A VVATCH-MAN FOR THE PEST. TEACHING The true Rules of Preservation from the Pestilent Contagion, at this time feare­fully over-flowing this famous Cittie of LONDON.

COLLECTED Out of the best Authors, mixed with auncient experience, and moulded into a New and most plaine Method; BY STEVEN BRADVVELL of London, Physition. 1625.

LONDON Printed by Iohn Dawson for George Vincent, and are to be sold at Pauls-gate at the signe of the Crosse-keyes. 1625.

¶ To the Reader.

HIPPOCRATES saith,Li. de Pro­bitate Me­dici boni, ad tempus appo­siti sunt, ad occasionem eripiendum accōmodati. That good Physitians doe applie themselues to the present Time, and to take hold of the Occasion. The present Time (good Reader) is Woefull, & the Occasion, Dangerous: I know it was not his mea­ning that we should onely grieue for the first, and flee from the latter; but to lend our assistance to the necessitie of the Times ca­lamitie. I haue but little water to draw, yet would I gladly bring my bucket-full to the quenching of this contagious flame; and if it be but kindly regar­ded; I am friendly rewarded: for I professe, not af­fectation, but true affection; not a hope of prayse, but a heart of pittie, draws me (or rather driues me) to offer my counsell in this case. LONDON is my Mother; in her wombe had I both Birth and Bree­ding. What Sonne can see his Mother woefully af­flicted, dangerously sicke, and desperately forsaken; but he must needs weepe for her teares, labour her recovery, and lend a hand (at least) to hold her vp? I may not take vpon me to cure the Sicke, because I meddle not with the Sicknesse (for to practise on [Page] the Plague now, would proue a plague to my Practise hereafter) but I must labour to preserue the sound; because by profession I am a Physition. Therefore I call this Booke, A Watch-man for the Pest, because it doth onely (as if it were a Warder) stand at the dore without, and deliver things necessary for preserva­tion to those within; but neither enters the infected house, nor meddles with the Cure of the Contagi­ous. I expect from diverse conceits diverse Censures of this Booke. It is too long, too short, too solid, too idle, too full, too slender; and I know not what. Yet I hope the judicious will vouchsafe it the rea­ding; and the wise, the observing: as for the rest, I will neither favour the Frivolous, feare the Envious, nor flatter the Curious. I know though Hercules la­bour his heart out, he shall not be able to appease a Iuno, nor please an Eurystheus. Therefore if I be not relished, I shall thinke the mouth is out of taste, since there is scarce a word, but I can proue his worth from good Authoritie. If I be gratefull to thy palate (good Reader) I will not be vngratefull to thy person; But if ever thou wilt vse me, thou shalt finde me

Ready to my power to do thee any pleasure, STEPHEN BRADVVELL.


TVLLY (whose Method was as pleasing as his Matter) sets this downe as a savoury Maxime in Method;Proëmium. Omnis quae à ra­tione suscipitur de aliqua re in­stitutio, debet à Definitione pro­ficisci, vt intelligatur quid sit id de quo disputatur. l. 1. de Officijs. To follow him therefore, though (but as Ascanius fol­lowed his Father Aeneas) non passibus aequis; Him, I say, whom hardly any hath happened to goe along with foote by foote in fluent sweetnesse: I will begin this Discourse with the Definition of the Pest; And while I lay open the severall points of the Definition, I will discover the Causes, the Kinde and Qualities, and the Signes and Symptomes of it. And withall (in their severall places) I will lay downe the Rules of Preservation, with good Medicines; whereby the further spreading of the pestilent Infection may (by Gods blessing) be prevented.

¶ The Definition.

The Name.The Plague, is a popular Disease: sent immediatly from God;The Cau­ses. wrought by the Constellations of the Hea­vens, the Corruption of the Aire, and the Disorder of Mans Diet: At the first striking to the Heart,The Qua­lities. is Venemous, Deadly, and Infectious: And for the most part accompanied with a Feavor;The Symp­toms and Signes. As also with Spots called Gods-Tokens, or with a Blayne, or Botch, or Carbuncle.

The Name.This word Plague; in Latine Pestis; in Greeke [...]: signifieth a deadly fretting. [...] being the same with [...], à [...], quod efficiat defectum hominum; or [...] Per­nicies, seu exitium. Hippocrates giues it a stile of distinction, calling it [...], Morbus communis: a common or Popular Disease. That it is a Disease, needeth no proofe at all, since it manifestly affecteth the body contrary to nature, and hurteth the actions thereof. That it is Popular is also apparent, in this, that when it once entreth into a Coun­trey, Cittie, or Towne; it over-runneth the same like a tor­rent, and few escape at least a scratching with it, if they be not deeply bitten by it: yea more are stricken and slaine by [Page 3] it, many times (especially in the place where it hath gotten full strength) then of all kindes of diseases else what-soever. And so much for his Title.

Now, That It is immediately sent from God, The first and principall cause is God. it is evident by many proofes of holy Scripture. As Deut. 28.21. and in the same Chapter at the 22. verse, he saith; The Lord shall smite thee with a Feavor, and with a Consumption, with an In­flamation, and with an extreame burning. In which words are expressed the painfull Symptoms of the Plague: viz. a Fea­vor, (which I shall proue hereafter) a Consumption (which being vnderstood of Calor naturalis, the heat and life of na­ture, is apparent) an Inflamation, by which the swelling cal­led the Botch is signified; and by an extreame Burning, the deadly Carbuncle is liuely described. If we desire examples; the Botch is plainly specified in the plague of Pharaoh and his servants; Exod. 9. Chap. 10. and 11. verses, and in the Sicknesse of Hezekiah, Isaiah 38.21.

Seeing then the All-mightie God of Heaven and Earth in wrath & justice sendeth this Plague vpon vs,The way of Cure. let vs know that as the Triacle for our bodies is consected of the flesh of earthly Serpents: so the Triale for our soules must be made of the blood of that brasen Serpent, which was lifted vpon the Crosse for our sinnes. Let every man be to his owne soule and familie an Aaron to take with speed his Censor of Repentance; fill it with fire from the Altar (of the excee­ding great and precious promises of God in Christ. 2 Pet. 1.4.) and put the Incense of faithfull Prayer thereon; and runne quickly and make an atonement: for there is wrath gone out from the Lord; the Plague is begun.

Somtimes the Constellations of the Heavens are the second cause by which God worketh and bringeth these Iudge­ments on men. For Astrologers are of opinion,The influence of the Starres, the second cause. that if Sa­turn and Mars haue dominion (especially vnder Aries, Sa­gittarius, and Capricornus) the Pestilence is shortly to be ex­pected. Or if those two (the most maleuolent) be in opposi­tion to the gentle Planet Iupiter; the effect of that opposition is the Plague. As the Poet singeth:

[Page 4]
Coelitus imbuitur tabo difflatilis aura,
Mars quando obij [...]itur Falcitenens (que) Iovi.

I know there be many learned men that thinke the starres because they are good and pure creatures, can bring forth no evill, nor impure effects: And amongst these Valeriola (in Append. ad loc. com. cap. 2.) thinks he hath so absolute­ly satisfied the point, that no obiection may ever be made more: yet I am of Mercurialis his opinion, that though of themselues primarily they doe no evill; yet accidentally, they may and doe.

For the Sunne of it selfe being the purest of them all, by drawing the vapours out of dunghills and other corrupt things, causeth a noysome stench by accident. But I intend not this Treatise for disputation.

The cure of this Cause, is the same with the former.If the Starres be pestilently bent against vs; neither Arts, nor Armes; perfumes, nor prayers, can prevaile with them, who haue neither pittie nor sense, nor power to alter their appointed motion. But He that commandeth their course, and altereth them at his pleasure; He that made the Sunne and Moone stand still for Iosuah: yea, drew the Sunne backe ten degrees for Hezekiah, and caused the Starres to fight in their courses against Sisera. He is able both to hinder and heale all Infections can arise from their Influences. The cure of this cause (therefore) is the same with the former.

The Corrup­tion of the Aire, the third cause.The third cause of the Pestilence, is; The corruption of the Aire. Which corruption ariseth as well from sublinarie ac­cidents, as from the Influences of the Starres. For noysome vapours arising from filthy sincks, stincking sewers, chan­nells, gutters, privies, sluttish corners, dunghils, and vncast ditches; as also the mists and fogs that commonly arise out of fens, moores, mines, and standing lakes; doe greatly cor­rupt the Aire: and in like manner the lying of dead rotting carrions in channels, ditches, and dunghills; cause a con­tagious Aire. As the Poet affirmeth:

Corpora foeda iacent, vitiantur odoribus aurae.

[Page 5]And even without these vapours,The Aire is corrupted by the windes and weather. the Aire sometimes is corrupted by the vnseasonablenesse of the weather, Quum tempestiva intempestivè redduntur, as sayth Hippocrates: when the weather is vnseasonable for the season of the yeare; be­ing hot when it should be cold; moyst when it should be drie; and contrarily. These preposterous orders, or rather disorders in the constitution of the Aire, render it vnhole­some, and infectious. And this is caused chiefly by the A­spects of the Planets, and many times also by vnholesome Windes; as especially the South winde, who (being of tempe­rature moyst and warme) fills the Aire with such a corrupt qualitie, as is soone turned into putrefaction, and many times doth easily transport a contagion from one coast to another.

Now for the Temperature of the Aire, What Con­stitutiō of the Aire is most Contagious. the whole streame of opinions runneth vpon hot and moyst, as the fittest matter for infection, because most apt to putrefaction. So Hippo­crates (in the second of his Epidem.) saith, that in Cranon a Cittie of Thessalie, there arose putrid Vlcers, Pustuls, and Car­buncles; through the hot and moyst constitution of the Aire. And the same he vrgeth againe in the third Booke of the same Treatise. And Galen in 1 de Temperam. cap. 4. affir­meth, that the hot and moyst constitution of the aire doth most of all breed pestilent Diseases. And from these a multitude of later Writers haue learned to speak the same thing. But for all this we know that the hot and dry weather also may cause a pestilent Aire. And so saith Avenzoar in his third booke, third tract. and 1. chap. And Titus Livius in li. primo, decad. 4. recordeth that Rome was once infected with the Plague by a hot and drie distemper of the Aire. And wee cannot forget what a hot & dry parching Summer we had this last yeare; most fit to be the vnfortunate forerunner of this yeares pe­stilence: which now being seconded with such abundance of moyst weather all this Spring and Summer hitherto; we may well doubt that a deluge of destruction is comming vpon vs.

Hence we may see the misery of man,The necessitie of the Aire. that (be the Aire [Page 6] never so corrupt) he must draw it in with his breath con­tinually, for without it we cannot liue a moment: for as meate and drinke are the nourishments of our bodies, so is the Aire the nourishment of our Spirits: As therefore by corrupt meats our bodies are corrupted and diseased; so by corrupt Aire our Spirits are easily infected, and soone extin­guished. Therefore we haue great cause to take heed that the Aire we draw be pure and wholesome.

The Cure of this Cause.And this may be effected two wayes: either by flying in­to a good, or by purifying the euill Aire.

Flight.The surest way to safetie is to flie from the impure into a pure Aire. Those therefore (that haue meanes, and no spe­ciall Calling to hinder them) doe well to take hold of this counsell. Which 1. Nature teacheth in giving Man two legs, as well as two armes, that if his enemy be too fierce for resistance, he may escape by running. Now Nature hath no worse enemy then Death; nor Death a better [...] then the Plague. Secondly, the holy Scripture teacheth it. [...] verse. Come my people enter into thy secret place, shut thy dores about thee, hide thy selfe as it were for a season, vntill the indignation be over past. So Pro. 22.3. The prudent man foreseeth the plague, and hideth himselfe. And David was this Prudent man, for (1 Chron. 2 [...]. last) he durst not goe to the Tabernacle to offer at Gibeon, because he feared the sword of the Angell. And thirdly, Physicke adviseth it. For Hippocrates, the Prince of Physitions (in his Booke de Na­tura humana) counselleth it in these words; Providendum est vt quàm paucissimus Aeris influxus corpus ingrediatur, et vt ille ipse quàm peregrinissimus existat: Regionum etiam locos, in quibus morbus consistit, quantùm eius fieri potest permutare opor­tet. By which he intendeth that a man must be carefull to let into his body as little Aire as can be possibly; and that that Aire which he doth entertaine, be a stranger to the In­fected. And this be interpreteth in the clause following, where he saith, He must (as farre as he may) change the place of the Region in which the Sicknesse raigneth, for some other that is free from it. And this is that which is [Page 7] meant by Citò, Longè, and Tardè. Which Iordanus calleth an Antidote made of three Adverbs: and thus versifieth vp­on them.

Haec tria tabificam pellunt Adverbia Pestem:
Mòx, longè, Tardè; cede, recede, redi.

I will be bold a little to Comment vpon these words, in this wise.

Fly with speed from the infected place,Citò Cede. lest by a little lin­gering, that infection (which you would leaue behinde you) goe along with you. And nothing can be more dan­gerous then for one to travaile with his humors already corrupted by an infected Aire. For with the motion of his body, those humors are stirred, disturbed, and heat; which causeth them to putrefie presently: by which putrefaction of the humors, the vitall Spirits are instantly enflamed and infected, and life it selfe soone extinguished. Besides that, in their going forth, before they are gotten beyond the limits of the evill aire; in the labouring of their body, they fetch their breath oftener and deeper then at other times; where­by they draw in a greater quantitie of the corrupt Aire to minister more matter to the putrefaction begun. Therefore flie quickly, and in flying goe softly, till you be quite out of the contagious Aire.

And flie not a little way, but many miles of,Longè recede. whither there is no probabilitie of common trading, or recourse of peo­ple from the place forsaken: and where there are high hills betwixt you and the infected coast; which may breake of those blasts of wind that would at somtimes blow that cor­rupted Aire from thence vpon you. Moreover, if you be able, choose your habitation well and health-fully scitua­ted.

A house is well scituated that stands on high ground,Choice of ha­bitation. farre from fennes, moores, marishes, and mines: having the dores and windows opening to the North and East; not to the West, for that is not wholsome; nor (by any meanes) [Page 8] to the South, for that being hot and moyst, is most subiect to contagion in sickly times. Let the house be large, and the roomes many and spacious.How to let in fresh Aire. In hot weather, open those windows that are toward the North; in cold, those that are to the East. If there be dores or windows toward the other coasts, keepe them for the most part very close shut. In the night, leaue no window open at all. If the weather be moyst, open your windows toward the good coasts two houres after Sunne-rising, and let them not stand open aboue two houres space: and so againe, for two houres before Sunne­set.

Tardè redi.Lastly, be not hasty to returne, so soone as you heare that the heat of the Contagion is abated; but keepe away as long as any signe of the Sicknesse remaineth; taking this for a sure rule, That it is lesse danger to tarry still in the infected Aire, then to come into it from that which is pure and wholesome: for a fresh commer is aptest to catch the least contagion, and the very reliques of infection are sufficient to kill him. Learne therefore of the Wolues of Thracia, who in Winter, when the rivers are covered with ice, will not venter over for their prey (though they be never so hungry) till they haue layd their eare close to the ice; then if they heare no noyse of water vnder it, they know the ice is thicke enough to beare them, and over they goe; other­wise not. Let the space of three moneths passe vpon the last infected person in that quarter whither you desire to resort: and let the house all that time (and all the stuffe therein) be throughly well aired, and perfumed before you returne. For the infection will cleaue to the walles and stuffe a long time, and will hardly be purged out of them: especially garments and bedding, if they haue beene vsed by the sicke of the Plague. Woolen cloaths will retaine the infection three or foure yeares, except they be well and throughly ai­red. Blankets, Coverlets, and Ruggs must haue much ai­ring before they may be trusted. Furres also retaine it long, and it is hardly gotten out of them; as appeareth by a story which Fracastorius telleth of a Furred Govvne that was the [Page 9] death of fiue and twentie men in Verona, in the yeare 1511. who one after the other wore it, thinking they had still aired it sufficiently. Featherbeds will remaine seaven yeares in­fected, if Alexander Benedictus may be beleeved; and these are best to be purged by opening the Tikes, and spreading the feathers abroad very thin, perfuming them very often, and ever as they are airing, let them be turned with staues or stickes; and let this be so done for many dayes together. As for Mattrises, Mats, and such like, it is best that they be burnt, for that is the surest way to free them from infection.

But now, Some men cannot, and some must not flie.Who must not flee. Some through povertie, and want of friends in the Coun­trey; or by reason of the dependance of their living vpon the Towne infected, cannot leaue it. Others whose calling and learning hath set them apart for the common good, must not goe. As Maiestrates and other officers who are cal­led to see the peace and good orders kept. Ministers that haue pastorall Charges, and are commanded of GOD to preach in season and out of season, and to administer the Sacramēts to those which are able to repaire to the church. Also Physitians, Chyrurgians, Apothecaries, Midwifes, Kee­pers, and Searchers, whose callings are to be helpfull to the sicke and weake (though not of the Plague, yet of other griefes) they ought (at least a convenient number of them, for the number of people remaining) to tarry and follow those Christian employments which they haue vnderta­ken, not for their owne benefit only, but for the Common­wealth chiefly.

Such therefore as must tarry, let them obserue these rules following.

First, flie from company,How those that tarrie are to order themselues. and be contented to liue as so­litarily as your calling and buisinesse will giue leaue. Let those that come to speake with you, come no nearer you then they must needs; and if you stand to talke with ano­ther, be distant from him the space of two yards. But if you suspect the party to haue the infection, let the space of foure yards at the least part you. Let the sound man be carefull [Page 10] also to giue the other the winde; that is, so to stand that the winde may blow from the sound to the suspected, and not contrarily: and let the sound man turne away his face from him, holding and champing also some fit thing in his mouth, and smelling to some odour all the while he is in discourse with the other, or neare vnto him: (which things in particular I will prescribe hereafter.) Shunne all places that are moyst and wet. In Summer keepe you temperate, but alwayes drie: in Winter keepe warme, and as much as you can, neare the fire. At all times avoyd all close alleys and lanes (especially to lodge in them) or neare common sewers, ditches, or such like noysome places. And keepe out of crowds and assemblies of people as much as you may. Dwell not in an house that is pestred with much company in little roome. It is good also for those that are able, to shift beds, and chambers often, airing them every day.

When the Aire is cloudy, thicke, moyst or misty, goe not forth but vpon necessitie; and in such weather, keepe the dores and windows shut. Walke not abroad in the mor­ning (if you can choose) till two houres after Sunne rising; nor at all after Sunne-set, vnlesse vrgent occasion enforce. And in the heat of the Sunne in Summer (especially about noone) tarry not abroad; neither sit, stand, nor walke in the heat of the same.For then is the braine more full of excrementiti­ous humors & the whole bo­die aboundeth more with moysture; therfore more apt to enter­taine putre­faction. Purging of the impure Aire. In the full of the Moone, goe not forth in the night, and keepe your head somthing warmer at that time then at other times. Keepe moderation betweene heate and cold in your lodging and bedding. Last of all, whatsoever you receiue from the hands of another (especi­ally if suspected) touch it not before it haue beene cleansed, by boyling, or at least by washing in warme water; if it may not spoyle or deface the thing: otherwise, aire and perfume it well. And thus much for flying into a pure Aire.

Now we are to purifie the purified Aire. And herein first I must distinguish Aire into two kindes, viz. Generall and Spe­ciall. By Aire generall, I meane the whole open Aire of the Region. By Speciall, I intend, either that which is inclosed in [Page 11] houses; or that which is immediately next the person of every one, for the space of some few yards compasse round about the Bo­dy, whether within doores or without, wheresoever it goeth or abideth.

And first for the generall Aire of the Region. Purging of the Generall Aire. That is to be purged and rectified, first by cleane sweeping and wash­ing of the streets, lanes, courts, allyes and other wayes and passages of the Cittie; leaving in them no durtie pud­dles, dunghills, or dead carrions. Also by often casting out the mudde of the Towne ditches, and other standing waters. Every morning and euening sweep cleane the streets before every mans doore: Wash downe the channells to keepe them sweet. But I like not that slabbering of the pavement before the house, which I see many vse in moyst wether; for it increaseth the dampishnesse of the Aire: excpt it be before the stalls of Butchers and Cookes: or except the durt can no other-wise be purged away; and then let it be swept drie againe, except the Sunne doe shine so cleare and hot, that it is likely to be soone dried thereby.

But indeed there is no way of purging the Aire like to the making of Fires in the streets:Fire purgeth the Aire best. so it be done with good discretion; that is, In the evenings; when the weather is moyst; and not soultry hot. We read that Hippocrates freed the Cittie of Cranon (before mentioned) and Athens also (as Galen testifieth li, 1. de Theriaca ad Pisonem cap. 16.) by making great bonefires, & burning sweet odours and costly oyntments in them. Aëtius also (li. 5. cap. 94.) reports the like to haue been done by Acro Agrigentinus, whereby he delivered the greatest part of Greece from the Pestilence.

Some Physicians that they may be singular, invent strange wayes by themselues to purifie the Aire. Strang coun­sels of Some learned Physi­tions. As Cardan per­swades to burne leather, or any thing that smells strong though never so stinking; But for my part I am of opinion with Ro­dericu à Castro, and Laurentius Ioubertus, that stinking smells cannot make a wholsome purgation of the Aire. Therefore I leaue his conceite to accompany that of Alex­ander [Page 12] Benedictus, who would haue the dogs that are killed, to be strewed in the streets, that the vapours of their putrefy­ing carcases, might expell the venom of the putrefied Aire. With which may also be exploded Averroës his potion of vrine, which he esteemes an excellent Antidote: I thinke that which is odious to the nostrills, by which way aliment is conveyed to the Spirits: And that which is noysome to the stomach, by which nourishment is brought to the Bo­dy; can be no Cordiall. But for the purging of the Aire, Rodericus à Castro hath another way, and that easy and cheap (if it be as good.) He affirmeth that it was wont to be much vsed in Spayne in pestilent times: and that is, to drive a great droue of Oxen or Kine through all the streets every day; that their sweet wholsome breath may cleanse the im­pure Aire. It is true, that the breath of those Cattell are ve­ry sweet and wholsome: But it is to be doubted, that the impure Aire being much more in quantity then their breath, will sooner infect them, then they purifie it; which if it doe, then surely all their flesh will proue but vnhol­some meat, and may infect more bodies after they haue bene at the Butchers; then they haue purified streets while they went before the drovers. But the Spainards eate so little Beefe, as they needed the lesse to feare such poyson­ing.

The Authors opinion.Now for my opinion what way is best to purge the Generall Aire of the Region. I must needs say that of Hippocrates (be­fore mentioned) is the best, but too costly to be received of our Cittizens. Therefore I would advise that Muskets and such like peeces might be discharged in every street, lane, and corner of the Cittie every morning, and every euen­ing. This way (in hot weather) doth not enflame so much as bonefiers doe by their continued heat, but purifie as much, or rather more. For by the blow, the Aire is first forcibly moued, shaken, devided and attenuated, and so prepared for purification; & then immediatly (by the heat of the fire) purified: and that kinde of fire purgeth it bet­ter then others, for (by reason of the Sulphur and Sault-peeter) [Page 13] it is exceeding drying; and very wholsome. And that this opinion is not any conceit of mine owne; let those that will, Read Levinus Lemnius de Occultis Naturae Mira­culis, or Crato in Consilio 275.lib. 2. cap. 10. Or Raymundus Mindererus li. de Pestilentia cap. 20. The Heathens could be at great cost in contagious times; as appeares by the precious o­dours and sweet oyntments that Hippocrates consumed in the fires for those Citties before mentioned. Why may not Wee be at a lesser cost, for the safety of a greater Cittie. GOD is nearer to vs, then he was to them; we haue his pro­mises to keepe vs in all our wayes; and to prosper our handy workes; they had no such comforts to rest vpon; Yet they endevoured and obtained: wee obtaine not, onely because we endevour not.

And now I come to the Fourth Cause of the Pestilence, which is

The Disorder of Mans Diet.

In the name of Diet are included six things, Diet in six Poynts. wherein a man ought always to be moderate and regular.

  • 1. The Aire, and I mean the Speciall Aire.
  • 2. Meate, and Drinck.
  • 3. Repletion, and Evacuation.
  • 4. Exercise, and Rest.
  • 5. Seepe, and Watching.
  • 6. Passions of the Minde.

These are the six Strings of Apollos Ʋioll, wherein con­sisteth the whole harmonie of health. If these be in tune, the Body is sound; but if any of these, be either too high wres­ted, or too much slackened (that is, immoderately vsed) then is the Body put out of tune, and made subiect to any sicknesse. As one saith well, who hath thus composed those six points, in these two verses.

Aër, Esca, Quies, Repletio, Gaudia, Somnus:
Haec moderata iuuant, immoderata nocent.

[Page 14]Let every man (therefore) be carefull in these things, and if his owne skill be not sufficient to teach him what is temperance; let him observe these rules following.

First for the Aire.

The Disorders of Diet in respect of Aire, or ill choyce of habitation; walking, running or riding at vnseasonable times,The Disor­ders in the Point of Aire. as in fogs, mists, dewe, rayne &c. And in vnhol­some places, such as haue bene reckoned already: as also in drawing into the Body too much of such Aire as is Pesti­lent and contagious.

To cure this point of Diet, we must proceede in purging the Aire; and hauing done with the generall, let vs now goe to purifie the Speciall, The Cure of the Speciall Aire in Houses. and first of all that which is inclo­sed within the House.

Let every roome be kept continually very cleane; leaue no sluttish corners; let no water stand in any vessell so long as to putrifie, which in a corrupt Aire (especially in hot wea­ther) it will soone doe. Cleanse all your vessels often; wash those roomes that are in continuall vse (both floores and wainscoting) every morning; and (those which are able, wash the Windowes, Tables, Cupboards, Stooles, Benches, and all wainscotings, in summer with rose-water, and vineger: and in winter with the Decoction of Rew, Worme wood, Balme, &c. And after these are washed, wipe them allwayes drie againe: (for as I said before of slabbering the streets; so, much more vnholsome is it to leaue the roomes of the house wet) & ha­uing wiped them as drie as you can, aire them also presently with fire. A pan of fire set on the floore in the midst of the roome is the best & quickest way of aireing it. In the meane time let the windows and doores be shut.Observation. But obserue this: Enter not into the roome, (at least to tarry) till it be aired, and the fier taken away: because then the heat and moys­ture are buisily working together, which for the time of working (till the heat haue prevailed) is vnholsome. And if you must needs goe in, during that time; make hast out againe; and set the doore wide open while you tarrie; for such vapours kept close, haue suddenly depriued some of [Page 15] life, before they haue felt themselues offended: as Skenckius (in his observ. li. 2. De Partibus vitalibus:If you must needs be in the [...]ome, let the fire be in the chimney. observ. xix.) pro­veth by diuerse examples. And I could name some also of mine owne knowledge, if need were. Moreover while these roomes are thus aireing, you may cast into these fiers, in Cold weather; Iuniper, both the wood and the berries; Pitch, Turpentine, Franckencense, Storax, Beniamin, Oken-leaues, Airing in Cold wea­ther. Bay leaues, &c. Also at such a season, you may strew your windows, shelues, & ledges; with Balme, Mints, Lavender, Worme-wood, Rew; and such like warming smells. And if the heat of them offend, steep them in Ʋineager six houres, and then strew them as before.

In hot weather. Take a tile, or a fier-shovell heated hot, In Hot wea­ther. and poure into it an equall quantitie of whitewine vineager and Rose­water wherein a little camphor hath been dissolued, & with this perfume the roomes. At such a time likewise, strew the roomes with Primroses, Rose-leaues, Ʋiolets, or some such coole or temperate smelling hearbs, as the season will afford.

In temperate weather, Rosemary and Bay-leaues, in Rosewa­ter, heated in a perfuming pot is very sufficient. Or take Pitch, In temperate weather. Tarre, Turpentine, Rosin, of each a like quantitie, melt them to­gether on the fier, and to every pound put in a pinte of vineager. Boyle them to the consumption of the vineager. Burne some of this daily at all seasons, and in all weathers. And if you adde to it the wood of Iuniper made into powder: It will bee excellent.

If any vault or vnsauory sincke be so neere as to offend any roome of the house: Aire that roome most, and vse it least.

The other kinde of Speciall Aire is sayd to be that which is immediatly next to the person of every one. Cure of Spe­ciall Aire a­bout the Bo­dy.

This is to be purged Foure wayes.
  • 1. By things held in the mouth.
  • 2. By odours held to the nose.
  • 3. By Apparell.
  • 4. By Amulets.

[Page 16]For the first. Of things held in the mouth, Things held in the mouth. some be Simple, and some Compound.

Simple, are Cloues, Citron pills, Roots of Tormentill, Ange­lica, Zedoarie, and such like.

Compound, are such as these following.

Take of London Triacle halfe an ounce; mix it with the musci­lage of Gumm, Dragagant & Rose water, and a little sugar. So make it vp into Rowles or Lozenges, hold one in your mouth; and let it dissolue therein, all the while you are neare any place or person suspected to be infected.

You may also, hold Mithridate in your mouth, if the heat offend you not.

But a peece of a Citron pill alone is best of all in sommer; And in winter, a slice of Angelica roote.

Likewise generally at all seasons Iuniper berres steeped all night in whit-wine Ʋineager. Or Cloues steeped in Rose vi­neager.

And in like manner may you steep slices of the Roots of Angelica, Enulacampane, Zedoarie, Tormentill &c. In Rose­water and vineager; for they are too hot of themselues.

And for those that haue cold stomachs, greene Ginger is exceeding good.

Odours, Sim­ple.Secondly. Odours that are to be carryed in the hand and held to the nose, are also Simple and Compound.

Simple, are Balme, Mints, Rue, Worm-wood, Penniroyall, Myrtles, Lauender, &c.

But these hot hearbs are not fit for any but cold and flegmaticke complexions to vse them Simply and alone. And it is a strange thing to see how all sorts of people play the fooles with their owne noses; all carrying Worm-wood, and thrusting it vp into their nostrills. Wherein ten doe themselues iniurie, for one that doth good. For though they perceiue not the danger presently; yet it must needs inflame their braine: which being over heat, will send downe such iuices to the heart, as shall inflame that also, and so bring them into a burning Feauor, which is the high way to that Sicknes they most desire to shunne. For [Page 17] the Brayne is the continuall spring that cooles the heart; which office if it performe not; the heart will soone over heat it selfe: how much more will it be over heat then when that which should temper it bringeth distemper to it? But people will be so skilfull, that they thinke they need aske no counsell in these matters: but like a flocke of sheep leap one after another, they neither know whether nor wherefore.

It is good therefore to take the iuices of such hearbs as these and mix them with Rose-water and vineager, and so carrie a sponge, or handkercheif dipped therein. And obserue this.

Allwayes mix cold smells with hot; and (even for cold constitutions also.) Let the cold odours be most praedomi­nat: for the greatest danger is in over-heating. For hot things though they purge the Aire, yet they inflame the Bloud and humors. Therefore temper them according to the constitution of the body and weather. Let them like­wise be something Sweet. For vnsauory smells doe dis­solue the Spirits, and weaken the faculties. It is a sure rule, that those things which nature abhoreth, will alwayes hurt her, but neuer help her: except it be to euacuate in some case of repletion only.

Now for Compound Odours. Compound Odours.

Take of London Triacle halfe an ounce, Ʋineager an ounce, Rose-water two ounces. Mixe them together till the Tria­cle be well dissolued.

Then dip a peece of a Sponge in this liquor; and carry it in some little box peirced full of holes, to smell through.

Or, Take liquid Storax, wash it well in Wine-vineager and Rosewater, wherein some Camphor hath beene di­solued. Then mix with it, of the powder of Cloues, and yellow Sanders, as much as will make it thick like Tarre; carrie it in some Sevit or Pomander-box.

As for Pomanders; which are the best, both for hand­some carriage and continuance of sent. If any will resort to me, I will fit them at diuers prices.

[Page 18] To wash the face.Furthermore, It is good also to wash the face, mouth, and nostrills often with strong Ʋineager, Rose-water and a little Wine, wherein hath bene steeped (for six houres together) some thin shavings of Zedoarie or Angelica, or Tormentill roots.

The poore people may wash them with Faire water and Ʋineager, and the iuice of Rue.

Apparell.Thirdly. Apparell is to be a defence against the infecti­ous Aire. Which becommeth so, by being well made, and well kept.

To the well making of garments in this respect, there goe two points; the Stuffe, and the Fashion. For the Stuffe, all woolen cloth would be avoided, because it retaineth the in­fection long: Buffe also, Shamoys, and such kinds of leather are naught, because they (through their sponginesse) doe draw and keep it much more then other wearings: Fea­thers likewise and Fans; being the most needlesse orna­ments, should now be layd aside, for they are also of a nature that retaineth infection long: and so are all kinde of Furrs; therefore weare none of these if you may choose. But if your purse will serue, buy Grograms, Chamlets, &c. Such as may be watred: for the watering of stuffes through their gumminesse, doth best exclude the Aire from entring or taking vp any loging in the stuffs so dressed. And let the doublets & hose be lined rather with Linnen then Fustian, because the woolinesse of Fustian is of kin to the other all­ready found fault with-all. As for silkes, as Grograms, Taffa­ties, Sattins, they are also very good, but Ʋeluets, Plush, Shag and such like are not so good. Let them be also fitted with linings according to the weather, that they occasion not the Body to sweat through heat, to bee tired with waight, nor to catch cold with thinnesse. For these in­conveniences may be occasions of much harme; But tak­ing of cold is the most dangerous of all; for there vpon fol­low putrid Feauors: and all of them are friends to the Plague. For the Fashion, avoyd much Quiltings, and stuffing with Bombast and Haire, for into such things the infected Aire will easily get, and hardly forsake them.

[Page 19]Women vsually haue Whale-bone bodies which are as good armour as any other. Let the greatest care be to guard the vitall parts: But withall there must be some care of all the body: which to guard the better, it is good to weare long Cloakes of such watered stuffes as I haue mentioned; which being outermost, excludeth well the outward Aire while one is abroad; and when one is come home, they may be layd by, till they haue beene aired. But for Physiti­ans and Chyrurgians, and such as come among the sicke: it is good for them to haue long Gownes of such stuffes; which as soone as they come forth of the sicke Chambers, they may throw off to be aired. And so much for the Well-ma­king. Now for the Well keeping of Garments; this is done by keeping them cleane and sweet. To keepe them cleane, requires varietie and often shifting. To keepe them sweet is required much airing and perfuming. As when you put them on, or lay them by, and that according to the Weather.

As in cold Weather.

Take Iuniper slices, Iuniper berries bruised; Rosemarie, Perfumes for Apparell. Bay-leaues, and Wormwood cut small; and Franckincense grosse­ly powdered.

Burne them together on a chafing dish of coales, and so perfume your Cloaths.

In hot Weather.

Take dried Rose-leaues steeped in Rose-water, wherein Cam­phor hath been dissolved, and adde to it a little vineager.

Vpon a hot fire-shouell make a fume: and perfume your apparell.

In temperate Times.

Take Iuniper berries, gum Dragagant, and Franckincense, all grossely powdered; of each a like quantitie. Steepe them in vineager and Rose-water, six houres.

Then spread the same on a hot tile or fire-shouell, and perfume your Cloaths therewith.

Fourthly, Amulets, Amulets. are things made to hang about the necke, to touch the naked skin next the heart. These are of some with a kinde of superstition esteemed. But though [Page 20] Carpus the Chirurgian of Bononia perswaded himselfe and others, that he was preserved from the Plague by wearing Arsenicke in a clout vpon the region of the heart; yet many in London haue died of the Plague with those bables about them: and as for Arsenicke and other such poysonous stuffe, I could speake enough against them;Dr. Herring. but a learned Dr of Physicke hath saued me that labour. But for some cordiall things; I will for the Readers satisfaction giue a taste of them. They may be of two sorts, Simple, and Compounded. Simple, as Vnicornes horne, Bezoar stone, (which is the best of all, if a man can get it) the Hiacinth also and Smaragdus, and such like; but how the influence of such stones may be conveyed out of their hard bodies to the heart, is hard for me to vnderstand. The former are more likely; for Ga­len reports (li. 6. de Simp. Medic. facult.) that he cured a boy of the Falling-sicknesse, by hanging a Paeonie roote about his necke. Yet I thinke he could never say so but that once: Therefore I would wish none to put any confidence in such disputable things. Neverthelesse, since I haue divided them into Simple and Compounded; I will giue you a Com­position, which may be vsed in stead of an Amulet, and that to good purpose.

A good Quilt to be vsed in stead of an Amulet. Take the leaues of red Roses dried, two drams, all the Saun­ders, Lignum, Aloes, Zedoarie roote, Angelica roote, Sage, white Dittanie, Baulme, Citron pills, of each halfe a dram.

Make them into powder, and sew them vp in a peece of red Taffarie or Calico; and make a Quilt thereof. Heat it on a pewter dish vpon a chasing dish of coales; and sprinc­kle it with Rose-vineager: so apply it warme to the place, and renew it once in six houres.

I cannot but let thee know (good Reader) that even now while I was writing vpon this subiect, there hath beene a patient with me, who is poysoned with with a venemous Amulet. Be warned therefore by the harmes of others to take heed of such pernicious things.

Thus haue I finished the first part of Diet; concerning Aire. The second part followeth.

[Page 21]Which consisteth of Meate and Drinke. Meate and Drinke.

Disorder in meate and drinke is chiefly committed either in regard of the Qualitie, or Quantitie of them.

In Qualitie, when that meat or drinke which is vsed,Disorder in their qualitie. is either generally vnwholsome for all men (as venemous Mushroms; stincking or raw meate; musty, or new, or dead drinkes; these breed venom in the humors, and so a iust occasion for infection) or els particularly naught for the proper constitution of him that eats or drinkes it. As meat of hard digestion to a weake stomach, (for that denyeth nourishment) meate of easie concoction to a strong sto­mach, (for that putresies in the stomach, and so corrupts the bloud) hot spices and inflaming drinkes to a hot con­stitution, &c. these breed many diseases in the purest aire; and in a contagious, they easily make way for the Plague. Therefore we are to be carefull what we eat or drinke.

And our Care must be two fold; first, to refuse things noysome; secondly, to choose things wholsome.

In refusing things noysome take these rules.

Beware of piercing and attenuating things;Qualities of meates gene­rally to be refused. for they are hea­ting; and by opening the body, they expose it to the cor­ruption of the Aire. On the contrary also thicke and slimie things are stopping, breeding crudities and putrefaction; by reason of that crassitude, moysture, and accidentall heat which is in them. Sweet and fatty things likewise are to be avoyded▪ because they easily turne to choller, and so kindle hot feavors. Very moyst meates, as wee see they are hardly kept sweet in hot weather, so by the heat of the stomach, they easily turne to putrefaction; especially to hot and chol­lericke constitutions. But of all things those that are both moyst and hot (especially wherin the moyst is predominant) are most dangerous, because they are as it were the very seed of putrefaction. Cold mixed with moyst is not so ill, be­cause not so apt presently to putrefie; but wheresoever the moyst is stronger, the blood is made watrish and weaker; and therefore not so nourishing as Nature needs it. Also meats of hard digestion, melancholicke, salt, and windie are to [Page 22] be eschewed. Beware of all things that are hot and enflaming. Much vse of very sharpe things, are very hurtfull. Shunne also all things that increase much blood, for the body must be kept low in contagious times. Also all things that are loath­some to the pallat or stomach must be reiected; for that which nature abhorreth, dissipateth the Spirits.

Particular meats to be forborne.Having thus taught by their Qualitie in generall what meates and drinkes are to be forborne: Now I will more particularly reckon vp such as are most commonly known and vsed: being most to be avoyded in times of Infection.

And first for your Bread. Bread. Be carefull that it be not mustie, nor mouldie: neither eat it hot, nor before it be a day olde. It is best for them that can haue Ouens at home, not to send their bread to other houses to be baked: nor to receiue any continually from the hand of common Bakers that serue to many severall houses.

Flesh of beasts. Very salt and long powdered Beefe (though never so much watered afterward to get out the salt) is not good; yea all that watering and moystening makes it worse. Also Bacon, and Porke, especially boyled: the Hare, especially when he is olde. Venison both of fallow and red Deere, that liue in a corrupted aire, are vnwholsome: not alone for the reason that some giue of their liuing alwayes in the open aire; and much running & heating their bodies therein (which makes them apt to be corrupted by the contagion) but also in regard of the manner of killing them; which is by hun­ting them to death: for in that action they poyson their flesh very much by tyring their bodies and weakening their spirits to the death; and by the infinite working of the passion of feare in them: which how apt that is to poy­son any body; I shall shew in his place.

Fowles: Foules that liue in fens or waters, are all naught, as the Goose, Ducke, Mallard, Teale, Hearon, &c.

Inwards.Meats made of the Inwards of Beasts, are not good, as Pud­dings, Tripes, Chitterlings, Kidneys, Livers, Lights, Milts, &c.

Of Fishes, Fish. such as liue in standing Pooles and Ponds, (especially in muddy waters) are very evill; as, Carps, Eeles, [Page 23] Lampreys, and such like: for they corrupt the humors and breed obstructions. Salt-fish and Sea fish, sharpen the hu­mors. Oysters, Cockles, Muskles, Peruinckles, are hurtfull. Grisly fish (as Mayds, Thornbacke, and such like) are to be avoyded.

Egges of Geese, Ducks, Pigeons, &c. are to be reiected.Egges.

Milke, Milke. (because it is of all meates most easie of digesti­on) soone corrupteth in the stomach, and therefore is dis­allowed. So is Creame, because it makes grosse blood. Likewise Cheese, because it is stopping. And also Whey, be­cause it is opening, and not nourishing.

Of Fruits, Fruits. all such as are Worme-eaten, are to be accoun­ted corrupted and naught. All sweete and luscious fruits; as Cherries, Plums, greene Figs, sweete Grapes, Black-berries, &c. Also Melons, Pompions, Pomcitrons, &c. Forbeare generally all Summer fruits; because they breed crudities and grosse humors. Among the rest also Beanes and Pease are accoun­ted vnfit meats.

Roots, Roots. such as are watrish, are to be refrained; so also is Garlicke; (for all it is called, the Poore-mans Triacle) because it openeth and heateth too much; therefore it is seldome fit in these times.

Hearbs that are hot are not to be vsed but with good ad­vise, and tempering them with such as are cooling.Hearbs. And beware of Cabages, Coleworts, Lettice, and Rocket; and all moyst and cold hearbs; for they breed obstructions and cru­dities.

Let not your Sauces be sweet; for such increase choller;Sauces. nor too full of taste, for that whets the appetite beyond the desire of nature, & provokes to too liberall feeding. Among other sauces, Mustard is chiefly to be forbidden, because it openeth, and discusseth.

Beware of hot Spices, Spices. vse them sparingly; and then well allayed with cooling things.

Pottage and Broths, Broths. are no fit food for these times: because if they be thicke and strong, they nourish too fast: or if they be thin and not nourishing, they fill the body with moy­sture [Page 24] more then needs. For Manardus (li. 5. epist. 3.) saith, The body ought rather to be dried then moystened.

Mushroms.Some haue (from strangers) taken vp a foolish tricke of eating Mushroms or Toadstooles. But let them now be war­ned to cast them away; for the best Authors hold the best of them at all times in a degree venomous, and therefore in time of Pestilence much more dangerous.

What manner of dressing meates are worst.Now for the manner of dressing your meat, briefly obserue; that baked meats (because their vapours are restrained with­in their coffins) are not so well purified by the fire, as meats otherwise cooked: therefore they are suspected to haue in them a degree of venom; especially, if the meat haue beene kept any long while in the infected Aire: much more if it be Venison, for the reasons before-named. But if any be earnestly desirous of Baked meats, let them first take heed they be not too full of taste and gluttonous: and also let the pie or pastie, be opened as soone as it comes out of the O­ven, and so let it breath it selfe till it be cold.

Also sowsed and pickled meats are not good; neither are boyled meats so good as rosted.

What drinkes are vnfit▪Of Drinkes. Beere or Ale that is new, strong, heady, and fuming; also bitter, fl [...]t, dead, or fusty, are to be avoyded.

Compounded drinkes.Likewise such as are sophisticated with Lemons, Spices, &c.

And those that are made with Sage, Worm-wood, Scorby-grasse; and other such Ingredients: vnto which may be ad­ded Metheglin, Mead, Bragget, Vsquebath, Hippocras, Aqua-Vitae, Rosa solis, Aqua Composita; and all strong and Compoun­ded waters. As these are indeed no other then Medicines, so neither are they otherwise to be vsed; that is, alwayes with good Caution, vpon good cause, and with skilfull Counsell

Pery and sweet Cyder, Pery and Cyder. are to be refused for their sweetness and coldness.

Wines, Wines. though they are frequently vsed among sober people; yet they are not so fit for the constitution of Eng­lish men, as Beere and Ale. And this is evident in that the onely wise God (who knoweth best what is fittest for every [Page 25] Region) hath forbidden this Soyle to bring forth such things; because they are either needlesse or not naturall to the Inhabitants. Therefore it were good if all kindes of Wines were vsed of vs, but as so many kindes of Medicines also; that is, onely to helpe Nature when shee is too weake to helpe her selfe in Concoction, Retention, and Excretion. And among Wines (in regard of the Sicknesse) those that are new, sweet, blacke, and troubled, are forbidden. Piercing Wines; such as White and Rhenish (for the reasons already alleaged in Piercing and Attenuating things) I can­not allow of for ordinary vse: though some Physitions doe. As for Muskadell and Malego, their sweet taste, and that dullnesse of Spirit which is caused by them, betrayes their vnfitnesse in times of Contagion.

And before I leaue this point, let me leaue with you this Caveat.Good Ca­veats. Take heed into what houses you enter to drinke with your friend: lest in stead of a health, you drinke your death. Let euery man drinke in his own cup, and let none trust the breath of his Brother. Also take heed of all drinkes that smell or taste of the Caske.

Now me-thinkes I heare one whisper in mine eare, hee would faine know what I thinke of Tobacco; he takes it to be the onely Antidote against the Plague.

I cannot stand to dispute the case deepely:Tobacco. But I will briefly shew my opinion. Tobacco hath these manifest Quali­ties: It is Heating and Drying; it evacuateth grosse Humors; it draweth away Rheums; it provoketh Vrine, and keepeth the belly soluble. There may be some times, and some bodies wherein a Medicine having these opening qualities may be vsed; as namely, to a Cold and Flegmaticke complexi­on, full of grosse humors; the partie for the time keeping himselfe warme, and within dores. But for the common fashion of taking it, by every man, every day (yea almost every houre) in shops and open places, without considera­tion of constitution, or iust cause; I cannot approue of it at all: much lesse as any Antidote. But let vs examine it a little further, for their sakes that would vse it more orderly: [Page 26] and see whither it may be accounted a Preservatiue Medi­cine or no. I haue already reckoned the best qualities it hath, being taken in the Pipe (for so onely I discourse of it) and the first of those qualities indeed shews a faire countenance to the case: But the foure latter talke too much of penetra­tion, and evacuation: wherewith it opens the pores, and makes the body fit to receiue the contagious aire; it also dissolues the braine, and causeth the humors thereof to fall downe into all parts of the body distempered with a heat contrary to nature; wherupon it enflames the blood, turns it to melancholy, and resteth not till it haue also turned Blacke Choller into Burnt Choller. And in all this doing, his heat carries no cordiall to the spirits (which must never be absent from an Antidote) for it is mixed with a nauseous qualitie, noysome to the stomach, and offensiue to nature; as appeares by the violence it offers in vomiting, when a lit­tle of the iuice is given to that purpose. These things conside­red, I thinke Tobacco hath very little good vse in Pestilent times. And thus much for noysome things to be avoided.

The Cure of this Cause. Qualities of meates and drinkes gene­rally to be chosen.Now we come to reckon vp holsome things to be elected.

Let the Qualities of your meats and drinkes be temperate betwixt hot and cold, and rather drie then moyst. And (if the stomach may endure it) let them for the most part haue a sharp or sower smacke with them. Let them be of easie digestion, breeding good blood, and sincere humors in the body.

Bread.Let your Bread be made of the best and purest Wheat (which alone maketh the best Bread) or mixe it with some Rie. Let the Corne be such as harvest hath housed before the Aire became infectious. Leauened bread is the most holsome, because of the sowernesse. Let those that may, bake their bread at home.

Flesh of beasts. Rosted Beefe may be eaten with Vineager. A rosting Pigge is not to be denyed, if his belly be stuffed with Sage, sweete Marioram, Spinach, Parsley, and Mints: the sauce also made sharpe with Vineager and spiced with a little Pepper, or Ginger. Veale, Mutton, Lamb, Kid, and Coney are very hol­some: but let them not be very fat.

[Page 27]Of Fowles, Fowles. such as fly neerest the Sunne, and build their nests on high, feeding on sweet and holsome graine, are best approved by the best Authors: because they receiue lesse infection from the lower aire, which is the most con­tagious. But if we examine which are they, we shall finde but a few that keepe all these conditions. For the Hearon flies high, and builds high; but feeds in fenny and moorish places, and on moyst meates. The Kite, Hawke, Raven, and such like, feed on carrion, and are never counted worthy to be served as a dish at the Table. The Larke flies high and neare the Sunne, but hath his nest on the earth. The Rookes in deed flie somthing high, build high, and feed on the best Corne; and their young ones are esteemed daintie food: but these are not for every ones dish. Therefore we may not be so over-curious in the choice of these creatures. Let these suffice as most holsome, viz. Capon, Turkey, Henne, Pullet, Chicken, Partridge, Pheasant, tame Pigeons, yong wilde Pigeons, Turtles, Larks, Black-birds, Thrushes, and Finches.

Some Inwards of Beasts and Fowles also,Inwards. are very good and holsome: as the Gizards and Livers of Hens, and Capons: the Hearts of Veale, Mutton, and Lambe: also Lamb-stones, and young Cock-stones are excellent meat, and fit for the state of some bodies. But whosoever he be that makes choice of them for the nourishment of his lust, let him remember the Israelites Quailes, and tremble; lest while the meat is in his mouth, the hand of God be at his heart;Numb. 11 33. and in the messe of his sinne, the Plague salute him with the message of death.

Fishes that are of Rivers, and cleare running waters are best:Fish. as Plaise, Flounders, &c. Fresh Salmon, Trouts, Barbels, Shrimps &c. Of Sea-fish there are but a few fit to be vsed in these times: and those are Gogions, Mullets, Soales, Gurnards, Lob­sters, and Cray-fishes: But fish must be seldomer vsed then flesh; and onely for change of diet to weake and longing stomachs. For all kindes of fish breed but a watrish kinde of blood.

Egges of Hens (if they be eaten new and reare dressed) are good, whither they be rosted, boyled, fried, or poached;Egges. [Page 28] and eaten with Veriuice, or Vineager, and the iuice of a Le­mon. Also Turkey Egges so vsed are good: but eate them seldomer, because they afford a little too rancke nourish­ment. In Summer time, eate flesh and egges more sparing­ly then in Winter, lest you increase blood too much, or turne it to choller; which also turneth to inflamation, and putrefaction.

Butter. Butter is very good, and so is Buttermilke: (if mode­rately vsed) but they doe easily inflame a chollericke sto­macke: and send vp hot fumes into the head. The milke also purgeth some bodies: such therefore are the more to forbeare it.

Fruits may be allowed (but seldome and in little quan­titie to be vsed) the sower and sharpe are best;Fruits. as sower Cher­ries and Plums (but these preserved, or in tarts, or at least scalded, rather then raw) the Norwich, and Katherin Peares: the Peppins, Pearmains, & Harvie Apples being growne old; are counted Cordialls. Also Peaches, Quinces, Pomgranets, Oranges, Lemons, Medlars, Sarvices, Strawberries, Gooseber­ries, Barberies, Raspes, Mulberries; likewise dried fruits, as dried Peares, Plums, Cherries, Figs, Raisins, Damask proins, &c. Those that haue hot stomachs, and desire Cucumbers, may eat them beaten with an Onion and Salt, and sauced with Vineager, and a little sprinckled with Pepper. French Beanes al­so (called à formâ, Kidney Beanes) may now and then be vsed, as the best sort of pulse for meate. So may Hartichokes with Butter and Vineager, or the iuice of a Lemon. If you ear­nestly desire sometime to eate of the moyster fruits: eat after them an Orange with a little Fennell and Salt. And if you feele your stomach over-cooled with such kinde of moyst fruits; drinke also a draught of good white Wine: at such a time; that Wine is good to warme the stomach, and carrie away the crudities.

Of Roots, Roots. these are the best, Turneps, Carrots, Parsnips, Hartichokes of Ierusalem. Also Onions, and Radishes, for they are esteemed of great vertue against venoms. And so are Leekes, because they cleanse the blood.

[Page 29]Of Hearbs;Hearbs. the warme and drying are of greatest vse, as Rue, Wormwood, Baulm, Mints, Peni royall, Rosemary, and many such like; with which you may stuffe and temper moyst meats. But for Sallets and Sauces: Fennell, sweet marior [...]m, Sage, Time, Parsley, Succorie. But of all; sharpe and sower hearbs are best: and therefore Sorrell is in good request, and Endiue or Succorie mixed therewith; because of themselues they are opening.

Hot Spices may be vsed in moyst meats,Spices. and to temper cold and sower fruits. Also in Winter time, and to a cold stomach, they may be allowed simple; or with little qualifi­cation: otherwise there is no vse of them, but to mixe with sauces. What Spices I meane, are easily knowne: viz. Pep­per, Cloues, Mace, Nutmegs, Ginger; and to these I adde Saffron, and the roots of Enula Campane, Zedoarie, Angelica, and Tormentill; which are very vsefull.

The fittest Sauces are sharpe and sower ones. Sauce [...] As Sorrell and Ʋineager, or Ʋeriuice, or the iuice of Lemons, or Oranges. Also Capers and Vineager, are very good. When the wea­ther is cold & your stomach craues it, you may mixe them with Spices to make them warmer; and in these cases if you doubt the weaknesse of your stomach, & the binding in of your spirits, by cold sower Sauces; then temper your meats with Sugar, a little Salt, Cinnamon, Pepper, Safron, and some Fennell: or with Egges, Butter, and the iuice of Lemons, and a little Fennell and Saffron.

Broths must be very thin, Broths. and something sharpened with Le­mons, or Vineager. In stead of them also you may somtimes vse Posset-ale turned with Vineager, or a Lemon; and after boyled with some of these hearbs before commended. Or Aleberries for those that cannot away with flesh. And let those that feed on these things, forbeare drinke.

Gellyes also are good for weake bodies,Gellyes. if they be not in­temperately Spiced.

As for the manner of dressing: Rost is better then boyled;What manner of Dressing Meates is best. Fish is beft [...] fried then boyled. But if any desire boyled meat rather, then let it be flesh of the drier sort: or if yet it must [Page 30] needs be of the moyster, let it be well sauced with sharpe and sower things, with a little Pepper, Cinnamon, prepa­red Coriander seeds and salt. Sorrell and Marigold flow­ers may be added at your pleasure.

Vineager his vertues.I haue still prescribed Vineager as a thing of generall vse, because being cooling and drying, it resisteth all kinds of poyson, and repelleth putrefaction. Which is apparent (as Ambrosius Paraeus li. de Peste. cap. 8. testifieth) in the embalming of dead bodies, who are washed in Vineager, to keepe them from putrefying.Not so good for Women. But here I must giue a Caveat to women: for (as Crato in Consil. 275. saith) it hurteth the Mother: therefore they must allay it with white Wine and Sugar.

Beere and Ale.Now for Drinke. Middling Beere or Ale is generally best for common vse: But the constitution of every one must fit it selfe. Onely take heed of extremities; very strong enflames: and very small makes watrish blood. Let your drinke be well boyled, and stale; but quicke and fresh.

Cyder made of sharpe Apples is not amisse to be vsed som­times,Cyder. to refresh the pallat with varietie.

Wine.Those that haue need of Wine to helpe their stomachs, let them vse good Claret, Sherries sacke, or Canarie: and now and then a draught of White Wine. But if your stomach doe not much require them simply: allay them with water. Let your wine be cleare, briske, old, and pleasant.

Who are fit to vse Wine.To a weake stomach, and a feeble nature, Wine is an An­tidote against all poysons; as Celsus li. 8. de Re Medica. cap. 27. affirmeth. And Senectutis summa est Medicina: it is the best Medicine for Old age, as Aëtius teacheth in Tetr. 1. serm. 4. cap. 30. But let not youths, and men of strength thinke they may be so bold with Wine in these contagious sea­sons, as they haue bin wont to be at other times. For it must needs inflame their bloud, and inflamation is certainly se­conded with putrefaction; and putrefaction is no lesse then a degree of poyson in the humors, which will easily turne to the Pestilence.

Quantitie.And so much for the Disorder of Mans Diet in Qualitie of Meat & Drinke. Now we come to Quantitie. And here­in; [Page 31] The disease is Surfeiting, and the Remedie must be Sobrie­tie. I will therefore lay open, first the Danger of the Disease, and then the Course of the Cure.

In this Disorder of Quantitie, Gluttonie. I cannot but admire at my Countrey men: for if Heliogabalus were now among the liuing, he might finde enough companions among Eng­lishmen. It was wont to be said, The Drunken-Dutchman: but the Dutch haue playd the God-fathers, & haue too kindly, bestowd their names vpon our men, such names I meane as Diotemus of Athens had; who was intituled the Tunnell, for his filthy delight in drinking and drinking in a Tunnell. For the liues of many are so monstrous, that a man might say of some among vs, as Valerius Aurelianus the Emperour was wont to say of Bonosus, a Spaniard: That he was borne; not to liue, but to drinke. These riotous abuses of Gods good gifts, are a maine cause why the Lord at this time striketh this Land with Sicknesse, and threatneth it with the Famine. And if any of that Luxurious Sect be at this time sober, let them but listen to the testimonies of learned experience,The dangers of Surfeiting. who will tell them into what bodily dangers they plunge themselues by this detestable disorder.

Hippocrates hath an Aphorisme to this purpose,Li. 2. Aph. 17. that Meat or drinke immoderately taken causeth sicknesse.

Paulus Aegineta goes yet further, saying,De Re Medicae▪ li. 1. cap. 32. That the veynes being filled too full; are afflicted, distended, or els broken: obstruc­ted, filled with winde, and over-charged. And of all diseases, he affirmeth, that the over-charging of the veines is the worst.

Galen affirmeth,In Com. 2. Hipp. de Natu. Huma­na. Li. de Causis morborū. cap. 3. that Drunkennesse and Crudities (which arise from intemperance) doe breed new diseases.

And in another place, he sayth, Whereas wine moderately taken increaseth naturall heat; as being his proper aliment: by Drunkennesse commeth astonishment of the brayne, the Falling sicknesse, or some mayme either to Sense or Motion. And so, the best Meats, which afford most nourishment, being immoderately eaten, ingender cold Diseases.

But Avicen more particularly layes downe the dangers that follow this over Repletion, in these words: Eating [Page 32] much nourisheth not;De Removendis Nocumentis in Regimine Sani­tatis. Tract. 4. cap. 1. but fills the body with crudities and raw humors stops the pores, weakens the powers of nature; causes putrefaction, mixed feavors, short breath, Sciatica, and ioynt-Aches.

Againe, in another place he speakes of drinking, thus: Much drinking of Wine in sanguine and chollericke complexions,Ibidem. cap. 19.overheats the bloud, and causeth choller to superabound; and by too much Repletion of the veynes and vessells, there may follow a hot Apoplexie, and suddain Death. In cold Complexions it breeds Diseases of the sinews; and that for two causes: The first is the over moystening of the sinews; the other, the turning of the drinke into Vineager before it can passe through the body: So the Nerves are by the former relaxed, and by the latter corroded. Whereupon follows the cold Apoplexie, Astonishment, Sensles­nesse, Lethargie, Palsey, Trembling of the limbs, and convulsions of the mouth.

These are the fearefull mischiefs that befall their bodies; besides the miserable wants that grow like eating Cankers into their Estates, and the hideous Hell-torments which at­tend their Soules.

And note this also, that what these haue said of Wine, the same is true likewise of all other strong Drinkes.

The Cure.Now to Cure this bruitish Disease, there is no better way then Prevention; and Gluttonie is prevented by Sobrietie. Therefore againe hearken to Avicen, who adviseth alwayes to rise from meate with some remainder of Appetite: for within halfe an houre, or as soone as the meate (first eaten) beginneth to digest, our hunger ceaseth. li. 1. Fen. 3. Doct. 2. cap. 7.

And hence it is, that some (greedily following the sense of their appetite) overcharge their stomachs even to vo­miting, before they feele themselues satisfied; because, though the vessell be over-full, yet the Appetite is not ap­peased till Concoction haue begun her worke vpon some part of that which is already received. These things are e­specially to be regarded in a contagious time. For Repleti­on is the originall of all mischiefs that Crudities can pro­duce, and they can cause speedy putrefaction, & that speeds them with the Pestilence.

[Page 33]But as for a strict Quantitie of eating and drinking, I can­not stint every mans stomach; but must conclude with Hippocrates, Aph. 17. li. 1. Concedendum est aliquid Tempori, Regioni, Aetatt, et Consuetudini. The Time, Place, Age, and Custome, must beare some sway in these things. Onely in these times, I would wish all men, women, and children to be so moderate (as Avicen counselleth) that they still keepe in the fire of their appetite;Be sparing in eating. and how sparing so [...]ver they are wont (naturally or customarily) to be; let them be now somthing more sparing. Make sewer and shorter meales. I would wish those that haue not very weake and windie stomachs, to eat but twice a day: that is, Breakfast and Din­ner: to goe to bed without a Supper is very holsome; thereby we giue Sleepe leaue to supply the evenings nou­rishment, which it will better performe when neither the stomach troubles it with vapours; nor it hinders the sto­mach from digestion.

Let your drinke also be lesse then your meat:Be more spa­ring in drink­ing. And drinke not betweene meales, if you can forbeare.

Laertius li. 2. saith, that Socrates liued in Athens in divers Plague times, and was never sicke of it: and the reason was, his great temperance in diet.

In Winter and cold Weather, eate your meat hot from the fire. In Summer eat it for the most part cold. Let the times of eating be; for your breakfast two houres after you are vp, and haue taken some Antidote. And your dinner fiue houres after that againe. Your Supper also (if the weak­nesse of your stomach craue it) fiue houres after your din­ner.

Frame not to your selfe an Antidote without skill:Antidotes must be first taken in the morning. but take advice of the Physition: who will consider what will best agree with the particular temper of your body: for Mithridate and Triacle, are generally good for all; but not particularly for every one.

But because every one will not be brought to breake their old customary times of meales; as dinner at twelue, and supper at seaven: I am content to yeeld to custome in [Page 34] these cases. Onely let them never goe forth without their breakfast: that they may be armed against Winde and Emp­tinesse. And their Antidote taken two houres before; that they may be armed against evill Aires.

Breakfasts.Now for those that must therfore make three meales a day; let their breakfast (if they be of a cold constitution) be some bread and butter with Nutmeg grated, and a little Citron pill powdered, and strewed vpon it. Or els bread and sallet Oyle (for such as loue it) spiced with the powder of Enula campane roote. Or els (especially in cold and moyst weather) eate a few figs with a little Penniroyall and salt. But for hot stomachs and chollericke complexions; let such dip some bread in Beere and Ʋineager, and eat it. Or take good Wine Ʋineager, steepe in it (for three dayes together) the powder of Brimston and a few Fennell-seeds, soppe your bread in it, and make it your break-fast And for those that must make three meales a day, let their breakfast be little in quantitie. At other meales, eat the lightest meats first, and then those that are more hard of digestion: Eat no butter last, and drinke not last after your meate. Neither is Cheese so commonly to be eaten at these times, for if it be full of Butter, it is fuming; if not, it is bin­ding: and both these are faults; except the inclination of the body require it at sometimes.

After dinner also, if you haue a cold stomach, close it with a bit of bread, and a few Coriander seeds prepared. And this likewise will doe well for breastfast, if you be troubled with winde and gripings.

Varietie of meats are naught a [...] one meale. Eate not of aboue two or three dishes at Dinner, and at Sup­per, let one suffice you. Quercitavus (in Diaetet: Polyhist. Sect. 2. cap. 8.) proues, that the eating of varietie of meates, and drinking of divers kindes of drinkes at one meale, makes such a confused heape in the stomach, as turneth to infinite tumults in Concoction; while some are sower, and some speedier in softening, digesting, and distributing into the parts of the body.

To conclude; Let Custome somthing prevaile in all points of diet, with those that haue vsed temperance in former [Page 35] times; and onely pare it somthing thinner in respect of the present pestilent time. As for those that never knew the rules of order yet: let them learne shortly, if they desire to liue long. And so much for the second part of Diet: Meate and Drinke.

The third Poynt of Diet, is Repletion, and Evacuation.

Galen (li. 1. de Differ. feb. cap. 4.) sayth, that the body ought especially to be kept free from superfluities. The Cause. And Hippocrates (in the third Aph. of his first Booke) proveth that Plethoricke bo­dies are subiect to great dangers: wherefore he counselleth Evacuation; and yet withall to goe no further therein then Nature will safely beare. For as too much Repletion is hurt­full, so too long fasting makes the stomach languish; there­fore suffer not too much emptinesse. Hunger sharpens the humors and weakens the Spirits: And Thirst makes the heart hot, and enflames the Spirits; who therefore desiring to be cooled, doe draw in more quantitie of the evill Aire by breathing, then they should, and that I haue alreadie proved to be dangerous. Therefore it is better to eate the oftener, so it be the lesse at once.

When you rise in the morning rub your sides, armes, The way of Cure. What is to be done when one riseth in the morning. and legges a little: your cloths being on; comb your head, and rub it; hauke and spit; and blow your nose, to evacuate those excre­ments. Then wash your hands and face with faire water first, in regard of cleansing; but afterward (in respect of preserva­tion) wash your face, nose, mouth, and eye-lids (closing your eyes) with Rose-water and Vineager and white Wine. Or with faire water and a little Ʋineager, wherein Rue hath shred and steeped all night. Assay also to make water, and goe to stoole. Be carefull to bring your body to a custome of evacuation at that time. And after that eat your Antidote.

If you be costiue, vse some Suppositorie, or Clyster;Keepe the bo­die soluble. if such slighter meanes (whereof every man can prescribe one or other) will not prevaile, consult with the Physition: and suffer not two whole dayes to passe without such evacuations.

[Page 36] Be Cleanly.Be carefull likewise to keepe your selfe neate and cleanly at all times. Wash your feete once a fortnight in warme water, wherein are boyled Rose-leaues (either fresh or dried) Vine-leaues, Bay leaues, Rosmarie, Fennell, Camomill, and some Bay Salt. Flee all other Bathings, and especially washing and swimming in Rivers, Ponds, and such open places, (as the Thames, and such like) within the region of the Aire in­fected: for it is most dangerous.

Vrine and Menstrua.If Vrine stop, or Menstrua flow not as they should; seeke remedie of the Physition speedily.

Venus.Fly Venus as much as you may, for shee hath an ill re­port in times of Pestilence.

Prevention of ill Humors.In a Pestilent Aire, every disease becommeth somthing Pestilent, and more deadly then ever before: And any kinde of Feavor easily turneth to the Plague it selfe. Therefore if any perceiue blood, or any other humor to abound, or to be corrupted (what time of the yeare, or what weather soever it be) let him begin to abate it by moderate Abstinence; or els take the advise of a Physition; for opening a veine, or some other course, such as the Artist shall thinke fit. And let them not put it off till they be worse, in hope of growing better by their owne strength: For Nature for the most part strug­gles in vaine without helpe: and contagious cases are not to be trusted to.

Sweating.Naturall Sweating, that commeth easily, and of it selfe is good; hinder it not therefore, and yet embrace it not too earnestly.

Issues.To conclude; If a man or woman haue an Issue, or Fon­tanell in arme or legge; or haue any running soare; heale it not vp, for it is a good meanes to keepe safe from infection; because Nature will (lightly) be strong enough to expell any venom by such a common sewer. But yet make not this thy sheild of confidence, for though few such haue beene stricken; yet I can name some that haue died of the Plague, for all that they had issues, and those at that time well and plentifully running.

The fourth Poynt of Diet, is Exercise and Rest.

Some are so lazie as they will not stirre their bodies at all;The Cause. these suffer superfluous humors to increase, because they doe not breath them out by exercise. Ovid. de Ponto, re­sembles such to standing Pooles, which corrupt for lacke of purging themselues by motion.

Cernis vt ignavum corrumpunt otia corpus?
Ʋt capiunt vitium ni moveantur Aquae?

Others againe are so violent in their labour and exercise, that they prodigally waste the treasure of those good hu­mors that should nourish them. Of these againe the Poet singeth;

Otia corpus alunt, Animus quo (que) pascitur illis.
Immodicus contra carpit vtrum (que) Labor.

Such exercises as Running, wrestling, much leaping, What Exerci­ses are not good. violent dancing, hard riding, foot-ball-playing, tennise, and the like; which cause a man to swear in open aire, are very dange­rous. For thereby the pores are opened to let in that aire which bringeth poyson with it. Also the lungs fetching short and deepe breathing (as I haue else where sayd alrea­dy) draw it as fast into the vitall parts.

Moderate exercise stirreth vp and nourisheth naturall heat;What Exercise is best. fills the members thereby with activitie and aptnesse to motion; also it helps concoction and evacuation of ex­crements. Therefore let your exercise be Walking, and gentle stirring, ad Ruborem, non ad Sudorem: till you be warme, not till you sweat.

Let the time of Exercise be the morning fasting, The best time for Exercise. two houres after the Sunne is vp; for by that time, his beames will haue dispelled and dispersed the night vapours.

The fittest Place, is some large roome, The Place for Exercise. enclosed from the common Aire; and where is little or no company, that [Page 38] their breaths distemper not the Aire wherein you are (by motion) to breath somthing more largely. And it is good to perfume the roome also before hand, that the Aire may be the purer.

Beware of ta­king Cold.At all times, beware you take no cold. For great Colds and Rheums doe easily breed Putrid Feavors, and they as easily turne to the Plague.

The fifth Poynt of Diet, is Sleepe and Watching.

Inconvenien­ces of much sleepe.If Sleepe be immoderate or vnseasonable, it hindereth con­coction, it heapeth vp many crude and superfluous hu­mors, it extinguisheth the vitall Spirits, and taketh away the liuelinesse of the Animall faculties.

Inconvenien­ces of much watching. Overmuch Watching also and want of Sleepe, dries vp the good humors, and sets them in a heat, and (which is most dangerous) weakens the Naturall Forces.

Times for sleepe.Therefore obserue due Times for Sleepe. Goe to bed be­times, and rise betimes; for that is holsomest.

Sleepe not vpon meate, or after dinner; especially if you haue fed any thing liberally: and by no meanes giue way to sleepe at such times lying along: but if you must needs take such repose, sit in a Chaire vpright, and doe but take him napping; let not such a sleepe be aboue halfe an houre long; for a little yeelding satisfieth; and by further indul­gence the head will grow the more dull and drowsie. I counsell therefore rather to yeeld a little in this aforesayd manner, then by striving too much against it, to make the head ake; But let some friend or servant (within the time limited) awake you gently, not sodainly to make you fright or start; for that would disturbe those spirits and humors which your nap had setled. The night is the naturall time for Sleepe. But let it be two houres at the soonest after Supper (if you must sup) that the stomach may haue made some good progresse in Concoction, before Sleepe make holiday with the Functions of Nature. And then Sleepe not aboue fiue or six houres at the most.

[Page 39]Let the Chamber wherein you lie, be conveniently warme,The place to sleepe in. the dores and windows close shut, to keepe out the evill aire of the night; and before-hand perfumed to expell the Pesti­lent. Sleepe not without dores; neither sit, nor lie vpon the ground or grasse in the fields or garden plots; for the nearer the earth, the more deadly is the Aire: and the immediate stroke of the cold ground is very dangerous.

The sixt and last Poynt, is the Passions of the Minde.

All kindes of Passions if they be vehement doe offer vio­lence to the Spirits. Yea though they be of the better,The dangers of violent. Passions. and more naturall sort. As, Ioy and Laughter, if they be vnbrid­led and too profuse, doe exceedingly enervate and resolue both the Spirits and Body; in so much as the breast and sides are pained, the breath is streightened, and many times the Soule it selfe is ready to depart. So also Care, Suspition, Enuie, Iealousie, and such like vnquietnesses, doe ouer-heat the Spirits, and drie vp and consume the good humors.

But there be foure Passions more violent then the rest. viz. Immoderate Ioy, Sorrow, Anger, and Feare.

Immoderate Ioy, Immoderate Ioy. by suddaine and violent dilatation of the heart, lets the Spirits fly forth so abundantly, that naturall heat is left naked and so is sodainly extinguished. If it breake forth into laughter, the danger is as I haue alreadie said.

It is recorded of Chrysippus, Examples of vnbridled laughter. that onely vpon seeing an Asse eate figs, he fell into such an vnmeasurable laughter, that he fell downe and died.

And Zeuxis that excellent Paynter (who made a most curious beautifull picture of the Spartan Helen) vpon the sight of a very ill favor'd old woman, burst out into such an vnmeasurable laughter, that he laughed himselfe to death.

But somtimes this Immoderate Ioy killeth before it ven­teth it selfe in laughter.Examples of immoderate ioy without laughter. For so Sophocles the Tragedian recei­ving a wonderfull applause of the people for the last Trage­dy he writ; was so over-ioyed at it, that he fell downe and died presently. And it is recorded of one Rhodius Diagoras, [Page 40] who when he saw his three sonnes all at one time crow­ned with victory at the Olympian games, ranne to meet them; and while he embraced them in his armes, and they set their garlands on his head; he was so overcome with Ioy, that he fell downe dead in the midst of them; and so turned their Triumphs into a Funerall.

Sorrow. Sorrow on the other side afflicts the heart, disturbs the faculties, melts the brayne, vitiates the humors; and so weakens all the principall parts; consumes the nourish­ments of the Spirits and naturall heate; and somtimes brings sodaine death.

Examples.As Adrastus King of the Argiues, being told of the death of his Sonne, was taken with so sodain a Sorrow, that he fell downe and died presently.

And so Iulia the daughter of Iulius Caesar, and wife of Pompey; when she heard the newes of her Husbands death, fell downe also suddainly and died.

Anger. Anger is so furious a Passion, that it worketh wonder­fully vpon the spirits and faculties; disturbing them excee­dingly, as appeareth by the shaking and tossing of the body too and fro; the fiery sparkling of the eyes; the colour com­ming and going, now red, now pale: so that the humors appeare to be inflamed (especially choller) and the spirits hurried this way and that way; somtime haled outward, and presently driven inward againe. By which violent mo­tions an vnnaturall heat in the spirits, and corruption in the humors are ingendred. Hereupon (many times) follow Burning and cholericke Feavors, Pulseys, Iaundis, Pleurisies, and all kinds of Inflamations; violent bleeding at the nose which can hardly be stanched; and somtime death it selfe.

Examples. Nerva the Emperour, being highly displeased with one Regulus, fell into such a fury against him, that he was stric­ken therewith into a Feavor, whereof he died shortly after.

Wencestaus King of Bohemia, in a furious anger concei­ved against his Cup bearer, would needs kill him presently with his owne hand; but in the endevour he was stricken with a Palsey, whereof he died in few dayes after.

[Page 41] Ʋalentinianus the Emperour in a great rage would needs destroy the whole Countrey of Sarmatia; but he breathed forth his menaces with such vnbridled fury, that he burst out into bleeding and died.

In the yeare of our Lord, 1623. A poore olde Man in the North part of Devonshire (dwelling in a part of a little Vil­lage called Little Poderidge) came to the house of Sr Thomas Monck (where I at that time was) and standing at the But­tery dore to receiue some Beere (which, together with other victualls, was every day given very liberally to all the poore thereabouts) because the Butler did not presently fill his tanckerd; the olde Man fell into such a furious rage against her, that with the very Passion, he presently fell downe; was taken vp dead, was with much adoe (by me) recovered to life and sense; but never spake more, and died within two dayes after.

Feare also gathers the Spirits to the heart,Feare. and dissolues the Brayne, making the humors thereof to shed and slide downe into the externall parts, causing a chilnesse, and sha­king over all the body: It abuseth the Phantasie and Senses, brings a Lethargie vpon the organs of motion, and depriues the heart of all spirit and vigour: somtimes also it makes a Mans Will for him, and vnkindly bequeaths his estate to Death.

As Cassander the Sonne of Antipater vpon sight of Alex­anders statue, fell into such a terror and trembling,Examples. that he could hardly shift himselfe out of the place, and had much adoe to recover his spirits againe.

I could relate a story of one who (receiving but a slight wound in the arme, in a place of no danger, and with very little losse of blood) died presently with the very feare of being killed. But I should be too tedious if I should reckon vp more examples.

Now, if these Passions could be so deadly in pure Aires,Feare, how it is most apt to bring Infecti­on. and holsome seasons; how much more (thinke we) are they pernicious in pestilentiall times? But in respect of Contagion, there is no Passion so dangerous as Feare. For [Page 42] by it the Spirits are enforced to retire inward to the heart, to guard that Prince of life from the danger feared. By this retiring they leaue the outward parts infirme, as appeareth plainely by the palenesse & trembling of one in great feare. So that, the walls being forsaken (which are continually besieged by the contagious Aire) in come the enemies without resistance; the Spirits which are the Souldiers that should repell them, having cowardly sounded a Retrait. And hereby there is not onely way made for the evill Aire to enter, but also the Spirits (wherein is all our heat) being all drawne inward, doe draw in such vapours after them as are about the body; even as the Sunne draweth towards it, the vapours of the earth. And here-hence it is, that Feare brings Infection faster and sooner then any other occasi­on.

The Cure.Now for Remedie against these Passions, we must know that they are diseases of the Soule, and the cure of them be­longeth chiefly to Divines. They are the Phisitians to deale inwardly with these diseases: To purge out the Loue of this World, and the distrust of Gods Providence and Mercies, as also to minister the Cordialls of Faith, Hope, Patience, Contented­nesse, &c. and to ordaine the strict diet of holy Exercises, a good Conversation, and Walking with God. Wee that are Phisitians to the Body, are but Chirurgians to the Soule: wee can but talke of Topicall remedies, as to apply Mirth, Musicke, good Company, and lawfull Recreations; such as may take away all time and occasions for carefull thoughts and passionate affections.

Thus haue I brought you through that part of the Definition, wherein are the Causes of the Plague disco­vered. Now we are to lay open the Qualities of it, de­scribed before in the Definition, thus

The qualities of the Plague. Which at the very first Striketh to the Heart, is Venomous, Deadly, and Infectious.

How the Sick­nesse striketh first. At the very first it striketh to the Heart. Therefore it is cal­led Morbus Cordis, A disease of the Heart. And that this is first stricken, is apparent by this, that at the first infection [Page 43] the vitall facultie sinkes, and languishes; the whole strength of the Body is suddainly turned to weaknesse; the vitall Spirits are greatly oppressed and discouraged. Whereas the Animall facultie commonly remaineth (for a while) in good plight and perfect in the vse of sense, vnderstanding, iudgement, memorie and motion. The Naturall facultie al­so is not so presently hurt, but there is concoction and all other actions performed by the liver, stomach, reyns, guts, bladder, and other parts, as Nature requireth. Though in­deed in a little time, these and the brayne also are overcome, as appeareth by the Symptoms that follow, as Lethargies, Frenzies, Ʋomitings, Fluxes, &c.

That it is Venomous, The Plague is Venomous. is graunted of all both Physitians and Philosophers. And it is apparent by his secret and insensible insinuation of himselfe into the vitall Spirits; to which as soone as he is gotten, he shews himselfe a mortall enemie, with suddain violence choking and extinguishing them. Therefore, his subtle entrance, his sly crueltie, his swift de­stroying; the vnfaithfulnesse of his Crisis, and other Prog­nosticke Signes; and the vehemencie, grievousnesse, and ill behaviour of his Symptoms, are manifest proofes of his ve­nomous Qualitie. For in this disease, the Seidge, Vrine, and Sweat, haue an abhominable savour; the Breath is vile and noysome; evill coloured Spots, Pustles, Blisters, Swellings; and Vlcers full of filthy matter arise in the outward parts of the body: such as no superfluitie or sharpnesse of humors, nor no putrefaction of matter (without a venomous quali­tie ioyned with it) can possibly produce.

It is Deadly. Deadly. This needs no proofe, the weekly Bills ar­gue it, and our owne eyes witnesse it, while we see conti­nuall Burialls, and some die in the very streets: and while we finde also that few of those that are stricken doe recover againe.

But that It is Infectious, Infectious. is among many of the com­mon ignorant sort more disputable, then among the lear­ned. Yet is it apparent enough by much experience; For Garments and Houshold-stuffe haue beene infected, and haue [Page 44] infected many, as I haue shewed alreadie in the examples of a Gowne and a Feather-bed. Now though this Infection be not apparent to sense (as indeed the deadliest Poysons haue neither taste nor smell) yet their lurking qualitie may be plainely demonstrated by such as are sensible. For we know that garments will a long time retaine any strong or sweete sent wherewith they haue beene fumed, or with which they haue beene layd vp; now the Sent is meerely a quali­tie, and his substance is the Aire, which is the vehiculum or seat of the Sent wherein it is carried, & by which it is made permanent. Other experiences we haue also; as liue Pageons being laid to the soares, are taken away dead, having not beene wounded, crushed, nor hurt by any hand at all. And lastly, many that are infected, can directly tell where, and of whom they tooke it.

Obiection. But say some againe, then why is not one infected as well as another? I haue eaten and drunke, and lyen with them that haue had it, and the soares running on them. And yet I was not in­fected.

Answer.I say they haue the more cause to magnifie the Mercy of God to their particular; and not to obscure it, by saying it is not infectious. This argument is not vnlike that of the Mountebanks, who tell you that such and such haue beene cured by his Medicines, but conceales how many haue died by the misapplication. If one should aske this man, I pray you, how many haue so conversed with the infected and haue so escaped? I am sure they cannot name one of twentie.

A new Opi­nion.Yea but sayth Another, I hold the Plague to be nothing els but the very Influence of the Striking Angell, sent of God to de­stroy here one and there another, as Hee hath particularly fore-poynted them out.

Answer.Such kindes of Plagues indeed we reade of in sacred Scrip­ture, as Exod. 12. Numb. 11. v. 33. Numb. 16. Numb. 25. and 2 Sam. 24. But there is great difference betwixt those Plagues and these of ours. For in those, Great multitudes suddainly, and all at once (as one would say) in a very short [Page 45] space of time were both smitten and slaine. The longest time of Striking being but three dayes, namely that for Da­vids numbering the people. In those plagues therefore the cause was onely supernaturall: for there was no time allow­ed for corruption and putrefaction of the Aire. But in these of ours (and in very many moe in all Countreys and King­domes, and in all Ages of the World) there hath beene sufficient time to breed and increase the Contagion in the Aire: in which time of breeding also, the antient naturall observations haue beene found true from age to age; for many noysome things haue apparently discovered them­selues, as fruits of the Aires putrefaction, and Prognosticks of the Plague threatened. And when it hath begun, it spreads but by degrees; first striking one man onely; then two or three; after that a few more; and so multiplying the succeeding number, as it evidently groweth more contagi­ous by the number of bodies already infected. Besides those Plagues before mentioned, doe discover a stroke, but no sicknesse; but that of Hezekiah discovered a sicknesse and no stroke of any Angell. For it is plainly sayd, that Hezekiah was sicke. Isaiah 38. And that his sicknesse was the Plague, appeares by the Soare which was vpon him, and the Medi­cine by which that soare was cured. This to the reasonable is reason sufficient.

But ere I part with this Poynt of Infection;What bodies are most apt to be infected. I thinke it good to discover what bodies are most, or least apt to be In­fected.

And to finde this we must first know that bodies are in­fected two wayes; first, from without, in regard of the Aire; and secondly, from within, in respect of the present state of the bo­die.

From Without, those are most subiect to it,Who are apt to receiue in­fection from Without. who haue thin bodies, and open pores; and whose hearts are so hot, that they need much attraction of Aire to coole them.

From Within, they are most apt, whose veyns and vessells are full of grosse humors, and corrupt iuices;Who from Within. the evill mat­ter (being thicke, and therefore cannot breath out through [Page 46] the pores) increaseth her putrefaction (by the heat within) vnto the greater malignitie, and so becommeth Pestilent.

Therefore those bodies that are moyst, and full of iuice; whose veines are streit (and therefore apter to intercept then intertaine the iuices) and the thicknesse of whose skin de­nies the transpiration of the excrements; these are easily po­luted and infected.

And such are Women; especially women with childe, for their bodies are full of excrementitious iuices, & much heat withall; which is as oyle and flame put together.

Also those that are very Costiue, or haue their water stopped; the noysome vapours that are by these excrements ingendered, make the body subiect to infection.

Young children, in regard of their tender and soft bodies are apt to admit of any alteration vpon the lightest occasion: and because they fetch their breath short (having but little roome for respiration) they draw in much Aire, with which the seed of Contagion is attracted: and so are apt to be in­fected from without. And likewise because they are natu­rally moyst, and feed vpon the moyster kindes of meates; and feed also with more appetite then iudgement; they are therefore the more subiect to pestilent infection from within.

Likewise, the sanguine and delicate faire complexion, (whose bloud and iuices are finer and thinner then others, and therefore more subiect to mutation) are quickly in­fected: for the Plague is able to insinuate it selfe into all the humors; but into some more easily then others; as into Bloud first, Choler next, Fleam after, and Melancholie last.

Poore People, (by reason of their great want) living slut­tishly, feeding nastily on offals, or the worst & vnholsomest meates; and many times too long lacking food altogether; haue both their bodies much corrupted, and their Spirits exceedingly weakened: whereby they become (of all o­thers) most subiect to this Sicknesse. And therefore we see the Plague sweeps vp such people in greatest heapes. [Page 47] Indeed in regard of the Aire, the rich are as subiect as they; for both breath the same: and delicacie of feeding makes the rich as apt to corruption: But then they haue meanes to get holsome food, good attendance, and precious Anti­dotes to preserue them; for we see by experience that ordi­nary things doe little prevaile. And this is the reason also why fewest of the Rich doe die of the Plague.

Great Eaters and Drinkers (who can never be free from crudities) as also Luxurious idle livers, and Whore hunters (who spend the strength of their bodies prodigally) are very apt to be infected.

Also such as in former times haue had customary eva­cuations by sweat, haemorrhoids, vomitings, menstrua, fon­tanells, or other like wayes of expelling noxious humors; and haue them now stopped.

Those likewise that fast much (their bodies being emp­tie) receiue more Aire in, then they let out.

Those also that are Fearefull; as I haue alreadie shewed in the point of Passions.

Furthermore, nearenesse of bloud or kindred, by rea­son of the sympathy of natures, maketh men very apt to re­ceiue infection from one of their owne bloud.

And so those that are neare the sicke in body, being continually conversant with them, or often comming a­bout them; as Chirurgians, Keepers, Searchers, and such like.

Lastly, Virgins that are ripe and marriageable; are apt to receiue infection, and being once stricken, seldome or ne­ver escape, without great and precious meanes. Quia spi­rituosum semen in motu cum sit, facilè succenditur; vel, quia intùs detentum facilè corrumpitur, & in veneni perniciem abit. Min­dererus de Pestilentia. cap. 10.

But some thinke by the strength of Nature to prevaile a­gainst against this infection. But wee see strong and well nourished bodies die as fast as others: and that not because it is safer to be weake; but as Hippocrates sayth, Corpora im­pura quò magis aluntur, eò magis laeduntur. Their taking of [Page 48] the infection proues their body to be impure (though strong) and the more an impure body is nourished, the more it is endangered.

Who are the most likely to escape.But those are most likely to escape Infection, that are troubled with the Gout; in whom the nobler parts of the body doe expell the noxious humors to the ignobler.

Those that haue Fontanells, or any other kinde of issue, as vlcers, haemorrhoids, or plentie of other evacuations; where­by the hurtfull humors are drayned away.

Olde folkes, whose bodies are dry and cold.

Also bold and confident Spirits, whose courage can re­sist all feares, are to themselues an Antidote; if their body be withall kept cleane and pure by the common rules of preservation.

Lastly, those who keepe themselues private, and vse An­tidotes and meanes preservatiue, reposing themselues in God with David in the fourth Psalme, and last verse. He will giue his Angells charge over them, to keepe them in all their wayes, &c. Psal. and 3. verses. But they must then walke in the Way that God hath set before them, and that is, the vse of Physicke. For, The Lord hath created Medicines out of the Earth, and he that is wise will not abhorre them. Ecclus. 38.4. And with such doth he heale men, and take away their paynes. vers. 7. And in the sixt verse, He hath given men skill, that he might be honoured in his marveilous workes. Then forsake not the Physitian; neither by thy scorning of his skill, force him to forsake thee: for as St Paul said of the Marriners in his Ship. Acts. 27.31. so may I say of Physitians in this Cittie; Except these tarry, wee cannot be saved.

And so much for the Qualitie of the Plague.

Now I come to the last Part of the Definition, discovering the Signes and Symptoms of it,The Signes & Symptoms of the Plague. in these words: And for the most part is accompanied with a Feavor; as also with Spots cal­led Gods-Tokens, or with a Blayne, or Botch, or Carbuncle.

I say, for the most part it is thus accompanied; but not al­wayes. For some are suddainly stricken, and die before they haue any acquaintance, either with distemper or out­ward paine.

[Page 49]Some haue thought there may be a Plague and yet no Feavor: But Mindererus proues that to be an idle conceit. li. de Pest. cap. 6.

Some also, haue died of the Plague, and yet nothing hath appeared outwardly: and such as die suddainly, haue sel­dome any Spots, or such like outward signe: and are there­fore lesse infectious then others, if they be not too long kept vnburied.

But to come to the severall Points, which haue two Ge­neralls, to wit, Inward Signes, and Outward Signes. The In­ward is a Feavor, and his Symptoms. The Outward are, The Tokens, the Blayne, the Botch, and the Carbuncle.

The first and Inward Signe, is a Feavor. Feavor. As soone as the Heart is stricken with the putrid vapour, the Spirits grow distempered and inflamed. And this distemperature is a Fea­vor (not Proper, but Symptomaticall or Accidentall) and this Feavor is not of one kinde in every one; but diverse, and such are his Symptoms also. As sometime Pleuriticke, sometime Squinanticke, sometimes Cholericke, sometimes Continuall, and sometimes Intermitting.

These distempers relate the cruell Combate begun be­twixt Nature and her M [...]all Enemie.

The outward Signes bring Newes of the Hopes or Feares to which side the Victorie is like to fall. For, if Nature ex­pell any part of the venom outward, it is a signe of some strength in her.

If the Tokens appeare, either the Enemie is but weake;What kinde of fight is disco­uered by the Tokens. or els Nature is but weake, and shews her good will more then her power. For except the assault be but slight; those re­pulses will not get the Conquest.

If there be a Blayne or Blister, Blayne. it shewes Nature is a little stronger, and the enemy not a little curs [...]er.

If the Botch or great Apostumation rise.Botch. Then hath Na­ture a crowd of corrupt matter to encounter with; an Ar­mie of Enemies, against which shee stoutly bestirres her selfe. If shee driue forth a great quantitie of matter, and withall be well fortified (within by Antidotes, to maintaine [Page 50] her Spirits, and strength: and without by perfumes) that while the Body of the Battalion is driven out, the skouts of straggling vapours that arise from it, steale not in againe by the mouth, nostrills, and other outward passages; then is she like to winne the day.

And by the places where she driues them out; it appeares, against which of the three Castles of Nature the greatest as­sault is given and continued.

What part is most affected.For if the Swelling arise in the Armepits, it shews that the the Seidge is continued (where it first begun) at the Heart. If in the necke, then is the Battery layd at the Brayne. And if in the Groyne, then is the Liver beleaguered. But some­times these Princes are all at once assaulted; and then is it altogether vnlikely that Nature can recover. For though both she and they be never so stout, and seeme for a time to prevaile, by expelling abundance of matter (in the brea­king of the Botches) yet Nature may be so over-charged; and the enemie (whose venome is sly and subtle) may shew himselfe such a Machavilian, as one way or other he wea­kens her forces, puts her braue Spirits to flight, and tyrant-like demolisheth all her beautious Buildings.

Carbuncle.If the Carbuncle arise. Then we may say, Nature playes the Lion, but alas shee hath to deale with a fiery Dragon: this of all venoms being the most malicious and cruell.

But that the colours of these bloudy Ensignes, may the better be discovered, I will play the Herald, and blazon e­very Signe by himselfe. So many (I meane) as are most inseparable from the Plague, & therfore chiefly to be respe­cted. As for the rest, (though they be many) they belong as well (and more properly) to other diseases; and are more deceitfull, and lesse vsefull to any but the Physitian onely.

The Signes of the Plague (therefore) are commonly these.

Signes of be­ing Infected.First, a secret sinking of the Spirits and Powers of Nature, with a painfull wearinesse of the bones, and all without any manifest cause. Then follows great trouble and oppression of the heart, that the partie vnquietly rowles vp and downe for rest from one place to another; sighing often, and either offe­ring [Page 51] to vomit, or vomiting filthy stuffe of divers colours, yel­low, greene, and blackish; then come paines in the head, which still increase; and faintnesse. But after these come the surest Signes, which are the Tokens, Blayne, Botch, and Carbuncle.

The Tokens are Spots of the bignesse of Flea-bitings,The Tokens described. some bigger, some as bigge as a penny. They shew them­selues commonly in the brest and backe; but they will sometimes appeare in other places also. In some they will be many, in some but a few, in others but one or two. In colour they are for the most part of a pale blew, but somtimes also purple or blackish, circled with a reddish circle.

The Blayne is a little Blister somwhat like one of the Swine-Pocks; and many times of the same colour;The Blayne. but som­times, of a blewish or leaden colour; and being opened, affordeth filthy matter of the like complexion. Round a­bout the Blister, there is a rednesse the breadth of a groat, six-pence, or nine-pence: These will rise in any part: som­times one alone, somtimes two or three; but never very many. And these will breake, and fall, and leaue a dry crust, which will scale off.

The Botch is a hard swelling,The Botch. rising as I sayd before in the necke, vnder the eares, or vnder the chinne; in the armepits; & in the groynes. It swelleth somtimes no bigger then a Nutmeg; somtimes as bigge as a Wall-nut; others as a Hens egge, and some as bigge as a Mans fist. Also in some it swelleth out very fully to be seene plainly, and be­commeth so soare that it can endure nothing to touch it; in others it lieth low and deepe in the flesh, onely to be found by feeling; and somtimes also scarcely to be felt; but if you touch the place, it is painfull. Those that lie high and plaine to be seene, are more hopefull; the low lur­king ones are very ominous and pernicious.

The Carbuncle riseth like a little push or pustle,The Carbun­cle. with a prettie broad compasse of rednesse round about it. It is wonderfull angry, and furiously enflaming, as if a quicke [Page 52] coale of fire were held to the place: whence it hath his name Carbunculus, a little coale of fire. It creepeth secretly in the flesh next vnder the skin, and is full of such a furious ma­lignant poyson, as it will quickly consume and eate out so great a peece of flesh (for the capacitie it is in) as a man would wonder how it could so suddainly be done: being as if one did burne a hole with a hot iron. And it is strange to see that so small a tumor should be so devilish and dan­gerous to life: for if it be not with great care, and exceeding good meanes attended, it bringeth speedy death.

How to know if one be dead of the Plague, when neither Spots, Blayne, Botch, nor Carbuncle appeare. Mr. Iohn Banister.But moreover obserue this. Somtimes (as I said before) a man dies of the Plague, when neither before nor after he is dead, there appeareth any Tokens, or Blayne, Botch, or Car­buncle. And yet there will be a signe which few haue ob­served; My Grand father (who was a famous man, and of great experience) hath taught it me; and my Father (a Phy­sitian of aboue fortie yeares practise and experience) hath confirmed it vnto me. That is, that after such a body is dead, in one place or other the flesh will grow softer then the rest: and the whole body will also grow softer & softer, and the longer the body lies, the softer will be the flesh. Which shews the vilenesse of the putrefaction within. Heurnius mentions this also among his signes in his booke De Peste; and addeth also these.Heurnius his signes of a bo­dy dead of the Plague. That in a Body dead of the Plague, The nose lookes very blew, or blackish blow; as if it had beene beaten or bruised. The like colour is in the eares and nayles: and ever worse coloured then other dead bodies vse to be.

Thus haue I displayed those Signes which are least fay­ling: that the Searchers may rightly informed themselues; and not mistake (as many haue done) calling the purple spots of the Pestilent Feavor Gods Tokens. And somtimes letting Bodies passe as not dead of the Plague, because they had neither Tokens, Botch, nor Carbuncle. I haue done it al­so to teach people how they may know when they are stric­ken with this infection; that they may presently haue re­course to some skilfull man, and good meanes to recover them before it be too late. An houre is a precious space of time, and cannot be let slip but with hazard.

[Page 53]And having thus shewed you what this dreadfull Sick­nesse is, what are the Causes, Qualities, and Signes of it. Before I leaue you, I will leaue with you a short generall direction to keepe your body safe from infection: and also (if you feele suspicious signes of being taken) how to be­gin to driue the venome from the heart, till such time as you may haue some more speciall meanes (particularly fit­ting your present constitution and state of body) by the counsell of some skilfull Physitian.

While Health continueth,

It is necessary that twise in the weeke,Preservatiue Medicines. the body be eva­cuated with some gentle purging Pill, to keepe the humors from superfluous increase.For Men and Women gene­rally to be v­sed. And in this case the Pills of Ruf­fus (which are to be had in every Apothecaries shop) are very apt and good. Or take of these Pills of mine twice or thrice in a weeke.

Rs. Aloës Rosatae, vnc. j.
Pillulae Brad­welli.
Croci, ana drach. iij.
Myrrhae, drach. vj.
santali citrini, drach. j.
ambrae grifiae, scrup. j.
Cum syr. de succo Citri, q. s.
fiat Massa Pillularum.

Make Pills of 8. or 10. grains a peece. Take ij. or more of them in the morning fasting, foure or fiue houres before meate; They may be taken best in Syrup of Roses solutiue, or in Conserue of Violets. And presently after them drinke a lit­tle white Wine mixed with a little Balme-water (in cold wea­ther): with Rose water, and a little Rose-Ʋineager (in hot weather): and with Carduus, or Scabious water in temperate weather.

On the other dayes wherein you take no Pills. Take eve­ry morning fasting a dram or two (or the quantitie of a Nut­meg) of London Triacle, with as much conserue of red Roses: this is for a temperate Constitution.

[Page 54]A cold constitution may take the Triacle alone, onely sweetening it with a little sugar.

And a hot complexion may mixe both the Triacle and Conserue in a few spoonefulls of Rose-water and Vineager.

These Powders following are good to cast in­to the Broths of such as are sicke, or haue weake stomachs.

Take of Red Saunders, halfe an ounce,
Cynamom iij. drams and halfe,
Saffron, halfe a dram.

powder them fine, and mixe them together.


Take of Cynamom, halfe an ounce.
Cloues, halfe a dram.
Red Corall, ij. scruples.
Saffron, halfe a dram.
And the weight of all in Sugar.

Make these into Powder, and mixe them together.

Some giue this.

Take of Pearle prepared, ij. drams.
Corall red, and white, of each halfe a dram.
Red Rose leaues dried, Saffron,
Spodium, of each a scruple.
Cynamon a dram.

Make them into fine Powder, and mixe them.

This is my counsell for those of ripe age, and for Women that are not with Childe.

But for those Women that breed Childe, and also for Infants or young Children, there ought to be another way of pre­servation: [Page 55] in whom Diet, must be most intended, and no purging vsed.

For Women, therefore,

Let them keepe their bodie soluble,For Women with Childe. by some gentle and familiar Suppositories; or gentle Clysters, made of Posset-ale with Camomill flowers, and a little new-drawne Cassia. Take these in the afternoone: now and then.

Let them also every morning take the quantitie of a Nut­meg of this Medicine following.

Take Harts-horne, Cynamon, Nutmegs, all the Saunders, of each a dram. Roots of Angelica, Zedoarie, Enula-Campane; of each halfe a dram. Powder all these.

Then take Conserue of Bugloss and Borage, of each iij. drams. With an equall quantitie of Syrup of Citrons, and of dried Roses.

Mixe all together, and make a Conserue.

Take it (as is sayd) fasting, and fast two houres at least after.

Or els, Take Harts horne, red and yellow Saunders, of each two drams. Cloues and Cynamon, of each one dram.

Beat them into fine Powder, and mixe them together.

With some of this, spice your Meate, Broth, or Cawdell; or whatsoever you haue to breakfast: and squeez into them a little iuice of a Lemon. You may adde also some Sugar as you please. Let this be your Break-fast.

For young Children.

There is nothing better then Bole armoniake, For young Children. with a little Tormentill roote, and Citron Pills made into fine Powder: which you may mix with their meats, or cast into their Broths: for their breakfast.

If they be costiue, put vp a violet comfit or two for a Suppo­sitorie. Or mix a little Cassia, newly drawne, in some broth of a Chicken, and giue it them now and then in a morning fasting. Let them fast two houres after. And that day vse not the powder, before prescribed.

[Page 56] Observation.And note this. When you suspect a Childe to be sicke of the Wormes, in a Contagious time; vse not Wormeseed and those common trifling things: but order him as if you sus­pected he had the Plague; for that disease (comming of so much Putrefaction, as it doth) is as apt to receiue the in­fection of the Plague, as is Tinder to take fire. It must not therefore be dallied with.

But at such a time, you may giue twentie or thirtie graines of this Powder following, for two or three mornings toge­ther.

Take Harts-horne, j. dram.
Citron pill,
Rootes of Angelica,
and Tormentill,
Rhubarb, and Coralline, of each halfe a dram.

Make these into fine Powder, and giue it as is said in a lit­tle Carduus water, sweetned with some sugar.

Thus much for Preservation in Health.

What course is to be taken with him that is Infected. But if there be Suspicion of Infection, you must then looke about for a new course.

In which case generally I condemne both Purging and Bleeding: for I know no vse of them in resisting or expel­ling the Venom; which is no other way effected but by Sweating and Running of the Soares.

Yet I confesse Phlebotomie hath his vse in Sanguine and Strong bodies; so it be at the very first, while the Spirits are strong and able of themselues to make good resistance. But if that first opportunitie be let slip; I thinke it better to let it alone altogether; then to doe it out of season; and so to impaire naturall strength, which in this case ought most especially to be preserved and augmented.

Againe, though Sweating be the true way, yet it must not be violent; for that also weakens the Spirits, and makes the body faint, therefore those Sweating Medicines must be mixed with Cordialls.

As for example.

Take Mithridate, or London Triacle, one dram. [Page 57] Myrrh, Enula Campane root, and Butter burre roote, of each ten graines.

Mixe these in a quarter of a Pint of Posset-ale and white Wine mixed together; to which you may adde some sugar to make the taste somthing gratefull.

Goe into your warme bed, then drinke this draught pre­scribed, and cover you with a reasonable weight of cloths; and so sweat two or three houres, or somewhat more, as your strength will beare. But take heed you sleepe not in this while. Then by degrees let the clothes be taken away, first one, and then another; when you haue sweat suffici­ently, or as much as you can endure. And let some one with warme Napkins wipe you drie, and shift your linnen; being very carefull of taking cold.

Then presently take this Iulep.

Take of Carduus water three ounces. Syrup of Lemons one ounce. Bole armoniake, Tormentill, Angelica roote, of each one scruple.

Mixe all together, and drinke it off.

Doe this once in twelue houres, if you finde strength to beare it, till you haue performed it at the least three times: and at the second and third times, before you beginne to sweat, binde vnder either arme-hole, and to eyther groyne, some thin slices of Radish roots, beaten with a little bay-salt, and sprinckled with a little Ʋineager and Rose-water: wrap them vp in foure little thin rags, and apply them.

Also, apply to the region of the heart, that Quilt which I haue prescribed in stead of an Amulet.

When this is done, and the Soares beginne to shew themselues; follow the advise of those that are appointed to that purpose. For I must not enter into the infected house. Therefore farewell.

And the LORD in Mercie looke vpon this afflicted CITTIE.


IF any be pleased to vse my Antidotes; I haue two Powders, one is for daily vse, called Pulvis Pesti­lentialis; the other in case of speciall danger, cal­led Pulvis Vitalis. I haue also an excellent Electua­rie, which I call Antiloimon, for his singular vertue against the Plague. I haue likewise Lozenges, and Trochisks to hold in the mouth; and rich Pomanders to smell too. They were all of my Grand-fathers in­vention, and haue beene proved to be admirably effectuall, both by his and my Fathers experience. I confesse they are costly: but slight meanes and cheape Medicines (how ever they promise) proue as deare as death. For we see by woefull observati­on, that the Plague will not be repelled but by impe­rious encounters. I could relate very true and admi­rable stories of the effects of those three Medicines a­boue mentioned, but I will begge no mans beliefe. Whosoever knows any thing of the name of Iohn Banister, must needs haue heard of many famous Me­dicines by him invented. The first Powder is 12. pence a dram: his quantitie, to be taken at once is halfe a dram. The second is 3. pence a graine: the quantitie is 10. or 12. graines. The Electuarie is, 2. shillings 6 pence an ounce: the quantitie is one or two drams.

[Page]Because many men know that I haue a whole vo­lume of excellent Receipts left me both by my Grandfather, and my Father; and lest they should censure me as too strict and covetous in keeping all secret to my selfe, I haue thought fit for the com­mon good; to divulge this excellent Antidote fol­lowing.

Electuarium De Ovo,
Stephani Bradwelli.
Rs. vitelli ovi vnius,
Croci pulveriz. scrup. ij.

Conterantur simul donec in Pultiformam rediguntur. Postea imponantur in alia testa vacua, cum exiguo foramine in capite facto; benè obturetur: et lento igne donec testa nigrescit assetur. Dein exempta materia, exiecetur & subtilissime pul­verizetur. Cui

Adde rad. tormentillae,
Aristolochiae rotunda, ana vnc. j. ss.
Myrrhae, scrup. iiij.
Baccarum lauri,
Baccarum Iuniperi, and drach. ss.
Corticis citri, scrup. ij. ss.
sem. citri,
sem. cardui Benedicti,
ligni aloës, ana scrup. ij.
Cornu Cervini,
Boli armeni, ana drach. j. ss.
Moschi gr. x. Pulveriz. omnia subtiliss.
Adde etiam Conservae florum Calendulae, vnc. ij.
Theriacae Lond. vnc. j.
Cum aqua Cardui, et sacchari. q. s.
fiat Electuarium. s. ae.

THere is a Fellow in Distaffe Lane, that disperseth Bills abroad, bragging of a Medicine that was my Grand­father Banisters; thinking vpon the fame of his name to get both glory and gaine to himselfe. But let me warne all men to take heed of such impudent lyers. My Grand-father was very scrupulous of gi­ving any speciall Receipts to others. But if any man can say he hath any Receipt of his: I am sure, (if it were of any value) I haue the Coppie of it.

But I professe vpon the word and credit of an honest man, that among all his Re­ceipts, he hath not prescribed one Preser­vatiue Drinke for the Plague: And besides, his judgement ever was, that the best forme of an Antidote was either Powder, Pill, or Electuarie. Therefore this Drinke that he talkes of; was either none of my Grand­fathers; or els some very slight thing, by him little esteemed.

I cannot beare it, that any should abuse the Kings people with sophisticate Medi­cines; and lay the imputation vpon so fa­mous, and so all beloved a Man as Master Iohn Banister was.

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