Questions of Religion cast abroad in HELVETIA by the Aduersaries of the same: and aunswered by M. H. Bullinger of ZVRICK: reduced into. 17. Com­mon places.

Translated into Englishe by Iohn Coxe. 1572.

Imprinted at London, by Henrie Bynneman, for George Byshop.

To the right Reuerend father in God, and my ve­ry good Lorde, William by Gods proui­dēce Bishop of Excester, Iohn Cox Wisheth all grace, and peace of conscience from God our heauenly father, through Chryste Iesus our Lord, nowe and for euer.

WHEN I HAD finished the transla­tion of thys Booke, (right Reuerende fa­ther) and being per­svvaded by some of my godly freends, to publishe the same in Printe, for that it vvas a Booke not onely conteyning the vvhole summe of our Christian Religi­on, but also ansvveres to all the obiecti­ons vvhich our aduersaries the Papistes may or can obiecte agaynst vs, bearing any similitude or likelyhode of truthe: and agayne also considering vvith my [Page] selfe, that in these our dayes, beeing the laste, and therefore the moste perillous and daungerous dayes, for so our sauiour Christ him selfe teacheth vs, vvherin vve haue great neede to be furnished against the assaultes of the enimies of true Re­ligion: and vvaying vvith my selfe the godly minde of the author, D. Henry Bullinger, vvho vvrote the same in hys ovvne naturall tongue, for the profite of his Countreymen, as more largely ap­peareth in his ovvne preface, vvhere he declareth vvhy he tooke this matter in hande, a man of moste singular learning and vertuous liuing, for vvhom all chri­stendome is bound to magnifie the ma­iestie of god, declaring his loue tovvards vs, in sending such an excellent member to his Church, vvho paynfully traueled, not only in Lectures and Sermons, euen in his olde and feble age, but also vvrote many Bookes, so that it can not vvell be discerned, in vvhich of these tvvo exerci­ses he did most excede in labor: thought I could do God no better seruice, and no greater pleasure to my Countreymen, than to make them partakers of suche a [Page] precious perle as this. For that it is a sure shield and strong furnished fortresse a­gaynst the carping tongs and clapping clacks of Mo [...] his race. For such is the gret frovvardnesse & obstinacie of some men, that althoughe God of his mercy and clemencie hath repressed and beatē dovvne the frosen, frostie, and darke mountayns of Popish Cimmeria, vvher­by the clearenesse of his Gospell vvas kepte from vs, and hath caused the most comfortable bright beames of his Gos­pell to shyne foorthe ouer vs, yet they most vvickedly blyndfield them selues vvyth the thicke and foggie mystes of mans imaginations, and so rebelling a­gaynst God their Creator, chose rather stubbornely to abyde in their olde hor­rible darkenesse, than vvillingly to em­brace the comfortable lyghte of so mercyfull a God. VVherefore I mu­sed vvith my selfe, to vvhome cheefly I might dedicate this treatise: & amongst many graue and vvise personages, I foūd none so meete as your fatherhoode, and that for tvvo causes: The one for that it hath pleased god of his mercy to take [Page] [...] [Page] [...] [Page] avvay hence vnto him selfe, that moste precious levvel and excellent ornament of his Church, D. Jewell late Byshop of Sarisburie: for vvhose death vvhat sighes and teares are amongest the godly I ceasse to declare, partly for that I vvyll not augmente and renue your Father­hoods conceiued sorrovves, vvhich you haue planted vvithin your breste, (such vvas the great amitie, loue, and faythfull frendship betvveene you,) and for that partly the aboundaunce of mine ovvne teares forceth the same, (such are the ve­hement affections of mans nature:) to vvhome this Booke vvas dedicated by one Iosias Simlerus, one of the chefe Mi­nisters in the Church of Zuricke, vvho turned the same out of Dutche into La­tin, vvherin the author vvrote it, as I sayd before: that as the Booke vvas a defence and fortresse to many, so he lykevvyse mighte be a sheelde and defence vnto the same, agaynst the brauling tongues of the barking enimyes the Papistes, vvho are euer ready to spit foorthe the pestiferous humors of their malitious and vngodly stomacks, as their tyran­nous [Page] practises from tyme to tyme, haue and doo moste manyfestly declare. VVherfore righte reuerende father, and my singular good Lorde, sithe it hathe pleased God (as I sayde before) to take avvay from vs such an ornament and Ie­vvel, for some good cause vnto him kno­vven, I offer this his defence into your hands, beeing no lesse vvorthy to take so good a matter in hande. The other is your good Lordshyps accustomable fauour and good vvill, continually be­stovved on the cheefe of my freends, vvhich forceth me to dedicate this vnto you: therby to signifie, that althoughe there vvanteth povver and habilitie, bothe in them and me to requite any parte thereof, yet suche is our bounden dueties tovvards your Lordshippe, that neither blinde obliuion, nor tyme vvith his crooked sithe, shall be able to cut that reuerende affection and loue, from our brestes vvhich vvee haue duetifully conceiued tovvards you. VVherefore I moste humbly beseeche you, to accepte this my trauell in good parte, and as the onely token of him, vvho prayeth dayly [Page] vnto the almightie God, that he may encrese you vvith honor, and so gouerne you vvith his holy spirite, that as you haue begun, so you may continue a most vigilant and paynfull pastor in Chrystes Churche, to the comforte and encrease thereof, the quiet and discharge of your ovvn conscience, the defacing and ouer­throvving of the aduersaries of the same, and the incoraging and prouoking of your godly Ministers and Preachers to folovv your steppes, in paynfulnesse, di­ligence, loue, humilitie, and other moste excellēt vertues, for the vvhich, amongst all the godly you are moste vvorthely commended, and that so finishing your lyfe, vvith a long and an honorable age, you may vvith Chryst Iesus our head and onely cheefe pastor, possesse the crovvne of eternall glo­ry, for euer and euer.


Your Lorpships moste hum­ble at commaundement, IOHN COXE.
To the right reuerend Father in God, Iohn Iuel Bishop of Sarisburie: Iosias Simlerus vvisheth health.

I Haue heard oftentimes many godly men great­ly desire some wryting, in the which ther might bréefely be confuted all the chéefe argumentes of the Popishe prelates. For (saide they) there is muche written very copiously and learnedly against them, but all mē haue not leisure to reade ouer so great and large woorkes: And furthermore, to those which trauell, and by crueltie of the persecuters of oure religion, are forced to read them priuily, these great volumes are to them very incommodi­ous: bicause they cannot easily be caried about with them, nor thrust or hidde in their bosome. And remembring that a fewe yéeres agone, the reuerend father in God Iohn Parkhurst, did often times desire me, that like as D. Bullinger my father in lawe (whome for reuerence sake I name) had bréefely set foorthe the [Page] chéefe poyntes of our religion, and con­firmed the same by testimonie of holy scripture, intituling it the Summe of Christian Religion, so I in like maner shuld gather togither al the arguments which the papists are wōt to bring out of ye scriptures against vs & our doctrin. And he encoraged me héerunto, saying: that this labor wold not be so tedious & harde vnto me, as profitable and grate­ful vnto many good men. And it would be the lesse laboure for that many of oure countrymen hadde wrytten very largely in the same matter, so as there remained nothing else vnto me, but to bring them into some bréefe order. And as touching the profite héereof, he sayde it mighte well be perceiued, for that héeretofore there was sette foorthe an Enchiridion of common places by Iohn Eckius, a very stoute champion on the Popes behalfe, which being studiously and earnestly read of many Papistes, confirmed them in their erroures: and therefore he had no doubte, but if some like booke were set foorthe by vs, many would willingly reade the same, and [Page] thereby also take greate profite: which thing he sayd mighte well be gathered, bicause that little Bookes, of all those chéefe poyntes mighte very easily be spredde abrode by the Printers, and so be studiously read of all men. Where­fore, these & many other things which he was wonte moste grauely and lear­nedly, according to his custome, to re­hearse vnto me, did easily persuade me that suche a booke would be very profi­table and acceptable to many, but that I shoulde attempte or enterprise to be­gin such a worke I cannot yet persuade my self, not for that there wanteth good will bothe to gratifie my friend priuely as also openly to pleasure others, but bicause I stoode in doubt how to finishe the same. But when the yere last past, there was put into Printe a little boke by the Reuerende father Doctor Hen­rie Bullinger, in whiche he Aunswe­reth to certaine Articles or Questions wherewith the Inquisitors of B [...]ria, as they say, examine those whiche are suspected in Religion, I thought with my selfe, that the same would not only [Page] satisfie the minds of diuers godly men, but also the speciall requeste of our [...] Parkhurst, and therefore haue I turned the same into Latine, that all menne might reade it. For in this booke are all the chéefe argumentes of the Papistes (and especially those with whome they are wont to pose and trouble the minds of the simple and vnlearned) bréefely confuted and answered. And whereas Phillip Melancthon of moste woorthy memorie, father of all the learned men that hither vnto haue liued in Germa­nie, wrote a Boke answering these Ar­ticles of Bauaria, as ye title of his boke doth testifie: yet of. 61. questions he only answered but. 18. peraduenture suppo­sing that by the Answeres made vnto those, the rest also might easily be con­futed. But D. Bullinger hauing regarde to profite the simple and vnlearned, maketh answere orderly, to eche one of these questions: and therfore though he tooke this matter in hand after that great learned man D. Melancthon, yet is it profitable: bicause not only Melan­cthon did not answer to them all, but [Page] also bicause in that his aunswere are some suche things which are not altogi­ther alowed of the godly, and chéefely those things which are written in the 22. Article touching Free vvill: Of the which matter I wil nowe say nothing, but he that readeth both the bookes, and wayeth the argumentes, may easily iudge.

This Booke doe I sende vnto thée, most learned Jewel, first bicause of the great friendship betwéene thée and oure Parkhurst, that so by you I may satisfie his desire and request: or else that at the least he may héerewith contente hym selfe, vntil some better learned than I, may take this his desired work in hād. Furthermore my desire was, that by this a publicke testimonie might be ex­tant, not onely of my duetie towardes you, but also of your loue towardes me, which I not onely perceiued when we were togither, but also do perfectly vn­derstand by your letters since sent vnto me. And although the Popishe doctrine be throughe Goddes great mercy quite chased away from youre Countrey of [Page] Englande, (for the which all godly doe greatly reioyce) yet I truste this my work shal not be vnprofitable, to wéede out of the minds of the simple the dregs of that Doctrine, so as thereby the pure doctrine of Christe, may be the faster and better engrafted. And in the exer­cise héereof, you haue not onely many helpers to me vnknown, but also those whome I right well know, men of ex­cellent learning and vertue, true Bi­shops in Christ, D. Iohn Parkhurst, D. Eduin Sandes, D. Robert Horne, The reuerend father Iohn Bale, D. Iohn Pil­kinton, D. Thomas Leuer, D. Iohn Fox, and D. Laurence Humfrey, all whome I beséeche Christ to preserue.

Henrie Bullinger to the Christian Reader.

THere are almost euery where throughe Ger­manie scattred abrode certayne Questions, written or Printed, and that to the ende the professoures of the gospel, and especially such as a­mongst thē are vnlerned, might by them be troubled, broughte into doute, and as it were quite driuen from the gospel, as from a newe, doubtfull, false and cor­rupt doctrine. For some of these Questions are so coloured with scriptures, that at the first sight they seme to haue some shew of truth. But they all shute to this marke, that they may thruste in and plant, not the true church of Christ and his doctrine, but the churche of Rome, her doctrine, [Page] manners, statutes, and other abuses. Whereby it comes to passe by the infirmitie of man, and by reason of persecutions, that many cōceiue an euil opini­on and lothsomnesse of the gos­pel, and that chiefely when they see there is no man to instructe them, strengthen and comforte them. Wherfore when by some I was requested to make some breefe and plaine answere to the said Questions, and somewhat to open the matter, that bothe they might perceiue how to vn­derstande those places of scrip­tures, as also see that oure reli­on grounded on the Gospell, is not suche as they slaunder it to be, I toke that matter in hande: And applied my diligence to de­fend the true religion (as indede it is the duetie of euerye good [Page] Christian) to comfort the godly and suche as were afflicted, and according to the talent giuen me of God (for without his helpe all mans doing is but vayne) I answered the .lxi. questions, for so many came vnto my hands, & therfore whether there be more or lesse in other places I know not. Wherfore I beseeche thee good Christian Reader to take this my trauell in good parte, and follow the Counsell of S. Paule, who byddeth thee to proue all thinges, and to keepe that which is good. And thus much more I say for their sakes that shall eyther reade or heare this Treatise, that if they bee weeried wyth the contentions and strifes in Religion, and the sharpe tauntes that oftentimes fall out in that cause, I haue in [Page] this Booke cheefelye laboured to teache the matter moste brie­fly and playnly, and that with­out all heate of contention, to Gods glory, and the profitable [...]difying of the godly. The Ar­tycles or Common places which are touched in these lxj. Articles, I haue here breefly set, folowing in order.

The Common places which are handled in these Questions.

  • 1 OF the holy Trinitie. Fol. 1.
  • 2 Of the holy Christian Church, and of the Churche of Rome. eodem.
  • 3 Of Counsels and decrees of the church. Fol. 30.
  • 4 Of Free will. Fol. 43.
  • 5 Of fayth and good workes. Fol. 46.
  • 6 Of the intercession, inuocation, and wor­shipping of Saincts. Fol. 58.
  • 7 Of Relikes, Images, and suche lyke. Fol. 70.
  • 8 Of purgatory, and prayers for the dead. Fol. 75
  • 9 Of Sacraments. Fol. 83.
  • 10 Of Baptisme of children, and of the A­nabaptistes. Fol. 85.
  • 11 Of the Lords supper and receyuing there­of. Fol. 88.
  • 12 Of the sacrifice of the Masse. Fol. 103.
  • 13 Of repentaunce and Confession. Fol. 108.
  • 14 Of the authoritie of Priestes. Fol. 116.
  • 15 Of Mariage, vowes and Chastitie. Fol. 120.
  • 16 Of Enoyling. Fol. 139.
  • 17 Of the Magistrate and lawefull obe­dience. Fol. 141.

The fyrst Com­mon place. Of the holy Trinitie.

The first question.

What they doe thinke of the holy Trinitie.

The Answere.

TOuching the ho­lyHowe & what we ought to beleue of the holye Trinitie. Trinitie, I doe be­léeue all that which the true and sacred woorde of God dothe teache to acknowe­ledge & beléeue. To witte, that there is one only true and li­uing God in Trinitie: one (I say) vnde­uided in substāce, and thrée distinct par­sons: God the father, God the sonne, and God the ho y ghost: being of like pow­er, and equally to be worshipped. So are [Page] we taught Deut. 6. Exod. 20. Matth. 18. Luke. 1. Iohn. 1. 3. 5. 6. 8. 9. 10. 14. 15. 16. and 17. Rom. 1. and. 9. 1. Corinth. 8. 1. Iohn. 5. Likewise we confesse the true faithe of the Trinitie, contained in the twelue Articles of our Christian faithe: where we say: I beleeue in God the father, in his only begotten sonne, and in the holy ghoste. And therefore, what so euer in times past hath bene written or taught againste this Doctrine by Praxeas, A­rius, Macedoni [...] and suche like: yea and whatsoeuer the Jewes, Turkes, Mi­chael Seruetus that Spaniard with their adherentes haue written, we abhorre and detest, assenting only to the olde ho­ly Apostolike Church.

The second Common place. Of the holy christiā church & of the church of Rome.

The seconde Question.

Whether they beleue in one, holy, Catholike, and A­postolical church?

The Answere.

LIke as there is cōtained and expressed▪ in the. xij. Articles of our christian faith, so do I beléeue that ther is one holy and Ca­tholikeThere is but one Catholike Church. church, and yt the same, or the Sainctes which are therin, be partakers of all the grace and giftes of Christe. I call the same one, and Ca­tholicke, bicause there is but one only true Churche, biside the which there is none other. And the same is the congre­gation and felowship of all the faithfull throughout the whole worlde, which at any time haue liued on this earthe, in what time or place so euer they haue bin, or that now are, or héereafter shall be. And as there is one God and Lorde, neither any moe Gods or Lordes▪ (as appeareth [...]. Corinth. 8. and Ephes. 4.) so also it is of necessitie, that there be but one only churche. Wherfore althoughe this churche be dispersed, diuers times into diuers & sundry members, through out the face of the whole earth, yet hath it but one spirite, one faith, beléeueth in [Page] one God the father, & in one sauior our Lord Jesus Christ & in the holy ghost: And therfore is knit in one charitie and in one mind wt all faithfull, where andThe Church is holy. in what place so euer they be. And this church is holy (that is to say) sanctified & purged from sinnes, beutified & endued with holinesse and righteousnes, and yt through the grace of God the father, in the blud of his only sonne, by the power & effectuall working of the holy ghoste.Why the church is called Apostolicall.

It is called the christian & Apostolical church, bicause it is grounded & built by ye blissed Apostles, vpō the true rock, & that only euerlasting foundation Jesus Christ, in ye which foundation also, it is preserued, réedified and increased by the doctrine of thapostles, as we may lerne by S. Paul 1. Cor. 3. Eph. 2. &. 4. 1. Pet. 2. And here is to be noted, yt as the Israe­lites did beléeue Moses, (yt is to say) did beleue the doctrin & commaundements which he brought to thē frō God: euen so the christiās beléeue the true church. Paule also calleth it the piller and foū ­dationHovve the Churche is be­leeued. of truth, bicause shée heareth the voice only of hir pastor Jesus Christ, & not the voice of any stranger. Nether is [Page 3] it beleued bicause it is the church only, yt is to say ye congregation or felowship of mē, but bicause it is the church of Christ & heareth only his eternal truth, preserueth, confesseth & teacheth the same: and for this cause shée is called the piller & foūdatiō of truth. Wherfore we beleue the church for Christes sake, and for his truthe and doctrines sake, which by his faithfull ministers is taught in ye same. Neither ought any mā to beléeue in theWee muste not beleue in the Church. church: bicause she is collected of men, & therfore is of ye order of things created. And it is manifest that God abhorreth all those which trust in men. Ierem. 17. wherfore this preposition, [...]n, is ioyned in the. xij. Articles of our faith, only to ye thrée persones of the holy Trinitie. For vve confesse that vve beleeue in God the father, in his only begotten sonne, and in the holy ghost. Furthermore, Cyprian and other holy fathers do excellently teach in their in­terpretations of the Créede, yt we must beleeue there is an holy church, but not to beleue in the church. And therfore do we not teache any new thing, but that which the fathers before vs, haue themselues most plainly & diligētly taught.

The third Question.

What they vnderstande by the name of the church?

The Answere.

WE vnderstande therebyWhat the Church is. the congregation or cō ­pany of those which be­léeue in Christ. For the church in the Germain tong is called Kirch, as though it were deriued from the Greci­ans which call our Lord Jesus Christe [...], that is to say, Lord. Wherefore all those which are coupled or knitte to Christ, the true head and fruteful vine, as his proper members and braunches springing and growing in him, are the true Christian churche. And this inter­pretation of the name of the church weThe Commu­nion of saincts haue also in the Articles of our faith: for to the confession of the catholike church we adde, yt we beleue in the Communi­on or felowship of Sainctes: as though we should say, the church is none other thing but the congregation of Sainctes. And euen in this sort do the blessed Fa­thers [Page 4] interprete these thyngs. The church is called the Communion or fe­lowshippe of Sainctes for these causes. First, bicause all the faithfull there, are partakers of all the giftes and graces which Christe hath purchased: that is to say, chéefely the remission of sinnes, like as it is said in the Créede next after this Article: I beleue the remission of sinnes, the resurrection of the body, and life e­uerlasting. Secondly, it is called the Communion or felowship of Sainctes,Sainctes. that is to say of the faithfull: (for as ap­peareth by the Epistles of S. Paul, the Apostles and other blessed Fathers, called the faithful or Christians, Sain­ctes.) Bicause (as I said before) they are sanctified by Christ in his blud through the holy Ghost. But bicause the church is a congregation or companie, perad­uenture therfore it is called in our mo­ther tong Kuch, by this letter L, and not as some other Germanes do sound it by the letter R. For in the Hebrewe tonge the people or churche of God is called K [...]ha [...] and Keh [...]a [...], whereuppon the Germanes say Kilcha. But whe­ther [Page] it be deriued from the Hebrue or from the Gréeke, it is all one. For ech of those wordes signifie the congregation or felowshippe of Gods people, euen as this worde Ecclesia amongest the La­tines dothe also signifie, which worde is borowed of the Grecians. And although the vniuersall Churche of God in thys earth can not be brought into one com­pany or felowshippe before the last day: yet notwithstanding, is the same ne­uerthelesse, a spirituall and inuisible body, perfectely compacte vnder one1. Cor. 12. Ephesi. 4. heade, Jesu Chryste: euen as diuers members hauyng sundry operations, are ioyned in one body. The vniuer­sallHowe the vni­uersal Churche is deuided. Churche of Chryst is deuided, first, into the congregation of them, whych hauing finished the course of this their lyfe, and passed ouer all corruptible things, do now reioyce with christ their head, in heauen, & prayse God for euer­more. Secondely it is deuided into the congregation of those which do yet liue here on this earthe, in dayly battell, in the Churche of Chryst, and haue thys hope, that at the time appointed by god, [Page 5] they shall come to Chryst their heade, and the felowship of their elect brethrē. And in this cōgregation there are some which haue true faythe, and therefore are the liuely members of the Church, vnder their head Chryste: some lacke that liuely fayth, and therfore are hypo­crites,Hipocri [...]s in the Church. being yet numbred in the visible Churche, so long as their wickednesse springeth not foorthe, nor they bewray thēselues. Touching these. S John wri­teth1. Iohn. 2. thus: They went out from vs: (by this it appeareth they were reckned in the Church, for else could they not haue gone out thē [...]e) but they were not of vs, (that is to say, they were not the liuely members of the church & true beleuers) for if they had ben of vs, they wold haue remained with vs. And herevpon it com­meth to pas, that many deuide ye church into the inwarde and inuisible, and into the outwarde and visible Churche. Yea furthermore it is deuided into the con­gregation of those which haue liued frō the creation of ye world, vnto the cōming of christ, & into ye cōpany of those faithful which haue ben since the tune of christ, [Page] and shal be to the end of the world. And euery congregation of eche these parts, are called the Catholike or vniuersall church: yea eche of those churches which are scattered in this worlde, haue but one spirite or faithe, hath eche the name of vniuersall churche. For in the scrip­tures there is mention made of parti­culare churches in this earthe: as that Paule wryteth to the church of Rome, Corinth, Ephesus, and suche others. And therfore euē as many Cities and Pro­uinces are contained in one kingdome, and of many members is made one per­fect body: so also those churches which are dispersed vpon the face of the earth, make but one church, one kingdom, and one spirituall body of Christe, be being the head therof.

The fourth Question.

Whether they beleeue that the vniuersal church of Christ, be guided, ruled, and gouer­ned by the holy Ghost?

The Answere.

GOd hathe alwayes euenGod gouer­neth hys churche by his holy spi­rite. frō the beginning of the world bene present with his people and churche, gouerning the same by the ministerie of the Patriarkes, Pro­phetes, and Apostles, and that throughe the holy Ghoste. For oftentimes God speaketh in the old Testament, saying: Beholde I am alvvayes vvith you, I vvill guide and defende you. &c. And in the new Testament our Lord Christ saith: Beholde I am vvith you for euer, vntillMath. 28. 18 Iohn. 14the ende of the vvorlde: And againe, I vvill giue my spirite vnto you, that he may abide vvith you for euer: And a­gaine, vvhere tvvo or three are gathered together in my name, there am I in the middest of them. But the purpose ofThe ende of this Que­stion. this Question is to bring the godly and simple into perplexitie and doubte. For when they confesse, that god gouerneth his church by his holy spirite, forthwith the popish bishops conclude therof, that the churche neither hathe, nor can erre: and héereby they suppose, that all other [Page] things are sufficiently proued: to wit, that what soeuer they vnder the tytle and name of the Church shal thrust vp­pon men, are bothe good and enspired by the holy Ghost. But vnto these ma­tes we answere: Firste, that we doo not acknowledge that church whereof they bragge, to be the true primatiue aposto­like church, as hereafter we shal proue. Secondely we d [...] not confesse, that theHowe the Church ey­ther erreth or doth not erre. Churche can not altogither, or in all points erre. For so long as she is gouer­ned by the holy ghost, and onely harke­neth vnto him, dooing nothing but by his motion and worde, she neither doth nor can erre. But if she swarue at any time from the gouernement of the same spirite, and gouerneth after hir owne luste, then truely shée not onely may, but also dothe erre. But if any wyll aske whether the Church may swarue from the direction of Gods spirite? I answere, that it is euident, and may in no wyse be denied, that the Churche of God héere vpon this earthe often times vnder Moses, the Iudges and the Kings of Israell and Iuda hath erred. Yea, and [Page 7] that the Disciples of Chryst (who yet neuerthelesse were the church of christ) did erre, and had their falles. For who is ignoraunt what happened to Dauid, Aaron, Peter, and other the holy Sain­ctes and Disciples of Chryst? Yea, wée must note, that the Church is gathered not of Angels, but of men. Wherefore although it be inspired and gouerned by the spirite, yet it is not thereby turned into the spirite: for it keepeth still hir fleshe, and the infirmities thereof, yea euen vnto death. Who is ignoraunte of those writings which Sainte Paule hathe generally vttered touching the battell betwéene the fleshe and the spi­rite, and that not in the vngodly and vnbeléeuers onely, whiche are not of the Churche, but euen in the faythe­full also, and members of the Church. And this battell is so vehemente and sharpe, that euen thereby the godly are forced, not to doo that good and iuste thyng whyche they knowe, but to doo that which they ought not to doo: Read S. Paules fifth chapter to the Galathi­ans, & also the seuenth to the Romanes. [Page] Yet neuerthelesse, the same Apostle calleth the Galathians and Corinthi­ans,2. Cori. 1. 6. Galat. 1. 1. the true church of Christ, as purifi­ed by his bloude, and gouerned by his holy spirite, whereas notwithstanding, he accuseth them of gréeuous erroures and vices, and exhorteth them to repen­taunce, and amendment of theyr liues. Whereby it is euident that euen these most excellent churches of the Apostles haue erred. But there is an other Ob­iection brought againste vs oute of the ballades of Salomon, and out of the fifth Chapiter of S. Paules Epistle to the Ephesians: where it is sayde, that the church is beautiful, and without spot or wrinkle: which place S. Augustine in­terpreteth, saying: that this puritie and holinesse is begon in this life, but in the life to come, vvhen through deathe vve shall putte of this fleshe, it shall be fully perfited, so as vve shal haue neither spot nor blemishe, but be moste perfectly pure. Héereunto we adde the woordesIohn. 13. Iohn. 15. of Christe, who moste plainly expoun­deth this matter in the Gospell, saying: He that is vvashed, needeth not saue to [Page 8] vvash his fete, but is cleane euery vvhit. And againe he sayeth: Euery braunche vvhich bringeth forth frute, my father purgeth that it may bring forthe more frute. Novve are you cleane throughe the vvorde vvhich I haue spoken vnto you. He doeth not onely say that the Churche is pure, but altogither pure: yea that it may bring foorthe frute: and yet neuerthelesse he speaketh of the wa­shing of the féete, and of the purging which his father shall doe. Wherby we may easily gather and perceiue that the churche is cleane throughe the grace of God in Christ Iesu, and yet by hir owne nature, and through the manifold infir­mities of the flesh, which shée retaineth euen vntill this temporall deathe, shée hathe néede to be washed and purged. Wherfore shée daily prayeth: Forgeue vs oure trespasses, as vvee forgiue them that trespasse againste vs. And S. Iohn the Apostle sayth: If vvee say vvee haue no sinne, vvee deceiue oure selues, and there is no truthe in vs. [...]. Iohn. [...]. where­fore being deliuered from this misera­ble fleshe, we are made perfectly pure [Page] in the life to come, and frée from al ble­mishe. But so long as the Sainctes liue heere on this earthe, clothed with theyr flesh, they are subiecte to many infirmi­ties. And therfore héereby it appeareth, that by this reason, the Churche bothe may, and dothe erre: although it cannot be moued, bicause shée is grounded vp­on the true rocke: and so long as shée heareth and foloweth the voice of her true pastor, shée erreth not.

The fifth Question.

By what markes or tokens may the church of Christ be knowen?

The Answere.

CHefely the Churche ofThe cheefe tokens of the Church. God may be known by the pure worde of God, perfect faith, charity, in­nocēcy, newnesse of life & the cōtinual calling vpō god in al her necessities. For Christe plainly sayeth: He that is of God, heareth gods vvord. And againe: My shepe heare my voice: [Page 9] but the voice of a straunger vvill they not heare, but vvill flee from it. And a­gaine, In this shall all men knovve that you bee my Disciples, if you loue one an other. And S. Paule: The sure foū ­dation of God abideth, hauing thys token: God knovveth vvho are his: and lette euery one vvhiche calleth on the name of Christe departe from euyll. And againe: Euery one vvhich calleth on the name of the Lorde shalbe saued. And to this ende also appertayne theThe Sacramēts are signes of the Church. blessed Sacramentes, whome Christe hathe ordeyned as outwarde signes of his churche, and therfore oughte moste reuerently to be receiued of vs, as they haue bene by the Sainctes before in true faithe as may appeare. Matth. 28. Mar. 16. Luk. 24. Act. 2. 8. 10. &c. 1. Cor. 10. &. 11. But bicause many godly men which are the true and liuely members of Christ, do oftētimes want the sacra­ments, not throughe contempte, but by reason of necessitie, being yet neuerthe­lesse knitte vnto Christe and his mem­bers by true faithe, spirite, loue, and newnesse of life, exercising themselues [Page] in all Godly studies, I haue placed the firste order of signes, as moste chéefe and necessarye, whereby the Churche may be knowen, yet not omitting these godly signes or Sacraments.

But nowe the Prelates of Rome The succession of Bishoppes. thynke and say that the true and lawe­full signe of Christes Churche, is the orderly succession of Bishoppes in the Churche, wyth theyr spirituall go­uernement: And bicause the Churche of Rome hathe suche succession, there­fore they say that it is the true and primitiue Churche, and that they haue the true gouernemente of the same, so that who soeuer is oute of that gouern­ment, is out of the true Churche.

They call succession a contynued order, wherein one Byshoppe hathe succéeded in the place of an other, and hathe gouerned the Church euen from Sainct Peter the Apostles time, vnto this Pope called Paule the fourthe. But they greatly erre, whiche thynke that any thing may be proued by suc­cession, whylest they leaue oute tha [...] ▪ which is of moste force therein: That [Page 10] is, that if like as they haue succéeded in the place of Peter and the other Godly Bishoppes (which thyng we graunte them) they haue also succéeded them in the spirite of Christe, in Doctrine, in faithe, grauitie, godlinesse, humilitie and pacience.

Wherefore sithe they wante thys poynte, being the chéefest (as all menne knowe and finde by experyence, so as it neadeth no further proofe) theyr vaunte of succession, is nothing els but an idle sounde, to bleare the eyes of those which are simpie.

Saincte Paule the Apostle sayeth thus: Bee yee folovvers of mee, euen as I folovve Christe: Whereby appea­reth,Success [...]ō pro­ueth nothing. that Succession taketh his force and effecte onely in Christe, wythoute whome, it neyther proueth or aua [...]eth any thing.

Wherefore euen in theyr owne Canons it is thus wrytten. Dist [...]n. 40. It is not an easie matter to stande in the place of Peter and Paule, and to oc­cupie the seate of those vvhiche raigne vvith Christe.

[Page] Bicause it is sayde, they are not the chil­dren of holy menne, vvhiche occupie the place of holy men, but they vvhiche exercise the vvoorkes of them. VVee, therefore vvhich gouerne, oughte to be knovvne, not by the Noblenesse of birthe or of the place, but by the excel­lencie of oure manners, not by the fa­mousnesse of Cities, but by the puritie of Faithe: The seat maketh not a priest, but a priest maketh the seate: the place sanctifieth not a man, but the man the place: Euery priest is not holy: but eue­ry one vvhich is holy, is a prieste. Hee that occupieth the seate vvell, receiueth honoure of the same: But he that vseth it euil, dothe vvrong vnto the seate.

By these woordes it is manifestly taughte that the chaire or seate wherin holy Bishoppes haue sette, or successi­on, is nothing woorthe: excepte he be also holy, which succéedeth in the place of holy menne, imitating the steppes of those, which were before him: but if he be wicked, he then receyueth no ho­noure of the seate, but dishonoureth the same. Wherefore these Prelates may [Page 11] nowe consider what honoure they re­ceiue by their succession, whiche dayly (to the ende they may bring vs into contempte) they obiecte agaynste vs. The highe Priests and Prelates, who in the time of Christe, did set on Moses chair, could haue deriued the petigree of their succession from them selues euen vnto Aaron, but bicause their life and Doctrine did not agrée with the life andSuccession of Bishops against Christ and hys Apostles. Doctrine of Aaron and other godlye Priestes, their succession auailed no­thing against Christ and his Apostles: neyther were Christ and hys Apostles false Doctoures, or disseuered from the true Churche, bicause they were not able to proue theyr succession as the Pharisies coulde: For the woorde of God and the institution of Christ was sufficient for them.

Wherefore sith euen wée also now haue on oure side the woorde of God, and the institution of Christe, there is no succession of Bishoppes that canne proue vs to be no Christians, or to be oute of the true Churche. The Histo­ries of Popes and other like Prelates, [Page] which are written, yea euen by theyrSuccession de­generated. beare frendes and defendoures, doe suf­ficiently [...]e [...]ie that almost al of them, haue obtained this dignitie and place, by moste [...]ilt [...]e meanes, by Symonie, wi [...]ked artes, violence, murthers, and tray [...]erous conspiracies: wherefore if it woulde ple [...]le them a little more na­rowly to consider héereof, they shoulde [...]nde by better aduise, there were no i [...]lt cause to bragge of theyr succession, but rather to burie the same in silence, sith by it their euilles and horrible fil­th [...]esse is so clearly detected. But God hathe [...]one this, to the ende the trutheOf the Aposto­licke seate. might be reuealed, and the go [...]ly war­ned to gather them selues together vn­der our head Christe, and into hys true Churche.

In times paste aboute a thousande yeares agone, it was an vsuall kinde of speache amongste the Fathers, to say: The Apostolike seate, the Sea of Anti­oche, of Alexandria, of Rome. But by the name of sea or seat, they did not vn­derstande only the seate or place, oute of the which the Bishoppes [...]f those Ci­ties [Page 12] did teache, but rather the Doctrine which the Apostles and their Disciples preached first in those cities. Wherfore the ancient Bishops, which by lawfull election obtained any of those seats, did preache, defend, publishe, and preserue in the church, the Apostolicall doctrine, and that oute of the wrytings▪ of the blessed Apostles. But where is nowe I pray you the Apostolike seate? Where are the bookes and preachings of the Apostles? Where is theyr ho­ly life? What Doctrine teache they, and in what sorte liue they now, which boast of the Apostolike seate? Teache they and gouerne they not contrarily to the Apostles Doctrine? There is no néede to speake muche of it heere, for all men sée it, and knowe it, yea they finde by experience, that they are so shame­fully wandered from the Apostles, that if nowe the sayde Apostles and ho­ly Bishoppes of the primitiue churche, shoulde come amongste them, and be­holde the pride and pompe which these Prelates vse in their gouernemente, they woulde not onely disalowe them [Page] for theyr successoures, but also accuse them for their ennimies. And Paule truely speaketh very well, of this kinde of succession of Prelates in the. 20. of the Actes of the Apostles: For I knovve What Paul tea­cheth touching the succession of Byshoppes. (sayth he) that after my departure, ther vvil come amongste you gredy vvolues not sparing the flocke: Moreouer of your ovvne selues shall men arise spea­king peruerse things, to dravv disciples after them. But when Paule spake these things where (I pray you) was there a more holye congregation than his disciples? And yet notwithstanding he sayth: Oute of you, yea euen oute of your ovvne selues, there shall come e­uill and wicked men which shall scat­ter and destroy the flocke of Christe. Wherfore it is no wonder to hear that at Rome, & other places, there were in times past holy Bishops, in whose pla­ces now, succéedeth most wicked men, corrupte, bothe of doctrine and lyfe. And in that parte addeth that these things shall shortly come to passe after his de­parture or deathe, we may easily per­ceiue that to be of no force which the [Page 13] Popish Prelates so often alleage, say­ing: It is impossible that errors should be of so long cōtinuance in the Church, neither that God woulde suffer errors so long to remayne. And agayne: that it is impossible that in those places wherein the Apostles haue preached, and so many godly Bishoppes haue bin resident, all corruption and abhomina­tion should now altogither reigne. But all men sée what the state and conditi­ons of these things are: yea and more­ouer (with greate gréefe and sorowe I speake it) it is euident vnder what go­uernement, and in what miserable cor­ruption, the auncient and chiefest chur­ches of the East partes are nowe in these dayes. But of all these things the blessed Prophetes and Apostles haue spoken and forewarned vs, to the ende we should not thereby be offended, nor seduced by any.

The. vj. Question.

Whether they do beleeue that the christian Church is not only visible, but also inuisible?

The Answere.

IT behoueth in this place to vse some distinction. For the congregation of the saincts which are in heauen (althogh we be­hold them with-the eies of our faith, & desire to be coupled with thē in the rest & ioy which they possesse) yet are they inuisible to the faithfull which liue here on the earth touching the bodily sight. Furthermore, [...]ith God alone knoweth the harts, & that he on­ly knoweth who are faythfull, and who not, and bicause many doo boste them selues to bée faythefull, whiche not­withstanding are nothing so, but are mere hipocrites, which thing none séeth but God alone, yea and bycause many tymes men iudge those to be wretched [...]inners, and abiectes from God, which [Page 14] yet neuerthelesse are not separated frō him, but are better affected in their heart towards God than we doo know, and are also knowne to him only: ther­fore in respect hereof also the church of Chryst is called inuisible. Agayne by­cause the vniuersall churche of Chryst can neuer be gathered togither that we may wholly see it before the la [...]e day and iudgemente of our Lorde Jesus Chryst, it is also called inuisible. But she is not called inuisible, as though s [...]e were not at all: for we doo willingly confesse, that vpon this earth the church of Chryst is visible also. For it is eui­dent that the congregations of the Co­rinthians▪ Ephesians, Philippians. &c. are called of Paule the church, and we know also that euery one of those faith­full in those churches were visible, al­thogh yet neuerthelesse ye spirit & those spiritual gifts which they had were in­uisible, but when they shewed foorthe them selues by the exercises of sundry vertues. But what needed this questiō? Or what profite cōmeth thereby to the faythful? Truly it tendeth [...]o th [...] e [...]de: [Page] the Popes and Prelates desire to bée accompted the visible Church, and here­by would fayne haue all power and authoritie to bée conueyed ouer vnto them.

The. vij. Question.

Whether they do beleeue the Church of Rome to be the true catholike Church?

The Answere.

SE héere I pray you, theirWhether the Church of Rome be the catholick Churche. purpose, for to this ende groweth the drifts of all their arguments, name­ly, to haue vs confesse the Churche of Rome which now is, and the head therof, the Pope, to be the true & onely Church of Chryst, which the faythfull throughout the whole worlde without all maner of question, ought to beléeue and obey: as shall manifestly appeare by the que­stions following. And this question truely is very absurde: for it is alone, as if it should be demaunded whether [Page 15] any one citie in a Realme be the whole Realme or no? Or, whether that any one man in a multitude be the whole cōpany or no? Or, whether the hand or foote of some one body, be the whole bo­dy or no? For before I haue already shewed that this worde Catholike sig­nifieth vniuersal: and yet I am not ig­noraunte also that it may be taken for any faythfull man. But by these que­stions they openly shew vnto the world their foolishnesse, or rather their excée­ding and int [...]lerable pride whilest they woulde haue vs to acknowledge one parte to be the whole, and to haue full power and authoritie to gouerne in the whole kingdome, company and body. Wherfore to this question: VVhether the Church of Rome be the true catho­likeWhat vve ought to thinke of the auncient Churche of Rome.Church or no, I answere thus: If they demaunde of the auncient Church of Rome, to the whiche Paule wrote his Epistle to the Romanes, in the which also he remayned a prisoner and preached by the space of two yéeres: then I confesse the same to be the true and faythfull Churche of Chryst: but [Page] not the vniuersall Church, or the head of all other churches, but only a mem­ber of the vniuersall church vnder one head Chryst, of like and equall power with other the churches of Chryst whi­che are heere on the earthe: and that the Ministers thereof are of no grea­ter power and authoritie than the Mi­nisters of other Churches. The lyke hathe Saint Hierome written concer­ning the Churche of Rome, and the Byshoppes thereof in these woordes: Neither is it to be thought that there is one Churche of Rome, and an other of the whole worlde. For where so euer a Byshop is, whether it be the Byshop of Rome, or of Eugubiū, or of Constanti­nople, or of Rhegiū. &c. he is of like au­thoritie, and like priesthoode. By the whiche woordes he teacheth, that the churche of Rome is no better than o­ther churches, wheresoeuer they be in the whole woride, and that the By­shoppes thereof haue no more power or superioritie of Priesthoode, than other Byshoppes, whether they bee in small or in greate Cities. But if they [Page 16] demaunde of the Churche of Rome, whiche nowe is in the sorte and manerThe new or late Church of Rome is not the Ca­tholicke Churche. as all men sée, vnder these Byshoppes, and as it hathe bene also of late by the space of a fewe hundred yeres: I aun­swere, that it altogither differeth from the state of the auncient and Aposto­lyke Churche of Rome, and therefore may in no wyse bee acknowledged for the vniuersall and catholyke Churche, whereof it boasteth. For the signes of the true Churche of Chryst, buylte by the Apostles at Rome, and else where, are no more there to be sounde: Name­ly the spirite of Chryst, whych loueth pure, modest, and humble hearts, and departeth from all impuritie, arrogan­cie and pride. Yea the worde of truthe, and that only voyce of the true Pastor, is not onely, not hearde any more, nowe in the Churche of Rome, pure­ly, and truely taughte, but it is also forbidden, and persecuted, with fyre and sworde: on the other side the do­ctrines of men, whiche is contrary to the worde of GOD, is by violence and all manner of deceytfull means [Page] mainteined and thrust vppo [...] [...]. That sincere fayth, which ascribeth all mans saluation to that onely Me [...]iator be­twéene God and man, very God and very man our Lorde Jesus Chryst, is obscured: and those things which are to be sought in Chryst, are appoynted to be founde in his creatures, and in the workes of men. The inuocation of God due to him alone, through our only me­diator Jesus Chryst, is turned from God, and attributed to many other his creatures, whome they by images doo represent vnto the simple and all other christians, to be honered, euen in their temples. The Sacraments of Chryst are moste shamefully abused for lucre, and are so mingled with the opinions and ordinances of men, that the since­ritie and firste institution of them, can very hardely be perceiued, yea euen of the faythfull. What kinde of charitie and peace is in the Romishe Churche (from the which what great and excee­ding bloody battels and spoyling of men and Regions are sprong vp and dayly doo arise within these fewe hundred [Page 17] yeares, in the whiche an innumerable number of widdowes and fatherlesse children are encreased) excepte they would willingly be blind, all men haue knowen to be tootoo much. But this mi­serable matter is rather to be lamēted, than as doubtfull to be proued: like as also the things whereof I haue before spoken are too wel knowen, and that to the whole worlde. And touching the lyfe and maners of the Romish courte and churche, especially the principall states and chéefe spirituall persons, it is right euidently knowen: whereas ne­uerthelesse Paul saith, that those which1▪ Cor. 5. 6. Ephesi. 4. 5. name them selues Christians, and yet without repentance serue Idols, are co­uetous pillers, shamelesse whorema­sters, adulterers, drouned in all other filthy and abhominable wickednesse, giuing them selues to gluttonie & dron­kennesse, hatred and backbiting, shall neuer possesse the kingdome of God: yea, and no christian ought to haue any company or felowship with suche. And sithe it is so, euery christian may here­by gather what he ought to thinke of [Page] the churche of Rome, and whether he oughte to bée bounde to that Churche, or rather flée from it, rather to Chryst and hys true Churche, as the Lorde hym selfe hathe taughte hys in the seuententhe and eyghtenthe Chap­ters of the Reuelation. Truely it is very lamentable, that so greate tur­moyles and vexations of godly men, shoulde be for the Romishe Churche: and that suche rumors shoulde be blo­wen abroade, as thoughe shie were styll euen as the primatiue Churche of Rome was, when all men may sée, what manner of Churche shée is, what is doone therein, and what wée may hope to haue from thence. Therefore wée muste departe and flée from hir, and cleaue to Chryste our Lorde, and to hys Christian Churche, whiche in déede wée confesse to be holy, and the communion or fe­lowshippe of all the Saincts.

The. viij. Question.

If any man doubt of the church of Rome, that then he shewe where the true and Catholyke Church of Chryste hath hither­vnto ben, or as yet is, and that he name the place wher the Church is, and where it may be founde?

The Answere.

THe Donatistes, agaynstTo tye the Churche of Christ to on [...] place only. whō blessed Augustine wrote, dyd thinke that the Churche of Chryste was tyed or bounde to one certayne place, and that she coulde bée founde no where, but in Africa. and the secrete corners of the Donatistes, bicause they thought that in al other places she was extincted or put out. In like sort these men go a­bout to include & bring ye whole church of Christ into ye Papal See of Rome, so as there should be no christian church, [Page] but at Rome, and that churche whiche agréed not therewith, to bée excluded from Chrystes churche. And therefore they haue excommunicated the Greci­an and Easte churches, and haue here­vppon stirred vp gréeuous troubles, offences, and braulings in the whole vniuersall churche of Chryste. But to this Question we aunswere thus: Bi­cause the churche of Chryste is catho­like or vniuersall, it can not be bound, tyed, or shutte vp into one certayne place: for how can it otherwyse be cal­led the catholike or vniuersall church? Therefore if it continue to bée catho­lyke (as the vndoubted Truthe dothe testifie) then it both hath bene in times paste, and is nowe also in those places where the true members of Chryste are: for those onely are they which be­léeue in him, call on him, worshippe and honour hym for their onely Pa­stor and Sauiour, and haue those prin­cipall tokens, whereof I haue spoken before. And thus haue I shewed you the place wherein the true and vniuer­sall Churche of Chryste hathe héereto­fore [Page 19] bene, and is yet to bée founde. And wée speake of the vniuersall Churche, whyche is on thys earthe, and not of that whiche is in heauen, bycause the place thereof is knowen and manyfest vnto the faythfull.

But what aunswere wil these Pre­latesThe [...]spell tooke not hy [...] beginning frō Rome. make to that, that there was a glorious and scattered church of Christ throughout the worlde, before there was any Church of Chryst at Rome, the whiche was not called the Churche of Rome, but the Churche of Chryste, and was in euery place where any faythfull were? For the Popish Pre­lates them selues doo confesse, that Saint Peter came to Rome the second yere of Claudius the Emperour: and that was tenne yeres after the ascen­tion of Chryste, and that there he dyd beginne and preache the Gospell. For the gospel sprang not vp first at Rome, but it dyd spread from Hierusalem to Rome, and so into the whole worlde, wherevppon some haue called Hieru­salem the mother Churche. There­fore the Romishe Churche hathe ouer [Page] soone and to quickly, desired the gouern­ment of other Churches, and for that cause hathe stirred vp turmoyles and discordes: no smal confusion and trou­ble, to the vniuersall Church. Further­more, not onely in Grecia, but also inThere are ma­ny countryes that dothe not acknovvledge the Pope. the south and in the east, there are ma­ny faythfull, whiche not onely doo con­fesse Jesus Christ, but also worship, cal vpon him, & serue him, and doo vndoub­tedly appertayne to the kingdome of Chryst, although they be subiect to the ciuill gouernement of the tyrannous Lurke, and such like tyrants. Yet none of all these men care any whit at al for the Byshop of Rome, the church there­of, or for any customes or Ceremonies by the same Churche deuised or ordei­ned, beeing contrary to the worde of God: I say, they esteeme them no more than we in this our age, and in this our countrey esteeme them. And doo they not nowe therefore appertayne to the Churche of Chryste? Wherfore, it is euident, that Chryste hathe his church, yea euen in those Countreys. But when as in tymes paste, the Byshop [Page 20] of Rome desired certayne of those Na­tions, to submitte them selues vnder the Churche of Rome, they (as the Storie testifieth) aunswered: VVee knowe your power and your pride: we can not satisfie your couetousnesse, nor wyll suffer your tyrannie and vnlawe­full luste: and therefore as wee are, so wee wyll remayne. And yet these god­ly men refuse not to obey the Chrysti­an Churche, but onely they doo re­fuse to obey the vnlawefull luste of these pontificall Prelates, and yet not­withstanding, loue and serue Chryste, yea so muche the more, for that they submitte not them selues to the By­shop of Rome.

The. ix. Question.

Whether they do beleeue, that without the Churche of Rome there be no saluation or remis­sion of sinnes? and whether they doo also beleeue that all [Page] those which separate thēselues willingly from that church, are to be condemned as Heretikes, and Schismatikes?

The Answere.

LEt vs make some diffe­renceOut of the christian Churche there is no sal­uation. betwéene these questiōs: whether there be any saluation or re­mission of sinnes with­out ye churche of Rome? Or again: whether there be any salua­tion or remission of sinnes without the Christian church? For thus truely we suppose & say, that there is no more sal­uation to be looked for, without the chri­stian church, than there was health to be loked for in the floud without ye arke of Noe. For our sauiour Chryst Jesus, the remissiō of sinnes, and al other good gifts of God, yt are declared vnto vs by the preaching of the gospel, & are writ­ten in our herts by the holy ghost, vnto eternall lyfe, are only to be founde in the communion or felowship of saincts. For without the Churche there are [Page 21] many erroures in this world, as of the Gentiles, Jewes, Mahomets, & diuers other Heresies, yea the lawes and su­perstitious constitutions and Ceremo­nies of the Popes, which all are vn­knowne and repugnant to the churche of Christe. Wherfore, we say that sal­uationThere maye be saluation without the Churche of Rome. and remission of sinnes, may very well be had withoute the churche of Rome. For the faithfull which be­léeue Christes woorde, and féele the po­wer of faith and redemption of Christ, and in the meane while beholde what is done in the church of Rome, wherein Heauen, remission of sinnes, and all o­ther holy things are set out to sale, and are bidde to be redéemed with oure vn­righteous riches, as by the shamefull mart of their indulgences it appeareth: doe not long abide in suche a churche, nor studie not to be pertakers of these knackes: but flée with a quiet and faith­full harte, without money, to the onely grace of God, bicause Esaie in hys. 55. Chapter, sheweth that euen for thys cause, the Lorde speaketh vnto, and re­proueth men, for that they come not to [Page] him, but lay oute their money for those things, which profitte nothing to theyr saluation. Let therefore euery man I beséeche you, reade the fiue and fiftie chapter of this Prophet. And how suche buying and selling in the churche, dis­pleaseth bothe Christe, yea and Peter, (of whome the churche of Rome dothe so busily, but yet without cause bragge) Christe himselfe declareth by his ex­ample, in that he draue twise out of the Temple the buyers and sellers, yea e­uen with whippes: Iohn. 2. Matth. 21. In the Actes of the Apostles also it is wrytten: That when Simon Magus sawe the holy Ghoste was giuen of the Apostles by laying on of their handes, he broughte money vnto them, saying: Geeue mee also this povver, that on vvhome so euer I lay mine hande, hee may receiue the holy Ghost: but Peter answered him: Let thy siluer perishe togyther vvith thee (or as some doe in­terprete it: Let thy mony be vvith thee into perdition) vvhich thinkest the gift of God may begotten vvith mony. For thou hast neyther parte nor felovvship [Page 22] in this doctrine: for thy hart is not right before God. Act. 8.

And bicause God, héere by Peter, cursseth all those which are not of an vprighte harte, and pronounceth them to haue no parte or fellowshippe wyth Goddes electe, which make marchan­dise of his grace and other giftes, a­mongste whome, saluation and the re­mission of sinnes are the cheefest: And for that the churche of Rome cannot cléere hir selfe of this fault: therfore the faithfull séeke not saluation or remissi­ons of sinnes in her, but flée from her vnto Christe our Lorde, and of him by true faithe, they craue saluation and re­mission of their sinnes.

But the defenders and preachers ofOf the faythe and saluatiō of our fore­fathers. this pontifical church, do obiect against all these (as by the same to bring vs in­to an infamie amongste the people) and say: if saluation and remission of sinnes be not obtained in the church of Rome onlye, then should none of oure forefa­thers be saued, sith they acknowledged none other but the Churche of Rome? Truely we haue a good hope of oure [Page] forefathers touchyng their saluation, but yet not for that they liued in the Romishe churche, and were subiect vn­to the tirannie thereof: but bicause they kept and helde truely and sincerely the chéefe summe and argument of the do­ctrine of Christes churche, to witte the xij. Articles of our Christian faithe, the x. Commaundementes of God, and that holy Prayer geuen vs by Christe, commonly called the Lordes Prayer: which Principles of Doctrine, togither with Baptisme, are not found or inuē ­ted by the Romish church, but procéede from the holy Apostolike doctrine, and haue remained cōtinually in ye church, euen vnto this time, God by his merci­full prouidence so gouerning the mat­ter, that amongst so many lawes, De­crées and Ceremonies of the church of Rome, yet these chefe principles might be preserued pure, and vntouched. Yea also God so gaue hys grace vnto the godly, that in most extréeme necessitie, and in the very houre of death, they for the moste parte haue despised and con­temned all the superstitions of the Ro­mishe [Page 23] bishops, and haue wholely com­mitted them selues to the grace of god, and to the death of Christe, and haue so remained, euen vnto deathe in the con­fession of the Articles of the Faithe, and making their petitions onely by the Lords prayer. For although in al ages, men haue bene oppressed with the er­rors and superstitions of the Bishops, yet hath God euen in the very houre of deathe, moste mercifully vouchsafed to bestowe his grace, as we may sée by the théefe on the crosse, and therefore he did not reiect them bicause of the vnhappie state of the papacie. Furthermore, in al ages there hathe euer bene some godly men, which neuer liked wel of the citie of Rome, the Pope, their Priestes, nor manner of life: but haue maruellously complained from time to time, of theyr greuous burthens. Yea furthermore in euery age, and chefely in the extréemest tyrannie, and most pride of the Romish churche, God hath euer stirred vp lear­ned mē, which haue instructed the god­ly, and preached oute of the woorde of God the true saluation in Christe, and [Page] haue reuealed the Hipocrisie of those which were called the spiritualtie. And althoughe the moste parte of those god­ly menne were put to deathe, euen as Christe, the Prophetes, and Apostles did foreshewe, yet their Doctrine hathe continued to the comforte of the electe: so as thereby God hathe in all times, yea euen in the middest of moste wic­ked Papistrie, had his electe. So euen then, as likewise nowe, it happened as it did in the time of Elyas: For when he thoughte him selfe onely to be lefte alone of all the faithfull, and that the churche was quite ouerthrowne: God answered vnto him, saying: I haue seuen thousand men vvhich neuer bovv­ed3. Reg 19.their knees vnto Baal. It is therefore withoute all doubte, that Christe hathe his electe at all times, who neuer bo­wed their knées vnto papistrie, neither yet heereafter will: yea and that bicause in the Reuelation of Jesus Christe vn­to John, it was shewed that after ma­nye and gréeuous daungers, whiche shoulde happen to the Churche, there was sealed many thousandes, yea an [Page 24] infinite number of menne, to whome these troubles should be nothing hurt­full.

But althoughe many of oure fore­fathers, did more earnestly cleane vn­to the Papisticall Doctrine, than was méete for their saluation to be done, as I haue saide alreadie, bycause there was Prophesied a greate myserable departure from the Faithe: yet héere­by it followeth not, that the Churche of Rome shoulde be the onely Catho­licke Churche, no more than it shoulde followe that the Churche of Jerobo­am shoulde be the true Churche of God, bicause the greatest number of the Israelites did a long time cleaue vnto it.

Yea euen in this time there were a greate number in Israell, which were not foorth with condemned, bicause the kingdome was wickedly gouerned by Jeroboam.

For God hath his electe in all ages, for whose sakes chéefely he sendeth his Prophettes to detecte the erroures, and teache the truthe.

[Page]Furthermore we thinke, they mayWhat is to breede Scis­mes or He­resies. lawfully be counted for Schismatikes and Heretikes, which with a sette pur­pose followe their owne minde, and se­parate them selues wickedly, and per­uersly from the holy catholike churche of Christe. To separate him selfe, or to be a Schismatike, or to holde an Here­sie, we take to be all one thing. For in the Germane tong, an Heretike is cal­led Kaetzer, deriued from the Hebrew woorde Kazar▪ which signifieth to cutte or to separate. And therfore in the Ger­mane tong we call a torne clothe or fleshe that is cutte into péeces Zerkaet­zeret, that is seperate, cutte or torne. Wherefore this woorde Schismatike, which is also an Heretike, signifieth an author of Schismes, factions and dis­cordes, and not one that defileth hym selfe with lust, contrary to nature, and is to be punished with fire. And al­thoughe the Germanes doe name him, that defileth him selfe with luste, con­trary to nature Katzer▪ bicause he hath violated and broken the league and or­der instituted by god, wherof the scrip­ture [Page 25] testifieth, that whē all liuing crea­tures wer brought before Adam, there was not one found like vnto him, with whom he might haue companie and be coupled: wherfore God framed the wo­man out of the side of man, and ordai­ned that they shuld be ioyned together in marriage, and so to be made one bo­die. But ye Latines deriue these words, heresie and Heretickes, from this word Election or chusing. For God hathe moste diligently and plainly prescribed by his Prophetes and Apostles in hys holy woorde, what we ought to beléeue and to doe, and therfore sayth: yee shallDeut. 4. 1 [...].do vvhat so euer I commaund yee, nei­ther shalt thou adde any thing thereun­to, nor take any thing therefrom. Ney­ther shall ye do euery man, vvhatsoeuer seemeth good in your ovvne eyes, but vvhat I command you, that shal ye doe. Whosoeuer therefore is disobedient, & deuiseth and chuseth such things, which God by his word hath not cōmaunded, and héereby separateth himselfe frō the word of God & the true folowers ther­of, & applieth vnto him selfe a peculiare [Page] way and order, alluring also others to folowe the same, and is arrogant, obsti­nate, contentious, and disobedient, and thoughe he be diuers and sundry times admonished, doth yet neuerthelesse per­seuere and abide therin, such a one doth the fathers call an hereticke. For the Latines interprete this woorde heresie by the name of sectes: and these woords sectes and sectaries are vsually recey­ued in common spéeche. But bycause they are deriued from the Latine tong, many simple people doe not perfectly vnderstande them. These woords sectes and sectaries, are deriued from the woorde which signifieth to cut: as when an whole péece of wood is hewen or cut into diuers partes: or when those which were first of one minde, doe nowe disa­grée, and are deuided into sundry opini­ons, so as almost euery one hath a seue­rall opinion with him selfe: and so these partes being thus separated, are called sectes: euen as amongste the Philoso­phers were sundry sectes, as of the Epi­cures, Stoickes and Peripatetickes, a­mongst whome eche secte had his pecu­liar [Page 26] or proper opinion. Yet notwithstā ­ding, the fathers doe make some diffe­rence betwéene these words heresie and schisme, of which difference there is no néede héer to speake, sauing only to note that euery schisme is not heresie. For when the Apostles begā first to preach and builde the churche, that is to say, to bring a peculiare people bothe of the Jewes and Gentiles vnto Christe, and that they might seeke al things in him, their Doctrine was called heresie, as plainly appeareth. Acts. 24. And bicause the Doctrine of the Apostles did differ much frō the doctrine which héeretofore had bene taught amongste the Jewes, they called it heresie, supposing it to be a defection or separation from yt which they iudged to be the true faith.

Wherfore, whersoeuer any discord,Where in the vnitie of Chri­stes Churche doth consist. schisme, or heresie is begonne, it muste néedes followe, that there was first an vnitie, which is nowe deuided by the Heretickes: wherupon wée must per­fectly know what that vnitie is, which the Heretickes so deuyde, by meanes whereof they take thys theyr name. [Page] [...]true church of Christ, which putteth hir trust only in god the father, through our lord Jesus Christ his son, by the power of the holy ghost. Yea also ye sacramēts of▪ Christ, Baptisme, & the Supper of the Lord, serue to this purpose, by which ye godly binde them selues to God, & mu­tually knit thē selues together in loue. And this therfore is that whole summeAn example of the breach of vnitie in the Churche and faythe. or vnitie, which being separated, ma­keth heretickes. And we haue exāples héereof, in the auncient people of God, to whō God gaue in cōmaundement, that they should loue him with al their hart, with all their soule, with all their strength, and therfore he included them into one churche, gaue them one lawe, made one couenaunt with them, insti­tuted amongste them, one Tabernacle or Temple, one arke of couenaunt, one altare, Sacrifice and Priesthoode. Yea their sacramentes, that is to say Circū ­cision and the Passeouer, serue also to this vnitie, teaching them yt they were all one people, vnder one God, & in one faithe. And therefore he forbad them to worship or serue strāge gods, that is to [Page 28] say, to haue in steade of God, or of a sa­uior, any thing whatsoeuer besides him selfe, who is the true and liuing God. He also forbad them to hearken after strange religions, or to worship him or offer Sacrifices vnto him, in any other place but in yt only, yea and after yt sort, which himself had ordained. But Jero­boam king of Israel, did first manifest­ly, cōtrary to the ordinances of god: For first he separated the vnitie of ye church into diuers parts, and brought. x. tribes frō the only temple, altars, priesthoode, sacrifice, & brue them frō the appoynted & written seruice of God, built two tē ­ples after his owne minde, in which he placed idols, built altars, & chose priests after his own wil: wherof we mai read in the first of Kings, in chap. 12. & 13. And this was the chefest heretike or deuider of gods church▪ for the which oftētimes he was moste sharpely reproued by the word of God. Then after this mā came King Achab, who besides this, added héerunto the worshipping of Baal, and so ledde the people yet further from the true & right way: wherfore God rooted [Page] out bothe them, and all their posteritie.

Againe, after that the blessed Apo­stlesThe first Here­tickes & Scis­maticks in the Churche. had preached Christe, and all sal­uation of man to be contained in him, and on this foundation haue builded the churche in this worlde, lefte their wry­tings and the bookes of the Prophetes, (wherin is contained the fulnesse of all good doctrine) vnto the same: they fore­shewed in their wrytings, that there should come suche which would deuide or tear their doctrine, faith, and church: And in shorte space after, suche entred into the churche, and haue daily encrea­sed: Of whome some denyed the Tri­nitie, some the deuine, and some the hu­mane nature of Christe: Other some of them did extenuate or take away the corruption of manne, or as some call it, Originall sinne, and some did attri­bute righteousnesse and saluation of man, to mannes owne power, and frée wil, to the workes of the lawe, and me­rites of men, and that cleane contrary, to the frée grace of God. And eache of these most lamentably, haue torne and rent the holy scriptures and the church, [Page 31] to the ende they might establishe some peculiar opinions, and by those crooked sleightes to seduce the foolish, and leade them from the onely way and Aposto­like churche, to their vtter destruction: which sleightes and péeuishe opinions, they either haue deuised of their owne braynes, or else receiued them frō other traditions without the warrant of the holy Scriptures: and hauing thus re­ceiued them, they moste obstinately de­fende and teach them. And therfore the auncient fathers haue righte worthely counted and estéemed them for Schis­matikeswhither they be Heretycks which in our age doe peache the Gospell. and Heretikes. Wherfore if any nowe in these our dayes doo rayse vppe, or renue any of the aforenamed Heresies of sedicious opinions, or de­uise any thing of them selues, contrary to the Scriptures, or doo otherwyse rent and deuide asunder the scriptures and the holy christian Church, and at­tribute that vnto them selues, whereof they haue spoyled Chryst: and béeyng neuerthelesse better instructed oute of the worde of God, wil not reuoke their foresayde errours, but preache vnto [Page] them selues an other God, an other Gospell, an other Chryst, renting the hearts of the faythfull, teaching them not to loue one god with al their harts, but other Gods also, not to pray vnto God onely, but to other creatures, to serue them, worship them, & pray vnto them. Agayn, they teach not al saluatiō and health to be in Chryst alone, but to be in other creatures also: & that christ is not in the holy scriptures so called, a pastor, head, chéefe bishop, aduocate, and intercessor, sacrifice for sinnes, the righ­teousnesse, & redemption of the faithful, as thoughe these were so proper vnto him, that to this end none other things might be ioyned to him. Furthermore if they vse ye Sacraments for any other purpose than for the conseruation and increase of the vnitie of the Church: If (I say) either euen wée our selues, or any other doo the things wherof I haue spoken, they are vndoubtedly to be sus­pected of Heresie, as the authors of sectes and discordes in faythe and the true Churche of Chryste. Wherefore [...]ithe wée giue our whole diligence, la­bour [Page 30] and studie, that the Auncient and Primatiue puritie and vnitie of the fayth and christian Apostolike Church may be restored, and that Chryst may obteine that reuerence in the heartes of the faythfull which is due vnto him, and wée in this lyfe may lyue holily, and in the lyfe to come eternally in him: I hope that no good and godly man can then slaunder or condemne vs for Heretikes, bycause we haue for­saken, (not the aunciente Churche of Rome in those things whiche shée had common with the vniuersall Aposto­like Church) but this latter Romishe Churche, yea and that onely in those thinges whiche to moste shamefull abuse and offence, shee hathe deuysed and ordayned, not by the authoritie of Goddes woorde, but of hir owne brayne: yea and moreouer, bycause shee is fraughte with all horrible filthi­nesse, and that our Lorde commaun­deth vs to go out of hir. Rom. 16. 2. Cor 6 Apoc. 18. &c.

The thirde Common place. Of the Decrees and Coun­sels of the Churche.

The. x. Question.

Whether they do stedfastly and without all doubt teach and be­leeue, that which the holy Ca­tholike church of Rome doth commaunde and teache to be beleeued?

The Answere.

TOuching the holy Ca­tholikeIn what sort we must be­leue the de­crees of the Church. Churche, wée haue already wrytten, that the Gospel teacheth vs, shée only heareth the voyce of hir only pastor, and not of any straunger. Wherby we may easily conclude, that she comman­deth nothing to be beléeued which shée hathe not heard from the mouth of our Lorde: and that chiefly bicause Paule [Page 29] sayth, that fayth commeth by hearing, and hearing by the worde of God, or of Chryst: Wherfore when the faythfull doo stedfastly beléeue the word of God, then doo they also beléeue all that the holy Churche commaundeth and tea­cheth to be beléeued, for she commaun­deth nothing to bée beléeued, but that which is conteined in the word of god. And whatsoeuer is contrary to Gods worde, oughte not to bée beléeued, al­though it were colored with the name of the Churche, or any other tytle. And as touching the churche of Rome, it is manyfest, that vnder hir name many things were commaunded to be belée­ued and kepte, whiche were bothe vn­knowen to the primatiue Churche, and cleane contrary to the worde of God: And all suche things God forbiddeth to beléeue, or to receiue, saying by his pro­phetIere. 22. Jeremie: Do yee not hearken to the words of the Prophets which speak the imaginations of their owne hearts, and not out of the worde of the Lorde. And our Lorde out of the prophet Csai sayth in the Gospell▪ They worshippe [Page] me in vayne, teaching for doctrynes, theEsay. 29. Math. 15. Tit. 1. Gala. 1.preccptes of men. And Paule affir­meth, there is no truthe in the decrées of men, and curseth euery doctrine that is contrarie to the Gospell.

By this Question it may easily ap­peare,The purpose of this ques­tion. that these men desire or couete nothing else, but that the Churche of Rome, that is to say, themselues, might be accounted the only and true church, and that whatsoeuer they commaunde to bée kepte and beléeued, myght with­out further question bée receyued. But why cōmaunde they not all men with­out all question to beléeue the holy Scripture or woorde of GOD, and to acknowledge that all which is néede­full to saluation, is fullie conteyned, faughte, and written therein, lyke as Paule sayth in his seconde Epistle to Timothe, the thirde Chapter? True­ly, bycause they seeke not the honour of God, and the encrease of hys woorde, but theyr owne honoure, the authori­tie & confirmation of their owne lawes and customes.

The. xj. Question.

Whether they doo beleeue that the Decrees and Preceptes of the Churche, the Canones and Ordinaunces of the Fathers, be of the holy Ghost, and not contrary to Christ, or the Scriptures?

The Answere.

TOuching the decrées ofHow far the decrees of the fathers are to be beleued. the Churche, wée haue answered in the former question. But concer­ning the Canones and ordinances which the fa­thers haue ordeyned, thus muche of them: God our moste saythfull father gaue vnto his Churche his holy worde conteyned in both the Testamentes, to be as a certayn direction or touchstone by the which all that in stéede of golde, that is to say, for the ordinaunce of god, & vndoubted truth, was offered vnto vs, mighte be tried & proued whether they were pure or corrupted. Now the Ca­nons and ordinances of the fathers are [Page] offered vnto vs for Golde, and as the true Oracles of God. But sithe them selues were men, and might erre, and did also commaunde their ordinaunces and decrées to be no further beléeued, but as they were proued and allowed by the touchestone of the holy Scrip­tures: they ought therefore to be tryed and proued by the same, as Paule tea­cheth. 1. Thessa. 5. and John. 1. Epist. 4. Wherfore if they agrée with the scrip­tures, then are they of the holy Ghost, and not contrary to Chryste and hys worde: but if they agrée not with them, then are they not of the holy ghost, but contrary to Chryst and his worde, and therefore ought not to be beléeued nor kepte. But howe many Decrées of the fathers do apparantly shew themselues contrary to the Scriptures, it would be too tedious to recite, and therefore as muche as is néedefull to be knowen, may easily by these questions be percei­ued. For almoste all that these men striue for, are nothing else but the ordi­nances and decrées of the fathers, or of other men. And to say the truthe, the [Page 33] decrées of the fathers are many tymes cleane contrary one to an other. For some of their decrées forbidde the mari­age of the Ministers of the Churche, and on the contrarie parte, it is euident what the Counsell of Gangra [...] dyd teache concerning the same, excom­municating all those whiche forsake or despise those Priestes that hée maried. And many suche like shal yée finde, yea euen in the very Popes decrées. But why I beséech you, doo not they sée men striue as earnestly for the Lawes and ordinances of God, to commende them as the holsome knowledge of our sal­uation vnto the worlde? But truely in all their Questions there is not one word spoken hereof. Doo they not ther­fore moste liuely represente vnto vs the Scribes and Pharisies, who were at continuall debate with Chryste and hys Disciples, and that onely aboute the decrées of the fathers, neglecting the lawe of God, and as Chryste often did [...]ast in their téeth, preferred them to the [...]awe of God? Math. 15. Mark. 7.

The xij. Question.

Whether those generall Coun­celles, whiche are lawefully kepte, oughte to bee beleeued and obeyed: and whether they may bee called into question as though they had erred, and so be disputed vpon?

The Answere.

THis Question contey­nethIn what sorte general coun­cels are to be beleued. thrée others: First whether those generall Councelles whiche are lawfully made, ought to be obeyed and beléeued? To this we answere, that all councels both vniuersall and prouincial, as they terme them, oughte to take their au­thoritie from the worde of god. Wher­fore if the lawes & decrées of Councels be deriued from the worde of God, and confirmed by the same, then ought they no lesse to be beléeued, than the worde of God it selfe. But if it be otherwyse, then is there no aucthoritie of any [Page 34] Councell to bée accepted agaynst the truthe of the holy Scriptures. Con­stantinus Constantin [...] the Emperoure in the firste generall Counsell holden at N [...]c [...], of­fered vnto the fathers there béeing law­fully assembled, the Bookes of the olde and newe Testamente, commaunding them thereby so iudge and determyne all controuersies.

The seconde Question is, VVhe­therWhether Counsels haue erred.that Counsels haue erred? But their Question is so demaunded, as thoughe they mighte neuer erre. But bycause all the Councelles that haue béene héeretofore, as also those whiche are now, were gathered from men, and and that men doo and may erre, like as in times past they haue often erred: for Dauid sayth: God is true, but eueryPsal. 1 [...]. Rom. 3. [...]acob. [...].man is a lyar: and saint James sayth: In many things we sinne all. It foloweth therfore that coūcels may erre. On the other side, if they folow god & his word, they cā not erre, as we before haue suf­ficiently declared. That councels haue erred, and therby often haue bene quite cōtrary one to an other, cōdemning one [Page] an other, dothe manyfestly appeare by Hystories. For it is not néedefull at large héere to discourse them all, sithe I haue onely determined to aunswere the Questions aforesayde briefly.

The thirde Question is, VVhetherWhether the articles vvhiche are decided & cōfirmed may be disputed on agayne.those thinges whiche are well and suf­ficiently decreed vppon, once in some generall Councell, oughte to bee called into question, and to bee disputed on agayne. To this question I aunswere thus: Those thinges whereon the Counselles haue rightely and truely decréed by the woorde of GOD, to those muste wée submitte our selues, neyther are they to be called into que­stion. As the firste generall Counsels holden at Nice, Constantinople, and Ephesus, dyd well and rightely decrée touching the holy Trinitie, the De­uine and Humane nature of Chryste, the holy Ghoste, and of suche thinges whiche dydde héerevnto appertayne. They nowe therefore offende not a­gaynst GOD, whiche dispute and set them selues agaynst those that call these thinges agayne into question, [Page 35] and make doubte of them: but they whych are the causers and authors of these Disputations offende, as namely Seruetus the Spaniarde in our age, and diuerse others, whiche haue done the lyke by their open workes and wry­tings. We also confesse, that the lawes of the godly Emperours and Kinges, were and are ryghte profitable and ne­cessarie, wherein blasphemouse and wycked disputations are forbydden. But the Popishe Prelates can not byWhether it be lavvfull to di­spute againste popish doctrin this tytle defende or shielde them sel­ues, as that nothing ought to bée writ­ten or disputed agaynst their late newe holden Counselles, whiche thyng in déede they greately desire, bycause they knowe them selues giltie of infideli­tie. For it is tootoo manyfeste, and can by no manner of meanes bée denyed, that in their Counsels they haue ordei­ned and decréed many thinges contra­ry to the custome of the Primatiue Churche, and the manyfeste testimo­nies of the holy Scriptures, which by their leaue wée may not leaue vntou­ched. Wherevppon within these fewe [Page] hundred yeares, many holy, learned, faythfull, valyaunte and sincere Mi­nisters of GOD, haue cried out, say­ing, that the church of Rome is fraught and full stuffed with all abuses, er­rors, sinnes, wicked and horrible factes and offences, and therefore hathe néede of greate and earneste reformation. But these men woulde that all these thinges shoulde bee couered and sme­red ouer, and therefore they say, It is not lawefull agayne to speake of or di­spute agaynst those things which were once decreed and establyshed by gene­rall Councels. But whether this bée righte and iuste before God and men, the wyse may easily perceiue. Tou­chingAugustines iudgement touching the counsels and the fathers. this matter Saincte Augustine dothe very well instruct vs, for he com­maundeth vs without all doubt to be­léeue the Scriptures of the holy Bible, and to beléeue the writinges of the fa­thers, so farrefoorthe as they bee con­firmed and proued by the witnesse of the holy Scripture, Epistle. 19. 111. 48. agaynst Cresconius. Lib. 2. Capitu. 32. ni his Booke De peccatorum meritis, & [Page 36] remis. cont. Pelag. Li. 3. Ca. 7. De vera re­gione. Cap. 10. Contra Epist. Pelag. ad Bonifac. Lib. 4. Cap. 8. And in his third Booke agaynst Maximinus he saythe: But nowe neyther oughte I to bryng the Councell of Nice, nor thou the councell of Arimineus, as to be preiu­diciall one to an other: but let vs dis­pute by the authoritie of the Scriptures. And in his seconde Booke agaynst the Donatistes and thirde Chapter, he sub­mitteth Councelles to the authoritie of the Scriptures, and saythe, that it often commeth to passe, that the for­mer Councelles may bée amended by those whiche are holden after. Agayne De V [...]itate Ecclesiae in hys sixetéenthe Chapter he sayth, That the Scripture is the foundation and Pyller of the Churche, and of all that is therein.

The. xiij. Question.

Whether that Paule, Peter, James and the rest of the Apo­stles in the first Counsell holden at Jerusalem, did take into thē the Heretikes which vrged Cir­cumcision, and the obseruing of Moyses lawe vpon the godly, or the lay men which were of that secte?

The Answere.

THe whole scope and driftThe Papistes will be bothe accusers and Iudges. of this question is this, that if there chance a frée conference or disputati­on in any counsel, wher­in they are required to render a reason of their fayth and Re­ligion, and so may not refuse the same, that then they may haue at the leaste some kinde of prerogatiue, to the ende that nothing may bee decréed agaynst thē, & that they may not be drawen frō their sinnes, errors, & other abuses, to a vertuous & acceptable life before god. [Page 37] Therfore séeke they by al meanes, that them selues onely may be placed in th [...] councels, and that they may not be con­strained to admit any lay man, or suche as are not of their stampe, amongste them, but that they alone may haue ful power and aucthoritie to accuse, to be witnesses, to determine and to iudge, and that by this meanes nothing may be done, but as it listeth them. And euē in this sorte, haue some of their forefa­thers nowe a great while holden coun­cels, being the readye waye (as they thought) to prouide for them selues. But whether this were acceptable be­fore God, vpright before men, or profi­table to the church, the time it selfe, the oppressing of the truthe, the slaughters of moste godly men, and the miserable gouernement of the thurche, dothe eui­dently declare, yea and all faithfull and wise men, may easely iudge. Of thisWhether the Apostles ad­mitted Here­ticks into the Counsel. question there is two partes. The first is, vvhether the Apostles in the firste councell at Ierusalem, did take into the same, those heretickes which wente a­bout to thrust vpon the godly circumci­sion [Page] and the lawe of Moses? Now héere they suppose, we must néedes denie the same: whereuppon they will conclude, that bicause we are Heretickes, we neither oughte to be heard, nor be ad­mitted into the councel. But althoughe there were no place nor licence giuen to the heretickes in the councell at Je­rusalem to speake, yet it foloweth not, that we ought not to be heard, or ought not to be admitted into a lawfull coun­cell, (for as touching other Councelles which are vnlawfull, and fosterers of their factions, we doe not passe) bicause we are not Heretickes as they were, which contended againste Paule: but we defende, preserue, and purely teache the Apostolicke doctrine, which Paule proponed in that councel, whereas our aduersaries defend ye doctrine of Pauls enemies, and by all violence and force, thrust the same vpon men. The summe of Paules doctrine was this: That sin­nersThe some of Paules doctrine and of his aduersa­ries.vvere iustified before God, by faith in Christ, & not by circumcision or the deedes of the lavv. Against this doctrine did the enemies of Paul (who notwith­standing [Page 38] were reckened amongste the faithful, and taught the faith in Christ, but yet not sincerely) set them selues, saying, that they ought to be circūcised, to keepe the law, and to be saued by the workes thereof. And that this was the doctrine and iudgemente of bothe the partes, dothe euidently appeare by the xv. chapter of the Actes, and the Epistle to the Galathians. Wherefore sith yée teache the merite of woorkes, and dare to say that iustification is not of faithe only in Christe, but by good woorkes, consider whether we, or yée with your doctrine, come most neare to the iudge­ment and opinion of Paules aduersa­ries. And althoughe they were suche, yet neuerthelesse, they proponed theyr opinion in the Councell at Jerusalem,Whither He­retikes ought to be admit­ted into a counsell. & were heard: for in the. xv. of the Actes it is written, that there was great dis­putation betwéene Paule and Barna­bas. Wherfore if we were Heretickes (as we are not,) yet ought we by right, to be hard in the councel as they were. And bicause the example of the Apo­stles, which yée doe vse, sheweth yt they [Page] condemned those which taught contra­ry to Paule, and we haue already pro­ued that yée teach the same, it foloweth that yée also are condemned in them. But if as you suppose, the aduersaryes of Paule had no place in the councell, then yée which agrée with them in opi­nion, shall haue no place by your owne iudgement, in a lawfull councell. But if they which consented to Paules do­ctrine, were admitted into the councell, and gaue sentence against Paules eni­mies, then oughte we by good righte, to set in the councell, and to giue sentence against you. For we teach like doctrine with Paule, touching Christe, fayth in Christe, and of iustification, to wit, that we be iustified by faith in Christe, and not by workes. And héereby it appea­reth that this question maketh directly against your selues.

The second parte of this Question,Whether the Apostles ad­mitted laye mē Heretiks into the Coū sell. is whether the Apostles did take into the councel, lay or vnlearned mē which folowed the foresayde heresie? But yet these men do rather in this place, séeke whether that lay men, which followe [Page 39] herestes, are to be admitted into coun­cels? Héere first is diligently to be con­sidered, who they are which folowe he­restes, and then to consider to what end this Question is directed, and who they are, which they go about to exclude frō councels. To this second parte we aun­swer, that those godly Princes and ma­gistrates, and honest lay men which be­léeue the gospel that we do preache, doe not folowe heresies, and therefore they may be admitted into Christian coun­cels and assemblies. We are not igno­rante of your custome, and tyrannous gouernement, whereby sometimes yée doe admit lay men into your councels, but yet to learne as yée terme it, but when any waightie matter is to be cō ­cluded, then yée exclude them, and place them only in your councell, which will geue sentence as you liste, and those be your Bishoppes onely. But in the same place of the Actes, which yée alledge for your selues, it is thus written: Then it pleased the Apostles and elders, vvith the vvhole churche. &c. In the which place lay and vnlearned men are num­bred, [Page] bicause they haue the grace and spirite of Christ: And therfore they nei­ther may nor ought to be excluded from councels, which are ordained to the re­formation of religion. Neither oughte the Princes and Magistrates, to suffer these spirituall nien (as they call them selues) to haue the whole authoritie of these matters to them selues.

The fourtenth Question.

Why did not Paule and Bar­nabas make an ende of this sector heresie at Antioche, but came to Peter at Hierusalem, and intreated him to giue sen­tence vpon it?

The Answere.

THE Apostles coulde notIt was not lawful for the Apostles to haue any agreement with their aduersaries. Galat. 2. make an ende with their aduersaries, excepte they would reuoke some part of their doctrine, and bring it more neare to the doctrine of their aduersaries, and that their aduersaries woulde gladly [Page 40] haue had them done. But there can be no similitude of agréement, betwéene these two sentences: Faith in Christ iu­stifieth men vvithoute the vvoorkes of the lavve: And this, The lavv or vvorks dothe iustifie men before God, and not faithe in Christe Neither was it méete that the Apostles shoulde retracte any part of their Doctrine, and yéelde vnto their aduersaries. For Paule speaketh héereof, saying: To vvhome vvee gaue not place by subiection for an houre, that the truth of the gospel might con­tinue vvith you. Knovving that a man is not iustified by the vvorks of the law, but by the faith of Iesus Christ. If then vvhile vve seeke to bee made righteous by Christe, vve oureselues are founde sinners, is Christe therfore the minister of sinne▪ god forbid. For if I build again the things vvhich I haue destroyed, I make myselfe a trespasser.

Héereby it euidently appeareth that the Apostles could not agree with their aduersaries, neither at Antioch, neither at Jerusalem, nor yéelde to any part of their doctrine, neither yet would they. [Page] Neither came they to Ierusalem, to theWhy Paule vvent to Hie­rusalem. ende they would make agréement, and ioyne with their aduersaries, much lesse then to intreate Peter that he woulde pacifie the matter betwéene them. But the chéefest cause of their going, was, for that the Heretickes did bragge them selues to be sent from the Apostles that were at Ierusalem, and that they agréed in their doctrine, and that the doctrine of Paule and Barnabas touching the gospell, did not agrée with the doctrine of the other Apostles. Wherfore, to the ende it mighte euidently appeare, that this their bragge was false, they went to Ierusalem, and thereuppon the Apo­stles, and the whole churche of Ierusa­lem writte to the churches of the Gen­tiles, amongst whom the hereticks had scattered these things vntruely against Paul, & so among others they vse these words: Bicause vve haue heard that cer­taine are come from vs, and haue trou­bled you vvith their vvords, to vvhome vvee haue giuen no commaundement. &c. Read the fiftéenth of the Actes, and the second to the Galathians.

The fiftienth Question.

Whether that Paule did not speake his minde firste in that Councel? Also, whether the ho­ly ghost were not there present? Wherfore if these be true, whie do they with their sectes, spoile the Churche of Peter of her honor, and how dare they call in dout those things which the holy ghost doth inspire?

The Answere.

NOw it may plainly ap­peare by this question, to what end the former Questions were writ­ten by their authoure: namely, that all menne should come to the Sée of Rome, to fi­nishe all controuersies of religion, and that they should take al interpretations from the Popes holinesse. But if the church of Rome were now as frée from [Page] errors, as was the church in that time, when Paule and Barnabas came thi­ther, we would not be ashamed to re­quire and take answeres from hir. But bicause the doctrine & church which Pe­ter planted in Judea, is in this our age, neither to be founde in Rome, or at Je­rusalem, and they of Rome are rather founde like vnto those, of whom Peter prophesied in the seconde chapter of his seconde Epistle, we therefore by good right ought to depart from that church: And yet doe we not spoile eyther the churche of Peter, or the aunciente do­ctrine of their due honoure: for we doe followe the true and aunciente Do­ctrine and churche of Peter, and séeke to haue all controuersies of Religion, iudged by the doctrine of Peter and the other Apostles. Wherefore lette these Romishe harlottes looke rather vppon their owne wallet, and diligently consi­der what greate honoures they giue to S. Peter, and his seate, and Churche, which haue chaunged the same into a market of marchaundise, and sincke of al horrible sinnes, as al the world may [Page 42] sée, and eache godly man dothe greatlyPaul had the chefest place in the counsell. lament. In dede Paul spake his minde first in the councell at Jerusalem, but what would yée therewith? Knowe yée not that he accused his aduersaries, and therfore it behoued him to speake first. But yet I maruell muche, that yée at­tribute not the cheefest place in thys councell to S. Peter? For your conten­tion, is onely for the cheefest place, the greatest pompe and glory. For these men haue quite forgotten that doctrine of Christe, saying: Hee that vvill bee greatest amongst yee, lette him be your seruaunte, and submitte himselfe vnder all, if he vvill enter into the kingdom of heauen And therfore me thinketh they are like to the Pharisies of whō Christ speaketh in the gospel, saying: that they loue the vppermost [...]eates and to be re­ue [...]enced of men. But that they maye see me will denye them nothing, that may iustly appertaine vnto them, lette them endeuoure, firste to be made like vnto Paule and Peter, and then will we gladly giue them the cheefest place. But if they be not suche, then is there [Page] no cause why they should brag vnto vs of their holynesse and great titles, for we may knowe them, euen as the rot­ten trée is knowne by his frutes.

Further more, the holy Ghoste was in that councell at Jerusalem, for so it is written in the fiftienth of the Actes. But what maketh that for you? Or what doth it further your cause? For it foloweth not that the holy Ghoste is in al your councels, as we haue sufficient­ly proued already. And againe, we doe not call in Question, the things which are inspired & giuen by the holy Ghost, but those things onely, which you and your forefathers haue fayned oute of your owne braines and so thruste vpon the church contrary to the word of god. But if you estéeme the holy Ghoste so much as you beare the world in hande yée, do, why then obey yée not the things which by his inspiration he hath deliue­red? For in the councell of Jerusalem, (in which the holy Ghost was present) thus is it decreed: It seemeth good to the holy ghost, and to vs, that vve lay no more burthen vppon you. And why I [Page 43] pray yée, haue not you and your forefa­thers obserued this? Why haue yée laid so intollerable burthens on the backes of the poore Christians? Why call yée vs heretickes, for that we goe about to restore the churche to her former liber­tie, and deliuer the same from these in­tollerable burthens? But if those your ordināces are so necessary to saluation, why thē do not you your selues obserue the same? Truely, you manifestly de­clare your selues to be of the number of those, of whome our Lord said: They lay heauie burthens vpon the shoulders of other men, but they vvill not touche one of them vvith their little finger. Matth. 23.

The sixtienth Question.

Whether the church of Christe haue decreed any thing against, or contrary to god: and that thē they shewe the same, & in what pointes it consisteth.

The Answere.

WE haue already suffici­ently spoken, concer­ning the holy christian churche, which depen­deth only vpon ye word of God: and therefore we haue not either to charge or accuse the same. But as cōcerning the late vp­starte church of Rome, we not only ac­cuse it of diuers crimes, but also haue already shewed, & that euidently, what shée wanteth, and wherfore we forsake and accuse hir.

The fourth Common place. Of Free will.

The seuententh Question.

Whether men haue not fre wil to doe good and euil?

The Answere.

THis Question touching the fréeThe doctrine of free vvill is an arrogante doctrine. wil of man, is the very ground & foundation of that proude and ar­rogant [Page 44] doctrine concerning the merites of man: as though there were any good in vs of our owne selues, or as thoughe we were able to doe good fréely, by our owne power, for the which God muste néedes let vs haue eternall life. But yet the holy scripture teacheth vs an other lesson, how that man cā not do any good thing as of him selfe, neither by all his power accōplish any good. For his vn­derstanding and frée will, not being re­generated, is so fowly blotted and defa­ced in him by his first trāsgression, and so wrapped in sinne and wickednesse, that euen by nature he is caried hedlōg vnto al manner of euil, so as he is made very vnfit and vnapte to goodnesse. And then what libertie or free wil can be at­tributed to such a man? S. Paule saith: The wisdome of the fleshe is an enemie to God: neither is it subject to the lavve of God, neither can it be. Read the third Chapter also of his Epistle to the Ro­manes. But who so euer is borne a newe by grace, throughe the operation of the holy Ghoste, of him is this say­ing of Christe to bee vnderstanded: [Page] He vvhich dothe sinne, is the seruaunte of sinne. But if the same haue made you free, then are you free in dede. That is, you are made frée from sinne, the diuel, death and damnation, yt fréely and with good will by the operation of the holy ghost, and not by cōpulsion, you might do ye good thing, which you do. And they whiche are so redéemed and indewed with Christian libertie, they attribute not the good which they doe vnto their owne power, and frée will, but to the grace of Christe, and to the holy ghost, which worketh the same in them. For Christe saythe in the fiftienth of Jhon. He that abideth in me, and in vvhomeIoan. 15.I abide, he bringeth forthe muche frute, for vvithout me you can doe nothing. And S. Pauls saith, in the second Epi­stle2. Corin. 3. to the Corint. and third chapter: we are not able to do any good thing of our selues, as of our selues: but all our habili­tie thereunto commeth of God. And in1. Corin. 4. an other place he saithe: what hast thou that thou hast not receiued? wherfore if thou haue receiued it, why bostest thou as thoughe thou hadste not receyued it? [Page 45] And agayne he sayth: It is giuen to youPhilip. 1. [...].in the things appertayning to Chryst, that not onely you shoulde beleeue in him, but also suffer affliction for hys names sake: Likewise he sayth: For it is God that woorketh in you bothe the will and the deede, euen of hys owne good will. And although the faythfull doo all that they doo with a frée spirite, and willing minde, yet neuerthelesse this their fréedome and willingnesse is let and hindered very much through the defectes and infirmities of the flesh, whiche alwayes remayneth with vs, euen vnto deathe. Wherefore Paule greatly complayneth, saying: The flesh rebelleth agaynst the spirit, and the spi­rite agaynst the flesh, so that the things which I would not do, that do I. Tou­ching this matter read more Roma. 7. And yet in this case doo we not attri­bute vnto man any more frée will than that which the frée mercy of God wor­keth, by whose holy spirite he is fréely gouerned & preserued. But as touching the infirmity which dwelleth in vs, the operation and working of the spirite is [Page] hindred and let thereby, so that mans free will can doo nothing that is good, and so that good which it is willing to doo and dothe, is of the frée grace and holy spirite of god. And therfore Paule attributeth not his good workes to hys owne free wil, but to the grace of God, saying: By the grace of God, I am that I am: and hys grace was not in me in vayne, but I labored more than they all, and yet not I, but the grace of God that was with me. 1. Corinth. 15. Marke well that he sayth, yet not I, but the grace of God which was with me. But touching euill (lyke as wée haue sayde already) wée doo it not by compulsion or agaynst our will, but willingly, and that by reason of the corruption which is graf­ted in our nature. And yet when wee runne headlong to the Deuill, God can lette and stoppe vs, and giue vs an o­ther manner of mynde, whereby wée may bée stirred and dr [...]uen, (as it were) to the things wherein before we had no delight.

The fithe Common place. Of Fayth and good Woorkes.

The. xviij. Question.

What they thinke of fayth, hope, and charitie?

The Answere.

TOuching these thrée, be­ing in déede the cheefe poynts of our Christian religion, I thinke very wel and truely of them, euen as the word of god hathe taughte. Fayth is the sure confi­denceFayth. of a man that is lyghtened of God, whereby he trusteth in God and in his onely son our Lord Jesus Chryst and his vndoubted worde, and that to the remission of sinnes and eternall lyfe. Hope is a stedfaste, pacient, andHope. comfortable looking for of those things whiche we beléeue, cheefly if the recei­uing of them be deferred, and appeare otherwise thā they were beléeued to be.Charitie. [Page] charitie is poured into our hearts, en­creased and preserued, and is due both to God & man, so that we should loue God aboue all things, and our neigh­bour as our selfe, euen as Chryste also hath loued vs. The places of Scripture from whence these descriptions are ta­ken, I haue therfore willingly left out, least this Booke shoulde grow and en­crease vnto an huge volume.

The. xix. Question.

Whether these three vertues, faith, hope & charity are but one thing, or else distinct vertues in the holy Scripture: and chiefly whether the one may not be taken for the other?

The Answere.

TOuching these thrée sin­gulerEche of these vertues haue their peculi­ar properties giftes of God, S. Paule speaketh distinct­ly, giuing to ech of them their peculyar proper­ties. 1. Thes. 1. VVe giue [Page 47] thanks vnto God almightie for you all, making mention of you in our praiers: remembring alwayes your effectuall fayth, diligēt or working loue, and sted­fast hope in our Lord Iesus Chryst. &c. And forasmuche as he giueth thankes and prayers vnto God, he teacheth, that these vertues are fréely giuen frō him vnto men, and that therefore they ought to pray and render thankes vnto him. And vnto faythe he attributeth a certayne effectuall working, bicause that from hir all good works, yea hope and charitie do spring. And he calleth charity diligētor working, bicause true charitie or loue laboreth and exerciseth hir selfe to please bothe God and man. And to hope he attributeth stedfast­nesse and pacience, bicause Paul in the eight to the Romanes sayth: That wee are made safe throughe hope. But hope if it be seene is no hope. For how can a man hope for that which he seeth? But if we hope for the thing whiche we see not, by pacience wée looke for them. Therefore fayth, hope and charitie are distincted vertues, and haue eche their [Page] proper operations. And therefore are they seuerally reckened by S. Paule 1. Corin 1. in which place he sayth thatThese three vertues are so coupled togither that the one sprin­geth of the other. these thrée are. Agayne these vertues are so coupled togither, and depende so one of an other, that they can not in any wise be hadde seuerally. For who so rightly beléeueth in God and his word, the same also hopeth to receiue the things he looketh for: Lyke as Paule teacheth out of the Prophet Abacuc in the Epistle to the Hebrues cap. 10. A­gaine, who so rightly beléeueth in God, loueth him as his chefe and euerlasting good: and loueth man bicause he is the image of God, redéemed by him, as S. John teacheth in his Epistle. And ther­fore Paule to the Hebrues Cap. 11. in­terpreteth fayth by hope, saying: Fayth is the substance or grounde of thynges which are hoped for. And in hys firste Epistle to Timothe he sheweth that charitie springeth from faythe, saying: Furthermore the end of the commaun­dementis, loue from a pure hart, a good conscience, and fayth vnfayned. There­fore like as there is but one sunne, and [Page 48] yet he is not alone: so is there but one fayth, and yet is she not alone. But as from the sunne procéedeth two seuerall things, so that thereby three things are in the sunne, that is, the globe or body of the sunne, from whiche procéedeth brightnesse and heate, and these thrée are so ioyned in one sunne, that by no meanes they can be separated, and yet are they three distincted things, hauing eche their seuerall properties. So lyke­wise these three vertues, faythe, hope, and charitie are so knytte togither, that by no meanes they may bée separated, and yet are they seuerally distincted. Wherefore, euen as from the Globe or substaunce of the sunne, as from one spring, lighte and heate doo flowe, so from faythe also, bothe charitie and hope doo spring. And as the body of the sunne is not the lyghte or the heate, so Fayth is neyther Hope nor Chari­tie. Yet neuerthelesse, the bodye of the Sunne is not wythoute Heate and Lyght, and Fayth is not without HopeFayth is one but not all one. and Charitie. And as the sunne shineth by his brightnesse, and not by his heate, [Page] so faythe inasmuche as shée receiuethFaythe iusti­fieth. Chryste, iustifieth vs before God, and not through charitie. Therfore like as it foloweth not that the body of the sunne, bicause it is not alone, but hathe light and heate, therfore shineth not on­ly with hys lighte, but also with hys heat: so likewise it foloweth not which our aduersaries affirme, Faythe is not alone, but ioyned with charitie, therfore fayth onely iustifieth not before God, but charitie also. But touching iustifi­cation I shall by Gods helpe hereafter speake more at large.

The. xx. Question.

Whether men be iustified be­fore God by faith only in chryst, or by good workes also?

The Answere.

FIrst we will shew what it is to be iustified beforeTo be iusti­fied before God. God: and that is to bée purged from sinne, deli­uered from the punishe­ment thereof, and to bée [Page 49] had and receyued into the number of the sonnes of God, and heires of eter­nall lyfe, yea and that before the iudge­ment seate of God, before the which all men are accused and condemned as gil­tie. And that we shall euery one of vs before the iudgement seate of God be conuicted and founde gyltie of sinne and eternall damnation, Paule in the thirde to the Romanes dothe playnely teache. And agayne that iustification is the taking away and remission of our sinnes, the same aptly also teacheth Acts. 13. Wherfore the remission of the sinne, and the punishement or damna­tion is called of him iustificatiō. Rom. 5. And that to be iustified and adopted in the number of the sonnes and heires of God is all one, wée may gather by that Paule saythe: VVe are iustified by fayth: and Sainct John sayth, But as many as beleeued him, he gaue themwhy god chose vs to be his sonnes & heirs.power to be made the sonnes of God. Secondely, wée muste séeke the cause why God forgiueth our sinnes, dely­uereth vs from damnation, and adop­teth vs into hys sonnes and heyres. [Page] Truely the proper cause hereof is hys mercy and grace, by the which he gaue vnto vs his onely sonne to take our na­ture vpon him, and to suffer death, and shedde his bloud for our sakes, to the ende that béeing deliuered from our sinnes, eternall death and damnation, frée from all accusations, we might be absolued before the iudgement seate of God: yea and that béeing made righte­ous by Chryst (for his righteousnesse is made ours) we might be made heires of eternall life. Wherefore it is onely the grace of God, the bloud and death of Chryst, and his innocencie and righte­ousnesse, for whose sake we are not con­demned, but are adopted into his sonnes and heires, and are made partakers of eternall life. Of this doctrine there are diuers proofes in Paul, Rom. 3. 4. and. 5. 2. Corinth. 5. Ephesi. 1. Coloss. 1. and. 2. Tim. 2. &c.

Furthermore we must note by what meanes the grace of God in Chryste,By what mea­nes rightuous­nesse is impu­ [...]ed to vs. redemption, righteousnesse, and eter­nall lyfe is imputed vnto vs, and on the other side howe wée receiue it, and by [Page 50] what meanes they bée made ours, so that Chryste in vs, and we in him doo lyue. All the good giftes of God are im­puted vnto vs by the holy Ghoste, as the holy Scripture testifieth almoste euery where, and chiefly our Lorde him selfe saythe: It is the spirit which quickeneth, &c. And wée receiue all these things by fayth, yea by fayth on­ly, and by none other thing. And there­fore it may very well bee sayde, that a man is iustified by saythe onely. For Chryste him selfe in the thirde of John teacheth vs, that wée muste bée saued euen after the same manner as the Is­raelites were healed of the deadely stinging of the Serpentes. For as they coulde by none other meanes attayne vnto healthe, than by the beholding of the Brasen Serpent hanged vp in the myddest of their Campe: so wée can by none other meanes bée delyuered from euerlasting deathe and damna­tion, and bée preserued in eternall lyfe, than by the beholding of Chryste Crucifyed. And thys beholding of Je­sus Chryste is fayth, yea fayth onely. [Page] For as no Woorkes, no Prayers, Fa­stings, Almes, Sacrifices, or any thing else, whatsoeuer coulde helpe the styn­ging of the Serpente, but onely the beholdyng of the Brasen Serpente, so is there nothing that can saue vs, but Faythe onely. Wherefore Chryst in the sixthe Chapter of Sainct John, saythe: Veryly veryly I say vnto you, excepte you eate the fleshe of the sonne of man, and drinke his bloud, you haue no lyfe in you. And to eate, the Lorde hym selfe interpreteth it to beléeue. But if there bee anye that desire to knowe more testimonies, by the whi­che our Justification in Chryste by Faythe onely is proued, then let him reade the thirde and fourthe Chapters of S. Paule to the Romanes, and also the Epistle to the Galathians, where the Apostle in the second Chapter wri­teth thus: Nowe lyue I no longer, but Chryste lyueth in mee. And the lyfe whiche I nowe lyue in the fleshe, I lyue by the faythe of the sonne of God. &c. Wherefore when wée say, that Fayth only in Chryst iustifieth, we attribute [Page 51] not Justification to Faythe, as in re­specte that it is any woorke of oures, (for Faythe also is the frée gyfte of GOD) but bycause that Faythe one­ly beholdeth or regardeth the grace of God in Chryst, and trusteth only here­in, & in none other thing. And the grace of God in Chryste iustifieth, as wée haue sayde before. Therefore, when wée stryue and contende aboute thys question, Faythe onely iustifieth, wée striue for Chrystes cause and the glo­ry of GOD, that this iustification may bée attributed to none other than Chryste, to the ende wée may haue one onely true ryghteousnesse. LasteWhy vvoorke [...] do not iustifie. of all wée muste shewe why not one­ly wée doo not attribute iustification to woorkes, but also wherefore wée suffer not parte thereof to bée attribu­ted to Woorkes, and parte to Faythe, but saye playnely, that wée are iu­stified onely by Faythe, and not by Woorkes. Firste, for that God wyll in no wyse haue vs to glorye and truste in our selues, but in hym alone: Like as it is manyfestly taught Rom. 3. [Page] 1. Corinth. 1. lerem. 9. Those therefore whiche impute their righteousnesse to Woorks, they trust in them: but those whiche beléeue in Chryste, by whome throughe grace their sinnes are forgi­uen, and obtayne saluation, they truste not in them selues, but in the grace of God alone.

Secondely, all good Woorkes are wrought of good men. Wherefore it is of necessitie that the trée bee made good, before she bring foorthe good fruite, and therefore the frute maketh not the trée good, but is rather the signe of a good tr [...]e: so it followeth that Woorkes d [...], not iustfie, bycause they are [...]oone of those which before were made righte­ouse throughe grace. Wherefore all men may easily knowe, that the righ­teouse doo not good Woorks, to the ende they mighte thereby bee ryghteouse, but rather bycause they are righteouse: so that nowe those whiche withoute woorks were firste iustified by grace, bring afterwarde foorthe good workes, euen as the good trée beareth good frute.

Thirdly, the works euen of the faith­full [Page 52] by reason of the infirmitie of mans nature which remayneth with vs, yea vnto death, are neuer so pure and per­fect, that they durst ascribe therby righ­teousnesse vnto them selues. Wherfore Job sayth, Althoughe I were iuste, yet would I not make answere, but intreateIob. 9. Psal. 14 [...].my ludge. And Dauid sayth: Enter not into iudgemente O Lorde with thy ser­uaunt, bycause no man liuing shall bee iustified in thy sighte. And it is euident what Saint Paule writeth to the Ro­manes, the seuenth Chapter.

Fourthly, if any man should be iusti­fied by his workes, then Abraham and the Apostles should be iustified by the works of their faith: but that they were not iustified by workes is manyfestly taughte, Romanes. 4. Galathians. 2. Wherfore iustification is not to be at­tributed to workes, althoughe liuely workes procéede from sayth.

Fifthly, nothing ought to be done or suffered in the churche of Chryste, that should obseure or darken the death and merites of Chryste, and frée mercy of God: but if we attribute iustification [Page] to our workes, then they blot out bothe the merites and death of Chryste, and the frée mercy of God, as Paule tea­cheth. Galath. 2. and. 5. Therefore we must not ascribe iustificatiō to works. Sixtly, wee muste keepe faithfully and purely the Apostles doctrine, and that teacheth that wée are not iustified by works, but through faythe in the froe mercies of God, lyke as it appeareth Acts. 15. and in al the Epistles of Paul: wherefore wée muste faythefully and stedfastly cleaue to this doctrine. But yet amongst many testimonies, I will bring onely one, whereby it shall ma­nyfestly appeare that this Answere of ours, to this twentith Question, is ta­ken out of the wordes of S. Paule, and therefore in the seconde Chapter to the Ephesians he sayth thus: By grace areThe summe of this doctrine.yee saued throughe Faythe: and that not of your selues, it is the gifte of God, and not of woorkes, leaste any man should boaste. For wee are hys woorke­manshippe created in Chryste Iesu vn­to good woorkes, whiche GOD hathe ordeined that we shoulde walke therin. [Page 53] And truely I thinke, there is no man could speake this more plainly: where­fore it is méete that we beléeue this the Apostles doctrine, and that we be not so miserable and wicked menne (as a great numbre are) to affirme that it is a false and heretical opinion, to beléeus that faith iustifieth before God, and not woorkes.

The. xxi. Question.

If faithe only iustifie, whether thē the Deuill, Judas, and such like be saued? If not, then whe­ther it dothe not followe, that men are not saued only by faith▪ but also by charitie and hope?

The Answere.

TOuching the Deuill, Iudas, Simon Magus & such like, they had not true faithe in Christ: for if they had had this true faith in him, then had they also had Christe and eternall life, like as it is written: He vvhich be­leeueth [Page] in the sonne of God, hathe a te­stimonie in himself. And this testimo­nieIohn., that God gaue vs eternall life: and this life is in his sonne. He vvhich hath the sonne, hath life Wherfore sith they haue not life, they neither haue faythe, nor Christe, for so it is wrytten: Hee vvhich hath not the sonne of God, hath not life. And againe: Except you beleueIohn. 8.that I am the sonne of God, you shall perishe in your sinne. But whereas S. James saythe, in the seuenth Chapter of his Epistle, that the Diuels doe be­léeue and tremble, and S. Luke in the eighte Chapter of the Actes, saithe thatAct. 8. Simon Magus beléeued, it is not to be vnderstanded of true faith, but of a false and dissembling faithe. For in the holy scripture there is mention made of two kindes of faith, that is true faith & false. True faithe is liuely, and of great force in Christe, iustifying vs in him, and af­terwarde bringethforthe good woo [...] Yet notwithstanding it followeth n [...] that we shall not be saued through faith but by charitie and hope also. For if we be not saued by faithe onely, then those [Page 54] things muste néedes be false, which are redde in the gospel and wrytings of S. Paul, touching Christ and faith in him. But bicause those whiche beleeue in Christ, are made heires of saluation by his merites, therefore they hope & loue also. Therefore when the scripture at­tributethHow works are called righteousne [...] iustificatiō to hope and chari­tie, or calleth good. woorks the righteous­nesse of the faithfull: that is not done for the woorks sake, but bicause the true be­léeuers are vnited with god, & so please God in him, & therfore are their works acceptable vnto him: and bicause they are iustified by faithe in Christe, they doe also the woorkes of righteousnesse: so that all honoure and glory mighte be giuen to faithe, or rather to Christ and the frée mercyes of God.

Wherefore when we say that weFayth brin­geth foorthe good works. are iustified by faith onely before God, we doe not say that saith is alone with­out hope, charitie and good woorkes: but we say yt faith alone iustifieth, bicause we receiue by faithe, the frée mercy of God, Christ & his redēption (for in him onely oure true iustification consisteth) [Page] and not in our woorkes which procéede of faithe. Not for that faithe wanteth these, for if it be true faithe, it woorketh good woorkes, as Peter, Paule, James, and John teache: and yet notwithstan­ding it first iustifieth, and so man being iustified by the grace of God throughe faith in Christ, doth finally bring foorth good woorkes. 2. Pet. 1. Rom. 6. Iacob. 2. 1. Iohn. [...]. &c.

The. xxij. Question.

Whether they beleeue that good workes done of charitie, and throughe the grace of God doe deserue eternal life through Christe, and for his sake?

The Answere.

THe grace of God andOf the discer [...]ing of workes. merites of Christe can­not be coupled with our workes. For Paul saith plainly: If vve be iusti­fied by grace, then not by vvorkes: for els grace vvere no grace: [Page 55] But if vvee be iustified by vvorkes, then is it not by grace, for else vvorkes are no vvorkes. Rom. 11. The like dothe the A­postle teach. Rom 4. And in the second Chapter to the Galathians, he saythe: I make not the grace of God of none effecte: for if righteousnesse come by the lavve, then died Christe in vaine. For if vve vvere able to deserue eternall life, vvhat neede had Christe to suffer? Whether our merice [...] are made meritori­ous by the merites of Christ But hére is obiected vnto vs, that the merites of manne be made effectuall through the merites of Christe: but this they finde not in the holy scripture, for they teache that righteousnesse and sal­uation is bestowed vppon vs for Chri­stes sake, and not for oure workes: and howe then might they teache, that oure works are made meritorious through the merites of Christe? But these men cannot abide that all things which we receiue, should be referred to the frée mercies of God, but they woulde haue some parte with it. And therfore héere­in they diligently labor, that althoughe they are constrained to graunt the glo­rie to Christe, that yet neuerthelesse in [Page] the wrapping vp, they mighte plucke somewhat to themselues. And to thysThe revvard of woorkes. ende they wrest those places of Scrip­ture, in which rewarde is promised the righteousnesse of the faithfull.

In deede we Confesse that many things are written in the holy Scrip­ture, touching the rewarde of the righ­teous, and punishment of the vngodly, which rewarde is not referred to the deseruing of oure woorkes, but to the free mercie of God: and therefore when the faithful doe any thing, for the which God giueth them a rewarde, they re­ceiue not the same as of duetie, but as giuen them fréely by grace. And thys same dothe the Scripture manyfestly teache, for Paule saythe: The revvardeRom. 6.of sinne is deathe, but eternall life is the gifte of God throughe Iesus Christ our Lorde. Wherefore it is manifest that oure sinne deserueth deathe, but oure righteousnesse deserueth not eternall life. For it is the frée gift of God which Christe hathe deserued for vs, and is therefore freely giuen vnto vs. Where­fore the Apostle sayth: For I counte notRom. 8.[Page 56] the afflictiōs of this present time vvor­thy of that glory vvhich shall be shevv­ed on vs in the life to come. Yet neuer­lesse these men go about to persuade wt all men yt we deserue so great things by our owne woorkes: and so wilfully sette them selues againste the faithfull Doctrine of our Lorde, who saythe: SoLuke. likevvise vvhen you haue done all that you can, yet say that you are vn­profitable seruauntes, vvee haue done that vve oughte to haue done. And a­gainste this saying of Augustine: God revvardeth his ovvne giftes, and not thy merites. Againe: If thou vvilt be an ab­iecte from grace, then bragge of thy me­rites.

The. xxiii. Question.

Whether that Marie Mag­dalenes sinnes were not forgi­uen for the earnest loues sake, which she bare vnto Christe?

The Answere.

IF that sinnefull MariesMarie ther­fore loued bicause hir sinnes were remitted. sinnes were forgiuē hir, for the loue which shée bore to Christ, then shée recompenced thys hir forgiuenesse, and there­fore it was not the frée gift of God, nei­ther wer hir sinnes remitted by grace? But the Gospell teacheth that shée had remission of hir sinnes, without any de­sert: For the Lorde sayth. There vvas a certaine man vvhich had tvvo detters, and vvhen they vvere not able to paie him, he forgaue bothe of them the dets. Wherfore if hir det were forgiuen and pardoned, then did shée not purchase, or deserue it by hir loue. Furthermore, the wordes of the gospel plainly teache that Maries loue sprang from the for­giuenesse of hir sinnes, and not the for­giuenesse of hir sinnes from hir loue: for so is it written. Of these tvvo there­fore (that is to say, of the two detters which were pardoned) tell me vvhiche vvill loue him most. Simon answered, saying: I thinke him, to vvhome moste [Page 57] vvas forgiuen. And he said to him, thou hast iudged right. And therefore he af­terwarde telleth with what great loue Marie embraced him, and that bicause he had forgiuen hir many sinnes. Yet notwithstāding, these men dare mani­festly affirme the contrary, to wit, that [...]ure Lord forgaue hir hir sinnes, & that for hir loues sake. But yet they obiect yt Christ sayd: Many sinnes are forgiuen hir, for shee loued much. To that I an­swere, that it is all one, as if he should haue sayd: many sinnes are forgiuē hir▪ and therfore shée loueth much. And that this is the true meaning of our Lordes words, the things which go before, and the things which folow after, do mani­festly teache. For euen immediatly af­ter these words he saith, To vvhome a little is remitted, he loueth a little. Then knitteth he vp his words thus: Thy fins are forgiuen thee. Thy faith hath saued thee, go in peace. Sée therfore what sa­ued hir: first the free grace of our Lord, by which hir sinnes were forgiuen: se­condly, faith, by the which shee receyued the mercy or grace of god, and commit­ted [Page] hir selfe wholely to him. And héere hence it came that shée obtained quiet­nesse, and faithfully loued him.

The. xxiiij. Question.

Whether Christe did not reiect those which beleued in him, and cast out deuils in his name, and did not good workes: and whe­ther he will not call all those to eternall life, which haue done good works, & whether he will not condemne al those at the last day, which are workers of ini­quitie?

The Answere.

IT hath bin euer knownFayth to work miracles. that the faith to woorke miracles, is distincted from the faith in Christ. Wherfore it followeth not, yt bicause the faithe to woorke miracles, saueth not those which doe them, therfore true faithe in Christe, saueth not. Like as it foloweth [Page 58] not (as we haue said before.) The deuil beléeueth and yet is not saued, therfore faith saueth not. For there is one faithe of the deuels, an other of the faithfull, wherby they trust in the grace and pro­misse of God. Furthermore Christ shalWhy Christe wil iudge not according to fayth, but according to works. iudge in the laste day after the manner of men: for they iudge of things mani­fest and known, and so also shall Christ do. But bicause faith is the gift of God, spirituall and inuisible, & yet notwith­standing sheweth it selfe by workes, so that therby is made manifest, who are faithful, and who not, therfore the Lord iudgeth according to works: But let vsMath. 25. heare the sentence of the iudge: Come (saith he) you blessed of my father, pos­sesse the inheritance or kingdome pre­pared for you before the foundation of the world. And in whom are we blessed but only in Christ. Gal. 3. Wherfore if ye kingdome come by inheritance, thē is it of grace. Furthermore, if it be prepared before the foundations of the worlde, then was it prepared before we were borne, or could doe good woorks. Of this matter Paule speaketh more. Ephesi. 1.

[Page]Thus much haue we spoken of faith and good woorkes, which we do not con­demne or despise, as our aduersaries do falsly accuse vs, but this is it we onely séeke, that we wold not haue that to be attributed to good woorks, which only is due vnto Christ. For otherwise, we ex­hort all mē to the doing of good woorks, and that not such as we faine or deuise of oure selues, but suche as God hathe commaunded to be done throughe true faithe, and not to make marchandise of them. Yea we testifie vnto all those churches which we teach, that they are greatly reproued and cōdemned, if they brag of faithe, and declare not the sam [...] by good woorkes.

The sixth Common place. Of Intercession, Inuocati­on, and woorshippyng of Sainctes, which now liue in heauen.

The. xxv. Question.

Whether they doe not beleeue that Christe and his members, that is to say, the Angelles and Sainctes which liue in heauen, doe pray vnto God for the vni­uersal church of Christ?

The Answere.

IT is bothe faithfully &Christ is the onely interces­sor with the father. manifestly taughte in ye gospell, & the wrytings of the Apostles, that Christ doth pray for his vniuersall churche, and for all faithfull, and is their only inter­cessor, aduocate, and mediator to God his heauenly father. For Christe himselfe in the Gospell, saythe: Verely, ve­rely, I say vnto you, vvhat so euer you shall aske of my father in my name, he vvill giue it you? Hitherto you haue not asked any thing in my name, novve aske and you shall receiue it. And again. Come vnto me all you that doe laboure [Page] and are heauy loden, and I vvill refreshe you.

These woordes therfore of Christe, doe all the faithfull in the vniuersall church beléeue, & acknowledge Christe to be their onely intercessor to God theHeb. 9. Rom. 8. Heb. 7. father, & therefore come they vnto him onely. For they stedfastly beléeue that he is the Christe, that is to say, the an­noynted and ordained King and Priest at the righte hande of God, who hathe deliuered vs, and hath ascended into the heauens, euen vnto the righte hande o [...] God, that he mighte alwayes appear [...] before his heauenly father for vs, lik [...] as Paule saythe, that Christe is entre [...] into the heau [...]s, that he might appear [...] in the s [...]ght of God, and make interces­sion, and pray for vs.

But bicause Intercession or Pray­er, is reckened amongste the chéefest partes of the office of a Prieste or Bi▪shop, and that there is but one Priest hoode, yea, and that so vnited, that it cannot be translated, giuen, or imparted t [...] any other, whereby it is called eternal and immutable: therefore, the faithful [Page 60] séeke not any other Bishop, aduocate, or intercessor besides Christ, no not vn­to the Angels, or sainctes liuing in hea­uen. But content them selues wt Christ alone, and vse him their onely aduocate and intercessoure to God, as he which is best accepted with his father, and can moste faithfully, readily, excellent­ly, effectually and wisely do this office. For the Angels and Sainctes can in no wise be compared to Christe. Further­more, he bothe can, and will performe those things which we craue, knoweth our want, and calleth vs vnto himself, neyther can we héereby wearie him: and knoweth what is profitable for vs, and howe all things may be done most commodiously for vs. And all these did he confirme while hée lyued héere in this worlde, bothe with his woords and déedes. For he readily gaue care to all menne, yea, he knewe their necessities better than they could expresse them by their wordes, was neuer wearyed, but healed all diseases, holpe all menne, hadde euer inoughe for them, and al­thoughe he cured many, and gaue mar­uellous [Page] giftes, yet had he still asmuche grace, helpe & other giftes as he had be­fore. Yea, and when his disciples wold oftentimes haue put men off, he tooke it not in good parte, but how muche the more they thronged vnto him, and cra­ued many things of him, so muche the more declared he his power, oftētimes exhorting them that they should conti­nually come vnto him. &c. Wherby the faithfull receiue this comforte, that euen this oure Lord Jesus Christe, be­ing nowe at the righte hande of God i [...] heauen, is no lesse gentle, willing, rea­dy, and able to helpe all those which [...] put their trust in him. And therefore i [...] all their néedes they contente them selues with the intercession and med [...] ­ation of Christe. And that chéefely sith [...] 1. Tim. 2. Paule sayth, in the first Epistle to T [...] ­mothe, and the seconde Chapter. The [...] is one God and one mediator between God and manne, euen the manne Iesu Christe vvhich gaue him selfe for th [...]1. Iohn. 2.redemption of all menne. And S. Jho [...] saith: If any man sinne, vve haue an ad [...] ­uocate with God the father, Iesus Chri [...] [Page 61] the righteouse, and he is the propitiati­on for our sinnes, and not for ours one­ly, but for the sinnes of the whole worlde. Touching the intercession ofThe Scrip­tures maketh no mention of the inter­cession of Sainctes or Aungels. our Lorde Jesus Chryste in heauen, we haue the manyfest and inuincible testimonies of the holy Scriptures, but as touching the intercession of Angels and Saincts, which are in heauen, we haue no testimonie thereof, and there­fore the godly care not for it. Yea, those whiche beléeue the worde of God, in which we haue taught vs but one one­ly intercessor Chryste in heauen, they [...]éeke for none other intercessor there, [...]ycause they haue the same full and [...]erfectly in Chryste. But they whiche [...]oo not beléeue nor acknowledge Christ [...]or their onely and perfecte intercessor [...]nd aduocate, those Infidels shall ne­ [...]er be holpen with any prayers of An­ [...]els or Sainctes, althoughe they dyd [...]ray for them.

The .xxvj. Question.

If Chryste be our onely inter­ [...]ssor, why did he then teach vs [Page] this prayer which we call the Lordes prayer, which was also vsed of the apostles, and so with one accord continued in prayer, as it is written in the first Chapter of the Actes of the Apostles.

The Answere.

YT may very easily appeareHowe wee praye in Christes name when wee saye the Lordes prai­er. by this question, that those wicked men whiche were the authors of these questi­ons, did neuer rightly vnderstande this holy Prayer common vnto all men, and commonly called the Lords pray­er. For they speake thereof, as though wée dyd [...]e pray the same of ourselues without Chryste, when as muche ra­ther it is the prayer of Chryste, and is so named, not onely for that he made the same, but also for that wée nowe pray the same as euen by his mouthe. For when wée say the Lords prayer, we then with those wordes pray euen as it were with Chrysts owne mouth: [Page 62] therefore the father, who loueth hys sonne, acknowledgeth his wordes and prayer, and those are moste acceptable vnto him, & therefore euen for his sons sake he heareth vs. And therfore in the Lords prayer Chryst is made the only intercessor, and although wée pray the same with the Apostles, yet are we not herd for their sakes, but for Christs: for euen their prayers are made effectuall & acceptable vnto god through Chryst. In the Acts they require the gift of the holy ghost, of whō the Lord before had spoken in the gospel, saying that his fa­ther would send him in his name: and therfore it euery where appeareth, that Chryst is the true aduocate and inter­cesser of all the faythfull. And it were not a little to be wondred at, why these men sho [...] more set by and regard the intercession of sa [...]c [...]s, than of Chryst, on lesse they did man [...]festly declare thē selues to be of that number of whome Paule speaketh in the [...]ste Chapter to the Romanes, saying. which wor­ship and serue the creatures more than the creator, &c.

The .xxvij. Question.

Whether the charitie and loue of the Angelles and Sainctes whiche are nowe in heauen, bee cleane put out and taken away from vs, when as Paule yet sayth, that Charitie neuer fay­leth.

The Answere.

CHaritie or loue can ne­uerWhether the Saincts in heauen do pray fos vs bicause they haue charitie in heauen, nor yet in earth, bring to passe, that the Saincts should chalēge that vnto them selues, which is onely due to Chryst: that is to say, his priest­hoode and the office of a mediatour to make intercession to God the father. Furthermore in the Saincts all things are purged and perfected after they bée departed out of this lyfe and fleshe, vn­to eternall felicitie, and therefore Cha­ritie, which in this life reioyceth not in the miserie of the vngodly, is not in the [Page 63] lyfe to come troubled, nor sorroweth not for their damnation And bycause that God in heauen is all in all, and that the saincts haue giuen them selues all wholly ouer vnto the will of God, so as his will is their chéefe felicitie or ioy (and therefore wée pray, thy wyll be done in earth as it is in heauen) ther­fore no kinde of charitie moueth them to make intercession. For why, they perfectly knowe, that in Chryst is the fulnesse of all, and that in him wanteth nothing belonging to intercession, but that he moste perfectly dothe all things with his father, and that therefore hys onely intercession is sufficiente for the faythfull: yea they see that the father loueth mankinde, and woulde that all men which obteine grace, mighte bée made partakers therof by Chryst. And therefore is it written, that the elders fall downe before the throne of God, and giue all glory & honour vnto him, and that amongest other thinges they say vnto the Lambe, Thou onely arte worthy to take the booke, and open the seales thereof, for thou arte slayne, and [Page] haste redeemed vs by thy bloud. Apo. 5. Neither dothe our charitie ceasse to­wardes the Apostles, althoughe wée pray not to God for them. For wée be­léeue that they are blessed, and haue no néede of our prayers. Wherefore in lyke sorte, when they nowe in heauen see that nothing is wanting to the in­tercession of Chryste, and that there néedeth no mo intercessors, but him a­lone, dothe not then their charitie still remayne, althoughe they make no in­tercession for vs?

The .xxviij. Question.

Whether the Saincts in hea­uen be inferior to mē liuing here on earth? Therfore sithe Paule commaunded vs to pray one for another: and the Apostles eche where required others to pray for them: whether ought we not to desire the praiers of the Apo­stles being in heauen, as more worthy and more effectuall?

The Answere.

IT appeareth by thys que­stion,Whether the sainctes bycause they prayed here on earth doe the same for vs nowe in heauen. that they goe aboute to defame vs, that we think no better of the Sainctes in Heauen, than wée doo of sinne­full men lyuing héere on the earthe: and as thoughe wée affirmed them to bée subiecte to infirmitie and myserie. But héerein they doo vs great wrong. For wée include not the Sainctes in heauen as subiecte to any corruption or infirmitie: but rather their doctrine is to bée suspected hereof. For we teach and beléeue that the Sainctes whiche are in heauen are far better than they which lyue héere in this worlde: by­cause they are frée from all infirmitie, and are perfecte and pure, subiecte to no sorrow, but without all care and trou­ble liue with God, reioycing in euerla­sting ioyes, and therfore are they igno­rant of our miseries, which else would vexe, trouble, & make them sorowfull. And that they be frée from al cares and all things that might trouble them in [Page] any thing, we may read in the. 7. andThe glorie of the saincts which are in heauen. 21. Chapters of the Reuelation. And as touching the miseries of this worlde, they are onely knowen to God, and to his sonne our Lorde Jesus Chryst, and yet without all manner of gréefe and sorrowe vnto them. But the Sainctes knowe not all things which are done euery where through the worlde, nor are not omnipotent to help, neither are they presente in all places, nor knowe the harts of men, for the secret thoughts are secrete, and hydde from them: and where as they say that the Saincts doo beholde and sée all things in God as in a moste brighte and cleare mirror: this is more foolishe than néedeth confuta­tion. And as touching these thinges a­foresayde, they are onely proper to the maiestie and wisedome of God. And as touching the Sainctes, they enioy all glory moste perfectly of the heauenly lyfe. And whereas the Saincts in this lyfe haue commaunded vs to pray one for an other, and haue also here prayed for others, and required others to pray for them, yet héereby it followeth not, [Page 69] that they which are in heauen pray for vs, or that wée ought to desire them to make intercessiō for vs, that they might nowe pray for vs in heauen, bycause they prayed for vs when they were here on the earth. And yet notwithstan­ding we ought to pray one for an other so long as we liue héere. And there is also (as we haue sayde) an other state of the saynctes in heauen: for they doo not all that there, which they did héere on earth. We are expresly commaun­ded to pray one for an other in this life. But let them shewe vs one worde or sentence in the holy Scripture, where the Saincts which now liue in heauen, are commaunded to pray for vs: or else shewe where the Apostles did cōmaund vs to pray vnto the Angels and Saincts to make intercession for vs: or let them bring one example where any of the Apostles dyd pray vnto any Angell or Saincte, to make intercession for him. Wherefore if they can bring foorth no one example (as in déede it is impossible so to doo) bicause the inuinci­ble veritie testifieth, that they prayed to [Page] one God onely, and were contented with the intercession of Chryste: then should they also contente them selues with Chryst, and byd that their inter­cession fare well, for which they are not able to bring foorthe any one worde or testimonie of the holy Scripture. And no doubt, if there were any intercession of Sainctes in heauen, the Scripture would in some one place or other make mention of it.

The. xxix. Question.

Whether the riche man which was condemned, dyd not in hell pray for hys kinsefolkes? Al­thoughe he were not heard by­cause of hys sinne and damna­tion, which thing the Saincts and Angels haue not.

The Answere.

SUrely it had bene muchWhether the rich mā in the 16. of Luke did praye for his brethren. better for these mysera­ble wretches, if they had let slippe this Question, sithe they haue no better [Page 66] argument & testimonie, than that they haue from this damned rich man. But this is Gods iudgement, for that they are not content with that most sure, ex­cellent, faythful and perfect intercession of Chryste. For if they thought this in­tercession onely sufficiente, why then make they mention of any other inter­cessors? And bycause they often speake of other intercessors, whiche yet, not­withstanding are none, neyther would they bée, and bycause they set foorth ra­ther the intercession of creatures than of Chryste, as not contente with him, therefore are they iustely for their de­sertes punished with so greate blynde­nesse. Furthermore it is not written in the Scripture, that the riche man dyd call vppon GOD, and pray for hys brethren, that GOD myghte haue mercie ouer them: But rather de­fired, that him selfe mighte bée deliue­red to the ende that he mighte warne them. And therfore was it denied him, bycause God will not haue the lyuing to haue any respecte to the deade, as to looke for any Doctrine, Reuelation, [Page] or saluation, from them, but to content them selues with the doctrine of the holy Scripture. Wherefore if our Ad­uersaries acknowledge thys, then on Gods name let them contente them­selues with the intercession of Chryst, which the holy Scripture dothe allow and commende vnto vs onely. And this similitude maketh quyte agaynst themselues.

The. xxx. Question.

Whether they beleeue that the blessed virgin and mother of Chryst, the Angels, Apostles, Martires, and the other saincts in heauen, be not to be worship­ped, honored, and prayed vnto, to helpe vs, and make interces­sion for vs?

The Answere.

WE must here touchingOf the wor­shipping of sainctes. this worde woorship, make a certayne di­stinction. For if by this worde worship, is vn­derstanded adoration, [Page 65] inuocation, prayers, holy dayes, fa­sting dayes, gyftes, sacrifices, almes, dedicating of Churches, lyghting of Candles, and such lyke, then saye wée that God alone is to bée worshipped, inuocated, and honoured, and not the Sainctes. Yea, the Sainctes wyll not bée worshipped and serued in this sort. But if this worshippe signifie, to reue­rence, and honestly and reuerently to thynke of them, and acknowledge them, prayse and commende them, as the deare frendes of God, and to im­brace them as the singular Ministers and members of Chryste, then doo wée gladly beléeue, and truely confesse that all the godly, the blessed virgin Mary, the Angels, Apostles, Martyres, and all other Sainctes, oughte by good right to bée worshipped. Furthermore wée condemne all those which contemptu­ously thinke any thing of the Sainctes whiche lyue in heauen. And chiefly, weWhat wee ought to think of the blissed virgin Mary. confesse, that the blessed virgin Mary is woorthy all prayse, and that shée is a pure vndefyled virgin, bothe before, in, and after the birthe of Chryste: [Page] and that shée is blessed aboue all other women, and that of hir wombe was borne the sonne of God, and therefore may very well be called the mother of GOD. Yea wée also acknowledge and confesse, that shée was the deare­ly beloued handemayden of God, who for hir [...]faythe, loue, puritie, lowlinesse, holynesse, pacience, hope, and suche lyke vertues, can neuer bée sufficient­ly praysed, and that shée was aboue all others beautified with moste singu­lar gifts of grace, and therfore we ought to thinke mo [...]e reuerently of hir.

And as touching the Apostles of ourWhat we ought to think of the Apostles and other Sainctes. Lorde Jesus Chryst, we acknowledge them to bée the chosen and singular frends and seruaunts of God, indued with most excellent giftes, by whom it was his pleasure that the gospel should bée preached vnto vs, that thereby the worlde mighte receyue lighte, and wée bée delyuered from the mouthe of Sa­than, and adopted in Chryste into the number of the children of God. Yea wée defende the doctrine, faythe, loue, vertues, and example of lyfe, bothe of [Page 68] the Apostles, Martyres, and all other the godly agaynst all the enimies of GOD, and of the Sainctes, yea wée prayse God in them, and loue them as the very members of the selfe same body with vs vnder our onely heade Chryste, wée studie to followe the ex­ample of their lyues and faythe, that wée may togither with them after this lyfe, haue the fruition of eternall ioyes with God. Furthermore, whatsoe­uer the holy Scripture teacheth, or God commaundeth to bée done vnto them, we muste readily and willingly yéelde it vnto them. But nowe, whyHow the saynctes are to be worshipped wée doo not attribute and giue vnto them those honors, which the Papists require, that is, to aske & séeke helpe of them in time of trouble, as from our in­tercessors, & sauiors, I wil héere bréefly render the reasons: and further also shew why we so earnestly teache and affirme that god alone ought to be wor­shipped, called vppon, and serued, & our lord Jesus Chryst to be acknowledged the onely euerlasting mediator and in­tercessor before god the father in heauē.

[Page]First, we haue a manyfest comman­dement, that in all necessities God on­ly is to be prayed vnto, and called vp­pon, and that he alone is sufficient for vs, and that he bothe can and will giue vnto vs all things necessarie bothe for our bodies and soules: for he him selfe calleth vs vnto him, and promiseth vs all good things, and is displeased so of­ten as wee seeke vnto others, and not vnto him: and therfore when we come vnto him, we greatly delight him, and thereby worshippe him.

Secondely, by the examples of all Sainctes, and in the Psalmes also wée are taughte, that God alone in all ca­ses is to be called vpon, and to be than­ked for those benefites whiche we re­ceiue, what so euer they be.

Thirdely, that common and holy prayer, called the Lordes prayer, can onely be sayde and offered to God the father, and to no maner of creature. Wherefore if we had no other thing but this prayer of our Lorde, yet might wée thereby sufficiently knowe that none other is to be called vppon but [Page 69] God only. Last of all S. Paule saith, heRom. 10. We haue neede of an aduocate for vs to God. ought to be called vppon, on whome we doe beléeue: but we doe beléeue in God only: and therfore we ought to call vp­on him only, as he who alone knoweth, is able and will helpe vs. And yet we do not reiecte the intercession of Christ, neither say we, that we haue néede of no intercessor with God. But like as God alone is to be called vpon, so ought we to vse none other intercession, nor any other aduocate or intercessor be­fore God, than Christe Jesus onely, bi­cause the father hath appoynted him a­lone to this function, & therefore in him he heareth and receiueth oure prayers, as I haue héeretofore sufficiently pre­ued. Wherfore if we would doe obedi­entThe Angels and saynctes send vs from themselues to Christ. seruice to the Sainctes, then should we content oureselues with God, and Christ our sauioure only. For vnto this marke haue the Sainctes alwayes sent all menne, and would not suffer themselues to be worshipped or called vpon. Wherfore, if they suppose yt the saincts did not send men to Christe alone, but to others also, then let them shewe vs [Page] who they were, to whom they sent thē. For we haue our opinion confirmed by the manifest scriptures. For when S. John twice, as appeareth in the Reue­lation. 19. &. 22. fel downe before the An­gell to worship him, the Angell answe­red: Take heede thou do it not, for I am thy fellovve seruaunte, and of thy bre­thren the Prophets, worship thou God. Againe, at the mariage in Cana a citieIohn. 2. of Galelei, when there lacked wine, the mother of Jesu saide vnto him, They haue no vvine: Iesus ansvvered vnto hir, and sayde: vvoman, vvhat haue I to doe vvith thee? mine houre is not yet come His mother said to the seruaunts, vvhat so euer he sayth vnto you, doe it. And this is the only will of the virgine Mary, that what so euer hir sonne com­maundeth, we should do it. And bicause he commaundeth vs to come vnto him, to cal on him, to pray in his name, dout­lesse the blessed virgin wold haue vs so to do, & to serue him and not hir, which thing we do when we call vpō hir son, & not vppon hir. In the Actes also it isAct. 3. written of Peter and John, that when [Page 70] they hadde healed the lame at the gate of the Temple, the whole multitude being amazed, ranne vnto them: but the Apostles sent the people from them selues vnto Christe, saying: vvhy mer­uell you at this? Or vvhy looke you so on vs, as thoughe by our povver or ver­tue, vve had caused this man to vvalke? God hathe in this sorte glorified hys sonne. &c. Likewise Paule and Bar­ [...]abas, when they had healed the man that was, as is wrytten in the foure & twentienth of the Acts of the Apostles, and that the menne of Lystra woulde haue done Sacrifice vnto them: Paule refused it as a thyng horyble in the sighte of GOD, and so renting hys garmentes, diligently taughte them, that God onely was to be woorship­ped, and not the Apostles which were [...]ut menne.

In lyke manner John the Baptiste, (than the which there was neuer any holyer amongste men) whome Christe also commēdeth, sent his disciples from himselfe vnto Christe, as to the true sa­uioure, yea he rebuked them, bycause [Page] they attributed more vnto him, than was conuenient, althoughe they yet at­tributed vnto him nothing so muche as these men nowe adayes attribute to the Sainctes. Reade the first and seconde Chapter of S. John his gospel. Wher­fore sith it is moste sure yt the Sainctes in heauē haue not altered their minds, then is it withoute all doubt, that God is to be called vppon, and prayed vnto through Christ only, and that from him all things necessary are to be asked for, and not from any Saincte.

The seuenth Common place. Of the relikes of Sainctes, images & such like things

The. xxxj. Question.

Whether they beleeue that the going on Pilgrimage to the bones & churches of the saincts, be not a godly thing?

The Answere.

THis question compriseth in it three others. First, what we thinke of Pilgrymages that are taken in hande for religions sake? Secondly, what we thinke of the reliques and bo­nes of the Saincts? Thirdly, what wée thinke of their temples? To these wée aunswere: All those things are godlie which men do being therevnto comaū ­ded of God by his worde. Wherfore if you wil haue vs iudge these Pilgryma­ges godlie, then shew vs out of the scri­ptures where they were instituted and commanded of God. For we can finde no one letter or title of holy Scripture, where any mention is made of these pilgrymages, but most perfectly know that our Lorde hath taught vs not to e­stéeme one place in this earth better than another, nor to gadde hither and thither for the obtaining of grace. For God is present and mercifull whereso­euer the faithful haue néede of his grace and call vppon him with a true fayth: Psalm. 107. and. 145. Amos. 5. Jere. 7. 23. [Page] John. 4. 1. Timothe. 2. and many other places. Againe, sithe in the Questions before going, we haue alreadie shewed that the Sainctes sende vs from them selues to God and to his sonne Jesus Christe, it is euidente that they allowe not of these Pilgrimages, and that they are not profitable nor healthfull for those which take them in hand, and therefore we ought not to doe them.

Touching the bones and Relikes ofOf the reli­ques of sain­ctes. Sainctes, there is thrée sortes of them: Either they are their wrytings, con­taining theyr Doctrine: or some partes or menibers of theyr bodyes: Or some exterioure things which they vsed as their garmentes and suche lyke. Their2. Pet. 1. wrytings therfore which containe their Doctrines, are the right Relickes, yea the vnspeakeable treasure of all good Christians, which ought therfore to be had in moste great honor.

Againe, the bones and bodyes of the Sainctes, are worthy of their honoure, as hauing parte in the Resurrection of the deade, for the which they looke, and were bisides, the houses of that moste [Page 72] excellent spirite with which they were fulfilled. But euen as the bodyes of the Patriarkes, of Moses, Aaron, Josua, the Kings, Prophetes, and the holy bo­die of Christe, of John, Stephen, and other the Apostles, were moste honou­rably buried: So are the bones of the Sainctes cōmitted to the earthe, vntill the day of iudgemente, and are not to be digged vppe, nor sette to be worship­ped of the Christians in their churches, as Athanasius hathe taughte in the life of blessed Anthonie.

Furthermore if we haue oughte, which we knowe the Sainctes vsed in the time of theyr life, yet oughte we not to woorshippe it: For as the aunci­ente Fathers haue taughte vs, suche woorshipping is superstition, and dis­pleaseth bothe God and the Saincts, as before it is said: what thing else may be said touching Relickes I héere omitte, bicause theyr deceites are euidently knowne. For oftentimes it happeneth that the heade, arme or some one or o­ther mēber of a saincte is found to be in two or thre places, as though he had had [Page] thrée heades, or thrée armes more than any other man. Againe, in the stead of Reliques, fonde and foolishe things are offered vnto men to be woorshipped, by meanes wherof the sainctes are rather dishonoured than honoured: yet in this their marchandise they so shamefully behaue themselues, that those whiche haue in them any sparke of honesty, al­though they delighte in Papisticall doc­trine, yet are they dyspleased hereat. Lastely, Temples and Chappels areOf Te [...]ples dedicated to sainctes. not to be dedicated and built vnto sain­ctes which now are in heauen, but they only ought to haue sepulchres or graues as becommeth mortal men. Wherfore although it may be supposed that our el­ders for some good intent did build tem­ples vnto the saincts, yet is it euident yt it displeseth both god & the saincts. For temples are not to be built in ye names of sainctes, nor congregations oughte to be collected in their names, for that honor is due to the creator onely, as it may easily be proued by diuers autho­rities bothe of the scriptures & of men, which héer for breuities sake I do omit. [Page 73] Wherfore we iudge that the christians haue néede of churches to be built to the honor of god, & of our lord Jesus Christ, in the which his word ought to be prea­ched, publike prayers to be made, ye sa­cramentes ministred, & almes to be be­stowed. And of these churches we think very honorably, and therfore gladly cal them the churches or houses of god, & of Christe, and ought in no wise to be pro­phaned: as I haue already else where sufficiently taught.

The. xxxij. Question.

Whether they beleue that it is good and godly to light vp can­dels before the sacrament of the altare, and the images and re­likes of sainctes?

The Answere.

THe vse of candels is neces­saryThe vse of can­dels in the churches. in the churches in the nighte times, by reason of the darknesse, as in ye mor­ning before day &c. And after this sorte [Page] did the apostles vse candels in ye church or congregation. Actes. 20. But to set vp light in stead of a sacrifice, to the woor­shipping of sainctes, or for the saluation of soules, this is cleane contrary to the holy scripture, and therfore condemned by Lactantius a most auncient wryte [...].Lactan. inst. li. 6. cap. 1. Our hartes must be kindled vnto God in the Newe testament, and we muste giue light by our good woorkes, and thatMath. 5. Rom. 22. shalbe an acceptable sacrifice vnto God. And bicause the Lord commaundeth vs to take and eate the sacrament, it is notLightes before the sacrament. lawful for vs to kéepe it and shut it vp, but we must eate it: and therfore there is no neede to set lightes before it. But let them rather which are partakers of that sacrament, prouide that the bright and shining light of true fayth may bée in their hartes: for this setting vppe of lightes before the Sacrament is a new deuise found out of late, and vtterly vn­knowne to the Primitiue Church. And as touching Images, this is our iudge­ment. First, God hath forbiddē to make Images to worship them, as appeareth in the seconde Commaundemente. A­gaine [Page 74] in the wrytings of the lawe, theOf Images. Prophetes and Apostles, he hathe al­togither, and that very earnestly for­bidden Images, yea, moste greeuously threatning all those which either make them, or woorshippe them. Wherefore, that which God abhorreth, calleth euil, and cursseth, we can not call the same good. Wherfore, if any man desire to sée any testimonies héereof, let him reade the twentieth of Exodus, Deuterono­mie the fifth, fourthe and seuenth, and twentie seuen. Psalme an hundred and thirti [...]ne. Esay fortie, and fortie foure. Jeremie tenth. Rom. first, first Corrin. tenth, first Peter fourth, and first John the fifth. &c. And where as some of them say, they woorshippe not the Image, but him whome it signifieth, that is but a single souled reason: for neither God nor his Sainctes wil be so worshipped.God nor hys sainctes can by Images be re­presented. Againe, Images are not like vnto God nor to the Sainctes. For God is a spi­rite that can not be measured, without beginning and without ending, of most [...]reate power and Maiestie, and canne [...]herefore be expressed by no Image, [Page] as the holy scripture doth euidētly teach vs. Actes. 17. and in diuers other places. Againe, the Angels which are spirites, howe can there be made any image of them? The Sainctes while they heere liued on the earth, had bothe a body and a soule, that is consumed, and this re­maines in heauen: howe therefore can they be expressed by any image? The image of their bodyes, can nothing at all helpe vs to eternall life, and there­fore althoughe we had them, they could nothing helpe vs. Againe, that which is chéefest in the Sainctes, as the grace of God, faithe, and suche like giftes, can neuer be expressed vnto vs by any co­lour, woode or stone. To conclude, God, the Angels and Sainctes, are in heauen, indowed with a more excellent glorye than that they may be expressed or re­presented by any images: which ima­ges the holy Prophetes of God haue scorned and derided, as Esay. 44. and Baruch. 6. But if they say that images muste be made to teache and instructe only, then doe we knowe that we haue receiued a more perfecte and excellen­ter [Page 75] way héereunto from God, which is, his holy spirite and woorde. And bicause neither in the Apostles times, nor in the primitiue Churche, there was any vse at all of images, we cannot then truely call them good, sithe they are so condemned (as we haue saide) of God and his Sainctes. Touching Relikes, we haue spoken in the Question before going, and therfore contented therwith we will speake no more therof.

The. xxxiij. Question.

Whether they like well of the halowing of water, herbes, and other things vsed in the Christi­an Churche?

The Answere.

THe primytiue Aposto­lickeThe making of holivvate [...] & holy fire. churche, was alto­gether ignorant of these consecrations and bles­sings of water, fire, salt, butter, oyle, palm, herbs wafers, and suche like. And therfore, bi­cause [Page] they are abuses and méere inuen­tions of men, they can in no wise please vs. For we beleeue, that Christe hathe blessed all those creatures whereof the faithfull haue neede, so as if they vse them moderately in faithe, wyth giuing of thankes, they cannot be hurtfull, but pure and good vnto them, as Paul wit­nesseth. [...]. [...]. 4. and Tit. [...]. But to be­leeue & trust that these halowed things, whereof we haue spoken, can defende and keepe vs from euill, is meere super­stitious, condemned of God, and repro­ued of all Gods faithfull ministers.

The eight Common place. Of purgatorie, and prayer for the deade.

The. xxxiiij. Question.

Whether they beleeue that the soules of those which are dead, be tormented in the fire of Pur­gatorie, who not perfecting [Page 76] their repentance, nor being tho­rowly purified, haue departed out of this life?

The Answere.

AL that depart out of thisEyther men dy in faythe or in infidilitie. life, either depart in the true faithe, or else with­out the same: and of both these hath our Lord pro­nounced sentence in these woordes: For God sent not his son into the vvorld, to condemne the vvorld, but that it might be saued throughe him. He therefore vvhich beleeueth in him, is not iudged, but he that beleeueth not, is iudged al­readie: bicause he beleeueth not in the name of the only begotten son of God. But our aduersaries Obiecte, yt a faith­full man may die, who yet notwithstā ­ding he be faithful, yet is not thorowly purged, bicause he hathe not performed his penance, & such one say they cannot be saued, bicause he is yet vnpure, ney­ther can he be dampned, bycause he is a faithfull. And therfore it necessarily fo­loweth, yt ther is a midle place betwéen [Page] these prepared of god, in the which such are thorowly purged, and wyth theyr paines, repay that wanted in penance. And this place they cal Purgatorie, bi­cause as they say, the soules are purged there. But in this kinde of Doctrine which hathe no authoritie at all in the Scriptures, we finde faulte with di­uers things.

For firste Christe teacheth that the faithfull are made all pure in hym, al­thoughe there remaine some parte of infirmitie in them, whereof they haue néede to be clensed, for he manifestly saithe: He that is vvashed, hath no nede saue to vvashe his feete: for he is cleane altogether, John. 13. and. 15. And S. Paul teacheth the same, Romanes. 7. and. 8. where he sheweth, that many things are yet wanting in the faithfull, which are not imputed vnto them bicause of their faith in Christe. And therfore in ye articles of our faith we cōfesse, that we belèeue ye remission of sinnes, the resur­rectiō of the body, & the life euerlasting. And as we beleue so shal it be vnto vs: we beléeue our sinnes are forgiuen vs, [Page 77] and therfore they are so. Furthermore when we say sinnes: we doo not onely meane the faulte, but also the punishe­mente due for the same. Wherefore when the sinnes for the whiche we are punished, are forgiuen vs, howe then I pray you are we vncleane? Or if sin be quite [...]akē away, why then should they suffer, as though they were not remit­ted. Wherefore if they had true fayth in Chryst, then shall they liue for euer: but if they beléeued not, then are they damned. And this dothe our fayth teach vs, whiche is confirmed, Esai. 53. and John. 3. 5. 6. and. [...]. Chapters. SecondlyWe are not counted pure for our own works sake. we blame in their doctrine, that they ascribe perfecte puritie to perfecte re­pentaunce, whiche puritie is onely had by the death, bloud, & merites of Christ. For if puritie were had by our me­rites, then is Christ dead in vayne. But Chryst is not dead in vayne, therefore puritie commeth onely by the grace of God, throughe faythe in the deathe of Chryst. Actes. 1 [...]. Gala. 7. and. 1. John. 1. But howe féeble an argument that is, which they say, that the soules requite [Page] with their punishmentes in the fire of Purgatorie, which before they wan­ted, to perfecte repentaunce, wée haue héeretofore shewed, when wée entrea­ted of Faythe and Workes, prouing then those things which we both do and suffer, not to bée worthy of that ioye wherof in the life to come we are made partakers by Chryste. Thirdly wée blame in their doctrine of Purgatorie, that they attribute not puritie to the bloude of Chryste onely, without the which yet nothing can purge vs: but without all authoritie of Gods worde, they fayne vnto vs I knowe not what kinde of fire, to the which they without all shame attribute our purging. This also wée finde false with them, for that they say the faythfull, who departe out of this life, are tormented in the life to come, quite contrary to the wordes of Chryst: Verily verily I say vnto you, he that heareth my worde, and beleueth him that sent me, hath eternall life, and shall not come into iudgement, but pas­seth from death to life. Iohn. 5. Where­fore if he went into Purgatorie, then [Page 78] must he néedes come into iudgement: but sith the faythfull passe from death to life, we answere, that the faithful are clerely purged of the Lord, and are not subiect to any fire of Purgatorie.

The. xxxv. Question.

Whether the prayers, almes, and sacrifices which are done in the christian Churche for those who are tormented in purgato­rie, be profitable to thē, or not?

The Answere.

FOrasmuche as we haueOf praiers & such lyke things done for the dead. alredy playnly declared, yt our aduersaries erre, euen in the chefest point of this question, and that is, in the fire of Purgato­rie it selfe, bycause it hath no testimo­nie in the Scripture, therefore I con­clude the soules of the faythfull can not there bée punished, bycause there is no suche thing: and therfore we néede not pray for them after they be dead, or do any thing for them, sauing onely to make a reuerende remembraunce, [Page] and render thankes vnto God, for that it hathe pleased him to call them out of this worlde (in the true fayth) vnto his kingdome, and that it would please him to encrease our fayth, and so in tyme to couple vs with our forefathers in eter­nall felicitie. Furthermore we teache, that if we could doo anything for their sakes, acceptable to God, and profita­ble to them, that then we ought to doo for their wyues, children, and kyns­folk. And I am not ignoraunt that ma­ny ciuill men are maruelously offended with vs, bicause they thinke it very vn­decēt, yea horrible, & a thing in no wise beséeming a christian man, that we not onely doo nothing to helpe our forefa­thers, but also speake & write agaynst so auncient a custome (and as wée ourselues knowe) so vniuersally receyued and vsed. And therefore I hartily be­séeche all those, to heare and way those our reasons, which moue vs herevnto. For we doo not this, neither ceasse we to pray for them, or neglecte so vsuall things, bicause we loue not our forefa­thers, or for that we care not for them, [Page 79] but bicause the christian fayth teacheth and confirmeth, yea forceth, so as by no meanes wée can acknowledge▪ it good and sounde doctrine to pray for them, or that these things oughte to bée done for their saluation, yea we know that our fathers haue no néede hereof, and that they require no suche thing of vs. For wée faythfully and certaynely be­léeue and knowe, that sinnes are remit­ted bothe héere in this lyfe, and in that to come, by none other meanes, but by the grace of God in the bloud of Jesus Chryste through fayth: and as for the fyre of Purgatorie, which standeth on our merites and punishments whiche we suffer, is nothing appertayning to the grace of God, nor the bloud of christ in fayth. Agayne it is certayne that our fathers dyed in the confession of the same fayth with vs, wherein wée say, I beleeue the remission of sinnes, the re­surrection of the body, & the lyfe euer­lasting. Wherefore sithe the vniuersall fayth, & the manyfest testimonies of the Scriptures doo euidently proue, that al they which by true fayth commit them [Page] selues to the grace and mercy of God and dye in Christ, are preserued of him so as they come not into iudgement, into any fire, payne, or punishment, [...] are receiued into euerlasting ioye [...] how then I beseeche you, can wée pr [...] for them, or do such like things for the [...] saluation, wherof in déede they sho [...] haue néede, if they suffered any pay [...] or punyshmente. But they suffer no [...] and therfore there néedeth nothing bée done to delyuer them from it. F [...] if after the departure out of this life the true Fayth, they yet neuertheles [...] suffered the fire of Purgatorie, punishementes and torments, then we [...] all that vayne and to no purpose whiche are reade and taughte vs out of [...] holy Scryptures, touching the fr [...] mercyfull promyse of God, the del [...] ueraunce by Chryst, and of the certai [...] tie and veritie of fayth: yea our fay [...] it selfe, shoulde bée moste vntrue. B [...] our fayth is certayne and sure. Ther [...] fore as our fathers did vndoubtedly b [...] léeue the forgiuenesse of sinnes, & ete [...] nall lyfe, so haue they vndoubtedly o [...][Page 80] teyned the same, and féele no payne in [...]e other lyfe. And therefore bothe for the glory of God, the prayse and confes­sion of our faith, as also for the honor of [...]r fathers, touching whose saluation [...]e doubt not, we do nothing after their [...]ath for the saluation of their soules. [...]ea we think that by these kind of do­ [...]gs & prayers of ours, both our salua­tion, and faythe is called in doubte, as [...]oughe they beléeued the remission of [...]nes & euerlasting life, and yet haue [...]t obteined it. But this is most wicked be thought, & therfore not to be spokē: [...] it is all one, as though God and our [...]th might deceiue vs, which is impos­ [...]le. Moreouer for breuities sake I wilThei are but filthy mar­chandise vvherevvyth they vvoulde haue vs re­deem [...] souls. [...]t here declare how vile those things [...], and without all authoritie of Gods [...]rde, whiche they commaunde vs to [...] for the helpe of our fathers: so as they shoulde féele but some of those [...]ollerable paynes of Purgatorie, as [...]y saye they doo, yet coulde these [...]ngs helpe them nothing at all: for [...]t for the moste parte their delyue­ [...]nce and remedie is boughte of those [Page] who are moste filthye and wycked Wherfore it is much better not to séek [...] the saluatiō of our fathers at the hand [...] of those wicked and filthy marchaunts▪ who doo nothing but for money, or from the traditions of men, but rather stedfastly to knitte our selues to the sure foundation of the grace and mercy o [...] God in the bloud and death of our sauiour Chryst through perfect fayth. And so by this meanes shall our mindes bée assured of the saluation of our fathers, where as otherwyse by celebratyng yerely Ceremonies for them, wee are stil left doubtfull when they are effe­ctuall, or they receiue profite by them. Agayne we learne not to truste in theWe may not for purgato­ries sake truste in any thing. merites and workes of other men after our death for Purgatories sake. For those fiue foolishe Uirgins perished by suche negligence, whylest they sought, and would bye Oyle of others. For the Scripture byddeth vs to doo good, and not to deferre it whylest we haue time. And therefore wée earnestly exhort all men whyle they are heere in this lyfe, and in perfect remembraunce, to serue [Page 81] God, and prepare them selues to their iourney, and not to trust in the workes of other men to bée done after their death for them, bycause they can not then helpe them. But if it chaunce any man to lye at the poynt of death, then with the wordes of the Gospell wée sende hym to Chryste, to pray for the remission of hys sinnes, to truste to the grace and mercie of God, and so with full consolation hope for eternall lyfe. And this and none other was the doctrine of the primatiue Apostolyke Church, like as Paule writeth of the dead. 1. Thes. 4. And therfore by Gods grace wée will kéepe the same.

The. xxxvj. Question.

What they say to the glory of Lazarus, and his systers Mar­thaIohn. 1 [...]. and Marie, who prayed vnto Chryste for their brother?Act. [...]0. Lykewise of Eutiches, whom Paule raysed from the deade, whether this were done with­out [Page] prayers, and whether that Saint Peter did not rayse Ta­bitha to life by prayers?

The Answere.

I Suppose that Mary,Hovve and vvherfore the apostles did pray. Martha, Peter & Paule prayed vnto God, but yet not as our aduersa­ries teache vs to pray for the dead: that is, that God would be merciful to their soules, and delyuer them from the fire of pur­gatorie, and receiue them into eternall life: but they prayed, that vnto the glo­ry of god they might be restored to this life. And do they thinke that Lazarus,Where Lazarus vvas that time he vvas dead. Eutiches and Tabitha were in the fire of purgatorie, and after their death suf­fered prayers? I suppose they dare not affirme it. And therfore they bring vs such examples as serue not their pur­pose, but are onely to blere the eyes of the simple. But if they say, they were in Purgatory, then I pray you, howe proue they the same. But some of them [Page 82] affirme & say. If Lazarus were in hell, then could he not be deliuered, for in hell there is no redemption: but if he were in heauen, then had he wrong to be brought agayne to this earth of mi­serie. And héere therfore they conclude, that there muste néedes bée a thirde or midle place. To these I answer: first yt hereby they haue not proued this midle place to be purgatorie, but that it may be as wel some other place only knowē vnto God. Secondly I say that their whole argument is false & vaine. Laza­rus (as the scripture there techeth) was Christes frende, and therfore his soulo was receiued into the bosome of Abra­ham after his death, like as we may sée in the other Lazarus, of whome Luke speketh. ca. [...]6. Neither had he any iniury offred him, when his soule (to ye setting forth of Gods glory) was agayne cou­pled to his body: for all creatures doo of right and dutie serue their creator. The Lord said vnto the these hanging on the crosse, This day shalt thou be with me in paradise, & yet the. 3. day he rose agayn, & dyd not thereby suffer any wrong. &c. [Page] Truely I thinke that if these men which are called the Spiritualtie, were compelled tobestow so much money for the dead vpon the laypeople, as they for thys matter doo receyue of them, their fire of Purgatorie woulde not burns so hotte, and their prayers would come downe to a lower pryce. But if thys doctrine of Purgatorie bée so necessa­rie: howe commeth it then to passe I beséeche you, that the Caste Churches in Grecia dydde neuer receyue it, nor knowe of it, vntill the tyme of Eugenius the fourth, at whiche tyme very shortely after, Constantinople was taken by the Turke.

The. xxxvij. Question.

What they say to this place of the Machabees: It is there­fore an holy and holesome thou­ghte, to pray for the dead, that they may bee delyuered from their sinnes.

The Answere.

SAint Hierome, CiprianOf the seconde booke of the Machebes. and Gelasius shall vnto this place aunswere for vs: that this secōd boke of Machabées is read in the Church, but hath not like authority with other canonical scriptures of the Bible, to take authori­tie thence as frō other scriptures in the controuersies of religion. Therfore by­cause in al the bookes of the olde & new testament there is not one word spokē of the sacrifices for the dead, we leaue this place as we found it, as not béeing able to proue any thing. Agayne all the actes of holy mē are not to be folowed, neither are they acceptable to god. Ge­ [...]eon for a good intēt made an Ephod in [...]phra, which yet had bin better if it had not bin done. In the. 14. Chapter of the historie of ye Machabées Raazias is prai­sed for killing himself, that he might not al into the hands of his enimies, & yet his act, as the whole scripture techeth, [...] the best of the fathers do iudge, deser­ueth neither prayse, nor is thought wel [Page] of: for euery man touching death, ought to abide till God doo call. And as tou­ching this Booke I could say more, but this is sufficient.

The ninthe Common place. Of Sacramentes.

The. xxxviij. Question.

How many Sacraments there be? also whether those be effec­tuall signes of Gods grace, by the which we receiue the same?

The Answere.

THe Romish church hath seuen Sacraments, of alHovve many Sacramentes there be. the which we do account but two to bée true Sa­cramentes of Chrystes church, and that is Bap­tisme, and the Supper of the Lord: and vnto these we attribute so muche as the holie Scripture willeth vs. And as tou­ching these two, Confirmation & Ex­treme vnction or anoynting, as they be now vsed in the church of Rome, we do not acknowledge them for any Sacra­ments [Page 84] of Chryste, neither suppose wée that they haue their original from gods word. The other thrée, that is, penance, Imposition of hands, or Orders & Ma­trimonie, although we recken thē not amongst the Sacramentes of Chrystes church, as we do baptisme & the supper of the Lorde, yet we acknowledge them to be profitable & necessarie institutions of God, and very holsome for the fayth­full, if they vse them in such sort, and to the end for which they were ordeined, and as the Saincts haue vsed them in times paste. Neither doo wée allowe or thinke wel of al those things which the church of Rome doth vse in these thrée, but we allow that only which is agrea­ble with the worde of God. But where we allow baptisme & the Lords supper onely for true Sacraments, I haue else where more largely taughte, shewing that it onely belongeth to God, and not to man, to institute or ordeine Sacra­ments, the signes of Gods verity and grace, but also howe the promisses of God are in the Sacramentes and out­warde signes of his benefites.

[Page]Touching the efficacie and vertue ofOf the vertue and power of the Sainctes. the Sacraments, we answere, that all those things which God hath ordeined, haue power and vertue to bring to passe and performe al that, for the which they were ordeined of God, and so haue the Sacraments their power: to whome therfore we ought not to attribute any other thing, than that the Scriptures do attribute vnto them, and for which cau­ses they were ordeined. Wherefore if we finde the Sacraments ineffectuall vnto vs, that is not to be attributed to them, as though the institution of God were of no sorce, but it is to be attribu­ted vnto mē, which vse them not right­ly, but without fayth. The worde of God abideth euermore true, and is left vnto vs for our instruction: but in that all men doo not acknowledge it to bée the truthe, and suffer them selues to be instructed therby, they, yea their lacks of fayth is the cause thereof. Simon Ma­gus was baptised, but not purged, not for bycause baptisme is without effect, or is not the true signe of our clensing, but bycause he beléeued not. In lyke [Page 85] manner Judas at the supper of our lord receiued not the body of Christe vnto eternall life, not bicause the sacrament did not represente and offer the same meat of eternall life, but bicause he re­ceiued it without faithe.

Againe, the vse of the sacraments doWhether the sacramentes receiued do giue vs grace. not therefore obtaine the grace of God vnto vs, bicause it is our worke, but we receiue ye Sacraments, bicause through grace we are reconciled vnto God in Christe by faithe, and now be in his fa­uoure, & therfore by this meanes shewe our selues thankefull and obedient to­wardes him. Againe, we know that the grace and giftes of God, doe oftentimes increase and growe in the faythfull. S. Paule to the Romanes the fourth, as­keth whether Abraham were iustified through Circumcision, and whether he was iustified before, or after he was cir­cumcised, he answereth: not in circum­cision, but before he vvas circumcised: and yet was not circumcision vnprosi­table, or a vaine signe, for he receyued the same as the seale of the righteous­nesse of faithe, that is to say: to confirme [Page] and testifie yt his righteousnesse came by faithe, and that therby we be iustifi­ed. So may we say of our sacramentes, for baptisme is come in the stead of cir­cumcision, and the fathers also did eate of one spiritual meat with vs, as Paule testifieth, Coloss. 2. and. 1. Cor. 10.

The tenth Common place. Of Baptisme.

The. xxxix. Question.

Whether they beleeue that in­fants ought to be baptized? and whether they thinke the firste baptisme sufficient, or that men oughte to be baptized againe, when they come to haue the vse of reason?

The Answere.

IT appeareth by this Que­stion,Of the Ana­baptistes. they minde to make some proofe of vs, what we do thinke of ye Anabaptists. Wherfore we answere, that euen you [Page 86] which are the vpholders & maintainers of the Popish kingdom, & the hinderers of the preaching of the gospel, doe most wickedly offende, and that the faulte is cheefely in you, why that many are first seduced by the Anabaptistes, and then secondly for lacke of teaching, do perish in that erroure. For if yée would suffer the pure preaching of the Gospell to haue his frée passage, then coulde not this heresie, nor any other so mightely preuaile and take place, to the deceiuing of simple and vnlearned menne, which thinke what so euer is taughte them, is straight wayes the doctrine of the gos­pel. Neither go we about to defende the Anabaptist, from whom we discent ve­ry muche, as in all oure bookes we doe plainely declare. But many of them are very simple menne, and otherwyse of an honest nature, who haue skarce heard any thing of the gospell, or if they haue, yet bicause they sée so little amēd­ment of life among those yt professe the same, & are called Gospellers, yéelding to the subtile persuasiōs of the Anabap­tists, thinke they shuld greatly offend if [Page] they baptise their infants, take an othe, or come vnto those churches, in which as they say, sinners do yet remain. Yea, that no minister which receiueth any stipende for his ministerie, or dothe not him selfe all those things which he tea­cheth others to doe, can teache the true doctrine: and that there is no congrega­tion a true churche, in which the order of Prophesying and excommunication is not according to that forme which S. Paule hathe prescribed. 1. Corrin. 14. Therfore, as these their errors are not to be suffred, so yet must they be frend­ly instructed by the woorde of God, and so broughte home againe, as S. Paule teacheth. Rom. 14. But if they be con­tentious and stubberne, they muste not yet therfore straight wayes be cast off, but hope better of them, taking héede in the meane time, least they infecte a­ny other with these their obscure opini­ons, whilest we looke for their amend­ment: And if they be not conuerted, yet must we alwayes deale soberly, vertu­oussy, and holily with them, hauing a consideration of the matter and person, [Page 87] in correcting and punishing of them.

Other some of them are not of a simple and honest nature, but malitious, trou­blesome, enuious, couetous, which all their life time haue bene vnquiet and obstinate, euer louing contention, and so falling into that error, doe amongste themselues, raise vp broiles, stirre mē against their Magistrates and Prea­chers, against othes, against iudgement and punishment, against taxes, rentes, and tiches, and many other things: fur­thermore they stirre vp contention be­twene man and wife: and yet notwith­standing, they cloke and smoothe themselues with a certaine glorious & hipo­critical kinde of spéeche, to the end they might séeme to be farre honester men, than they are in very déede. For what they would doe, if they might haue frée libertie, we haue good experience in the Monkishe Anabaptistes. If therefore these menne which are so malitious, might be fréely suffred, & no punishmēt done vnto them, the common wealthe would quite be ouerthrowne, as expe­rience dothe teache vs. And these men [Page] being the heades of this faction, abusing the simple sort, do in like manner stirre them vp to be contentious and raise tu­multes. Wherupon being thus instru­cted, although they be manifestly ouer­throwne by the truthe, yet leaue they not their erroure, nor will receiue any godly instruction, but despise the gen­tlenesse and mercy of the Magistrate, neuer kéeping touche, though they pro­misse and sweare neuer so muche, ha­uing no regard to honestie, neuer cease to molest and trouble the congregatiōs with their rash and seditious dealings. And touching these menne, what bothe Gods lawe and mannes, dothe decrée of them, it is manifestly knowne: where­fore, we doe not goe about to excuse any suche, neither haue we any felowship with them, or with their teachers, nor yet by Gods grace minde we to haue. Touching the baptisme of infantes, itBaptisme of infantes. hathe his aucthoritie from the scripture. For bicause we all confesse that Bap­tisme is, a signe of the couenaunte and people of God: and that it cannot be de­nyed that infants are in the couenaunt [Page 88] of God, and are numbred with his peo­ple: therfore baptisme which is ye signe heereof, cannot be denyed vnto them. Againe, S. Peter in the Actes teacheth,Actes. 10. that they oughte to be baptized, which haue the holy Ghost: But if the infants of the faithfull had not the holy Ghost, then should they not belong vnto God, neither should they be holy, nor haue the kingdome of God: But they are be­longing to God. Rom. 8. they are holy. 1. Corinth. 7. and to them belongeth theAnabaptism kingdome of heauen. Mar. 10. Therfore they ought to be baptized. But there is no néede we should be baptized againe, when we come to the vse of reason, be­ing once in our infancie baptized in the name of the father, the sonne, and of the holy ghost. For if we should be baptized againe, yet could we haue no more than we had before, only this wold remain, that heereby we should deface our for­mer baptisme, to the great displeasing of God, the breache of lawes, and the incurring into the daunger and punish­ment thereof.

The .xj. Common place. Of the sacrament of the bo­dy and bloud of our Lorde, and of the receyuing vn­der bothe kindes.

The .lx. Question.

Whether they beleeue that the liuing body and the very bloude of Christe, be substantially in the Sacramente, so that after the words of cōsecration, the bread is transubstantiated into the bo­dy of Christ, so as there then re­maineth no more bread, but the true & naturall body of Christe?

The Answere.

CErtayne of the later Do­ctorsDiners opi­nions tou­ching Chri­stes presence in the Sacra­mente. of the Romish church. do euidently, and fréely con­fesse that before the councel of Lateran. whych was celebrated at [Page 89] Rome, Innocentius the third, thē Pope in the yéere of our Lord. 121, (in ye which Synode the doctrine of transubstantia­on was first decréed & confirmed) there were diuers and sundry opinions in the churche touching the presence and sub­stance of Christe in the Sacramente. So that if any man did not beleue that the substance of bread was turned into the substance of Christes body, yet was he not reckened for an hereticke. But in this councell it is decreed, yt all those which will auoide the suspition of here­ [...]ie, muste beléeue that the very body of Christ is naturally in the Sacrament. and it is greatly to be wondred at, wherfore this councell would cōdemne the faithfull as hereticks: for that which hither vnto for the space of. 1200, yeeres, was neuer done nor ment. Whereby lette any wise man thinke, whether the councell had authoritie now after. 1 [...]00. yéeres to Decrée these things. For if those menne which liued from Christe 1200. yéeres, were not coūted heretikes, and yet did not beleue that the substāce of breade was chaunged into the sub­staunce [Page] of Christes body, whye then shoulde they now be called Heretickes, which beleeue not those things whiche the Churche neuer beléeued in all that space of yéeres before said? But if those things which that councell now holden 1200. yéeres after Christ, were true and necessary to be beléeued, then all those which liued before this time, and belée­ued not these things, did not beléeue a righte: but if their faithe were true (as vndoutedly it was) then is it not neces­sary for vs to beléeue that, which after were deuised and imagined.

And truely the auncient fathers didThe true and auncient doc­trine of the sa­cramēt against transubstantia­tion. thus beléeue and teache concerning this holy Sacrament: to witte, that there is two things chéefely to be considered: the signes: that is, the bread and the wine: the things signified, that is, the body & bloud of Christe. But if it be true which the churche of Rome teacheth, that the substaunce of bread is not in the sacra­ment, but only the body of Christ, then surely, the Sacrament is no more a sa­crament, but onely the thing signified. And is not this their definition of a sa­crament? [Page 90] A Sacrament is the signe of an holy thing? If therefore the breade be no breade, neither kéepeth hys sub­stance, but in the place therof commeth the substaunce of Christes body, I pray yée then, what is that they doe breake in the sacrament? Is it the body of Christ, or what other thing else? For it is no breade, for they say there is no breade in the Sacrament. Therefore if the bo­dy of Christe be present onely, then is the same broken, which thing cannot [...]e. Neyther is it any more a Sacra­mente, for it is not the signe of an holy thing, but the very holy thing it selfe. Then was there no nede that the Lord should haue giuen breade and wine in [...]ys laste Supper. But if it be as they were woonte to say, that the fourme and accidentes of the breade, as the [...]hytenesse, coloure, roundenesse and [...]aste, be the signes & the things that are [...]roken, then doe we demaunde of them [...] what substaunce the whitenesse, [...]oundnesse and taste doth abide? They [...]nne not say I trow, that they are the accidentes of Christes bodye, or that [Page] they rest in his substaunce, and there­fore it necessarily followeth, that they remaine in the breade. And therefore the substaunce of the breade in this Sa­cramente, is not chaunged but remay­neth, and so theyr Doctrine hathe no good foundation. Yea these woordes also, Substance, Accident, forme, and ac­cident vvithout substaunce, dothe suffi­ciently declare that this their doctrine, was forged from the deuises of subtil [...] Sophisters and their craft, whereof the Apostles were altogither ignorante. But nowe, when they are at a sopp [...] game, then say they, these things a [...] altogyther done miraculously by the omnipotent diuine power of God: b [...] yet they cannot proue that, and there [...] no cause so false, but that it may be de­fended by this kinde of reason. In th [...] gospell and wrytings of the Apostles oftentimes this Sacrament is plaine [...] called breade and wine, & that without dout is in respecte of the signes, that might thereby manifestly appeare, that the substaunce of bread and wine doth [...] remaine in the sacrament, which thi [...] [Page 91] also we perceiue and fast, when we re­ceiue the same, although the Papists go about to persuade vs the contrary.

Neither by this dothe it folowe, thatThe faythefull doe not receiue bread only in the Supper. be acknowledge and receiue in this sa­crament, nothing else but bread & wine only, as in other bankettes, where oure body is fed. For our Lord whē he gaue [...] his supper, the bread and the cup vn­ [...] his disciples, commaunding them to [...]ate and to drinke, he added: This is my body, this is my bloude. And it is to be [...]oted, that it is an vsuall thing, to geue [...]to the sacramētall signes, the names [...] those things, which they doe signifie▪ [...]s in this sacrament, the bread & wine [...]e the signes of the body and bloude of Christ, and therfore Christ nameth thē is body & bloud. The like is to be said Baptisme, Circumcision, the Passeo­er and other Sacrifices. And they are [...]us called, to the ende we shoulde not [...]pende vpon the signes, that is, on the [...]reade or on the Wine, but being by [...]ese visible things putte in mynde of [...]ings inuisible, we might lifte vp our [...]es vnto heauen to the things signifi­ed, [Page] and that is to the bodye of Christ which was geuen for vs, & to his blo [...] which was shed for vs, and so study [...] receiue these.

But howe, or in what manner d [...] we receiue the body and blud of ChristHowe the true bodie of christ must be recei­ued. Truely, spiritually by Faithe, so [...] outwardly with oure bodely mouth [...] we eate and drinke the Lordes breade [...] and the Lordes wine, the holy signe [...] and inwardly with the mouthe of ou [...] soule, that is to say by faith, we recey [...] the bodye and bloude of Christe. F [...] like, as with oure mouthe, we recei [...] meats to sustaine our body, so likewis [...] by Faithe in Christe, is his bodye and bloud, which he offered on the Crosse made meate vnto vs, to eternall life▪ For the body of Christe which was [...] ­uen for vs, and his bloud that was sh [...] for vs, is our lyfe, or lyfe is therby pur­chased to vs, and these do we receiue b [...] faithe, so as thereby Christe dothe li [...] in vs, and we in him. Wherfore in th [...] holy supper of our Lord Jesus Christe▪ we do not eate bread, and drinke win [...] onely, but his body and bloude also: bu [...] [Page 92] yet in suche sorte as before I haue said, spiritually by faithe, so as the presence of Christe in this supper, is spirituall, is the eating therof also is. For the bo­dy of Christe, which is, and remaineth [...] heauen, euen vnto the laste day, is a [...]aturall body, subiecte to a place, and [...]s therefore in heauen ouer vs, and can [...]n no wise, bodely or fleshly, be in di­ [...]ers places at once vppon this earthe, [...]r be carnally eaten. And therefore in the celebrating of this Supper, they haue alwayes sayd: Lift vp your harts. and therefore the aunciente wryters haue alwayes, in interpreatyng the [...]oordes of Christe touching the eating and drinking of his body and bloud, ex­ [...]ounded the same to be done spiritual­ly by faithe, bicause the fleshe profiteth not, as in the sixth Chapter of John: and therefore they haue interpreated these [...]oords of Christ: This is my body, This is my bloud, thus: It so signifieth, or it is the signe or Sacrament, or token of my body and bloud. For euen immediatly after ye forsaid words, our Lord himself [...]aith: Do this in the remembrāce of me. [Page] And Paule saith, shevv you the Lordes death vntill he come, to witte, to iudge­ment. Wherefore to this Question we Answere: that the naturall body and true bloude of Christe is in heauen, as touching the substance, and that in the supper, or in the bread and wine (which two retaine their propre substaunces) they are Sacramentally or spiritually present, not substancially or bodily. For the bread and wine are the true Sacra­ments or signes of the bodye and bloud of Christe, which being once offered on the Crosse▪ are now abiding in heauen, and are spiritullay by faithe receiued of vs vnto eternall life. But some not be­ingHow ech man oughte to be­haue himselfe in the contro­uersie of the sacrament. concente with this plaine expositi­on, obiecte, that in oure dayes there is great strife aboute the sacrament, some teaching that Christ must be eaten spi­ritually, other some saying that it ought to be carnally &c. And these men we hartely beseeche, that they woulde dili­gently marke those, which thus so ear­nestly holde, that the breade it selfe, or that vnder the breade or formes there­of the very body of Christe is presente, [Page 93] and corporally to be eaten: for after they haue contentiously tossed themselues and others herein, yet at the last they come to this poynt, that they con­fesse this not to be done so grosly or car­nally, bicause the whole matter is hea­uenly, Sacramentall and Spirituall. Wherefore if this be true, why then yéeide they not here vnto, and ceasse hencefoorth to bée contentiouse, and to perswade this thing to bée carnally spirituall, and that the substaunce of bread no longer remayneth. &c. Wher­by neither them selues, nor yet others can tell what they meane. Let the aun­cient doctrine of Chrystes Churche re­mayne, which alwayes beléeued that Chryste had a true naturall body, and that glorified in hys resurrection, yet still remayning a true naturall bo­dy (euen suche as our bodies shall bée at the last day) and that with this bo­dy he ascended into heauen, there re­mayneth, and shall from thence come to iudge bothe the quicke and the dead. And that yet neuerthelesse he is present spiritually in the Sacramente of the [Page] supper, and so receiued of the faythfull spiritually, and not carnally, vnto eter­nall life. This is the auncient & playne Apostolical truth, to whiche not onely thou mayest yeelde thy selfe, but also know what thou beléeuest. Wherfore if thou goo foorth any further to séeke, to contende or to quarel, then must we let thee alone, that euen through thine own default, thou maiest al thy life long re­mayne and continue a most miserable man. &c.

The. xlj. Question.

Whether they do beleeue that Christ being present in the Sa­crament, is to be worshipped, whē the same is eleuated or lift vp by the priest, giuē vnto other, caried to the sicke, or is other­wise shewed or caried about?

The Answere.

TOuching the presence ofThe presence of Christ. Chryst, we haue answered in the former question: but if any man bée not suffici­ently answered therwith, let him heare [Page 94] the answere of S. Augustine vpon the words of Chryst Trac [...]. in [...]oan 50 The poore shall you haue alwayes with you, but me shall ye not haue alwayes Thus he wryteth: Accordyng to that sub­stance, after which he was borne of the Virgin, taken of the Iewes, nayled on the Crosse, and appeared manyfestly in the resurrection, according to that substance you shal not haue me alwaies with you. VVherefore he was conuer­saunt bodily fortie dayes with hys disci­ples, and after ascended into heauen, and is not nowe héere on earth. For there he sitteth on the righte hande of his fa­ther, & yet is here also: for the presence of his Maiestie did not depart. Therfore according to the presence of his maiesty we haue Chryst always present, but as touching the presēce of his humane bo­dy, we haue it not. For the Church had him present but a few dais, yet faith ap­prehēdeth him, though our eyes see him not. And this is S. Augustines doctrine. Touching the worshipping of Chryste, we beléeue he oughte to be worshipped in what place so euer he bee, in bodie. [Page] For whylest he was héere on earth the Apostles and others dyd worship him here: and after he ascended into hea­uē, they worshipped him there. Luk. 24. Wherfore sithe we haue already suffi­ciently declared, that Chryst is not bo­dily presente in the earthe vnder the fourme of bread, but is in heauen, ther­fore is he to be worshipped in heauen, sitting on the right hande of God, and not vnder the fourme of breade. Fur­thermore touching the worshipping of the Sacrament, we haue neither com­maundement from God, nor example of the Apostles. For the Lorde sayth: Take yée, eate yee, and not shew it, and worship it. Neither dyd the Apostles kéepe this Sacrament and shut it in a Boxe, carrie it to the sicke, or in proces­sion, or dedicate any festiuall day vnto it, no more than they did to Baptisme, which notwithstanding is an holy Sa­crament, giuen in the name of the bles­sed Trinitie, the father, the sonne, and the holy ghost. And wée truely do wor­ship rightly the holy Trinitie, and yet not in Baptisme. Laste of all it is eui­dent [Page 95] by Histories, that. 1200. yeres, and somewhat more after Chryste, the in­uention and buylding of Chappels to the Sacraments, and feastes, and cary­ing of the same aboute on procession, was inuented and ordeyned onely by men cleane contrary to the worde of God. Dan. 11. and Math. 24.

The. xlij. Question.

Whether those Priests which are not consecrated, suche as a greate many bee amongest the gospellers, haue power to make of bread and wine, the true bo­dy and bloud of Chryst?

The Answere.

SAinct John in his Gos­pellWhether the Priests make bred & wine, the verie bo­dy and bloud of Christ. biddeth men to at­tribute no more vnto them selues, than they haue receiued frō aboue. Therfore tell vs where the professors of the Gospell did at any tyme take vppon them authoritie or [Page] power, to make of bread and wyne the body and bloude of Chryste? No they neuer receyued any suche authoritie from God. But wee are not ignoraunt what the Churche of Rome teacheth of thys matter, and howe those whiche are cōsecrated by that church, & of their Byshops, into priests, shorne & anoyn­ted with oile, haue these words by their Bishops pronoūced ouer them: O Lord voutchsafe to consecrate and sanctifye these handes by this Oyntmente, and through our blessing, that what soeuer they blesse, may be blessed, and what so euer they consecrate or hallow, may be consecrated or halowed. &c. And again: Receiue thou power to offer sacrifice to God, and to say Masse aswell for the li­uing, as for the dead. &c. But we besech them of their curtesie to tell vs who gaue them this authoritie or power? Did they receiue it of Chryst? If they did, then let them tell vs where, and wyth what wordes he commaunded them to doo it? But had the Apostles trowe youe thys power, and gaue the same in lyke manner to others, and [Page 96] so after thys sorte dydde consecrate and ordeyne Ministers in the Churche? For the thyng it selfe whereof they speake, is very greate, and the power and authoritie suche and so wonder­full, that it is Diuine. Wherefore it is necessarie, that they shewe some commaundement or ordynaunce of the worde of GOD, to ratifie this their ordynaunce, consecration, and power. But as touchyng any one of these [...]hynges, it is vndoubted true, that they haue no manner of commaunde­mente, nor sufficiente warraunt from the woorde of God. And therefore wée may not allowe or ratifye their ordy­ [...]ance. In déede there are certaine thin­ [...]es written in the old Testament tou­ [...]hing the annoynting of Priestes, but [...]ll men know that the Leuitical priest­ [...]ood with all his ceremonies was abro­ [...]ated, and so detested of God, and for­ [...]idden to be renued in the Churche of Christ. We know yt the Apostles did in [...]e making or ordring of ministers vse [...]nely prayers and putting on of their [...]ds. And in the new Testament there [Page] is no mention made, no not a worde of this Romish custome touching the con­secration and offering of sacrifices in the Masse. Neither did our Lorde say, I giue you this power, to pronounce the wordes of consecration ouer the bread and wyne, and of the same to make the true body and bloud of Chryste: But he sayde: Take and eate, this is my body: Take and drinke yee all of this, this is my bloud. Besides this there are di­uers opinions amongst the Doctors of this Romishe Churche wyth what wordes our Lorde dyd consecrate. And the Apostles did not vse this fourme of consecration which the Romish church vseth. But in the reformed ChurchesThe true or­dering or making of ministers. of the Gospell the Ministers are ordei­ned by election, and by laying on of hands, and the prayers of the congre­gation, according to the doctryne of Chryste and his Apostles. And therfore we doo not put the efficacie or force of the Sacraments in the power, déedes, or wordes of the Ministers, but in god, hys institution, power, and worde. And bycause God hathe commaunded that [Page 97] Baptisme and the Lords supper should be administred by them, we stedfastly beléeue, that when the minister doth re­cite the wordes and institution of the Lorde, and the Congregation doo re­uerently obey the worde and ordy­naunce of God, that then the Lorde him selfe is present, at hys institution and ordynaunce, making the same ef­fectuall by his holy spirite, which thing the faythfull doo chiefly regarde. And hereof we haue else where more large­ly written.

The. xliij. Question.

Whether there be not as much comprehended vnder the Ele­mente of Breade, as vnder the two Elementes of Breade and Wyne, so that Chryste whol­ly may bee conteyned vnder the one Elemente of the Sacra­mente, and that therefore the whole body of Chryste may bee giuen to the lay men vnder one kinde onely?

The Answere.

THere is no néede ofWhether Christ be wholi vnder one kind. these subtyle questions. But gyue you vnto the faythful rather the same whyche Chryste ordey­ned and appoynted for them. For wée know that the true and lyuely body of Chryste is not without bloud, but that they are ioyned togither, neither was christ ignorāt hereof, & yet neuerthelesse he dyd not institute this Sacrament in the forme of bread only but also of wyne. But if this Sacra­ment béeing receiued vnder one kinde bée sufficient for the lay people vnto sal­uation, for that therein is the whole bo­die of Chryste: then also why shoulde not whole Chryst be sufficient for yourThe papistes wil eate vp al Christ and no more. Priestes and then so to receiue but the one halfe of the Sacrament? But by this their Question and doing, the in­stitution of Chryste is broughte into doubte. But the Lorde hymselfe tea­cheth, that this is the manner of them which defende and set vppe the ordy­naúnces of men: for throughe these [Page 98] their traditions the commaundements and ordynaunces of God are violated and broken. Mat. 15.

The xliiij. Question.

Whether they beleeue that Chryste dyd celebrate his Sup­per wyth the Apostles onely, and that the Lay men dyd not thus receyue both kindes?

The Answere.

IF the Apostles, (as anWhether the Lordes supper were giuen to the Apostles only. example for Priests on­ly) dyd alone receyue the Sacramente of the Lordes Supper: then by good reason wée de­maunde of you by what power, or by whose commaundemente the Priestes doo not onely not delyuer the Cuppe, but why also they gyue the breade, or why they doo admitte women to the Lords supper, sith they also being num­bred amongst lay men, were not pre­sent in the first institution of the same? If therefore the lay men oughte not to receiue the Cuppe of Chrystes bloud, [Page] bycause they were not at Chrystes last Supper, and that it belongeth to the Priestes, bycause they were there, it must néedes follow that the whole Sa­crament belongeth only to the priests, and that neither the one nor the other kinde of the Sacrament oughte to bée giuen to the laitie. For the Priests doo very ill, and without al authoritie giue those things to the laytie which Christ gaue onely to them selues. But this is a detestable saying. But the doctrine of the Gospel and of the Apostles is farre better and fuller of comfort, which tea­cheth, that Chryst our Lorde in his last supper spake of the redemption of all mankinde, which he should obteine by his body giuen on the crosse, and by the shedding of his bloud. And therfore he most playnly and euidently sayth: ThisBoth the kinds in the sacramēt are due to al my body which is giuen for you: This is my bloud which is shed for you, and for many for the remission of sinnes. Wherfore sithe the body and bloude of Chryst are the onely saluation, foode, & drinke of all the faythfull, whether they bée Priestes Ministers of the [Page 99] Church, women, men, laye people, or of what name or condition soeuer they bée: it then followeth, that the whole supper of the Lorde as well the cuppe as the bread, is frée for all men. But if the Sacramentes appertayne not vnto them, then haue they no parte of the body and bloud of Chryst. But the Lorde playnely and distinctly saythe: Drinke you all of this: and Marke ad­deth saying, and they al dr [...]nk. Further­more Paule sayth: That which he re­ceiued of the Lorde, he gaue to the Church or congregation (and this not to the Priestes or Ministers onely) but to all the Corinthians. And it may bée proued by seuen sufficient testimonies out of the tenth and eleuenth Chapters of his first Epistle to the Corinthians, that he gaue bothe kindes, that is to say, bread and wyne to all the faythe­full, as well women as men, laymen as Priestes. And therefore it can not bée denyed but that he receyued thys from the Lorde to delyuer the Sacra­ment to the faythfull. Therefore it fol­loweth that in Chrystes laste supper [Page] the Apostles were not onely an ex­ample of the Priestes, but also of all other faythfull. And the Lorde gaue not a peculiar or proper Sacrament to the Priestes, and an other to the lay men: but he instituted one holy Sacra­ment to be giuen as wel to the lay men as to the Priests. For neither dothe the Priest receiue or doo more than the lay man, sauing onely that when he mini­streth the Sacrament, he executeth the office of a minister, and deliuereth the same vnto others. And herein dothe the Romish churche greatly offende, that the Sacrament which is instituted of our Lorde to bee a Sacramente of vni­tie, by whiche the faythfull might bée coupled into one body, they applye the same to defende their separation, po­wer, and pryde, whereby they séeke to excell others, and to bée taken for gods, whome aboue all others wée ought to preferre with worship and honor. Of these matters hath Gabriell Biell vpon the Canon of the Masse, Lect. 4. writ­ten very straunge & wonderful things, extolling the Priestes aboue the virgin [Page 100] Mary the mother of Chryst, aboue all the Angels and Sainctes, and aboue things both in heauen and in earth.

The. xlv. Question.

Whether they do beleeue that Chryste wyth the two Disci­ples in Emaus, and the Apo­stles. Act. ij. and Paule. Act. xx. and. j. Cor. xj. vsed but one kinde onely, and gaue the bread onely to the lay people?

The Answere.

THat Chryste sitting at theThe supper of Christ vvyth his tvvo disciples at Emaus. Table with his two Dis­ciples at Emaus, brake breade, doth not proue that the lay men oughte onely to be parta­kers but of the one halfe of the Sacra­ment. Neither yet can they proue that this supper was a commemoration of yt mysticall supper which he celebrated with his Disciples a lyttle before hys [Page] death. But yet if it were, neuerthelesse it coulde proue nothing, bycause it is an Historie of one singular facte contrary to a manyfest commaundement. For in the Gospell it is playnely set foorth, howe the Lordes supper oughte to b [...] administred, to wytte, with breade a [...] wyne. Wherfore sith this déede wher­of Luke speaketh Chap. 24. agréeth no [...] with the institution of our Lords sup­per, it maketh nothing agaynst the first institution thereof Yea it may be also that one kinde is named, and the other vnderstanded by the figure Sinecdoch [...] Agayne they can not proue that Cleo­phas and his cōpanion were lay men. Wherefore if they were Disciples▪ Priests or Ministers, and chosen of our Lorde to preach the word, as it séemest moste lyke to bée, then this example can proue nothing. In the Actes of the Apostles the Lordes Supper is calle [...] the breaking of bread, as spoken in the respecte of one parte, and yet thereby can they not conclude, that they had no [...] the vse of the cuppe, sithe our Lorde did institute the same.

The. xlvj. Question.

Whether the Corinthiās which vsed both kindes, did not great­ly offende when they vsed the Wine, and that Paule therfore wryteth vnto them, saying, that when he commeth, he will bet­ter instructe them.

The Answere.

THe woords of S. Paul ma­nifestlyThe Corrin­thians dydde not offend bycause they vsed the cup of our Lord. teach that the Co­rinthians did amisse in o­ther matters, & not in that they receiued the Sacra­ment in bothe the kindes. For the Apo­stle plainly sayth, that he receiued both kindes of the Lord, that he might so de­liuer the same vnto them, and therfore he willeth them to receiue it: and the woords of S. Paule. 1. Corin. 11. chapter, geue testimonie héereunto, to ye which place I remit those that wil read them. I pray you then howe coulde he wryte, that when he came, he would better in­structe [Page] them, that is to say, teache them otherwise, than, he had done before out of the woords of Christ? And truely it is to be wondred at, that they dare bring forthe this Question, as in the name of Paule, which is in deede so plaine a­gainst Paul. Wherfore I might in this place more sharply dispute against thē, but that my purpose is rather, to lay the plaine truth euidently to the eyes of the godly and faithfull, than rigorously ac­cording to their desertes, to answere or reproue our aduersaries. And therfore I leaue this vnto others, & as I haue begon so will I procéede & answer their questions: hoping hereafter to haue oc­casion to speake more hereof, and there­fore I wil not nowe saye all, reseruing something to a more conuenient tyme.

The xlvij. Question.

Whether they beleue that in the Councels holden at Constā ­tinople & at Basil for the auoy­ding of many dāgers & striues, it was godly and wel decreed, [Page 102] that according to the doctrine of the Christian Churche, the lay men should haue onely the one kinde of the sacrament?

The Answere.

YT plainly appeareth by theThe councel of Constance touchyug bothe the kyndes. thirtéenthe Session of the Councell holden at Con­stance, that the fathers then confessed that Christe did ordayne the Sacramentes vnder bothe kindes, and so gaue it vnto his Disciples, and so likewise did the primitiue churche also vse the same. Wherfore if this be true, as it can not otherwise be, then I leaue it to the iudgement of any good Christi­an, whether that the councell of Con­stance, which was holden. 1400. yéeres after Christe, or the councell of Basill, which was celebrated since, or any o­ther councell what so euer the same be of name or authoritie, haue power to a­brogate that which Christ did ordaine, and the primitiue church did vse, or cō ­demne the same for heresie.

[Page]Surely no man, no not the Angels haue this power, and therefore if they goe forward to condemne that for here­sie which Christ did institute, and was receiued of the first Apostolical church, it may then easily appeare to all men, that Christe him selfe, and his churche, is had in suspition by those Councels: And truely, I had rather be counted an hereticke with Christ and his churche, than to beare the name of a Christian with these late councels.

But yet héere haue they an otherof the decrees and sclanders that happe in the vse of both kindes. shift, to wit, to auoide slander and other daungers, least the lay men shuld shed any of the wine, and so by this meanes bring the sacrament into contempt. As thoughe the eternall wisdome of God sawe not these things before he institu­ted the cuppe, and could not he, if it had séemed to him good, haue forbidden the lay men the vse of the same? But sith the eternall wisedome of God hath gi­uen the same vnto them, let vs content our selues therewith, onlesse we would séeme to haue more wisdome than god. And may not the priests I pray yée, shed [Page 103] the wine as well as the lay men? And why then, shuld not the same be forbid­den vnto them? But the Lordes supper is brought into contempt for farre ma­ny other causes, than when any parte of the Wine falleth by chaunce on the grounde, or is shedde vnwillingly. For true faithe, burning charitie, stedfaste hope, faithfulnesse, mercy, iustice, and the puritie of those which cōmunicate, are the true ornamentes of the Sacra­mentes. Wherefore, what offences, or what honor they bring to this Sacra­ment which daily vse the same to gette their liuing thereby, & yet in the meane time are drunkardes, whoremaisters, vncleane persones, studying all vngod­lynesse, & liue publikely in their naugh­tinesse, to the great offence of many, is nowe by the great mercy of God, most manifestly knowne. Wherefore I har­tely beséeche almighty God to graunte all those the true knowledge of their sinnes, wherby they may repent and a­mend their liues.


The. xij. Common place. Of the sacrifice of the Masse.

The. xlviij. Question.

Whether they doe beleue that the true bodie & bloud of Christ in the sacrament of the aultar be a true and an acceptable sa­crifice vnto God, whiche ought to be offered in the Churche of Christ in the blessed office of the Masse vncessantly for the quick & the dead, vntyll the comming of Chryst?

The Answere.

SIth we haue sufficient­lyChristes bo­dy is offered no more. before proued that the true body and bloude of Christ, is not in the Sa­cramente corporally, it foloweth of necessitie yt the same canne not be offered vp in the [Page 104] Masse by the priestes. But yet the Ro­mishe churche teacheth that the bodye and bloude of Christe is corporally and substantially present, and in the office of their Masse offered vp to God by the Priestes, for the sinnes of the quicke and the dead, and therefore oughte to be woorshipped. But the form of the Masse dothe not agrée with the institution of the Lordes supper, but is encreased by the long continuaunce of time wyth di­uers additions, rights, & Ceremonies, so as Gregorius the seuenth Pope doth confesse that in his time the Masse was not celebrated in all places of ye world after one manner: wherefore without all doute the Apostles, Peter, James, and Mathewe did neuer celebrate the Masse vsed in the Churche of Rome, but were altogyther ignoraunte there­of. Therefore the Churches of the gos­pell haue by good right putte away and abolished the Romishe Masse, and in the stead therof, haue rightly and godly ordained the supper of oure Lord Jesus Christe, which was godly celebrated in the old Apostolical church, without any [Page] of the Popes, or mannes traditions, or additions. And therfore, to the foresaide question we answer: that we do not ac­knowledge nor receiue the Masse, for the institution of God, but flée from it, as being contrary to oure profession, partly for causes already shewed, and partly for such causes as héereafter we shall shewe.

But that we may the better knoweOf the sacri­fices of Chri­stians. what sacrifices are, we will héere vnto adde a few words. There are amongst the Christians chéefely, two kindes of sacrifices, the one propiciatorie for the reconciliation and remission of sinnes, and the other of thāks geuing, in which we exercise our faith, serue God, & geue him thankes, bothe wyth wordes and déedes, for his benefits bestowed vpon vs. In the olde Testament, the sacrifice propitiatorie, was shadowed and figu­red by many figures, yet was there but one thing, which they all did signifie, to wit, the body and bloud of Christe offe­red on the crosse. Wherefore, after that Christ came into the world, and remai­ned héere a certaine time, that he might [Page 105] offer his body and bloude on the crosse, for the remission of sinnes, he ordained [...]n his supper, the Sacrament of the ge­ [...]ing of his body, and the shedding of his [...]loud, calling it the cuppe of the Newe [...]estament in his bloud. Wherfore this Sacrament ought from hence forth on­ [...] to be in stead of all the Sacraments of the Olde testament which were fi­gures, and to witnesse that as Christe by the Sacraments of the Olde testa­ment, was promised a sauiour, so in the [...]ewe testament he is come, and hathe [...]rformed it, and so by the sacrifice of his body and bloud, hathe taken away for euer, all the sinnes of the faythfull: Wherefore, when our Lord would of­ [...]rChrist is the onely sacrifice that taketh a­vvay sinne. himselfe vppon the crosse, and that [...] houre was come in which he would [...]liuer vp his spirite, & so by his deathe [...]ll sinne, death, and hell, he cried with [...]oud voice: It is finished. As who shuld [...]y that sacrifice is nowe ended and ful­ [...]lled, in which all the figures and pro­ [...]isses of the fathers are accomplished, [...]ne fréely pardoned, and eternal righ­ [...]ousnesse, is obtained vnto euerlasting [Page] life. And therefore so soone as our Lord was deade, and had in this sorte offered vp him selfe a sacrifice to God his hea­uenly father, the vaile of the Temple rente in two péeces, greate myracles were séene bothe in the liuing and in the deade, yea in heauen and in earthe. And thus did the olde Testament, the Leuiticall priesthoode, and all the other Sacrifices take their ende whereunto they were ordained.

Therfore nowe resteth but the one only and euerlasting sacrifice of Christ, as the chéefest, holyest, and moste per­fecte.

And suche is the propretie of this Sacrifice, that it neither coulde, nor yet can, be offered of any liuing man, bicause not onely for the excellencie and holynesse thereof, but also bicause of the imperfection of manne. And therefore Christe offered vp him selfe, that is to say, gaue him self vnto death, and so became the one and euerlasting Bishop, after the order of Melchisedech as onely Bishop and sacrifice offered to God by him selfe onely. Yea this sa­crifice [Page 106] which he offered, is but one, that is to say once offered, neither can it any more be offered againe. For that hys one sacrifice is hys deathe once made effectuall, that it onely, and for euer, mighte be sufficiente for all ages, for the reconciliation and remission of sinnes. And bicause Christe hathe suf­fered for vs, dyed, was buryed, and arose againe from the deade, and as­cended into Heauen, appearing for e­uer euen vnto the laste daye as one sufficient sacrifice in the sight of God, for the full and perfecte redemption of all the Faithfull, that is sufficient, nei­ther néedeth there any other Sacrifice to be offered in the Churche for the re­mission of sinnes.

Wherefore, if there be any that wil offer a Sacrifice for his sinnes, he dothe manifestly héereby declare, that hée dothe not beléeue that his sinnes are forgiuen him by the onely Sacrifice of Christe. For if he stedfastly beléeue, that they are washed away, why then dothe he séeke a newe Sacrifice to be offered? [Page] And therfore it followeth, that the holy church, euen to the ende of the worlde, doth acknowledge none other sacrifice propitiatorie for sinnes, but the deathe and passion of Christe alone. And that which of this only sacrifice of Christe I haue hither vnto spoken, is most truely and manifestly confirmed by the euidēt testimony of holy scripture, as Leui. 16. Zach. 3. Hebr. 5. 7. 8. 9. and 10. chapters.

But to returne to the Lords supper,In the Lordes supper ther is onely a remē ­brance of his only sacrifice. it is not in that respecte that we do mi­nister it a propitiatorie Sacrifice, that by the doing and celebrating of it, we should be deliuered from sinne. For the deathe and sacrifice of Christe vpon the crosse (if we haue faithe) hathe deliue­red and purged vs from oure sinnes. Neyther is Christe in his supper cruci­fied againe, or his body offered in the same againe, for why, no Priest is able to offer it: but there is onely celebrated a remembraunce of his Sacrifice once perfected, and that not by the Priest a­lone, but by the whole churche. For so our sauioure Christ commaunded, say­ing: Doc this in the remembraunce of [Page 107] me, wherefore S. Augustine (very a­greeable with the holy scripture) wry­teth againste the Manachees, saying: That before the comming of Christe, the Sacrifice of his body and bloud vvas promised by the figured sacrifices of the olde Testamente: but by his comming and passion it is finished: and that after his ascention, the remembrance thereof is celebrated. Wherefore the opinion of those which say that the body and bloud of Christe is offered in the Masse for the quicke and the deade vnto the ende of the worlde, can in no wise be confir­med by any testimonies of holy Scrip­ture. And to passe ouer, that the deade haue already receiued their iudgement, as it is already saide in the thirtie foure and thirtie fiue Questions: they besides can not any more be made partakers of the Lords supper: for the Lord saith, Take and eate, which thing the deade can not doe. But in that they say the priest eateth for the deade, they doe it contrary to the commaundemente of Christe. To conclude, the supper of the Lorde is onely the remembrance of the [Page] sacrifice of Christ once finished, and not the sacrifice it selfe, and that done only by those which héere doe liue. The sa­crifice of praise and thanks giuing com­prehendethThe sacrifice of praise & thanks giuing. first the praise and thankes which they offer to God by a pure faith for all his benefites bestowed on them. And bicause in the Lordes Supper, we chéefely make a remembrance of Chri­stes death, and our redemption, & ther­fore praise God, and geue thankes vnto him, the fathers haue called the same supper a sacrifice: and we also doe wil­lingly acknowledge that this sacramēt in this sorte, is an acceptable Sacrifice vnto God: and yet not bicause the priest offereth the body and bloud, or prayers for to merite or gaine thereby, but bi­cause the whole congregation in theyr prayers offer vnto God praise & thanks geuing for the benefite of Christes sa­crifice which once offered vp him selfe vppon the crosse. Many things in déede are spoken of this Sacrifice in the holy scriptures, as in the Psalmes, the Pro­phets, the Epistles of Paul, and chéefe­ly in the thirtienth chapter to the He­brewes. [Page 108] Yea also of the Fathers, as Ireneus, and Tertullian, vppon the woordes of Malachie in his firste Chap­ter. &c.

Furthermore, the studie to obey the commaundemente of God, to the en­crease of oure faithe, and the prouoking of others vnto good, the forgeuing of of­fences and mutuall loue, yea the studie of righteousnesse and holinesse, the offe­ring of oure bodies and soules, is an ac­ceptable sacrifice vnto God. Like as the Psalmes, Prophetes, Euangelists and Apostles doe eche where exhort [...] vs, and chéefely in the twelfthe chapter to the Romaines.

And we thincke it more necessary and profitable that men be wel instru­cted touching this Sacrifice, and that these things shoulde be taughte them, than to force them to beléeue the sacri­fice of the Masse: by the marchaundise whereof, those which call them selues spirituall, doe rather encrease & enlarge their owne riches, than the glorye of Christ, and the saluation of the faithful. Therefore lette euery good man well [Page] consider with him self, the doctrine con­cerning the sacrifices of the Christians whereof we haue hither vnto spoken, and leaning neither the one way nor the other, let them due [...]y cōsider which is best for their saluation.

The. xiij. Common place. Of repentaunce and Confession.

The. xlix. Question.

Whether they beleue that ther be three partes of repentaunce, to witte, contrition, confession, and satisfaction?

The Answere.

THere are many things wrytten in the Holye scripture of repentance, and the amendemente of life bothe in the New and Old testament. For [Page 109] the doctrine of repentaunce is very ne­cessarieWhat repen­tance is. and profitable for all Chrysti­ans. And this worde Repentaunce sée­meth to come of this worde repayring: as when torne, broken, or things rente, are renued and repaired. The Hebrues call repentaunce returning or conuer­ting to God. But he which is returned to God, ought first necessarily to know and vnderstande how he fell from him, and to knowe what God is, howe wée fall from him, and howe wée oughte to turne to him agayne. So that he which must repente, ought to know his owne naughtinesse and wickednesse, and also by what meanes the same may bée a­mended whiche is broken or spoyled. And these things can in no wyse be don of any wretched sinner, onlesse they be drawen herevnto, and therin instructed by the spirite and worde of God, which they must also most stedfastly beléeue. For these things are so necessarily re­quired, that onlesse GOD by grace through his spirite open and drawe the heart of the sinner, and by his worde shewe vs the perfect way, gouerne and [Page] kéepe vs in the same, giue vs true faithTrue repen­tance. wherby to quicken and iustifie vs, that onlesse I say, he giue vs these, al repen­taunce, howe harde or gréenous soeuer it séeme, is no true repentaunce. Let Judas bée an example héereof, who re­penting for hys sinnes, confessed the same to the Priestes in the Temple, saying: I haue betrayed the innocente bloud. Yea and he in this part made sa­tisfactiō, that he threw the vnrighteous price of bloud into the tēple. But what did this repētance profite him, although it had in it contrition, confession, and sa­tisfaction? they holpe him nothing at all: and bicause he lacked true fayth, he dispaired, and hong him selfe. On the other side, the Lorde looking backe vpon Peter, and the Cocke crowing, he remembred the words of the Lord, and beléeuing them departed from the wic­ked company, wept for his sinnes, and amended his faults: and this his repen­tance was a true and perfecte repen­taunce. And Jeremie the Prophet con­firmeth this doctrine, who in his. 31. chapter prayeth to the Lorde, saying: [Page 110] Conuert mee O Lorde, and I shall bee conuerted, for thou arte the Lorde my God: and after thou haste conuerted me, I shall repent, and after thou haste shewed thy selfe vnto me, I wyll strike my selfe on the thighe. Wherfore true repentaunce and the right sorowing for our sinnes, muste procéede from God, stirring vp the same in vs by fayth, so as it must not be a repentaunce or sor­row, according to the world, but after the wil of God. [...]. Cor. 7. Touching con­fession and satisfaction shall bée spoken hereafter.

The. L. Question.

Whether they beleue that sins with all their circumstaunces, oughte to bee confessed to the Prieste in the Sacramente of confession?

The Answere.

COnfession or the numbring of ourWhat confe [...] ­sion is good & necessari [...] sinnes, which must be done before the priest, with al the circūstances [Page] therof, as how, when, who, with whom, how often, and wherfore he hath offen­ded, is but in vayne, and without all sufficient proofe called the Sacrament of confession. For God alone, as wée haue before shewed, dyd institute the Sacraments, but he ordeyned not this confession to be any of them, neither did he commaunde it as necessarie to our saluation. For the holye Scripture teacheth an other maner of profitable and necessarie kinde of confession, and byddeth vs to confesse our sinnes with a true fayth from our hearts méekely vnto God. For God it is alone whome wée haue offended, who knoweth our hearts, déedes, and determinations, re­mitteth or punisheth sinnes, and hathe giuen his sonne vnto vs, an high Priest and one eternall sacrifice. Therefore muste wée come to GOD the father through Chryst, and that with the same wordes which he hathe giuen vs, tea­ching vs to confesse our sinnes, saying: Forgiue vs our trespasses, as we forgyue them that trespasse agaynst vs. And af­ter this sorte may all the faythfull in [Page 111] all theyr troubles, and at all tymes, and in euery place confesse themselues to GOD bothe secretly and open­ly. Secretly when eche man prayeth alone and confesseth his sinnes to God. Openly, when any man in the Church togither with the whole congregation prayeth and confesseth the same. And there are many examples in bothe the Testamentes, of those who confessed themselues to God, and not onely cra­ued, but also obteined of him forgiue­nesse of their sinnes. But on the contra­rie, there are no examples of any which confessed themselues to Laye men or Priestes: for this honor belongeth to God alone, which hathe giuen vs hysWe must confesse vs vnto God. sonne to be our high Prieste, who hea­reth sufficiently the confession of al the faythfull, so that there is no néede to substitute any in hys roume to heare them. For who so euer with a true fayth from the bottome of his heart in maner as is sayd) confesseth his sinnes to God the father, and to his sonne our onely chiefe Byshoppe Chryste Jesus, [...]auing hys grace and mercy, they vn­doubtedly [Page] receiue full remission of all their sinnes. And therfore I demaunde of our Aduersaries whether this bée true or no? If they denie it, then doo we obiecte agaynst them the Lords prayer in the which wée confesse and pray, say­ing: Forgiue vs our trespasses, as we for­giue them that trespasse agaynst vs. And our Lorde hathe saide, whatsoeuer you aske in my name, you shall receiue it. Agayne wée obiecte agaynst them the Articles of our Fayth, wherin wée confesse wée beléeue the remission of sinnes. Yea & wée doo certaynly know, that if wée beléeue according to Gods worde, wée doo also obteyne the same that wée beléeue: but wée beléeue the remission of sinnes, therefore wée ob­teyne the same. To conclude, wée ob­iecte the euydente promisses conteyned in the worde of God, and chiefly that saying of Saincte John. 1. Epistle. 1. If wee confesse our sinnes, hee is mer­cyfull to forgiue vs our sinnes. Where­fore sithe it is thus, as by the truthe it is confirmed, then they which confesse their sinnes to God, and to his sonne [Page 112] our Lorde, haue obteyned full remissi­on of the same, and so is there no néede to vse the Auricular confession of the Romishe Churche. Furthermore thereThe confes­sion to our neyghboure. is an other kynde of confession com­maunded by our Lorde to all the fayth­full, to wyt, that euery man should con­fesse eche one to other his faults and of­fences wherein he hath offended & iniu­red his neighbour, and that ech man doo hartily forgiue euery offence & iniury which he hath suffred, and forgiue hym also which hath don the same, and pray for him. And the Lordes prayer dothe prescribe vnto vs this kinde of confessi­on, for we say: As we forgiue them that trespasse agaynst vs. And of this con­fession is it that Saincte James spea­keth in his fifthe Chapter, and not of that which is done vnto the Priestes.Against con­fession made to the priest. Furthermore, there is not one worde in the whole Scripture of God spo­ken of any other confession than thys, and therefore their Auricular confessi­on vnto the Priest is without all au­thoritie of Scripture. Furthermore, the blessed Apostles dydde neuer gyue [Page] them selues to the hearing of confessi­on, neither gaue them absolution, whis­pering in the eares of them that were confessed. For the preaching of the Gos­pell is that ioyfull tydings, wherin the captiues, and suche as are adiudged to death, are declared to bee made free and delyuered from the falte & the punish­ment due for the same, and are recei­ued into fauour, and into the number of Gods children, and that by the death of Chryste Jesus, as Chryste him selfe teacheth out of Esai the Prophet ca. 61, at Nazareth, as appeareth in Luke. 4. And Paul confirmeth the same. 2. Cor. 5. Wherefore that which the aduersaries obiect, saying: that the priest knoweth not the state or condition of the sinne, excepte the same be opened to him, and therfore knoweth not what to forgiue, or what to leaue vnforgiuen, hathe no maner of ground of truthe. Wherfore if the Priest doo remitte or retayne any sinnes, it behoueth that those be disclo­sed and opened to him. But the wordes of Chryst touching the remitting or re­tayning of sinnes, appertayneth to the [Page 113] preaching of the Gospell, and to excom­munication, & not to the priuate power of the Priest, whereof I will speake hereafter. Likewise when Chryst bid­deth the Leper shewe him selfe to the Prieste, he commaundeth him not to confesse him selfe vnto him, but that he should offer him selfe to be tryed by the Priest, and so offer his sacrifice. For the iudging or trying of Leprosie appertai­ned to the Priest. Leuit. 13. and. 14. But in that they say, Leprosie did signifye sinne: we answere, that touching spi­ritual things and sinne, the Priests and sacrifices were figures of Chryste, and therefore are they to bée sente vnto Chryste, to whome also that Samari­ [...]ane came when he was healed, and not to any Priest. So also we trust that Chryst will delyuer and saue vs, if wée beléeue in him, and to him we confesse our selues, although we come not to the Priest. The auncient Churches, before the birthe of Chryste, and a long tyme after his comming, were altogither ig­norant of the confession and absolution of the Priest: and after it began to bée [Page] receiued, yet was there no commaun­dement for the same, as appeareth De pemtent. Distinct. 1. But in the counsell of Lataran vnder Innocentius the third Pope, it was commaunded in the yere of our Lorde. 1215. And I will not héere tell howe gréeuously the consciences of the godly were by this Romishe and Papisticall confession troubled, and howe they learned more euill thereby than good, and howe horrible and fyl­thie factes were in this confession com­mitted, and howe the same serued to vpholde the power, pryde, errours, and disceiptes of that vnspirituall spiritu­altie, as they call them selues. But it is no small fortresse or foundation of their kingdome, and therefore no mar­uell thoughe they so earnestly and bu­sely labour to defende and kéepe the same. But all these things thanks bée vnto God, are made manyfest vnto the whole worlde.

The. Lj. Question.

Whether those things which the Priest dothe enioyne vs to [Page 114] do for our sinnes which we haue confessed, are not to be done as the punishments and deedes of tepentaunce▪ and whether this our satisfaction be hurtefull or contrary to the satisfaction of Chryste?

The Answere.

NEyther the confessionOf popishe satisfaction. whiche is done to the Priest, neither yet the payne or penance which is ioyned for the same, haue any authoritie frō the holy Scrypture, but are onely grounded vppon the authorities of a fewe fathers. And therfore I answere that the faythfull are not bounde by the word of god to do that penaunce which they call satisfaction, neither I say to require or doo them. For there is one eternall satisfaction, that is to say, a price, reconciliation & redemption from our sinnes, to wit, the death & passion of Chryst, by meanes wherof al our sins, [...]ffences and punishments deserued for [Page] the same, are clerely forgiuen and wy­ped away. And this is confirmed by E­sai. 53. the writings of the Euangelists and Apostles, and chiefly of Paul to the Romanes the thirde and fifth chapters, and 1. Cor. 1. &c. If therefore by our workes and penaunce which we suffer, that is to say, if we attribute to our sa­tisfaction, which consisteth in the corre­ctiō of our body, fasting, prayer, almes & other such like workes, the remission of our sinnes, & the punishment due there­fore, or if wée suppose that by this satis­faction we satisfie and requite all those things, for the which we were gilty be­fore God, then truely this satisfaction is directly cōtrary, and striueth agaynst the satisfaction of Chryst. Or else must they say that Paule in the like case rea­soned not aright, when he sayd: For if righteousnesse bee by the lawe, then is Chryst dead in vayne. For euen after the same maner doo wée also reason, saying: If wee our selues can make sa­tisfaction for our sinnes, what neede then had Chryst to dye? Wherfore the Chuche kéepeth still that one eternall [Page 115] satisfaction, euen the death of Chryste, and héerewith doo all the faythfull con­tent them selues, iudging their works not to bée so perfecte or worthy, that by them their sinnes should be forgiuen, and that God by them should bée satis­fyed, and eternall lyfe bée purchased. Here also is to be noted, that the fayth­fulThe exercise of the faythfull. which acknowledge Chrystes death to be their onely satisfaction and re­demption, and are delyuered by hym, doo earnestly and diligently auoyde sinne, and willingly suffer whatsoeuer God layeth vpon them, and yet not to make any satisfaction therby (bycause Chryste already hathe fully satisfied) but bycause it pleaseth God so to exer­cise them, and call them from their sinnes, shewing howe gréeuously the same offende him, and by this meanes exerciseth their fayth, and maketh them partakers of the afflictions of Chryst. And therefore when GOD receyued Abraham and Dauid into fauour for Chrystes sake, and had forgiuen theyr sinnes, yet dyd he exercise them in this lyfe with the mortification of their [Page] fleshe. Chryste also in the Gospel sayth vnto the man which he healed: Behold thou art made whole, see thou sinne noIohn. [...].more, least some worse thing happen vnto thee. And therefore wée vse com­monly to say: to doo the same offence no more, is a great punishment, but yet the beste punishement. And out of thys penaunce and satisfaction whiche standeth by no warrant of the Scrip­ture, is farrowed all the Whelpes of Romishe indulgences. For after they had layde moste gréeuous penaunces and punyshments vppon the poore Pe­nitentiaries, for which they must make satisfaction for their mortall sinnes, as by fasting many yeres togither, then by their Indulgences they mitigatedRomish indul­gences. the same agayne: and so by this meanes heaped vy huge heapes of money, and so of Gods house they made an house [...]remi. 7. Iohn. 2. [...]. 21. or shoppe of Marchaundise, yea rather a very denne of théeues: and therefore doubtlesse God will shortly whip them out of his house.

The thirtenth Common place. Of the authoritie or power of Priestes.

The. Lij. Question.

Whether Priests haue power and authoritie to forgiue or re­tayne those sinnes, for the whi­che wee bee sory, and confesse our selues?

The Answere.

THe power which ChristPower is an office. hathe giuen to the Mini­sters of the Churche, is rather an office than a power: for power be­longeth to Christ alone. And that power or Office which the Ministers or Priests haue receyued, is to edifie, and not to destroy, as Paule manifestly teacheth. 2. Cor. 10. And the keyes of the kingdome of god are giuen in déede vnto ye Ministers of the church. [Page] For our Lord promised them to PeterThe kayes of the kingdome of heauen. and to the rest of the Apostles, Math. 16. with these words: I will giue vnto thee the keyes of the kingdome of heauen, and whatsoeuer thou shalt lose in earth shal be losed in heauen, and whatsoeuer thou shalt binde on earth shal be bound in heauen: the same he gaue to all the Disciples. John. 20. saying: Euen as my father sent me, so sende I you: who soe­uers sinnes you shall remitte, they shall be forgiuen, and whose sinnes you shall retayne, they shall be retayned. There­foreOf binding and loosing. to lose, is to forgiue sinnes: and to binde, is not to forgiue or to retayne sinnes. But bycause no man can remit or forgiue sinnes but God onely, there­fore the Ministers of God by his com­maundement preaching the Gospel, doo declare that god forgiueth their sinnes, and remitteth all punishmente, if they beléeue in Chryst: and that on the other side their sinne remayneth, and that they shall bée punyshed for the same if they beléeue not in Chryst: and ther­fore for this cause dothe the Scripture say, that the Minister doth bind or lose, [Page 117] forgiue or retaine sinnes. And as the minister doth truly preach this, so doth it vndoutedly come to passe both on the faithfull and vnfaithfull. For God be­ing in heauen, performeth that which his ministers héere doe promisse on the earthe. By this we may easily gather, that the keyes are nothing else but the preaching of the gospel, and not a pecu­liare iurisdiction or power, as oure ad­uersaries reache. For euen as a maister of some house, giueth his keyes vnto his seruaunt, to open and shut the house, to let men bothe in & out. So is the church the house of God, in the which who so euer abideth, is an inheritor of the king­dome of heauen, & those which through infidelitie, are not in the churche, haue no portion in the kingdome of heauen, but are euen as it were in hell: and the ministers receiued the keyes of ye king­dome of heauen from Christe, that is to say, the preaching of the Gospell, that therby they might open & shut. There­fore they open, when they teache true faithe, promisse eternall life, and exhort all men to come vnto Christe, that they [Page] may be saued. And they shutte vp the kingdome of heauen, when they threa­ten eternall damnation against the vn­beléeuers, wicked men, and suche as do not repente, testifying vnto them, that they are excluded from the kingdome1. Corin. 3. of God. But the power or effecte to per­fourme, appertaineth onely vnto the Lorde, like as Paule compareth the ministers of the Churche to husbande men, saying: Neither is he that plan­teth any thing, neither he vvhich vva­tereth: but God vvhich giueth the in­crease. VVhat then is Paule, or vvho is Appollo, are they any other but Mini­sters by vvhome you haue beleeued, euen as God hathe giuen the gifte vnto euery one? Therefore it is God onely that dothe forgiue, or not forgiue ours sinnes: and the ministers which haue receiued the keyes, are onely the publi­shers of this deliueraunce or captiuitie. Wherefore, some of the Fathers haue vsed in this case a certaine distinction, saying: that Christe gouerneth in the Churche by his owne proper power, and the ministers as seruauntes onely.

[Page 118]And héereby it manifestly appeareth that these Romishe champions, which after so straunge a manner claime vn­to them selfe the power of the keyes, and persuade the simple people that by the authoritie of them they haue obtai­ned I knowe not what wonderfull po­wer, are like those vnthriftie and vn­trustie seruauntes, who hauing recey­ued some certaine and limitted office, not being therewith content, doe vnder the pretence thereof, vsurpe the power and authoritie of their Lorde and mai­ster. So these good fellowes conuerte the vse of the keyes which they haue receyued, to the accomplishing of all that them selues do like off. For of the keyes (which in déede is the office of preaching) these Popish prelates frame vp great and maruellous matters, for by them they doe aduaunce and lifte vp them selues and their authoritie, aboue Kings, Emperors, yea ouer the soules of men, their dignities, goodes and bo­dyes.

Furthermore, vnder the pre­tence of these their keyes, they heape [Page] vp great treasures, searche out the con­seiences of men, and mainetaine theyr purgatorie, of which muche mighte be spoken that we heere willingly ouer­passe. But we knowe that the office gi­uen to the priestes and ministers of theThe office of priestes and ministers. church was to preach the word of God, and to giue good examples of life to the congregation, administer the Sacra­ments to féede and preserue the flocke of God: as S. Paule teacheth bothe to Timothe and Titus. And as touching any other greater power, which the Ro­mishe prelates chalenge in the churche, there is not one woorde spoken in the Scripture, sauing that in an other res­pect, there is somewhat written thereof in the Reuelation of S. John, the. 9. 11. 13. 17. and 18. chapters.

The. liij. Question.

Whether mē by this retaining of sinnes, are by excommunica­tion, seperated from the churche of Christe, and are deliuered to the power of sathan? And whe­ther [Page 119] he be to be iudged a Publi­cane or Heathen which will not heare the church?

The Answere.

IN good soothe I maruellOf excōmu­nication and the abuse thereof that these mē dare make once mention of yt kinde of excōmunicatiō which the Scripture speaketh of: for it it were in vse, and mighte haue his force, then should them selues be firste excommunicated. For euē in the same place, wher Paule commaundeth him to be deliuered to Sathan, which had committed incest with his mother, and yt to be don to the destruction of the fleshe, euen there also dothe he forbidde the faithfull, to haue any company with whooremaisters, co­uetous, oppressers, drunkardes, idola­ters. &c. And in déede we bothe knowe and confesse that the churche of Christe hathe power to admonishe, exhorte, pu­nishe, correcte, and to Excommunicate all those who liue in sinnes, wicked­nesse, [Page] slaunders, and Idolatries, hauing no regarde to repentaunce and amend­ment of life.

But howe, I beséeche you haue oure Romish spiritualtie (as they call them) vsed excommunication in their church, who are they whome they haue excom­municated? For they neuer vsed the same to the rooting vp of vice and vn­godlynesse, but to the aduauncing and setting vp of theyr owne glory and co­uetousnesse: yea héereby as with a bri­dle they haue helde in the godly, to be subiecte to theyr Tyranntcall power.Not to heare the churche. And therefore diuers Popes and Bi­shoppes by meanes of this Excommu­nication, haue not onely Excommuni­cated, but also persecuted, Kings, Em­peroures, Princes, whole Common weales, and sundry honest menne, yea héereby setting them together by the eares, and that onely to the ende this proude spiritualtie might beare ye sway alone, and purchase to them selues all the authoritie and power giuen by God to the magistrate, and so make Kings and Princes subiecte to them. [Page 120] Reade the Histories of Gregorie the se­conde, of Gregorie the thirde, and Gre­gorie the seuenth, of Paschalis, Gelasius, Innocentius, Alexander, Bonifacius, and other Popes, what they did to Leo the thirde, Henrie the fourth, and Hen­rie the fifthe, to Phillip and Fredericke, what they did to the Princes and kings of Germanie and France, with diuers others, whome these Popes moste mi­serably, bothe against the lawe of God and man, excommunicated and vexed with their whole kingdomes.

In like manner we confesse, that all those which will not heare the Church, according to the woordes of oure Lorde and Sauioure Jesus Christe, in the eightienthe Chapiter of Mathewe, are like vnto the Publicanes and heathen. But what I pray yée, is this vnto the Papistes? Doe they thincke, that all those which speake and doe against the Church of Rome, are Publicanes and Heathen? Lette them selues firste be­come the Churche of Christe, and then shal they be Publicanes and Heathen, that will not heare them.

[Page]But if these Romishe sorte be Pub­licanes and Heathen themselues, then shall all those be called and be in very déede true Christians which sette themselues againste their churche. To con­clude, admonition, exhortation, repro­uing, correction, and punishment ought to be in the churche of Christ, and must be applied as cause requireth to edify­ing: and therefore who so euer resisteth this good order, doth gréeuously offend.

The. xv. Common place. Of Matrimonie, Vowes, and Chastitie.

The. liiij. Question.

Whether mariage be lawfull, and free for all men?

The Answere.

OUr Lord Christ after he hadMariage is fr [...] for al [...] in the. 19. of Mathewe, taught that a man mighte not put a­way his wife for euery cause [Page 121] and there vppon the disciples had said, If the matter bee so then is it better not to marie. He answereth: All men can­not receiue thys saying saue they too whome it is geuen: and then making mention of thrée sorts of chast, addeth: Hee that is able to receiue this, let hym receiue it. By which wordes in déed, he testifieth and manifestly teacheth, that the gifte to liue chast and without ma­riage is not common or giuen to all mē as that any who list might abstein from mariage & leade an acceptable life vn­to God. For euery man ought first too examine him self, whether he haue this gifte geuen vnto him of GOD or not. And then if hée perceiue him selfe too be chaste, that is to say vnfitte for ma­riage, either by byrthe, or bycause hée was so made by men, or bicause he hath receiued this gift of God to liue chastly, and knoweth that he is able so to doe, then may the same liue without mari­age. And I therfore say, that he may if hée can, bycause S. Paule thus wri­teth. 1. Cor. 7. Neuerthelesse he that stā ­deth firme in hys harte, that hee hath no [Page] neede, but hathe povver ouer his ovvne vvill, and hathe so decreed in his heart, that he vvil keepe his virginitie, he doth vvell. But if any man feele not him self to be suche, to them hath Christ taught, that Matrimonie is the institution of God, that so they which are able there­unto, may liue therein. And in like sort doth Paule in the aleaged place, wryte, saying: Of Virgines or of Virginitie, I haue no commaundemente, but I giue you my counsell. &c. And againe, But for the auoiding of fornication, lette euery manne haue his ovvne vvife, and euery vvoman hir ovvne husbande. A­gaine: If they haue not the gifte of cha­stitie, lette them marrie: it is better to marrie than to burne. Wherefore wée say that Matrimonie is lefte frée to all menne of God, neyther ought any man to be forbidden the same, if they haue not the singulare gifte of God to liue chaste.

In the olde Testamente, no man of any degrée what so euer, no not the Priests which were figures of Christ, were forbidden to marrie.

[Page 122]And in the newe Testamente also, the ministers of the Churche are not forbidden to marrie, as may appeare in 1. Corinthians. 9. 1. Timothe. 3. and Ti­tus. 1. And againe, in the primitiue Churche, there were neither Monkes nor Nunnes that vowed chastitie. And Paule sayeth plainely, if a virgin mar­rie, shée dothe not sinne. And in his E­pistle to the Hebrewes, he speaketh more plaine in the thirtéenthe chapter, saying: Marriage is honorable amongst all menne, and the bedde vndefiled: and as for vvhooremongers and adulterers, God shall iudge them. Wherefore, if matrimonie be holy and honourable, bicause it was instituted of God in Pa­radise, and if it be a bedde vndefiled and without sinne, truely then, no man ought to be forbidden so good and holy a thing as marriage is. But whoredome, adultery, filthinesse, and wicked lustes, are forbidden, and those are iudged and condemned of God, and not mariage.

The. lv. Question.

Whether vowes are not to be kepte, sith the scripture saythe: If thou haste vowed, perfourme the same?

The Answere.

VOwes for the most partThe vowes which are made in our daies are onely idle woordes with­out effect or workes. in the olde Testament, wer only external gifts and bodely Sacrifices: And who so euer there­fore hadde vowed these things, was bound to performe ye same. But what doothe this appertaine to the Uowes of Priests, Monks & Nunnes, which they make in their Monasteries and Colleges? For these vowes of cha­stitie, pouertie, and of obedience, were neuer knowne in the scriptures or pri­mitiue church. And therfore they are in déede but vaine woordes and no works amongste our vnspirituall spiritualtie, as the whole world knoweth, proueth, and is forced to confesse. For what cha­stitie, pouertie, or obedience is in these [Page 123] dayes in their religious houses and mo­nasteries? Truely all filthinesse of lutt, whoredome, gluttonie, drunkennesse, and all impudencie, is bothe secrete and manifestly vsed and séene in them for the moste parte. Those which are poore and néedie in this worlde, leauing the same, and entring into these religious houses, are in them made so riche and mighty, that oftentimes they gouerne in the world, and féele no wante of any thing. Yea, whilest they obey their spi­rituall Lordes, they doe disobey the lawes of God, the Magistrates institu­ted of god, yea, & oftentimes theyr natural parents. And what may the Faith­full say of these? Or wherein may they praise them, hauing God and his woord to warrante the same? Why then doe they obiecte againste vs, Uowes, and the obseruing thereof? Let them rather shewe vs, that God hathe commaunded these, and that these, which they nowe a dayes do, are acceptable vnto him. For which of the Prophetes or Apostles, at any time made any suche Uowe? And againe, if their Uowes be so good and [Page] holy, why then kéepe they them not thē selues, sith they so straightly vrge them on others? But let vs sée what they do, or what they kéepe, or what they are a­ble to kéepe. For if they vowe chastitie, there is none other chastitie but of the body and minde, who so therefore hath not this, may marrie, and the same is also called chastitie. Therefore, if they will obserue chastitie, they must either liue chastly in a single life, or else mar­rie, and so liue from whoredome, drun­kennesse, & gluttonie. But if they haue vowed pouertie, and woulde kéepe the same, then let them leaue their mona­steries and princely palaces, their fatte tithes and yerely rents, let them be cal­led no more Lordes, and lette them not be called poore in name, but be so in déede. But if they Uowe obedience, and will perfourme the same, let them obey God, the lawfull magistrate, their pa­rentes, and the holy lawes of God, then truely shall they not long abide in these places, and this kinde of life, in which notwithstanding they séeke nowe to a­bide, and that by force, neyther woulde [Page 124] they do that, which is so directly against theyr Uowes.

The sentence whereof they séeme toAl vowes are not acceptable to god neyther yet to be per­fourmed. make mention in their Question, is wrytten in the fifth Chapter of Ecclesi­astes, thus: If thou haste vovved any thing vnto God, bee not slacke to per­fourme the same. For a foolishe and an vnfaithfull promisse displeaseth him: euen bicause hee hathe no delite in the vnvvise. And it is muche better not to vovve, than after thy vovve not to per­fourme. Therefore this place whiche oure aduersaries doe vse in this theyr question, doth rather make for vs, than agaynste vs. For Uowes whiche are grounded on Goddes woorde, and are in oure power to be done, vnto the glorye of God, the profitte of others, and oure owne saluation, are not foo­lishe Uowes: But what so euer are not after this sorte, are foolishe, as those are whereof we haue spoken before, being grounded vppon mannes ordi­naunce and tradition: and therfore not acceptable to God.

And not being acceptable vnto him, [Page] he will not haue vs to take them in hande. And therefore by this it folow­eth, that in foolishe Uowes we doe of­fend, and therfore ought not to procéede in the same, least that we double oure offence. For who so sweareth vnadui­sedly, offendeth, bicause he did it vnad­uisedly, but if he perfourme the euill which he promised by his vnaduised othe, then is his offence thereby made the greater: like as Herode who not only rashely sware to Herodias, but al­so performed his othe by the killing of John.

One maketh a foolishe Uowe of cha­stitie, or pouertie, but within a whyle after perceyueth him selfe not able to kéepe them, yea that it is a cause of whooredome, lustes, and manye other sinnes: but he dothe well and godly, if he kéepe not that foolishe Uowe: that is, to saye, if he cut off those causes of sinne. And so the Fathers teache, saying: In euill promisses, breake thy promisse. And that vvhich thou haste vnaduised­ly vovved, doe it not. &c.

But that which we do vow with good [Page 125] aduise béeing iust and honest, accordingWe must kepe promis. to the lawe of God, that let vs faythful­ly and constantly obserue, without all disceite. For the iuste God is a reuen­ger of all lying and wicked men, that kéepe no promise wyth God or man. And I speake thys from the bottome of my hart, least any man should mistake our doctrine, and say that we teache ly­bertie, and that men shoulde not kéepe their fayth and promyse. For wée doo euen from our hearts detest all filthy, and vngodly libertie.

The. lvj. Question.

Whether Chryst be not able to giue vnto those the gyft of cha­stitie, whiche doo desyre and craue the same frō the bottome of their heart, & chiefly to those which labour and apply them selues earnestly to their studie, and moderate them selues in meates and drinke?

The Answere.

AS it oughte not to béeWhither god giueth chas­titie to euery man bicause he cā giue it. sought, so may wée not héere séeke what God may or can doo, but what he hathe commaunded, and what he wyll doo. And wée muste moste warely obserue thys precepte: Thou shalte not tempt the Lorde thy God. Wée all knowe, that all thinges are possible to God, and yet muste we knowe, that this rule is for euer obser­ued in Chrystes Churche, that it follo­weth not that he dothe all things that he can: but wée must diligently marke what he commaundeth and byddeth vs to doo. And this rule, if wée apply it to this place, it will appeare that thys is the commaundement of God, that he which perceiueth him selfe to haue the gyfte of chastitie, should vse the same, so that he well perceyue that he hathe grace so to doo: and that he which hath not this gyfte, shoulde marry, and not put him selfe in danger, or tempt God. For Saincte Paule speaketh of thys [Page 126] matter, saying: That he would intan­gle no man. 1. Corinth. 7. And howe di­ligently they applye their Bookes in Monasteries, howe they labour, and what abstynence they vse in meates and drinkes, I leaue it to the iudge­ment of any wyse man to discusse. For it is euident, that they seldome apply their. Bookes, but gyue them selues al­togither to idlenesse, dayntinesse, and satisfying of their paunche. In déede their talke hathe a goodly shewe, but yet wyse men can well ynoughe per­ceyue what they are, and therefore wyll not suffer them selues to bée se­duced alwayes wyth thys spirituall babbling, when they so manyfestlye perceyue their wyckednesse. But if there bée any that wyll bée wyl­full blynde, then let their owne confusion fall on their owne pate.

The. lvij. Question.

If any man be caste into pryson, and fed hardly, he doth not feele any great temptations: There­fore is it not possible he shoulde keepe his vowe which he hathe made to Chrysts church, which keepeth him selfe vnder by ab­stinence?

The Answere.

ALthough you haue madeAn exhorta­tion agaynst persecution. no mentiō in these your questions of the impri­soning & torments, with which you haue so grée­uously tormented the honest and godly maryed men, either for mariage or for some other poynte of Religion, ne­uerthelesse those good men whiche lyue nowe in this age, may know, and those which shall lyue after vs shall many­festly sée, that you are tootoo cruell in persecuting and tormenting. I beséeche you consider with your selues, why and wherefore you doo it. If it so greatly [Page 127] delight you to chasten naughtie & wyc­ked men with imprisonment and with harde fare, why then doo you not impri­son whoremongers and adulterers, and not those which liue chaste in mariage? why do you not looke vpon you selues? And why doo you not keepe vnder with abstinence those drunkards and horri­ble offendors? But those men you ne­uer punish, but you punish those whom God cōmaundeth to fauour: and whom God commaundeth you to punish, those you let goe. You are nothing seuere to­wardes vyce, and too cruell towardes goodnesse, which God hath forbidden to punish. I beseech you remember the auncient Histories of all ages, and you shall sée that God dyd neuer forsake his, for although he kepte them a long tyme vnder the crosse, yet at the laste he delyuered them at his pleasure, and they which dyd afflitte them for righ­teousnesse sake, he terribly rewarded them with moste sharpe and gréenous punishments. You would fayne be cal­led spiritual, and then fauour and mer­cy would better become you, than thys [Page] rigor and crueltie. But if you do rather delight in crueltie, take héede least that corner stone, agaynst whome you thus stryke, bée found ouer harde vnto you, and least it fal vpon you, and grind you to péeces. Feare God, and take héede in tyme, for all thinges haue an ende. VVoe sayth the Lorde to those that spoyle, for they shall be spoyled. Often­tites in déede it commeth to passe, that in the tyme of miserie, men are least prouoked or moued wyth affections, and that by reason of the gréefe of sick­nesse or other myseries, and yet hereby it followeth not, that they should kéepe them selues vnmaryed all their lyfe tyme. Saincte Paule who very well knew and had good experience of the grace and helpe of God, and the infir­mitie of our flesh, dyd permit those that are maried to separate them selues for a time, but yet by the consent of both the parties, that therby being in some great distresse, they might the more feruent­ly giue them selues to prayer: and yet he addeth héere vnto, And come togy­ther agayne, least Sathan tempt you for [Page 128] your incontinencie. And why I pray you doo not these which would so fayne bée called Apostolike men, giue suche counsell to those which are troubled: and specially sithe wée haue so many wofull examples before our faces of those, which whylest they professe cha­stitie, fall into suche daunger, that they at the last lose soule, honors, body and goodes.

The. Lviij. Question.

Whether a Priest whiche ma­rieth a wyfe (by name and as he supposeth) contrary to the vowe which he hathe made, do not greeuously sinne: and whe­ther suche a mariage bee not double whordome, and inceste, and ought to be punished by the sworde, according to lawe?

The Answere.

I Beseche you speake more fauoura­bly,The mariage of Priestes is lavvefull. for this kynde of speache is too filthy, declareth what you are, and encreseth most gréeuous iudgement [Page] agaynst you. For that mariage whiche is done in the feare of god, and for law­full causes, is bothe iuste and lawefull, and béeing celebrated betwéene those whom no cause which God hath ordey­ned dothe separate. And the lawefull causes are declared Gen. 2. 3. &. Cor. 7. But the vowes of the Spiritualtie are neuer once named amongest the impe­diments of mariage: wherefore they may marry, notwithstanding their vo­wes. And the mariage of those are true and holy, and suche a mans wyfe is not a wife onely in name, or by suppo­sition, but is so in déede, except the word of God deceiue vs. But whereas the authors of these questions whosoeuer they were, dyd call the lawful mariage of such men whordome, or double adul­terie, it is horrible sinne, and detestable impudencie, yea haynous blasphemie, and procéedeth from moste bytter ma­lice. I pray you let them remember the words of Esay, saying: VVo be to those which call good euyll, and euyll good. And call you the mariage of such as in tymes paste had made vowes a [Page 137] doubled whoredome and incest, & iudg [...] yée the lasciuious, wicked, and adulte­rous life of these spirituall men which neuer a whit obserue their vowes, for a thing of nothing or a trifle? For what haue they suffered for any such matter? Or who hurteth thē for any such thing? But those which haue maried, yée séeke vtterly to destroy bothe with fire and swoorde, and yet in the meane time yée suffer horrible, and things woorthy to be punished, which for the reuerence of the godly eares I let slippe and wil not once name. But if yée be so bent to the earnest punishing of wickednesse and vngodlynèsse, why then doe yée not pu­nishe those faults which God him selfe, and equitie, and iustice, commaundeth to be punished? For where there is no lawfull impediment founde, no manne ought to be punished for marriage.

But héere they Obiect the saying ofWhether [...] age vvhich is cōtracted after [...] vovv be lavv [...] S. Paule in his. 1. Tim. 5. where he thus wryteth: But refuse the yonger vvi­dovves, for they after they beginne to vvaxe vvanton againste Christe, vvill marrie, receiuing dampnation bicause [Page] they haue broken the firste faithe. But the Apostle doth not say that they sinne bicause they marrie: but bicause (as he plainely saithe) they haue broken their firste faithe: that is, bicause they béeing yong, haue dedicated them selues to the seruice of the Churche, promising fréely to serue and attende on the necessitie of the poore, and nowe doe it not: and ther­fore haue they damnation, iudgement, and reproche, bicause they were vncon­stante in that function which they tóoke vppon them, and not bicause they mar­ried.

And yet the order of the yonger wi­dowes in the primatiue Churche is not to be compared with the order of youre Priestes, Munkes, and Nunnes, bi­cause they hadde their institution from God, but the order of youre Priestes, Munkes, and Nunnes, was neuer in­stituted by God. Laste of all the Apo­stle dothe open his owne meaning, say­ing: Therefore I vvill that the yonger vvidovves marrie to bring forthe chil­dren. &c. And that Paule speaketh in this place of them which haue dedica­ted [Page 138] them selues to the ministerie of the Church, the whole circumstances of the woordes doe declare.

When in time paste it was askedCyprians iudgement. of Saincte Cyprian the Martire, what shoulde be done with those Uirgines, which hadde vowed to kéepe their vir­ginitie, but by reason of the continuall resorte of menne, they liued in an euill name: a Synode of godly learned Bi­shoppes being called together, he aun­sweared: If by Faithe they did vowe them selues to Christ, they would con­tinue chaste and vnspotted withoute a­ny deceite. But if they will not, ney­ther yet canne so continue, it is better they marrie than burne in their vnsa­tiable lustes. Cyp. lib. 1. Epist. 11. And S. Augustine in his booke de bono vidui­tatis in his ninthe chap. vpon the words of S. Paule in his firste Epistle to Ti­mothe, and the fifth chapter, hath inter­preted the same place euen as wée haue done: and also he addeth more, saying: that those men doe not rightly weighe this matter, which denie suche marria­ges to be true wedlocke.

[Page]Furthermore, these woords of S. Au­gustine, are recited in the Decrees di­stinct. 27. beginning at this woord Qui­dam, thus: Some say, that those which marrie after they haue made a Uowe of chastitie are adulterers: but I say to you that they doe gréeuously offende which doe put suche a sunder. But we néed not the testimonies of men bicause there are sufficiente testimonies in the woorde of God which plainely biddeth them to marrie, yée though héeretofore they had made any Uowe to the con­trarie.

Wherefore to conclude, I leaue thisAgainst those vvhich sclander and forbid ma­riage. place to the iudgemente of the wise, to discusse with them selues, whether not onely those which doe forbid marriage, but also those which separate those that are married, and raile at it, calling the same a double whoredome, were not long before thys time described and condemned by S. Paule, when he ex­horteth the godly to beware of them, saying: Novve the spirite speaketh eui­dently, that in the latter times some shal departe from the faithe, and shall geeue [Page 139] heede to spirits of errour, and doctrines of Deuils vvhich speake lies throughe hipocrisie, and haue their consciences burned vvith an hotte iron, forbidding to marrie, and commaunding to abstain from meates. &c. 1▪ Tim▪ 4.

The. xvj. Common place. Of extreme vnction called enoyling.

The. lix. Question.

Whether they vse enoyling?

The Answere.

MArke, in the sixth chap­terWhat the holy Scripture tea­cheth of enoy­ling. of his Gospell, and S. James in his fifthe chapter, make mention of annoynting. But yt kinde of annoynting doth very much differ from that which [Page] in our age is vsed in the Romish church to the sicke, of whose life we stande in doubte.

For in the primitiue Churche, theActes. 8. 10. 19. Apostles and their successoures did an­noynte the sicke with Oyle, and by that meanes they were restored to healthe. And it was a certaine peculiare gifte of God, and done as it were miraculous­ly: for euen as in the primatiue church, was the peculiare gifte of healing, so also was there the gifte of tonges. For the Apostles laide their handes on the sicke, and they receiued health, & spake with diuers tonges. But as the gifte of tonges is [...]eaffed in the Churche, so also is that of healing by the annoynting with Oyle: and therefore the ceremo­nie of imposition of handes, and anoin­ting with Oyle, ceaseth. All men know that in the primitiue Churche there were diuers things necessarily requi­red, as the gift of healing, and of tongs, with other miracles, which wer signes for the vnbeléeuers, and were done to confirme the religion: but nowe, when by the preaching of the Gospell, faithe, [Page 140] and the religion is published and con­firmed, the others haue ceased, and are quite out of vse.

And therefore the annoynting vsed in the Churche of Rome, is not by this confirmed that S. James and Marke doe speake of annoynting, for their an­noynting did muche differre from this, and was neuer instituted by Christe or hys Apostles, but deuised by men, and that a long time after.

The Apostles vsed to annoynt with Oyle, to the ende they mighte restore suche to health: but the Papistes neuer annoynte any, vntill they be paste hope of all recouerie, neyther vse they this theyr enoyling for the healthe of his bodye, but for the remission of sinnes. Yea, and in this their enoyling they pray vnto diuers Sainctes, which li­ued long since the Apostles time, and diuers suche other Ceremonyes they vse which were neuer knowne to the Apostles, and therefore sufficientlye proue that this their enoyling was ne­uer ordained by the Apostles.

And what shall I say of that, which [Page] they vse to speake in this their enoy­ling, when they say: In the name of the father, the sonne, and the holy ghoste, I annoynt thee vvith this holy oyle, that thereby thou maiste receiue remission of al thy sinnes? What ground or forme of institution of this haue yée in all the holy scriptures of Christe, and his Apo­stels? The Apostles taught that ful re­mission of sinnes was to be soughte in the bloude of Christe, and not in Oyle. And therefore euen by this one pointe it may euidently appeare to the fayth­full, that for good consideration we vse not this Ceremonie.

Furthermore, when wée beléeue that one baptisme which we haue once receiued, wherein we were once Bap­tized with water, in the name of the Father, the Sonne, and of the holye Ghoste, is effectuall by the operation of the holy Ghoste, euen all oure life long vnto death, we thinke it not néede­full to be againe at the pointe of deathe rebaptized of a Baptisme deuised by man: for they call this their annointing the laste Baptisme. But we according [Page 141] to Christianitie visite the sicke, instruct them, admonish them, exhort them, cō ­fort them, strengthen them, and pray with them, and charitably looks vnto them. &c.

The seuententh Common place. Of the Magistrate, and lawful obedience.

The. lx. Question.

Whether the spirituall and ci­uill magistrate ought not to be obeyed, chiefly when the things that they commaund are not a­gaynst God?

The Answere.

WE wyll héere make aThe spiritual Magistrates. difference betwene the Ciuill and the spiritu­all Magistrates. For the teachers and go­uernors of the Church are ministers, and not Lords to exercise [Page] a gouernement lyke kings, prynces or noble men, and we ought to obey them as the Ministers of Chryste, so long as they bée hys, preache hys worde, and execute the Christian ministerie. And so Paule teacheth with these wordes: VVee beseeche you brethren, that you1. Thessa. 5will know them which labour amongest you, and take the charge ouer you in the Lorde, and instruct you, that you honor them throgh loue for their works sake, and haue peace with them. And againe:Hebr. 13. Obey those which haue the ouersight of you, and submyt your selues: for they watch for your soules, as they that must giue accountes, that they may do it with ioy. Likewyse Chryst sayth to his Apo­stles: He that heareth you, heareth me. Luke. 10. And he manyfestly forbiddeth his Apo­stles to rule as Ciuill Magistrates, John. 13. Reade more of this, Math. 18. and. 20. Luke. 22. where you shall ma­nyfestly finde, that our Lorde saythe: The kings of the Nations reigne ouer them: and those which exercise autho­ritie ouer them are called gracious lords: but it shal not be so with you. And ther­fore [Page 142] the ciuil power which the Bishops and gouernors of the Churche exercise, hath no groūd or authoritie in the word of god, neither hath Chryst at any time commaunded them to vse bothe the swordes. Saint Peter in the sixt of the Actes speaketh of him self and the other Apostles thus: It is not conuenient that we should leaue the worde of God, and serue Tables, that is to say, giue ourselues to the féeding of the poore. &c. And yet it is more lyke that the Apostles woulde take charge & care for the poore, than to take vpon them gouernemente and ciuill authoritie, onlesse they had knowen the same to bée agaynst the commaundement of God. And therfore doubtlesse if suche power had ben offe­red vnto them, they would neuer haue receiued it. And besides this experience teacheth vs nowe in our age, that these two can not be ioyned togither. Yet let the christians submit thēselues to these magistrates, so long as they cōmaunde not things contrary to god, & yet if they do, they may not therfore stir cōmotiōs, but do that which god hath cōmaunded.

[Page]Touching the Ciuil power, as kingsThe ciuill Magistrate. Emperours, Princes, Counsellors, Magistrates, and all other lyke, which exercise any publique office, by what name soeuer they bée called, wée are bound to obey them by the worde of God in all things that are not contra­rie to God: yea God threatneth ven­geaunce agaynst all those that are dis­obedient, stubborne, and rebellious a­gaynst the Magistrates. Moreouer wée are taughte by Gods worde, that the Magistrate is ordeyned of God, and is for hys sake to be honored, and to be acknowledged in hys Ministers, ordei­ned for the wealth of good men, but for the punishment of euill men: and that wée muste loue them as fathers, ge­uing vnto them their due honor, tribute loyaltie, faythfulnesse, and other bodi­ly seruices which appertayne vnto thē, and that with a good hart and wil faith­fully. And thus are we taughte by the worde of God, Math. 17. and 22. and 1. Peter. 2. Romanes. 13. and Titus. 1. And in the Epistle to Timothe Paule commaundeth that wée make faythfull [Page 143] prayers vnto God for those which haue the gouernemente ouer vs. And euen as the Apostles for Gods cause were obediente vnto the Magistrates, so is it méete that Byshoppes and those which gouerne in the Churche, as tea­chers and preachers, bée obedient to the Ciuill Magistrate also, like as Jere­mie in his firste Chapter teacheth: but yet in suche sorte as they teache the worde of God fréely, But if any wyll not thus doo, then let them reade the se­conde Epistle of Sainct Peter, the se­conde Chapter, and the Epistle of S. Jude, and sée what the Apostles doo thinke and iudge of suche. And agaynst those which resiste their Magistrates, and so become worse than théeues or murtherers, many sharpe thinges are written in the holy Scripture, and in the Prouerbes of Salomon.

The. Lxj. Question.

Whether the magistrat ought to bee obeyed if he publishe, set foorth, or commaund any thing contrary to the vniuersal church of Chryst?

The Answere.

WE muste héere agayneThe magis­trate can cō ­maunde no­thing contrarie to the churche of Chryst. make a difference be­twéene the true Chri­stian Churche, and the false, bearing onely the name and tytle therof. For that Churche which is called, and is in very déede the true vniuersall Church of Chryst, is that company of the faythfull whiche rightly beléeue in Chryste, putting all their trust in God, throughe Chryste, geuing eare onely to him in his holy worde, séeking all things in hym, and seruing him in ho­lynesse and righteousnesse. And agaynst this Churche can no Magistrate decrée any thing, but if they chaunce to doo, then doo the faythfull knowe, that it is [Page 144] better to obey God than man. In déede at the beginning, and in the tyme of the Primatiue Churche Kinges and Emperours concluded & set foorth ma­ny gréeuous things against the Christi­ans, but thē they which otherwise in al bodily seruices were contente to bée o­bedient vnto their Magistrates, dyd in déede disobey them in the things which appertayned to their faythe, for they would neither woorshippe their Idols, nor doo sacrifice in their Temples, or communicate with them in their Reli­gion: and for thys cause many of them were put to death. Yet GOD in the ende maruellouslye punyshed those Magistrates, as Eusebius and Orosius doo testifie in their Histories. And wée haue a manifest and an excellent exam­ple of this matter in the seconde, thirde and sixte Chapters of Daniell. And in the Historie of the Machabées, and theThe godly [...] Magistrate may make lawes and decrees a­gainst the false church▪ Actes of the Apostles.

Furthermore the Churche which is called Chrystes Churche, and is not so in déede, hathe in it none of those things whiche it oughte for to haue, for they [Page] neither truste in God, nor in Chryste, nor in his woorde, but put their con­fidence in other matters, and make diuerse Lawes and Customes of Reli­gion, and the seruice of GOD con­trary to Gods woorde, and hauing a­mong themselues insimte Sectes, yet wyll they bée called the Catholyke Churche. And in thys Churche the godly Magistrate hathe power and au­thoritie to make and ordeyne Lawes and Statutes for the abolyshing and taking away of those thinges whiche are ordeyned contrary to the wyll and woorde of almightie GOD. For Da­uid, Salomon, Josaphat, Ezechias, Josias, Constantinus, and other godly Princes are euident examples héereof. Therfore when the Magistrate for the profite and reformation of the Church, dothe ordeyne Statutes and Lawes agreable to the woorde of GOD, they ought moste diligently to bée obeyed of al men, yea and if nede require, the ma­gistrate must bée assisted in them: and those which will not so doo, but resiste their Magistrates, shall bée most sharp­ly [Page 145] punished of GOD. But the Popes and Prelates of the Romish Church, to the ende they may defend and main­tayne their honours, pryde, ryches, pleasures, and horrible wyckednesse, haue hither vnto persuaded with Prin­ces, Noble men, and Magistrates, yea and by force haue héerevnto constray­ned them, that they shoulde beléeue, that the lawes and reformations whi­che touched their Pontificall state, were cleane contrary to the holy chur­che, God himselfe, and all equitie and Justice. And by this meanes they dyd not onely mayntayne their pompe and pryde, but dyd also dayly encrease the same, when as yet rather it had béene their partes to haue called them selues to accountes, and to haue considered di­ligently the state of the Churche, and of the afflicted Christendome, and so to prouyde for the same, and not onely to exhorte the Magistrates, but also to helpe them, and further them in the reformation hereof, and for the spéedier redresse to beginne euen wyth them­selues. For these are the laste tymes, [Page] and the indgemente of the Lorde, (in the whiche they [...]. all render a moste sharpe accounte,) is not farre off. And blessed are those whome the corrupti­ble trashe of thys lyfe dothe not lette, but that they may readily prepare them selues agaynst his com­ming, when he shal iudge bothe the quicke and the deade.

The Conclusion.

THus farre (by the helpe of God, to whom I ren­der most hartie thanks) haue I answered to. [...]. Questions, and taughte those to whom they shal be obiected, how to answere them: yea I haue taught what is to be thought of eche of these, howe to confesse the true doctrine of Chryst, and to take héede of the false. And therefore nowe euen for Chrystes sake I hartily beséeche al you which sticke vnto the truth of the Gos­pell, and minde not to returne to filthy­nesse of Rome, that you answere sober­ly, and without fcare, and constantly abide in the truth, béeing nothing ama­sed with the dayly torments and affli­ctions which are euer at hande. For the Religion my brethren, for whiche you suffer persecutions, disple asures, and other gréefes, is not of a [...]eight hundred yeres standing, but hath ben euer from the birthe of Chryste, yea and from the beginning of the worlde, grounded vp­pon the Scriptures, and is in déede the [Page] very true and auucient fayth. On the other side wée are taughte, that the do­ctrine and Religion of the Churche of Rome that now is, is not onely a new doctrine, but also deuised by men, and ratified by the Counsels and Decrées of men (with whom Chryst sayth, that he is worshipped in vayne.) Our do­ctrine and religion giueth all glory to God, and séeketh saluation in Chryste onely. And bycause we haue all fulnesse in him, wée haue no respecte vnto the creatures. And him wée serue not with outwarde pompe and shewes, but in spirite and truth, in prayer and thanks giuing, in righteousnesse, charitie, pu­ritie, fayth and mercy. And euen com­mon sense teacheth all men, that the true seruice of God consisteth in these things, whereas on the other parte all men crye out agaynst the vncertayne doctrine of the Romish Clergie, béeing confirmed by no good authority, yet they cry out agaynst their filthy lyfe, their intollerable oppressions, pride, and ty­rannie. Wherfore although they haue great power, glory, and dignitie, fauor [Page] and help of great and mightie men: and that the poore menne which beléeue in Christ and embrace his woorde, and de­spise the Romish church, doe suffer per­secutions, imprisonment, banishment, yea and many times death, & that there appéereth no helpe many times from God, but that it séemeth he doth rather fauor the other, yet was al this foretold by the Prophetes, Apostles, yea, and by our sauioure Christ him selfe, who suf­fered for vs, leauing vs an example to folow his steps. And therfore we ought not to take any thought for our goodes, frends, body, or life. For we haue great promisses of grace, helpe, and rewarde from God, if we abide stedfast vnto the ende. On the other part our aduersaries are dreadfully threatned, and shall in time fele the same, & that without dout. Againe, touching the things of this world, we knowe they are vnconstant, brittle, and corrupt, and therefore we cā not long enioy them, neither can the power or riches of our frends any thing profit vs. For we shal all die, and stand before the iudgement seate of Christe, [Page] vnto whonte all our sinnes and secrete thoughts shall be made most manifest. Therfore, let no mā be gréeued, though he suffer affliction in this life for the go­spels sake. For at that general day, both the innocenciè and offences of all men shall appeare. And hearken I beséeche you, how louingly Christ speaketh vn­to vs, and comforteth vs: Blossed (sayth he) are those vvhich suffer persecution, for righteoufnesse sake, for theirs is the kingdome of heauen. Blessed are you vvhen they shall speake ouil of you, and perfecute you, and speake all manner of euill saying, making lies vppon you for my sake: Reioyce and be glad, for great is your revvarde in heauen: for euen so did they persecute the Prophets vvhich vvere before you. The scholler is not a­boue his maister, nor the seruaunt grea­ter than his Lord. If they haue called the good man of the house Bel [...]cbub, hovv much more vvill they call his seruaunts so? you shall not therefore be a fraide of them: for thereis nothing so hidden, but it shall be knovvne. Neither be you a­fraide of those vvhiche can but kill the [Page] body, but feare you him rather, that is able to destroy bothe body and soule in hell fire. Are not tvvo sparovves solde for a farthing, and yet one of them fal­leth not vnto the grounde vvithout the vvill of your heauenly father: yea all the haires of your heade are numbred. Bee not therfore afraide, for you are more vvorth than many sparowes. Euery one therefore that shall confesse me before men, him also vvil I confesse before my father vvhich is in heauen: and vvho so denieth mee before men, him also vvill I denye before my father vvhich is in heauen. And hee that loueth father or mother more than mee, is not meete for me. And hee that taketh not vppe his crosse and folovveth mee, is not vvor­thy of me. VVho so vvill seeke to saue his life shall lose it, and he that vvill lose his life for my sake, shal finde it. And vn­to this doctrine that is so ful of consola­tion and comfort, let vs earnestly sticke my brethren, and so couple oure selues to the grace and power of Christe, lette vs boldly confesse his name & doctrine, and refusing what so euer is contrary [Page] to the same. Let vs call vpon him, craue his grace and holy spirite to abide sted-fastly in his holy worde euen to deathe. And so let vs ioyntly all pray vnto oure Lorde, that he will haue mercy vppon al men, and strengthen all those which suffer for his sake, and lighten the harts of the persecuters, that with S. Paule they may cleerely sée and vnderstande how hard a thing it is to kicke againste the pricke. God oure heauenly father haue mercie on his poore afflicted Churche, and comforte the same shortly with his comming, through Jesus Christe our Lorde.



Imprinted at London by Henrie Bynneman, for George Bishop.

ANNO. 1572.

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