HIGH ARME of the wicked shall be broken. The Psal­mist [...]ob 38. 15 Psa. 10. 12 Psa. 89. 13 using the expression and signification of this gesture in great attempts: Arise O Lord, LIFT UP THINE HAND. And againe, Thou hast a mighty Arme, strong is thy Hand, and HIGH IS THY RIGHT HAND. And the Scriptures ge­nerally under the metaphor of this gesture sha­dow Exod. 6. 6. Deut. 4. 34 7. 19. 9. 29 Jer. 32. 21. 1 King. 8. 42. out the power of God manifested in the de­livery of the children of Israel out of Aegypt, who under this phrase is significantly said to have brought them out from thence openly, and by maine force. ¶ That it is significant in their Hands who goe about to set in Hand a businesse; to omit other confirmation, appeares in Pharaohs speech to Joseph, were he said unto him, I am Pharaoh, and without thee shall no man LIFT UP HIS Gen. 41 44. HAND in Aegypt. Examples of this attempting gesture are not wanting in prophane Histories. For the day on which the battaile of Pharsalia was strucken, Caesar seeing Crastinus in the mor­ning as he came out of his Tent, asked him what Plutar. in the life of Caesar. he thought of the successe of the battaile? Cra­stinus [Page 71] STRETCHING OUT HIS RIGHT HAND unto him [which was a mute omen hee should have the Better Hand of his enemies that day] cryed out aloud, O Caesar, thine is the victorie; and this day shalt thou commend mee alive or dead: and accordingly brake afterwards out of the rankes, and running amongst the midst of his enemies, with many that followed him, made a great slaughter: at last one ran him into the mouth, that the swords point came out at his neck, and so slew him.

Profero. Gestus XXXI.

TO PRESENT THE HAND, is their expressi­on who profer or deliver a thing as their act and déed. And the Verbe profero which hath the signification to profer and present a thing, seemes to imply the very gesture. This was the first ex­pression that ere appeared in the Hand, and was used by Eve in the fatall profer of the forbidden fruit unto the first man. And it was required in Gen. 3. 6. Mal. 2. 13. the old Law at the Hand of the offerer, who was to present his offering with his owne Hand: for in religious duties there was never a proxie al­lowed, ¶ As it is significant in delivery of wri­tings as our act and deed, it is most apparantly seene in its signification at the delivery of Deeds (so called from this gesture for this is that which gives force to all legall conveyances, and with­out this expression Liverie and Seisin is of none effect. ¶ A semblance of the same gesture wee use when wee would take or accept what is pro­fered and delivered into our Hands. And that si­militude of posture seemes to imply a correspon­dency and a favourable inclination to entertaine their offer, as if they there withall profered thanks [Page 72] for the same. To the naturall purpose and mean­ing Ecclus. 15. 16. of this gesture, the Sonne of Sirach: He hath set fire & water before thee, STRETCH FORTH THY HAND unto whether thou wilt: that is, take or accept of which thou wilt: for by a me­tonymy of the adjunct the signe is put for the thing signified. This was the second gesture of Gen. 3. 6. any signification that is recorded to have appea­red in the Hand, and the first that shewed it selfe in the Hand of the first man Adam, when hee ac­cepted of that forbidden fruit, with which hee tooke a curse that filled his Hand with labour, and forced it often to advance to wipe his swea­ting browes. From this unhappy gesture the Hand may be well called Manus à manando, be­cause all evill proceeded from this action. Two uses the Hand was chiefly ordained for, to take, and doe, as Galen well observes: but Man took Galen de usu part. lib. 2. so ill with it at first, that he undid himselfe. The misguided Hand would be reaching at the Tree of knowledge, but prohibited by an expresse ca­veat, was prevented from putting forth it selfe Gen. 3. 22. to the tree of life.

Effoemina­te festino. Gestus XXXII.

TO WAG THE HAND IN A SWINGING GE­STURE, is their naturall expression who would endea [...]our to hasten and assist themselves in pro­gressive motion, and withall denotes a kinde of wantonnesse and effeminacy. Aristotle sayes, that Arist. de g [...]ess. ani­ [...]. man could not walke unlesse he were assisted by the motion of his shoulders, and that the SWIN­GING OF HIS ARMES doth much help the bo­dies transportation in leaping: which men by instinct knowing, doe many times fall into this gesture upon such occasion. Hence Phisiogno­micall [Page 73] Philosephers who know that every man hath his peculiar genius, causing that native dif­ference of habilities in men; observing the ope­ration of these spirits as they are matched and conjoyned to outward gestures, which by a kind of tacit character give out the manner of their complexion; doe easily discerne the differences of spirits by arguing syllogistically from the na­turall habit to the genuine or contracted, which custome makes more personall; for as mens present passions and inclinations are brought by nature into act; so men following the vogue of nature, are wrought to a reiteration of that acti­on, untill the Hand hath contracted a habit. ☜The result of these Phisiognomers falls thus into a grand axiome of their art, that whosoever is (as by a personall propriety and actuall condition) customarily seen to use the gesture of any natu­rall affection; he is by habituall complexion ve­ry incident to that affection, exhibited by that gesture. Hence Seneca, not unskilfull in this art of Chiromanticall Phisiognomie, makes the CU­STOMARY WAGGING OF THE HAND TO AND FRO, a personall character of effeminacie and impudence. Impudicum & incessus [...]stendit, &Sen. epist. Moral. l. 8.manus mot [...], & relatus ad caput digitus, & flexus oculorum: The gate, the turning of the eye, the finger on the head, and the WAG­GING OF THE HAND, shew a shamelesse wanton. And Marcus Cato was wont to say, Plut. in the life of Cato Ma­jor. he would not have him for a souldier, that WAGD HIS HAND AS HE GOETH, removes his feet as he fighteth, and routeth and snorteth louder in his sleep, then when he crieth out to charge upon his enemy.

Demōstro non habe­re. Gestus XXXIII.

TO SHAKE OUT THE HAND, is their naturall expression who would shew that they have not, nor desire to have a thing. This the Latines call* manus excutere. The Prophet Isaiah in re­ference to the signification of this gesture, saith, The righteous SHAKETH HIS HANDS from holding of bribes.Isaiah 33. 15. And the sonne of Sirach al­ludes to the signification of this gesture, where he saith, The slothfull man is compared to the filth of a dunghill: every man that takes it up, will Ecclesast. 22. 2. SHAKE HIS HAND.

Castigo. Gestus XXXIV.

TO SHAKE OR HOLD THE STRETCHED AND RAISED HAND OVER ANY, is their expression who offer to chastise and thew a wil­lingnes to strike or take revenge. Hence the pro­hibition of the Angel to Abraham about to sacri­fice his son, after he had STRETCHED OUT HIS HAND, to that intent, lay not thine Hand upon the childe. The Prophet Isaiah respective to this signification of gesture, saith, That the King of Isa. 10. 32. Assyria should SHAKE HIS HAND against the mount of the daughter of Sion. And because men are wont to use this expression by gesture to those they hold worthy of rebuke and punish­ment, that being terrified thereby they might re­claim them from vice. Hence by an Anthropo­peia in many places of Scripture this gesture im­plies the chastizing Hand of God. To this signi­fication belongs that of the Prophet Isaiah, In Isa. 19. 16. that day shall Aegypt be like unto women; and it shall be afraid and feare, because of the SHA­KING OF THE HAND of the Lord of Hosts, which he shaketh over it. To this also belongs [Page 75] that of the same Prophet, With his mighty wind Idem cap 11. ver. 15. shall he SHAKE HIS HAND over the river. And the Prophet Zechariah to the same signification, Behold, I will SHAKE MINE HAND upon Zach. 2. 9. them.

Pugno. Gestus XXXV.

TO STRIKE ONE WITH THE FIST, is their Gesture who would be avenged of those that have offended them, and would right them­selves by this wilde vindictive justice of their Hands. The Hand thus closely shut and the fin­gers all turned in, is called in Latine, Pugnus, quo­niam manus quae ante erat passa & mane (unde ma­nus) contracta clausis digitis, effecta est [...] id est Scaliger de Subtil. densae. The nether part of this Hand in this po­sture Chiromancers call the pomell or percussion of the Hand, the Greeks Hypothen [...]r seu ferieus manus, and [...], percutere. Gale [...] Goraeus. observes that the outside of the Hand was depri­ved Galen de us. part. of flesh, that the FIST might be more con­firmed to supply the place of a weapon. And in­deed they naturally and easily finde this thicke weapon who would BUFFET or fight at fisti­cusses with others. This was the gesture of the Hand that first begun the fray or skirmish in the world, before time had brought in the use of o­ther weapons. Hence the Latines say, Pugnam Erasin. Adag. in manu esse, and pugna hath its denomination from this posture of the Hand. Lucretius alludes to this primitive expression of anger,

Arma antiqu [...] manus ungues dentes (que) fuerunt.

And when we see men together by the ears, we know what they intend thereby. The Prophet Isaiah condemning the injurious use of this smi­ting Isa. 58. 4. expression of the Hand in [...] and debate, [Page 76] calls it the Fist of wickednesse.

Reprchen­do. Gestus XXXVI.

TO BOX OR SMITE ONE WITH THE PALM OF THE HAND, is their expression who would rebuke or correct another for some saucie speech or action. Hence the Hand with the fin­gers stretched out, which Isidor calls the palme, hath its name in Hippocrates from a word that signifieth to strike. Agellius useth the word de­palmare for this smiting expression of the palme: The Greeks to the same signification of gesture use the word [...]. This contemptuous expression of anger the officer of the high Priest Joh. 18. 22 Mark 14. 65. Mat. 26. 67 used to our blessed Saviour; for the Text saies, He strooke him with the palme of his Hand, taking upon him to rebuke Christ for answering the high Priest irreverently as he cursedly supposed. To the naturall signification of this offensive ge­sture, may that of the Prophet Isaiah be referred, Isa. 5. [...]5. Therefore is the anger of the Lord kindled a­gainst his people, and He hath STRETCHED FORTH HIS HAND against them, and hath smitten them, &c. for all this, his anger is not turned away, but his HAND IS STRETCHED OUT still.

Appre­hendo. Gestus XXXVII

TO LAY HAND UPON ONE is their expressi­on who with authority apprehend and lay hold of one as a delinquent to secure their per­son. This is one of the properest expressions of the Hand; apprehension being the proper action of the Hand, for Hand and Hold are conjugates, as they terme them in the Schooles; from which gesture the Hand is called Organon antilepticon, Dr. Crook in his Mi­crocosm. for it is the first use of the Hand to TAKE HOLD. [Page 77] With the Ancients this gesture is manucaptio and manus injicere. This is a dangerous Habeas Cor­pus Eras. Ada [...] in officers who are the Hands of the Law, & without words obtains the force of an arrest, and hath a spice of their authority more strong then their emblematicall Mace. These actions Mark 14. 46. are frequently entered in the Counter of Time. Thus the officers of the high Priest LAID HANDS on Christ, and tooke him.

Manumit­to. Gestus XXXUIII

TO LET GO ONES HOLD AND TAKE OFF THE HAND FROM ANY ONE, is their ge­sture who would signifie a willingnesse to re­lease one that was before in their possession and power, as having some reason to grant them their liberty. This with the Ancients is manu­mittere, and from the signification of this naturall gesture, the Ancients tooke their formes of ma­numission, used when they did enfranchise their bond-men: of which the Civill Law takes much See Justin. Institut. notice, and the observation of Critiques are very large in that matter. There is in this naturall ex­pression of the Hand a certaine forme of the thing signified. Hence the Aegyptian Priests who alwayes had their eyes fixt upon the Hand of nature, in their Hieroglyphique expressed li­berty Pier. hie­roglyph. lib. 35. by a HAND EXTENDED OUT AT LARGE, in which lively symbole of gesture, the fingers seem to be made frée of the Hand. The medall of Tiberius Claudius Caesar, in which a little gra­ven Idem ibid. image hath the LEFT HAND OPENED TO ITS UTTERMOST EXTENT, with this inscrip­tion, Libertas Augusta, implies as much, since the left Hand the most retentive appears fréely to manumit; for as the Hand in this posture implies [Page 78] the naturall liberty of its owne proper and indi­viduall body: so it most properly expresses the gift of the same priviledge to others by the same freedome of gesture.

Incito. Gestus XXXIX.

TO CLAP ONE ON THE BACK OR SHOUL­DER WITH THE HAND, is their expression who would hearten and encourage others; a ge­sture obvious in the Hand that takes part with those that are in fight, and desires to set men or beasts together by the ears. Significantly respe­ctive unto this, is that gesture among others, used Sandys Travells. lib. 4. in installing the Knights of St. John of Jerusa­lem, whereby he that gives him Knight-hood, LAYING HIS HAND ON HIS SHOULDER doth exhort him to be vigilant in the Faith, and to aspire unto true honour by couragious and laudable actions.

Foveo. Gest. XL.

VVE USE TO STROKE THEM GENTLY WITH OUR HAND whom we make much of, cherish, humour, or affectionately love, an expression very obvious among the a­ctions of common life, being a kinde of indul­gent declaration of the minde, used to pacifie and please others, performed by drawing our Hand with a sweetning motion over the head or face of the party to whom we intend this insi­nuation. This the Ancients call mulcere caput alterius; a gesture often used by men in signe of favour and encouragement to ingenious and to­wardly youths.

Admoneo Gest. XLI

TO TAKE HOLD GENTLY Of ANOTHERS HAND, is a gesture used by those who admo­nish [Page 79] and perswade, which hee that shall set him­selfe to observe the actions of men, may upon such occasions finde used to the same intents and purposes. Mithropaustes used this gesture in ad­monishing Demaratus the Lacedemonian: who Plutarch in the life of Themi­stocles. being in the Court of Persia, the King willing him to aske what gift he would. Hee besought the King to grant him this favour, to licence him to goe up and downe the City of Sardis with his royall Hat on his head, as the Kings of Persia do. For, Mithropaustes the Kings cozen TAKING HIM BY THE HAND, said unto him, Demaratus, the Kings Hat thou demandest, and if it were on thy head, it would cover but little wit. Nay though Jupiter should give thee his Lightning in thy Hand, yet that would not make thee Jupiter. And we finde Timon, surnamed Misanthropos (as Idem in the life of Alcibiades who would say Loup-garou, or the man-hater) using this expression: who meeting Alcibiades with a great traine as he came one day from the Councell and Assembly of the City, not passing by him, nor giving him way (as hee did to all o­ther men) but went straight to him, and TOOKE HIM BY THE HAND, and said, O, thou doest well my sonne, I con thee thanke, that thou go­est on and climbest up still: for if ever thou be in authority, woe be unto those that follow thee, for they are utterly undone. Such an intention of gesture, but with more vehemency of expression the Angels used to Lot, while he lingred in So­dome, Gen. 19. 16. LAYING HOLD UPON HIS HAND, and UPON THE HAND of his wife, and UPON THE HAND of his two daughters, to admonish and perswade them to a sudden departure from that accursed City.

Confido. Gestus XLII.

TO LEAN UPON ANOTHERS HAND, is their gesture who make a confiding use of the staffe of their age or affection, an expression im­porting that they much rely upon their faith and friendship: and often seene in the Hand of great Princes, when for greater state and ease they goe supported in this wise. The signification of which countenance of Majesty doth in effect shew that the Nobleman on whose Hand the King leaned, was next and subordinate in authority to himself, and that the waight of all the principall affaires of State did lye on his Hands. Thus in the Booke of the Kings of Judah we reade of a Prince (the 2 Kin. 7. 3. same that mockt at the words of Elisha when he foretold of the releefe of Samaria) on whose Hand Iohoram King of Israel lean'd: that is, as the Glosse upon our Bibles hath it, a Prince to whom the King gave the charge & oversight of things, as doth more plainly appeare by the 27. verse of the same Chapter. And the speech of Naaman to Elisha after hee had cured him of his Leprosie, 2 King. 5. makes it more apparant: Onely herein let the Lord be mercifull to thy servant, that when my Master goeth into the house of Rimmon to wor­ship, and leane upon my Hand, &c. Where Naa­man craveth to bee pardoned of zeale without knowledge, as M. Junius saith, it being no such Wilsons Christ. Dict. thing as should trouble his conscience to bow himselfe in an officious sort and civill duty to bend his body that his Lord might leane upon his Hand when he went into the Temple of the Idol Rimmon to adore. Thus Libo Drusus sustained by the Hand of his brother, entred into the Se­nate house to answer to that enormity hee was Tacitus. [Page 81] accused of: who when hee saw Tiberius a great way off, he held up his Hands, imploring mercy with great humility. Which statelinesse of ge­sture was much used in Asia by great persons, and is at this day by your Italian Ladies.

Impedio. Gestus XLIII.

TO HOLD FAST ANOTHERS HAND in the signification of hindrance and restraint, is a gesture so obvious in the cholericke perturbati­ons of humane life, that it needs no illustration by example, since we may every day meet with satisfaction in the publique streets: for in quar­rells where there is any moderation or over ma­stering power on one side, this restraint of the Hand is used both with signification and advan­tage. To this gesture may be referred that of the Prophet Zechariah, A great tumult from the Lord Zach. 14. 13. 14. shall be among them, and they shall lay hold eve­ry one on the Hand of his neighbour, and his Hand shall rise up against the Hand of his neigh­bour, and Judah also shall fight at Jerusalem, &c.

Recordo. Gestus XLIV.

TO IOG ONE ON THE ELBOW, is the usuall intimation of those who put others in minde, and take upon them the part of a Remembran­cer: a gesture very frequent in the common pas­sage of humane affaires: much practised by the Hands of the ancient Romane Nomenclators, as appeares by the testimony of Horace:

Mercemur servum, qui dictet nomina, laevum
Horac. l. 1. Epist. 6.
Qui fodiat latus—

Recom­mendo. Gestus. XLV

TO TAKE ONE BY THE HAND in courtesie, to recommend them unto another by way of presentation, is an usuall expression in the Hands of men, a gesture significant and remark­able, [Page 82] having beene tooke notice of by ancient Chronologers: for, the Hand according to the primitive intention of Nature, having by a ne­cessary consent of Nations beene ever chosen Chronologer of al remarkable actions, hath con­sequently proved its own Biographer. If there­fore we but cast an intuitive eye upon those me­morials the Right Hand of Time hath left fairly noted in the Left Palme of Antiquity, even by the old autography of the Hand, wee may spell out the sense of this naturall expression. For when Valentinian had a full purpose to adorne his sonne Gratian, a pretty young stripling, and Ammian. Marcellin. lib. 7. well growne, with the Imperiall Ensignes, when he had wrought the Souldiers to accept thereof, hee ascended up the Tribunall, and taking the youth by the Right Hand, hee brought him up before them, and in a publique Oration recom­mended him (as ordained Emperour) to the Ar­mie. Another Copie of this naturall gesture we finde in the Hand of Pertinax, refusing in modesty the Empire; pretending his age and meane de­scent: Herodian. lib. 2. who taking Glabrio by the Hand, and pul­ling him forth, placed him in the Imperiall Throne, recommending him as more fit for the Empire. And Commodus in a speech he made un­to the Souldiers of his Army, puts them in minde Idem l. 1. how his father Marcus when hee was an infant, carried him in his armes, and delivered him into their Hands, recommending him (as it were) to their tutelage and fidelity. Thus also Tiberius (though with dissimulation) tooke Nero and Drusus, Germanicus children, by the Hands, and re­commended Tacitus Annal. l. 3. them to the care of the Senate in a dissembling Oration he made. Thus Cyrus taking [Page 83] Hystaspas by the Right Hand, gave her unto his Xenoph. de Cyr. inst. lib. 8. friend Gobrias, who having stretched out his Hand before, received her at his Hands. And this expression Raguel used when he gave his daugh­ter Sarah to wife to young Tobias, an expression Tob. 7. 13 which delivered from Hand to Hand is one of the solemne rites of Matrimony to be used by the fa­ther of the Bride.

Officiose duco. Gestus XLVI.

TO LEAD ONE BY THE HAND, is their ex­pression who take care of the weaknesse and inability of others in matters of progressive mo­tion, used most commonly to young children whom wee would teach and assist to goe with more ease and safety: of which manuduction Holy Writ affords many examples. Thus Agar Gen. 21. 18. by commandement of the Angel held her childe by the Hand, which allegorically signifies the workes of the Law, that is, the Law comman­deth workes. Thus the Tribune tooke the Ne­phew of Saint Paul by the Hand. And to this Act. 23. 19 Ezek. 45. 1 may be referred that of the Prophet Ezekiel, Thus saith the Lord unto Cyrus, whose Right Hand I have holden. And to the signification of this ge­sture appertains that of the Prophet Isaiah, con­cerning Isa. 51. 18 the misery of Jerusalem, There is none to guide her among all the sonnes whom she hath brought forth: neither is there any that TAKETH HER BY THE HAND, of all the sonnes that shee hath brought up. This sense of gesture hath that also of the Author to the Hebrewes: In the Heb. 8. 9. day when I TOOK THEM BY THE HAND, to lead them out of the land of Aegypt. The like Isa 41. 13 42. 6. Psal. 89. [...]1 phrase of gesture occurres in divers other places of Scripture. But when this expression is used to [Page 84] a female, and one of riper yeares, 'tis significant to present an officious and tender respect or ser­viceable affection. The aspiring affectation of women raised by Choppines to an artificiall ele­vation of stature, hath made this courtly garb of gesture more necessary and commodious to great Ladies, and hath preferr'd it to bee one of the eight parts of speech of a Gentleman-ushers Ac­cidence. Hence Ovid, a man well versed in such Ovid. met. lib. 2. obsequious expressions, makes Jupiter at his arri­vall into Crete, LEAD EUROPA BY THE HAND into the Cave of Dicte. This expression is some­times used to the blinde; for the Hand as it speaks by signes unto the dumb, so in a more necessary garbe of speech it officiates the place of an eye, and speaking in the conducting dialect of a friendly assistance, supplyes the defect of an ocu­lar direction. Samson when the Philistines had Judg. 16. 26. boared out his eyes, was beholden to the Lad that HELD HIM BY THE HAND, for the last at­chievement of his fatall strength. And in this sense the blind man and his leader are a kind of relatives.

Impatien­tiā prodo. Gestus XLVII.

TO APPLY THE HAND PASSIONATELY UNTO THE HEAD, is a signe of anguish, sor­row, griefe, impatiencie, and lamentation, used also by those who accuse or justifie themselves. The recourse and offer of nature in this relieving expression of the Hand, makes good the Adage, Ubi dolor, ibi digitus. The Prophet Jeremiah pro­phesying Eras. Adag Jer. 2. 37. against Judah, foretels that she should be brought to use this note or signe of lamenta­tion. ¶ And Tamar defloured by her brother 2 Sam. 13. 19. Ammon, LAID HER HAND UPON HER HEAD, [Page 85] as it were accusing or justifying her selfe, as Lo­rinus. Lorinus in his coment. upon Numbers. Plutarch in the life of Solon. And 'tis probable that the Shunamites childe when he cryed, My head, my head, made use of this dolorous expression of the Hand. Thales by a pretty Pageant put Solon into such a passion by making him beleeve his sonne was dead at Athens, that like a mad man he straight beganne to beat his head, like one impatient in affliction, and overcome with sorrow. The Head is the na­turall hieroglyphique of health, and the Hand of reliefe and protection, as being the Champion of the Head. Hence in the straits of imminent perils, or dolorous calamity, they usually meet in a Committee of safety. Hence Tiberius Grac­chus engaged in extreame danger, as it were ju­stifying himselfe, and recommending his life and safety, which depended on his Head, to the peo­ple Florus. of Rome, LAYING HIS HAND UPON HIS HEAD, went forward to the Capitoll: which by the sinister interpretation of his enemies turned to his prejudice, they inferring that by this signe he craved the Diadem. Some such passage you shall finde in Aristophanes, where Dicaepolis to this effect: Et si non vera profatus fuero Aristoph. Acharnan.manu supra caput imposita, quae (que) universus approbet po­pulus.

Sollicite cogito. Gestus XLVIII.

TORUE OR SCRATCH THE HEAD WITH THE HAND, is their naturall gesture who are in anguish or trouble of minde: for common­ly when we are in doubt, and uncertaine what to doe, we musing SCRATCH OUR HEAD. Hence by a proverbiall translation from this gesture, Ca­put fricare, seu digito scalpere, is used pro cogitare. Eras. Adag But why we should in earnest meditation so na­turally [Page 86] expresse our endeavour by this recourse of the Hand to the head, to scratch where it doth not itch; is, may be, to rowze up our distracted intellect; or else the Hand, which is the Engi­neere of invention, and wits true Palladium, ha­ving a naturall procacity to bee acquainted with their phansie, officiously offers it selfe to facili­tate the dispatch of any affaires that perplex a faculty so neer ally'd unto it, the Hand in the col­laterall line of Nature, being couzen germane to the Fancie.

Pudeo. Gestus XLIX.

THE RECOURSE OF THE HAND TO THE FACE in shame, is a naturall expression, as Alexander Aphrodisaeus proves.Alex. Aphr. l. 1. Probl. 15. For, shame being a passion that is loath to see or be seene, the bloud is sent up from the breast by nature, as a mask or veile to hide the labouring face, and the apply­ing of the Hands upon the face is done in imita­tion of the modest act of Nature. Hence Licen­tius a Noble young man writing to Austin a lear­ned and sweet Poem, very cunningly alludes to this naturall expression.

Et mea Calliope quamvis te cominus altum
Horreat, &
vultus abscondat—

This declaration of shame by the Hand, we finde Marke Antony to have used after the battaile of Actium fought betweene him and Octavius Cae­sar. Plutarch. in the life of Anton. For he flying with a doting speed after Cleo­patra, who was fled before, having overtaken her, and being pluckt up into her Gally: at his first comming saw her not, but being ashamed and cast downe with his adverse fortune, went and sate downe alone in the prowe of the Ship, and said never a word, CLAPPING HIS HEAD [Page 87] BETWEEN BOTH HIS HANDS. ¶ And this expression is not onely used in respect of our selves, but of others also, as daily experience and the actions of men doe declare. For when there were divers Oratours of Greece very fluent and elegant speakers, sent Ambassadours unto Philip, and Demosthenes had not spoken sufficiently for the honour of the Commonwealth, If there bee any credit to bee given to Aeschines his enemy, putting it downe in one of his Orations: Adje­cit ille etiam maxime ridenda, quarum collegas ita [pudebat] utAeschines pro Ti­ma [...]ch.faciem obtegerent. The same Ae­schines in another Oration, where he describes the impudent audacity of a most notorious wic­ked man, who would speake openly in a pub­lique assembly of the Citizens naked; Such, saith hee, was the beastlinesse of that petulant and drunken man, that wise men put their Hands be­fore their eyes, blushing in the behalfe of the Commonwealth which used such Counsellours.

Adoro. Gest. L.

TO KISSE THE HAND, is their obsequious expression who would adore & give respect by the courtly solemnity of a salutation or vale­diction. The gracefull carriage of the Hand in this officious obedience to the will, while it moves to the chiefest orifice of the minde. Ter­tullian and others have acknowledged to have the handsome sense of a civill complement. To whom Lucian consents. Qui adorant (saith St. Hierom) solent manum Lucian. in Demo [...]h. Ene. Hierom. ad Russ.deosculari. And in the phrase of Plautus this is Adorare suaviter. There is no expression of the Hand more frequent in the formalities of civill conversation, and he is a novice in the Court of Nature, who doth not [Page 88] understand a basiér de la main: and he a clown in Humanity, who doth not speake to his betters in this respectfull language of the Hand.

Distantē amicum revereor. Gest. LI.

TO BRING THE HAND TO OUR MOUTH, AND HAVING KISSED IT, TO THROW IT FROM US, is their expression who would present their service, love, and respect to any that are distant from them. A gesture I have often observed to have beene used by many at publique shewes, to their friends, when their standings have beene remote from them. Tacitus calls this Tacit. hist. lib. 1. Jacere os­cula. DionDion. Othon.Oscula per digitos mittere. Otho who omitted no servile crowching for an Empire, after this manner threw his kisses abroad; and herein shew'd himselfe his crafts master, for hee had not often cast out this bait of courtesie, but the people bit at it, and swallowed this popular libation of the Hand. And when the Tide was once turn'd, the Senators contending and shoul­dering who should get first, defaced Galbas I­mage, extolled the Souldiers judgement, kissing Otho's Hand, and the lesse they meant it in heart, doing so much the more in outward appearance.

Conscien­ter affir­mo. Gest. LII.

TO LAY THE HAND OPEN TO OUR HEART, using a kinde of bowing gesture, is a garb wherein we affirm a thing, swear or call God to witnesse a truth, and so we seem as if we would openly exhibit unto sense, the testimony of our conscience, or take a tacite oath, putting in se­curity, that no mentall reservation doth basely divorce our words and meaning, but that all is truth that we now protest unto. This expressi­on hath been most observed in the ancient Gre­cians, [Page 89] as Chrysippus saith, who from this naturall expression of the Hand, concludes the lodging of the soule to be about the heart. The Turkes at this day are observed most frequently to use this naturall forme of protesting, with whom the Hand spread upon the breast, is accounted equi­valent to the most solemne oath, insomuch as whatsoever they speake or promise using this gesture, may be beleeved as ingeniously spoken, and the accomplishment of that promise to be presumed of. If we would see this forme of sin­cere asseve [...]ation in practise, our owne Histories afford us many examples. For the forme that hath been and is used at this day in judiciary tri­alls & arraignments of Noble men who are tri­ed by their Peers, is, that when the Lord Steward or Clarke of the Crowne, asketh the Peers whe­ther the Noble man there arraigned be guilty or not, every one of them ceremoniously by his Hand to his breast, affirms upon his honor and consci­ence he is, or is not guilty, according as they find him. The particularizing of the examples I pur­posely omit, as unwilling to offend any Noble Personages who love not to heare of the tainted bloud of their Ancestours.

Poeniten­tiā osten­do. Gest. LIII

TO BEAT AND KNOCK THE HAND UP­ON THE BREAST, is a naturall expression of the Hand, used in sorrow, contrition, repentance, shame, and in reprehending our selves, or when any thing is irksome unto us, because the breast is the cabin of the heart; and this naturall proca­city of the Hand to this gesture, doth manifest the heart to be the seat of affections. This natu­rall ceremony is exemplified in sacred Writ; for [Page 90] this was the penitentiall expression that the Publican used who went up to the Temple to Luke 18. 13. pray. Thus also the people who were witnesses of our Saviours sufferings, and the wonders that followed thereupon, beholding the things that were done, SMOTE THEIR BREASTS and re­turned. This habit of the Hand is much practi­sed Luke 23. 48. by the zelots in the Roman superstition, as a penitentiary expression most patheticall, who are wont also mysteriously to mince this natu­rall expression, and ceremoniously sometimes with two or three fingers only, lightly to strike upon their breast and mouth, a thing usuall with the ancient Ethniques of old. And in ancient times in testifying griefe & mourning, and at fu­neralls, as a solemne kinde of behaviour, they used Plutar. ad Apol. this expression whom Plutarch calls [...]. So in Cornelius Tacitus, Incendebat haec fletum, Tacit. Hist.pectus at (que) os manibus verberans. And the acute Epigrammatist describing the corpo­rall adjuncts of sorrow and mourning:

Quod fronte Selium nubila vides, Rufe,
Quod ambulator porticum terit serus;
Lugubre quiddam quod tacit piger vultus,
Quod pene terram tangit indecens nasus;
Martial. l. 2. Epig.
dextra pectus pulsat, & coma [...] vellit;
Non ille amici fata [luget.]

Gregory Nyssen when he would paint out as it were in apt colours of expression an unusuall griefe of mind, and as it were a certaine heat of anger, he useth the phrase of this habit, Nyssen in funere pulcheriae. pe­ctus manibus verberare. Touching the naturall intentions of the fist in this expression so custo­mary and significant in sorrow and repentance, the Fathers very elegantly and declaratively [Page 91] deliver their opinions thus: We strike our breast with the Hand, as it were protesting against the Cyp. de orat. Dom Hier. in vit. Hillar. sins included in that mansion, as Cyprian: Or as if we would drive those evill cogitations from our heart, as Hierome: Or to rouse up our heart. as Theophylact: Or to appease the judge we take revenge upon our selves, as Chrysostome: Or to Chrysost. Hom. 41. Aug. in Psal. 146. chastise our flesh wherewith we have offended God, as Austin.

Dolorem noto. Gest. LIV

TO HOLD THE HANDS UPON THE LOINS, SIDES OR HIP, is their expression who féel some paine in those regions of the body, of­ten seen in those which feel the pains of travell, and in those who are troubled with Hipocon­driacall melancholy, and the Sciatica, or Hip­gout. This demeanour of the Hand is very de­clarative in the first sense, as appeares in the Pro­phesie of the Prophet Jeremiah, Demand, now Jer. 30. 6. and behold, if man travell with childe; where­fore doe I behold every man with HIS HANDS UPON HIS LOINES, as a woman with travell, and all faces turned into palenesse: upon which place, they who are curious may consult with Ghislerius.

Indigna­tione ti­meo. Gest. LV.

THE SMITING OF THE HAND UPON THE THIGH, in the practise and conversation of common life, was ever frequent, and is so deeply imprinted in the maners of men, that you shall in vaine perswade a man angry and inraged with griefe, to contain his Hand from this passion. Se­neca the Philosopher attributes this expression of Sen. l. 1. de Ira cap. ul. the Hand to anger, where he saith, Quid opus fe­mur ferire? In griefe it is also significant, as they [Page 92] who are versed in Homer doe well know when they meet with those places wherein he de­scribes his Heroes provoked to anger and dolour, whom he calls [...]. In the sacred oracles of the Prophets we have this expression noted & described; for that holy Prophet speaking of Ephraim lamenting, Surely after I was con­verted, I repented, and after that I was instructed, Jer. 31. 19. I SMOTE UPON MY THIGH, &c. which ge­sture in that Prophet hath the signification of re­pentance, with others of anger, dolour, and in­dignation. In the same sense it appeares in the Prophesie of the Prophet Ezechiel, Cry and howle, son of man; terrours by reason of the Ezek. 21. [...]2. sword shall be upon my people; SMITE THERE­FORE UPON THY THIGH. Tully indeed as­cribes Cicer. Tusc. 3. it to mourning; Feminum & capitis per­cussiones. The registers of common life, Histories, are full of examples of this habit of the Hand, bearing the character of this sense. Thus Cy­rus Xenoph. l. 7. de inst. Cyr. in Xenophon hearing of the death of Abrada­tas, SMOTE HIS HAND UPON HIS THIGH. And Flaccus President of Aegypt and Syria, ban­nished by Caius the Emperour, when he arrived Philo. Jud in Flac. at the Island Andros most miserably howling in his calamity, SMOTE HIS HANDS AND THIGHES. Fabius Dictator, when his Generall of the Cavaliere Minutius had almost cast away himselfe and his Army, at the sight thereof is Plutarch in the life of Fabius. said to have uttered his anger and dolour this way. And when Pompey had received let­ters from Rome advertising him what great mat­ters the people had passed in his behalfe, some say that at the receit of them (in the presence Idem in the life of Pompey. of his familiar freinds and they that were about [Page 93] him & rejoyced with him for congratulation) he knit his brows, and CLAPPED ON HIS THIGH, as though it grieved him to have such great offi­ces and charge laid upon him, one in the neck of another; by this dissimulation cloaking his ambi­tion. ¶ This gesture of the Hand is significant also in fear, admiration and amazement. Hence Plutarch relating the injuries that the Pirates Plutarch in the life of Pom­pey. whom Pompey vanquished did the Romans, saies, the greatest spite and mockery they used to the Romans was this; That when they had taken any of them, and that he cried he was a Citi­zen of Rome, and named his name, then they made as though they had been amazed and afraid of that they had done; for they CLAPPED THEIR HANDS ON THEIR THIGHS, and fell downe on their knees before them, praying him to forgive them.

Data fide promitto. Gest. LVI

TO STRIKE ANOTHERS PALM, is the habit and expression of those who plight their troth, give a pledge of faith and fidelity, promise, offer truce, confirme a league, buy, sell, grant, covenant, bargaine, give or take handsell, en­gage themselves in suretiship, refer their con­troversies to an arbiter, put to comprimise or chuse an umpier, engage themselves to be true and trusty, warrant and assure. That this gesture hath the sense and signification of faith and a so­lemne promise, is apparent by the frequent inti­mations of the Roman Poets, who by this ge­sture doe often imply faith. Thus the Prince of Virgil Aeneid. Latine Poesie in this of Dido,

—En dextra [fides (que).]

And in that of Anchises, Idem.

[Page 94] Dat dextram, at (que) animū presonti pignore firmat. Ovid no way ignorant of any matter of manuall expression, brings in Pandion taking his leave of Tereus, and his daughter Philomol demanding this pledge and pawn of faith.

Ut [fidei pignus]
Ovid Me­tamorph.
dextras utra (que) popossit.
Inter seque datas junxit.—

And that lofty Tragedian brings in Licus suing for marriage with Megara, saying,

[Sociemus] animos, [fidei hoc pignus]
Senec. in Here. sur.
cape continge dextram.—

Martial according to the acute way of Epi­gramatists, Martial Epigr. taking a hint from the peculiar pro­perty of the right Hand in making promise, brings in Caesar in the whiske of one of his Epi­grams, answering two petitioners at once, by promising with both his Hands:

Dum peteret pars haec myrinum pars illa triumphū
[Promisit] pariter Caesar utra (que) manu.

Isidor saith, this gesture is the witnesse of faith and trust. In faith, saith Pliny, we put forth our Pliny Nat. Hist. Right Hand, or when we make a faithfull pro­mise. The Cynique in his symbole advising men Diogenes. to adde benignity to their courtship, covertly alludes to the propriety of this free expression,

Give not unto thy friend a clinched Hand.

And the symbole of Pythagor as,

Doe not to every man extend thy Hand;

wills us not promiscuously to prostitute this friendly token of expression. To which that of Lypsius may be referred, Vis dextram [fidei] mei [testem?] habes hic impressum, etsi coram Lyps. Epi. Matth. O vand.ipsam dare & jungere mihispes est cum aulam vestram videbo. When the Hyrcanians of Cyrus Army expostulated with him in regard he seemed to [Page 95] distrust them. Cyrus in Xenophon is said to have Xenoph. Cyr lib. 4. answered him thus, Cogito nobis omnibus [fidem] esse in anim is nostris, at (que) in [nostris manibus.] This expression of the Hand the Greeks very elegant­ly note in the word [...]. The Stoicks say faith is derived of the word facere to doe, be­cause all things that are faithfully promised, ought to be performed; most aptly therefore im­plied by the Hand the symbole of action. And faith is strengthned by this expression of REA­CHING OUT THE RIGHT HAND. How did Cicero condole the violation of promise made by Tul. in Ant. Phi­lip. 11. this speaking paction of the Hand? Dextrae, qua [fidei testes] esse solebant, perfidiae sunt & scelere violatae. Virgil for an expression of breach of promise symbolically useth the prevarication of this gesture,—Fallere dextram. And in this sense some take that of the Prophet Isaiaeh, Is there not a lie in my right Hand? And to this, that of the Isa. 44. 20. Psalmist may be referred, whose Right Hand is a Right Hand of falshood, that is, as the glosse on Psal. 144. 11. our Bibles hath it, Though they STRIKE HANDS yet they keep not promise. Caius Ligarius used this expression of promising his aid, assi­stance and concurence in any secret confederacy Plutar. in the life of Brutus. with Brutus, who when Brutus came to see him being sicke in his bed, and said unto him, O Li­garius in what a time art thou sicke? Ligarius rising up in his bed, and taking him by the Right Hand, said unto him, Brutus, if thou hast any great enterprise in Hand, worthy of thy self, I am whole. Gobrias in Xenophon praiseth the Right Xenoph. Cyr. Hand of Cyrus for what it promised it performed. And the Danes, Swedes, and Norwegeans in whom the honest impressions of nature flow [Page 96] from their Hands pure and unmixt without any fucus of dissimulation or affectation of art, doe most faithfully retaine the naturall sincerity of this expression of faith, for of those Northerne Nations our learned Barclay gives this commen­dation. Barelay Icon. ani­morum. cap. 8. They breake no promises when their HANDS ARE GIVEN. Such Religious obser­vers of their manuall faith were the ancient Medes and Persians. Hence Plethon Genistus Plethon Genist. manus porrectio maxima inter Persas censetur fi­des. Wherefore Cyrus in Xenophon in an Orati­on he made unto the Medes, saith, Hyrcanis qui­bus & [jusjurandum] &Rerum Graec. l. 2.dextras dedi [fidem] ser­vabo, & nunquam hoc deprechendar prodidisse. And Xenophon relating an agreement between the Persian and the Grecian Armies for a peaceable departure and safe conduct, having recited the Articles, saith, Haec utrin (que) [jurejurando] sancita sunt,Rerum Graec. l. 2.dextra datae vicissim. A royall example of this declaration of the Hand we have in Da­rius, who after he was wounded by Bessus and the other conspirators, to the souldier of Alex­ander who found him sore wounded in his litter, but as yet alive, recommending in a speech he made of his master, touching his love and ac­knowledgement Justin. lib. 11. and Quintus Curt. of courtesie, and that he dyed his debter; in token whereof as a Kingly pledge of his faith, he gave the souldier HIS RIGHT HAND to carry unto Alexander, and these words being uttered, having STRETCRED OUT HIS HAND, hee gave up the ghost. Florus Josephus Florus Joseph. l. 18. c. 12. proves this expression of the Hand to have been in very great force and virtue among the Anci­ents. Artabanus (saith he) King of the Parthians, STRETCHING OUT HIS RIGHT HAND swore [Page 97] to Anilaeus the Jew, that his brother Asinaeus might have safe accesse unto him, which with the Barbarians about to assemble, is a most cer­taine argument of trust. For after the RIGHT HAND GIVEN, with them it is neither lawfull to deceive or difficult, all suspitions and diffidence ceasing. Wherefore when he was moved by the master of his Horse that he might kill Asinaeus, he denyed to permit that against a man who had committed himselfe to his Faith con [...]nied BY GIVING THE RIGHT HAND, with an oath. To this expression that passage also of the Romane History may be referred, where Flavius cometh Livie l. [...] to the Romane Generall Gracchus, enforming him that hee had begunne an enterprise of great consequence, for the accomplishing and full perfecting whereof hee needed the helping Hand of Gracchus himselfe: namely, that he had perswaded all the Fretors and Governours, who in that universall trouble of Italy had revolted to Annibal, to returne into the league and friend­ship of the Romanes; by many arguments I have used to them. Thus and thus were my words un­to them: and indeed but my words: Mary they had liever heare Gracchus himselfe speake, and heare the same from his owne mouth: they would more gladly talke with him in person, and TAKE HOLDOF HIS RIGHT HAND, which as the assured pawne of his faithfull promise he carryeth alwayes with him wheresoever he goeth, and they desire no more. This may bee further illu­strated by another passage of Livic, where Sy­phax Livic l. 29 King of Numidia having contracted a new alliance with the Africans, by marrying Sophoni­sva the daughter of Asdrubal, allured by the faire [Page 98] words of his new Spouse, sent into Sicily to Sci­pio to advise him not to passe over into Africke, nor rely upon any confidence of him, or build up­on his former promises. Scipio in his Letters which he dispatched by the same Ambassadours, requested him earnestly to be advised, and bethink himselfe that he breake not the rights either of friendship or hospitable league with him: or the league and society entred with the people of Rome: nor violate Justice and faithfull promise made BY GIVING RIGHT HANDS: nor yet beguile and abuse the gods, the Witnesses and Judges of all covenants and agreements made. ¶ Isidore saith, the surety of Peace is given with the Hand. And indeed all leagues, truces, and compacts are confirmed by this gesture of the Hand. Thus the league Trium-virat betweene Antonius Lepidus and Caesar was established at Confluents, betweene Perusia and Bononia, they IOYNE HANDS, and their armies embrace. Dorlear [...] upon Ta­cit. Which league they symbolically, expressed by three Right Hands embracing each other, with this Motto, Salus generis humani: a strange Im­presse to gull the world with and to cloake their ambitious confederacy. The King of Persia com­manded Camer. hist. med. his Ambassadours to make this expres­sion in his name. And in the same manner the ancient Emperours and Kings of Germany were wont to send their great men to conclude a peace, and determine affaires, when they could not goe themselves. Apollophanes Cyzicenus, who had in former times beene bound to Pharnabazus by the lawes of Hospitality, and was a guest at that Xenoph. Per. Graec. lib. 4. time with Agesilaus, promised him to bring Pharnabazus to a parly for confirmation of a [Page 99] Peace, which Agesilaus hearing of, consented; so he having received, faithfull promise of safe conduct, and THE RIGHT HAND BEING GI­VEN, brought Pharnabazus into the appointed place, where having saluted one another, Phar­nubazus first of all PUT FORTH HIS RIGHT HAND, to which Agesilaus also IOYN'D HIS. Of this language of assurance expressed by the GI­VEN HAND, there called Dextra securitatis. The Bookes of the Macchabees are very pregnant. Thus when the 3. thousand Souldiers that Jona­than had sent to Demetrius to Antiochia at his 1 Macch. request, (when the Citizens saw that the Jewes had gotten the upper Hand, and they were disap­pointed of their purpose of staying their King) made their supplication unto the King, say­ing, GIVE US THE RIGHT HAND [or grant us peace.] Thus they of Gaza made supplication unto Ionathan, and he GAVE THEM THE RIGHT 1 Macch. 11. 62. 1 Macch. 13. 45. HAND [or made peace with them] When Si­mon had besieged Beth-sura, and fought against it a long season, and shut it up; at last they de­sired RIGHT HANDS TO BE GIVEN THEM, to whom GIVING THE RIGHT HAND, &c. [that is, they desired peace, which he granted.] For so the Glosse of our Bibles expound these pla­ces. 1 Macch. 13. 50. When Simon had besieged Gaza, the people of that City cried with a loud voice, beseeching Si­mon TO GIVE THEM RIGHT HANDS, [that is, to grant them peace.] So they in the Castle at Jerusalem besought Simon that he would IOYNE RIGHT HANDS, which he gave them [or make peace with them, which he did.] Thus Andro­nicus 2 Macch. 4. 34. comming to Onias who had fled to the San­ctuary at Daphne, hard by Antiochia, counselled him craftily, GIVING HIM HIS RIGHT HAND [Page 100] with an oath, by that faire show of peace per­swaded him to come out: whom incontinently without any regard of righteousnesse, he slew ac­cording to Meuelaus instigation. So the No­mades 2 Maccab. 12. 11. of Arabia being overcome, besought Ju­das A RIGHT HAND TO BE GIVEN THEM: which Iudas giving them, thereupon they SHOO [...] HANDS, and so departed to their Tents. And thus Antiochus Eupater communed with the men in 2 Maccab. 13. 22. Beth-sura, and GAVE AND TOOKE THE RIGHT HAND, [or tooke truce with them.] ¶ The speech of Reuben to his father Jacob about Benja­mins delivering into his Hands, hath reference to Gen. 42. 37. this signification of trust. And that speech of Ju­dah unto his Father about the same busines, I will be surety for him; of my Hand shalt thou require Gen. 43. 9 him. ¶ In the sense of fidelity all the Princes & men of power, and all the sons of David GAVE THE HAND unto King Salomon. And the Pro­phet 1 Chron. 29. 24 Ezekiel emphatically declaring the perjury and infidelity of the King of Jerusalem, who had Ezek. 17. 18. broken the oath made with the King of Babel, which he had confirmed BY GIVING HIS HAND, denounceth these punishments: That he should dye in the midst of Babel, in the place of the King that had made him King, whose oath hee had despised, and whose covenant made with him he brake: Neither should Pharaoh King of Aegypt in whom he trusted deliver him. For hee hath despised the Oath, and broken the Covenant, YET LOE, HE HAD GIVEN HIS HAND! And verily all Nations have ever had a natu­rall respect unto the mystery of Faith, which hath her firme existence in the Hand, and have so esteemed the Right Hand, they thought the [Page 101] touch thereof to be the most lively, significant and expresse pawne or pledge of faithfulnesse: whence all compacts, leagues, Grants, combina­tions, truces, proviso's, bargaines, covenants, and entercourses whatsoever, are held to be in­violably ratified, and to stand in full power, force, and virtue by the TOUCH of the insuring Hand. For when we GIVE OUR HAND, we doe seal [...] as it were an obligation or reall contract, by which presents we deeply ingage our selves to a punctuall accomplishment of that which our Hand had protested to; the Hand being bound as a surety that our deeds shall bee forth-comming, and be found answerable to our words: for who­soever forfeits the Recognizance of his Hand, he breaks the most sacred and strongest band of of Truth; and by falsifying his manuall faith proves a kinde of Renegado to himselfe. Caelius Rhodiginus thinkes there is some Pythagoricall Cael. Rho. var. lect. mystery in this authenticke guise of the Hand in warrantizing faithfull dealings, and that the ge­sture flowes from a secret and religious reve­rence to that comprehensive number Ten, for while each Hand doth extend five fingers which move to the comprehension of each other, they premit a resemblance of the Decades mystery, since meeting in their formall close they seem to greet one another in that number. Callymachus and Varro endeavour to render another reason, Callymac. & Varro. drawne from the naturall authority and com­mand that consists in the virtue of the Right Hand. And verily Faith consists wholly in the Right Hand, and the left hath no obligatory force or virtue in it. For to give the left hand, or to take anothers given Right Hand with the [Page 102] left, is not binding in point of naturall Faith. And therefore when Josippus Gorio the Jew, de­sired a Roman Souldier to give him his Right Dorleans upon Ta­citus. Hand in signe of Faith, he gave him his left, and drawing his sword with his Right Hand, slew him; and yet he cannot properly be said to have falsified his promise, since he gave him but his left hand, whose touch hath no assurance, but was ever held deceitfull and ominous. Therefore the oath of Faith in all adjurations was taken and required by the Right Hand. Hence Plautus, Haec per dextram tuam, dextrate retinente manu, Plautus captiv. obsecro, infidelior mihi ne sis quam ego sum tibi. To which may be referred that adjuration of Cicero, per dextram ipsam quam hospes hospiti por­rexisti. Cicero pro Deje­taro Gal. Reg. For, the Ancients were wont by this gesture of faith, to put their last will and com­mandement into the obliged Hand of their heirs, or executors. To which intent Masinissa sent to Manilius Proconsull of Africa, requesting him to send unto him, then at the point of death, Scipio Valer. Max. l. 5. Aemilianus who then served under his command as a Souldier, supposing his death to prove more happy, if he dyed embracing his Right Hand, and adjured him thereby, to performe his last wil and testament. Tarquinius Priscus sent for Servius to this purpose. Thus the friends of Germanicus Liv. De cad. 1. touching his Right Hand swore to revenge his death. And Micipsa King of Numidia after he Tacit. Ar. pal. 2. had adopted Jugurth, upon his death-bed used these words unto him, I adjure thee by this Right Hand [which he held] and by the allegi­giance thou owest to thy Country, that thou e­strange Salust. de bello Ju­gurth. not thy love and service from these thy kinsmen whom by favour and adoption I have [Page 103] created thy brethren. To this, Virgil alluding to Virg. Ae­neid. 7. the generall custome:

Fata per Aeneae juro dextram (que) potentem.

Tibullus alludes to this gesture,

Te teneam moriens deficiente manu.
Tib. Eleg.

The wilde Irish doe ordinarily use to sweare by this seat of faith and minister of virtue, the Right Hand, who at every third word are wont to lash out an oath, and among the rest, these, By my Cambden in Britan. God fathers Hand, by my gossips Hand, or by thy Hand, and for the performance of promise, and that a man may beleeve them, these are of grea­test weight to binde them: If one sweare by the Hand of an Earle, or of his owne Lord, or some mighty person, for if he be forsworne and con­vict of perjury, the said mighty man will wring from him perforce a great summe of money, and a number of cowes, as if by that perjury the greatest abuse and injury that might be, were of­fered to his name. And the Hebridian Scots Hect. Boet lib. 2 ex quo Zin­guer. The­at. hum. vit. and Mountainiers in their contracts sweare by the Hand of their Captaine, an ordinance obser­ved among them ever since Evenus the first King that exacted the oath of Faith at their Hands. ¶ But the indissoluble soder and inviolable bond of society, which old sincerity instructed by reason in the tacit force thereof thought the great oath and the strongest hold the Re-publick hath to keep the honour of her estate is Faith, then which there was never any thing held to be of greater credit or antiquity. Hence Xeno­phon hath [...], id est, publicam fidem. And Numa by his dedication of the Hand to Faith, and commanding the Flamins to exe­cute Liv. lib. 1. [...] Plut. their functions with their Hands covered, [Page 104] and wrapped close to their fingers ends, gave a notable testimony that he held Faith for holy and sacred after touching of the Right Hand, that it ought be kept and preserved, and that her seate was sacred and consecrated even upon the Right Hands, and therefore that it ought by no meanes to be violated: wherefore in particu­lar contracts among the Romans there was not any oath more religious and holy then the oath of Faith, a point of naturall doctrine that Numa did but enforce with his rituall additions. But the authority, reputation, consequence and dig­nity of the Publicke Faith was had in such sin­gular estimation, that men held their money no Camer. Hist. med where so safe as in the Hands of the Publicke State. Hence it is that we may see many ancient coines with two Hands joyned together, with this inscription of Faith kept; Fides Romanorum, Pier. hier. lib. 35. sometimes Fides legionum. And hence also it was that the Romans were wont to contrive the statues of those Princes that had deserved well of the Common-wealth, that by a Right Hand extended out they signified their Faith unto the same. Tully had reference to this State­oath, when he said, I gave Publicke Faith upon the promise of the Senators, that is to say, he of­fered forth his Right Hand, as a pledge thereof: and it is fit this naturall ceremony of an oath should be reverenced in the Hand, the chiefest seat of Fidelity, since it is the honest foundation of all right and equity. ¶ Nothing so ordinary in the common affaires of life as STRIKING HANDS, whether it be for confirmation of our bargaines, grants or covenants in the behalfe of our selves, or in undertaking by way of promise [Page 105] and suretiship for others wherein the Hand as a surety is still engaged. And indeed the whole trade of the universe is driven by this driving stroke of the Hand: he that shall (as I have some­times done) walke upon the Royall Exchange among Merchants, meerly to observe their [...]i [...] ­ter courses of buying and selling, shall soone be saisfied in the naturall force of this expression. But he that would see the vigour of this gesture in pur is naturalibus, must repaire to the Hors [...] Cirque, or Sheep Pe [...]s in Smith-field, where those crafty Olympique Merchants who [...]ed the Hand of no Broker to speed the course of their affaires, will take you for no chapman, un [...] lesse you strike them good lucke, and smite them earnest in the palme. And I have sometimes in consort with my friend had good sport to set him to observe the pure and naturall efforts of these men in the heat of their dealings, and have suffered my selfe to bee a little smitten with the Hand of deceit, to gaine the curiosity of an ex­periment, a kinde of solace, pleasing to Philoso­phicall complexions, and such who hunt after the subtleties of Nature: wherein though I can­not brag of my bargain, yet I can afford my Rea­der a good penniworth. Their cunning manna­ging of the Hand in time and tone, I have some­times call'd the Horse-Rhetorique of Smithfield, which by calculation I have found to differ from the Fish Dialect of Billingsgate, in the mono­chord of motion, and peaceablenesse of accent. And he that shall undertake to out-write Mark­ham, and like Hocus Pacus to discover the subtle­ties of his own profession, wil not set forth the art of Hors-coursing well, if he omit the rule of buy­ing [Page 106] and selling by this insurance and policy of the Hand.

¶ But as concerning that perillous striking of the Hand for others, Salomon who was well ver­sed in the subtle notions of manuall utterance, acknowledging the signification thereof in sure­tiship, discommends the inconvenient and obli­gatory force of this expression: My sonne, if thou Prov. 6. 1. be surety for thy friend, if thou hast stricken thy Hand with a stranger, thou art snared, &c. And in another place: Be not thou of those that strike Prov. 22. 6 Hands, or of them that are sureties for debts. And the Wiseman striking again with the same Hand of reprehension: A man void of understanding striketh Hands and becommeth surety in the pre­sence of his friend. Wherein he checkes the in­discreet forwardnesse of some men in these kinde of undertakings, who offer themselves before the favour is required at their Hands, and at the very sight of and presence of his friend, without con­sideration Dr. Jerm. mins pa­raphr. ob­servat. on the Prov. or looking into the businesse, thrusts his Hands into the bond of suretiship. And such a man is here describ'd to bee a man wanting a heart, and surely it were well if such a one were without a Hand also: for since hee hath not un­derstanding in his heart to keep him from hurt, it were good he had no power in his Hand to doe himselfe hurt: especially if he be such a foole, as having strucken anothers Hand, and made him­selfe a surety, he striketh his owne Hands as ap­plauding himselfe for it, which may be the sense of this place. Surely such a foole may quickly wring his Hands together in sorrow, who before did clap his Hands in joy, and may strike him­selfe in anger with the same Hand wherewith in [Page 107] the foolish kindnesse of suretiship he strucke the Hand of another. For he that hath strucken his Hand to be surety for his friend, had beene better that his friend had strucke him with a harder blow, when by striking his Hand he hath brought him, under the Hand of another, and behinde hand in the world. Salazar commenting upon these places of the Proverbs, renders this expression of Salaz. comment. in Prov. Sal. the Hand, according to Expositors. Variously, sometimes 'tis Manum desigere, volam percutere, in fidei jubentibus pro debitis manum pepigere, in fidei jussionibus stipulata manu side jubere. And he calls it sometimes Sonum securitatis vel assecurationis, scil. eum sonum quem in stipulationis, & fideijussio­nis, seu assecurationis pacto manus manui conserta, & illisa edore solet. Job also, eloquent in affliction, Job 17. 3. in his appeale from men to God, acknowledgeth the obligatory sense of this expression of the Hand, Lay downe now, put me in a surety with thee; who is hee that will STRIKE HANDS with me? By Tully this solemne bond or obli­gation of the Hand is called Nexus: Attici, te Tul. ad Atticum lib. 7. Idem in paradox. esse scribis mancipio, & nexu: meum autem usu & fructu. And in another place: Non enim ita di­cunt eos esse servos, ut sunt mancipia, quae sunt Do­minorum facta nexu aut aliquo jure civili. Hence in the Lawes of the twelve Tables we finde these words, Ut quae res mancipii essent, qui eas venderet, nexum faceret. To which may bee annexed that which Valerius Maximus reports of Titus Vetu­rius, Valer. Max l 6. who as his words are, Propter domesticam ruinam & grave as alienum C. Plotio Nexum se dare admodum adolescentulus coactus esset. This ex­pression by gesture, by reason of the significati­on it hath in Nature, was not onely used in Te­staments, [Page 108] in which the Heyre was taken by the Hand that hee might passe into the family of the Testator, and in the buying of servants, but also in all obligatory bargaines and pledges, as Hot­toman informes us: and indeed in buying and selling this Nexus was commonly used; a [...] when Mottom. in leg. 12. Tab. he that sold a commodity did undertake for the thing sold, and did oblige himselfe to make goo [...] whatsoever there lacked of the weight or ta [...] of the commodity bought, as the same Hottoman affirmes, which is as much as to undertake to be s [...]e [...]y for the thing it self; for suretiship is a spe­cies of bargaining. And according to Varro a free man when he had enthralled himselfe to servitude for money borrowed, untill hee had paid it hee was called Nexus, à nector, vel nexum quasi neo Clem. Alex. Strom. l. 5. s [...]m. Clemens Alexandrinus calls this Law-ex­pression Carpismum, because that he who did ob­lige himselfe unto another, or offered his faith, gave his wrest, to wit, the joynt whereby the Hand is joyned to the wrest, to be apprehended and wrung, to signifie that he was held oblig'd; custome having a little chang'd the most naturall forme, without impeachment of signification.

¶ That this gesture is significant to licence, war­rant, and assure, is not difficult to prove. For thus Artaxerxes King of Persia by giving his Right Hand to Mithridates the brother of Ariobarzane [...], Probus in Datam. promising to kill Datamen, gave him licence, and an open warrant, with pardon of punishment to doe what he would in that businesse. And Saint Paul when he would warrant and assure the Ga­latians, Corinthians, Colossians, and Thessal oni­ans, to whom he writ, that those Epistles were his, his salutations in the close intimate that they Sclater on the Gal. [Page 109] were witten with his owne Hand. ¶ This ge­sture is also significantly used when we chuse an Umpire put to arbitration and comprimise. To which that of Job may be referred. Neither i [...] Job 9. 33. there any dayes-man betwixt us that might lay his Hand upon us both. To which expression of gesture, that also of the Apostle Saint Paul seems Galath. 3. 19. to appertaine. The Law was given by Angels in [...] Hand of a Mediator, as if that Law of the Old Testament, about keeping whereof the people of Israel had covenanted with God, had (as by Pintus de Chr. cru [...] giving the Hand) come to that people by media­tion of Moses, and did prefigure what was to be done by the Angel of the Testament or Media­tor of a better Testament; to wit, that a better Heb. 8. 6. Law established between God and Man, the Mediator of the new Covenant mediating be­tween both the parties, and stretching out his armes in his suffering, had LAID HIS HANDS UPON THEM TO CONFIRME a more holy league and covenant.

Reconci­lio. Gestus LVII.

TO SHAKE THE GIVEN HAND is an expres­sion usuall in friendship, peacefull love, be­nevolence, salutation, entertainment, and bidding welcome; reconciliation, congratulation, giving thanks, vnlediction, and wel-wishing. This loving declaration of the Hand, the Greeke expresse in the word [...]. An expression u­suall between those who desire to incorporate, com [...]i [...] or grow into one, and make a perfect joynt. The most happy point of amity, a naturall forme very rich in signification, since they who thus professe communion of good [...] while they wil­lingly EMBRACE EACH OTHERS HAND signi­fie [Page 110] that they are both content that their works shall be common; by this gesture speaking plain­ly, as if they in effect should say, What damage happens unto thée, I shall esteeme as my owne losse; and thy emolument and profit I shall en­tertaine as mine owne, and thou shalt finde me ready prest with a consonant and willing minde, both to yéeld to thée a share of my welfare, and re­ciprocally to beare a part of thy calamity. For, all this is the more significantly implied by this gesture, in regard, that works are the words of love; and the Hand is the Tongue of hearty good­will. The minde of man naturally desirous by some symbole or sententious gesture to utter and disclose herselfe in the affections of love, doth manifestly set forth her disposition by this courtly declaration of the Hand, a naturall complement where with she commonly sweetens her affecti­onate respects to others. And this naturall ex­pression seems to result from the sympathy be­tween the will and the Hand: for, the will affe­ctionately inclined and moved to stretch forth her selfe, the Hand, that is moved by the same spirit, willing to goe out and set a glosse upon the inward motion, casts it selfe into a forme ex­tending to a semblance of the inward appetite; neither is the Hand at any time found too short for such an expression if the will be disposed to cooperate with it. For, nature who hath inge­niously thought on many conveniences of ex­pression for the use and benefit of common life, among others, seems to have ordained the Hand to be the generall instrument of the minde, and endued it with a courteous appetite of closing with anothers. Therefore when the minde [Page 111] would disclose the virtue, strength, and forcible operation of her favour and good-will, out of the abundance of her love she puts forth the Hand, and in that as it were the heart it self, with affecti­onate love; and receives them againe by a natu­rall bill of exchange in the Hand of another, which verily is a signe of mutuall agréement, and of a perfect conjunction; for which cause Pinda­rus a Poet of an aspiring wit, placed the heart Pindarus and Hand as relatives under one and the same parallel. To the naturall sense of this gesture appertains divers passages of Tacitus: The Lin­gones Tacit. hist. lib. 1. (saith he) according to their accustomed manner had sent gifts to the Legions right Hands in token of mutuall love and hospitality. The Centurion Sisenna carried in the name of the Sy­rian Army to the Souldiers of the guard right Hands in token of concord. And Ambassadours came from Artabanus King of the Parthians, cal­ling to minde their friendship and allyance with the Romans, and desiring to reni [...]e Right Hands. To bring this important gesture of the Hand in friendship a little nearer to the authenticke light of sacred History. So John to Jona [...] 2 Kings 10. 15. Gal. 29. when he asked him whether his heart were right, give me thine Hand. So James and Cephas and John gave to Barnabas the Right Hand of fellowship, that is, they gave him their Hands in token of agreement in matters of doctrine.

¶ That this gesture is significant in salutation, bidding welcome and entertainment, is apparent by many testimonies of the Ancients. Virgil in the first place witnesseth the same, complaining Virg. Ae­neld. 8. to his mother, thus,

—Cur dextrae jungere dextram
[Page 112] Non datur—

And in another place [...] speaking to Idem. [...] concerning his affection to Anchises,

—Mil [...]i [...] j [...]venili [...] amare
[Camp [...]are] virum & [...] conjungert dextr [...].

Horac [...] also concerning himselfe, Horac. l. 1. Satyr. 9.

A [...]rrit [...] [...] mihi [...]mine tantum,
[...] [...] quid a [...]i [...] dulcissime rerum?

To this signe of salutation and entertainment appertaines that medall, whose inscription is, Tra [...]us Adrianus, wherein you may see the Pier. Hie­roglyph. lib. 35. Emperour himselfe joyning his Right Hand with the Hand of I [...]pi [...]er sitting, with this inscription placed under the base, ADVENTUS AUG. We read of Richa [...]d the second to have used this Sir Rich. Bakers Chron. in the life of Rich. 2. expression of welcome to his Nobles when they appeared at Westminster. M [...]ichans delivered this gesture as a certaine secret to his disciples, that when they met one another, they should salute by joyning Hands, by which signe they declared that they were delivered out of dark­nesse, as Epiph [...]i [...]s reporteth. And there is no Epiphan. l. 3. Tom. 2. Con. haer. Xenop. Cyr. l. 6. expression of love more frequent in the enter­courses of common life then this. Thus Abra­d [...]u [...] in Xenophon comes to Cyrus, and taking him by the Right Hand, makes use of this grate­full expression: and both Xenophon, and all other Authors are full of such loving occurrences of the Hand, and mutuall declarations of hospitable love. Thus Pallas in Virgil entertaining Aeneas, and bidding [...]im welcome:

—Nostris succede p [...]natibus hospes
Virgil Aeneid. 8. Tacit. l. 15
Accepit (que) manu dextra (que) amplexus inhaesi [...].

Thus Tiridates King of Armenia comming to Corbulo, lighted first from his horse, and Corbulo [Page 113] did the like immediately, and both of them on foot joyned Right Hands. And when Cicero had fled out of Rome for feare of Antonius, who af­ter Plutarch in the life of Cicero. the death of Julius Caesar began to looke a­loft, and became fearfull to all men, as though he meant to make himselfe King: But afterwards condemning his dastardly feare, returned to Rome, there came such a number of people out to meet him, that he could doe nothing but take them by the Hands and embrace them: who to honour him came to meet him at the gate of the City, as also by the way to bring him to his house. This symbolicall expression of the Hand had a practicall signification among the Anci­ents, when the Hand given did assure the invio­lable observation of all the lawes of hospitality, which may receive some illustration from the noble practice of Pacuvius Calavius, who when Liv. l. 23. he had invited Annibal to supper, and Perolla his onely sonne after supper had told his father that he had now an opportunity to reconcile himselfe unto the Romanes, to let him seale it with the blood of Annibal; His father dehorting and con­juring him from the violation of the lawes of hospitality & breach of covenant: There are not many houres past since that we sware by all the gods and holy hollowes in heaven, and by IOY­NING HAND IN HAND made faithfull promise and obliged our selves to communicate together with him, & so to eat at the holy Table of sacred Viands, &c. And when King Syphax was brought into the Praetorium or Generals pavilion, and Liv. l. 3 [...]. there presented unto Scipio, Scipio was much mo­ved in minde to consider the state and fortune of the man, compared now to his present con­dition [Page 114] [which more wrought upon him] when he remembred withall and called to minde, the hospitable entertainment, the GIVING INTER­CHANGEABLY OF THE RIGHT HAND, and the covenant betweene them, made both in pub­lique and private. Our Ancestors also had this expression of Hospitable love in a reall respect, when they knew no greater terme of reproach, then to call a man unhospitable. This expression of the Hand continues in force and estimation, and beares such sway among all Nations (espe­cially those that are Northward) that he seemes to be disarmed of all humanity, and to want the affability of expression, who doth (when there is occasion for it) omit this benevolent insinua­tion of the Hand. But concerning this familiar and naturall intimation of the Hand in point of salutation, the ancient Sages and men of sound­est judgement, have made a quaere whether the familiar contact bee so comely and laudable in the Hand of a prudent and religious man. A­mong the wise Masters, those who were given to pleasure, as Socrates, Plato, and others, wil­lingly Cresollius Mystag. vol. 1. admit of this embracing of the Hand, as an allurement to uncleane desire. But those that affected gravity, disallowed the promiscuous use thereof. Verily the Pythagoreans did give the Right Hand to none but men of their owne Sect, no not so much as to any of the same family, un­lesse to their Parents, as Iamblicus notes. And it Iamblicus appears by the most ancient observations of elder times, that holy men for the most part used in their salutations only to put forth the Hand; since so, the singular benevolence of a friendly minde may be expressed without any impeachment to [Page 115] their virtue and gravity. Meletius of Antioch, a man endued with an incredible easinesse and swéetnesse of manners, and most deare to all good men, is said only to have put forth his af­fable and gracious Right Hand in salutations, to shew the force of his love and affection towards others, wherein he observed the lawes of com­mon humanity, and a courteous disposition, with­out any detriment to religious modesty. And at this day religious men in forreigne parts most commonly abstaine from embracing the Hands of others, without incurring the censure of incivility, and want of grace in behaviour, as taking the shaking of Hands in this sense, to be too blunt an expression for a Hand accustomed to matters of decorum, and the sacred tokens of divine reverence. ¶ In signe of congratulati­on the Huntsmen at the fall of the Boore slaine by Meleager with cheerfull shouts unfolding their joyes shake his victorious Hands, as Ovid elegantly feignes according to the naturall pro­perty of the Hand on such occasions. ¶ Nothing more ordinary then shaking of Hands in valedi­ction and taking leave of our friends, and bidding them farewell, of which Poets and Historians are not silent. Ovid brings in Cadmus at his transformation, speaking to his wife Hermione to Ovid Metam. 4. use this loving gesture of valediction, and to shake Hands with him while he yet had a Hand to shake. Thus Calanus the Indian Philosopher Plutarch in the life of Alex. the Gre [...]. about to sacrifice himselfe alive at the tombe of Cyrus, before he went up upon the funerall pile, he bad all the Macedonians that were there fare­well, and SHOOKE THEM BY THE HANDS. And Telutias when Hierax Admirall of the La­cedemonians [Page 116] came in the interim that he was rescuing the Aeginetes besieged by the Atheni­ans, and tooke his ships from him; yet he went home very happy, for when about to depart he Xenop. rerum Graec. l. 5. tooke ship, there was not a souldier but SHOOK HIM BY THE HAND, and with other kinde ex­pressions wishing all happinesse unto him. ¶ That this gesture is significant in reconciliation is most manifest by our common practise and use thereof in the sense of that intention. Thus Mi­nutius and Fabius Maximus Dictator gave their Liv. 22. Hands one to another at the time of their recon­ciliation. And when Onatius Aurelius, a Knight of Rome had told the people what a vision he had seen in his dream, that Jupiter had appea­red to him that night, and willed him to tell them openly, that they should not put Pompey and Crassus out of their office, before they were re­conciled together; he had no sooner spoken the words, but the people commanded them to bee friends. Pompey sat still, and said never a word unto it. But Crassus rose, and TOOK POMPEY Plutarch in the life of Crassus BY THE HAND, and turning him to the people, told them aloud, My Lords of Rome, I doe no­thing unworthy of my selfe to séek Pompeyes friendship and favour first, since you your selves have called him the Great before he had any haire upon his face, and that you gave him the honour of triumph, before he was a Senator.

Injurias remitto. Gestus LVIII.

TO PRESSE HARD AND WRING ANO­THERS HAND, is a naturall insinuation of love, duty, reverence, supplication, peace, and of forgivenesse of all injuries. Hence Physitians the subtile and diligent observers of nature, [Page 117] thinke that there is in the Hand a certaine secret and hidden vertue, and a convenient force or philtre to procure affection. Wherefore Themi­stius, he who coupled eloquence with the gra­vity of Philosophy, where he disputes of reconci­liation Themist. Orat. 3. and kniting together of hearts in the common bond of friendship, he would have the Hands of others to be laid hold on, and wrung with the fingers; for that, saith he, the Hands put forth a sting or goad, and are many times a con­venient spur to future amity. Hereupon beau­ties pale vassalls led by the forcible instinct of their passion, in preferring their amorous insi­nuations, doe much use this speaking touch of the Hand, a piece of covert courtship whereby they seem to strive to imprint upon their mi­strisses Hand a tacit hint of their affection, sugge­sted in this pressing flattery of the Hand; for lo­vers, I know not by what amorous instinct, next to the face, direct their passionate respects to the Hand of those they love; to this part they most usually accommodate their significant expressi­ons; this they devoutly wring and embrace, and by the discoursing compressions thereof, in­timate and suggest the eagernesse of desire, and their inexplicable apprehensions of joy & griefe. Hence the great Master in the Art of love, un­derstanding the naturall force of this tacit confe­rence Ovid. Me­tamor. l. 7. and humble supplication, brings in Jason exhibiting his request to Medaea softly wringing her fair Hand:

Ut vero caepit (que) loqui dextram (que) prehendit,
Hospes, & auxilium submissa voce rogavit.

But this Chirothripsia, or griping anothers Hand, was never held a safe or warrantable ex­pression [Page 118] in the Hand of any man, taken for the most part for a wanton essay or sly proofe of a tractable disposition, and a lascivious prologue and insinuation of lust. I willingly heare (saith Cresollius) Gregory Nyssen, whose voyce and ad­monitions Cresol. in mystag. Greg. Nys. ora [...] [...]. d [...] resurrect. I prefer before all the learned School­men in the world. Solent manus ipso contactu va­lidae animae robur effoeminare, a proofe and experi­ment of whose observation may be understood out of a certaine short narration of Philostratus. There were in the stately Seraglio of the King Philostra­tus in vita Apollonii. of Persia many of the Kings concubines of ex­cellent beauty, who for their rare perfection of parts, and outward endowments of nature might well have stood in competition for the golden ball of Paris, upon one of which when a certain Eunuch had more curiously cast his eyes, he be­gan to be tickled with desire, and so netled with the itch of concupiscence, that he placed all his felicity in enjoying of her; wherefore he made frequent visits, carried himselfe very obsequious­ly unto her, sprinkled his discourse with amorous and allu [...]ing words (and which he thought would most of all availe to set forward his de­signe, and to stir up and quicken the flame of af­fection) he WRUNG HER HAND, which when the over-seer of the Eunuchs perceived, he com­manded him, especially, in no wise to touch the neck or Hand of the woman: good counsell; which when he refused to follow, he fell into that foule action, which proved fatall unto him. ¶ This gesture as it is a token of duty and reve­rentiall love, Coriolanus used towards his mother Plutarch in the life of Corio­lanus. Volumnia, when overcome by her earnest per­swasions to withdraw his Army from Rome, he [Page 119] cried out, Oh mother! what have you done to me? for HOLDING HER HARD BY THE RIGHT HAND, Oh mother! said he, you have wonne a happy victory for your Countrey, but mortall and unhappy for your sonne; for I see my selfe vanquished by you alone. ¶ This WRINGING OF ANOTHERS HAND, doth sometimes naturally imply peace, and a loving forgivenesse of all injuries. And how faithfull an interpretor of the minde the Hand hath con­tinued, even when the tongue hath failed, and men have been deprived of all wayes of delive­ring their mindes but by signes and tokens; and how intelligible this expression by gesture which we have now in Hand, hath been appre­hended to be in the extremity of silence, may sufficiently appeare by preferring the examples of two great Princes lying both speechlesse on James Meyer lib 16. of the Annales of France. their death-beds. The first example shall be in Philip Duke of Burgundy, the father of Charles slaine at the battell of Nancie; Charles having absented himselfe from his father for some faults, and his father falling very sicke in the City of Bruges, so that his speech failed him; Charles hearing of it came from Gant in post to Bruges, and falling on his knees before his father, did with warme teares beg humble pardon for all the griefes he had put him to, and besought him with lowly reverence, that he would vouchsafe him his fatherly blessing; his Confessour having told him in his ear, that if he could not speak he should at least-wise give his sonne some token and testi­mony of his good will towards him: The good Prince opened his eyes, and TAKING HIS SON BY THE RIGHT HAND, clasped it within his [Page 120] owne so hard as he could, a signe of love and for­givenes. To match this with another of our own History, to wit, of Henry the eight, who falling sick, commanded the Archbishop (then at Croy­den) Godwin in his An. Hen. 8. should be sent for in all haste, who using all possible speed came not untill the King was speechlesse: as soone as he came, the King TOOKE HI [...] BY THE HAND, the Archbishop exhorting him to place all his hopes in Gods mercies through Christ, & beseeching him that if he could not in words, he would by some signe or other testifie this his hope, who then WRIN­GED THE ARCHBISHOPS HAND AS HARD AS HE COULD, a signe of faith, and hope of mercy and forgivenesse, and shortly after de­parted.

Suspicio­nem & o­dium noto Gest. LIX

TO DRAW BACKE THE UNWILLING HAND INSTEAD OF REACHING IT OUT TO IMBRACE THE HAND OF ANOTHER, is a sign of enmity likely to prove inveterate, used by those who flatly refuse to agrée, & reject that proffered amity which they have in suspition. The example of Caius Popilius may seem very Liv. l. 45. V [...]er. [...]x. l. 6. cap. 4. aptly to belong unto this gesture, who when he had met Antiochus foure miles distant from Alex­andria, after greeting and salutation, at the first comming, Antiochus PUT FORTH HIS RIGHT HAND to Popilius; but he delivered unto him a scrole written, and wished him before he did a­ny thing to read that script; after he had read the writing through, he answered he would devise with his friends, and consider what was best to be done. But Popilius according to his ordina­ry blunt manner of speech which he had by na­ture, [Page 121] made a circle about the King with the rod he had in his Hand, and withall, make me an an­swer (quoth he) I advise you, such as I may re­port to the Senate, before you passe the com­passe of this circle. The King astonied at this so rude and violent a commandement, after he had stayed and paused a while; I will be content (quoth he) to doe whatsoever the Senate shall ordaine; then and not before, Popilius GAVE THE KING HIS HAND as a friend and ally. The stoutnesse of Sylla, and his resolution to be reconciled upon no other tearmes then his own, Plutarch in the life of Sylla. discovered it selfe by the same neglectfull carri­age of his Hand towards Mithridates, who when he came to him, and OFFERED TO TAKE HIM BY THE HAND; Sylla asked him first if he did accept of the peace, with the con­ditions Archelaus had agreed unto; nor untill Mithridates had made him answer that he did, would he accept of his proffered and suspected amity; for then, and not before, he resaluted, embraced and kissed him. Thus Fredericke part­ner and consort in the Kingdome with Uladisla [...] the second King of Bohemia, REFUSED TO GIVE HIS RIGHT HAND to Sobieslaus whom his father received into favour after he had at­tempted to raise garboyles in Moravia, preten­ding he had the gout in his Hand. And so that lofty and stately Prelate Dunstan REFUSED TO Vincentius l. 24. c. 87. GIVE KING EDGAR HIS RIGHT HAND, be­fore he was excommunicated, because he had defloured a Virgin, but rating him, Darest thou touch my Right Hand that hast ravished one de­voted to God, I will not be a friend to him that is an enemy to God, & injoyned him seven years [Page 122] penance, after which he was absolved, and the childe christned.

Chare di­ligo. Gest. LX.

VVE PUT FORTH BOTH OUR HANDS TO EMBRACE those we love, as if we would bring them home into our heart and bo­some, as some dear and pretious thing, as Aristotle gives the reason of the gesture. To which expres­sion Arist. in Probl. Psal. 119. 48. I find that of the Psalmist referred, My Hands will I lift up unto thy commandements which I have loved: A proverbiall speech taken from this intention of the Hand, as Simon de Muis ob­serves. Cornelius a Lapide notes the naturall Simon de Muis comment. in omnes Psal. Cornel. a Lapid. in Cant. 2. 6. disposition of the Hands in embracing, who com­menting upon the second of Canticles 6. His left Hand is under my head, and his Right Hand doth embrace me; for lovers and parents use to put their left hand under those they tenderly af­fect, and then with their Right Hand to EM­BRACE the whole body, and so bring them to their bosome, comprehending them in the com­passe of their armes, as in the most naturall circle of affection.

Honoro. Gest. LXI

TO APPREHEND AND KISSE THE BACKE OF ANOTHERS HAND, is their naturall expression who would give a token of their ser­viceable love, faith, loyalty, honourable respect, thankfull humility, reverence, supplication, and subjection. From this naturall gesture the Spa­niards tooke their usuall formes of salutation and valediction, whose complement usually is Baso les vostres mans, I kisse your Hand. The sonne of Sirac acknowledgeth the signification of this Ecclesiast. 29. 5. submissive gesture in that saying, Till he hath [Page 123] received, he will kisse a mans Hand. If we should looke backe up on the actions of affectio­nate lovers, whose inflamed hearts have moved them to sacrifice kisses on this low altar of friend­ship, and to offer their service; by this modest in­sinuation of gesture, we might finde many pas­sages of historicall antiquity to confirme and il­lustrate the sense of this expression. How pas­sionate was Cyrus when he came to the place where his friend. Abradatas lay slaine, seeing his Xenoph. de instit. Cyr. lib. 7. wife sitting upon the ground by the dead body of her Lord? for bursting forth into this patheti­call ejaculation, O thou good and faithfull soule, art thou gone and left us, and there withall TOOKE HIM BY THE RIGHT HAND, and the Hand of his dead friend followed (for it was cut off with the cymeter of an Aegyptian) which Cyrus beholding it, much aggravated his sorrow. But Abradatas wife Panthea shriked out, and ta­king the Hand from Cyrus, KISSED IT, and fitted it againe to its place as well as she could. To match this president with another most illu­strious postscript of surviving affection, that bright mirrour of masculine constancie. T. Volumnius when he had long wept over the bo­dy of his friend M. Lucullus, whom Marke An­thony had put to death, because he tooke part with Brutus and Cassius, desired Anthony he Valer. Max. l. 4. might be dispatched upon the body of his friend, whose losse he ought not to survive; and having obtained his desire, being brought where he would be, having GREEDILY KISSED THE RIGHT HAND of Lucullus, he tooke up his head that lay there cut off, and applied it to his breast, and afterward submitted his neck to the [Page 124] sword of the Conquerour. Valerius Maximus in the relation of this Story runs high in setting Plutarch in the life of Cato-Utican. out this hyperbole of friendship, and unmatchable paterne of Roman fidelity. ¶ Allusius the Cel­ [...]iberian used this expression of thankfull humi­lity to Scipio when he had received that unex­pected favour at his Hand to have his captive be­trothed wife preserved by him, and freely deli­vered unto him; seeing it could not be compre­hended nor equalled by any recompence or Lewis de Mayern Turquet, Gen. Hist. Spain. thanks, he was held seised with joy and shame, and taking Scipio by the Right Hand, prayed all the gods to requite the great favour he had done him, seeing he found himselfe insufficient to make any satisfaction as he desired. ¶ As this gesture is a signe of honour and obsequious reve­rence. Cato Utican had his HAND KIST by his Army in especiall honour of him at his depar­ture, Scipio the conquerour of Africa received the like respect and reverence from certaine Pi­rates, who when they had intreated him they Tit. Livi. us l. 37. might presume to approach into his presence, and to have a view of his person, he let them in, and immediately they went, and worshipped the posts and pillars of his gates, as if his house had been the harbour of some sacred deitie, and ha­ving laid their gifts and presents at his threshold, ran hastily to his HANDS AND KISSED THEM; which done, overjoyed as it were with so great a hapinesse, they returned home. Delapsa Coelo sidera hominibus si sese offerent [venerationis] ampli­us non recipient, saith Valerius. This token of love Valer. Max. l. 2. and honor may be further amplified out of Livie. For when T. Quintius had vanquished King T. Livius lib. 33. Philip, and proclaimed liberty by the Beadle to [Page 125] many of the parts of Griece, as the Corinthians, Phocensions and others, there was such joy as men were not able to comprehend, at last when their joy was once confirmed by making the Beadle to cry it once againe, they set up such a shout, and followed it so with clapping of Hands, redoubling the same so often, as evidently it ap­peared, how there is no earthly good in the world more pleasing to a multitude then liberty is; and afterwards running apace unto the Ro­man Generall in such sort, that his person was in some danger of the multitude crouding so hard upon him alone to TOUCH HIS RIGHT HAND. Thus Charicles a Physitian departing from Tibe­rius Tacit. Annal. l. 6 as it had been about some businesse of his owne, under colour of duty, TAKING HIM BY THE HAND, felt the pulse of his veines. Thus also we finde Gadatas and Gobrias in Xenophon Xenoph. de inst. Cyr. l. 7. worshipping the Right Hand of Cyrus. But the most unseasonable and servile use of this expres­sion the Senatours made towards Nero; when even in the height of their griefe, the City filled Tacit. Annal. l. 15. with funeralls, the Capitoll with sacrifices, one having his brother, another his sonne put to death, or friend, or neare kindred, gave thanks to the gods, deckt their house with bayes, fell downe at the Emperours knees, and WEARIED HIS RIGHT HAND WITH KISSES. It was a strange mischance that happened to the learned Oporin [...]s of the University of Basil, going about Causia of Passion. to use this courtly expression, to whom it being given in charge to receive the famous Erasmus by offering him presents of wine in the name of the City; he was prepared for it with a brave and a long Oration, but being trained up to the [Page 126] Schooles (which hath little curiosity and quaint­nesse in complements) going about to kisse E­rasmus his Hand, full of the gout, he did it so roughly that he hurt him, and made him to cry out with paine he had put him to by his kisse, which made the good Professour lose himselfe, nor could he ever hit upon the beginning of his discourse, untill they plentifully had powred out some of the presented wine for him to drink, so to awaken his memory. ¶ In supplication this ge­sture is also significant; for it hath beene a cu­stome with all Nations in supplication to ap­peale unto the Hand of those from whom they expected aid, pressing upon it as that part whose touch was an omen of successe, tendering their requests thereto, because the power of doing doth most manifestly rest therein: whereas to touch the left hand was ever accounted an ill presaging osse. To this appertaines that of A­puleus, Juvenem quempiam &c. in medium producit, cujus diuApul. l. 2. Asini au­rei.manus deosculatus &c. miserere, ait sa­cerdos. And the same Author in another booke presents us with this examplar confirmation, Pontianus ad pedes nostros advolutus, [veniam & oblivionem praeteritorum omnium postulat] flens, & Idem in Apologia.manus nostras osculabundus. Of which kinde of supplication exhibited with reverence and outward worship, declaring the inward affection, the Roman Annales are full of examples. Thus Sophonisba the wife of Syphax taken prisoner by Masanissa, desiring that it might be lawfull for her to open her mouth, and make an humble T. Livius l. 30. speech unto him her Lord, in whose only Hands lyeth her life and death; If I may be so bold (saith she) as to touch your knees, and that vi­ctorious [Page 127] Right Hand of yours, &c. to whom when as now she HELD HIM FAST BY THE HAND, and requested his protection, he GAVE HIS RIGHT HAND for assurance to performe her request. And when Mithridates cast him­selfe at the knees of Eunones; Eunones moved Tacit. l. 12 with the nobility of the man, and the change of his fortunes, at his prayer which argued no base minde, lifted up the suppliant, and commended him that he had chosen the Adorsian nation, and his RIGHT HAND for obtaining pardon. Arche­laus Plutarch [...] in the life of Sylla. when he besought Sylla with teares in his eyes, to be contented with what the Ambassa­dours of Mithridates his master had excepted a­gainst his demands, TAKING HIM BY THE HAND, by intreaty at the end obtained of Sylla to send him unto Mithridates, promising that he would either bring him to agree to all the ar­ticles and conditions of peace that he demanded, or if he could not he would kill himselfe with his owne Hands. Thus also Nicias comming to Plutarch in the life of Marcel. Marcellus with tears in his eyes, and embracing his knees, and KISSING HIS HANDS, besought him to take pity of his poore Citizens. The Tacit. Annal. l. 1 Souldiers of Germanicus, who upon pretence of this expression in their complaints, lamentations and supplications unto him, tooke him by the Hand as it were to kisse it, thrust his fingers into their mouths, that he might feele they were toothlesse. Hecuba comming as a suppliant to Euripides Ulisses to intreat for Iphigenia, as she addrest herselfe to TOUCH HIS RIGHT HAND he HID IT, thereby cutting off all hope of pardon. To Plutarch in the life of Cato Utican. this appertaines the speech of Lucius Caesar the kinsman of Julius Caesar the Conqueror, where [Page 128] he praieth Cato to helpe him to make his oration which he should say unto Caesar in behalfe of the three hundred Merchants in Utica. And as for thee (Cato) saith he, I will KISSE HIS HANDS, and fall downe on my knees before him to in­treat him for thee. ¶ For the exemplifying this expression in the sense of faith, loyalty and sub­jection. Martin Flumee affords us an Historicall Martin Flumee in his Hun­garian Hi­story. and pregnant proofe in King John of Hungarie when with a great company of the Hungarian Nobility which he brought with him, he came to KISSE SOLYMANS HAND, and to acknow­ledge himselfe to him as his subject, and tributa­rie; who found him sitting under a canopie where he made no great countenance to move himselfe at the reverences he made, but shewing a great majesty, he GAVE HIM HIS RIGHT HAND in signe of amity which he KISSED. There is a pleasant Story agreeable to this pur­pose of Amalasuinta Queen of the Longobards, how when she after the death of the King her Luitpran. husband, being childlesse, had with great pru­dence and gravity governed the Kingdome, and was much magnified of her subjects, at the last her Nobles offered her a free power of chusing them a King out of the Nobility, whom she might make her husband, who having sent for one of her Nobles whom she preferred in her choice to the rest, and he supposing he had been sent for about som affaires of State, as soon as he saw the Queen, who was come out to meet him, he leapt from his horse and bowed himselfe to KISSE HER HAND; to whom she smiling, not my Hand, but my face, meaning that he was now no longer to be a subject, but her husband and [Page 129] King. Aurelianus sent by Clodovaeus to Clotilda, of whose vertue he was enamoured, to finde means of accesse unto her, resolved to beg almes of her, for which cause he stood at the gate of a Church among a great rable of beggars expecting the Causin Lady. Princesse to come forth; she failed not to per­forme acts of charity to all the poore according to her custome, and perceiving this man who seemed of a generous aspect in these miserable rags, felt her heart seised with extraordinary pi­ty, beholding one of so good carriage reduced to such misery, and without any further enquiry, she gave him a piece of gold. Aurelianus see­ing this Royall Hand to charitably stretched out to succour a counterfeited want, whether he were transported with joy, or whether he was desirous to make himselfe observed by some act, he lifted up the sleeve of the Princesse, which according to the fashion of Robes then worne, covered all even unto her Hands, and having bared her Right Hand KISSED it with much re­verence; She blushing, yet passing on and shew­ing no resentment, afterwards sending for him, which was the scope of his desire, who comming to the place assigned him, Clotilda beholding him, soundly chid him for his boldnesse, in lifting up the sleeve of her garment, and KISSING HER HAND: He who was a most quaint courtier found out this evasion, and said, The custome of his Countrey permitted to kisse the lips of Ladyes at salutation; but the unhappinesse of his condition abased him so low hee could not aspire to the face; behold the cause why hee contented himselfe with the Hand, it be­ing a thing very reasonable to kisse a Hand, [Page 130] which is the sourse of so many charities.

Reservati­one saluto Gestus LXII.

TO OFFER THE BACKE OF THE RIGHT HAND TO BE KISSED by others, which Plinie calls a religious ceremony used by all Na­tions,Plinie Nat Hist. lib. 11. is an expression of state used by proud and scornfull persons, who affect the garbe of great ones, and are willing to afford a sleight respect to one they thinke unworthy of a higher touch. Martiall very acutely jeers at the con­dition of such over-weening magnifico's; Martial lib. 2. Ep. 22.

Basia das aliis, aliis das posthume dextram,
Dicis, utrum mavis elige, malo manum.

Many such apes of sovereignty our times afford who arrogate to themselves more honour then either their birth or fortunes can chalenge, such may see a copy of their improper expression in Marcellinus who describing the corrupt state of Ammian. Marcel. l. 8 Rome in the dayes of Valentinian and Valens, shews how the Nobility some of them, when they began to be saluted, or greeted breast to breast, turned their heads awry when they should have been kissed, and bridling it like unto curst and fierce bulls, offered unto their flattering fa­vourites their knees or Hands to kisse, supposing that favour sufficient for them to live happily, and be made for ever. Indeed the favourites of fortune, and great Commanders of the world, with a little more reason have thought them much to wrong their majesty who in kissing presumed above their Hands. Examples of which imperious expression we have in Caligu­la, who as Dion reporteth of him was very spa­ring Dion Cass. l. 59. Caligula. of his Hand, except it were to Senatours, and to whom he offered this favour, they gave [Page 131] him publicke thanks in the Senate for it, where­as all men saw him daily allowing this favour to dancers and tumblers. And Domitian to Caenis Sueton Domit. cap. 12. his fathers concubine newly returned out of Istria, and offering to kisse his lippes, hee PUT FORTH HIS HAND. And the younger Maxi­min is noted to have used the said stately expres­sion Seldens Titles of Honours. in his demeanour towards them that came to salute him, and not to have admitted any a­bove his Hand. A piece of state that hath been as improperly usurped by the proud Prelates of the Church, who have expected the same symbol of subjection from the humble mouths of their adorers. A reserved carriage which begat envy in the people to the greatest Emperours. Where­fore Plinius in Panaegyr. ad Traja­num. Pliny comending Trajan the Emperor in for­bearing this expression of state, & condemning it in those that used it, saith, I am quo assensu senatus quo gaudio exceptus es, cum canditatis ut quem (que) no­mina veras? osculo occurres? devexus in planum, & quasi unus ex gratulantibus, te miror magis, an improbem illos, qui efficerunt ut illud magnum vide­retur, cum velut affixi curulibus suis manum tan­tum, & hanc cunctanter & pigrè, & [imputanti­bus] similes promerent? Yet in Princes whose tempers did enrich them with their peoples love, this demonstration of the Hand was held to be a note of Royall plausibility. Of this kinde of be­nigne and courteous Princes was Marcus Au­relius, as Herodian noteth, who was of so sweet a temper, and debonaire behaviour towards all men, that he would GIVE HIS HAND [ [...]] Herodian Imper. Hist. lib. 1. to every man that came to him, comman­ding his guard to keepe backe none that came unto him. The same Author speaking of the Idem l. 3. [Page 132] Emperour Severus his entrance into Rome with his Army, and noting his plausibility the next day when he came to the Senate, where he made a smooth and plausible speech, and then (saith he) he GAVE HIS HAND to all the company, where he useth the same Greeke word as before. Absolon used this popular action of his Hand, as 2 Sam. 15. 5. a bait to entice and steale away the hearts of the people from his father David: for, the text saies it was so, that when any man came nigh him to doe him obeysance, he put forth his Hand, and tooke him, and kissed him. Otho was of the same courtly complexion, and (as Tacitus Cornel. T [...]ci [...]us Hist. lib. 1. observeth) was well skilled in the facit force of this popular insinuation, very ready to STRETCH FORTH HIS HAND, and to bow himselfe to every meane person, neither did he reject any, though comming single. The huma­nity of Alexander the Great, King of Macedon, a Prince of an invincible spirit, and noble temper, Quintus Curtius lib. 10. is most renowned in Histories; who although he was weakned with the violence of a disease (a thing most incredible to be spoken or heard) raising himselfe upon his couch, PUT FORTH HIS DYING HAND to all his souldiers that would, to touch it, and holding it in that posture untill all his Army had kissed, not untill then ta­king in his wearied arme: Upon which unimi­table act of Alexander, Valerius Maximus breaks forth into a most patheticall interrogatory, Quis V [...]ler. M [...]x. lib. 5. autem manum osculari non curreret, quae jam fato oppressa maximi exercitus complexui, [humanitate] quam spiritu vividiore suffecit? Nor was the affa­bility of Cyrus King of Persia much lesse remark­able, Xenoph. [...]. Cyr. l [...]b. 8. who declaring upon his death-bed, how [Page 133] they should dispose of his body after his a, to wit, to bury it presently in the earth, and not to inclose it in any gold or silver urne; where­fore (saith he) if there be any of you, that would either touch my Right Hand, or behold my eye while I am yet alive, let them come neare; but when mine eyes are once closed, I crave of you my sonnes, that my body may be seene of no man, nor of you your selves; and having spoken these and other things, when he had given them all his Hand, he closed his eyes, and so dyed. Great Princes at this day expose not their Right Hand to be kissed, but to such whom they would welcome with some especiall grace. For when great Potentates intend to admit a friend into protection, or in their Royall goodnesse are plea­sed to re-admit some exile from their love, and would dispense with greater majesty a pardon royall for some passed offence, they use openly to offer and PRESENT THE BACKE OF THEIR RIGHT HAND, permitting them by that favour to reverence their power and high command; or the signification of that touch and honourable favour is as much as a firme signe of reconciliation and a gracious league obtained at their Hand.

Furacita­tem noto. Gestus. LXIII.

TO PUT FORTH THE LEFT HAND AS IT WERE BY STEALTH, is their significant endeavour who have an intent unséene to pur­loine and convey away something. From which fellonious action the Adage is derived, Utitur Erasm. Adag. manu sinistra, which translated, in the proverbiall sense is tooke up against cheates, and pilfering fellowes, who by a théevish sleight of Hand, [Page 134] and slie way of robbery, can bereave one of a thing unperceived; for such Mercurialists who addresse themselves to filch, and lurching closely assay under-Hand to steale a thing Hand-smooth away, doe in the cursed Handicraft of theft, out of a kinde of cunning choice imploy the left hand, which is the hand that lyes more out of sight, and is farre lesse observed then the Right Hand is. A Hand which if it once grow dexte­rious by habituall theeving, will not be left; for if it once affect to keep it selfe in ure, it turnes to an incurable felon. And it may be worth our inquiry why the Law doth so expressely order theft to be punished in this Hand, for that the See the Statut. brawn of the left thumbe is branded in malefa­ctors, a kinde of penall pardon for the first trans­gression. And if it may be lawful to divine of the legality of this law-checke, I should thinke that there lyes some concealed symboll in the device, and that the estates assembled had regard to the fellonious procacity and craft of this guilefull Hand, which is prone by a slie insinuation with more subtile secrecie to present it selfe to any si­nister intention, & doth no sooner move to such actions, but every finger proves a limetwig; which the ancient Aegyptians implied in their way of Hieroglyphique when they figured fura­city Pier. in Hierogl. lib. 35. or theft by a light fingured left hand put forth as it were by stealth. To open and unfold the subtile and occult conceptions of antiquity about the nature and disposition of the left hand, and to collect what hath been noted touching the sinister inclinations of this hand, whereby its naturall properties have propagated them­selves, and by action insensibly spread into the [Page 135] manners and customes of men. First, it is the noted property of the left hand to be coverd, and to keep as it were a recluse in the bosome, or to be carried wrapped up in a cloake, lurking close­ly and lying as it were in ambuscado to entrap, and by a crafty fetch imperceptibely to make a prize of all that comes to Hand. Whence the Greeks from whom the facetiousnesse of man­ners and elegancie of learning (as some thinke) were first derived, signifie as much, who will therefore have the left hand named [...] Hesychius lavam manum, because for the most part [...], tegi & occultari soleat, whereup­on this hand being more idle, for idlenesse is a maine cause of theft, it is consequently more prone to this manuall transgression. This light­fingered hand being called by Isidor, Laeva quod Isidor. aptior sit ad levandum, to wit, to beguile, elude, lessen and diminish anothers goods. And Theo­critus Theocri­tus in cha­ritibus. following herein the opinion of antiquity, having noted the particular quality and behavi­our of this hand, and the private vice to which it is propense, concludes from the pitchy temper thereof, that the left hand signifies the captivity of unlawfull desire and rapacity; so that it hath for this cause been consecrated to Laverna the goddesse of theeves, as being by reason of its wily genius more fit and convenient for cousen­age and clandestine theevery; for being com­monly hid and involved in the bosome of a gown or cloake and waiting in obscurity, it comes to passe for the most part (men suspecting no such thing) that doing nothing and devoted to rest, yet being at liberty and ready to handle, it will be doing, and somewhat of other mens suffers [Page 136] for it, while this purloining hand thinkes it selfe the proprietary of anothers goods. Hence that elegant recorder of the ancient fictions, with a Poeticall touch of his pen, sets a glosse upon this businesse thus,

—Natae (que) ad furta sinistrae.

And that quaint Comoedian long before him Ovid. l. 13 Metamor. Plautus. pointing out as it were with his finger the ge­nuine deceitfulnesse of this hand, called it, Fur­tificam laevam, the close and cunning pilferer: And Euphormio alluding to the same properties of this hand, saith, Turgentes occulos furtiva ma­nu Euphor. Satyr. 1. exfrico. And (indeed) laeva or sinistra ac­cording to the ancient manner of speaking used with the Ancients, notes one to be a thiefe. Hadrian Card. de Serm. La­tino. That subtill knave Asinius who was experienced in the crafty handling of things, and drawing them to his owne private advantage, used this hand as least suspected, when he had watched an opportunity at a feast to steale away some of the linnen; against whom Catullus in his stinging Catullus Epigr. 12. stile slings these words out of his crisped pen:

Maruccine Asini manu sinistra,
Non belle uteris, sed in ioco at (que) vino
Tollis lintea negligentiorum.

Hence also when Sophiclodisca the baud in Plau­tus, Plautus Persa Act. 2. Sc. 2. upon suspition of felony demanded to see the Hand of Paeginum, and the lad like a crafty wag had put forth his Right Hand; she replied to him, ubi illa altera furtisica laeva, where is that other close and cunning pilferer the left hand. Auto­licus was expert in the slie feats of this hand, of whom Martial, Martial Epigr.

Non erat Autolici tam piceata manus.

And we read in Catullus of Porcius and Socratio, Catullus. [Page 137] duae sinistrae Pisonis the two left hands of Piso, that is instruments of his by whose private convey­ance he received bribes; for although in regard, of their imployments under him, they might be said to be his Right Hands, yet in this sense of bri­bery, and close conveyance they were properly called his left hands. The Aegyptians in Hiero­glyphique Pier. Hie­roglyph. lib. 35. painted justice by an open left hand, as the colder, weaker and slower hand, and therefore lesse prone or able to apply it selfe to offer or doe any injury. But it is better for the Common-wealth that Judges should be without Hands, as the Theban Statues of Judges were, Idem. then in this sense to have a left hand.

Benedico. Gestua LXIV.

THE IMPOSITION OF THE HAND, is a na­turall gesture significantly used in condem­nation, absolution, pardon and forgivenesse, be­nediction, adoption, initiation, confirmation, con­secration, ordination, sanation, and in gracing our meales. That this gesture is of importance in condemnation is apparent by the commands of the old Law in case of temptation to Ethnicisme Deut. 13. 9. 17. 7. and practicall Idolatry. So when the sonne of Shelomith the daughter of Dibri of the tribe of Dan which she had by an Aegyptian) had blasphemed, the Lord by the hand of Moses Levit. 24. 14. commanded him to be brought forth without the campe, and all that heard him were to LAY HIS HAND ON HIS HEAD. And the laying of the Hand on the sacrifices head that was condem­ned Levit. 1. 4. 8. 22. 2 Chron. 29. 23. in the offerers stead, so often commanded in the Leviticall Law, points to the signification of this gesture. ¶ In absolution, pardon and for­givenesse, notwithstanding the identity of ge­sture, [Page 138] there is a proper contrariety of expression, and this seems to be a naturall and paraphrasti­call gesture, very sutable to that petition in the Lords prayer, Forgive us our trespasses, AS we forgive them their trespasses against us. For, AS Nature teacheth us to raise our Hands to beg par­don and forgivenesse at the Hand of God; so she likewise moves us to the same expression of ge­sture, as most proper and significant to seale our pardons to others; implying, that who forgives shall be forgiven; and neither Nature nor Grace doth move us to aske pardon on any other terms. The phrase of this gesture is significantly tooke into the formes of the Civill Law; and hath been practised in Ecclesiasticall absolution. Parisiensis for this reason would have it a sacrament, because Ulpian Pand. l. 42 [...]it. de re judic. Guliel. Paris de Sac. Po [...]n. it hath a sacring and sanctifying signe, to wit, a sign having a naturall resemblance with inward sanctification it self, which is the Hand. To this gesture as it is cunningly made an Appenage to the Papall policie of auricular confession, I have nothing to say, only I finde that the ancient form of absolution was to hold both the Hands con­joyned Francis-Coriol. de Sacr. poen. over the parties head which was to be absolved; which may be also exhibited by one Hand laid in sequence of the other; or both con­joyned and held above the head, so appearing in the aire without any residence at all upon the head. The manner of performance at this day (it seems) is, to lay on both the extended Hands upon the head, so that they touch the crowne, and rest and settle downe thereon. ¶ As this gesture is significant in benediction, it was used by Isaac upon his death-bed when he blessed his sonne Jacob who supplanted Esau of his blessing Gen. 27. 4 [Page 139] by counterfeiting the rough Hands of his elder brother: And thus Jacob about to dye blessed his twelve sonnes, every one of them with a seve­rall Gen. 40. 28. blessing. Our Blessed Saviour who with the sacred gestures of his Hand, hath sanctified the expressions of ours, and made them a holy lan­guage, was often seen to use this expression of the Hand: whence the Church commenting up­on his action, saith, He by his outward gesture Matth. 10. 13. and deed declared his good will to little chil­dren, in that He embraced them in His Armes. LAID HIS HANDS UPON THEM and blessed them. And the very last expression that flowed from His sacred Hand was blessing: for at the time of His ascention He LIFTED UP HIS HANDS and blessed His Apostles, and while Luke 24. [...]0. they beheld Him in this posture blessing them, He departed bodily from them ascending up in­to Heaven. Hence in all tacit posies of His as­cention, this figure of the sacred property of His Hand is most emphatically significant. ¶ That in conferring the blessings of primogeniture and adoption, this gesture of the Right Hand is more peculiarly significant, is excellently illustrated by the adoption of Ephraim unto the birthright of Manasseth by Jacob when he blessed Joseph sons: Gen. 48. 8. For, Joseph bringing his sonnes to be blessed of his father, tooke Ephraim in his Right Hand to­wards Israels left hand; and Manasses in his left hand, towards Israels Right Hand, so he brought them unto him: But Israel STRETCHED OUT HIS RIGHT HAND, and laid it on Ephraims head which was the younger, and his left hand upon Manasses head (directing his Hands on purpose) for Manasses was the elder. But when Joseph saw [Page 140] that his father laid his Right Hand on the head of Ephraim, it displeased him, and he staid his fa­thers Hand to remove it from Ephraims head to Manasses head. And Joseph said unto his fa­ther, not so my father, for this is the eldest, put thy Right Hand upon his head: But his father re­fused and said, I know well my sonne, I know well; he shall be also a people, and shall be great likewise: But his younger brother shall be greater then he, and his seed shall be full of Nations: So he blessed them that day, and said, In thee Israel shall blesse and say, God make thee as Ephraim and Manasseth: And he set E­phraim before Manasseth. For the Historicall Tiraquel. de jure primog. Dr. F. of the Ch. l. 5. cap. 2. Pererius in Gen. sense of this expression, see Tiraquel and Dr. Field. Pererius, Rupertus, and Isidorus affirme, that in a mysticall sense this cancelling or crossing of the Patriarchs Hands in exhibiting his blessing and transferring the right of primogeniture to the younger, was representatively done to prefigure a mystery of the calling of the Gentiles, and the preferring of them before the Jewes: and that this was the first type or prefiguration of the manner of the promised Messiahs passion in the decreed way of redemption. ¶ The same ge­sture we use in gracing our meals, an expression very proper and significant: For, the Hands re­verently erected, without any other forme of speech annexed, seem naturally to pronounce this Grace.

O Thou supreame Power, the giver of all good things, who openest with thy Hand, and fil­lest every living thing with thy blessings, vouch­safe, O Lord, benedicendo, benedicere, to let thy [Page 141] Right Hand blesse, sanctifie, and confirme unto us the blessings of thy left.

And it is a brand of prophane unmannerlines in the rough Hand of Esau that he was readier to strike Hand with a chapman to sell Gods bles­sing for his meat, then with his Hand to invite it to his meate. Whereas our Blessed Saviour thought blessing (bid by this reverend invitation of the Hand) a considerable guest at a feast, who to shew that man liveth not by bread only, upon all such occasions used the signification of this gesture. Thus He blessed the five loaves and Mark. 6. 41. two fishes wherewith he wrought his feeding miracle. And from this Chireulogia or act of blessing and giving thanks the Sacrament used at His last supper, is called the Eucharist. And in the tearmes and stile of School-men or natu­rall Divines to speake to the fundamentall point of this gesture now in Hand. The Hands and Blessing seem to be conjugates in the Schoole both of Nature and Grace. Benediction being a naturall rite neare allied unto the Hand, and of spirituall affinity with prayer. For, Religion and Grace disa [...] not the powers of naturall expressions, but advance them to a full and pu­rer perfection, improving the corporeall sense of those manifestations to a more spirituall and san­ctified signification. That inexhaustible foun­taine (therefore) of Blessing, our Blessed Savi­our having ordained himselfe a Hand, and ha­ving taken upon Him the corporeall nature of man was constantly pleased to honour the nature He had so taken, and to enforce by the precept and authority of His owne example, the signifi­cant [Page 142] convenience, religious use and decent im­portance of this property of blessing annexed to the Hand. ¶ In consecration this gesture hath the like congruity of signification; for there was never any thing by the expresse command of any legislator to be hallowed by a dedication, but the Hand was called to, and injoyned to at­tend as a proper addition to confirm and sanctifie all other rites; not that there is any inherent holi­nesse in the Hand, or solemne forme of expressi­on, but an adherent only. The very heathens have acknowledged a significant vertue in this expres­sion of the Hand; for we read that Numa was Plutarch in the life of Numa. consecrated upon mount Tarpeian by the chiefe of the southsayers, called Augures, laying his Right Hand upon his head; a piece of superstiti­ous apishnesse they learned from the grand spiri­tuall Impostor. Moses a man skilfull in all the lear­ning of the Aegyptians, among which some se­crets of our Chirosophie were judiciously vey­led; by inspiration commanded the Right Hand of the high Priest, to wit, the thumbe thereof, or vice-hand to be hallowed with the oyle in his left palme, from thence called the Holy Finger, Godwyn Jewish Antiq. (a forme also observed in the Inauguration of Kings.) And the finger was used in all dippings and sprinklings of the Leviticall Law. The ground and foundation of this typicall expressi­on Levit. 4. 6. 17. 25. 30. 34. 16. 14. 9. 9. seems to be laid in nature; for, the Hand is conceived to be as it were a shadow or image of the Trinity; for the arme that proceeds from the body, doth represent the second Person who proceeds from the Eternall Father, who is as it were the body and spring of the Trinity, and the fingers which flow both from the body and [Page 143] the arme, doe represent the Holy Ghost, who proceeds both from the Father and the Sonne. Hence Hierom upon the passage of Isaiah, To whom is the Arme of the Lord revealed, saies that the Arme of the Lord is mystically the Son Hier. in Isaiah. 53. 1. proceeding from the Father: To which some refer that of the Psalmist, He made strong his Arme. And the arme shadowes out the second Person in the Trinity in these respects; in coes­sentiality Stump. Alleg. post part. vernal. with the body coevallity, Ability, Utility, Agility and Flexibility. The fingers give an umbrage of the Holy Spirit in regard of their procession proceeding from the Arm and Hand, operation, the body working by the Hand and fingers, conjunction, taction, ostention, asper­tion, Idem part Citata distinction of joynts, equall numeration, &c. Hence the Finger of God in Scripture signifies the Holy Spirit, If in the Finger of God I cast out divells; but then the word Finger must be Gouschel. lib. 3. eloc. sacr. Scrip. in the singular number, for in the plurall it hath other senses. ¶ It is also their gesture who would solemnly confer some spirituall or tempo­rall honour upon some person. This in the sacred language of Scripture is Chirothesia, and is a ma­triculating gesture, and the formall preposition proper to those who are to be openly installed or inaugurate in some new place of duty or of command; all creations relying on the honora­rie touch of the giving Hand, as the enduing en­signe that by evidence ensures the priviledges of investiture. And this manuall expression is so naturally important, that it proves in honorarie initiations, a fitter vestment to cloath the intenti­on in, then the airy texture of words; for it hath ever had a sacred efficacy to move the under­standing [Page 144] by the sense, and to facilitate the over­ture of sacred affaires, as being of good note and consequence conducing and inviting to the knowledge of things abstruce, there being no other part of man that can so lively and empha­tically present by gesture the solemne images of [...]is intention, since by the motion of the Hand there is wrought in the minde of the beholder something that is, ex congru [...], significant unto a thought, as that which suggests more unto the minde, then what is expressed unto the outer sense; for it hath more sollidity and weight then appeares in the bare [...] relation: And all gestures of the Hand being known to be of their very nature signs of imitation; the mystique pro­perty & close intention of this gesture is not alone to represent it self, but to conduct and insinuate something else into the thought, which being (as it must ever be) an intelligible notion, as it is a signe or token it falls short and abates of the perfection of the thing that is implied by its out­ward signification: wherefore a Hand is but im­properly said to be the shadow of its counterfeit, which is wrought by a pencill in imitation of the life, although upon sight thereof we know and conclude it to have the semblance of a Hand, & to be a draught or copy of the originall: so this gesture is but a manuall vision of the mind most conformable to expresse divine notions, which else would lose much of their lustre, and remaine invisible to the conceit of man. This forme of expression in ordination as it is agree­able to the canon of Nature, so it hath received confirmation by the Hand of God since it first appeared in the Hand of the Patriarchs, the first [Page 145] dispensers of personall benediction, who used it to betoken the restrained intention of their votes unto them on whom they conferred their blessings: For we finde Moses by command Numb. 27. 18. PUTTING HIS HAND UPON Joshua the sonne of Nun to appoint him governour, who is said to be full of the Spirit, for Moses had LAID Deut. 34. 9 HIS HANDS UPON him. And when Moses and Joshua had prayed, and LAID THEIR HANDS ON the seventy Elders, the Holy Spirit came up­on them. In choosing of Deacons this gesture Acts 6. 6. was used by the Apostles. And in the separati­on of Barnabas and Saul to be the Apostles of the Gentiles, this gesture is againe used. And Timothy is put in minde by St. Paul of the gift Act. 13. 3. 2 Tim. 1. 6 1 Tim. 4. 14. he received by this IMPOSITION OF HANDS: for not only the office but the ability were to­gether conferred upon many by this gesture, of which acquist we must not conceive the solemne gesture to be a naturall, but a morall cause, as be­ing the true manner & form of impetration, God assenting, and by successe crowning the prayers of religious Hands; and shewed that what they did was by prayer and blessing in his name, they being, indeed, Gods Hands by which he rea­cheth Counsell and Religion, which as through their Hands are conveyed unto men, Christ ha­ving promised to open and shut them, to stretch them out and draw them in, as the Hand of man is guided by the spirit that is in man. This Chi­rothesia vel Chirotonia (for both occur in the new Testament) is used as an Ecclesiasticall gesture at this day in token of elevation or ordination, ele­ction, and separation. And [...] est quasi [...], id est Bellarm. de contr. l. Tom. 2.manus tendo seu attollo in signum [Page 146] [suffragii.] To which appertains that cautionary symboll of St. Paul, Lay the Hand suddenly on no man; which Interpreters expound of the care that is to be used that none should be admitted into roomes of divine calling, but such who are called and are fit, Tam doctrina quam moribus: For no man can lay the Hand upon himselfe and be as Basil tearmes it, [...], his own or­deiner; for that is parallel unto the crime of Jeroboam who filled his owne Hand; that is, 1 King. 13 ordained himselfe. ¶ To the signification and externall effects of IMPOSITION OF HANDS in confirmation, Tertullian elegantly, Caro * manus impositione adumbratur, ut & anima spiritu illumi­netur. ¶ In sanation or conferring a corporall be­nefit on any, IMPOSITION OF HANDS is ve­ry naturall, significant and agreeable to the my­sterious intention; for, the Hand is the generall salve that is applied, and applies all remedies; for naturally ubi dolor, ibi digitus, and necessarily in point of topicall application, whose very ap­proach doth most sensibly import reliefe and ease. Our Blessed Saviour the great Physitian of soule and body, who did most of his miracles for restauration of bodily health, though he were the truth and substance, who gave an end to all legall shadowes, yet he most commonly used the shadow of this naturall gesture to the more visible and significant application of his miraculous cures. He gave sight to the blinde, yet not without touching the eye: Hearing to the deafe, not without thrusting his Finger into the eare; and speech to the dumbe, yet not with­out wetting the tongue, most with this gesture of IMPOSITION. Thus by TOUCHING Simons Ma. 8. 15 [Page 147] wifes mothers Hand He cured her of her feaver. Thus by PUTTING FORTH HIS HAND, AND TOUCHING the leper, He healed him of his leprosie. Thus by LAYING HANDS on the wo­man Mark 1. 4 [...]. that was troubled with a spirit of infirmity, he loosed her from her dise [...]se, and made streight Luke 131 13. her bowed body. And it is said of Him that he could doe no great workes in his owne Coun­trey by reason of their unbeleefe, save that HE LAID HIS HANDS UPON a few sicke folkes, and healed them. And (indeed) their sutes that Mark 6. 5 [...] came unto him for helpe, were commonly ten­dered and expressed in such formes of speech as shewed that he much used this significant ex­pression of gesture. For, although as Fonseca truly Fonseca. observes, the flesh of our Saviour, for that it was the flesh of God, gave life and health to all that touched it, for a certain vertue went out from all parts of Him, and cured all men, (as the woman that had the issue of bloud experimentally found) yet He was pleased (so to honor the Hand) to use his Hand in the conveyance and application of that curative vertue, as that which in nature is the most important & significant member of the body: he could have said the word only and it had been done, but he would speak reliefe with his Hand. Thus Jairus besought him to come and LAY Luke 8. 41 THE HANDS UPON his sicke daughter that she might be healed and live: And they who brought the deafe and stammering man unto Him, be­sought Marke 7. 30. ver. 33 Luke 8. 54. See Hook, in Eccles. polit. Him to PUT HIS HAND UPON him, whose requests were graciously answered in this desired and his accustomed formeof ex­pression with his healing Hand. And Exposi­tors agree that they required no expression of [Page 148] pity from our Saviours Hands then what they had observed him to use, thereby attributing un­to him the honour and right of the chiefe Pro­phet: For it was an expression used by the anci­ent Prophets as a holy charme against bodily in­firmities: And of the practice of this gesture at­tended with a visible successe, the Heathens were not ignorant, apparent by the speech of Naaman who was halfe wroth with Elisha for 1 Kings 5. 21. omitting this expression or pledge of health, for the thought with himselfe that the Prophet would have come out and stood, and called upon the name of the Lord his God, and PUT HIS HAND UPON the place and heale the lepro­sie. After the ascention of our Saviour, his pro­mise Mark 16. 17. was fulfilled, that they should LAY THEIR HANDS ON the sicke, and they should be cured. Thus Paul received his sight by the LAYING Act. 9. 17. ON OF Ananias Hands. And thus Paul healed the father of Publius Governour of the Islle of Acts 28. Melita, now Malta. Thus Peter TAKING the Cripple that sat at the gate of the Temple called Beautifull BY THE RIGHT HAND, recovered Act. 3. 7. him of his lamenesse. But of all the curetorie mi­racles wrought by the vertue of this expression of the Apostles, the casting out of Divells, and freeing the possessed, most astonished the people, especially after those sons of one Sceva (a Jewish exorcist) had took in Hand to counterfeit that Acts 19. 13. powerfull gift by an unwarrantable imitation, and were soundly beaten for their apish and vain attempt: After the Apostles times, the exorcists (an order in the Primitive Church) used this cura­torie Dr. Field of the Church l. 5. adjunct in commending those to God who were disquieted with Divells. ¶ The curative [Page 149] adjunct with a tangit te Rex sana te Deus is used in the conveyance of that Charisme or miraculous See Dr. Tookers Charisma, seu Donū sanationis gift of healing, which derived from the infancie of the Church the inaugured Monarchs of this Land so happily enjoy: In which expression of their sanative vertue they not only surpasse the fabulous cures of Pyrrhus or Vespasian, of which Plinie and others make mention, but the pre­tended Plinie Nat. Hist. vertues of other Christian Monarchs. And indeed it is a maxime Ecclesiasticke, that no miracle is wrought out of the Church. And this miraculous imposition of the Hand in curing the disease called the Struma, which from the constant effect of that Sovereigne Salve, is cal­led the Kings Evill. His sacred Majesty that now is hath practised with as good successe as any of His Royall Progenitours.

An Index of reference to the following Table, or Alphabet of naturall expressions.Which Gestures, besides their typicall signi­fications, are so ordered to serve for privy cyphers for any secret intimation.
  • A Figures out the I Gesture.
  • B Figures out the II Gest.
  • C Figures out the III Gest.
  • D Figures out the IV Gest.
  • E Figures out the V Gest.
  • F Figures out the VI Gest.
  • G Figures out the VII Gest.
  • H Figures out the VIII Gest.
  • I Figures out the IX Gest.
  • K Figures out the X Gest.
  • L Figures out the XI Gest.
  • M Figures out the XII Gest.
  • N Figures out the XIII Gest.
  • O Figures out the XIV Gest.
  • P Figures out the XV Gest.
  • Q Figures out the XVI Gest.
  • R Figures out the XVII Gest.
  • S Figures out the XVIII Gest.
  • T Figures out the XIX Gest.
  • V Figures out the XX Gest.
  • W Figures out the XXI Gest.
  • X Figures out the XXII Gest.
  • Y Figures out the XXIII Gest.
  • Z Figures out the XXIV Gest.

The necessary defect of these Chirograms in point of motion and percussion, which Art cannot expresse, must be supplied with imagi­nation, and a topicall reference to the order and number of their Gestures.


A Supplico.
B Oro.
C Ploro.
D Admiror.
E Applaudo.
F Indignor.
G Explodo.
H Despero.
I Otio indulgeo.
K Tristitiā animi signo.
L Innocentiā ostendo.
M Lucri apprehensionē plaudo.
N Libertatem resigno.
O Protego.
P Triumpho.
Q Silentium postulo.
R Iuro.
S Assevero.
T Suffrago.
V Respuo.
W Invitoo.
X Dimittoo.
Y Minor.
Z Mendico.
An Index to the following Al­phabet of naturall Gestures of the HAND. Which Gestures, besides their typicall signi­fications, are so ordered to serve for privy cyphers for any secret intimation.
  • A Figures out the XXV Gesture.
  • B Figures out the XXVI Gest.
  • C Figures out the XXVIII Gest.
  • D Figures out the XXXIII Gest.
  • E Figures out the XXXIV Gest.
  • F Figures out the XXXV Gest.
  • G Figures out the XLII Gest.
  • H Figures out the XLIII Gest.
  • I Figures out the XLV Gest.
  • K Figures out the XLVI Gest.
  • L Figures out the XLVII Gest.
  • M Figures out the XLVIII Gest.
  • N Figures out the XLIX Gest.
  • O Figures out the L Gest.
  • P Figures out the LII Gest.
  • Q Figures out the LIII Gest.
  • R Figures out the LV Gest.
  • S Figures out the LVI Gest.
  • T Figures out the LVII Gest.
  • V Figures out the LIX Gest.
  • W Figures out the LX Gest.
  • X Figures out the LXI Gest.
  • Y Figures out the LXII Gest.
  • Z Figures out the LXIII Gest.


A. Munero.
B. Auxilium fero.
C. Irascor.
D. Demonstro non habere.
E. Castigo.
F. Pugno.
G. Confido.
H. Impedio.
I. Recommendo.
K. Officiosè duco.
L. Impatientiā prodo.
M. Sollicitè cogito
N. Pudet.
O. Adoro.
P. Conscientèr affirmo.
Q. Penitentiā ostendo.
R. Indig­natione timeo.
S. Data fide promitto.
T. Reconcileo.
U. Suspicionē et odiū noto.
W. Honoro.
X. Reservatione saluto.
Y. Furacitatem noto.
Z. Benedico.


THe Hand the great Artificer and active Contriver of most corpo­rall conceits, receiving good intelligence of the patheticall motions of the minde, proves a Summarie or Index, wherein the speaking habits thereof significantly appear, re­presenting in their appearance the present posture of the phansie. And as we can translate a thought into discoursing signes; so the conceptions of our minde are seen to abound in severall Dialects while the articulated Fingers supply the office of a voyce.

A COROLLARIE OF THE Discoursing gesture of the Fingers. WITH AN Historicall Manifesto, exempli­fying their naturall significations.

Inventio­ne laboro. Gestus I.

THE FINGER IN THE MOUTH GNAWN AND SUCKT, is a ge­sture of serious and déep medita­tion, repentance, envy, anger, and threatned revenge. The signification of inventive medi­tation, Poets the most accurate observers of Na­ture, have elegantly acknowledged. Thus Pro­pertius in the emendation of a verse:

Et saepe
Propert. l. 2. eleg.
immeritos corrumpas dentibus ungues.

Thus Persius of an ill verse:

Nec Pluteum caedit nec
Pers. Sat. 5.
demorsos sapit ungues.

And Horace of the sweating and sollicitous Poet.

Saepe caput scaberet,
Satyr. 10.
vivos & roderet ungues:

who in another place describing the earnest po­sture of Canidia, brings her in gnawing her long Idem Epod. 5. nailes:

[Page 159]
Hic inresectum saeva dente livido
Canidia rodens pollicem.

Inresectum aiunt, valde sectum, aut non resectum, id enim venificae magis convenit, longos curvos (que) ge­stare ungues quos incantationes suas [meditando]Torrenti­us in Hor.arrodant, quod [summam animi attentionem] de­monstrat: As Torrentius upon the place. And to this signification belongs that of the same Poet:

De tener [...] [meditetur] ungui.

And therefore in the Areopagetique School and Councel-house, they painted among others, Cleanthes for the signification of his earnest study in Arithmeticke and Geometrie, with HIS FIN­GERS GNAWN about, as Sydonius Apollinaris reports.Syndon. Apol. l. 9. epist. 9. Goropius very witily fetcheth the rea­son of this gesture from the Etimologie of the word Finger thus: Digiti manus significant inve­niendi desiderium, nam in prima lingua dicun­tur Vinger, qua vox denotat [invenire desidero] nam omis inveniendi facultas numeratione absolvitur, & ad numerandi artem digiti maxime sunt compa­rati, numeros enim omnes digitis indicamus; quo fit ut merito nomen habent ab inveniendi desiderio. Goropius in Hierog. ¶ To the signification of repentance, Propertius alludes:Propert. l. 3. eleg.

Ungue meam morso saepe querere fidem.

To the intention of envy, that of Martial is referred:

Ecce iterum
Martial. l. 4. epig. 27
nigros corrodit [lividus] ungues.

Id est pro [invidia anxius] * corrodit ungues nigros: As Ramirez upon the place. ¶ This gesture is al­so a wilde expression of fierce anger and cruell revenge, as Aristotle advertiseth us, who when he had reckoned up those actions which are Arist. l. 7. Ethic. c. 6. done by reason of some disease or evill custome, [Page 160] he puts downe this arrosion of the nailes, which the Interpreters of that place declare to be the As Zui [...] ­ger in Eth. Arist. property of men inraged with choler, and silently threatning revenge. And the Italians, a revenge­full Nation, doe most usually declare by this ge­sture their gréedy coveting to be at Hand with revenge; and therefore that awfull Satyrist of the angry Potet:

—Crudum chaerestratus unguem
Perseus Satyr. 5.
Abrodens ait haec—

So they report of Orestes raging and transported with the furious appetite of revenge to have BITTEN HIS FINGER in Arcadia, where a Pausanias monument representing that expression of anger was built, as Pausanias hath left it recorded to posterity. And the masters of the Hierogly­phiques Pierius in Hieroglyp l. 37. pourtray out this gesture to the same significations: And if we see one BITE HIS THUMBE at us we soone infer he meanes us no good.

Fleo. Gest. II.

TO PUT FINGER IN THE EYE, is their ex­pression who crie, and would by that en­deavour of nature ease themselves and give vent to their conceived heavinesse. The reason of PUTTING FINGER IN THE EYE IN WEE­PING, is, because teares falling from the EYE, with their saltnesse procureth a kinde of itching about the carnell of teares, which requireth aid of the Finger to be expressed at their first fall: afterward the parts affected with that quality, and one teare drawing on another, such expres­sion is not so necessary. Besides this cause of rubbing the WEEPING EYE, a strange matter therein requireth wiping, which also moveth [Page 161] the Finger to haste to the EYE watered with teares; but this is after a while, the other almost before any teare fall, as though they were ex­pressed with rubbing. Thus Moagetes the Ty­rant of Cibyra, when he was greatly affrighted at the minatory words of the Roman Consul, Cn. Livie l. 38 Manlius, imposing the sum of five hundred talents in ready money to be laid down upon the naile, counterfeiting and pretending his needinesse, after much base huckling, and rising by little and little, one while hasting and wrankling, another while praying and intreating (and that with whining and PUTTING FINGER IN THE EYE) he was fetcht over at length, and came off to pay a good 100. talents of silver, and deliver ten medimnes of corne besides.

Approbo. Gest. III.

TO HOLD UP THE THUMBE, is the gesture of one giving his voice or suffrage, of one that helpeth with his word at the time of election, and of one shewing his assent or approbation as Flavius Vopiscus writeth. The putting forth of Flavius Vopiscus. the Finger also signifies an allowance of opinion, advice and judgement of others wisely uttered in our presence.

Extollo. Gest. IV.

TO HOLD UP BOTH THE THUMBS, is an ex­pression importing a transcendency of praise. Hence Horace Horace Serm.Utro (que) pollice, dixit, pro [summo favore.]

Horace Serm.
utro (que) tuam [laudabit] pollice ludum:

Of which proverbiall speech, Porphyrius conceit runs thus: Utro (que) pollice, id est, utra (que) manu, sy­nechdoche à parte ad totum. An qui [vehementius laudat] * manus jungens,Erasm, Adage.jungit pollicem cum proxi­mo? [Page 162] Acron another way Erasm, Adage. Utro (que) pollice, synech­doche, manu utra (que) sublata (que) pariter, ac saepius mota, hic enim gestus valde laudantis est: Sane utra (que) sicut ex iis concijci licet, proverbij origofuit, inquit E­rasmus.

Collate­raliter monstro. Gestus V.

TO POINT WITH THE TURNED OUT THUMBE is a note of demonstration; for as by divers gestures of the Thumbe wee fignifie the various motions of our minde, so by the same we are wont to point out, and shew those wee love, and such who deserve our commendations by PUTTING FORTH THIS FINGER, making it many times to usurpe the office of the Index, as may be collected out of Claudian: Claud. de 6. Hon. Consulat.

—Gaudet metuens & pollice [monstrat.]

Indico. Gest. VI.

THE FORE-FINGER PUT FORTH, THE REST CONTRACTED TO A FIST, is an expresse of command and direction; a gesture of the Hand most demonstrative. This Finger being Beckman de orig. lat. ling. called Index ab indicando, Deicticos by the Greeks, id est Demonstrator. Hinc [indigitare] verbum pro re satis idoneum, hoc est digito ostendere, vel digitum intendere: And hence some of the Heathen gods were called Dii indigiti, because it was un­lawfull to name them, or point them out as it Festus. were with this Finger. The force of this Finger in pointing out men of note and quality, Poets and Historians the accurate observers of the na­turall expressions of the Fingers, doe every where acknowledge in their writings, alluding thereunto. Thus the sinewie Epigrammatist:

Rumpitur invidia quod turba semper ab omni
[Page 163] [Monstramur]
Martial Epigram.

Thus Horace:

Quod [monstror] * digito praeteriuntium.

Thus the Schoole-Amorist:

Saepe aliquis
Ovid A­mor. l. 3.
digito vatem [designat] euntem
At (que) ait, hic hic est quem ferus urit amor.

Thus that obscure Satyrist:

At pulchrum est
Perseus Satyr. 1.
digito [monstrari] dicier hic est:

Where the Satyrist (as Lubentius comments upon the place) taking an argument from the adjunct, seems to have respect unto the History of De­mosthenes which Cicero toucheth at, who was Cicero [...]u [...]c. 5. much affected with the mute encomium of this Finger, directed towards him by certaine wo­men that were drawing water, and saying this is Demosthenes; yet this is the same man Diogenes the Cinique pointed out in way of derision, not with the Index, but the middle Finger. To pa­rallel Laert. l. 6. this with another example drawne out of Historicall antiquity. The first time that The­mistocles Plutarch in the life of The­m [...]stocles. came to the Olympique games, after the victory obtained over Xerxes navie at Sea, he was no sooner come into the shew-place, but the people looked no more at them that fought, but all cast their eyes on him, shewing him unto the strangers that knew him not, with their Fingers, and by clapping of their Hands, did witnesse how much they esteemed him; who being a man am­bitious by nature, and covetous of honour, was so much tickled with this publick demonstration of their loves, that he confessed to his familiar friends, he then did begin to reap the fruit and benefit of his sundry and painfull services he had taken for the preservation of Greece. The natu­rall validity of this indigitation of persons, and [Page 164] pronominall vertue of this Finger, when accen­tively put forth, appeared in the malipert demon­stration of Diphilus the Tragedian, when he a­cted Cicero ad Attic. l. 2. Epist. 19. in the Playes dedicated to the praise of A­pollo, who when he came to that verse in his part, Miseria nostra Magnus est, directing his Hand and pointing to Pompey sirnamed the Great, he gave it a remarkable pronunciation; and being con­strained by the people who with their Hands loud applause encouraged him) to repeat the same divers times; continuing in that demonstrat [...]ve gesture, he drove out him that was guilty of too great and intollerable a power. But Pylades for such Suetonius Augusto. a speaking pranke of his Finger, came not off so well; for, Octavius Augustus Caesar banished him out of the City of Rome and Italy, because he had POINTED WITH HIS FINGER at a spe­ctatour who hissed him of the Stage, and so made him to be known. The valiant Boucicaut instead of speech used such a POINT OF DECLARA­TION with his Finger, and as it is likely shewing some other of his Fingers afterwards to signifie that he was a kin to him he pointed at, as the Fingers of his Hand which are brethren. For in that furious battell that Bajazet the Turkish Em­perour waged against the King of Hungarie, Causin Soldier. where there were many French-men, and the Count of Nevers, the Count of Ewe and March, and the valiant Marshall Boucicaut, who the next day being brought before Bajazet sitting under a pavilion spread for him in the field; Ba­jazet having heard by his Interpretour that the Count Nevers, Ewe and March, were neare kinsmen to the King of France, caused them to be reserved, commanding they should sit on the [Page 165] ground at his feet, where they were inforced to behold the lamentable but cherie of their Nobili­ty. The valiant Marshall Boucicaut in his turne was produced; he who was wise, and particularly inspired by God in this extremity, made a signe with his Finger before Bajazet, who understood not his language, as if he would declare himselfe the kinsman of the Count of Nevers, who beheld him with an eye so pitifull, that it was of power to rent rocky hearts: Bajaz [...]t being perswaded by this signe that he was of the bloud Royall, caused him to be set apart to remaine a prisoner, where he after wards by his great prudence en­deavoured the liberty of those noble Gentlemen and his owne. ¶ Sometimes this Fingers [ibi] stands for an Aduerbe of place. And it was the custome of the Romans in the meetings of di­vers waies to erect a statue of Mercurie with the Fore-Finger pointing out the maine road, in imi­tation whereof, in this Kingdome we have in such places notes of direction; such is the Hand of St. Albans. And the demonstrative force of this Finger is such, that we use to forewarne and rebuke children for pointing at the Pallaces of Princes as a kinde of petty treason. The Roman Histories afford us a notable example of the pra­ctice Plutarch in the life of Camil­lus. of this moving Adverbe of place in Marcus Manlius Capitolinus; for when he was accused for moving sedition, and his matter came to pleading, the sight of the Capitoll troubled his accusers much, for the very place it selfe where Manlius had repulsed the Gaules by night, and defended the Capitoll, was easily seen from the Market-place where the matter was a hearing; and he himselfe POINTING WITH HIS HAND [Page 166] shewed the place unto the gods, and weeping tenderly, he laid before them the remembrance of the hazard of his life in fighting for their safe­ty: This did move the Judges hearts to pity, so as they knew not what to doe, neither could they use the severity of the Law upon him, be­cause the place of his notable good service was ever still before their eyes; wherefore Camillus finding the cause of delay of Justice, did make the place of judgement to be removed without the City into a place called the Wood Petelian, from whence he could not shew them the Ca­pitoll, and having deprived him of this advan­tage, he was condemned. ¶ As it is a gesture of command and direction, imperious masters with a stately kinde of arrogancie often use it to their meniall servants who stand ready expe­cting but the signall of their commands, when they call them, not without a taunt, to execute the tacit pleasure of their lordly will; an expres­sion flowing into their Hand from the hautinesse of spirit, and an insolent humour of dominée­ring: And the signe of pride is the greater when men aff [...]ct to have their mindes thus discried, and [...]u others to gueste at their meaning by what [...]heir talking Fingers exhibit, as if their high raised spirits disdained to discend so low as to explaine their minde in words, but thought it more then enough to signe out their intent with their Fingers.

Terrorem incutio. Gest. VII.

THE HOLDING UP OF THE FORE-FIN­GER, is a gesture of threatning and uphrai­ding. Hence this Finger is called [minax] or [mi­nitans] by the Latines, quod eo [minas inserimus] [Page 167] & in [exprobrando] utimur. The force of this Finger in denouncing threatnings when it is brandished in way of terrour, Seneca acknow­ledgeth, where he saith that of old in children, Solebat ciere lachrymas Seneca de Constant,digitorum motus. Hence also Plutarch borrowed his [...], de eo qui [alteri terrorem denunciat.] To this may be referred the relation of a worthy and right elegant Country-man of ours in his Sir. Hen. Blunt in his voyage to the Le­vant. voyage into the Levant, who being in the Isle Rhodes, and one morning prying up and down, a Turke met him, and threatning him for an English man and a spie, with a kinde of malici­ons posture, laying his Fore-Finger under his eye, he seemed to have the looke of a designe.

Venerati­one saluto Gestus VIII.

THE FORE-FINGER KISSED in the natu­rall greetings of the Hand, hath been ever tooke for a complementall salutation, and is used by those who adore, worship, give honor, hanks, or a faire resuect. Hence called, Digitus [salu­taris] vel [salutatorius] because this Finger as designed by nature to that office of respect, hath been thought most convenient to performe the ceremony of a salutation. And [Adoro] (saith Selden Tid. of Honour. learned Selden) hath its derivation from this ge­sture, quod ad ora sive os digitum [salutarem.] And the Hebrewes use the phrase of this gesture for veneration. As concerning the signification of thankes implied by this gesture, Sir Francis Fran. Ve­rulam in his new Atlantis. Bacon covertly acknowledgeth where he feignes a most proper and significant expression of the people of Bensalem, who lift their Right Hand to­wards heaven, and draw it softly to their mouth, which is the gesture they use when they thanke God.

Silentium indico. Gest. IX.

THE LAYING OF THE FORE-FINGER UP­ON THE MOUTH, is their habit who would expresse their silence, conviction, shame, igno­rance, reverence, servile feare, modesty, a revol­ving meditation, admiration and amazement. After which manner also we crave and promise secrecie. To the signification of silence apper­taines the proverbiall phrase taken from this gesture, * Digitum ori imponere pro [silere.] Whence the Poet,

—Digito compesce labellum.

Hence the five spies of Dan unto the Priest of Micha, Hold thy peace, LAY THINE HAND UPON THY MOUTH.Judges 18 19. Hence also the coyners of the Hieroglyphiques introduce this gesture to note taciturnite. Pierius Hierogly. l. 37. ¶ To the signification of conviction or a modest ignorance, belongs that of the sonne of Syrach, If thou hast understan­ding Ecclesia­sticus 5. 12 answer thy neighbour, if not, LAY THINE HAND ON THY MOUTH. ¶ To the significa­tion of admiration and amazement appertaines that of Job, Marke me, and be astonished, and Job 21. 5. LAY YOUR HAND UPON YOUR MOUTH. And to this note of admiration that of Apuleius may be refe [...]red, A [...]illeApul. Me­tam. l. 1.digitum à pollice proximum ori suo admovens, & [in stuporem attonitus] Tace, Tace inquit. ¶ This gesture of the Index is like­wise important in craving silence. For after this sort was the effigies of Harpocrates, framed a­mong the Aegyptians, as a Monument of silence. And the Ancients were wont to weare in their rings the seale of Harpocrates, for this cause (saith Plinie) that they might declare silence and secre­cte Plinie in his Nat. Hist. of the businesse in Hand. Hinc redde Harpo­cratem [Page 169] id est [tace.] Hence Alciat took his Em­bleme.

Cum tacit haud quicquam differt sapientibus amens, stultitiae est index lingua (que) vox (que) suae.

Ergo Alciat Embl. 11. premet labias, digitoque [silentia suadet,] & sese Pharium vertit in Harpocratem.

In this posture the image of Titus Livius of Pa­dua Pieriu: Hierogl. l. 36. was placed over the doore of the Praetorium of that City, for that he had comprised so much in his writings that he seemed to have denoun­ced silence to all other Writers. Hence Martia­nus Capella, Verum quidem redemitus puer adMartian. Capel. l. 1.os compresso digito salutari [silentium commonebat.] And in allusion to t [...]s gesture, Ovid:

Qui (que) premet vocem
Ovid Me­tam. l. 9.
digito (que) [silentia suadet.]

The Aegyptian Priests, Indian Brachmans, the Persian Magi and the French Druides, and all the old Philosophers and wise men, very poli­tickly caused to mould [...]nd pourtrait their gods with their Fingers upon their lips, to teach men (their adorers) not to be too curious enquirers after their nature, or rashly fable forth what ever they imagine of them, lest that being discovered, they should have been found in the end to have been but men, either worthy in their time for warre or peace, and after their death deified. Heraiscus is reported to have come out of his mo­thers wombe with this Finger, the index of silence Suid [...]. fixed upon his lips, in the same manner as the Ae­gyptians feigne Orus to have been borne, and before him Sol; whereupon because this Finger clave to his mouth, it was faine to be removed by incision, and the sear remained alwayes in his lip, a conspicuous signe of his close and mysti­call nativity. ¶ As concerning the use of this [Page 570] gesture to intimate we know somewhat, which neverthelesse we will not utter: or this way of promising secrecie when we are required, they are expressions that many times occur in the a­ctions of common life.

Redarguo Gestus X.

THE BOWING DOWNE OF THE FORE-FIN­GER FOR A checke of silence, and to redargue, is an action often found in the Hands of men. This gesture if objected with a more frequent motitation, obtaines the force of an ironicall ex­pression; and with the Ancients it was called Ciconia or the Storke, from the forme of a Storks bill pecking, which it seemes to imitate. That darke Satyrist the obscure richnesse of whose stile doth much depend upon such adjuncts of expression, alluding to this gesture:

O Jane, à tergo quem nulla
Perseus Satyr. 1.
Ciconia pinsit.

And St. Hierom whose workes are very curious­ly garnished with such criticall observations, ve­ry elegantly alludes to the same expression, Qui siscirent Holdam viris tacentibus prophetasse, nun­quam post tergum meumHierom in praef. ad Sopho­niam.manum incurvarent in Ciconiam. The Greeks in this matter call it the Crow, as Causabon gathers out of Hesiod, thus in­terpreted, Causabon upon Pers. Satyr. 1. Cave inquit domum linquas imperfectam ne caput tibi tundat garrula Cornix.

Compello Gest. XI.

THE LIFTING UP AND BOWING OF THE INDEX TOWARDS THE FACE, is a usuall gesture of invitation as naturally significant to that intent, as the inward waving of the whole Hand; and is a naturall Synechdoche of gesture, whereby we use a part for the whole Hand: he that shall set himselfe to observe the manners [Page 171] and discoursing gestures of men shall soone finde this observation to be true and valid.

Veto. Gest. XII.

THE RAISING UP AND BOWING THE FORE-FINGER FROM US, is a gesture natu­rall to those who becken a retreat or forbid, and is a Synechdoche of gesture whereby we signifi­cantly use the Index for the whole Hand Though I annex no example of this gesture, yet the vali­dity thereof is not much the lesse; and when all is done, somewhat must be left to observation; and if it be matter of oversight in the cursory reading over of some Histories, then my Rea­der hath an opportunity to oblige me by a more happy invention and application; yet prudent omissions have their places, and an universall forestalment of a Readers fancie or memory, is one of the foure and twenty properties of a moyling Pedant.

Diffiden­tiam noto. Gestus XIII.

TO FEEL WITH THE FINGERS ENDS, is their scepticall expression who endeavour to satisfie themselves by information of the Tact, in the qualities of a thing. A gesture that proceeds from the instinct of nature, whereby we know our Hand to be the judge and discer­ner of the touch, for although this touching ver­tue or tactive quality be diffused through the whole body within and without, as being the foundation of the animal being, which may be called Animalitas, yet the first and second quali­ties which strike the sense, we doe more curious­ly Dr. Crook in his A­natomy. and exquisitely feele in the Hand, then in the other parts, and more exactly where the Epider­mis or immediate organ of the outer touch is [Page 172] thinnest, but most subtily in the grape of the In­dex, which being the only part of the body that hath temperamentum ad pondus, is by good right chiefe Touch-warden to the King of the five senses. The satisfaction the Hand gives the minde by this gesture, made Alciat (taking his hint from Plautus, who seems to me to have cal­led Alciat Embl. 16. ex Plauto sumpt. this expression manum occulatam) to represent in Embleme the certainty of things by an eye in a Hand. Hence manus oculata the Adage; and verily we may well beleeve this occular test or Erasm. Adage. feeling eye of the Hand. Thomas Dydimus as diffident as he was, received a palpable satisfacti­on John 20. 27. by this way of silent information.

Molliciē prodo. Gestus XIV.

TO SCRATCH THE HEAD WITH ONE FIN­G [...]R, is a kinde of nice and effeminate ge­sture, bewraying a close inclination to vice; ob­served in many by cunning Motists who have found the way to prie into the manners of men. A gesture so remarkable that it grew into an Ad­age, Plutarch in the life of Pom­pey. Digito uno caput scalpere, by a metonymie of the adjunct signifying impudence & effeminacy, taken by Critiques out of Juvenal, who hath gi­ven a satyricall lash at this gesture. Pompey was publickly upbraided to his face with this note of effeminacy by Clodius the Tribune, asking aloud these questions; who is the licenciousest Cap­taine in all the City? what man is he that seeks for a man? what is he that SCRATCHETH HIS HEAD WITH ONE FINGER? some that hee had brought into the market-place for that pur­pose, like a company of dancers or singers, when he spake and clapped his Hands on his gowne, answered him strait aloud to every que­stion, [Page 173] that it was Pompey. As concerning the phrase of seeking for a man, that Prince of the Senate of Critiques, sayes that he hath read in an old manuscript of an Interpreter of Lucan ne­ver published, this distich:

Magnus quem metuunt homines, Joseph Scal. digito caput uno scalpit, quid credas hunc sibi velle? virum.

Molles enim solent virum quaerere. Cicero also ob­served in Caesar Plutarch in the life of Caesar. the same genuine fashion of his Hand, as appeares by the opinion he once had of Caesar: when (saith he) I consider how fairly he combeth his fine bush of haire, and how smooth it lyeth, and that I see him SCRATCH HIS HEAD WITH ONE FINGER ONLY, my minde gives me that such a kinde of man, should not have so wicked a thought in his Head, as to overthrow the state of the Common-wealth. By the way, I cannot but note, that two of the greatest Commanders Rome could ever boast of, concurrents intime, and competitors for the Empire of the World, should be both branded with one and the selfe-same note of effeminacie.

Convici­um facio. Gest. XV.

THE PUTTING FORTH OF THE MIDDLE-FINGER, THE REST DRAWN INTO A FIST on each side, which is then called [...] by the Greeks,Pateus in electis. vulgarly Higa, in the ancient Tongue, pugner à [...], is a naturall expression of scorne and contempt. This gesture is called Catapygon by the Athenians, id est, Cinaedus & Caelius. scortum, quia pronus ad obscoenitatem & quod [infa­miam concuteret] & [convicium faceret] which is well noted by that elegant Epigrammatist:

Rideto multum qui te Sextile Cinaedum
Dixerit, &
Martial Epigram.
digitum porrigito medium.

[Page 174] Id est, si te Sextile Cynaedum vocaveret, tu eandem contumeliam ei objice, & repende, As Rami­rez upon the place.sublato medio digi­to, quae nota Cynaedi est, non solumenim ad [irrisio­nem] sed etiam ad [infamiam & molliciem alicujus denotandum valet. [To which that of Plautus may be referred:

In hunc
Plaut. in Pseudol.
intende digitum hic leno est.

Hence also Martial calls this Finger, Digitum [impudicum.]

Martial Epigram.
Ostendit digitum sed [impudicum.]
Derides quo (que) fur & [impudicum.]
Martial Epigram.
Ostendis digitum mihi minanti?

Perseus calls it [infamum.]

Infami digito
Perseus Satyr. 2.

With Acron and Porphyrius it is [famosus.] Eu­phormio calls it [improbum.] Et hic quidem Euphor. Satyr. 1.in­tendebat improbum reclusae digitum dextrae; descri­bing the posture of exprobration in some images. In another place the Epethite is flagitiosus, Cal­lion [flagitioso] digito superiorem explicans bar­bam. Idem lib. eodem. With Plantus it is [manus pullaria] à pal­pandis tentandis (que) pullis, &c. (as Turnebus thinks.) [Petulans] and [lascivus] by others. Hence with the Athenians, [...], id est scimalissare est praetentare digito ubi quemquam [flocci facere] ostendunt; nam et si proprie Graecis sit cum digito per­tentamus ecquid gallinam ova conceperit, tamen ver­bo eodem utantur cum protensum [contumeliose]Caelius.o­stendunt medium digitum, concerning which ex­pression Juvenal:

—Cum fortuna ipse minaci

Mandaret laqueum Juvenal Satyr.medium (que) ostenderet unguem, nam * medio digito aliquid monstrare per [ignomini­am] siebat, ob ejus [infamiam] as Lubinus upon the place. This pointing out with the Finger [Page 175] in way of mockerie, Tertullian calls digito destina­re. Tertul. de Pallio c. 4. That the scoffing motion of this Finger moves an apprehension of what we intend, may plainly be gathered out of the Prophesie of the Prophet Isaiah, where he saith, If thou take a­way Isaiah 58. 9. from the midst of thee the yoke, the PUT­TING FORTH OF THE FINGER, and evill spea­king, which by the most of Expositors is con­ceived to be meant of this very gesture,See Flac­cius in cla­vi script. Salomon Prov. 6. 13 although Divines have variously descanted upon the place. In this sense also that of the Wise man may be understood, The wicked man speaketh with his Finger, that is, his Finger by gestures and signs speaks scoffes. As Doctor Jermin in his paraphrasticall comment upon the place. Lam­pridius speaking of the notorious effeminacie, and luxurious impudencie of that sottish Empe­rour Heliogabalus among other expressions of his corrupted minde reports him to have used this, Nec enim unquam verbis pepercit infamibus, cum & Lampri­dius in Helioga­balo.digitis [impudicitiam] ostentaret, nec ullus in con­ventu, & audiente populo esset pudor. Thus Cali­gula was wont to flout and frump Cassius Chaerea Sueton in Caligula. Tribune of the Praetorian cohort in most oppro­brious tearmes as a wanton and effeminate per­son. And one while when he came unto him for a watch-word to give him Priapus or Venus; another while if upon any occasion he rendered thankes, to reach out unto him his Hand, not only fashioned, but wagging also after an obscene and filthy manner. Q. Cassius a right valiant man, and one that distasted the corrupted manners of those times, tooke this reproach of effeminacie so ill at Calligula's Hand, that he bore him a parti­cular grudge for this very cause, and was the [Page 176] man that conspiring with Cornelius Sabinus his fellow Tribune, deprived him of life and Empire. Thus Diogenes when certain strangers in a great assembly were very inquisitive to know which was Demosthenes, Diogenes in derision PUTTING Laert. in Diogen. FORTH THIS FINGER instead of the Index, pointed him out and shewed him unto them, co­vertly thereby noting the impudent nature and effeminacie of the man. And it may be the en­vie and despite of Josephs brethren towards him Gen. 37. 19. shewed it selfe in the contumelious gesture of this Finger, which pointed out unto him their contempt of him when he was afar off, and wa­king towards them, when they said one unto a­nother, Behold this dreamer commeth!

Contem­no. Gestus XVI.

TO COMPRESSE THE MIDDLE-FINGER WITH THE THUMBE BY THEIR COM­PLOSION PRODUCING A SOUND AND SO CASTING OUT OUR HAND, is a gesture we use to signifie our contempt of unprofitable things, & to shew by gesture how we sleight, contemne, in­sult, and undervalue any thing. This KNACK­ING with the Fingers was called by the ancient Romans * Crepitus, or Percussio digitorum. Hence that illustrious Poet expounding the sense of this expression makes mention of the Thumb, which he therefore calls argutum, id est, resonantem, whose verses very cleare for this businesse run thus:

Cum poteret seram media jam nocte matellam
Martial Epigram.
Arguto madidus pollice Pa [...]aretus.

Arguto pollice, that is, as he hath i [...] in another place Martial Epigram. crepitu digitorum. And Propertius to the same purpose,

[Page 177]
—At illi
Pr [...]pert us [...]. 7.
Pollicibus fragiles increpuere manus.

The posture of the same expression prepared to create a sound; The statue of stone at Tharsis which Plutarch speaks of to have been made for Plutarch in moral. Sardanapalus after his death, and set over his grave, did significantly retaine, which statue was formed dancing after the Barbarian fashion, and [...]NACKING as it were with his Fingers over his head like an Anticke: the inscription was, Sar­danapalus Arrian l. [...] de exped. Alex. the son of Anacynderaxa built Anchia­lus and Tarsus in one day, but thou my friend,

Eat, drinke the wanton Leacher play,
For nothing else is ought I say:

signifying the undervaluing sound produced by such a KNACKING of the Fingers, ede, bibe &c. nam caetera omnia sunt illius sonitus quem efficere manus solet, as Athaeneus hath it.

Ironiam infligo. Gestus XVII.

TO BEND THE MIDDLE-FINGER WHILE ITSTIFLY RESTETH UPON THE THUMB, AND SO IN IE STING-WISE TO LET IT OFF, is a triviall expression whereby we with a FIL­LIP inflict a trifling punishment, or a scoffe. This FILLIP with the Finger or naile, some thinke is so called à sono fictitio, qui cum Talitrum alicui impingitur, datur; and Talitrum à talione, est enim ludi genus inter pueros quo par pari refertur, Jun. vel recurvi digiti impressio, unde forte melior deno­minatio Latinae vocis à talo, convolutio digitorum quem emulatur, [...] Graecis. That this ge­sture was called Talitrum by the ancient Latines appears by Suetonius, who speaking of Tiberius, and the native vigour of his left Hand, Articulis Suero [...] Tib. c. 6. 8. ita firmis fuit, ut caput pueri vel etiam adolescentis [Page 178] Talitro vulneraret. Sometimes they were said Caelius. scimalissare who in mockery used this gesture. A kinde of punishment we usually inflict upon un­happy wags. Hence that of Petronius, Ego du­rante Petron Arb. Satyr adhuc iracundia, non continui manum, sed caput miserantis stricto acuto (que) articulo percussi. Percus­sit [...] pueri Gitonis caput. This slighting expression of the Fingers gives such a slur of dis­grace if used to men, that it hath been thought such a disparagement as wounded a tender repu­tation. Sir Francis Bacon in his charge in the Sir Fran­cis Bacon in his charge a­gainst du­ells. Star-Chamber touching Duells, being then His Majesties Atturney Generall, informes against the hot spirited Gallants of those times, who pretended a defect in our Law that it hath pro­vided no remedy for FILLIPS. A strange thing that every touch or light blow of the person, (though they are not in themselves considerable save that they have got upon them the stampe of a disgrace,) should make these light things passe for such great matters. The Law of England, and all Laws hold these degrees of injury to the person, slander, battery, maime, and death; but for the apprehension of disgrace, that a FILLIP to the person should be a mortall wound to the reputation, he saith it were good that men would hearken to the saying of Gonsalvo the great and famous Commander, that was wont to say, a Gentlemans honor should be de t [...]la crassiore of a good strong warpe or web that every little thing should not catch in it, when as now it seems they are but of copweb-lawne, or such light stuffe, which certainly is weaknesse and not true great­nesse of minde, but like a sicke mans body, that is so tender that it feels every thing.

Contem­ptuose provoco. Gestus. XVIII.

TO BECKEN WITH THE EARE-FINGER, is their usuall concise expression, who are ad­vanced by confidence to relie upon the strength of their ability, and would by a provoking sig­nall dare, chalenge, defie, and bid one prepare for an encounter, implying a strong presumption of the victory, as if they esteemed him as nothing in their Hand. To this expression Horace alludes,

Horac [...] l. 1. Serm. [...]
minimo me [provocat] accipe si vis
Accipe jam tabulas—

Avaritiam prodo. Gestus XIX.

TO GRIPE THE LEFT HAND THE THUMBE CLUTCHED IN WITH ALL, is the hold-fast gesture of tenacious avarice, and significant to discover the miserable and penurious condition of a close-fisted niggard, a parcell of the chara­cter of an old pinch-penny. This catching and restrained gesture, is an expression often seen in the Hands of penny-fathers, and men of a terene complexion, and is parallel to the Thumbe under the girdle. The Aegyptian Mythologists who Pieriu [...] Hierogl. l. 35. were very quaint in their occult devices, used to paint out Avarice by this posture of the left hand: And they who allegorically interpret Artemi­dorus de Somn. in­terp. dreames make this hand the symboll of lucre, profit, gaine and increase, as the hand more fit­ting to retaine: for though it want the diligence and insinuating labour peculiar to the Right Hand, and hath not the faculty to scrape and get by such dexterious endeavours, notwithstanding being more dull and sluggish, the retentive appe­tite thereof is thereby increased, and it is the Misers maxime, and as it were the signet on his wretched hand:

[Page 180]
Non minor est virtus quam quaerere parta tueri.

This hand by the grave testimony of Solinus, Solinus cap. 5. Camera­rius in Hor. Suc. Judges 5. which Camerarius also affirmes, to doe any thing is lesse agile; but to beare burdens, and to com­prehend any thing strongly is more fit; for Jael tooke the hammer in her Right Hand, but the naile in her left, which she smote through the temples of Sisera: and the three hundred Souldiers of Gedeon held their lamps in their left hands, and Judges 7. the trumpets in their Right Hand, which Marius hath drawne into an allegorie of other signifi­cations. Marius in Bibl.

Offensi­unculam resentio. Gest. XX.

TO GIVE ONE A RAP WITH THE FIN­GERS HALF BENT, OR KNUCKLES, is their expression who would vent their sleight anger or dislike upon others; or would softly and mo­destly knocke at some doore. This posture of the Hand was called by the Ancients Condylus, Scilicet digiti articulus, aut nodus in curvitura quae digitis flectitur. The stroake inflicted with the Hand thus composed, hath from antiquity retai­ned the name of Condyl; this the Greeks call Caelius Rhod. var. lect. [...]. We read of a boy who attended at the banquet of Aeneas slaine by Hercules with a stroake of his Condyl, called Archias as Helleni­cus writes, other Eunomius, the sonne of Archi­teles, but in Phoronidos 2. he is named Cherias, who dyed of that blow in Calydon, although Hercules intended not his death, but chastisement. The Greeks also write that Thersites was slaine by the Condyles of Achilles, because he had struc­ken out the eye of Penthisilea slaine by him with his speare. This gesture is sometimes used by those who would signifie their desire of being [Page] let in at a doore, and in this sense it was modestly used by Bagoas the Eunuch at the tent doore of Holofernes his master, whom he supposed to have slept with Judith. Dorleans upon Tacitus saith, Judith 14. he did plausum facere manibus to awaken his ma­ster, but it is most likely he used the sound of this gesture as a mannerly watchword to intimate his attendance without, and a desire to come in and speake with him; an expression that hath been ever used by such who came to salute or speake See Dor­leans up­on Tacit. with great persons in a morning, to intimate their modest and obsequious attendance, which they seemed by that low knock to desire their patrons to take notice of.

Iram im­potentem prodo. Gestus XXI.

TO PUT THE FINGERS INTO A GRIPE OR CLAW-LIKE ASPECT, and to SCRATCH or CLAW another therewith, is the impotent expression of a curst heart that eagerly desires to set a marke of its displeasure upon those that have provoked it to a splenitique use of its poun­ces. But this is no manly expression of the Hand, as more properly appertaining to children and vixens, who are prone upon any provocati­on to wreak their despite upon others with the talons of their indignation. Fury that hath furni­shed all men with weapons, left the tongue & the nail to the impotent part of humanity, two vene­mous weapons, and apt to wranckle where they fasten. And if we see this naile-rubricke in the face of any, we are apt to infer that it is the marke of some such impotent creature.

Stultitiae notam in­figo. Gestus XXII.

TO PRESENT THE INDEX AND EARE-FINGER WAGGING, WITH THE THUMB [Page 182] APLIED UNTO THE TEMPLES, is their expressi­on who would scornfully reprove any for failing in any exercise of wit, or for some absurd stumble of a tripping and inconsiderate lip, or for some errour in manners and behaviour: For, this most ridiculous affront implies such men to be Asses. The reason is, for that man only by natures pro­vident donation hath received cares fixt and im­moveable, whereas that which appears most moveable and stirring in that dull animall is his eares; and the WAGGING OF THE FIN­GERS goes for the WAGGING OF THE EARES, which cannot be done otherwise by reason of this naturall prohibition. Perseus alludes to this ironicall signification of the Fingers,

Nec manus auriculas imitata est mobilis albas.

Hence Manum addere the Adage, a metaphor ta­ken Perseus Satyr. 4. Erasm. Adag. from this gesture. The same gesture if you take away the motion, is used in our nimble­fingered times to call one Cuckold, & to present the badge of Cuckoldry, that mentall and imagi­nary horn; seeming to cry, O man of happy note, whom fortune meaning highly to promote, hath stucke on thy fore-head the earnest-penny of succeeding good lucke; all which upbraiding tearmes many understand by this gesture only of the Fingers; for in this sense the common use hath made it the known signall of disparage­ment, so naturally apt are the Fingers to speake scoffes: For, lacivious disdaine masked by scorn under the disguise of a facetious wit, out of an itching disposition hath been ever very prone to devise and happen upon waies to vent her con­ceited bitternesse, it being the guise, of overwee­ning wit to despise and undervalue others: [Page 183] Hence comes your scornfull frumpe and drie scoffe, keen jeers that wit hath turned up trump, wherein the dealer rubbeth with a gibe, making another his laughing stocke; which cunning game is received into Rhetoricke, and called an Ironie, a Trope, which gives a man leave closely to carpe at the manners of men, wherein what which is expressed by words, the contrary is shewn by the gesture: nay we may make a wity board without the helpe and concurrence of an unhappy word, and your broad verball jest is no­thing neare so piquant as these foule habits of reproach by gesture, which broch men as it were with a spit, and having once entred into the quicke like shafts with barbed heads a long time gaule with a sticking mischiefe: and to this feat of mockery the Fingers have been proclive to fashion out contempt, provoked forward by a naturall dicacity.

Improbi­tatem ob­jicio. Gestus XXIII.

TO LOCKE THE THUMBE BETWEENE THE NEXT TWO FINGERS, is an ironicall vulga­risme of the Hand used by Plebeians when they are contumeliously provoked thereunto, and see that they cannot prevaile by vieing words, their spleene appealing to their Fingers for aid, who thus armed for a dumbe retort, by this taunting gesture seem to say avant. This position of the Fingers with the Ancients was called Higa, and the moderne Spaniards by objecting the Hand formed to this reproachfull expression, imply as Ramirez upon Mart much as if they should say paedicavi te, with us it is usually their garbe who mocke little children.

Parcè do. Gest. XXIV.

TO GIVE VVITH TWO FINGERS, is a parcimonious expression of the Hand of­ten seen in clutch-fists niggards, and pinch-pennies, from whose gesture the Adage came, Dare con­tracta manu, id est [parce & frigide aliquid dare.] Hence the Spaniards in the propriety of their Tongue, expresse covetousnesse by a short Hand, and bounty by a long and large Hand. These phrases do often occur in Guzman, which I take for a subtile contexture of the proverbiall riches and gravity of the Spanish Tongue. Salomon dislikes this gesture, where he saith, Let not thy Hand be open to take, and closed when thou shouldest give. And Artaxerxes the son of Xerxes, who was Plutarch Apotheg. sirnamed Long Hand, because he had one Hand longer then another, was wont to say, that as a Prince (who was Gods image upon earth) he had a Hand to give, to wit, a right Hand very long; the other to with-hold and take away, to wit, a left Hand, contracted and very short; ad­ding that it was a more Princely and Royall property, to give, then to take away.

Numero Gestus XXV.

TO BEGIN WITH THE FIRST FINGER OF THE LEFT HAND, AND TO TELL ON TO THE LAST FINGER OF THE RIGHT, is the naturall and simple way of numbring & compu­tation: for, all men use to count forwards till they come to that number of their Fingers, and being come to that number, prompted as it were by nature to returne at this bound or But of nume­ricall immensity, (about which all numbers are reflected and driven round,) they repeat againe the same numbers returning unto unity from [Page 185] whence their account began, which we must not account as an accident, but a thing propaga­ted from the fountaine of nature, since it is ever done and that by all Nations. For the Fin­gers by an ordinance of nature, and the unrepeal­able statute of the great Arithmetician, were ap­pointed to serve for casting counters, as quicke and native digits, alwaies ready at Hand to assist us in our computations. Hence some have cal­led man a naturall Arithmetician, and the only creature that could reckon and understand the mistique laws of numbers, because he alone hath reason, which is the spring of arithmeticall ac­count; nay that divine Philosopher doth draw the line of mans understanding from this compu­ting Plato. faculty of his soule, affirming that therefore he excells all creatures in wisdome, because he can account: and indeed not the least of the more subtill part of reason doth depend upon this A­rithmeticall infused quality. Hence we account such for idiots and halfe-sould men who cannot tell to the native number of their Fingers. And if we count the dole of nature, and those num­bers that were borne with us and cast up in our Hand from our mothers wombe, by Him who made all things in number, weight & measure, we shall finde that there are five Fingers ranged up­on either Hand, which quinary construction of the Fingers, as being of a mysticall perfection is much canvased by the Pythagoran Philosophers, Plutarch Moral. and called marriage, because it is a compound of the first numerall male and female; it is also fitly tearmed nature, because being multiplied it de­termins and rebounds upon it selfe, for five times five makes twenty five, and multiplied, by an old [Page 186] number it still representeth it selfe, for if you take five unto five by doubling the Cinque you make the Decade; and there is in it a naturall vertue or faculty to divide, as appeares in the Fingers of each Hand, so that nature seems to have tooke more delight to order and compose things ac­cording to the number of five, then to fall upon any other forme that might have proved spheri­call. Hence Plutarch observes that the Anci­ents were wont to use the verbe pempasesthai Plutarch in moral. when they would signifie to number or to reckon. And the Memphian Priests in their Hierogly­phiques, by a Hand, the Fingers set upright, used to figure out Arithmeticke. Great is the perfe­ction of the totall summe of our Fingers, for Ten is the fount and head of all numbers, for this is compounded of 1. 2. 3. and 4. which united, summe up Ten; the most compleat of numbers, as possest of the formes of all the others, for both the eaven and odde, the square, cubique, plaine, the linear, the monade, and compound, with all the rest, are comprised in the Decade; which therefore Pythagoras the Samian, who was thought to be the first Author of the name Phi­losophie, as Plutarch affirmes, concludes the De­narie to be the most absolute perfection of num­bers, because as the Poet saith we have,

—Tot digitos per quos [numerare] solemus.
Ovid. l. 1. Fastorum.

Hadrianus Junius by an elegant and neat discrip­tion, seems to allude to the intention of nature in devising the Hand so fit for all accounts, that it may serve for a counting table;

Porrigor in ramos quinos, & quilibet horum
Diditur in triplices nodos, nisi quintus egeret
Hadrian Jun. in Aenigmat
Uno, qui solus respondet robore cunctis
[Page] Undi (que) colligulis surgo, in vallum (que) resid [...]
Ast Abaci desit si forte, ego munia praste.

Abacus being a counting-table, such as Arith­meticians use.

An Index to the following Al­phabet of naturall Gestures of the FINGERS. Which Gestures, besides their typicall signi­fications, are so ordered to serve for privy cyphers for any secret intimation.
  • A Figures out the I Gesture.
  • B Figures out the II Gest.
  • C Figures out the III Gest.
  • D Figures out the IV Gest.
  • E Figures out the V Gest.
  • F Figures out the VI Gest.
  • G Figures out the VII Gest.
  • H Figures out the IX Gest.
  • I Figures out the X Gest.
  • K Figures out the XI Gest.
  • L Figures out the XII Gest.
  • M Figures out the XIII Gest.
  • N Figures out the XIIII Gest.
  • O Figures out the XV Gest.
  • P Figures out the XVI Gest.
  • Q Figures out the XVII Gest.
  • R Figures out the XVIII Gest.
  • S Figures out the XIX Gest.
  • T Figures out the XX Gest.
  • V Figures out the XXI Gest.
  • W Figures out the XXII Gest.
  • X Figures out the XXIII Gest.
  • Y Figures out the XXIV Gest.
  • Z Figures out the XXV Gest.


A. Inventione labo­ro.
B. Fleo.
C. Approbo.
D. Extollo.
E. Collateralitèr monstro.
F. Indico.
G. Terrorem icutio
H. Silentiū indi­co.
I. Redarguo.
K. Compello.
L. Veto.
M. Diffidentiā noto.
N. Mollitiem prodo.
O. Conviciū facio.
P. Contemno.
Q. Ironiam infligo.
R. Contemptuosè provoco.
S. Avariciam prodo.
T. Offensiunculam resentio.
V. Iram impotentē prodo.
W. Stultitiae notam insigo.
X. Improbitatem objicio.
Y. Parce Do.
Z. Numero.

1 2 3 4 5

Courteous Reader, in some co­pies thou shalt find these mistakes, hereafter mentioned, which I pray thee charitably to amend, or not to censure.

PAge 3. line 18. for an read in, p. 22. l. 6. r. all good things, p. 43. l. 20. the paragraph indica­tive belongs to the last paragraph of that ge­sture in p. 44. p. 62. l. 26 r. Rabbin, p. 76. l. 17. r. [...], p. 73. l. r. manners, p. 76. 34. leave out of, p. 83. l. 7. r. the, p. 90. in the margin r. Pulcheriae with a Capitall, p. 94. l. 6. r. utras (que), ibid. l. 30. r. affection, ibid. l. 32. r. impressam, p. 96. l. 30. r. STRETCHED, p. 112. l. 33. r. dextram (que), p. 17. l. 34 r. Chirothlipsia, p. 141. l. 15. r. instituted, p. 143. l. 10. r. coevality, p. 149. l. 1. r. sanat, p. 161. l. 16. r. 1000. p. 167. l. 19. r. thanks, ibid. p. l. 14. malicious, p. 17 and 64. a marginall quotation superfluous.

[Page] CHIRONOMIA: Or, The Art of Manuall Rhetorique. WITH THE Canons, Lawes, Rites, Ordi­nances, and Institutes of RHETO­RICIANS, both Ancient and Moderne, Touching the artificiall managing of the HAND in Speaking. Whereby the Naturall GESTURES of the HAND, are made the Regulated Ac­cessories or faire-spoken Adjuncts of RHETORICALL Utterance. With TYPES, or CHIROGRAMS: A new illustration of this Argument. By J. B. Philochirosophus.

Ratio est Manus Intellectus; Rationis Oratio; Orationis Manus. Scal.

LONDON: Printed by Tho: Harper, and are to be sold by Richard Whitaker, at his shop in Pauls Church-yard, 1644.



AFter I had once well relished the sweet­nesse of your con­versation; having calculated your temper and disposition according to the meridian of Friendship, I soone proposed you to my selfe as an Idea and patterne of all Humanity. This [Page] apprehension I have of your virtues, is so deeply setled in my understanding, that I finde it difficult to restraine affection from dilating upon this Argu­ment, even to a Panegyrique: Yet I confesse I doe not more truly honour and revere you under any one notion, as I doe in that relation you stand in to my worthy Friend your Son, a relation which you have made more reverend and ami­able, by the felicity of your com­portment. There, Nature and Education are in their Zeniths. This is the Achma of worldly Beatitudes, when by a recipro­call invention, without the con­fusion [Page] of distance and proximi­ty, reverence and affection; there results by converse, Idem Alter, & Alter Idem: were not this a truth that hath oft beene visible to discerning eyes, I might be thought a little to play the Poet, and this assertion taken for an Allegory. Sir, the congruity of this Art, with your Nature, in gaining upon the affections of men, hath made me pitch upon you as a compe­tent Iudge and Patron: To you therefore I consecrate this Fruit of my Hand, as to one well read in the prudentiall Laws of Civill Conversation, and by consequence knowing, to man­age [Page] the Hand, of your Intellect and Reason (your reason and speech) to the best advantage and utterance of discretion and honesty. Be pleased in returne of those expresses of your affe­ction and respect I have recei­ved from you, to accept of this demonstration of respect from him, who is

Your faithfull friend to command, IO. BULVVER.

To his affectionate Friend the Authour, On HIS CHIRONOMIA.

THe Hand of Nature plac'd the Eye and Eare
As Parallels within Minerva's spheare:
Th'ast set the Understandings Optique line
Above the common sense of Discipline,
By Thy life-speaking Types, engraven by
A keen beame borrow'd from Thy Muses eye.
The sprucer Arts of Speech will grow more neat
And rich in utterance, by Thy conceit.
Demosthenes might here his garbe refine,
And Cicero out-act his Cateline:
Nay, in Thy Glasses typicall Expresse,
Commanding Rhoterique may mend her dresse.
Th'ast drawn all bookes de Oratore, dry:
And Polychronicons but few will buy,
While they may have Thy Hand to draw and mend
All Action by, their Mindes can well intend.
Alcides Chaine is Thine by just surprize,
Plac'd in Thy Hand, fix'd to the peoples eyes;
Who may'st with greater sway by this Hands tongue
The Wise command, then he his long-ear'd throng.
Singularis amicitiae ergo, THO. DICONSON, Med. Templ.

To his loving friend the Author, On HIS CHIRONOMIA.

VVHat dream last night I had! how sweet! how high!
And when I wak'd, how I desir'd to die!
If death such sleep had been: Minerva's Phane
Me thought wide open flew to entertaine
Thy faire Chironomie, which there install'd
Was by Wits Hand the new Pall [...]dium call'd.
The Graces Hand in Hand appear'd, in signe
Of honour, acting with the Triple Trine,
The new perswasive gestures of thy Art:
But when I saw Thy active Muses part
So well perform'd, I lost my ravish'd sense,
Orecome by her Hands silent Eloquence.
May this good Omen strike Thee luck, and force
The Worlds dull eye to like Thy Hands discourse,
Untill the Honours on Thy Front that stick,
We count with the Right Hands Arithmetique.
J. D.

Ad summum GESTUUM Artificem, & Chiromysten, in CHIRONOMIAM.

CVm Venerem spectas blandam mirare figuram
Omnia concinno membra decore nitent.
Omnia sint formosa, tamen superantur ab Vno;
Non habuit talem vel Cytherea Manum:
Ad eundem.
HOc si sit verum, senior quod prodidit olim
*[Pulcher quod [...], ex sententia Julii Scaligeri.] Scaliger, haud poterit pulchrior esse liber.
Ad eundem.
ALtera jam teritur Bellis Civilibus aestas,
Luxuriátque novo sanguine tristis humus:
Tu tamen in tuto es, nec territat hosticus ensis;
Defendit Manuum Te numerosa MANUS.
Ad eundem.
GYthing's commended, so is Martin too,
For Hands of any sort: but their Pens doe
Fall short of thy Quills worth; th'are at a stand,
Admiring You that write a better Hand.
JO. HARMARUS, Oxoniensis [...].

Amico suo ingeniosissimo, in CHIRONOMIAM.

CHIRONOMON, gestus Naturae legibus effers,
Commensuratos, Rhetoricos (que) facis.
Articulis, Digitis, Abacumrationis adornas,
Calcula et in Digitos mittere viva doces.
Sculpturae secreta typis manifesta renident,
Adventu lucis splendidiora novae.
Tunc fugienda notas, sed naevos primus Agentis,
Chirosolaecismos praevaricantis, habes.
Rhetoris invadis gravido comprensa maniplo,
Omnia puncta, gravi suavis ubique MANU:
Dulce decus Charitum! Manuali semper ab ore
Verbula commenso gesta decore sonant.
R. G. Nomenclator Chiro-musae.

Of the necessitie and dignitie of this Art of MANUALL RHETORICK.

HOw prevalent Gestures accom­modated to perswade, have ever been in the Hand; both the Ancient Worthies, as al­so Use and daily Experience make good, it being a thing of greater moment then the vulgar thinke, or are able to judge of: which is not onely confined to Schooles, Theaters, and the Man­sions of the Muses; but doe appertaine to Churches, Courts of Common pleas, and the Councell-Table; where we daily see many admirable things done by those, who in the course of Humanitie and profitable studies, have been well instructed and inform'd in this facultie of the Hand. And the wisedom of the Ancients is in good part placed in this care and diligence, That they who were nourished to the hopes of great dignities, should have [Page] composed and comely motions, which might signifie an ingenious Minde, and adorne their very Eloquence. Some may perchance i­magine, that this Manuall Rhetorique is a vaine and unnecessary Art, because they see little writ by the Greekes, who were the Do­ctors of Eloquence; and but few things there­of by the Latines: when yet these men of excellent wits of both Nations, have with great artifice beautified all the sublime kindes of Eloquence, to heighten the Grandieure of a majestique Utterance. Cresollius alleadgeth many causes why this one part of most noble Science seemes (though not as neglected, yet) passed by and omitted by those great lights of Antiquitie. For, the Greekes borne in a regi­on, which by reason of the thinnesse and puri­tie of the aire, was more fertile of good wits then any other productions; had naturally both motions of the Minde and Body to ex­plaine and unfold their cogitations and re­condite senses with an incredible facilitie: by reason whereof they l [...]sse needed the precepts of this Art. For since they had two Palae­stra's, wherein a double Chironomia was pra­ctised, one of Armes, another of Peace, and proper to the pacifique temper of Humanitie: a domesticall Theater, Doctors and Rheto­rique Professors, and publique Declamati­ons; having in common among them, such [Page] illustrious aides of Pronunciation; no marvell that so few Rhetoricians have left any Manu­scripts of the Conformation of gesture; this artifice of the Hand being a thing so common, and as it were naturall unto them. Which vo­lubility of a prompt & easie nature, wonder­fully accommodating it selfe to all things, made the Satyrist say, that the whole Nation Juvenal. Satyr. 3. of the Greekes were Comoedians: for in the Scene and Theater, and in graphicall assimi­lating and imitating the affections, there were few of any Nation could match them, and none that could out-act them. And as they were very studious in all kinds of literature; when they apply'd their minds to eloquence, it cannot be said how they excel'd in gesture, by the force and guide of Nature; which per­chance was the cause why the Stagerite said, [...] to be [...], That Rhetorique was Arist. l. 3. Rhet. naturall, and that any one, without the instru­ctions of a Teacher, seems to be of himself & by a Naturall ingenie, fit to raise motions in himselfe and others. But the Romans come­ing out to speake, not from under the Cano­pie of Minerva, but the Pavilion of Mars, be­ing not of so ready & polished a wit, thought it convenient and necessary to have books of Institutions for the Conformation of these Rhetoricall expressions: of which, Plotius and Nigidius, two great Doctors in these E­legancies, [Page] (to omit others) published their beauteous Commentaries. They that follow Aristotle in his mistaken opinion of Action, esteeming these Chironomicall Notions as things of no great matter, are much deceived: for that great Doctor of the Aristot. Schoole neere A­thens. Lyceum (as Cre­sollius well observes) spake rather of himselfe, then of all men in generall: who being of a most excellent wit, and by Nature furnished with all ornaments, he contemned Rhetori­cians, as seeing himself to have little need of those petty Rules which were carried about for the conformation of Manuall gestures. For else, he had Demosthenes in his eyes, a man wholly composed of this Artifice, and turn'd after a manner, upon the wheele of Rhetorique: who at first, by reason of his naturall imperfection herein, was much dis­couraged: by which it appeares, that an Ora­tour is not borne, but made: and to speake well and laudably, there is need of studie and striving, before the facultie can be attained. For as for this opinion of ignorant men, who thinke that Gestures are perfect enough by Nature, and that the climate availes nothing, it being not materiall whether the Hand be moved hither or thither: that every one may please himselfe, observing no rule or admoni­tion of Rhetoricians: The daily Example of speakers refute. For we see many both in sa­cred [Page] and prophane places, so preposterously & ilfavoredly expressing their minds, that 'tis a wonder how any eye can behold them with attention. Certainly, men polished with Hu­manitie, cannot without loathing, behold the praevarications of such durty and slovenly Oratours, and with a just indignation distaste their inconsiderate action. If the Naturall mo­tions were absolutely compleat, & sufficient­ly fit to open & unfold the sense of the Mind; or were accommodated to gaine good will, or opportune for the incredible force and va­rietie of the affections; would these goodly Orators and lovers of faire speech so bewray themselves, and wallow in the dirt? But this is enough, to prove that the actions of the Hand are not perfect by Nature. Therefore let those upstart and tumultuarie Oratours bragge as much as they will, of the force of Nature, and facilitie of Gestures. Reason, and the sayings of the learned Ancients doe not onely gainsay them, but prove these Cosme­tique gestures of the Hand to be things of great moment, & the very Palme and Crown of Eloquence. Had the ancient pieces of this Art (which ingenious Oratours writ of old, more for the benefit of after-times then their own) come to our Hands, men might have beene more ready in speaking then they are, and not so prone in these points, to offend [Page] the discreeter part of their Auditory; but since those helpes are lost, I cannot see how an Oratour can be perfect and absolutely compleat, that hath not consulted with the Oracle of Quintilian, about this Manuall pro­nunciation; whose institutions contain all those ancient subtleties that escaped the injurious Hand of Time. Things which of old, they were wont to learne with their Grammar, as Sidonius Apollinaris witnesseth, which per­chance, was the reason why Polihymnia, whom that learned Senatour affirmes to have Cassiodor. taught the Elegancie of Gesture, the same by the Greeks is said to have taught Gram­mar and Letters. And indeed Decencie of ex­pression doth so depend upon this Art, that (as Grammarians observe) Decencie is pro­perly spoken of Gesture, and motions of the Hand and Body, and it so exalts Beauty from the concrete into the abstract, that Nature and the tacit voice, and assent of all men, allow of it as a thing very materiall in commerce, and is so look'd for at the Hand of an Orator, that the defects of extemporarie and jejune Ora­tions, have been covered by the Elegancies of this Artifice; and those that have come off unhandsomly with their expressions, for want of these comely and palliating graces of Elo­cution, were ever laughed at, and justly de­rided.

CHIRONOMIA: OR, THE ART OF Manuall Rhetoricke.

THE Clazomenian Sage (as Plu­tarch reports of him) upon a curious speculation of the pro­perties and motions of the Hand, as it were in an extasie of Anaxago­ras. admiration, concluded Man to be the wisest of all creatures, because he had Hands, as if they were the spring and fountaine of all intellectuall and artificiall elegancies: which opinion of Anaxagor as, Galen with Galen de usu partiū lib. 1. great elegancie and humanity, by way of inversion corrects, That because Man was the wisest of all creatures, therefore he had Hands, given him, the Hands being added, that as he was the most intelligent, so he might have fit organs to do and explain what his knowledge did inlight him unto; Art in the Hand being the same with Science in the Intellect; nor is the Genius of Na­ture Arist. de part. Ani­mal lib. 4 cap. 10. silent herein. Plutarch endeavours to give an Allegoricall interpretation of this saying of [Page 2] Anaxagoras, Manus est causa sapienti [...]. Manus id est experientia, est causa sapientia. But in re­gard Plutarch in moral. of the Rhetoricall properties of the Hand, Man may well be called Chiresophus, id est, Manu sapiens, Hand-wise. Galen excellently observes Galen de usu part. lib. 1. Man to be armed by Nature with three weapons, Reason, the loud weapon of the Tongue, and the Hand, which may be gave the hint to the President of the Colledge of Critiques to make them all Scaliger [...]xercit. three Hands, in that golden saying of his, where­in he subtilly sets forth the Rhetoricall force and dignity of the Hand, Ratio est manus intellectus, ra­tionis oratio, orationis manus. Hence the Hand, the famous companion of Reason hath ever obtained the preheminence in gesture, and been the Do­mius fac totum in all matters of corporeall elo­quence, as appeares by the cleare testimony of the learned Sages, and the Chirogrophie of elder Time. Hippocrates calls the Hand, Optimum di­cendi magistrum. The brother of Basil very copi­ously Hippocra tes in lib. de flatibus Greg. Nyss. l. de Hom. c. 8. sets out the Rhetoricall worth of this goodly Scepter and Caduceus of ingenuity. Rectè statuitur, manus esse proprium quoddam naturae lo­quendi facultate praeditae instrumentum, hunc potissi­mum ad finem effict as ut earum opere expiditior in no­bis sermonis esset usus. Cassiodorus saw also the force of this Hand-maid of wisdome, and living Cassiod. l. de Anima cap. 18. implement of elocution, Manus singulariter da­tae ad multas cogitationes nostras communitur ex­plicandas. The younger Plinie would have this Plin. Jun. lib. Epist. 19. saying marked and registred, Recitantium propria pronunciationis adjumenta esse manus. And one taking his hint out of the Poesie of Homer, makes this honourable mention thereof,

Desectis manibus pereunt quo (que) Palladis artes.

[Page 3] Hence the Latines significantly call the Hand, Chiron. Manum à manando quod hoc instrumento potissi­mum actiones è nobis emanent. Therefore the Meletius de nat. Hom. Greeks for good cause seem to have called the Hands, [...] ab utilitate, for that they are not only assistant to eloquence, but doe incredibly conduce to all the offices of Rea­son and Humanity. For it is the choisest Friend of Art, the Artificer of Elocution, the Brother of the phansie, and Remembrancer to her that dwells backwards in the high Towre of Pallas, the Bodies will and Intellect, the Gift, the wit, and ingenuity of the outer man, and the better Genius of the Microcosme: In which Minerva's darlings, the Phalanx of the Muses, and the Pierian Band, are trained & exercised as in a convenient Palestra or Gymansium. The Lo­gisticall motions that appear in the Hands of Dis­putants, as they demonstrate the large command of the signifying faculty of the Body which flows not only into the vocall organs, but proceeds so far, as to the Hands: so they significantly argue the Hand to be a peculiar instrument of reasonable nature, especially ordeined to set a glosse upon the vocal expressions of the mind. The Hand being a part so prompt & officious to afford the Tongue necessary aid, so powerfully inclined by its na­turall gifts and abilities to bring reliefe to rea­son, so apt and fit on all essayes to deale in mat­ters of expression, and to affect the hearers mindes, that whereas Man by a happy endow­ment of nature is allowed two instruments, Speech and a Hand, to bring his concealed thoughts unto light; the Tongue without the Hand can utter nothing but what will come forth [Page 4] lame and impotent, whereas the Hand without the discourse of the Tongue, is of admirable and energeticall efficacie, and hath atchieved many notable things. All Histories abound with the exploits of the Hand, which hath performed and brought to passe more things by a significant si­lence, then the Tongue hath ever done by an audible demonstration. Apollonius Tyaneus by Philostra­tus in vita Apollonii his most famous example alone, shall serve to cleare this point, who when he had with an in­credible religion observed the Pythagorean si­lence, neither had suffered any word to fall from him during the space of five whole yeares; yet when he came into Cities labouring of sedition, [...] manu at (que) vultu sedabat dis­cordias: After which manner hee travelled through Pamphylia, Cilicia, and other regions of the earth: For whatsoever is exprest by the Hand is so manifestly spoken, that men of the most obtuse understanding that are not able to con­ceive of the words pronounced in an unknown Tongue, to whom an Oratours spent oyle is meerly lost, because their rich and elegant ex­pressions in conceits transcend the pitch of their capacity: yet these may see and perceive the in­tention of the Hand, which by gestures makes the inward motions of the minde most evident: for, all men (a thing nature hath so appointed) are stirred & moved by the same motives of the mind, and doe in others understand and take notice of the same moving demonstrations, by experience judging and approving in themselves those affe­ctions that outwardly appeare to worke upon others. Hence the ingenious are forced to con­fesse that all things are more expressive in the [Page 5] Hand, as that which doth garnish the sense of words, and gives the shape, figure, and winning glory unto eloquence. This strengthens Speech with nerves, and the sinewed cords of twisted Reason. Speech divided from the Hand is un­found, and brought into a poore and low condi­tion, flags and creeps upon the ground. The babling Tongue (indeed) may have a long and spacious walke, and the full mouth may prate and run ore with large and loud impertinencies, but without the concurrence of the Hand, the mouth is but a running sore and hollow fist [...]a of the minde, and all such ayery trash but the cracks of an uprofitable lip that wants the assi­stance of those native Orators which were de­signed to attend the perfect issue of a well deli­vered cogitation: for what can we expect from that eloquence that neglects the motions of the Hand? or what can we conceive can be wrought out of that which is maimed and deformed, that should bee able to worke upon the affections? Whence a grave Father, an Author of Classicall authority (the high pitch of whose fancie some Greg. Nyss [...] l. de Hom. opi [...]ic. may chance to admire) borne on the rapture of his thought, run so high in his expressions, that he denies that man could have enjoyed the ho­nour of an articulate voice, had not nature plan­ted this magazine of Speech in the body, and sto­red it with native ammunition for the defence and arming of orall reason. And verily if Man were disarmed of this native weapon, or organ intended for the speciall advancement of utte­rance, wanting the subtle force of his Hand and Fingers, the expression of his Tongue would be very weake and unhewed; for the motions of [Page 6] the Hand in pronunciation, doe much enrich and endeare the expressions of the Tongue, which without them would many times appeare very meane: And if we consider the orations yet remaining among the ruines of former ages which were publickly pronounced, wee may cease to admire the advantages they have had over others, or themselves only penned; so that we may not so much wonder how they having been armed by discourse and voyce (together with the emphatical assistance of the Hand) have produced such prodigious effects: For, these gracefull aids of Speech and advantages are so peculiar to pronunciation and the Hand, that the Pen or Preffe knoweth not what they mean. This Fabius lib 11. cap. 3. de Inst. Orat. is sufficiently confirmed by what Quintilian re­ports of Hortensius, a long time Prince of Ora­tors, afterwards Coevall and Competitour with Cicero, but alwayes accounted the second, whose writings notwithstanding were so short of that fame of his living eloquence of pronunciation, that it appeares there was somewhat in those O­rations he pronounced which pleased very well, which they who came afterwards to read could not finde; the gifts of speaking and writing well, although compatible, yet not so inseparable that he who pretends to one, must necessarily bee possest of both. That Virgin Monarch, Queene Elizabeth of famous memory, whose Apo­thegmes may passe among the Oracles of Royall Reason, and Civill Prudence, having heard, or rather seen a Sermon that was preached before Her with the advantage of pronunciation, was much affected and taken therewith, and having the same Sermon afterwards presented unto [Page 7] Her, when She came to read it, and found not the insinuations of elocution and gesture, gave Her judgement of it, That it was one of the best Sermons She ever heard, and the worst she ever read.

Not only prophane, but sacred Authours have taken notice of this solemne bond and Rhetori­call obligation between the Hand and the mouth, and have not only allowed the language of the Fingers by which the Ancients were wont to speake, but have likewise punctually set downe the office of these sides-men the Hands, and gravely noted their necessary imployment and concurrence to the more advantagious setting out of speech. Among the recorded advanta­ges of gesture and Rhetoricall uniformity, the observation of Noverinus is not to be passed o­ver Noveri­nus in e­lect. sacr. in silence, whose ingenious animadversion it is, that the Septuagint in their version of the Proverbs, where Solomon bringeth in wisdome Cap. 1. v. 24. speaking; and where St. Hieroms translation, or the vulgar Latine hath it, Extendi manum meam, in the Septuagint translation it is [...] & extendebam sermones; for that speech may have life and efficacie in it, the Hands must goe out, and gesture must appeare to the eye that it may give evidence to both senses: And Solomon where he accuseth the sloathfull man for not Proverb. 19. 14. bringing his Hand to his mouth, seems to have cast an eye upon the old Aegyptian symboll, and to have said, his Hands touch not his lips, his a­ction agrees not with his voyce: For to this sense the Exposition of Saint Gregory may with little wresting be drawn, Manum ad os porrigere, est voci suae opera concordare; a good dependance & [Page 8] necessary relation, the Hand is joyned to the lips, and the lips must be so knit and held with the Hands, that sometimes our very words and spee­ches are turned into Hands, as the Septuagint in this place insinuate. And it is observable that the Spirit that is called the Finger of God, appeared under the form of fiery Tongues, a most excellent Acts 2. 3. connexion land it may be not without a Rhetori­call mystery of divine and powerfull elocution, the gift of speaking being granted hereby as well to the Hand as the Tongue, and a doore of utterance opened by the Spirit in both; no mar­vell therefore that they of Listra seeing the chiefe Speaker of the Apostles speaking in the power of these Tongues, as this Finger gave him utterance, tooke Paul for Mercury their imagi­nary Acts 13. 12. god of eloquence. Since (therefore) the T [...]gue is obliged to the Hand, it will become e­legant Divines to be good at Action, bring thy Hand to thy Mouth, and tye thy Tongue to thy Finger, and thou hast a most perfect symboll of Rhetoricall heat and divine expression.

For the Hand of the Artificer the worke shall be commended; and the wise ruler of the people for his speech, saith the son of Syrach. It stands him in Hand therefore who would emblazon the Ecclus. 9. 17. armes of the Queen of the affections Eloquence, to use her owne pencill the Hand, of a most se­cret property to quicken speech for where Elo­quence swayes the Scepter, the graces of utte­rance forsake their place and the feeblenesse of the proper forces of the Tongue are perceived, if they be not this way relieved by the Hand, by whose armes and allurements (as it were by main force) the ancient Orators have so often extorted [Page 9] approbation from their auditors, and by this third supply of elegant deportment, invading the minde through the eye, with easie accesses put themselves into the possession of the people: And questionlesse those brave generous formes of discourse wherein Art hath beene married to a­bundance, and richnesse of speech mixed with sweetnesse and majesty of action, wherewith those great and strange conceptions of the An­cients have been so curiously limbed and plen­tifully adorned and graced, are but too slenderly taken notice of in these times, the perfections whereof can be of no meane importance, when without the helpe of this great secret, neither or­nament of Art, nor grace of Nature can be but in part pleasing, nor (as one well observes) shall all the reasons the Tongue can alledge, per­swade Balzack. a very woman, resolving to resist: For, the Hands are those common places and To­piques of nature, which receive most of those extraordinary motions which appeare in Ora­tions, the high excesse, Enthusiasmes, raptures, and commanding beauty of expressions are here found: For, although gesture naturally floweth out with the voyce, yet comelinesse and beauty are the decent issues of apt motion, which ap­peare in a sweet delivery, anticipating the eare by the eye. And to speake seriously, this artifice of the Hand is no lesse necessary to excellent discourses and conceits, then discipline among Souldiers, without which courage is of no effect, and valour most commonly proveth unprofit­able: They therefore, who in publicke, and be­fore those who are versed in the Art of wel­speaking fall short in Manuall performance, [Page 10] suffering the glory of Eloquence to receive dise­minution in their Hands; do no lesse then cast an aspersion upon the Art they professe, and abuse their hearers; since no speech ought to be pub­lique if you intend to performe it negligently, and not to allow it all the ornaments whereof it is capable; for the polishing whereof wee need not go far, since the Hand is able to accommodate the Tongue in such occasions, as that which hath a greater variety of Synonymous expressions, and is able to outvie it in equivalent variations. This is sufficiently proved by the old emulation between that famous Oratour Cicero and Roscius the great▪ Master in the Art of Action; for it is certaine that most eminent Oratour would often contend and strive avie with Roscius whether he should more often expresse the same sentence in gesture; or whether he himselfe by the copi­ousnesse of his cloquence in a differing speech and variety of expression pronounce the same; which raised Roscius to that height and perfecti­on of knowledge, that he wrote a booke, where­in he compared Eloquence with the Art or Sci­ence of Stage-players: And indeed the fame and estimation of Roscius grew hereupon so great, that learned Ca [...]o made a question whe­ther Cicero could write better then Roscius could speake and act; or Roscius speake and act better then Cicero write. Hence a certaine moderne Authour reckoning up nine kinde of wits usuall at this day, makes up his account thus: Im­primis, In Specu­lo Humo­rum. a Simian or Apish wit; an Arcadian wit, an Autolican or embezled wit, a chance-medley wit, a smirke, quick and dextericall wit, and a Roscian wit, which is only in gesture, when [Page 11] one can farre more wittily expresse a thing by a dumbe externall action, then by a lively inter­nall invention, more by gestures then jests. This was in that Pantomimicall Roscius, who could vary a thing more by gestures then either Tully could by phrase, or he by his witty speeches. And as concerning such men wee may say of them as once Cicero said of Piso, They are wise only by signes. These Actors, the cunning coun­terfeiters of mens manners, were called Panto­mimi from their multivarious imitation, their fa­culty, Ars gestitulatoria by the Romans, which one Teletes is said to have found out, or at least to have much amplified, who is reported to have been so excellent in this subtill artifice of his Hands, that he could expresse by them whatso­ever Athaeneus l. 1. could be spoken by word of mouth. And we read of a certaine Philosopher, one Memphis Idem. by name, a master in this faculty, whose excel­lencie therein when the same Authour would signifie, Tacens (saith he) gestu omnia nobis mani­festius indicabat, quam qui artem dicendi se docere profitentur, in the reigne of Domitian, Bathillus was famous for these measures of the Hand, con­cerning whom the Satyrist:

Chironomon Ledam molli saltante Batillo.
[...]uvenal l. 1. Satyr. 6.

Saltationem manibus gesticulantis Ledae representan­te mimo, as Farnaby upon the place. We read al­so of one Mnestor a famous Pantomime, much Sueton. Calig. cap. 55. lib. 4. Cassiodor var. Epist. ult. affected by Caligula.

Cassidorus elegantly describing one of these Pantomimes, Tunc illa sensuum manus occulis ca­norum carmen exponit, & per signa composita quasi quibusdam liter is, edocet intuent is aspectum, in illa (que) leguntur apicesrerum, & non scribendo facit quod [Page 12] Scriptura deolaravit. Monstraletus in his Chro­nicle makes mention of a company of these Monstra­let. in Chron. Carol. 7. Franc. Chironomons, who before Trinity house in Pa­ris represented the passion of our Saviour with­out any words at all, but by the mystery of gesti­culations of his Hands, all things being very ex­actly and graphically acted by them. These Chi­ronomons of old being sent for from the Theater to banquets, carved up foules and other viands to their Symphonies: To which Juvenal alludes,

Nec minimo sane discrimine refert
Juvenal. Satyr. 8.
Quo gestu lepores & quo gallina secetur.

Hence Petronius, Ad symphoniam gesticulatus lace­rebat obsonia. And Juvenal: Idem Sat. 5.

Structorem interea nequa indignatio desit
Saltantem vide as & Chironomonta volanti

Lipsius confounds these structores or carvers, Caelius l. 5. Antiq. lect. c. 9. with the Chironomonts. The scene of this Art (as is thought) lay first in Syracusa, and that these Chironomicall expressions sprang from the im­mane cruelty of Hieron, the Tyrant of that City, who among other his barbarous edicts, prohibited the Syracusians all commerce of speech; and the vocall liberty of communication, comman­ding them to call for their necessaries by nods and significant motions of their Hands, eye and feete, which soone necessitated them to fall into these dancing conferences and declarations of their mindes. The first man that usurped the name of Chironomon or Pantomime a­mong the Romans, was Pylades when he came out of Asia: an Art which about the time of Nero was brought to that authority and per­fection, that many Writers both Greeke and La­tine [Page 13] as a thing most wonderfull cried it up to the skies. Hence Demetrius the Cynique who lived in the time of Nero, seeing one of these Pan­tomimi dancing the masque of Mars and Venus:

Vlderis ipsis manibus loqui:
Lucian de saltatione.
Or as Lucian hath it, Non agere, sed arguta manu effari.

And wee read of a certaine Prince who com­ming out of Pontus about businesse to Nero, then resident at the head of the Roman Empire, when Caelius l. 5. Antiq. lect. cap. 3. he together with others had seen this Chironomon dancing so conspicuously, that although he could not heare nor understand what was sung (for they were all semi-Grecians for language) yet they understood all things very perfectly: This Prince when he was to returne home, and Nero had invited him with much courtesie and love, and liberally bad him aske what he would at his Hands, promising him readily to grant his desire; Give me, quoth he, Roy all Sir, this Chironomer, and with this gift you shall highly pleasure me: Nero demanding what that fellow might ad­vantage him in his affaires at home, I have quoth he (most sacred Emperour) many barbarous neighbours differing in language, to understand whom, I need a great number of Interpreters, which are not easie to be had; therefore when I shall stand in need of an Interpretour, this man by significant motions of his Hands shall inter­pret all things unto me. And concerning these artfull gestures of the Hand, and loquacity of the Fingers, we must understand many passages of the ancient Poets, and Philosophers. Thus is Lib. de consulat. Maul. Theodor. that of Claudian to be understood:

Qui nutu manibus (que) loquax.

[Page 14] And that of Sydovins Apollinaris:

Clausis faucibus & loquente gestu.

To this also belongs that of Petronius: Petron in Analectis.

Puer manu loquaci.

And what another speaking of this Art hath: Anony­mus lib. 4. Epigr.

Egressus scoenam populum Saltator adorat
Solerti pendet prodere verba manu.
Pugnat, ludit, amat, bacchatur, vertitur, adstat,
Illustrat verum cuneta decore replet.
Tot linguae quot membra viro, mirabilis est ars
Quae facit articulos voce silente loqui.

The Poet here saith very aptly, Articulos loqui, for that these Pantomimi did not only delight in gestures of the Hand, but more especially in mo­tions of the Fingers. Theoricus King of Italy called this, Musicam mutam, still musicke, quae ore Cassiodo­rus l. 1. var Epist. 20. clauso manibus loquitur, & quibusdam gesticulatio­nibus facit id intelligi, quod vix narrante lingua, aut scripturae textu posset agnosci. To this appertains S. Cyprian de specta­culis. that of St. Cyprian, Vir ultra mulierum molliciom dissolutus, cui ars sit verba manibus expedire. And that of Seneca, Mirare solemus scoenae peritos, quod in omnem significationem rerum & affectuum parata Seneca Epist. 121. illorum est manus, & verborum velocitarem gestus assequitur. But of all that have touched at this Cassiodo­rus lib. 6. Epist. ult. Art, most wittily Cassiodorus, Hic sunt additae Or­chestarum loquacissim [...] manus, linguosi digiti, silenti­um clamosum, expositio tacita, quam musa polyhymnia reperisse narratur, ostendexs homines posse, & sine oris affatu, suum velle declarare. And indeed the Prince of Roman Poets where he handles the names & Virg. in Epig. inventions of the nine Muses, ascribes the fin­ding out of this kind of utterance to Polyhymnia.

Signat cuncta manu loquitur Polyhymnia gestu.

The learned observation of these premises made [Page 15] the ancient Masters of the [...]ieroglyphiques who Pier. Hier. lib. 35. used to decypher a distinct and articulate voyce by a Tongue, adde a Hand comprehending the same, to note out eloquence, by that conceit im­plying, that speech stood in need of that moist organ the Tongue, but pronunciation required a Hand, to wit, an artificiall helpe to set it off, and make it beautifull to the eye. And the first inven­ter Zeno E­leates. As Arist. writeth. of the Art of Logique, to note the moods and brevity of argumentation, exhibited Logique by a Hand comprest into a Fist, and Rhetoricke by an open and dilated Hand, which is but pug­nus expansus. Analogicall to this, is that symboll of the Cynique, Manus non sunt proferendae com­plicatae Diogenes. confusis digitis, which insinuates that speech should not be perplext in the delivery, but should be open plaine and free, for then speech labours of a blinde crampe, when it is too con­cise, confused or obscure. Hence Phisiogno­mers according to their rule ad apparentiaem, infer such men to be full of words whose manners and common use it is to hold the Hand spread out with the Fingers. ☜These Hand Critiques observing the apparent manners of men, say, That he who customarily useth much action of his Hand, in his talke, is a faire speaker, and neat in his language. And that ancient Interpretour of dreames, in his Allegoricall inferences, makes the Hand to signi­fie Artemid. de Som. interp. l. 1. cap. 44. reason, understanding, speech and languages, which as it were by the conduct of letters, or rather an opportune speech, declares the tacit affections of the minde. Ribera ob­serves, Ribera Comment in proph. minor, that the Hand in Scripture doth not only signifie the divine suggestions of Prophesie, but also all kinde of speech, especially wherein there [Page 16] is any thing commanded: and he addes the rea­son,. Quia sicut manns movet, it a movet locutio praecipiens. The reasons why grave Antiquity did render and understand all kinde of speech and language (as Pierius notes) by a Hand, are, for that the moving and significant extention of the Pierius in Hierogl. Hand is knowne to be so absolutely pertinent to speech, that we together with a speech expect the due motion of the Hand to explaine, direct, enforce, apply, apparrell, & to beautifie the words men utter, which would prove naked, unlesse the cloathing Hands doe neatly move to adorne and hide their nakednesse, with their comely and mi­nisteriall parts of speech: And words would have but a cold lodging in the eares of the audi­tors, if the Hand should not be the Harbinger of the Tongue, to provide and prepare the eye for their better entertainment; for as words paint out the image of the minde: So these suffragans of speech by a lively sense afford that shadow which is the excellencie of the vocall pourtrai­cture. Since as these gestures of the Hand alone, and by themselves doe speak and shew the men­tall springs from whence they naturally arise; so invited by Art to the aid of Eloquence, they be­come the Accessories and faire spoken Adjuncts of speech. Hence the first Artificers of Manuall Rhetoricke, hit on the right veine of Oratorie, when conducted by a learned curiosity of wit they tooke in hand that polite device, and ele­gant design of reducing the usuall gestures of Na­ture into strict rules of Art, preparing the undi­gested motions of Nature, and making them more formall, and fit for the intention of Rhe­toricke, whose life and force they made much to [Page 17] consist in the just demeanour of the Hand, whose motions appeare as emphaticall to the eye, as speech doth to the eare, two ports of sense, through which all passions finde an entrance to ceaze upon the minde. And hence such Orators have ever won the prise, and have had their Hands crowned with the Olympique palme of Eloquence, who have excelled in the subtill notions of this Art; who conceiving Rheto­ricke to consist most in a decent motion of the body, bestowed well neare as much paines to adapt their gestures to Rhetoricall significations, as in the elegant disposing of their choice flowers; the Hands so surpassing in dignity all the other corporall adjutants of mans wit, that there can bee no eloquence without them. And they perceiving that action [...] most sway with the people, who most commonly are led by sense, which is moved by some adequate object; that without the true knowledge of this secret of Art, none could be accounted in the number of good Oratours, & that a mean Oratour instru­cted in this knacke of action, did oft excell the most eminent; they bent their whole endeavours for the attaining this quality. Demosthenes who deserves the sirname of Chirocrates for his active judgement in these Rhetoricall endeavours, he was wont to compose the action and gesture of his body by a great looking-glasse, and for fur­ther acquaintance with this faculty, he entertain­ned Andronicus the Stage-player, by whom be­ing instructed in this Art after he had reformed the defect that was before in his Orations for want of Action, he grew very famous for Elo­quence; insomuch that Aeschines the Oratour [Page 18] who in a discontent left Athens, and came to keep a Schoole at Rhodes, and begun to teach the Art of Rhetorique, when he otherwhiles read Plutarch in the life of Aeschi­nes the O­ratour. unto the Rhedians (and that with action and gesture) the Oration he had pronounced against Ctesiphon: when all the hearers marveiled there­at, and namely, how possibly he could be cast, if he acted such an Oration: You would never wonder at the matter (quoth he) my Masters of Valer. Max. lib. a cap. 10. de pro [...]ne. & apto mot [...] corp. Rhodes, if you had been in place, and heard De­mosthenes, and seen the vigorous sharpnesse of his eyes, the terrible weight of his countenance, a sweet voyce accommodated to every word, and the efficacious motions of his Hand and body. This Art was generally practised by all the emi­nent Oratours of Athens, unlesse perchance in that sad and solemne Session of the Areopagites, where when they were to speak without affecti­on, in an obscure and darke place, there was no cause why they should use the motiōs of the hand

Among the Romane Oratours, Cicero to this intent made use of Roscius the Comoedi­an, and Aesope the Tragaedian, in his time the Masters of this kind of learning, who was wont to call Roscius for his great skill in these subtle­ties of the Hand, Delicias suas, his Darling: and upon a time, in a most eloquent Oration, he re­buked the people of Rome, because while Roscius was acting, they made a noyse. What an apt Scholler he proved, and what his opinion was of this Art, appeares by his book de Oratore, where­in he so highly extolls Action, the practice whereof help'd to intitle him to the principality of Eloquence. Plutarch relating the force of Cicero's eloquence, by reason of the sweet grace [Page 19] of his pronunciation, reports him in his Oration Plutarch in the life of Ci [...]ero. pro Ligario, so marveilously to have moved Cae­sar, [one that could well skill in Manuall Rhe­torique] that he changed divers colours, and shewed plainly by his countenance, that there was a marveilous alteration in all the parts of him. For, in the end, when he came to touch the battaile of Pharsalia, then was Caesar so troubled, that his body shooke withall, and be­sides, certaine bookes which he had, fell out of his hands, and he was driven against his will to set Ligarius at libertie. Therefore the malice of Antonie forced teares and lamentations into the Idem ibid. eyes of the Romans, when they saw Cicero's Right Hand, the instrument of his divine Elo­quence, with which he penn'd and pronounced the Phillippiques, nail'd fast unto his head, and set upon the Rostrum or Pulpit of Common pleas in the Forum. Cn. Lentulus also, for his excel­lencie in this Art, was more famous then for his vocall eloquence. C. Lentulus, P. Lentulus, C. Gracchus, L. Apuleius Saturnius, Crassus, and C. Julius Caesar, were men expert in this mysterie. Antonius, he used the Asiatique phrase in his plea­dings, which carried the best grace and estima­tion at that time, full of ostentation and bravery of gesture. As for Q. Pompeius, sirnamed Bithy­nicus, C. Macer, Manilius Sura, &c. they lost the estimation of good Oratours, for their defici­encie in this Art. But above all, most actively eloquent was Q. Hortensius the Oratour; one could not tell whether they should most desire to run to heare, or see him speake: his presence and aspect did so a dorne and become his words, and assist his periods to accomplish all their [Page 20] numbers; and againe, his verball expressions were so conformable to his gesture, and so ele­gantly Aul. Gell. lib. 1. cap. 5 administred unto his hand, that for cer­taine, Aesop and Roscius, two famous Actors of those times, were often observ'd to croud into the Assembly when he was pleading, that they might by imitation transferre some of his expres­sive Val. Max. lib. 8. de apte motu corp. gestures from the Forum to the Theater. Some Lawyers and Divines I have observed to have been very prevalent by virtue of this arti­fice of the Hand, even in these times: among whom, most eminent was that much lamented Dr. Donne; of whom an ingenious friend thus in his Elegiack knell:

Yet have I seen thee in the Pulpit stand,
Mr. Mayne, of Christ Church Oxford.
Where one might take notes from thy look & hand.
And from thy speaking action beare away
More Sermon then some Teachers use to say.
Such was thy cariage, and thy gesture such,
As could devide the heart, and conscience touch:
Thy motion did confute, and one might see
An error vanquish'd by deliverie.

Such (as Sconerus notes) was the action of the Prophets and Ecclesiasticall Oratours in the Primitive times, plainly Heroique, as may be col­lected out of Sacred Writ, and some Commen­tators thereon, in whom the Eloquence of the Prophets is graphically described.

Nature exhorts all men to Action consentane­ous to the stile of their Elocution: which inbred and commodious propensitie, unlesse illustrated by Art, and confirmed by exercitation, is, as Tra­pezuntius notes, but as a field untill'd, which runs [Page 21] wild with disorder'd productions. Art being the Imitator which perfects Nature, makes her actiōs more dilucid, illustrious and sweet, by her positive accommodations. For whatsoever Nature doth institute in the individuals worthy observation, reduced into one exact idea, built upon generall precepts, by a perpetuall order, Art doth expose under one aspect of the Understanding: And Nature againe placed by Art, beholds the excel­lent actions of eminent men, and expresses them by a happy exercitation. Wherefore the ancient Rhetoricians, who cast their eyes upon Nature, and insisted in her steps, whose Art was princi­pally bent to imitate the severall actions of the Mind with a decent and comely grace; admit­ted no gesture to the hand, but what they did find by an accurate collation to have some similitude with the truth of Nature. That which Philostratus Junior requires of a Painter, who would be emi­nent Philost. jun. de I­conib. by his Hand, is more necessary to an Ora­tour. He would have him that would seeme to manage that Art skilfully, to be a man endued with a good fancy and a sound judgement, a­ctively apt to every thing, and industrious in the observing of mens natures, and assimilating their manners, and counterfeiting of all things which in the gesture and composition of the body, are the signes and notes of the tacite mind and affections. And indeed, then shall the hand of an eloquent man move aptly, and as to the purpose applyed to expresse what he takes in hand, when he hath converst with Nature, and insinuated himselfe into all the veines of the af­fections of the Hand, & by diligent study hath at­tained to an exquisite experience in the proper­ties [Page 22] of the fingers, and what the naturall motions of the Hand are wont to be. Hence Philosophers, who can discern of the naturall causes of things, have a notable advantage: for he shall most ele­gantly & judiciously manage his Hand, & mode­rate the gestures thereof, who by the discipline of Philosophie shall apply and conforme himselfe neerest to the nature & varietie of the affections.

Hence Demosthenes, being demanded the que­stion, Which was the first point of Eloquence? Plutarch i [...] the life of Demost. he answered, Action: Which the second? He answered, Action: and which was the third, he said, Action, still. Wherefore in the Olympian Games, at that famous assembly of Greece, that Theater of Honour, where the Arts, wisdome, and the illustrious Vertues were recompenced with publique honours; there, in the sight of the Cresol. in Antholo­gia sacra. people of Greece, after the sound of a Trumpet, wherewith the mindes of the standers by were rowzed up to attend the solemne commendati­on of the publique Cryer; the Hands were first crowned, before the Head, as S. Chrysostome ad­vertiseth Chrysost. Hom. 2. de Davide, us. For when the Brabutia, which were most skilfull Judges, would declare, that all the glory of the Victors did proceed from the Hand or Action; and that in the first place, In­dustry, labour, and skill were crowned by them; not the shoulders of the triumphant Olympia­niceans, but their Hands were decked and prai­sed with the glorious Palm. Skilfully therefore S. Ambros. 62 Hexā. cap. 13. Ambrose: Palma manus victricis ornatus est. And Victorie is called, Dea palmaris: and victoriosus, with Isidor, is palmosus. But why the Palme was given to them that overcame, and why the boughes thereof have been proposed as rewards [Page 23] to such as were victorious in Artes or Armes, according to that of the Poet: Horace lib. 1. Od.

————Palma (que) nobilis,
Terrarum dominos evehit ad deos.

There are who alleadge this reason: For that the fruit of the Palme doth resemble the Hand and fingers, and are thereof by the Greekes na­med dactili, that is, digiti, fingers: for, the great See Sandes Travaile [...] lib. 1. ends of the branches appeare like hands stretch­ed forth, and the dates as fingers. It seemed therefore right, the Palm should be given to them whose Hands were skilfull in Arts, and Fingers cunning in battail; since the chief weight & illu­strious honour of all triumphs depend upon the hand or action, or as if the fruit of the Palm were peace. And Tullie, when he had unfolded all the [...] Orat. ornaments of a costly and copious eloquence, he casts up all in the summary of these grave words: Sed haec omnia perinde sunt ut agūtur: implying, that without a pleasing and opportune Action, all the other aydes of Speech would become vaine and unprofitable. Talaeus is in the right, where he saith, that many Infants by the dignity of Acti­on, Talaeus in Rhet. have often reap'd the fruit of Eloquence; while many eloquent men through the deformity of gesture, have been accounted very babies in Expression. For whereas Nature assignes to each motion of the Minde its proper gesture, countenance, and tone, whereby it is signifi­cantly exprest; this grace of Gesture is concei­ved to be the most elegant and expressive virtue of the three; install'd by Plato among the Civill virtues, as the speech and native eloquence of the Body; for that those Elegant conceptions that inrich the pregnant Mind, incite the minde [Page 24] by some stratagem of wit, to finde out apt and fit expressions: and while she labours to be free in powring out her hidden treasures, she im­prints upon the body the active hints of her most generous conceits, darting her rayes into the body, as light hath its emanation from the Sun: which eloquent impressions, a kinde of speech most consonant to the minde, are in the moving of the Hand so neatly wrought and emphatically produced, that the Hand many times seemes to have conceived the thought. He therefore that would purchase the repute of an accomplish'd Rhetorician, must pursue the knowledge of this Art, which consists in understanding the lawfull garbe and ordered motions of the Hand, the most puissant Agent of the soule, and which hath by some been called Mens corporis, or the Minde of the Body; the voyce of Philosophie admonishing in Epictetus, no lesse to be minded by a Rheto­rician then a Philosopher:

Ne digitum quidem temerè extendere.

Some notions of this Manuall Rhetorique are Epict. Enchirid. derived from the Heroique ages of the world, and were approved and allowed of by So [...]ates. Yet in the dayes of Aristotle were not delivered by any, as digested into any forme of Art, which had been a Subject worthy of his pen: but, in Chirologicis dormivit Aristoteles. The Art was first formed by Rhetoricians; afterwards ampli­fied by Poets and cunning Motists, skilfull in the pourtraicture of mute poesie: but most strangely inlarged by Actors, the ingenious counterseiters of mens manners. The first Romane Oratour that collected these Rhetoricall motions of the Hand into an Art, translating so much from the [Page 25] Theater to the Forum, as stood with the gravity of an Oratour, was surely Quintilian, unto whose Quintil. in Ruer. inst. curious observation in the Hand, I referre those who out of curiositie desire to be more punctu­ally informed in these most subtle and abstruce notions of the Hand, which they may also finde recited in Vosoius his Rhetorique, a mysterie in great request with the ancient Sophisters and Rhetoricians, and properly handled by them, although some not well advised, would have them considered in the Aethiques: for there is distinction to be made between that which Mo­ralists call Actionem moratam or civitem, and Ora­toriam, which the Greekes call Hypocris [...]n, and Quintil. Chiromomiam, which are accōmodated to move the affections of the Auditors. And indeed the gestu [...]s of Rhetoricall utterance doe pre­suppose the Aethique precepts and the lawes of civill conversation. The Ancients, especially the Grecians, were men ever very inventive of such subtleties, had a Palestra, or place of exercise for this purpose. Talaeus preferres these Canonicall gestures before the artifice of the Voyce, although his Commentator will allow the preheminence of this Art only among Nati­ons Claudius Minos in Talaeum. of divers tongues, and not where the assem­bly is of one lip. Keckerman gives the voyce the dignity of precedence for our times: but he is no better than a precision in Rhetorique, of whose conceit let the learned judge, since he confesseth the Jesuites (known to be the greatest proficients in Rhetorique of our times) instruct their disciples after this manner. And how won­derfully they have improved and polished this kind of ancient Learning, appeares sufficiently [Page 26] by the Labours of three eminent in this facultie: Cresollius de gestu Oratoris, Voellus de arte di­cendi, and Causinus de Eloquentia. Alstedius Alstedius in Rhet. could wish we had some booke of the Pronunci­ation of the Ancients, that we might take out of it such gestures as did square with our times: such a Booke as Laertius praises. And Schonerus wishes for Types and Chirograms, whereby this Laert. l2. in vita Theodori. Art might be better illustrated then by words. Which defect in this Art I have here attempted to supply (and as I hope) with reasonable suc­cesse. If I have miscarried in any, it is the more pardonable, since in all my search after these sub­tleties of the Hand, I never met with any Rheto­rician or other, that had picturd out one of these Rhetoricall expressions of the Hands and fin­gers; or met with any Philologer that could exactly satisfie me in the ancient Rhetoricall po­stures of Quintilian. Franciscus Junius in his late Translation of his Pictura veterum, having given the best proofe of his skill in such Antiquities, by a verball explanation thereof. That which inabled me to advance so farre in this Art, is the insight I have purchased in the ground-work or foundation of all Rhetoricall pronunciation, to wit, the Naturall Expressions of the Hand.

THE CANONS OF RHETORICIANS TOUCHING The Artificiall managing of the HAND in Speaking. With an Historicall Manifesto, ex­emplifying the Rhetoricall Actions thereof.

Canon I.

THe Hand lightly o­pened, timorously displayed before the breast, and let fall by short turnes under the hea­ving [Page 28] shoulders, is an humble and neat action, becomming those who daunted and dismaid, begin to speak as if their tongue were afraid to encounter with the publicke eare; and such who shunning a profuse excesse of words, would sparingly ex­presse their Mindes, or asswage and mitigate the censorious ex­pectation of their Auditours, by an ingenious insinuation of a diminutive Action.

Quintilian thinks that Demosthenes in that low­ly Fabius Inst. Rhet. lib. 11. and fearfull Oration for Ctesiphon, began with his Hand composed after this manner: And that Ciero's Hand was formed to this composition of gesture in the beginning of his Oration; for Archias the Poet, when he said, Si quid est in me [...]genii (judices) quod s [...]ntio quam sit exiguum.

Canon II.

THe stretching forth of the Hand is the forme of plea­ding, [Page 29] and hath a secret helpe and preparative to ready spea­king, and commendeth an A­pology or any set speech to the Auditours.

In the memorialls of Antiquity, in the writings of the old Annales, the lineaments of Pictures, and ancient Statues, we shall finde this postute of preparation in the Hands of famous Oratours. Aristides reports, that Prince of Oratours, M [...]l­tiades Aristides. to have been so painted in Grece to the e­ternall monument of his memory, stretching out his Right Hand only, as he was wont most honou­rably to speake unto his people. Phillip that e­loquent Coelius var. lect. Cicer. de Orat. man, was wont to say, that he did so rise up to speake that hee knew not his first word, yet he said he used to speake excellently well, when he had once warmed his Arme. And Marcellinus observing the demeanour of Valin­tinian about to make a publicke speech, when he had put forth his Hand (saith he) that he might speake more readily. That divine Oratour and chief Speaker of the Apostles, used this Action as a preparative to his ensuing Apologie: for when Agrippa had permitted Paul to speake for him­selfe, Paul stretched out the Hand, and answe­red for himselfe. This forme of pleading is to be seene in the ancient Statues of Roman Ad­vocates.

Canon III.

THE indulgent putting forth of the Hand towards the Auditours, signifying a kinde of Humdnity, and good will, is a benevolent action, fit for those who praise or congratulate, and is of great efficacie to move the affections.

This Action had a singular grace and comeli­nesse in Meletius, that reverend Bishop of Anti­och, a man invironed with a guard of all the Vertues, with which Action of his Hand; as with the engine of good will, he seemed to lift up the hearts of his hearers with him; therefore Gregory Nyssen attributes to him, Com [...]m dextram & veluti lenocinio orationis perfusam, qua [...] cum Greg. Nyff. de St. Melet. or is facundia digites commovere soleat.

Canon IV.

THe gentle and wel-orde­red Hand, throwne forth by a moderate projection, the Fingers unfolding themselves [Page 31] in the motion, and the shoul­ders a little slackned, affords a fa­miliar force to any plaine con­tinued speech or uniforme dis­course; and much graceth any matter that requires to be hand­led with a more lofty stile, which we would faine fully present in a more gorgeous excesse of words.

The comelinesse of this Action (which best suites with them who remove & shift their stan­ding) appears herein, that by this emanation of the Arm, and delivery of gesture, speech is so well pronounced and powred forth, that it seems to flow out of the Hand.

Canon V.

THE Hand directed to­wards the Auditours, with a kinde of impetuous agita­tion of the Arme, maintaining its gravity with a swift recourse, [Page 32] is an action [...] of vehemencie, fit to [...], de­nounce, reprehend, and [...], and by its extension, implies po­wer, and a prevalent authority.

This Action is not seasonable untill an Oration begin to wax hot and prevalent, and the discour­sing appetite of the Hand: be rowsed up, and well heated by a Rhetoricall provocation, and is sufficiently affected to move according to the nimble contention of the Tongue. And then this glittering dart of speech, like lightning, or the shaking of Apollo's beams, expatiates it selfe into a glorious latitude of elocution: The Ora­tion with this militarie gesture, as it were, pow­ring out it selfe. The left arme (if any thing is to be done with it) is to be raised, that it may make as it were a right angle.

Canon VI.

THe Hand restrained and kept in, is an argument of modesty, and frugall pronunciati­on, a still and quiet action, su­table to a milde and remisse de­clamation.

[Page 33] This Action with Tully, is Molli brachio ageres with Fabius, M [...]lli articulo: Gladiatorem vehement is impetus, adversarii, mollis articulus excepit. And in the Primitive times of elocution, when elo­quence began to flowre and bud, and insolencie was rarely entertained. Oratours were wont to keep their Hands within their cloaks, for so, as Aeschines will have it, those ancient Oratours, Eschines in Timar. Princes of Greece, in most account, both for their language and judgement (Pericles and Themi­stocles) were wont to declame; as an action most sutable to conserve their modesty. And he fet­cheth his argument of so laudable a custome from the statue of Solon, which the ancient Statu­aries, skilfull in the counterfeiting mens maners made for Solon at Salamina, in this posture to note his moderation and modesty; with which signi­fication there was the like statue long after his time erected at Rome for Scipio. And verily Aeschines who approved of this posture of the Hand as an Index of moderation, he observed it himselfe even in the heat of reprehension and re­proofe; but this animadversion of Aeschines who spitefully carped at the important gestures of the Hand, the Oratour Demostheues did after­wards most elegantly deride and explode; for that statue of Solon, saith he, the Salaminians say was not dedicated above fifty yeares agoe: But from Solon to this present time are two hundred and forty yeares, so that the work-man who ex­pressed that gesture, no not his grandfather, were then alive. But it cannot be denied that such a thing might be with the Ancients, which Aes­chines knew rather by conjecture, then any cer­taine assurance: For we read of one Polemon a [Page 34] deboyse young man, who upon hearing of Xeno­crates, became modest, and drew his Hand with­in Valer. Max. his cloake. And the gravest Writers report of Cleon that turbulent Oratour of Athens, to have Plutarch in Nicia. been the first that opened his cloake in spea­king. This rationall conceit prevailed also with the Romans, for although in the ancient statnes of Lawyers in Rome, we finde the Right Hand put forth, the forme of pleading: yet the first year they were called to the Bar, they were not to put forth the Hand, nor a young Advocate per­mitted to plead after the same manner as an anci­ent Practitioner. Cicero hath left a certificate of this custome, Nobis olim annus erat unus ad co­hibendum Cicero pro Coelio brachium constitutus, ut exercitatione lu­do (que) campestri Tunicati uterentur; which garbe of the restrained Hand, as it is an argument of frugall pronunciation, the great Prelates of Rome ob­serve at this day when they speake before the Pierius in Hierogl. Pope, as that great Master of the Hierogly­phiques testifies. But when wit which lay a­sleep in those rude and simple times, began to be rowzed up and instructed with Arts, those streights of bashfulnesse were inlarged, the Hand released and set at liberty, and a more freer course of pleading brought in, not that modesty should be excluded mens manners, which is a great ornament of life; but that speech might have a greater force to worke upon the affecti­ons of men. Now, to use this fearfull demeanour of the Hand, were the part of one void of com­mon sense and humanity; against whom that of Quintilian might be brought, who reprehended Fabius Inst. Rhet. those who in pleading inhibited the Hand, as if the businesse were done sluggishly.

Canon VII.

THe Hand put forth and rai­sed aloft, is an action of congratulatory exclamation and amplification of joy.

This is drawn from Nature into the Schooles and discipline of Rhetoricians, who prescribe Cresol. Vacat. Aut. this free and liberall motion of the Hand, as a fit periphr [...]sis of gesture upon such occasions, and most consonant to the intention of Nature.

Canon VIII.

THe Hand collected, the Fin­gers looking downewards, then turned and resolved, is a set form accommodated to their intention who would openly produce their reasons.

The artificiall conceit of this Action is, that it seems as it were indeed to bring forth with it, some hidden matter to make the argument in Hand more Rhetorically apparent.

Canon IX.

THe hollow Hand raised a­bove the shoulder with [Page 36] some kinde of grave motion of the wrest, doth cheere, exhort, embolden and encourage.

Canon X.

THe palme (the Fingers all joyned together) turn'd up, and by the return of the wrest, in one motion, spread and tur­ned about with the Hand, is an action convenient for admira­tion.

Canon XI.

THe Hand (the Fingers all joyned at their tops) refer­red to the vocall passage of the minde, doth lightly admire; and fits their occasion who in the in­terim are moved with sudden indignation, and in the end fall to deprecate, amazed with fear.

Canon XII.

THe turned up Hand, (the Thumbe bent in, and the other Fingers remisse) transfer­red to the Northern side of our body, and then prone to our South side, so, lightly waved to and fro [...], doth very aptly distin­guish contraries, and may sh [...]w the variety of numbers.

Canon XIII.

THE hand after one sort is not still disposed to aske a questi­on; yet commonly when wee demand, however it be compo­sed, we use to change or turne our hand, raising it a little up­wards.

Canon XIV.

THE hand erected, and then so moved, that the inside is tur­nedout, [Page 38] is a sensible Action that apparently presents the least di­sparity or difference.

Canon. XV.

THE Hand that by alternate motions contracts and un­folds it selfe, doth aid them in their pronunciation who are ve­ry instant to urge a thing.

Canon XVI.

THE turning of the Hand may serve to signifie an easie dex­terity of performance.

This is a magistrall notion raised upon this principle, that the Hand is so borne to Action, and so prompt to expedite all accounts of significati­on, that nothing seems more easie then the mo­tion of the Hand. Hence the Greeks very inge­niously call that which is proclive and easie to be done [...], as if it were no more difficult then to stir the Hand; for the ancient Greeks call the Hands [...]. Hence Manus non verterim, the Adage, pro eo, quod est, nihil omnino laboro, a forme of speech used by Apuleius. The Carthagi­nian Ambassadour used this adjunct of demon­stration In Apolo­g [...]a. [Page 39] to Andromachus at the City Tauromeni­on, for in his bold speech wherein he threatned in the name of the Carthaginians, to make quick dispatch to the overthrow of Tauromenion, he shewed first the palme of his Hand, then the back of his Hand, threatning him that his City should be so turned over-hand, if he did not quickly send Plutarch in the life of Timo­leon. away the Corinthians: Andromachus turning his Hand up and downe as the Ambassadour had done, bad him be going, and that with speed, out of his City, if he would not see the keele of his Gally turned upwards. This Action as it is ex­pressive to the easinesse of performance, is Ca­nonicall enough, but as a demonstration of the Cities or Gallyes overthrow, it is Apochryphall.

Canon XVII.

THE Hand brought to the sto­macke, and spread gently thereon, is a gesture of Rheto­ricall asseveration.

But whether it be convenient to touch the breast with the Hand; the sonnes of Rhetoricians have made enquiry in their learned Disputati­ons: Some would have the Hand to be onely turned, and so referred to the Breast: Others say, we may touch the Breast with our Fingers ends; both, in the opinion of Cresollius may bee done without reprehension, when we speake any thing concerning our selves, and that our speech glydes with a calme and gentle streame. But the touch doth most availe in a sharpe and inflamed [Page 40] stile, when the motions of the minde are by A­ction unfolded: As when an Oratour would ex­presse an incredible ardour of love lodged in his bosome, and cleaving to his very marrow; or griefe deeply setled in his yearning bowells; in signifying these and such like affections, none can rebuke an Oratour if he shaltouch his Breast with his Fingers ends only. Cresollius makes little doubt, but Tully used this gesture, when he said, M. Tul. 2. in An­ton. miserum me, &c. for in such occasions, the splen­dour of pronunciation is lacking, neither have words sufficient force to make the minde altoge­ther intelligible, unlesse the Hand be brought to the Breast.

Canon XVIII.

THE shewing forth of the Hand, or beckning with the same, are Rhetorically sig­nificant to speake to, call after, invite, bring in, and warne to come.

Tullie, in the Epilogue of his Oration for Plan­cius, Cicero in Epilog. Planc. which did abound and overflow with la­mentation, very commodiously explain'd him­selfe by this Rhetoricall compellation, where with most excellent artifice he call'd Plancius, and bids him come unto him, that he might touch and imbrace him. Cresollius rather prefers the first action to the Hand of an Oratour, and would Cresol. va­cat Aut. [Page 41] have invitations signified by putting forth the Hand onely, without any waving motion; for, that Beckning with the Hand, in his judgement, is the propertie of an unskilfull multitude, and of men of small account, who want gravitie and moderation; who doe not onely induce and ap­ply their bent-in-Hand to this perswasive behavi­our, but doe also revoke and bow back their whole body, and wind and wrest about their very sides: Who though he doe not forbid or repudiate this calling gesture of the Hand alone, yet if the body be drawne in withall, he would have it referr'd to the Stage, and to places of common resort.

Canon XIX.

THe Hand rais'd & stretched out with the arme, or the Hand waved towards the audi­tors, are advātageous actions for them who would imply a gene­rous confidence, and their autho­ritie and abilitie to effect a thing: it serves also to call for, and de­mand silence, and for the prologue to an act of pacification.

This Canon is grounded upon the Axiome in Nature, That there does appeare in the Hand [Page 42] as 'twere a Naturall marke of the Majestie and Authoritie of Man. Hence Ovid, in this Rhetori­call sense, attributing a Majesticall Gravity to the Hand of Jupiter,

—qui postquam voce manu (que)
Murmura compressit, tenuere silentia cuncti,
Ovid. lib [...]. Meta [...].
Substitit & clamor, pressus gravitate regentis.

And Statius speaking of the action of Jupiters Hand in a Councell of the gods, advanc'd to the same purpose:

—veniam don [...] pater ipse sedendi
Tranquilla jubet esse man [...]
Statius l. 1. Thebaid.

Hence Aelian of Jul. Aug.

Manu semper cos placare cuperet.
Aelian Spartian, in Jul. Aug. Stat. lib. 1. Syl.

But though the Hand onely put forth, and ad­vanced with authoritie, is of force to asswage tumults, and procure audience, (as Domitian in Statius) Dextra [vetat pugnas]—Yet if a certaine kinde of motion be there withall exhibi­ted, it will be of more force and dignitie; which [...] or [...], words which the Greekes use in this case, doe import. Herodians phrase is, [...], the proper word in this businesse is [...]: the Greekes also say, Lib. de a­nima & re­sur. [...]: with Greg. Nyss. 'tis [...]: others [...], some also, [...], almost in the same sense, al­though this last, seems to signifie something lesse, onely the lifting up of the Hand. Verily, Cor­nutus upon Perseus grants as much: Magna (saith he) & profutura hominibus locuturi [tacere Cornut. ad Pers. Sa [...]. 4 jubent] moventes manum. See the Naturall ge­stures, Gest. XVI. for examples of Oratours using this Action.

Canon XX.

THE Hand propellent to the left-ward, the left shoulder brought forward, the Head inclined to the South­ward of the Body, is an action accommodated to aversation, execration, and negation.

Canon XXI.

TO shake the Hand, with bended browes, doth ab­horre, deny, dislike, refuse, and disallow.

Canon XXII.

The hand resilient or leape­ing back to the Pl [...]nic [...], the Right Hand is the South of the Mi­crocosme; the Left, the North. North­ward of the Body, whence it did descend, makes an action fit to abominate, and to accom­pany words of refusall or dislike, and may serve also in point of admiration.

Canon XXIII.

THe Hand with a gentle percussion, now grea­ter, now lesse; now flat, now sharpe, according to the diver­sitie of the affections, is fitted to distinguish the Comma's & brea­thing parts of a sentence.

Canon XXIV.

BY his Hand referr'd unto him, an Oratour may shew himselfe, when he speakes any thing concerning himselfe.

Caesar used this patheticall demonstration of himselfe, when one accused Brutus unto him, Plutarch in the life of Brutus. and bad him beware of him: What, said he a­gaine, clapping his Hand on his breast; Thinke ye that Brutus will not tarry till this Body dies?

Canon XXV.

The Hand bent into a fist, and the Pulpit or Barre strooke therewith, is an action of Rhe­toricall heate, and very artifici­ally [Page 45] accompanies Anger, and a more vehement contention.

Canon XXVI.

The palm strook upon a book, (held usually in the left hand of an Orator) doth serve to ex­cite and rowze up the Auditours.

This action is commonly used by our Moderne Oratours, and hath succeeded in the place of smiting upon the thigh, which cannot well be performed in our deep and little pulpits.

Canon XXVII.

TO clap the hand suddenly upon the breast, is an acti­of increpation, proper in their hands, who would arrest their speech, and non-suit it by silence, and by a carefull stop restraine their tongue, and call back as it were their reprehended words, & put in a Rhetoricall Demur, [Page 46] or crosse bill against their owne Declaration.

To this Action, that of Homer appertaines: ‘Pectore autem percusso, [animum increpuit] Homer. [...]di [...]. sermone.’


THe Hand brought unto the stomack, & in a remisse garb spread thereon, doth conscienci­ously assevere, & becomes them who affirme any thing of them­selves.

Canon XXIX.

THE Breast stricken with the Hand, is an action of Griefe, sorrow, repentance, and indigna­tion.

This is a very patheticall motion in Nature, & Rhetorical in Art; and action in use with the anci­ent Oratours, and with a profitable signification practised by the Jesuits; who are wont, not only with a light approach to touch the Breast, but sometimes also to beat upon it with the Hand; which they doe, for the most part, to testifie anguish of minde, repentance, and matters of [Page 47] Mortification; which they acte and perso­nate with such substantiall abundance of speech, with such motion of the body, and such immi­nent gesture, that while they beat their Breasts, they raise oftentimes great motions in the minds of their Auditors, and religious teares are drawne from the eyes of many. Which Rheto­ricall action of the Hand is not alwaies (to an inch) framed by the precepts of Rhetoricians, nor by line and levell fitted to the rule of Art, nor weighed, as 'twere, in the Goldsmiths bal­lance; for they who assume this gesture, strike their breast with an audible stroake, when they judge it fit for their purpose; although some, who are more studious of eloquence, doe not heartily admit of this loud contact of the Hand; who with a peaceable meeknesse bringing the quiet Hand unto the breast, by the forcible at­chievements of that pronunciation, procure a dreadfull influence to fall upon their Auditory. But in a Senate of the Learned, and a solemne Assembly of venerable personages, a vehement percussion of the breast is not convenient; but is to be remitted to the Theater, lest (as my Au­thor Cresol. saith) some Stripling in Eloquence, should tacitely throw at them that out of the Comoe­die; Plautus in milit. glo­rioso.

Hic pectus digitis pultat, cor credo evoca­turus foras.

Canon XXX.

THE Forehead stricken with the Hand, is an action of dolour, shame, and admiration.

[Page 48] Quintilian grants this to have been used by some turbulent Oratours in their pleadings, even Fabius lib 2. cap. 22. in his time, and very availeable with them, who by a popular ostentation of Eloquence, hunted after the applause of the people. His words are these: Jam collidere manus, terrae pedem incutere; fe­mur, pectus, frontem caedere, mire ad [pullatū circulū] faciunt. Yet Oratours of very good esteeme, by their practice commended the use and significa­tion of this gesture; but in Epilogue onely, and a certaine fiery amplification; when for the moving of passion, these tragicall expressions of the Hand are held comely and convenient. A gesture with the Greekes and Latines of equall use and signification, as farre as our understanding can light us to the knowledge of those Rhetoricall ornaments of Expression, in fashion with the Ancients. And it was wont to attend upon three causes; to Dolour, Shame, and Admiration. In great griefe, they thought it of old a very expres­sive demeanour of the Hand. Cicero commen­deth it in Brutus. Dionysius Halicarnassensis ac­knowledgeth Dyonis. Hal. Rom. Antiq. l. 10 Cicero ad Attic. l. 1. Ep. 1. Liv [...]e, l. 25 Q [...] Curti­us, lib. 7. Apuleius Metamor. lib. 1. Hel. Aeth. Hist. l. 10. Libanius in Basilico the use of this gesture: Percutientes frontes, & aspectus tristes prae se ferentes. Cicero insinuates as much to his friend: Puto te [ingemu­isse] ut frontem ferias. Livie calls this affection of the Hand, Capitis offensationem: [Flere] omnes & offensare capita. With Q. Curtius, it is, Os converberare: Is tum [flere] caepit, & os converbe­rare; [moestus] non ob suam vicem, &c. In Apu­leius the gesture stands thus, Dextra saevi [...]nte fron­tem replaudere. The Greeks say [...], and [...], and [...]. Hence Heliodorus of his old man, Cum feriisset frontem & coll [...]crumasset. And Liba­nius [Page 49] of the Persian King, Caput identidem percuti­ens deplorat: And we read it to have been the forme of lamentation used by the Spartans at their funeralls. But of this dolorons adjunct of discontent, and angry symptome of grieved nature, Tullie in a kinde of medley of naturall invasions, and Rhetoricall impressions of the Hand upon Ci [...]ro, Tusc. [...]. the assailed Body, makes this rehearsall: Mul [...] ­ [...]bres lac [...]rationes g [...]narum Pectoris, feminum, capi­tis percussio. That this gesture was used in signi­fication of shame, S. Chrysostome declares, who when he had upon a time, with an incredible force of utterance, rehearsed divers impious and Chrysost. Hom 2 [...]. ad pop. Ant. ridiculous superstitions observed by some of the people, he made the whole multitude of his au­ditors ashamed. Of whose shame he puts down three visible arguments, in words sounding to this effect: Vultum operuistis, Frontem percussistis, & ad terram inclinastis. This [...] in another place hee expresseth in his owne Idem Serm. 56. language thus: [...]. That it was significant in wonder and admiration, appeares by Nonnus a great Poet, who attributes this gesture Nonnus in Johan. Ev [...]g. paraph. to admiration, in his paraphrase of the sacred Hi­storie of S. John; where, of Nathanael, wondring at the doctrine of our Saviour:

Prae admiratione Frontem divina manu feriens.

Hannibal used this adjunct of expression as a stra­tagem, at the battaile of Ca [...]nes: who when Giscon, a man of like state and nobilitie with himself [...], told him that the enemies seemed afar off to be a great number; Hannibal [rubbing his Plutarch in the li [...]e of Fabius. forehead] answered him: Yea, said he, but there is another thing more to be wondred at then you [Page 50] thinke of, Giscon. Giscon straight asked, What? Mary, saith he, this; That of all the great num­ber of Souldiers you see yonder, there is not a man of them called Giscon, as you are. This merry answer, delivered contrary to their expectation that were with him, looking for some great weighty matter [sutable to his gesture] made them all laugh a good.

This gesture, although it was with these sen­ses admitted the hands of the Ancients, yet it appeares to Cresollius in the possibilitie of a doubt, whether or no it can now with any ad­vantage Cresol. l. 1. be done, it being little used by Advo­cates, and the more judicious sort of men, that speake in publique; unlesse perchance by such who are of a more hot complexion, and are apt to boyle over with a sudden motion, whose cho­ler in the seething, bubbles into action; for men of this temper, soone moved, as having a naturall inclination to anger, in the vehement fervencie of passion, hastily and swiftly with the Hand touch the forehead or cap: which action, be­cause there manifestly appeares in it the virtuall effect and commotion of Nature, it commonly escapes the lash of reprehension. But faintly and childishly apply'd, and sav [...]ring more of School­artifice then the intentionall operation of Nature, it is condemned as feigned and adulterate; for which reason, my Author concurres in opinion with Quintilian, and adjudgeth it worthy of banishment from the Hand of an Oratour, and Rhet. Inst. to bee consined to the Theater, and the ri­diculous Hands of Mimicks. Unlesse it seeme good to any to reserve it as a relique of Divine Courtship, which they report the Polo [...]ians to [Page 51] doe, who in their Churches at their holy myste­ries, are wont to beat their fore-heads with the Hand.

Canon XXXI.

THe Thigh smitten with the Hand, was the gesture of one pleading more vehemently, of one grieved and fuming with indignation, of one taking notice of an others errour, or confessing himselfe deceived.

Tullie believed that action of an Oratour Cicero in Bruto & advers. M. Callid. feighned, who in some grievous matter deser­ving the sharpest hate and heaviest indignation, did not use this expression; for he calls Callidius a cold and dull Oratour, and argues his guilt from hence, that in his Oration, Ne (que) frons percussa fo­ret nec femur. The first Oratour that used this ge­sture, Plu [...]arch in Gracch. by the testimony of the old Annales, was Cleon, who when he pleaded in Athens, that fa­mous mansion of the Muses, transported with a certaine vehemencie, and provocation of spirit, and moved with indignation, smote his thigh, which when he had vented with other such like signes of a fierce and turbulent disposition, many wise men thought him to have thrust all decorum and [...]ible moderation out of the Pulpit: This, many afterwards did imitate, at the first thought ill of for the novelty, but in the use of common life [Page 52] very frequent. This gesture prudently, and with good advice exhibited, hath a cunning force to amplifie and enlarge a thing, and to shake and asto­nish the minds of the Auditours. Scopelianus a man of greatest account for eloquence, as Philostratus hath delivered it to posterity, that he might Philostra­tus lib. 1. de vita Sophorum. rowze up himselfe and his Auditours, now and then used this patheticall demeanour of the Hand: This, as it was oftentimes necessary in the Forum, so very fecible in those large pewes, where those that were retained in causes did plead: but in our times, and the manner of plea­ding which we now use, it is neither so frequent, neither can it so commodiously be done: But a­nother thing hath succeeded in the room there­of, which the writings of the Ancients are si­lent in; for the Advocates eagerly beat the Bar with their Hands, and sometimes so madly and importunately, that the standers by heartily wish their Hands qualified with some Chiragracall prohibition. This blemish and infirmity of the Hand, hath crept also into holy places, and there are many Preachers found, who with an incon­siderate rashnesse shake the innocent Pulpit, while they wax warme, and conceive a vehe­ment action to excell. This action as it is least unseemly when the wicked deceits and notori­ous dishonesties of men are called in question, so used without judgement, it argues a turbulent and furious motion of a vaine minde, and dulls the Auditours.

Canon XXXII.

THe left hand thrust forth with the Palme turned [Page 53] backward, the left shoulder raised, so that it may aptly con­sent with the head bearing to the Right Hand, agrees with their intention who refuse, ab­hor, detest, or abominate some ex­ecrable thing, against which their mindes are bent as a di­stastefull object, which they would seem to chase away, and repell.

With this Action these, and things of the like nature, are to be pronounced:

Haud equidem tali me dignor honore,
—Dii talem terris avertite postem!


THe left hand explained into a Palme, obtaines a forme of perspicuity.

These two last Canons are exceptions against the generall maxime of Quintil. Manus sinistra nunquam sola gestum facit.


BOth the turned out Palmes bent to the left side, is a more passionate forme of dete­station, as being a redoubled action.

Canon XXXV.

BOth Hands objected with the Palmes adverse, is a fore-right adjunct of pronunci­ation, fit to helpe the utterance of words comming out in dete­station, despite and exprobration.


BOth Hands extended forth, the Palmes driving out to both sides, doubles the Action to all the same intents and pur­poses of aversenesse.


BOth Hands clasped and wrung together, is an Acti­on convenient to manifest griefe and sorrow.


BOth Hands dejected, make supplication more Canoni­call.

Canon XXXIX.

BOth Hands a little or farre dis-joyned, shew the man­ner and abundance.

Canon XL.

BOth Hands extended out forward together, is an A­ction commodious for them who submit, invoke, doubt, speak to, accuse, or call by name, implore or attest.

With this Action are such as these to be set off to the best of utterance, Vos Albani Tumuli at (que) [Page 56] Luci, vos, inquam, imploro at (que) obtestor! And that addubitation of Gracchus, Quo me miser conferam? Cicer. pro Milone. quo vertam? in Capitoliumne? at fratri [...] sanguine redundat, an domum? &c. The same emphasis of action is required to that of Cicero, Tu ex edito Idem pro Milone. monte latialis Jupiter, cujus ille lucos, nemora, sines (que) saepe omni ne [...]ario stupro & scelere macularat.

Canon XLI.

BOth Hands lightly smitten together, is convenient e­nough to expresse a certaine anxious and turbulent heat of co­gitation of an Oratour, that can­not sufficiently explaine his minde, or doe as he would.

Cresollius conceives that infringere articulos, that Qintillian speaks of as an elegant and come­ly action in the Hands of the ancient Rhetorici­ans, and so commendable that they used it as a Manuall introduction to their Orations, was no other but this Action.

Canon XLII.

THe Hands gently set toge­ther by a sweet approach, causing a low sound by their [Page 57] light encounter or complosion, make an opportune cadence of Action, to attend the close or pe­riod of a sentence.

This Action was commended by the practice of Proaeresius that accomplished Oratour, of old time, the Master of brave speech, and grace in ready speaking, who publickly pleaded his cause at Athens to the great admiration of all men, of whom one of his Auditours, Eunapius, thus speaks: Proaeresius orditur flumen quodaam orationis singu­los periodos pulsu manum finiens.

Canon XLIII.

BOth Hands smitten together with a certaine kinde of gra­vity, doth affirme with Rheto­ricall asseveration.

Canon XLIV.

BOth the Palmes held respe­ctive to the body, declare benevolence.

Canon XLV.

BOth Palms held averse be­fore the Breast, denote com­miseration.

[Page 58] This Action, with this signification, I have ob­served in some ancient painted tables, the Hands of cunning Motists. And verily, without the knowledge of the naturall and artificiall proper­ties of the Hand, as Franciscus Junius well ob­serves, Francise. Jun. de pictura veterum. it is impossible for any Painter, or Carver, or Plastique to give right motions to his works or Hand; for as the History runnes and ascribes passions to the Hand, gestures and motions must come in with their accommodation. The no­tions (therfore) of this Hand may bee of good use for the advancement of those curious Arts.

Canon XLVI.

THe Hands addrest to both sides, are well disposed to satisfie or to request.

Canon XLVII.

IF both Hands by turnes be­have themselves with equall Art, they fitly move to set off any matter that goes by way of Antithesis or opposition.


VVE may use likewise the advantage of both Hands, when wee would [Page 59] present by some ample gesture the immensity of things; some spaces far and wide extent, a great number, almost infinite, large af­fections, or when the voyce is reiterate by conduplication.

Canon XLIX.

BOth Hands modestly ex­tended and erected unto the shoulder points, is a proper forme of publicke benediction, for the Hands of an Ecclesiasticall Oratour when hee would dis­misse his Auditours.

It was the custome of the Hebrew Divines, to Godwin in his booke of the anci­ent rites of the Heb. observe this Decorum in elevation of the Hands for solemne Benediction. And the Romanists who in matter of ceremony much emulate the externall devotion of the Jew, in all their exten­sions and elevations of the Hand, which they use in blessing, keepe them within these prescribed bounds: Not that there is any mystery in this point, only the elevation of the Hand declares that we have chosen heavenly things, according [Page 60] to Origen, and the extension or spreading out of Origen Hom. 11. in cap. 17. Exod. Basil in Isaiah. Tertul. de Orat. cap. 13. Gavantus Comment in Rubri­cas Rom. the Hands signifies the effectuall force of prayers, as Basil expounds it. Tertullian therefore regu­lating the Hands in this rite to a decencie of mo­tion, would have them temperately and mo­destly erected; whereupon it seems to me, the Pa­pists conforming their Rubrique to the Jewish Talmud, limit the Priests Hands, not to over­top, or exceed the distance of the shoulders. This solemne Action, according to some modern Expositors, implies the solemnity of a presentati­on of the Auditours to God in prayer, and doth denote unto them Gods favourable goodnesse, [...]ookers Eccles. polit. protection, and spirituall Benediction, desires God to confirme the blessing given, who opens with his Hands, and fills all creatures with his blessings, and seems to wish the accomplishment of all that is comprised in their Manuall vote. That Priestly Blessing or solemne Benediction, with which the Priests under the Law blessed the People, was apparantly uttered and pronounced by this advancement of Gesture: because they could not lay their Hands on all the Congrega­tion, they lifted them up onely to the shoulder­points: Godwins Jewish Antiq. the ordinary forme that was then in use, was to impose the Hand, which could not be done with any decent expedition: and this the Levites conferred face to face, from the place where they stood. Such a solemne Benediction was that where with Melchisedech is said to have blessed Abraham, when he met him in his re­turne Heb. 7. 7. from the slaughter of the Kings, and blessed him. The like was practised by the Hand of Aaron, when he lift up his Hands towards the people, and blessed them. And Symon the High Levit. 9. 22. [Page 61] Priest, the sonne of Onias, in finishing the so­lemne service, lifted up his Hands over the whole Congregation of the children of Israel, to give Ecclus. 50. 20. Psal. 134. the blessing of the Lord with his lips. The peo­ple bowing themselves, that they might receive a blessing from the most High. The forme of which solemne Benediction the Psalmist gives us: Lift up your Hands to the Sanctuary, and praise the Lord. The Lord that hath made heaven and earth, Blesse thee out of Sion. For thus the Levites used to praise the Lord, and blesse the People. Spirituall Benediction having been ever accom­panied with this sacred Manifesto of the Hands. Hence we finde it observed, that among the Hebrewes of old, when the Priest blessed the People, they used to erect three fingers, to wit, the Thumbe, the Index, and middle finger; by which number of their fingers they tacitely im­plyed a Secret of the Trinitie. P [...]trus Blessensis seemes to allude to this action of the Hand. His Petr. Bless. Tract. contr. Jud. perfidiam. Benedictionibus sacerdos alios Benedicens, protrusas ante vultum suum Palmas utrasque tenebat. Cum vero dicebat, Dominus, quod & Hebraico illo trino & uno nomine exprimebant, Tres digitos priores, id est, Policem, Indicem, & Medium utrius (que) ma­nus, rectum & altius erigebat, & dicto it à, Domino, digitos remittebat ut prius. Addit statim: Quid per trium digitorum elevationem melius quâm Tri­nitatis Salomon Trecensis Comment in Script. idem te­statur. excellentia mysticè intelligi potest? a qua sci­licet vera & plena Benedictio. A Gesture of the Hand, used in the same sense and signification, by the Pope at this day: who when he is carried upon mens shoulders in solemne procession, with the same posture of his Right Hand, and number of his fingers, bestowes his Canonicall [Page 62] Benedictions upon the people, onely wa­ving them into a Crosse. Buxtorfius sayes, Buxtorf. [...]n Synag. Jud. that the moderne Jews, at the feast of their Passe­over, when the Priest at the end of their Prayers Blesseth the people, he extends and spreads a­broad his Hands and Fingers, which they call Ch [...]umim, whereupon Schechina or the Glorie and Majestie of God, doth rest upon the Hands of the Priest: wherefore they give a strict charge that none of the people presume to looke upon their Hands at that time, unlesse he would be imitten with blindnesse. And in the Feast of Re­conciliation, when the Priest pronounceth the Blessing, he extends out his Hands towards the people; the people presently hide their eyes with their Hands, it being unlawfull for any to behold the Hands of the Priest; as it is written: Behold he stands behind the wall, he looketh forth at the window, shewing himselfe through the Lattice: Cant. 2. 9. That is, God stands behinde the Priest, and looketh through the windowes and lattices; that is, through the spread Hands, and dis­persed Fingers of the Priest, which the He­brewes cast the windowes and lattices of the Gavantus in Com­ment. in Rubric. Rom. Eccl. Hand. The Rubriques of the Romish Rites, which seeme a little to squint this way, prescribe three formes of Benediction for the Hands of the Priest. The holding up of the Hands be­fore the breast: The crossing of the Thumbes: and the turning the little finger towards the people. All which have their severall seasons and significations in their Liturgie. Our blessed Saviour was a manifest observer of the Naturall See Math. 10. 53. Luk. 24. 50 forme of Benediction, and hath sanctified the Gesture to a more divine importance. After [Page 63] Christ [...] ascension, the Apostles communicating the vertue of his last Benediction, to o [...]hers; in th [...] conveyances thereof used the same expressions by gesture, and were famous for the effectuall force of their prospering Hands: their exempla­ry action was copied out by then successors, the illustrious, Fathers of the Primitive Church, whose Hands preserved Blessing, as their lips Knowledge. Christians in those [...]ges being de­voutly ambitious of such benefits, thought them­selves happy when they could receive this spi­rituall favour at their Hands.

There is a story in Gregorie Nyssen, of a Deacon of the Bishop of N [...]ocaesaria, who in respect of Greg. Nyss. in vita Thau­maturgi. the wonderful strange things which he wrought by his inspired Hands, was sirnamed Thaumatur­gus. Which Deacon being to goe a long and adventurous journey, requested a Blessing at the Hands of his Dioce [...]an; who li [...]ting up his Hands, most willingly bestowed this Manuall viaticum upon him. This comfortable elevation of the Hand in Benediction, hath a force at this day in the Hands of our Reverend Divines: And (ve­rily) there is no Blessing formally confer'd, or authentically administred, unlesse the Hands de­note their suffrages by their visible attendance, and appeare in a due conformitie to the words ditected unto the eare. And I never saw any Grave or Orthodox Divine from the Pulpit, dis­missing the People with a Blessing, without this adjunct and formall concurrence of the Hands.

An Index to the following Rhetoricall Alphabet of MA­NUALL Significations.
  • A Figures out the XIX Canon.
  • B FIgures out the I Can.
  • C FIgures out the II Can. digit.
  • D FIgures out the III Can. digit.
  • E FIgures out the II Can.
  • F FIgures out the X Can.
  • G FIgures out the IX Can.
  • H FIgures out the VIII Can.
  • I FIgures out the XXVI Can. digit.
  • K FIgures out the XI Can.
  • L FIgures out the XXIV Can.
  • M FIgures out the XXXII Can.
  • N FIgures out the XXXIII Can.
  • O FIgures out the VII Can.
  • P FIgures out the XLVII Can.
  • Q FIgures out the VIII Can. Digit.
  • R FIgures out the XLIV Can.
  • S FIgures out the XLV Can.
  • T FIgures out the XLVIII Can.
  • V FIgures out the XXXIV Can.
  • W FIgures out the XXXV Can.
  • X FIgures out the XL Canon.
  • Y FIgures out the XXXVII Can.
  • Z FIgures out the XLIX Can.

The use of this following Table, besides the ex­hibition of the Manuall Figures of Rhetorick, may be for an Alphabet of Privie cyphers, for any kinde of Secret intimation.

To make up the Alphabet, C. D. I. Q. are taken in, out of those supernumerary Gestures, fol­lowing, under the Title of Indigitatio.


A Pacificat.
B Auditores mitigabit.
C Meotericis orditur.
D ad monstrandū valet.
E Modus agendi.
F Admiratur.
G Hortatur.
H Rationes profert.
I Flocci facit
K Deprecatur
L Sic ostendebit seipsum.
M Negabit.
N ꝑspicuitatem illustrat.
O Exclamationem aptat
P Antithes in exornat.
Q Argumenta digorit.
R Benovolentiam ostendit.
S Com̄iserationem denotut.
T Im̄ensitatem aperit.
V Valdè aversatur.
W Execratione repellit.
X Addubitabit.
Y Dolebit.
Z Benedictione dimittit.

INDIGITATIO: Or, The CANONS of the Fingers.

Canon I.

THe two inferior Fin­gers shut in, and the other three presen­ted in an eminent posture in the extended Hand, is a speaking Action, significant to demand silence, and procure audience.

The ancient Oratours, when they prepar'd to speake to the incomposed multitude, used this [Page 68] action. Of which gesture of the Fingers, Apu­leius hath left a certificate, where Telephron, por­rigit Apuleius lib. 2. Me­tamorph. dextram, & instar oratorum conformat articu­lum, duobus (que) infimis conclusis digitis, caeteros emi­nentes porrigit, & infesto pollice clementer subrigens, i [...]sit. Fulgentius expounds this common fashi­on of the Hand after this manner, Ita (que) composi­tus in dicendi modum erectis (que) in iotam duobus digi­tis, tertium pollice comprimens, ita verba exorsus est, who differ not much, but that one makes the Thumbe erect, the other comprest. Many have made mention of this matter, Libanius where he Libanius Curr. Heroum. describes Nestor painted in the middest of the Hero's, Orationem apud ipsos habere videbatur, id (que) significare conformatione digitorum, but what that conformation of the Fingers was, he doth not explaine. But the most usuall garbe of the Hand in way of preparative to speech, was this of A­puleius. Which posture of the Hand preparing the Auditours attention, is found in many Sta­tues of the Ancients. There is a Colossus at Rome, which in times past stood in the Baines of Anthony, the left hand whereof leaneth upon a club; but the two first Fingers of the Right Hand extended out with the Thumbe, such as of old time was the gesture of Oratours speaking, as Grutterus notes, which most authenticall co­pie of speech they seem to have followed, whose Grutterus in Sylloge inscript. Hand the golden History of the Crosse in Cheap was, for there were to be seene two statues of mitred Prelates having their Hands figured in this manner, as if they were speaking to the peo­ple. And in old hangings, in whose contexture, most part of the Historicall discourse is represen­ted and insinuated by gestures of the Hand: And [Page 69] in all ancient painted tables where any counter­feit of speech is exhibited, nothing so obvious and remarkable as this Rhetoricall posture of the Fingers. And the inventions and painted Histo­ries of our moderne Artists in their representati­ons of speech had in publicke, have a constant relation and respect unto this ancient forme of the Fingers. And over the ancient images of the Prophets, which pollished by the Hands of the Jesuits, come over to us from the Mart, there is usually a Hand extended out of Heaven, impail'd about with rayes, the Fingers retaining this ge­sture, as it were the Index of God speaking to his Prophets, as He was wont to doe of old, when He stirred up their hearts, and suggested His sacred Oracles unto them. For since they could not by any fitting semblance or fancied pourtraiture of inventive wit, describe God as He is in Himselfe; lest impiety should have tain­ted their imagination, and they should seeme to make the Prophet equall to his God, they would not by a grosse discription shadow out God speaking Face to face, because the Face pre­sents the Person, Nudam Divinam Essentiam, as Brixian; cleerly as he is in Himselfe: but Hee Ric [...]hiard Brixian Symb. hath never been seen in that manner by dreame or vision of His Seers, nor is it possible any mor­tall eye should endure the infinite lustre of so great a Majesty: therefore to evade the pro­phanenesse of that presumptuous errour, they on­ly displaied a Hand from Heaven, to that intent of signification, as a more lawfull note, and as it were a member more remote from the face; and because the Hand is the Index, and signe of inspi­ration, and that Divine power and impulsive ra­vishment [Page 70] wherewith the Prophets were raised up to Prophesie. For, Prophesie if it be strong, with the Hebrewes it is called the Hand, as Ribe­ra observes;Ribera Comment in Proph. minor. in which sense the Hand of God is taken in divers places of So 2 King 3. 15. 2 Chron. 30. 12. Isa. 8. 11. Ezek. 1. 3. 3 14. & 22 8. 1. 33. 22 37. 1. 40. 1 &c. Scripture; for the Pro­phets used to call that Spirit the Hand of God which fell upon them when He did inspire their disposed soules, and heating them with the ravi­shing influence of a Prophetique fire, by a terrible illustration, filled them strangely full of His re­vealed will. Cornelius a Lapide affirmeth him­selfe to have seen the like description of the Pro­phets in the ancient Bibles of the Vatican Li­brary; and in his Comment upon the four greater Prophets,Cornel. à Lapide Comment in 4 Proph major. he hath prefixed to their Prophesies their severall effiges after the same manner; which, as it is probable, were copied out of the Vatican Bibles.

Canon II.

THe Thumbe erect, the o­ther Fingers gently bent in, is a convenient composition of the Hand for an exordium, and to lead to the forming of the other actions of the Hand; oft used by our modern Chi­ronomers.

Canon III.

IF any thing be to be shewed, the Thumb must be bent in, the other foure Fingers remisse.

Canon IV.

THe Index joyned to the Thumbe, the other Fin­gers remisse, is another forme of the Hand, fit for an exordium.

Canon V.

THe middle Finger applied unto the Thumbe, the o­ther three let loose, is a fashion of the Hand, most of all com­modious for a Proem.

This Action must be performed with a gentle motion to both sides, the Hand a little put forth, the Head together with the shoulders, with a shrinking modesty, regarding that part to which the Hand is carried. In Narration the same gesture, but a little more produced and certaine; in Exprobration and arguing, sharpe and instant; for in these parts of an Oration it is put forth longer, and appeares in a larger extent. Which should bee the best Rhetoricall figure of the [Page 72] Hand to frame it to expresse by Art what it can­not so well insinuate by Nature; neither by the use and practice of experienced and eloquent men that now are, nor by any advertisement of the Ancients can be certainly collected, since they differ much about the matter; some pro­nounce with the unfolded Hand, these holding it downwards, others contract it, and make thereof a Fist; some frame their action by the fourth Canon, some by the fifth Canon: Which Quintilian commends above all other formes allowed to be of any moment, to set a glosse or vernish upon discourse. So many Oratours, so many varying and different formes of speaking. But Cresollius whose judgement is Oracular in Cresol. de gest. orat. lib. 2. such matters, conceives that posture best ob­served by an Oratour, that when hee pronoun­ceth with the open Hand, held abroad, and set at liberty, he would not hold it wholly down, nor altogether upwards, but in a certaine meane, which as it is (according to the opinion of Phy­sitians) most naturall, as he notes it out of the two grand Patriarchs of Physicke, so it seemes Hippoc. l. de fractis, & Galen de motu Musculorum l. 2. to him most easie and agreeable to modesty, although this ought to be in common use, yet up­on occasion the Hand may fall into the other po­stures.

Canon VI.

THe two middle Fingers brought under the thumb, is an Action more instant and [Page 73] importunate, and doth urge more then is convenient for an Exor­dium or Narration.

Canon VII.

THE top of the Fore-finger moved to joyne with the naile of the Thumbe that's next unto it, the other fingers in re­mitter, is opportune for those who relate, distinguish, or ap­prove. 'Tis also fit for them that mildly councell, and becomes the phrases of pompous Elocuti­on, with which Rhetoricians polish and enrich their Orati­ons. 'Tis seasonable also for Narrations and Panegyriques, where a soft & pellucid Orati­on flowes with the copious streames of Eloquence, and it [Page 74] availes in any painted kinde of speech, and agrees with an Epi­dixis.

Cresollius commends this composition of the Fingers, as most comely of all others, and con­sonant to ingenious dispositions, if the arme be extended out fore-right, which best agrees with a manly and couragious speech: or the Arme a lit­tle bent and the Hand lifted up before; a gesture much affected by elegant men.

Canon VIII.

THe two last Fingers drawn to the bottome of Cythe­rea's brawny hill, or the pulpe of the Thumb; the Thumb ap­prest unto the middle joynt of the two next: if the Dexter Hand so form'd, doe smite with a light percussion on the sinister Palme, it doth conspicuously distribute & digest the numbers, arguments, and members of an Oration.

Canon IX.

THe top of the Thumb joyn'd to the middle of the naile of the Right Index, the other Fingers remisse; is fit to distin­guish contraries.

Canon X.

THE left Thumb prest downe by the Index of the Right Hand, doth urge and instantly enforce an argument.

Canon XI.

THE top or grape of the left Index gently apprehended, puts the Hand into a Rhetorical shape for disputation.

Canon XII.

THE middle joynt of the left Index apprehended, intends more earnestnes, and sublimates the sense of words unto a point of greater vehemencie.

Canon Canon XIII.

THE upper joynt of the Index apprehended, the two next Fingers a little bowed, the eare-finger in the meane time scarce bent at all; hath a Rhetoricall force in Disputations.

Canon XIV.

THE Mid-finger prest to the Palm, and the others at their own behest, makes the Hand competently apt for to upbraid.

Canon XV.

THE two Middle-fingers bent inward, and their Extremes presented in a fork, doth object a scoffe, and doth contumeliously reproach.

Canon XVI.

THE Vice-hand, or Thumb, ex­tended out with the Eare-Finger, the other Fingers drawn [Page 77] in; doth denote amplitude.

Canon XVII.

THE Thumbe that presents it selfe upright, out of a Right­hand bent into a Fist; is a grave Masculine action, fit to advance the sense of Magnanimitie.

Canon XVIII.

THE Thumbe turn'd out, by a received custome, is made an act of Demonstration.

Canon XIX.

THe three last Fingers contra­cted close to the Palme, and compress'd by the Champion of the Hand, and the Index dis­play'd in full length; upbraides: is a point of indigitation, most demonstrative.

The force in this indicatorie action, Antonie Anton. [...]. de Orat. noted Crassus to have skilfully used to his pur­pose, [Page 78] in expressing his earnest griefe, and the ve­hement affection of his minde: Quae me hercule, Crasse, cùm à te tractantur in causis horrere soleo; tanta vis animi, tantus dolor, oculis, vultis, gestis, Digito denique isto tuo, significari solet. Other very excellent Pleaders, imitated this notable gift of Nature, or exquisite endeavour and affe­ction of Art, in that wealthy Oratour; as we may gather out of the monuments of the Ancients. To whom (saith Cresollius) thus speaking, we may cry out; as Seneca reports a faire-spoken O­ratour Seneca l. 8 Contro. once did in a certaine Declamation of his: O Digitum multa significantem!

Canon XX.

THe Index erected from a Fist, doth crave and expect attenti­on; and, if mov'd, it doth threaten and denounce.

Canon XXI.

THe Index advanced from a sist, and inclin'd respective to the shoulder; hath a great facultie to confirme, collect and refute.

This seemes to be that Action, which Tertul­lian sayes, Hermogenes was wont to use; to wit, Tertul. [...]d Hermog. cap. 27. Nutu Digiti accommodato: and he calls it, Leno­cinium pronunciationis. Indeed, this Action can doe much in gathering together, and reciting the [Page 79] matter to be debated and concluded by reason; to wit, when that, we take up from others, is such, as cannot be denyed, and doth seeme necessarily to follow, especially in Contro­versies and Disputations, when the falsitie of erronious opinions, are with great gravitie of speech and asseveration refuted: in which case Cresollius dares pronounce that of Phrynicus in the Comoedie;

Stimulum & aculeum quendam habent in
Athen. l. 4.

Canon XXII.

THe Jndex (the rest com­pos'd into a Fist) turn'd down perpendicular; doth urge, inculcate and drive the point into the heads of the Auditours.

Canon XXIII.

BOth the Indexes joyn'd, and pyramidically advanc'd; doe exalt the Force that flowes from more splendid and glorious Elocution

Canon XXIV.

BOth the Indexes, with a countenance averse, dire­cted [Page 80] to one side, doe point out an ironicall intention.

This Action although it may with honesty e­nough be done by an Oratour, yet to doe it of­ten, and to charge them strongly and vehement­ly against them that are present, as if he would dig out the eyes of his Auditory: Cresollius makes a question whether such may be thought lesse out of their wits then that miserable matron Hecuba, who with great force and violence flew upon Polymnestor:

—Et digitos in per [...]ida lumina condit:
Ovid. l. 13 Metamor.

Or ever a whit modester then Cleodemus, Qui intento digito Zenothenidi oculum effodit in convi­vio; for this is rather the garbe of those who rage Lucian in Convivio. and rave like mad men, then of those who with understanding and moderation exercise the fa­culty of the Hand in speaking.

Canon XXV.

THE Middle Finger put forth, and brandish'd in extent, is an action fit to brand and upbraide men with sloth, effeminacie, and notorious vi­ces.

This action is Magistrall in Rhetorique, but grounded upon Nature: for this Finger, as some [Page 81] Chiro Crittiques was for its sloath and unactive­nesse placed in the middest, as seeming to stand in need of the defence of the other neighbouring Fingers, and being longer then the rest, length and lazinesse going usually Hand in Hand, it may helpe to relate in a more open way of expressi­on, the notoriousnesse of their vices, who exceed others in vildenesse as far as this idle Finger ap­pears eminent above the rest.

Canon XXVI.

THe middle Finger strong­ly comprest by the Thumbe, and their collision producing a flurting sound, and the Hand so cast out, is an A­ction convenient to slight and undervalue, and to expresse the vanity of things, in searching after which things, and the im­moderate care of keeping them, the industry and strength of most mens wit are imperti­nently exercised and spent.

[Page 82] Cresollius though he give a tolleration to this knacking adjunct of expression, yet he would have it sparingly used, and adds in an assembly of the people, for in the solemne Session of learned and judicious men, this action, perchance, as ta­ken from the sceane and Hands of Mimiques, is to be rejected, and left unto the customary levity of men.

Canon XXVII.

IF the Ring Finger by a single Action goe out of the open Hand, as it were to serve the Tact, it may much advance their utterance, who in discourse touch and handle a matter lightly.

This is a Magistrall notion of my owne, ne­ver thought on by any Ancient or Moderne Rhetorician, for all I can finde, (unlesse Inst. Rhet. lib. 11. Quintilians Interim Quartus oblique reponitur, darkely allude unto it) but, grounded upon the same principles of observation as all their precepts of gesture are. Galen saies this is the Finger we use to put out when we would touch any thing lightly; and the ancient Physitians u­sed Galen de usu part. gently to stir their cordialls; and Collyriums with this Finger, thence called Medicus, upon which ground of Nature, I was induced to cast in my mite into the treasury of this Art.


THe Eare Finger appea­ring erect out of a bended Fist, doth by that action obtain a force to explaine more subtill things.

Canon XXIX.

THe Right Index, if it Mar­shal-like goe from Finger to Finger, to note them out with a light touch, it doth fit their purpose who would num­ber their arguments, and by a visible distinction set them all on a row upon their Fingers.

Hortensius the Oratour was wont after this manner to set his arguments all on a row upon his Fingers: But although he excelled in this way of numbring, and dividing arguments upon his Fingers, yet others used that fashion al­so, the Fingers having been devoted after a cer­taine manner for the numbring of things by an universall and naturall custome; as we may learne out of St. Hierom, for he speaking of a S Hierom Epist. 51. [Page 84] certaine smatterer in learning swollen with a conceit of his owne skill, Cum caepissit in digitis partire causam, &c. And Tully significantly to Tullie Divin. in Verrem. the same purpose, Quid? cum accusationis tuae membra dividere caperit, & in digitis suis singulas partes causae constituere? Quintilian denies thi [...] gesture admittance to the Hand in a mournfull cause, perchance, because it seems to have a cer­taine splendour and elegancie of Artifice, Ansi de morte silii sui, vel injuria quae morte sit gravior dicendum patri fuit, aut argumenta diducet in digi­tos, aut propositionum ac partitionum captavit lepo­rem? This gesture of the Hand is not to be used unlesse the distinctions and distributions be sub­stantiall and weighty, being things of great mo­ment which we desire, should fix & take deep im­pression in the mindes of men, and of which we are accurately and subtilly to dispute, for in this case it is advantagious to use the Fingers. It seems probable to Cresollius that Tully used this gesture when he made mention to the Romans of the ho­nourable Cicero pro lege manil. Captaine, in whom he did note these foure notable things, Scientiam rei militaris, vir­tutem, autoritatem, & faelicitatem, which he after­wards amplified distinctly and particularly, with a most high and rich variety of utterance. This numeration by the Fingers, doth likewise availe in an Epilogue, and Anachephalasis, as when we reckon up all the chiefe heads and aides of a matter in question, which have been brought in and alledged for the advancement of truth, or which have been evidently refuted or proved. Hence in the Areopagetique Schooles or Coun­cel-house at Athens, they painted Chrisippus with his Fingers in this posture, for the signification [Page 85] of numbers; and our moderne Artists when they would exhibit Arithmeticke counting, ob­serve the same gesture of the Fingers. Such a Statue of Arithmeticke there is in the new Ovall Theater, lately erected for the dissecting Anato­mies in Barber-Surgeons Hall in London.

Canon XXX.

TO lift up, or put forth some of the Fingers, is a plaine way of Rhetoricall A­rithmeticke fit to signifie a small number, a simple action ser­ving well enough their occasi­ons who would inculcate two or three chiefe points to an ig­norant multitude.

Roscius made use of this Arithmeticall intima­tion instead of speech, when he rose to speake a­gainst the Lawes Gabinius had propounded for Pompeyes Authority against the Pyrates: for Plutarch in the life of Pompey when he could have no audience, and that hee saw he could not be heard, he made a signe with his Fingers that they should not give Pompey a­lone this Authority but joyne another unto him; while he was signifying this by the gesticulation of his Hand, the people being offended with him, made such a threatning out [...]rie upon it, that a [Page 86] Crow flying over the Market-place at that in­stant was stricken blinde, and fell downe among the people. Then Roscius held not only his [...]ion lib. 36. de Bello Pyratico. Tongue, but his Hand also. This is most proper­ly performed by the Fingers of the left hand. Cresollius commends this way of numeration in the Hands of our moderne Divines. So some of the Fathers when they did expound the mystery of the Sacred Trinity, they lifted up three Fin­gers of the Right Hand. But this simple way of computation hath been entertained since the an­cient manner of account hath growne somewhat out of use. For, the ancient Rhetoricians who lived in that age wherein Wit and Industry were in their prime taking their hint from Nature, by an accommodation of Art reduced all numbers into gestures of the Hand, which did represent as it were the lively images of numbers: And this Art of Manuall Rhetoricke was so punctually observed by the ancient Rhetoricians, that it was accounted a great absurdity and disparage­ment to them that erred through a false and in­decent gesture of computation, as appeareth plainly by Quintilian who gives in this testimo­ny Quintil. Rhet Inst. lib. 1. c. 10 thereof; In causis Actor si digitorum incerto aut indecoro gestu à computatione dissentit, judicatur indoctus. And Apuleius reprehends this in Ruf­finus the Lawyer, for that by a deceitfull gesture Apul. in Apolog. lib. 2. of his Fingers he added twenty yeares: Whose words alluding to the same Arithmeticall ex­pressions run thus: Si tringinta annos per decem dixisses, possis videri pro computationis gestu errasse, Idem A­pologia l. [...] quos circulares debueris digitos aperuisse. Quin ve­ro qua [...]r [...]ginta, quae facilius caeteris porrecta palmula significantur, ea quadraginta tu dimidio a [...]ges; non [Page 87] potes digitorū gestu errasse, nisi forte triginta anno­rum Pudentilla ratus, cujus (que) anni Consules [...]ume­rasti. This Manuall Arithmeticke was much in use with the Ancients, as appears by the frequent allusions to it in Authenticke Authours, the knowledge whereof will bring much light to many obscure and difficult places which occurre in divers old Writers, which cannot be under­stood without the knowledge of this Manuall A­rithmetick. To trace it a little through the gloomie [...]. Senec. Epist. 88. walks of Antiquity. Thus Seneca: Numerare docet me Arithmetica avarici [...] accommodare digitos. Tertullian thus: Cum digitorum supputatoriis ge­sticulis Tertul. Apol. c. 90 Mart. Ca­pel. l. 2. de nupt. Phil. & Merc. Plin. Jun. Epist. 20. lib. 2. Aug. de Civit. Dei l. 18. c. 53. Plutarch in Apoth. assidendum. Martian. Capella thus: In digitos calculum (que) distribuit. The younger Plinie thus: Componit vultum, intendit oculos, movet la­bra, agitat digitos, nihil computat. St. Augustin thus: Omnium vero de hac re calculantium digitos resolvit,, & quiescere jubet. Orontes, son in law to King Artaxerxes was wont to compare Cour­tiers, Computatorum digitis; for like as they make a Finger sometimes stand for one, another time for ten thousand; even so those that be about Princes at one time, can do all at once, and ano­ther time as little or rather just nothing. And Quintilian in disallowing one of those numeri­call Quintil. Inst. Rhet. lib. 11. gestures to be used to a Rhetoricall intenti­on, acknowledgeth the Arithmeticall force and validity thereof. To these allusions appertains that of I know not what Poet:

Utile sollicitis computat articulis.

Hence grew the Adage, Ut in Digitos mittere: that Erasm. Adage. is, to number in the most accurate and exact way.

Their manner was, to reckon upon the Left Hand, untill they came to 100. and from thence [Page] began to reckon upon their Right Hand. Salo­mon is thought to allude to this, where he faith, Prov. 3. 16. Wisedome commeth with length of dayes upon her Right Hand: meaning (as some expound that Salazar super hoc multa ingeniose. Godwyn antiq. Jud. Pier. in Hierogl. place) that Wisedome should make them live a long age, even to an 100 yeares. Pierius in af­firmation of this artificiall way of account, brings in a facetious Epigram of one Nichar­chus a Greeke Poet, jesting at Cotyttaris, an old Hagg, who dissembling her true age, began a­gaine to number her yeares upon her left Hand. The epigram rendred by him in latine, runs thus:

Multum garrula anus, caput omne Cotyttaris alba,
Propter quam Nestor non sit adhuc senior.
Quae cervos annis superavit, quae (que) sinistra
Vitae iterum caeptet connumerare dies.
Vivit adhuc, cernit, pede firma est, virginis instar,
Plutonem ut dubites passum aliquid gravius.

To this, Juvenal speaking of the long life of

Nestor, doth also allude.
Rex Pylius magno si quicquam credis Homero,
Exemplum vitae fuit à Cornice secund [...],
Faelix nimirum, qui tot per secula vitam,
Distulit, at (que) suos jam Dextra computat annos.

Chrysologus upon the Parable of the 100 sheep, Chrysol. in P [...]r [...]. centum o­ [...]ium. hath a most excellent conjecturall meditation, alluding to this artificiall Custome. Which of you having a 100 sheep, and if he lose one, &c. Why not 50? why not 200? but 100. Why not 4? why not 5? but 1. And he shewes, that he griev'd more for the number, than the losse; for the losse of one, had broke the century, and brought it back from the Right hand to the left, shutting up his account in his Left hand, and left him nothing in his Right, &c. The first posture in the Right [Page 89] hand, wherein the Eare-finger is circularly bent Beda de Indig. & Scholiast. J. Novi [...] in ag. in; by Bede is referr'd to Virgins, as that which expresseth, as it were, the Crown of Virginitie. The Gesture [Thirty] is referr'd to Mariage; for the very Conjunction of the fingers, as it were, with a soft kisse embracing and coupling them­selves, paints out the Husband and Wife. S. Hierome, willing to explaine the reason why Hier. l. 1. in Jovian. in princip. S. Paul would have a widow indeed, chosen not under 60 yeares of age: to shew why this num­ber is so properly referr'd to widowes, very learnedly betakes himselfe unto the Hierogly­phique of this number, wherein the Thumbe i [...] deprest by the upper Finger, and very streightly girded by the same: It shewes (saith he) in what streights Widowhood is afflicted, which is so restrained in on every side. Capella bringing in Mart. Ca­pella, l. 7. de Nupt. Plut. & Merc. in principio. Arithmetique, at the mariage of Philologie; and Mercurie describing the posture of her Fingers: Digiti verò Virginis recursantes, & quadam incom­prehensae mobilitatis scaturigine vermiculati. Qu [...] mox ingressa septingentos decem, & septem numeros complicatis in eo digitis Jovem salutabunda subre­xit. Which made the Numbers 70. and 17. And Philosophie standing by, Tritonides enquires of her what Arithmetique might meane by those postures of her Fingers? To whom Pallas: She Salutes Jove by his proper name. And indeed, the Manuall number, 70. was the ancient posture of adoration; which was, the saluting Finger laid over-thwart the Thumb; Made more apparent by Apuleius, speaking of the adorers of Venus, Et admoventes oribus sui [...] dextram Priore digito Apuleius in Metam. lib. 4. in erectum pollicem residente, ut ipsam prorsus deam Venerē religiosis adorationibus venerabantur. Many [Page 90] of these Numericall postures of the Fingers, are found in the statues of the Ancients. Witnes that image of Janus, with two faces, dedicated Plinie, Nat. Hist. & Macr. in Satur­nal. lib. 1. in the Capitoll, by King Numa; the Fingers of whose Hands were in such sort fashioned and formed, that they represented the number, 365. which are the dayes of the whole yeare: by which notification of the yeare, he shewed suffi­ciently, that he is the god and Patron of times and ages. Pierius endeavours to represent the Posture of his Fingers, by a verball description. And it was the custome, to place the ensignes of Honour on the more honourable Hand, and to Pier. in Hierogl. lib. 37. figure the left Hand of Oratours, and other great men, to note out the first, second, or third time of their accesse unto that Office or Dignitie.

These postures, devised by a happy dexteritie of wit, were recorded among the Aegyptian Letters or Hieroglyphicks, as unfit to be prosti­tuted to the Vulgar, in regard they did allude to all the Pythagoricall secrets of Numbers, inso­much as the Caveat of Pythagoras might have been placed over the Rhetorique-School-doore of the Ancients: Nemo Arithmeticae [Manualis] ignarus hic ingrediatur. And the Notions of this Art are not onely necessary to Oratours, but to all men, especially the Sonnes of Art, although by the carelesnesse and negligence of men, it is growne somewhat out of use. In the practice of this Art, some follow Bede, others embrace a more probable way of account. Some follow the order of Irenaeus the Divine, a man of great Iraeneus. in Valent. lib. 1. c. 13. learning and generall parts, who flourished some ages before Bede. But among the modern, Lucas Minoritanus is above comparison the best, who hath a most absolute Tract of this argument.

A 1
G 100
N 10
T 1000
B 2
H 200
O 20
V 2000
C 3
I 300
P 30
W 3000
D 4
K 400
Q 40
X 4000
E 5
L 500
R 50
Y 5000
F 6
M 600
S 60
Z 6000


THey who desire a more compleat account of this Art, so farre forth as this Chirogram may seeme defective; as the continuation of the account from 10 to 19. as the numbers, 11. 12. 13. 14, &c. To satisfie their curiositie, may con­sult with Pierius in his Hieroglyphiques. And Beda Indigit. if they would know the greater numbers, as the manner of computing from a Myriad, to wit, 10000. unto 100000. may advise with Reve­rend Bede, who hath written a whole Booke de Indigitatione, or the Ancient manner of com­putation by gestures of the Fingers: and is the Bapt. Port. de furt. lit. not. Plautus Milit. Act 2. Sc. 2 man (as it is thought) to whom we owe the pre­servation of this subtle peece of Hand-learning; which he may find transcrib'd in Baptista Porta, in Furtivis literarum notis.

Plautus alludes to the Grand Account thus:

Pectus Digitis pultat, cor credo ev [...]caturus foras.
Ecce autem avertit nixus, laevam in faemore habet manum.
Dextra digitis rationem computat, ferion [...] f [...]mur.
An Index to the following Al­phabet of Action, or Table of Rhetoricall INDIGITATIONS.
  • A Figures out the I Canon.
  • B Figures out the IV Canon.
  • C Figures out the V Canon.
  • D Figures out the VI Can.
  • E Figures out the VII Can.
  • F Figures out the VIII
    The verball periphrasis of the gesture F, by accident hath been overslipped: but the Plate speakes Canonically for it selfe. It is one of Quintilians Gestures, which he observes the Greekes much to use (even with both Hands) in their Enthymemes, when they chop, as it were, their Logick, and inculcate and knock it down, as with a horne.
  • G Figures out the XXX Can.
  • H Figures out the XIII Can.
  • I Figures out the XII Can.
  • K Figures out the XVIII Can.
  • L Figures out the XVII Can.
  • M Figures out the XIX Can.
  • N Figures out the XX Can.
  • O Figures out the XXI Can.
  • P Figures out the XXII Can.
  • Q Figures out the XXIII Can.
  • R Figures out the XXIV Can.
  • S Figures out the XXVII Can.
  • T Figures out the XXVIII Canon.
  • V Figures out the XV Canon.
  • W Figures out the X Canon.
  • X Figures out the XXIX Canon.
  • Y Figures out the XVI Canon.
  • Z Figures out the IX Canon.

This following Table doth not onely serve to expresse the Rhetoricall postures of the Fingers; but may be used as Cyphers for private wayes of Discourse or Intelli­gence.


A Audientiam facit.
B Quibusdem orditur.
C Exordium accomodat.
D Instabit.
E Approbabit.
F Enthymemata tundit.
G Distinguet
H Disputabit.
I Acrius Argumentatur.
K Demonstrat.
L Magnanimitatem ostendit.
M Indigitat.
N Attentionem poseit.
O Colligit.
P Urgebit.
Q Splendidiora explicat.
R Ironiam ostendit.
S Leviter tangit
T Subtiliora explicat
V Exprobrabit
W Arguebit
X Mem: orati: distribuit
Y Amplitudinem denotat.
Z Contraria distinguet

THE APOCHRYPHA OF ACTION: Or, certaine Prevarications a­gainst the Rule of Rhetoricall Decorum, noted in the Hands of the Ancient and Modern ORATOURS.

Praeva­ricationū Sect. 1.

TO use any Grammaticall gestures of compact, or any snapping of the Fingers, or amorous in­timations invented by Lovers of old, is very unsutable to the gravity of an Oratour. The na­turall discourses of the Hand being so plaine to be understood, the Ancients assay'd to finde out in the Hand a more close & private way, contriving by a close compact how men might signifie their mindes; a kinde of speaking, used by such who would not openly expresse themselves, yet in a [Page 98] dumb & wary kinde of signing, intimate their in­tention, an Art first found out and exercised by Lovers, when with great caution they would pre­sent their affections, and make their Fingers con­vey a message from their heart. Of these cautio­narie notes of Lovers, Ovid that grand Master of love knacks, and amorous expressions, affordes us many touches:

Nil opus est digitis per quos arcana loquaris.
Ovid de Art. Amand.

And in another place:

—Et in digitis litera nulla fuit.

And againe glancing at the same Grammaticall expressions, he saith;

—Nec vos
Lib. 2. de Art. Amand.
Excipite arcana verba notata manu.

And instructing his Mrs. in the way of tacit con­ferences:

Verba legis digitis verba notata mero.
Cum tibi succurrit veneris lascivia nostrae
Purpureas tenero pollice tange genas.
Si quid erit de me tacita quod mente loquaris,
Pendeat extrema mollis ab aure manus.
Cum tibi quaefaciam mea Lux dicamve placebunt,
Versetur digitis annulus us (que) tuis.
Tange manu mensam, tangunt quo more praecantes,
Optabis meritò cum mala multa viro.

And to this kinde of amorous discourse by spea­king Idem. l. 1. de Trist. signes, that of his refers:

Ut (que) refert digitis saepe est nutu (que) locutus.

To which Propertius also alludes:

Aut tua quum digitis scripta silenda notas.
Propert. l. 3. Ennius in Tatentil.

To this is referred that which Ennius speakes of a certaine impudent Companion, who had no part of his body free from some shamelesse office or other, his words are these: Quasi in choro pila [Page 99] ludens datatim dat sese, & communem facit, alium tenet, aliis nutat, alibi manus est occupata, aliis per­vellit pedem, aliis dat annulum expectandum a labris, alium invocat, cum alio cantat, attamen aliis [...]at di­gito Salom. Proverb. 6. 13. literas. And Salomon alluding to these kinde of expressions, He winketh with his eyes, he spea­keth with his feet, he teacheth with his Fingers. Sometimes the Ancients did to this purpose of secrecie and private communication, order an Alphabet upon the joynts of their Fingers, which Artifice of Arthrologie obtained a privy force by shewing those letters by a distinct and Gramma­ticall succession. Amongst which Grammars by gestures, The postures of the Fingers which ap­pertaine to the old Manuall Arithmeticke, have been contrived into an Alphabet, of which way of intimation, Baptista Porta hath treated at Bapt. Por ta de fur. lit. notis. large. To the same intent the Naturall and Rhe­torical postures of this Hand may be reduced into mystique Alphabets, and be very significantly u­sed for cyphers without any suspicion. Some­times of old they used for a light watch-word a snapping collision of the Fingers called Crepitus Digitorum, which imperious way of silent ex­pression, & the phrase whereof is used for a hyper­bolicall diminitive of the least signification. Lyra Lyra in Prov. 6. 13 in his learned descant upon the Proverbs harping upon this string, The unthrifty and wicked man instructeth with his Fingers, saith, Digito loqui, arrogantiam & superbiam indicat. And St. Hierom in a certaine Epistle, saith, Su­perbiae est signum cum quis per digitorum crepitum vult intelligi. The notification and sound of this arrogant gesture, was reckoned among the nocturnall and darke signes of Lovers. Masters [Page 100] also by this snapping of their Fingers used to call their servants, upon the hearing of which watch­word, they were to be presto and at Hand to ex­ecute their dumbe commands. To this custome I finde that of Petronius referred, Trimalcio lau­tissimus homo digitis concrepuit, ad quod signum ma­tellam Petron Arbiter Satyr. Spado ludenti supposuit, exonorata ille vescica, &c. To this also belongs that of Tibullus:

Et votet ad digiti me taciturna sonum.
Tibullus Eleg. In Epi­gram.

To which Martial likewise alludes

Dum poscor [crepitu digitorū] & verna moratur,
O quotiens pellex culcitra facta me est.

And in another place:

Digiti crepantis signa novit Eunuchus.

Which custome the Christian Pedagoge would have excluded from the Hands of men piously af­fected, whose minde Clemens Alexandrinus hath Lib. 2. c. 7. Paedag. expounded thus: Digiti expressi soni, quibus ac­cersuntur famuli, cum sint rationis exportes significa­tiones, ratione praeditis hominibus vitandi sunt. This kinde of commanding gesture is most common to the Spaniard, whose humour is only a medley of arrogance and imperious pride, whence he is Paloma­tius in proport. most commonly detested of all Nations, for his naturall odious desire of sovereignty over others. And the Romans, the ancient Lords and Masters of the World growne insolent by the greatnesse of their Empire, could well skill of this proud intimation of their Fingers. For, Tacitus tells us, that the innocencie of Pallas was not so grate­full Tacitus Annal. lib. 13. to the people of Rome, as his insupportable pride was odious. For whē some of his freedmen were said to have been privie to the practice of a conspiracie against Nero, he made answer, that in his house he appointed nothing to be done, but [Page 101] with a nod of his Hand or head, or by writing, if he had much to say, lest if he should have spoken unto them, he should seem to have made them his fellowes. Some Oratours of old affected this percussion or knacking with the Fingers, both to procure audience, to maintaine their authority, and for the signification of gravity; of which custome many Authours make mention, especi­ally St. Hierom, for so he hath left it written: D. Hieron Epist. 101. Et audet quidam ex iis adducto supercilio & [concre­pantibus digitis] eructare & dicere. And in another Idem Epist. ad Rusticum Monach. place speaking of that jangling fellow Grunnius, he hath this, Cum mensa posita librorum exposuis­set struem, adducto supercilio, contractis (que) naribus, & fronte corrugata, [digitulis concrepabat,] hoc signo ad audiendum discipulos provocans, &c. And of this custome, Veleius Longus is to be understood, In Ortho­graph. Digitorum sono pueros ad respondendum ciemus: So that this gesture hath travelled from the businesse of common and individuall life, into Schooles, Auditories, and Common-Pleas; for, this knacke of the Fingers was got in use with many, so that [Digitis concrepare] seems to have been used by the Learned, pro re facilima. So in the judgement of Cresollius, Tullie disputing of his Offices, takes Cicero l. 3 de officiis. it, Ita (que) si vir bonus, habeat hanc vim, ut si [digitis concrepuerit] possit in locupletum testamenta nomen ejus irrepere. For, this gesture was performed in entring upon inheritances: they who did desire to trie their title, and take possession of an inheri­tance, they signified their minde by this percus­sion of the Fingers, which was the usuall sym­boll as Cujacius saith; for this Percussio digitorum Cujacius observat lib. 3. c. 18. (as Cresollius rightly collects) is altogether the same with [crepitus digitorum] or digiti concrepan­tes, [Page 102] which may be very clearly gathered out of Tullie, where when he had said, Si vir bonus ha­beat hanc vim, ut si digitis concrepuerit, &c. a Tul. lib. 3. de. offi [...] little after touching the same string, he hath it thus: Quem Paulo ante singebam digitorum per­cussione haereditates omnium posse adse'convertere, &c.

Praevar. Sect. 2.

THe gestures of one requiring the Cup, or threatning stripes, or the numericall gesture which with the Thumbe bended in, and reaching to the mount of Mercurie, makes the number 5000. according to the computation of Manuall Arithmeticke, are gestures that have been noted by some Writers, but yet so uncomely, that Quintilian never observed them in the Hand of Quintil. Institut. Rhet. l. 11 any Rustique.

Praevar. Sect. 3.

TO stretch out the Hands in length to a racked extent, or to erect them upward to their ut­most elevation, or by a repeated gesture beyond the left shoulder, so To throw back the Hands, that it is scarce safe for any man to remaine be­hind them. To thrust out the Arm, so that the side is openly discovered, or To draw sinister circles, or rashly To fling the Hand up and downe to endanger the offending of those that are nigh; are all Prevarications in Rhetorick, noted and condemned by Quintilian.

Praevar. Sect. 4.

TO throw downe the Hand from the Head, with the Fingers formed into a gripe or scrat­ching posture; or To use the action of one that Saws or Cuts; or of one dancing the Pyrrhique [Page 103] lyard; or To throw it upwards with the Palme turned up, are actions prevaricant in Rhetorick, and condemned by Quintilian.

Prevar. Sect. 5.

TO represent a Physitian feeling the pulse of the arteries, which with them is manum mit­tere in carpum; or To shew a Lutenist striking the chords of an instrument, are kind of expressi­ons to be avoided; for an Oratour should bee farre from any light imitation of a Dancer, and is not permitted to shew what hee speakes, but his gesture must more expresse his sense, then his words.

Praevar. Sect. 6.

TO denounce with a high Hand, or To erect a Finger to its utmost possibility of extension, is a blemish in the Hand of an Orator; That habit which the peace-makers of old were painted & See Picr. in Hierogl lib. 35. carved in, wherein the Head inclined to the Right Shoulder, the Arme stretched out from the Eare, the Hand extended out with the Thumb manifest­ly apparent, which most pleaseth them, who brag that they speak with a high Hand is recko­ned by Quintilian among the moales of Rheto­ricke; an action not far from the usuall pendent posture of Changelings and Idiots.

Prevar. Sect. 7.

TO bring the Fingers ends to the Breast, the Hand hollow, when we speake To our selves, or in cohortation, objurgation, or commisera­tion, is an action that will seldome become the Hand of an Oratour; or to strike the Breast with the Hand, which is Scenicall.

Praevar. Sect. 8.

TO apply the Middle-Finger to the Thumbe, is the common way of gracing an ex­ordium, yet to direct it as it were towards the left shoulder, and so make it a collaterall action, Quintil. Inst. Rhet. lib 11. is nought, but worse, to bring forth the Arme transverse, and to pronounce with the elbow.

Praevar. Sect. 9.

TO set the Arms a gambo or aprank, and to rest the turned in backe of the Hand upon the side, is an action of pride and ostentation, un­beseeming the Hand of an Oratour.

Praevar. Sect. 10.

THe trembling Hand is scenicall, and belongs more to the theater, then the forum.

Praevar. Sect. 11.

THere are certaine hidden percussions of speech, as it were a kind of feet, at which the gesture of most of the ancient Oratours did fall, which though they were usuall, yet Quinti­lian Quintil. Just. Rhet. lib. 11. condemns them for most deceitfull motions, noting it also for a fault in young Declamers, that while they write, they first tune their sen­tences to gestures, and forecast for the cadence of the Hand, whence this inconvenience ensues, that gesture which in the last should be Right, doth frequently end in the sinister point. It were better, that whereas there are certaine short members of speech, (at which if there be need we may take breath) to dispose or lay downe our gesture at those pauses.

Praevar. Sect. 12.

TO clap the Hands in giving praise and al­lowance, is a Naturall expression of ap­plause, encouragement, and rejoycing, heard in [Page 105] common assemblies of people, and in publique Theaters; which was at first, according to the simplicitie of those times, plaine and naturall: for Ovid speaking of the primitive and ancient Playes of the Romans, saith: Naso l. 1. de Arte Amandi.

—Plausus tunc arte carebat.

But afterwards they had an artificiall manner of clapping their Hands, to a certaine measure or proportionable tune. Of which, the Poet Ca­rippus:

Ingeminant (que) cavos dulci modulamine plausus.

For, the applause was done with the hollow of both Hands; which being smitten together, cau­sed that sound which is called Popismus, a word altogether feigned to the similitude of the sound. The posture of this artificiall plaudite of the Hands, and the sound also raised from their colli­sion, Philostratus most elegantly describes in the Philostra­tus, l. 1. de Iconibus. image of Comus the god of Ebrietie, in these words: Plausum etiam quendam imitatur pictura, cujus maximè indiget Comus. Nam Dextra, con­tractis digitis, subjectam sinistram ad cavum plectit, ut Manus cymbalorum more percussae consonae siant. The very figure of which gesture is to bee seen in the French translation of that Author. How ambitious was Nero of this popular appro­bation, when he entred upon the Theater to contend for the prize of Harpers; and kneeling, shew'd a reverence to the Assembly with his Tacit. Ann [...]l. lib. 16. Hand: and the Citie-people accustomed also to approve the gesture of the Player, answered him with a certaine measure and artificiall ap­plause. Thou wouldst have thought, saith Taci­tus, they had rejoyced, and perhaps for the in­jurie of the publique discredit. But those which [Page 106] from townes farre off, and from remote provin­ces, unacquainted with dissolute behaviour, came either as Embassadours, or for private busines, could neither endure that sight, nor applaud any way so dishonorable a labour: but weary of their unskilfull clapping of Hands, and troubling the skilfull, were often beaten by the Souldiers, placed in thick array, lest any moment of time should be lost by an untuned and disproportio­nable crie, or slothfull silence. The like applause he expected and had from the Hands of his friends at home; for Xiphilinus reports, that Se­neca, and Burrhus, though lame of his Hand, when ever Nero spake, they applauded him with their Xiphil. in Nerone. Hands and Vestments. The ancient Sophisters were so greedy of this manner of applause in their Schooles and Auditories, that they purcha­sed Cresol. Theat. vet. Rhet. it; having for that purpose a Chorus of do­mesticall Parasites, who were ready in the assem­blies, at every Gesture to give them this signe of approbation. This Applause, which Nazianzen Hierom. cap. ad E­phes. Chrys. Hom. 2. de verb. Isa. calls, Canoram Manuum actionem; and S. Hierom, Theatrale miraculum; and condemned by Chry­sostome, among the trifling and unprofitable gesticulations of the Hand, and Theatricall gestures, crept into the Christian Churches, and was given to the Divine Oratours of the Primitive times, untill such time as it was exploded out of the Temples, by their grave and sharpe reprehensions. But although the ancient Oratours received this token of approbation from the hands of their auditors, yet they never exhibi­ted upon any occasion, such Manuall plausibilitie to the people, it being a Gesture too plebeian & Theatrically light for the Hands of any prudent [Page 107] Rhetorician, who can never decently advance his intentions, by the naturall or artificiall plau­dite of his Hands.

Prevar. Sect. 13.

TO discourse customarily with the Hands turn'd up, of old said, supinis Manibus disse­rere, is an effeminate and ill habit in the Hand of Dio Pru­saeus. orat. 33. an Oratour. Dio Prusaeus, among the Symbolls of Intemperance, reprehends this habituall de­meanour of the Hand: for when hee would reckon up those things which signifie a corrupt and naughty custome, which he calls [...], he sets downe among the rest, Supinis Manibus disserere.

Now they are properly called Manus s [...]pinae, that are so advanc'd, that the Palmes respect the Cresol. de gestu O­rat. lib. 2. heavens, [...], with the Atticks. Cresolli­us hath cast in his minde, what should be the cause why so excellent and weighty an Author should seeme justly to have reprehended this gesture: for he could not altogether condemne it, because in things sacred, it hath been so religi­ous, and received with so great consent of all Nations, that the most ancient holy mysteries, which vulgarly were called Orgia, (as some Grammarians will have it) tooke their denomi­nation from this very gesture of the Hands. But my Authour conjecturing what his meaning should be; Perchance (saith he) his intention is, to reprove the action of some foolish men, who, Quintil. inst. Rhet as Quintilian saith, hold out their Hands after the manner of them who carry something; or of those, who as if they crav'd a Salary or Miner­vall of their Auditors, most unskilfully bear about their Hands upwards: in whom that of the [Page 108] Roman Poet may be verified;

Ille cava praetium, flagitat usque Manu.
Tibullus l. 2. Eleg. 4. Galen. de usu part.

For Galen, when he would expresse the Hand to be conveniently dispos'd for the conteining of water that it flow not out, calls this purpose of the Hand, Manum supinam. But this would be done more unseasonably, and to lesse purpose, if a man by the motions of his Hands should use to imitate one taking up water out of some river, as he in Virgil;

—rite cavis undam de flumine palmis

That which seems most probable, and to come neerest the true sense of that ancient Author, Cresollius conceives to be an intended reproofe of a certaine action incident to nice and effe­minate men: for in that place, Dio prosecutes the sinnes of voluptuousnesse, and a lascivious habit of the minde. Indeed, tender and delicate minkes, after their right womanish garbe, lay their Hands upright, which a wise man should not imitate: and therefore in his opinion, that excellent Poet Aeschylus, with exquisite Aeschylus in Pro­meth. Arist. Phy­siog. lib. 3. judgement, aptly said; Manus muliebri more su­pinatas. So that great Emperor of learning, and perpetuall Dictator of the Arts, among the por­tentous signes of Impudence, layes down, Su­pinas manuum motus, teneritudine quadam & molli­cie dissolutas. After which manner Tatian paints out Crescens a Cynicall Philosopher, the onely Tatian. Orat. cont. Grae [...]. ring-leader to all abominable lust and beastly concupiscence: whom he therefore calls, deli­cato corpore fractum, & [...].

Praevar. Sect. 14.

THey who cast and throw out the Hand, or raise the Arme with a shout, if they doe it as of a customary disposition, declare thereby the jovialitie of their natures. To this vapouring ex­pression of the Hand, some refer that of the Pro­phet Hosea: This is the day of our King: the Prin­ces have made him sick with flagons of wine: he stretched out his Hand to scorners. Hosea cap. 7. v. 5. And Lipsius tels us, that in Westphalia, where they drinke super Lipsius Epist. ad Heur. naculum, as an ordinary elegancie, at every quaffe & carouse, they put for th the hand: and this seems naturall to good fellowes, whose sociable dis­position makes them very apt to fall upon this joviall exaltation of the Hand, which in the Me­ridian of mirth naturally importeth the elevation of the cheered heart, raised by the promotion of the brisked spirits.

Praevar. Sect. 15.

THe wagging and impertinent extension of the Fingers in speaking, hath ever been ac­counted a note of levitie and folly. And such who by a certaine reciprocall motion doe ever and anon lift up one or other of their Fingers visibly prolonged, they seeme to trie conclusi­ons with their hearers, and to play with them at that exercise which was in use among the anci­ent Romans, who had a game or lotterie where­in one held up his Finger or Fingers, and the o­ther turning away, ghessed how many he held up: Or if you will have it according to Poli­dors relation, the play was after this manner: Polidor. lib. 2. c. 13. de rerum invent. Two, having first shut their Hands, forthwith let out their Fingers, naming a certaine number. As for example, I put forth three fingers, you as many; I name foure, you sixe: so you by ghes­sing [Page 110] and naming the right number, winne. And because the Fingers thus unfolded, suddenly ap­peare, by a metaphor they were said in this sport Micare digitis. Hence Varro; Micandum erat cum Graeco, utrum ego illius numerum, aut ille me­um sequatur. This is well knowne among the I­talians at this day, and vulgarly called Mor; per­haps (saith Polydor) quòd Maurorum hic sit ludus. But the more approved opinion is, quòd [...], id est, Stultorum ludus. And perhaps Nero had ob­serv'd in Claudius his predecessor, some such Suetonius & his In­terpreter. kinde of indiscreet prevarication with his Fin­gers, who in spightfull and contumelious manner both in word and deed, was wont every way to taunt and twit him with his folly; and among other opprobrious indignities offered to his name and memory, in scoffing wise he would say of him, that he had left now Morari any longer among men; using the first syllable of the word, long: in which word there is couched a double sense, which gives the grace unto this pleasant scoffe; for being a meere Latine word, it signifieth to stay or make long abode: and ta­king it thus, it importeth, that Claudius lived no longer among Mortalls. But as Nero spake of Moros in Greeke, which signifies a foole, and hath the first syllable long, it importeth, that Claudius play'd the foole no longer here in the world among men. Cresollius condemnes this Finger-loping gesture as very uncomely, and un­worthy Cresol. de de gestu Orat. l. 2. the discreet Hand of an Orator, so un­advisedly to counterfeit the common gestures of Buyers of confiscate goods: and he would have the Edict of Appronianus, Provost of the Cittie of Rome, to be set before them; in [Page 111] which he did desire this up-and-down motion of the Fingers to be cast not onely out of the Courts of Justice and the Senate house, but from the Forum, and very entercourse of buying and selling. This Edict is yet to be seen in a marble table at Rome, beginning thus.


They that would conserve the qualitie and state of an Oratour, must avoyd this ridiculous custome of wagging the Fingers, lest now they doe not seeme to stand in their Pulpits to sell sheep, but to sell them oft, or to brag and boast of their parts.

Praevar. Sect. 16.

SUch who have Hands too active in discourse, and use to beat the aire with an odious kinde of Chiromachia, bewray the cholerique transpor­tation of their individuall natures, a habit of the Hand incident to young men, who as a Learned Father saith, are wont to glory that in them, Su­pra Greg. Nys. orat. de Beatitud. Juvenal l. 1. Sat. 3. modum vigeant manus ad motionem. This ha­bituall imperfection the Ancients called, Jactare manus; even as the Satyrist scoffes at those who [Page 112] had a smackering of the Greeke Tongue, who did, à facie jactare manus—a gesture it seems Pa­rasites Juvenal. lib. 1. Sat. 3 in their way of admiration, were wont to use: for, Martial,

—geminas tendis in ore manus.
Martial. Epigram Hieron. Epist. 5.

S. Hierome very elegantly mocks at this fashi­on: Nam si applosisset pedem, intendisset oculos, rugasset frontem, [jactasset manum] verba tonasset, tenebras illico ob oculos effundisset Judicibus: imi­tating perchance herein that renowned Stoique, thus setting it down. Nec supploderem pedem, nec [Manum jactarem] nec attollerem vocem. Quin­tilian Seneca Epist. 75. Fabius Inst. Rhet. affirmes this behaviour of the Hand be­came onely Demetrius the Comoedian, famous in those times; and beside him, none. As for the Athenian Eagle Socrates, so called for his quick insight of understanding, he was wont to use Zopyrus Phisiogn. this vehemencie of the Hand, which was obser­ved in him as a token of his violent nature and hot spirit; who, because in his pleadings he was transported with such heat of action, and and would often in the eagernesse of disputati­on, skirmish as it were with his Fist, he was Laertius lib. 2. therefore despis'd and laugh'd at by many, and not undeservedly: for his immoderate action was somewhat hot, & mad-man like, arguing an impotent minde, and an ill temper'd spirit. Cre­sollius reports, he once saw a learned man, a Rhetorique Professor, make his Clerum in a pub­lique Cresol. de gest. Orat. lib. 2. assembly of learned men: But he with such a continued swiftnesse moved his Hand before his face, that he could scarce discerne his eyes or countenance while he spake. How other of his Auditors conceived of his gesture, he knew not a to him it seemed most odious; for with that [Page 113] argute and vehement action, his eyes were al­most dazled. This my Author would say pro­perly to be that, which Aristophanes facetiously calls Muscas abigere; as if all that labour of his had tended to no other end, then to make his Hand a Flie-flap. Domitius Afer, seeing Mani­lius Sura handling a cause, and in his pronunci­ation running up and down, dancing, Manus jactantem, tossing his Hands, casting back and putting aside his gown, said, that he did not A­gere, sed satagere: Actio enim Oratoris est; Sata­git Quintil. lib. 11. de pronunc. autem, qui frustra misere (que) conatur.

Praevar. Sect. 17.

IN a sewing posture to drive out the Elbowes to both sides, as one of the Gentle-craft, is a Prevarication noted and condemned by Quin­tilian. Cresollius sayes, A learned and reverend friend of his, once saw a Mushrome Doctor Cresol. de g [...]st. Orat. lib. 2. pronounce after this manner; that at every comma, he drew out his Elbowes with such constancie, or rather pertinacie, that he seem'd to know no other gesture. At which sight he tacitely to himselfe: Either I am deceived in my opinion, or this man hath been of some sew­ing occupation. And it seemes, upon further en­quirie, his Augurie fail'd him not; for he had been lately a Cobler. This absurd motion of the armes, makes an Oratour seeme rather to have come to speake, from his Last, then his Booke: or as if he newly came from vamping his Ora­tion.

Praevar. Sect. 18

TO shake the armes with a kinde of perpetuall motion, as if they would straightway flie out of the sight of their Auditours, or were about to [Page 114] leave the Earth: is a Praevarication in Rheto­rique. Such Oratours have been compared to Ostriches, who goe upon the ground, yet so, that by the agitation of their wings, they seeme to thinke of flight. This happens to some by reason of a certain Plethorique wit and ardor of Nature, which scarce suffers it selfe to be kept down and holden by the body. Cresollius once saw such a Divine, whose habituall mobilitie of his Hands was such, that the strongest men could scarce emulate, unlesse by an incredible conten­tion of labour. Some, through a puerile instituti­on, or by a contracted custome doe the same; i­mitating little birds, which being not yet fledg­ed, nor strong enough for flight, yet in their nests move and shake their wings very swiftly. These the Greekes call [...], which they use to object against those who by a foolish gesticulation appeare in the posture of little birds. The Polite Comoedian elegantly, [...], nugaris gesticulando. This doth usu­ally Aristoph. appeare in many, in the gesturing and skip­ping motions of joy, when the exultant Minde leaps and lifts up it selfe; and tickling the body with an active sweetnes, shakes those parts most which are more free and prompt to action. Di­philus a Greek Poet, pleasantly expresses this in his Parasite; whom he brings in, rejoycing, with Athen. l. 9 this exultant motion of his armes. Atticus Ly­sias, in an Oration of his, hath elegantly signifi­ed the same; who, when he would prove the Adversarie not onely to be conscious of the in­jurie, but to be the principall author of it; he brings this perspicuous signe, that he imitated the crowing gesture of a Cock of the game, after [Page 115] his victorie; and clapped his sides with the ap­plause Dionys. Halicarn. of his Armes, as with wings, incircled in a ring of wicked men. This gesture is most proper to Mimiques, and the Theater; and can scarce stand with the gravitie of the Forum, or the reverence of the Church; unlesse some part of it well moderated, may be permitted in signi­fication of Gladnes of heart.

Praevar. Sect. 19.

TO use no Action at all in speaking, or a hea­vy and slow motion of the Hand, is the pro­pertie of one stupid and sluggish. Hyperides, whom Plutarch reckons in the Decad of Ora­tours, was of this temper; for it is said, that in his Orations he shewed no action or gesture at all: his manner was, to set down the Cafe, and lay open the matter plainly and simply, without troubling the Judges any otherwise then with a naked narration. Which Aeschines, as some thinke, did strive to imitate; who in a foolish e­mulation of Solon, and by praising his Hand, strove to countenance his opinion of an un­active pronunciation. But from that time, all Antiquitie hath repudiated those for stupid and bruitish Oratours: of whom one may justly say C [...]ssiodor. lib. de A­nima, cap. 12. that which Cassiodorus of that drunken wise man: Virum illum prudentissimè disserentem, difficile est vivum credas, quem se nec movere posse conspicias. Who may be describ'd, as the miserable wo­man in the Fable, turned into a stone by La­tona: Ovid. Me­tamorph. lib. 5.

Nec flecti cervix, nec brachia reddere gestus;
Nec pes ire potest, nihil est in imagine vivum.

There was no kinde of writer, that did not with franke language inveigh and pleasantly scoffe at [Page 116] the sluggishnesse of those Orators. Juvenal pret­tily compares them to the stumpe of Hermes, and Juvenal. Satyr. 8. in one, disgraces them all.

Nullo quippe alio vincis discrimine quàm quod
Illi marmoreum caput, est, tua vivit imago.

Aristides was wont to say, that such dull Ora­tours Aristides to. 3. were very unlike Orpheus; for he, as the fa­bles report, enticed and drew stones after him: but they, as wood and stones, move no man. Cresollius (who hath prepared much of this in­telligence Cresol. in Vacat. Autumn. to my hand) sticks not to joyne toge­ther such men who speake without action, to those statues made by the Ancients in the igno­rant ages of the world: for they had their eyes shut, their hands hanging down and joyned to their sides. Daedalus, a cunning and witty man, was the first that formed the eyes, and put forth the Hands, so giving life and motion to all the parts, with singular judgement, teaching there­by the decencie thereof; wherefore he is feigned to have made those statues and pourtraictures of men so excellently, that they moved of them­selves. The inconvenience of this cold vacati­on in the Hand, gave being to that Axiome in Rhetorique, Est maxime vitiosum, si actione ma­nuum (que) motu careat: for such, my Author thinks a wrestling place were necessary; but that of the Ancients, wherein the apt and comely motions of the whole Body, especially Chironomia, the eloquent behaviour or Rule of managing the Hand, was taught. But since these helpes of e­loquence now faile, his advice is, they would mark the gestures of famous and excellent men, honestly and freely brought up, and by a certaine diligent imitation, garnish their owne Hands [Page 117] with those dumbe figures of Rhetorique.

Prevar. Sect. 20.

THey who have Hands slow and ponderous, and who without any comelinesse beare and offer about their leaden Hands, together with the arme, after a rusticall manner; so lift­ing it up sometimes, that they seeme to move a great lumpe of trembling flesh, reaching their slow Right hand out so timerously, as if they gave provender to an Elephant. Such are by this customary habit, discovered to be Clownes, and men of a most unfaithfull memorie. Such men we shall sometimes see so faint and idle in their discourse, that they stick in the briers, and de­murre in a grosse gesture of pronunciation; and stricken as it were with astonishment, they seeme nailed to that ill behaviour. This in old time, was called, Agere suspensa manu. For that Clownes, and men not so well exercised in spea­king, or such whose unfaithfull memories faile them, while they are altogether ignorant of the matter, and are not certaine whither they shall be caried, or where they shall at length rest; they hang the Hand, and hold it as it were in suspense. Therefore Plinie the younger elegant­ly Plin. Se­cund. Ep. lib. 6. usurps Suspensa manu commendare, for a faint and cold commendation, destitute of that ardent affection which is wont to appeare in those who are moved in matters of great moment.

Praevar. Sect. 21.

THe subtle gesticulation, and toying behavi­our of the Hands and Fingers, was called by the Ancients, Gestuosa Manus, arguta Manus, and argutiae Digitorum: and are certaine quick and over-fine delicate motions of the Fingers; [Page 118] such as our Juglers use, who performe tricks by slight of Hand, and by a colourable craft mock the eye. Hence [Manus arguta] are spoken of theeves, whose Hands doe quickly leap up, and issue forth, instantly vanishing out of sight: a non they shew themselves, and are called to every part. Sidonius Apollinaris, very skilfully; Scrinia tuaconniventibus nobis, ac subernantibus, effra­ctorum Sidonius Apolinaris l. 9. Ep. 7. [Manus arguta] populabitur. This pratling and busie talking of the Hand, and chattering vanitie of the Fingers, by the common verdict of all discreet and knowing men, hath been ever condemned for a ridiculous weaknesse in those that use it much: against which the most judici­ous Rhetoricians have entred their caveats. See that grave precept of the Prince of Eloquence: Nulla sit mollicia cervicum, nullae [argutiae digito­rum] Cicero in Oratore. non ad numerum articulus cadens. That rich Oratour, whose wealth begot a Proverb, very wisely also to this purpose: Digitus subsequens vexba non exprimens. This genuine blemish and epidemicall disease, takes hold of the Hands of light and unskilfull persons, and young men, Crassus de Oratore. 3. who are usually too hot at Hand in their expres­sions: yet it hath been the noted and deforming propertie of some learned men, who by reason of the lively force of their wit, and vigorous a­lacritie of their spirits, doe manifest and signifie their mindes with a tumultuous agitation of the whole body, whose Hands are never out of a­ction, but alwayes stirring and kept in play, their words plentifully issuing out on all Hands. Q. Hortensius, otherwise a man excellent, was taxed with this genuine or contracted affectation of the Hand: concerning whom, let us heare the [Page 119] report of Agellius. Cum manus ejus [forent argu­tae] admodum & gestuosae, maledictis appellationi­bus (que) Agellius lib. 1. cap. 5 probrosis jactatus est, &c. In which he saith true: for he was upbraided by the Orators of those times, for the gesticulation of his Hands, and cal­led Stage-player; and Torquatus, his enemie, nick-nam'd him, Gesticulariam Dionysiam: as if he had been but the zanie and ape of Dionysia, a tumbling girle, and shee-Mimique of those times. Tullie relates the same man to have used such Cicero Divinat. in Verrem. subtle and swift motions of his Hands, that he dazled the eyes of the beholders. Such a one was Titius, who as the same Author reports, was so effeminate and dissolutely active in his ge­stures, Idem de Clar. orat. that the Pantomimi of those times made a dance of him, and called it by his name, Titius his Coranto. Tyrtamus that sweet-mouth'd So­phister, whom Aristotle for his divinitie of Elo­cution, pointing out with his finger, as it were, the man, call'd him Theophrastum: yet Athenaeus Laert l. 5. Athenaeus De [...]pnos. lib. 1. reports him, Nullum gestum & corporis motionem praetermisisse; and so by consequence guilty of an impertinent vexation of the Hands and Fingers.

Praevar. Sect. 22.

TO play & fumble with the Fingers in speech, is a simple and foolish habit of the Hand, condemned by the ancient Rhetoricians, as an argument of a childish and ill-temper'd minde. This, with the Ancients, was, [Vibrare digitis:] There are, saith Quintilian, Qui sententias vi­bratis Fabius [...]st Rhet. cap. 28. digitis jaculantur: and the Hebrew Pro­verbe saith, Stultus digito l [...]quitur, The Foole speaketh with his Finger. Wherefore it was the saying of Chilo the Lacedemonian; Inter loquen­dum [Page 120] manus movere non debere, which he spake not Laertius l. [...]. of Rhetoricall motions, since in Sparta there was scarce any man esteemed the copious elegancie of speech worth his study; but his intention was either closely to carpe at this foolish toying with the Fingers, or else to admonish his Citizens to be sparing in speech, and to affect Laconicall brevity, and where one or two words would serve the turne to expresse their minde, there would be no great need of gesturing with the Hand. To this may be referred that which Sue­tonius Suetonius cap. 68. reports of Tiberius Nero, Caesar, whose speech was exceeding slow, not without a cer­taine wanton gesticulation, and fumbling with his Fingers, which with other signs were recko­ned and observed in him by Augustus, as pro­perties odious, and full of arrogancie.

Praevar. Sect. 23.

TO use the Middle-Finger instead of the In­dex in points of demonstration is much to be condemned in the Hand of any man, much more of an Oratour. The ancient Grecians no­ted and reproved such for witlesse dotards. Hence Diogenes the Cynique said, Multos insanire prae­ter Laertius lib. 6. digitum, covertly inferring that they are not (only) mad, who erre in putting forth of their Finger. Which gives a notable lustre to that ele­gant, but darke place of Perseus, hitherto under­stood of none, not excepting Cornutus the anci­ent Scholiast, for Ramirez marvells not that E­rasmus was ignorant thereof, in his Adage▪ Ramirez Comment Epig. [...]. Mart. in Amphit. Caes. Tolle digitum, the place is Satyr 5.

Nil tibi concessit ratio, digitum exere, peccas,
Et quid tam parvum est?

Art thou void of reason, and a starke foole: shall [Page 121] I prove it to you? exere digitum, mimically he feignes him to have put forth his Middle-Finger, which is the fooles Index, according to that vul­gar versicle:

Miles, mercator, stultus, maritus, amator.

And he addes Peccas, thou errest in putting forth that Finger, and he urges an argument, à minori, and what is so small and easie to doe? as if he should say, if you mistake in so small a matter, what would you doe in a case of greater mo­ment? Lubinus commenting upon these words, Lubinus Comment in Perseu. Satyr 5. Digitum exere, peccas, sayes the Poet speaks ac­cording to the opinion of the Stoiques, who did demonstrate, Ne digitum rectè à stultis exeri posse; and that a wise man only can doe a thing: which that he might make good, he puts him to an ea­sie triall, in which this foolish Dama miscarried, which discovered, he was not able to move the least member of his body without fault and incur­ring a just reprehension. Paschalius alluding to Paschal. lib. 26. virt. & vit. Charact. the same misprision of the Hand in demonstration saith, Stultus medium digitum monstrat, & hinc se­se denudat, an action so unnaturall and uncomely, that we will not permit children to be guilty of committing it.

Praevar. Sect. 24.

TOme a sure out & distinguish the intervals of an oration by scanning motions of the hand, & certain delicate flexions, and light sounding per­cussions of the Fingers, is an action condemned in the Hand of an Oratour, called by Quintilian in his Prohibition against this action, Ad nume­rum articulis cadens; and explaining himselfe in this matter, he saith, Soluta oratio non descendit, ad strepitum digitorum. Indeed Protagoras cal'd Man Fabius l. 9. cap. 4. [Page 122] the measure of all things. The Learned very fitly call Measure the daughter of the Fingers, and the Aegyptians used to signifie measure by a Finger painted. Hence the meeting and scanning of verses upon the Fingers, hath been a very ancient custome, and it was the manner of old in the re­citation of the verses of Poets, in the measuring and singing them, to note out the intervalls and stroaks by a certain motion of the Hands, where­in the Fingers exhibited a sound, which Quin­tilian cals [Digitorum ictum] for he saies in mee­ter, Fabius l. 9. cap. 4. [Digitorum ictu] intervalla signari. S. Augustin not obscurely consents to the same, who attri­butes singing, applause and percussion, to the recitation of verses: hence that sentence of Se­neca's to be taken notice of, Quorum Digiti ali­quod inter se carmen metientes semper sonant, where S. Aug. l. 2 de Music. Senec. de Brevit. Vitae, c. 12 Cresol. de Gest. orat. l. 2. (as Cresollius observes) that great guide of litera­tur, Lipsius, hath corrected a place which was sound of it selfe; but the Fingers (saith he) in that measuring doe scarce sound, therefore for sonant hee puts sunt; yet Cresollius is loath to thinke that the above mentioned place of Quin­tilian had escaped his knowledge, which con­firms this [ictum digitorum] or sounding motion of the Fingers, which Seneca in this sentence al­ludes unto: So, a Dactyl, one of the Poeticall feet, on which verses run, they wil have to have took Diomedes denomination from the drawing in length of the Finger, which they very cunningly used to ex­presse the modulation of the instrument. But this ietus or musicall cadence of the Fingers, which Cresollius thinkes was not usurped of old by Oratours, when they related the verses of an­clent Poets, unlesse perchance of the more effe­minate [Page 123] of them, (who hunted also after delicate flexions of words) though it may be tollerable for the setting off the intervalls of restrained num­bers, yet in free prose, which Fabius calls oratio­nem Seneca in sent. citata solutam, to affect these subtill cadences, de­serves the sting of the Stoique, which he put out against it.

Prevar. Sect. 25.

TO use the left hand commonly as principall in Action, which should be at most but ac­cessory, is the idle property of one destitute of all Artifice, and common notions; and of one that would seem to speake in despite of the advertise­ments of the Ancients; a strange errour in the Hand of Orator, yet observed & condemned by Cresollius in some pretenders to divine Rheto­ricke, Cresol. Vac. Aut. fit only to preach before such as the chil­dren of Nineveh, who cannot discerne between their Right Hand and their left; for in those things that are done in the sight of honest men, it was never thought the property of an ingenious minde, and one well bred to use the left hand. Neither is there any cause why in the education Plutarch of For­tune, and the educa­tion of children. of Noble-mens children it is diligently given in charge, that they feed themselves with the Right Hand, yea, & nurses use to rebuke infants, if hap­pily they put forth their left; which precept is drawne out of honesty it selfe, and nature, and hath ever beene in use with those Nations who have addicted themselves to humanity, and good manners. Hence the Aegyptians, because in wri­ting and casting account, they frame their let­ters, and lay their counters from the Right Hand to the left; and the Grecians (as Herodotus notes) coutrariwise, from the left to the Right; used to Herodot. [Page 124] gird and trump at the Grecians, saying, that them­selves doe all to the Right Hand, which is well and honestly; but the Greeks to the left, that is perversely and untowardly. And indeed the Nomenclators seeme to have excluded the left hand from all actions of decencie and impor­tance. The Hebrewes call the Right Hand Ja­min, the South, the light and active Hand; and the left the North, the obscure and darke hand, much inferiour to the South. Homer, though hee differ, yet maintaines the dignity of the Right Hand above the left, in calling it the Orient, and the left the Occident. The Hand is so occupied in endeavouring and doing, that the Greeks, who to the advancement of wisdome have flourished in polishing humanity, and inventing names, call it [...], quòd ut magni Gram­matici animadvertunt, [...]. Meletius saies the left hand is called [...], quod in rebus per agendis, ipsa per se claudicet & oberret: And that is called [...] lae­vam, Meletius. [...], quod ob sui imperfectionem ab omni penè functione removetur. Sometimes with the Greeks it is called [...] à [...], i. re­linquo. Hence with the Latines, Relicta a relin­quo, a retrò & linquo, and laeva (it may be) for that in most actions we leave it out, for the same reason in the English Nomenclature, the left hand, for that it is most usually left out. With the Germans, it is Die linke hant, quasi leigend hant, id est, quiescens vel cessans manus. With the Italians Mano flánca, Manus lassa, and Máno [...]ánca, id est, Manus desiciens. S. Hierom so attributes vertue and honesty to the Right Hand, that [...]e will not S. Hierom in Mat. 5. acknowledge a just man to have so much as a [Page 125] left hand; and the Hebrewes and Greeks as­cribe the left hand to vice. Who (saith Cresollius) is so great a forrainer and stranger in the nature of man, that he knowes not the Right Hand to be naturally more vigorous, and able then the left? If there be any such, I could produce a cloud of witnesses for his information, and the chiefe Au­thours and Ring-leaders of Antiquity trooping together under this banner, the splendour of whose Armes and Martiall lookes shall put all ignorance to flight. Aristotle in his Problems fil­led Arist. Probl. 25. Sect. 31. with incredible variety of learning, saith, Dextrae partes corporis nostri longe sunt nobiliores sinistris, & multò amplius solent efficere. They who followed him in the chorus of the Learned, ta­king their hint from this their renowned princi­pall, adhere to the same opinion; for Plutarch totidem verbis, sinistra est [...] to omit what Plutarch in Rom. quest. 78. Apuleius, Censorius, Plinie, Solinus, and others deliver, who have given their manuall suffrage and assent unto this point. Philo Judaeus enqui­ring Philo lib. de praem. Sacerd. the reason why the Divine Law in the rite of sacrifices, gave to the Priests the part of the oblation, which they call the Right shoulder, sayes, there is a symbolicall significati­on in that mystery: That the Priest ought to be diligent and swift in action, and exceeding strong in all things. We know that commonly in Cresol. de gest. orat. combats the left hand, is it were affixed to the body, manageth the shield, and staying as it were at home quiet; the Right Hand shewes it selfe forth, and is occupied in doing and giving the charge. In which we may see a certaine sha­dow of Rhetoricall motion; for in speaking, motion and action is proper to the Right Hand [Page 126] onely, the left remaines quiet, and is scarce openly brought forth. Tullie not very obscurely adviseth thus, who disputing of Action, makes Cicero ad Herenn. l. 3. mention only of one Hand, which he somewhere calls the Right Hand, no where the left, Si erit sermo cum dignitate, laevi Dextrae motu loqui oppor­tebit. But the most cleare Interpretour of all the Ancients, Quintilian, hath brought this Oracle of Rhetoricians from behinde the curtaine, Ma­nus Fab. in Rhet Inst. sinistra nunquam sola gestum facit, and how should it make of it self a compleat action, since the action thereof is more contracted, infirme, incomposed, and out of order? whereas the acti­ons of the Right are free, frequent, continued, composed, and resembling the sweet cadencies of numbers; & therefore hath the prerogative of eloquence in the body, as being nearest the prin­ciple of motion, and most apt to move and signi­fie. And because the left hand of it selfe is of very small dignity in pronunciation, common humanity doth teach us, that as a Virgin shut up in her chamber, it should be modestly concealed; the Right Hand on the contrary, as a most goodly Scepter of Reason, with its force and weight, doth much among men.

But although this praevarication of acting with the Left hand in chiefe, be an errour so grosse, that we cannot away with it even in picture, where an imitation of speech is exprest: Yet there might be a Quaere rais'd, what toleration might be granted to such who are Left-handed or Ambodexters by nature or custome. And I could furnish a Prevaricator in Chirosophie, with some notions to advance with, toward an excuse, or Apologie, in the behalfe of those who [Page 127] are Scaevaes and Scaevolaes in this point of Rheto­rique. For, many of the ancient Sages, who gave themselves to the speculation of Nature, are of opinion, that both Hands are by nature equally qualified. The great Oracle of Physique, saith, Utram (que) in homine Manum esse consimilem. And Plato, where he speakes of the Hands, with that Hippocra­tes. Plato. l. 7. de legibus. wit wherewith he comprehended things divine and humane, affirmes, Parem Dextra at (que) Sini­stra vim à Natura fuisse concessam. And that it hapned by Custome, that one Hand is better, and the other more infirme: yet Custome is an­other Nature. But Goropius hath a saying to Plato for this. Meletius, point-blanke, from an Goropius in Hiero­glyph. Meletius de Nat. Hom. Plato l. 7. de legibus. exemplar argument proves, Dextram Laeva poti­orem neutiquam esse. Plato, the Prior of all anci­ent Philosophers, where he sets forth the educa­tion of honourable Childhood, he would have them all in warre and handling their weapons, to be like those Sonnes of Thunder in Homer, [...], and no lesse then the Scythians in bat­taile, equally to use both Hands, since it seemes easie to be done. The lawes of which most a­cute Philosopher, when the Interpreter of Na­ture briefly sets downe in illustrating his learned Arist. l. 2. Polit. cap. ult. Tractate of Politie, he remembers this to be one: Gives omnes [...] esse oportere. Since there is little reason why one Hand should be idle and quiet. And Commodus the Emperor preferr'd Dion. Cas. the Left hand for any action, and was wont to boast much that he was Left-handed. We read also, that Ehud and Tiberius were of this com­plexion. Judg. 3 Suet. in Tib. c 28. Barthol. Anat. inst. fol. 260. But although some are found more nimble and active in their left hands, and some Ambodexters, (which Bartholinus imputes to a [Page 128] paire of veines, whereas the puissance of the Right Hand proceeds from a veine sine pari, (on that side onely) yet the utmost dispensation can be granted, is a connivence in common acti­ons; for in matter of speech or ornamentall gesture, there can be no toleration granted to an Oratour to play the Ghibeonite, and to sling words at his Auditors out of the Auke of utte­rance, Judg. 20. 16. though he can doe it at a haires breadth. For the truth is, the Left Hand wants that agili­tie, excellence, force and grace in point of acti­on, being made contrary and unhappy by its sci­tuation: whereupon 'tis called Sinistra in latine, quia sine astris bonis. And the lack of grace in doing of a thing, is called Sinisterit as, and sini­strè the adverb sounds unhappily. The best way (therefore) that it can be imployed, is in atten­dance on the Right; which by the course of Na­ture hath the prioritie, as the more proper and propense, and apter to make good its actions by a more handsome diligence, as being planted nee­rer the fountain of the blood. And verily, the Left Hand seemes to be born to an obsequious com­pliance with the Right. And therefore when Quintilian calls for this accōmodation, he seems to have had respect unto the Interpretour of Nature, whose well-grounded Axiome it is, Ita comparata esse à Natura, ut Laeva Dextris obse­cundent. Arist. And the Philosopher addes his reason, Arist. probl. 25. in another place: quòd omnia Sinistra Dextris hu­midiora sunt facilius obsequi, at (que) ad nutum alteri­us fingi & moveri: which the Hebrew Divines, (as Cresollius sayes) seeme to have had respect unto, in their exposition of Deuteronomie, about the ceremonie of washing Hands; where they [Page 129] say thus: Denique opus est, ut in ablutione manuum Sinistra tanquam famula subserviat Dextrae. Meletius de nat. Hom. Hence some Critiques would have the Left hand called by the Greekes, [...], quasi quòd egregia optima (que) non sit, sed ad Dextrae obsequium ministerium (que) procreata. And the ancient Lingones called improsperous things, Eperistera; but good and fortunate things, Dexia. By the Greekes, indeed, sometimes by Caelius Rhod. var. Lect. way of Antiphrasis, the Left Hand is called [...], ab [...], i. e. optimus. But in all humane af­faires, Sinistrum signifieth as much as unluckie.

FOr an Ecclesiasticall Orator, to blesse or dis­misse his auditors with the Left hand, is a So­le cisme Prevar. Sect. 26. in Manuall Divinitie. For the Left hand in this businesse, hath onely usurped the office in the second place, as being of a lower nature then the Right; neither is it of that fortune or re­putation: whence, in all Naturall devices and matter of forme or token of the Hand, or any utterance implying the freedome of election, the introducing of the Left hand doth abate, and denotes a subordinate propertie. 'Tis the Right Hand (according to Isidor) that hath its name à dando, by which we understand a joyfull a­bundance Isidor. of all good: the extension of that Hand therefore, hath been ever of more repute in conferring Benediction. And Justin Martyr sayes, it was an institution of the prime Apostles, that the Right Hand should confer the badge of Just. Mar­tyr. q. 1. 8. ad Orth. Cresol. in Antholog. sacr. Christianitie in Baptisme, for that it is more ex­lent & honorable then the Left; and, as Cresollius thinks, accompanied with Blessing: Whereas in the left hand there is a contrary Genius; certain­ly, it is found to be of a very different condition, [Page 130] and naturally more apt to deteine, then to be­stow a Blessing. Yet notwithstanding, the Left Hand, though it contribute little, yet as in some Naturall and civill actions, it is conformable and obsequious to assist the Right: so in the more ac­complish'd and plenary exhibition of this sacred rite, it hath oft Diaconiz'd unto the Right; but of it selfe alone somewhat improper, and ever subordinate unto the Right. Hence among other prodigies happening in the time of Caesar Dicta­tor, which were thought to prognosticate but small happines. When certaine Infants were borne with their Left Hands upon their Heads, the Sooth-sayer concluded that there was signi­fied Dion. l. 42 C. Jul. Caes. thereby, that men of an inferiour condition should rise vp against the more Noble. And the people, who relyed much upon these kinde of Allegoricall inferences, thought as much, and believed it.

CERTAINE CAVTIONARY NOTIONS, Extracted out of the Ancient and Moderne RHETORICIANS, for the compleating of this Art of Manuall Rhetorique, and the better regulating the im­portant gestures of the Hand & Fingers.

Cautio I.

THE ancient Rhetoricians were very precise in the Doctrine of Action, and had many in­vētions for the forming there­of, which hapned by reason of the manners and complexion of those times: but we are not to tread in their steps so far, as to revoke the whole Art of their obsolete Rhetorique, since it is not very appa­rent, what Action the Ancients used: and if it were known, the whole and perfect discipline, cannot be observed so properly now, since the [Page 132] times and dispositions of men, now differ; and Oratorian Action must varie according to the diversitie of people and Nations, In the meane time, their universall precepts, which may be drawn out of the ancient Oratours, are not to be neglected, but diligently learned, and as much as can be, reduced to practice.

Cautio II.

ACTION accomodated to perswade by an apt enumeration of utterance, called by Rhetoricians, Pronunciation, divided into the fi­gure of the voice, and motion of the body, whose chiefe instrument the Hand is; hath been ever accounted absolutely necessary for a Rhetorici­an: yet all things that the Ancients prescribe for Action, doe not properly belong to a Rheto­rician; neither are all things that appertain, con­venient for our times; nor doe all actions of the Hand become speech; for there are some so far from advancing elocution, that they render it unamiable and deformed.

Cautio III.

THere are two kinde of Actions, which are more perceived in the motion of the Hand, than any other part of the Body: one, that Na­ture by passion and ratiocination teacheth; the other, which is acquired by Art. An Oratour is to observe both the Naturall and the Artifici­all; yet so, that he adde a certaine kinde of art to the Naturall motion, whereby the too much slownes, too much quicknes, and immoderate vastnesse may be avoyded.

Cautio IV.

THe incomposure of the Hands is to be avoi­ded, for to begin abruptly with the Hand, is a sinne against the lawes of Speech. In the ex­ordium of an Oration, the Hand must not goe forth, nor stand extended, but with a sober and composed heed proceed to its first Action, it is good, as Rhetoricians say, simulare conatum, and when it first breaks forth into gesture, while it is softly brought forward, we may looke upon it with an eye, expecting when it should supply our words: Wherefore when an Oratour hath ex­hibited his honour to his Auditours, and laid his Hands upon the Pulpit, let him stand upright, and that without any motion of his Hands, or his Right Hand not brought forth beyond his bo­some, unlesse a very little way, and that gently.

Cautio V.

VVHen the Oration begins to wax hot and prevalent, the Hand may put forth with a sentence, but must withdraw again with the same.

Cautio VI.

GEsture doth with most conformity to Art, begin at the left Hand, the sentence begin­ning together from the left side, but is put off and laid downe at the Right Hand, together with the end of the sentence.

Cautio VII.

'TIs absurd often to change gesture in the same sentence, or often to conclude sinister motions.

Cautio VIII.

GEsture must attend upon every flexion of the voice, not Scenicall, but declaring the sentence and meaning of our minde, not by de­monstration, but signification: for it must be ac­commodated [Page 134] by the Hand, that it may agree and have a proper reference, not so much to the words, as to the sense; wherfore 'tis added as an authentique clause, that the Hand must attend to begin and end with the voyce, lest it should out­run the voyce, or follow after it is done, both which are held unhandsome.

Cautio IX.

IOyne not ESAU'S Hands, with IACOBS Voyce.

Cautio X.

TO raise the Hand above the Eye, or to let it fall beneath the Breast, or to fetch it down from the Head to the lower belly, are accounted vicious misdemeanours in the Hand: yet the masters of this faculty doe grant a toleration sometimes to raise the Hand above the Head, for the better expressing of a just indignation, or when we call God, the Courteours of Heaven, or the common people of the Skies to witnesse.

Cautio XI.

TO avoid the long silence of the Hand, and that the vigour thereof might not be much allay'd by continuall motion, nor prove deficient, there is a caveat entered for the interposing of some intervall, or pause, as 'twere a measure of the expression, or stay, of the active elocution of the Hand: some that are skilfull and curious in this matter, would have three words to make the in­tervall of every motion in the Hand. But Quin­tilian condemnes this for too nice a subtilty, as that which neither is, nor can be observed.

Cautio XII.

NO gesture that respects the rule of Art, di­rects it selfe to the hinder parts: Yet other­whiles [Page 135] the Hand being as it were cast backe, is free from this prohibition: for whereas there are seven parts of motion, To the Right Hand, To the left, upwards, downwards, forward, backward, and circular, the first five are only allowed a Rhetorician.

Cautio XIII.

TAke heed of a Hand Solecisme, or of trans­gressing against the rule of Action, by the incongruity of your Hand and Speech: For to speake one thing with the Tongue, and to seem to meane another thing by a contrarient moti­on in the signifying Hand, and so to thwart and belie a mans selfe, hath been ever accounted a grosse absurdity in Rhetoricke, and the greatest solecisme of pronunciation. Which makes to this purpose; Wee read how at the Olympique Games which in times past were celebrated at Smyrna, where Polemon, that skilfull Sophister was present, there enters the Stage a ridiculous Player, who when in a Tragedy he had cried out [...], ô Coelum! he put forth his Hand to the earth: and againe pronouncing [...], ô Terra! Philostra­tus de vita Sophorum erected his face towards Heaven. The learned Sophister laughed at the absurd Actor, & withall alow'd, so that all were neare might heare him, [...], hic manu solaecismum admi­sit: Wherefore being President of those Games, he by his censure deprived that rude and igno­rant Mimique of all hope of reward. For re­conciling of the Hand and Tongue, and bringing them to an uniformity of signification, and for maintaining their naturall and most important relations, Rhetoricians have agreed upon many Canons and Constitutions. And the Hand then [Page 136] only accords and complies with Speech, when it moves to verifie our words; for if the motions of the Hand doe dissent from the expressions of the Tongue, it may contradict and convince the tongue of vanity; for so we may commend even when we doe reprove, if the gainsaying Hand should have a contrarient motion; seem to con­firme when we are in doubt, when we forbid, our Hand may deport it selfe into the forme of an exhortation; we may acquit when we accuse, ac­cept, when we refuse, and abhor, comply in words, yet by our disordered Hand bid defiance, be sad, with a rejoycing Hand, affirme and grant, what we deny, and many other waies thwart and belie our selves. No true construction can be made of a­ny speech, nor can we evade such dull absurdi­ties of this voucher of our words, do move in op­position to their meaning; for without judge­ment and advice, which should set in order and support the thought into the Hand, that is ever ready to maintaine that trust that the Tongue endeavours to obtaine, Truth wants her war­rant, and is so absurdly crost, that the efficacie of Speech is utterly defac'd, and all the credit that such language amounts unto, is the pittance of a doubtfull faith.

Cautio XIV.

SHun similitude of gesture; for as a monotone in the voyce, so a continued similitude of ge­sture, and a Hand alwayes playing upon one string is absurd, it being better sometimes to use a licentious and unwarrantable motion, then al­wayes to obtrude the same Coleworts. Cre­sollius sayes, he once saw an eminent man, one Cresol. vacat. Au­tumn. l. 2. who had a name for the knowledge of honest [Page 137] Arts, and indeed there was in the man much learning, and that of the more inward & recon­dit, a great Antiquary, and one that had a certain large possession of Divine and Humane Lawes, goodnesse of words, soft and pellucent; and decked with flowers, adorned and polished with the sayings of wise men, and a speech flowing equally after the stile of Xenophons: But it can scarce be imagined how much the ill composed and prevaricant gestures of his Hands tooke off from the common estimation of his accompli­shed wit: For when he had turned himselfe to the left Hand, he powred out a few words with little gesture of his Hands; then reflecting him­selfe to the Right Hand, he plainly did after the same manner, againe to the left Hand, strait to the Right Hand, almost with the like dimension, and space of time, he fell upon that set gesture and univocall motion; his Hands making cir­cumductions, as it were in the same lineall obli­quity: you would have tooke him for one of the Babylonian Oxen (with blinded eyes) going and returning by the same way, which for want of variation gave an incredible distaste to his in­genious Auditors, which did nauseat that in­gratefull saciety of Action; if he might have fol­lowed the dictate of his owne Genius, he would either have left the Assembly, or given him mo­ney to hold his peace: But he considered there was but one remedy, that was to shut his eyes, or to heare with them turned another way; yet hee could not so avoid all inconvenience, for that identity of motion, entring at his ears, did disturbe his minde with nodious similitude.

Cautio XV.

TAke care that variety of gesture, may answer the variety of the voyce and words, which that it may be better done, foure things are to be observed: First, see to the whole cause, whether it be joyfull or sad; then look to the greater part; for in an Exordium, a gentle motion is most com­modious. Narration, requires the Hand a little spread, and a quick & freer motion. Confirmation, a more sharpe and pressing Action: the conclu­sion of an Oration, if it be composed to excite, must have rowsing motions; if to pacifie, gentle and sweet; if to sadnesse, slow and short, and broken motions; if to joy, liberall, cheerfull, nimble and briske accommodations. Then the sentences are to be weighed, which vary with the affections, in expressing which, diligence must be used. Last of all the words, some where­of are now and then to be set off with some em­phasis of irrision, admiration, or some other signification; yet those gestures which fall from the slow Hand, are most patheticall.

Cautio XVI.

TAke heed of levitie, and a scrupulous curi­ositie, in a pedanticall and nice observation of these gestures of the Hands and Fingers.

Cautio XVII.

SHun affectation: for all affectation is odi­ous: and then others are most moved with our actions, when they perceive all things to flow, as it were, out of the liquid current of Nature.

Cautio XVIII.

VSe some preparation, and meditate before­hand of the action you intend to accommo­date your voyce with.

Cautio XIX.

ALthough an Orators art should not altoge­ther consist in imitation, yet remember, that Imitation is one of the great Adjutants, and chief Burnishers and Smoothers of Speech: it having been an ancient and laudable custome, for inge­nious Sparks of Oratorie, to be present at the De­clamations of eminent Oratours, & studiously to observe their Countenance and Hand. Plinie dis­likes those, that imitate none, but are examples unto themselves. The same Plinius Secundus, a fa­mous Plin. lib. 6. Epist. ad Maxim. Pleader, and most sweet Orator, among o­thers that applied themselves unto him, had Fu­scus Silinator & Numidius Quadratus. Junius also commended to him by his ancestours, was trai­ned Idem. lib. 8. epist. up in the Examplar doctrine of Manuall ge­stures. Hence the Tribe and Nation of Oratours were called by the name of those eminent men which they did imitate. Sidonius, truly sirnamed Apollinaris, call'd those Frontoneans, who did imitate Fronto a famous Philosopher and Ora­tour, the patterne of Eloquence to M. Antonie. So the followers of Posthumus Festus were cal­led Posthumians. Sulpitius, not the least in the Chorus of elegant men, imitated the Hand of Crassus, that Nightingall of the Forum, the glory of the Senate, and (as Tullie sayes) almost a god in speaking: (of whom, that (it seemes) might be spoken, with small exchange of words, which was Hyperbolically said of Herods elo­quence; Non Manus hominem sonat!) Wherein Acts 12. 22. He was so happy and industrious, that he was ac­counted to be very like unto him.

Cautio XX.

IN Imitation, propose to your selfe the best patterne, according to the Aethique Rule of Aristotle: Par est in omni re optimum quenque i­mitari.Arist. in Aeth. lib. 9Fusius erred in this part: of whom Tullie reports, that he did not imitate the sinewie expressions of C. Fimbria, but onely his Pre­varications.Cicer. l. 2. de Orat. Basil the Great, a grave and perfect Oratour, a man accomplish'd in all kinde of humanitie, which in him had a sacred tincture of pietie: when he had beene acknowledged to be Ensigne-bearer to Vertue, he had not only admirers, but some that strove to be his Imita­tors. And what did some imitate? Certaine moales and defects of Action, and so fell into an unpleasant and odious kinde of Manuall compo­sition. Therefore Nazianzen, a man of a most Greg. Naz. orat. 20. sharpe judgement, sticks not to call them, Sta­tuas in umbris, a kinde of Hobgoblins and night­walking spirits, who did nothing lesse then ae­mulate the splendor of Rhetoricall dignitie. Take heed therefore, that Imitation degenerate into Caco-zeale, and of proving a Left-handed Cicero.

Cautio XXI.

VVHen you have judiciously proposed your patterne, keep close unto it without le­vitie or change, for diversity of copies is the way to mar the Hand of Action. Titanius Junior was famous for this vice, who (as Capitolinus saith) was the Ape of his time. The same levitie or faci­lity of imitation Libanius the Sophister had, who was called by those of his times, the very painted Map of mens manners and dispositions.

Cautio XXII.

Vse Exercise. For as the most learned of the Philo de Joseph. Thucyd. lib. 1. Stob [...]us Ser. 3. Aus. in lud. Sap. Iews, there are three Ideas, Nature, Art, and Exercitation; by which we endeavor to the best end. The Corinthian Oratour much commends this Exercitation. And the Oracle of the Graecian Sage, is, Omnia sita sunt in Exercitatione. The absolute perfection of all Arts, is from thence; and from it Eloquence receives her beauteous colours, her Musive or Mosaique Excellency; whereby shee becomes most accomplished.

Bend and wrest your Arme and Hands to the Right, to the Left, and to every part: that ha­ving made them obedient unto you, upon a sudden, and the least signification of the mind, you may shew the glittering orbes of Heaven, and the gaping jawes of Earth. Sometimes place your arguments upon your Fingers; some­times lifting up your Hands, threaten and de­nounce punishment, or with a rejecting posture abominate: sometimes shake and brandish your Hand as the lance of Elocution; that so you may be ready for all varietie of speech, and at­taine that [...] or facilitie of action, with the decorum & beauty of decent motion: which excells both that of colours and proportion. Charmides a goodly young Oratour, when he would compose his gesture to all kinde of ele­gancie, Xenoph. in Convi. and (as Ovid speakes) Numerosos ponere gestus) that is, acurate, and made neat by a subtle judgement) at home, alone, [...] he pra­ctised the gesticulations of his Hand.

Cautio XXIII.

TO have Censors at times of exercise, who shall informe truly and skilfully of all our gestures, would much helpe to the conformati­on [Page 142] of the Hand. Or to practice in a great Look­ing glasse: for though that Mirrour reflects that image of one Hand for another, yet we may be­leeve what we see to be done. Demonax, a great Philosopher, and an acute Rhetorician, advis'd an untoward Declamer to use more exercise, and while he answered, that he alway first acted his Orations to himself; Demonax replied, that may very well be; for you act so little to the purpose, Lucian in Daemō. because you have alwayes a foole to your Iudge.

Cautio XXIV.

THe gestures of the Hand must be prepar'd in the Mind, together with the inward speech, that precedes the outward expression.

Cautio XXV.

Vse no uncomely or irregular excesse of ge­sturing with your Fingers in speaking, nor draw them to any childish and trifling actions, contrary to the rules of Decorum, and to that they serve for; lest you diminish the glory of faire speech and Rhetoricall perswasion; and offer a great indignitie to Minerva, to whom these organicall parts of Elocution were sacred.

Cautio XXVI.

THe Left hand of it selfe alone, is most incom­petent to the performance of any perfect action: yet sometimes it doth, but very rarely. Most commonly it doth conform & accommo­date it selfe to the Right Hand. And where both Hands concur to any action, they exhibite more affection. Wherefore [...] in the Duall, is mascu­line, cause vis unita fortior.

Cautio XXVII.

BOth Hands doe sometimes rest, and are out of action: yet this Rhetoricall silence of the Hand, is an act proper, where no affection is e­mergent: though a long intermission of gesture be displeasing.

Cautio XXVIII.

AVoyd Knackings, and superstitious flexures of the Fingers, which the Ancients have not given in precept.

Cautio XXIX.

THe Actions of the Hand are to bend that way, that the voyce is directed.

Cautio XXX

TAke heede, that while your Hand endea­vours to accomplish the acts of Rhetoricall pronunciation, you lose not modestie, and the morall and civill vertves, nor the authoritie of a grave and honest man.

Cautio XXXI.

IN all Action, Nature beares the greatest sway: Every man must consider his own Nature and temperament. The reason is, because no man can put off his own, and put on anothers nature. One Action becomes one man, and another kind of behaviour, another. That which one does without Art, cannot wholly be delivered by Art; for there is a kind of hidden and ineffable reason, which to know, is the head of Art. In some, the Civill vertues themselves have no grace: in others, even the vices of Rhetorique are comely and pleasing. Wherefore a Rheto­rician must know himselfe, yet not by common precepts; but he must take counsell of Nature for the framing of the complexionall and indi­viduall properties of his Hand,

Cautio XXXII.

IN the Rhetoricall endeavours of the Hand, as in all other Actions, the golden Mediocrie is best, and most worthy the hand of a prudent man. For the action of the Hand should be full of dig­nitie and magnanimous resolution, making it a liberall and free Index of the Minde; such as theirs is, who are said by Xenophon to be inspired with divine love, who (as he sayes) gestus ad Xenoph. in Symp. speciem quandam maximè liberalem conformant. Which forme of apparence consists in a certaine moderation of gesture, no chafed and incom­posed rashnes, or a too daring garbe of action, nor superfinicall demeanour: nor on the other side, a rustique and homely fearfulnesse, which is wont to discourage and disappoint the pur­pose of necessary motion. Yet of the two ex­tremes, it is least faulty to draw nigh to modestie, and an ingenuous feare, than to impudencie. The manner and tempering of gesture, is not onely to be fetched from the things themselves, but also from the age and condition of the Ora­tour: for otherwise a Philosopher, or some grave person: otherwise a young Sophister, lif­ted up with study, and boyling over with the fervencie of an active spirit. A soft and calme action most commonly becomes grave men, en­dued with authoritie: which to one in the flower of his youth, would be accounted slownes, and a slacking negligence. Modification of gesture hath also regard to the condition and qualitie of the Auditours; for an Oratour should first con­sider, with whom, and in whose presence he is about to act: for in the Senate, or hearing of a Prince, another action is required than in a Con­cion to a Congregation of the people, or an [Page 145] assembly of light young men. Among Kings, and Potentates, and Fathers of the Court, re­gard is to be had to their illustrious power & au­thority, all juvenile gestient pompe and ostenta­tion laid aside, by a submisse Action he must transferre all dignity from himselfe. Concer­ning this golden point of moderation, there is a Nationall decorum imposed upon men by time and place; for according to the Genius of that climate, wherein we converse, moderation, may admit of a divers construction. In Italy a faire spoken, and overmuch gesturing with the Hand, is held comely and acceptable. And in France he is not a la mode, and a compleat Mounsieur, who is not nimble in the discoursing garbe of his Hand, which proportionable to that lan­guage is very briske, and full of quicke and light­some expressions. And your French Protestant Divines are easily good Chirologers, some I have lately seen in the Pulpit, to my great satisfaction, and have gone away more confirmed in the va­lidity of these Rhetoricall gestures, there being scarce any one gesture that I have cut, but I have seene used in the heat of one discourse of Po­lemicall Divinity, such Logicall asseverations ap­peared in their Hands. In Germany, and with us here in England, who in our Nationall com­plexion are neare ally'd unto the Germans, mo­deration and gravity, in gesture, is esteemed the greater virtue. The Spaniards have another Standert of moderation and gravity accorded to the lofty Genius of Spaine, where the Hands are as often principalls, as accessories to their proud expressions. But our language growne now so rich by the indenization of words of all Nati­ons, [Page 146] and so altered from the old Teutonique, if the rule of moderation, be calculated according to the Meridionall proprietie of our refined speech, we may with decorum and gravitie e­nough (as I suppose) meet the Hand of any of these warmer Nations halfe way, with the Ma­nuall adjuncts of our expressions.


THus, what my Soul's inspired Hand did find
T'exhibite in this Index of the Mind,
What Nature, or her subtle Zanie can
By signes and tokens reach with Speeches span:
(While many Hands made lighter work) at last
Brought to the nail, hath crown'd the labor past.
Here my Hand's Genius bids my Fancie stand;
And (having her discoursing Gestures scan'd)
Beckens lest for a Manuall unfit,
The Work should rise, to make a Hand of it.


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