A Natural History: Containing Many not Common OBSERVATIONS: Extracted out of the best Modern Writers.

BY Sir Thomas Pope Blount, Baronet.

Foelix qui potuit Rerum dignoscere Causas. Virgil.

LONDON: Printed for R. Bentley in Russel Street, in Covent Garden. 1693.

TO THE RIGHT HONOURABLE Henry Lord Capel, Baron of Tewkesbury, and one of their Majesties Most Honourable Privy Coun­cil.

My Lord,

DEDICATIONS are in this Age grown so much in fashion, that an Author who appears with­out one, seems but an un­couth sort of Animal; and therefore since Necessity for­ces [Page] me to a Compliance with this Custom, I hope Your Lordship will vouchsafe to Honour this small Piece with Your Protection. My Lord, should I follow the common course of Dedi­cations, I might here have a fair opportunity of Celebra­ting your many Virtues; here (indeed) is Field-Room enough to range in, and it is easie to be Eloquent up­on such a Topick; but since Nature has by no means fit­ted me for Panegyricks, nor is there any need of Pro­claiming that which every one already knows; I shall now wholly forbear anything of this kind.

[Page] My Lord, what I now (with all deference) present to Your Lordship, is not any superficial, slight Notion of my own, but that which is here tender'd, is a NATU­RAL HISTORY, drawn from the Writings of the Beaux Esprits, or the great­est Wits of the Present Age upon these several Subjects, so that I question not but Your Lordship will meet with some Remarques, that may be Entertaining, Useful, and not Common. And if up­on any Account it be ac­ceptable to Your Lordship, I have then fully attain'd my End; since the ut­most [Page] I can pretend to, is but a Pepper-Corn Acknowledg­ment from,

Your Lordship's Most Devoted, And Obliged Humble Servant, Tho. Pope Blount.


WHoever Surveys the Curious Fa­brick of the VNIVERSE, [...]an never imagine, that so Noble a Structure should be Fram'd for no other Vse, than barely for MANKIND to live and breath in. It was certainly the Design of the great Architect, that his Creatures should afford not only Necessa­ries and Accommodations to our Animal part, but also Instructions to our Intel­lectual. Every Flower of the Field, e­very Fibre of a Plant, every Particle of an Insect, carries with it the Impress of its Maker, and can (if duly consider'd) read us Lectures of Ethicks or Divinity. The deeper insight any Man hath into the Affairs of NATVRE, the more he dis­covers of the Accurateness, and Art, that is in the Contexture of Things: For the Works of God, are not like the Compositions of Fancy, or the Tricks of Juglers, that will not bear a clear Light, or strict Scrutiny; but their Ex­actness receives advantage fro [...] the se­verest [Page] Inspection; and he admires most, that knows most. How unreasonable (then) are those Men, who will not herein allow us the use of [...]our RATIONAL FACVLTIES, but with great Fury and Zeal declaim against the Study of NA­TVRE, as a thing most dangerous and pernicious; telling us, that too strict an Enquiry into the Works of NATVRE, does often terminate in a Spirit of A­theism. But whoever He was that first broach'd this Doctrine, I am sure the true RELIGION is little beholden to him for it; for instead of Obeying the Jewish Law, which forbids us to offer up to God a Sacrifice that has a Blemish; He has only assign'd to Religion those Men, who have the greatest Blemish of Humane Nature, even a defect in their Know­ledge and Understanding. Indeed, it cannot but justly provoke any Man of an Ingenious temper, to hear after what man­ner some Men inveigh against REA­SON, calling it the Step-Mother of FAITH, and a proclaim'd Rebel against God Almighty; and such declar'd Trai­tors, [...]s dare harbour it, or so much as appear in its defence. Methinks these Sort of Men Act every whit as foolish­ly, as He who in great wrath should break his Perspective, only because it [Page] could not bring home to his view the most remote Objects; and are as unjust as Jacob had been, if he had divorc'd from Leah, because she was Tender-Ey'd. Ever since FAITH and REASON have been by Divines set together by the Ears, the brutish Multitude conclude those who are most REASONABLE to be least RELIGIOVS; and the greatest SPIRITS to be the least SPIRITVAL: A con­ceit most inconsistent with that Divine Parable, wherein Those who received the Many Talents, improv'd them to the best advantage, whilst He who had but One, laid it up in a Napkin. Nor is it probable, that God would chuse low Shrubs, and not tall Cedars, for the Building of his Glorious Temple. And besides, it is remarkable, that God in the Old Law refus'd to accept the First-Born of an Asse in Sacrifice, but not of any other Creature. We have Reason (then) to think, that no Perfection is to be valued at so high a Rate, as a true Freedom and Ingenuity of Mind; 'Tis this that distinguishes Churches from Heards, as a Modern Author expresses it. And those Men who have laid aside the free and impartial use of their REA­SON, are just as fit for RELIGION, as Sheep and Oxen; for they differ only [Page] in this, that the One are Brutes without REASON, and the other Brutes with it. How could the Scythian have Sa­crific'd RATIONAL Beings, had he not first Sacrific'd his own REASON? Or the Egyptian adored IRRATIONAL Creatures, had not He himself been one? Onions could never have been Deities, if Egyptians had been Men; but when REASON was once banish'd the Temples, no wonder if Folly and Superstition com­menc'd RELIGION; a Stock might be a Deity, when the Priest was no more. Thus then we see, that unless we make use of our RATIONAL Faculties, we presently cease from Acting like Men, nay, We do not so much in our Kind, as Beasts do in theirs, who justly obey the Prescrpit of their Natures, and live up to the height of that Instinct that Providence hath given them. But, alas! though every Man would be thought to be ANIMAL RATIONALE, yet how few are there who Act as if they really were so! insomuch that it may be truly said, Humanum paucis vivit genus; MANKIND is but preserv'd in a few Individuals; The greatest part of Men, like the Serpent, ly hissing and groveling upon the Earth, and their Souls are so fixed in that grosser Moity of Them­selves, [Page] their Bodies, that nothing can Sublimate or Refine them. The numerous Rabble that seem to have the Signa­tures of Man in their Faces, are but Brutes in their Vnderstanding, and have nothing of the Nobler part that should denominate their Essences; 'tis by the favour of a Metaphor, we call them Men, for at the best they are but Des­Cartes's AVTOMATA, moving Frames and Figures of Men, and have nothing but their Outsides to justifie their Titles to Rationality.

Now, having said thus much, it re­mains only, that I apply my self to a­nother sort of Men, and they are such, who pretend to be wiser and more know­ing than the rest of Mankind: These, I know, will be apt to smile at, and despise many of the Subjects here treated of, as mean and trifling. What! Enter­tain such brave Heros, such mighty Dons, with an insipid Discourse of PLANTS, INSECTS and REPTILES! away with them, this is an Impertinence not to be bore with. But let these high­flown Topping Sparks swell and strut as much as they please, I am sure one, who may be allow'd to have a great deal more Wit than Themselves, I mean the Wise Solomon, was of another Opi­nion; [Page] for he thought it not beneath him to take notice as well of Abject REP­TILES, as of Lions, Eagles, Elephants, and other noble Animals; nor did he only write of the tall Cedars of Leba­non, but also of that Dspicable Plant, which grows out of the Wall. Pliny in his Treatise of INSECTS seems to be transported with an unusual admiration of the Workmanship of NATVRE in them; Nusquam alibi spectatiore Na­turae rerum Artificio; In nothing, saith he, is the Workmanship of NATVRE more remarkable, than in the Contex­ture of these little Creatures. And after a Wonder, not unworthy a Philo­sopher, He concludes, Rerum Natura nusquam magis quam in Minimis tota est, NATVRE in her whole Power is never more wholly seen than in her smallest Works. And from this very Opinion, in all probability, did Epicurus frame his Doctrine of ATOMS. The Gods, saith Aristotle, are as well in the least INSECTS, as in the most bulky ANIMALS; and therefore we ought not to despise these little Crea­tures. For on the contrary, as in Art, the less room a Picture takes up, the more it is esteem'd; so in Nature, the less Volume Things are in, the more [Page] worthy they are of Admiration. Much to the same Effect saith that Noble Phi­losopher, Mr. Boyle, viz. That Gods Wisdom appears not less in lesser Crea­tures, than in the larger; and that there is none of them so little, but would deserve a great deal of our Wonder, did we attentively enough consider it. History tells us, that A­pelles was discover'd by the skillful Pro­tagoras, by drawing so fine and slender a Line, that Protagoras, by being scarce able to discern it, discover'd it to have been drawn by Appelles; even so Al­mighty God, in these little Creatures, does often draw such exquisite and de­licate Lines and Traces, that nothing less than the Divine Pencil could ever have fram'd the like: How can any thing be more stupendious and wonderful, than to see in these little Creatures all the Per­fections of the largest Animals? They have the same Organs of Body, multi­plicity of Parts, variety of Motions, diversity of Figures, and severality of Functions with those of the largest Size; And that which is still more wonderful, is, that all these in so narrow a room do neither interfere, nor impede one a­nother in their several Op [...]rations.

[Page]And now, that I may not be too tedi­ous, I will close this PREFACE with a word or two, in Answer to one Objection, that this following Piece may seem lia­ble to. I know many will think it very ahsurd and preposterous, that I should undertake to write a NATVRAL HISTORY in so small a Volume, and Contract a Subject of the largest Field into so narrow a Compass. But in Answer hereunto I have this to say; that (indeed) had I taken in all things that properly relate to Natural History, instead of an Octavo, I could easily have swell'd it into a Folio; but I consider'd, that by reason of the present Taxes men now are forc'd into good Husbandry, and that the laying out much Money in Books is by most men thought an unnecessary Charge fit to [...]e retrench'd: wherefore I resolv'd to make my self as easie to the Reader as I could, by not being too chargeable to him; and this I thought was best to be done, by sin­gling out such Subjects only, as I knew con­tained in them matters of the greatest cu­riosity. So that (in a word) my chief De­sign is, that by the help of such a Vade Mecum, Gentlemen may entertain them­selves upon these following Subjects, without too great an Expence either of Time, or Money.

The several Subjects here treated of, are, as follow.

Pag. 1
Civit and Civet-Cats.
Pag. 9
Pag. 13
Pag. 17
Pag. 23
Pag. 30
Pag. 37
Pag. 44
Pag. 49
Pag. 54
Pag. 57
Pag. 61
Pag. 65
Lignum Aloes.
Pag. 70
Pag. 75
Pag. 80
Pag. 85
Pag. 91
Tea, or Thé.
Pag. 99
Pag. 107
Pag. 116
Pag. 123
Planting and Ordering Tobacco.
Pag. 132
Pag. 136
Ordering the Canes, and how the Su­gar is made.
Pag. 141
Pag. 150
Pag. 158
Of the way and Manner of Diving for Pearl.
Pag. 167
Several Precious Stones.
Pag. 170
Pag. 182
Sea Ccompass.
Pag. 190
Pag. 195
Pag. 209
Pag. 225
Pag. 237
Generation of Mettals.
Pag. 245
Damps in Mines.
Pag. 251
Generation of Insects.
Pag. 262
Ants, Emmits, or Pismires.
Pag. 276
Pag. 293
Pag. 303
Pag. 313
Pag. 325
Snakes, Serpents, or Vipers
Pag. 337
Pag. 349
Remarkable Trees.
Pag. 356
Pag. 368
Vulcano's, or Subterranean Fires.
Pag. 388
Pag. 403
Pag. 416
Pag. 434
Pag. 443
Origine of Fountains.
Pag. 451

A Natural History.

Observations concerning MUSK.

THe MUSK-Cat is a Crea­ture almost like a Goat, bred in the Kingdom of Pegu, in the Indies; as also in Egypt, and other places. It has been brought into our Northern Countries, but through the disa­greeableness of the Climat, it will not with us yield any MUSK, nor will it live long.

Schroder says, that MUSK is an Excrement, or matter included in a Cistis or Bladder about the Navel, while the Creature is full of Venery. When this Imp [...]sthume swells much, and puts him to Pain, he rubs it against Stones or Shrubs. [Page 2] and breaks it, upon which the Matter falling it sticks, and, by Vir­tue of the Sun-beams, it becomes sweet-scented MUSK.

Monsieur Thevenot tells us, That in the Province of Azmer, belong­ing to the Great Mogul, there is a Beast, like a Fox in the Snout, which is no bigger than a Hare: The Hair of it, is of the Colour of a Stags, and the Teeth like to a Dogs. He says, it yields most ex­cellent MUSK; for at the Belly it hath a Bladder full of corrupt Blood, and that Blood maketh the MUSK, or is rather the MUSK it self; which they take from it, and immediatly cover the place where the Bladder is cut with Lea­ther, to hinder the Scent from eva­porating: But after this Operation is made, the Beast is not long-liv'd.

Monsieur Tavernier, in his Tra­vels in India, says, That the best sort, and the greatest quantity of MUSK, comes from the Kingdom of Boutan, from whence they bring [Page 3] it to Patna, the chief City of Ben­gala, to truck it away for other Commodities: And that all the MUSK which is Sold in Persia, comes from thence: And that the MUSK-Merchants had rather deal with you for Coral and Tellow-Am­ber, than for Gold or Silver; in re­gard the other is more in esteem among the Natives where they live.

Tavernier also tells us, That after they have kill'd the Creature, they cut off the Bladder that grows un­der the Belly, as big as an Egg, nearer to the Genital parts, than to the Navel: And that then they take out the MUSK that is in the Blad­der, which at that time looks like Clotted-Blood.

He observes to us, That this Creature is not to be found in 65 degrees, but in 60 there are vast Numbers, the Country being all over cover'd with Forrests. But he says, that in the Months of Fe­bruary and March, after they have [Page 4] endur'd a sharp Hunger, by reason of the great Snows that fall where they breed, Ten or Twelve Foot deep, they will come to 44 or 45 degrees to fill themselves with Corn and new Rice. And then it is that the Natives lay Gins and Snares for them, to catch them as they go back: Shooting some with Bows, and knocking others o'the head. Nay, he says, some have assur'd him, That they are so lean and faint with Hunger at that time, that one may almost take them running

He also informs us, That none of these Creatures have above one Bladder, no bigger th [...]n a Hen'sEgg, which will not yield above half an Ounce of MUSK; and that sometimes three or four will not aff [...]rd an Ounce; and yet what a world of MUSK is bought up!

There are three sorts of MUSK, Black, Brown, and Yellow; of which the First is naught, the Se­cond is good, the last best; which [Page 5] ought to be of Colour like the best Spikenard, that is, of a deep Amber Colour, inclosed with one only Skin, and not one over another, as it is oftentimes to [...] -moist, which make [...] [...] but in a mean; having som [...] [...] like Bristles, but not over many clear of Stones, Lead, or [...]ther Trash intermix'd; and of so strong and fragrant a smell, that to many it is offensive, and being tasted in the Mouth, it pierceth the very Brain with the Scent, and ought not oversoon to dissolve in the Mouth, nor yet to remain very long undissolv'd in any hand; it must not be kept near to any sweet Spices, lest it lose the scent PVRCH. P [...]lgr. Vol. 1. Pag. 389.

That the Testicles of the Animal call'd MUSK-QUASS do smell strong of MUSK, as Mr. Iosselin in his Treatise of the Rarities of New-England affirms, is most certain; for a certain Person, (as you may see in the Philosoph. Transact) t [...]lls us,


[Page 8]There is a Plant, pretty common in England, viz. One kind of Cranes-Bill, call'd Geranium Moschatum, that smells just like MUSK, espe­cially Morning and Evening.

There are several ways of adul­terating MUSK. Sometimes with Roots of Angelica, a Kids Liver, or Goats Blood, p. iiii., of it to i. p. of MUSK. As also with Nutmeg, Cinnamon, Cloves, Spikenard, ana, mixt with MUSKED Rose-Wa­ter. And sometimes with Benjamin, Storax, and Laudanum.

The King of Boutan fearing that [...] Cheats and Adulterations of [...] [...]SK would spoil the MUSK- [...] order'd that none of the [...] should be sow'd up, but [...] they should be all brought to [...], and there, after due in­ [...]ction, be seal'd up with his Seal. [...] notwithstanding all the wari­ [...]s and care of the King, they will [...], cunningly open them, [...] put in little pieces of Lead to [...] the Weight.

Observations concerning CIVET, and CIVET-CATS.

THe CIVET-CAT is a Beast almost as big as a good Dog; it hath a sharp Snout, small Eyes, lit­tle Ears, and Mustachios like a Cat; the Skin of it is all spotted Black and White, with some yellowish specks, and hath a long bushy Tail, almost like a Fox. It is a very Wild Creature; and I believe the bite of it would put a Man to no small pain. There is great plenty of this sort of Animals in Aethiopia, but especially in the Kingdom of Naria, Tributary to the King of Aethopia; where the Iews keep them in great square Wooden Cages, feeding them with raw Mutton and Beef, cut into small pieces. When they would get from them that which is call'd CIVET, (and is the Sweat of this Beast, that smells so sweet,) they make him go back with a Stick, which they [Page 10] thrust in betwixt the Bars of the Cage, and catch hold of his Tail; when they have that fast, they take hold also of his two hind Legs, pulling him half out of the Cage by the Door, which falls down up­on his back, and keeps him fast there, then another opens a cer­tain [...]od of Flesh, that these Beasts have, which is shaped like a split Gy­sern, and with an Iron-Spatula scrapes all the Sweat off it within. The Males have that piece of Flesh betwixt their Stones and Yard, which is like a Cats. The Females have it betwixt their Fundament and Privities; and it is emptied of the Sweat but twice a Week; each Beast yielding about a Drachm at a time. When that Sweat or Excre­ment is taken out, it is of a whitish Gray, but by little and little in some short space it turns to a very brown Colour. It smells very sweet at a di­stance, but near hand it stinks, and causes the Head-ach. There are as many Kinds of CIVET-Sweat, [Page 11] as there are of CIVET-CATS, for it is more whitish, grayish, or yellowish, and drier, in some than in others, and yet they mingle all together. After all, it is in vain to think to have pure CIVET, for the Iews falsifie it; and if a Man imagine it to be pure, because he has seen it taken from the Beast, he is mistaken; for the Iews (before People come to their Houses) rub the inside of that piece of Flesh, with a little Oyl, or some such stuff, that so the Sweat and it together may make more Weight; but when no body is present, they take it out pure, and mingle it af­terwards. The Iews hold this Beast very dear, the common rate for a CIVET-CAT being an hundred Chequins. THEVENOT's Tra­vels, Pag. 239.

The Island of Socotora in the East-Indies does so abound with CIVET-CATS, that as Purchas, Vol. 1. Pag. 419. tells us, They of­ten take them with Traps on the [Page 12] [...]ountains, and sell them for Twelve Pence a piece, to such as will buy them.

Dr. Stubbes, in his Iamaica Ob­servations, saith, That CIVET-CATS will live above a Month without drinking, as he himself once try'd on one that he kept: But that if they drink once a M [...]nth, they will then yield more CIVET; and so, if they be fed with Fish. He also says, they Piss much, as do Rabbets. PHILOS. TRANS­ACT. Numb. 36 Pag. 704.

The Lord Bacon, in his Natural History, Cent. X. Pag. 204. says, That the smells of MUSK, Am­ber, and CIVET, are thought to further Venereous Appetite: Which, in his Opinion, they may do, by the Refreshing and calling forth of the Spirits.

It is a certain Receiv'd Opinion, That CIVET put into Wine adds much to the strength of it, and gives it a more Inebriating Qua­lity.

[Page 13]CIVET is adulterated with the Gall of a Bull, liquid Storax, and Honey.

Observations concerning AMBER.

GReat variety of Opinions hath there been concerning AM­BER. Some think it to be a Gum that distils from Trees: Others tell us, it is made of Whales Dung; or else of their Sperm or Seed, (as others will have it,) which being consoli­date and harden'd by the Sea is cast upon the Shore.

But Peter Heylin affirms, That AMBER is the Juice of a Stone, which grows like a Coral in Poland, in a Mountain of the North Sea, clean cover'd with Water; and that in the Months especially of Septem­ber and December, this Liquor is by violence of the Sea, rent from the Rock, and cast into the Havens of Poland, and the Neighbouring Countries: He likewise affirms, that being taken out of the Water, [Page 14] it hardens like to Coral: And that besides its Beauty, and the Quality it hath of burning like Pitch, and attracting Straws and Iron, like the Adamant, it is good for stopping the Blood, all kind of Agues, Fal­ling Sickness, Dropsies, Stone, Co­lick, Weakness of Stomach, Head­Ach, and the Yellow Jaundise. PET. HEYL. Cosmog.

Tavernier says, that AMBER is nothing but a certain Congela­tion made in the Sea, like a certain Gum: And that Yellow AMBER is only found upon the Coast of Prussia in the Baltick Sea, where the Sea throws it upon the Sand, when such and such Winds blow. He affirms, that the Elector of Brandenburgh, who is Soveraign of that Coast, Farms it out for Twenty Thousand Crowns a Year, and sometimes Two and Twenty Thou­sand. And that the Farmers keep Guards on both sides of the Shoar, in regard the Sea casts it up some­times upon one side, and sometimes [Page 15] upon the other, to prevent the stealing of it. TAVERN. Travels in India, Pag. 152.

In China, when any great Lord makes a Feast, it is for his Gran­deur and Magnificence to cause three or four several sorts of Per­fuming-Pots to be set upon the Table, and to throw into every one of them a vast quantity of AMBER; for the more it burns, and the bigger the pieces are, the more magnificent is the Entertain­ment accounted. The reason of this Custom is, because they adore the Fire; and besides that the AMBER casts sorth a scent plea­sing to the Chineses, there is a kind of Oyl in it, that flames after a more unusual manner than other materials of Fire. This waste of AMBER makes it the best Com­modity that could be imported into China, if the Trade were free for Strangers. At present the Hollan­ders have engross'd all this Trade to themselves, and the Chineses [...] [Page 18] Authors) affirm it to be a kind of Bitumen, issuing from Fountains, or Springs in the bottom of the Sea, and that by floating upon the Wa­ter it becomes hard, &c.

Iustus Klobius, in his H [...]storia Ambra [...], reckons up no less than Eighteen several Opinions concern­ing this Noble Drug: But that which he embraces, is, That it is the Dung of a Bird, of the bigness of a Goose, found in Madagascar, the Maldives, and other parts of the East-Indies; and that these Birds, flocking together in great Numbers, as Cranes; and frequenting high Cliffs near the Sea-side, do there void their Excrement, from whence the Sea washes it, if it fall not of it self into it.

There is another Opinion also a­mong the Eighteen, to which Klo­bius seems well inclin'd, but yet dares not wholly stick to it; viz. That it is the Excrement of a par­ticular sort of Whale. But that which makes him not rely upon this [Page 19] this Opinion, is, because he observes, there is none of this Drug to be had in those other places, where there is good store of such Whales.

The Honourable Robert Boyle, Esquire, in a Letter to Mr. Olden­burgh, Dated September 13. 1673. after he had declar'd how little sa­tisfi'd he was with the common receiv'd Opinions of AMBER-GRISE, at last affixes to the said Letter an Extract out of a Dutch Iournal, belonging to the Dutch East-India Company; which is in these words. ‘AMBER-GRISE is not the Scum or Excrement of the Whale, &c. but issues out of the Root of a Tree, which Tree how far soever it stands on the Land, always shoots forth its Roots towards the Sea, seeking the warmth of it, thereby to deliver the fattest Gum that comes out of it: Which Tree otherwise by its copious fatness might be burnt and destroy'd. Where-ever that fat Gum is shot into the Sea, it is so [Page 20] tough, that it is not easily broken from the Root, unless its own weight and the working of the warm Sea doth it, and so it floats on the Sea.’ PHILOSOPH. TRANSACT. Numb. 97.

Tavernier in his Travels in India, says, There is no Person in the World that knows either what AM­BER-GRISE is, or where, or how it is produc'd. But the fairest probability is, that it must be only in the Eastern-Sea: Though some Parcels have been found upon the Coast of England, and in some o­ther parts of Europe. He says, that the greatest quantity is found upon the Coast of Melinda, but more e­specially in the Mouth of a River call'd Rio de Sena: That the Go­vernour of Mozambique gets in the three Years of his Government a­bove Three Hundred Thousand Pardo's of AMBER-GRISE, every Pardo containing 27 Sous of French Money: That sometimes they meet with very large and very [Page 21] considerable pieces, viz. Of Thirty or Forty, Pounds Weight. TA­VERN. Trav. in India, pag. 152.

Sir Philiberto Vernatti, late Re­sident in Iava Major, says, That the best AMBER-GRISE in the World comes from the Island Mauritius in the East-Indies; and is commonly found after a Storm: That the Hogs can smell it at a great distance; who run like mad to it, and devour it commonly be­fore the People come to it: That it is held to be a Zeequal Viscosity, which, being dried by the Sun, turns to such a Consistence as is daily seen. He mentions one Isaac Vigny, a Frenchman, who had been a great Traveller in his time, who told him, that he had sailed once in his Youth through so many of these Zeequalen, as would have load­ed Ten Thousand Ships; the like having been never seen; and that his Curiosity drove him to take up some of those, which being dried [Page 22] in the Sun, were perceiv'd to be the best AMBER-GRISE in the World. Sir Philiberto, says, He has seen one piece which the French­man kept for a Memento, and ano­ther piece he sold for Thirteen Hundred Pounds Sterling: This be­ing discover'd, They set Sail to the same place where these Zeequalen appear'd, and Cruised there to and fro, for the space of six Weeks, but could not perceive any more. Where this place is seituated, Sir Philiberto says, He knows not; but Monsieur Gentillot, a French Captain in Holland, does. SPRAT's Hist. of the R. S. pag. 168.

There is AMBER-GRISE of four several Colours; White, Gray, Red, and Black; which comes according to the variety of Places or Regions where it is found; the Gray is preferr'd before all the o­ther, and is known to be good, if when pricking it with a Pin, it sends out a moisture like Oyl.

[Page 23]The Black or White AMBER-GRISE is adulterated with a lit­tle mixture of Musk and Civet with Storax, Laudanum, and Lignum-Aloes, but may easily be known by the scent.

Observations concerning CORAL.

THere are several sorts of CO­RAL, but the two Princi­pal are the White and the Red; but the Red is the best. It grows like a Tree in the bottom of the Sea, green when under the Water, and bearing a White Berry; and when out, it turns Red. There is also a Black and Yellow kind of CO­RAL. Nay, Linschot in his De­scription of the East-Indies, says, That at the Cape of Bon-Esperance there are Rocks on which CO­RAL grows of all Colours.

CORAL, but little valued in Europe, is highly esteem'd in all the three other parts of the World. [Page 24] There are three places where they Fish for it upon the Coast of Sar­digna. That of Arguerrel is the fairest of all. The second place is called Boza; and the third is near the Island of St. Peter. There are two other places upon the Coast of France, the one near the Bastion of France; the other at Tabarque. There is also another Fishery upon the Coast of Sicily, near Trepano, but the CORAL is small, and ill-colour'd. There is another upon the Coast of Catalogna, near Cape de Quiers, where the CORAL is large, and of an excellent Colour, but the Branches are short. There is a Ninth Fishery in the Island of Majorque, much like that near the Island of Corsica. And these are all the places in the Mediterranean Sea, where they Fish for CO­RAL; for there is none at all in the Ocean. TAVERN. Trav. in India.

They Fish for CORAL, from the beginning of April to the End [Page 25] of Iuly; to which purpose there are employ'd above two Hundred Ves­sels; some Years more, and some Years less. They are built all along the River of Genoa, being very swift. Their Sails are very large for more swiftness, so that there are no Gallies can reach them. There are seven Men and a Boy to every Barque. They never Fish above forty Miles from the Land, where they think there are Rocks, for fear of the Pyrats, whom they easily escape through the nimbleness of their Vessels. Ibidem.

Monsieur Chapuzeau, in his Hi­story of the Riches of the East and West-Indies, says, That the manner of Fishing for CORAL, is with two big Beams of Wood, laid cross­wise, with a good piece of Lead on the middle, to make it sink, casting about it course Hemp, care­lessly twisted, and tying this Wood to two Ropes, whereof one hangs at the Stern, and the other at the fore-part of the Boat; and so let­ting [Page 26] this contrivance fall into the Current, along the Rocks, where the Hemp being turned about, and engaged in the CORAL, there is occasion sometimes for a great many Boats to draw away the In­strument.

The common Opinion, That CORAL is soft under Water, but waxeth hard in the Air, hath been sufficiently re [...]uted by several. Io­hannes Begvinus, in his Chapt. of the Tincture of CORAL, under­takes to clear the World of this Error, from the very Experiment of Iohn Baptista de Nicole, who was Over-seer of the Gathering of CORAL in the Kingdom of Thu­nis. This Gentleman, saith he, de­sirous to find out the Nature of CORAL, and to be resolved how it grows at the bottom of the Sea; caused a Man to go down no less than a Hundred Fathom, on purpose to take notice, whether it were hard or soft in the place where it grows. Who returning, brought [Page 27] in each Hand a Branch of CO­RAL, affirming it was as hard at the bottom, as in the Air where he deliver'd it. The same was also confirm'd by a Tryal of his own, handling it a Fathom under Water before it felt the Air.

Boetius, in his accurate Tract de Gemmis, is of the same Opinion; not ascribing its Concretion unto the Air, but to the coagulating Spirits of Salt, and the petrifying Juice of the Sea, which entring the Parts of that Plant, overcomes its Vegetability, and converts it into a Stony substance. And this, says he, doth happen when the Plant is ready to decay; for all CORAL is not hard, and in many Concreted parts some parts remain unpetrified, that is, the livelier parts remain as Wood, and were never yet convert­ed. BROWN's Vulg. Errors.

The Lord Bacon, in his Natural History, tells us, there are very few Creatures that participate of the Nature of Plants and Metals both; [Page 28] but that CORAL is one of the nearest of both Kinds. But the In­genious Monsieur Guisony seems to be of another Opinion, for he ut­terly denies CORAL to be a Plant, affirming that it is a meer Mineral, composed of much Salt, and a little Earth; and that it is formed into that substance by a precipitation of divers Salts, tha [...] ensues upon the Encounter of the Earth with those Salts. PHILO­SOPH. TRANSACT. Numb. 99. pag. 6159.

Of the Nature and Generation of CORAL, it is affirmed by the Honourable Mr. Boyle, That whilst it grows, it is often found Soft and Succulent, and propagates its Species. And by Georg. de Sepibus, That of those who had been us'd for many Years to dive for CORAL in the Red-Sea, Kircher learned thus much; That it would sometimes let fall a Spermatick Juice, which light­ing upon any [Steady] body, would thereupon produce another CO­RAL. [Page 29] And further, by Wormius and Tavernier, from the Relations of others, That this Juice is White or Milky. Which may seem the more Credible, when we consider that the like Milky substance is found in divers Mines. Sometimes inclosed, (as is observed in the Phi­los. Transact. Numb. 100. by Mr. George Planton,) in great Hollows of the Metallick Rock. And that Mr. Beamont (Philos. Transact. Numb. 129. Pag. 730.) hath found in the Hollows of some Stones call'd En­trochi, and Rock-Plants, or a-kin to them, an evident Concretion of such Milky Juice. GREW's Mus. Regal. Societ.

Paracelsus makes an Amulet of CORAL against Fears, Fright, Melancholly, Epilepsie, Inchant­ment, and Witch-Craft.

The Learned Dr. Brown, in his Vulgar Errors, seems to suspect, That the Custome of Childrens wearing CORAL, was at first superstitiously founded; and that [Page 30] (possibly) in former times, it might be lookt upon as an Amulet or De­fensative against Witch-Craft.

Observations concerning BEZOAR.

THe Deer-Goat, is a Creature bred both in the East and West-Indies: That from Persia and the East-Indies yields the Oriental BEZOAR, being partly like a Deer, partly like a Goat. That of Peru is like the former, but with­out Horns, yielding the Occidental BEZOAR. The BEZOAR Stone is of an Oval Form, or round, hollow within, (the Oriental hav­ing Chaff, Hair, Sticks, Grains, Filth, or the like, in its Capacity, the Occidental Not) shining and smooth without, having a Coat [...]olded like an Onion, of a various Colour, but generally of a Blackish [...] Green, Pale, Ash [...]Colour, or Hony-Colour, without scent, and much about the bigness of a Walnut. [Page 31] The Occidental is rough without, Whitish, Ash-Colour'd, Black, or Blackish Green, and generally big­ger than the former.

BEZOAR, (says Tavernier) comes from a Province of the King­dom of Golconda, toward the North-East. It is found among the Ordure in the Paunch of a Wild-Goat, that browzes upon a certain Tree, the Name whereof Tavernier had forgot. This Shrub bears lit­tle Buds, round about which, and the Tops of the Boughs, the BE­ZOAR Engenders in the Maw of the Goat. It is shap'd according to the form of the Buds, or Tops of the Branches or which the Goats eat: Which is the reason there are so many shapes of BEZOAR Stones.

The Natives (as Tavernier in­forms us) know by feeling the Belly of the Goat, how many Stones she has within, and sell the Goat ac­cording to the quantity. This they will find out by slideing their hands [Page 32] under their Bellies, and then shak­ing both sides of the Paunch; for the Stones will fall into the middle, where they may easily count them all by their feeling.

The rarity of BEZOAR is in the bigness; though the small BE­ZOAR has the same Virtue as that which is larger. But there is more deceit in the large BEZOAR; for the Natives have got a trick to add to the bigness of the Stone, with a certain Paste compos'd of Gum, and something else of the Co­lour of BEZOAR. And they are so cunning too, to shape it just like Natural BEZOAR. The cheat is found out two ways; the first is by weighing the BEZOAR, and then sleeping it in warm Wa­ter: If neither the Water change Colour, nor the BEZOAR lose any thing of its Weight, the Stone is right. The other way is to thrust a red hot Bodkin of Iron into the Stone; If the Bodkin enters, and [Page 33] causes it to fry, there is a mixture. TAVERN. Trav. in India, Pag. 153, 154.

As well in the East, as West, there are a great quantity of BE­ZOARS that breed in the same m [...]nner in Cows; of which there have been some that have weighed Seventeen or Eighteen Ounces; for there was such a one that was gi­ven to the Great Duke of Tuscany. But those BEZOARS are little esteem'd, Six Grains of the other BEZOAR working more power­fully than Thirty of this.

As for the BEZOAR which breeds in Apes, as some believe it, it is so strong, that two Grains work as effectually, as Six of Goat's-BEZOAR: B [...]t it is very scarce, as being only found in those Apes, that breed in the Isl [...]nd of Macassar. This sort of BEZOAR is round, whereas the other is of several Fa­shions. And as the Apes-BE­ZOAR is stronger, and scarcer than the Goat's, so it is dearer, and [Page 34] m [...]re [...]; a p [...]ce as big as [...] worth a [...] The Portugals [...] [...]f this BE­ZOA [...] [...] upon their [...] Pe [...] ­son'd. TAVER [...] [...] 154.

There hath always [...] Dispu [...]e am [...]ngst the [...], con­cerning the part wh [...]re the Stone grows. Tav [...]nier d [...]clares, he could not find it out, though he labour'd all he could.

The Arabians write, That the Goat- [...]eer, and all other sorts of Deer, fi [...]ding [...]emselves Old and Sick, [...]y their breath draw Ser­p [...]nts out of their Holes and devour them, that [...]o thereby they [...]ecome youn [...] and well again; after which, [...]inding themselves heated by this [...]ood, th [...] [...] into the Water, and [...] there thout drinking till their [...]; during which stay [...], this St [...]ne is bred in the Corne [...] of their Eyes, whence [...].

[Page 35]But Monardes, more probably, learnt from the Inha [...]itants of the Mountains of China, that in the Indies near the River [...]anges, these Goat-Deer, after their [...]ing of Ser­pen [...]s, go about the Tops of the Mountains, seeding on such Herbs, as Nature hath taught them resist Poysons; of the Quintessence where­of, mixed with that of the Poysons, the BEZOAR is by some parti­cular Virtue, produc'd in some ca­vity of their Bodies; Garsias [...]b Horto, and Acosta say, in their Stomach; Others, as Fragosus, in the Kidneys, because some Stones have the Figure of that p [...]rt, which also is the most Lapidi [...]ick of the whole Body; and others too, as R [...]bbi Moses the Aegyp [...]ian, in the Gall; which Opinion Monardes him­self is o [...], though he admits too that it is found in the Ventricle, Intestines, and other [...] of the Body: As, indeed, there is no place in the Bodies of Animals, but Stones may be generated in them. PHI­LOS. [Page 36] CONFER. of the Virtuosi of France. Vol. 2. Pag. 365.

This word [BEZOAR] some think is deriv'd from the Hebrew Bel, which signifies King, and Zaars, Poysons, as if it were the King or Master of Poysons, which are subdu'd more powerfully by this than any other Remedy. Accord­ing to Scaliger, BEZOHARD is taken by the Arabians for that which preserves Life, and so the Stone will have borrow'd its Name from its Effect. Cardan says, There is a Poisonous Root of this Name, which bears a Fruit called Nirabri, which is an Antidote to it. Plants and every thing good against Poy­sons, is commonly term'd BEZO­ARDICAL. Ibidem.

Tavernier says, That he once sold a BEZOAR of four Ounces and a half, for two Thousand French Livers.

He affirms, That it is Death without Mercy, to transport any of these Goats out of the Country.

[Page 37]The BEZOAR Stones are a­dulterated with Pitch, dried Blood, Stones powder'd fine, Ashes of Shells, Antimony, Cinnabar, Mer­cury, mixt with small BEZOAR-Stones exquisitely pulveriz'd, and made up with a proper Mucilage.

The Persian BEZOAR is best; then that of Peru; then that from New-Spain. The Oriental BE­ZOAR is the most Sudorifick; the Occidental most purging.

Observations concerning CIN­NAMON.

CINNAMON comes at pre­sent from the Island of Ceylan. The Tree that bears it is very much like the Willow, and has three Barks. They never take off but the first and second, which is ac­counted the best. They never med­dle with the third, for should the [...] enter that, the Tree would [Page 38] dye. So that it is an Art to take o [...] the CINNAMON, which they l [...]arn from their Youth. The CINNAMON Spice is much dearer to the H [...]llanders than Peo­ple think; for the King of Ceylan, being a sworn Enemy to the Ho [...] ­landers, sends his Forces with an Intention to surprize them, when they gather their CINNA­MON; so that they are forc'd to bring Seven or Eight Hundred Men t [...]ther to [...]end as many more that are at Work Which great Expence of thei [...]s, very much en­hances the Price of the CINNA­MON. There grows upon the CINNAMON Tree a [...]ruit like an Olive, though not to be eaten. This the Portugals were wont to put into a Caldron of Water, toge­ther with the Tops of the Branches, and boil'd it till the Water was all consum'd. When it was cold, the upper part became a Paste like white Wax; o [...] which they made Tapers to [...] up in their Churches, [Page 39] [...] no sooner were the [...] but all the Chu [...]ch [...] [...]um'd. Formerly the Po [...]gals brought CINNAMON out of [...]ther Countries, belonging to the Raja's about C [...]hin. [...] Hol­landers have destroy'd all those pla­ces, so that the CINN [...]MON is now in their hands. TAVERN. of the Commodities belonging to the G. Mog [...]l.

CINNAMON formerly grew in such great plenty in Aethiop [...], that we find the Southern part of it was call'd by Ptolomy the Geographer, REGIO CINNAMO MI FE­RA, from the great qu [...]tity of CINNAMON which then grew there, though now there is not a Tree of it to be found in all this Countrey, as the [...]ort [...]g [...]ls, who have lookt narrowly [...]o [...] it, have affirm'd. PET. [...].

The Ancient CINNAMON was, of all other P [...]am [...], while it grew, the driest; and those Things which are known to comfo [...]t [...] [Page 40] Plants, did make that more barren: For in Showers it prosper'd worst: It grew also amongst Bushes of o­ther Kinds, where commonly Plants do not thrive: Neither did it love the Sun: There might be one Cause of all those Effects; namely, the Sparing Nourishment, which that Plant requir'd. BAC. NAT. Hist.

There is a great Dispute con­cerning the difference between Cassia Lignea and CINNAMON; Some say, they are both one, diffe­ring only in Names; Others, that they are the same, but differ only in place; Others, that they come both off of the same Tree, and so call the outward thickest Bark Cassia Lignea, the inward thin Bark the CINNAMON: Others say, that they come off o [...] different Trees that are very like, so that the Cassia may be made a CINNAMON-Tree by Transplantation: But d [...]ubtless, the Shop-CINNA­MON or Canella, is the true Cassia of the Ancients; and if we must [Page 41] distinguish, you may call the thicker Bark Cassia, and the thinner CIN­NAMON.

CINNAMON was so scarce in Galen's time, that he says, Lib. 1. De Antid. No Man had any but the Emperour. But Scaliger is of the Opinion, that the CINNA­MON which we now use, is very different from what was in Galen's Days. CAESAR. SCALIG. Ex­ercit. 144

It is a great mistake to think (as many do) that CINNA­MON will hold good for Twenty or Thirty Years, and that it im­pairs not with Age: For that great Father of Physicians, Galen, in the place just now mention'd, tells us, that by his own Experience he found the contrary.

Monsieur Thevenot says, that the Isle of Ceilan produces the best CINNAMON; that the Tree (from which they have that Bark) is streight, and pretty like to the Olive-Tree; that it bears a white [Page 42] Flower of an excellent Scent, and that the Fruit of it is round; that they take off the Bark in the Sum­mer time, and that when they cut it, the smell is so strong, that the Souldiers (who are to Guard the same) fall almost Sick upon't. He says, that towards Cochin there is wild CINNAMON; but be­cause it is weak, it is not much e­steem'd. THEVENOT's Trav. in­to the Indies, Pag. 109.

There are some who affirm, th [...]t CINNAMON when first ga­ther'd hath no taste at all, but ac­quires its taste and strength by fif­teen Days Sunning. But in answer hereunto, Sir Philiberto Vernatti, late Resident in Iava Major, saith, That the CINNAMON-Tree, as it groweth, is so fragrant, that it may be smelt a great way off before it be seen: And that it hath even then, a most Excellent taste; so that by Sunning, it loses rather, than acquires any taste or force. He also affirms, that the Tree be­ing [Page 43] pill'd, is cut down to the Root; but that the young Sprigs, after a Year or two▪ give the best and finest CINNAMON. SPRAT's Hist. of the R.S. Pag. 169.

In the Philosophical T [...]ansactions, Numb. 172. Pag. 1031. we have an account of a sort of White CIN­NAMON, which comes from Guardaloupe.

The Ephemerides Medico-physicae Germanicae, for the Years [...]673. and 1674. make mention of [...]IN­NAMON-Trees, sent o [...]t of Ceylan in Chests, filled [...] Native Earth of that Island, [...] into the Low Countrie [...], and there thriving very well, [...] any considerable change of their Quality.

Linschoten says, that t [...] [...] ­NAMON-Trees grow [...] Island of Ceylan in great [...], and that they sp [...]ing up [...] without Planting, in [...]he o­pen Fields like [...]ushes; [...] the Tree from whence [...] B [...]rk is [...] ­ken, [Page 44] they let it stand, and within three Years▪ after it hath another Bark as it had before.

The CINNAMON that is not well dried, is of an Ash-Colour; and that which is overmuch dried, is Blackish; but the best dried, is Reddish.

Observations concerning NVT­MEGS.

THe NUTMEGS grow in the Molucca Islands, Zeilan, and the Isle of Banda in the East­Indies.

The Tree is somewhat like a Peach: The Fruit consisteth of four parts; the First, is a thick covering, like that of a Walnut. The Second, a dry and Hosculous Coat, com­monly call'd MACE. The Third, a harder Tegument or Shell, which lyeth under the Mace. The Fourth, a Kernel included in the Shell, which is the same we call NUT­MEG: [Page 45] All which both in their parts, and order of disposure, are easily discern'd in those Fruits, which are brought in Preserves to us. BROWN's Vulg. Errors.

There are two sorts of NUT­MEGS, the Male which is long, and the Female round. Sir Phili­berto Vernatti, late Resident in Iava Major, takes particular notice of the NUTMEG call'd Thieving: So call'd, because that being put among a whole Room full of good NUT­MEGS, though it be but one, it will corrupt them all. PHILO­SOPH. TRANSACT. Numb. 43. Pag. 863.

'Tis observable of the NUT­MEG, that the Tree which tears it, is never Planted, which, as Ta­vernier says, hath been confirm'd to him by several Persons that have liv'd many Years in the Countrey. He says, the Relation they gave him, was, that the NUTMEG being ripe, several Birds come from the Islands toward the South, and [Page 46] devour it wh [...]le, but are forc'd to thr [...]w it up again before it be di­gested: That [...]he NUTMEG, then [...] a Viscous mar­ter, [...]ailing to [...]he Ground takes Root, and produces a Tree, which would never [...] were it Plant­ed.

This, says Tav [...]rni [...], puts me in mind of mak [...]ng on Observation upon the Birds of Paradise. These Birds being very greedy after NUTMEGS, come in flights to gorge themselves with the pleasing Spice, a [...] the Season, like Felfares in Vintage time, but the strength of the NUTMEG so intoxicates them, that they fall dead drunk [...]n the Ground, where the Emmets in a short time eat off their Legs. Hence it comes, that the Birds of Paradise are said to have no Feet; which, [...]ays T [...]vernier, is utterly false, [...] [...]hat he had seen three or [...]; and a French Mer­chant s [...]t one from Aleppo, as a Present to Lewis the Thirteenth, [Page 47] that had Feet; of which the King made great account as being a very lovely Fowl. TAVERN▪ Of the Commodities of the Dominions of the G. Mogul.

Monsieur Thevenot says, that the best NUTMEGS are got in the Isle of Banda, which is to the South of the Molucca's: The Tree, saith He, that produces them, is no higher than our common Apricock-Trees that grow by themselves; when its outward Husk falls off, its Mace appears of a lovely Ver­milion Colour; but being in the l [...]st expos'd to the Air, it changes its Colour into a light Brown as we have it. The Tree is produc'd after this manner, There is a kind of Birds in the Island, that having pick'd off the Green Husk▪ swallow the Nuts, which having been some time in their Stomach, they void by the Ordinary way; and they [...] not to take Rooting in the place where they fall, and in time to grow up to a Tree. This Bird [Page 48] is shap'd like a Cuckoo, and the Dutch prohibite their Subjects un­der pain of Death to kill any of them. THEVENOT's Trav. into the Indies, Pag. 109.

'Tis to be Noted, that the Oyl of Mace or NUTMEGS by Expression, is the Ground, Founda­tion, and Body of all Great, N [...] ­ble, and Generous Artificial Bal­soms: As for Example, if to Oyl of Mace or NUTMEGS by Ex­pression, you add a small proportion of Oyl of CINNAMON, you then have Balsam of CIN­NAMON, &c.

The best NUTMEGS are those which are fresh, heavy, fat, and which, when pricked, force out Oyl.

Observations concerning PEPPER.

THere are divers sorts of PEP­PER; viz. Black, White, and Long PEPPER. The Black is the commonest.

The Plant that beareth the Black PEPPER, groweth up like a Vine among Bushes and Brambles, where it naturally grows; but where it is manur'd, it is Sown at the bottom of some Tree, where it climbs up to the top. The Leaves are few in Number, growing at each joint one, first on one side of the Stalk, then on the other, like in shape to the long undivided Leaves of Ivy, but thinner, and broader.

The Plant that bears White PEP­PER is not to be distinguish'd from the other, but only by the Colour of the Fruit; no more than a Vine that beareth Black Grapes, from that which bringeth White: And by some it is thought, that [Page 50] the self same Plant does sometimes change it self from Black to White.

The Tree that beareth long PEP­PER, is quite different from the Two former, and grows in ano­ther Country. It is much hotter than the common' Black PEPPER, yet sweeter, and of better taste. GERRARD's Herbal.

Tavernier says, there are two sorts of PEPPER; one is very small, another sort much bigger; both which sorts are distinguish'd into Small and Great PEPPER. The larger sort comes from the Coast of Malavare; and Tuticorin and Calicut are the Cities where it is brought up. Some of this PEP­PER comes from the Territories of the King of Visapour, being ven­ded at Rejapour, a little City in that Kingdom. The Hollanders that purchase it of the Malavares, do not give Money for it, but se­veral sorts of Commodities in Ex­change; as Corten, Opium, Vermi­lion, and Quick-Silver; and this is [Page 51] the PEPPER which is brought into Europe.

As for the little PEPPER that comes from Bantam, Afchen, and some other parts toward the East, there is none of it carried out of Asia, where it is spent in vast quan­tities, especially among the Mahu­metans. For there are double the Grains of Small PEPPER in one pound, to what there are of the Great PEPPER; besides that the Great PEPPER is hotter in the Mouth. TAVERN. of the Com­modities of the Dominions of the Great Mogul.

Philippus Baldaeus, in his Descrip­tion of some of the Chief Parts of the East-Indies, says, that PEP­PER grows best in shady places; that it hath a weak Stem, to be supported like Vines; having on each Branch commonly six Clusters, each a Foot long, in Colour like unripe Grapes; that they gather it, being Green, in October and No­vember, exposing it to the Sun to [Page 52] dry, whereby it grows Black in a few Days.

Ligon says, that in the Island of Barbadoes there is a kind of Red PEPPER, which is of two sorts; the one so like a Childs Coral, as not to be discern'd at the distance of two paces; a Crimson and Scar­let mixt; the Fruit about two In­ches long, and shines more than the best Polisht Coral. The Other of the same Colour, and glistering as much, but shap't like a large Button of a Cloak; both of one and the same Quality; both so vio­lently strong, that when they break but the Skin, it sends out such a vapour into their Lungs, as makes them fall a Coughing, which lasts a quarter of an hour after the Fruit is remov'd; but, as long as they are garbling it, they never give over. The Spaniards are so much in love with this Spice, that they will have it in all their Meat, that they intend to have piquant, for a greater Haut-goust is not in the [Page 53] World. Garlick is faint and cool to it. It grows on a little Shrub, no bigger than a Gooseberry Bush. LIGON's Hist. of Barbadoes, Pag. 79.

Piso Describes and Figures nine or ten sorts of Guiny-PEPPER, all growing in Brasile, and there called Quiya. The Guiny-PEPPER is used as a great Stomachick Me­dicine, and in Sauces, both in sub­stance and infusion, in America, Spain, and other Countries, and by many preferr'd before the best PEPPER. GREW's Mus. Regal. Societ. Pag. 231.

Mr. Hughes, in his Treatise, call'd The American Physician, mentions a sort of PEPPER called the Sweet-Scented PEPPER, which he says he never saw but in Iamaica, it groweth much after the same man­ner as the East-India PEPPER does. He also says, that the Red PEPPER-Tree grows in many Plantations in Iamaica.

Observations concerning CLOVES.

THe CLOVE-Tree groweth in Form much like to our Bay-Tree, the Bark of an Olive Co­lour. The CLOVES grow Ten and Twenty together among the Leaves. The Blossoms at the first are White, then Green, and at last Red and hard, which are the CLOVES. The Leaf, Bark, and Wood being Green, is as strong as the CLOVE. When the Blos­soms are Green, they have the pleasantest smell in the World. The right Colour of CLOVES, when they are dry, is a dark Yellow, and to give them a black Colour they are commonly smoakt. The CLOVES are gathering from September unto the End of February, not with hands, as we gather Ap­ples, Cherries, and such like Fruit, but by beating the Tree, as we do Walnuts. The CLOVES that stay on the Tree ungather'd are [Page 55] thick, and continue till the next Year, and these are called The Mo­ther of CLOVES.

This Tree grows in great plenty in the Molucca Islands, as also in Amboyna, where they grow of themselves without Planting, by the falling of the Fruit; and when they are of Eight Years growth they bear Fruit, and so continue bearing for an Hundred Years to­gether.

In the place where these Trees stand, there is neither Grass, Weed, nor any sort of Herbs, for that the Tree draweth unto it self all the moisture round about. The CLOVES are so hot by Nature, that whensoever they are made clean, and separated from their Garbish, if there chance to stand either Tub, or Pail of Water, in the Chamber where they cl [...]an [...]e them, or any other Vessel with Wine, or any kind of moisture, it will within two Days at the fur­thest be wholly dried up, although [Page 56] it stand not near them, by reason of the great heat of the CLOVES that draw all moisture to them. Of the same Nature is the unspun Silk of China; so that whensoever the Silk lieth any where in a House upon the Floor, that is to say, up­on Boards, a Foot or two above the Ground, and that the Floor is cover'd with Water, although it toucheth not the Silk, in the Morn­ing all that Water will be in the Silk, for that it draweth all unto it. And this trick the Indians of­tentimes use to make their Silk weigh heavy, when they sell it, for it can neither be seen nor found in the Silk. PVRCH. Pilgr. Vol. 2. Pag. 1783.

The same Author, Vol. 1. Pag. 699. says, That in Machan, one of the Molucca Islands, there is a CLOVE-Tree differing from all others in its Fruit, which is called The Kings CLOVE, much e­steem'd by the Country People, both for the variety, as also for the [Page 57] goodness; nor is there any other but this in all the Molucca's; they are not to be bought for any Mony, but are given away to Friends by handfuls and half handfuls.

There is extracted from the CLOVES a certain Oyl, or ra­ther thick Butter of a Yellow Co­lour, which being Chased in the hands, smelleth like the CLOVES themselves, wherewith the Indians Cure their Wounds, as we do with Balsam. GERARD's Herbal.

Avicenna affirms, that the Gum of this Tree is like Turpentine; but he is mistaken, it being certain, that it does not produce any at all. MAN­DELSLO's Trav. into the Indies, Pag. 132.

Observations concerning GINGER.

GINGER is the Root of ne [...] ­ther Tree nor Shrub, but of an Herbaceous Plant, resembling the Water Flower-De-Luce, as Gar­sias first describ'd; or rather the common Reed, as Lobelius since [Page 58] affirm'd. Very common in many parts of India, growing either from Root or Seed; which in December and Ianuary they take up, and, gently dried, role it up in Earth; whereby stopping the Pores, they preserve the Natural Moisture, and so prevent Corruption. BROWN's Vulg. Errors.

GINGER groweth in many places of India, yet the best and most carried abroad, is, that which groweth on the Coast of Malabar: It grows like thin and young Ne­therland Reeds, of two or three Spans high, the Root whereof is GINGER; being Green, it is much eaten in India for Sallets, as also sod in Vineger. The time when they are most gather'd, and begun to be dried, is in December and Ianuary: They dry it in this manner; They cover it with Pot-Earth, which they do to stop and fill up the Holes, thereby to make it continue the fresher; for the Pot-Earth preserves it from Worms, [Page 59] without the which it is presently consum'd by them. GINGER is little esteem'd in India, notwith­standing there is much Shipp'd off, as well to the Red Sea, as to Or­mus, Arabia, and Asia. PVRCH. Pilgr. Vol. 2. Pag. 1782.

Mr. Ligon says, that in Barbadoes the GINGER (being a Root) brings forth Blades, not unlike in shape to the Blades of Wheat, but broader and thicker, for they cover the Ground so, that one cnanot see any part of it. They are of a Popinjay Colour, the Blossom a pure Scarlet. When 'tis ripe, they dig up the Roots, (cutting off the Blades,) and put them into the Hands of an Overseer, who sets many of the Young Negroes to scrape them with little Knives, or small Iron Spuds, ground to an edge. They are to scrape all the outward Skin off, to kill the Spirit; for, without that, it will perpetually grow. Those that have GINGER, and not hands to dress it thus, are compell'd [Page 60] to scald it, to kill the Spirit; and that GINGER is nothing so good as the other, for it will be as hard as Wood, and Black, whereas the scrapt GINGER is White and soft, and hath a cleaner and quicker taste. LIGON's Hist. of Barbadoes Pag. 79.

Dr. Grew in the Musaeum Regalis Societatis, Pag. 228. says, There are some GINGER Roots so large, that sometimes one single Root will weigh fourteen Ounces. He also observes what great variety of Opinions there is concerning this Plant. Acosta compares it to that call'd Lachryma Iobi; Lobelius to a Reed; Garsias to a Flag; and Bauhinus Pictures it accordingly with a trivalvous Cod. Piso, out of Bontius's Papers, gives two Figures, one of the Male, the other of the Female: And supposes, that the rea­son why this Plant is so variously describ'd, may proceed partly from the not distinguishing betwixt them.

Mr. Glanius in his Voyage to the E [...]t-Indies, says, that in the King [Page 61] of Bantam's Dominions there is a Plant call'd Ganti, a Root so like GINGER, that the Bantamites have given it the same Name, but it is dearer; and with it they rub their Bodies. Pag. 107.

GINGER is brought in great quantities from Amadabat, where (says Tavernier) there grows more, than in any other part of Asia; and that it is hardly to be imagin'd, how much there is Transported Candited into Forreign Parts.

Observations concerning MANNA.

MANNA, or the Dew of Heaven; a delicate Food, wherewith God fed the Children of Israel, it falling from Heaven in manner of a Dew, White and some­what like Coriander Seed; with which the Israelites lived Forty Years in the Wilderness, till they came to the Borders of the Land of Canaan. At first sending here­of, the People were in such admi­ration, that they said each to o­ther, [Page 62] Manhu? id est, Quid est hoc? What is this? Which seems to be the Cause why it was afterwards call'd MANNA. In Physick it is taken for a kind of Dew, or grain­ed MANNA, which falling in hot Countries upon Trees and Herbs before break of Day, doth there congeal, almost like Crums of White-Bread, and is gather'd and choicely kept, as a gentle purger of Choler. BLOVNT's Glossogr.

The MANNA of Calabria, is the best, and in most Plenty. They gather it from the Leaf of the Mulberry Tree; but not of such Mulberry Trees, as grow in the Vallies. And MANNA falleth upon the Leaves by Night, as o­ther Dews do. It is very likely, that before those Dews come upon the Trees in the Vallies, they dissi­pate, and cannot hold out. And, in all probability, the Mulberry Leaf hath some Coagulating Virtue, which thickens the Dew, for that it is not found upon other Trees: And we see [Page 63] by the Silk-Worm, which feedeth upon that Leaf, what a dainty smooth Iuice it hath; and the Leaves also, (especially of the Black Mulberry,) are somewhat Bristly, which (possibly) may help to pre­serve the Dew. Certainly, it were not amiss, to observe a little better the Dews that fall upon Trees, or Herbs, growing on Mountains: For it may be, many Dews fall, that spend before they come to the Val­lies. And I suppose, that he that would gather the best May-Dew for Medicine, should gather it from the Hills. BACON's. Nat. Hist.

The Learned and Ingenious Mr. Evelyn, says, that the MANNA of Calabria is found to exsude out of the Leaves and Boughs of the Ash. This is also confirm'd by Mr. Iohn Ray, in his Historia Planta­rum, Vol. 2. Pag. 1703.

Christophorus Vega Writes, that MANNA is made by a sort of little Bees like thick Gnats, from whom, sitting by Swarms upon [Page 64] Trees, Sweat as it were drops from them. But Sennertus Lib. 4. Cap. 8. thinks, that they are rather drawn thither by the Sweetness of the MANNA, and that they make it not.

It hath been controverted among the Learned, whether the Iews MANNA was the same with Ours? They do indeed in many Things agree, but in this they dif­fer, that Theirs, ground in a Mill, or bruis'd in a Mortar, was fit to make Wafers. If it be not pre­vented, MANNA will melt with any Sun; for even an Easterly Sun will dissolve it.

We read in Scaliger, Exercit. 164. that those Shepherds that frequent the Desarts of Targa, use MAN­NA instead of Sugar, with the Water which they drink. IOH. IOHNSTON. Thaumatogr. Na­turalis.

MANNA falls from Heaven like Dew in several of the Oriental Countries, as Iudaea, Mesopotamia, [Page 65] Persia, Syria, Calabria, and is al­so sound in England: In those hot Countries it Coagulates, with us it is liquid. The Syrian MANNA is best; then that of Calabria; then that which hath Grains like Mastick: The White and Fresh is good, not old, the Red and Dark is old, and not so Effectual.

Observations concerning MA­STICK.

MASTICK is a Gummy Rosin, of a Whitish Yellow, well scented, and in Grains, pro­ceeding from the Le [...]tisk Tree. The Best comes from Chio.

Three Leagues from the Island of Chio, upon a Mountain to the South, there grows a peculiar sort of Trees; the Leaves are some­what like a Myrt [...], their Branches so long, that they cr [...]p upon the Ground; but which is more won­derful, that when they are down, [Page 66] they rise again of themselves. From the beginning of May to the end of Iune, the Inhabitants take great care to keep the Earth under the Tree very clean; for during those two Months there issues out a certain Gum from the Joints of the Branches, which drops upon the Ground; this is that which we call MASTICK, and the Turks, Sakes, according to the Name which they give the Island. The Island produces great store of this MASTICK, which is spent in the Seraglio of Constantinople, where the Women continually chew it, to cleanse and keep their Teeth white. When the MASTICK Season draws near, the Grand Sig­nior every Year, sends a certain num­ber of Bestangi's to take care that it be not exported, but be preserv'd for the use of the Seraglio. If it be a plentiful Year for MASTICK, the Bestangi's that cull out the lesser sort to sell, put it into little Bags and seal [...]t up; which [...]ags being so seal­ed, are never question'd by the Cu­stom-House [Page 67] Officers. TAVERN. of Chio.

Dioscorides affirms, that several other Places afford MASTICK, but still acknowledges, that the MASTICK that grows elsewhere, is rarer, and not so good as that of Chio. They prick these Trees in the Months of August and September, and the MASTICK, which is their Gum, sweating out by the Holes they have made in the Bark, runs down the Tree, and falls upon the Ground, where it congeals into flat pieces, which some time after they gather, then dry them in the Sun, and afterwards range and shake them in a Ranging-Sive, to separate the Dust from them, which so sticks to the Faces of those that handle the Sive, that they cannot get it off, but by rubbing their Faces with Oyl. There are two and twenty Villages in the Island of Chio that have MA­STICK-Trees, and among them all, they have about an hundred thou­sand of them, for which they yearly [Page 68] pay to the Grand Signior, three hun­dred Chests of MASTICK, which make seven and twenty thousand Oques, at fourscore and ten Oques the Chest, and every Oque contains four hundred Drachms. In raising all this MASTICK, every one of the Villages where it grows, is as­sess'd, at so many Oques, according as they have more or fewer Trees, for they know within a little, how much every Tree can yield; and seeing all Years are not alike good or bad for all the Quarters where they grow, they who gather more than they are to pay, sell to those who have not gathered so much as their Tax comes to, at the rate of threescore Aspres the Oque, for they assist one another as much as they can, else they would be obliged to buy of the Master of the Custom-House, at the rate of two Piastres the Oque. Afterwards, they sell what they have over to the Cu­st [...]mer a [...] the price of threescore As­pre [...] the Oque, which turns to good [Page 69] account to him; for they are not suffer'd to sell to any but the Master of the Customs, who sells it after­wards for an hundred and fourscore Aspres, or two Piastres the Oque, there being none but he in Chio that can sell any, because it is a Com­modity that belongs to the Grand Signior, as the Terra Sigillata, or Terra Lemnia is; and for that rea­son they have Waiters upon all the Avenues of the Places where the Trees grow, who live in little Houses purposely built for them; and search all that come or go that way, to see if they have any MA­STICK about them, and that so strictly, that once they found a good piece about a Woman, which she had hid in her most privy parts. Whosoever are taken stealing of MASTICK, are without remission sent to the Gallies. THEVENOT's Travels into the Levant, Part 1. Chap. 62.

The Felling of this Tree, at the time of its D [...]stilling, is prohibited, [Page 70] on the Penalty of losing the Right Hand of him that does it. PET. HETLIN.

In China, Men, Women, and Children go almost constantly with MASTICK in their Mouths, which they take to be the best thing in the World for fastning of their Teeth, and also for a good Breath. They also put it into their Bread, and Bis­ket, to give it a more delicate Taste. IOH. RAII Hist. Plant. Tom. 2. Pag. 1581.

Observations concerning LIGNVM ALOES.

THe LIGNUM ALOES, which in India is called Ca­lamba and Palo D'aguilla, is most in Malacca, in the Island of Sumatra, Camboia, Sion, and the adjoining Countries. The Trees are like Olive-Trees, and somewhat larger; when the Wood is first cut down, it smel­leth not so well, because it is green, [Page 71] for the drier it is, the better it smells: the best and that which smelleth most, is the innermost part of the Word: Some of it is better than the rest, which the Indians do presently know how to find out. The best and finest is called Calamba, and the other Palo D'aguilla. Now to know which is the best, you must under­stand, that the Wood that is very heavy, with black and brown Veins, and which yieldeth much Oys or Moistness (which is found by the Fire) is the best, and the greater and thicker it is, the better it is, and hath the more Vertue. Of this Wood they make many costly Things, and it has so curious a smell, that it is greatly esteem'd; especially the Calamba. which if it be good, is sold by weight against Silver and Gold. The Palo D'aguilla next a [...]ter the Calamba is much accouted of. There is ano­ther kind of Palo D'aguilla, which is called Aquilla Braua, or wild A­quilla, and i [...] also much esteem'd: for the Indians use therewith to burn [Page 72] the Bodies of their Bramens, and other Men of account; and because it is costly, therefore it is a great Ho­nour to those that are burnt there­with, as it is to those that with us are bury'd in Tombs of Marble: But it is not comparable to the other Palo D'aguilla, nor the Calamba. The Wild Aguilla groweth most in the Island of and Ceylon, on the Coast of Choramandel. LINSCHOTEN.

Dr. GREW says, that the Ho­nourable Mr. BOYLE presented the ROYAL SOCIETY with a Piece of LIGNUM ALOES, with its own Gum growing upon it. He says, that the taste of the Gum is perfectly like to that of the Wood: the Co­lour, like that of the purest and most lucid Aloe, called Succotrina: for with the Light reflected, it looks al­most l [...]ke Pitch; with the Light transmitted, it glisters like a Car­buncle; powder'd, it is of a reddish Yellow. This, says the Doctor, or some other like Aromatick Gum, was the Aloe of the Hebrews; whence the [Page 73] other, from the Likeness, has its Name.

The Tree is describ'd by Linscho­ten; about the bigness of the Olive. This Wood is the Heart of the Tree, the outward part, commonly called the Sap of a Tree, being whitish and soft. 'Tis said by Sir Philiberto Vernatti, formerly Resident in Iava Major, to yield a Milk so hurtful, that if any of it lights in the Eyes, it causes Blindness; if on any other part the of Body Scabbiness. But, says Dr. Grew, this (doubtless) is to be understood, neither of the Heart, nor the Sap; but only of the Bark: there being no Milk-Vessels in either of the former, as the Doctor remembers. in any Tree, by him observ'd. GREW [...] Mus [...]um RE­GALIS SOCIETATIS pag. 179.

Palo D'aguilla, by Druggists cal­led LIGNU [...] ALO [...], [...]y the Por­tugals, Palo [...] the In­dians, Calamb [...] [...] Iava, but not in such Quantity, [...] Malacca, Sumatra, Cambaya, and other places. [Page 74] The Tree is like the Olive-Tree, only a little bigger. The Wood while green has no Scent, but as it dries its Odour increases. The weightiest and the brownest is the best; the Perfection is known by the Oyl that issues out of it when it is held to the Fire. They make Bands of it, and the Indians use it to embellish their Cabinets; but the chiefest use is for Physick; for this Wood beaten to Powder, and taken in Broth or Wine, fortifies the Sto­mach, stays Vomiting, and cures the Plurisy, and Bloody-Flux. GLA­NIVS's New Voyage to the East-In­dies, pag. 105, 106.

This Wood is much us'd in India for the making of Beads and Cruci­sixes. Monfart says, the Portugals did commonly pay a hundred Crowns a pound for it to make their Beads.

This Wood is brought to us in small Pieces, which are heavy, bit­ter, and of a blackish Purple-colour, with Ash colour'd Veins, of a sweet [Page 75] Scent, and if they be good, they will swim when put into Water.

Observations concerning COCHIN­EEL.

COCHINEEL, a kind of Dust or Grain, wherewith to Dye the Crimson or Scarlet Colour. It is a little Worm breeding in a cer­tain Shrub, which they call Holy-Oak, or Dwarf-Oak, and is found in Cephalonia and other Places; on the Leaves whereof there ariseth a Tu­mor, like a Blister; which they ga­ther, and rub out of it a certain red Dust, that converts (after a while) into Worms, which they kill with Wine (as is reported) when they begin to quicken. BAC [...]NS's Nat. Hist. Experim. 887.

New Spain in America does so wonderfully abound with this Co­modity, that 5670 Arro [...]a's of [...] (each Arroba containg 25 Buthels o [...] our English Measure) have been [Page 76] shipp'd for Europe in one Year. Now, this COCHINEEL groweth on a small Tree, or Shrub, having very thick Leaves, which they call a Tuna; planted and order'd by them as the French do their Vines; out of the Seed whereof, arises a small Worm at first no bigger than a Flea, at the greatest not much bigger than our common Lady-Cows, which they much resemble; which feeding on the Leaves, and over-spreading all the Ground in which they are, are gather'd by the Natives twice a Year, stifled with Ashes, or with Wate [...]. (but this last the best) dried to a Powder in the Shade, and so transported into Europe. PET. HE [...]LIN.

It is generally believ'd, that the COCHINEEL comes out of a Fruit called the Prickle-Pear, bearing a Leaf of a slimy Nature, and a Fruit Blood-red, and full of Seeds, which give a Dye almost like to Brasiletto Wood, that will perish in a few days by the Fire: But the Insect engen­dered [Page 77] of this Fruit or Leaves, gives a permanent Tincture, as is general­ly known.

There grows a Berry (by report) both in the Bermudas and New-England, call'd the Summer-Island-Redweed, which Berry is as red as the Prickle-Pear, giving much the like Tincture; out of which Berry come out first Worms ▪ which after­wards turn into Flies somewhat bigger than the COCHINEEL-Fly, feeding on the same Berry: In which we read, there hath been found a Colour no whit in [...]erior to that of the COCHINEEL-Fly, and as to Med [...]cinal Vertue much exceeding it.

Whereupon it hath been offer'd to the consideration and tryal of the ROYAL SOCIETY. 1. Whe­ther this Bermuda Berry might not grow in England? 2. Whether out of the Berry of Brasil [...] Wood the like Insect might not [...]e obtain'd in respect of Colour or Tincture? 3. Whether a fading Colour, yielded by certain Vegitables, [...]ight not be [Page 78] fixed by causing such a Fermentation in the Concrete, as may engender Insects giving the Tincture of its Original, which will hold in Grain? PHILOS. TRANSACT. Numb. 40. pag. 496.

That Learned, and Ingenious Naturalist, Dr. Lister, is of Opinion, that COCHINEIL is a sort of Ker­mes. As you may see in a Letter of his to Mr. Oldenburgh in the Philos. Transact Numb. 87.

COCHINELE, Coccus Radicum The former Name, seemeth to be but the Diminitive of Coccus. The [...]atter, grounded upon the Opinion, That as the Kermes Berry grows on the Body and Leaves, so This, on the Roots, of Plants, especially on those of Pimpinel; yet in some places on­ly. Farther, I find no certain ac­count. To me, thus much seems evident, That 'tis neither a Vegeta­ble Excrescence, as some surmise; not an Insect, as others; yet an Animal Body, as the Kermes Berry, by some Insect affixed to a Plant; and thence [Page 79] nourish'd for a time, but gather'd before it be fill'd with Mites or Maggots. For being held, as the Kermes Berry, in the Flame of a Can­dle, it usually huffs and swells, but always stinks, like Hair or Horn when they are burnt.

A Scruple of COCHINELE ad­ded to an Ounce of Saccharum Sa­turni, makes a most curious Purple; but I believe fading. GREW's Mus. Regal. Societ. pag. 241.

In the Philosophical Transactions Numb. 176. We have three seve­ral Figures representing the CO­CHINEEL-Fly, as seen on its Belly by the help of the Microscope, and by the naked Eye, and as seen on its back through a Microscope; the Draughts of which were commu­nicated by Dr. Tyson, Fellow of the Royal Society.

Observations concerning INDIGO.

INDIGO comes from several Parts of the Great Mogul's Em­pire; and according to the Diver­sity of the Place it differs in Qua­lity, and consequently in price.

In the first place, it comes from the Territories of Biana, Indoua, and Corsa, a Day or two's Journey from Agra: Which is esteem'd the best of all. It is made also in a Village called Sarquess, Eight Days Journey from Surat, and two Leagues distance from Amadabat: Here the flat INDIGO is made. There is also INDIGO little in­ferior in goodness and price, which comes from the King of Golconda's Territories. There comes INDI­GO also from Bengala, which the Dutch Company transports for M [...] [...]ipa [...]an: But (as Tavernier informs us) the Merchants buy this INDI­ [...]O, and that of Brampour and A­madabat, [Page 81] cheaper by 24 in the Hundred, than that of Agra.

INDIGO is made of an Herb, which they sow every Year after the Rains are over: Which when it is grown up, is very like our Hemp. They cut it three several times; the first cutting far exceeds the two latter. The Second cutting is worse than the First by Ten or Twelve in the Hundred. And the Third worse than the Second by Twelve in the Hundred. The difference is found by breaking a piece of the Paste, and observing the Colour. The Colour of that INDIGO which is made of the First cutting, is a Violet-Blue, but more brisk and lively than the two others: And that which is made of the Second, is more lively than the Third.

When they have cut the Herb, they throw it into Pits which they make with Lime, which becomes so hard, that you would judge it to be one entire piece of Marble. They are generally 80 or 100 Paces [Page 82] in Circuit; and being half full of Water, they fill them quite up with the Herb. Then they bruise and jumble it in the Water, till the Leaf (for the Stalk is worth no­thing) becomes like a kind of thick Mud. This being done, they let it settle for some days; and when the settling is all at the bottom, and the Water clear above, they let out all the Water. When the Water is all drain'd out, they fill several Baskets with this Slime, and in a plain Field you shall see several Men at work, every one at his own Basket, making up little pieces of INDIGO flat at the bottom, at the top sharp like an Egg. Though at Amadabat they make their pieces quite flat like a small Cake. Here you are to take particular notice, that the Merchants, because they would not pay Custom for an Un­necessary Weight, before they trans­port their INDIGO out of Asia in­to Europe, are very careful to cause it to be sifted, to separate the Dust [Page 83] from it; which they sell afterwards to the Natives of the Country to Dye their Calicuts. TAVERN. of the Commodities belonging to the Do­minions of the Great Mogul.

Philippus Baldaeus, in his Descrip­tion of some of the Chief Parts of the East-Indies, says, That the Plant, which yields the INDIGO, beareth a Flower like that of Thistles, and a Seed like that of Faenum Graecum: He says, That the principal Marks of good INDIGO are, dryness, lightness, and swim­ming on Water; yielding a high Violet-Colour; and when put upon live Coals, giving a Violet Smoak, and leaving but few Ashes: That the INDIGO Merchant is to be­ware of buying moist INDIGO, because he will then find, that in Eight Days time he loses three Pounds in Ten; That the best way is to try it in a clear Sun-Shine, by breaking some Lumps in pieces, and viewing them well, whether there can be observ'd in them any [Page 84] thing that glistens; which if there be, one may be sure there is Sand in it, with which it hath been so­phisticated, to increase the Weight. But for the greater assurance of the goodness of INDIGO, his Advice is, to pass the Nail of ones Thumb over the broken pieces, and if it be good, it will be of a Violet-Colour, and the higher that Colour, the better the INDIGO.

Monsieur Tavernier says, That the penetrancy of the Powder of IN­DIGO is such, that all the while they are sisting it, they are fain to keep a Linnen Cloth before their Faces, and to stop their Nostrils, leaving only two little holes for their Eyes: And that besides, they are forc'd every half Hour to drink Milk, which they find to be a great Preservative against the pierc­ing Quality of the Dust: And that notwithstanding all this caution, they yet often find, that having been for Nine or Ten Days toge­ther employ'd about this Work, [Page 85] whatever they spit for a good while is Blueish. And He also tells us, That one Morning he laid an Egg among the Sisters, and when he came to break it in the Evening, it was all Blue within.

Observations concerning the COCO­NVT-Tree.

THis Tree, when Young, is very Tender; but as it be­comes more lofty, so it grows more solid and strong: The Body is streight and smooth, and in Cir­cumference equals the Wast of a Man at the full growth: In height, Twelve or Fourteen Foot: Round about the top (and so a Yard or two down) Spring forth many Boughs or Branches, but without any Fork in them, b [...]s [...] very thick wich long and slender Leaves, al­most of a Sea-Green Colour. At the Roots of these B [...]ughs, as low as they grow round, about the [Page 86] Head of the Tree, grow the CO­CO NUTS. This Nut is at first, whilst it is Young, of a Green Co­lour; but when they are Ripe, they appear outwardly of a Brown or Whitish Brown Colour: They are of several sizes, some bigger, and some less: The largest of them are (Husk and Rind) two Foot in Cir­cumference: They are almost Oval, and their outer Rind is very tough and thready; so fast fixed to the Shell, that it is hard to be gotten off: This Rind is nigh an Inch thick, under which is a rough strong hard Shell, some of them Black, and some Brown or Yel­lowish. In the top of each of these Shells there are three Holes, by which the inner Cavity receiveth a continual supply of N [...]urishment: Just within this Shell, sticking close thereto, is a Milk-White Kernel, about half an Inch thick; and the hollow Cavity within the Kernel is full of a thin, clear, sweet Water or Juice, which is as a Viand to [Page 87] them. HVGHES's American Phy­sician.

They grow in Iamaica, and in most of the Caribbee-Islands; as also in the Islands of Maldiva, and o­ther places in the East-Indies. But those that grow in the East-Indies seem to be of another kind, grow­ing to Forty, sometimes Fifty Foot high.

Amongst other rare Fruits, the Island Madagascar hath plenty of those, which they call COCOS, or COCO-NUTS; a kind of Date as big as a Cabbage; the Liquor in it, about the quantity of a Pint, tasts like Wine and Sugar; the Kernel big enough to content two Men; and like good Ale, it affords not only Meat and Drink, but Cloath­ing; as also Furniture for their Houses, Tackle for their Ships, Fuel for the Fire, and Timber for Building; the Body of the Tree being streight and high, and to­wards the top diversified into many Branches. PET. HETLIN.

[Page 88] Linschoten says, that this Tree grows in greater abundance in the Islands of Maldiva, than either O­live-Trees in Spain, or Willow-Trees in the Low-Countreys. He says, They grow no where but on the Sea-side, or Banks of Rivers, and in Sandy Grounds, and that they grow not within the Land: That they have no great Root, so that a Man would think it impossible for them to have any fast hold within the Earth, and yet they stand so fast, and grow so high, that it makes one afraid to see a Man climb up to the top of them.

The Question [...]eing put to Sir Philiberto Vernatti, late Resident in Iava Major, whether there be a Tree in Mexico, that yields Water, Wine, Vinegar, Oyl, Milk, Honey, Wax, Thread, and Needles? His Answer was, The COCO-Tree yields all this and more; The Nut, while it is Green, hath very good Water in it; the Flower being cut, drops out great Quantity of Li­quor, [Page 89] called Sury, or Taywack, which drank fresh, hath the force, and al­most the taste of Wine; grown four, is very good Vinegar; and distill'd, makes very good Brandy, or Areck: The Nut grated, and mingled with Water, tasteth like Milk; pressed, yields very good Oyl; Bees swarm in these Trees, as well as in others; Thread and Needles are made of the Leaves and tough Twigs. SPRAT's Hist. of the ROYAL SOCIETY, Pag. 170.

The COCO is one of the most useful Trees in the World. Of the Husk, or outmost fibrous cover of the Nut, all manner of Ropes and Cables are made throughout India. Of the Shells, the Indians make Ladles, Wine-Bottles, and many forts of Vessels. The inmost Cover next the Kernel, while it contains only Liquor, they eat with Salt, as a very pleasant Food. The said Liquor, is commonly us'd as a clear, sweet, and cool Drink. Sometimes they cut away the Blossom of the [Page 90] young Nut, and binding a conve­nient Vessel to the place, thereby obtain a sweet and pleasant Liquor, which they call Sura. This stand­ing an hour in the Sun, becomes good Vinegar, used throughout In­dia. The same Distill'd (I suppose after Fermentation) yieldeth a pretty strong Brandy, called Fulo, and is the first running. The second is called Vraca, the only Wine of In­dia. Of the same Sura, being boil'd, and set in the Sun, they also make a fort of Brown Sugar, which they call Iagra. From the Kernel it self, when fresh, and well stamped, they press out a Milk, which they al­ways mix and eat with their Rice­Meats. Of the Kernel dried (called Copra) and stamped, they make Oyl, both to eat and to burn. Of the Leaves of the Tree (called Olas) they make the Sails of their Ships: As also Covers for their Houses and Tents; and Summer-Hats. Of the Wood, they make Ships without Nails; sewing the several parts to­gether [Page 91] with the Cords made of the Huk of the Nut. GREW's Musaeum REG. SOCIET. Pag. 199, 200.

Observations concerning the CACAO-Tree, and its NVT, of which CHOCOLATE is made.

OF these Trees there are seve­ral sorts, which grow to a reasonable height: The Bodies of the largest do usually arrive in bulk (although not in tallness) to the largeness of our English Plum-Trees: They are in every part smooth; and the Boughs and Branches there­of extend themselves on every side, to the proportion of a well-spread Tree, much resembling our Heart­Cherry-Tree, but at its full growth 'tis dilated to a greater breadth in compass, and is something loftier; there is little difference in the Leaves, these being pointed, but smoother on the E [...]s, and of a [...] [Page 94] white kind of Pulp, that's agreea­ble to the Palate. By the turning and Sweating, their little Strings are broken, and the Pulp is imbibed and mingled with the substance of the Nut. After this, they are put to dry 3 or 4 Weeks in the Sun, and then they become of a Reddish dark Colour, as you see; and so are Cured.

What is remarkable in this Fruit, is, that the Codds grow only out of the Body or great Limbs, and Boughs; and that, at the same time, and in the same place, there are Blossoms, Young and Ripe Fruit.

This Tree requires to be shelter'd from the Sun while 'tis Young, and always from the North-East Winds; and to have a fat, moist, low Soil, which makes them to be Planted commonly by Rivers and between Mountains: So that 'tis ill living where there are good CACAO-Walks. In a Years time the Plant comes to be 4 Foot high, and hath a Leaf six times as big as an Old [Page 95] Tree, which, as the Plant grows bigger, falls off, and lesser come in their place, which is another ex­traordinary Quality of this Tree.

The Trees are commonly Plant­ed at 12 Foot distance; and at 3 years old, where the Ground is good, and the Plant prosperous, it begins to bear a little, and then they cut down all or some of the Shade, and so the Fruit increases till the 10th or 12th Year; and then the Tree is supposed to be in its prime. How long it may con­tinue so, none with us (in Iamaica) can guess; but it's certain, the Root generally shoots out Suckers, that supply the place of the old Stock when dead or cut down, un­less when any ill Quality of the Ground or Air kill both. [See this Accurate Account of the CACAO-Tree, given by a very Intelligent Person residing in Jamaica,] which you may find in the PHILOS. TRANS ACT. Numb. 93.

[Page 96]These Kernels being well pound­ed, as Almonds, in a Mortar, and mixed with a certain proportion of Sugar and Spices (according as the Trader thinks or finds it best for Sale,) are commonly made up in Cakes or Rowles; which are brought over hither from Spain, and other parts. But those that would have a good Quantity for their own pri­vate use, had much better procure the NUTS themselves, (as fresh and new as may be,) and so pre­pare and Compound them to their own Constitution and Taste. And for those that drink it, without a­ny Medicinal respect, at Coffee­Houses; there is no doubt but that of Almonds finely beaten, and mix­ed with a due proportion of Sugar and Spices, may be made as plea­sant a Drink, as the best CHAW­CALATE, GREW's Mus. REG. SOC. Pag. 205.

Dr. Stubbes, in the last part of his Observations relating to Iamaica (see the Philos. Transact. Numb. 37.) [Page 97] takes notice of the Censure of Si­mon Paula in his Herbal, Pag. 383. against CHOCOLATA, and says, He cannot forgive him for it; be­ing of Opinion, that that Liquor, if it were well made, and taken in a right way, is the best Diet for Hypochondriacs, and Chronical Di­stempers, for the Scurvy, Gout and Stone, and Women Lying-in, and Children New-Born (to prevent Convulsions; and purge the Meco­nium out,) and many other Distem­pers, that infest Europe; but that 'tis now rather used for Luxury than Physick; and so compounded, as to destroy the Stomach, and to increase Hypochondriacal Diseases; and that we now so Cook it, as if it were to be transform'd into a Caudle or Custard.

The Native Indians seldom or never use any Compounds; desir­ing rather to preserve their Healths, than to gratifie and please their Pa­lars, until the Spaniards, coming a­mongst them, made several Mix­tures [Page 98] and Compounds; which in­stead of making CHOCOLATE better (as they supposed) have made it much worse: And many of the English (especially those that know not the Nature of the CACAO) do now imitate them: For in Iama­ica, as well as other places, when they make it into Lumps, Balls, Cakes, &c. they add to the CA­CAO Paste, Chille, or Red Pepper; Achiote, sweet Pepper, commonly known by the Name of Iamaica ­Pepper, or some or one of them; as also such other Ingredients as the place affordeth, or as most pleases them that make it; or else as the more skillful Persons may think it to agree with this or that Indivi­dual Person; adding thereto as much Sugar only as will sweeten it: First of all drying and beating e­very Ingredient apart; and then at the last mixing them together, as it is wrought up into a Mass. HUGHES's American Phisi­cian▪

[Page 99] Iosephus Acosta says, that in se­veral places in the West-Indies, The CACAW-NUT is so much esteem'd, that the Kernels are us'd instead of Money; and commonly given to the Poor, as Alms: And that the Indians are wont to Treat Noble Men with CHACAWLATE, as they pass through their Country. IOS. ACOST. Hist. Lib. 4. Cap. 22.

Observations concerning THEE, or TEA.

THEE is a Shrub growing in most parts of China and Ia­pan; it arises generally to the height and bigness of our Garden­Rose and Currant-Trees; the Roots are Fibrous, and spread into many little Filaments, near the surface of the Earth; the Flowers are like those of Rosa Sylvestris; the Seeds round, and black; which being sow'd come to perfection in three [Page 100] Years time, and then yield yearly a Crop; but these are little valued; the great and only Virtue of this Plant being supposed to consist on­ly in the Leaves; of which there are five sorts, both as to bigness, and valued; for the largest at bot­tom are sold for about one Penny half Penny the Pound; but the smallest at the top for Fifty, nay sometimes one H [...]ndred and Fifty Crow [...]s the Pound. IOH. NIC. PEC [...]LIN. De potu THE [...]E.

This Plant (saith the Learned Pechlin) abounds with a brisk vola­tile Salt, which he adjudges very agreeable to our Northern Consti­tutions, whose Blood is naturally very heavy, and sluggish; it car­ries also with it a sine thinner sort of Oyl; but so admirably well tem­par'd, that as this hinders the Spi­rit from Evaporating, so that cor­rects the Inflammability of this; from whence results the very agree­able latter A [...]tringent: All which together, as they rectifie the Fer­ment [Page 101] of the Blood, and at the same time strengthen, and confirm the tone of the Parts, contribute so much to the assisting of Nature in her Operations, as to prevent, if not to Cure, most Chronical Distem­pers.

Because the discreet Choice of a proper Vehicle for this great Pana­cea, may be very material, the Learned Author therefore thinks good to shew his dislike of Milk; in that it very much obstructs its more lively and quicker parts; as always leaving behind it much a­cidity, which how prejudicial to Hypochondriacal Persons, is suffici­ently obvious He dislikes the Custom they use in Iapan, of drink­ing the Leaves powder'd, supposing that it may dry the Body too much. In short, He concludes warm-Water to be the most Natural and Effectu [...]l Vehicle, as being pure, and vo [...]d of all Saline or other ways pernicious Particles, and being more ready to be impregnated with the Virtue [Page 102] hereof; which when Armed with this powerful Vegetable, Nature ea­sily admits into its obscure Chan­nels, and dark Recesses.

He approves well enough of the use of Sugar; as it serves not only to qualifie the bitter taste, by its sweetness, which at the same time is corrected by the Heat; but as being good also for the Kindnies, and Lungs. He thinks the difference of Consti­tutions too great to be insisted on, and therefore only says this, viz. That those of a dryer Habit may take it more diluted, because their Salts may more easily be carried off: And for the Moister and Hydropical Temper, He supposes this Water, if more strongly impregnated, may make way for the Evacuation of the other.

As to the Times of taking it, He says, the more empty the Stomach, the passage will be the more easy, and therefore in such the more effe­ctual: He condemns the use of it after Meals; because the Volati [...]e [Page 103] part flies off, before the Meat is any ways digested; after which the Con­coction is difficulty perform'd; be­cause the Ferment, as well as the Volatility of the Chyle, is suppressed by the Astringent Quality; which in those Circumstances oft proves a thing of very pernicious Conse­quence.

To conclude, our Author, not­withstanding all his Encomium's of this Exotick, can be content to think, we might receive as much benefit from some Plants of our own Growth; were People industrious to search after them; such as Vero­nica, Lingua Cervina, Marrhubium, Hepatica, Cichoreum, and some o­thers which he names. PEC [...]LIN. Ibidem.

The Physicians of Tunquin in In­dia do mightily admire the Herb TEA, which comes from China and Iapan; which latter Country pro­duces the best. It is brought to them in Tin Pots close stopp'd, to keep out the Air.

[Page 104]When they would use it they boil a Quantity of Water, according to the proportion they intend to use, and when the Water seeths, they throw a small Quantity into it, al­lowing as much as they can nip be­tween their Thumb and Fore-Finger to a Glass. This they prescribe to be drank as hot as they can endure it, as being an excellent Remedy a­gainst the Head-ach, for the Gravel, and for those that are subject to the Griping of the Guts; but then they order a little Ginger to be put into the Water when it boyls. At Goa, Batavia, and in all the Indian Facto­ries, there are none of the Eui [...]ns who do not spend above four or five Leaves a day; and they are careful to preserve the boil'd Leaf for an Evening Sallad, with Sugar, Vine­gar, and Oyl. That is accounted the best TEA, which colours the Water greenest; but that which makes the Water look red, is little valued. In Iapan, the King and great Lords, who drink TEA, drink [Page 105] only the Flower, which is much more wholsome, and of a taste much more pleasing. But the Price is much different, for one of our or­dinary [...]e [...]-Giasses is there worth a French Crown. TAVERN. of the Kingdom of Tunqin. Chap. X.

In Iapan there is a Plant called TSIA, it is a kind of THE or TEA; but the Plant is much more delicate, and more highly esteem'd than that of THE'. Persons of Quality keep it very carefully in Earthen Pots well stopp'd, that it may not take Wind [...]: but the Iapponneses prepare it quite otherwise than is done in Eu­rope. For, instead of infusing it in­to warm Water, they beat it as small as Powder, and take of it as much as will lye on the point of a Knife, and put it into a Dish of Por­celane or Earth, full of seething Wa­ter, in which they slir it, till the Water be all green, and then drink it as hot as they can endure it. It is excellent good after a Debauch, it being certain there is not any [Page 106] thing that allays the Vapours, and settles the Stomach better than this Herb does. The Pots they make use of about this kind of Drink are the most precious of any of their Houshold­Stuff, in as much as it is known, that there have been TSIA-Pots, which had cost between Six and Se­ven Thousand Pounds Sterling▪ MANDELSLO's Trav. into the In­dies, pag. 156.

The Persians, Indians, Chineses, and Iaponneses, assign to TEA such extraordinary Qualities, that, ima­gining it alone able to keep a Man in constant Health, they are sure to treat such as come to visit them, with this Drink, at all Hours. The Qua­lity it is (by experience) found to have, is, that it is astringent, and that it consumes superfluous Hu­mours, which incommodate the Brain, and provoke Drowsiness. OLEA­RIVS's Ambassadors Trav. into Musc. Pers. and Tartar. pag. 241.

The Dutch are said to transport the dried Leaves of Sage into China, [Page 107] and, under the Name of European TEA, to barter it with the Chineses for their TEA.

Observations concerning COFFEE, or CAVPHE.

THis Tree is said to grow only in that part of Arabia Foelix, which lyeth within the Tropicks; and that it very much resembles our Cherry-Trees, but scarce so big. It bears a Berry about the bigness of a small Bean; of which is made a thick and bitter Drink, as black as Soot, and of a strong Scent, but not Aromatical; which is commonly called COFFEE. This Drink is in such mighty request among the Turks, that, as the Learned Veslin­gius affirms, there are no less than some Thousands of COFFEE-Hou­ses in that one City of Cairo. It is also much used in Barbary, and great part of Africk. And of late Years it hath crept into Europe, nay even [Page 108] into our Northern Climate. So that we now see great plenty of COF­FEE-Houses, not only in the City of London, but also in other p [...]rts of the Kingdom. And wh [...] a mighty Consumption there is of this Drink, plainly appears from that considera­ble Revenue, which yearly arises to the Crown ▪ from the Impost laid upon that one Commodity of COFFEE.

In the COFFEE-Houses where the Turks use to resort to tipple, there is usually one hired by the Owne [...]s to read either an Idle Book of Tales, which they admire as Wit, or filthy obscene Stories, with which they seem wonderfully affected and pleas'd, few of them being able to read. These are the Schools, which they frequent for their Information, though in Times of War, when Things went ill with them, their Discourses would be of the Ill Go­vernment; and the Grand Signior himself and his chief Ministers could not escape their Censures; which mani [...]estly tending to Sediti [...]n, and [Page 109] to the heightning of their Discon­tents by their mutual Complaints, and by this free venting of their Grievances, during the War at Can­dia, the wise Visier, seeing the evil Consequences that would follow, if such Meetings, and Discourses were any longer tolerated, commanded, that all the publick COFFEE-Hou­ses should be shut up in Constantino­ple, and several other great Cities of the Empire, where the Malecontents used to rendezvous themselves, and find fault, upon every ill Success and Miscarriage, with the Administration of Affairs. Dr. THO. SMITH's Account of Constantinople, &c. in the PHILOS. TRANSACT. Numb. 155.

The Turks look upon CAUPHE [...]o be good all Hours of the Day, [...]ut especially Morning and Even­ [...]ng, when to that purpose, they en­ [...]ertain themselves two or three Hours in CAUPHE-Houses, which [...]hroughout Turky abound more than [...]s, and Ale-Houses, with us. This [Page 110] Drink is thought to be the old Black Broth used so much by the Lacede­monians; it dryeth ill Humours in the Stomach, comforteth the Brain, never causeth Drunkenness, or any other Surfeit, and is a harmless En­tertainment of Good-Fellowship. Sir HENR. BLOVNT's Voyage into the Levant. Pag. 137.

The Lord Bacon in his Natural History, says, That this Drink com­forteth the Brain, and Heart, and helpeth Digestion.

Monsieur Thevenot speaking of the Qualities of this Drink, says, that if it be drank very hot, it clears the Head of Vapours, moderately hot it binds up the Body, and cold it is Laxative. THEV. Trav. into th [...] Levant. Part 2. Chap. v.

Those who write of COFFEE, do almost all reckon it amongst the Antihypnoticks, agreeing that it is a Driver away of Sleep.

The Learned Dr. Willis, in his Dis­course of COFFEE, is of the Opini­nion, that this Drink, though most [Page 111] commonly used, and very profita­ble in some Cases, and very Medici­nal; is to others perhaps very hurt­ful, or less healthful. Indeed, that it is so, not only Reason (says the Doctor) but also common Observa­tion every where dictates, for we see that great COFFEE Drinkers become lean, and are very often subject to be Paralytick, and grow impotent for Generation. Yet as to Affects of the Brain, and the Ge­nus Nervosum, I very often (says the Doctor) prescribe this Drink for them. For indeed in very many Cephalick Diseases and Infirmities, viz. in Head-aches, Giddiness, the Le­thargy, Catarrhs, and the like, where with a full habit of Body, and a cold Temperament, or one that is not hot, and a Watery Blood, there is a moist Brain with a Sluggishness and Dullness of the Animal Spirits, COFFEE has often a very good ef­fect, for being daily drank, it won­derfully clears and enlightens each part of the Soul, and disperses all [Page 112] the Clouds of every Function. But on the contrary, those who being thin, and of a Bilious, or Melancho­lick Temperament, have a sharp, or burnt Blood, a hot Brain, and the Animal Spirits too much stirr'd and restless, ought to forbear this Drink altogether, as being apt to pervert both the Spirits and Humours in a greater measure, and to render them wholly unfit, and unable to perform any Functions: For I have observ'd many (says the Learned Doctor,) not having a sufficient plenty of Spirits, and being also subject to the Head-ach, Vertigo, Palpitation of the Heart, and a trembling or numb­ness of the Limbs, who presently after drinking COFFEE became worse as to those Affects, and sud­denly found an unusual Languor in their whole Body. WILLIS Phar­maceut. Ration. Sect. 7. Cap. 3.

COFFEE hath a cooling Quali­ty, and the Persians think it allays the Natural Heat. And therefore they often drink of it, on purpose to [Page 113] avoid the charge of having many Children. To this purpose they tell a Story of one of their Kings, na­med Sultan Mahomet Caswin, who Reign'd in Persia before Tamerlane's time, that he was so accustom'd to the drinking of COFFEE, that▪ he had a strange aversion to all Women; and that the Queen standing one day at her Chamber Window, and perceiving they had got down a Horse upon the Ground, in order to the Gelding of him, ask'd some that stood by, why they treated so handsome a Creature in that man­ner; whereupon answ [...]r being made her, that he was too Fiery and Me [...] ­tlesome, and that the business of those that were about him, wa [...], with the taking away of the Exce [...]s of Mettle, which Stone-Horses are guilty of, to deprive him of all G [...] ­n [...]rative Vertue; the Q [...]een reply'd, that that trouble might have been spar'd, since COFFEE would have wrought the same effect; and th [...]t [...]f th [...]y would keep the Stone-Horse [Page 114] with that Drink, he would, in a short time, be as tame and quiet as the King her Husband. OLEARIVS in the Ambassadors Travels, pag. 240.

There goes a Story, (how true I know not) that the Vertue of COF­FEE, was at first discover'd by a Prior of a Convent; who observing that the Goats, which fed in that part of Arabi [...] where these Trees grow▪ us'd to live with little or no Sleep, and that [...] the day time they [...]e [...]e mighty b [...]isk and frisking; [...]he said [...]rior did from thence con­cl [...]e that this must necessarily proceed from the Goats licking up the Berries that fell from these Trees: Whereupon to satisfy his Curiosity. He try'd the Experiment upon another sort of Beast, viz. a Sleepy Heavy-Headed Monk, whom the Prior did often ply with this sort of Drink; on whom, as the Story goes, it had, in a short time, such a wonderful effect, that it quite alter'd his Constitution, and that he afterwards became more quick, [Page 115] brisk, and airy, than generally that sort of Cattle are.

The Goodness of COFFEE chief­ly consists in an exact way of Parch­ing and managing the Berries; for if these are parch'd to a higher or lower degree than they ought, the COFFEE is stark naught, and good for nothing. Dr. Bernier affirms, that there were but two Men in the whole City of Cairo that rightly un­derstood the Art and Mystery of Parching and ordering these Berries. IOH. RAII Hist. Plant. Vol. 2. pag. 1692.

That Learned Bo [...]anist, Mr. Ray, in the place last quoted, tells us, that the Arabians are very industrious in de­stroying the Vegetative Force of the Seed, that so thereby they might prevent its growing in any other Countrey. Nor indeed are they to be blam'd for so doing; since from this one Commodity of COFFEE there accrues to their Country such an immense Treasure from almost all the other parts of the World; in [Page 116] which respect, as the Learned Ray wittily observes, Arabia may b [...] said to be, not only Felix, but [...] ­licissim [...].

Observations concerning OPIVM.

OPIUM is a Tear which flows from the wounded Heads of the Poppy being ripe: Some do pro­misc [...]usly use it with MECONI­UM, but very improperly; for O­PIUM is a Drop or Tear, MECO­NIUM the gross expressed Juice from the whole Plant; however they are both of one Quality: O­PIUM is the finer Gum, and the stronger; MECONIUM is the courser and weaker, yet the more malign.

OPIUM is of three sorts. 1. Black and hard from Syria and Aden. 2. Yellower and softer from Cam­baia. 3. Whiter from Cairo or Thebes; which last commonly cal­led Thebian-OPIUM, is the best, be­ing [Page 117] heavy, thick, strong scented like Poppy, bitter and sharp, infla­mable, almost of the Colour of Aloes, and easy to dissolve in Wa­ter. The Counter [...]eit, when washed, colours the Water like Saffron.

The OPIUM, which is spent in Europe, comes from Aden or Cairo; but that which is sold in the Indies comes out of the Province of Gualor, in Indostan, and is nothing but the Juice which is got out of POPPY, by an Incision made therein, when it begins to grow ripe. All the Eastern Nations are great Lovers of it, insomuch that the young People, who are not permitted the use of it, and the meauer sort, who are not able to buy it, will boil the POPPY it self, and eat of the Broth which is made thereof. And whereas the POPPY among them is called Pust, they thence call those Pusty, who make use of that Broath, instead of OPIUM. The Persians affirm, that they were the first who made use of it, and that all other Nations did it [Page 118] in Imitation of their Grandees, who took it, at first, to provoke Sleep. They take every Day a small Pill of it, about the bigness of a Pea; not so much in order to Sleeping, as that it should work the same effect as Wine does, which infuses Courage and great Hopes into those, who otherwise would not discover much of either. The Caffees, or Messen­gers, who travel into the Country, take of it to hearten themselves; but the Indians make use of it for the most part, that they may be the better fitted for the Enjoyments of W [...]men. No doubt but it is a Poy­son, which kills, if a Man do not accustom himself thereto by little and little; and when he hath so ac­c [...]om [...]d [...]imself, he must continue the frequent use of it, or he dies, on the other side. It so weakens their B [...]ains who take it continually, that they run [...]he hazard of losing the use of their Reason, an [...] [...]he principal Functions of their Understanding, and become in a manner stupid, if [Page 119] they recover not themselves by the same Remedy. MANDELSLO's Trav. into the Indies, pag. 67.

OPIUM is commonly used a­mong the Persians; they make Pills of it of the bigness of a Pea, and take two or three of them at a time. Those who are accustomed thereto, will take about an Ounce at a time. There are some who take of it only once in two or three Days, which makes them Sleepy, and a little di­sturbs their Brains, so as that they are as if they were a little entred in Drink. There is abundance of it made in Persia, especially at Ispahan, and it is thus ordered. The POPPY being yet green, they cleave the Head of it, out of which there comes a white Liquor, which being ex­pos'd to the Air grows bl [...]ck, and their Apothecaries and D [...]uggi [...]s trade very much in it. All [...] East they use this D [...]ug, the [...] and Indians, as w [...]ll as the [...] insomuch, that Bellen s [...]y [...] [...] Observations, that if a Turk [...] but [Page 120] a P [...]nny, he will spend a Farthing o [...] it in OPIUM; that he saw above [...]it­ty Camels loaden with it, going from Natolia into Turky, Persia, and the Indies; and that a Ianizary, who had taken a whole Ounce of OPI­UM one Day, took the next Day two, and was never the worse for it, save that it wrought the same effect in him, as Wine does in such as take too much of it, and that he stagger'd a little. It hath also this Quality common with Wine, that it does in­fuse Courage into those who have not much. And therefore the Turks never fail to take of it before they enter up­on any great Design. The Women do not ordinarily take any; but those who are not able to b [...]ar with their untoward and imperious Husbands, and prefer Death b [...]fore the Slavery they live in, do sometimes make use of OPIUM, whereof they take a good Q [...]antity, and drinking cold Water upon it, they, by a gentle and insensi­ [...]l [...] D [...]ath, depart this World. OLEA­ [...]S's Trav. of the Ambass [...]dors, &c. p [...]. 2 [...]9.

[Page 121]Dr. Bernier, in his History of the late Revolution of the Empire of Mogol, says, that the Ragipous, or the Souldiers of that Kingdom, are great takers of OPIUM; that he has oftentimes wonder'd to see them take such great Qua [...]tity; that they accustom themsel [...]es to it from their Youth; that on the Day of B [...]ttel they double the Dose, this Drug animating, or rather in­ebriating them, and making them insensible of Danger; insomuch, that they cast themselves into the Combat like so many furious Beasts, not knowing what it is to run a­way, but dying at the Feet of their Commanders, when they stand to it. 'Tis a pleasure, says the Dr. thus to see them, with the Fume of O­PIUM in their Head, to embrace one another; when the Battel is to begin, and to give their Mutual Farewells. as Men resolv'd to dye. Pag. 60.

Tavernier says, that such of the Persians, who from their Youth [Page 122] have been great Takers of OPI­UM, are short liv'd: And that if they do live till Forty, they com­plain heavily of the Pains that pro­ceed from the cold Venome of the Herb.

He says, that those who have a Mind to kill themselves, swallow a large piece, and drink Vinegar after it, to prevent the relief of a­ny other Counter-Poyson, and so they dye Smiling. TAVERN. Trav. into Persia Pag. 242.

Sachsius in the Ephemerides Ger­manicae An. 2. Observ. 69. is of O­pinion, that OPIUM is an Inciter of Venery in those who live in the Eastern parts of the World; but that it hath a quite contrary Effect on those who inhabit the Western. But herein he seems to be singular; since all other Authors do agree, tha [...] OPIUM in both, is a very great pro [...]ocative to Lust.

Iohannes I [...]cobus Saar, in his Iti­ [...]erar. L [...]d. Orie [...]t Pag. 11. says, that the Indians make an Electuary of [Page 123] OPIUM, which the Chineses take on purpose to Excite them to Lust and that by Virtue thereof, they can ly a whole Night in a constant Enjoyment.

Wagnerus in his Historia Natu­ralis Helvetiae, Pag. 262. says, that in Argovia, where POPPY is sow'd in great quantity, they express on Oyl out of the Seed, which they use in their Lamps instead of Olive-Oyl: That some make use of it with their Meat instead of Butter, and that they also Knead it with their Flower, and make Cakes of it, which they eat without any manner of harm.

Observations concerning TOBACCO.

THe Herb call'd by the Sp [...]ni­ards TOBACCO, [...]om on Island of the same Name [...] [...]he West-Indies, wherein it grow [...] [...] great abundance, is Nam'd by [...] Indians PETUN; by others, [...] [Page 124] its great Virtues, Herba Sancta; and Iohn Nicot, Embassador of Fran­cis II. having first brought out of Portugal into France some of the Seed of it to Queen Catherine de Medicis, with the Description of its Virtues, it became denominated from him in French NICOTIANE, or HERBE A' LA REINE, (the QUEENS HERB;) as in Italy it was term'd HERBE DE SANTA CROCE, (or HOLY CROSS) be­cause a Cardinal of that Name was the first that brought it to Rome. Some others call it ANTARCTI­CAL BUGLOSSE, HENBANE of PERU [...]nd INDIAN WOUND­WO [...] It grows, many times, to the height of three Cubits, with a straight and thick Stalk, so fat that it seems anointed with Honey; it sends forth sundry large Branches, with many Leaves long and broad, rounder than those of great Com­frey, somewhat like those of great Personata, or Bur-dock; Fleshy, Fat, and a little rough, of a pale [Page 125] Green, unpleasing Smell, and bit­ing Taste; on the top of the Stalk it hath many Flowers, Oblong, Hollow, and Large, in form of a Trumpet, of a White inclining to Purple; to which succeed little slen­der Cods or Husks, full of a brown­ish Seed, smaller than that of Poppy. Its Root is thick, hath several Lobes, is Woody, yellow within, bit­ter, easily, separating from its Bark and, like all Herbs hot and dry. (for this is so in the Second Degree.) it requires moist places and Sha­dow, and delights to be cultivated. Moreover, 'tis kept in Gardens, as well for its Beauty, as for its Facul­ties of curing abundance of Disea­ses; to which 'tis the more proper, in that it hath an Vnctuosity or Oilyness familiar to our Bodies, whose Excrementious Humours (the Seed of most Diseases) it potently resolves. For as Plants are of a middle Nature between Minerals and Animals; so they are more proper and safe for the Preservation [Page 126] and restoring of Man's Health, than Animals themselves, which by reason of their Similitude Act less on us; or than Minerals and inani­mate Bodies, which through the too great Diversity of their Nature Act with too much violence. PHI­LOSOPII. CONFER. of the VIR­TVOS [...] of FRANCE, Pag. 19.20. Vol. 2.

The first thing the Persians set upon the Table is the Pipe, the TOBACCO, and the Dish of Cof­fee; and indeed thus it is, that they begin all their Debauches. They Suck and Smoak of their TO­BACCO through Water in a long Glass Bottel, by which means it comes cool into their Mouths; else they would never be able to take it all Day long as they do. They Sing very little in their Cups: But they recite a vast Number of Wick­ed Verses, which they rehearse with a great deal of Gravity. They are so accustomed to take TOBAC­CO, both Men and Women, that [Page 127] a Poor Tradesman tha [...] has not above five Sous to spend, will lay out three of them in TOBACCO. If they had none, they say that they should not have dam [...]que, that is, Gladness in their Hearts. Many will confess, that their Excessive taking TOBACCO is hurtful; but if you tell 'em of it, they answer in a word, Adedehoud, 'Tis the Cu­stom. TAVERN. Trav. into Persia, Lib. 5.Cap. 17.

Diemerbrockius, in his Book De Peste, very much commends the use of TOBACCO in the time of Plague; he says, it absolutely Cur'd him when he had it; He also ob­serves, that almost all those Hou­ses, where TOBACCO was sold, both in Spires (a City in the Pala­tinate,) and likewise in London, were never infected, whereas the Houses round about them were.

The Learned Dr. Willis, very much commends the use of TO­BACCO for Souldiers and Mariners; in as much as it renders them both [Page 128] fearless of any Dangers, and pa­tient of Hunger, Cold, and La­bour.

He says, that assoon as the Cu­stom of taking TOBACCO be­comes familiar, 'tis gra [...]eful, and takes the Animal Spirits with so great a Witchcraft or pleasing al­lurements, that some had rather be debarr'd Meat or Drink, than the use of it. The Reason of which is, that this Smoaking gently awak­ing or stirring up the Animal Spi­rits at any time, sluggish or slothful, and as it were tickling them, pro­vokes them into gentle and expan­sive Motions, with which they are wonderfully recreated, as with the Drin [...]king of Wine. WILLIS. Phar­maceut Rational. Sect. 7. Cap. 3.

TOBACCO grows more abun­dantly in the Kingdom of Peru, than in any other Countrey of A­merica: For which cause, and the resemblance it hath to Henbane, in Form and Quality, it is call'd the HENBANE of PERU, by Gerrard, [Page 129] and some others of our Modern Herbalists. A Plant, which though in some respect being moderately taken, it may be serviceable for Physick; yet, besides the Consump­tion of the Purse, and impairing of our inward Parts, the immoderate, vain, and phantastical abuse of this Stinking Weed, Corrupteth the Na­tural sweetness of the Breath, stupi­fieth the Brain, and indeed is so prejudicial to the general esteem of our Country-Men, that one saith of them, Anglorum Corpora qui huic Plantae tantopere indulgent, in Barba­rorum naturam degenerâsse videntur. The two chief Virtues ascrib'd un­to it are, that it voideth Rheume, and is found to be a Soveraign An­tidote against lues Venerea, that loathsom Disease of the French-Pox. As for this last, like enough it is, that so unclean a Disease may be help'd with such an Unsavoury Me­dicine: But as for the other, it may perhaps consist more in Opinion, than Truth or Reality; the Rheume, [Page 130] which it is said to void, being no more than what it breedeth at the present. We may as well conclude that Bottled-Ale is good for the breaking of Wind, (which Effect we find commonly to follow on the Drinking of it,) though indeed it be only the same Wind which it self conveyed into the Stomach. But TOBACCO is by few now ta­ken as Medicinal; it is of late times grown a Good-Fellow, and faln from a Physician to a Complement. An Humour, which had never spread so far amongst us, if the same means of Prevention had been used by the Christian Magistrates, as was by Mo­rat Bassa among the Turks: Who commanded a Pipe to be thrust through the Nose of a Turk, whom he [...]ound taking TOBACCO, and so to be carried in Derision all a­bout Constantinople.

It is observ'd, that the taking of TOBACCO was first brought in­to England, by the Marriners of [Page 131] Sir Francis Drake, Anno Dom. 1585. PET. HETLIN's Cosmogr.

King Iames the First (for the Second was no Writer,) had such an aversion to this Plant, that he Printed a small Discourse against it, which he Entituled, A COUNTER­BLAST to TOBACCO. Wherein He very wittily observes, among other things, that this Custom of taking TOBACCO, was at first de­riv'd from the Indians, from whom he wish'd that we might not in time learn the other Custom too. Of Worshipping the Devil.

He also tells us, that this Custom of taking TOBACCO is lookt up­on, even by the Indians themselves, as such an Effeminate thing, that in the Market they will not offer to buy a Slave, whom they find to be a great TOBACCO taker.

The Manner of Planting and Ordering TOBACCO.

IN the Twelve-Days they begin to Sow their Seed in Beds of fine Mould, and when the Plants be grown to the breadth of a Shil­ling, they are fit to Replant into the Hills; for in their Plantations they make small Hills about four Foot distant from each other, some­what after the manner of our Hop-Yards; these Hills being prepared against the Plants be grown to the forementioned bigness (which is a­bout the beginning of May,) they then in moist Weather draw the Plants out of their Beds, and Re­plant them in the Hills, which af­terwards they keep with diligent Weedings. When the Plant hath put out so many Leaves as the Ground will nourish to a substance and largeness that will render them Merchantable, then they take off the top of the Plant; if the Ground [Page 133] be very rich, they let a Plant put out a dozen or sixteen Leaves be­fore they top it; if mean, then not above nine or ten, and so according to the strength of their Soyl, the top being taken if the Plant grows no higher; but afterwards it will put out Suckers between their Leaves, which they pluck away once a Week, till the Plant comes to perfection, which it doth in Au­gust. Then, in dry Weather, when there is a little Breeze of Wind, they cut down what is Ripe, letting it lye about four hours on the Ground, till such time as the Leaves, that stood strutting out, fall down to the Stalk, then they carry it on their Shoulders into their TOBACCO-Houses, where other Servants receiving it, drive into the Stalk of each Plant a Peg, and as fast as they are pegg'd, they hang them up by the Peggs on TOBACCO-Sticks, so nigh each other that they just touch, much after the manner they hang Her­rings [Page 134] in Yarmouth; thus they let them hang five or six Weeks, till such time as the Stem in the mid­dle of the Leaf will snap in the bending of it; then, when the Air hath so moistned the Leaf, as that it may be handled without break­ing, they strike it down, strip it off the Stalk, bind it up in Bun­dles, and pack it into Hogsheads for use.

Sometimes they are forced to Plant their Hills twice or thrice over, by reason of an Earth-Worm, which eats the Root; and when the Plant is well grown, they suf­fer damage by a Worm that devours the Leaf, called a Horn Worm, (an Eruca or Caterpill [...]r), which is bred upon the Leaf; if these Worms be not carefully taken off, they will spoil the whole Crop. THOMAS GLOVER's Account of VIRGINIA, in the PHILOS. TRANSACT. Numb. 126.

'Tis certain, that the TOBAC­CO, which grows on Salt-Peter| [Page 135] Ground, flashes as 'tis Smoak'd; but 'tis a mistake, that any TO­BACCO grows Wild, in Iamaica at least. The same Nitrous TO­BACCO will not come to so good a Colour, nor keep so long, as [...] ­ther TOBACCO; insomuch that the Merchants do oftentimes lose all their TOBACCO in the Voyage for England, or Ireland, it rotting all by the way. Dr. STVBBES's Observ. on the Caribe-Islands: In the PHILOS. TRANSACT. Numb. 36.

If one would try a pretty Con­clusion how much Smoak there is in a Pound of TOBACCO the Ashes will tell him; for let a Pound be exactly weighed, and the Ash [...]s kept charily and weigh'd after­wards, what wants of a Pound weight in the Ashes cannot be denied to have been Smoak, which Evaporated into Air: I have been told that Sir Walter Raleigh won a Wager of Queen Elizabeth upon this nicety. IAM. HOWEL's Famil. Let. Pag. 404. Edit. 5.

Observations concerning SVGAR, and the SVGAR-Cane.

THe SUGAR-Cane is a kind of Reed, both pleasant and profitable, having long Stalks, a­bout some six or seven Foot high, (if you reckon the Top-Leaves, or Branches and all,) joynted or knot­ted much like unto the Great-Caue: The Leaves come forth of every joynt on each side of the Stalk, long, narrow, and sharp-pointed, much like unto some Flags, or Flower-de-Luces, but not so broad; and seem, at a distance, like those Sag-Beds, which grow many toge­ther in some extraordinary Moorish or Boggy places in England; but of a more Blewish Green Colour, much like a Willow-Green. These Canes are not hollow; but the Stalk, or Body it self, is stuffed with a porous substance, moist and sweet in taste: From the Root Spring young Suckers (as they are [Page 137] called) which are cut away, and serve to Plant elsewhere for increase. HVGHES's American Physician.

The SUGAR-Canes grow in both the Indies, in the Canary Islands, Portugal, Spain, Sicily, Creet, and Ciprus.

The SUGAR which comes from the Maderaes is the best: That from the Canaries next: That from Malta next: Then that which comes from Barbados, Virginia, St. Thomas, &c.

The Island of St. Thomas is quite destitute of Wheat, which if sown, turneth all to Blade, and brings forth no Ear: Nor will any Fruits here prosper, that have any Stone in them: But so abundant in SU­GAR-Canes, and well stored with SUGARS, that forty Ships are thence loaded Yearly, with that one Commodity: For the making of which, they have there Seventy Ingenios, or SUGAR-Houses, and in each of them Two Hundred Slave [...], in some Three Hundred, which belong to the Works. Six [...] [Page 140] (says He) that Concrete consists of a very sharp and Corrosive Salt, though mitigated with a Sulphur, as it plainly appears from its Chy­mical Analysis: For SUGAR distill'd by it self, yields a Liquor scarce inferior to Aqua Stygia: And if you distil it in a Vesica, with a great deal of Fountain-Water pour'd to it, though the fixt-Salt will not so ascend, nevertheless a Liquor will come from it, like the hottest Aqua Vitae, burning and very pungent; when therefore (says the Dr.) SU­GAR mixt almost with any sorts of Food, is taken by us in so great a plenty, how probable is it that the Blood and Humours are ren­dred Salt and sharp, and consequent­ly Scorbutical, by its daily use? A certain Famous Author (viz. Simon Pauli) has laid the cause of the English Consumption on the immo­derate use of SUGAR amongst our Country-Men: I know not (says the Dr.) whether the cause of the increase of the Scurvy, may not al­so [Page 141] be rather hence deriv'd. WILLIS's London-Practice, Pag. 372.

'Tis observ'd of Those who work much in the SUGAR-Houses, that they are very subject to the Scurvy; and that in Portugal, where there is a mighty Quantity of SUGAR Yearly spent, their chief Distem­per is a Consumption.

The manner of Ordering the CANES, and How the SUGAR is made.

WHen the CANES come to Maturity, (which the Plan­ters know by several Signs, as well as we know when our Harvest is ready,) they cut them down at or above the first Joynt from the Ground; (for there is little moi­sture in them close to the Ground) with a strong Instrument for the same purpose, laying them even in [...]eaps, as we usually lay our Corn here in Harvest-time: Then they shread off all the Branches, and [...]ind the Stalks in Bundles, ready [...]or their Servants to carry away; [Page 142] or else they lay them together here and there, till they can carry them away with their Horses to the Mill, Machine, or Ingenio, where they squeeze them: Which must be as fast as they can after they are cut; for if they lye long after they are cut before they use them, then they come by much damage; so that whilst they are cutting in the Plan­tations, the Mill is usually going, and the Coppers are boyling. They carry them on their Horses, being loose, or bound up in bundles, af­ter this wise: They have a kind of Pad made as some of our Horses have that carry Burthens; and on each side of that are two Crooks standing up even, or higher than the Horse's back; into which Crooks the CANES, are laid on each side of the Horse; and then they carry them up to the SUGAR-Mill, which is made after this man­ner following.

They have an open House built on some pretty high Ground o [...] [Page 143] Hill, whereby they may have as much Air as they can, square, or at least pretty wide; in the middle of which they set up two great Posts, of very hard and solid Timber, made exactly round and straight, with Irons at each end [...]itted for them to turn, the lower end of which turneth in Brasses fast fixt in a great and solid piece of Wood: Now in one of these Cylinders, or Rowlers, which are to turn upright, is a set of Coggs set round about, which taketh always hold of the other Rowler, and causeth it to turn; so that both of them turn together: There being fastned to one of the Cylinders a piece of Wood, or rather a Frame of Wood, whereunto is fastned a Horse or two, to go round and draw it about, in such a manner as most Brewers in England Grind their Mault.

Now the Mill being prepared, and the CANES laid by it, and all things ready to set them to work; there is one that doth always put [Page 144] the CANES between these Rowlers, as they turn, which draw them through, by turning very nigh one against another; so that it squeezes all the Juice or Moisture out of them: And then there is another always to take the Crusht CANES away; unless one sometimes make shift to do both, which commonly is too hard a Task.

Now under these Rowlers is set a Receiver, as a Trough, Cistern, or the like convenient thing, to receive the Juice or Liquor that is squeez'd out of the CANES: And from this Trough or Cistern, is a Spout to convey this Juice into the Furnaces or Coppers, where it is to be boyl'd to SUGAR; whereas, in some SUGAR-Houses, there are five or six Coppers for that purpose, which are commonly set in a House built only for the same use, at a di­stance from the Mill; and also some­what lower than the Mill, because the Liquor is always running down into the Coppers: All which Pas­sages [Page 145] and Vessels must be kept very clean; for otherwise, they are by reason of the great heat apt to Sower, and so spoil the Juice: Nei­ther must the Juice be long kept af­ter it is pressed out; for if it once grow Sower, it is not then sit to make SUGAR.

These Coppers are set all one by another a-thwart the end of the SUGAR-House, or Caring-House, (as they term it,) so that the upper edges of each Copper do almost touch one another, being fast fixed in Brick-work, and cemented round the Edges, that no Fire can get up, or be seen in the SUGAR-House: But the mouth of the Furnaces where the Fire is put, is so contriv'd, [...]hat they are made and appear on [...]he outside the House; where before [...]hem is always ready cut great store [...]f Wood to cast in, to maintain [...]he Fire so long as they boil.

Now, if there be six C [...]ppers, the [...]st two are thinnest an [...] biggest, [...] which the Juice is first [...]; but [Page 146] not by a very strong Fire, for that will make the Scum to rise, by cast­ing in Temper, as they call it: the first of which that ariseth is little worth; but afterwards, what is scumm'd off, they make a very good drink of, called Locus-Ale, much used by the Servants in Iamaica; or else they convey it into a Copper-Still (as they do all their other Set­lings and Dregs of SUGAR) to be distill'd, and make a sort of str [...]ng-Water, which they call Rum, or Rumbullion, stronger than Spirit of Wine, and not very pleasant, until a Man be us'd to it. This strong Liquor is ordinarily drank amongst the Planters, as well alone, as made into Punch.

Furthermore, when this Juice hath so boil'd into the two first Coppers, then is it strained into the third and fourth Furnaces, which are less and thicker, and there it is boil'd by somewhat greater Fire; and as it begins to grow pretty thick, the [...] is it put into the fifth and sixth Cop­pers, [Page 147] and there boil'd by a greater and very strong Fir [...], to a just con­sistence: These Coppers are lesser and thicker than the other, which the Master-Workman doth always tend, with a great deal of care, till it be boil'd enough; and then they put it into Wooden-Boxes, made broad at the top, and narrow at the bottom, with a hole almost like a Mill-Hopper: then they set it in the Curing-House, in which there is a place made to set them all in Rows; under the bottom of which Gutters or Troughs are placed to receive the Mallassus, and convey it into a Ves­sel. They cover the tops of these Boxes, or Earthen Vessels, with a temper'd white Earth: and indeed there is great Art in whitening and making of good SUGAR. See HVGHES's American Physician, pag. 30, 31, 32, 33, & 34.

The principal Knack, without which all their Labour were in vain, is in making the Iuice, when suf­ficiently boil'd, to Kerne or Granu­late. [Page 148] Which is done, by adding to it, a small proportion of Lye made with (Vegetable) Ashes: without which, it would never come to any thing by boiling, but a Syrup, or an Extract. But a little of that Fixed Salt, serves, it seems, to Shackle or Chrystallize (which is a degree of Fixation) a very great quantity of the Essential Salt of this Plant.

In re [...]ining the SUGAR, the first degree of pureness is effected, only by permitting the Molosses to drain a way through a Hole at the bot­tom of the SUGAR-Pots; the Pots being, all the time, open at the top. The Second Degree is procur'd, by covering the Pots at the top with Clay. The reason whereof is, for that the Air is hereby kept out from the SUGAR, which, in the open Pots, it hardens, before it hath full time to refine by Separation. And therefore, whereas the first way re­quires but one Month, this re­quires four. The finest SUGAR of all, is made with Lime-Wa [...]er [Page 149] (and sometimes Vrine) and Whites of Eggs.

That which Dioscorides calls [...]; Galen, Sacchar; and Archi­genes, Sal Indium; is the same thing for substance, faith Matthiolus, with that we call SUGAR: saving that, whereas this is made of the Juice expressed and boil'd; that of the Ancients, as is likely, was only the Tears; which bursting out of the CANE, as the Gums or Milks of Plants are used to do, were there­upon harden'd into a pure White SUGAR. That the SUGAR of the Ancients was the simple concre­ted Juice of a CANE, he well con­jectures: But that it was the Juice or Tears of the SUGAR-CANE, he proves not. Nor, I think, could be, if, as is supposed, it was, like Salt, friable and hard. And in af­firming our SUGAR to be the same for Substance with that of the An­ [...]ients, he much mistakes; that being the simple Juice of the CANE, [...]his a compounded Thing, always [Page 150] mixed either with the Salt of Lime, or of Ashes; sometimes of Animals too. GREW's M [...]s. Reg. Societ. pag. 224, 225.

In Iamaica the SUGAR cures faster in ten days, than in six Months in Barbadoes: and this happens in such places, as it rains for many Months at the same time; but you must know, that Rains there are sudden, and make no previous Al­teration in the Air before they fall, nor do they leave it moist after­wards. Dr. STVBBES in the PHILOS. TRANSACT. Numb. 36. pag. 705.

Observations concerning DIA­MONDS.

THE principal DIAMOND Mines now known, are four. That of Raolconda, in the Kingdom of Visapour; discover'd two hundred Years since. In this Mine, the DIA­MONDS lie in sandy V [...]ins in the [Page 151] Rocks. Of all, the clearest, and of the whitest Water. They pound and wash the Vein for the DIA­MONDS, just as we do some of our Ores for the Metal. A second call'd the Gany, about seven Days Journey from Golconda; found out a hundred Years since. They dig here not above fourteen foot deep. Sometimes above sixty thousand Men, Women, and Children are at work. It affords the largest DIAMONDS, but not clear. A Third, that of Govel, a River in the Kingdom of Bengala. The DIA­MONDS are found in the Sand of the River, for the space of fifty Leagues. From hence come those fair pointed Stones, called Natural Points: but not great. The Fourth, that of Succadan, a River in Borneo. But there are none come from thence but by stealth. GREW's Mus. Reg. Societ. pag. 281, 282.

There are in the DIAMOND-Rocks of Raolconda several Veins, some half a finger, some a whole [Page 152] finger-wide: And the Miners make make use of Irons with Hooks at the end, with which they pick out the Earth or Sand, which they put into Tubs, and among that Earth, they find the DIAMONDS. But because these Veins do not run al­ways str [...]ight, but sometimes down, sometimes upward, the Min [...]rs (fol­low [...]ng always the trace of the Veins) are often constrain'd to break the Rock with great Iron-Leavers, and s [...]iking with a violent force; which often [...] the DIAMOND, and make [...] it look like Chrystal. Which is the reason there are found so ma­ny sof [...] Stones in this DIAMOND-Mine, though they make a great shew. When they have open'd all the Veins, and taken out all the Sand, then they wash it two or three times over to look, for the DIAMONDS. TAVERN. Trav. in In [...]ia, Part II. Book II. Chap. xi.

The Water of those DIAMONDS which are drawn, not from the Rock, but th [...] Ground, commonly partakes [Page 153] of the Colour of the Soil wherein they are found. So that if the Earth be clean and somewhat sandy, the DIAMONDS will be of a good Water; but if it be fat or black, or of any other Colour, they will have some tincture of it. BOYLE of Gems, pag. 51.

Whereas it is commonly said, that as Gold is the heaviest of Metals, so Diamonds are the hardest and hea­viest of Stones. The Honourable Mr. Boyle can by no means agree to this Assertion, since as he tells us, in his Discourse of GEMS, pag. 52. He by his own Experience knows it to be false.

Boethius, in his Treatise De Gem­mis & Lapidibus, affirms, that DIA­MONDS receive no hurt, but are rather mended, by the Fir [...].

Garci [...]s lib. 1. cap. 43. tells us, that some DIAMONDS, being rub [...]'d, will take up Straws, just like Amber, and other Electrical Bo­dies. And Mr. Boyle, in his fore­mentioned Tract of GEMS, pag. 109. [Page 154] mentions a DIAMOND of his, which with a little friction attracts vigorously. And that he had ano­ther DIAMOND in his keeping, which by Water, made a little more than luke-warm, He could bring to shine in the Dark. Ibidem, pag. 112.

'Tis the property of all true DI­AMONDS, to unite the Foyle close­ly and equally to it self, and there­by better augment its Lustre, than any other Gem. That which is cal­led the Foyle, is a mixture of Ma­stick and burnt Ivory: The latter, being one of the blackest of Co­lours; used by Painters for Velvet, the Pupil of the Eye, &c. GREWS's Mus. Reg. Societ. pag. 282.

Between the Grain and the Vein of a DIAMOND, there is this dif­ference, that the former furthers; the latter, being so insuperably hard, hinders the splitting of it. Altho it seems, that a Vein, sometimes is nothing else, but a Cross-Grain. Our European Jewellers, when they split one, they take a very small Iron [Page 155] Wyre, and having daubed it with Oil and Powder of DIAMONDS; draw it upon the DIAMOND, by a Tool, to and fro like a Saw, so long as is needful for that purpose. GREW ibidem.

As fo [...] the Water of DIAMONDS, it is remarkable, that whereas in Europe we make use of Day-light to examine the rough Stones, and to judge of their Water, and the Specks that are found therein; the Indians do all that in the Night-time, set­ting up a Lamp with a large Wiek, in a hole which they make in the Wall, about a Foot square; by the Light whereof they judge of the Water and clearness of the Stone, which they hold between their Fin­gers. The Water which they call Celestial is the worst of all, and it is impossible to discern it so long as the Stone is rough. The most infallible way to find out that Water, is to carry the Stone under a Tree thick of [...]oughs, for by the verdure of that shade you may easily discern [Page 156] whether the Water be blewish or no. TAVERN. TRAV. in India, Part II. Book II. Chap. xii.

To know the value of DIA­MONDS, if they be every way per­fect, Tavernier gives this Rule: That if a good DIAMOND weigh one Carat, viz. four Grains, 'tis worth 150 French Livres; and then to know, how much a good Stone, weighing 12 Carats, is worth, you are to multiply 12 by 12, which makes 144; which Product is to be multiplyed by 150 (the price of a Stone of one Carat,) which will make 21600 Livres, the price of a DIAMOND of 12 Carats. But if the DIAMOND be not perfect, then you are to allow but 80 Livers for a Carat; and if such a kind of DIAMOND should weight 15 C [...] ­rats, then multiply 15 by 15, which is 225, and this into 80, makes 18000 Livres, the value of that DIAMOND.

According to which Rule, the DIAMOND of the Great Mogol [Page 157] (w [...]ighi [...]g 279 and 9 16th Carats, being o [...] a per [...]ect g [...]d Water, and of a good shape, w [...]t [...] only a little flaw in the [...]dg of the cutting below, which g [...]es [...]ound a [...]ut the Stone) will an [...]unt to 11723278 Livres. Were it not for that little flaw which is mention'd, the first Carat of this DIAMOND w [...]re worth 160 Li­vres, but Tav [...]rnier allowing for that flaw, he values the first Carat but at 150 Livres, and so he has made his Computation.

He says, that the Great Duke of Tuscany's DIAMOND weighs 139 Carats, clean and well-shap'd, cut in Facets every way: but that in regard the Water inclines somewhat toward the Colour of Citron, He does not value the first Carat above 135 Livres; so that by the Rule the DIAMOND ought to be worth 2608335 Livres. TAVERN. ibid. Chap. 15.

Observations concerning PEARL.

IN the first place, there is a Fish­ery for PEARLS in the Persian Gulf, round about the Island of Bakren. Every one that fishes pays to the King of Persia five Abassi's, (every Abassi is worth about 18 Sols French Money) whether he get any thing or no. The Merchant also pays the King some small mat­ter for every thousand Oysters.

The second Fishery for PEARLS is right against Bakren upon the Coast of Arabia Felix, near the City of Catifa, which together with all the Country about it, is under the Jurisdiction of an Arabian Prince. The PEARLS that are fish'd in these Places are sold to the Indians, who (as Tavernier informs us) are not so nice as we; for they give a good price for all, as well the uneven as the round ones.

There is another Fishery for PEARLS in the Sea that beats a­gainst [Page 159] the Walls of a great Town call'd Manar, in the Island of Cey­lan. For their roundness and their Water, they are the fairest that are found in any other Fishery; but they rarely weigh above three or four Carats.

There are excellent PEARLS, and of a very good Water, and large, which are found upon the Coast of Iapan; but there are few fish'd for, in regard Iewels are of no esteem among the Natives.

There are other Fisheries, in the West-Indies; in the first place all along the Island of Cubagna, three Leagues in compass, lying ten De­grees and a half of Northern Lati­tude, a hundred and sixty Leagues from Santo Domingo. The PEARLS are small, seldom weighing above five Carats.

The second Fishery is in the I­sland of Margarita, or the Island of PEARLS, a League from Cubagna, but much bigger. This Fishery is not the most plentiful, but it is the [Page 160] most esteem'd of all those in the West-Indies, by reason the PEARLS are of a most excellent Water, and very large. Tavernier says, He sold one Pear-fashion'd to Sha-est-Kan, the Great Mogul's Uncle, that weigh­ed fifty five Carats.

The third Fishery is at Camogete, near the Continent.

The fourth at Rio de la H [...]cha, all along the same Coast.

The fifth and last, at St. Martha's, sixty Leagues from Rio de la Hacha. All these three Fisheries produce ve­ry weighty PEARLS; but they are generally ill shap'd, and of a Water enclining to the Colour of Lead.

As for Scotch PEARL, and those that are found in the Rivers of Ba­varia, though a Neck-lace of them may be worth a thousand Crowns, yet they are not to be c [...]mpar'd with the E [...]stern and West-Indian PEARLS.

Some Years since, there was a F [...]sh [...]ry discover'd in a certain place upon the Coast of Iapan; Tavernier [Page 161] says, He has seen some which the Hollanders have brought thence; They are of a very good Water, and large, but very uneven. TAVERN. Trav. in India, Part II. Book II. Chap. xvii.

Over all Asia they chuse the yel­low Water inclining to white; for they say, those PEARLS that in­cline somewhat to a Gold Colour, are more brisk, and never change Colour; but that the white ones will change in Thirty Years time, through the very heat of the Wea­ther, and the Sweat of the Person that wears them, turning them scandalously yellow.

Take this Observation along with you, touching the difference of their Waters; some being very White, others inclining to Yellow, others to Black, others to a Leaden Colour. As for the last, there are no such, but only in America, which proceeds from the Nature of the Earth, at the bottom of the Water; which is generally more Ouzy than [Page 162] in the East. I once met with Six PEARLS, in the return of a Cargo from the West-Indies, that were per­fectly round, but black like Iet, which weigh'd one with another Twelve Carats. I carried them in­to the East-Indies to put them off, but could meet with no Chapman to buy them. As for those that in­cline to Yellow, it proceeds from hence, that the Fishermen selling the Oysters to the Merchants in heaps, while they stay Fourteen or Fifteen Days, till the Oysters lose their Water, the Oysters wast and begin to smell, for which reason the PEARL grows Yellow by Infecti­on; which appears to be a Truth, in regard that where the Oysters preserve their Liquor, the PEARLS are White. Now the Reason why they stay till the Oysters open of themselves, is, because that if they should force them open, they might perhaps injure and cut the PEARL. In short, the Eastern People are much of our Humour, in matter [Page 163] of Whiteness, for they love the whitest PEARLS and the blackest Diamonds; the whitest Bread, and the fairest Women. TAVERN. Ibid.

Some Ancient Writers have com­monly Reported, that PEARLS are produc'd by the Dew of Heaven, and that there is but one in an Oy­ster; but Experience teaches the contrary. For the Oyster never stirs from the bottom of the Sea, where the Dew can never come, which is many times Twelve Fa­thoms deep; besides, that it is as often observ'd, that there are Six or Seven PEARLS in one Oyster; and I have had in my hands an Oyster, wherein there were above Ten beginning to breed. 'Tis very true, that they are not always of the same bigness; for they grow in an Oyster after the same manner as Eggs in the Belly of a P [...]llet. But I cannot say there are PEARLS in all, for you may open many Oy­sters [Page 164] and find none. TAVERN Ibid. Chapt. XVIII.

They Fish in the Eastern Seas twice a Year; the First time in March and April, the Second time in August and September; and they keep their Fairs in Iune and Novem­ber. However they do not Fish every Year; For they that Fish will know beforehand whether it will turn to account or no. Now to the end they may no [...] be deceiv'd, they send to the places where they are wont to Fish, seven or eight Barks, who bring back each of them about a Thousand Oysters, which they open, and if they find not in every Thousand Oysters to the va­lue of Five Fano's of PEARLS, which amounts to half a Crown French Money, 'tis a sign that the Fishing will not turn to account, in regard the poor People would not be able to de [...]ray their Charge. For partly for a Stock to set out, and partly for Victuals while they are abroad, they are forc'd to bor­row [Page 165] Money at three or four in the Hundred a Month. So that unless a Thousand Oysters yield them five Fano's of PEARLS, they do not Fish that Year. As for the Mer­chants, they must buy their Oysters at hap-hazard, and be content with what they find in them. If they meet with great PEARLS, they ac­count themselves happy; which they seldom do at the Fishery of Manar, those Pearls being sit for little else but to be sold by the Ounce, to Powder. Sometimes a Thousand Oysters amounts to seven Fano's, and the whole Fishery to a Hundred Thousand Piasters, (every Piaster being worth four Shillings Sterling.) The Hollanders take of every Diver 8 Piasters, in regard they always attend the Fishery with two or three small Men of War, to defend them from the Malavares Pyrats.

The more Rain falls in the Year, the more profitable the Fishery hap­pens to be. They Fish in Twelve [Page 166] Fathom Water, Five or Six Leagues off at Sea, sometimes Two Hun­dred and Fifty Barks together, a­mong which there is not above one or two Divers at most. Ibi­dem.

Monsieur Thevenot says, that the Two Fisheries, at Manar and Tutu­corim, (which is over against the Isle of Manar,) have sometimes been spoilt, by throwing into the bottom of the Sea a certain Drug that chas'd away the Fish that breed them, and hinder'd them for many Years from coming back again; and that they who did it (knowing whither they went) fish'd them there, and grew rich, before it was known that there was good Fishing in that Place. THEV. Trav. into the Indies, Pag. 109.

There goes a Common Traditi­on, that PEARL, which hath lost its Colour, may be recover'd by being buried in the Earth; which if true, would (as the Lord Bacon Observes) be a thing of great ad­vantage: [Page 167] But that Noble Lord tells us, that, upon a Six Weeks Trial, he could find no such Effect. But for a further Satisfaction, he says, it were good to try it in a Deep Well; or in a Conservatory of Snow, where the Cold may be more Con­stringent; and so make the Body more United, and thereby more Resplendent. BAC. Nat. Hist. Ex­perim. 380.

Of the Way and Manner of DIVING for PEARL.

THere is a Cord ty'd under the Arms of them that DIVE, one end whereof is held by them that are in the Bark. There is also a great Stone of 18 or 20 Pound ty'd to the great Toe of him that DIVES; the end of the Rope that fastens it, being also held by them in the Vessel. The DIVER has be­side a Sack made like a Net, the Mouth whereof is kept open with [Page 168] a Hoop. Thus provided, he plun­ges into the Sea, the Weight of the Stone presently sinking him: When he is at the bottom, he slips off the Stone, and the Bark puts off.

Then the DIVER goes to filling his Sack, as long as he can keep his breath; which when he can do no longer, he gives the Rope a twitch, and is presently hal'd up again. After the DIVER is drawn up, he stays half a quarter of an hour to take breath, and then dives again (at this rate) for ten or twelve hours together.

Those [...] Manar, are better Fish­ers, and s [...]ay longer in the Water than those of Bakren and Catifa; for they neither put Pincers upon their Noses, nor Cotton in their Ears, as they do in the Persian Gulf.

The PEARL-DIVERS are fed with dry and roasted Meat, on pur­pose to enable them to hold their Breath the longer.

[Page 169]Sir Philiberto Vernatti, late Pre­sident in Iava Major; says, that the longest the PEARL-DIVERS in those Parts can continue under Wa­ter, is about a quarter of an hour; and this they can do by no other means but Custome: For PEARL-DIVING (as he observes) lasteth not above six Weeks, and the DI­VERS stay a great while longer un­der Water at the end of the Season, than at the beginning. PHILO­SOPH. TRANSACT. Numb. 43. Pag. 863.

The same Person also affirms, that the PEARL Fishing is accounted so very dangerous, that the DIVERS do commonly make their Will, and take leave of their Friends, before they tread the Stone to go down. SPRAT's Hist. of the ROYAL-SO­CIETY, Pag 169.

The PEARL-Oysters are so ve­ry hard and tough, and of such an Unpleasant Tast, that they always throw them away.

[Page 170]To Conclude the Discourse of PEARLS, you are to take notice, that in Europe they sell them by the Carat Weight, which is four Grains ▪ In Persia they sell them by the Abas, and one Abas is an Eighteenth less than our Carat. In the Domi­ons of the Mogul, the Kings of Visapour and Golconda Weigh them by the Ratis, and one Ratis is also an Eighteenth less than our Ca­rat.

Observations concerning several PRE­CIOUS STONES.

THE AGATE, is so called from the River ACHATES in Sici­ly, near which it was first found. Almost of the Colour of Clear-Horn. The hardest of Semi-perspicuous Gems. They grow in India, Ger­many, and Bohemia.

Naturally Adorn'd with much Variety of waved and other figur'd Veins, Spots, the representation of [Page 171] Vegetable, and sometimes of Animal Bodies. None more memorable, than that mention'd by Pliny of Pyrrhus King of Epyrus, in which, without much strain of Phancy, one might imagine a Representation of the Nine Muses, and Apollo, with his Harp, in the middle of them.

'Tis used for Sword-Hilts, Knife-Hasts, Beads, Cups, and the like. There are pieces of it, sometimes as thick as a Man's Arm. GREW's Mus. Reg. Societ. Pag. 287.288.

The AMETHYST, hath its Name from the Opinion of its be­ing an Amulet against Drunkenness, and so much the Word (in Greek) imports. The Best are those of a Purple Colour, Shining and Spark­ling. It is brought from India, A­rabia, Armenia, and Egypt.

The AMETHYST, is often call­ed GEMMA VENERIS, from its Beauty and Splendor. Pliny ob­serves, that the Indian AME­THYSTS have the exact Colour of the Phoenician Purple; which (says [Page 172] be) the Diers would be glad if they could but imitate.

CRYSTAL, deriv'd from [...] and [...]: Because suppos'd to be only Water contracted or condensed with Cold.

It is a Stone found in India, Scy­thia, Spain, Germany, and Asia; more transparent than clear Glass. It is the softest of all Gems; that which is most pure and transparent is best.

CRYSTAL, at least some sorts of it, is the softest, saith Boetius, of all Gems. He should have said, of all perspicuous Gems: For the Turcois is much softer. The most usual Figure of CRYSTAL, is Sex­angular: Yet Terzagi mentions a Rock of square pointed ones. But it is observable, says Dr. Grew, that he saith the Bed on which they grew, seem'd to be Gold-Ore. If so, it might proceed from some Go­verning Principle in the Ore. For I have heard it Noted, saith the Dr. as I Remember, by Sir Christopher [Page 173] Wren, That Grain-Gold is often found naturally Figur'd into Cubes. CRY­STAL grows in most Countries, both cold and hot: The Globous, especially in B [...]hemia and Silesia. GREWS's Mus. Regal. Societ. Pag. 284.

Dr. Grew, in the same place, takes notice of a Massy Piece of CRY­STAL, now in possession of the ROYAL SOCIETY: He saith, it is not pointed, nor angular; but of a roundish Figure; much bigger than any Man's Head. One way, near a Yard in compass; the other, above three Quarters. In Weight, Thirty Nine Pounds and a quarter Haver dupoise. Yet it is very clear, beyond the clearest Ice of the same thickness. The biggest Piece of CRYSTAL the Dr. says he finds mention'd else-where, is a Ball of thirty six Ounces in Septalius's Musaeum.

It hath been much Controverted amongst the Learned, concerning the Original of CRYSTAL. Pli­ny [Page 174] will have it, that it is made by the most Violent Frost from Snow or Ice. But Georgius Agrico­la, in his De Natura Fossilium, faith, it is some Sap Congeal'd by Cold in the Bowels of the Earth. Both these Opinions have had their seve­ral Champions; and though the first be most Generally receiv'd; yet the Learned Dr. Brown will by no means admit of it.

The EMERALD is a Clear Transparent Gem, of a very beau­tiful and Glorious Green Colour, and is either Oriental or Occidental. The Oriental are the harder, more Beautiful and Precious; found in Scythia, Egypt and Cyprus. The Occidental are worse, being had in Peru, and several Parts of Eu­rope.

Monsieur Chapuzeau, in his Histo­ry of the Riches of the East and West, affirms, that EMRALDS are never to be foundi n the East-Indies, but in Peru, whence they were car­ried by that Trading People to the [Page 175] Moluccas, even before America was Discover'd by the Europeans; and so they came from the Orient; of much less value now, than they were formerly, by reason of their Commonness. The Author notes, that EMRALDS grow in Stones, just as Crystals, forming a Vein, in which they are by little and little refined and thickned: And that some of them are seen, half White and half green; others, all White; and others all Green and perfect. PHILOS. TRANSACT. Numb. 23. Pag. 430.

The Learned and Ingenious Dr. Grew saith, that there is in Gresham Colledge, a Clear and Green Stone, (a kind of Smaragdus) which being heated red hot, shineth in the Dark for a considerable time, sc. about [...] of an Hour. Given by Dr. William Crown. Dr. Grew says, He tried the Experiment himself; and at the same time observ'd, that as it grew hot in the Fire, its Green Co­ [...]our was changed into a Sky-Blue; [Page 176] which it likewise retain'd so long as it continued to shine: But after that, recover'd its Native Green a­gain. GREW's Mus. REG. SOCIET. Pag. 287.

The RUBY or CARBUNCLE, is either White or Red; The White are unripe; for that is their Primary Colour; then as they grow to per­fection, they grow to a Rose Red, and at last they b [...]ome as Red as Blood.

The best come from Ceilan and Pegu; the worse and lesser are found in Calicut, Bisnagar, Coria, and Cam­boia, being found in the same Mines with the Saphire. It is a most Transparent Red Gem, and so hard as not to be touch'd with a File. The best are the Hardest and Cold­est, (which you may perceive by your Mouth and Tongue) and such (as Isidore saith) shine in the Dark.

Pliny saith, that among the Red Gems, the RUBIES or CARBUN­CLES, challenge the first Place. It [Page 177] is called in Greek [...], from its likeness unto Fire, and yet the Fire hath no Power over it, which is the reason that some call them [...]. There are, saith he, several sorts of RUBIES, among which there is the Male and the Female; those are taken for the Male, whose red is briskest, and most Fire-like. He tells us, that the Aethiopians were wont to steep their dusky dark RUBIES in Vinegar; and that in fourteen days they would be pure and resplen­dent, and that for fourteen Months they would hold it. In conclu­sion, he says, that it is a very diffi­cult thing to distinguish the seve­ral sorts of RUBIES one from a­nother; in that they are so easie to be counterfeited and falsified by the Art and Skill of Lapidaries and Gold­smiths, who commonly lay some foil under, to make them shine and gli­ster like Fire. PLIN. Lib. 37. Cap. 7.

The Natives of Pegu call all co­lour'd Stones RUBIES, distinguish­ing [Page 178] them only by the colour. Saphirs they call Blue-Rubies; Amethysts they call Violet-Rubies; Topazes, Yel­low-Rubies; and so of other Stones.

Tavernier saith, that among all the RUBIES found in the Moun­tain Capelan, within the Kingdom of Pegu, you shall hardly see one of three or four Carats that is absolutely clean, by reason that the King strictly enjoyns his Sub­jects not to export th [...]m out of his Dominions; besides that, he keeps to himself all the clean Stones that are found. So that Tavernier, as himself informs us, got very considerably in his Tra­vels, by carrying RUBIES out of Europe into Asia. And this may very well render the Relation of Vincent le Blanc suspicious, who re­ports, that he saw in the King's Pa­lace, RUBIES as big as Eggs.

The other place where RUBIES are found, is a River in the Island of Ceyl [...]n, which descends from certain high Mountains in the mid­dle [Page 179] of the Island; which swells ve­ry high when the Rains fall; but, when the Waters are low, the People make it their business to search among the Sands for RU­BIES, Saphirs, and Topazes. All the Stones that are found in this Ri­ver, are generally fairer and clearer than those of Pegu.

There are also some RUBIES, but more Balleis-Rubies, and an abun­dance of Bastard Rubies, Saphirs and Topazes, found in the Moun­tains that run along from Pegu to the Kingdom of Camboya.

In Hungary there is a Mine where they find certain Flints of different bigness, some as big as Eggs, some as big as a Mans Fist, which being broken, contain a RUBY within, as hard and as clean as those of Pegu. TAVERN. Trav. in India, Part. II. Book. II. Chap. XVI.

The SAPHIRE, is either Orien­tal or Occidental; and of each there are Male and Female. The Oriental are found in Zeilan, Cale­cut, [Page 180] Bisnagar, and Pegu, in which last place are the best. The Occi­dental are found in Silesia and Bo­hemia. It is a glorious, clear tran­sparent Blue, or Skye-colour'd Stone; these are the Males. The Females are white, and unripe; so they want colour. The most transparent and deep colour'd, are easily divested of that Beauty, by a little heat of the Fire.

The SAPHIRE is cut or fa­shion'd with Emery and Tripoly; and engraven with Diamond-Dust, as other harder Gems.

Vlysses Aldrovandus in his Musae­um Metallicum, affirms, that AEs ustum and Glass melted together, i­mitate a SAPHIRE.

The TURCOIS or TURKEY STONE, is of a dark Sky-colour, and sometimes greenish withal, or greenish Blue. This Stone is no where to be found but in Persia: Where there are two Mines. The one is called the Old Rock, three days Journey from Meched, to­ward [Page 185] the North-west, near a gre [...] Town which goes by the Name of Michabourg. The other, which is call'd the New-Rock, is five days Jour­ney off.

Those of the New-Rock are of a Paler Blue inclining to White, and less esteem'd, so that you may have a great many for a little Money. Some Years since the King of Per­sia Commanded, that no Turquoises should be digg'd out of the Old Rock, but only for himself; making use of those Turquoises instead of Enamel­ling, to adorn Hilts of Swords, Knives and Daggers: of which the Persians are altogether ignorant. See TA­VERN. TRAV. in India, Part II. Book II. Chap XVI.

The best TURQUOIS, accord­ing to Pliny, is that which comes nearest to the Grass Green of an Emrald; though after all, he says, whatsoever Beauty is in this Stone, seems to come from outward helps: Fo [...] being set in Gold, it looks most Be [...]utiful, nor is there any Preci­cious [Page 180] Stone that becomes Gold bet­ter.

The fairer a TURQUOIS is, the sooner it loses the Colour, by Oil, Ointment, or Wine; whereas one of a baser sort, will much better hold its own, and maintain the Lu­ster. In Conclusion, He tells us, that of all Gems the Turquois is the eas [...] ­est to be falsified, and counter­seited with Glass. PLIN. Lib. 37. Chap. 8.

Observations concerning the LOAD­STONE, and the Sea COMPASS.

THe LOADSTONE, Magnes; from Magnesia, a Country be­tween Thessaly and Macedonia, where, it's said, it was first found. For the most part of an Iron-Co­lour, tending to Blue, by some called The Male; if Black, The Fe­male. It is of a Metallic or Iron Matter, usually found in Germany, [Page 185] Norway, Italy, &c. about [...] of Mines.

The admirable and known Pro­perties of this Stone, are, in gene­ral, these; That it attracteth Iron; or any Body, if small, which hath Iron in it. That it hath no percep­tion of any other Body, though never so light. That it maketh the Attraction according to its Poles. And that it communicateth to Iron both the same Attractive Power, and a Verticity to the North-Pole. In which last lieth its great Use, as applied to Navigation. Although by Observations made from the Va­riation of the Needle, Time may produce further Discoveries in A­stronomy. Those that Travel through the vast Desarts of A [...]bia, have also a Needle and Compass, where­by they direct themselves in their way, as Marine's at Sea.

The Power of the MAGNET dependeth not on its Bulk; the smaller being usually the stronger. Tergazi mentions one that would [Page 180] [...]pend Sixty times, and Mr. Boyle another, Eighty times, its own Weight. But the Best in time lose very much of their strength; as those now kept in GRESHAM COLLEDGE have done.

Some Means have been proposed for preserving the strength of a LOADSTONE. But there is none mentioned by any Author, that I know of, comparable to That, Ex­perimented by Mr. Theodore Haac, Fellow of the ROYAL SOCIETY; not only for Preserving, but also Recovering and Encreasing the strength of the LOADSTONE. For he having one that weigh'd a­bout four Ounces and a half arm'd, which would take up Sixteen times its own Weight: And having laid it by for the space of some Years unus'd, found it to have lost one Fourth part of its strength, so that it would now take up but about three Pound; and, upon search, meeting with no Means Effectual to recover it; consider'd with himself, [Page 185] That as in Morals, the Exercise of Virtue, makes it more generous; and that Animal Motions, by use, become more Vigorous: So it might possibly prove also as to some Pro­perties of Inanimate Bodies. Where­upon, he hung as much at his Stone, as it would bear; and so left it for the space of some Weeks. Then, returning to it, and applying more Weight to the former, it very easi­ly held the same. And repeating the Addition of more Weight, at several Periods, in the space of about Two Years; He at last found, That his Stone had not only recover'd its former strength, but encreas'd it; for whereas before he had never known it to take up more than Sixteen, it would now take up Twenty times its own Weight. And he is now continuing the Ex­periment, to see how far it will go further. GREW's Mus. Reg. Societ. pag. 317, 318.

Dr. Highmore tells us, That the Magnetical Exspirations of the [Page 186] LOADSTONE may be discover'd by the help of Glasses, and be seen in the form of a Mist, to flow from the LOADSTONE: This, indeed, would be a most incomparable E­viction of the Corporeity of Magne­tical Efflurviums, and sensibly decide the Controversie. But I am sure he had either better Eyes, or else better Glasses than ever I saw (tho' I have looked through as good as England affords,) and the best of them all was so far from presenting these subtile Emanations, that they would never exhibit to me those grosser, and far more Material, Effluviums, from Electrical and A­romatical Bodies: Nay, not the E­vaporations of Camphire, which spends it self by continually efflu­viating its own Particles: Nay, I could never see the grosser Steams, that continually transpire out of our own Bodies, and are the fuli­ginous Eruct [...]tions of that Internal Fire, which constantly burns within us. Indeed, if our Diop­tricks [Page 187] could attain to that Curio­sity, as to grind us such Glasses as would present the Effluviums of the Magnet; we might hope to dis­cover all▪ Epicurus's Atoms, Des Cartes his Globuli Aetherii, and all those insensible Corpuseles which daily produce such considerable Ef­fects in the Generation and Corrup­tion of Bodies about us: Nay, might not such Microscopes hazard the discovery of the Aerial Genti, and present even Spiritualities themselves to our view? HENR. POWER's Experim. Philosophy. pag. 154, 155.

Andreas Libavius, lib. 2. Singul. affirms, that the LOADSTONE, if it be put into Fire, loseth its attractive force; and that whilst it burns, the Sulphureous Particles fly forth.

Baptista Porta, in his 7th. Book, Chap. 2. saith, that he hath often seen with great delight, a LOAD­STONE wrapt up in burning Coals that sent [...]rth a blue Flame, which [Page 188] smelt of Brimstone and Iron; and that being dissipated, it lost its at­tractive Virtue.

Mr. Samuel Colepress, in a Letter to the ingenious Mr. Oldenburg, giving an account of some Magne­tical Experiments, acquaints him, That he had taken a LOAD­STONE unpolish'd, which attract­ed but meanly; and that he had heated a Lath-nail glowing hot, nimbly applying the North-Pole of the said Magnet to it, which quickly took it up, and held it suspended a great while, till he put down both the Magnet and Nail.

He further faith, that he took the same Stone, and cast it into the Fire, letting it remain there, till it was thorough hot, altering its colour from black to red, and that being red-hot, he applied the North-Pole to another Lath-nail cold, and untoucht before, which it took up but faintly, yet held it suspended for some time.

[Page 189]In conclusion, he saith, that two or three days after, he took the very same LOADSTONE, and found that it attracted then as strongly, as before it was cast into the Fire. Whence he inferr'd, that the Fire somewhat lessen'd its at­tractive Faculty, but did not de­prive the Stone of it. PHILOS. TRANSACT. Numb. 27. pag. 500▪ 501.

Dr. Edward Cotton made a Pre­sent to the ROYAL SOCIETY of a LOADSTONE, that weigh­ed sixty Pounds. Dug out of the Ground in Devonshire. Which though it takes up no great Weight, yet moves a Needle nine foot distant. Some part hereof, which was bro­ken off, being put into its proper place, adds much Strength to it. PHILOS. TRANSACT. Numb. 23. pag. 423.

Of the Sea COMPASS.

IN the Year Thirteen Hundred, One Flavio of Malphi, in the Realm of Naples, found out the COMPASS, or Pixis Nautica, con­sisting of Eight Winds only, the Four Principal, and Four Collate­ral: and not long after, the People of Bruges, and Antwerp, perfected that Excellent Invention; adding Twenty-four other Subordinate Winds or Points. By means of this most Excellent Instrument, and withall by the good Success of Co­lumbus, the Portugals Eastwards; the Spaniards, Westwards; and the English, Northwards; have made many Glorious and Fortunate Ex­peditions: Which had been utterly impossible to have been perform'd, and had been foolishly undertaken, when that help Was wanting. I know there hath been much Pains taken by some Learned men, to [Page 191] prove the use of the Mariners Com­pass to be far more Ancient, than is now commonly pretended. Nico­las Fuller, a very Learned and In­dustrious Man, but better skill'd in the Hebrew Tongue, than the Philo­logy of the Greeks and Latines, will have it known to Solomon, and by him taught unto the Tyrians and Phoenicians (the most famous Sea­men of Old Times): but he brings no Argument of Weight to make good the Cause. Nor is it possible that such an Excellent Invention, so beneficial to the common good of all Mankind, should have been forgot­ten and discontinued, for the space of more than Two Thousand Years; if ever the Tyrians, and Phoenici­ans had been Masters of it; who could not possibly conceal it (had they been so minded) from the Com­mon-Mariners, or they not have Com­municated it for gain, or desire of Glory, to the Greeks, and Romans; under whom successively they liv'd. And as little moment do I find in [Page 192] some other Arguments, as that the Lapis Heraclius of the Ancient Writers, or the Versoria of Plautus, should be by them intended for the Mariners Compass. For plain­ly the Versoria of Plauturs is no other than the Piece of Tackle which our Mariners now call the Bo­lin; by which they use to turn their Sails, and fit them to the change of every Wind. And so much doth appear by the Poet himself, in the Comedy which he calls Mercator; saying, Hinc ventus nunc Secundus est, cape modò Versoriam. So called from Verso, to turn often; or from Versum, the first Supine of Verto; Whence Velum Vertere is a common Phrase amongst the Latines, us'd for the shifting of the Sail, as the Wind doth vary. PET. HEYLIN's Cos­mog.

But as peremptory as Heylin is, in the assigning this Noble Inven­tion to Flavius the Neapolitane, yet I find other Authors (it may be of as good Credit and Authority) [Page 193] wholly differ from him. Dr. Gil­bert ▪ our Country-Man (who hath written an Excellent Latin Treatise of the Properties of the LOAD­STONE) seems to be of Opinion, that Paulus Venetus brought the In­vention of the Use of the COM­PASS from the Chineses. Paulus Osorius, in his Discourse of the Acts of King Emanuel, ascribes it to Gama and his Country-Men the Portugals, who, as he pretends, took it from certain Barbarous Pyrats, Roaving upon the Sea about the Cape of Good Hope. Goropius Beca­nus likewise thinks, he has great Reason to intitle it upon his Coun­trey-Men the German's, in as much as the 32 Points of the Wind upon the COMPASS borrow the Name from the Dutch in all Languages▪ But Blondus, who is therein follow'd by Pancirollus, both Italians, will not have Italy lose the Praise there­of, telling us, that about 300 Years ago it was found out at Malphis or Melphis, a City in the Kingdom of [Page 194] Naples: But for the Author of it, the One Names him not, and the O­ther assures us, he is not known: Yet Salmuth, out of Ciezus and Go­mara, confidently Christens him with the Name of Flavius. To conclude then, who it was, that first disco­ver'd this Noble, useful Invention, is not certainly known. And, is it not pity, that one of the Greatest Benefactors to Mankind that ever was, should lie hid in so neglected an obscurity? When the great Di­sturbers of the World, have so dear, and so precious a Memory. For my part, I think there is much more acknowledgment due to this ob­scure Fellow, (if it be Flavius) than to a Thousand Alexanders and Cae­sars, or to Ten times the Number of Aristotles. And He really did more for the increase of Knowledge, and the Advantage of the World, by this one Invention; than the whole Tribe of Schoolmen have done by their many niceties, and subtile Disputations.

[Page 195]In the Philosophical Transactions, Number 157, Pag. 520. we meet with a very Remarkable Account con­cerning the COMPASS of a Ship, viz. of its changing its Poles in a Thunder-Storm.

There are Three Kinds of Sea-COMPASSES; the First, the plain Meridional COMPASS. The Se­cond, a COMPASS of Variation. The Third, a Dark COMPASS.

Observations concerning PETRIFI­CATION.

OF PETRIFYING Waters, tho' I doubt not but their Kinds are as various, as the Effects they produce; and the Effects again, as the Subjects they Work on; yet I am inclin'd to believe, that they all agree thus far, that they proceed in the Main from the same Stock and Linage, and are all more or less of the Kindred of SALTS, which sublimed and rarified in the [Page 196] Bowels of the Earth into an invisible Steam, are receiv'd by the Waters as their most agreeable Vehicle, and brought hither to us at the Rising of Springs, as invisibly as the Par­ticles of Silver or Gold, when each is dissolved in its proper Menstruum: Where meeting perchance with an ambient Air, much colder and chil­ling than any under Ground, in all likelyhood are precipitated, and thrown down on such Subjects, as they casually find at the place of their Exit, which they presently Cloath with a Crust of Stone; or else (where Precipitation or Cohesion will not suffice) they pass with the Waters through the Pores of the Subjects, and are left behind in them just as in a Filter.

The Reason of which difference may probably be, that some of these PETRIFYING Steams or Atoms, may be gross and more bulky, than some others are, and cannot be held up in the watry Vehicle, without such a Heat as they have under [Page 197] Ground, but fall, and by Reason of their bigness, do not penetrate, but adhere to their Subjects; whereas others that are fine, more minute, and subtile, are easily supported in a Volatile Condition, and pass with the Waters into the closest Tex­tures.

If any body doubt whether Stones, and so PETRIFICATIONS, arise from SALTS, let him but consult the Chymists, and ask whe­ther they find not all indurated Bo­dies, such as Stones, Bones, Shells, and the like, most highly sa [...]ed with the Saline Principle? Some Mixture of Earth and Sulphur, 'tis true, there is in them, which give the Opacity that most Stones have; from which, according as they ar [...] more or less free, they have pro­portionable Transparency, and some hardness too; as the best of Gems, the Diamant, evinces. And if he shall ask what SALTS are the apt­est to perform this Feat of PETRI­FICATION, though the diffic [...]lty [Page 198] of the Question might well excuse me, yet I'll venture thus far to give him an Answer, That I have fre­quently seen at Whitstable in Kent, how their Coperas or Vitriol is made out of Stones, that 'tis more than probable were first made out of That: To the Spirit of which Vi­triol, if you add Oyl of Tartar, they presently turn into a fix'd and somewhat hard Substance, not much inferior or unlike to some Incru­stations; which seems to conclude, that from these Two, all such like Concretions are probably made; and that could we but admit that Ocean of Tartar, which Plato plac'd in the Center of the Earth, and thought the Origin of all our Springs, the business of PETRIFICATIONS were sufficiently clear. To which I also add in the behalf of Vitriol, what's matter of Fact, and prevails with me much, That where-ever I find strong Vitriol-Waters, the PETRIFYING ones are seldom far off. PLOT's Nat. Hist. of OXFORD­SHIRE.

[Page 199]The Ingenious, and Learned Mr. Hook saith, that all the PETRIFIED Pieces of Wood that he ever saw, seem'd to have been rotten Wood before the PETRIFICATION be­gan. And since I have Named this Industrious and knowing Gentleman, I shall not think my time ill spent, if (for the Entertainment of the Reader) I Transcribe the Observa­tions he hath made of a Piece of PETRIFIED Wood, taken from a Microscopical Examen.

This PETRIFY'D Substance re­sembled Wood, in that

First, all the parts of it seem'd not at all dislocated, or alter'd from their Natural Position whiles they were Wood; but the whole Piece retain'd the exact shape of Wood, having many of the Con­spicuous Pores of Wood still remain­ing Pores, and shewing a manifest difference, visible enough, between the Grain of the Wood and that of [Page 200] the Bark; especially, when any side of it was cut smooth and polite; for then it appeared to have a very lovely Grain, like that of some curious close Wood.

‘Next (it resembled Wood) in that all the smaller, and (if I may so call those which are only to be seen by a good Glass) Microscopical Pores of it appear, (both when the Substance is cut and polish'd Transversly, and Parallel to the Pores) perfectly like the Micro­scopical Pores of several kinds of Wood, retaining both the shape, and Position of such Pores.

‘It was differing from Wood, First, in Weight, being to Com­mon Water, as 3¼ to 1. Where­as there are few of our English Woods, that, when dry, are found to be full as heavy as Wa­ter.

‘Secondly, in Hardness, being very near as hard as a Flint, and [Page 201] in some places of it also resem­bling the Grain of a Flint: It would very readily Cut Glass, and would not without difficulty (e­specially in some parts of it) be scratch'd by a Black hard Flint: It would also as readily strike Fire against a Steel, as also against a Flint.

‘Thirdly, in the Closeness of it; for, though all the Microscopical Pores of the Wood were very Con­spicuous in one position, yet by altering that position of the Po­lish'd Surface to the Light, it was also manifest that those Pores ap­pear'd darker than the rest of the Body, only because they were fill'd up with a more Dusky Sub­stance, and not because they were hollow.’

‘Fourthly, in its Incumbustible­ness, in that it would not burn in the Fire; nay, though I kept it a good While red-hot in the Flame of a Lamp, made very Intense by the Blast of a small Pipe; yet it [Page 202] seem'd not at all to have dimi­nish'd its extention; but only I found it to have chang'd its Co­lou [...], and to have put on a more Dark and Dusky Brown Hue. Nor could I perceive that those parts which seem'd to have been Wood at first, were any thing wasted, but the Parts appear'd as Solid, and Close as before. It was farther observable also, that as it did not Consume like Wood; so neither did it Crack and Fly like a Flint, or such like hard Stone; nor was it long before it appear'd red-hot.

‘Fifthly, in its Dissolubleness; for putting some drops of Distill'd Vi­negar upon the Stone, I found it presently to yield very many Bubbles, just like those which may be observ'd in Spirit of Vi­negar when it Corrodes Coral; tho' I guess many of those Bubbles proceeded from the small parcels of Air, which were driven out of the Pores of this PETRIFIED sub­stance, [Page 203] by the insinuating Liquid Menstruum.

‘Sixthly, in its Rididness, and F [...]iability; being not at all Flexi­ble, but Brittle like a Flint; in­somuch that with one knock of a Hammer I broke off a small piece of it, and with the same Hammer quickly beat it to pretty fine Pow­der upon an Anvil.

‘Seventhly, it seem'd also very differing from Wood to the Touch, feeling more Cold than Wood usu­ally does, and much like other close Stones and Minerals.

The Reasons of all which Phoeno­mena seem to be: ‘That this PETRIFIED Wood having lain in some place where it was well soak'd with PETRI­FYING Water (that is, such a Water as is well impregnated with Stony and Earthy Particles) did by degrees separate, either by Strain­ing and Filtration, or perhaps by [Page 204] Praecipitation, Cohoesion or Coagu­lation, abundance of Stony Parti­cles from that permeating Water: Which Stony Particles having, by means of the fluid Vehicle, con­vey'd themselves not only into the Microscopical Pores, and so perfectly stop'd them up; but al­so into the Pores, which may per­haps be even in that part of the Wood, which, through the Micro­scope, appears most solid; do there­by so augment the Weight of the Wood, as to make it above three times heavier than Water, and perhaps six times as heavy as it was when Wood: Next, they hereby so lock up and fetter the parts of the Wood, that the Fire cannot easily make them fly a­way, but the Action of the Fire upon them is only able to Char those parts as it were, like as a piece of Wood, if it be clos'd very fast up in Clay, and kept a good while Red-hot in the Fire, will by the heat of the Fire be Charr'd, and [Page 205] not Consum'd; which may per­haps be the Reason why the PE­TRIFIED Substance appear'd of a blackish Brown Colour after it had been burnt.’

‘By this intrusion of the Petri­fied Particles, it also becomes hard and friable; for the smaller Pores of the Wood being perfectly stuf­fed up with these Stony Particles; the Particles of the Wood have few or no Pores in which they can reside, and consequently, no Flexion or yielding can be caus'd in such a Substance.

‘The remaining Particles like­wise of the Wood; among the Stony Particles, may keep them from cracking and flying, as they are very apt to do in a Flint. HOOK's Microg. Observ. XVII.

Among the several Kinds of the PETRESCENT Liquors, I have ob­served a sort that is of so fine a Substance, and yet of so PETRI­FYING a Vertue, that it will Penetrate and PETRIFY Bodies of [Page 206] very different Kinds, and yet scarce, if at all, visibly increase their bulk, or change their Shape or Colour. To which purpose, I Remember, that I have seen divers Animal and Vegetable Substances so PETRIFI­ED, as scarce at all to be taken no­tice of, by their appearance, to have been alter'd by the Operation of the PETRESCENT Liquor. I have with Pleasure seen a thin Cream-Cheese turn'd into Stone, where the Size, Shape, and Colour even of the Wrinckles, and the blueish Mold (which it seems it began to have when the Liquor Invaded it) were so well preserv'd, that an Hungry Man would not have scru­pl'd to have fallen upon it as a good Bit. And as for the Hardness, that this PETRESCENT Juice can give to the Body that it Penetrates, I shall only tell you, that I have had (and I think yet have) a pretty quantity of Wood, PETRIFIED in England, which retaining its former Figure, and Grain, and scarce at [Page 207] all visibly increas'd in Bulk, was so very hard, that I could make Im­pressions with it upon Iron, and Glass it self, and make it strike Fire like an Excellent Flint. To which I shall here add, that the Stone parts did not suffer the Wood, which they had Penetrated, to be reduc'd in the Fire, either to Ashes or Charcole. And I have by me a Lump of Mine­ral Substances, wherein a PETRE­SCENT Liquor, that fills the large Intervals between them, is Tran­sparent enough, and harder than most Stones, as far as we could guess by some tryal of it made by a skil­ful Ingraver of Gems. And to these Instances might be added many o­thers, if it did not by these few sufficiently appear, that PETRI­FICK Agents may insinuate them­selves into the Pores of Various Bodies, and turn them into Stone, without otherwise destroying their Pristine Nature, or so much as their Former Figure. BOYLE of Gems, Pag. 124, 125.

[Page 208]Where there are PETRESCENT Liquors mingled with common Water, there may, by divers acci­dents, and particularly an hot Summer, a sufficient Discharge be made of the superflous Moisture, to make the more disposed parts of the PETRESCENT Liquor to Co­agulate; and afterwards the Coa­gulation may be suspended, either by the supervening of a Colder Season, as Winter; or even in Sum­mer it self, by a plentiful Rain, or the effect of it, a Land-Flood, which might check the progress of Coalitions by over much diluting the Liquor, that might else have turn'd into Stone. BOILE ibidem, pag. 143.

For ought we know, in those ve­ry Places, where now there is no­thing to be seen but loose Stones, and perhaps Beds of Stone themselves, in those very Places (I say) there may in times past have been PE­TRESCENT Liquors, whether Stag­nant or Running. [Page 209] For, I have in another place shew'd, that Earthquakes, Inundations of Seas and Rivers, Sinkings of Ground, Incroachments of the Land on the Water, Fiery Erupti­ons, and other such Accidents, (some related by Authentick Au­thors, and others happening in our own times, in places, some of which I had the curiosity to see,) have a­mong other odd Effects, been able to dry or choak up Pools and Lakes, and to stop and quite divert the course not only of Springs, but of Rivers, so as to leave no Footsteps of them, where they plentifully flow'd before. IDEM Ibid. pag. 157.

Observations concerning SALT: S [...] ­veral sorts thereof.

COmmon SALT is the Coagu­lum of Sea-Water, or of Salt; Fountain-Water; but that of the [Page 210] Sea is the chief. It is purified by Solution, Filtration, and Coagula­tion, or Crystallization. It is to be noted, that the artificial SALT of Vegetables and Animals are subject to the same Preparations which common SALT is subject to. If the Solution and Crystallization be often repeated, this common SALT will at last be sweet.

The SAL ARMONIAC of the Ancients was a Native SALT, which grew in the Lybic Sea, un­known to us: Ours is a Compound Artificial Volatile SALT, boiled from the Ashes of Minerals, Vege­tables, and Animals, Salt of Soot, common SALT, and Sal Gemme. The best comes from Venice and Antwerp, being very white and pure.

Among all the SALTS that Na­ture alone produceth, the scarcest, but of greatest Vertue, is the SALT-AMMONIAC; they call it vulgarly ARMONIAC, and from that Name conclude, that it comes [Page 211] from Armenia; but that is not the true name of it but AMMONIAC, which in Greek signifies, SALT of the Sand: and underneath the Sand (of the Sea-shore, I suppose) it is found congeal'd in little pieces by its internal Heat, and the continual burning of the Sun, baked so much that it is made the bitterest to tast of all kind of SALT. Goldsmiths use it more than the Physicians. It is one of those they call The four Spirits, because the Fire will con­vert them into Smoak, and so they fly away: The other three are Quick Silver, Sulphur, and Salt Pe­ter. It hath a particular Property to cleanse and colour Gold, and is put into the Composition of that Aqua fortis that dissolves it. AL­BARO ALONSO BARBA of Metals. Transl. by the Earl of SANDWICH. Chap. 8.

Iohannes Alphonsus Borellus in his Historia & Meteorologia Incendii Aet­noei, Ann. 1669. takes particular notice of the great abundance of [Page 212] SAL ARMONIAC, that was found in all the holes and vents of the Ground, and in the Clefts of Stones. And of this SALT He affirms, that there had been sublimed (for he makes it factitious) so great Store, that many thousands of Pounds might be gather'd; adding, that even a whole Year after the Extinction of the Fire in the Mouths of AETNA, there were found remaining d [...] ­vers vents about Catania, exhaling store of Smoak, which had the like SAL ARMONIAC flicking to the sides and edges of the Stones.

At this day, we have little know­ledge of the true NITRE, which was anciently made of the Water of the River Nilus; although Al­bertus Magnus saith, that in Gosela­ria there was a Mountain that con­tained a very rich Mine of Copper, and that the Water which issued out at the bottom of it, being dri­ed, became NITRE. We know little also of Aphronitrum, which [Page 213] is but as it were the froth of NI­TRE.

NITRE is bitterer than Salt, but less Salt. SALT PETER is the Mean between them two, and con­sists of very dry and subtile parts; it grows on the Walls of old Houses, and in Stables, Cow-Houses, Hog-Sties, and Dove-Coats; it will grow again in the same Earth it was taken out of, if that Earth be thrown in heaps, and not stirr'd, and taken care of; or if ordinary Earth be cast up into heaps, and water'd with Brackish Water, after some Years it will give a great en­crease, as profitable as Crops of Corn.

The use of it in making Gun­Powder, and Aqua Fortis is very well known. It is us'd also in the melting of Metals. Ibidem.

Whether the NITRE of the An­cients be of the same Species with the SALT, which is commonly known by the name of SALT PE­TER, is variously disputed by ve­ry [Page 214] learned Authors amongst the Modern Physicians: On the Nega­tive side are Mathiolus and Belloni­us; the latter of which had the advantage by the opportunity of his Travels in Egypt, to have often seen and handled them both, and is so positive as to pronounce, that in all Christendom there is not one Grain of NITRE to be found, un­less it be brought from other parts; although at the time of his being in Grand Caire (which was about the Year 1550) it was so common there (as he says) that ten Pounds of it would not cost a Moidin A­mong those that hold the Affirma­tive, the most eminent are Cardan and Longius; and it seems the ge­neral Vote of Learned Men hath been most favourable to that Opi­nion, by reason that in all Latin Relations and Prescriptions, the word NITRUM or HALINITRUM is most commonly used for SALT PETER.

[Page 215]I have often enquired amongst our London Drugsters for Egyptian NITRE, and if I had been so fortu­nate as to have [...]ound any, I doubt not, but I should have been able to have put an end to that Question by a Demonstration: that is, by turning the greatest part of it in­to SALT PETER. However, the Observations I have made in my own private Experiments, and in the Practice of SALT PETER-Men, and Refiners of SALT PETER, seem to give me sufficient ground to suspect, that the confidence of those who hold them to be seve­ral SALTS, proceedeth chiefly from their being unacquainted with the various [...] of SALT PE­TER in the making and refining of it: And also their comparing dou­ble refin'd SALT PETER (o [...] which Gunpowder is made) with the NI­TRUM and APHRONITRUM de­scrib'd by Pliny, in the one and thirtieth Book of his Natural Hi­story; which indeed is the only to­lerable [Page 216] account of that SALT, that hath been handed to us from Anti­quit [...]: where he tells us, that A­PHRONITRUM was Colore penè purpureo, and Egyptian NITRE Fus­cum & Lapidosum. HENSHAW of the making of SALT PETER. See SPRAT's Hist. of the R. S. pag. 260, 261.

NITRE is often adulterated by being mixed with common SALT, but you may try it by burning; for being fir'd upon a red hot Tile, or Stone, if all fly away, it is pure; but if any thing remain, it is com­mon SALT.

The Lord Bacon saith, that NI­TRE is a kind of cool Spice; in that it bites the Tongue and Palat with Cold, just as Spices do with Heat; and that NITRE is the on­ly Vegetable, which aboundeth with Spirit, and yet is Cold.

He further tells us, that Cattle which drink of NITROUS Water, do manifestly grow fat; which, saith he, is a sign of its cold Quali­ty. [Page 217] BAC. Hist. of LIFE and DEATH.

It is affirm'd by several, that Gunpowder, which consisteth prin­cipally of NITRE, being taken in Drink, doth conduce to Valour; and therefore 'tis often us'd by Mariners and Soldiers just before they are to fight, even as the Turks do Opium.

The greater Part of Africa hath no other SALT but such as is dig­ged out of Quarries and Mines, af­ter the manner of Marble or Free Stone, being of a White, Red, and Gray Colour. Barbary aboundeth with SALT, and N [...]midia is indif­ferently furnish'd therewith: But the Land of Negros, and especially the inner part of Ethiopia, is so de­stitute thereof, that a Pound of SALT is there sold for half a Du­cat. And the People of that Coun­try use not to set SALT upon their Tables; but holding a crumb of SALT in their hands, they [...]ick the same at every morsel of Meat which they put in their Mouths. In [Page 218] certain Lakes of Barbary, all the Summer time, there is fair and white SALT congeal'd or kern'd, as namely, in divers places near the City of Fez, PVRCH. Pilgr. Vol. II. pag. 849.

The Learned and Ingenious Dr. Brown in his Travels, pag. 112. saith, That near the City of Eperies, in upper Hungary, there is a SALT-Mine of great note, being an hun­dred and fourscore Fathoms deep, in which are pieces of Salt found of ten thousand Pounds weight.

The Principal SALT-Mines are in Poland and Calabria. In the les­ser Poland, says Comer, in his De­scription of that Country, are some pieces of SALT as big as huge Stones; so hard, that Houses and even whole Towns are built with them.

In the Philosophical Transactions we have a Relation concerning the SAL-GEMME Mines in Poland, ly­ing within a Mile of Cracovia: which Relation was communic [...]ted to [Page 219] Mr. Oldenburg by a curious Gentle­man in Germany, who some Years since descended himself into those Mines, to the depth of 200 Fa­thoms, and was led about in them for the space of three Hours. He saith, that out of these Mines they dig and cut out three sorts of SALT; One is common, course, and black; the Second somewhat siner and whi­ter; the Third, very white, and clear, like Crystal. He says, the course and black SALT is cut out in great pieces, roundish, and three Polonian Ells long, and one Ell thick, which c [...]sts from fifty to seventy Polonian Florins: In the mean time the Inhabitants of Cracow have a Priviledge, whereby a certain num­ber of Pieces is to be deliver'd to them, at the rate of eight such Flo­rins the Piece. The great Pieces lie at Cracow about the Streets be­fore the doors of the Citizens; as also in the Countrey, in the small Towns and Villages, and before the [...]orts and Houses of the Nobility; [Page 220] where the Cattle, passing to and fro, lick of those SALT Stones; which afterwards by Mills and other Engines are ground and beaten small for use.

These SALT-Works belong to the King of Poland, who appoints and maintains the Officers of them; and 'tis one of his best ROYAL REVENUES, amounting to a very considerable Sum. There are no less than a thousand Men that are constantly employ'd in these Mines; and he saith, There was then a Pro­vision of SALT valued at two Milli­ons.

He farther says, There are in these Works three Horses that stay always below, having their Stable and other Necessaries there; the Horses, after they have been a while under Ground, grow blind from the sharpness of the SALT; and that all the Three, which then La­bour'd there, were quite blind. PHI­LOS. TRANSACT. Numb. 61. pag. 1099, &c.

[Page 221]In Iamaica they have a very pret­ty and easie way for the producing of good SALT, which is thus: Near the Sea-side they dig a low place, as it were a Lough or Pond, and pave it very even, and with a Sluce let in some of the Sea-water, an Inch, two Inches, or three Inches deep, or more; and there letting it remain, the Sun in a short time turneth it into SALT: And if they have occasion to use it quickly, they let in the less; but if they have a good Stock, that they can stay lon­ger, then they let in the more; for the more is let in, the longer will it be e're it become SALT: which being done, they sweep it up, and keep it for use, and so let in more. And thus are they well provided with SALT, to Powder their Beef, Pork, &c. which will not keep sweet otherwi [...]e many hours after it is kill'd. HVGHES's American Physitian, pag. 35.

According to the Quality of the Earth, or Ground of the Marish, [Page 222] the SALT is made more or less white. The Reddish Earth maketh the SALT more Gray; the Blue­ish more white. Besides, if you let run in a little more Water than you ought, the SALT becomes thence more White; but then it yields not so much. Generally all the Marishes require a fat Earth, nei­ther Spungy, nor Sandy.

Unless it rain much, the Rain­water does little hurt to the Ma­rish; and although it rain a day or a night, they do not let the Water which is in the Marish run out, the heat of the Sun sufficiently exhaling such Rain-Water. Only, if it have rain'd very plentifully that day, no SALT is drawn for the three or four next following days. But if it rain five or six days, the People are then necessita­ted to empty all the Water of the Beds by a peculiar Channel, con­veighing it into the Sea; which Channel cannot be opened, but when 'tis low Water. But 'tis very seldom [Page 223] that it rains so long, as to constrain them to empty those Beds.

'Tis Obvious that the hottest Years make the most SALT; where yet it is to be noted, that besides the heat of the Sun, the Winds contribute much to it, in regard that less SALT is made in calm, than in Windy Weather. The West and North-West Winds are the best for this Purpose.

In the Beds of the Marish, where the SALT is made, the Water must not be above an Inch and an half deep. Each of these Beds is fifteen Foot long, and fourteen Foot broad. Chiefly care is to be taken, that the Earth at the bottom of the Beds mingle not with the SALT. This Ac­count was communicated to Mr. Ol­denburg by a French Dr. of Phy­sick, residing in the Isle of Rhe, where Salt is made in a great Quantity. As you may fin [...] in the PHILOS. TRANSACT. Numb. 51. pag. 1025.

[Page 224]SALT is that which gives Liga­ture, Weight, and Constitution to things, and is the most manifest Substance in all Artificial Composts. 'Tis SALT which Fertilizes, and Renders Egypt so Luxuriously Fruit­ful after the Inundations of Nile; and the Nitrous Grounds of Iama­ica, and other places, which cause so stupendious a growth of Plants and Trees. In a Word, SALT may be said to have a Dominion almost Monarchical, in the great Work of Vegetation, being so absolute an In­gredient in all our Dungs and Com­posts.

To Conclude, you know, who have Dignified SALT with the Pre­rogative of being Nam'd Element-Earth, the Vigour and Close of all Things, yea, the first and last of Elementated Bodies: What shall I say, Quid Divinum, the Original of all Fecundity; nor can I say less, since there was nor Sacrifice, nor Discourse acceptable without it. EVEL [...]N's Discourse of Earth, in [Page 225] several places, Pag. 312, 313, 314. Fol.

See an Account of the SALT Springs at Nantwich in Ch [...]shire, by Dr. William Iackson, in the PHI­LOS. TRANSACT. Numb. 53.

And of the SALT Waters of Droytwich in Worcester-shire, by Dr. Tho. Rastell, in the PHILOS. TRAN­SACT. Numb. 142.

And of the SALT Springs in Staffordshire, by Dr. Rob. Plot, in his Description of that County.

Observations concerning GOLD.

THE most perfect of all Ina­nimate Bodies, and the most esteem'd of all Mettals is GOLD, universally known, and covered by all People. It is made of the same Matter, a [...]d in the s [...]me Manner, as other Mettals are, but of parts so pure and perfect, and so well compacted together by Decoction, that its substance is, as it were, in­corruptible, [Page 226] being out of the Power of any of the Elements to be Cor­rupted or Destroy'd. The Fire that consumes all other Mettals, only makes GOLD more pure: The Air and Water, diminish not its Lustre, nor can Earth make it Rust or, Waste. By the Nobleness of its Substance, it hath most deservedly obtain'd that Estimation, which the World gives it, and the Natural Virtue which flows from the admi­rable Equality of its Composition, is the best Medicine against Melan­cholly, and the greatest Cordial to the Hearts of Men, which perpe­tually run after this Avaritious Met­tal, as the Needle doth after the Loadstone. The Virtue ascrib'd to Aurum Potabile, to preserve a Body perpetually in Youthfulness with­out Infirmity; together with the Receit of making thereof, depends upon the Credit of those Authors, who have written concerning the same. ALBARO ALONSO BAR­BA, [Page 227] of Mettals, Translat. by the Earl of Sandwich, Chap. 26.

GOLD hath the least Variety of Regular Figure, in the Ore, of a­ny Mettal. Because more solid, and therefore, less wanton, than the rest. 'Tis a rare Specimen, men­tion'd by Georgius de Sepibus, which he calls, Aurum Ramescens.

The Ductility of GOLD is ad­mirable; One Grain, in Leaves, is extended to above Fifty Inches Square: And one Ounce employ'd in Guilding small Hair-Wyre, will be extended to almost an Hundred Miles in lenght; as Mr. Boyle hath observ'd.

The Uses of GOLD for Vessels, Coins, Armour, Garments, &c. are infinite. The Luxury of Galienus the Emperour, taught him to Powder his Hair with the Dust of GOLD. Some Painters, saith Ambrosinus, hang Plated GOLD over Vinegar, whereby is produc'd a pure Blue (as Ceruss out of Lead) which they prefer before the Vltramarine.

[Page 228]One principal Use of GOLD in Medicin [...] is, for the Correction o [...] Mercurial Medicines. The Original Use of Leaf-GOLD in Electuaries, and divers other Preparations, was not only for better Grace, but from the Opinion of its adding Virtue to them. And Plates of GOLD, an­ciently, have been us'd especially for Children, as an Amulet. Which I take to be the true Reason, why the Kings of England hang a peice of GOLD upon those they Touch▪ GREW's Mus [...]eum REG. SOC. Pag. 323.

There goes a Tradition among Learned Men, that the Leaves of Vines that grow in some places of Hungary, whose Mines afford GOLD, are as it were Guilt on the lower side, by ascending Exha­lations of a GOLDEN Nature: Whether this be true or no, I shall not take upon me to determine: But I remember, that having made Enquiry about the Truth of it, of a very l [...]genious Traveller, whose Curiosity led him to visit heedfully [Page 229] those famous Mines: He told me, that he did not remember He had observ'd what is Reported about the Leaves of the Vine: But He knew very well, that at Tockay, (a place that affords the famousest Wine of Hungary, and indeed the best I have drunk) very many of the Kernels of the Grapes would ap­pear Guilt over, as it were, with Leaf-GOLD. ROB. BOTLE of the Insalubrity, vnd Salubrity of the Air. pag. 44, 45.

At Chremnitz, a small Town in Hungary, there is a GOLD-MINE, in which they have Work'd these Nine Hundred and Fifty [...]Years; the Mine is about Nine or Ten Eng­lish Miles in length, and the [...] [...] one Cuniculus or Horiz [...]ntal pass [...]ge, which is Eight Hundred [...] long, called the Erbstall. The d [...]pth of it is above One Hundred and Seventy Fathoms; They do not use Ladders to descend into this Mine, but are let down at the end of a Cable, unto which is fastned a Sling, [Page 230] or Seat of Leather; the Leather being broad, and divided ordinarily into Two or Three parts, so that it is to be shifted or chang'd as you find Convenience, and affords no uneasie Seat even to such as are not us'd to it. And in this manner, whosoever entreth the Mine is let down. Through one of the Schachts or perpendicular Pits, of which there are Six. 1. That of Rodol­phus. 2. Queen Anne. 3. Ferdi­nand. 4. Matthias. 5. Windschacht. and 6. Leopold. I went down by the Pit of the Emperour Rodlophus, gently descending by the turning about of a large Wheel, to which the Cable is fastned, One Hundred and Eight Fathoms deep into the Earth; and after many Hours be­ing in the Mine, was drawn out a­gain by Leopold's Pit, strait up above One Hundred and Fifty Fa­thoms; a height surpassing that of the Pyramids, by a Third part. At the bottom of which Pit, I was not Discourag'd to find my self so deep [Page 231] in the Earth, for considering I was yet above Three Thousand Miles from the Center, I thought my self but in a Well. It is built on all sides with Firr-Trees one laying up­on another on Four sides from the bottom to the top.

The Work towards One, Two, or Three of the Clock, as they speak; for the Miners direct them­selves under-ground by a Compass, not of Thirty Two Points, (such as is used at Sea,) but by one of Twenty Four, which they divide, as we do the Hours of the Day, into Twice Twelve.

Of the GOLD-Ore some is White, some Black, some of it Red, and some Yellow. That with Black Spots in White is esteem'd the best; as also the Ore which lyeth next to the Black Veins.

There have been Pieces of Vir­gin GOLD found in this Mine.

Where they Pound the GOLD-Ore, they lay a Foundation Three Yards deep of Wood, upon which [Page 232] they place the Ore, over which there are Four and Twenty Beams, armed at the bottom with Iron, which break and grind the Ore, it being cover'd all the while with Water. These Beams are mov'd by Four Wheels, one Wheel to Six Beams, the Water which cometh out from the pounded Ore, is let into little Pits or Chests commonly Se­ven or Eight one after another; and afterwards into a large Pit of almost half an Acre of Ground, and then after setling let out.

The GOLD-Ore in Powder or Pounded is called Slich, of which that is the Richest which is nearest to the Beams where it is first Poun­ded. They Work thus Day and Night continually. The Candles which they make use of are of Firre or some Resinous Wood.

They wash the Slich so long, as perhaps in an Hundred Pound Weight, there may be half an Ounce, or an Ounce of GOLD and Silver, the greatest part ordinarily GOLD, [Page 233] Two Thirds generally. To this Slich they add Limestone and Slacken, and Melt them together in the Melting Furnace.

The first Melting produceth a Substance called Lech; this Lech they burn with Charcole to make it lighter, to open its Body and ren­der it porous, and then it is called Rost.

To the Rost they add Sand as they see occasion, and Melt it a­gain in the Melting Furnace; then let it out into the Pan, and pro­ceed as in the Melting of Silver. BROWN's Trav. in Hungaria &c. Pag. 98, &c.

The Lord Bacon commends the Wit of the Chineses, who despair of Making of GOLD, but at the same time are mad upon the Making of SILVER: For certain it is, saith that Noble Philosopher, that it is more difficult to make GOLD, (which is the most Ponderous and Materiate amongst Mettals) of other Mettals, less Ponderous, and less Materiate; [Page 234] than (Viâ Versâ) to make SILVER: of Lead, or Quick-Silver: Both which are more Ponderous than SILVER: So that They need rather a further Degree of Fixation, than any Condensation. BAC. Nat. Hist.

The Polite and Ingenious Dr. Sprat, now Bishop of Rochester, speaking of the Modern Chymists, who search after Riches, by Trans­mutations, and the great Elixir, saith, That their Success has been as small, as their Design was extra­vagant; and that their Writers in­volve them in such Darkness, that He scarcely knows, which was the greatest Task, to understand their meaning, or to Effect it. These Men, saith He, are so earnest in the Chase of the Philosopher's Stone, that they are scarce capable of any other Thoughts: So that if an Experiment lye never so little out of their Road, it is free from their Discovery: As I have heard of some Creatures in Africk, which still going a violent pace straight [Page 235] on, and not being able to turn themselves, can never get any Prey, but what they meet just in their way. This Secret they prosecute so impetuously, that they believe they see some Footsteps of it, in e­very Line of Moses, Solomon, or Virgil. The Truth is, they are downright Enthusiasts about it. And seeing we cast Enthusiasm out of Divinity it self, we shall hardly sure be perswaded, to admit it into Philosophy. It were perhaps a vain attempt, to try to cure such Men of their groundless Hopes. It may be they are happier now, as they are: And they would only cry out with the Man in Horace, that their Friends, who had restor'd them to a perfect Sense, had Murther'd them. But certainly if these Men could be brought to content them­selves with moderate Things, to grow Rich by degrees, and not to imagine, they shall gain the Indies, cut of every Crucible: There might be wonderful things expected from [Page 236] them. SPRAT's Hist. of the ROYAL SOCIETY, Pag. 37, 38.

Dr. Hackwell, in his Apology of the Power and Providence of God, speaking of the Philosopher's Stone, saith, He much doubts whether any such Experiment be yet really found or no; and if it be, whether the Operation of it be not more dange­rous and difficult, then the effect a­rising from it, is or can be advanta­gious. But of this, saith he, I am well assur'd, that as he who digg'd in his Vineyard for GOLD miss'd it, but by opening the Roots of his Vines, thereby found their Fruit, the next Year more worth unto him than GOLD: So whilest Men have labour'd by Transmutation of Mettals from one Species to another to make GOLD, they have fallen upon the Distillations of Wa [...]ers, Extractions of Oyles, and such like r [...]re Experiments unknown to the Ancients, which are undoubtedly more pretious for the use of Man, than all the GOLD of both the [Page 237] Indies. HAKEWILL, Lib. 3. Chap. 9. Sect. 2.

Observations conserning SILVLR.

SILVER is the most Perfect of all Mettals Except Gold, whereunto it comes so near, as to want nothing but the Colour; and therefore those that most of all op­pose the Opinion of the Transmuta­tion of Mettals one into another, do yet hold it possible to turn SIL­VER into Gold, because the Colour only being wanting, the Fire and Artificial Concoctions can supply that, whereof there be many Ex­periments: From the good Mixture and Fineness of its Parts, proceeds its induring the Fire with very little waste, as also its being Tough and Malleable, and endures the drawing out into very Thin Leaves, and small Wyre; if it were not a Common Trade to do it, it would not be believ'd to be possible, that [Page 238] an Ounce of SILVER should be Drawn out into Fourteen Hundred Yards of Wyre; and it is yet more admirable, that all that shall be made Guilt Wyre, with only six Grains of Gold; So that although SILVER can be Extended to admi­ration, yet Gold is a Hundred times more Ductile than it. BARBA of Mettals, Chap. 27.

The Chief Places of the Indies from whence they draw SILVER, are New Spain, and Peru; but the Mines of Peru, saith Acosta, far sur­pass the rest; and amongst all others of the World, those of Potozi.

The greatest Riches of the King­dom of Peru is most out of sight hid in the Bowels of the Earth, but found in those never decaying Mines of GOLD and SILVER; more eminently abounding in this one Province, than in all America. For instance whereof we may take the SILVER Mines of Potozi, Di­scover'd in the Year 1545, the fifth of which Payable into the King's [Page 239] Exchequer, amounted in Forty Years to one Hundred and Eleven Milli­ons of Pezoes, every Pezo being Valued at Six Shillings and Six Pence; and yet a third part of the Whole was discharg'd of that Pay­ment. By this one we may guess somewhat of the rest, as by the proportion of one Member, the Di­mentions of the Whole Body may be probably geuss'd at; unless the Riches of these Mines be beyond con­jecture of which it is affirm'd by some knowing Men, that they yield in many Places more Gold than Earth. PET. HETLIN.

How these Rich Mines of Potozi came first to be discover'd since it was a thing somewhat Remarkable, I shall here give an account: The manner (therefore) of this Discove­ry was as followeth.

A Peruvian call'd Gualpa, who Work'd at the Mines of Porco, go­ing a Hunting, it chanc'd that the Game ran up the steep Mountain of Potosii, which prevented his Pur­suing [Page 240] of it any [...]urther; but the Mountain being over grown with Trees, he got hold from one Bough to another to help himself up, and at last taking hold of the Bramble call'd Quinua, he pull'd the same out of the Ground, and finding it hea­vy, lookt upon it, and espy'd a great Lump of SILVER hanging at the Root of it; whereupon view­ing the Hole, he discover'd a Rich SILVER Vein; of which taking some Pieces home, and Melting them, he found that it was the best SILVER that ever he had known; wherefore he privately got a greater quantity, and by degrees grew Ex­traordinary Rich: But tho he carried his design never so close, yet he was at last suspected, and especially by his Neighbour Guanca, Born in the Valey Xauxa, who was the more jealous of him, because he sold greater Bars of SILVER than any were Cast at Porco. Whereupon he resolved to speak to him, and getting out the Secret, it came to [Page 241] this Agreement between them, that they should both be Partners, and share the Booty; Gualpa was to keep the Vein, since call'd the Rich Vein. and Guanca was to have another, at Present Nam'd Diego Centeno: But they agreed not long; for Guanca finding much Labour upon his Vein, by reason of the hardness, and that he could get no share in what Gualpa got, acquainted his Spanish Master Vilaroel with it, who rested not till he had sound out the truth thereof; for which Valaroel obtain'd (according to the Custome of Porco) several Rods to work for him, on­ly Paying the King one fifth Part of what he got, and so remain'd owner of the Mine Centeno.

This Discovery of the Rich, Mine Potozi, is said to have happen'd on the 24th. of April, 1545. Soon after which they found the SILVER Vein Del Estanno, which tho it was very Rich, was difficult to be digged, because of its hardness. The first Vein which Gualpa, search'd [Page 242] after stood upright from the bottom of the Mine, and contain'd above Three Hundred Foot in Length, and Thirteen in Bredth, and conti­nuing good for Two Hundred Foot in D [...]pth, af [...]r which the SILVER begins [...]o lessen.

These Mines produce Yearly for the Kings fi [...]th Part, Forty Thousand Pieces of SILVER, each valued at Thirteen Ryals, each Ryal being Four Shillings, besides what he is de­srau [...]e [...] of, which is perhaps half as much more. OGILB [...]'s America, pag, 463.

For the more easie Working in the Mines, the Spaniards have digged Trenches, which they call Socabo­n [...], at t [...]e Foot of the Mountain of Potozi, towards the West, cross thr [...]ugh the Mountain to the Mine, each of them being Eight Foot Br [...]d and a Fathom Deep, and lock' [...] up with Gates, through which the SILVER is carried out, where­of the Owner of the Socabon re­c [...]ives a fifth Part. The Socabon [Page 243] which leads to the Rich Vein, was begun Anno 1556. and finish'd in Twenty-nine Years, Extending it self Two Hundred and Fifty Rods in Length. The Miners work by Candle-Light, both Day and Night by turns; those that Work in the Day, Sleep in the Night, and those that Work in the Night, Sleep in the Day. The Ore, which is as hard as a Stone, is cut out with Pick-Axes, beaten in pieces with an Iron-Crow, and carried upon their Backs on Ladders made of Leather; Each Ladder hath three fastnings a­bout the thickness of a Cable, stretch'd out by Sticks, so that one goes up on one side, whilest another comes down on the other. Each Ladder being Ten Fathom long, is pitch'd upon its several Floor on which the Labourers rest before they go up higher, for they make divers Floors according to the Depth of the Mine. The Labourers carry the Ore in Bags fastned before on their Breasts, and falling back over [Page 244] their Shoulders, three and three to­gether, the foremost whereof ties a lighted Candle to his Thumb, and thus they help themselves with both hands. It is a wonderful thing to Consider, how the Peru­vians are able to scramble up and down continually a Hundred and Fifty Fatham: But besides many o­ther Inconveniences, the Mines often fall in, or at least great Pieces, which Bury all the Diggers. The Mines also being excessive Cold, occasion to those that are not us'd to them a Vertigo in the Head, and Vomiting. The SILVER runs for the most part between two Rocks, as it were in a long Chan­nel, of which one side is as hard as Flint, and the other much softer, The SILVER is of different Value; the best, call'd Cacilla, or Tacana, resembles Amber in Colour; the worser sort is Blackish, and some­times of an Ash-Colour. The Pieces of Ore are carried on the Backs of the Sheep Pacos to the Mill, where being [Page 245] ground to Powder, they are put in­to Furnaces to melt; of which there were once above Six Thousand on the Top of Potozi; but since the Quick-Siviler was found to cleanse the same, not a third part remains. Ibidem, Pag. 464, 465.

SILVER is in its highest per­pection in JAPAN, but not used in Trade; in which is seen nothing but Gold, and some small Coin of Brass; which latter they spoil by Refining it too much. PHILO­SOPH. TRANSACT. Numb. 49. Pag. 984.

Observations concerning MET­TALS; how they are genera­ted.

IT is no wonder, that Learned Men differ so much in their O­pinions, about the Matter whereof METTALLS are engendred, be­cause the Author of Nature seems to have Created them in that ob­scurity, [Page 246] and depth, and to have immur'd them with hard Rocks, on purpose, to hide their Causes, and to give check to the Ambiton of Man.

The Philosophers, who pret [...]nd to know the Causes of Things, [...]e­sides the first Matter, (which is the first Principle, not only of Met­talls, but of all other Bodies in the World) assign another Matter re­mote also, which is a certain moist and unctuous Exhalation, together with a portion of thick and rough Earth, from which, being mingled together, there results a M [...]er, whereof not only Mettalls, but al­so Stones are made: For if dryness prevail, Stones are beg [...]tten, but if the unctuous humidity be predo­minant, then Mettalls are begot­ten; Plato, Aristotle, and their Fol­lowers are of this Opinion.

From the abundance of this pure, and Shining Moisture, made Solid, proceeds the Lustre of Mettalls, in whom, of all the Elements, Water [Page 247] is experimentally known, to [...] most predominant, and t [...] [...] they run, and are dissolv [...]d [...]y Fire.

From the v [...]ri [...]us [...]p [...]rament, and purity of [...]he as [...] [...] Mate [...], come the Dive [...]s kinds of Mettalls, the most pure and [...]ine of all which, and (as it would seem) N [...]tur [...] Principal intention, is Gold.

Many, to avoid difficult dispures of this Nature, do hold with the Vulgar; That at the Creation of the World, God Almighty made the Veins of Mettalls in the same Con­dition, as we now find them at this Day; herein doing Nature a great injury, by denying her▪ witho [...] Reason) a productive Virtue [...]n this Matter, which is alow'd unto her in all other Sub [...]un [...]ry L [...]ing [...] ▪ Moreover, that Exp [...]i [...]ce in di­vers places hath [...] ­trary: A clear Example whereof we have in Ilva, an [...] ­ing to Tuscany, full of Iron Mines, which when they have dug as hol­l [...]w, [Page 248] and as deep as they can, the Circumjacent Earth falls in, and f [...]lls them up again; and in the space of Ten or Fifteen Years at most, they work those Mines a­gain, and thence draw out abun­dance of Mettall, which that new Earth hath been converted into: Many do think that the same hap­pens in the rich Hill of Potosi. BAR­BA of Metalls. Chap. 18.

It is Reported by some of the Ancients, that in Cyprus, there is a kind of Iron, that being cut into little Pieces, and put into the Ground, if it be well Water'd, will increase into greater Pieces. But this is certain, and known of Old, That Lead will multiply, and in­crease; as hath been seen in Old Statua's of Stone, which have been put in Cellars; the Feet of them being bound with Lead; where (after some time) it appear'd, that the Lead did swell; insomuch as it hang'd upon the Stone like Warts. BACON's Nat. Hist. Experim. 797.

[Page 249]Our Salt-Petre Men find, that when they have extracted Salt-Petre out of a Floor of Earth one Year, within Three or Four Years after, they find more Salt-Petre genera­ted there, and do work it over again. The like is observ'd in Allum and Copperas.

And for Mettalls, our Tinners in Cornwall have experience of Pits which have been fill'd up with Earth, after they have wrought out all the Tin they could find in them, and within Thirty Years they have open'd them again, and found more Tin generated. The like hath been observed in Iron, as Gaudencius Me­rula reports of Ilva, an Island in the Adriatick-Sea, under the Vene­tians, where Iron breeds continual­ly, as fast as they can Work it; which is confirm'd also by Agricola and Baccius. The like we read of at Saga in Ly [...]iis, where they dig over their Iron Mines every Tenth Year. Iohn Mathesius gives us examples of almost all sorts of [Page 250] Minerals and Metalls which he [...]ad observ'd to grow and regenerate. The like examples you m [...]y find in Leonardus Thurnesserus E [...]stus af­firms, that he did see in St. Ioachims Dale. Silver grown upon a Beam of Wood, which was placed in the Pit to support the Works; and when it was rotten, the Workmen comming to set new Timber in the place, found the Silver sticking to the Old Beam. Also He reports, that in Germany there hath been Un­ripe and Unconcocted Silver found in Mines; which the best Workmen affirm'd would become Perfect Sil­ver in Thirty Years. The like Modestin [...]s Factuus, and Mathesius, affirm of U [...]ripe and Liquid Silver; which when the Workmen find, they use to say, We are come too soon. IORDEN's Discourse of Na­tural Baths, and Mineral Waters, Cap. 11.

T [...] Mettalls may be (and often have been) [...]ound in a Solt and Li­quid Form or Substance, the Ho­nourable [Page 251] Mr Boyle instan [...] [...]rom Ger [...]ardus, in these Wor [...] [...] aqua caerulea inventa [...]st An [...]b [...]gae [...]i argentum adhue crat in primo [...], qu [...]e coagulata, red [...]cta in ca [...]cem sixi & boni Argenti. Also that at An­neberg a B [...]ue Water was found, where Silver was yet in its first Being, which coagulated, was re­duc [...]d into the Powder or Calx of fix [...]d and good Silver. BOTLE's S [...]ept. Chym. pag. 360.

Observations concerning DAMPS in Mines

THE Learned and Ingenious Dr. Plot, speaking of DAMPS in Coal-Mines, reduces them to ei­ther Superterraneal, or Subterraneal; both which sorts, He saith, He takes to proceed from Stagnations in the Subterraneal Vaults of the Earth, for want of due Ventilations, and Commerce between the In [...]ior and Superior Air. The Material [Page 252] Causes, saith the Dr. may be vari­ous, either Simple, or Compound: As the meer Corruption of the sim­ple Air alone upon a long Stagna­tion in the Coal-Rooms, and the Rifts and Clists of the Rock of Coal it self, may be its Material Cause indeed; but the Causa sine qu [...] non of such a Damp, he takes to be the want of motion in those Cavities, without which, the Air would never have Corrupted; no more than Water which never Cor­rupts till it Stagnates, when indeed like the Air it becomes poysonous, tho' possibly not to that Degree, the Air being a Body much finer, and convey'd to the more tender parts of the Body. Whence it is, that in the Old Works, wherein there has been no digging for a long time, no laveing, drawing, or pumping of Water, all which keep the Air in motion, and the Water from Cankering, these DAMPS are most frequent and most dangerous. Whence it is too, that the Works [Page 253] where the Bed of Coal is thin, and admits of but few or no such Rifts or Clefts for the Air to Stagnat or Corrupt in, are seldom or never troubled with them. Upon which account 'tis likewise, that tho' a Bed of Coal have many of these Rifts, and large Ones too; yet as long as there is a profluence of Water through them, there is no Danger of their Entertaining such DAMPS; which as soon as made dry by a Sough or Free-Level, the same Mine shall become much more lyable to them; the wholesome Air that was in them whilst kept in motion by the Flux of the Water (having little or no Communication with that above Ground) now Stagnating and Corrupting to that Degree, that it not only extin­guishes the glowing heat of Coals, and the Flame of Candles, Torches, &c. but the Flammula Vitae too in most living Creatures, so that the Animal which respires it, sometimes [...] [Page 256] Subterraneous Waters are at the lowest. They fancy, it proceeds from the multitude of Red Trifoil Flowers, by them call'd Honey-Suckles, with which the Lime-Stone Meadows of the Peak (where they have this sort of DAMP) do much abound.

Dr. Plot says, that he enqui [...]'d concerning this Sort in the East part of Staffordshire, where the Moore-Lands bound upon the Peak-Country of Darbyshire, and found it not on­ly there, but as far as he could learn, to be the most common DAMP in the Country, it making their Candles first to diminish, to burn round, and at length to go out, persuming the Stauls at the same time with a faint Sweet smell, as those in Darbyshire do, only with this Difference, that these in Staf­fordshire are said to be sometimes visible, shewing like a thin Smoak which may be seen not only in the Groves, but fuming out at the top of the Pit. But in Staffordshire [Page 257] (says Dr. Plot) they are wiser (where they go for their Coal Forty or Fifty Yards deep, and have no such thing us Trefoil, for many Miles, and yet have this DAMP,) than to think it proceeds either from Pease or Trefoil; it being rather appre­hended to arise from the Workmens Breath and Sweat, mixt with the Steams of the Golden Marchasite or Brass Lumps, than any thing else.

The Third sort of DAMP is the strangest, and most Pestilential of any, if all be true which is said concerning it. Those who pretend to have seen it (for it is visible) de­scribe it thus: In the highest part of the Roof of those Passages, which Branch out from the main Grove, they often see a round thing hanging, about the bigness of a Foot-ball, cover'd with a Skin of the thickness and Colour of a Cob-Web: This, they say, if by any Accident, as the Splinter of a Stone, or the like, if it be broken, imme­diately [Page 258] disperseth it self, and Suffo­cates all the Company. Therefore to prevent Casualties, as soon as ever they espie it, they say, they have a way, by the help of a Stick and a long Rope, of breaking it at a distance; which done, they pu­rifie the place well by Fire, before they dare enter it again. Mr. Ies­sop says, He dares not avouch the Truth of this Story in all its Cir­cumstances; because the Proof of it seems impossible, since they say, it kills all that are likely to bear Witness to all the Particulars: Nei­ther dares He deny, but such a thing may have been seen hang­ing on the Roof, since He has heard many affirm it. Perhaps the General Tradition they have a­mongst them, hath made them a­scribe all Strange and Surprizing Effects unto this Cause. They are not without a Reason for it, which is not altogether irrational, if the Matter of Fact be true; for they say, the Steam which arises from [Page 259] their Bodies and the Candles, as­cends unto the highest part of the Vault, and there condenseth, and in time hath a Filme grows round about it, and at length Corrupting becomes Pestilential: Thus (saith Mr. Iessop) have I heard many of our Vn­der-Ground Philosophers Discourse.

The Fourth which they also call a DAMP (although how properly, I will now not argue) is that Vapour, which being touch'd by their Can­dle, presently takes Fire, and giv­ing a Crack like a Gun, produceth the like Effects, or rather those of Lightning. Hence it is commonly call'd the Fulminating DAMP. PHI­LOS. TRANSACT. Numb. 117. pag. 391, 392.

Mr. Iessop, in a Letter to the In­genious Mr. Oldenburg, concerning a further Account of DAMPS, says, That DAMPS are most generally observ'd to come about the latter End of May, and to continue dur­ing the Heat of Summer, and in those places, which have DAMPS [Page 260] all the Year long, yet they observe them to be most violent at that Season: And that He could meet with no other certain Rule for any Periodical returns, except this An­nual; although it be certain they do often return in the same Sum­mer.

He also saith, There are some DAMPS that will quite extinguish all those Fires that are let down in­to them, be they never so many Successively, or never so great; and Fire is observ'd to be so far from Curing, that it often creates DAMPS in places not otherwise Subject to them. Indeed they are a present Remedy, if you can so order them, as by their help to make a Circula [...]ion of the Air through the Infected place, other­wise they do hurt; and those Groves wherein they are forced to break their Rocks by the help of great Fires, are seldom free from DAMPS. PHILOS. TRANSACT. Numb. 119. pag. 453, 454.

[Page 261]Mr. George Sinclar says, That the Fire of Fulminating DAMP is in Scotland, in a Land call'd Werdy, West of Leith; which they there from its Effects (that are very much like ours) are pleas'd to call Wild-Fire.

He says, that they do there pre­vent this DAMP by a Person that enters before the Workmen, who be­ing cover'd with wet Sackcloth, when He comes near the Coal-Wall, where the Fire is fear'd, He creep­eth on his Belly with a long Pole before him, having a lighted Can­dle on the top on't, with whose Flame the Wild-Fire meeting, it breaketh with violence, and run­ning along the Roof, goeth out with a Noise at the Mouth of the Sink; the Person that gave Fire e­scaping by creeping on the Ground, and keeping his Face close to it, till it be over past. GEORGE SIN­CLAR's Miscellan. Observ. pag. 292, 293, 294.

Dr. Plot advises all such as are to go down into any deep Well, that [Page 262] may be suspected to have any ma­lignant, noxious Steams, or Va­pours, first to throw down into them a Peck of good Lime, which slaking in the Water, and fuming out at the top, will so effectually dispel all such poisonous Vapours, that they may safely go down, and stay some time unhurt. PLOT's Nat. Hist. of Oxfordshire, P [...]g. 63.

Observations concerning the Genera­tion of INSECTS.

THat Learned and Ingenious I­talian Author, Francisco Redi, in his Book Entituled, Esperienze intorno alla Generatione Degl' In­setti, with much Industry under­takes to evince, That there is no such thing as Aequivocal Generation, but that every Animal is generated by the Seed of another Animal, (its Parent,) or, at least, from some Living and un-corrupted Plant, as out of Oak-Apples, and several Pro­tuberances [Page 263] and Excrescencies of Ve­getables.

First then, in the asserting of the Vniversal and true Generation of INSEC [...]S by a peculiar and pater­nal Seed, this Author positively affirms, that He could never find, by all the Experiments and Obser­vations he ever made, (of which he relateth a great Number, by himself made upon many sorts of Animals) that ever any INSECTS were bred from Flesh, or Fish, or putrified Plants, or any other Bodies, but such, as Flies had access unto, and scatter'd their Seed upon; He hav­ing taken extraordinary care and pains to observe, that always on the Flesh, before it did Verminate, there sate Flies of the self same kind with those that were afterwards produc'd thence; and again, that no Worms would ever come from any Flesh in Vessels well cover'd, and defended from the Access of Flies; so that to him there seems no Generation of INSECTS from [Page 264] any dead Animals, but such as have been Fly-blown.

And lest [...]it should be objected, that the Reason, why in Vessels exactly clos'd, no INSECT breeds, is the Want of Air, necessary to all Generation, He hath carefully co­ver'd several Vessels with very fine Naples-Vaile, for the Air to enter, though Flies could not; but that no Worms at all were bred there, notwithstanding that many Flies swarm'd about them, invited by the smell of the Flesh inclosed there­in.

Secondly, to make out the other part of his Position, viz. That those Animals that are not bred by the Seed of other Animals, are pro­duc'd from some Live Plant, or its Excrescence; This Author thinks it not absurd to affirm, That that A­nima or Power, which is able to produce Flowers and Fruits in Liv­ing Plants, may be alike capable to breed Worms in them; since that Soul is so powerful, as to cause [Page 265] Plants to feed, to grow and to pro­duce Seed, as it doth in Animals. For Confirmation of which, He ob­serveth, that both the Generation of Worms in Vegetables is always and constantly the same, (not at all casual▪) and that all Galls grow constantly in one determinate part of the Branches, and always in the new Branches; as also, that those little Galls, which grow on the Leaves of the Oak-Holm, &c. do all grow constantly on the Fi­bres or Strings of those Leaves, not one of them being seen to grow on the smooth part betwixt two Strings: Farther, that there are [...]ound many Leaves of other Trees, on which grow Vesicles, or small Bags, or some wrinckled or swell'd places, full of Worms, springing [...]orth with those Leaves. Besides, that there is not one Gall but it hath its proper Worm; and that each sort of Galls hath its peculiar and determinate Race of Worms and Flies, which never vary: Where [Page 266] He takes notice of the Singular Art of Nature, both in forming the Egg, which is found in the Center of Galls, and in preparing its place therein, furnishing it with many filaments, that pass from the Gall-Apple to the Egg, as to many Veins and Arteries, serving for the forma­tion of the Egg and Worm, and for the Nourishment requisite thereto. To which He adds this Observati­on, that, there being certain sorts of Galls, which breed more Worms at a time than One, Nature hath carefully provided and distinguish'd places for them, as she doth in those Animals that are multipa­rous.

H [...]ing Establisht this ground a­gainst Equivocal Generation, he pro­ceeds to Particulars, and refutes the Opinion of those, that will have Bees to be Bred of the Putrified Flesh of Bullocks; Wasps, of Asses or Mules Flesh; Drones, of Horses; Scorpions, of buried Crayfishes, or the Herb Basilica, or dead Scorpions; Toads, of Ducks Buried [Page 267] in Dung; Mites of Cheese; affirm­ing that none of these INSECTS have any such Origin mentioned, but that all those Substances have been first blown upon by some Flie or other.

See this Abstract of Francisco Redi's Book of the Generation of INSECTS, in the PHLOSOPH. TRANSACT. Numb. 57. Pag. 1175.

To that Opinion of the Italian Francisco Redi, viz. That some live Plants or their Excrescencies do truly generate some INSECTS, I told my Friend, as I Remember, that I in­deed had observ'd, that the By-Fruits of some Vegetables, as of the Oak and Wild-Rose, for Example, did grow up together with their re­spective Worms in them, from small Beginnings to fair and large Fruit, some of them Emulating even the Genuin Off-spring of the Plant, ‘—Et miratur non sua poma.’

[Page 268]And further, that I did believe, the Worms were furnish'd with food in and from them; but not by any Naval-Connexion, as that Author fancies, and which I said, to me was unintelligible, and that I should be glad of a Notion, which might make out to me such a monstrous Relation, as half Animal, half Ve­getable, or, which is all one, Ve­getable Vessels inserted into an Ani­mal, or, the Contrary. Strange Oeconomy!

That it had never been my good Fortune (what ever diligence I had us'd) to discern Eggs in the Center of Galls, but a Worm constantly, even at the very first appearance, as near at least as my Fortune led me. Yet I would not deny, but that dili­gence might one Day discover the Egg it self, which I was of Opinion was affixed to or near the Place by the Parent-INSECT, where the Gall rose.

That I ever found the Worms in all the Excrescencies, that I had [Page 269] yet met with, perfectly at liberty; and for the Filaments, our Author mentions, it was very possible he might be mistaken, it being very hard, and a matter not yet Treated of in any Publick Paper, which and what are the Vessels that enter into the Texture of a Vegetable, as of a large Tree, for Example, much more hard would it be to say, this is a Vessel in a small Gall.

That there were many By-Fruits of different Figure and shape (tho' perhaps of a like Texture) upon one and the same Plant, every one of which did Nourish and Produce a different Race of INSECTS; This, I told him, I thought might rather argue the divers Work-man­ship of different INSECTS, than one and the same Principle of Ve­getation to be Author of several sorts of Animals. MARTIN LIS­TER in a Letter to Mr. Oldenburg; which you may find in the PHILOS. TRANSACT. Numb. 75.

[Page 270]I have for my own Particular, besides several of those mention'd by the diligent Goedartius, observ'd divers other Circumstances, per­haps, not much taken notice of, though very Common, which do indeed afford us a very Coercive Argument to admire the Goodness and Providence of the Infinitely Wise Creator, in his most Excellent Contrivances and Dispensations. I have observ'd at several times of the Summer, that many of the Leaves of divers Plants, have been spotted, or, as it were scabbed, and looking on the under-sides of those of them that have been but a little irregular, I have perceiv'd them to be sprinkl'd with divers sorts of little Eggs, which letting alone, I have found by degrees to grow bigger, and be­come little Worms with Legs, but still to keep their former Places, and those Places of the Leaves, of ther own accords, to be grown very Protuberant upwards, and very hollow, and arch'd underneath, [Page 271] whereby those Young Creatures, are, as it were, shelter'd and hous'd from External Injury; divers Leaves I have observ'd to grow and swell so far, as at length perfectly to in­close the Animal, which by other Observations I have made, I guess to contain it, and become, as it were a womb to it, so long till it be fit and prepar'd to be Translated into another State, at which time, like (what they say of) Vipers, they gnaw their way through the Womb that bred them; divers of these kinds I have met with upon Goosber­ry Leaves, Rose-Tree Leaves, Willow Leaves, and many other kinds.

There are often to be found upon Rose-Trees and Brier Bushes, little red tufts, which are certain Knobs or Excrescencies, growing out from the Rind, or Barks of those kinds of Plants, they are cover'd with strange kinds of threds or red hairs, which feel very soft, and look not unpleasantly. In most of these, if it has no hole in it, you shall find [Page 272] certain little Worms, which I sup­pose to be the causes of their Pro­duction; for when that Worm has eat its way through, they having perform'd what they were design'd by Nature to do, by degrees die and wither away.

Now, the manner of their Pro­duction, I suppose to be thus; that the All-Wise Creator has as well Implanted in every Creature a Fa­culty of knowing what Place is con­venient for the Hatching, Nutriti­on, and preservation of their Eggs and Off-springs, whereby they are stimulated and directed to conve­nient Places, which become, as 'twere, the wombs that perform those Offices; as He has also suited and adapted a Property to those Places, whereby they grow and inclose those Seeds, and having inclosed them, provide a convenient Nou­rishment for them; but as soon as they have done the Office of a Womb, they die and wither.

[Page 273]The Progress of Inclosure I have often observ'd in Leaves, which, in those Places where those Seeds have been cast, have by degrees swell'd and inclos'd them, so perfectly round, as not to leave any perceptible pas­sage out.

From this same cause, I suppose that Galls, Oak-Apples, and several other Productions of that kind, upon the Branches and Leaves of Trees, have their Original; for if you open any of them, when almost Ripe, you shall find a little Worm in them.

Thus, if you open never so ma­ny dry Galls, you shall find either a hole whereby the Worm has eat its passage out, or if you find no passage, you may, by breaking or cutting the Gall, find in the middle of it a small Cavity, and in it a small body, which does plainly enough yet retain a shape, to manifest it once to have [...]een a Worm, tho' it died by a too early separation from the Oak on which it grew, its Navel-String, as [Page 274] 'twere, being broken off from the Leaf or Branch by which the Globu­lar body that invelop'd it, receiv'd its Nourishment from the Oak. R. HOOKE's Microg. Pag. 189, 190.

Perchance some kind of IN­SECT, in such places where there are Putrifying or Fermenting Bodies, may, by a certain Instinct of Na­ture, eject some sort of Seminal principle, which Co-operating with various kinds of Putrifying Sub­stances, may produce various kinds of INSECTS, or Animate Bodies: For we find in most sorts of those lower degrees of Animate Bodies: that the Putrifying Substances on which these Eggs, Seeds, or Seminal Principles are cast by the INSECT, become as 'twere, the Matrices or Wombs that conduce very much to their generation, and may perchance also to their variation and alterati­on, much after the same manner, as by strange and unnatural Copula­tions, several new kinds of Animals are produc'd, as Mules, and the [Page 275] [...]ike, which are usually call'd Mon­ [...]trous, because a little unusual, though many of them have all their princi­pal parts as perfectly shap'd and a­ [...]aapted for their peculiar uses, as [...]ny of the most perfect Animals. [...] therefore the Putrifying Body, [...]n which any kind of Seminal or [...]ital principle chances to be cast, [...]ecome somewhat more than meer­ [...]y a Nursing and Fostering Helper, [...]n the Generation and Producti­ [...]n of any kind of Animate Bo­ [...]y, the more near it approaches [...]he true Nature of a Womb, the [...]ore Power will it have on the [...]y-Blow it incloses. HOOKE ibid. [...]ag. 123.

Observations concerning the ANT, EMMET or PISMIRE.

THIS little Animal is that great Pattern of Industry and Frug [...]lity: To this School-mast [...] did Soloman send his Sluggard, who in those Vertues not only excels al [...] Insects, but most Men. Other Ex­cellent Observables there are in [...] small a Fabrick: As the Hercule [...] strength of its Body, that it is a­ble to carry its Triple Weight and Bulk: The Agility of its Limbs that it runs so swiftly: The equa­lity of its Motion, that it trips [...] nimbly away without any salienc [...] or leaping, without any fits or start in its Progression. Her Head i [...] large and globular, with a Promi­nent Snou [...]: Her Eye is of a very fair black Colour, round, globula [...] and Prominent, of the bigness of P [...]a, Foraminulous, and Letticed like that of other Insects: He mouth (in which you may se [...] [Page 277] something to move) is arm'd with a pair of Pincers, which move late­rally, and are indented on the in­side like a Saw, by which she bites, and better holds her Prey; and you may often see them carry their White Oblong Eggs in them for better Se­curity. HENR. POWER's Micro­scop. Observ. Pag. 25.

There have occur'd to my Obser­vation but three sorts of ANTS, commonly without Wings; viz. very Black; Dark Brown; and the Third sort of near the Colour usually call'd Philemort.

Each kind Inhabit by themselves in their several Banks; Two sorts seldom or never being [...]ound toge­ther; and if either of the other Two sorts be put into the Black ANTS Bank, 'tis worth observing what enmity there is betwixt these [...]ittle Creatures, and with what vio­ [...]ence the Black on [...]s will seize on [...]he Red, never leaving to pinch [...]hem on the Head with their For­ [...]eps or Claws, till they have kill'd [Page 278] them upon the Place: Which done, they will carry them dead out of the Field, from their Bank. But if you put Black ANTS into a Bank of the Red, the Black seem to be so sensible of the strangeness of the Place they are in, that there they will not meddle with the Red, but as if they were Frighted, and con­cern'd for nothing but self-preserva­tion, run away.

Upon opening of these Banks, [...] observe first a White Substance, which to the bare Eye looks like the scatterings of fine White Sugar, o [...] Salt, but very soft and tender; and if you take a bit of it, as big per­haps as a Mustard Seed, and lay i [...] on the Object Plate of a good Mi­croscope, you may by opening i [...] with the Point of a Needle, discern many pure, White and Clear Ap­pearances in distinct Membrans, al [...] figur'd like the lesser sort o [...] Birds Eggs, and as clear as a Fishes Blad­der. This same Substance, as it hath been j [...]st now describ'd, I find in [Page 279] the ANTS themselves, which I take to be the true ANTS Eggs; it being obvious to Observation that where ever this is uncover'd, they make it their business to carry it away in their Mouths to secure it, and will, after you have scatter'd it, lay it on a heap again, with what speed they can.

I Observe they lie in multitudes upon this (if I may so call it) Spawn of theirs; and after a little time, every one of these small adherances is turn'd into a little Vermicle, as small as a Mite, hardly discern'd to stir; but after a few days more, you may perceive a feeble Motion of Flexion, and Extention, and they begin to look Yellowish and Hairy, shaped very like a small Maggot; and so keeping that Shape, grow almost as big as an ANT, and have every one a black spot on them.

Then they get a Film over them, whitish, and of an Oval shape, for which reason I suppose they are [Page 280] commonly call'd ANTS Eggs, which yet (to speak properly they) are not.

I have, to prevent mistakes, o­pen'd many of these vulgarly call'd ANTS Eggs, I mean, the lesser sort, (for there are some as big as a Wheat-Corn, others less than a Rye-Corn) and in Some I find only a Maggot, to appearance, just such as was describ'd before: In O [...]ers, I find a Maggot beginning to put on the Shape of an ANT about the Head, with Two little Yellow Specks where the Eyes are design'd: In Others, a further progress, and furnisht with every thing to com­pleat the Shape of an ANT, but wholly transparent, the Eyes only excepted, which are then as black as black Bugles.

But when they have newly put on this Shape, I could never discern the least Motion in any one part of the little Creature, whereof the Reason may perhaps be, the weak­ness of their Fibres; for after a lit­tle [Page 281] more time, when they begin to be Brownish, they have strength to stir all their parts.

At last I met with some of these reputed Eggs, which being careful­ly op [...]n'd by me, I took out seve­ral of them, every way perfect and compleat ANTS, which did imme­diately creep about among the rest, no way differing from many other ANTS, but by a more feeble mo­tion of their Limbs. And this I took for a clear Demonstration of what I design'd, which was to know, That the Film does only co­ver the Maggot, while she is trans­forming into an ANT, and fit to shift for her self.

The Black Speck that is at one end of every such reputed ANTS Egg, I suppose to be cast out of the Maggot, in her transformation; since, after it puts on the Shape of an ANT, the Speck is quite gone, and the whole Body of the ANT pure clear; since also this Speck at the end of the said Egg, lies always [Page 282] close to the Anus of the included ANT.

As to their care for their Young, (by which I mean, all the Sorts and Degrees aforesaid, from the Spawn to the vulgarly call'd Eggs, in every one of which you'l find a Young ANT,) it is observable, how upon the breaking up of their Banks, they make it their business immediately to carry their Young out of sight again, laying the seve­ral sorts of them in several places and heaps: The which if you min­gle again or scatter, you shall, lay­ing but some bits of Slate, or the like, in any place they may come to and get under, after a few Hours see all the Vermicles, and vulgarly call'd Eggs, laid in their several and distinct parcels, under such pieces of Slate, &c. provided the place be not so cold as to chill their Limbs; which if it be, by be­ing brought to the Fire they will soon recover their strength, and [Page 283] fall to their business again, of se­curing their little Ones.

I have observ'd in Summer, That in the Morning they bring [...] those of their Young (that are vulgarly call'd ANTS Eggs) towards the top of their Bank; so that you may from Ten in the Morning, until Five or Six in the Afternoon, find them near the top; especially about One, Two, or Three of the Clock, and later, if the Weather be hot, when for the most part they are found on the South-Side of the Bank: That towards Seven or Eight at Night, if it be Cool, or likely to Rain, you may dig a Foot deep before you can find them. EDMVND KING, M. D. his Observ. concerning Emmits or ANTS. Which you may find in the PHILOS. TRANSACT. Numb. 23. Pag. 425, 426, 427.

The next of these moving little Animals, are ANTS or PISMIRES, and those are but of a small Size, but great in Industry; and that [Page 284] which gives them means to attain to their Ends, is, they have all One Soul. If I should say, they are here or there, I should do them wrong; for they are every where, under Ground, where any hollow or loose Earth is, amongst the Roots of Trees, upon the Bodies, Branches, Leaves, and Fruit of all Trees, in all places, without the Houses and within, upon the Sides, Walls, Win­dows, and Roofs without; and on the Floors, Side-Walls, Cielings, and Windows within, Tables, Cup-Boards, Beds, Stools, all are co­ver'd with them, so that they are a kind of Vbiquitaries. The Cock­roaches are their Mortal Enemies, and tho' they are not able to do them any Mischief, being Living, (by Reason they are far stronger, and mightier than a Hundred of them, and if they should force any One of them with Multitudes, he has the liberty of his Wings to make his escape) yet, when they find him dead, they will divide him a­mongst [Page 245] them into Atoms; and to that purpose, they carry him home to their Houses or Nests. We sometimes kill a Cockroach, and throw him on the Ground, and Mark what they will do with him; his Body is bigger than a Hundred of them, and yet they will find the Means to take hold of him, and lift him up; and having him above Ground, away they carry him, and some go by as ready As­sistants, if any be weary; and some are the Officers that lead and shew the way to the Hole into which he must pass; and if the Van Cou­riers perceive, that the Body of the Cockroach lies cross, and will not pass through the Hole, or Arch, through which they mean to carry him, Order is given, and the Body turn'd Endwise, and this done a Foot before they come to the Hole, and that without any stop or stay, and this is Observable, that they never pull contrary ways.

[Page 286]Those that are Curious, and will prevent their coming on their Ta­bles, Cupboards, or Beds, have lit­tle Hollows of Timber, fill'd with Water, for the Feet of these to stand in; but all this will not serve their turn; for they will some of them go up to the Cieling, and let themselves fall upon the Teasters of the Beds, Cupboards, and Ta­bles.

To prevent them from coming on our Shelves where our Meat is kept, we hang them to the Roof by Ropes, and Tarr those Ropes, and the Roofs over them, as also the Strings of our Hamocks, for which Reason we avoid them better in Ha­mocks than in Beds.

Sometimes when we try Con­clusions upon them, we take the Carpet off the Table, and shake it, so that all the ANTS drop off, and rub down the Legs and Feet of those Tables, (which stood not in Water,) and having done so, we lay on the Carpet again, and set [Page 287] upon it a Sallet-Dish, or Trencher, with Sugar in it, which some of them in the Room will presently smell, and make towards it as fast as they can, which is a long jour­ny, for he must begin at the Foot of the Table, and come as high as the inside of the Carpet, and so go down to the bottom and up of the outside of the Carpet, before he gets on the Table, and then to the Sugar, which he smells to; and having found it, returns again the same way, without taking any for his pains, and informs all his Friends of this Booty; who come in Thou­sands, and Ten Thousands, and in an instant, fetch it all away; and when they are thickest upon the Table, clap a large Book (or any thing fit for that purpose) upon them, so hard as to kill all that are under i [...], and when you have done so, take away the Book, and leave them to themselves, but a Quarter of an Hour, and when you come again, you shall find all those Bo­dies [Page 288] carried away. Other Tryals we make of their Ingenuity, as this Take a Pewter Dish, and fill it half full of Water, into which put a li [...]tle Gally-Pot fill'd with Sugar, and the ANTS will presently find it, and come upon the Table; but when they perceive it Environ'd with Water, they try about the brims of the Dish, where the Gally-Pot is nearest, and there the most venturous amongst them, commits himself to the Water, tho' he be conscious how ill a Swimmer he is, and is drown'd in the Adventure: The next is not warn'd by his Ex­ample, but ventures too; and is a like dr [...]wn'd, and many more, so that there is a small Foundation of their Bodies to venture on; and then they come faster than ever, and so make a Bridge of their own Bodies, for their Friends to pass on; neglecting their Lives for the good of the Publick; for before they make an End, they will make way for the rest, and become Ma­sters [Page 289] of the Prize. I had a little White Sugar which I desir'd to keep from them, and was devising which way to do it, and I knockt a Nail in the Beam of the Room, and fastned to it a brown Thread, at the lower end of which Thread, I tied a large Shell of a Fish, which being hollow, I put the Sugar in, [...]nd lockt the Door, thinking it safe; but when I return'd, I found three Quarters of my Sugar gone, and the ANTS in abundance, as­cending and descending, like the Angels on Iacob's Ladder, as I have seen it Painted, so that I found no place safe, from these more than busie Creatures.

Another sort of ANTS there are, but nothing so numerous or harm­ful as the other, but larger by far; These build great Nests, as big as Bee-Hives, against a Wall, or a Tree, of Clay and Lome, some­times within Doors, and in it several little Mansions, such as Bees make for themselves, but nothing so cu­rious; [Page 290] These the Cockroaches and Lizzards meet withal, way-laying them near their Nests, and feed upon them: which to prevent, they make from thence many and several Galleries, that reach some of them Six or Seven Yards several ways, of the same Earth they do their Nests: So that for such a distance as that, they are not to be per­ceiv'd, by any of their Enemies, and commonly their Avenues go out amongst Leaves, or Moss, or some other Covert, that they may not be perceiv'd: But the most of These are in the Woods; for we have destroy'd their Nests, and their Galleries within Doors so of­ten, as they are weary of Build­ing, and so quit the House: I can say nothing of These, but that they are the quickest at their Work of Building, of any little Creatures that ever I saw. LIGON's Hist. of Barbadoes, Pag. 63, 64.

Mr. Iohn Ray observes, that the Liquor which ANTS sometimes let [Page 291] fall from their Mouths, dropping upon the Blue Flowers of Cichory, immediately gives them a large Red Stain; and supposeth, it would produce the like in other Blue Flowers.

Mr. Samuel Fisher saith, that not only the Iuice, but also the Distill'd Water or Spirit of this Insect will produce the same Effect.

Mr. Ray says, That the said Mr. Fisher had some Years since ac­quainted him with this Experi­ment, viz. That if with a Staff, or other Instrument, you stir an heap of ANTS, (especially Horse-ANTS) so as to anger them, they will let fall thereon a Liquor, which if you presently smell to, will twinge the Nose like newly Distill'd Spirit of Vitriol. PHILOS. TRANSACT. Numb. 68.

'Tis a Thing well known, that ANTS, if they get into Peoples Clothes, and so to their Skin, will cause a smart and tingling, as if they were Nettled: which, saith [Page 292] Mr. Ray, I conceive is done by let­ting fall the fore-mentioned Corro­sive Liquor, rather than by Sting­ing. PHILOS. TRANSACT. Ibid.

The Liquor of ANTS is com­mended by Schroder for a most Ex­cellent Ophthalmick.

Mr. Evelyn in that most Incom­parable and Useful Discourse of Fo­rest-Trees, saith, That PISMI [...]ES may be destroy'd with Scalding Water, and disturbing their Hills, or rubbing the Stem with Cow-Dung, or a decoction of Tithy-Male, wash­ing the infested parts; this, saith He, will insinuate, and chase them quite out of the Chinks and Crevises, without prejudice to the Tree, and is a good prevention of other In­firmities: They are also to be de­stroy'd by laying Soot, Saw-Dust, or refuse Tobacco, where they haunt, Chap. XXVII. Sect. 19.

Observations concerning BEES.

THE Eye of a BEE is of a pro­tuberant Oval Figure, black and all foraminulous, drill'd full of innumerable Holes like a Grater or Thimble; and, which is more won­derful, we could plainly see, that the Holes were all of a square Fi­gure like an Honey-Comb, and stuck full of small Hairs (like the Pores in our Skin) and which (by blowing upon) you might see wa [...]t to and fro; All which neat particu­larities were more palpably disco­ver'd in the Eye of a great HUM­BLE-BEE. Now these Holes were not absolute perforations, but only dimples in their Crustaceous [...]unica Cornea; which it seems is full of little Pit-Holes, like the Cap of a Thimble: For we cut out the Eye in a large HUMBLE-BEE and Crecket, and bared the Shell or Hor­ney-Coat of the Eye; and laying either the Convex or Concave sid [...] [Page 294] upwards (upon the Object Plate) I could easily perceive the little Holes or Dimples formerly menti­on'd. So that, by the favour of our Microscope. I have seen more in One Hour, than that Famous BEE-Master Aristomachus did in his Fifty Years Contemplation of those Laborious Insects.

If you divide the BEE (or HUM­BLE-BEE especially) near the Neck, you shall, without help of the Glass, see the Heart beat most lively, which is a White Pulsing Vesicle.

The Stings in all BEES are hol­low and tubulous (like a Shooma­ker's-Punch) so that when they prick the Flesh, they do also, through that Channel, transfuse the Poy­son into it: For if you take a BEE, Wasp, or HUMBLE-BEE especially, and gently squeeze her Tail, so that you may see the Sting, you shall perceive a drop of Diaphanous Liquor at the very end of it, which if you wipe off, you shall distinctly see it renew'd again, [Page 295] that Humour passing down the Cavity into the end thereof. POW­ER's Microscop. Observ. pag. 3, 4.

The Sting of a BEE seems to be a Weapon of Offence, and is as great an instance, that Nature did really intend Revenge as any, and that First, because there seems to be no other use of it. Secondly, by Rea­son of its admirable shape, seeming to be purposely shap'd for that very end. Thirdly, from the Virulency of the Liquor it ejects, and the sad Ef­fects and Symptoms that follow it.

But whatever be the Use of it, certain it is, that the Structure of it is very admirable; what it ap­pears to the Naked Eye, I need not describe, the Thing being known almost to every One; but it ap­pears through the Microscope, to consist of Two parts, the One a Sheath, without a Chape or top, shap'd almost like the Holster of a Pistol; this Sheath I could most plainly perceive to be hollow, and to contain in it, both a Sword or [Page 296] Dart, and the Poysonous Liquor that causes the Pain. The Sheath or Case seem'd to have several Joynts or Settings together, it was arm'd moreover near the top, with several Crooks or Forks on one side, and on the other, each of which seem'd like so many Thorns grow­ing on a Briar, or rather like so many Cat's Claws; for the Crooks themselves seem'd to be little sharp transparent Points or Claws, grow­ing out of little Protuberancies on the side of the Sheath; and from several particulars, I suppose the Animal has a power of displaying them, and shutting them in again, as it pleases, as a Cat does its [...], or as an Adder or Viper can its Teeth or Fangs.

The other part of the Sting was the Sword, as I may so call it, which is Sheath'd, as it were, in it; the top of which appears quite through at the smaller end, just as if the Chape of the Sheath of a Sword w [...]re l [...]st, and the end of [Page 297] it appear'd beyond the Scabbard; the end of this Dart was very sharp, and it was arm'd likewise with the like Tenterbooks or Claws with those of the Sheath: These Crooks, I am very apt to think, can be clos'd up also, or laid flat to the sides of the Sword when it is drawn into the Scabbard, as I have several times observ'd it to be, and can be spread again, or extended, when-ever the Animal pleases.

The Consideration of which very pretty Structure, has hinted to me, that certainly the Use of these Claws seems to be very Considera­ble, as to the Main end of this In­strument, for the drawing in, and holding the Sting in the Flesh; for the point being very sharp, the top of the Sting or Dagger is very easily thrust into an Animal's Body, which being once [...]ntred, the BEE, by endeavouring to pull it into the Sheath, draws (by Reason of the Cro [...]ks which lay hold of the Skin on either side) the top of the [Page 298] Sheath into the Skin after it, and the Crooks being entred, when the BEE endeavours to thrust out the top of the Sting out of the Sheath again, they lay hold of the Skin on either side, and so not only keep the Sheath from sliding back, but helps the top inwards, and thus, by an alternate and successive retracting and emitting of the Sting in and out of the Sheath, the little enrag'd Creature by degrees makes his revengful Weapon pierce the toughest and thickest Hides of his Enemies, in so much that some few of these stout and resolute Sol­diers with these little Engines, do often put to flight a huge Masty Bear, one of their deadly Enemies, and thereby shew the World, how much more considerable in War a few skilful Engineers, and resolute Souldiers politickly order'd, that know how to manage such Engines, are, than a vast unweildy rude force, that confides in, and Acts only by, its strength. But (to pro­ceed) [Page 299] that he thus gets in his Sting into the Skin, I conjecture, because, when I have observ'd this Creature living, I have found it to move the Sting thus, to and fro, and thereby also, perhaps, does as 'twere, pump or force out the Poysonous Liquor, and make it hang at the end of the Sheath in a drop. The Crooks, I suppose also, to be the cause why these angry Creatures, hastily removing themselves from their Revenge, do often leave these Weapons behind them, Sheath'd, as 'twere in the Flesh, and, by that Means, cause the painful Symptoms to be greater, and more lasting, which are very probably caus'd, partly by the piercing and tearing of the Skin, by the Sting, but chiefly by the Corrosive and Poyso­nous Liquor that is by this Syringe-Pipe convey'd among the Sensitive Parts, and thereby more easily gnaws and corrodes those tender Fibres. HOOK's Microg. Pag. 163, 164.

[Page 300]Those Two Learned and Ingeni­ous Persons, Dr. Edmund King, and Mr. Francis Willoughby, give an account of a sort of Wild BEE, which breeds in the Stocks of old Willows. Curious to Observe. They first bore a Canale in the Stock, which, for more Warmth, they Furnish afterwards with Hangings, made of Rose-leaves, so roll'd up, as to be Contiguous round about to the sides of the Canale. And to finish their Work, they divide the whole into several Rooms or Nests, with round Pieces of the same leaves. See this more at large, in the PHILOSOPH. TRANSACT. Numb. 65.

The under or hinder Wings of a BEE, are the least; that they may not incommode his fl [...]ght. In Win­dy Weather, BEES often hold a little Stone in their hinder Feet; which serves as a balast to make them Sail through the Air more Steadily. M [...]V F. De INSECT. Cap 1.

[Page 301]The Humming of BEES, is an unequal Buzzing; and is con­ceiv'd by some of the Ancients, not to come forth at their Mouth, but to be an Inward Sound: But it may be, it is neither; but from the motion of their Wings; for, it is not heard but when they Stir. BACON's Nat. Hist.

Sugar hath put down the use of Honey; insomuch as we have lost those Observations, and Preparati­ons of Honey, which the Antients had, when it was more valu'd. First, it seemeth that there was in Old Time, Tree-Honey, as well as BEE-Honey, which was the Tear or Blood issuing from the Tree: Insomuch as one of the Ancients relateth, that in Tribesond there was Honey issuing from the Box-Trees, which made Men mad. A­gain, in Ancient Time, there was a kind of Honey, which either of its own Nature, or by art, would grow as Hard as Sugar; And was [Page 302] not so Lushious as ours. IDEM Ibid.

The Honey-Bag, is the Stomach, which they always fill to Satisfie, and to spare; Vomiting up the greater part of the Honey, to be kept against Winter.

The History of BEES, is the best that Aristotle hath given us, of any one Animal. Of their Polity, Generation, Conservation, Diseases, and Use: See also Moufet, But­ler, and a late Treatise of Mr. Rusden. All that Authors speak of the Spontaneous Generation of BEES, is Fabulous. The Ashes of BEES are put into most Compositions for Breeding of Hair, GREW's Mus. REG. SOC. Pag. 155.

Observations concerning the GLO­WORM.

HER Eyes (which are Two small black Points or Specks of Iett) are Pent-hous'd under the broad Flat Cap or Plate which co­vers her head; which obscure Situ­ation, together with their exceed­ing exiguity, make them undiscern­able to common Spectators. Yet in the Microscope they appear very fair, like black Polish'd Iett or Marble, Semi-globular, and all fo­raminulous, or full of small but very curious Persorations, (as in com­mon Flies.) Her two Horns are all joynted and degreed like the stops in the Germination of some Plants, as Horse-tail and Canes: Under which she hath two other small Horns or Pointers, of the same Stuff and fashion. If you take hold of her Horns, you may draw out her Eys, and cut them out, and so lay [Page 304] them on your Object Plate and see them distinctly.

This is that Night-Animal with its Lanthorn in its Tail; that creep­ing Star that seems to out shine those of the Firmament, and to ou [...]vye them too in this property especially; that whereas the Cele­stial-Lights are quite obscur'd by the Int [...]rposition of a small Cloud, this Terrestrial-Star is more Enliven'd and Enkindl'd thereby, whose plea­sant sulgour no Darkness is able to Eclipse. POWER's Microscop. Ob­serv. Pag. 23, 24.

The Nature of the GLOWORM is hitherto not well Observ'd. Thus much we see, that they breed chief­ly in the hotest Months of Summer; And that they breed not in the open Air, but in Bushes and Hedges. Whereby it may be conceiv'd, that the Spirit of them is very fine, and not to be refin'd, but by Summers Heats: And again, that by reason of the Fineness it doth easily exhale. In Italy, and the Hotter Countries, [Page 305] there is a Flie they call Lucciole, that Shineth as the GLO-WORM does; and it may be is the Flying GLO-WORM. But that Flie is chiefly upon Fens and Marishes. But yet the Two former Observati­ons hold; for they are not seen, but in the Heat of Summer; and Sedge or other Green of the Fens, give as good Shade, as Bushes. It may be the GLO-WORMS of the Cold Countries Ripen not so far as to be Wing'd. BACON's Nat. Hist.

The FLYING GLO-WORMS are in Italy every where to be seen in Summer Time. These Flying or Winged GLO-WORMS are no­thing else but the Males of the Common Creeping or Unwing'd GLO-WORMS. Fabius Columna, relates, that Carolus Vintimiglia of Palermo in Sicily, having out of Curi­osity kept many Unwinged GLO-WORMS in a Glass, did put in a­mong them a Flying one, which presently in his Sight did Couple [Page 306] with them one by one, after the manner of Silk-Worms; and that the next day the Vnwinged ones, or Fe­males, began to lay their Eggs. That the Males are also Flying Insects in England, though they do but rarely or not at all shine with us, we are assured by an Eye Witness; who saw them in Con­junction with the Common shining Vnwinged GLO-WORMS. Here by the way it may not be amiss to impart to the Reader a discovery made by a certain Gentleman, and Communicated to me by Francis Iessop Esq which is, that those re­puted Meteors called in Latine Ignes Fatui, and known in England by the Conceited Names of Iack with a Lanthorn, and Will with a Wisp, are nothing else but swarms of these Flying GLO-WORMS. Which if true, we may give an easie account of those strange Phoenomena of these supposed Fires, viz. their sudden Motion from Place to Place, and leading Travellers that follow them [Page 307] into Bogs and Precipices. IOH. RAY's Observat. Topograph. Pag. 409.410.

The Cicindela Volans, or Flying GLO-WORM, tho it hath been pretty well describ'd by several Writers that treat of Insects, yet I think has been by none menti­on'd to be found in England, and indeed it is very rare, but I have happen'd to catch twice of them at Northaw in Hertford-shire; First about Midsummer 1680, and for a Fortnight in Iune 1684. they slew about the Candle as soon as it grew Dark; at both which times the Weather was very Hot, and it may be it Shines only at such Seasons, tho the Animal be easie enough to be met withall Winged when it Shines not, and without Wings shining, which is the Common GLO-WORM.

Aldrovandus affirms, Ovis quae parit Cicindela, Erucam quandam fieri, & ex hac tandem alatam gigni, &c. It is much to the same purpose [Page 308] describ'd by Moufet and Thomas Bar­tholin in his Treatise De luce Anima­lium: Save that they both, I think, mistake in allowing the Male only to have Wings, whereas they both flie alike, as we may conclude was known to Iulius Scaliger, Exercit. 191, from a Place it seems not regarded, tho Cited by Moufet, where he says, Cicindelam Volantem cum suo M [...]r [...] in Coitu deprehendi, &c. The same which happened to [...], for I once caught the Male and F [...]l [...] Coupl'd, and could Ob­serve no difference between them, except in Size, the Female being a little the larger, for they both shined alike. Its Light was very Vivid, so as to be seen plainly when a Candle was in the Room, but the Vibrations thereof were unequal, and the Colour Greenish, like that of the Creeping GLO-WORM. The Luminous Part was two small Specks on the under si [...]e of the Tail at its end. The shinin [...] continued for a little while [Page 309] after the Tail was cut off, tho it sensibly decay'd, till at last it went quite out. Whether it shined longer than the life remain'd in that Part (which will live for a Considerable time in all Insects, after it has been sever'd from the Body,) I much doubt; and Moufet says, Clarissimum istum Splendorem unà cum Spiritu Vitali prorsus evanescere. Possibly the use of this Light is to be a Lantern to the Insect in catching its Prey, and to direct its Course by in the Night, which is made probable, by the Position of it on the under Part of the Tail, so that by bending the same downward (as I al­ways observ'd it to do,) it gives a light forward upon the Prey or Object: The Luminous Rayes in the mean time not being at all incommodious to its sight, as they would have been, if this Torch had been carried before it. This Conjecture is also favour'd by the placing of the Eyes, which are on the under Part of the Head, not on the Top. I observ'd [Page 310] also that it could, and did by some contrivance Cover its Light, and make a kind of Dark Lant­horn.

This Insect appears to be of the Beetle kind; it is of a dark brown Colour unpolisht, when the Case Wings are open'd, it extends Two very large Membranous Wings, fast­ned to the upper part of the Tho­rax; its head is Cover'd as it we [...]e were with a Shield, or broad-brim'd Hat.

The Two Eyes under the broad Covering are black, and very large, making almost the whole Head; there being little else to be seen: these are Movable, so that the Ani­mal can thrust them forward to the edge of its Hat. From between these are discover'd the Two hairy feelers, or perhaps Brushes to cleanse the Eyes. Between these Eyes and the Thorax lies the Mouth: On the Thorax are Six Legs almost all of a Length. The Tail is made of Seven Shelly Rings, at the [Page 311] last of which are visible the Two Shining Points. RICHARD WAL­LER Esq his Observ. PHILOS. TRANSACT. Numb. 167.

The Ingenious Mr. Iohn Templer, in his accurate Observations upon this Insect, one whereof he kept for some days in a Box, to enable him the better to make his Remarks, says, That he never saw her Shine without some Sensible Motion either in her Body or Legs; and that in her Clearest Shining she extends her Body a Third Part beyond its usual Length.

He further Observes, That, if his Senses fail him not, she emits a Sensible Heat in her Clear Shin­ing. PHILOSOPH. TRANSACT. Numb. 72.

Wondrous things are promis'd from the GLOWORM; thereof Perpetual Lights are pretended, and Waters said to be distill'd, which af­ford a Lustre in the Night; and this is asserted by Carden, Albertus, Gaudentinus, Mizaldus, and many [Page 312] more. But hereto we cannot with reason assent; for the Light made by this Animal, depends upon a Living Spirit, and seems by some Vital Irradiation to be actuated into this Luster. For, when they are dead, they Shine not, nor always while they are alive, but are ob­scure, or give Light, according to the Disfusion of this Spirit, and the Protrusion of their Lumino [...]s Parts, as Observation will instruct us. For this Flammeous Light is not over all the Body, but only visible on the inward side; in a small White part near the Tail. When this is full, and seemeth pro­truded, there ariseth a Flame of a Circular Figure, and Emrald-Green Colour; which is more Discerna­ble in any Dark place, than day; but when it falleth and seemeth con­tracted, the Light disappears, and the Colour of that part only re­mains. Now this Light, as it ap­peareth and disappeareth in their Life, so doth it go quite out at their [Page 313] Death. As we have Observ'd in some, which, preserv'd in fresh Grass, have Liv'd and Shin'd Eigh­teen Days; but as they declin'd, their Light grew Languid, and at last went out with their Lives. BROWN's Vulg. Errors.

Observations concerning SPIDERS.

NOW let us see what we can discover in Ovid's Lydian Spinstress, that proud Madam, which Pallas, for her Rivalship, transform'd into the SPIDER; which hath not only the Character of Aristotle, but of Solomon himself, for a Wise and Prudent Animal, and therefore a fit Residentiary in the Court of Kings.

Of Domestick SPIDERS there are Two Sorts; One with longer Legs, and a little Body, and the other contrariwise.

The First eminent thing we found in these House-SPIDERS, were [Page 314] their Eyes, which in some were Four, in some Six, and in some Eight, according to the proportion of their bulk, and length of their Legs. These Eyes are plac'd all in the forefront of their Head ( [...]hich is round, and without any Neck) all diaphanou [...] and transparent, like a Locket of Diamonds, or [...] Set of round Crystal Beads: So that well might Muffet say of those Philoso­phers that held them blind, Sanè coecutiunt illi summo Meridie, qui videre ipsas non vident n [...]que intelli­gunt: Far better might he have said it, if his Eyes had had the assistance of our Microscope.

Neither wonder, why Providence should be so Anomalous in this Ani­mal, more than in any other we know of (Argus's Head being fix'd to Arachne's Shoulders.) For, First: Since they wanting a Neck cannot move their Head, it is requisite that defect should be supply'd by the multiplicity of Eyes. Secondly: Since they were to live by catching [Page 315] so nimble a Prey as a Flie is, they ought to see her every way, and to take her per Saltum (as they do) without any motion of their Head to discover her; which motion would have scar'd away so timorous an Insect.

They have a very puffy light Body, of an Oval Figure, cover'd with a sleek thin Skin; which they change once a Month, says Muffet; tho' I hardly believe they cast their Spoils so often.

Their Skin is not pellucid, for I could never discover any pulsing Particle within them: She hath Eight Legs, four on each side, split into small oblong Fingers at the Ends, by which she makes her cu­rious Web-Work. Both Body and Limbs is all stuck over with small Silver-Hairs, which the very Air will waft to and fro, as you may see in the Microscope. POWER's Mi­croscop. Observ. pag. 11, 12.

There are Multitudes of several sorts of SPIDERS, whose Eyes, [Page 316] and most other Parts and Proper­ties, are so exceedingly different from one another, that it would be almost endless to describe them, as Some with Six Eyes, plac'd in quite another Order; Others with Eight Eyes, others with fewer, and Some with more. They all seem to be Creatures of Prey, and to feed on other small Insects, but their ways of catching them seem very differing: The Shepherd SPIDER by running on his Prey; The Hunting SPIDER by leaping on it; Other Sorts weave Nets, or Cobwebs, whereby they insnare them, Nature having both sitted them with Materials and Tools, and taught them how to Work and Weave their Nets, and to lie perdue, and to watch diligently to run on any Flie, as soon as ever entangl'd.

Their Thread or Web seems to be Spun out of some Viscous kind of Excrement, lying in their Belly, which, tho' soft when drawn out, is presently, by Reason of its small­ness, [Page 317] harden'd and dried by the Ambiet Air; examining several of which with my Microscope, I found them to appear much like White Horse-Hair, or some such transparent horny substance, and to be of very differing Magnitudes; Some appearing as big as a Pig's Bristle; Others equal to a Horse­Hair; Others no bigger than a Man's Hair; Others yet smaller and finer. I observ'd further, that the radiating Chords of the Web were much bigger, and smoother than those that were Woven round, which seem'd smaller, and all over knotted or pearl'd, with small transparent Globules, not unlike small Crystal-Beads or Seed-Pearls, thin strung on a Clew of Silk; which, whe­ther they were to Spun by the SPIDER, or by the adventitous Moisture of a Fogg (which I have observ'd to cover all these Filaments with such Crystalline Beads) I will not now dispute. HOOK's Microg. Observ. 48.

[Page 318]The long Threads in the Air in Summer, and especially towards September, have been a strange puz­zle to the Wiser World. It would divert you, tho' you know them as well as I, if I should here reckon up the ridiculous Opinions concern­ing them: but I shall omit them, and proceed to tell you the certain and immediate Authors of them, and how they make them.

I say then, that all SPIDERS, that Spin in a Thread, (those, which we call Shepherds, or long­Legg'd SPIDERS, never do;) are the Makers of these Threads, so much wonder'd at, and in such in­finite quantities every where.

I sent you the last Summer a Catalogue of Thirty sorts of SPI­DERS, that I had distinguisht here with us in England; and I must confess, I had well near compleated that Number, with many other Experiments concerning them, be­fore I discover'd this Secret.

[Page 319]I had exactly Mark'd all the ways of Weaving, us'd by any sorts of them, and in those admirable Works I had ever noted that they still let down the Thread, they made use of; and drew it after them. Happily at length, in nearly attending on One, that wrought a Net, I saw him suddenly in the Mid-Work to desist, and turning his Tail into the Wind to dart out a Thread with the same violence and stream, as we see Water spout out of a Spring: This Thread ta­ken up by the Wind, was in a moment emitted some Fathoms long, still issuing out of the Belly of the Animal; by and by the SPI­DER leapt into the Air, and the Thread mounted her up swiftly.

After this Discovery, I made the like Observation in almost all the sorts of SPIDERS, I had before distinguish'd; and I found the Air fill'd with Young and Old, sailing on their Threads, and undoubtedly seizing Gnats and other Insects in [Page 320] their passage; there being often as manifest Signs of Slaughter, as Legs, Wings of Flies, &c. on these Threads, as in their Webs below.

One thing yet was a Wonder to me, viz. That many of these Threads, that came down out of the Air, were not single, but snarl'd and with complicable Wooly Locks, sometimes more, sometimes less; and that on these I did not always find SPIDERS, tho' many times I had found Two or Three upon One of them: Whereas when they first flew up, the Thread was still single, or but little tangl'd, or, it may be, thicker in one place than ano­ther. In the End, by good atten­tion I plainly found, what satisfied me abundantly, and that was this; That I observ'd them to get to the top of a Stalk or Bough, or some such like thing, where they Excer­cise this Darting of Threads into the Air, and if they had not a mind to sail, they either swiftly drew it up again, winding it up with [Page 321] their Fore-Feet over their Head in­to a Lock; Or break it off short, and let the Air carry it away. This they will do many times to­gether, and you may see some of them, that have Chains of these Locks, or Snarl'd Thread before them, and yet not taken flight.

Again, I found, that after the first flight, all the time of their Sailing they make Locks, still Dart­ing forth fresh supplies of Thread to sport and sail by.

It is further to be Noted, that these Complicated Threads are much more tender, than our House-Webbs.

In Winter and at Christmass, I have observ'd them busie a Darting, but few of them sail then, and therefore but single Threads only are to be seen; And besides, they are but the Young Ones of last Autumns hatch, that are then em­ploy'd; and it is more than proba­ble, that the great Ropes of Au­tumn are made only by the great [Page 322] Ones, and upon long Passages and Summer Weather, when great Num­bers of Prey may invite them to stay longer up. MARTIN LIS­TER's Observ. See the PHILOS. TRANSACT. Numb. 50.

The Learned and Ingenious Mr. King, Chaplain to Mr. Chetwynd of Staffordshire, tells us, that SPIDERS in projecting a Thread cross a Room in plano Horizontis (which they do for their easier and more direct pas­sage) raise themselves on their Legs, as high as they can, setting them very straight and stiff, and turning their hinder Parts up higher than usual, they will shoot out a Thread to a great distance; which when fasten'd where they would have it, with their Fore-Legs they will wind up the Thread shorter till it is very straight, as the Funambuli strain their Ropes, and then like them too, will get upon it, and run from one end to the other.

And as to their Sailing at the Ends of these Threads, He further [Page 323] observed, not only that they Sailed much swifter than any Wind then stirring could carry them, but that at the same time they constantly Sail'd all the same way, which was not directly with, but as he once noted at Eight Points distance, as it were with a Side-Wind; which plainly shews, that they do not only Row, but Steer too, with the motion of their Feet, according as directed by some Secret Instinct they have in them. PLOT of Stafford­shire, Pag. 239.

Mr. Richard Stafford in a Letter to the Ingenious Mr. Oldenburg, (an Extract whereof you have in the Philos. Transact. Numb. 40.) says, That the Web of a Bermuda-SPI­DER is so strong, as to snare a Bird is big as a Thrush.

At Gresham Colledge, they have some of this Web, where it is wound upon a Paper like Raw Silk.

I know there are some that que­stion the truth of the things related [Page 324] of the TARANTATI (as the Ita­lians call them that are bit by the TARANTULA SPIDER) and I easily grant, that some Fictions may have been suffer'd to pass under the Countenance of so strange a Truth. But besides the Affirmations of some Learned Men, as well Physi­cians as others, my Doubts have been much remov'd by the Accounts I have received from an Ingenious Acquaintance of mine own, who at TARENTUM it self, whence the Insect takes its Name, and else­where, saw many bitten Persons in their Dances, some in publick and some in private places, and a­mongst the rest a Phisician, on whom the Tune that fitted his Distemper had the same Operation as on the other Patients. And the Learned Epiphanius Ferdinandus, who Pra­ctised Physick in Apulia and Cala­bria for many Years, not only de­livers, upon his own Personal Ob­servation, several Narratives of the Effects of Musick upon the TA­RANTATI, [Page 325] but invites any that may doubt of the Truth of such Narratives to repair to him at a fit Season, undertaking to convince them by Ocular Demonstration. ROB. BOTLE of lanquid motion, pag. 75, 76.

Observations concerning the SILK­WORM.

THE use of SILK was brought over from the East-Indies in­to Europe above a Thousand Years since, and was particularly intro­duc'd into Italy by Two Religious Men, who brought thither the Grain of it somewhat above Three Hun­dred Years since; in which Coun­try of Italy, that Commodity hath been much Cultivated, and that up­on several Accounts; as, the pre­ciousness of it, the easie Transpor­tation from one place to another, by Reason of its lightness: And lastly, for that it is one of the prin­cipal [Page 326] Instruments of Luxury, which never wanted Partizans and Abet­tors in any Age, not to mention the great Advantages and Wealth attending the Manufacture of it. The Latine Word SERICUM is re­ceived from that of SERES, an O­riental People, who were more Sedulous in the Cultivation of it than any other: And the same thing that hath happen'd to this, as to many other Excellent Pro­ductions deriv'd from mean an de­spicable Principles. For the Animal, from whose Labour we have the SILK, is an Insect, as are all those which Spin, to wit, the Spider and the Caterpillar, and it differs in no­thing from this latter, save that the Caterpillar hath a little Hairiness, and the Silk of the Silk-Worm is stronger than the Web of the Cater­pillar, and of another Colour, but as to figure and bulk there is little difference between them. Whereto may be added, that their producti­on is much at one, as being as it [Page 327] were hatch'd of certain Eggs, liv­ing on Leaves, inclosing themselves in certain Webs, out of which they make their way, after they are be­come a kind of Butterflies, by a strange Metamorphosis, which forces them from one Extremity to ano­ther, That is, from the Nature of Reptiles to that of Volatiles: Which Transformation is such, as, were it not for the frequency of it, might be plac'd among the greatest Mira­cles of Nature, considering the great difference there is between those Two Forms. And that in­deed is such, as hath given some occasion to doubt, whether the SILK-WORM becoming a BUT­TERFLY did not change its Spe­cies, as certainly it would, were it not that every thing produces its like; and the SILK-WORM deri­ving its Birth from the Seed of the BUTTERFLY, it is an Argument that both are of the same Species. Thus much as to their Progress. The Kingdom of Spain commonly [Page 328] furnishes us with the best Grain or Seed of these Worms, which are like Heads of Pins, but black, or resembling Rape-Seed, somewhat flatted on both sides: This Grain, sometime in the Month of April, being put between two warm Pil­lows, or expos'd to the Sun, en­clos'd in the Linings of ones Cloaths, or otherwise chased by a moderate Heat, but without any Moisture, there are produc'd o [...] it little certain Worms of the same Colour, that is, black at their first coming forth, which by Reason of their smallness, as resembling the Points of Needles, pass through certain little Holes made in a Pa­per, wherewith they are cover'd, and fasten themselves on the Mul­berry-Leaves, which are also placed on the said Paper full of little Holes, upon which Leaves all the best Grain being hatch'd, within Five or Six Days, goes creeping after the first Worm that gets out of her Shell; all that is hatch'd after­wards [Page 329] never coming to any good. These Worms are thence transport­ed, with the Leaves laid upon little Boards or Hurdles, into a temperate place, and dispos'd in a lightsome and spacious Room, where they are Entertain'd with fresh Leaves twice a Day, among which those of the White Mulberry make finer SILK, than those of the Black; for want whereof, the Leaves of the Rose-Bush, Lettice, and some others may be used: But though the Worm makes a shift to Subsist by that Nourishment, yet either it will not Spin at all, or the SILK will be like the Web or Clue wrought by the Caterpillars. Thus it feeds for the space of Forty Days, during which it becomes Grey, and changes its Colour four times, not eating for some Days before each Change, by reason of the fullness it is then sensible of. The Worm is subject to certain Dis­seases; and those oblige such as have the care of them to remove [Page 330] them out of one Room into ano­ther, and that even when they are dying in great quantities; Perfume, Incense, Benjamin, Vinegar, and Wine recovering and comforting them; as also the smell of broil'd Bacon. To prevent which Diseases, and the Assaults of Flies and Pis­mires, who will make havock a­mong them, they are very careful­ly to be kept clean, the Boards on which the Leaves lie to be rubb'd with Wormwood, or sprinkled with Wine, which must be well dry'd up before they come near them, all moisture being hurtful to them, as also Salt, or the hands that have handled it. All harsh sounds, as those of the discharging of Muskets, Bells, and Trumpets, destroy them; nay, the strong Breaths of those who come near them, especially such as have eaten or handled Gar­lick or Onions, are very prejudicial to them. When their time of Spin­ning draws nigh, which is about Six Weeks after their being first a­live [Page 331] at which time they are about the bigness of a Man's little Finger, more transparent than they use to be, and the little Snowt so length­ned, as that it represents the form of a Nose, the Animal by an ex­traordinary motion, expresses the inconvenience it endures by Reason of its burthen: Then is it cleans'd oftner, and there is so much the less given it to eat, and afterwards they set on the Boards some dry'd Branches of Heath, Broom, or Vines, and above all of Birch, as being the most delicate and least prickly, lest it should prick the Worm, or entangle the SILK. Then you shall see them fasten their first Threads, and casting out of their Mouths a kind of coarse Sleeve SILK, and afterwards that which is finer and more perfect, in one continu'd Thread, accompa­ny'd with a Gum, which makes it stick one to another, so that the Worm does encompass it self with that SILK, which is commonly [Page 332] Yellow, very seldom Greenish or White, and being come to the end of the Clue, hath only so much room as it takes up. Then, for the space of Fifteen Days, it re­mains immoveable, and is cover'd with a Skin of Film like that which covers the Fruit of the Pine-Tree, under its Shell, and which appears not till after that is broken. But these Fifteen Days being ove [...] (of which those will abate some, who are desirous to make advantage of the SILK, and trouble not them­selves what becomes of the Grain) the SILK-WORM, though it seem'd to have been dead, breaks through its Web, and comes out in the form of a White and Horned BUT­TERFLY, bearing a certain Image of the Resurrection; then coming together, the Male, which is smal­ler, coupling with the Female that is bigger, the latter sheds her Seed upon a clean Paper, spread under her for the Reception of it. The Seed being carefully put into a Box. [Page 333] is either kept for the next Year, or sold by the Ounce; they com­monly keep as much as comes from a Hundred Males, and so many Females; the Grain or Seed where­of, before their Copulation, is barren. Now, if they be desirous to get SILK out of it, which is the prin­ciple Advantage, in order to which the Worms are kept, about Fifteen Days after they are compleated, these Webs are cast into Water, somewhat better than luke-warm, and the Women and Children em­ploy'd about that Work, stir the Water with an handful of Birch, till they have fasten'd on Seven or Eight Ends of SILK, which hav­ing done, they wind it up into Skains, and that is the Raw SILK. PHILOS. CONFER. of the VIR­TUOSI of France, Vol. 2. Pag. 402, 403, 404.

'Tis to be imagin'd that the use of SILK was absolutely unknown to the Iews, especially when we consider, that in the Works of that [...] [Page 336] of the Worm the Head of the Fly. But Sig. Malpighius makes no men­tion hereof; neither is it any way likely to be so. GREW's Mus. Reg. Soc. Pag. 176.

An Ingenious Gentlewoman of my Acquaintance, Wise to a Learn­ed Phisician, taking much Pleasure to keep SILK-WORMS, had once the Curiosity to draw out one of the Oval Cases, (which the SILK­WORM Spins, not, as 'tis common­ly thought, out of its Belly, but out of the Mouth, whence I have taken Pleasure to draw it out with my Fingers,) into all the SILKEN­Wire it was made up of, which, to the great Wonder as well of her Husband, as her self, who both in­form'd me of it, appear'd to be by Measure a great deal above Three Hundred Yards, and yet weighed but two Grains and a half: So that each Cylindrically shap'd Grain of SILK may well be reckon'd to be at least One Hundred and Twenty Yards long. ROB BOTLE of E [...]flu­viums, Pag. XI.

Observations concerning SNAKES, SERPENTS, or VIPRRS.

IN Barbadoes there are SNAKES about a Yard and a half long, that will slide up the Perpendicular Wall of a House out of one Room into another. A greater agility without Feet, than we see in most Creatures that have Four. Much helped, as it should seem, by their great length; whereby they can, in an instant, reduce themselves in­to so many more undulations for their better ascent. GREW's Mus. REG. SOC.

In Brasile, saith Iob. de Laet, there are SNAKES found sometimes 25 or 30 Foot long. They have also a sort of SERPENT call'd the RATTLE-SNAKE, from the Rat­tle at the end of his Tail. By this Rattle, those that Travel through the Fields, or along the High-Ways, are warned to avoid coming near so noxious a Creature. For those


[Page 340] He also observes, that where [...] commonly it hath hitherto bee [...] believ'd, that the Poyson of VI­PERS being swallow'd, was prese [...] D [...]ath; He, after many reiterate Experiments, tells us, that in V [...] ­PERS there is neither Humou [...] nor Excrement, nor any part, nay not the Gall it self, that, being ta­ken into the Body, kills. And H [...] assures us, that he has seen Me [...] eat, and has often made Brute Ani­mals swallow all that is esteem'd most poysonous in a VIPER, ye [...] without the least Mischief to them [...] And therefore what some Author have affirm'd, viz. That it is Mor­tal to eat of the Flesh of Creature kill'd by VIPERS, Or to drink o [...] the Wine wherein VIPERS hav [...] been drown'd; Or to such the Wounds that have been made by them, is by this Author observ'd to be utterly salse. For He affirms That many Persons have eaten Pul­lets and Pigeons, bitten by VIPERS, without finding any alteration from [Page 341] it in their Health. On the con­trary, He declares, That it is a Soveraign Remedy against the bit­ing of VIPERS, to suck the Wound; alleadging an Experiment made upon a Dog, which he caus'd to be bitten by a VIPER at the Nose, who, by licking his own Wound, sav'd his Life. Which He affirms by the Example of those People, Celebrated in History by the Name of Marsi and Psilli, whose Employ­ment it was to heal those that had been bitten by SERPENTS, by sucking their Wounds.

Again, He adds, That altho Ga­len, and many Modern Physicians, do affirm, that there is nothing, which causeth so much Thirst, as VIPERS-Flesh, yet he hath Expe­rimented the contrary, and known divers Persons, who were wont to eat the Flesh of VIPERS every Meal, and yet did assure him, They never were less dry, than when they observ'd that kind of Diet. [...] [Page 344] the Experiment and found no such matter: Whereupon I got leave (in the absence of the Family) to inclose my SNAKE in the Court, before the Right Honourable the Lord Anglesey's House, to see what time would produce, leaving the Gardener in trust to observe it strictly, who found it, indeed, after three Weeks time dead, without a­ny sensible external hurt.

How this should come to pass, is a Question indeed not easie to determine; but certainly it must not be ascrib'd to the Talismanical Figure of the Stone Ophiomorphites to be found about Adderbury, and in most Blue Clays, whereof there are plenty in this Country. Since these are to be met with about Oxford too, and many other places, where there are SNAKES enough. Beside, we are inform'd by Cardan, that Albertus Magnus had a Stone, that being naturally markt with the Figure of a SERPENT, had this no less admirable than contrary [Page 345] Virtue, that if it were put into a place that was haunted with SER­PENTS, it would draw them all to it. Much rather may we sub­scribe to the Cause assigned by Pliny, who seems confidently to assert, that the Earth that is Black­ish, and standeth much upon Salt­Peter, is freer from Vermin than any other. To which we may add, if need be, Sulphur and Vi­triol, whereof there is plenty in these parts of the Country; but whether by One, Two, or All these, though we dare not pronounce, yet that it is caused by some such Mi­neral Steam disagreeable to the A­nimal, I think we may be Confi­dent. PLOT of Oxfordshire, pag. 187.

My Father in his Voyage to the Levant, giving an Account of what he observ'd in Egypt, has, among other remarkable Things, this pas­sage: Many Rarities of living Crea­tures I saw in Gran Cairo, but the most Ingenious was a Nest of Four-Legged [Page 346] SERPENTS, of Two Foot long, Black, and ugly, kept by a Frenchman, who when he came to handle them, they would not en­dure him, but ran and hid in their Hole; then would he take his Cit­tern, and play upon it; They, hear­ing his Musick, came all crawling to his Feet, and began to climb up him, till he gave over playing, then away they ran. Sir HENR. BLOUNT's Voyage into the Levant, Pag. 58, 59.

That which is mentioned by Sir Henry Blount about the Effect of Musick upon SERPENTS at Grand Cairo, may be not only confirm'd but exceeded, by a strange Relati­on that I had from a Person of unsuspected Credit. Which Narra­tive having appear'd to me so con­siderable, as well to deserve a place among my Adversaria, I shall subjoyn that part of it which concerns our present Subject, in the Words wherein I find it set down.

[Page 347] Sir I.C. A very candid and ju­dicious Traveller, favouring me yesterday with a Visit, told me a­mong other remarkable Things re­lating to the East-Indies, (which Countries He had curiously visited,) that He, with divers European Mer­chants had seen, (and that if I mi­stake not, several times) an Indian, who by many was thought to be a Magician, that kept tame SER­PENTS of a great Bulk. And that when the Owner of them plaid upon a Musical Instrument, these SERPENTS would raise themselves upright into the Air, leaving upon the Ground but 3 or 4 Inches of their Tail, upon which they lean'd for their Support. He added, that at the same time that they erected their Bodies, they also stretcht and lengthen'd them in a strange and frightful manner; and whilest they were thus slender, they were taller than He, or any Man of ordinary Stature. But that which appear'd to Him the most Wonderful and [Page 348] Surprizing, was, that they mani­festly seem'd to be very much af­fected with the Musick they heard; insomuch that some parts of the Tune would make them move to and fro with a surprising agility, and some other Parts of it would cast them into a Posture, wherein they seem'd to be half asleep, and as it were to melt away with Plea­sure. ROB. BOTTLE of the Insalu­brity and Salubrity of the Air, pag. 135, 136, 137.

The VIPER, saith Sir Thomas Brown, from the Experience of Cre­dible Persons, in Case of fear, re­ceiveth her Young Ones into her Mouth; which being over, they return thence again. BROWN's Pseudod. Epidem.

The chief Use of VIPERS is for the making of Treacle, and for that purpose, the young Feamales are the best, being taken in the Spring, after they have been a while ou [...] of their Dens.

[Page 349]The Indians, in some places, eat SNAKES very greedily.

Observations concerning TOR­TOISES.

DR. Grew saith, That the Sea­Tortoise differs from the Land­Tortoise, chiefly, in having a more rude, and softer Shell, and Feet ra­ther like the Finns of a Fish, as proper to Swim with.

Rondeletius affirms, That he Squirts the Water out at his Nostrils, in the same manner as the Dolphin doth at his Spout.

Trapham in his Discourse of Ia­maica, Cap. 4. says, That in Gene­ration, the Embraces of the Male and Female do continue for a whole Lunary Month.

They abound in the Caribee and Lucayick Islands, and in Iamaica, as also in the Red-Sea.

I remember that in a place called the Camanas, which lyeth to the [Page 350] Lew-Ward of Jamaica, the Sea TOR­TOISE (of which there are Five Sorts) or TURTLES, as some call them, those Triple-Hearted Am­phibious Creatures (for they have each of them three distinct Hearts) being entangled in a Sain or Net, which was usually set for the tak­ing of them, or else being turned on their Backs on Land (for then they cannot turn themselves on their Feet again) did always Sigh, Sob, shed Tears, and mightily seem to Lament, as being most sensible of their Destruction, and that they were in their Enemies hands. WILL. HUGHES's Pref. to The American Physician.

Sir Philiberto Vernatti, late Re­sident in Iava Major, saith, That he had seen in those parts some Sea­TORTOISES of Four Foot broad, in Oval Form, very low Legg'd, but of that strength, that a Man might stand on one: That the manner of catching them, was to turn them with a Fork upon their Backs. [Page 351] SPRAT's Hist. of the ROYAL SO­CIETY, pag. 170.

All the TORTOISES, from the Caribes to the Bay of Mexico and Honduras, repair in Summer to the Cayman Islands, to lay their Eggs and to hatch there. They Coot for Fourteen Days together, then lay in one Night some Three Hundred Eggs, with White and Yolk, but no Shells: Then they Coot again, and lay in the Sand, and so thrice. Then the Male is reduced to a kind of Gelly within, and blind, and is so carried home by the Female. Their Fat is Green, but not offensive to the Stomach, though you eat it as Broth, Stew'd. Your Urine looks of a Yellowish­Green, and Oily, after eating it. Dr. STVBBES's Observ. Sailing from England to the Caribe-Islands, in PHILOS. TRANSACT. Numb. 27.

[...]ing an Hour or Two's stay, at [...]e Caymans, I examin'd that Assertion of Mr. Lygans, that a [Page 523] TORTOISE hath Three Hearts, and I found it false. For, although the resemblance of the Two Auri­cles be such, as also their Bodies or Flesh, as to deceive the unwary Observer; yet is there but One Heart, triangular and fleshy; the other Two are only the Auricles, yet of the same Shape and Body. The Two Auricles move at a se­veral time from the Heart, and they are distanc'd from the Heart about an Inch; and the passage fleshy (as I remember) and narrow, by which the Blood is insus'd into the Heart. This Heart hath but One Ventricle; yet are Three se­veral Columns of Flesh, and recep­tacles in it, such as are not in the Auricles—The TORTOISES Bite much more than they Swallow, so that the Sea is cover'd with the Grass, where they feed at the bottom. Once in about half an Hour they come up, and fetch one Breath like a Sig [...], and then sink down again. And if out of the [Page 353] Water, they Breath somewhat oft­ner. If you hurt them on Shore, as they lie on their Backs, the Tears will trickle from their Eyes. You may keep them out of the Water Twenty Days and more, and yet they will be so Fat as to be very good Meat, provided you give them twice a Day about half a Pint of Salt-Water. The Fat that is a­bout their Guts, is Yellow, though that of the Body be Green. The Head being cut off, dies instantly; and if you take out the Heart, the motion continues not long. But any quantity of the Flesh will move, if pricked, and also of it self, for many Hours after it is cut into Quarters; and the very Joynts of the Bones of the Shoulders and Legs (answering our Omo-Plate and Thigh, yet within the Shell) have their motion; and even though you prick only the Fat of it. Bu [...] if you place these parts of the TORTOISE in the Sun; they pre­sently die. The Legs die as soon, [Page 354] in a manner as cut off. STVB­BES's Enlargement of the former Observ. PHILOS.TRANSACT. Numb. 36.

Trapham in his Discourse of Ia­maica, saith, That the Flesh of a TORTOISE maketh a most plea­sant Jelly: And that the Callapee, viz. the Belly-part so called, baked, is an excellent Dish.

The Legs, saith Schroder out of Solenander, applied to the part af­fected, are a most Experienc'd Re­medy in the Gout.

In Turky, the Shells are used for Bucklers: In Tabrobana, (according to Aelian) to cover their Houses: And in China, to make Girdles for Noble Men.

In the Kingdom of Tunquin in India, there ar [...] infinite Number of TORTOISES, which are esteem'd such excellent Food, that the Tum­quineses and Cochinchineses do not believe they have entertain'd their Friends at a Banquet as they ought to do, till the TORTOISES are [Page 355] brought in. Those two Nations pickle up great Quantities of them, and send them abroad, which is a vast Trade among them; and in­deed the chiefest occasion of the Wars between them is, because the Cochinchineses do all they can to hinder the Tunquineses to Fish for them, alledging that those Seas and Islands, where they breed, belong to them. Neither is the Meat but the Shell also of great esteem, and one of the most considerable Commodities for Trade in Asia. TAVERNIER's Relat. of the King­dom of Tunquin, Cap. 3.

Observations concerning several Re­markable TREES.

IN the Islands of Solon and Timor in the East-Indies, there grows a Tree called the STINKING-TREE; and indeed, well may it be so called: For it naturally smells like the strongest Humane Excre­ments, especially, as upon the Emptying of a House of Office. Sir Philiberto Vernatti procur'd an Arm of this TREE, and sent it to the ROYAL SOCIETY at Gresham Colledge. Where, though it hath now been preserv'd many Years, yet seems to give as full and quick a Scent as ever. Yet in burning, it yields no smell; as do Lignum Aloe, and some other Woods. 'Tis ponderous, hard, and of the Co­lour of English-Oak; and as that hath large Aer-Vessels; yet but few I should have conjectur'd, saith Dr. Grew, that this Wood belong'd to the TREE called Ahovaj, which [Page 357] hath a Stinking smell, but that this is said to be the more odious when it burns. GREW's Mus. REG. SOC. Pag. 180.

There is in Iamaica a sort of Tree called the SOAPE-TREE; the Berries whereof (being as big as Bullets of Musquets) without any proportion of Salt-Lixiviate, or Sulphur, or Oile, wash better than any Castile-SOAPE; but they rot the Linnen in time. The Negro's use them. Dr. STVBBES.

In the Caribe-Islands grows the Famous TREE called the Cabbage-Tree; which, tho one would not imagine, I assure you, saith Dr. Stubbes, is a sort of Palme-Tree: All that part which is eaten as the Cabbage, is, what sprouted out that Year, and so is tender. If eaten raw, it is as good as New-Almonds; and if boil'd, it excels the best Cabbage. When that Top is [...]ut off, the TREE dies. The Dr. saith, There was one of those TREES at Barbadoes, above Three Hun­dred [Page 358] Foot high, as He was credib­ly inform'd. This TREE will ne­ver Rot, and when 'tis dry'd, grows so hard, that you cannot drive a Nail into it. STVBBES Account of the Carbie-Is [...]ands.

In Barbadoes there is a particular sort of TREE called the POYSON-TREE. Its Leaves are full out as large and beautiful, as the Lawrels, and so like, as not to be known asunder. The People that have liv'd long there, say, 'tis not whole some to be under the Shade of this TREE. The Work-Men, as they cut them down, are very careful of their Eyes; and those that have Cipers, put it over their Faces; for if any of the Sap fly into their Eyes, they become Blind for a Month. A Negro had two Horses to walk, which were left with him by two Gentlemen; and the Hor­ses beginning to fight, the Negro was afraid, and let them go; and they running into the Wood toge­ther, stuck at one another, and [Page 359] their Heels hitting some young TREES of this kind, struck the poysonous Juice into one anothers Eyes, and so their Blindness parted the Fray, and they were both led home Stone Blind, and continued so a Month, all the Hair and Skin peeling off their Faces. Yet, of this Timber they make all, or the most part, of the Pots they Cure their Sugar in; for being Sawed, and the Boards dryed in the Sun, the POYSON vapours out. LI­GON's Hist. of Barbadoes. pag. 68.

He also tells us of a certain Sort of POYSONOUS CANE, so like the SUGAR-CANE, as hardly to be discern'd the one from the o­ther: This Plant hath this Quali­ty, that whosoever chews it, and sucks in any of the juice, will have his tongue, mouth, and throat, so swell'd, as to take away the faculty of Speech for two days, and no remedy but patience. Ibidem Pag. 69.

[Page 360]Among the Rarities of the Ma­lacca, or rather of the World, is the Arbor Tristis, which bears Flow­ers only after Sun-set, and sheds them so soon as the Sun-rises, and this every Night in the Year. ROB. MORDEN's Geogr. Pag. 413.

In the Molucca Islands, in the East-Indies, there is a certain Wood, which, laid in the Fire, burns, sparkles, and flames, yet consumes not; and yet a Man may rub it to Powder betwixt his Fingers, MAN­DELSLO's Travels into the Indies, Pag. 133.

In the Philosophical Transactions we have an Account of a sort of INCOMBUSTIBLE CLOTH, cal­led Linum Asbestinum: which was esteem'd by the Ancients (though then more common, and perhaps better known than 'tis yet amongst us) equally precious with the best of Pearls. But as great a Rarity as it now is, it seems one Mr. Nicb. Waite, Merchant of London, hath [Page 361] lately procur'd a piece of it; an Account whereof he gives in a Letter to Dr. Plot, He says, he re­ceiv'd it from one Conco, a Natu­ral Chinese, Resident in the City of Batavia in the North East parts of India. Who▪ by means of Keay­arear Sukradana (likewise a Chinese, and formerly chief Customer to the old Sultan of Bantam) did after se­veral Years diligence, procure, from a great Mandarin in Lanquin (a Province of China) near ¼ of a Yard of the said Cloth; and declar'd, that he was credibly inform'd, that the Princes of Tartary, and others adjoyning to them, did use it in burning their Dead; and that it was said and believ'd by them, to be made of the under part of the Root of a Tree growing in the Pro­vince of Sutan; and was supposed, in like manner, to be made of the Todda Trees in India: And that, of the upper part of the said Root, near the Surface of the Ground, was made a finer Sort, which in [Page 362] three or four times burning, the said Mr. Waite saith, He has seen diminish almost half: They Report also, that out of the said Tree there distils a Liquor, which not con­suming, is used with a Wiek made of the same Material with the Cloth, to burn in their Temples to posterity.

Mr. Waite shew'd a Handkerchief or Pattern of this INCOMBUSTI­BLE LINNEN to the ROYAL SOCIETY; which being measur'd, was found in length Nine Inches, between the Fringe or Tassells; the Fringe at each end being three In­ches more; so that the whole was just a Foot in length; and the breadth was just half a Foot.

There were two Proofs of its re­sisting Fire, given at London: One, before some of the Members of the R. Society, privately, Aug. 20.1684. when Oyl was permitted to be poured upon it whilst red hot, to enforce the Violence of the Fire: Before it was put into the Fire this [Page 363] First Tryal, it weighed one Ounce, Six Drams, Sixteen Grains, and lost in the burning Two Drams, Five Grains.

The Second Experiment of it was publick before the SOCIETY, Nov. 12. following, when it weighed (as appears by the Iournal of the SOCIETY) before it was put into the Fire, One Ounce, Three Drams, 18 Grains. Being put in­to a clear Charcoal Fire, it was per­mitted to continue Red hot in it, for several Minutes: When taken out (though red hot) it did not con­sume a piece of White Paper, on which it was laid: It was present­ly Cool, and upon weighing it again, was found to have lost one Dram, Six Grains. PHILOS. TRANSACT Numb. 172.

That this LINNEN was very well known to the Ancients, beside that of Pliny, we have the further Testimony of Caelius Rhodiginus, who agrees with the aforesaid Ac­count in Mr. Waites Letter to Dr. [Page 364] Plot, placing both the Materials and Manufacture of it in India; and Paulus Venetus more particu­larly in Tartary, the Emperour whereof, He says, sent a piece of it to Pope Alexander. It is also mentioned by Varro; and Turnebus in his Commentary upon him, De lingua Latina. And by all of them as a thing inconsumable by Fire. In these latter Ages; Georg. Agri­cola tells us, that there was a Man­tle of this LINNEN at Vereburg in Saxony; and Simon Majolus says, He saw another of it at Lovain exposed to the Fire. Salmuth also acquaints us, that one [...]odocattarus, a Cyprian Knight, shew'd it publick­ly at Venice, throwing it into the Fire without scruple or hurt; and Mr. Lassells saw a piece of it in the Curious Cabinet of Manfred Sep­talla, Canon of Milan. Mr. Ray was shew'd a Purse of it by the Prince Palatin at Heidleberg, which he saw put into a Pan of burning Charcoal till it was red hot, which [Page 365] when taken out and cool, he could not perceive had receiv'd any harm; and we are told in the Burgundian Philosophy, of a long Rope of it, sent from Signior Bocconi to the French King, and kept by Monsieur Marchand in the King's Gardens at Paris, which tho' steeped in Oyle, and put in the Fire, is not con­sumed. To which add, that we have now seen a piece of this LIN­NEN pass the fiery Trial both at London and Oxford. So that it seems to have been known in all Ages, all describing it after the same manner, as a thing so insuperable by Fire, that it only Cleanses and makes it better. Dr. ROB. PLOT, in the PHILOS. TRANSACT. Numb. 172.

The said Dr. saith, that this IN­COMBUSTIBLE CLOTH is now of no Mean value even in the Country where made, a China Covet, that is, a piece 23 Inches and three Quarters long, being worth 80 [Page 366] Tale, that is, Thirty Six Pounds Thirteen Shillings, and four pence.

PVRCHAS saith, that in Fanfur, a Kingdom of Iava, in the East-Indies, there is a Tree of a great bigness, and length, the Pit [...] whereof is Meal, which they put in water, and stir well, the lightest dross swimming, and the purest settling to the bottom; and then the water being cast away, they makethere of Paste, which tasts just like Barly Bread.

The Wood of this Tree thrown into water, sinks like Tron; hereof they make Lances, but short, for if they were long, they would be too heavy for use: These they sharpen, and burn at the tops, which, so prepar'd, will pierce Ar­mour sooner than if they were made of Iron. PVRCH. Pilg. Vol. 3. Pag. [...]04.

In great Iava they say, there is a Tree, [...] Pith is Iron: It is very small, [...]et runs from the top to the bottom of the Plant. [Page 367] The Fruit that grows on it, is not to be pierc'd with Iron. IVL. SCALIG. Exercit. 181. Sect. 27.

In the Island C [...]mbubon there grows a Tree, whose Leaves fallen upon the ground, do move, and creep. It hath Leaves like the Mulberry Tree. They have on both sides that which looks like two little feet; pressed, they yield no Liquor. If you touch them, they flye from you. One of them kept eight days in a Dish, liv'd, and moved, as oft as one touch'd it. IVL. SCALIG. Exercit. 112.

The SENSITIVE PLANT is somewhat of this Nature, which contracts it self, if any one puts his hand to it; and if you pull back your hand, it recovers it self a­gain.

Observations concerning MOVN­TAINS.

SOme have thought that MOUN­TAINS and all other Irregula­rities in the Earth have rise from Earthquakes, and such like Causes; Others have thought that they came from the Vniversal Deluge; ye [...] not from any Dissolution of the Earth that was then, but only from the great agitation of the Waters, which broke the ground into this rude and unequal Form. Both these Causes seem to me very in­competent and insufficient. Earth­quakes seldom make MOUN­TAINS, they often take them away, and sink them down into the Caverns that lie under them; Besides, Earthquakes are not in all Countries and Climats as MOUN­TAINS are; for, as we have ob­serv'd more than once, there is nei­ther Island that is Original, nor Continent any where in the Earth, [Page 369] in what Latitude soever, but hath MOUNTAINS and Rocks in it. And lastly, what probability is there, or how is it credible that those vast Tracts of Land which we see fill'd with MOUNTAINS both in Europe, Asia, and Africa, were rais'd by Earthquakes, or any Eruptions from below? In what Age of the World was this done; and why not continued? As for the Deluge, I dou [...]t not but MOUN­TAINS were made in the time of the General Deluge, that great Change and Transformation of the Earth happen'd then, but not from such Causes as are pretended, that is, the bare rowling and agitation of the Waters: For if the Earth was smooth and plain before the Flood, as they seem to suppose as well as we do, the Waters could have little or no power over a smooth Surface to tear it any way in pieces, no more than they do a Meadow or low Ground when they lie upon it; for that which makes [Page 370] Torrents and Land Floods violent, is their fall from the MOUN­TAINS and high Lands, which our Earth is now full of, but if the Rain fell upon even and Level Ground, it would only sadden and compress it; there is no possibility how it should raise MOUNTAINS in it. And if we could imagine an Vniversal Deluge as the Earth is now constituted, it would ra­ther throw down the Hills and MOUNTAINS, than raise new ones; or by beating down their Tops and loose parts, help to fill the Valleys, and bring the Earth nearer to evenness and plainness.

Seeing then there are no hopes of Explaining the Origin of MOUN­TAINS, either from particular Earthquakes, or from the General Deluge, according to the common notion and Explication of it; these not being Causes answerable to such vast Effects; let us try our Hypo­thesis again, which hath made us a Channel large enough for the [Page 371] Sea, and room for all Subterrane­ous Cavities, and I think will find us Materials enough to raise all the MOUNTAINS of the Earth. We suppose the great Arch or Cir­cumference of the first Earth to have fallen into the Abyss at the Deluge, and seeing that was larger than the Surface it fell upon, 'tis absolutely certain, that it could not all fall flat, or lie under the Water: Now, as all those parts that stood above the Water made dry Land, or the present Habitable Earth, so such parts of the dry Land as stood higher than the rest made Hills and MOUNTAINS; and this is the first and General Account of them, and of all the Inequalities of the Earth. THO. BVRNET's Theory of the Earth. Lib. 1. Cap. XI.

The Height of MOUNTAINS compar'd with the Diameter of the Earth is not considerable, but the Extent of them and the Ground they stand upon, bears a conside­rable [Page 372] proportion to the Surface of the Earth. And if from Europe we may take our Measures for the rest, I easily believe, that the MOUNTAINS do at least take up the Tenth part of the Dry Land. Ibidem.

The Height of the highest MOUNTAINS doth bear no grea­ter a proportion to the Diameter of the Earth, than of the Sixteen Hundred and Seventieth part to the whole, supposing the Diameter of the Earth to be Eight Thou­sand Three Hundred Fifty Five Miles, as Pet. Gassendus computes both. And it is more than pro­bable, that Men have been exceed­ingly mistaken, as to the height of MOUNTAINS, which comes so far short of Sir Walter Raleigh's Computation of Thirty Miles, that the Highest MOUNTAIN in the World will not be found to be Five direct Miles in height, taking the Altitude of them from the plain they stand upon. Olympus, whose [Page 373] Height is so extoll'd by the Poets and Ancient Greeks, that it is said to exceed the Clouds, yet Plutarch tells us, that Xenagoras measur'd it, and found it not to exceed a Mile and a half perpendicular, and about 70 paces. Much about the same height Pliny saith that Dicaear­chus found the Mountain P [...]lion to be. The Mount Athos is sup­pos'd of extraordinary height, be­cause it casts its shadow into the Isle of Lemnos, which according to Pliny was 87 Miles; yet Gass [...]ndus allows it but Two Miles in height; but Isaac Vossius in a Learned Dis­course concerning the height of MOUNTAINS, in his Notes on Pomponius Mela, does not allow a­bove 10 or 11 Furlongs at most to the Height of Mount Athos. Can­casus, by Ricciolus, is said to be 51. Miles in height: Gassendus allow­ing it to be higher than Athos or Olympus, yet conceives it not above three or four Miles at most; but Vossius will not yield it above Two [Page 374] Miles perpendicular, for which he gives this very good Reason; Poli­bius affirms, there is no MOUN­TAIN in Greece which may not be ascended in a Days time, and makes the highest MOUNTAIN there not to exceed Ten Furlongs; Which, saith Vossius, it is scarce possible for any one to reach, un­less he be a Mountainer born; any other will scarce be able to ascend above Six Furlongs perpendicular; for in the Ascent of a MOUN­TAIN every pace doth reach but to an hands breadth, perpendicular; but if we do allow Eight Furlongs to a Days Ascent, yet thereby it will appear that the Highest MOUN­TAINS in the World are not a­bove Twenty four Furlongs in height, since they may be ascended in Three Days time: And it is affirmed of the top of Mount Caucasus, that it may be ascended in less than the compass of three Days, and there­fore cannot be much above two Miles in height. Which may be [Page 375] the easier believ'd of any other Mountain, when that which is re­puted the highest of the World, viz. the Pike of Teneriffe, which the In­habitants call Pica de Terraria, may be ascended in that compass of time, viz. Three Days; For in the Months of Iuly and August (which are the only Months in which Men can ascend it, because all o­ther times of the Year Snow lies upon it, although neither in the Isle of Teneriffe, nor any other of the Canary Islands, there be Snow ever seen) the Inhabitants then a­scend to the top of it in Three Days time, which top of it is not Pyramidal but plain, from whence they gather some Sulphureous Stones, which are carried in great quanti­ties into Spain. So that according to the proportion of Eight Furlongs to a Days journey, this Pike of Teneriffe will not exceed the Height of a German Mile perpendicular, as Varenius confesseth, than which he thinks likewise, that no Mountain [Page 376] in the World is higher. For what Pliny speaks of the Alpes, being Fifty Miles in height, must be un­derstood not perpendicular, but in regard of the Obliquity of the Ascent of it; so that he might account so much from the Foot of the Alpes to the top of them, and yet the Alpes in a perpendicular Line not come near the Height of a Ger­man Mile. STILLING FLEET's Orig. Sacr. Lib. 3. Cap. 4. pag. 544, &c.

Mr. Muraltus of Zurich in a Let­ter to Mr. Haak, a Fellow of the R. S. concerning the Icy MOUN­TAINS of Helvetia, call'd the GLETSCHER, gives him this Ac­count.

The Highest ICY MOUN­TAINS of Helvetia about Valesia and Augusta, in the Canton of Bern; about Paminium and Ta­vetsch of the Rhaetians, are always seen cover'd with Snow. The Snow melted by the heat of the Sum­mer, other Snow being faln with­in [Page 377] in a little while after, is hardned into ICE, which by little and lit­tle, in a long tract of time, depura­ting it self, turns into a Stone, not yielding in hardness and clearness to Crystal. Such Stones closely joyned and compacted together, compose a whole MOUNTAIN, and that a very firm one; though in Summer time the Country Peo­ple have observ'd it to burst asun­der with great cracking, Thunder-like: Which is also well known to Hunters, to their great cost; for as much as such Cracks and Open­ings, being by the Winds cover'd with Snow, are the Death of those that pass over them. PHILOS. TRANSACT. Numb. 49.

Monsieur Iustel in an Enlarge­ment upon this very Subject, says, that the ICY-MOUNTAIN call'd the GLETSCHER, is very high, and extends it self every year more and more over the Neighbouring Meadows, by increments that make a great noise, and cracking. There [Page 378] are great Holes and Caverns, which are made when the ICE bursts; which happens at all times, but especially in the Dog-days. Hunters do there hang up their Game they take during the great heat, to make it keep sweet by that means. Very little of the Sur­face melts in Summer, and all free­zes again in the Night. When the Sun shineth, there is seen such a variety of Colours as in a Prism.

There is such another MOUN­TAIN near Geneva, and upon the Alps. A certain Capucin told Mon­sieur Iustel, that he had been upon the highest of these MOUNTAINS with a Trader in Crystal, who ha­ving driven his hammer into one of these Rocks, and sound it hollow and resonant; made a hole into it, and thence drew forth a Sub­stance like Talk; which to him was a sign there was Crystal. After which, he made a great hole with Gunpowder, and found Rock-Crystal [Page 379] in it. PHILOS. TRANSACT. Numb. 100.

I have had the Curiosity to en­quire of more than one Traveller, that had Visited the Famous Pico of Tenari [...], (at whose upper part there are found scatter'd parcels of Sulphur, and divers manifest To­kens of a Vulcan) whether the Sul­phureous Steams (that I suppos'd to be copious near the top of the Mountain) did not work upon the Silver they had in their Pockets, and discolour it: To which he an­swer'd, that 'twas no uncommon Observation, to find at Mens re­turn from visiting the top of the Hill, that the Money they carried about them was blackn'd, and that he himself had particularly observ'd it to be so: Which might easily gain Credit with me, who have di­vers times made a Preparation of Sulphur, which even in the Cold, sends out exhalations so penetrant, that having for Tryals sake, put some pieces of Coyn (which ought [Page 380] not to be Golden) into a Leather Purse, they were able, and that not in very many Minutes, to disco­lour manifestly the Money, in spight of the interposition of the Purse, that contain'd it. But I had a more considerable instance of the Effica­cy of the Sulphureous Expirations of the Pico of Tenari [...], by a Sober Person, that is one of the Chi [...]f Di­rectors of the Famous East-India. Company of London; who, being question'd by me about some Cir­cumstances of his Journey to visit the top of that stupendious MOUN­TAIN, answered me, that among other Effects the Sulphureous Air had upon [...]im, (who is of a very fine Complexion) he found at his return to the bottom, that his light-colour'd hair had manifestly changed colour, and was in many places grown sorked at the ends. ROB. BOYLE's Experim. Disc. of the Insalubr. and Salubrity of the Air, pag. 31, 32.

[Page 381]Though there are some, who think MOUNTAINS to be a de­sormity to the Earth, as if they were either beat up by the Flood, or else cast up like so many heaps of Rubbish left at the Creation; yet, if well consider'd, they will be found as much to conduce to the Beauty and Conveniency of the Vniverse, as any of the other parts. Nature (saith Pliny) purposely fra­med them for many excellent uses; partly to tame the violence of greater Rivers, to strengthen cer­tain joynts within the Veins and Bowels of the Earth, to break the force of the Seas inundation, and for the safety of the Earths Inha­bitants, whether Beasts, or Men. That they make much for the protection of Beasts, the Psalmist testifies, The Highest Hills ar [...] a refuge for the Wild Goats, and the Rocks for Conies. The Kingly Pro­phet had likewise learnt the safety of those by his own experience▪ when He also was fain to make [Page 382] a MOUNTAIN his Resuge from the sury of his Master Saul, who Persecuted him in the Wilderness.

True indeed, such Places as these keep their Neighbours poor, as being most barren, but yet they preserve them safe, as being most strong; witness our Unconquer'd Wales, and Scotland, whose greatest protection hath been the natural strength of their Country, so for­tified with MOUNTAINS, that these have always been unto them sure re [...]reats from the Violence, and Oppression of others. Where­fore a good Author doth rightly call them Natures Bulwarks, cast up at God Almighty's own Charges, the scorns and curbs of Victorious Armies; which made the Barba­rians in Curtius so con [...]ident of their own safety, when they were once retir'd to an inaccessible MOUNTAIN, that when Alex­ander's Legate had brought them to a Parley, and perswading them to yield, told them of his Masters [Page 383] Victories, what S [...]as and Wilder­nesses he had passed: They re­plied, that all that might be, but could Alexander flye too? Over the Seas he might have Ships, and over the Land Horses, but he must have Wings before he could get up thither. Such safety did those Barbarous Nations conceive in the MOUNTAINS whereunto they were retired. Certainly then such useful parts were not the effect of Man's Sin, or produced by the Worlds Curse, the Flood, but ra­ther at the first Created by the Goodness and Providence of the Almighty. WILKIN's World in the Moon, pag. 114, 115, 116.

It may be objected, that the present Earth looks like a heap of Rubbish, and Ruines; and that there are no greater Examples of Confusion in Nature than Mountai [...] singly or jointly considered, and that there appear not the least foot­steps of any Art or Counsel either in the Figure and Shape, or Order [Page 384] and Disposition of MOUNTAINS and ROCKS. Wherefore is is not likely they came so out of God's hands; who by the Ancient Phi­losophers is said [...], and to make all things in Num­ber, Weight, and Measure.

To which I answer, that the present [...]ace of the Earth, with all its MOUNTAINS, and Hills, its Promontories, and Rocks, as rude and deformed as they appear, seems to me a very beautiful and plea­sant Object, and with all that va­riety of Hills, and Valleys, and Inequalities sat more grateful to behold, than a perfectly level Countrey without any rising or protuberancy to terminate the Sight: As any one that hath but seen the Isle of Ely, or any the like Countrey, must needs ac­ [...]nowledge. Neither is it only more pleasant to behold, but more commodious for habitation, which is so plain, that I need not spend time to prove it.

[Page 385] Secondly, A Land so distinguished into MOUNTAINS, Valleys, and Plains, is also most convenient for the Entertainment of the various sorts of Animals, which God hath Created, some whereof delight in Cold, some in Hot, some Moist and Watery, some in dry and up­land Places, and some of them could neither find nor gather their proper food in different Regions. Some Beasts and Birds we find live upon the highest tops of the Alps, and that all the Winter too, while they are constantly cover'd with Snow, as the Ibex, and Rupi­capra, or Chamois among Quadru­peds, and Lagopus among Birds.

Thirdly, The MOUNTAINS are most proper for the putting forth of Plants; yielding the greatest variety, and the most Luxuriant sort of Vegetables, for the mainte­nance of the Animals proper to those places, and for Medicinal Uses; partly also for the Exercise and Delight of such ingenious Per­sons [Page 386] as are addicted to search out and collect those Rarities, to Con­template and Consider their Forms and Natures, and to admire and Celebrate the Wisdom of their Creator.

Fourthly, All manner of Metals, Minerals, and Fossils if they could be generated in a level Earth, of which there is some question, yet should they be Dug or Mined for, the Delss must necessarily be so slown with water, (which to drive and rid away no Adits or Soughs could be made, and I much doubt whether Gins would suffice) that it would be extreamly difficult and chargeable, if possible to work them at all. IOH. RAY's Miscell. Disc. of the Dissolut. of the World, pag. 165, &c.

It is likely, if not certain, that all Vallies rise by atteration, that is, by Earth continually brought down from the tops of MOUN­TAINS by Rains, and Snows, whence all MOUNTAINS are be­come [Page 387] lower than they were former­ly, and the Valleys risen higher; so that in time all the MOUNTAINS (except the Rocky) will by great shoots of Rain be quite washed a­way, and the whole Earth levell'd: Whereof the ingenious Mr. Iohn Ray in his Observat. Topograph. p. 8. gives us a very pertinent Consir­mation from the Steeple of Craich ▪ in the Peak of Derb [...]shire, which in the Memory of some Old Men yet living, could not have been seen from a certain Hill lying between Hopton, and Werksworth, whereas now, not only the Steeple, but a great part of the Body of the Church may be seen thence; which with­out doubt comes to pass by the deterration or sinking of a Hill be­tween the Church, and place of View. And I am told of just such another Example of a Hill between Sib [...]ertost and Hasleby in Northamp­tonshire, whence yet we may only inser, that the Parts of the Earth do [...]hange their Sci [...]ation, giving [Page 388] as much Increase (in proportion) at one place, as it takes away at another, without any Augmenta­tion, or Diminution in the whole. PLOT of Stafford Chap. 3. Sect. 11, 12.

Observations concerning VVLCA­NO's, or SVBTERRANE­AN FIRES.

THere are Subterraneous Cavi­ties, which they call VOL­CANO's, or Fiery Mountains; that belch out Flames, Smoke and Ashes, and sometimes great Stones and broken Rocks, and Lumps of Earth, or some Metallick mixture; and throw them to an incredible di­stance by the force of the Eruption. These argue great vacuities in the Bowels of the Earth, and Maga­zines of Combustible Matter trea­sur'd up in them. And as the Ex­halations within these places must be copious, so they must lie in [Page 389] long Mines or Trains to do so great Execution, and to last so long. 'Tis scarce credible what is Report­ed concerning some Eruptions of VESUVIUS and AETNA. The E­ruptions of VESUVIUS seem to be more frequent and less violent of late; the Flame and Smoak break out at the top of the Mountain, where they have eaten away the Ground, and made a great hollow, so as it looks at the top, when you stand upon the brims of it▪ like an Amphitheater, or like a great Caldron, about a Mile in Cir­cumference, and the burning Fur­nace lies under it. The outside of the Mountain is all spread with Ashes, but the inside much more; for you wade up to the mid-leg in Ashes to go down to the bottom of the Cavity, and 'tis extreamly heavy and troublesome to get up again. The inside lies sloping, and one may safely go down i [...] it be not in a raging fit; but the middle part of it or Center, which is a [Page 390] little rais'd like the bottom of a Platter, is not to be ventur'd upon, the Ground their lies false and hol­low, there it always Smoaks, and here the Funnel is suppos'd to be; yet there is no visible Hole or gap­ing any where when it doth not rage. Naples stands below in fear of this Fiery Mountain, which hath often cover'd its Streets and Palla­ces with its Ashes; and in sight of the Sea (which lies by the side of them both) and as it were in desi­ance to it, threatens it at one time or another, to burn that fair City. History tells us, that some Erupti­ons of VESUVIUS have carn'd Cinders and Ashes as far as Con­stantinople; This is a [...]e [...]ted both by Greek and Latin Authors; particu­larly Ammianus Marcellinus saith, that they were so affrighted with them, that the Emperor le [...]t the City, and that there was a Day observ'd Yearly in Memorial of [...]

[Page 361]AETNA is of greater Fame than VESUVIUS, and of greater Fury, all Antiquity speaks of it; not on­ly the Greeks and Romans, but as far as History reacheth, either real or fabulous, there is something re­corded of the Fires of AETNA The Figure of the Mountain is in­constant, by Reason of the great Consumptions and Ruines it is Sub­ject to; The Fires and Aestuations of it are excellently describ'd by Virgil, upon occasion of Aeneas his passing by those Coasts.

—Horrificis juxta tonat AETNA ruinis;
Interdum (que) at ram prorumpit ad aethe­ra nubem,
Turbine fumantem peiceo & candente favilla;
Attollit (que) globas flammarum, & Sy­dera lambit;
Interdum scopulos, avulsa (que) viscera Montis
Erigit eructans, liquefacta (que) Saxa sub auras.
[Page 392]Cum gemitu glomerat, fundoque ex­aestuat imo.
Fama est Enceladi Semustum fulmine Corpus
Vrgeri mole hâc, ingentem (que) insuper AETNAM
Impositam, ruptis flammam expirare Caminis.
Et fessum quoties mutet latus, intre­mere omnem
Murmure TRINACRIAM & caelum subtexere fumo.

—AETNA whose ruines make a thunder;
Sometimes a Cloud of Smoak in pit­chy Curles,
Mingled with burning Ashes, forth it hurles.
Or balls of flame, that scorch the Stars on high;
Or its own Bowels torn, throws in the Skie.
In its deep Cells under the Earth, a Store
Of Fire Materials, molten Stones, and Ore,
It gathers, then Spews out, and gathers more.
ENCELADUS when Thunder-struck by JOVE,
Was buri'd here, and AETNA thrown above;
And when to change his wearied Side, he turns,
The ISLAND trembles, and the MOUNTAIN burns.

Not far from AETNA lies STROM­BOLO, and other adjacent Islands, where there are also such Maga­zines of Fire; and throughout all Regions and Countries, in the West-Indies and in the East, in the Northern and Southern parts of the Earth, there are some of these VOLCANO's, which are sensible Evidences that the Earth is incom­pact and full of Caverns; besides, [Page 394] the roarings and bellowings that use to be heard before an Eruption of these VOLCANO's, argue some dreadful hollown [...]ss in the belly or under the Roots of the Mountain, where the Exhalations struggle b [...] ­fore they can break their Prison. THO. BVRNET's Theory of th [...] Earth, Pag. 117, &c.

I will not enter upon a long Description of that which is so well known as Mount VESUVIO; it had roar'd so loud about a Month before I came to Naples, that at Naples they could hardly sleep in the Nights, and some old Houses were so sh [...]ken, by the Earthquake that was occasion'd by this Con­vulsion of the Hill, that they [...]ll to the Ground: And the last E­ruption, above Fifty Years ago, was so terrible, that there was no small fear in Naples, though it lies at the distance of Seven Miles from the Hill, yet the Storm was choak­ed under Ground.

When one sees the Mouth o [...] this Fire, and so great a pa [...]t of [Page 395] the Hill which is cover'd some Foot deep with Ashes and Stones of a Metallick Composition, that the Fire throws out, he cannot but stand amaz'd, and wonder what can be the Fuel of so lasting a Burning, that hath calcin'd so much matter, and spew'd out such pro­digious quantities. It is plain there are vast V [...]ns of SULPHUR all along in t [...]s Soil, and it seems in this Mountain they run along through some Mines and Rocks, and as their slow Consumption, produceth a perpetual Smoke, so when the Air within is so much ratified that it must open it self, it throws up those Masses of Mettle and Rock that shut it in; but how this Fire draws in Air to nourish its Flame, is not so easily apprehended; unless there is either a Conveyance of Air under Ground, by some un­discover'd Vacuity; or a more in­sensible transmission of Air, through the Pores of the Earth. The heat of this Hill operates so much upon [Page 396] the Soil that lies upon it toward the Foot of it, that it produceth the richest Wine about Naples; and it also purifieth the Air so much, that the Village at the bottom is thought the best Air of the Coun­try, so that many come from Na­ples thither for their Health. Ischia that is an Island not far from Na­ples, doth also sometimes spew out Fire. Dr. BVRNET's Lett. Pag. 174, 175.

The Hill AETNA now call'd MONT-GIBEL, is Ten Miles from the top to the bottom, and may be easily discern'd by Sailers at an Hundred Miles distance: The lower parts thereof are very Fruit­ful, the middle being shaded with Woods, and the Top cover'd with Snow, a great part of the Year, notwithstanding the frequent Vo­miting of Flames and Cinders. It was formerly observ'd, and to this Day the same Observation holds, That whenever any extraordinary Eruption happens, it certainly por­tends [Page 397] some Revolution. But these Eruptions of Fire are not now so ordinary as formerly; the matter which gave Fuel to it, being wast­ed by continual Burnings: So that the Flames which issue from it are hardly visible but by Night, tho' the Smoak shew it self the most part of the Day. And when it doth break out, which is commonly once in three or Four Years, it falleth in great fl [...]kes on the Vales adjoyning, to the destruction of the Vintage, and great loss of the Countrey. But that, they say, is recompens'd by the plenty of the following Years, the Ashes there­of so enriching the Soil, that both the Vines and Corn-Fields are much better'd by it.

The Reason of these Fires is the Abundance of SULPHUR and BRIMSTONE, contain'd in the bosome of the Hill; which is blown by the Wind, driving in at the Chaps of the Earth, as by a pair of Bellows. Through these Chinks [Page 298] also there is continually more Fuel added to the Fire, the very Water adding to the force of it: As we see that Water cast on Coals in the Smiths Forge, doth make them burn more ardently. PET. HE [...] ­LIN's Cosmogr.

Iohannes Alphonsus Borellus in his Historia and Meteorologia INCEN­DII AETNAEI, Ann [...] 1669, rejects the Opinion of those, that [...]ain­tain the AETNEAN Fires to have been perpetual and never ext [...] ­guish'd, asserting the frequent Ces­sation of them, and withal assign­ing the Cause of that Cess [...]tion, as well as that of their Renovation. Concerning which, and many other considerable Remarks and Reflexions, too many to be here recited, we refer the Reader to the Book it self.

Now, whether these Eruptions are caused by actual Subterraneous Fires, lighting upon Combustible Matter; Or by Fire struck out of falling and breaking Stones, whose Sparks meet with Nitro-Sulphureous [Page 399] or other inflamable Substance heap'd together in the Bowels of the Earth, and by the Expansive violence of the Fire forc'd to take more room, and so bursting out with the im­petuosity we see; may not be un­worthy of a Philosopher's Specula­tion. PHILOS. TRANSACT. Numb. 48. Pag. 969.

Naturalists a [...]irm, that these VULCANO's or Fiery Mountains nourish SULPHUREOUS Matter in their Bowels which is easily in­ [...]lam'd, and issues out with more or less Vehemency, and more or less frequency, according as the Matter is more or less disposed; and the Subterranean Winds kindle and eject these Fires, and open the Mass of Earth, under which they are shut up. But the Opinion of certain Philosophers, who maintain, That meer Chance produces these extraordinary Events, appears to me very Ridiculous; affirming, that one Stone striking another, produ­ces a Spark whence happ [...] [...] [Page 400] great Inflammations: Nay, they proceed farther, and would per­swade us, That a Lighted Lamp, left, by chance, by those who scarched into the Bowels of these Mountains, to discover the Secrets of Nature, might make these Flames; which lighting on a Com­bustible Matter, and meeting with nothing that is contrary to 'em to extinguish them, to cause these Sur­prizing Effects. They also say, That Lightning striking fiercely on some one of the Coasts on these Mountains, may do the same thing; as the Stones striking one against another, or the Lamp left Lighted. See LETTERS writ by a TVRKISH SPY at Paris, Vol. 1. Pag. 126, 127.

That Learned Physician, and most Sagacious Inquirer into Nature, Dr. Martin Lyster, saith, That amongst Minerals, the Pyrities, both in Gross and in Vapour, is actually of its one accord fired. He instan­ces the VULCANO's all the World [Page 401] over for a proof of it; for, saith he, we with great probability be­lieve them to be Mountains made up in great part of Pyrites (the Breath whereof is SULPHUR Ex tota Substantia,) by the qualities of SUL­PHUR thence Sublimed, and the Application of the Load-Stone to the Ejected Cinder. And he pro­ceeds, telling us, That these VUL­CANO's were naturally kindled of themselves, at or near the Creation, in all probability, because there is but a certain known Number of them, which have all continued burning beyond the Memoirs of a­ny History, few or none of them that he knows of, have ever total­ly decay'd or been extinct, unless possibly by the Submersion of the whole, being absorpt in the Sea. Though they indeed, do burn more fiercely sometimes than at others, for other Reasons. So that it seems to me, saith the Doctor, as natural to have actual Fire in the Terrestrial [Page 402] World from the Creation, as to have Sea and Water.

Again, saith the Doctor, if these VULCANO's did not kindle of themselves, what cause can we ima­gine to [...] done it? I [...] the Sun; we [...], Hecla placed in so ex­tream Cold [...] Climate was kindled, for ought I [...] see by the Natural History of bo [...], as soon as AETNA, or FUEGOS, or the most Souther [...]y. Not the Ac [...]dents hapning from Man; for, i Man was (as we must believe) created Solitary and Topi­cal, they were none of his kind­ling, because they seem to be fired before the World could be all o­ver Peopled; besides, they were mostly the very Tops of vast high Mountains, and therefore the most unfit for the Habitation of Man. MART. LYSTER in the PHILOS. TRANSACT. 157. pag. 516.

Observations concerning EARTH­QVAKES.

EARTHQUAKES are too evi­dent Demonstrations of the Hollowness of the Earth, being the dreadful Effects or Consequen­ces of it; for if the Body of the Earth was sound and compact, there would be no such thing in Nature as an EARTHQUAKE. They are commonly accompanied with an heavy dead Sound, like a dull Thunder, which ariseth from the Vapours, that are striving in the Womb of Nature when her Throes are coming upon her. And that these Caverns where the Va­pours lie are very large and capo­cious, we are taught sometimes by sad Experience; for whole Cities and Countries have been swallow'd up into them, as Sodom and Go­morrah, and the Region of Penta­polis, and several Cities in Greece. and in Asia, and other parts. [Page 404] Whole Islands also have been thus absorpt in an EARTHQUAKE; the pillars and props they stood upon being broken, they have sunk and saln, in as an House blown up. I am also of Opinion, that those Islands that are made by divulsion from a Continent, as Sicily was bro­ken off from Italy, and great Bri­tain, as some think, from France, have been made the same way; that is, the Isthmus or Necks of Land that joyn'd these Islands with their Continents before, have been hollow, and being either worn by the Water, or shak'd by an EARTH­QUAKE, have sunk down, and so made way for the Sea to overflow them, and of a Promontory to make an Island.

For it is not at all likely, that the Neck of Land continu'd stand­ing, and the Sea overflow'd it, and so made an Island; for then all those Passages between such Islands, and their respective Continents, would be extreamly shallow and unnavi­gable, [Page 405] which we do not find them to be. Nor is it any more wonder, if such a Neck of Land should fall, than that a Mountain should sink, or any other Tract of Land, and a Lake rise in its place, which hath often happen'd. Plato supposeth his Atlantis to have been greater than Asia and Africa together, and yet to have sunk all into the Sea: whether that be true or no, I do not think it impossible that some Arms of the Sea or Sinus's might have had such an Original as that: and I am very apt to think, that for some Years after the Deluge, till the Fragments were well settled and adjusted, great alterations wou'd happen as to the Face of the Sea and the Land; many of the Frag­ments would change their posture, and many would sink into the Water that stood out before, the props failing that bore them up, or the Joynts and Corners where­by they lean'd upon one another; and thereupon a new Face of Things [Page 406] would arise, and a new Deluge for that part of the Earth. Such re­moves and interchanges, I believe, would often happen in the first Ages after the Flood; as we see in all other Ruines there happen lesser and Secondary Ruines after the first, till the parts be so well pois'd and settled, that without some vio­lence they scarce change their po­sture any more.

But to return to our EARTH­QUAKES, and to give an instance or two of their Extent and Vio­lence: Pliny mentions one in the Reign of Tiberius Caesar that struck down Twelve Cities of Asia in one Night. And Fournier gives us an Account of one in Peru, that reach'd Three Hundred Leagues along the Sea-Shore, and Seventy Leagues Inland; and levell'd the Mountains all along as it went, threw down the Cities, turn'd the Rivers out of their Channels, and made an Universal havock and Confusion; And all this, [...]e saith, [Page 407] was done within the space of Se­ven or Eight Minutes. There must be dreadful Vaults and Mines under that Continent, that gave passage to the Vapours, and liberty to play for Nine Hundred Miles in length, and above Two Hun­dred in breadth. Asia also hath been very subject to these Desola­tions by EARTH-QUAKES; and many parts in Europe, as Greece, Italy, and others. The Truth is, our Cities are built upon Ruines, and our Fields and Countries stand upon broken Arches and Vaults, and so does the greatest part of the outward Frame of the Earth, and therefore it is no wonder if it be often shaken; there being quanti­ties of Exhalations within these Mines, or Cavernous passages, that are capable of rarifaction and in­fl [...]mation; and upon such Occasi­ons, requiring more room, they shake or break the Ground that covers them. THO. BVRNET's [Page 408] Theory of the Earth. Pag. 119, 120, 121.

Many have written of the Cau­ses of these dreadful Effects of Na­ture, of these Tremblings and Shi­verings of the Earth, or rather Aguish shaking Fits, whereunto we find her Body is as subject as the Body of Men, or Lions, who are observ'd to have their Mont [...] Paroxisines.

The Babilonian Philosophers think the Cause of these impetuous Mo­tions happeneth by the force of some Planet meeting with the Sun in the Region of the Earth; Others hold it to be a Vapour a long time engendring in some Concavities of the Earth, and restrain'd from Sal­lying forth into the Air; Others affirm, that it is a Wind penn'd up in the Entrails of the Earth; Pliny says, that the Earth never quaketh, but when the Sea is very Calm, and the Air so still and clear, as the Birds can hardly bear them­selves up, and that the Winds are [Page 409] then shut up in the Bowels of the Earth, their improper S [...]ation. He addeth further, that an EARTH­QUAKE is nothing else but as Thun­der in the Air, or an overture and Crevice in the Earth, or as Light­ning breaking forth violently and making irruptions from the midst of the Clouds, the Wind inclos'd therein, and struggling to come forth by force. The Stoicks speak of divers Sorts of EARTHQUAKES that cause the gapings of the Earth, the swellings of the Water, and bolling of the same; a horrid con­fus'd Sound commonly proceedeth and accompanieth this Quaking, sometimes like to the roaring of a Bull, sometimes to the lamentable Cry of some Humane Creature, or like the Clattering of Armour, according to the quality of the Matter which is inclos'd, or accor­ding to the Form of the Cave, and Hole, or SPELUNCA, through which it passeth, which resounds in Vaulty and hollow places: It wax­eth [Page 410] hot, in sharp and dry places and causeth defluxions in those that are moist and humid. Now a­mongst all EARTHQUAKES, the Agitation of the Waters is most dangerous, for Lightning is not so hurtful, nor the shaking of Build­ings, or when the Earth is pus [...]'d up, or falleth down by an inter­changeable Motion, because the one keepeth back the other. The saf­est Buildings are those upon Vaults, the Corners of Walls, and on Bridges leaning one against ano­ther; beside, Brick Buildings are less dangerous in such Accidents. Your skilful Navigators can foretel these EARTHQUAKES, at such time as they p [...]rceive the Waves to swell on a sudden without a Wind; and likewise those on Land may also foretel them, when they behold Birds in a maze to stay their flight; or when Waters in Wells are troubled more than or­dinary, having a bad unsavoury smell: All these are Presages of [Page 411] such hidious Motions: Pherecydes the Syrian drawing Water out of a Well, [...]oretold an EARTHQUAKE; and so did Anaximander Milesius; And the truest Signs are, either when the Wind blows not; Or when the Sea and Region of the Air are Calm, for an EARTH­QUAKE never happeneth, when the Wind blows, or the Sea swells. IAMES HOWELL's Hist. of Ve­nice, Pag. 75, 76.

If we may Credit Aristotle, he tells us that EARTHQUAKES are most frequent in Spring and Au­tumn; which remark, though slighted by G [...]ssendus, who gene­rally affects to contradict that Phi­losopher, is notwithstanding con­firm'd by that great Naturalist Pliny, and several other Learned Men in all Ages; who do not deny but that EARTHQUAKES may, and have several times happened both in Summer and Winter, tho' not so commonly as in the other Two Seasons, in which there is [Page 412] generally a greater abundance of Moisture sucked up, more Vapours and a larger quantity of Nitrè, as Experience doth demonstrate, all which Ingredients may conspire to the producing of an EARTH­QUAKE. For if we consider, how capable they are of a large Ex­pansion, how forcible they are when ratified in Vessels closed, and placed over the Fire; in Aeolypiles, or vents, from which they break out, with forcible Blasts, or in Winds, which frequently proceed from the rarisaction of such Prin­ciples, we may suppose that those Vapours, which produce such great Commotions in the Air, may cause a considerable Disturbance in the Earth, when pent and locked up by Cold, or any such like Accident.

It is generally observ'd, that some little time before an EARTH­QUAKE, there is not only a great Calmness, but likewise a sud­den Coldness and Chillness in the Air; which was observ'd just be­fore [Page 413] the EARTHQUAKE that happen'd at Oxford, and the parts adjacent Sept. 17. 1683. And the like Observations of Cold preceed­ing are in Dr. Wallis's Account of an EARTHQUAKE, Numb. 10. of the Philosophical Transactions, as al­so in that of Mr. Boyle, Numb. XI. concerning the same EARTH­QUAKE, THOMAS PIGOT's Ac­count of the EARTHQVAKE at Oxford, &c. Sept. 17. 1683. in the PHILOS. TRANSACT. Numb. 151. Pag. 312, 313.

In EARTHQUAKES the tremu­lous Motion sometimes extends so very far, that, tho' it seems high­ly probable that the Shake that is given to one part of the Earth by the Firing and Explosion of Subter­raneal Exhalations, (if that be the true and only cause of EARTH­QUAKES) is not capable of reach­ing near so far as divers EARTH­QUAKES have done, but that the Fire passes through some little Sub­terraneal Clefts, or Channels, or [Page 414] hidden Conveyances, from one great Cavity or Mine to another; yet 'tis not improbable, but that the vehemently tremulous Motion does oftentimes reach a very great way beyond the places where the Explosions were made. Since, tho' Seneca would confine the Extent of EARTHQUAKES to two Hun­dred Miles, yet Observations made in this and the last Century war­rant us to allow them a far greater spread.

The Learned Iosephus Acosta af­firms, that in the Kingdom of Peru, in the Year 1586. an EARTH­QUAKE reached along the Shoar of the Pacifick Sea 160 Leagues; And adds, that sometimes it has in those parts run on from South to North 300 Leagues. And in the beginning of this our Age (Anno Dom. 1601) good Writers relate a much larger EARTHQUAKE to have happened, since it reached from Asia to that Sea that washes the French Shoars, and, besides [Page 415] some Asiatick Regions, shock Hun­gary, Germany, Italy and France, and consequently a great part of Europe. And if that part of the Narrative be certain, which relates, that this lasted not much above a quarter of an Hour, it will be the more likely, that this EARTH­QUAKE shook great Tracts of Land beyond those places, to which the fired Matter, passing from one Cavity to another, could reach in so short a time: As you will the more easily guess, if you try, as I have done, that in Trains of Gun-powder it self, the Fire do [...]s not run on near so swiftly as one imagines. ROB. BOYLE [...] the great Effects of even LANGVID MOTION, Pag. 49, 50, 51.


where they [...]age with the greatest Violence.

HURRICANES are no strangers to the Moluccas, and Philippines, and we have most incredible Relations of the Storms in the way to Ia­pan, which have carried Ships a considerable distance from the Sea, up the D [...]y-Land: Some have been miserably wrack [...], and buried in the Waves, others split in a Thou­sand pieces against the Rocks, that scarce one Ship in five escapes these Disasters in the Tempestuous Months about Autumn, or at the Change of the Monsoons. From thence we may collect this Conside­rable Remarque, That they never happen but on the Eastern Shoars, where they are Fatal to the Chinese and Caribbee-Seas, and so as far as the River of Plate; likewise to that part of Afric from the Cape to St Lawrence, and the Adjacent Isles: When they are altogether unknown to the African Ocean, from the Canaries to Cape Bon Espe­rance, [Page 419] nor are they ever heard of at New-Spain, or the Coasts of Peru, nor towards any other Western parts of America, because there the Winds, which blow off from Land, make no Opposition against the Ge­neral Brise, but comply with the constant Motion of the Air between the Tropiques, from East to West▪ For the shifting of the Trade-Wind from the Easterly Points, is usually the first On-set of an approaching HURRICANE.

Yet, however these Suspicions of Mine be receiv'd, I think it can­not be rationally disputed, but that those diresul Tempests have their first Rise from the Western Conti­nent: For we seldom meet them very remote from Land, and the Experienc'd Masters of Ships are never jealous of HURRICANES in the Spacious Ocean; Or, i [...] they perceive them coming, imediately make out to Sea, where their Fury is much less, than near the Shoa [...]s.

[Page 420]HURRICANES are most to be dreaded about the end of Summer, in the Months of Iuly and August: For both the Winds and Seas imi­tate the Motions of the Sun, and being dilated by the Celestial Heat, annually revert from North to South; and from South to North again; So that the Sun hastening from one Tropique to another, cau­ses the like suddain Conversions in the [...] and Winds; and being the mo [...] V [...]iversal Efficient, must nee [...]s [...] principally concern'd in all Vic [...]udes of the Sublunary World.

HURRICANES are usually pre­ceeded by an extraordinary Tran­quillity of the Heavens and Seas: Possibly. some Counter-Winds may for a short space ballance one another, and bring the Air to an equal pois [...]. So that [...]ose who h [...]ppen to be in the Center of the Whirl-Wind are at first sensible of no disturbance; as we see in Eddys or Whirl-Peo's of Water, that, while the Circumference is vio­lently [Page 421] agitated, in the middle it continues for some time quiet and calm. R. BOHVN's Disc. of the ORIGINE and PROPERTIES of WIND, Pag▪ 255, 256, &c.

This following Account of the Nature of HURRICANES, is gi­ven us by an Ingenious Frenchman, in his History of the Caribbe-Islands; quoted by the aforesaid Mr. Bohun, Pag. 280, 281, &c.

‘HURRICANES are terrible and violent Tempests, which may be term'd the true Images of the last Conssag [...]ation of the World: Formerly they happen'd but once in Five or Seven Years; but they are now become more frequent, since the Antilles were inha [...]ted, for there was One in 51, ano­ther in 52, Two in 53, and Two in 50: (Nay, in the Islands of Gardaloupe ▪ lying about the 16 degree of N. Latitude, there hap­pen'd no less than three HURRI­CANES in one Year.) The Man­ner of them is, as fo [...]l [...]th.’

[Page 422] ‘Ordinarily the Sea becomes Calm on a sudden, and smooth as Glass: Then presently a [...]ter, the Air is Darkned, and fill'd with thick and gloomy Clouds; after which, it's all (as it were) on Fire, and opens on every side with dreadful Lightnings, that last a considerable time: After which follow wonderful Claps of Thun­der, that seem as i [...] the Heaven was re [...]t asunder.’

‘The Earth trembles in many places, and the Wind blows with so great Imperuosity, that it Roo [...]s up the tallest and greatest Trees which grow in the Woods; beats down almost all the Houses, and tears up the Vegetables; de­stroying every thing that grows upon the Earth; and very often compels Men, whilst this dread­ful Tempest lasts, to catch hold of the Trunks of Trees, to secure themselves from being carried a­way by the Winds; some lye in the Caves of the Rocks, or retire [Page 423] into the Huts of the Negroes and Caribbians, which are built ex­ceeding low on purpose to elude the Shocks of these Tempests.’

‘But that which is most dan­gerous of all, and which causes the greatest Mischief, is, that in Four and Twenty Hours, and sometimes in less space, it makes the whole Circle of the Compass; leaving neither Road nor Haven secure from its raging force; so that all the Ships that are at that time on the Coast, do perish most Miserably.’

‘At the Island of St. Christophers, several Ships in the Harbour, being laden with Tobacco, were all cast away by an HURRI­CAN; and afterwards the To­bacco poyson'd most of the Fish on their Coasts.’

‘When these Storms are over, a Man may behold the saddest Spectacles that can be imagin'd. There may be seen Pieces of Mountains shaken by the Earth­quakes, [Page 424] and Forrests overturn'd; Houses beaten down by the Vio­lence of the Winds; abundance of poor Families undone by the loss of their Goods, and the Mer­chandize in their Cottages; of which they can save but very little. There one may see the poor Sea-Men drown'd and rowl­ing in the Waves, with many brave Ships broken in pieces, and batter'd against the Rocks. 'Tis a thing so Woful and Deplerable, that should this Disorder happen often, I know not who could have the Heart or Confidence to go to the Indies.

A Letter from a Sea-Captain, to Mr. R. BOHVN.


IN Answer to your Request, con­cerning the HURRICANE, I can say little of its Effects more, than what concerns our particular dammage, and terrour. It happen'd upon the 18th of August last (1670) Sixteen Hours after the New-Moon, in the 14th Degree of North Lati­tude, about Ninety Leagues from Barbadoes; It succeeded a Storm of 48 Hours continuance at North-East; an unusual way of its appearing, for it commonly follows a Calm: Its presage being a shifting of the Wind about the Compass, with the Appear­ance of a troubled Sky, the only advantage we have to prepare for its reception. The Fury of it beg [...]n about 10 at Night, and continu'd till 12 the next Day. I'ts observ'd that the HURRICANES of the New-Moon begin at Night, and [Page 426] those at the Full in the Day; as was noted two Fears since, when the Lord Willoughby perisht with Eight Ships, and near a Thousand Persons.

During its 14 Hours Fury with us, it shifted 14 Points, from the N. E. to the S. S. West, keeping a Method of Changing One P [...]int an Hour; and then shifted backward, and in its retreat still abated, until it returned to the Original Point, where it wholly ceas'd.

In the height of it, we had some H [...]l, the Stones whereof were very great, which seem'd to be thrown upon us for the space of the twentieth part of a Minute, and then an in­termission of Five or Six Minutes, before any more came. The Sea in the Night seem'd as a real Fire, and I believe we might have distinct­ly perceiv'd any Object at a great distance: In the day time we seem'd rather to S [...]il in the Air than Wa­ter, the Wind forcing the Sea so high that we could scarce make a distinction of either Element.

[Page 427]The Terrour of it was such, that I thought it the Emblem of Hell, and the last D [...]ssolution of all things; especially the first two Hours, which were attended with so much Thunder, and Lightning, so as [...]onishing, as if we had been wrapt up into the Clouds, or the whole Air set on Fire. The strength of the Wind was so great, that it blew a Boat of 18 Foot long (fastned to four Ring- [...]olts, and each bolt through a Ring of the Ship) clear off the Deck: I [...] blew away a piece of Timber of great Substance and Weight, called the Cross-Piece of the Bits, to which we fasten our Cables: It tore off the Sails from the Yards, though fast furled; the Yards from the Masts, and the upper Masts from the lower: It blew away four Men of F [...]ve, who were upon the Fore-Yard, three of which, by a Strange Providence, were thrown in again upon the Deck by the Sea, and saved. The last re­main of its Fury was a Weighty Grinding Stone, which it left fastned [Page 428] between two Timber Heads, but it blew away the Trough from under it▪ I had several Accounts from Parti­cular Friends how terrible it was in other places, but to me it seem'd beyond all Expression.

These HURRICANES are most frequent between the AeQUINOCTI­AL, and the Tropique of CANCER: They more rarely happen between the LINE and the Tropique of CAPRI­CORN But that which to me is the greatest Wonder, is, that they should be so terrible among the Ca­ribbe-Islands, that, in some of them, they have neither l [...]ft House, Tree, nor Plant in the Ground, beginning at St. JOHN De Porto Rico, and so running Eastward: but the I­SLANDS of HISPANIOLA, CU­BA; and JAMAICA are never trou­bled with them, though within few Leagues of the Rest.

There are some Old INDIANS that have given notice of them three or four Days before their Coming: By what R [...]les, I was never curious [Page 429] to understand; It being enough for us to study how to defend our selves and Ships from them, rather than by any nice Enquiries to s [...]arch into their Causes: Only thus much I ob­serv'd, that they have an influence upon the SEA, as well as the MOON, both upon them and it; for I found by Observation of the SUN and STARS, that there was a Cur­rent tending so violently Northward, that in 24 Hours it would force us as many Leagues from our Easterly Course; which did so confound us, having neither Card nor Compass left to Steer by (which, with several other Goods, were swept away in a Breach which the SEA made into our Ship) that I think it was as great a difficulty for me to find out BAR­BADOS (this place being nearest for our relief) as COLUMBUS, who first discover'd those Countries▪ Sir, I have been as modest as I could in giving you this Relation, because I know many who are ac­quainted with the violence of these [Page 430] Tempests, will be incredulous; But I should be sorry, that all who will not believe this Account, should have the same Confirmation which I had▪ If there be any thing in it worth your notice, it may engage me here­after to recollect some more Particu­lars; In all things I shall endeavour to assure you that I am, &c.

Were it not sufficient, that a Relation much of this Nature was presented to his Majesty; and that the Ship, after it return'd, lay at Anchor a long time in the River of Thames; not without Signal Marks of the HURRICANE, I might have been scrupulous enough, to have desir'd the Subscriptions of several others, who could at [...]est the Truth of this Narrative. I should only wish that some of those Reflections, which the Ingenious Captain is pleas'd to make upon this Occasion, were enquir'd into, by those who live in any of the Caribbe-Islands: Whether the HUR­RICANES [Page 431] of the NEW-MOON begin constantly by Night, and those at the Full in the Day? Which would be remarkable, tho' I never remember to have met with the like Observation in any other Description: However, w [...] can by no means exclude the Ope­rations of this Influential Planet; which has a very great Dominion over both the Winds and Tydes; whether from its Pressure, or by what means soever it produces these Effects: Some have thought that the MOON has an Atmosphere of its own, and sends out Efflu­vium's to the Neighbouring World; and therefore acts more powerful­ly in the Perigaeum, when it ap­proaches nearest the Earth.

That wonderful Light which ap­pear'd during this HURRICANE, might be from the Collision of the Lucid Salts, with which the Sea-Water is so deeply impregnated: Light happily being nothing else [Page 432] but the Motion of some Subtil Mat­ter.

Not only the Winds, but the Currents are observ'd to change, and run round in Eddys, before the beginning of the Tempest.—It's likewise esteem'd a sure Progno­stique, that the Birds (led by an instinct of Nature) come down be­fore hand in Flocks from the Moun­tains, to secure themselves in the Vallies against the injury of the Weather.

I believe, there might be excel­lent use made of the Barometer for predicting of HURRICANES, and other Tempests, especially at Sea; since I am credibly inform'd, that a Person of Quality, who lives by the Sea-side, (though happily there may not be so considerable Altera­tions in the gravity of the Atmo­sphere far off at Land) can by the Barometer almost infallibly foretel any great Tempest for several Hours before it begins.

[Page 433]I find no mention of Salt Rains in any of the English Narratives; but the most Inquisitive of the French and Dutch have reckon'd it as a very infallible Presage, that the Rain, which falls a little before, is bitter, and Salt as the Sea-Water: Which happily may argue a Col­lection of some Saline and Sulphu­reous Spirits, in the Regions of the Air, that encountring each other, may by their violent Displosion be principally concern'd in the Pro­duction of HURRICANES. R. BO­HVN, Ibid.

Dr. Stubbes says, that he had enquir'd of some, that had been in HURRICANES, if it were so Cold then, as Vincent le Blanc relates it? They said, they had not found it to be so Cold; but yet in Compa­rison of other times, it was much colder then. He also enquired of the Nature of those Tempests, whether the Wind varied all the Points of the COMPASS as 'tis said? They answer'd, No; but it [Page 434] began always with a North-Wind, and when it came EAST, it ceas'd: But betwixt the NORTH and EAST-Point it varied so fast, and with such a violent Gust always, that it was impossible for any Ship in the Water to answer the Veering of the Wind. PHILOS. TRANS­ACT. Numb. 36. Pag. 706.

Observations concerning the TOR­NADOS.

THe TORNADOS are variable Winds, call'd in the Portugal Language TRAVADOS, but most significantly by the Greeks ECNA­PHIAS from [...]Nubes; for their surest Prognostique is a Thick Cloud, suddenly rising above the Horizon, which is easily visible in those Countries, where the Air is gene­rally defecate and serene. The Cloud for its smalness at first was call'd Olho de Boy, the Bull's-Eye; yet this, from so insensible a begin­ning, [Page 435] diffuses it self by degrees, and at last, covering the whole Face of the Heavens with a Ca­nopy of Darkness, causes horrible Storms, Thunder and Lightning, swells the raging Seas up to the Clouds, which pour them down in Deluges of Rain, falling rather in huge Cascades, and by Buckets-full, than Drops; sometimes together with Hailstones of prodigious bulk: So variable and unsteady are the TORNADO-Winds, so little obliged to any certain Law, that they commonly shift all the Points of the Compass in the space of an hour, blowing in such sudden and impetuous Gusts, that a Ship which was ready to overset on one side, is no less dangerous assaulted on the other; sometimes they shift without intermission, and other­while they blow in Starts, so that you shall have a perfect Calm between every puff: Let a Fleet of Ships sail as near as they can without falling foul on each other, [Page 436] and they shall have several and contrary Winds: You shall be al­larm'd with many of them in the same Day, most towards the Coasts of Africk, for half an hour or three quarters at a time: And were they equally lasting, as impe­tuous, few would be invited thi­ther by the Guiny Gold, or venture to cross the Line for the richest Merchandise of the East.

Our Sea-Men commonly meet with the TORNADOS from the 10th sometimes the 11th and 12th Degree of Northern Latitude, like­wise in the Tropick of Capricorn near the Promontory of Cape Bon [...]sperance; where the Fatal Cloud rises as only a small Spot in the Air, and then displays it self, spreading like a Carpet or'e the top of the Mountain; which the Sea-Men espying, though in the Calmest Weather, immediately furle their Sails, and provide for the ensuing Storm, that not long after descends [...] Lightning and Winds, being the [Page 437] more terrible because it begins with the utmost Fury at first, and the Changes of the Points sudden, as the twinckling of an Eye. You shall have a treacherous Calm, a dreadful Tempest, and in an hours space the Sky clear again, and the Sea Smooth as Glass: The Portuguese in their Discoveries of the Oriental Indies, lost Nine Ships out of Twelve, which was overset by the Prodigious Impetuosity of these sudden Gusts. But we seldom hear of such Disasters now adays, our Seamen being more expert to go­vern themselves, in these Dange­rous Attacks; and always jealous of Surprize in the African Seas: ‘For the nearer you are to the Coasts of Africk (as was observ'd by an Inquisitive Traveller of late, in the Philosophical Transacti­o [...]s, Numb. 50. Pag. 1004.) so much more dreadful is the Thun­der and Rain; but the further Westward you go, the Thunder and Rain will be less, and the [Page 438] Winds not so uncertain; so that, if you go as far West, as the Me­ridian of the East side of Brasile, there is little Thunder, neither doth the Wind come down in such sudden Puffs and Flaws; but between the 4 and 8 Degree, it is most inclin'd to Calms and thick Foggs, and the Rains come not in such dangerous Showers.’

I have not only consulted the most Experienc'd of our Sea-Men, from whom I had information in these Particulars; but I find that many others, both English and Forreigners, have in their Travels given u [...] Descriptions of the TOR­NADOS, which would be Super­fluous to recite; I shall only add a Relation out of Sir Thomas Roe (in his East-India Vo [...]age) to con­firm the precedent Discourses.

‘These TORNADO Blasts were so variable, that sometimes with­in the space of an hour, all the several Winds of the Compass will blow; so that [...]f there be many [Page 439] Ships in Company, you shall have them Sail so many several ways, and every one of them seem to go directly before the Wind. These strange Gusts came with much Thunder and Lightning, and extreme Rain, so noisome, that it made their Cloaths who stirr'd much in it, to stink upon their Backs; and the Water of these Hot, and Unwholsome Showers would presently bring forth Worms, and other offensive Ani­mals. The TORNADOS met with us, when we were about Twelve Degrees of N. Latitude, and kept us Company, till Two Degrees Southward of the Aequi­noctial.

This ECNEPHIAS not only vi­sits the Coasts of Malaguta and Guiny, producing vehement Gusts of Wind and Rain, but reaches as far as Terra de Natal, lying to the East-North-East towards St. Law­rence; and at Cape Gardafui near the entrance of the Arabian Gulf, [Page 440] it infests those parts in May, as was collected by Varenius from the Dutch Iournals: In the Sea towards the Kingdom of Loango, and that part of the Aethiopique Ocean, the TORNADOS are most frequent in Ianuary, February, and March. On the Shores of Guiny, when no o­ther Winds blow in those Climats, and within Five, Six, or Seven Degrees of the Aequinoctial, they reign in April, May, and Iune, which is the time of their Rains; and in other parts of Africk, they observe other Months; For they have not only Etesian Winds, but Anniversary Tempests in some Seas. Yet, to be fuller satisfied in the History of this Ecnephias, I address'd my self to Mr. George Cock of Green­wich (a Gentleman of a Generous and Communicative Temper) who being interested in the Royal Com­pany, is well vers'd in all Occur­rences of the African Trade, and at my request procur'd me this following Account of the TOR­NADOS [Page 441] on the Coast of Guiny, from a Person long employ'd in their Service.

‘The place of the TORNA­DOS rising is, E.N.E to the N.N.E. they frequently give 2 or 3 hours notice of then com­ing, by a thick black Cloud ga­ther'd in the Horison, with much Thunder and Lightning. Some­times the Wind comes first, very [...]orceable, and then a great quan­tity of Rain; otherwhile, the Rain begins, and is follow'd by a Tempestuous Wind. At this Season the Blacks count it good Planting Corn, or Roots.’

‘They make the Air very clear; [...]o that a Man may see 5 times further than before: I my self lying at Anchor in the River, have seen the Isle of Princes, at least Six Leagues up; when be­fore, I could not see the Isle of Fernando do Po [...].

‘During the TORNADOS it's exceeding Cold, insomuch that [Page 442] the Natives, and other Inhabi­ [...]nts are very sensible of it for the time. Their Continuance is about an Hour, or two Hours at most.’

I lately made enquiries of seve­ral Ships, that, during the Winter Months, never met with any TORNADOS, all the way from Brasile; They being most violent, when the Sun is near their Zenith and in the time of their Rains, when the Air is Moist, and affords greater Quantities of Flatulent Va­pours. R. BOHVN of the Origine and Properties of Wind, Pag. 235. &c.

Observations concerning ISLANDS.

WE must in the first place di­stinguish between Original Islands and Factitious Islands; Those I call Factitious, that are not of the same Date and Antiquity with the Sea, but have been made some at one time, some at another, by accidental Causes, as the Aggestion of Sands and Sandbeds, or the Sea leaving the tops of some shallow places that lie high, and yet flow­ing about the lower Skirts of them; These make sandy and plain I­SLANDS, that have no high Land in them, and are but mock-I­SLANDS in Effect. Others are made by divulsion from some Con­tinent, when an Isthmus or the Neck of a Promontory running into the Sea, sinks or falls in, by an Earthquake or otherwise, and the Sea entring in at the gap passeth through, and makes that Promonto­ry or Country become an ISLAND. [Page 444] Thus the ISLAND Sicily is sup­pos'd to have been made, and all Africa might be an ISLAND, if the Isthmus between the Mediter­ranean and the Red Sea should sink down. And these ISLANDS may have Rocks and Mountains in them, if the Land had so before. Lastly, there are ISLANDS that have been said to rise from the bottom of the Sea; History men­tions such in both the Archipelago's, Aegean and Indian; and this seems to argue that there are great Frag­ments or Tracts of Earth that he loose at the bottom of the Sea, or that are not incorporated with the Ground.

But besides these ISLANDS and the several Sorts of them, there are others which I call Original: because they could not be produc'd in any of the forementioned ways, but are of the same Origin and An­tiquity with the Channel of the Sea; and such are the generality of our ISLANDS; They were not [Page 445] made of heaps of Sands, nor torn from any Continent, but are as An­cient as the Continents themselves, Namely, ever since the Deluge, the common Parent of them both. Nor is there any difficulty to un­derstand how ISLANDS were made at the Dissolution of the Earth, any more than how CONTI­NENTS were made; for I­SLANDS are but lesser CONTI­NENTS, or CONTINENTS grea­ter ISLANDS; and according as CONTINENTS were made of greater Masses of Earth or greater Fragments standing above the Wa­ter, so ISLANDS were made of less, but so big always, and in such a posture, as to bear their tops a­bove the Water. Yet though they agree thus far, there is a particular difference to be taken notice of as to their Origin; [...]or the CONTI­NENTS were made of those three or four primary Masses into which the falling Orb of the Earth was divided, but the ISLANDS were [Page 446] made of the Fractures of these, and broken off by the fall from the Skirts and Extremities of the CONTINENTS; we noted be­fore, that when those great Masses and primary Fragments came to dash upon the Abysse in their fall, the sudden stop of the Motion, and the weighty Bulk of the descend­ing Fragment broke off all the Edges and Extremities of it, which Edges and Extremities broken off made the ISLANDS; And accord­ingly we see that they generally lie scatter'd along the sides of the Continents, and are but Splinters, as it were, of those greater Bodies. 'Tis true, besides these, there were an infinite Number of other pieces brake off that do not appear, some making Rocks under Water, some shal [...]ows and Banks in the Sea; but the greatest of them when they fell either one upon another, or in such a posture as to prop up one another, their Heads and higher [Page 447] parts would stand out of the Water and make ISLANDS.

Thus I conceive the ISLANDS of the Sea were at first produc'd; we cannot wonder therefore that they should be so numerous, or fa [...] more numerous than the Continents; These are the Parents, and those are the Children; Nor can we wonder to see along the sides of the Continents several ISLANDS or Sets of ISLANDS, sown, as it were, by handfuls, or laid in Trains; for the manner of their Generation would lead us to think, they would be so plac'd. So the American I­SLANDS lie scatter'd upon the Coast of that Continent; the Mal­divian and Philippine upon the East-Indian Shoar, and the Hespe­rides upon the A [...]rick; and there seldom happen to be any towards the middle of the Ocean, though▪ by an Accident, that also might come to pass. BVRNET's Theory of the Earth, pag. 137, 138, 139.

[Page 448] Athanasius Kircher, amongst ma­ny considerable Remarks in his China Illustrata, tells us, that in China there were several Isles, to the Number of 99. all turned into one, under the same Extent of space they had, when they were divided by Water.

As concerning the Situation of ISLANDS, whether Comodious or not, this, saith Peter He [...]lin, is my judgement. I find in Machiavel, that for a City whose People covet no Empire but their own Towns, a Barren place is better than a Fruitful; because in such Seats they are compell'd to Work and Labour, whereby they are freed from Idleness, and by Consequence from Luxury: But for a City whose Inhabitants desire to enlarge their Confines, a fertile place was rather to be chosen than a Barren, as being more able to nourish Mul­titudes of People. The like Pet. Heylin says of ISLANDS. If a Prince desire rather to keep than [Page 449] augment his Dominions, no place fitter for his Abode than an I­SLAND; as being by it self and Nature sufficiently desensible. But if a King be minded to add conti­nually to his Empire, an ISLAND is no fit Seat for him; because, partly by the uncertainty of Winds and Seas, partly by the length and tediousness of the ways, he is not so well able to supply and keep such Forces as he hath on the Con­tinent. An Example hereof is Eng­land, which hath even to admira­tion repelled the most puissant Monarch of Europe; but for the Causes above mentioned, cannot shew any of her Conquests on the firm Land, though she hath at­tempted and atchieved as many glorious Exploits, as any Coun­trey in the World. PET. HEYL. Cosmogr.

The Ingenious Dr. Sprat, now Bishop of Rochester, observes, that the chief Design of the Antient [Page 450] English was the glory of spreading their Victories on the Continent: But this, says he, was a Magnani­mous mistake: For by their very Conquests, if they had maintain'd them, this ISLAND had been ruin'd, and had only become a Province to a greater Empire. But now it is rightly understood, that the English Greatness will never be sup­ported or increas'd in this Age, by any other Wars but those at Sea. SPRAT's Hist. of the R. S. Pag. 404.

ISLANDERS are for the most part longer liv'd, than those that dwell in Continents: For they live not so long in Russia, as in the Orcades; nor so long in Africa, though under the same Parallel, as in the Canaries, and Tercera's; And the Iaponians are longer liv'd, than the Chineses; though the Chi­neses are mad upon long life. And this is no wonder; seeing the Air [Page 451] of the Sea doth heat and cherish in cooler Regions, and cool in hotter. BACON's Hist. of Life and Death.

Of the Origine of F [...]VNTAINS.

THat there is a Mass of Wa­ters in the Body of the Earth, is evident from the Origine of Fountains; for the Opinion of Aristotle imputing them to the Condensation of Air in the Caverns of the Earth, and that of other Philosophers ascribing them to the fall of Rain-Water, received into such Cisterns in the Earth which are capable of receiving it, are both equally unsatisfactory, unless we suppose a Mass of Waters in the Bowels of the Earth, which may be as the Common-Stock to supply those Fountains with. For it is very hard conceiving how meer [Page 452] Air should be so far Condensed, as to cause not only such a Number of Fountains, but so great a quan­tity of Water as runs into the Sea by those Rivers which come from them, (as the River Volga is sup­posed to empty so much Water in a Years time into the Caspian Sea, as might suffice to cover the whole Earth,) by which likewise it is most evident, that there must be some Subterranean Passages in the Sea, or else of necessity, by that abundance of Water which continu­ally runs into it from the Rivers, it would overflow and drown the World. And from this Multitude of Waters which comes from Foun­tains, it is likewise evident, that the Origine of [...]ountains cannot be meerly [...] Water which [...], which would [...] maintai [...] so full [...] many [...] that [...], that [Page 453] Rain-Water doth never moisten the Earth above Ten Foot deep, for of far greater profundity many Foun­tains are. And besides the Rain-Water runs most upon the Surface of the Earth, and so doth rather swell the Rivers, which thereby run with greater force in their Passage to the Ocean, and doth not lodge it self presently in the Earth, especially if it descends in a grea­ter Quantity, which alone is able to fill such Cisterns supposed to be in the Earth, especially in Moun­tains, which may keep a Stream continually running. Although therefore we may acknowledge that the fall of Rain may much conduce to the Overflowing and Continuance of Fountains, as is evi­dent by the greater force of Springs af [...]er continued Rains, and by the d [...]c [...]y of many of them in hot and dry Weather, (which yet I had rather impute to the Suns exhaling by his continued heat those moist [...] [Page 456] Legs, because it is equally dispers'd into all the parts from the Center of it; so in the Body of the Earth, it is as natural for the Water to ascend into the Tops of Mountains, as it is to fall down into the Cen­ter of the Earth. And that it is no more wonder to see Springs issue out of Mountains, than it is to see a Man Bleed in the Veins of his Forehead when he is let Blood there. So in all places of the Earth the parts of it are not dispos'd for Apertion; for some of them are so hard and compact, that there seems to be no passage through them (which is the most probable Reason, why there is no Rain neither in those places, be­cause there is no such Exs [...]dation of those moist Vapours through the Surface of the Earth, which may yield matter for Rain, as it is in many of the Sandy places of A­frica, but usually Mountainous Coun­tries have more large, and as it [Page 457] were Temple-Veins, through whi [...]h the moist Vapours have a free and open passage, and thence there are not only more frequent Springs there, but Clouds and Rains too.) Now if this Account of the Origine of Springs in the Earth be as rati­onal as it is ingenious and hand­some, (and there is not much can be said against it, but only that then all Fountains should be Salt, as the Water is from whence they come) then we easily understand how the Earth might be overflow'd in the Vniversal Deluge; for then the Fountains of the Deep were broken up, or there was an Vni­versal opening of the Veins of the Earth, whereby all the Water con­tained in them would presently run upon the Surface of the Earth, and must needs, according to its proportion, advance it self to a con­siderable height. But because the salving the difference of the Water in Springs from what it is in the [Page 458] Sea is so considerable a Phaenome­non in our present case, I therefore rather take this following as the most rational Account of the Ori­gine of Fountains, viz. That there are great Cavities in the Earth, which are capable of receiving a considerable Quantity of Water; which continually runs into them from the Sea (which as it continu­ally receives fresh Supplies from the Rivers which empty themselves into it, so it dispatcheth away a like quantity thorow those Spongy parts of the E [...]rth under the Ocean. which are most apt to suck in and convey away the Surplusage of Water) so that by this means the Sea never swells by the Water conveyed into it by the Rivers, there being as continual a Circula­tion in the Body of the Earth, of the Water which passeth out of the Ocean into the Subterraneous Caverns, and from thence to the Mountains, and thence into the Sea [Page 459] again; as there is a Circulation of Blood in Man's Body from the Heart, by the Arteries into the Exteriour Parts, and returning back again by the Veins into the Heart. According to which we may ima­gine such a place in the Heart of the Earth, like Plato's Barathrum, [...]. As Plato in his Phae­drus describes it out of Homer, a long and deep Subterraneous Cavity. [...]. Into which Cavity all the Rivers at last flow, and from which they again disperse themselves abroad. Now this Cavity of the Earth thus fill'd with Water, supplies the place of the Heart in the Body o [...] the Earth, from which all those seve­ral Aquaeducts which are in the Earth have their continual supply▪ But that which makes those passa­ges of Water which we call Springs and Fountains properly, I suppose▪ [Page 460] is thus generated; from those Ca­vities fill'd with Water in the Earth, by Reason of the hot Steams which are in the Body of the Earth, there are continually rising some Vapours or little Particles of Wa­ter, which are dis-joyned from each other by the Heat, by Reason of which they attain a greater Cele­rity of Motion, and so pass through the inner Pores of the Earth, till they come near the Superficies of it. Which when they have approach'd to, they are beat back again by the Cold, which environs the Surface of the Earth, or at least are so arrest­ed by the Cold, and condens'd by it, that they lose the form of Va­pours, and become perfect Water again. Which Water being now more gross, than while it was a meer Vapour, cannot descend again through the same Pores through which it ascended before, because these are not now capable of re­ceiving it: And therefore it seeks [Page 461] out some wider passages near the Surface of the Earth, by which means it moves in an Oblique man­ner, and is ready to embrace any other Vapours which are arrested in the same manner; now when these are grown to a Considerable Body in the Surface of a Mountain, or a Plain, and find a Vent fit for them, there appears a proper FOUNTAIN, whose Streams are still maintained by the same Con­densation of Vapours, which when they are once come abroad, are in continual Motion, whereby Rivers are made, which are still finding a passage through the declivity of the Surface of the Earth, whereby they may return to the Ocean again. Now, according to this Account, that grand Ph [...]nomen [...]n of the fresh­ness of Fountain-Water, when the Water of the Sea is Salt, whence it Originally comes, is sufficiently resolved. For meer Transcolation may by degrees take away that [Page 462] which the Chymists call the Fixed Salt; and for the Volatile Salt of it (which being a more Spirituous thing, is not removable by Distillati­on, and so neither can it be by Transcolation) yet such an Evapo­ration as that mentioned, may serve to do it, because it is evident that Fresh Water will fall from the Clouds, which hath risen from those Vapours which have come out of the Sea; and besides, these Vapours or small Particles of Water in their passage throw the Earth (especial­ly when they come near the Sur­face of it) do Incorporate with o­ther Sweet Vapours, as those which come from Rain and others, by which means they insensibly lose their former Acidity and Sharpness: But those FOUNTAINS which do retain their former Saltness, as there are many such in the World, may very probably be supposed not to have come from these Vapours con­densed, but to be a kind of a break­ing [Page 463] of a Vein, in which the Salt-Water was convey'd up and down the Body of the Earth. STIL­LINGFLEET's Orig. Sacr. lib. 3. Cap. 4. Sect. 6.

The Opinion of Mr. Edmund Halley, in the Philos. Transact. Numb. 192. That Springs and Rive [...]s owe their Original to Vapours condensed on the sides of Mountains, rather than unto Rains, I acknowledg to be very Ingenious, grounded upon good Observations, and worthy of its Author; and I will not deny it to be in part true in those hot Countrys in the Torid Zone, and near it; where, by reason of the great heats, the Vapours are more copiously exhaled out of the Earth, and its likely carryed up high in the form of Vapours: But in Europe, and the more Temperate Countries, I believe the Vapours condensed in the manner as Mr. Hal­ley describes, have but little Interest [Page 464] in the producing of their Springs. IOHN RAY's Miscell. Disc. of the Dissolut. of the World, Pag. 82. and 85.

Dr. Tankred Robinson's Let­ter to Mr. John Ray.

YOV may peradventure meet with some opposition against your Hypothesis of FOUNTAINS, tho' indeed I am more and more con­firm'd in your Opinion of them, and the use of the Mountains. Father TECHART in his second Voyage to Siam, says, when he went up to the top of the Table Mountain at the Cape of Good Hope, the Rocks and Shrubs were perpetually dropping and feeding the Springs and Rills below, there being generally Clouds hanging on the sides near the top.

[Page 465]The same Observation hath been frequently made by our English Mer­chants in the Madera and Canary Islands, especially in their journeys up to the Pike of Teneriff, in which, at such and such heights, they were always wet to the Skin, by the drop­pings of the great Stones, yet no Rain over head; The same I have felt in passing over some of the Alps. The Trees, which in the Islands of Ferro and St. Thomas, are said to furnish the Inhabitants with most of their Water, stand on the sides of Vast Mountains: Vossius in his Notes on Pomponius Mela, affirms them to be Arborescent F [...]rula's; I believe there is something in the many Relations of Traveller's and Voyagers concerning these Trees; but then I fancy they are all mistaken, when they say, the Water issues out of the Trees: The Vapours, s [...]pt by the Mountains condense, and Distil down by the Boughs. There being no Mountains in Egypt, may be one rea­son, why there is little or no Rain in [Page 466] th [...]t Countrey, and Consequently no fresh Springs; therefore in their Caravans they carry all their Water with them in great Borracio's. This may be the cause that the Vast Ridge and Chain of Mountains in Peru, are continually watered, when the great Plains in that Countrey are all dry'd up and parcht. This Hypothesis concerning the ORIGINAL of SPRINGS, from Vapours, may hold better in those Hot Regions within and near the TROPICKS (where the Exhalations from the Sea are most plentiful, most rarify'd, and Rain scarce) than in the Tem­perate and Frigid ones (where it Rains and Snows generally on the Tops of the Mountains) yet even in our EUROPEAN Climates I have often observ'd the Firs, Pines, and other Vegetables near the Summets of the ALPS and APPENNINES, to drop and run with Water, when it did not Rain above; some Trees more than others, according to the [Page 467] density and smoothness of their Leaves and Superficies, whereby they stop and condense the Vapours more or less. The Beams of the Sun hav­ing little force on the high Parts of Mountains, the interrupted Va­pours must continually moisten them, and, (as in the Head of an Alem­bick) condense and trickle down; so that we owe part of our Rain, Springs, Rivers, and Conveniencies of Life, to the Operation of Distil­lation, and Circulation, by the Sun, the Sea, and the Hills, without e­ven the last of which, the Earth would scarce be Habitable.


Since the Receipt of this Letter, an Experiment occur'd to Me, which hath much confirm'd me in the belief and persuasion of the Truth of those Histories and Re­lations which Writers and Travel­lers have delivered to us concern­ing [Page 468] Dropping Trees in FERRO, St. THOME, GUINY, &c. of which before I was somewhat dis­ [...]ident; And likewise in the appro­bation of the Hipothesis of my Learned Friend Dr. Tancred Robin­son for the solving of that Phoeno­menon. The same also induces me to believe, that Vapours may have a greater Interest in the producti­on of SPRRINGS even in tempe­rate and cold Regions, than I had before thought. Therefore when­ever in this Work I have assigned RAIN to be a sufficient o [...] only Cause of SPRINGS and RIVERS, I would not be understood to ex­clude, but to comprehend therein MISTS an VAPOURS; which I grant to have some interest in the production of them, even in Tem­perate and Cold Regions; and a very considerable one in Hot. Though I cannot be perswaded, that even there they are the Sole Cause of SPRINGS, for that there [Page 469] fall such plentiful and long conti­nuing RAINS, both in the East and West-Indies, in the Summer Months: Which must needs con­tribute something to their ORI­GINAL. IOH. RAY's Miscell. Disc. of the Dissolution of the World, Pag. 249.


A Catalogue of some Plays Printed for R. Bentley.

  • BEaumont and Fletcher's Plays: in all 51. in large Fol.
  • Mr. Shakespear's Plays: In one large Fol. Volume, containg 43 Plays.
  • Mr. Nathaniel Lee's Plays: In one Volume.
  • Mr. Otway's Plays: In one Volume.
  • Mr. Shadwel's Plays: In one Volume.
  • Mr. Dryden's Plays: In two Vo­lumes.
His other Poems: One Volume more.
  • 1 All mistaken, or the mad Couple.
  • 2 Alexander the Great.
  • 3 Andromache.
  • 4 Ambitious Statesman, or the Loyal Favourite.
  • 5 Virtue Betray'd, or Anna Bullen.
  • 6 Abdellazor, or the Moor's Revenge.
  • 7 Amoro [...] Prince.
  • 8 Amends for Ladies.
  • 9 Albumazor.
  • 10 Amboyna, a Tragedy.
  • 11 Brutus of Alba.
  • [Page]12 Byron's Conspiracy, 1. Part.
  • 13 Byron's Conspiracy, 2d. Part.
  • 14 Banditti, or the Lady in distress▪
  • 15 Busey d' Ambois.
  • 16 Caesar Borgia.
  • 17 Country Wit.
  • 18 Calisto, or the Chast Nymph.
  • 19 Country Wife.
  • 20 City Politicks.
  • 21 Constantine.
  • 22 Common-wealth of Women.
  • 23 Counterfeits.
  • 24 Caius Marius.
  • 25 Destruction of Ierusalem, in two Parts.
  • 26 Duke of Guise.
  • 27 Dutch Lovers.
  • 28 Duke of Millan.
  • 29 Disappointment.
  • 30 English Monsieur.
  • 31 Esquire Old-Sap, or the Night Ad­ventures.
  • 32 Essex and Elizabeth, or the Unhappy Favourite.
  • 33 Empress of Morocco.
  • 34 Evening Love, or the mock Astro­loger.
  • 35 Forc'd Marriage, or the Jealous Bridegroom.
  • 36 The Fond Husband, or the Plotting Sisters.
  • [Page]37 Fool turn'd Critick.
  • 38 The Fatal Wager.
  • 39 Fatal Jealousie.
  • 40 False Count.
  • 41 Generous Enemies, or the Ridicu­lous Lovers.
  • 42 Gloriana, or the Court of Augustus Caesar.
  • 43 Grateful Servant.
  • 44 Henry the Sixth, or the Misery of Civil-War.
  • 45 Henry the Sixth, or the Murther of the Duke of Glocester, the 2d. Part.
  • 46 Hamlet Pr. of Denmark, a Tragedy.
  • 47 Humerous Courtier.
  • 48 The Hollander.
  • 49 Iulius Caesar.
  • 50 Island Queen, or Mary of Scotland.
  • 51 King Lear.
  • 52 King, and no King.
  • 53 Knave in Grain.
  • 54 Little Thief.
  • 55 Love Tricks.
  • 56 Lucius Iunius Brutus.
  • 57 Loyal Brother.
  • 58 Mythridates King of Pontus.
  • 59 Madam Fickle, or the Witty False One.
  • 60 Mr. Limberham, or the Kind Keeper
  • 61 Mistaken Husband.
  • 62 Moor of Venice.

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