The one written by Edmund Campion, the other by Meredith Hanmer Dr of Divinity.

DUBLIN, Printed by the Society of Stationers. M.DC.XXXIII.

[...] els-where these Histories doe affoord to the knowledge of former times, and the good use which may be made of them by any who have leisure, desire, and ability to erect and polish a lasting structure of our Irish affaires, I am em­bouldned to present them to your Lordships patronage, whose government I beseech the Almighty so to blesse; that it may bee a long happines to this land.

Your Lordships ever humbly at comman­dement. IAMES WARE.


WHat varietie of choyse matter the affaires of this Kingdome doe affoord to an Historian, especially since the middle of the raigne of King Henry the VIII. any one that is but meanely versed in our Histories can testifie: But if we consider how little hath hetherto bin pub­lished, wee cannot but blame the slownes of our learned men, who have (for by-respects) forborne to take paines in so worthy a subject. England hath had the happines that some parts of her Historie have bin lately excellently performed, by the right honorable Francis late Viscount St. Alban, the right Reve­rend Francis Lo: Bishop of Hereford, the most lear­ned William Camden and others. Some will here­after, I hope, doe the like for Ireland: In the meane while we are to accept of these tastes, the one left un­to us by Edmund Campion, and the other by Do­ctor Hanmer, who died (of the plague at Dublin in the yeare M.DC.IIII.) before he had finished his [Page] [...] [Page] [...] [Page] intended worke: out of whose collections, what now beareth his name hath bin preserved by our most Reverend and excellently learned Primate. Other helpes (to passe by those which are already divulged) may be plentifully had by him who will undertake this taske, out of the auncient and moderne recordes, both in this Kingdome and in England, as also out of diverse manuscript Annales and Chartularies, which are yet extant among us, besides those authors of En­glish birth, as Iohn VVallingford a Monke of St Alban, Thomas Wike a Canon of Osney, and o­thers, (which I have seene) in that excellent library and treasury of MSS. antiquities, gathered by Sir Robert Cotton knight and Baronett deceased, who doe onely obiter touch upon our affaires. An intenti­on there was not long since by Sir Iames Ley knight then Lord chiefe Iustice of the Kings Bench in Ire­land, (afterwards Lord high Treasurer of England and Earle of Marleburgh) to have published some of our country writers in this kinde, for which end hee caused to be transcribed and made fit for the Presse, the Annales of Iohn Clynne a Friar minor of Kil­kenny, (who lived in the time of King Edw. the 3.) the Annales of the Priory of S. Iohn the Evange­list of Kilkenny, and the Annales of Multifernan, Rosse and Clonmell, &c. But his weighty occasions did afterwards divert his purpose. The copies are yet preserved, and I hope ere long with other Annales and fragments of the same nature will be divulged. Wee come now to the Authors in hand.

TO THE RIGHT HONOVRABLE ROBERT DUDLEY, Baron of Denbigh, Earle of Leicester, Knight of the noble Order of the gar­ter, and S. Michaels, Master of the Queenes Maje­sties horse, and one of her Privy Councell, high Chauncellour of the Vniversity of Oxford, my singular good Lord.

THat my travaile into Ireland, might seeme nei­ther causlesse, nor fruitlesse, I have thought it ex­pedient, being one member of your Lordships honorable charge to yeeld you this poore book, as an accompt of my poore voyage, happily not the last, nor the most beautifull present that is intended to your Honour by me, but surely more full of unsavoury toyle for the time, then any plot of worke that ever I attempted, which I write, not of vanity to commend my diligence, but of necessitie to excuse mine imperfection. For whereas it is well knowne to the learned in this land, how late it was ere I could meet with Gerald of Wales, the onely Author that ministreth some indif­ferent furniture to this Chronicle, and with what search I have beene driven to piece out the rest by helpe of forreine Writers (incidently touching this Realme) by a number of briefe extracts of rolles, records and scattered papers. These things (I say) considered, I trust this little volume shall seeme great enough in such barren shift, & my defect in penning the same shalbe imputed partly to my haste, who must needes have ended all before I should leave the land, and am now e­ven upon point of my departure. So as to handle and lay these [Page] things together, I had not in all the space of ten weekes. Such as it is, I addresse and bequeath it to your good Lordship, for two causes. First that by the patronage of this Booke you may be induced to weigh the estate and become a patron to this noble Realme, which claimeth kindred of your eldest auncestors, and loveth entirely your noble vertues: The fame whereof is now carried by those strangers that have felt them into many forraine countryes that never saw your person. Secondly because there is none that knoweth mee familiarly, but he knoweth vvithall how many vvayes I have beene be­holding to your Lordship. The regard of your deserts and of my duty hath easily wonne at my hands this testimony of a thankefull minde. I might be thought ambitious, if I should recount in particular the times & places of your severall cur­tesies to mee. How often at Oxford, how often at the Court, how at Rycot, how at Windsore, how by letters, hovv by reportes, you have not ceased to further with advice and to countenance with authority, the hope and expectation of mee a single Student. Therefore in summe it shall suffice mee to acknowledge the generall heape of your bounties, and for them all to serve your honour frankely, at least wise with a true heart: Let every man esteeme in your state and fortune, the thing that best contenteth and feedeth his admiration; But surely to a judgement setled and rectified, these outward felicities which the world gazeth on, are there, and therefore to be denied, praiseable when they lodge those inward qua­lities of the minde, which (saving for suspition of flattery) I was about to say are planted in your breast. Thirteene yeares to have lived in the eye and speciall credit of a Prince, yet ne­ver during all that space to have abused this ability to any mans harme, to be enriched with no mans overthrow, to be kindled neither with grudge nor emulation, to benefit an infinite resort of dayly sutors, to let downe your calling to the neede of meane subjects, to retaine so lowly a stomacke, such a facility, so milde a nature in so high a vocation, to un­dertake the tuition of learning and learned men. These are indeede the kirnels for the which the shell of your nobilitie [Page] seemeth faire and sightly; This is the sap, for whose preserva­tion the barke of your noble tree is tendered. This is the sub­stance which maketh you worthy of these Ornaments wherevvith you are attyred, and in respect of these good gifts as I for my part have ever bin desirous to discover an offici­ous and dutifull minde towards your Lordship, so will I ne­ver cease to betake the uttermost of my power and skill to your service, nor to begge of Almighty God your plentifull increase in godlines, wisedome and prosperity. Fare you well: From Dublin 27. May, 1571.

Your Lordships hum­bly to commaund. EDMUND CAMPION.

To the loving Reader.

AT my times of leisure from ordinary stu­dies, I have since my first arrivall hither, enquired out antiquityes of the land, wherein being holpen by diverse friendly Gentlemen, I have given th'adventure to frame a Story, which I bring from the ve­ry first originall untill th'end of this last yeare 1570. I follow these Authors, Giraldus Cambrensis, who devideth his worke into two parts, from the first (which is stuffed with much impertinent matter) I borrow so much as serveth the turne directly, the second which containeth two bookes, and discour­seth the conquest of Henry Fitz Empresse, I abridge into one Chap­ter: where Cambrensis endeth, there beginneth a nameles Author, who in certaine short notes containeth a Chronologie untill the year [...] of Christ 1370. From thence to Henry the Eight, because nothing is extant orderly written, and the same is time beyond any mans memory, I scamble forward with such records as could be sought up, and am enforced to be the briefer. From Henry th'eight hitherto, I tooke instructions by mouth, whatsoever I bring besides these helpes, either mine owne observation hath found it, or some friend hath en­formed me, or common opinion hath received it, or I reade it in a pamphlet, or if the Author be worthy the naming I quote him in the margent. Scottish Histories I used these twaine, famous in their times, Iohn Major, and Hector Boethius. For English, wherein the state of Ireland is oft implyed, because I am not in place to ex­amine the auncient, I have credited these late writers, Fabian, Po­lidore, Cooper, Hall, Grafton, and Stowe: diligent and thankes-worthy collectors. Touching the rest of all sorts, from whose bookes I picke matter to my purpose, they are mentioned as they fall in [Page] ure, which here I list not to reckon, being loath to fill the page with a ranke of empty names. Irish Chronicles, although they be reported to be full fraught of lewde examples, idle tales, and genealogies: Et quicquid Graecia mendax audet in historiâ, yet concerning the state of that wilde people specified before the conquest. I am perswa­ded that with choice and judgment, I might have sucked thence some better store of matter, and gladly would have sought them, had I found an interpreter, or understood their tongue. th' one so rare, that scarcely five in five hundred can skill thereof, th'other so hard, that it asketh continuance in the Land, of more yeares then I had moneths to spare about this busines, my speciall meaning was to ga­ther so much as I thought the civill subjects could bee content to reade, and withall to give a light to the learned Antiquaries of this Countrey birth, who may hereafter at good leisure supply the want of this foundation, and pollish the stone rough hewed to their hand. Notwithstanding as naked and simple as it is, it could never have growne to any proportion in such post-haste, except I had entred in­to such familiar societie, and daylie table-talke with the worshipfull Esquire Iames Stanihurst, Recorder of Dublin. VVho beside all curtesie of Hospitality, and a thousand loving turnes not heere to be recited, both by word and written monuments, and by the benefit of his owne Library, nourished most effectually mine endeavour. It remaineth that I request my Countrymen to bend their good liking to my goodwill, and the English of Ireland to favour the memory of their noble auncestors, both twaine to deliver me from all undue and wrong suspitions, howsoever the priviledge of an history hath tempe­red mine inke with sweet or sowre ingredients. Verily as touching the affaires and persons heere deciphered, how little cause I have with any blind and corrupt affection, either wayes to be miscarryed, themselves know best that heere be noted yet living, and other by enquiring may conjecture. Farewell. From Droghedah the 9. of Iune. 1571.


CAP. I. The Site and speciall parts of Ireland.

IRELAND lieth a-loofe in the West Ocean,This Booke in­cludeth the first part of Cambrensis, devided by him into 3, di­stinctions. Which was de­livered me, by Iames Stani­hurst. and is deemed by the later Survey, to be in length well-nigh three hundred miles north & south: broad from East to West one hundred and twentie. In pro­portion it resembleth an egge, blunt and plaine on the sides, not reach­ing forth to Sea, in nookes and elbowes of Land, as Brit­taine doth.

Long since it was devided into foure regions, Leinster East, Connaght West, Vlster North, Mounster South,Lagenia. Conatia. Hultonia. Momonia. Medi [...]. and into a fift plot defalked from every fourth part, lying to­gether in the heart of the Realme, called thereof Media, Meath.

Each of these five (where they are framable to civility, and answere the writts of the Crowne,) be sundred into shires and counties, after this manner.

[Page 2] Leinster.In Leinster lye the counties of Dublin, Kildare, Weix­ford, Catherlagh, Kilkenny, King & Queenes coūties, these two lately so named by Parliament in the raignes of Phi­lip and Mary, An. Philip & Mar. 3o. & 4o. having Shire-townes accordant, Philipstown and Marryborrow.

Septes, Irish of name planted in these quarters, they rec­kon,Irish families taken out of S. Henry Sidneys collections. the Birnes, Tooles, Cauanaghes, which is the nation of Macmurrow, Omores, Oconnores, Odempsyes, Odun.

Dublinum.Citties of best account, Dyvelin: the beauty and eye of Ireland, fast by a goodly river which Cambrensis calleth Avenlifius.Lib. fl. Ptolomy Libnius, they call the Lyffie. The seat hereof is in many respects comfortable, but lesse frequen­ted of marchant strangers, because of the bard haven. Kil­dare hath Kildare and the Naass. Weixford hath Weixford and Ross. Kilkenny hath Kilkenny the best dry towne in Ireland on the Southside of the river Suirus,Suir fl. also Callan and Thomastowne.

Meath.Meath is devided into East and West Meath, and the counties of Longford. Here dwelleth ancient Irish families (sometime Princes & Potentates) Omalaghlen, Irish families. Mac-Coghlan Obrien, Omulloy, Omadden, Macgoghigan, the Fox. This whole part, and the veyne of Finegale in Leinster, are best im­ployed with husbandry, and taken to be the richest soyles in Ireland.

Connaght. Galvia.Connaght hath as yet but the county Clare, the town of Athenry: & Galway, a proper neat city at the sea side. Here­in Turlogh More Oconner was a peere, & parted the whole betwixt his two Sonnes, Cahal, and Bryen Oconnor. In it are now cheife Irish,Irish fam. Ororicke▪ Breni Oreli, Breni Oruarke, Ocon­nor Sligo, Odoude, Ohara, Macphilippin, Mac-dermot, Oconnor-donn, Oconnor-Roe, the O-kellies, Macglomore, of Langues, L. Bermingham, Omaly, Mac-william Euter, Oflaherty, Clanri­carde.

Vlster.Vlster wherin Oneale & Odonil are cheife Irish, contayneth the coūties, Louth, Down, Antrim, one moity of Droghdah [Page 3] (for the rest is in Meath) cheife town of Louth Dundalk, of Down, Down, & Carlingford, of Droghdagh, Drogh­daghe, of Antrim, Cnockfergus called also Cragfergus.

This part is dissevered from Meath and Leinster by the river Boandus, which breaketh out beside Logh-foyle,Boyn. fl. Lacus [...]oilus. a bogg betweene Ardmagh, and S. Patrickes Purgatorie. Cambrensis reputeth the bogge at 30. miles in length,Dist. 1. and halfe so much in breadth, and the same once firme Land, to have beene suddenly ouerflowen, for the bestiall incest committed there, unfit to be told.

In Mounster lye the counties of Waterford, Limericke,Mounster. Cork, counties Pallatine of Tipperary, Kerry, and exempt from priviledge the Crosse of Tipperarie.

Waterford hath Dongarvon, and Waterford full of traffique with England, France, and Spaine, by meanes of their excellent good Haven.

Limericke hath Kilmallocke lately sackt by Iames Fitz Morice, and the Citie Limiricum, coasting on the sea, hard upon the river Shannon, whereby are most notably seve­red Mounster and Connaght.Shanon. fl.

Corke hath Kinsale, Yowghall, and the Cittie Corke, Tipperary hath Tipperary, Clonmell, Fidderstown,Irish families. Cas­sell. Mounster was of old time devided into East-Moun­ster, Ormond, West-Mounster, Desmond, South-Monster, Thomond. Here dwell Obrenes, Macnemarraes, Mack-ma­ [...]ownes, and one sept of the Offlherties.

In these quarters lyeth the Countryes of O-Carroll, O-Magher, the white Knight, Mac-Ibrine, O-Gaunaghe.

Waterford contayneth the Powers, and Deces.

Corke the Barries Lands, Imokillie, Carbarrie, [Page 4] Maccarty-more, Maccarty-reagh, L. Roches lands, Osuli­van, Muscry, L. Courcy, and diverse more, some of Irish blood, some degenerate and become Irish.

Limericke hath in it the Knight of the valley, VVilliam Burcke, Mac-Ibrine Ara, part of the white Knights Lands, Cosmay, Obrenes, and upon the edge of Kerrie the greene knight, aliàs the knight of Kerrie.

Leinster butteth upon England, Mounster and Con­naght upon France and Spaine, Vlster upon the Scottish Ilands (which face with Hebrides) scattered between both realmes; wherein at this day, the Irish Scot Successour of the old Scythian Pict or Redshancke dwelleth.

Bishops in Ire­land. Bern. in vita Malach. An. 1148.The spirituall Iurisdiction is ordered into 4. Provinces whereof the primacy was euer given (in reverence toward Saint Patricke their Apostle) to the Archbishoppe of Ard­magha, now called Ardmagh, which custome was since confirmed by Eugenius the 3. who sent withall 3. other pre­lates to be placed, one at Dublin, one at Cashell, & the last at Tuam. To these are suffraganes in right 29. and all they inferiour to the Primate of Ardmaghe:Province of Ardmagh. under his province are the Bishopprickes of Meath, Derry, Ardagh, Kilmore, Clogher, Downe, Coner, Clonmacknoes, Rapho, and Dromore.

Dublin. an. 1212. S. Pat. booke of Re­corde [...]Vnder Dublin (whereunto Innocentius 3. united Glande­lagh) are the Bishop of Elphine, Kildare, Ferne [...], Ossorie and Laighlein.

Cashell.Vnder Cashell are B. of Waterford, Lysmore, Corke, & Clone, Rosse, Ardigh, Limericke, Emely, Killalo, Ardferte.

Tuam.Vnder Tuam the B. of Kilmaco, Olfine, Anaghdoune, Clonfert, Mayo. In this recount some diversities have happened by reason of personall and reall union of the Seas and for other alterations.

An old distinctiō there is of Ireland into Irish & English pales,English pale. for whē the Irish had raised cōtinual tumults against [Page 5] the English planted heere with the Conquest. At last they coursed them into a narrow circuite of certaine shires in Leinster, which the English did choose as the fattest soyle, most defensible, their proper right, and most open to receive helpe from England. Hereupon it was termed their pale, as whereout they durst not peepe. But now both within this pale, uncivill Irish and some rebells doe dwell, and without it, Countreyes and cities English are well go­verned.

CAP. II. The temporall Nobility.

BY conference with certaine gentlemen, atten­dants upon Sir Henry Sidney, Lord Deputie, (who excelleth in that knowledge) I tooke notice of the most noble English families in Ireland, which heere ensue with their surnames as they stand at this present.

Gerald Fitz Gerald Earle of Kildare, this house was of the nobilitie of Florence, came thence to Normandie, and so with earle Strangbow his kinsman, (whose Armes hee giveth) into Wales, neere of bloud to Rice ap Griffin Prince of Wales, by Vesta the mother of Morice Fitz Gerald, and Robert Fitz Stephens: with the said Earle it removed into Ireland, one of the speciall conquerors thereof.Flatsbury. One record that I have seene, nameth a Geraldine the first Earle of Kil­dare, in anno 1289. But another saith, there dyed a Geraldine the fourth Earle of Kildare in anno 1316. the family is tou­ched in the sonnet of Surrey, made upon Kildares sister, now Lady Clinton.

From Tuscane came my Ladyes worthy race,
Faire Florence was sometime her ancient seate,
The westerne Isle whose pleasant shore doth face,
Wilde Cambres cliffes did give her lively heate.

[Page 6]His eldest sonne Lord Gerald, Baron of Ophalye, I reade the Geraldine Lord of Ophalye, in anno 1270.

Sir Thomas Butler, Earle of Ormond and Ossorye: the Butlers were ancient English Gentlemen, preferred to the Earledome of Ormond in the first of Edward the 3. Anno 1327. which fell upon heires generall,Stowe. lastly upon Sir Tho­mas Butler Earle of Wilshire, after whose disfavour it rever­sed to the name of Pierce Butler, whom little before King H. 8. had created Earle of Ossorye. Theo. Butler was Lord of the Carricke.Flatsbury. An. 1205. And Earle of Tipperarie 1300. or sooner: the Latine History calleth him Dominum de Pincer­na, the English Le Bottiller, whereby it appeareth that hee had some such honour about the Prince, his very surname is Becket, who was advanced by H. le 2. in recompence of the injurie done to Thomas of Canterburie their kinsman.

His eldest sonne Lord Butler, Viscount Thurles.

Gerald Fitz Gerald, Earle of Desmond, Morice Fitz Tho­mas a Geraldine, was created Earle of Desmond the same yeare: soone after that the Butler became Earle of Or­mond. The Irish say, that the elder house of the Geraldines was made Earle of Desmond, though Kildare be the more ancient Earle.

His eldest sonne L. Fitz Gerald of Desmond, Baron of Inshycoin.

Sir Richard Burcke, Earle of Clanriccard, a braunch of the English family, de Burge Lord Burgh, who were noble men before their arrivall into Ireland.

His eldest sonne Vlioke Burghe Baron of Donkeline.

Conegher Obrene, Earle of Tumond: the name of Earle given to Murroughe Obrene for terme of life, and after to Do­noghe Obrene, An. 5. Edw. 6. now confirmed to the heires male.

His eldest sonne Lo. Obrene, Baron of Ibrecane.

Mac Cartimore, Earle of Clarcar, created An. 1565.

His eldest sonne Lo: Baron of Valentia.

Viscount Barrie.

[Page 7]Viscount Roohe.

Preston, Viscount of Gormanston, whereunto is lately annexed the Barony of Lounders, their auncestour Preston, then cheife Baron of the Exchequer, was made Knight in the field by Lionell Duke of Clarence, Lieutenant of Ire­land.

Eustace alias Powere, Viscount of Baltinglasse, Lord of Kilkullen, to him and his heires male An. H. 8.33. Their an­cestour Robert le Powere was sent into Ireland with commission, and in his Off-spring hath rested heere since An. 1175. Powere alias Eustace is written Baron of Domvile An. 1317.

Sir Richard Butler, Viscount Mongaret, to him and his heires males An. Edw. 6.5.

Viscount Deces.

Lord Bermingham, Baron of Athenrye, now degenerate and become meere Irish, against whom his auncestors ser­ved valiantly in An. 1300.

Sir Richard Bermingham was Lord of Athenrye. 1316.Baron of A [...]ry. Baron of Ar­digh.

Iohn Bermingham Baron de Atrio dei, Anno 1318.

Mac Morice alias Fitz Gerald, Baron of Kerye.

Lord Courcye a poore man, not very Irish, the auncient descent of the Courcyes planted in Ireland with the Con­quest.

Lord Flemmynge Baron of Slane, Simon Flemmynge was Baron of Slane in Anno 1370.

Plonket, Baron of Killyne: this family came in with the Danes, whereof they have as yet speciall monuments.

Nugent, Baron of Delvin.

Saint Laurence, Baron of Hothe.

Plonket, Baron of Doonesawny.

Barnewall, Baron of Trimleston: they came from little Brittaine, where they are at this day a great surname, upon their first arrivall they wonne great possessions at Beirnha­ven, where at length by conspiracie of the Irish, they were all slaine, except one yong man, who then studied the com­mon [Page 8] Lawes in England, who returning, dwelt at Drom­naghe besides Divelin, and his heires are there at this day: from thence a second brother remooved to Sirestone, and so to Trimlestone, and married the Lady Bruns, who cau­sed him to be made Baron.

This writeth the Lord of Donsany.

Edward Butler, Baron of Donboyne, given to Edmund Butler esquire, and his heires males, An. 33. H. 8.

Fitz Patricke, Baron of upper Ossory, given to Barnabie Mac Gilpatricke, and his heires males, An. 33. H. 8.

Donnate Clonnaghe Mac Gilpatricke, was a peerelesse war­riour in Anno 1219.

Plonket Baron of Louthe, to Sir Christopher Plonket and his heires males, An. 33. H. 8. This Barony was an Earle­dome in An. 1316. appertaining to Bermingham.

Oneale, Baron of Dongannon, to whom the Earledome of Terone was entayled by gift of H. 8.

Powere, Baron of Curraghmore.

Mac Suretan Lord Deseret, whom Sir Henry Sidney cal­led Iordan de Exeter. This was Lord in the time of Lionell Duke of Clarence, An. 1361. now very wilde Irish.

Murroghe Obrene, Baron of Insickeyne, to him and his heires males, An. 35. H. 8.

Mac Costilaghe, L Nangle, whom Sir Henry Sidney called de Angulo, now very Irish.

Mac William Burcke, Lord of eighter Connaght, now ve­ry Irish.

Baronets. Seintleger, Baronet of Slemarge, meere Irish.

Den, Baronet of Pormanston, waxing Irish.

Fitz Gerald, Baronet of Burnchurch.

Welleslye, Baronet of Narraghe.

Husee, Baronet of Galtrim.

S. Michell, Baronet of Reban.

Marwarde, Baronet of Scryne.

Nangle, Baronet of the Navan.

[Page 9]English gentlemen of longest continuance in Ireland are the race of those which at this day, either in great povertie,Gentlemen most ancient in Ireland of En­glish bloud. or perill, doe keepe the properties of their auncestors lands in Vlster, being then companions to Courcy the conquerour and Earle of that part. These are the Savages, Iordanes, Fitz Symonds, Chamberlaines, Russels, Bensons, Audleyes, Whites, Fitz Vrsulyes, now degenerate, & called in Irish, Mac Mahon the Beares sonne.

CAP. III. Nature of the soyle, and other incidents.

THe soyle is low and waterish, & includeth di­verse little Ilands, invironed with bogges and marishes: Highest hilles have standing pooles in their toppe, Inhabitants (especially new come) are subiect to distillations, rhumes and flixes, for remedy whereof they use an ordinary drinke of Aqua­vitae, so qualified in the making, that it dryeth more,Aquavitae, and in­flameth lesse, then other hote confections. The aire is whol­some, not altogether so cleare and subtle as ours of England.Camb. part. 1. Of Bees good store, no vineyards,Io. Bohem. lib. 3 c. 26. Munst. lib. 1. contrary to the opinion of some writers, who both in this and other errours tou­ching the land, may easily be excused, as those that wrote of hearesay.

Cambrensis in his time,Dist. 3. complaineth that Ireland had excesse of wood, and very little champaigne ground, but now the English pale is too naked: Turffe and Sea-coales is their most fuell: it is stored of kyne, of excellent horses, & hawkes, of fish and fowle. They are not without wolves, and grey-hounds to hunt them, bigger of bone and limme then a colt. Their kyne, as also their cattle, and commonly what els soever the Countrey ingendreth (except man) is much lesse in quantity then ours of England. Sheepe few, and those bearing course fleeces, whereof they spinne no­table [Page 6] [...] [Page 7] [...] [Page 8] [...] [Page 9] [...] [Page 10] rugge mantle. The country is very fruitefull both of corne and grasse, the grasse for default of Husbandrie (not for the cause alleaged in Polychronicon, lib. 12.32.) groweth so ranke in the north parts, that oft times it rotteth their Kyne. Eagles are well knowne to breed heere, but neither so bigge nor so many as Bookes tell. Cambrensis reporteth of his owne knowledge,Barnacles. and I heare it averred by credi­ble persons, that Barnacles, thousands at once, are noted a­long the shoares to hang by the beakes, about the edges of putrified timber, shippes, oares, anchor-holdes, and such like: which in processe taking lively heate of the Sunne, become water-foules, and at their time of ripenesse either fall into the sea, or fly abroad into the ayre. Aeneas Sylvius (that after was Pope Pius the second) writeth himselfe,Anseres arborei to have perceaved the like experiment in Scotland, where he learned the truth hereof, to be found in the Ilands Orchades. Horses they have of pace easie, in running won­derfull swift. Therefore they make of them great store, as wherein at times of need they repose a great peice of safe­tie.Volat. lib. 3. de grege. This broode, Raphael Volateranus saith, to have come at first from Arturia the country of Spaine, betweene Gal­licea and Portugall, whereof they were called Asturcones a name now properly applyed to the Spanish Iennet.

I heard it verified by Honourable to Honourable, that a Nobleman (offered and was refused) for one such horse, an hundred kyne, five pound Lands, & an Airy of Hawks yearely during seven yeares. In the plaine of Kildare stood that monstrous heape of stones brought thither by Gy­ants from Affrique and removed thence to the plaine of Sarisbury at the instance of Aurel. Ambrose King of Brit­taine.Camb. dist. 1. No venemous creping beast is brought forth or nourished, or can live here, being sent in, and therefore the spider of Ireland is well knowne, not to be venemous.

Onely because a frogge was found living, in the Mea­dowes of Waterford,lib. 1. Anglor. hist. cap. 1. somewhat before the conquest, they construed it to import their overthrowe. S. Bede writeth [Page 11] that Serpents conveyed hither did presently die being tou­ched with smell of the land; and that whatsoever came hence was then of Soveraigne vertue against poyson. He exemplifieth in certaine men stung with Adders, who dranke in water the scrapings of Bookes that had beene of Ireland, and were cured.

Generally it is observed, the further West the lesse an­noyance of pestilent creatures. The want whereof is to Ireland so peculiar, that whereas it lay long in questi­on, to whether Realme,Ile of Man. (Brittaine or Ireland) the Ile of Man should pertaine, the said controversie was decided, that forsomuch as venemous beasts were knowne to breed therein, it could not be counted a naturall peice of Ireland.

Neither is this propertie to be ascribed to S. Patrickes blessing (as they commonly hold) but to the originall bles­sing of God who gave such nature to the situation and soyle from the beginning. And though I doubt not, but it fared the better in many respects for that holy mans prayer, yet had it this condition notified hundred of yeares ere he was borne.

CAP. IIII. Of the Irish tongue and the name Hibernia, Ireland.

I Finde it solemnely avouched in some of their pamphlets, that Gathelus, Gathelus. Simon Brecke. and after him Simon Brecke, divised their language out of all other tongues then extant in the world. But consi­dering the course of enterchanging and blending speeches together, not by invention of Arte, but by use of talke, I am rather led to beleeve (seeing Ireland was inhabited within one yeare after the devision of the tongues) that Bastolenus a braunch of Iapheth who first seased upon Ire­land, [Page 12] brought hither the same kinde of Speech, some one of the seventie two Languages,Epiph. cont. he­ros. l. [...]. tom. 1. that to his family befell at the dissolution of Babell, unto whom suc­ceeded the Scithians, Grecians, Aegyptians, Spaniards, Danes: of all which this tongue must needes have bor­rowed part, but specially retaining the steps of Spanish then spoken in Granado, as from their mightiest aunce­stors.Munst. l. 2. Since then to Henry Fitz Empresse the Conquerour, no such invasion happened them, as whereby they might be driven to infect their native language, untouched in manner for the space of 1700. yeares after the arrivall of Hiberius. Irish tongue. The tongue is sharpe and sententious, offe­reth great occasion to quicke apothegmes and proper al­lusions, wherefore their common Iesters, Bards, and Ry­mers, are said to delight passingly those that conceive the grace and propriety of the tongue. But the true Irish in­deede differeth somuch from that they commonly speake, that scarce one among five score, can either write, read, or understand it. Therefore it is prescribed among certaine their Poets, and other Students of Antiquitie.

Hibernia.Touching the name Ibernia, the learned are not yet a­greed. Some write it Hibernia, and suppose that the stran­gers finding it in an odde end of the world, wet and fro­sty, tooke it at the first for a very cold country, and accor­dingly named it, as to say, the winter land: Another bring­eth a guesse of Irlamal,Irlamale Fab. part. [...]. cap. 32. of whom because I read nothing, I neither build upon that conjecture, nor controll it. Third­ly,Hiberus. they fetch it from Hiberus the Spaniard. Most credibly it is held that the Spaniards their founders for devotion to­ward Spaine, called then Iberia, and the rather for that themselves had dwelled besides the famous river Iberus, named this land Iberia,in Cign. cant. (for so Iohn Leland, and many for­raine Chroniclers write it,) or Ibernia, adding the letter n. for difference sake, there being a rich Citty which Ptolome recounteth called then Ibernis,Pliny writeth it Iuuernia. Ibernis. Iuerland. I [...]land. & from Ibernia proceedeth Iberland or Iuerland, from Iuerland by contraction Ire­land [Page 13] for so much as in corruption of common talke, wee finde that v, with his vowell, are easily lost and suppres­sed. So wee say ere for ever, ore for over, ene for even, nere for never, shoole for shovell, dile for divell. At the same time it was also named Scotia in reverence of Scota, the wife of Gathelus, auncient Capitaine of those Iberians, that flitted from Spaine into Ireland. And the said Scota was olde grandame to Hiberus and Hirimon, after the Scottish Chronicles, who in any wise will have their Countrymen derived from the Irish,Io. Ma. Sco. l. 1. c. 9. and not from the Brittaines.

CAP. V. Dispositions of the People.

THE People are thus inclined; religious franke, amorous, irefull, sufferable, of paines infinite, very glorious, many sorcerers, ex­cellent horsemen, delighted with Warres, great almes-givers, passing in hospitalitie: the lewder sort both Clarkes and Lay-men, are sensuall and loose to leachery above measure. The same being vertuously bred up or reformed, are such mirrours of holinesse and austeritie, that other Nations retaine but a shewe or shadow of devotion in comparison of them. As for abstinence and fasting which these dayes make so dangerous, this is to them a familiar kinde of chastise­ment: In which vertue and diverse other, how farre the best excell, so farre in gluttonie and other hatefull crimes the vitious they are worse then too badde. They fol­low the dead corpes to the grave with howlings and barbarous out-cryes, pittyfull in apparance, whereof [Page 14] grew (as I suppose) the Proverbe, to weepe Irish. The uplandish are lightly abused to believe and avouche idle miracles and revelations vaine and childish, greedy of prayse they bee, and fearefull of dishonour. And to this end they esteeme their Poets who write Irish learned­ly, and penne their sonnetts heroicall, for the which they are bountifully rewarded. But if they send out libells in disprayse, thereof the Gentlemen, especially the meere I­rish, stand in great awe. They love tenderly their foster children, and bequeathe to them a childes portion, where­by they nourish sure friendshippe, so beneficiall every way, that commonly five hundreth kyne and better are given in reward to winne a noble mans childe to foster. They are sharpe-witted, lovers of learning, capable of a­ny studie whereunto they bend themselves, constant in travaile, adventerous, intractable, kinde-hearted, secret in displeasure.

Hitherto the Irish of both sortes meere, and English, are affected much indifferently, saving that in these, by good order, and breaking the same, vertues are farre more pregnant. In those others, by licentious and evill custome, the same faults are more extreame and odious, I say, by licentious and evill custome, for that there is daylie tryall of good natures among them. How soone they bee reclaymed, and to what rare gifts of grace and wisedome, they doe and have aspired. Againe, the very English of birth, conversant with the brutish sort of that people, become degenerate in short space, and are quite altered into the worst ranke of Irish Rogues, such a force hath education to make or marre. It is further to bee knowne, that the simple Irish are utterly ano­ther people then our Englishe in Ireland, whome they call despitefully boddai Sassoni's, and boddai Ghalt, that is, English and Saxon churles, because of their En­glish auncestors planted heere with the Conquest, and si­thence with descent hath lasted now 400. yeares. Of this [Page 15] people therefore severally by themselves I must intreate. Yet none otherwise then as they stand unfiled, and serve their accustomed humours, with whom I joyne all such as either by living neere them, or by liking their trade are transformed into them.

CAP. VI. Of the meere Irish.

TOuching the meere Irish, I am to advertise my Reader, that hee impute not to them the faults of their Auncestors, which heere I have noted for two causes. First, that when the same are reade in Cambrensis, Solinus, or others, he confounds not the times, but may be able distinctly to consider their manners, then different from these dayes. Secondly, that it may appeare how much Ireland is beholding to God for suffering them to be conquered, whereby many of these enormities were cu­red, and more might be, would themselves be plyable.

In some corners of the land they used a damnable supersti­tion,Old customes of the Irish. leaving the right armes of their Infants males unchriste­ned (as they tearmed it) to the intent it might give a more ungracious and deadly blow.

I found a fragment of an Epistle, wherein a vertuous Monke declareth,Epistle of an Irish Monke. that to him (travailing in Vlster) came a grave Gentleman about Easter, desirous to be confessed and howseled, who in all his life time had never yet received the blessed Sacrament. When he had said his minde, the Priest demaunded him, whether he were faultlesse in the sinne of Homicide? Hee answered, that hee never wist the mat­ter to bee haynous before, but being instructed there­of, hee confessed the murther of five, the rest hee [Page 16] left wounded, so as he knew not whether they lived or no. Then was he taught that both the one, and the other were execrable, and verie meekelie humbled himselfe to re­pentance.

Solinus writeth that they woonted (because they would seeme Terrible and Martiall,) to embrue their faces in the bloude of their Enemyes slaine. Strabo the famous Geographer, who flourished under Augustus and Tiberius Caesar, more then fifteene hundred yeares agoe, telleth (without asseveration) that the Irish were great Gluttons, eaters of mans flesh: and counted it Ho­nourable for Parents deceased, to bee eaten up of their Children, and that in open sight they medled with their Wiues, Mothers, and Daughters: which is the lesse incredible, considering what Saint Hierome avoucheth of the Scots their Of-spring and Allies, and what all Histo­ries doe witnesse of the Scithians their auncient founders. See Strabo lib. 4. Geograph.

Although since the time of Saint Patricke, Christia­nitie was never extinct in Ireland, yet the governement being hayled into contrarie factions, the Nobilitie law­lesse, the multitude willfull, it came to passe that Reli­gion waxed with the temporall common sort cold and feeble, untill the Conquest did settle it, especiallie in cases of restrainte and Discipline. The Honourable state of Marriage they much abused, either in con­tracts, unlawfull meetings, the Leviticall and Canoni­call degrees of prohibition, or in divorcementes at plea­sure, or in ommitting Sacramentall solemnities, or in retayning either Concubines or Harlots for Wiues. Yea even at this day, where the Cleargie is fainte, they can bee content to Marrie for a yeare and a day of probation, and at the yeares end, to returne her home uppon any light quarrells, if the Gentlewo­mans friendes bee weake and unable to avenge the inju­rie. [Page 17] Never heard I of so many dispensations for Mar­riage, as those men shewe, I pray God graunt they bee all authentique and buylded uppon sufficient war­rant.

Covenant and Indent with them never so warilie, never so preciselie, yet they have beene founde faithlesse and perjured. Where they are joyned in colour of su­rest Amitie, there they intended to kill. This ceremo­n [...]e reporteth Cambrensis. The parties to bee coupled in League, meete at Church, become God-septes, or Al [...]ies, beare each other on his backe certaine paces in a Ring, kisse together holy reliquees, take blessing of the Bishoppe, offer each to other a droppe of his owne bloude, and drinke it up betweene them: Even in the doing hereof, they practise mutuall destructi­on.

They have beene used in solemne controversies, to pro­test and sweare by Saint Patrickes Staffe, called Bachal esu, which oath, because upon breach thereof heavy plagues en­sued them, they feared more to breake, then if they had sworne by the holy Evangelist.

In Vl [...]ter thus they used to Crowne their King, a white cow was brought forth, which the King must kill, and seeth in water whole, and bathe himselfe therein starke naked, then sitting in the same Caldron, his people about him, toge­ther with them, he must eat the flesh, and drinke the broath, wherein he sitteth, without cuppe or dish or use of his hand. So much of their old Customes. Now a few words of their trade at this present.

Cleare men they are of Skinne and hue, but of themsel­ves carelesse and bestiall. Their Women are well fauoured, cleare coloured, faire handed, bigge and large, suffered from their infancie to grow at will, nothing curious of their fea­ture and proportion of body.

Their infants of the meaner sort, are neither swadled, nor lapped in Linnen, but foulded up starke naked into a Blankett till they can goe, and then if they [Page 18] get a piece of rugge to cover them, they are well sped. Linnen shirts the rich doe weare for wantonnes and bravery, with wide hanging sleeves playted, thirtie yards are little enough for one of them. They have now left their Saffron, and learne to wash their shirts, foure or five times in a yeare. Proud they are of long crisped glibbes, and doe nourish the same with all their cunning: to crop the front thereof they take it for a no­table peece of villany▪ Shamrotes, Water-cresses, Rootes, and other hearbes they feede upon: Oatemale and Butter they cramme together. They drinke Whey, Milke, and Beefe broth, Flesh they devoure without bread, corne such as they have they keepe for their horses. In haste and hunger they squese out the blood of raw flesh, and aske no more dressing thereto, the rest boyleth in their stomackes with Aquavitae, which they swill in after such a surfeite, by quarts & pottles. Their kyne they let blood which growen to a jelly they bake and over-spread with Butter, and so eate it in lumpes.

One office in the house of great men is a tale-teller, who bringeth his Lord on sleepe, with tales vaine and frivolous, whereunto the number give sooth and credence. So light they are in beleeving whatsoever is with any countenance of gra­vitie affirmed by their Superiours, whom they esteeme and honour, that a lewd Prelate within these few yeares needy of money, was able to perswade his parish: That S. Patricke in striving with S. Peter to let an Irish Galloglass into Hea­ven, had his head broken with the keyes, for whose releife he obtained a Collation.

Without either precepts or observation of congruity they speake Latine like a vulgar language, learned in their com­mon Schooles of Leach-craft and Law, whereat they begin Children, and hold on sixteene or twentie yeares conning by roate the Aphorismes of Hypocrates, and the Civill Instituti­ons, and a few other parings of those two faculties. I have seene them where they kept Schoole, ten in some one Cham­ber, groveling upon couches of straw, their Bookes at their noses, themselves lying flatte prostate, and so to chaunte out their lessons by peece-meale, being the most part lustie fel­lowes [Page 19] of twenty five yeares and upwards.

Other Lawyers they have, liable to certaine families which after the custome of the country determine and judge causes. These consider of wrongs offered and received among their neighbours, be it murder, or fellony, or trespasse, all is redee­med by composition, (except the grudge of parties seeke re­venge:) and the time they have to spare from spoyling and proyning, they lightly bestow in parling about such matters. The Breighoon (so they call this kind of Lawyer) sitteth him downe on a banke, the Lords and Gentlemen at variance round about him, and then they proceede.

They honour devoute Fryars and Pilgrimes, suffer them to passe quietly, spare them and their mansions, whatsoever out­rage they shew to the country besides them. To robbe and prey their enemies, they deeme it none offence, nor seeke any meanes to recover their losse, but even to watch them the like turne. But if neighbours and friends send their Cators to purloyne one another, such Actions are judged by the Breighoones aforesaid.

Toward the living they are noysome and malicious, the same being dead they labour to avenge eagerly and fiercely. They love and trust their Foster Brethren more then their owne. Turlogh Leinagh Oneale that now usurpeth, is said to repose in them his greatest surety.

Strumpets are there too vile and abominable to write of, which not onely without feare, but also without remorse doe advance themselves in numbring what noblemen have had liking to their bodies. Hee that can bring most of his name into the field, base or other, triumpheth exceedingly. For increase of which name, they allow themselves not one­ly whoores, but also choise & store of whoores. One I heard named which hath (as he calleth them) more then ten wiues, in twentie places.

There is among them a brother-hood of Carrowes that professe to play at Cards all the yeare long, and make it their onely occupation. They play away Mantle and all to the bare skinne, and then trusse themselves in strawe or in leaves, [Page 20] they waite for passengers in the high way, invite them to a game upon the greene, and aske no more but companions to hold them sport, for default of other stuffe they pawne portions of their glibbe, the nailes of their fingers and toes, their privie members; which they lose or redeeme at the curtesie of the winner.

Where they fancie and favour, they are wonderfull kinde, they exchange by commutation of wares for the most part, and have utterly no coyne stirring in any great Lords houses. Some of them be richly plated: their Ladies are trimmed ra­ther with massie Iewels, then with garish apparell, it is coun­ted a beautie in them to be tall, round and fat.

The inheritance descendeth not to the Sonne, but to the Brother, Nephew, or Cousin germaine eldest and most vali­ant: for the Childe being oftentimes left in nonage or other­wise young and unskillfull, were never able to defend his pa­trimonie, being his no longer then he can hold it by force of armes. But by that time he grow to a competent age, and have buryed an Vncle or two, he also taketh his turne, and leaveth it in like order to his Posterity. This custome breed­eth among them continuall Warres and treasons.

CAP. VII. The most auncient Inhabitants of Ireland.

In praefat. l. 1. dec. 1. THe honourable Historian Titus Livius, yeeldeth certaine priviledge to antiquitie, and will have it held excused, if percase for advancement of their Citties, they straine a point of truth, and de­rive a first foundation from one or other, of their supposed Gods: wherefore though I can no lesse doe then reject a fable concerning the arrivall of Noes Neece into this Island, yet this kinde of forgery being somewhat universall, seeing eve­ry Chronicler paineth himselfe, to fetch his reckoning with the farthest let him hardly be pardoned, who led by relation of his elders, committed first to writing so dull a tale. As for [Page 21] the multitude of writers that agree thereon, they are in effect but one writer, seeing the latest ever borrowed of the for­mer, and they all of Cambrensis, who affirmeth it not, but one­ly alleadgeth the received opinion of Irish Histories, yea ra­ther in the foote of that Chapter, he seemeth to mistrust it, and posteth it over to the credit of his authors: so then if the greatest weight hereof doe consist in Irish antiquities, which the learned here confesse to be stuffed with such implements, notoriously felt to be vaine and frivolous, I trust I shall not seeme contentious, nor singular in damning such a fable, not onely false, but also impossible. Thus they say, In the yeare of the world, 1536. The Patriarch Noe began to preach ven­gance upon the people for their accursed lives, to builde his Arke, [...]o enforme his kindred and speciall friends severally, that within few yeares the earth should be sunke in waters, if they amended not. This did he before the generall flood one hundred and twentie yeares, when every man foreslept the monitiō,Cesara▪ onely a Neece of his named Cesara misdoubting the worst, and hearing her Vncle prophesie that all should be drowned for sinne, determined with her adherents, to seeke adventures into some forraine Island, perswaded that if shee might happely finde a Countrie never yet inhabited, and so with sinne undefiled, the generall sentence of Gods anger should there take no place. Whereupon she furnished a navy, and fled into Ireland, with three men, Bithi, Laigria, Fin­tan, and fifty women, left unto her after many shipwrackes. The shore where she landed, & where she lyeth entombed, is at this day called Navicularum littus. The very stones where­in the memorie hereof hath beene preserved from the vio­lence of waters, were said to be seene of some. Within forty dayes after her footing in Ireland, the deluge prevailed uni­versally, and all this coast was cast away.An. Dom. 1656 Now to ommit that part of this device, which is too flat, and ridiculous, if we consider that before the flood, no part of the Earth was knowen, nor touched beside Syria,Rab. Isaac. in Gen. 5. where the first age dwel­led, that sailing was then utterly unheard of in the world, the first vessell being by Gods owne direction wrought, that she [Page 22] might have sped at home, would she repent with more ease and surety, that Iapheth with the Hebrewes, and Iason with the Greekes, were the first pilots: that the Records hereof gra­ven in stone, is but a borrowed invention from Iosephus. These things I say considered, it wilbe no hard matter to de­scry the falshood, wherin I would be more exquisite, were it worth my labour. We need not so ambitiously runne to Ce­sara, to begge a forged evidence, seeing without her helpe, Ireland must be confessed to have been knowne and peopled with the same kinred, even with the first Ilands of the world. For within three hundred yeares after the generall Floud, im­mediately after the confusion of tongues, when Iapheth and his posterity, imboldened by the example of Noe, adventured by ship into divers West Ilands, there was in his retinew one of his progeny,Anno mundi 1957. after the best authors, which make 300. yeares, and not 100, betweene Noes floud and Ba­be [...]l. Bastolenus. Clem. recogn. l. 4. Bastolenus, who conceiving stomack and cou­rage at the late successe of Nemrodus, Ninus his kinsman (then newly intruded upon the Monarch of Assyria) & wandred so farre West, intending to rule without compeeres, till For­tune cast him and his people upon the coast of Ireland. There he settled with his three sonnes, Languinus, Salanus, Ruthur­gus, active and stout gentlemen, who searching the Land through & through, left their owne names by three notable places, Languini stagnum, mons Salangi, since named S. Domi­nicks hill, and Ruthurgi stagnum. Of Bastolenus is little remem­bred, save that in short space with many hands working at once, he plained a great part of the Country, then overgrown with woods and thickets. This posterity kept the Land un­der the government of these three sonnes & their off-spring, about 300. yeares. Together with Bastolenus, arrived in Ire­land certaine godlesse people of the stocke of Nemrod, wor­thily tearmed a gyant,Giants first in Ireland. as one that in bodily shape exceeded proportion, & used his strength to winne soveraigntie, & to oppresse the vveake vvith rapine and violence: That linage (Chams breed) grevv to great numbers, & alvvay bethought them of getting mastery, vvheresoever they tarryed. One cause vvas their bodily force ansvvereable to their hugenesse of quantity:Clem recognit. l. 4. another the example of Cham Zoroastes, that magi­tian, [Page 23] and Nemrodus, Ninus his Nephew, which two in them­selves and their progenies, were renowned throughout the world, as victorious Princes over two mighty Kingdomes Aegypt and Assyria. Thirdly they maligned the blessings be­stowed upon Sem and Iapheth, counting it necessary for them­selves, to stirre, and prevent Dominions, lest the curse of sla­very prophesied by Noe should light upon them, as notwith­standing it did at last.Gen. 9.

Thus irked, they began to kicke at their Governours, and taking head, set up a King of their owne faction, nourishing the same, and annoying the Subjects incessantlie, the successe on both sides was variable, quarrels increased, the enemie caught handfast, & every day bred a new skirmish. It seemed intolerable, & very necessity cōpelled them to try their whole force in one Battle, either utterly to weede out the Gyants, or to die free. Peace therefore concluded among themselves, for any private grudge hitherto maintayned, all sorts brake truce and amity with the Gyants, and straited them up so, that from all corners of the land, they must needes assemble into one field and fight for the better, maynelie they tugged certaine houres, but in conclusion the lawfull Kings prevay­led, the miscreants done to death. See now the mockery of Fortune, Victors they were, and promised themselves a secu­rity: Anger & insolencie over-turned all, for what with spoi­ling the dead carcases, what with murthering the remaynder of that generation, man, woman, and childe, in all parts of the Realme, vouchsafing them no buryall, but casting them out like a sort of dead dogges,Anno mundi 2257. there ensued through the stench of those carryons such a mortall pestilence, infecting not onely the places where they lay, but the ayre round about by conta­gion, that beside those few which by sea returned home­ward, few escaped alive, and heereby hangeth a tale, From this plague (say the Irish) was preserved Ruanus the Gyant, who from time to time kept true record of their histories,Ruanus, who is of some thought to be Fin Macoole. else utterly done away by sundry casualties of death, warre, spoyle, fire, forraine victories, and he (forsooth) continued till the yeare of Christ 430. and told S. Patrick all the newes of [Page 24] the country requiring of him to bee baptized, and so died, when he had lived no more but two thousand and forty one yeares: which is above twice the age of Methusalem. Had it beene my chaunce in Ireland,Gen. 5. to meete & conferre with this noble Antiquarie, hee might have eased me of much travell. These things I note for no other purpose, but that the simple stumbling upon such blinde legends should be warned to esteeme them as they are, idle fantasies, wherewith some of their Poets, dallyed at the first, and after through error and rudenes it was taken up for a sad matter.

CAP. VIII. The severall Inhabitants of Ireland since Bastolenus.

OF an infinite number of Gyants slaine, certaine hid families lurked and escaped the common mischiefe, whom at length penury constrayned to forsake their dennes, and to pilfer for meate, when they perceived the murraine of men and beasts, and that none gave them resistance, they waxed hardie, & search­ing the land, found it wel-nigh desolate, wherefore they har­boured themselves in the clearest coast: and easily subduing the poore soules remaining, revived their blood, and became Lords of the whole Iland 60. yeares.

Gen. 10.Among the Sonnes of Iapheth, Genesis recounteth Magog who had now planted his people in Scithia within Tanaris, from whom at this day the Turkes are descended. They hea­ring the hard happe of their fathers lyne, cast out by the col­laterall braunches of Cham, the late King of the Bactrians, their odious neighbours,Anno Mundi [...]17. sent into Ireland Nemodus with his foure sonnes,Nemodus. Starius, Gerbavel, Amimus, Fergusius, captaines o­ver a faire company, who passing by Greece and there taking up such as would seeke fortunes, finally landed here, held the country, multiplyed, but not without continuall warre upon [Page 25] the Gyants aforesaid, who in th'end vanquished and chased them thence againe into Greece, after 216. yeares, from Anno mundi 2533. from which time untill the comming of Dela his sonnes, the Gyants possessed it peaceably without for­reine invasion. But themselves being disordered, and measu­ring all things by might, seditiously vexed each other, nor were they ever able to frame a common-wealth.

That espyed five brethren, sonnes to Dela the Grecian,Ann. mundi 2714. no­torious Pilots, named Gaudius, Genandius, Sagandius, Ruthera­gius, Slanius, the posterity of Nemodus expulsed successors,The sonnes of Dela. who fortified their navyes, and finding the Countrey but weake, wanne it entirely, rooted out the old enemy, divided the Iland into five parts, & in each of them severally raigned, for better contentation of all sides, they agreed to fixe a meare stone in in the middle point of Ireland, to which stone every of their Kingdomes should extend, and be partakers of the commo­dities then chiefly found in that soile. These are also supposed to have invented the distribution of shires into Cantredes,Cantredes. e­very Cantrede or Barony, conteining an hundred Towne­ships, wherewith the name and use of hundreds, well knowne in England, might seeme to accord.

Variance for the chiefty set the foure brethren at a lovve ebbe, and then Slanius perched over them all, encroached eve­ry vvay round about the middle stone certaine miles for pro­vision and furniture of his ovvne houshold, vvhich plott in time obtained the name of one generall part, and novv maketh up the fift, Media. Meth. Meth it vvas called either for moytie of Cantredes, being but sixteene, vvhereas the rest comprised thirty tvvo apeece, or for the site thereof in the navell of Ireland. This hee assigned to the Mo­narch a surplus over and above his Inheritance, vvhich not­vvithstanding grevv to a severall Kingdome, and allovved thereof certaine parts by composition. Not long after dyed Slanius, & vvas buryed in a mountaine of Meth that carri­eth his name. Thirty yeares the Monarchy vvas possessed in this order, but shortly the Princes ovving fealty, beganne to stomack the Intrusion of Slanius, & vvhen he vvas once rid, [Page 26] they disdained his successour, whereupon ensued everlasting Battels. The Monarchy was laide downe, then fell they at de­bate for the land of Meth, which strife could never be appea­sed. In the necke of those troubles came over a new army of Scithians, who claymed also from Nemodus their fore-father, and they tooke parts, and made parts, set all in uproare with sword,Ann. mundi 2800. and havocke. To be short, they spent themselves one upon another so fiercely and furiously, that now they recko­ned not what nation or what souldiour they received in, to keepe up or beate downe a side. By which occasion the Brit­taines also put in a foot, who discovering the state of the land to their Princes,Brennus. opened a gappe for Brennus the brother of Belinus, to direct his course thither vvith the same Navy vvhich he had furnished to serve Signimius then King of Ly­ons amid the Galles in France. But Brennus took small effect. Before him also divers Kings of Brittaine had scope in Ire­land. Insomuch that Gurguntius the sonne of Beline, repu­ted the same by lineall descent among his ovvne Domini­ons. Notvvithstanding they never injoyed it longer then they could keepe possession perforce, and often vvere they repelled and vvearyed vvith seeking after it, as vvherein they found small fruite, and blovves enough. Lastly came the Spaniards from Biscaye, conducted by foure Captaines, of vvhose arryvall before I speake, I must re­peate their originall somevvhat farther, and so give a light to the assoyling of a controversie, that is, vvhether the Irish came from Aegypt, or from Spaine. It shall appeare they came from both.

CAP. IX. The arrivall of the Spaniards, then called Iberians, into Ireland.

IN the yeare of the World 2436. after the uni­versall floud 780. while the children of Israell served in Aegypt, Gathelus the sonne of Neale, Hector. Bo [...]th. l. 1. Hist. Scot. a great Lord in Greece, was upon disfavour exiled the Country with a number of his faction, adherents, and friends. The young Greeke being very wise, valiant and well spoken,Ioh. Major. de gestis Scot. lib. 1. cap. 9. got honourable entertainement with Pharao surna­med Amaenophis king of Aegypt, and in short space reached to such a credit that he espoused the Kings base Daughter Scota, whereof the Scotts are thought to be named. This match bred to the King some tumult,Gathelus. and to the young Gentle-man much envy,Exod. 14. wherefore assoone as the foresaid Amaenophis was drowned in the Red Sea, the Princes of Aegypt so vexed Gathelus and his wife, that they were faine to buske them, withall their traine into Europe, and came first to Lusitania, where diverse of his people tyred with travaile, would needs abide, he builded there the city of Brigantia, called afterwards Novium, now Compostella.Hector. Boeth. lib. 1. The remnant passed with him into Ireland, where the Barbarians highly honoured him, for his cunning in all languages, who also greatly perfected and beautified the Irish tongue, taught them letters, sought up their antiquities, practised their youth in martiall feates, after his Greeke and Aegyptian manner. Finally so well he pleased them that to gratifie such a Benefactour, they were content to name the Iland after him Gathelia, and after his wife Sco­tia. Truely that Scotia is the auncient appellation of Ireland, all Chroniclers agree, as it shalbe more plaine, when wee touch the Scottish pedigree. A brute there is in Ireland but uncertainelie fathered, that in remembrance of Pharao, their good lord, the Kerne pitching his Dart, cryeth of courage faro, faro; but the learned thinke that to bee taken from the Spaniard, who in his Ioco dicano ex­claymeth [Page 28] fabo, fabo.

The people left in the coast of Spaine, founded the city of Bayon, now part of Gascoigne, and replenished all the shore towards Africk,Ann. mundi 2642. and the edges of Portugall, Castile, Galaecia, towardes the sea Cantabricum, well nigh 200. yeares, after which time some of them began to minde another travaile, because they were pestered with Inhabitants, and whether they ever sped to Ireland, it is unknowne, at the leastwise in the raigne of Gurguntius the Brittaine, then chiefe Lord of Bayon, foure brethren Spaniards, whereof two are noted, Hiberus and Hirimon, Hiberus and Hirimon. not the sonnes of Gathelus (as writeth Boethius) but his off-spring, understanding that divers Western Ilands were empty, desirous to live in ease and elbovv-room, sayled Westvvard vvith a great retinue of men,The head Captaine was Bartholmew, as many Au­thors affirme. vvomen and babes, hovering long about the Ilands Orchades in 60. great ships, untill by good hap they met vvith Gurguntius, then re­turning from the conquest of Denmarke,Fab. part. 2. vvho had refused to pay him the tribute, vvhich Belinus his father vvan, him they besought (considering their vvant of victuals,Grafton. p. 60. unable any longer to dvvell in their ships, accumbred vvith carriage of vvomen & children) to direct & further them to some place of habitation, proffering to become his liege people to hold the same of him & his heires for ever. The King advising himselfe, remembred vvith vvhat difficultie he kept the Irish in subjection, & conceived hope that these strangers vvould endeavor either to stub out that unruly generation, or to nur­ture them.Ann. mundi 3 [...]92. & so taking their oathes and hostages, he mann'd their ships, stored thē vvith victuall & munition, & seated thē in Ireland. Thus had the Brittaines an elder right to the Re­alme of Ireland, then by the conquest of Henry the 2. vvhich title they never surceased to claime, & somtimes prevailed, as in the dayes of King Arthur, to vvhom the Irish Princes ag­nized their tribute and apparance, made at his Parliament in urbe Legionū, vvhich I take to be Westchester, called of old Car­leon, as divers other citties vvere, vvherein the Romanes pla­ced the legions. Again the Kings of Britain vvere thē Lords of the place vvhence this people came, so as their vvinnings must [Page 29] have beene the Kings Dominion.

To all this when their owne free assent, the dedition of other Princes, lawfull conquest and prescription is adjoyned, it forceth an invincible title. But to prosecute our purpose, Those Iberians being substantially ayded of Gurguntius, en­joyed the Lands, bestowed themselves foure brethren into foure parts thereof, untill their pride and ambition armed two against other two, Hiberus and his brother against Hi­rimon and his. In this conflict Hirimon slew Hiberus, and raigned quietly. At this time the countrey was first named I­bernia, as I have declared in the third Chapter. The King to avoyde obloquie and slaunder, purged himselfe to his sub­jects, that neither maliciously nor contentiously, but for his necessary defence and safeguard he had borne armes against his brother. And to witnesse how farre he was from desire to rule alone, he nominated speciall Captaines to be Kings under him of their severall Countryes, reserving to himselfe but one fourth part, and the portion of Meth allotted to the Monarchie for the better maintenance of his part.

These afterward clambered into five Kingdomes incom­patible, Leinster, Connaght, Vlster,Severall King­domes in Ire­land. Mounster in two por­tions, and sometimes to more by usurpations and compo­sitions. but ever one was elected the Monarch over all.

An hundred and thirtie chiefe Kings are reckoned of this Nation from Hirimon to Laigirus the sonne of Nealus mag­nus, in whose time the blessed Bishop Patricius converted them to Christianity.

CAP. X. The comming of the Picts into Ireland.An. Dom▪ 120.

Bed. l. 1. c. 1. NOW lived the Irish in tollerable order under their sundry Kings, and applyed themselves to peace and gathering of wealth, when sud­dainely Rodericke a Red-shank of Scythia fled thither with a small company of Galleyes, and winde-driven in compassing round about the British coast,Picts. were happely blowne ashore into Ireland. These are the Picts, a people from their cradle dissentious, land-leapers, mercilesse, sowre and hardy, being presented to the King, they craved Interpreters,Ioh. Maior▪ de gest. Scot▪ l. 1. c. 10. which granted, Roderick their Chieftaine uttered for him and his, the request in this manner.

The words of Roderick King of Picts.Not as degenerate from the courage of our auncestors, but inclining our selves to the bent and swaye of fortune, we are become suppliants to Ireland, that never before have hum­bled our selves to any, Looke Sir King, eye us well, It is not light prowesse that hath caused these valiant bodies to stoop. Scithians we are, and the Picts of Scithia, great substance of glory lodgeth in these two names, what shall I tell of the ci­vill Tumult that hath made us leave our home? or rippe up old Historyes to make strangers bemoane us? Let our vas­sailes and children discourse it at large and leysure, if perhaps you vouchsafe us any leysure in the Land: To which effect and purpose your infinite necessities pray your favours. A King of a King, Men of Men, Princes can consider how neere it concerneth their honour and surety to proppe up the state of a King defaced by Treason, and men will remember no­thing better beseemeth the nature of man, then to feele by compassion the griefes of men. Admit we beseech you these scattered reliques of Scithia, If your Realmes bee narrow, we are not many▪ If the soyle be barren, we are born [Page 31] to hardnesse. If you live in peace, we are your subjects. If you warre, we are your Souldiours. We aske no kingdome, no wealth, no triumph in Ireland. We have brought our selves, and left these casualtyes with the enemie. Howsoever it like you to esteeme of us, we shall easily learne to like it, when we call to minde, not what we have beene, but what we are.

Great consultations was had upon this request,The Answer. and many things debated too and fro. In the end they were answered, that their antiquities layde forcible arguments, wherefore it could not be expedient to accept the Scithians into Ireland, that mingling of natiōs in a Realme breedeth quarrels reme­dilesse, that Ireland finding scarcity rather of roome then of people, that those few inferred amongst a many might quick­ly disturbe and put the whole out of joynt. But quoth they, though wee may not dwell together yet shall you finde us your very good neighbours and friends. Not farre hence ly­eth the Iland of Brittaine, in the north thereof: your manhood and polycies shall winne you scope enough, our Capitaines shall conduct you the way, our strength shall helpe to settle you, addresse your shippes and hye you thither. With this perswasion they shaped course towards the north of Brittaine, now called Scotland,Iohn Stow. where contrary to all expe­ctation Marius the King awayted their comming, and gave them there a sharpe battle, wherein Rodericke was slaine, with diverse of his band. Them which remained and ap­pealed to mercy, he licensed to inhabite the uttermost bor­ders of Scotland: Wives they wanted to encrease their Issue, and because the Brittaines scorned to match their daughters with such a froward and beggerly people, the Picts continu­ed their first acquaintance with the Irish and by entreaty ob­tained wives from them, conditionally that if the Crowne should happe to fall in question they should then yeeld thus much prerogative to the woman as of the female blood roy­all, rather then of the male to choose their Prince, which Co­venant, saith S. Bede, the Picts are well knowne to keepe at this day.Bede lived an. Dom. 7 [...]0.

But long afore this time the Scottish Chronicles mention [Page 32] the arrivall of Almaine Picts into the marches now of Eng­land and Scotland, vvith vvhom certaine Irish called then al­so Scotts joyned against the Brittaines,Anno Mundi 57 [...]7. ante Christum 330. devising to erect a kingdome there, aswell to fortify themselves as to gratifie the Irish, who detracting their obedience lately promised to Gur­guntius, practised all they might to abridge the kingdome of the Brittaines. First therefore came from Ireland, Fergusius the sonne of Ferchardus, a man very famous for his skill in blaso­ning of armes. Himselfe bare the Red Lyon rampant in a golden field.Ioh. Major. lib. 2. cap. 1. There was in Ireland a monument of Marble fashioned like a Throne, which Simon Brecke a companion to Hiberus and his brethren found in the journey, & because he deemed the finding thereof to be ominous to some King­dome, he brought it along with him, and layde it up in the country for a Iewell. This marble Fergusius obtained to­wards the prospering of his voyage, and in Scotland he left it, which they used many yeares after in Coronation of their King at Scona. But Fergusius though he be scored in the row of Kings, for one, and the first, yet he held himselfe there ob­scurely, sundry times beat backe into Ireland, where he was finallie drowned by misfortune within the Creeke of Knockfergus. That Fergusius encountred with Coilus the Brittaine and slew him, as writeth the Scotts, it is impossible except they mistake the name of Coilus for Calius, with whom indeede the age of Fergusius might well meete, and the rather for that in the first yeare of his raigne, the Picts entred, and then Fergusius immediately after them, 330. yeares ere Christ was borne. Now Coilus raigned in the yeare of our Lord, 124. about which time befell the second arrivall of the Picts in Brittaine, so it seemeth they mistake by a slight error, Coilus for Calius, and the second arrivall of the Picts, for the former. This confusion of Histories is learnedly noted by Cooper in his generall collection of Chronicles.

CAP. XI. How the Irish setled themselves in Scotland.

REturne wee now to the course of our Historie,An. Dom. 160. Ioh Major. l. 1. cap. 11. Bed. l 1. c. 1. while the Picts were bestowed in the north of Brittaine and waxed populous, the Irish made sundry arrands over to visite their Daughters, Ne­phewes, and kindred. In often comming and going, they no­ted waste places, and little Ilands not replenished, but rather neglected and suffered to grow wilde. Hereof in Ireland they advertised their Prince, namely Reuther or Rheuda, Rheuda. who be­ing the Issue of Fergusius, bethought himselfe of his interest to certaine peeces of land beside the nation of the Picts. Hee therefore well appointed, partly by composition, and some deale perforce stepped into those hamlets which no man oc­cupied, & proceeded hansomely to reare his kingdome. By little and little he edged forward, and got betweene the Picts and Brittaines on this side the Scottish banke, which he pos­sessed but a season. The place was thereof named Rheudis­dale, now Riddesdale, (asmuch to say, as the part of Rheuda) for dahal in their language, signifieth part. In those quarters after sundry conflicts with the borderers, hee was by them slaine, but the kingdome lasted in his successours still, and the tvvo nations the Picts and the Irish lovingly suffered each o­ther to thrive. The Scotts caught up the Islands & the Fron­tiers. The Picts dwelt in the middle: Soone after the peace betweene them, vvent suspitions & the diversities of people, place, custome, language, vvith the memorie of old grudges stirred up such inward jealousies and hate, that it seemed they were easie to kindle, & as in such factions, there never want­eth drifte to drive a tumult, so it happened that certaine of the Nobilitie of the Scotts resciant next them had with some difficultie, received out of Greece a Molossian Hound,Ioh. Maior. de gest. Scot. l. 5▪ c. 15. which breede both in swiftnesse of foote, and in svveetnesse of ope­ning, vvas reputed peerelesse.

[Page 34]This Hound, a willfull Gentleman, a Pict stole home, and therewith gratified his Prince, glad of the novelty, and little thoughtfull of the displeasure.Lucan. li. 5. Contrarywise the Irish, wood for anger at this dishonour, and injury, assembled in poste haste under Eugenius their King, and after brawling, fell to spoyle, and so to blowes; whereof parts and stomackes be­ing even,An. Dom. 2 [...]8. the fortune was variable. In this division they scambled out a few yeares, untill the malice of Carassus a Brit­taine forced a quietnesse betweene them to abuse their helpe against th'Empire. But hee was shortly slaine by Alectus the Romane Captaine, and hereupon the old sore waxed rawe: To heape the mischiefe, a Brittish Lord named Maximus, a­spiring to the kingdome, sent an ambassadge to Ethodius king of Picts, pleading with him a league of friendship, utterly to expulse the Irish Scot: conditioning withall their assistance to chase the Romanes out of Brittaine, which was concluded, and by this confederacie, after many lamentable skirmishes, the Irish were betrayed, Eugenius the King, Ethai his brother, and Ericus his nephew, and also the residue, such as could e­scape the enemies sword, fled thence, some into Norway, some into Ireland their first home.

An. Dom. 353. Maximus watching his time, despairing of the Brittish Kingdome, and espying the Picts tyred vvith continuall vvarres, turned his povver upon them, and brought them to such an exigent, that they had no readier shift then to crave helpe from Ireland,To. Maior. li. 2. c. 1. and so by degrees vvhen some private per­sons, nourishers of the quarrell, vvere out-vvorne, the matter of malice vvas qualified, and the remnant of the Irish Scots, vvith their friends and off-spring called home to their dvvel­ling, after their first banishment, 43. yeares expired.

From this time forvvard the amity vvaxed steddy, and the Irish under Fergusius the second their King vvan such credit,An. Dom. 398. that finally the nation of Picts vvere afflicted by the Brit­taines, then the Scots incroched into the heart of the Realme, and became the mightier and more populous, of vvhom the Countrey vvas ever since under one Generall name called Scotland.

[Page 35]Thus you see the Scotts a lively, stirring, ancient,An. Dom. 423· & victo­rious people, are mixed first of Brittaines, (though the Chro­nicles dissemble it) whom Brutus planted there with Albana­ctus: Secondly, of Picts: Thirdly and chiefly, of the Irish, which after this time left the name of Scott, for those in Brit­taine, and delighted rather to be called Irish. Then came up the distinction of Scotia major for Ireland, and Scotia minor for the Scotts in Brittaine.

But most effectually (as saith Cambrensis) the Scotts pre­vayled under the guiding of six valiant Gentlemen,Distinct. 3. Sonnes to Muridus King of Vlster, who in the time that Neale the great enjoyed the monarchy of Ireland, going to succour their countrymen there, at last also tooke up for themselves no lit­tle portions of ground, which their posterity kept in Cambren­sis time, the yeare of Christ 1200. who treateth their exploits more largely in his Topography of Ireland. Ever since then, they were utterly named and esteemed Scotts:Ioh Major. l. 1. cap. 10. The nation of the Picts driven into corners, albeit the most parts & the out Isles retaine at this day a people mungrell betwixt both, cal­led Redshanks. The Scotts write that their King Gregorius, Pol. l. 1. Angl. hist. in an. Dom. 875. invaded Ireland as his lawfull inheritance, and the same conquered, who lieth buried in one of their out-Iles, called Iona, beautified with the Sepultures of Scot­tish Kings, where the Irish tongue is their native language, & therefore they call the submission of the Irish to Henry the 2. a defection from Scotland, which neverthelesse they recke, ne regard not, but willfully did forgoe it, as reaping lesse then they expended, and unable to defray the growing charge, which cost considered little better then nothing, say they, the King of England winneth by keeping of Ireland. Yet in the late governement of S. Henry Sidney, Vlster being conveyed by discent, & act of Parliament to the Crowne, which Earle­dome was in the time of Edward the third reckoned at thirty one thousand markes yearely, the same being but one fift part of Ireland, It seemeth that if this right be well prosecuted that Ireland might pay it selfe of necessaries, and yeeld sufficient benefit to the Princes Coffers.

CAP. XII. The conversion of the Irish to Christianity.

An. Dom. 42 [...]. ABout this time, Holy Church being stayed in peace, enriched with possessions, supported with authority, many noble Clearkes flourishing in diverse Realmes, the Holy Doctor Augustine yet in life:Nicephor. l. 14· cap. 40· Plat. in Caele­stin. 1. Theodosius the second, suppressing Idols in all the Em­pyre: Celestinus 1. Bishop of Rome, conferred with his cleargy touching the instruction specially of the vvestern parts, wher­in the faith of Christ was hitherto, either not planted, or by persecution extinct, or by corruption of Hereticks defaced: of them all, no country was more lamented then Ireland, which partly for distance from the heart of Christendome, partly for their infinite rudenesse, had yet received no fruit of true Religion. In that assembly was Palladius Arch-Deacon of Rome, a good Priest and well learned, who profered his charitable travaile towards the conversion of any those lands, whither he should be by them directed and appointed. The Pope knowing the sufficiency of the man, did consecrate Pal­ladius a Bishop,Vita S. Patricij. authorized his journey, furnished his wants, associated to him, diverse religious persons, delivered him the Holy Bible, with great solemnities, and certaine monuments of Peter and Paul, whereat diverse miracles had beene shew­ed. He arryved in the North of Ireland, whence he escaped hardly with his life, into the Ilands adjoyning, there preach­ing and converting many, erecting monasteries, and ensueing his vocation so painefully, that the onely report of his holy­nesse and cunning, excited the Scotts (late christened, but abi­ding in scisme, and committing the function of Bishoppes to single Preists,) to call him thither, whereunto he assented, upon the Popes answere, and leaving his Disciples in the Isle, became the speciall apostle of Scotland, where he spent the residue of his time, with more fruite then among the Irish. Hereunto Celestinus condiscended the easier,Ioh. Major. l. [...]. cap, 2. Prosp. Aquit. in Chroni. for that in the [Page 37] very point of Palladius his departure, Patricius attended at Rome to bee sent with leave and benediction into Ireland. In which attempt hee found such joyfull successe, so farre different from their accustomed frowardnesse, that a man would weene the Realme had beene reserved for him. And because it pleased God to worke to the Land such an universall benefite by the meanes of this holy Patriarch, I take it convenient to set downe briefly here his course of life, after the most approoved Chronicles that I could finde.

Patricius was borne in the marches of England and Scot­land, in a sea towne called then Taburnia,The life of S. Patrick. whose father Calphrune (as writeth Ioseline) was a Deacon and a Priests sonne, his mother Conches was sister to S. Martin, Ioselin. of Fur­ness. the fa­mous Bishoppe of Toures in France. The childe was from his cradle brought up in the Faith, and much given to devotion.

Novv vvere the Irish through the helpe of the Scots and Picts, arch-pirats of the narrovv seas, and used to sacke litle vveake villages scattered along the shore, and for vvant of other prey, to bring the Inhabitants home Captives, vvith others also vvas taken this Patricius, Ex Epist. Pa­tricij. a ladde of six­teene yeares olde, being then a student of secular learning,An. Dom. 386. and became the Villaine of an Irish Lord called Mackbiam, from vvhom after sixe yeares hee redeemed himselfe vvith a peece of gold vvhich hee found in a clod of earth, nevvly turned up by the svvyne hee kept the time of his Banish­ment (as affliction commonly maketh men religious.) This vvith the regard of his former education, printed in him such remorse and humility, that being from thenceforth utterly vveaned from the vvorld, hee betooke himselfe to contemplation, ever lamenting the lacke of grace and truth in that Land, vvherefore not despairing, but that in continuance, some good might bee vvrought upon them, hee learned their tongue perfectly, and alluring one companion vvith him for his exercises, he departed thence into France, ever casting backe his eye to the conversion of Ireland, vvhose babes yet unborn, seemed to him in his dream [Page 38] (from out their mothers vvombes) to call for Christendome. In this purpose he sought out Martinus his Vncle, by vvhose meanes the yong man entred under the government of Ger­manus then Bishop of Antisiodore, vvhose scholler and fa­miliar he vvas forty yeares, bestovving all that time in prayer and study of eloquence and holy Scriptures. Then at the age of threescore and two yeares, being renowned through the Latine Church for his wisdome, vertue, and skill, hee came home to Rome, recommended with letters from the French Bishops,An Dom· 430. to Pope Celestine, to whom he uttered his full mind, and the secret vow which long since he had conceived tou­ching Ireland. The Pope invested him Archbishop and Pri­mate of the whole Iland, blessed him, commaunded publique prayer and fasting, brought him and his disciples onward on the voyage. Therefore in the tvventie third yeare of The­odosius the younger, which was the yeare of our Lord 430. Patricke landed in Ireland: and because he spake the tongue plentifully, being a reverent personage, he tooke holy Bible, adding thereto diverse miracles in the Name & vertue of IE­SUS whom he preached: many listened unto him, namely such as in the late entertainement of Palladius and Albius the Irish Bishops his Disciples, had some little feeling in the Go­spell. In continuance, hee wanne the better part of that Kingdome, except Laigirus himselfe sonne of Neale the great Monarch, who (notvvithstanding hee relyed no­thing to the Gospell yet) because hee stopped not the course thereof, nor forbid any that list to embrace it, the Bishop denounced to him a curse from God, according­ly tempered vvith mercy and judgement, that during his life hee should bee victorious, but after him, nei­ther the Kingdome should stand, nor his linage inhe­rite. Thence hee journeyed vvith a great number of his Disciples and friends to Conill Lord of Connaght, (vvho honourably reputed him, and vvith all his people vvas converted) and then sent him to Logan his Brother, King of Leinster, vvhom hee likevvise persvvaded. In Mounster he vvas highly honoured of the Earle of Daris, vvho gave him [Page 39] a dwelling in the East angle of Ardmagh, called Secta, where hee erected many Celles and Monasteries, replenished with votarious men and women. Thirty yeares continu­ally hee travailed in preaching through the Land, ever lea­ving behinde him Bishops and Priests, whose learning and holinesse by the speciall grace of God shortly repai­red the faith so begunne, other thirty yeares hee spent in his Province of Ardmagh among his ghostly bre­thren, in visitation of those religious Houses, which by his meanes were founded, so hee lived in the whole one hundred twentie two yeares,An. Dom. 492. and lyeth buryed in Downe.

CAP. XIII. Of Saint Patrickes Purgatory.

EVery History of Ireland that I have seene, maketh one severall title De mirabilibus Hi­berniae, and therein with long processe trea­teth of severall Ilands, some full of Angels, some full of devils, some for male only, some for female, some where poore may live, some where none can dye: finally such effects of waters, stones, trees, and trinkets, that a man would vveene them to be but heedlesse and uncertaine tales by their complexion.

Verily, being inquisitive of these matters, I could finde no one of them soothed by such persons upon whose relation I am disposed to venture. Onely the place behinde Ardmagh called S. Patricks Purgatory, because it is knovvne and con­fessed, and because I vvould be discharged of my Readers ex­pectation, who perhaps vvith the name of S. Patricke look­eth to bee informed thereof, I can bee content to put so much in vvriting, as Bookes and reports affirme vvith most likelyhood.

Tvvo things I muse at, that neither the time nor the author [Page 40] of so strange erection was preserved. Concerning the time one Record putteth it in Anno Domini 302. which is 128. yeares before S. Patricke converted Ireland, and sixty sixe yeares before his birth. Againe Cambrensis who maketh curi­ous recitall of wonders in the land, never uttereth word of this Purgatory; & though a negative authority be not invin­cible, yet considering the propertie of that man, and what a sort of trifles he taketh paine to justifie, it may serve for a ve­hement suspition, that the place was then either not found, or not miraculous. Concerning the Author, very few there are that referre it to this Patricke their Apostle, but rather to an Abbot of the same name, whom I marvaile I finde not in the mighty bigge volume of their Saints: Notwithstanding these Originalls might bee either lost or altered, but the thing it selfe being extant, must needes have had a beginning, where­of possibly there are monuments in that Church, or in the I­rish tongue to me unwitting.

Therefore I hold him unwise that will utterly mistrust the principall, because the circumstances vary; or condemne the vvhole, because he could not reach to the undoubted truth of some part. If any man bee so delicate, that not a jote thereof vvill sinke into his head, vvho shall con­troule him? neither hee nor vvee are bound to believe any story besides that vvhich is delivered us from the Scri­ptures, and the consent of Gods Church. Let the discreet Rea­der judge of it.

This I learne, that the holy Abbot Patricius secundus, not the Bishop their Apostle, laboured the conversion of the people of Vlster, vvhich being novv Christians, could yet at no hand be vvonne to renounce their olde sensuality, cruel­ty,Polichro l. 1. ca. 35. Trevis. ibid. murthers, extortion. And vvhen he much inforced the life to come, they replyed unto him vvith contempt, that unlesse they savv proofes of these Ioyes and paines hee preached, they vvould never leese possession of the pleasures in hand, for hope or dread of things to come they vvist not vvhen. At their importunacie hee besought God, vvere it his good pleasure to give out some evident token [Page 41] of the maters they required: finally by the special direction of God he found in the north edge of Vlster a desolate angle hemmed in round, & in the mids thereof a pit, where he rea­red a Church, closed the same with a wall, bestowed there­in Canons regular, at the East end of this Church yarde, a doore leadeth into a closet of stone, which they call the Pur­gatory, because devout people have resorted thither for pen­nance, and reported at their returne, strange visions of paine and blisse appearing to them. They used to continue therein foure & twenty houres, which doing one while with ghost­ly meditations, and another while a dreadfull conscience of their deserts, they saw as they say, a plaine resembling of their owne faults and vertues, with the horror and comfort there­to belonging, that one so terrible, the other so joyous, that they verily deeme themselves for the time to have sight of heaven and hell. The revelations of men that went in (Saint Patricke yet living) are kept vvritten vvithin the saide Ab­bey. When any person is disposed to enter (for the doore is ever sparred) he repaireth first for advice to the Archbishop, vvho casteth all perils, and dissvvadeth him, because they say diverse never came backe againe, but if the party be resolute, he recommendeth him to the Pryor, vvho in like manner fa­vourably exhorteth him not to hazard such a danger, if not­vvithstanding he finde the party fully bent, he conducteth him to this Church, enjoyneth him to begin vvith prayer, fast and vigill o [...] 15. dayes, so long together as in discretion can be endured. This time expired, if he yet persevere in his former purpose, the vvhole Convent accompanieth him vvith so­lemne procession and benediction to the mouth of the cave, vvhere they let him in, & so barre up the doore till the mor­rovv, & then vvith like ceremonies they avvaite his returne, & reduce him to the Church. If he be seene no more, they fast & pray 15. dayes after. Touching the credit of those matters, I see no cause but a Christian man assuring himself that there is both hel & heaven, may vvithout vanity upon sufficient in­formation, be persuaded that it might please God at somtime for considerations to his infinit vvisdome knovvn to reveale [Page 42] by miracles the vision of Ioyes & paines eternal, but that alto­gether in such sort, & so ordinarily, & to such persons, and by such meanes as the common fame & some records therof doe utter, I neither believe, nor wish to be regarded. It appeares by Trevisa in his additions to Polichronicon, that a superstitious o­pinion of this Purgatory was then conceived, which he dis­proveth. And a man of indifferent judgement may soone su­spect that in the drift and strength of Imagination, a contem­plative person would happely suppose the sight of many strange things which he never saw. Since writing hereof I met with a Priest, who told mee that he had gone the same pilgrimage, and affirmed the order of the premisses: But that he for his owne part saw no sight in the world, save onely fearefull dreames when he chanced to nod, and those he saith were exceeding horrible: further he added, that the faste is ra­ted more or lesse, according to the quality of the penitent, and that the place seemed to him scarcely able to receive sixe per­sons.

CAP. XIIII. The Irish Saints.

THough my search thereof in this my haste out of the land be very cumbersome, yet being loath to neglect the memory of Gods friends, more glorious to a Realme then all the victories and triumphs of the world, I thinke it good to furnish out this chapter with some extracts touching the Saints of Ireland, namely those that are most notable, mentioned by authors of good credit.Distinct, 3.6. Brigid. Colum. Cambrensis telleth, that in S. Patricks time flouri­shed S. Bride the virgin, and S. Columbe in Doune, where their bodies soone after the conquest, and also S. Patrickes body were found, Sir Iohn Courcye being then President of Vlster. In vievving of the sepulture hee testifieth to have seene three principall jevvells, vvhich vvere then translated as ho­nourable monuments vvorthie to be preserved.

[Page 43]Of S. Columbe it is doubted, whether he lived in that age.Ex Vitis san­ctorum Hiber­niae. Bri­gide was base Daughter of Dubtachus a Captaine in Leinster, who perceiving the Mother with child, sold her secretly, fea­ring the jealousy of his wife, to a Irish Poet, reserving to him­selfe, the fruite of her wombe, she was there delivered of this Brigide, whom the Poet trained up in letters, and so convey­ed her home to her father.An. Dom. 439. The Damosell was schooled in the faith by S. Patricke, preaching then in those parts, she be­came so religious, and so ripe in judgement,An Dom. 4 [...]8. that not onely the multitude, but a whole synode of Bishoppes assembled by Dublin, used her advice in weighty causes, and highly estee­med her. One fact of hers being yet a childe, made her fa­mous. The King of Leinster had given to Dubtachus in to­ken of singular affection, for his good service, a rich sword. Now it befell, that the maiden visiting her sicke neighbours, diversly distressed for hunger, (her father being a sterne man, his Lady a shrewe) she saw none other helpe to releive these wretched people, but to part the Iewels of that idle sword a­mong them. This matter was haynously taken, and came to the Kings eares, who (comming shortly after to a Banquet in her fathers house) demaunded the Girle, not yet nine yeares old, how she durst presume to deface the gift of a King, shee answered, that it was bestowed upon a better King, then hee was, whom (quoth she) finding in such extremity, I would have given all my father hath, and all that thou hast, yea your selves and all, were yee in my power to give, rather then Christ should starve.

At convenient age she professed virginity, and allured o­ther noble Virgins to her fellowship, with whom she lived in her owne Monastery, untill the yeare of our Lord 500. and was buried at Downe, in the Tombe of S. Patricke, what Cambrensis reporteth of his own knowledge and sight, I will be bold to adde hereunto.

Among her reliques, was found a concordance of the 4. Evangelists, seeming to bee written with no mortall hand, beautified with mysticall pictures in the margent, whose co­lours and workemanship, at the first blush were darke and [Page 44] unpleasant, but in the view wonderful liuely and artificiall. Senanus first a Souldiour,Senanus. succeeded S. Patricke in the See of Ardmagh,An. Dom. 493. when he had beene certaine yeares a minor and do­ctour to the Campe.Brendan. Brendan Abbot at the age of ten yeares, was of such incomparable holinesse, and thereto so wise and lettered, that his parents thinking themselves to have wonne the most notable fruite, that could ensue their marriage, by mutuall consent professed continencie. Hee flourished in the time of S. Bride, lived familiarly with Ercus the Bishop, and Finan the Abbot.

Madoc alias Edan of noble parentage, taken prisoner with the King of Temore,An. Dom 456. Edan, or Ma­doc. and kept in his court with diverse yong­men his schoole-fellowes, openly adjured the King to suffer him and them to depart and serve God, as they were accusto­med, which being now sundred and distrayned of libertie they had partly discontinued, immediately they were dismis­sed: he died Bishop of Fernes, and laide the foundation of that Burrogh.Molingus. Molingus the successor of S. Madoc being Bishop tooke himselfe to voluntary labour, & with his owne hands, drived a running spring to his Monastery, enduring that tra­vaile dayly after prayer and study,Fintan. eight yeares together. Fin­tan the Abbot was had in such veneration, that whereas Colm King of Leinster, kept prisoner Cormak the Kings sonne of Kensill: He went boldly with 12. of his Disciples through the presse of the Souldiours, and in sight of the King, rescued the young Prince, for the Irish in no wayes are outragious a­gainst holy men. I remember, Cambrensis writeth himselfe, merrily to have objected to Morris then Archbishop of Ca­shell, that Ireland in so many hundred yeares had not brought forth one Martyr. The Bishop answered pleasantly, (but alluding to the late murther of Thomas of Canter­bury,) Our people (quoth he) notwithstanding their other e­normities yet have ever more spared the bloode of Saints, marry now we are delivered to such a nation, that is well ac­quainted with making Martyrs, henceforwards I trust this complaint shall cease.

Malachias· Malachias was borne in Ardmagh of noble parents,An. Dom. 1014 che­rished [Page 45] in vertue by example of his Mother, and trayned up in learning, even yet a very babe, he vvas oft-times espied to steale from his companions to pray in secret, so grave & mo­dest, that of himselfe he choosed alwayes the most severe and rigorous Schoolemasters, and refused an excellent Clerke, on­ly because he saw him, somewhat lightly demeaned at game. In the beginning of his youth hee yeelded himselfe the Dis­ciple of Imarius, an old recluse,Bernard. in vi­ta Malach. whose austerity of conversati­on, the whole towne admired. There he became a Deacon, and at twenty five yeares a Priest. The Archbishop for the fame and opinion of his worthinesse, made him his Coadju­tor, in the which office he reformed superstitions and revived the strength of religion, specially the uniformitie of their Church service, wherein before time they jarred.Banchor. The famous monastery of Banchor he reedified, of the patrimony & lega­cies by his Vncle left him. The same Monastery was of old time, first governed by Congellus, and then proceeded Colum­banus, the father of many religious houses in France. Banchor had beene so stored with Moncks, that no houre of day nor night they ceased, but some company or other was in conti­nuall succession at divine service. Of which brethren there were in one day murthred 900. and the place spoyled, whose possessions conveyed to Malachias by his Vncle, hee restored forthwith, and bettered the foundation. At the age of thirtie yeares, he was by Canonicall election forced to accept the Bishopricke of Conereth, a people of all the Irish then most savage and bestiall, whom he with inestimable toyle re­claymed.

In the meane while died Celsus Archbishop of Ardmagh, to whom succeeded Malachias, at the age of thirty eight years. But ere this wel-nigh the space of 200. yeares together, a pe­stilent custome had crept into the country, that the Metropo­litanes See, was inferred upon meere lay persons of the blood royall in manner by inheritance, wherefore Nigellus the next of kindred animated by the partiality of some Princes, & get­ting into his custody the Bible and Staffe, and other Orna­ments of S. Patricke (whereunto the eares of the common [Page 46] people tyed the prelacy) came to the Pallace, with a bande of Souldiours to have slaine the Bishop. When all the people wept and howled, for his perill, he alone stepped into the bo­some of his enemies, demaunding their purpose. The very Tyrants letting fall their weapons in stead of the murder conspired, fell to reverence him and departed friends. Three yeares he sate in the primacy, rather to discontinue the hor­rible corruption before used, then with intent to abide there: and their error having disanulled the abuse, he procured Ge­lasius to be his Successor, and returned to his former Bishop­ricke of Downe. For to Downe was then annexed Coner. But Malachias understanding that in times past, they were se­verall, sundred them againe, and preferred another to the Dio­cesse of Coner, desirous rather to discharge his cure, then to enlarge the fruites, while he preached, a woman fell at his feete, and besought his prayer, for that she had gone now with childe fifteene moneths and twenty dayes, nor could by any meanes be delivered, which done, the newes of her deli­very was reported before the assembly brake up. Hee threat­ned vengance to a Captaine, unlesse he would turne away the Concubine he kept, the same being also his brothers Con­cubine. The Captaine tooke it disdainefully, and within one houre, was slaine by a conspiracy of women, whose Daugh­ters and servants he had defiled. There dwelt in Lismore a notable Clerke, of conversation upright, but corrupt in judge­ment of religion, this fellow advancing his doctrine, offered disputation to the Bishop, before the multitude, when he was forced to silence with the waight of truth, yet he cavelled maliciously, that not the cause nor learning, but the counte­nance and credit of Malachias had wonne the victory. To whom the Bishop answered, our Lord compell thee, even maugre thine owne willfullnesse to acknowledge thine er­rors. At these words the Clerke and intending to fly the sight of men, was prevented with a mortall infirmity, and beseech­ing the Bishop of his peace and communion, died immediat­ly, reconciled to God and holy Church. Being demaunded of his Brethren, the Moncks of Banchor, where and when hee [Page 47] would wish to dye, and be buryed, if it lay in his choyse, hee answered: If in Ireland, beside the body of S. Patricke: If be­yond the seas, at Clarivall, where S. Bernard was then famous and in the feast of All Soules. He cast in his minde, within a few dayes to sue to Eugenius the third, for the increase of the number of Metropolitanes, which request, was shortly after sped, and in this voyage he rested at Clarivall, and there di­verse times, openly foretold that his yeare of departing was come: accordingly when he had taken leave of S. Bernard and the brethren, descended from his chamber to Church, and re­ceived the rites of a christian man, he returned to his lodging, and dyed on All Soules day, in the yeare of his age fifty foure,1148. so mildely and peaceably that it seemed rather a sleepe, then a death. There his obsequies was solemnized and miracles wrought at his tombe, and from thence his body was tran­slated to Ardmagh, in the yeare 1192.

Malchus, though borne Irish, yet he spent most part of his time in the monastery of Winchester, in England, from thence assumpted Bishop of Lismore, him also remembreth S. Bernard upon occasion. A lunaticke childe he cured in Bi­shopping him. This miracle was through the world seene and confessed of many hundreds. There happened the same time, a discord betweene the King of Mounster, and his Bro­ther,King of Moun­ster. wherein the King was overmatched and fled into Eng­land, visited Malchus in his Abbey, and would at no hand be said nay, but so long as it should please God to afflict him, he would live there under his governement, and ensue his con­versation, he contented himselfe with a poore Cell, used day­ly a cold bathe to represse the wantonnesse of his flesh, dieted himselfe with none other fare, then bread, water and salt, pas­sed dayes and nights in sobbing and remorse of sinne. At length the Kings and Nobles of Ireland began to stomacke the usurper, vanquished him, called home the good King to his right, who with many perswasions of Malchus and Mala­chias could scarcely be gotten to forsake ghostly company, & trade of life.

CAP. XV. The most noble events in Ireland, betweene the time of Saint Patricke, and the conquest under Henry the 2.

586. IN the yeare of Christ 586. the people of Norway were Lordes and victours of the Ilandes in the West Ocean called Orchades, and great scowrers of the seas: A nation desperate in attempting the conquest of other Realmes: as being sure to finde warmer dwelling any where, then at their owne home. These fel­lowes lighted into Ireland by this meanes,Careticus K. of Brittaine. Careticus King of Brittaine (odious to his subjects) fell with them at civill warre. Ioyfull was the newes hereof to the Saxons, who then in the six severall kingdomes, possessed the Iland sundry wayes, so they laide together their force, & associated to them Gurmondus, a Rover out of Norway, who having a navy still in a readinesse, and an army thereafter furnished, holpe the Saxons, to hunt the Brittaines into the marches of Wales, builded the towne of Gormond-chester, and then having hol­pen the Saxons, made a voyage into Ireland where he sped but meanely, and therefore the Irish account not this for any of their conquests, as some of their antiquities have informed me. The same Gurmondus finding hard successe, did but build a few slight castles and trenches in the frontiers, and then lea­ving the land, got him home into France, where he was fi­nally slaine, him our Chonicles name King of Ireland. But the Irish affirme that before Turgesius no Easterlings obtai­ned a Kingdome.Turgesius. Here Cambrensis to salve the contradiction, thinketh Gurmundus to have conquered the land by Turgesi­us his Deputy, sent thither at his provision, which answere breedeth a contrariety more incurable, for himself numbreth betweene Laigirius King of Ireland, in an. 430. and [...]edlemi­dius whom Turgesius vanquished, Monarches 33. and yeares 400. so that Turgesius lived in an. 830. and could not possibly [Page 49] deale with Gurmondus, who joyned with the Saxons against Careticu in Anno 586. This knot might be untwyned with more facility. Gurmondus made much of that little he caught, and wrote himselfe King, which Title our Histories doe al­low him, because he opened a gappe, enjoyed it for a while, and brake a way for his Countreymen. Turgesius brought this attempt to perfection, and in these respects each of them may be called first King and Conqueror.

Secondly therefore Turgesius with his Normans, [...]10▪ assaulted Ireland, sustained losse and many overthrowes, but in the end fastening his power to the sea coasts, and receiving in his friends at will, he subdued the land through and through, ever as he went building up Castles and fortresses, vvherevvith the Irish had not beene yet acquainted, for hi­therto they knevv no fence, but vvoods or bogges, or strokes. Turgesius bridled the Kings, and avved them so, that vvithout interruption he raigned thirty yeares, cryed havocke & spoile vvhere any vvealth vvas heaped, spared neither Lay nor Cler­gy, nor Church, nor Chappell, but very insolently abused his victory. O-malaghlien king of Meth, vvas in some trust vvith the Tyrant, his onely Daughter Turgesius craved for his con­cubine. The father having a present vvitt, and vvatching some subtle oportunities, Saving your fancie, my Lord, quoth hee, there are diverse Ladies of my bloud svvee­ter bed-fellovves for a king, then that brovvne girle; and then he began to count neeces and cousins a number forsooth, en­dovved vvith angell-like beauties, painted so lively vvith his Tale, that the Tyrant doted already upon them ere hee savv them: But ever he doubted, lest O-malaghlien extolled them to exempt his ovvne, and the vvise father cloaked his drift vvith modestie in ansvveres, and lingering his graunt to enflame the leachers folly, as hee that vvould any thing to bee suspected rather then his thought indeed. And at the last vvhen the other tooke his delay somevvhat unkinde­ly, and bade his Queene speake to him. If I said (quoth hee) that vvith my very goodvvill my sole daughter should bee sent to you to bee deflovvred, your high vvisedome [Page 50] would guesse I did but faine and flatter, and yet if ten daugh­ters were deerer unto me then your good pleasure and con­tentation, by whose bounty, both she & I, and we all are sup­ported, I were unworthie the secret friendship, wherein it lyeth in you to use mee. As for the wench, it will in part seeme honourable to bee asked to the bed of such a Prince, seeing Queenes have not sticked to come from farre, and prostrate their bodies to noble Conquerours, in hope of issue by them, and howsoever it bee taken, time will redeeme it. But such a friend as you are to mee and mine, neither I nor mine shall live to see, and I purpose not to offend your amity with saving a greater mater then twen­ty maiden-heads, seeing fathers have not sticked to yeeld their owne wives to quench the loves and lustes of their sonnes.

Therefore I am thus agreed, name you the day and place, se­ver your selfe from the open eye of your Court, conferre with those that have a curious insight and skill in beauties, I will send you my daughter, and with her the choice of twelve or sixteene gentlewomen, the meanest whereof may bee an Empresse in comparison, when all are before you, make your game at will, and then if my childe shall please your fancie, shee is not too good to be at your commandement: Onely my request is, that if any other presume upon your leavings, your Majestie will remember whose fathers childe shee is. This liberall proffer was accepted of him, whose desire was insatiable, with many faire promises and thankes. To bee short, the same day O-malaghlien attired Prince-like his owne Daughter, and with her sixteene beauti­full striplings, which presented to the King in his pri­vy Chamber, accompanied onely with certaine wantons of the Nobility, drew foorth from under their woman-like garments, their skeanes, and valiantly bestirred themselves,Turgesius murdered. stabbing first the Tyrant, next the youth present that prepared but small resistance, surely sitt mates to supply the office they tooke in hand, of Paris, not of He­ctor.

[Page 51]Out flew the fame thereof into all quarters of Ireland, and the Princes nothing dull to catche holde of such ad­vantage, vvith one assent, rose ready to pursue their li­berty. All Meth and Leinster vvere soone gathered to O-malaghlien, the father of this practise, vvho lightly leapt to horse, and commaunding their forvvardnesse in so naturall a quarrell, sayde, Lordings and friendes,The words of O-malaghlien, King of Meth. this case neither admitteth delay, nor asketh policie, heart and haste is all in all, vvhile the feate is young and strong, that of our enemies some sleepe, some sorrovv, some curse, some consult, all dismayed, let us anticipate their furye, dismember their force, cut off their flight, occupie their places of refuge and succour. It is no ma­stery to plucke their feathers, but their neckes, nor to chase them in, but to rovvse them out, to vveede them, not to rake them; nor to treade them dovvne, but to digge them up. This lesson the Tyrant himselfe hath taught mee, I once demaunded him in a parable, by vvhat good husbandry the Land might bee ridde of cer­taine Crovves that annoyed it, hee advised to vvatche vvhere they bred, and to fire the nestes about their eares. Goe vvee then upon these Cormorants that shrovvde themselves in our possessions, and let us destroy them so, that neither nest, nor roote, nor seede, nor stalke, nor stubbe may remaine of this ungracious generation.

Scarce had he spoken the vvord, but vvith great shovvtes and clamours, they extolled the King as patron of their lives and families, assured both courage and expedition, joyned their confederates, and vvith a running campe, svvept every corner of the Land, razed the castles to the ground, & chased the strangers before them, slevv all that abode the battaile, re­covered each man his ovvne precinct and former state of go­vernment. The Irish delivered of slavery, fell to their old vo­mit in persecuting one another, & having lately defaced their fortified castles & tovvns, as coverts to the enemy; al sides lay novv more open in harmes vvay. This considered, the Prin­ces that in the late rule of Turgesius espied some towardnesse [Page 52] to wealth and ease, began to discourse the madnesse of their fathers, who could not see the use of that vvhich their ene­mies abused, they began to loathe their unquietnesse, to wish either lesse discord, or more strength in every mans dominion to cast out the danger of naked Territoryes, as ready to call in the enemy, as the contrary was to shrowd them, faine vvould they mend, and they vvist not hovv. The former subjection though it seemed intollerable, yet they felt therein a grovving to peace, fruits of merchandize, rest & surety; for it fared di­versly tvvixt those Easterlings, & these Irish: they knevv hovv to thrive, might they get some commodious soyle. These had all the commodities of the soile, & reckoned them not. While the Princes & Potentates pavvsed in this good mood, certain marchants out of Norvvay, called Ostomanni, Easterlings, be­cause they lay East in respect of us, though they are indeede properly Normans, & partly Saxons, obtained licence safely to land & utter their vvares. By exchanging of vvares & mo­ney, finding the Normans civill and tractable, delighted also vvith gay conceipts, vvhich they never esteemed needfull un­till they savv them, they entred into a desire of traffique vvith other nations, to allure marchants, they licensed the strangers aforesaid to build, if they vvere disposed, Haven-Tovvnes, vvhich vvas done.Waterford. Limericke. Dublin. Amellanus founded Waterford; Sitaricus, Limericke; Inorus, Dublin, more at leisure by others. Then were repaired by helpe and counsell of these men, castles, forts, steeples, and Churches every-where. Thus are the Irish blended also in the blood of the Normans, who from thence­forth continually flocked hither, did the Inhabitants great pleasure, lived obediently, till wealth made them wanton and rebellious. But they could not possibly have held out, had not the conquest ensuing determined both their contentions. The meane while they waxed Lords of Havens and Bur-Townes, housed their souldiours, and oftentimes skirmished tooke their fortune, crept no higher, onely a memory is left of their field in Clantarfe,1050. al. 1014. where diverse noble Irish men were slayne, that lye buryed before the Crosse of Kil­maynam.

[Page 53]And it is to be noted, that these are the Danes, which people (then Pagans) wasted England, and after that, France. From whence they came againe into England with VVilliam the Conquerour. So that Ostomani, Normans,Guil. de Nan­giac. Polid l. 8. Angl. hist. Easterlings, Danes, and Norway-men are in effect the same, and as it appeareth by conference of times and Chro­nicles, much about one time or season, vexed the French men, subdued the English, and multiplyed in Ireland. But in the yeare of CHRIST 1095. perceiving great en­vy to lurke in the distinction of Easterlings and Irishe utterly west, and because they were simply Northerne,An. Dom. 900. not Easterne, and because they magnified themselves in the late conquest of their Countreymen, who from Normandy flourished now in the Realme of England, they would in any wise bee called and counted Nor­mans.Flatsbury.

Long before this time, as ye have heard, Ireland vvas bestowed into tvvo principall Kingdomes,An. Dom. 94 [...]. and sometime into more, whereof one was ever elected Monarch, whom they tearme in their Histories, maximum regem, or without addition, regem Hiberniae. The rest were written Reguli or Reges by limitation, as the King of Leinster, of Connaght, of Vlster, of Mounster, of Meth. To the Monarch besides his allowance of ground, and titles of Honours, and other priviledges in Iurisdiction, was graunted a negative in the nomination of Bishops at every vacation. The Cleargy and Laity of the Diocesse, recommended him to their King, the King to their Monarch, the Monarch to the Archbishop of Canterbury, for that as yet the Metropoli­tanes of Ireland had not receaved their palles: In this sort was nominated to the Bishopricke of Divelin, then voide Anno 1074. (at the petition of Godericus King of Leinster, by sufferance of the cleargy & people there, with the consent of Terdilvachus the Monarch) a learned prelate called Patricius: whō the blessed archbishop Lanfrancus consecrated at S. Pauls Church in London, & swore him to the obedience after the maner of his antecessors.11 [...]2▪ Christian Bishop of Lismore [Page 54] Legate to Eugenius 3. summoned a Provinciall Councell in Ireland, wherein were authorized foure Metropolitan See [...], Ardmagh, Dublin, Cashell, & Tuam: Bishops thereof being Gelasius, Gregorius, Donatus, Edanus; for hitherto, though they yeelded a primacy to the Bishop of Ardmagh, in reverence of Saint Patricke, yet was it partly voluntary, and ratified rather by custome, then by sufficient decree: neither did that Arch-Bishop take upon him to invest other Bishops, but sent them to Canterbury (as I said before) which henceforth they did not. Namely the next Bishop S. Laurence, sometimes Abbot of S. Kevynes in Glan­dilagh,1162, was ordered and installed at home by Gelasius Primate of Ardmagh.


CAP. I. The conquest of Ireland by Henry the second, King of England, commonly called Henry Fitz Empresse.

DErmot Mac Murrough, 1167. King of Lein­ster, halt and leacherous,This Chapter concludeth the 1. and 2. booke Cambrens de conquest Hi­berniae: delive­red unto me by Francis Ag [...]rd. vowed dis­honestly to serve his lust on the beau­tifull Queene of Meath, and in the absence of her husband, allured the woman so farre, that she condiscen­ded to be stolne away. This disho­nourable wrong to avenge, O-Rorick the King her husband, besought assi­stance of Rodericke Oconor, King of Connaght, at that season the generall Monarch of all Ireland. The subjects of Leinster detesting the quarrell, and long ere this time hating their Prince, left him desolate in his greatest neede, so as with much difficulty he caught his boate, and fled over for succour to Henry the 2. King of England, then warring upon the French­men, within his Dukedome of Aquitaine. Somewhat before this season sate in the See of Rome,Polichron. Plat. in Ad [...]. 4. Io. Stell. in Chr▪ Adrianus 4. an English man borne, who having in his youth taken a painefull pil­grimage into Norway, and reduced the whole Iland unto [Page 56] Christianity, learned distinctly the state of Ireland, and how their countrymen which dayly repaired thither,Iohn Stow. being them­selves the most part infidels, meeting with a people there, wilde and furious, were like very shortly (but if God found remedy) to deface religion: for though Christ were beleeved and taught, yet the multitude eft soone, grew to a shamelesse kinde of liberty, making no more of necessary points of Do­ctrine, then served their loose humour. Besides these occasi­ons Henry the 2. builded upon the Popes favour, his borne subject, had sent Ambassadours to Rome, in the first yeare of his raigne, asking leaue to attempt the conquest of Ireland. Adrian trusting and requiring a diligent reformation of the premisses, graunted his Bull, which Alexander his Successour confirmed, and ratified upon the same conditions. Now when Dermot was come in the very necke of these consulta­tions, and put up his complaint, wherein he preferred the in­terest of his Crowne, and craved a restitution of some peece of his lands, the matter did seeme not all untowardly broa­ched, Henry having his hands full with the French, because Mac Murrough urged all possible haste, could not personaly in­tend that offer, but sent him honourably garded into Eng­land, with letters patents bearing this Tenour.

HENRY the second, King of England, Duke of Nor­mandy and Aquitaine,The Kings letter. Earle of Angiow. To all our true sub­jects, English, Normans, Welchmen, Scotts, and to all nations within our Dominions whatsoever. Greeting. Witt yee that the Bearer hereof, Dermot Mac Murrough King of Leinster, we have received into the soveraigne protection of our Grace and bounty, wherefore who so of you all our loving subjects will extend towards him, your ayde for his restoring, as to our trusty and welbeloved, know yee that he is thereto au­thorized by these presents, and shall deserve at our hands high favour in so doing.

With these letters and many gay additions of his owne, he arrived at Bristow, where he fell at conference with Richard Strongbow, Lo. Strongbow al. Chepstowe. Earle of Pembroke, with whom he covenanted, the delivery of his onely daughter and heire unto marriage, [Page 57] and so the remainder of his Kingdome: If the said Earle would recover him his home. That day were planted in Wales two gentlemen, Robert Fitz Stephens, and Maurice Fitz Gerald, brethren of a Mother, allyed to Rice ap Griffin, Fitz Stephens. Fitz Gerald. then Prince of Wales, whose Grand-father was surnamed Rice the great. Fitz Stephens had beene high Constable there under the King, and for executing rigour upon the Princes servants, was with him detained prisoner three yeares, ne would in any wise pay ransome or accept the liberty promised him, but if the conditions were loyall to the Crowne, and to his person no dis-worship. Lastly by the mediation of David Bishop of S. Davids, the third brother; and of Fitz Gerald, and at the instance of Mac Murrough whom the Prince entertai­ned in that distresse, Fitz Stephens was conditionaly delive­red, that he and his brother Maurice, should the next spring, while Strongbow provided his army, assist the Irish out-cast, who in consideration thereof assured them an estate for ever in the towne of Weixford, and two Cantreds adjoyning.

Thus much firmely concluded on all sides, the King stale secretly home, and wintered closely among the Cleargie of Fernes.

According to covenant came Fitz Stephens, with 30. Knights of his blood, 60. Squiers, & 300. footemen Archers, to whom at his landing, Dermot sent in aid his base sonne Duvelnaldus, and five hundred speares. The towne and sub­urbes of Weixford marched forth against him: But when they saw Souldiours in array, diversly dighted and weapo­ned, furnished with artillery, barbed horses and harnesse, they retyred to their walles and strengthned them, burning the villages thereabouts, and all the provision they could not car­ry. The assault lasted 3. dayes, in the 4. certaine Bishops re­sciant there, tooke up the variance, pacified the Townesmen to their King, and procured the rendring of the Towne. Der­mot having tryed the valiantnes of the Welchmen, immeadi­ately kept his touch, and gave possession of Weixford with the appurtenances aforesaid, to Fitz Stephens and his brother. After successe of these matters, they leavyed to the number [Page 58] of 3000. Souldiours, and devised to vexe the Lords of Vpper Ossory, who had beene to the King of all other most cruell and injurious. Them they compelled to deliver Trewage and sweare fealty.

Rodericke the monarch appalled at these newes, reared up all the Kings, in defence of the land, verily supposing that all would to wrecke, were it not prevented. And first they dire­cted courteous messages and gifts to Fitz Stephens, moving him to depart the land quietly, and not to molest them with­out cause. To whom he answered, that much he wondred at the folly of those Princes, who to satisfie their choller had opened such a gappe to their owne prejudice, as though the subjects whom they had schooled, to breake allyance to­wards the King of Leinster, would not be as ready by this example to learne to withstand the King of Connaght, for his owne part, though hee might with better reason invade strangers, then they could expell their neighbours and their peere, yet would they suffer the King to reenter his right, they should not finde him stiffe, nor untractable, otherwise they should well feele that the Bryttons wanted neither abilitie, nor truth, to maintaine their word.

Rodericke perceived it was no boote to spurne, and there­fore bethought himselfe of composition upon agreement, they resolved thus.

Conditions of peace. Inprimis, that Mac Murrough swearing afresh his obedience to the Monarch, should quietly, repossesse the parts of Lein­ster, which Rodericke with-held by suspensation.

Secondly, that for ensurance thereof, he should pledge his dearest base sonne Cnothurn, to whom Rodericke promised his daughter, if this peace were found effectuall.

Thirdly, that being rested in his kingdome, he should dis­charge the Welch army, nor should henceforwards call them over in defence.

About this time, Donatus the good King of Ergall, foun­ded the Abbey of Mellyfont, which is the eldest that I finde recorded since the Danes arrivall, except S. Mary Abbey, be­sides Divelin, erected in an. 948.

[Page 59]The meane while was landed at Weixford, Maurice Fitz Gerald with his provision, ten Knights, thirty Squiers, and an hundred Bowmen, hereupon Dermot and the two Bre­thren, set their force against Divelin, which being the cheife Citty of his Realme, refused to yeeld, when Divelin and the country about it vvas recover'd, there befell hostility between Rodericke, and Duvenaldus Prince of Limericke, vvhom Der­mot his father holpe in field, foyled the enemy, and then vvith­drevv his obedience from the Monarch. Shamefull was Ro­derickes flight, and Dermot insinuated into the favour of his people, began to recount the confederates of his first misfor­tune, and consulted with the two Captaines for the invasion of Connaght, finding them prest, he wrote over to the Earle Strongbow, renewed their covenants, prayed his helpe. Richard Earle Strongbow (whose auncestors came in vvith the Con­quest, but commonly of the King and his successors dis­favoured) having read the letters, he passed to King Henry, be­sought him either to answere him his rightfull heritage, vvhich other men occupied, or to licence him else vvhere in uncouth lands, to seeke his fortune. The King halfe in derisi­on bad him on in the name of God, even as farre as his feete could beare him. The Earle dissembling to perceive the hol­lovvnes of the king, furnished his Cousin Reymond le Grose, Reymond le Grose. Nephevv to the brethren aforesaid, vvith ten Knights, and 70. Bovvmen, himselfe ensued vvith about 200. Knights, and 1000. lusty Welchmen, tryed Souldiours, shortly they vvanne the Citty of Waterford, and then immediately Mac Murrough accomplished his convention, gave to the Earle in marriage his daughter Eve, with the succession of his Kingdome. When Waterford was gotten, and Leinster pacified, and the Princes of Ossory tamed, and a chosen band ever in garrison, Mac Murrough became so terrible, that none durst encounter him. The Cleargy assembled themselves at Ardmagh, and with one accord did protest that for all their sinnes, and especially for the Turkish kinde of Tyrany which they used in buying and selling, and with vile slaveries oppressing the bodies of the English, (whom their pyrats tooke) their land was like [Page 60] to be translated to that nation, whose captives they handled so cruelly. To appease in part, the indignation of God, they decreed, that all English, wheresoever in hold within the realme, should forthwith be loosed, Further, if it pleased God to scourge them, it should be meekely suffered, as farre beneath the debt of their deserts. King Henry, though he was well apayed that the Earle should be from him, yet he liked no deale, his growing in Ireland to such power, as percase in time to come, with his faction in Wales, then living under a Prince of their owne, he might be able to face the Crowne of England. An edict was therefore drawne, whereby all subjects were charged upon their perill, to reverte into Eng­land by a day, and a caveat annexed, that upon paine of death, none should presume to passe over without a nevv warrant, nor ship over any wares, money, munition, or victuals into Ireland.

11 [...]0.Thus had the Irish a breathing space, and would perhaps have picked greater benefits thereby,Divelin assaul­ted [...] the Normans. had not the Normans beene in their top immediately after. Great force they laide to Divelin, but vvere valiantly repelled, and their Captaine Hasculphus taken prisoner,Hasculphus the Norman. who being calmely intreated, be­gan to overview himselfe, and to imagine that the Citizens durst not use him extreamely, & once in open audience brake forth his unseasonable courage, in these wordes. Take this (quoth he) but for hansell, the game is to come: which heard they delayed him no longer, but pusht him downe on a blocke, and swapped off his head.

Strongbow perceiving the Kings jealously not yet allayed, having wel-nigh spent his army in defence of diverse good townes,1171. impugned by Rodericke and the Irish, left sufficient warde till his returne: and met the King at Gloucester. To whom he writeth, declaring the envy that lurked in his pre­ferment, yeelded the tittle of all his winnings, craved good countenance with his grace, contented himselfe with any portion whatsoever his Majesty should relinquish: a finall quietnesse was driven betweene them, Dublin with th'ap­purtenances, and all port townes of Leinster, & all fortresses [Page 61] reserved to the King. The Earle should enjoy with good leave whatsoever he had gotten beside. This yeare dyed Mac Murrow, and the Abbey de Castro Dei was foun­ded.

Soone after the King with five hundred Knights with ar­chers and horsemen many more tooke shore at Waterford,1172. Regni sui 17. Aetatis 41. and was such a terrour to the Irish, that incontinently all Mounster submitted themselves to his peace. There the men of Wexford to feede the surmises of Henry conceived against the gentlemen, betrayed their Lord Fitz Stephens, and him de­livered to the King. The King to gratifie them, for a while tremely chained and hampered the prisoner, quarrelling with him, notwithstanding the inhibition he had pro­ceeded in atchieving the conquest of Ireland, but shortly hee enlarged him, and ratified the grants of Wexford above-men­tioned.

These Princes of the South sware fidelity and tribute to Henry. Dermot Car [...]ye King of Corke, Donald Obrene king of Limericke, Donald and Omalaghlien, puissant Lords of Ossory, and in briefe, all the states of Mounster, from thence hee journeyed to Dublin, where in like manner all the Captaines of Leinster, and Ororicke king of Meth, and Rodericke Oconor, king of Connaght, and of all Ireland for himselfe, and the whole Iland, humbly recognized his soveraignety: finally, no man there was of name in the land (except them of Vlster) but they to him bowed and sware obeysance. All which he feasted royally with a din­ner of Cranes flesh, a fowle till then utterly abhorred of the Irish.

Merlin had prophesied, that five should meete, and the sixt should scourge them.Merlines Pro­phecy. This sixt they now construed to be Henry, in whom the five pettie Kingdomes were united. Of the same conquest prophesied their foure notable Saints, Patricke, Brachon, Colme, Irish Prophets. Fab. part 7. c. 237. and Mo­ling.

The King not unmindfull of his charge, enjoyned by the Popes Adrian and Alexander, entred into a refor­mation [Page 62] of the Church: and mooved the famous Bishop of Lismore,Pol Virg lib. 13 Angl. Hist. Synode of Ca­shell- Saint Christian, their Legate, to call a Sy­node at Cashell, wherein they defined Eight Articles.

1. First, that their people should abandon unlawfull con­tracts of their cousins and allyes, and observe the Canons of Matrimonie.

2. That their Infants should be primestened of the Priests hand at the Church dore, and then baptized in the font of their mother Church.

3. That all faithfull duely pay their Tithes.

4. That holy Church be for ever quit of those cursed ex­actions of diet and harborow whereunto they had beene ac­customably strayned foure seasons in the yeare, and else a­gainst right.

5. That the fine levyed for manslaughter, be not borne by the Clearkes, and kinsmen to the malefactour, but if he were accessary or faulty to the deed doing.

6. That the sicke doe his Testament to be made or read in the presence of credible persons.

7. That the funerals of the dead be devoutly and solemn­ly kept.

8. That forasmuch as GOD hath universally delive­red them into the government of the English, they should in all points, rights, and ceremonies, accord with the Church of England.

To these things Gelasius Primate of Ardmagh, because he was old and impotent, gave his consent at Divelin in the pre­sence of the King, he died two yeares after, so aged, that his sustenance was the milke of a white Cow, which he carried with him wheresoever he travelled. This yeere the Abbey de fonte vivo was founded.

While all went well in Ireland, newes came that Henry the sonne (whom his father had for good purpose crowned King of England) was misledde to intrude upon the actuall possession of the Crowne in his fathers life-time, which stirre to appease, the King left the custody of Ireland with Hugh de Lacy, to whom he gave Meth in fee, with Fitz [Page 63] Stephens, Fitz Gerald, and Philip de Bruise, and diverse others,King Henry returneth into England. and sayled into England.

In absence of King Henry, Ororick King of Meth, surna­med Monoculus, required conference and parley with Hugh de Lacy, in which communication the King had trayterously murdered Lacy, had not Fitz Gerald rescued him. Then stept out an ambushment of the Irish, but Griffin a Gentleman of the bloud royall in Wales, flighted the Kyrneghes, Ororick with one eye. and slevv O­rorick.

The English perceived such practices daylie sought and attempted, tooke from the Irish as farre as they durst, all trust of government, fenced themselves vvith garrisons, made Captaines, Keepers and Constables, vvheresoever they vvanne the better. But King Henry vvas so affrighted vvith his sonnes rebellion, and grevv into such envye both at home and abroad for the death of Thomas late Archbishop of Canterbury, that he had no vvill to mind his proceedings in Ireland. Ever his jealousie increased tovvardes the Earle Strongbow, vvhom he supposed easie to bee carryed avvay vvith any light occasion of tumult.Earle Strong­bow. The Earle vvas a man of great birth, but not of great port until this good marriage be­fell him, & knovving himselfe neither to be brooked in sight, nor trusted out of sight, kept still one certaine rate in all his doings, bare but lovve saile, fed no quarrells, shunned all su­spicious conference.

While they stood thus in a mammaring, and Letters ctme daylie over, hovv faintly the States and Princes of Ireland performed obedience; for except in Leinster, all other parts retayned still their auncient kinde of govern­ment, and did onely acknovvledge Tribute. It vvas thought expedient by Henryes Counsellours, to discharge his minde of that care, and seeing there vvas trouble on all sides, and all could not bee intended one vvay, they determined to venture the custody of Ireland to Strong­bow, being likely for his ovvne vvealth and assurance, to procure all possible meanes of bridling and annoying the Irish.

[Page 64]No sooner vvas the Earle landed with his Commission Lord Warden of Ireland,Strongbow Lord Warden of Ireland. but Donald King of Limericke met him at the vantage, and coursed him within the walls of Waterford, whereof hearing the residue their mates were a­nimated, so that up they start in every corner, tagge and ragge to expell the English.

It went hardly, then the Earle remembred himselfe of his cousin Lord Reymond, left behinde him in Wales a suitor to Basil his sister, whose marriage nothing stopped but the Earles consent. Now therefore hee writeth lovingly to the Wooer, and upon condition that hee came speedily to succour him, hee yeelded the Lady and all else at plea­sure. Reymond in his first entry brake into Divelin, mar­ryed his Wife in compleate Armour, and the very next daye sprang foorth, whipped the Rebells, quieted Leinster.

Pol. Virg. lib. 13 Angl. Hist.Also the Cleargy having lately perused the Popes Bull, wherein hee entitleth Henry Lord of Ireland, and under straight paynes commaundeth alleagiance unto him, busi­ly repressed the fury of their Countreymen. And forso­much as immediatly after Christianity planted there, the whole Iland had with one consent given themselves not on­ly into the spirituall, but also into the temporall jurisdiction of the See of Rome, which temporall right the two Bishops Adrian and Alexander had freely derived into King Henry, as by their publique instruments read in their counsell at Cashell appeareth, they denounced curse and excommunica­tion to any that would maliciously gainsay or frustrate the same.

When these b [...]oyles were rocked asleepe and husht for a time, the familiars of Strongbow greatly fore-thought them of the credit and rule committed to Reymond, whom in con­clusion they procured home againe vvhen he had served their turne at neede. The meane vvhile dyed Strongbow, as some say, betrayed and vvounded, he lyeth buryed in the Body of Christ Church in Divelin,1175. Flatsbury. leaving behinde him one onely daughter Isabel, marryed after 14. yeares to VVilliam Earle [Page 65] marshall. Closely they concealed Strongbowes death, untill they had compassed from the King another Governour af­ter their owne tooth. For ever they dreaded, that Reymond being in the Princes eye, and friended in the Court, would catch his oportunity, and wynde himselfe (might he get an inkling in time of the Earles death) into the succession of his office, which even then waxed sweet and savoury. Coodgel­lors of this drift, stopped messengers, intercepted letters, hasted on their own course. Basil the wife of Reymond, Basil the wife of Reymond le Grose. more dutiful to her husband, then naturall to her brother, continued still in Ireland sicke, but having privy knowledge of those newes, ere the breath was quite out of the Earles body, payned her selfe to disturbe this whole array. And whereas shee knew well her letters should bee searched, and her owne servants stayed, shee let it be delivered at all a very venture to one of the maryners, and therein draweth a long processe of her af­fayres and houshold, but in the middle shuffles in a few lines of her meaning, under these tearmes: To all my affli­ctions is added now lately the tooth-ake, so that except that one master-tooth had fallen (which I send you for a to­ken) I weene I were better out of my life. Now was the tooth tipped with golde, and burnished feately like a pre­sent, which Reymond wist well to bee none of hers, and therefore quickly smelled the construction, lingred not for Letters Pattents, but stept over presently,Reymond Lord Protectour of Ireland. and made his packe, and was elected by the Kings Agents there, Lord Protectour of Ireland, till the Kings pleasure were further knowne: During his authority flourished the Ge­raldines, but shortly after they quayled againe, under the government of VVilliam Fitz Aldelin, with him was joy­ned in commission the valiant Knight Iohn de Courcy, conque­rour, and Earle of Vlster,Vlster conque­red. which hitherto the King had not obtained.

That yeare was founded the Abbey of Crockesden,1176. by Bertramus de Verdon.

To establish the conquest of Vlster, and other victo­ries of the parts of Ireland before enjoyed,1177. Alexander [Page 66] the third sent his Cardinall Vivianus, vvho declareth the Title that Henry held of the Pope, the reservation of the Peter-pence, the indignation of GOD and holy Church a­gainst the rebells, who beeing themselves contemners and breakers of Canons Ecclesiasticall, yet for maintenance of their unruly stomackes, had found the meanes to make Churches their barnes, bestowing therein both corne and pulse, that the victuallers and purveyors of the Princes campe should not dare to require the sale thereof for pe­rill of sacriledge. Therefore hee licenseth Officers in this behalfe soberly and discreetely to convent such per­sons, as made the Church a Sanctuary for their Corne, and in neede to take thereof at reasonable prices.

Little good did Fitz Aldelin, and lesse vvas like to doe, because hee delighted to crosse his Peeres, and vvas of them stopped in his course of government.

Hugh de Lacye vvas made Protector generall over the Land.Hugh Lacye Protectour. But Miles Cogan, Philip de Bruise, Fitz Stephens, Power, and diverse other more preferred to severall coun­treyes under him.

This Lacye builded a sort of castles and forts through­out all Leinster and Meth, and the next sixe yeares con­tinually devout gentlemen erected sundry Abbeyes, as the Abbey of Roseglasse,Flat [...]bury. 1178. of Donbrothy by Hervy a Welch­man, one of the speciall conquerours of Ireland, vvho himself after that,1179. entred into religion in Trinity Priory at Canter­bury,1180. The Abbeyes of Geripont, and Choro Benedicti, the Abbey de lege Dei, vvith repayring of many Chappels, Chauncells,1182. Bell-houses, High-vvayes, and Bridges. Then dyed Saint Laurence Archbishop of Divelin, to vvhom succeeded Iohn Comyn an Englishman, brought up in the Abbey of Evesham,S. Patrickes Church in Di­velin founded. Founder of Saint Patrickes in Di­velin, vvhich vvas before that time a Parish Church, & novv by the said Archbishop endovved vvith Prebends, Viccars, Clearkes, Chorists, and many notable possessions for their maintenance, vvhereout from time to time have proceeded Clergy-men of greatest learning & reputation in the Diocese. [Page 67] Divers contentions were raised betwixt Christs Church and it, for antiquity, wherein they of S. Patrickes, are (no doubt) inferiour, as shall appeare.Infra cap. 4 [...] They are both written Cathedrall Churches, and both are the Bishops Chapiter, in vvhose ele­ction they both ought to convent within the Church of the blessed Trinity, called Christs Church, which in all records hath the preheminency of place. The party that disturbeth this order of election, forfeiteth by deede to th'Archbishop of Divelin, 200. pounds.S. Patrickes booke of re­cordes. This foundation was much enriched by King Iohn.

The same yeare died the yong King Henry, reconciled to his father, but preparing warre against his brother Richard Duke of Aquitain: soon after also deceased Ieffry his other son, Duke of Brittaine. Thus were left Richard, his inheritour, and Iohn afterwards Earle of Glocester, heretofore surnamed without land, to whom the father conveyed all his interest and Lord­ship of Ireland, sent him thither honourably accompanied, being then but twelue yeares old, and with him in speciall trust, Giraldus Cambrensis Clerke,Girald. Camb. a diligent searcher of the an­tiquities of Ireland, surely well learned, and in those dayes counted Eloquent.

About the young Earle were servants and counsellours,Ioh. Lord of Ireland. three sorts, first Normans, great quaffers, lourdens, proud, belly swaines, fed with extortion and bribery; to whom hee most relyed: secondly, the English brought with him, meetly bold: Thirdly, the English found in the land, whom being best worthy and most forward in all good services, hee least regarded, hereof sprang parties and disdaine, and to the knights that hardiest were and readiest of courage no small discomfort, to the enemies a spurre.

With the brute of his arrivall at Waterford, the Kings of Thomond, Desmond and Connaght, put themselves in the bravest manner they could, to meete him and to submit their countries to his Grace, before them came the Irish Franklyns with rich presents, (and as they are very kind hearted where they list to shew obedience,) made unto the Childe, their Lord, the most joy and gladnesse that might be, and though [Page 68] rudely, yet lovingly, and after the custome of their country, offred to kisse him, with such familiarity as they used towards their Princes at home. Two of the Guard, Normans, pick-thankes, shooke and tare the Clownes by the glibs & beards unmannerly, and churlishly thrust them out of the presence, whom they should have instructed curteously, & born with. The Irish thus rejected, went against the fore-named Kings, opened the rebukes and villanyes done to them, for their meekenes, that their Lord whom they thought to honour, was but a Boy, peevish and insolent, governed by a sort of flatterers, younglings and prowlers: That sithence to them that buxome were and tractable, such despite and dishonour (that terme they have borrowed of the Spaniards) was prof­fered so soone, little good should the states of Ireland looke for in continuance, when the English had once yoked and penned them in their clouches.

This report lightly alienated the mindes of those Princes, not yet very resolute, and turned them home with great oathes and leagues, entred among themselves, caused also the mightiest Captaines elsewhere to sticke together, while their lives lasted, and for no manner earthly thing to slacke the de­fence of their auncient liberties.

Immediately walked abroad mutinyes of broyle & com­motion, so that the young Earle and his army, were content to commit the tryall thereof, to Lacy, Bruise, Courcy, Fitz Ge­rald, and the rest, himselfe departing away the same yeare he came, and leaving the Realme a great deale worse bestedde then he found it.

From the Conquest hitherto Giraldus Cambrensis, and from hence to the yeare 1370. I am specially holpen by certaine briefe extracts, whose author is namelesse, and therefore I quote him by the name of Philip Flatsbury who wrote them,In these notes I used the con­ference of 3. coppies, much different, sent me, the one by my Lord of Trimlestone, another from M Agard, the third from M. Stanyhurst. and enriched them with collections of his owne, for Ge­rald the father of the Earle of Kildare then being. An. 1517.

Lacy the rather for these whisperings, did erect and edifie a number of Castles, well and substantially, provided in con­venient places, one at Derwath, vvhere diverse Irish prayed to [Page 69] be set on worke, for hyre. Sundry times came Lacy to quic­ken his labourers, full glad to see them fall in ure with any such exercise, wherein, might they once be grounded & taste the svvetenesse of a true mans life, he thought it no small to­ken of reformation to be hoped, for which cause he visited them often, and merrily would command his Gentlemen to give the labourers example in taking paines, to take their in­struments in hand, and to worke a season, the poore soules looking on and resting. But this game ended Tragically, while each man was busie to try his cunning: some lading, some plaistering, some heaving, some carving; the Generall also himselfe, digging with a pykeaxe, a desperate villaine of them, he whose toole the Generall used, espying both his hands occupied and his body, with all force inclining to the blow, watched his stoope, and clove his head with an axe,Lacy murde­red. little esteeming the torments that ensued.1189. This Lacy was con­querour of Meth, his body the two Archbishops, Iohn of Di­velin and Mathew of Cashell,Monast. de be­atitudine. buryed in the monastery of of Becktye, his head in S. Thomas abbey at Divelin. The next yeare, was builded the abbey of Ines in Vlster,1187. and soone after, the abbeyes of Iugo Dei, and of Comer,1198. 1199. 1 [...] and then the abbey of Knockmoy, or de Colle victoriae, by Cathel Cron­derg King of Connaght.

CAP. II. The Titles of the Crowne of England to every part of Ireland, and to the whole diverse wayes.

I Will begin with the pedigree of VVilliam Earle marshall, for thereupon depend many recordes in Ireland, and the Queenes right to Leinster. VValter Fitz Richard, who came from Norman­dy, with VVilliam Conquerour, died Lord Strongbow of Strigule alias Chepstow without issue, to whom succeeded his sisters sonne Gilbert, who was created the first Earle of [Page 70] Pembroke, & had issue Richard the inheritour of Leinster, by a covenant & marriage of Eva the sole daughter of Mac Mur­rough King of Leinster. This Richard conveyed to Henry the second all his title, and held of him the Lordship of Leinster in foure counties, Weixford, Catherlagh, Ossory, and Kildare. Richard left issue, a daughter Isabel, married to VVilliam Earle marshall of England, now Earle of Pembroke, Lord Strong­bow, and Lord of Leinster. VVilliam had issue five sonnes, who died without issue, when every of them, except the youngest, had successively possessed their fathers lands, and five daughters, Maude, [...]oane, Isabel, Sibil, and Eve, among whom the patrimony was parted in an. 31. H. 3. Of these daughters bestowed in marriage, are descended many noble houses, as the Mortimers, Bruises, Clares, &c. borne subjects to the Crowne of England, paying ever to the King his dutyes reserved.

Title to Meth. Hugh de Lacy Conquerour of Meth, had issue VValter de Lacy, who held the same of King Iohn, paying a fine of foure thousand marks sterling, and hence beganne all the severall claimes there at this day, with allegiance sworne and done by their auncestours.

Title to Moun­ster.At the very first arrivall of Henry the second, the Princes of Mounster came universally, and did homage voluntarily, and acknowledged to him and his heires, duties and payes for ever.

Title to Vlster, & Connaght. Iohn de Courcy Conquerour and Earle of Vlster, dyed with­out issue, King Iohn Lord of Ireland, gave the Earledome to Hugh de Lacy, who had issue, VValter and Hugh, dead with­out issue,Burke Earle of Vlster and Connaght. and one daughter married to Reymond Burke Con­querour and Lord of Connaght.

Connaght descended to diverse heires, owing service to the Prince, but Vlster is returned by devolution to the speci­all inheritance and revenues of the Crowne of England, in this manner The said De Burgo, had issue Richard, who had issue Iohn, who had issue VVilliam, who was slaine without issue, and a Daughter Elizabeth intytled to thirty thousand marks yearely, by the Earledome of Vlster, whom Edward [Page 71] the 3. gave in marriage to Leonel his second sonne, Duke of Clarence, who had issue a daughter Philippe, marryed to Ed­mund Mortymer, who had issue Edmund, Anne, Elinor. Edmund and Elinor died without issue, Anne was married to Richard, Earle of Cambridge, sonne to Edmund of Laugley Duke of Yorke, fift sonne to Edward the third, which said Richard had issue Richard Plantagenet, father to Edward the fourth, father to Elizabeth wife to Henry the seventh, and mother to Henry the eight, father to Mary, Edward the sixt, and Elizabeth.

Severall claimes to the Land of Ireland.
  • 1. First that the Irish (for of the rest there is no question) were subjects to the the Crowne of Brittaine, before they set foote in Ireland. Thus it appeareth. They dwelt on that side of Spaine, whereof Bayon was then cheife imperiall Ci­tie, and the same then in possession and obedience to Gurgun­tius 376. yeares ere Christ was borne, as it was to his succes­sours many a day after, namely to Henry, the which as I finde noted in certaine precepts of governement, dedicated by Iames Young, to Iames Butler Earle of Ormond, then Lieutenant of Ireland. an. 1416.

    From this coast and Citty, now part of Gascoigne came the fleete of those Iberians, who in 60. ships met Gurguntius on the sea, returning from the conquest of Denmarke, to whom they yeelded oath and service, sued for dwelling, were by him conducted and planted in Ireland, and became his leige people.

  • 2. Mac Gil-murrow King of Ireland, with all his petty Princes, Lordes, and Captaines, summoned to King Arthurs court held in Carlion, an. 519. did accordingly their homage, and attended all the while his great feast and assembly lasted.
  • 3. The Monarch of Ireland and all other, both reges and reguli for them and for theirs for ever, betooke themselves to Henry the second in an. Dom. 1172. namely those of the south, whiles he lay at Waterford, Dermot King of Corke, which is the nation of Mac Cartyes, at Cashell, Donald King of Lim­ricke, [Page 72] which is the nation of the Obrenes, Donald King of Ossory, Mac Shaghlen King of Ophaly, at Divelin did the like, Okeruell King of Vriell, Ororicke king of Meth, Rodericke King of all Ireland, and of Connaght. This did they with consents and shoutes of their people: and king Henry returned with­out any Battle given. Onely Vlster remained which Iohn de Courcy soone after conquered, and Oneale Captaine of all the Irish there, came to Dublin to Richard the 2. in an. 1399. And freely bound himselfe by oath and great summes of money, to be true to the crowne of England.
  • 4. The same time Obrene of Thomond, Oconor of Con­naght, Arthur Mac Murrow of Leinster, and all the Irish Lords which had beene somewhat disordered, renewed their obe­dience.
  • 5. When Ireland first received Christendome they gave themselves into the jurisdiction both spirituall & temporall, of the See of Rome. The temporall Lordship, Pope Adrian conferred upon Henry the second, and hee gave the same to Iohn his younger sonne, afterwards King of England, and so it returned home to the Crowne.
  • 6. Alexander the 3. confirmed the gift of Adrian as in both their Charters is expressed at large.
  • 7. Vivian the legate on the Popes behalfe doth accurse and excommunicate all those that flitte from the obeysance of the Kings of England.
  • 8. The cleargy twice assembled, once at Cashell, secondly at Ardmagh, plainely determined the conquest to be lawfull, and threatned all people, under paine of Gods, and holy Churches indignation, to accept the English kings for their Lords, from time to time.
  • 9. It would aske a volume to recite the names of such Irish Princes, who since the conquest have continually upon occa­sions, revolts or petitions, sworne truth and faith to the kings of England, from time to time, received honours, wages, fees, pardons, and petitions. And thus I thinke no reasonable man will doubt of a right so old, so continued, so ratified, so many wayes confessed.

CAP. III. Richard the first, and King Iohn.

BY occasion of Lacyes mishap, Iohn Courcye, 11 [...]9. and Hugh de Lacye the younger, with all their assi­stants, did streight execution upon the Rebells, and preventing every mischiefe ere it fell, stayed the Realme from uproares. Thus they continued lovingly, and lived in wealth and honour all the dayes of Richard the first, untill the first yeare of King Iohns raigne.

Henry the second had issue male, VVilliam, Henry, Richard, 1199· Ieffrey, and Iohn. VVilliam, Henry, and Richard dyed without issue. Ieffrey Earle of Brittaine dyed before his father, and left issue two daughters, and an after-borne son called Arthur, S [...]ow▪ Gra [...]ton. Arth [...]rus. P [...]sthumas. whose title to the Crowne, as being the undoubted lyne of the elder brother, Philip King of France, and certaine Lords of England and Ireland stoutly justified: Him had King Iohn taken prisoner in Normandy, and dispatched, if the same be true, with his owne hands at Roane. Of this barbarous cruel­ty all mens eares were full, and Courcye either of zeale or par­tiality, spake bloudy words against it, which meane his un­dermyners caught, and did not onely heave him out of cre­dite, but also got commission to attach his body, and to send him into England.

The Earle mistrusted his part, and kept aloofe,120 [...]. till Hugh de Lacye Lord Iustice, vvas faine to levye men in armes, and to invade Vlster. Thence hee vvas often put to flight,Iohn Courcye. vvhereupon hee proclaymed Courcye Tray­tour, and hyred sundry gentlemen vvith revvards, to bring him in quicke or dead, so long hee vvooed the matter, that Courcyes ovvne Captaines vvere inveygled to betray their Lord. Therefore upon good Friday, vvhen the Earle did off his armour, and in secret meditations visi­ted religious places bare-footed, they layde for him, tooke [Page 74] him as a rebell,1 [...]04. and shipped him into England the next way, where he was adjudged to perpetuall prison: Sentleger ad­deth in his collections that Lacy payd the Traytors their mo­ney, and then immediatly hanged them.

This Courcye translated the Church and Prebendaryes of the Trinity in Downe, to an Abbey of black Monks brought thither from Chester, and the same did hallow to S. Patricke, for which alteration of the name of God to his servant, hee deemed himselfe justly punished.

Not long after (as say the Irish) certaine French knights came to King Iohns Court, and one of them asked the com­bat for tryal of the Dutchy of Normandy. It was not thought expedient to jeopard the title upon one mans lucke, yet the challenge they determined to answere: some friend put them in minde of the Earle imprisoned, a Warriour of noble courage, and in pitch of body like a gyant. King Iohn demaunded Courcye whether hee would bee content to fight in his quarrell: Not for thee (said the Earle) whose person I esteeme not worthy the adventure of my bloud, but for the Crowne and dignity of the Realme, wherein many a good man liveth against thy will. The words were haply ta­ken without dudgen, as proceeding from stomack, and from one counted more plaine then wise.

Courcye therefore being cherished to the field, and refresh­ed with dyet, fed so wonderfully after his hard keeping, that the French Challenger tooke him for a monster, and privily stale into Spaine. Then was the Earle inlarged, and crossed the seas tovvardes Ireland, fifteene times, evermore beaten back to the shoare, vvent thence into France to change the coast, and there dyed: after vvhose decease vvithout heires of his body, the Earledome of Vlster vvas en­tirely bestovved upon Hugh de Lacye for his good ser­vice.Hugh de Lacy Earle of Vlster.

In Ireland remained one of the Courcyes, Lord of Rathen­ny and Kilbarrock, vvhom as a spye of all their practises, and an informer thereof to the King, VValter and Hugh the sonnes of Hugh had slaine, and great seditions raysed, [Page 75] bearing themselves after the decease of their father for Governours out of checke.King Iohn en­treth Ireland the second time. Anno 1210. Stow. To settle the Realme of Ire­land, King Iohn brought thither a maine Armye, ba­nished the Lacyes, subdued the remanents, tooke pled­ges, punished malefactours, established the execution of English Lawes, coyned money of like value currant ster­ling in both Realmes. The two Lacyes repentant of their fol­lyes and tyrannies, fled into France, dispoyled of sumptu­ous apparell, and unknowne, meekely they served in Saint Taurines Abbey, as gardners, untill the Abbot by their countenance and behaviour, beganne to smell their estates, and pressed them so farre, that they detected their offen­ces, and the due desert of much harder chastisement, eft­soone beseeching the Abbot to keepe their counsells, who commending their humilities, yet advising them to laye holde upon their Princes favour, if it might be had, labou­red the King his familiar and godsip earnestly for their pardons and obtained it.

Each of them were fined, VValter at 4000. and Hugh at 2500. markes, and restored him to the Lordship of Meth, this to the Earledome of Vlster: King Iohn made his Vice-ge­rent, and returned home, subdued the Welchmen, met with Pandulphus the Legate of Innocentius the third, who came to release him of the sentence wherein he stood excommunicate for his spoyle and extortion of Church goods, to whom be­ing the Popes Atturney, hee made a personall surrender of both his Realmes in way of submission, and after his assoyle­ment, received them againe: some adde that he gave away his Kingdome to the See of Rome, for him and his successours, recognizing, to holde the same of the Popes in fee,Polid. lib. 15. paying yearely therefore one thousand markes, and in them three hundred for Ireland. Blundus sayth, Centum pro utro (que) auri mar­chas. Sir Thomas Moore, a man in that calling & office likely to sound the matter to the depth, writeth precisely, that neither any such writing the Pope can shew, nor were it effectuall if he could. How farre foorth,In the suppli­cation of soule▪ and with what limitation a Prince may or may not addict his Realme feodary [Page 76] to another, Iohn Maior a Scottish Chronicler, and a Sorbo­nist, not unlearned, partly scanneth, who thinketh 300. marks for Ireland a very hard pennyworth. The instrument which our English Chronicle rehearseth,Fabian. might haply be motioned and drawne, and then dye unratified, although the copy of that record continue: But certaine it is, that his successours ne­ver payde it, and thereto assenteth Iohn Bale in his Apology a­gainst vowes.

To Iohn Comin Founder of S. Patrickes Church, succeeded Henry Lounders in the Archbishops See of Divelin,1212. who builded the kings Castle there, being Lord Chiefe Iustice of Ireland, him they nicknamed (as the Irish doe commonly give additions to their Governours in respect of some fact or qualitie) Scorch villaine, Henry Scorch­bill Lord Iu­stice. and Burnebill, because hee requi­red to peruse the writings of his Tenants, colourably preten­ding to learne the kinde of each mans severall tenure, and burned the same before their faces, causing them either to re­new their estates, or to holde at will. In the fourth yeare of King Iohns raigne, was founded the Abbey of Dowske, in the sixt, the Abbey of Wethny in the Countie of Limericke, by Theobald le Butler, Lord of the Carricke, and in the twelfth, Richard Tute builded the Monastery of Gra­nard.

CAP. IIII. Henry the third, and Edward the first.

[...]228. AFter the death of Lownders, Henry the third (infor­med of the Truth and good service done by the Ge­raldines ever since their first arryvall in the Coun­trey) made Morrice Fitz Gerald the sonne of Morrice aforesaid Lord Iustice.Morice Fitz Gerald, Lord Iustice.

To him sent Edward the Prince, surnamed Longshanke, for assistance and power of men against the Welch Re­bells, who leaving Warders in the Castle of Sligaghe, by him lately founded, together with Phelim Oconnor, [Page 77] and a lusty band of souldiours met the king at Chepstovv, returned victoriously, and by this meanes increased favour, & streightway they tvvo joyning vvith Cormack mac Dermot, Mac Rory, made a noble hosting upon Odonill the Irish ene­my that invaded and grieved the Kings subjects of Vlster, when Lacy was once dead.

Odonill being vanquished, the Lord Iustice forced pledges and Trowages of Oneale, to keepe the Kings peace, and diverse other exploytes did hee during his time of government, which in particular rehearseth Flatsbury in his notes collected for Gerald Fitz Gerald, Earle of Kildare, Anno 1517.

To him succeeded in office Sir Iohn Fitz Geffrey knight,124 [...]. 1259· 1260. 1261. Geffrey Allan de la Zowche, whom Earle Warren slevv, to Zowch, Stephen de longa spata, who slevv Oneale in the streets of Down, and there dyed. Him followed William Den, in whose time Mac Cartye played the devill in Desmond, and to Den, Richard Capell, who envyed the Geraldines, and was of them taken prisoner, together with Theobald le Butler, and Miles Co­gan. The king tooke up the variance, and discharged Den, preferring David Barrye to his roome,1267· 126 [...]. 1270. who ta­med the insolencie of Morrice Fitz Morrice, cousin ger­mane to Fitz G [...]rald: upon Barrye came Vfford, upon Vfford, Iames Audeley, who dyed of a fall from his horse in Thomond: and then for the time Fitz Mor­rice governed, till the king sent over Sir Ieffrey de Ge­nevill, newly returned in pilgrimage from the Holy Se­pulture: Him called home againe Edward the first, in the fourth yeare of his raigne, and sent in his stead Ro­bert Vfford the second time, who made his Vice-ge­rent, Fryar Fulborne, Bishop of Waterford, and resumed his charge at his next arryvall into Ireland.

At this time the citty of Divelin was miserably wa­sted with fire,1280. Divelin fired. and the Bell-house of Christs Church utterly defaced, which the citizens before they repayred their private harmes jointly came to succor, & collections made to redresse the ruines of that ancient building first begun by the Danes,Records of Christ Church. [Page 78] as I finde in a monument of that foundation, continued by Sitricus; Prince of Divelin, at the motion of Donate, then Bi­shop, & dedicated to the Blessed Trinity, finished by Richard Earle Strangbow, Fitz Stephens, and S. Laurence the Archbi­shop,It was first a Priory and Ca­nons, now Deane and Chapiter▪ and his foure successors, Iohn of Evesham, Henry Scorch­bill, Lord Iustice, & Lucas, and lastly by Iohn de S. Paul, which worke at the decay by fire, and since, many devout citizens of Divelin have beautified.

The same Strongbowes Tombe spoyled by fall of the roofe, Sir Henry Sidney Lord Deputy, restoreth at this present, who hath also given a sightly countenance to the Quire, by doing cost upon the Earle of Kildares Chappell,Cap. Randolfe, over against the which he hath left a monument of Captain Randolfe, late Co­lonell of Vlster, Valiantly dead in that service, Iohn Samford Archbishop of Divelin Lord Iustice, VVilliam Vescy Lord Iu­stice, who pursued Omalaghli [...]n king of Meth, that soone after was slaine.

[...]87.The Souldan of Babylon determined to vexe the Christians cities of the East▪ Tripolis, Tyrus, Berinthus, Sidon, Ptolemais, now parts of Turky, vvhom to redeeme, & vvith their helpes to get againe the Holy Land, Edward the first had foure yeeres past obtained by licence of Mar [...]in the fourth, and by confir­mation o [...] Honorius his successor,Blundus lib. [...]. the vvhole tenth of all eccle­siastical revenues in Ireland for 7. yeares, vvhereafter follovved a fifteene of the Temporalty: And the same yeere Iohn Baliol Earle of Galvvay, founded Baliol Colledge in Oxford, made his homage to King Edward for his Kingdome of Scotland, and to the Lord Iustice for his Earledome of Ireland.

1281. Vescey vvas a sterne man, and full of courage, but rashe and impudent of his tongue: he convented before him, Iohn Earle of Kildare, & charged him vvith riots & vagaryes un­seasonable, for that he ranged vvith his men abroad, & prey­ed upon privat enemies inordinatly, for malice & grudge, not for advancement of the publique vveale: vvhom the Earle as impatient as the other,1294. ansvvered thus: By your honour and mine, my Lord, & by king Edwards hand, you vvould if you durst, appeach me in plaine tearmes of [...]elony: for vvhereas [Page 79] I have the title, and you the fleece of Kildare, I wot well how great an eye sore I am in your sight, who if I could bee han­somely trussed up for a fellon, then might my young Master your sonne, become a Gentleman: Iustice, Gentleman (quoth he) thou proud Earle, the Vescyes were gentlemen, before Kil­dare was an Earledome, and before the Welch bankrupt thy Cousin feathered his Nest in Leinster. But seeing thou darest me, I will surely breake thy heart, and with that word he cal­led the Earle a notorious theefe & murderer. Then followed clattering of swords by Souldiours on both parties, untill ei­ther side appeased his owne, and the Lord Iustice leaving his Lieutenant VVilliam Hay, sped over to the King, whom im­mediately followed the Earle, & as fast as Vescey charged Kil­dare with fellony, no lesse did Kildare appeach the Iustice of high treason, and in tryall thereof he asked the Combate. But when the listes royall were provided, Vescey was slipt away into France, and so disherited of all his lands in the county of Kildare, which were bestowed upon the Earle of Kildare and his heires for ever.

The Earle waxed insolent upon this successe, and squa­red with diverse Nobles English and Irish of the Land, hee took prisoner, Richard Earle of Vlster, and him detained un­till the Parliament then assembled at Kilkenny, commanded his delivery, and for that unrulinesse, disseised the Geraldines of the Castle of Sligagh, and of all his lands in Connaght.

VVilliam Dodding [...]ale Lord Iustice.1294. This yere for the defence of Wales, and commodity of Passengers, to and from Ireland, the King did coast upon the Isle of Anglisey, called the mo­ther of Wales, and builded there the castle de bello marisco, or Bewmarishe. Thomas Fitz Morice Lord Iustice.

Iohn VVogan Lord Iustice pacified the former strife,Bewmarishe. 12 [...]6. be­tweene Vlster and Kildare, and all the Geraldines, with their associats, together with Theobald Lord Butler, gathered strength of men, and met the kings army before Edinburgh, wan the Citty, slew 25. thousand Scots, hampred Iohn Baliol king of the Scots, in such sort,1299▪ that glad and faine was he to renew his homage.

CAP. V. Edward the second.

1307. THomas Fitz Morice Lord Iustice.

I will begin this Chapter with the modestie of a good Clerke, Richard Havering who five yeares by dispensation had received the fruites and revenues of the Bishopricke of Divelin, and long might have done, had he beene so disposed. But now feeling in sleep a waight upon his stomacke, heavyer to his weening then any masse of mettall, whereof to be released he vowed in his dreame, all that ever he could make in this world: Suddainely the next morne, resigned the custodium of the Bishopricke, and contented himselfe with other ecclesiasticall cures inci­dent to his vocation.Templers. 1. The same yeare was the bane of the Templers in Ireland, to whom succeeded the Knights of the Rhodes. This profession began at Ierusalem, by certaine Gentlemen that kept their abode next to the Temple there, who till the Councell of Creetz increased not above the number of nine.Ty [...]. l. 12. c. 7. But thenceforth in little more then fiftie yeares, being enriched by contribution of all Christian Re­almes, every where their houses were erected and endowed bountifully: they grew to 300. Knights of the order and into inferiour brethren innumerable. But with ease and wealth they declined now to such intollerable deformities of life and other superstitious errors,Ga [...]uin hist. Gal. l. 7. nothing lesse regarding then the purpose of this their foundation, that the generall Councell assembled at Vienna,Tom. 3 Con [...]. disanulled the same for ever. And there­upon as in other countries so in Ireland, they confessed the publicke fame of their enormities, and themselves culpable, their persons they yeelded to perpetuall pennance, their lands were given (though with some difficulty) to the Knights of S. Iohns hospitall at Ierusalem, who since then for recovering the Iland of Rhodes from the Saracens,Plat. in Clem. 5 chargeth them with treason against the Christians. became famous, and multiplied much more honourably then did the Templers. [Page 81] Of this latter foundation was the priory of S. Iohns at Kilmay­nam besides Divelin.1309.

Iohn Decer Major of Divelin builded the high Pype there,Iohn Decer. and the Bridge over the Liffy, toward S. Wolstans, and a cha­pell of our Lady at the Fryar minors, where he lyeth buried, repaired the Church of the Fryars preachers, and every friday tabled the Fryars at his owne costs.

In absence of VVogan, Sr VVilliam Burcke was Lord War­den of Ireland, to whom King Edward recōmended Pierce of Gavestone the disquieter of all the nobility in England,Pierce of Ga­vestone. S [...]ow. a com­panion to the King in vice, bolstered up by the King so pe­remptorily against the will of his Councell, that whereas the said Pierce was by them exiled, Edward sent him now into Ireland with much honour and many Iewels, assigning him the commodities royall of that Realme, which bred some bickering betweene the Earle of Vlster Sir Richard Burke, and Gavestone, who notwithstanding bought the hearts of the Souldiours with his liberality, subdued Obrene, edified sundry Castles, cawswayes, and bridges, but within three yeares he retyred from Flaunders, into England, where the nobles besieged him at Scarborough and smit off his head.

Iohn VVogan Lord Iustice, summoned a Parliament at Kil­kenny, where wholesome lawes were ordained,1311. but never executed: There fell the Bishops in argument about their Iu­risdictions and in especiall the Archbishop of Divelin forbad the Primate of Ardmagh to lift up his crosyer within the pro­vince of Leinster. In ratifying of which priviledge I have seene the coppy of Pope Honorius Bull exemplified among the re­cordes of S. Patricks Church, shortly after Rowland Ioyce, then Primate, stale by night in his pontificals from Howth to the priory of Gracedieu, where the Archbishops servants met him, and violently chased him out of all the diocesse. This Archbishop was named Iohn Aleeke, after whose death were elected in scisme & division of sides, two successours, Thorne­burgh Lord Chancellor, and Bignore Treasurer of Ireland. The Chancellor to strengthen his election, hastily went to sea, and perished by shipwracke, the other submitting his [Page 82] cause to the processe of law tarryed at home, and sped.

Theobald de Verdon Lord Iustice. Sixe thousand Scots fighting men, under the conduct of Edward Bruise brother to Robert King of Scotland,1313. 1314. also the Earle Murray, Iohn Menteith, Iohn Steward, and others landed in the north of Ireland, ioyned with the Irish, and conquered Vlster, gave the Englishmen three notable overthrowes, crowned the said Bruise King of Ireland, burned Churches and Abbeyes, with all the people found therein, men, women, and children. Then was Sir Edmund Butler chosen Lord Iustice,1315. who combined the Earle of Vlster, and the Geraldines in friendship, himselfe with Sir Iohn Mandevill, and preserved the rest of the Realme.

In the necke of these troubles, arose foure Princes of Con­naght, to impaire and scatter the English force. But then the Burckes and the Berninghams discomfited and slew the num­ber of eleaven thousand besides Athenry. To Sir Richard Berningham belonged a lusty young swayne,Iohn Hussee. Iohn Hussee, whom his Lord commanded to take a view of the dead car­casses about the walles, and bring him word whether Okelly his mortall foe were slaine among them. Hussee passed forth with one man to turne up and peruse the bodies. All this marked Okelly, who lurking in a bush thereby, being of old time well acquainted with the valiantnes & truth of Hussee, sore longed to traine him from his Captaine, and presuming now upon this opportunity,The wordes of Okelly. disclosed himself & said▪ Hussee, thou seest I am at all points armed, and have my Esquire, a manly man, besides me, thou art thin and thy page a young­ling so that if I loved not thee for thine owne sake, I might betray thee for thy Masters. But come and serve me at my request, & I promise thee by S. Patrickes staffe, to make thee a Lord in Connaght, of more ground, then thy Master hath in Ireland.’ When these wordes waighed him nothing, his owne man (a stout lubber) began to reprove him, for not relenting to so rich a proffer, assured him with an oath, whereupon hee proffered to gage his soule for perfor­mance. Now had Hussee three enemies, and first he tur­ned to his owne knave, and him he slew, next hee raught to [Page 83] Okellyes Squire a great rappe under the pit of his eare, which overthrew him▪ Thirdly he bestirred himselfe so nimbly that ere any helpe could be hoped for, he had also slaine Okelly, and perceiving breath in the Squire, he drawed him up againe, & forced him, upon a truncheon to beare his Lords head into the high towne, which presented to Bermingham, and the cir­cumstances declared, he dubbed Hussee Knight and him ad­vaunced to many preferments, whose family became after­wards Barons of Galtrime. While the Scots were thus mat­ched, Robert de Bruise King of Scots, tooke shore at Cragser­gus, to assist his brother, whose Souldiours committed sacri­ledge and impiety, against Monasteries, Tombes, Altars, Vir­gins, robbed Churches of all their plate and ornaments. They of Vlster, sent to the Lord Iustice pittifull supplication, for aide in this misery, who delivered them the Kings power and standerd, wherewith under pretence to expell the Scots, they raunged through the country with more grievance and vexa­tion to the subjects, then did the strangers. Le Bruise procee­ded and spoyled Cashell, and wheresoever he lighted upon the Butlers lands, those hee burned and destroyed unmerci­fully. By this time had the Lord Iustice,1317. and Thomas Fitz Iohn Earle of Kildare, Richard de Clare, and Arnold de Powere, This is of some called the first Earle of Kil­dare· Baron of Donoile, furnished and armed thirty thousand men ready to set forward. Then came newes that VVilliam de Burgo the Earles brother was taken by the Scots, whereof the Irish of Vlster imboldened with the presence of the Sco­tish Army, and with the late discomfiture which Earle Ri­chard Burcke sustained at Coynes, denyed their alleagiance openly, and conspired in the behalfe of Edward le Bruise, whom they proclaimed King. The Lord Iustice had assem­bled such force against them, under the leading of the Geral­dines and Poweres, that each of them was thought sufficient, by himselfe to winne the field. But suddainely the two Cap­taines, and their adherents squared, so as no good conclusion might be inferred: Roger Mortimer, trusting by their discenti­on to imbeazell a victory,Mortimer· culled out fifteene thousand Soul­diours, and met the Scots at Kenles, where he was shamefully [Page 84] foyled, his men (as folke supposed) willfully forsaking him, and bearing false hearts. Vp start the Irish of Mounster at these newes, the Ocooles, Obrines, and Omores, and wasted with fire and sword from Arkloe to Leix; with them coped the Lord Iustice and made a great slaughter, fourescore of their heads were set upon Divelin Castle.

Edward Bruise raigneth in Vlster.The meane while Edward Bruise raigned in Vlster, held his courts, pronounced his enemies traytors, abandoned the English blood, exhorted the Irish of Leinster to doe the like, whereupon Donald the sonne of Arthur Mac Morrow, Donald sonne of Arthur Mac Murrowe. a slip of the royall family, displayed his banner within two miles of Divelin, but him Traherone tooke prisoner, sent him to the castle of Dublin, whence he escaped, slyding downe from the Turret, by a cord that one Adam Maugle brought him. The said Maugle was drawne and hanged.

1317. Roger Mortimer Lord Iustice pacified the displeasure, be­tweene Richard Earle of Vlster, and the Nobles that had put the said Earle under surety, misdeeming him of certaine riots cōmitted against the kings subjects, wherby the Scots caught strength and courage, whose ravening, caused such horrible scarcity in Vlster, that the Souldiours which in the yeare be­fore abused the Kings authority, to purvey themselves of wanton fare, surfeited with flesh and aquavitae all the Lent long, prolled and pilled insatiably without neede, and with­out regard of poore people, whose onely provision they de­voured:Famine hor­rible. Those (I say) now living in slavery under Le Bruise, starved for hunger, when they had first experienced many la­mentable shifts, as in scratching the dead bodyes out of their graves, in whose skulls they boyled the same flesh, and fed thereof. Mortymer went over to the King indebted to the Ci­tizens of Divelin for his viands, a thousand poundes, where­of he payde not one smulkin, and many a bitter curse carried with him to the sea.

1318. VVilliam Archbishop of Cashell Lord Chancellor was left Lord Warden of Ireland, in whose time Bermingham afore­said being generall of the field, and under him Captains, Tute, Verdon, Tripton, Sutton, Cusacke and Manpas, led forth the Kings [Page 85] power against Edward Bruise, pitching by Dundalke, the Pri­mate of Ardmagh personally accompanying our souldiours, blessing their enterprise, and assoyling them all, ere ever they began to encounter.The Scots van­quished. In this conflict the Scots were vanquish­ed full & whole, 2000. slaine, & Manpas that pressed into the throng to meet with Bruise, was found in the search, dead, co­vering the dead body of Bruise. Thus dissolved the Scottish Kingdome in Ireland, and Bermingham sending his head to the King, received in recompence the Earledome of Lowth, and to his heires for ever the Barony of Ardee, and Athenry.

Alexander Bigmore, Archbishop of Divelin,An. 1320. sued to Pope Iohn the 21. (so I reckon, omitting the scismaticke and dame Ioane) for priviledge of an Vniversitie to bee ordained in Di­velin, which tooke effect,Vniversity at Dublin. and the first three Doctors of Divi­nity the said Bishop did create, VVilliam Hardit a Fryar prea­cher, Henry Coggy a Fryar minor, Fryar Edmund Kermerdin, & one Doctor of the Canon law, VVilliam Rodiard Deane of S. Patricks, Chancellour of the said Vniversity, who kept their termes & commencements solemnely, neither was the same ever disfranchised, but onely through variety of time discon­tinued, and now since the subversion of monasteries, utterly extinct, vvherin the Divines vvere cherished, and open exer­cise maintained. A motion vvas made in this last Parliament to erect it againe, contributions layde together, Sir Henry Sid­ney then Lord Deputy, proffered 20. pound lands, & one hun­dred pounds in money, others follovved after their abilities & devotions, the name devised Master Acworth, Plantolinum of Plantagenet and Bullyne. But vvhile they disputed of a conve­nient place for it, and of other circumstances, they let fall the principall.

Thomas Fitz Iohn, Earle of Kildare, Lord Iustice, to vvhom succeeded Bermingham Earle of Lourh,1321. and to him Sir Iohn Darcy. At this time lived in the Diocesse of Ossorye, the Lady Alice Kettle, vvhom the Bishop ascited to purge the fame of inchaunting and Witch-craft objected to her, and to Petronilla, and Basill her complices.Alice Kettle a Sorceresse. They charged her mightily to have carnall conference vvith a [Page 86] spirit called Robin Artison, to whom shee sacrifized in the high way nine redde Cockes, and nine Peacockes eyes, shee swept the streetes of Kilkenny betweene compleere and twilight, raking all the filth towards the doores of her sonne VVilliam Outlawe, murmuring these wordes, To the house of VVilliam my sonne, hye all the wealth of Kilkenny towne. At the first conviction they abjured and accepted pennance, but were very shortly found in relapse, and then Petronilla was burned at Kilkenny, the other twayne could not be had: shee at the houre of her death, accused the said VVilliam as privy to their sorceryes, whom the Bishop helde in durance nine weekes, forbidding his keepers to eate or drink with him, or to speake with him more then once in the day, by pro­curement of Arnold le Power, then Senischall of Kilkenny hee was delivered, & corrupted the Senischall to vexe the Bishop, which he did, thrusting him into prison for three moneths. In ryfling the closet of Alice, they found a wafer of Sacra­mentall bread, having the devils name stamped thereon, in stead of IESUS, and a pype of oyntment, wherewith shee greased a staffe, whereon shee ambled through thicke and thinne, when and how shee listed. This businesse trou­bled all the Cleargy of Ireland, the rather for that the Lady was supported by Noble men: and lastly, convey­ed into England, since which time no man wotteth what became of her.

CAP. VI. Edward the third, and Richard the second.

13 [...]7. SCarcely vvas this businesse ended, but another devill possessed another franticke gentleman of the nation of the O-tooles in Leinster, named Adam Duffe, Adam Duffe· vvho denyed obstinately the In­carnation of Christ, the Trinity of persons in unity of the God-head, the resurrection of the flesh. Hee called the Holy Scripture, a fable; the blessed Virgin, a vvhore; the See Apostolick, erroneous; for vvhich assertions [Page 87] he was burned in Hogging greene besides Divelin.

Roger Outlaw, Prior of S Iohns of Ierusalem at Kilmainam,1 [...]2 [...]. became Lord Iustice. Great variance arising betvveene the Ge­raldines, Butlers, and Berminghams on the one side, and the Powers and Burkes on the other side, for tearming the Earle of Kildare a Rymer. The Lord Iustice summoned a Parlia­ment to accord them, wherein he himselfe was faine to cleare the slaunder of heresie fathered upon him by Richard Ledred, Bishop of Ossory. The Bishoppe had given a declaration a­gainst Arnold le Power, convented and convict in his consisto­ry of certaine hereticall opinions; but because the beginning of Powers accusations concerned the Iustices kinsman, and the Bishop was mistrusted to prosecute his owne wrong, and the person of the man, rather then the fault, a day was limited for the justifying of the bill, the party being apprehended and re­spited thereunto. This dealing, the Bishop (who durst not stirre out of Kilkenny, to prosecute his accusation) reputed partiall; and when by meanes thereof the matter hanged in suspence, hee infamed the said Prior, as an abbettour and fa­vourer of Arnolds heresie. The Prior submitted himselfe to the tryall, and three severall Proclamations were cryed in Court, that any man might lawfully come in and indict,The Lord Iu­stice cleared of a slander· ac­cuse or say evidence against the Iustice: none came: then pas­sed the Councell a decree, commanding to appeare at Dive­lin, all Bishops, Abbots, Pryors, the Majors of Divelin, Corke, Limericke, Waterford, Droghedah, the Sheriffes, Knights, and Senischalls of every shire. Out of them all they sorted sixe Inquisitours, which in secrecie examined the Bi­shoppes and persons aforesaid one by one, who with universall consent deposed for the Pryor, that to their judge­ments hee was a zealous and faithfull childe of the Ca­tholique Church. The meane while deceased le Power priso­ner in the Castle, and because he stood unpurged, long he laye unburyed.

Sir Iohn Darcye Lord Iustice.

The Irish of Leinster made insurrections,1229. so did Magoghi­gan in Meth, and Obrien in Mounster, whom VVilliam Earle [Page 88] of Vlster, and Iames of Ormond vanquished. In which sturre, VVilliam Bermingham, a warriour incomparable, was found halting, and was condemned to dye by Roger Outlawe, Pryor of Kilmainam,Bermingham hanged. then Lieutenant to the Lord Iu­stice, and so hanged was hee, a Knight among thousands odde and singular. So outragious were the Leinster Irish that in one Church they burned 80. innocent soules, asking no more but the life of their Priest then at Masse, whom they notwithstanding sticked with their savelins, spurned the blessed Sacrament, and wasted all with fire, neither for­ced they the Popes interdiction, nor any censures ecclesia­sticall denounced against them: But maliciously persevered in that fury, till the Citizens of Weixford tamed them, slevv foure hundred in one skirmish, the rest flying, vvere all dren­ched in the vvater of Slane.

1335· Thomas Burgh Treasurer and Lieutenant of Ireland, vvhile Darcy Lord Iustice pursued the murtherers of VVilliam Bourk Earle of Vlster, a young gentleman of tvventy yeares olde, vvhom the seditions of Maundevill murdered besides Crag­fergus. And vvhen hee had scourged those Traytours, he en­tred Scotland vvith an army and might have possessed the Ilands besides, had they bene vvorth the keeping, into vvhich Ilands besides him and Sussex the late Lieutenant of Ireland no Governour ever yet adventured.Darcye and Sussex.

1337.Sir Iohn Carleton Lord Iustice, vvith vvhom came his brother Thomas Bishop of Hereford, Lord Chauncellor, and Iohn Rice Treasurer, and tvvo hundred Welchmen souldiours. The Bi­shop became Lord Iustice,1338. in vvhose time all the Irish of Ire­land vvere at defiance vvith the English, but vvere shortly calmed by the Earles of Kildare and Desmond.

Sir Iohn Darcy by the Kings Letters Patents Lord Iustice of Ireland during life, in the fourteenth yeare of Edward the third, vvhich king abused by some corrupt informers, called in under his signet royall,1340. fraunchises, and liberties, and graunts vvhatsoever his predecessours had ratified to the Realme of Ireland, and to every person thereof. This revoca­tion vvas taken very displeasantly.

[Page 89]The English of birth,The first no­table dissenti­on of the En­glish in Ire­land. and the English of bloud falling to vvords, and divided in factions about it. The Irish laye wayting for the contention, so as the Realme was even upon point to give over all and rebell. For remedy the Iustice began a Parliament at Divelin, whereto the nobles refused to make apparance, & assembled themselves quietly without distur­bance at Kilkenny, where they with the Commons agreed u­pon certaine questions to be demaunded of the King by way of supplication, by which questions they partly signified their griefes: Those in effect were,

1. How a Realme of warre might be governed by one, both unskilfull and unable in all warlike service.

2. How an officer under the king that entred very poore, might in one yeare grow to more excessive wealth, then men of great patrimony in many yeares.

3. How it happened seeing they all were called Lords of their owne, that the Lord of them all was not a penny the ri­cher for them.

The Prince of this repining was Morice Earle of Desmond, whom Vfford the now Lord Iustice in paine of forfeiture of all his lands commaunded to the Parliament at Dublin,1345. and there put him under arrest, delivered him by main prise of the tvvo Earles Vlster & Ormond, & of 28. knights & squiers: All vvhich, except the Earles & tvvo knights, lost their inheritāce by rigour of the said Vfford, because Desmond had escaped.

Therefore at the decease of the Lord Iustice, vvhich ensu­ed the next yeare, Bonfires and gavvdes vvere solemnized in all the Land: his Lady vvas a miserable sott, and led him to extortion and bribery, much he clipped the prerogatives of the Church, and vvas so hated, that even in the sight of the country, he vvas robbed vvithout rescue, by MacCarty, not­vvithstanding he gathered povver, and dispersed the rebelli­ons of Vlster.

Robert Darcy Lord Iustice, chosen by the Councell,1346. untill the Kings charter came to Sir Iohn Fitz Morrice, vvho inlar­ged Fitz Thomas Earle of Kildare, left in holde by Vfford, Fitz Morrice vvas deposed, and Sir VValter Bermingham [Page 90] elected, who procured safe conduct for Desmond to pleade his right before the King, where he was liberally intreated & allowed towards his expences there twenty shillings a day at the Princes charge, in consideration of which curtesie to his kinsman, the Earle of Kildare, accompanyed with diverse Lords, Knights, and chosen horsemen, served the King at Cal­lice, a towne thought impregnable, and returned after the winning thereof in great pompe and jollity.

Iohn Archer of Kilmainam, Lieutenant to the Lord Iustice, to whom succeeded Baron Carew, 1348. Bar. Carew. after Carew followed Sir Thomas Rokesby knight.

1350.This yeare dyed Kemvricke Shereman, sometimes Major of Divelin,Sherman Ma­jor of Divelin. a Benefactour to every Church and religious house twenty miles round about the citty: his legacies to poore and others, besides the liberality shewed in his life time, a­mounted to 3000. marks: with such plenty were our fathers blessed, that cheerefully gave of their true winnings to need­full purposes, whereas our time that gaineth excessively, and whineth at every farthing to be spent on the poore, is yet op­pressed vvith scarcity and beggery.

Sir Robert Sa­vage.The same time dvvelled in Vlster Sir Robert Savage, a vvealthie Knight, vvho the rather to preserve his ovvne, beganne to vvall & fortifie his Mannour houses, vvith castles and pyles against the Irish enemy, exhorting his heire Sir Henry Savage, to intend that Worke so beneficiall for himselfe and his posterity. Father (quoth he) I remem­ber the Proverbe, better a Castle of bones, then of stones, vvhere strength and courage of valiant men are to helpe us. Never vvill I, by the grace of God, cumber my selfe vvith dead vvalls, my fort shall be vvheresoever young blouds be stirring, and vvhere I finde roome to fight. The father in a fume let lye the building, and forsvvore it. But yet the vvant thereof, and such like, hath beene the decaye asvvell of the Savages, as of all the Englishe Gentlemen in Vlster, as the lacke of vvalled townes is also the principall occasion of the rudenesse and wilde­nesse in other partes of Ireland. This Savage having pre­pared [Page 91] an army against the Irish, allowed to every Souldiour before he buckled with the enemy, a mighty draught of A­quavitae, Wine, or old Ale, and killed in provision for their re­turne, beeffes, venison, and foule great plenty, which diverse of his Captains misliked, & considering the successe of warre to be uncertaine, esteemed it better pollicy to poyson the cates or to doe them away, then to cherish a sort of Catives with princely foode: If ought should happen to themselves in this adventure of so few, against so many. Hereat smyled the Gentleman and said: Tush yee are too full of envy, this world is but an Inne whereunto you have no speciall inte­rest, but are onely tennants at the will of the Lord. If it please him to commaund us from it, as it were from our lodging, & to set other good fellowes in our roomes, what hurt shall it be for us to leave them some meate for their suppers, let them hardly winne it, and weare it, If they enter our dwel­lings, good manners would no lesse but to welcome them, with such fare as the country breedeth, and with all my heart much good may it doe them: Notwithstanding I presume so farre upon your noble courage, that verily my minde giveth me, that wee shall returne at night, and banquet our selves with our owne store, and so they did, having slaine 3000. Irishmen.

Morrice Fitz Thomas Earle of Desmond,1356. Lord Iustice du­ring life, whom followed Sir Thomas Rokesbye a knight, sin­cere and upright of conscience, who being controlled for suf­fering himselfe to be served in wooden Cuppes; Answered, these homely Cuppes and dishes pay truely for that they con­taine, I had rather drinke out of wood, and pay gold and sil­ver, then drinke out of gold, and make wooden payment.

Almericus de Sancto Amando, Iames Butler Earle of Ormond,1357. and Morrice Fitz Thomas Earle of Kildare,1359. Iustices of Ireland by turnes. To this last, the Kings letters appointed in yearely fee, for his office 500. pounds,1360. with promise that the said go­vernour should finde twenty great horse to the field, and should bee the tvventieth man in going out against the ene­my, vvhich allovvance and conditions at these dayes, I thinke vvere ordinary.

[Page 92] 1361. Leonell the third sonne of Edward the third Duke of Cla­rence, Leonell Duke of Clarence. and in the right of his wife, Earle of Vlster, Lord Lieute­nant of Ireland. He published an inhibition, to all of Irish birth, that none of them should approach his army, nor be imployed in service of the warres. Obrene he vanquished sud­dainely, but no man wist how, an hundred of his principall Souldiours in garrison were missed, whose dispatch, that se­ditious decree was thought to have procured, wherefore hee advised himselfe and united the people, shewing alike father­ly care towards them all, and ever after prospered, Knights he created these Gentlemen, the worthiest then in Chivalry, and at this day continuing in great worship, Preston, now the house of Gormanstowne, Holywood, Talbot, Cusacke, Delahide, Patricke, Robert and Iohn de Fraxinis. The exchequer he re­moved to Catherlagh, and bestowed in furnishing that towne 500. pounds.

Gerald Fitz Morice Earle of Desmond, Lord Iustice, untill the comming of VVilliam de VVindsore, 1367. 1369. 1377. Lieutenant to the King, then in the last yeare of Edward the third ruling the re­alme, under the name of Lord Governour, and keeper of Ire­land.

¶ At the yeare 1370. all the Notes written by Flatsbury doe end, and from hence to this day, nothing is extant orderly gathered, the rest I have collected out of sundry monuments, authorityes, and pamphlets.

During the raigne of Richard the second, Lieutenants and Iustices of Ireland,Recordes of th'exchequer fought up by M. Iohn Tho­mas remem­brancer. Iohn Stow. Records of excheq. an. 9. Rich. 2. are specially recorded, the two Mortimers, Edmund and Roger Earles of March, Phillip Courtney the kings cousin, Iames Earle of Ormond, and Robert Vere Earle of Ox­ford, Marquesse of Divelin, and Lord Chamberlaine, who was created Duke of Ireland by Parliament, and was credi­ted with the whole Dominion of the Realme by graunt for tearme of life,1385. nothing paying therefore, passing all writs, all offices, as Chancellor, Treasurer, Chiefe Iustice, Admirall, his owne Lieutenant, and other inferiour charges under his own Teste.

1394.The meane while King Richard afflicted impatiently [Page 93] with the decease of Queene Anne his wife, nor able without many teares to behold his pallaces, and chambers of Estate, which represented unto him the solace past, and doubled his sorrow, sought some occasion of businesse and visited Ire­land, where diverse Lords and Princes of Vlster renewed their homage, and he placing Roger Mortimer his Lieutenant, returned quietly, but within foure yeares after, informed of the trayterous death of Mortimer, whom he loved entire­ly, and being wonderfull eager in hastening the revenge thereof upon the Irish, he journeyed thither the second time, levied infinite subsidies of money, by penall exactions, and with his absence as also with those injuries,1399▪ fed the hatred and opportunity of conspiratours at home, for Henry Duke of Lancaster, intercepted the Kingdome, whose sonne with the Duke of Glocesters sonne, King Richard shut up in the Castle of Trim, and then shipped course into England, tooke land at Milford Haven, found his defence so weake and un­sure, that to avoide further inconvenience and perill of him­selfe and his friends, he condiscended to resigne the Crowne.

CAP. VII. The house of Lancaster, Henry the fourth, Henry the fift, Henry the sixt.

ALexander Bishop of Meth, Lieutenant of Ireland, under Thomas Lancaster the Kings brother,1329. Recordes of Exch. so was also the worshipfull Knight Sir Stephen Scroope, whom for his violence and extortion be­fore used, in the same office under King Richard, the common voyce and out-cry of poore people damned.Iames Young in precepts of governement to the Earle of Ormond cap. 5 This report hea­ring the Lady his wife, she would in no wise assent to live in his company there, but if he sware a solemne oath on the Bible, that wittingly he should wrong no Christian creature in the land, that duely and truely he should see payment made for all expences, and hereof, she said, she had made a vow to Christ so deliberately, that unlesse it were on his part firmely [Page 94] promised, she could not without perill of her soule goe with him: her husband assented, and accomplished her boone effe­ctually, recovered a good opinion, schooled his Caters, enrich­ed the country, continued a plentifull house, remissions of great fines, remedyes for persons endamaged to the Prince, pardons of lands and lives he granted so charitably and dis­creetely, that his name was never uttered among them, with­out many blessings and prayers, and so cheerefully they ser­ved him against the Irish, that in one day he spoyled Arthur Mac Murrough, brent his country, restored O-Carrol to the towne of Callane, with-held by VValter Burke, slew a mul­titude of Kerneghes, and quieted Leinster. Not long before, the Major of Divelin Iohn Drake, 1402. with his band out of the Citty, had slaine of the same Irish Outlawes 400.

In this Kings raigne the inhabitants of the county & towne of Corke,Records of Ch [...]ist-Church in Divelin. being tyred with perpetuall oppressions of their Irish borderers, complained themselves in a generall writing, directed to the Lord of Rutheland and Corke, the Kings De­puty, and to the Councell of the Realme, then assembled at Divelin, which Letter because it openeth the decay of those partes, and the state of the Realme in times past, I have thought good to enter here as it was delivered me, by Francis Agard Esquire, one of her Majesties privy Councell in Ire­land.

A letter from Corke coppied out of an old Record bea­ring no date.It may please your wisedomes, to have pittie of us the Kings poore subjects, within the county of Corke, or else we be cast away for ever, for where there was in this countie these Lords by name, besides Knights, Esquiers, Gentlemen, and Yeoman, to a great number, that might dispend yearelie 800. pounds, 600. pounds, 400. pounds, 200. pounds, 100. pounds, 100. markes, 20. pounds, 20. markes, 10. pounds, some more, some lesse, to a great number, besides these Lords fol­lowing.

First the Lord Marquesse Caro his yearely revenues was, besides Dorzey Hauen and other Creekes, 2200. pounds sterling.

The Lord Barnevale of Bearehaven, his yearely revenues [Page 95] was, beside Bearehaven and other Creekes, 1600. pounds sterling.

The Lord Vggan of the great Castle, his yearely revenues was, besides havens and creekes, 1300. pounds sterling.

The Lord Balram of Emforte, his yearely revenues was, besides havens and creekes, 1300. pounds sterling.

The Lord Courcy of Kilbretton his yearely revenues, be­sides havens and creekes, 1500. pounds sterling.

The Lord Mandevil of Barrenstelly his yearely revenues, besides havens and creekes, 1200. pounds sterling.

The Lord Arundell of the strand his yearely revenues, be­sides havens and creekes, 1500. pounds sterling.

The Lord Baron of the Guard his yearely revenues, be­sides havens and creekes, 1100. pounds sterling.

The Lord Sleynie of Baltimore his yearely revenue, be­sides havens and creekes, 800 pounds sterling.

The Lord Roche of Poole-castle his yearely revenue, be­sides havens and creekes, 1000. pounds sterling.

The Kings Majesty hath the Lands of the late young Bar­ry by forfeiture, the yearely revenue whereof, besides two ri­vers and creekes, and all other casualties is, 1800. pounds sterling.

And at the end of this Parliament Your Lordship with the Kings most noble Councell may come to Corke, and call before you all these Lords and other Irish men, and binde them in paine of losse of life, lands and goods, that never any of them doe make warre upon another, without licence or cōmandement of you my Lord Deputy, & the Kings Coun­cell, for the utter destruction of these parts, is that onely cause, and once all the Irish men, and the Kings enemies were dri­ven into a great valley, called Glanehought, betwixt two great mountaines, called Maccorte or the leprous Iland, and their they lived long and many yeares, with their white meat till at the last these English Lords fell at variance among themselves, and then the weakest part tooke certaine Irish men to take his part, and so vanquished his enemy, and thus fell the English Lords at variance among themselves, till the [Page 96] Irish men were stronger then they, and drave them away and now have the whole country under them, but that the Lord Roche, the Lord Courcy, and the Lord Barry onely re­maine, with the least part of their auncestors possessions, and young Barry is there upon the Kings portion, paying his Grace never a penny Rent. Wherefore we the Kings poore subjects, of the Citty of Corke, Kinsale, and Yowghall, desire your Lordship to send hither two good Iustices, to see this matter ordered, and some English Captaines, with twenty English men that may be Captaines over us all, and we will rise with them to redresse these enormities, all at our owne costs. And if you doe not, we be all cast away, and then fare­well Mounster for ever. And if you will not come nor send, we will send over to our Liege Lord, the King, and com­plaine on you all. Thus farre the letter.

And at this day the Citty of Corke is so encumbred with unquiet neighbours of great power, that they are forced to watch their gates continually, to keepe them shut at service times, at meales, from sunne set, to sunne arising; nor suffer any stranger to enter there with his weapon, but to leave the same at a lodge appointed. They walke out for recreation at seasons, with strength of men furnished, they match in wed­locke among themselves, so that welnigh the whole citty is allyed together. It is to be hoped that the late sent over Lord President of Mounster, Sir Iohn Parrot, who hath chosen the same place to abide in, as having greatest neede of a Gover­nour resident, would ease the inhabitants of this feare, and scourge the Irish Outlawes that annoy the whole region of Mounster.

An. 1408. Henry the 4. in the 10. yeare of his raigne, gave the Sword to the Citty of Divelin, which Citty was first governed, as appeareth by their auncient seale,Register of Majors. called, Signum propositurae, by a Provost, and in the 14. yeare of H. the 3. by a Major, & two Bayliffes, which Bayliffes were changed into Sheriffes, by Charter of Edward the 6. an. 1547. This Majorality both for state and charge of that office, and for the bountifull hospita­lity exceedeth any Citty in England, except London. [Page 97] While Henry the 5. reigned,Recordes of Exch. I finde lieutenants and deputyes of Ireland specially remembred, Iohn Talbott of Hollamshire Lord of Furnyvall. Thomas de Lancaster, Senischa of Eng­land, and Stephen le Scroope his Deputy, Iohn Duke of Bedford then also Lord Keeper of England, and the noble Earle of Ormond.

Sir Iames Butler, 1421. whose grandsire was Iames surnamed the chast,The chaste Earle of Or­mond. for that of all vices hee most abhorred the sinne of the flesh, and in subduing of the same gave notable example. In the red Moore of Athye (the sun almost lodged in the West, and miraculously standing still in his epicycle the space of three houres till the feat was accomplished,Iames Yong. and no pit in that bogge annoying either horse or man on his part) he vanqui­shed Omore and his terrible Army with a few of his owne, and with the like number Arthur Mac Murrough, at whose might and puissance, all Leinster trembled.In the transla­tion of Cam­brensis. c. [...]7. To the imitati­on of this mans worthinesse, the compiler of certaine pre­cepts touching the rule of a Common-wealth, exciteth his Lord the said Earle in diverse places of that Worke incident­ly, eftsoones putting him in minde that the Irish beene false by kinde, that it were expedient, and a worke of Charity to execute upon them (willfull and malicious transgres­sours) the Kings Lawes somewhat sharpely,Prec of government. c 27. That O­dempsye being winked at a while, abused that small time of sufferance, to the injury of the Earle of Kildare, in­truding unjustly upon the Castle of Ley, from whence the said Deputy had justly expelled him, and put the Earle in possession thereof,ca. 2 [...]. that notvvithstanding their oathes and pledges, yet they are no longer true then they feele themselves the vveaker.

This Deputye tamed the Obriens, the Burckes, ca. 41. Mac-banons, Ogaghnraghte, Manus Mac Mahowne, all the Captaines of Thomond, and all this in three moneths. The Cleargye of Divelin tvvice every vveeke in so­lemne procession praying for his good successe against these disordered persons, vvhich novv in every quar­ter of Ireland, had degenerated to their olde trade [Page 98] of life, and repyned at the English.

Lieutenants & their deputyes▪ Records of ex [...]h [...]quer.Lieutenants to Henry the sixt over the Realme of Ireland were Edmund Earle of Marche, and Iames Earle of Ormond his Deputy,An. 7. An. 1 [...]. Iohn Sutton Knight, Lord Dudley, and Sir Thomas Strange, his Deputy Sir Thomas Standley, and Sir Christopher Plonket his Deputy Lyon Lord Welles, and the Earle of Or­mond his Deputy, Iames Earle of Ormond, the Kings Lieute­nant by himselfe,An. 20. An. 22. An. 26. Iohn Earle of Shrewesbury, and the Archbi­shop of Divelin, Lord Iustice in his absence.

Richard Plantaginet, Duke of Yorke, father of Edward the fourth,An. 27▪ and Earle of Vlster, had the office of Lieutenant by let­ters Patents,Richard Duke of Yorke. during the space of ten yeares, who deputed un­der him at severall times, the Baron of Delvin, Roland Fitz Eustace knight, Iames Earle of Ormond, and Thomas Fitz Mor­rice Earle of Kildare. To this Richard then resciant in Dive­lin, was borne within the castle there, his second son George, Duke of Clarence, afterwards drowned in a butt of Malm­sey:Records of Christ-church. his god fathers at the font were the Earles of Ormond and Desmond.

Whether the commotion of Iacke Cade an Irish-man borne, naming himselfe Mortimer, and so clayming cousinage to diverse noble houses,1450. Io. Ma. l. 6▪ c. 16 proceeded from this crew, it is uncer­taine: surely the Duke was thereof vehemently mistrusted, & immediatly began his tumults, which because our English histories discourse at large, I omit as impertinent.

Those broyles being couched for a time, Richard held him­selfe in Ireland, being lately by Parliament ordained Prote­ctor of the Realme of England, leaving his agent in the Court his brother the Earle of Salisbury Lord Chauncellour, to whom he declared by letters, the trouble then toward in Ire­land,1458. which letter exemplified by Sir Henry Sidney, Lord De­puty, a great searcher and preserver of Antiquities, as it came to my hands, I thinke it convenient here to set downe.

To the right worshipfull and with all my heart entirely beloved brother, the Earle of Shrewesbury.

RIght worshipfull and with all my heart entirely beloved Brother, I commend mee unto you as heartily as I can.The Letter. And like it you to wit, that sith I wrote last unto the King our soveraigne Lord his Highnes, the Irish enemy, that is to say, Magoghigan, and with him three or foure Irish Cap­taines, associate with a great fellowship of English rebells, notwithstanding, that they were within the King our Sove­raigne Lord his power, of great malice, and against all truth, have maligned against their legiance, and vengeably have brent a great towne of mine inheritance, in Meth, called Ra­more, and other villages thereabouts, and murdered and brent both men, women and children, without mercy. The which enemies be yet assembled in woods and forts, way­ting to doe the hurt and grievance to the Kings subjects that they can thinke or imagine, for which cause I write at this time unto the Kings Highnes, and beseech his good grace for to hasten my payment for this land, according to his letters of vvarrant, novv late directed unto the Treasurer of England, to the intent I may vvage men in sufficient number, for to resist the malice of the same enemyes, and punish them in such vvyse, that other vvhich vvould doe the same, for lacke of resistance in time, may take ex­ample; for doubtlesse, but if my payment bee had in all haste, for to have men of vvarre in defence and safe­guard of this Land, my povver cannot stretch to keepe it in the Kings obeysance. And very necessity vvill com­pell mee to come into England to live there, upon my poore livelode, for I had lever bee dead, then any in­convenience should fall thereunto in my default; for it shall never bee chronicled, nor remaine in scripture, by the grace of God, that Ireland vvas lost by my negli­gence. And therefore I beseech you right vvorshipfull [Page 100] brother, that you will hold to your hands instantly, that my payment may bee had at this time, in eschuing all inconveni­ences, for I have example in other places, more pitty it is for to dread shame, and for to acquite my truth unto the Kings Highnes, as my dutie is. And this I pray and exhort you good brother, to shew unto his good grace, and that you will be so good, that this language may be enacted at this present Par­liament for my excuse in time to come, and that you will bee good to my servant Roger Roe the bearer hereof, and to mine other servants in such things as they shall pursue unto the kings Highnes: And to give full faith and credence unto the report of the said Roger, touching the said maters Right wor­shipfull, and with all my heart entirely beloved brother, our blessed Lord God preserve and keepe you in all honour, pro­sperous estate and felicity, and graunt you right good life and long. Written at Divelin the 15. of Iune.

Your faithfull true brother, Richard Yorke.

Of such power was Magoghigan in those dayes, who as he wan and kept it by the sword, so now he liveth but a meane Captaine, yeelding his winnings to the stronger. This is the misery of lawlesse people, resembling the wydenesse of the rude vvorld, vvherein every man vvas richer or poorer then other, as he vvas in might and violence more or lesse en­abled.

Heere beganne factions of the nobility in Ireland, favou­ring diverse sides that strived for the Crovvne of England, for Richard in those tenne yeares of government, excee­dingly tyed unto him the hearts of the noblemen and gentle­men in this land, vvhereof diverse vvere scattered and slaine vvith him at Waterford, as the contrary part vvas also the next yeare by Edward Earle of Marche,1459. the Dukes brother, at Mortimers crosse in Wales, in vvhich meane time the Irish vvaxed hardye, and usurped the English Countreyes in­sufficiently defended,1460. as they had done by like oportunity [Page 101] in the latter end of Richard the second. These two seasons did set them so a-floate, that henceforwards they could never be cast out from their forcible possessions, holding by plaine wrong all Vlster, and by certaine Irish Tenures, no little por­tions of Mounster and Connaght, left in Meth and Leinster, where the civill subjects of English bloud did ever most pre­vaile.

CAP. VIII. Edward the fourth, and Edward his sonne. Richard the third, & Henry the seventh.Ann Reg 1.

THomas Fitz Morice Earle of Kildare,Ann. D. 1460. Lord Iustice untill the third yeare of Edward the fourth, since which time the Duke of Clarence aforesaid,Duke of Cla­rence Lieute­nant, and his Deputies. 4· bro­ther to the King, had the office of Lieutenant, while he lived, and made his Deputies in sundry courses, Tho­mas Earle of Desmond, Iohn Tiptoft, An. Reg. [...]. An. Reg. 7. An. 10. An. 18. Earle of Worcester the Kings cozen, Thomas Earle of Kildare, Henry Lord Graye. Great was the credit of the Geraldines, ever when the house of Yorke prospered, and likewise the Butlers thryved under the bloud of Lancaster, for which cause the Earle of Desmond remained many yeares Deputy to George Duke of Clarence his god-brother, but when he had spoken certaine disdainfull words against the late marryage of King Edward with the Lady Elizabeth Gray, the said Lady being now Queene, caused his trade of life, (after the Irish manner, contrary to sundry old statutes enacted in that behalfe) to be sifted & ex­amined by Iohn Earle of Worcester his successour. Of which treasons he was attaint and condemned, and for the same be­headed at Droghedah.1467. Iames the father of this Thomas of Desmond, being suffered and not controuled,Patrick Sein [...] ­leger in his col­lections. during the government of Richard Duke of Yorke his godsip: and of Thomas Earle of Kildare his kinsman put upon the Kings subjects within the Countyes of Waterford, Corke, Kerry, [Page 102] and Limericke the Irish impositions of Coyne and Lyverie, Cartings, carriages, loadings, cosherings, bonnaght, and such like, which customes are the very nurse and teat of all Irish enormities, and extort from the poore tennants everlasting Sesse, allowance of meate and money, their bodies and goods in service, so that their horses and their Galloglashes lye still upon the Farmers, eate them out, begger the Coun­trey, foster a sort of idle vagabonds, ready to rebell if their Lord commaund them, ever nusseled in stealth and robbe­ryes. These evill presidents given by the Father, the sonne did exercise being Lord Deputy, to whome the refor­mation of that disorder especially belonged, notwithstan­ding the same fault being winked at in others, and with such rigour avenged in him, it was manifestly taken for a quarrell sought and picked.

1469.Two yeares after, the said Earle of Worcester lost his head, while Henry the 6. taken out of the towre, was set up againe, and King Edward proclaymed Vsurper, and then was Kildare enlarged, whom being likewise at­tainte, they thought also to have ridde, and shortly both the Earles of Kildare and Desmond were restored to their bloud by Parliament.

1470.Sir Rowland Eustace, Knight, sometimes Treasurer, and Lord Chauncellour,Flatsbury. and lastly, Lord Deputye of Ireland, founded Saint Frauncis Abbey besides Kilkullen bridge.

1481. Edward, a yeare before his death, honoured his yonger son Richard the infant, Duke of Yorke, with the title of Lieutenant over this Land. But his unnaturall Vnkle Richard the Third,Edw. 5. Rich 3. when hee had murdered the childe, and the elder brother called Edward the 5. He then preferred to that Office his ovvne sonne Edward, vvhose Deputy was Gerald Earle of Kildare, and bare that office a vvhile in Henry the 7. his dayes. To whom came the vvylie Priest,Henr. 7. Sir Richard Symonds, & pre­sented a lad his scholler, named Lambert, vvhom he fained to be the son of George Duke of Clarence, lately escaped the tovvre of Londō. And the child could his pedegree so readily, [Page 103] and had learned of the Priest such princely behaviour, that he lightly moved the said Earle, and many Nobles of Ireland tendering the Seed Royall of Richard Plantagenet, and George his sonne, as also maligning the advancement of the house of Lancaster, in Henry the seventh, either to thinke or make the world weene, they thought verily this childe to bee Edward Earle of Warwicke, the Duke of Clarences lawfull Sonne.

And although King Henry more then halfe marred their sport, in shewing the right Earle through all the streetes of London, yet the Lady Margaret Dutchesse of Burgoine, sister to Edward the fourth, Iohn de la Poole her Nephew, the Lord Lovel, Sir Thomas Broughton Knight, and diverse other Cap­taines of this conspiracy devised to abuse the colour of this young Earles name, for preferring their purpose, which if it came to good, they agreed to depose Lambert, and to erect the very Earle indeed now prisoner in the towre, for whose quar­rell had they pretended to fight, they deemed it likely hee should have beene made away: Wherefore it was blazed in Ireland, that the King to mocke his subjects, had schooled a Boy to take upon him the Earle of Warwickes name, and had shewed him about London to blinde the eyes of simple folkes, and to defeate the lawfull Inheritour of the good Duke of Clarence, their countryman and Protectour during his life, to whose linage they also derived a title of the Crowne. In all haste they assembled at Divelin, and there in Christ-Church they Crowned this Idoll, honouring him with titles imperiall, feasting and triumphing, rearing migh­ty shoutes and cryes, carrying him from thence, to the Kings Castle upon tall mens shoulders, that he might be seene and noted, as he was surely an honourable Boy to looke upon. Thereupon ensued the Battle of Stoke, wherein Lambert and his Master were taken, but never executed, the Earle of Lin­colne, the Lord Lovel, Martine Swarte, the Almaigne Captaine, and Morice Fitz Thomas Captaine of the Irish, were slaine, and all their power discomfited.

Iasper Duke of Bedford and Earle of Penbroke,1490. Lieute­nant, and VValter Archbishop of Divelin his Deputy. In this [Page 104] time befell another like illusion of Ireland, procured from the Dutchesse aforesaid, and certaine Nobles of England, whereby was exalted as rightfull King of England, and un­doubted Earle of Vlster, the counterfeit Richard Duke of Yorke preserved from King Richards cruelty, as his adhe­rents faced the matter downe, and with this maygame lord, named indeede Peter (in scorne Perkin) VVarbecke, flattered themselves many yeares.

Then was Sir Edward Poynings Knight, sent over Lord Deputy,1494. with commission to apprehend his principall part­ners in Ireland, amongst whom was named Gerald Fitz Ge­rald Earle of Kildare, whose purgation the King (notwith­standing diverse avouching the contrary) did accept. After much adoe Perkin taken, confessed under his owne hand­writing the course of all his proceedings, whereof so much as concerneth Ireland,an. Hen. 7.14. I have heere borrowed out of Halles Chronicles.

Perkins confes­sion.I being borne in Flaunders, in the towne of Turney, put my selfe in service with a Britton, called Pregent Meno, the which brought me with him into Ireland, and when wee were there arrived in the towne of Corke, they of the towne (because I was arrayed with some cloathes of silke of my said Masters) threeped upon me, that I should be the Duke of Clarences sonne, that was before time at Divelin, and foras­much as I denyed it, there was brought unto me the Holy Evangelists and the Crosse, by the Major of the towne, cal­led Iohn Lewellin, and there I tooke my oath that I was not the said Dukes sonne, nor none of his blood. After this came to me an English man whose name was Stephen Poytowe, vvith one Iohn VValter, and svvare to me, that they knevv well that I vvas King Richards Bastard sonne, to whom I an­swered vvith like oathes that I vvas not. And then they ad­vised me not to be affraide, but that I should take it upon me boldly: And if I vvould so doe, they vvould assist me with all their povver, against the King of England, and not onely they, but they vvere assured that the Earles of Desmond and Kil­dare, should doe the same, for they passed not vvhat part they [Page 105] tooke, so they might be avenged upon the King of England. And so against my will they made me to learne English, and taught me what I should doe and say: and after this, they cal­led me Richard Duke of Yorke, second sonne to Edward the fourth, because King Richards Bastard sonne was in the hands of the King of England: And upon this, the said Iohn VValter, and Stephen Poytowe, Iohn Tyler, Hubbert Burgh, with many others, as the foresaid Earles, entred into this false quar­rell, and within short time after the French King sent ambas­sadours into Ireland, whose names were Lyot, Lucas, and Ste­phen Frayn, and thence I went into Fraunce, and from thence into Flanders, and from Flanders againe into Ireland, and from Ireland into Scotland, and so into England.

Thus was Perkins bragge twighted,1499. from a milpost to a pudding pricke, and hanged was he the next yeare after.

Then in the yeare 1501. King Henry made Lieutenant of Ireland, his second sonne Henry as then Duke of Yorke,1501. who afterwards raigned. To him was appointed Deputy,Recordes of Christ-Church the a­foresaid Gerald Earle of Kildare,1504. who accompanied with Iohn Blacke Major of Divelin, warred upon VVilliam de Bur­go, O-Brien, and Mac Nemarra, Occarrol, and the greatest power of Irish men, that had beene seene together since the conquest, under the hill of Knoctoe, in English the hill of Axes, sixe miles from Galway, and two miles from Ballinclare, de Bur­goes mannor towne. Mac VVilliam and his Complices were there taken, his Souldiours that escaped the sword were pur­sued, flying five miles, great slaughter done, and many Cap­taines gotten, not one English man killed. The Earle at his returne was created knight of the Noble Order, and flouri­shed all his life long, of whom I shall bee occasioned to say somewhat in the next Chapter.

CAP. IX. Henry the eight.

1513. From hence­forward I hav [...] followed the relation of the wi [...]est and most ind [...]fferent persons that I could acquaint my selfe withall in Ireland. GErald Fitz Gerald Earle of Kildare a mighty made man, full of honour and courage, who had beene Lord Deputy and Lord Iustice of Ireland thirtie foure yeares, deceased the third of September, and lyeth buri­ed in Christs Church in Divelin. Betweene him and Iames Butler Earle of Ormond, their owne jealousies fed with en­vy and ambition, kindled with certaine lewd factions, abbet­tors of either side: ever since the ninth yeare of Henry the se­venth, when Iames of Ormond with a great army of Irish men, camping in S. Thomas Court at Divelin, seemed to face the countenance and power of the Deputy:Register of Majors. these occasions I say fostered a mallice betwixt them and their posterityes, many yeares after incurable, causes of much ruffle and un­quietnes in the Realme, untill the confusion of the one house, and nonage of the other, discontinued their quarrels, which except their Inheritours have the grace to put up, and to love unfainedly, as Gerald and Thomas doe now, may hap to turne their countryes to little good, and themselves to lesse.

Ormond was nothing inferiour to the other in stomacke, and in reach of pollicy farre beyond him; Kildare was in go­vernement a milde man, to his enemies intractable, to the Irish such a scourge, that rather for despite of him then for fa­vour of any part, they relyed upon the Butlers, came in under his protection, served at his call, performed by starts, as their manner is, the duty of good subjects.

Ormond was secret and drifty, of much moderation in speech, dangerous of every little wrinkle that touched his re­putation. Kildare was open and passionable, in his moode desperate, both of word and deede, of the English welbelo­ved, a good lusticier, a warriour incomparable, towards the Nobles that he favoured not somewhat headlong and unru­lie, being charged before Henry the seventh, for burning the [Page 107] Church at Cashell, and many witnesses prepared to avouch against him, the truth of that article, he suddainely confessed the fact, to the great wondering and detestation of the Coun­cell, when it was looked how he would justifie the matter, By Iesus (quoth he) I would never have done it, had it not beene told me that the Archbishop was within. And be­cause the Archbishop was one of his busiest accusers there present, merrily laught the King at the plainenesse of the man, to see him alleadge that intent for excuse, which most of all did aggravate his fault. The last article against him they con­ceived in these tearmes, finally all Ireland cannot rule this Earle: No (quoth the King) then in good faith shall this Earle rule all Ireland. Thus was the accusation turned to a jest, the Earle returned Lord Deputy, shortly after created Knight of the Garter and so died. Marvell not if this successe were a corrosive to the adverse party, which the longer it held aloofe and bit the bridle, the more eagerly it followed his course, ha­ving once the sway and roome at will, as you may perceive hereafter.

Gerald Fitz Gerald sonne of the aforesaid Earle of Kildare,1516. Gerald Earle of Kildare. and Lord Deputy, who chased the nation of the Tooles, bat­tered Ocarrols Castles, awed all the Irish of the land more & more. A Gentleman valiant and well spoken, yet in his lat­ter time overtaken with vehement suspition of sundry Trea­sons. He of good meaning to unite the families, matched his Sister Margaret Fitz Gerald, with Pierce Butler Earle of Osso­ry, whom he also holpe to recover the Earledome of Or­mond, whereinto after the decease of Iames, a Bastard brother had intruded.

Seven yeares together Kildare kept in credit and authori­ty, notwithstanding the pushes given against him by secret heavers, enviers of his fortune, and nourishers of the old grudge, who fett him up to the Court of England by com­mission, and caused him there to be opposed with diverse in­terrogatories, touching the Earle of Desmond his Cousin, a notorious traytor, as they said. He left in his roome Morice Fitz Thomas Lord Iustice. After whom came over Lord [Page 108] Lieutenant,1521. Thomas Howard Earle of Surrey, Grandfather to this Duke of Norfolke, accompanied with 200. of the Kings guarde. While he sate at Dinner in the Castle of Divelin, hee heard newes that Oneale with a mighty army was even in the mouth of the borders, ready to invade: Immediately men were levyed by the Major, and the next morrow joyning them to his band, the Lieutenant marched as farre as the wa­ter of Slane, where having intelligence of Oneales recoyle, hee dismissed the footemen, and pursued Omore with his horse­men, which Omore was said to lurke within certaine miles. That espied a Gunner of Omore, and watching by a wood side discharged his peece at the very face of the Deputy, strake the visard of his helmet, and pierced no further (as God would.) This did he in manner recklesse what became of himselfe, so he might amaze them for a time, breake the swiftnesse of their following, and advantage the flight of his Captaine, which thing he wanne with the price of his owne blood, for the Souldiours would no further, till they had searched all the corners of that wood, verily suspecting some ambush thereabout, and in severall knots ferretted out this Gunner, whom Fitz VVilliams and Bedlowe of the Roche were faine to mangle and hewe in peeces; because the wretch would never yeeld.

1523.In the meane while defiance proclaimed with Fraunce & Scotland both at once, moved the King to returne Surrey out of Ireland, that he might employ him in those services, his prowesse, integrity, good nature and course of governement, the country much commendeth, and honoureth the name and family to this day.

Pierce Butler Earle of Ossory Lord Deputy, Kildare atten­ding the Kings pleasure for his dispatch, recovered favour at the instance of the Duke of Suffolke whose daughter,15 [...]4. Dame Elizabeth Graye he espoused royally, and so departed home. Now there was a great partaker of all the Deputies Coun­cell, one Robert Talbot of Belgard whom the Geraldines hated deadly, him they surmized to keepe a Kalender of all their doings and to stirre the coales that incensed brother against [Page 109] brother. In which fury, Iames Fitz Gerald meeting the said Gentleman besides Ballimore, slew him even there;Talbot of Bel­gard slaine. jour­neying to keepe his Christmasse with the Deputy. With this despitefull murder both sides brake out into open rage, and especially the Countesse of Ossory, Kildares sister, a rare woman, and able for wisedome to rule a Realme, had not her stomacke over-rul'd her selfe. Heere beganne intimation of new Treasons passing to and fro, with complaints and replyes. But Suffolke had wrought the canvas so fast in his sonne in lawes behalfe, that hee was suffered to rest at home, and onely Commissioners directed thither with Authority to examine the roote of their griefes, where­in if they found Kildare but even tollerably purged, their instructions was to depose the plaintiffe, and to sweare the other Lord Deputy. The Commissioners were, Sir Raphe Egerton, a Cheshire Knight, Anthony Fitzherbert, second Iustice of the Common-pleas, and Iames Denton, Deane of Lichfield, who huddeled up those accusations as they thought good, and suddenly tooke the sword from the Earle of Ossory, sware the Geraldine Lord Deputy, before whom Con Oneale bare the sword that day. Concerning the murtherer whom they might have hanged, they brought him prisoner into England, presented him to Cardinall VVolsey, who vvas said to hate Kildares bloud: And the Cardinall intending his execution vvith more dishonour to the name, caused him to be ledde about London streetes manacled and haltered, vvhich asked so long time, that the Deane of Lichfield stepped to the King, and got the Gentle­man his pardon.

This untimely shift inflamed the Cardinall, and ripened the malice hitherto not so ranke, and therefore hereafter Osso­ry brought evident proofes of the Deputies disorder, that hee vvilfully vvinked at the Earle of Desmond, vvhom hee should have attached by the Kings letters, that he curryed acquaintance and friendship vvith meere Irish enemyes, that he had armed them against him being the Kings Deputy, that he hanged and hevved rashly good subiects, vvhom hee [Page 110] mistrusted to leave to the Butlers friendship. Yet againe therefore was Kildare commaunded to appeare, which he did, leaving in his roome Fitz Gerald of Leixlip, whom they shortly deprived,1527 and chose the Baron of Delvin, whom O-Connor tooke prisoner, and there the Earle of Osso­ry to shew his ability of service, brought to Divelin an army of Irish-men, having Captaines over them Oconnor, Omore and O-Carroll, and at S. Mary Abbey, was chosen Deputie by the Kings Councell.

In which office (being himselfe, save onely in feates of Armes, a simple gentleman) he bare out his honour, and the charge of governement, very worthily, through the singular wisedome of his Countesse,The Countesse of Ossory. a Lady of such port, that all E­states of the Realme couched unto her, so politique, that no­thing was thought substantially debated without her advice, manlike and tall of stature, very rich and bountifull, a bitter enemy, the onely meane at those dayes whereby her Hus­bands Countrey was reclaymed from the sluttish and un­cleane Irish custome to the English habite, bedding, house­keeping, and civility.

But to those vertues vvas yoked such a selfe-liking, and such a Majesty above the tenure of a subiect, that for en­surance thereof shee sticked not to abuse her husbands honour against her brothers follye. Notvvithstanding I learne not that shee practised his undoing, (vvhich ensued, and vvas to her undoubtedly, great heavinesse, as upon vvhom both the blemish thereof, and the sustenance of that vvhole family depended after,) but that shee by indirect meanes vvrought her Brother out of credite to advance her husband, the common voyce, and the thing it selfe speak­eth.

All this vvhile abode the Earle of Kildare at the Court, and vvith much adoe found shift to bee called before the Lords, to ansvvere solemnely. They sate upon him diversely affectioned, and especially the Cardinall, Lord Chauncellour, disliked his cause, comforted his accusers, and enforced the Articles obiected, and vvhat else soever [Page 111] could be gathered thereof in these words.

I wot well, my Lord,The Cardinals accusation against the Earle of Kildare. that I am not the meetest man at this Board to charge you with these treasons, because it hath plea­sed some of your pew-fellowes to report, that I am a profes­sed enemie to all Nobilitie, and namely to the Geraldines, but seeing every curst boy can say asmuch when he is controlled, and seeing these points are so vveightie, that they should not be dissembled of us, and so apparant, that they cannot be de­nyed of you. I must have leave, notwithstanding your stale slaunder, to be the mouth of these honorable persons at this time, and to trumpe your Treasons in your way, howsoever you take me.

First, you remember how the lewde Earle your kinsman,Treasons layde to the Earle. who passeth not whom he serve, might he change his Master, sent his confederates with letters of credence to Frauncis the French King, and having but cold comfort there, to Charles the Emperour, proffering the helpe of Mounster and Con­naght towards the conquest of Ireland, if either of them vvould helpe to vvinne it from our King. Hovv many letters? vvhat precepts? vvhat messages? vvhat threats have been sent you to apprehend him? and yet not done: vvhy so? forsooth I could not catch him: Nay nay, Earle, forsooth you vvould not nighly vvatch him. If he be justly suspected, vvhy are you partiall in so great a charge? If not, vvhy are you fearefull to have him tryed? Yea Sir, it vvil be svvorne & deposed to your face, that for feare of meeting him, you have vvinked, vvilfully shunned his sight, altered your course, vvarned his friends, stopped both eyes and eares against his detectors, and vvhen­soever you tooke upon you to hunt him out, then vvas hee sure before-hand to bee out of your vvalke: surely this juggling and false-play, little became either an honest man, called to such honour, or a Nobleman put in such trust. Had you lost but a Covv, or a Garron of your ovvne, tvvo hundred Kyrneghes vvould have come at your vvhistle, to rescue the prey from the utter­most edge of Vlster: All the Irish in Ireland must have given you the vvay. But in pursuing so vveightie [Page 112] a mater as this, mercifull God, hovv nice, how dangerous, how wayward have you bin? One while he is from home, another while he keepeth home, sometimes fled, sometimes in the borders where you dare not venture: I wish, my Lord, there be shrewde bugges in the borders for the Earle of Kildare to feare: The Earle, nay, the King of Kildare, for when you are disposed, you reigne more like then rule in the Land: where you are malicious, the truest subjects stand for Irish enemies; where you are pleased, the Irish enemie stands for a dutifull subject: hearts and hands, lives and lands are all at your curte­sie, who fawneth not thereon, hee cannot rest within your smell, and your smell is so ranke, that you tracke them out at pleasure.

Whilest the Cardinall was speaking, the Earle chafed and changed colour, & sundry proffers made to answer every sen­tence as it came, at last he broke out, and interrupted him thus.

My Lord Chauncellour, I beseech you pardon me, I am short witted, and you I perceive intend a long tale. If you pro­ceede in this order, halfe my purgation wilbe lost for lacke of carryage: I have no schoole trickes, nor art of memory, except you heare me while I remember your words, your second processe vvill hammer out the former.

The Lords associate, vvho for the most part tenderly lo­ved him, and knevv the Cardinals manner of termes so loth­some, as vvhervvith they vvere tyred many yeares agoe, hum­bly besought his grace to charge him directly vvith particu­lars, and to dvvell in some one matter, till it vvere examined through. That granted.

Kildares reply to the Cardi­nals oration.It is good reason (quoth the Earle) that your Grace beare the mouth of this chamber. But my Lord, those mouthes that put this tale into your mouth, are very vvide mouths, such in­deed as have gaped long for my vvreck, & novv at length for vvant of better stuff, are fain to fill their mouths vvith smoak. What my cousin Desmond hath compassed, as I knovv not, so I beshrevv his naked heart for holding out so long. If hee can bee taken by my agents that presently wayte for him, [Page 113] then have my adversaryes betrayed their malice, and this heape of haynous wordes shall resemble a man of strawe, that seemeth at a blush to carry some proportion, but when it is felt and poysed, discovereth a vanity, serving onely to fray crowes, and I trust your Honours will see the proofe hereof and mine innocencie testified in this behalfe by the thing it selfe within these few dayes. But goe to, sup­pose hee never bee had, what is Kildare to blame for it, more then my good brother of Ossory, who not­withstanding his high promises, having also the Kings power, is glad to take egges for his money, and bring him in at leysure. Cannot the Earle of Desmond shift, but I must be of counsell? cannot hee bee hid, except I winke? If hee bee close, am I his mate? If he be frien­ded, am I a Traytour? This is a doughty kinde of accu­sation, which they urge against mee, vvherein they are stabled and myred at my first denyall; You vvould not see him, say they, vvho made them so familiar vvith mine eye-sight? or vvhen vvas the Earle vvithin my E­quinas? or vvho stood by vvhen I let him slip, or vvhere are the tokens of my vvilfull hood-vvinking? Oh, but you sent him vvord to bevvare of you; Who vvas the messenger? vvhere are the letters? convince my negative: See hovv loosely this idle reason hangeth, Desmond is not ta­ken, vvell, vvee are in fault: vvhy? because you are: vvho proves it? no body. What conjectures? so it seemeth. To vvhom? to your enemies vvho tolde it them? What other ground? none. Will they svveare it? they vvill svveare it. My Lords, then belike they knovv it, if they knovv it, either they have my hand to shevv, or can bring forth the messen­ger, or vvere present at a conference, or privy to Desmond, or some body bevvrayed it to them, or themselves vvere my carryers or vice-gerents therein, vvhich of these parts vvill they choose, I knovv them too vvell to reckon my selfe con­vict by their bare vvords or headlesse heare-sayes, or franticke oathes, my letter vvere soone read, vvere any such vvryting extant, my servaunts and friends are ready to bee sifted. [Page 114] Of my cousin Desmond they may lye lewdly, since no man can heere well tell the contrary. Touching my selfe, I never noted in them either so much wit, or so much faith, that I could have gaged upon their silence the life of a good hound, much lesse mine owne, I doubt not may it please your Ho­nours to oppose them, how they came to knowledge of these matters which they are so ready to depose, but you shall finde their tongues chayned to another mans trencher, and as it were, Knights of the Post, suborned to say, sweare and stare the uttermost they can, as those that passe not what they say, nor with what face they say it, so they say no truth. But of a­nother thing it grieveth me, that your good grace, whom I take to bee wise and sharpe, and who of your owne blessed disposition wish me well, should bee so farre gone in credi­ting those corrupt informers, that abuse the ignorance of their state and countrey to my perill. Little knovv you my Lord, hovv necessary it is not onely for the governour, but also for every Nobleman in Ireland, to hamper his vincible neighbors at discretion, vvherein if they vvayted for processe of Law, and had not these lives and lands you speake of vvithin their reach, they might hap to loose their ovvne lives and lands vvithout Lavv. You heare of a case as it vvere in a dreame, and feele not the smart that vexeth us. In England there is not a meane subject that dare extend his hand to fillip a Peere of the Realme. In Ireland, except the Lord have cunning to his strength, and strength to save his ovvne, and suf­ficient authoritie to racke theeves and varletts vvhen they stirre, hee shall finde them svvarme so fast, that it vvill bee too late to call for Iustice. If you vvill have our service take effect, you must not tye us alvvayes to the Iudiciall proceedings, vvherevvith your Realme, thanked bee God, is inured.

As touching my Kingdome (my Lord) I vvould you and I had exchanged Kingdomes but for one moneth, I vvould trust to gather up more crummes in that space, then tvvice the revenues of my poore Earledome; but you are vvell and vvarme, and so hold you, and upbraide not me [Page 115] with such an odious storme. I sleepe on a cabbin, when you lye soft in your bed of downe, I serve under the cope of hea­ven, when you are served under a Canopy, I drinke water out of a skull, when you drinke wine out of golden Cuppes▪ my courser is trained to the field, when your Iennet is taught to amble, when you are begraced and belorded, and crowched and kneeled unto, then I finde small grace with our Irish borderers, except I cut them off by the knees.

At these girds the Councell would have smiled if they durst, but each man bitt his lippe, and held his countenance, for howsoever some of them inclined to the Butler, they all ha­ted the Cardinall: A man undoubtedly borne to honour,Cardinall Woolsey. I thinke some Princes Bastard, no Butchers sonne, exceeding wise, faire spoken, high minded, full of revenge, vicious of his body, lofty to his enemies, were they never so bigge, to those that accepted and sought his friendship wonderfull courte­ous, a ripe Schooleman, thrall to affections, brought a bed with flattery, insatiable to get, & more princelike in bestow­ing: as appeareth by his two Colledges at Ipswich, and at Oxenford, th'one suppressed with his fall, th'other unfini­shed and yet as it lieth an house of Students (considering all appurtenances) incomparable, through Christendome, whereof Henry the eight is now called Founder, because hee let it stand. He held and enjoyed at once the Bishopricks of Yorke, Durham, and Winchester, the dignities of Lord Car­dinall, Legate, and Chancellour: The Abbey of S. Albans, di­verse Prioryes, sundry fat Benefices in Commendam: A great preferrer of his servants, advauncer of learning, stoute in every quarrell, never happy till his overthrow. Therein he shewed such moderation, and ended so patiently, that the houre of his death did him more honour then all the pompe of life passed.

The Cardinall perceived that Kildare was no Babe, and rose in a fume from the Councell table, committed the Earle, deferred the matter till more direct probations came out of Ireland.

After many meetinges and objections wittily refelled, [Page 116] they pressed him sore with a trayterous errant, sent by his daughter the Lady of Slane, to all his brethren, to Oneale, Ocon­nor, and their adherents, wherein he exhorted them to warre upon the Earle of Ossory then Deputy, which they accompli­shed, making a wretched conspiracy against the English of Ireland, and many a bloody skirmish.

Of this Treason he was found guilty, and reprived in the Towre a long time, the Gentleman betooke himselfe to God and the King, was heartily loved of the Lieutenant, pit­tied in all the Court, and standing in so hard a case altered l [...] ­tle his accustomed hue, comforted other Noblemen, prisoners with him, dissembling his owne sorrow. One night when the Lieutenant and he, for disport were playing at slide-groat, suddainely commeth from the Cardinall a mandat to execute Kildare on the morrow. The Earle marking the Lieutenants deepe sigh, in reading the bill; By Saint Bride, quoth he, there is some mad game in that scrolle, but fall how it will, this throw is for a huddle; when the worst was told him, now I pray thee, quoth he, doe no more but learne assuredly from the Kings owne mouth, whether his Grace be witting there­to or not. Sore doubted the Lieutenant to displease the Car­dinall, yet of very pure devotion to his friend, he posteth to the King at midnight, and said his errant, (for all houres of the day or night, the Lieutenant hath accesse to the Prince upon occasions.) King Henry controwling the sawcynesse of the Priest, those were his tearmes, gave him his Signet in to­ken of countermand, which when the Cardinall had seene, he begun to breake into unseasonable words with the Lieu­tenant, which he was loath to heare, and so he left him fret­ting:1528. 15 [...]0. Thus broke up the storme for a time, and the next yeare VVolsey was cast out of favour, & within few yeares Sir VVil­liam Skevington sent over Deputy, who brought vvith him the Earle pardoned, and rid from all his troubles. Who vvould not thinke but these lessons should have schooled so vvise a man, and vvarned him rather by experience of adversities past, to cure old sores, then for joy of this present fortune, to minde seditious drifts to come. The second yeare of Ske­vingtons [Page 117] governement, there chaunced an uproare among the Merchants and their Apprentices, in Divelin, which hard and scant the Deputy and Major both, could appease. Then was also great stirre about the Kings divorce,1532. who hearing the frowardnes of Ireland under Skevington, and thinking it ex­pedient in so fickle a world to have a sure poste there, made Kildare his Deputy,1533 the Primate of Ardmagh Lord Chancel­lor, and Sir Iames Butler Lord Treasurer. But Kildare revi­ving the old quarrels, fell to prosecute the Earle of Ossory, ex­cited Oneale to invade his country, his Bro [...]her Iohn Fitz Ge­rald to spoyle the country of Vriell and Kilkenny, being him­selfe at the doing of part, namely in robbing the towne, and killing the Kings subjects.1534. The next yeare going against O-Carrol he was pittifull hurt with a Gun in the thigh, so that he never after enjoyed his limmes, nor delivered his wordes in good plight, otherwise like enough to have beene longer forborne, in consideration of his many noble qualities, great good service, and the state of those times. Straight wayes complaints were addressed to the King of these enormities, & that in the most haynous manner could be devised, where­upon he was againe commaunded by sharpe letters to repaire into Englād, & to leave such a substitute,1535. for whose govermēt he would undertake at his perill to answere: He left his heire the Lord Thomas Fitz Gerald, and ere he went, furnished his owne pyles, forts, and castles, with the Kings artillery & mu­nition, taken forth of Divelin. Being examined before the Councell, he staggered in his answere, either for conscience of the fact, or for the infirmity of his late ma [...]me: Wherefore a false muttering flew abroad that his execution was intended. That rumour helped forward Skevingtons friends and ser­vants, who sticked not to write into Ireland secret letters, that the Earle their Masters enemy (so they tooke him, because he got the governement over his head,) was cut shorter, and now they trusted to see their Master againe in his Lordship, whereafter they sore longed as crowes doe for carryon. Such a letter came to the hands of a simple Priest, no perfect En­glish man, who for haste hurled it among other papers in [Page 118] the Chimneyes end of his chamber, meaning to peruse it bet­ter at more leisure: The same very night a Gentleman retai­ning to Lord Thomas (then Lord Deputy under his father) tooke up his lodging, with the Priest, and raught in the mor­ning for some paper to drawe on his straite hosen, and as the devill would he hit upon the letter, bare it away in the heele of his his hose, no earthly thing misdeeming, at night againe he found the paper unfretted, and musing thereof began to pore on the writing, which notified the Earles death. To horsbacke got he in all haste, and spreading about the coun­try these unthrifty tydings, Lord Thomas the Deputy rash and youthfull, immediately confedered himselfe with Oneale, and O-Connor, with his Vnkles and Fathers friends, namely, Iohn, Oliver, Edward Fitz Gerald, Iames and Iohn Delahide, VVelch parson of Loughseudy, Burnel of Balgriffen, Rorcks a pirat of the seas, Bath of Dullardston, Feild of Buske, with others, and their adherents guarded, he rideth on S. Barnabyes day to S. Mary Abbey where the Councell sate, and when they looked he should take his place, and rose to give it him, hee charged them to sit still, and stood before them and then spake.

The words of Lord Thomas.Howsoever injuriously we be handled and forced to de­fend our selves in armes, when neither our service nor our good meaning towards our Princes crowne availeth, yet say not hereafter but in this open hostility, which wee professe heere and proclaime, we have shewed our selves no villaines nor churles, but warriours and Gentlemen. This Sword of estate is yours and not mine, I received it with an oath, and have used it to your benefit, I should offend mine honour, if I turned the same to your annoyance, now have I neede of mine owne sword, which I dare trust, as for this common sword, it flattereth me with a golden scabberd, but hath in it a pestilent edge, already bathed in the Geraldines blood, and whetted it selfe in hope of a destruction: save your selves from us, as from your open enemies. I am none of Henryes Deputy, I am his foe, I have more minde to conquere, then to governe, to meete him in the field, then to serve him in office, If all the hearts of England and Ireland that have cause thereto, vvould [Page 119] joyne in this quarrell (as I trust they will) then should he be a by-word (as I trust he shall) for his heresie, lechery, and ty­ranny, wherein the age to come may skore him among the auncient Princes, of most abhominable and hatefull memo­rie. With that he rendred up the sword, and flang away like a Bedlam, adding to his shamefull Oration many other slande­rous and foule termes, which for regard of the Kings posteri­tie, I have no minde to utter.

They concluded, first to murther all of the English birth in Ireland, and sent an ambassador to Paulus the 3, called Mac Granell, archdeacon of Kelles, and rejected thence to Charles the fift, whose Aunt Queene Katherine the King had lately cast off, with much indignation of all the Spaniards, him hee thought eith to be kindled, and craved assistance to conquer the land, which he promised to hold under him, & his heires for ever. The meane while he forced an oath upon Gentle­men of every shire to ayde him, camped within the pale, rea­red a great army of English, Irish, and Scots, invaded the Earle of Ossory, and Iames his sonne Lord Butler, who having in­telligence thereof, prevented his fury and kept those parts in order.

When the Butlers had stopped his rage in Mounster, he fell to parlyes and treatyes with them, sent them diverse messen­gers and letters, whereby he covenanted to devide with them halfe the Kingdome, would they assist his enterprise, Iames Lord Treasurer, in whom for their youth and acquaintance he most affied, and often accumbred with such temptations, finally returned his brokers with letters.

Taking pen in hand to write you my resolute answere,The letter of Iames Lord Butler, and Lo. Treasurer: to Lord Thomas· I muse in the very first line, by what name to call you, my Lord, or my Cousin, seeing your notorious treason hath di­stayned your honour, and your desperate lewdnes shamed your kindred, your are so liberall in parting stakes with mee, that a man would weene you had no right to the game, so importunate in craving my company, as if you would per­swade me to hang with you for good fellowship. And thinke you that Iames is so mad to gape for gudgens, or so un­gratious [Page 120] to sell his truth for a peece of Ireland, were it so, (as it cannot be) that the Chickens you reckon were both hatch­ed and feathered, yet be thou sure I had rather in this quarrell die thine enemy, then live thy partner: for the kindnes you proffer mee, and good love in the end of your letter, the best way I can I purpose to requite, that is, in advising you though you have fetched your feaze, yet to looke well ere you leape over. Ignorance and error, and a certaine opinion of duty hath carried you unawares to this folly, not yet so ranke, but it may be cured. The King is a vessell of bounty and mercy, your words against his Majesty shall not bee counted malicious, but rather balked out for heat and impotency, except your selfe by heaping offences, discover a mischievous and willfull meaning. Farewell.

Nettled with this round answere, forth he passed to in­crease his power, offered violence to very few, except that one despitous murther at Tartaine, the twenty five of Iuly, where in a morning earely he caused to be brought before him, the honourable Prelate Doctour Allen, Archbishop of Divelin, and Lord Chancellor, who being a reverent perso­nage, feeble for age and sicknesse, kneeling at his feete in his shirte and mantle, bequeathing his soule to God, his body to the Traytors mercy, the wretched young man commaunded there to be brained like an oxe.Doctour Allen Archbishop of Divelin and L. Chancellor murdered. The place is ever since hedged in, overgrowne and unfrequented, in detestation of the fact. The people have observed that all the accessaries thereof, be­ing after pardoned for rebellion, ended miserably. Allen had beene in service with Cardinall VVolsey, of deepe judgement; in the Cannon law, the onely match of Stephen Gardener an­other of VVolseyes Chaplaines, for avoyding of which emu­lation he was preferred in Ireland, rough and rigorous in Iu­stice, hated of the Geraldines for his Masters sake, & his owne, as he that crossed them diverse times, and much troubled both the father and sonne in their governements, nor unlike to have promoted their accusations.

All this while the Kings army was looked for, and no suc­cour came to the rebels, which greatly quayled them, being of [Page 121] themselves, though stored with souldiours, yet unfurni­shed with any sufficient munition to stand in a maine battell. Moreover the number of wise Gentlemen did not greatly in­cline to his purpose. And therefore when he besieged the Ci­ty of Divelin, the most part of those arrowes which were shot over the walles, were unheaded, and little or nothing af­frayed them. That espied the citizens, and gathering the faint­nes of his souldiours thereby, blazed abroad upon the walles triumphant newes, that the Kings Army was arryved, and as it had beene so indeed, suddenly rushed out of their gates up­pon the Rebels, who at the first sight of armed men, weening no lesse but the truth was so, otherwise assured that the Citty would never dare to incounter them, gave ground, forsooke their Captaines, dispersed and scattered into diverse corners, and never after met together.

A little before this time dyed the Earle of Kildare in the towre of London for thought and paine.Iohn Stow. Sir VVilliam Ske­vington (whom the Irish men call the gunner, because hee was preferred from that office of the Kings Master-gunner to governe them, and that they can full evill brooke to be ruled of any that is but meanely borne) brought over an Army, and with him Leonard Gray, a younger sonne to the Mar­quesse Dorset, Lord Marshall. To whom Fitz Gerald yeel­ded, and vvas sent into England, vvhere hee vvith his Vncles, and other principalls of the conspiracy, vvere aftervvards dravvne, hanged and quartered at Tiburne. Soone after vvas the house of the Geraldines attaynted by Parliament, and all of the name busily trayned out for feare of nevv commotions. But Thomas Leurus, Yong Fitz Ge­rald preserved. late Bishop of Kil­dare, schoole-master to a younger brother, Gerald Fitz Gerald, the Earle that novv liveth, secretly stale avvay vvith the childe, first into Scotland, then into France, and misdoubting the French, into Italy, vvhere Cardinall Pole his neere kinsman preserved him, till the raigne of Edward the sixt, vvith vvhom hee entred into high fa­vour, and obtayned of him his olde Inheritance of Mei­nothe.

[Page 122]Lastly, by meanes of the said Cardinall, and Sir Anthony Browne, Lord Mountague, whose sister hee marryed (a wo­man worthy of such a brother) Queene Mary (Founder and restorer of many Noble houses) repealed his attainder, and set him in his fathers Earledome, wherein since that time he hath shewed himselfe sundry wayes officious and service­able towards his Common-wealth, and the Crowne of Eng­land, beside other good qualities of honour and curtesie, they repute him heere for the best horseman in these parts of Chri­stendome. With this escape of yong Fitz Gerald, the Lord Leo­nard Gray his Vncle on the mothers side was held suspect, & the same was one speciall article urged against him when hee lost his head,1542. Anno 1542.

Hall. An. H 8. 32. & 34.Sir VVilliam Skevington, a vvorthy Governour, and among all vertues very just of his vvord, deceased Lord Deputy at Kilmaynam,1537. & the Lord Leonard Gray succeeded him. Oneale and Odonill colourably required a parley vvith the Deputy, but in the vvay as they rode, they burned the Navan, and the tovvne of Ardee. Wherefore the Deputy vvith the helpe of the Maior of Divelin Iames Fitz Symonds, and the Maior of Droghedagh, and the English pale met them, flighted them, slevv 400. of their trayne, and there the Maior of Divelin for notable service in that journey,Sir [...]ames Fitz-Simons Maior of Divelin. vvas knighted.

Sir Anthony Seintleger Knight of the Garter, Lord Deputy. He summoned a Parliament, vvherein the Geraldines vvere attainted,1542. Abbeyes suppressed, the King named supreme head and King of Ireland, because he recognized no longer to hold it of the Pope. At this Parliament appeared Irish Lords Mac Gilpatricke, Lord Barry, Mac Cartimore, O-Brene, and diverse more, vvhom follovved Con Oneale, submitting himselfe to the Kings Deputy, and after to the King himselfe, vvho retur­ned him richly plated,Con Oneale Earle of Ty­rone. created him Earle of Tyrone, his base sonne Matthew Oneale Baron of Donganon. As for Shane O­neale the onely sonne of his body mulier begotten, hee vvas then little esteemed and of no proofe. The same time Iames Earle of Desmond came to the King, and vvas of him both Princely entertained and revvarded.

CAP. X. Edward the 6. Mary, and Elizabeth.

BEfore the decease of Henry the 8. Seintleger was twice in England, leaving at both times Sir VVilliam Brabason Lord Iustice. In his se­cond returne An. 1546. Sir Edward Belling­ham, Captaine generall, landed at Waterford, and skowred the coast, where Omore and Ocomore used to prey.

This yeare the city of Divelin obtained a Charter for two Sheriffes in stead of Bayliffes.154 [...].

The Geraldines Out-lawes were taken and executed, Bellingham appointed Lord Deputye, erected a Mint within the Castle of Divelin, which quickely wearyed them for want of fuell. Andrew Brereton with 300. horse­men, and 40. footemen, inhabited the North as farre as Lecale, where hee with 35. horsemen gave the charge upon 240. Scotts, that from the out Islandes came to succour the Irish, and wasted the Countrey. In one yeare hee cleered those quarters, that the Kings subiects might passe in peace.

Sir Frauncis Bryan the Kings Mynion was left Lord Iustice, vvhile Bellingham repayred into England, vvhere he dyed a man made up by service in the vvarres, by continuall toyle therein diseased and feebled,Sir Edward Bellingham. but of courage a lyon to his dying day, true as steele, as farre from flattery as from hearing flatterers, an exceeding fervent Protestant, very zealous and carefull in tendring the vvealth of Ireland, vvherein the coun­trey giveth him the praise over all his predecessours and suc­cessours vvithin memory, he spent his vvhole allovvance in hospitality, calling the same, his deare Masters meate, none of his ovvne cost. Letters commendatory offered him by the Councell, vvhen Brian had vvrought his trouble before the [Page 124] nobility of England hee rejected as vaine and superfluous, professing, that if of his owne innocencie he could not up­hold him, hee would never seeke other shift, then Credo resurrectionem mortuorum, for (quoth he) well they may kill mee, but they shall never conquer mee. Sowre he was, and thundering in words, indeed very temperate, applyed him­selfe altogether to severity, Lordlinesse, and terrour, Brian dy­ed within sixe weekes, and Brabason became Lord Iustice, till Saintleger the fourth time was sent over Deputye. To him crept Mac Cartye, that had lately roved and de­nyed his obedience, with an halter about his necke, and got his pardon.

Vpon Saintleger came Sir Iames Croftes, of whose bounty and honourable dealing towards them, they yeeld at this day a generall good report. Crofts tarryed in office two yeares, and left Sir Thomas Cusack (who dyed five houres before the writing heereof, and Gerald Ailmer, while they both were coursing Oneale from Dundalke.

Queene Mary.Queene Mary established in her Crowne, committed her government once more to Saintleger, whom sundry Noble­men pelted and lifted at, till they shouldered him quite out of all credite.1553. He to be counted forward and plyable to the taste of King Edward the sixt his raigne,Sir Anthony Seintleger. rymed against the Reall Presence for his pastime, and let the papers fall where Cour­tiers might light thereon, vvho greatly magnified the pith and conveyance of that noble sonnet But the originall of his own hand-vvriting, had the same firmely (though contrary to his ovvne Iudgement) vvandering in so many hands, that his ad­versary caught it, and tripped it in his vvay: the spot vvhereof he could never vvipe out. Thus vvas he removed, a discreete Gentleman, very studious of the State of Ireland, enriched, stout enough, vvithout gall.

While the Deputy staggered uncertaine of continuance, the Tooles, and the Cavenaghes vvaxed cockish in the Coun­tie of Divelin, rangeing in flockes of seven or eight score, on vvhom set forth the Marshall and the Sheriffes of Divelin, Buckley and Gygen, vvith the citties helpe, and over-layde [Page 125] them in sudden skirmishes, of which, threescore were execu­ted for example.

Thomas Earle of Sussex, Lord Deputy,1554. with whom came his Brother in law Sir Henry Sidney, Treasurer. This Deputy,Earle of Sussex. to the inestimable benefite of the Realme, brought under obedience the disordered countreyes of Leix, Slew­marge, Ofalie, Irrye, and Glinmalire, then late possessed by the Oconnore, Omores, Odempsyes, and other Irish rebels. Hee molested Iames Mac Conell the Scottish Islander, that in those dayes joyned with the Irish, and disquieted Vlster. In which voyage Divelin assisted the Governour with a faire compa­ny, conducted by Iohn Vsher, Sheriffe, and Patrick Buckley. He held a Parliament, wherein it was made high Treason to re­taine Scots for souldiours, and fellony to contract with them matrimony.1557. At his returne from England (in which time Sir Henry Sidney vvas Lord Iustice) hee pursued the Scots to their Ilands, and there entred, did them much skathe, vvanne himselfe full great commendation of hardinesse, sayled backe vvith the glory of that adventure, vvherein (I trovv) tvvo more of his matches are not remembred, nor read. With the nevves of Maryes death, hee crossed the seas againe into England, leaving Sir Henry Sidney, Lord Iustice, and yet againe the next yeare leaving Sir VVilliam Fitzwilliams Lord Iustice, then returned he Lord Lieutenant of Ireland,Queene Eliza­beth. by Proclamation reformed and aba­ted their base Coyne, being as yet perfect in all the pro­portions, measures, allayes and values thereof, as by min­tanor, tooke vvith him souldiours out of Divelin, victu­alled for sixe vveekes at that citties charge,1560. under the leading of Petaboghe Sheriffe, and joyning him to his povver, vvent upon Shane Oneale, the Irish enemy of greatest force then living. Thereupon Shane hyed him into England, the Lieutenant after him, Fitz VVilliams Lord Iustice, till Sus­sex sped his businesse, and came backe the next and last time of his departure.Sir Nic. Arnold Sir Nicholas Arnold directed thither vvith Commission, tarryed behinde him Lord Iustice, and too short a vvhile as the country speaketh, vvho testifieth his [Page 126] upright and reasonable provision of household cates, the ab­uses whereof with sesse and souldiours, doe so impove­rish and alienate the needie Farmors from us, that they say they might as easily beare the Irish oppressions of Conies & Cuddies, from which we pretend to deliver them.

Arnold for his better successe in government, linked him­selfe entirely with Gerald Earle of Kildare, who likewise en­deavoured to support the same with all diligence, being au­thorized to straine the rebells at his discretion, wherefore hee disposed himselfe to serve, and presented the Gover­nour many times with a number of principall Out-lawes heades.

The Earle of Sussex.In the meane while Sussex became Lord President of the North of England, a spare man of body, but sound & health­full, brought up with Stephen Gardiner, passing valiant, a deep reacher, very zealous in friendship, quicke in resolution of ex­tremities in the field, wonderfull patient, able to tyre ten soul­diours, learned and languaged, ever doing with his penne, of utterance sharpe and sententious, wary, busie, painefull, and speedie, meeter to rule, then to be over-ruled.

Sir Henry Sidney, Knight of the Garter, Lord Presi­dent of Wales, and Lord Deputie of Ireland. Hee found the Realme distempered vvith Oneales rebellion, and the same did extinguish, vvhereof before I speake, I must looke backe a little into certaine yeares past, and lay together the circumstance of this lamentable tumult.

Of all the Irish Princes, though none vvas then comparable to Oneale for antiquity and noblenesse of bloud, yet had the same endured sundry varieties and vexations, untill the divi­on began in England of the tvvo royall families, Yorke and Lancaster, at vvhich time the English Lords of Ireland, either for zeale, or for kinred and affection transporting their force thither to vphold a side, the meere Irish vvaxed insolent, and chiefly Oneale incroched upon the full possession of Vlster,Oneales rebel­lion. a­biding so uncontrolled, till Shane Oneale fearing the puissance of Henry 8. exhibited to him a voluntary submissiō, surrendred all titles of honour, received at his hands the Earledome of [Page 127] Ter-owen, commonly called Tirone, to be held of the King of English forme and tenure: Armes he gave the bloody hand a terrible cognizance. This Oneale had two sonnes, Matthew a bastard, and Shane legitimate, but because Matthew was a lusty horseman, welbeloved, and a tryed Souldiour, Shane but a Boy, and not of much hope, the father obtained the Barony of Donganon, and the remainder of his Earledome to Mat­thew. When Shane and his foster brethren grew to yeares, they considered of the injury and tyranny, done by policie of the base Oneale, with rearing hue and cry at the side of a Castle where he lay that night, when the Gentleman ran suddainely forth to answere the cry, as the custome is, they betrayed and murdered him. The father not utterly discontent with his dispatch, when he saw the proofe of his lawfull sonne and heire, thenceforward fancied Shane Oneale, put him in trust with all, himselfe being but a Cripple, notwithstanding that Matthew left issue male which liveth, to whom the inheri­tance appertained, yet after his fathers decease, Shane was re­puted for the rightfull Oneale, tooke it, kept it, challenged su­periority over the Irish Lords of Vlster, warred also upon the English part, subdued Oreyly, imprisoned Odonil, his wife, and his sonne, enriched himselfe with all Odonils forts, castles, and plate, by way of ransome, detained pledges of obedience, the wife (whom he carnally abused) and the Childe, fortified a strong Iland in Tyrone, which he named spitefully, Foogh-ni-Gall, that is, the hate of English men, whom he so detested, that he hanged a Souldiour for eating English bisket, another by the feete mistrusted for a spy, another Captaine of the Gal­loglaghes he slew with torture. After this usurpation and ty­ranny, hee was yet perswaded by Melchior Husse sent unto him from Gerald Earle of Kildare, to reconcile himselfe to good order, and to remember the honourable estate where­in King Henry placed his father, which monition he accep­ted, besought his protection, and made a voyage into Eng­land, where the Courtiers noteing his haughtines and barba­rity devised his stile thus. Oneale the great, Cousin to S. Pa­tricke, friend to the Queene of England, enemy to all the [Page 128] world besides. Thence he sped home againe, gratiously dealt with, used Civility, expelled the Scots out of all Vlster, where they intended a conquest, wounded and tooke prisoner, Cap­taine Iames Mac Conill their Chieftaine, whereof the said Iames deceased: ordered the North so properly, that if any subject could approve the losse of money or goods within his pre­cinct, he would assuredly either force the robber to restituti­on, or of his owne cost redeeme the harme to the loosers con­tentation. Sitting at meate, before he put one morsell into his mouth, he used to slice a portion above the dayly almes, and send it namely to some begger at his gate, saying, it was meete to serve Christ first: But the Lords of Vlster, and elsewhere, whom he yoked and spoiled at pleasure, abhorring his pride and extortion, craved assistance of the Deputy, for redresse thereof: Oneale advertised, increaseth his rage, disturbeth and driveth out Mac Gwire, the plantiffe, burneth the Metropoli­tane Church of Ardmagh, because no English army might lodge therein, for which sacriledge the Primate accursed him, besiegeth Dundalke, practiseth to call strangers into the land for ayde, as appeareth by those letters which Sir Henry Sidney Lord Deputy intercepted, occupieth all the North of Ireland, being 100. myles broad, 120. long. Then addressed he plau­sible letters to the Potentates of Mounster, exhorting them to rebell, that the force of England at once might bee dismem­bred. This message the Deputy prevented, stayed the country, abridged him of that hope, and then proclaimed him Tray­tor. An Irish Iester standing by, and hearing Oneale denoun­ced with addition of a new name, traytor: Except (quoth he) traytor be a more honourable title then Oneale, he shall never take it upon him, by my consent.

While the Deputy was absent in England, the towne of Droghedagh was in hazard to be taken by the Rebels, which to preserve,1566. at the motion of the Lady Sidney, then abiding in Droghedagh, came Master Sarsfield then Major of Divelin, with a chosen band of goodly young men Citizens, and brake the rage of the enemies. The Deputy returning made him Knight, and finding it now high time utterly to weede [Page 129] and roote out the Traytor, he furnished a substantiall army, and with the readines thereof hartened the Irish, whom O­neale had impoverished, cut off his adherents, and all accesse of succour, chased him and his into corners, spent him, cast him into such despaire, that he consulted with his Secretary Neale Mac Connor, Oneale van­quished. to present himselfe unknowne and dis­guised to the Deputy, with an halter about his necke, begging his pardon. Ere you doe so (quoth his Clarke) let us prove an extreame shift, and there he perswaded him to joyne with the Scots, whom he had lately banished: of whom, should he be refused or finde inconvenience, at any time, submission to the Deputy might then be used, when all faileth. Shane knew himselfe odious to the Scots, especially to them whom he thought to lincke with the brother and kindred of Iames Mac Conill, Mac Conil the Islander. yet in those hard oddes hee devised rather to assay their friendship, then to grate upon mercy, which so oft and so intollerably he had abused.

Mac Conill whom Shane overthrew left two brethren, and a Sister, whereof one Suarly Torwy remained with Oneale, en­tertayned after his brothers death. The other was Alexander Oge, who with 600. Scots incamped now in Clanebov. The woman was Agnes Ilye, whose husband Shane slew in the said discomfiture, Agnes had a sonne Mac Gillye Aspucke, who betrayed Oneale to avenge his Fathers and Vncles quarrell. At the first meeting, (for thither he came accompanied with Torwy and his Secretary, and 50. horsemen) the Captaines made him great cheere, and fell to quaffing, but Aspucke min­ding to enter into his purpose, there openly challenged his Secretary, as the Author of a dishonourable report, that Mac Conils wife did offer to forsake her country and friends, and to marry with Shane Oneale her husbands destruction; Mary (quoth the Secretary) if thine Aunt were Queen of Scotland, it might beseeme her full well, to seeke such a marriage. To this brawle Oneale gave eare, upheld his man, advaunced his owne degree: The comparison bred a fray betweene their Souldiours; Out sprang Aspucke, and beat Oneales man, and then suddainely brought his band upon them in the tent, [Page 130] where the Souldiours with their slaughter-knives, killed the Secretary and Shane Oneale, Oneale mur­dered. mangled him cruelly, lapped him in an old Irish shirte, and tumbled him into a pit, within an old Chappell hard by whose head foure dayes after, Captaine Pierce cut off and met therewith the Deputy, who sent it be­fore him staked on a pole, to the Castle of Divelin, where it now standeth. It is thought that Tirlagh who now usurpeth the name of Oneale, practised this devise with Agnes, Alexan­der, and Torwy, when he perceived Shane discouraged, and not able to hold out.

Thus the wretched man ended, who might have lived like a Prince, had he not quenched the sparkes of grace that appeared in him, with arrogancy and contempt against his Prince.

The Butlers rebellion.The next Tumult in Ireland proceeded of the folly, especi­ally of Sir Edmund Butler, Pierce and Edward his Brethren, who being unable in law, to maintaine his title to certaine landes, whereof he held possession, whereunto Sir Peter Ca­rew laide very direct and manifest claime, (for Carew is an an­cient Barons house in Ireland) confedered with Iames Fitz Morice of the south, and others, began commotion, more dan­gerous to the Realme then the late stirre of Oneale, such was their opportunity of place, the rebels so friended, their num­ber so furnished, that the Deputy passing forth against them in haste, requisite with such shift as the suddaine mischiefe asked, was thought to have put his person in great adven­ture, but in conclusion he wanne by that journey, great mar­tiall honour, started them from hole to hole, and ransackt e­very veine of the land, so as the Butlers craving protection, shortly recoyled, and stand now at the Queenes mercy. To appease the country, & reforme the lewdnes of his Brethren, Thomas Earle of Ormond came from the Court of England home, and in quieting the said broyles, shewed also for his part, a right good peece of service, worthy to be remembred. After this ensued a Parliament, the particulars whereof, are expressed in the acts lately drawne, to be published in Print, somewhat before the last session, a seditious libell intituled, [Page 131] Tom Troth, (let fall in the streetes of Divelin) nipped by name diverse honourable and worshipfull of the Realme, & certaine officers of the Deputyes houshold, for greeving the land with impositions of Cesse, whereupon followed a pro­clamation, bearing date the twenty eight of Ianuary, which if it may bee executed in all points, would cut off many such murmures, and leave a blessed memory of the Governour that devised it.12. Decembris 1570. The day of prorogation when the Knights and Burgesses of the Cominalty resorted to the Lordes of the upper house, much good matter was there uttered betweene the Deputy and the Speaker, whereof comming home to my lodging I tooke notes, and here I will deliver them, as neere as I can call them to minde, in the same words and sentences, that I heard them. First the Speaker Iames Stanihurst an Es­quire of worship, Recorder of Divelin, and for the Citty Bur­gesse at that present, began thus.

Rather of custome and dutyfull humility,The oration of James Stani­hurst Speaker of the Parlia­ment. then for doubt of your honourable disposition, (so well knowne to us all, and to every of us in private, that it little needeth my praise) we are to request your Lordship in the behalfe of our selves, and our countryes, whom we represent in this Parliament, to accept our service and endeavour in driving these conclusi­ons, where by to the uttermost of our skill we have intended without injury, the Crowne to enrich, treasons to chastise, to better the state, traffique to further, learning to cherish, and in briefe, to maintaine with our best advice those benefits, which the Prince hath inferred upon this Realme by you, and you with your sword and wisedome have performed. An ordinary suite it is, in the end of such assemblies to crave exe­cutions of law, for it sufficeth not, to keepe a statute tanquam inclusum in tabulis, as a thing shut up in parchment rolles, but law must speake and walke abroad, to the comfort and be­hoofe of good subjects: Otherwise, vve shall resemble the folly of him, that once in every houre saluted his gold, never using it, but onely bad it lye still and couch. Of the necessity thereof, I cannot say so much as your Lordship conceiveth, [Page 132] and I desire not to discourse a matter generally felt and con­fessed. In particular the zeale which I have to the reformati­on of this Realme, and to breede in the rudest of our people, resolute English hearts, moveth me to pray your Lordships helping hand for the practise, namely of one statute which is for the erecting of Grammer Schooles, within every diocesse, the stipends to be levied in such proportion, as in the late act hath beene devised, whereunto the royall assent is already granted, and yet the point in no forwardnes, nor in none is like to be, except by some good meanes, the onset be given & freshly followed, surely might one generation sippe a little of this liquor, and so bee induced to long for more, both our country men that live obeysant, would ensue with a courage the fruites of peace, whereby good learning is supported, and our unquiet neighbours would finde such sweetenesse in the taste thereof, as it should bee a ready way to reclaime them. In mine experience, who have not yet seene much more then forty yeares, I am able to say that our Realme is at this day an halfe deale more civill then it was, since noble men and wor­shipfull, with others of ability, have used to send their sonnes into England to the Law, to Vniversities, or to Schooles. Now when the same Schooles shall bee brought home to their doores, that all that will may repaire unto them, I doubt not, considering the numbers brought up beyond the Seas, and the good already done in those few places, where lear­ning is professed, but this addition discreetly made, will fo­ster a young frye, likely to prove good members of this com­mon wealth, and desirous to traine their children the same way. Neither were it a small helpe to the assurance of the Crowne of England, when Babes from their Craddles should be inured under learned Schoole-masters, with a pure English tongue, habite, fashion, discipline; and in time utterly forget the affinity of their unbroken borderers, who possibly might be wonne by this example, or at the least wise loose the opportunity, which novv they have, to infect others▪ And seeing our hap is not yet, to plant an Vniversity here at home, which attempt can never bee remembred without many [Page 133] thankes to your good Lordship for your bountifull offer, me seemeth it is the more expedient to enter so farre forth as our commission reacheth, and to hope for the rest: I have said e­nough, especially to a learned governour, to whom an inck­ling were sufficient in such a plausible and needfull motion. It resteth that wee pray your Lordship to folde up whatsoe­ver squarings or diversities of Iudgements, wise men have heere uttered in our often meetings, and by the sequele of all our doings to measure the good meaning of every severall person.

When the Speaker had done, the Deputy having a rich and plentifull kinde of utterance, meere naturall, but not without judgement, answered at length, as he that knew no end of his good, the points whereof, as I can remember, were these.

In good faith, M. Speaker, I cannot lesse doe, but recorde and testifie the readines, travaile and good service of you all,The Lord De­puties answer. and namely of your selfe, who in the whole course of this Parliament, & now lastly in this charitable request for tray­ning your youth, have confirmed the opinion which my selfe and the generall voyce long since retained of your rare ver­tues, devotion, wisedome, learning, and modestie, so as the case cannot be misdoubted that is preferred by such a Pro­ctor, the substance whereof toucheth you my Lords spirituall and temporall, & you the knights and worshipfull of every Shire, to you belongeth the quickening of this godly statute, which heere againe I recommend unto you, & will not let to enquire after your diligence therein from time to time, & the most effectuall order that may be for this purpose, shall assu­redly be taken in place convenient. Shew your selves forvvard and franke in advancing the honour, wealth, ease and credit of your countryes, envy not to your posterity the same path that your selves have troden, and namely you that flourish at this day in the light & eye of your cōmon-wealth. Had your opi­nions matched with mine, concerning the Vniversity which M. Speaker remembreth, no doubt the name and reputation thereof would have bin a spurre to these erections, as nurses [Page 134] for babes to suck in, till they might repaire thither to be wai­ned: But I trust your consents therein are only suspended for a time, and that so much good labour shall not be utterly lost and frustrate: What though certaine imperfections cannot as yet be salved? What though the summe arise not to make a muster of Colledges at the first day? What though the place be not also commodious? What though other circumstances inferre a feeble and rawe foundation? These are indeede ob­jections of the multitude, whose backewardnesse bree­deth an unnecessary stoppe in this our purpose. But your wisedomes can easily consider that time must ripen a weake beginning, that other Vniversities began with lesse, that all experience telleth us so, shall wee be so curi­ous or so testy that nothing will please us, but all in all, all absolute, all excellent, all furnished, all beautified, all forti­fied in the prime and infancie thereof. I remember a tale of Apuleius asse, who being indifferently placed betweene two bottles of haye, because he could not reach them both at once, forbare them both. Let us not so doe, but content our selves by little and little to bee fedde as the case requireth. The rest of your Bills debated and passed by your wise­domes in this Parliament, I must confesse, they are as you say, beneficiall to the Queene my Mistris, and to her Crowne, but how? Verily as the Husband-man soweth his seede, and reapeth much more then he layde downe, so whatsoever this benefite amounteth unto, it returneth to your selves in a circle, heere it groweth, heere it is eaten, heere it multiplyeth, heere it is spent, they have their due, the Prince is bettered, you are qui­eted, Iustice executed, malefactours terrifyed. Were they never so deare collopps of your owne flesh and bloud, I see not how you could either have coloured their offence, or qualifyed their punishment, the one so no­torious, that it cannot be dissembled, the other so ordinary, that course of law prescribeth it. Therefore as you have well done, so you have done but your duties, allowed an inch to receive an ell, abridged your owne foes, avenged your own [Page 135] Injuryes, condemned your owne oppressors. And yet this du­ty being on your parts, so cheerefully and painfully, so loving­ly and advisedly performed, deserveth great thankes, and shall finde it too, If I bee the man, either in office able to consider you, or out of office in place to friend you. I am to depart in­to England shortly, lay your heads together, and article the points, whereby this Realme may be furthered, use mee ei­ther as a mouth to speake for you, or an eye to direct you, or as a hand to under-prop you, aut consilio, aut auxilio. Besides, the generall care vvhich I ought to have for you all, as your governour, and yoked together under one obedience, English blouds, and English hearts, I am linked to you as to my conti­nuall acquaintance these many yeares, hither I came in my spring, heere I have spent my summer, I returne in the fall of the leafe, now is the time, intimate your defects in demaunds, or what else soever may content you, and see whether I will tender your common-wealth. I meane not the pretended common-wealth, seditiously promoted in Tom Loodles ryme, but some good and substantiall matter worth the hearing, which upright and equall men will indeede e­steeme. As for his complaint of Cesse and Imposition, it savoureth either hatefull malice, or childish folly, malice if he would decay the garrison that preserveth the Realme, folly if he thinke the Realme can be preserved vvithout a gar­rison, vvherin I will shew you my fancie by the vvay, perhaps out of all order, but I pray beare vvith mee, I take matters as they come next to hand, I can not skill of vvritten tales. Many a good-fellovv talkes of Robin Hoode, that never drevv in his Bovv, and many an idle head is full of Proclamations, and conceiveth certaine farre fetches, able in his vveening to vvield a Realme. But let me see vvhich of them all can justi­fie, that Ireland may spare the Army they kicke so much a­gainst. Are your enemyes more tractable then they have beene? Are they fevver? Are you by your selves of force to match them? If you bee, then vvere England starke madde, to disburse tvventie or thirtie thousand pounds a yeare, for none other purpose but to vexe and grieve you: [Page 136] that were like the husband who gelded himselfe to anger his wife. You must not thinke wee love you so evill, nay rather thinke truely wee tender your quietnesse and preser­vation, as a nation derived from our auncestours, ingraffed and incorporate into one body with us, disturbed with a sort of barbarous people, odious to God and man, that lappe your bloud as greedily as ours. The abuse of souldiours, their horse, boyes, and harlots, the Legerdemaine of Cap­taines, chequerelles, the purloyning of Cessors & Constables, the number of freedomes holding onely by concordatum, the annoyance and hurt which the poore farmer endureth, as I know them to be intollerable, so I know them to be redres­sed with the first detection, whose complaint hath not been heard? whose enormity vvinked at? what can you aske more? would you have souldiours nothing insolent, nothing sensu­all, nothing greedy, no quarrellers? so wish I, but scarce hope for it, vvould you hazard a misery certaine, extreame, and in­curable, to avoyde a trouble casuall, transitory, and remedi­lesse? so vvould not I, if you can prove a garrison needlesse, I undertake to ease you thereof, If you neede it, they must bee fedde, finde another vvay then this, to provide for them vi­ctuall, that carryeth asmuch readinesse to service, and more contentation to your selves, and I assure you mine assistance to set it forvvard. But the Brokers of this libell are vvont to reason, Why should not vvee live vvithout an Army as vvell as in England? Why cannot our Noble-men of might in every border, our tenants and servaunts vvith­stand the Irish next them, as vvell as the Northerne Lordes and Inhabitants of Riddesdale and Tiddesdale, and those about the Scottish banke resist the Scotts, fa­cing and pilfering as fast as our enemyes. Very good, vvhat saye they then to Fraunce, vvhich is no vvor­ser governed then England, and hath an Armye. Ita­ly notvvithstanding as vvell ordered as Fraunce vvith­out an Army? Spaine asvvell as either of them both, and continually keepes an Armye? I tell you, these are daungerous and hollovve kindes of Arguments, [Page 137] which are deduced ab exemplo, by example of other Realmes. Many subtile diversities, many varieties of circumstance, many exceptions alter the case, and make it utterly desperate. Touching Scotland it is well knowne, they were never the men whom England neede to feare: They are but a corner cut out, and easily tamed when they waxe outragious. Your foes lie in the bosome of your Countryes; more in number, richer of ground, desperate theeves, ever at an inch, unpossible to be severed from you without any fence, beside your owne valiantnes, and the helpe of our Souldiours. England is quiet within it selfe, thoroughly peopled on that side of Scotland, which most requireth it, guarded with an army, otherwise the Lords and Gentlemen, and lusty Yeoman, that dwell on a row are ready to maister their private vagaries. From all forraine invasions walled with the wide Ocean. Were there such a Sea betwixt you and the Irish, or were they shut up in an odde end of the land, or had they no such opportunityes of bogges and woods as they have, or were they Lords of the lesser part of Ireland, or were they severed into handfuls, not able to annoy whole towneships and Baronies as they doe, the comparison were somewhat like, but alacke it fareth not so with you, you are beset round, your townes be feeble, the land empty, the commons bare, every county by it selfe cannot save it selfe. Take away the terrour and feare of our Bande, which increaseth your strength, many an Irish Lord would be set agog that novv is full lovvly, and holdeth in his hornes, and the open enemy vvould scovvre your quarters that novv dares not venture lest he pay for his passage. Consi­der me the effect of an Army vvrought in these fevv yeares, for doubt vvhereof you are nothing so oft nor so lamentably pelted at, as your auncestors vvere, vvhich of them durst be stored vvith coyne, knovving the rebells teeth vvatered there­at, and himselfe not able to hold him out? vvhich of them had leisure to build, to lye soft and vvarme, to take his ease in his ovvne home? vvhich of them vvere plated, or jevvelled, or attyred themselves, their vivves and children sumptuously, after their calling as you doe now? If your bagges bee full [Page 138] vvhere theirs were lancke, if you dwell neatly where they dwelled homely, if you sleep on featherbeds where they slept on couches, if you be sumptuous where they vvere skant, you have the more cause to honour that Scepter, that so directeth you, and to love the warrant that procureth you this quietnes, the mother of all your wealth and prosperity.

Therefore to conclude where I began, weigh well the sicke and wounded parts of your common wealth, cure the roote, regard the foundation, the principall pillars, the sum­mer posts, the stone walles, as for the roofe and the tyles, if yee repaire them onely, and suffer the ground worke to perish, a tempest of weather, a flovve will shake your building. Of some such good and substantiall reformation I would ad­vise you friendly to consult, and you shall finde me as willing to preferre the generall welfare of you all, as I have beene de­sirous to benefit every singular person of you, that hath in any lawfull suite attempted me.

¶ These last words gave Sidney to the Realme, as it were for a farewell, and thenceforvvards looked for Sir VVilliam Fitz VVilliams his brother in law, a politicke and stout gentleman, now Lord Iustice, and for Sir Iohn Perrot Lord president of Mounster, to be settled there, before his departure. He was ho­nored at the point of his going, with such recourse, pompe, musicke, shewes & enterludes, as no man remēbreth the like. He tooke ship towards England at the key of Divelin, in Lent follovving,Sir Henry Sid­ney, Lord Deputy faileth into England. 25. Mar. 1571. accōpanied to sea with the Estates & Worshipfull of Ireland, vvith innumerable harty prayers, & vvith that vvish of his returne, vvhereof but fevv Governours in these last 60. yeares, have held possession. The man vvas surely much loved of them, from his first office of Treasurer in the 2. yeare of Queen Mary, stately vvithout disdaine, familiar vvithout con­tempt, very continent & chast of body, no more then enough liberall, learned in many languages, & a great lover of learning perfect in blazoning of armes, skilfull of antiquities, of vvit fresh and lively, in consultations very Temperate, in utterance happy, vvhich his experience and vvisedome hath made arti­ficiall, a preferrer of many, a father to his servants, both in warre and peace of commendable courage.


Faults escaped.

PAge 2. line 19. countie· p. 6. l. 24. Inchequin. l. 26. de Burgo. l. 28. Vlick. 29. Thomond. & 34. Clancar. p. 7. l. [...]7. Killeene. l. 32. Donsany. & 35. Beare-haven. p. 8. l. 4. Brune. l. 19. Doceter or D'exeter. l. 22. Inchequin. & l. 29. Thomastowne. p. 12. l. 12. Hiberus▪ p. 21. in the [...]argons for Dom▪ reade, mundi. p. 22. l. 17. monarchy. p. 30. l. 25. after purpose, reade, our. p. 38. l. 36. for Mounster r. Vlster. p. 46. l. 33. after Clerke, adde, astonished. p. 61. l. 12. extreame­ly. p. 65. l 7. coadiutors. l. 30. Alde [...]m. p. 77. l. 13. after Knight, adde, 10. p. 82. l. 15. Birminghame [...]. p. 84. l. 2. for Moun­ster r. Leinster. l. 3. O-Tooles, O-Birnes, l. 37. Maupas. p. 85. l. 11. Bignore. p. 87. in the margent, 1329. p. 90. l. 9. after Arch [...]r, adde, Prior. l. 12. Kenwrick. p. 93. in marg. l. 2. 1399. p. 96. l. 32. prapofit [...]a. p. 101. l. 5. least. p. 105. l. 21. crosse out the first and. p. 118. l. 15. Rowks. p. 123. l. 8. O Connor, p. 136. l. 9. cheque▪ rolles. The lesser faults are as easily a­mended as found out by the Reader.


THree hundred yeeres after the flood,Bartholanus in Ireland. one Bartho­lanus the sonne of Sera, with his three sonnes, Languinus, Salanus, and Ruthurugus, and their wives of the posterity of Iaphet, are said to have arrived in this Island. This opinion followeth Giraldus Cambrensis, and him followeth Poly­chronicon; and my selfe, not meaning to swarve from the common opinion, thought good to acquaint the posterity therewith. With this Bartholanus, as their Captaine, came many of that line, and multiplied exceedingly for the space of 300 yeeres, to the number of 9000 fighting men. Little is remembred of Barthola­nus, saving that with many hands he rid and made plaine a great part of the Country, making paces thorow woods and thickets; and that his sonnes left doubtfull remembrances of their names; the first to Languinus Poole, the second to mount Salanga (since named Saint Dominicks hill) and the third to Ruthurugus his Poole.

At the same time, according to the common saying, Where God [Page 2] hath his Church, the Devill hath his Chappell, many of the cursed seed of Cham arrived also in this Island,Oceanus inva­deth Ireland. with their Captaine Oceanus, the sonne of Cham, called of some Mena, of Moses, Mitzraim. First he was in the yeere of the world 1802, the second Commander of Ae­gypt, planted Colonies along the river Nilus, and after hee had reigned there 7 yeeres, he endevoured by navigation to subdue unto his Empire many parts of the world. Thus waxing strong and mighty upon the seas, hee prevailed much, and travelled farre; hee came to these North parts of the world, landed many of his followers, and in remembrance of his voyage, left his name upon the seas which wash these lands, which of him is yet called the Ocean sea.

After his departure hence his cursed line multiplied not so much in number as in all mischiefe and rebellion, they set up a King of their owne, they opposed themselves against the posterity of Iaphet; they were great in strength, and huge of stature, and attempted great mat­ters after the example of Cham or Zoroastres the Magician, and Nim­rod grandfather to Ninus: they repined at the blessings bestowed up­on Sem a [...]d Iaphet, thinking it necessary to withstand and prevent all lawfull rule and dominion, lest the curse of slavery prophecied by Noah should light upon them, as at length it did. Many bickerings and skirmishes were amongst them, the successe was variable on both sides, betweene the lawfull governours and these usurpers, so much to the griefe of them that coveted to live in peace under their rightfull Princes, that they determined with the chance of one generall battell either wholly to subdue those rebellious miscreants and tyrannous Gi­ants, or else to end their lives in freedome, and so to be rid of farther misery. They assemble together, they gather their forces out of all parts of the land, and comming to joyne battell with the Giants, af­ter they had fought fiercely together for the space of certaine houres, the victory inclined to the rightfull part, so that the lawfull Kings prevailing against this cursed brood, great slaughter was made upon the whole sort of that pestiferous generation, and the Kings meaning to deliver themselues of all dangers in time to come, used their happy victory with great cruelty, which turned to their owne confusion. For they spared neither man, woman, nor child that came in their way, for more despite and fuller satisfaction of their determinate re­venge, neither vouchsafed they to bury the carkasses of their slaine e­nemies,Victory with cruelty turneth to the hurt of the conquerors but cast them out like a sort of dead dogs, whereof (through stinke of the same) such an infective pestilence insued in all places throughout the Island by corruption of the ayre, that few escaped with life,A grievous in­fection. except those that got them away by sea; yea the infection was so great of those cursed carkasses of Cham his posterity, that the dogs and wolves died thereof. And here ended the whole race of Bartholanus and his of-spring, and the Country (excepting a few silly soules scattered in remote places) was unpeopled.

[Page 3]And here commeth in a tale yet in great request among the Irish, how that one Ruanus a Giant, fearing this mortality, fled into a cave,Of Ruanus: and continued there till nature forced him to come forth for food and nourishment, so hungry was hee that every thing was meat that came to his mouth: hee covering his face with mosse and grasse, fled to the farthest parts of the land into the winde to avoid the infection, and so for a long time hauing taking the advantage of the ayre, esca­ped death. He is said to have lived two thousand and one and forty yeeres (which is more then twice the age of Methushelah) vnto the time (forsooth) of Saint Patrick, to whom hee discoursed at large (say they) of all the accidents of former times. In the end he was of Saint Patrick baptized, and died after the birth of our Saviour, in the yeere 432, and lyeth buried at Loghry in Ormund, where there is a Church dedicated to his name, and he is numbred among the Con­fessors of Ireland.

And to second this fable with two precedent lies, the which I should haue begun withall in the front of this History (as all Irish An­tiquaries doe) but that I would not abuse the reader, being purposed beginning and ending to deliuer the truth, I read as followeth:

Whereas in the yeere of the world 1525,Of Cesara and Fintan. Noah began to admo­nish the people of vengeance to come by a generall deluge for the wickednesse and detestable sinne of man, and continued his admoni­tion 120 yeeres, building an Arke for the safegard of himselfe and his family; one Cesara (say they) according vnto others Cesarea, a Neece of Noah, (when others seemed to neglect this forewarning) rigging a navy, committed her selfe with her adherents to the seas to seeke adventures, and to avoid the plagues that were to fall; there ar­rived in Ireland, with her three men, Bithi, Laigria, and Fintan, and fifty women; within forty dayes after her arrivall the universall flood came upon them and those parts, as well as upon the rest of the world, and drowned them all, in which perplexity of minde and imminent danger beholding the waves overwhelming all things before their eyes, Fintan is said to have beene transformed into a Salmon, and to have swoome all the time of the deluge about Vlster, and after the fall of the water recovering his former shape, to have lived longer then Adam, and to have delivered strange things to the posterity, so that of him the common speech riseth; If I had lived Fintans yeeres I could say much.

But to let these fables passe: The next plantation after Bartholanus (as it is recorded amongst the collections of Irish antiquities) is this in effect, that Magog the sonne of Iaphet planted Colonies in Scythia neere the river of Tanais, from whence about the yeere of the world two thousand three hundred and seventeene,Anno mundi 2317 Neme­dus and his foure sonnes arrive. one Nemedus with his foure sonnes Starius, Garbaneles, Anvinus, and Fergusius, Captains over great companies of armed men, were sent into this Island now [Page 4] called Ireland. And passing by Graecia tooke with them such volun­taries as were willing to adventure with them, they landed, inhabited the Country, and multiplied exceedingly, although not without continuall warres which they held with the Giants of Chams posteri­ty for the space of two hundred yeeres and odde. In the end the Gi­ants prevailing, chased them out of the land, so that they retired into Scythia, and some to Greece. This was about the yeere after the crea­tion 2333, from which time the Giants kept possession of the land without forraigne invasion for many yeeres, but yet in all that space their mindes not being set upon any goodnesse, but altogether upon mischiefe, they made no good lawes, framed no common wealth, they obeyed no Magistrate, but fell at variance amongst themselues, measu­ring all things by might, and seditiously vexed each other.

In the yeere of the world 2416, and after the universall flood 750 yeeres (as the Scottish History declareth) one Gathelus the sonne of Nealus a Grecian,Arrivall of Ga­thelus the Greek. upon displeasure for sundry rodes made into Ma­cedonia and Achaia, being exiled and banished his countrey, with a great number of his adherents and complices, went into Aegypt in the dayes of Moses, where he found favour in the sight of King Pha­raoh, insomuch that he married with Scota his daughter, continued there about 93 yeeres, and multiplied exceedingly. Iohannes Major Scotus calleth the verity of this History in question, de hac prima profectione de Graecia & Aegypto figmentum reor: I am of opi­nion (saith hee) that this first going out of Greece and Aegypt is but fayned: yet let us goe forward. When Gathelus understood that the land was shortly for the wickednesse of the people to suffer great plagues, he prepared a fleet, shipped Grecians and Aegyptians, hoi­sed up saile, and came upon the coast of Numidia, now called Barbary, thence they were put back, to sea they went, and came to the coast of Spaine now called Portingall (as they say) since that time of him called Port-gathell. The inhabitants of the place resisted them, gave them a sore battell, and in the end after parlie, Gathelus was intreated, and by them directed to take his voyage into Galitia, which eftsoones he did. There in a short time they waxed so populous, that the coun­trey could not sustaine them: whereupon Gathelus called a Coun­cell, and being resolved what to doe, tooke a great number of them with him to sea, and arrived in Ireland, and there grew into such esti­mation with the barbarous people, that for knowledge especially in all languages (having travelled many Countreys, as is afore mentio­ned) he was highly honoured. For he not only enriched and beauti­fied the Irish tongue, but also, as is said, taught them letters, sought up their antiquities, and trained their youth in warlike exercises, after the manner of the Grecians and Aegyptians from whence he descen­ded. Note here (gentle reader) before I wade further into this Hi­story three contrary opinions of this Gathelus the sonne of Nealus: [Page 5] The Scottish Historiographers say, it was 750 yeeres after the flood. Thomas Walsingham Monke of S. Albons, writeth it was 1000 yeeres and odde after the delivery of the children of Israel out of Aegypt (which must be anno mundi 3455, to wit, one 1000 yeeres after the former computation) calling him a noble man of Scythia whom the Aegyptians banished out of Aegypt. Iohn Harding, a great Antiqua­ry (that knew best in his time the state of Scotland) delivereth, that Gathelus and Scota came to these parts after the birth of Christ, in anno 75. This I give as a caveat, referring unto the discreet reader the dissonance that I finde in the observation of times, to bee considered of, promising to lay downe faithfully euery thing as I finde the same, as shall appeare in that which followeth. And now to the history where we left. It is said that this Gathelus of his wife Scota comman­ded that his followers Grecians and Aegyptians should be called Sco­ti, that is, Scottishmen. And Hector Boëtius in the History of Scot­land sticketh not to write, that upon his marriage with Scota, the foresaid commandement was published, and that his followers in Ae­gypt, Barbary, Portingall, Galitia, and over Spaine, were called Sco­ti. But how true that is, it may appeare by the Roman Histories (which haue noted the accidents of those times) in all which there is no mention of the Scots before the time of Constantius the Empe­rour (which was about the yeere of Christ 310 who lyeth buried at York, and was father to Constantine the great.

Paulus lovius writeth, Scotland tooke that name upon the comming of a forraine and no great ancient nation. No Latine writer before Marcellinus in Iulian the Emperours time (which was about the yeere 362) remembreth the Scots: neither doth it well appeare out of what Country the Scots first came into Albion, when as by the Annals not only of English, but of Scottish Antiquities varying among themselues, great obscurity is brought among doubtfull things. Some bring their originall from Ireland, others from Dania, Cimbrica, Chersonesus, and the Ilands of Gothland and Norwey; neither wanted there some which were of opinion, they came from Spaine, deriving the name of Scottishmen from Moses himselfe, and the Aegyptians, as Hector Boë­tius the Scottish Chronicler; yet Hector himselfe preventing as it were the like objection, confesseth that in the third yeere of Adrian the Emperor (which was after the birth of Christ about 122 yeeres) the name of Scots was not knowne unto the Romans.Scot. Hist. lib. 4▪

In short time after the retinue of Gathelus searched the North-east and North-west Ilands, and entred the Land which now is cal­led Scotland, so also called (as the Scotish will have it) of Scota. Hector Boet. in descript. regni Scotia. Et lib. [...] histor. Scot. But many grave writers have stumbled at the certainty of this story, yet I finde for certaine, that Ireland was called Scotia maior, and the o­ther Scotia minor, and oftentimes confusedly the one taken for the o­ther, and the words to be of no great antiquity. Capgrave in the life [Page 6] of Saint Columbanus saith;Iohannes Cap­grave in vita Sancti Colum. Idem in vita Sancti Fiacrij. Ireland of old was called Scotland, from whence the Scottish nation inhabiting Albania (next vnto great Bri­taine) now called Scotland tooke their originall. Fiacrius an Hermite being asked of a Bishop in France what hee was, among other things answered; Ireland the Iland of Scots is the native soile of mee and my parents. It also appeareth by Orosius, Claudian, Isidore, Hubaldus, Beda, the English Legend, the Martyrologe secundum usum Sarum, Marianus, Ionas in vita Sancti Columbani, Aimoinus, Caesarius, &c. that Ireland and Scotland were usually taken one for the other.

But before I goe any further, I thinke it not amisse to say som what to this word Scotus or Scottus, the which Hector Boëtius carrieth a­way as derived of Scota, and as thing granted. There came to this Countrey of Ireland at three severall times, before Gathelus, great Commanders of Scythia (as I have said before) of the posterity of Iaphet, planted themselues, divided the land with great troubles, and when they were at the worst, alwayes they left a remnant of their nation behinde them. Beda every where calleth them not Scotos, but Scottos; so that I finde in the word a double alteration, y turned into o, and th into tt. Also in low Germany they call the Scythians and Scottish, Schotten. Nennius the Britain writeth, Scythae Hiberniam ob­tinuerunt, the Scythians gat Ireland. King Alfredus translating the hi­story of Orosius into the Saxon tongue, termeth the Scots, Scyttan: The borderers upon Scotland, cal them to this day, Skyttes and Skets. Walsingham writeth, Of the country called Sicia (alias Scythia) wee haue Scita, Sciticus, Scoticus, Scotus and Scotia. Ranulphus Monke of Chester, writeth, as Sir Iohn Trevisa the Priest in old English laid it downe; Scotts bene called as it were Scytes, for they came out of Scy­tia. Matthew Monk of Westminster, saith, Ex Pictis & Hibernen­sibus, Scoti originem habuerunt, quasi ex diversis nationibus compacti; Scot enim illud dicitur quòd ex diversis rebus in unum acervum con­gregatur, deinde verò terra illa quae prius Albania dicebatur à Scotis Scotia nuncupatur, (anno gratiae 77.) Of Pictes and Irish the Scots had their originall, as it were compacted of divers nations; for that is called Scot which of divers things is gathered into one heap, afterwards that Land which was first called Albania of the Scots is called Sco­tia.

Beda Ang. hist. lib. 1. cap. 1.And Beda writeth that the Country now called Scotland was in­habited by Pictes that were Scythians; againe, In processe of time (saith he) Britaine besides Britaines and Pictes receiued a third nation that is of Scots upon the side of the Pictes.

Volat geograph. lib. 3. Io. Maior de gest. Scot. l. 1. c. 4. De rebus Hiber. lib. 1.Of the same opinion is Volateran and Iohannes Major Scotus, al­though Hector Boëtius dissemble it. Richard Stanihurst the great Philosopher and Antiquary of Ireland, writeth, A quo primum ini­tio Scotiae nomen fit tractum, nondum plane perspectum video, &c. Of what first originall the word Scotia is drawne, I haue not yet found out. [Page 7] And touching the truth of the History of Gathelus and Scota, hee saith; To the end the worthinesse of so great a mariage delivered unto the posterity should florish, all these Grecians call themselues Scots; and Ireland where they first seated themselues, Scotiam. But all this as a vaine fable George Buchanan, and before him Humfrey Lloide have quite reiected, and if Hector Boëtius bee not the chiefe forger of this hi­story, or rather vaine fable, yet he hath besprinckled (after his manner) the whole discourse with lies. With great ambition hath that silly wri­ter labored to advance the glory of his nation, in the which endeauour, hee hath little regarded the honour of his Country and his owne credit. For he hath purchased this amongst the learned, that where as he would seeme to write all for the loue of the truth, they will beleeue in a manner nothing to be true which he wrote: For to what purpose should he com­mend to the posterity the acts of his ancestors with such maiesty of words, that they have quailed the Spaniard; vanquished the Irish with their only austere countenance, triumphed as often as pleased themselves over the bordering Britaines; where they pitched foot, subiected all as furious victors; that thou maist think the Scottish not so much to have invaded forraigne Countryes, as to have removed to their proper pos­sessions. These fabulous dreames happely may move admiration to some old wives, applause to some Abderas, and laughter to the discreete rea­der. The Scotish had as other nations tofore (though now famous) base beginning, dusked and obscured with some barbarous rudenesse, and this had beene more discretion to confesse, then to vaunt or crake among the ignorant, with boast of their fained doings. Thus farre Stani­hurst:

And now (with Hector Boëtius his leave) as the followers of Ga­thelus and his wife Scota in Egypt, Greece, Barbary, Portugall, Gali­tia, and over all Spaine, were not called Scoti (as before is remem­bred) no more were they termed in Ireland and Scotland, but cor­ruptly of Scytae, Scoti, comming originlly out of Scythia. And it were more honour in mine opinion for these nations, to derive their originall from Scythia then from Egypt, for two causes; first for that the Scythians are more ancient then the Egyptians, as Trogus, Vo­lateran, and Marianus Scotus do write; secondly for that the Scythi­ans come of Iaphet that was blessed, and the Egyptians of Cham that was accursed, but in this case leaving every man to his owne choice; I will returne the History.

In the antiquities of Ireland it is generally receiued that Gathelus (of whom I spake before) gave the Irishmen the language, which of him they call Gaodhealgh in British Gwidhealaec, that is, a language compounded of many tongues, and so it may well be; for by reason of his great trauell he had skill in many tongues. Although, as they say, he were a Grecian borne, yet I finde no Greek in the Irish tongue▪ yet for their comming from Spaine, which they so much urge, Io­hannes [Page 8] Major Scotus forsooth hath found one Spanish word,Io. Maior. hist. Scot. lib. 1. c. 9. bona di­es, in Irish vennoka die; to which I answere, una hirundo non facit ver; but indifferently to examine the matter, wee finde that diversity of times, alteration of government, invasion of strangers, planting of new Colonies, and conversing with forraigne nations doe alter lan­guages. The Hebrewes by reason of their peregrination and captivi­ties do smach of the Chaldees, Syriack, and Arabick tongues. The Slavonian tongue,Laur. Surius ver. in orbe gest. ud annum. 1501 as Surius and others record, without exception, at this day is the most dispersed language upon the earth; for the Mus­covites, Ruthenes, Russians, Dalmatians, Bosnenses, Croatians, Istri­ans, Carnians, Carniolanians, Carinthians, Stirians, Maesians, Servi­ans, Bulgarians, with other nations reaching to Constantinople, as Bohemians, Lusatians, Silesians, Moravians, Polonians, Circasians, Quinquemontanians, even unto Pontus, and the remnant of Vandals, beyond the river Albis, through Germany, into the North, have the language, and yet we have neither their characters, nor ancient Annals extant. Saint Ierome borne in Strido in the confines of Dal­matia and Pannonia, is said to have translated the Bible into the Sla­von tongue, but whether it be in that language extant, let him report that knoweth it. Gothi, Hypogothi, Gepidi, Vandali, Hunni, Alani, though they vary in name, yet they vse one language, saith Paulus Diaconus. The Italian, Spanish, and French tongues are compoun­ded of the Latine. The German (high and low country) Saxon, Scot­tish and English have great affinity. Northwales, Southwales, Corn­wall, and little Britaine in France, as Cambrensis and Sir Io. Price have learnedly discoursed; but the Irish (excepting the Red shanks and the Scottish of the haye londe) have affinity with no tongue (as I can learne) more then with the British language.

Many reasons there are (gentle reader) to induce thee to bee of that opinion; first of all according unto the first command, the Cel­ticke tongue was of force in all these Northerne parts. Bodinus wri­teth,Bodinus. Pausanias: that the British and Celtick language was all one. Pausanias the Grecian maketh mention how the Celts in their language called a horse Marc, and three horses Trimarc, the which the Welshman u­seth to this day with a gutturall alteration, Margh and Treemargh. Also Camden the learned Antiquary of this our age, is of this opini­on (remembring the story of Gurguntius, and the infinite number of British words in ure among the Irish, the which he termeth, infinitam vim Britannicarum dictionum) that the Britaines first peopled this land. And although of a long time (by reason of troubles and alte­rations) the speech grew wholly out of vse; yet afterwards in successe of time it was revived. Secondly the British and Irish oft matched together, so that there grew among them great alliance and affinity, to the furtherance of the language. Mare King of Cornwall anno 459 married with Label Isode that built Isodes Chappell (or Chappell-I­sode) [Page 9] and Isodes Tower in Dublin, shee was the King of Irelands daughter. Edwal ap Meiric Prince of Wales in the time of Edelred, anno 992 married in Ireland. Iago ap Edwal Prince of Wales in the time of Cnute, anno 1031 married in Ireland. In the time of Edward the Confessor, Conan the sonne of Iago Prince of Wales married with Ranulph daughter of Alfred King of Dublin, anno 1041. In the time of William Rufus, Arnulph Earle of Pembroke married with the daughter of Marogh King of Ireland anno 1101; at the same time Magnus the sonne of Herald married with another daughter of the said King. In the time of Henry the first and King Steuen lived Grif­fith ap Conan Prince of Wales, that was wont to brag of three things, that his mother was an Irishwoman, his grandmother an Irishwo­man, and that hee himselfe was borne, and of a child brought vp in Ireland. In the time of Henry the second. Biryd the sonne of Owen Gwyneth Prince of Wales, being Lord of Cloghran in Ireland, begat his sonne Howel upon an Irish Gentlewoman. In the same Kings raigne Richard Strangbow Earle of Pembroke, married with Eva the daughter of Dermotte Mac Morrogh King of Leinster. Thirdly, when there was any trouble in Ireland, they fled to Wales; when they had any warres or rebellion there, they came for refuge and aide into Ireland: hereof came the shaking of hands, Brother Brannagh, Brother Erinagh. In the life of Henry the third, it is written, that when Othobon the Popes Legate came to Oxford, and soiourned at Osney Abbey, among other schollers, some for one cause, some for another, that were there, a poore Irish scholler (Matthew Paris calleth him Capellanum Hibernensem) drew neere unto the kitchin dresser, and praid for some releefe; the cook took a ladell full of hot liquor and threw it in his face; a Welch scholler standing by tooke his bow, and shot the cook through with an arrow (Stow writeth that the cook was the Legates brother) the hurly burly was great, the schollers came together in armes (and as it is said, one Odo of Kilkenny was their ensigne bearer) the Cardinals men were well beaten, the Cardi­nall himselfe to save his life fled secretly at a posterne gate to the King, made a grievous complaint, and craved the aide of armed men to fetch off his men, and thereof arose great troubles; but to proceed. Dermotte Mac Morogh King of Leinster, being banished out of his country, had aide out of Wales. Conan the sonne of Iago, Griffith ap Conan, Rees ap Tewder, Owen the sonne of Cadogan, Kadwalader the sonne of Griffith ap Conan, Marlgon ap David, Princes of Wales; Algar Earle of Chester, Arnulph Earle of Pembroke, Magnus the sonne of Herald, William de Bruse Lord of Breknock, with his wife and children, in extremity, tooke Ireland for their refuge, where they found favor and kindnesse to their own hearts desire, as in the British Chronicles published by Caradoc of Sancarban, Cambrensis, Hum­frey Lloid, and Doctor Powel, doth more plainly appeare. These two [Page 10] nations conversed much one with another; Sir Tristram one of the Knights of the round Table, came to Ireland. Morogh brother to the King of Ireland (whom Caxton calleth Morhaus) was one of King Arthurs Knights. Merlin the Welch Prophet came twice to Ire­land, and in Ofaby there is a Chappell bearing his name: the oc­casion of his first comming was this. There was a noble man of Ire­land which had a suit unto the King of England, with whom Merlin was great, to whom he said, Merlin, if thou wilt effect my sute, come to Ireland, and I will give thee as much land as thou shalt see round about thee: it was done; after his arrivall, Merlin demanded his pro­mise, the noble man put him into a cellar, where was a grate, and with­out a bawne, with an high wall, looke out (saith the Irish man) the Welch Prophet could not see a quoits cast from him, and thus was he deceived, having left his spirit of prophecy at home. But to our purpose.

Fourthly, the first conquerors in Henry the seconds times, that brake the ice into this land, were Welch men, whose names and seates to this day are fresh in memory. Rees ap Tewder Prince of Southwales had a daughter called Nesta, who by King Henry the first had issue, Henry, and he had issue Meiler Fitz Henry and Robart; she was afterwards married to Stephan, and he had issue, Robart Fitz Stephan, and his issue were Radulph and Mereduk; shee had a third husband, Giraldus Steward of Pembroke, whose mother was Gladys the daughter of Rywall ap Conyn, this Girald had issue by her, Mau­rice Fitz Gerald, William Fitz Gerald, and David Bishop of Mene­via, now called Saint Davids: Maurice Fitz Gerald had issue, Willi­am, Girald, Alexander, and Nesta a daughter, wife to Harvey de Monte Marisco; William Fitz Gerald had issue (by Ellen sister to Earle Richard Strongbow) Reimund and Griffin, of these descend all the Geraldins in Ireland. A neece (a sister say others) of Robart Fitz Ste­phans and Maurice Fitz Gerald married with one Barry, and hee by her had issue, Robart Barry, Philip Barry, Walter Barry, and Girald Barry (otherwise called Giraldus Cambrensis the great Antiquary) of these descend all the Barries in Ireland. There came with them and after them out of Wales, the Prendergastes, Welches, Whites, Goughes, and Williams, now called Mac William of the North.

The Irish Chroniclers, as David Curren, Nicolas Maguize (both som­times Bishop of Leighlin) and others, call them Brittones, Wallones, and Wallenses. It is a name the Saxons gave them; though they were the true natives of Britaine, yet they called them Welshmen, that is,Camb. descrip. Brit. cap. 7. strangers, as more at large is to bee seen in Cambrensis. These gave Welsh names to places, which continue to this day; in the Dioces of Leighlin there is a town called villa Wallicorū, the town of Welsh­men. Carreg & Craig in the British or Welsh tongue is a ston, or rock, and of the Britaines, Carregfergus, Carreggmont-Griffin, Carregg in [Page 11] Shurie, Carriggwaspani, and Craigwading have their names. Like­wise Llis in British is a Court or Palace, of that in Ireland you have Lismore, Lisfenyn, Lislofty, Lismakery. Glan and Glyn are British words, of them have you Glangibbon, Glandeboy, Glan Reynald, Glyn­burry, Glyndelory, Glynmolowra, &c. Inis an Iland, is British and I­rish, of which kind are Inissircan, Inisshoven, Inisdiok, Inissuag, Inis­corthie, and the like. Rath a moat or round trench (whereof there are many in Ireland made by the Danes) if Beda had not said that it was a Saxon word, I would have said it had been British, and how many names of places are compounded with it in Ireland, were too long to rehearse. I will here give Stanihurst leave to conclude, Omnes insulae locos et lucos Wallici nominis gloria implevit; the renowne of the Welsh name (saith he) hath filled all the wayes and woods of the Iland.

The British words among them are infinite, the which, as I think, the Irish have taken hold of, and have caused to vary little from their speech, for example.

Br:Drusa Doore.
Br.Gavera Goat.
Br.Myna Kydde.
Br.Tya House in both.
Br.Scadana Herring.
Br.Carreggin both a Rock.
Br.Teerland or ground.
Br.Sidanin both Silke.
Br.Kosin both a leg or foot.
Br.Sanea paire of hose or stockins.
Br.Losky in both burning or burnt.
Br.Berw and Berwy in both sod.
Br.Glanin both a like.
 Duffreyin both alike.
Br.Maha sonne.
Br.Cantrefan hundred townes
Br.Avona river.
 Moil in both bald.
 Mantagh in both toothlesse.

And thus much of the Irish language occasioned by the history of Gathelus and Scota; now to the history, from whence I feare mee I have too long digressed. The hard successe of Nemedus before spoken of, and the departure of Gathelus (as hath beene said) to the North­east Ilands, and North parts of Britaine, now called Scotland, moved five brethren, the sonnes of one Dela of the posterity of Nemedus, be­ing valiant men, and skilfull in the Art of Navigation, to make ready a great fleet, and to attempt the conquest of this Iland. These were, as I presently said, of the posterity of Nemedus, and were named, Gan­dius, Gennadius, Sagandus, Rutheranius or Rutheragus, and Slanius, of whom Slane hath the denomination; when they had made prepa­ration,Five sonnes of Dela arrive in Ireland, anno mundi 2535. assembled forces, and set all in a readinesse, they hoised up saile, and in short time arrived in Ireland, about the yeere of the world 2535.

After their arrivall, and view had of the land, they found the pu­issance of the Chamesite Giants sore weakned through their owne civill dissention, so that with more ease then they looked for, they at­chieved [Page 13] their purpose, wanne the whole country, utterly destroyed and rooted out that wicked generation (enemies to God and man) but spared as many as they found of Iaphets line, divided the Iland into five parts, and in each of them they severally reigned.First division of Ireland. This was the first division of Ireland, the discourse whereof I will referre to another place. Furthermore for the satisfaction of all parties, and perfect league to be had among these brethren, and their posterity, they con­cluded to fix a meare stone in the middle point of Ireland, to the which each of their kingdomes should reach, so as they might in e­quality partake of the commodities found in that Iland. Of these al­so it is said, that they invented the distribution of Shires into Can­treds, every Cantred or Barony to containe one hundred townships: but of this in another place. When they had for a certaine space sea­ted themselves (say the Irish Antiquaries) and found warmth and wealth about them, every one began to looke big, and grow ambiti­ous, so that in processe of time, desire of Soverainty set the five bre­thren at variance, which in the end tended to their destruction. In this civill dissention it is written, that Slanius the yongest through the aid of some old inhabitants, got the upper hand, brought his foure brethren to a low estate, attributed unto himselfe the title of supreme honour over them, and encroched round about the middle stone and fixed meare aforesaid, for the space of certaine miles; which plot in time, obtained the priviledge and name of one entire plot, or part, and maketh up the number of five parts, into the which Ireland is com­monly divided, and is called Meth, in Latine Media, Meth why so called. and of some Mi­dia, taking that name (as some haue guessed) for that in respect of the other parts, it contained but the moity of Cantreds, that is, six­teene, where each of the other contained thirty and two; or else for that it lieth in the midst of the land.

These encrochments Slanius annexed to his inheritance and Mo­narchy, which Monarchy continued thus, the space of thirty yeeres, and then Slanius departed this life, and was buried in a mountaine of Meth, that beareth hitherto the name after him. After his decease the Princes that before were subiect unto him, began to gather heart, sto­mached the matter, and denied their obedience to his successour: whereupon ensued continuall warre amongst them, and especially a­bout the land of Meth, which strife of long time could not bee ap­peased, yet in the space of thirty yeeres aforesaid, of these brethren and their successors there were nine Kings. In the neck of all these mischiefes and hurly burlies (say the Irish antiquities) there came a fleet of Scythians upon the coast, landed their men in Ireland, made claime to the land,Invasion of Scythians. by a title of right which they pretended from their forefather Nemedus (of whom mention is made before) so that by partaking with the one side and the other, all was in an uproare, ha­vock was made on each side with fire and sword in most miserable [Page 14] manner. They spent themselves in pursuing one another with such outrage, that they cared not what nation, or what souldier they re­ceived to their aid, to hold up, or beat downe a side. Both the one and the other sent for aid into the Ilands now called England and Scot­land, Orchades, Hebrides, &c. and acquainted forrainers with their state so farre, that they could never after be rid of them, to wit, the Britaines, till in the end they yeelded unto them the upper hand, as by conquests, in processe of the history, shall appeare. Note (gentle reader) how that hitherto,Anno mundi 2828 that is, the yeere of the world 2828, and before the birth of Christ 1142, these North parts of the world, as England, Scotland, Ireland, with other Iles, were possessed, comman­ded, and inhabited by the posterity of Iaphet and Cham, the sonnes of Noah, without any speciall name given to the lands, or to the Com­manders of them, otherwise then Samothei, Celtae, Oceanes, Neptu­nists, and Albions, although I have hitherto used the names now in ure (for the plainer delivery of the history) as if they had beene knowne before; neither were any called Scots as Hector Boëtius would have it.

After the times of the former troubles which happened in Ireland upon the landing of the Scythians, I finde nothing of Ireland till the dayes of Gurguntius (the sonne of Belinus) who began his raine, ac­cording to the ordinary account anno mundi 3580,Anno mundi 3580 and reigned 19 yeeres over Britaine. This King after his victory atchieved in Den­mark (for his tribute which they there had refused to pay him) retur­ning back toward Britaine, met by the Iles of Orkeney, with a navy of thirthy ships (Stanyhurst saith 60) with men and women,Gurguntius meeteth with Bartholin, Hi­ber and Her­mon. whose Generall was called Bartholin or Partholin; in Ponticus Virunius Partolom; in Flores Historiarum, Partholaim; in Gualter Oxoniensis, Bartholome; in Fabian, Harding, Grafton, and Caxton, Irlamal; of whom they thinke the country to be called Ireland. Gurguntius de­manded of them what they were, and the occasion of their travell, their answer was, they were Spaniards, and had long beene on the seas, seeking to finde some favourable Prince, to assigne them a place of habitation, for that their country was so populous, that it could not containe them, (others write that for some disordered parts they were banished their country) and where they found favour, they would become subiects, and hold of him as their soveraigne Lord. In this fleet with the Governor of Baion, their Generall (before named) there were foure brethren of noble birth, the sonnes of Milesius (o­thers say, Miletus, and others Milo) the two chiefe of which were cal­led Hiberus and Hermon. And beside the former differences in the parents name, Dowling writeth in his Irish collections, that they were the sonnes of Iubal; Hector Boëtius avoucheth they were the sonnes of Gathelus and Scota; Stanihurst affirmeth that Scota was great or old grand-dame to Hiber and Hermon, others write they were of the [Page 15] posteritie of Gathelus and Scota, whereas Gathelus (if there were any such) was a Grecian, and Scota an Egyptian, Hiber and Hermon, Spaniards: see (gentle Reader) how these reports hang together.

Gurguntius being aduised by his Councell,Gurguntius gi­veth Ireland to them. pittying their necessi­tie and wandring estate, granted them the Iland now called Ireland, to inhabite, and that they should become tributaries to him and his successors, the Kings of Britaine for ever. For hee called to minde that the inhabitants were an unruly people, and thought by this meanes to subdue them, and quietly to enioy his tribute; for it see­meth that the Britaines made claime to Ireland, to which effect I reade in the Booke of Houth, that Gurguntius came into Ireland, and that the land many a yeare paid him truage,Booke of Houth. and to other Kings of Britaine after him; but as oft as they put foote in the land, they got more knocks then pence, saith an Irish Chronicler. The King of Bri­taine hastening homeward, gave them Pilots, and safe conductors for their arivall and possession of the land.

Hiberus and Hermon after their arivall,Hiber and Her­mon divide Ireland into two parts. by the assent of all their associates, divided the land betweene them; the North to Hiber, and the South to Hermon. But ambition, the mother of mischiefe, would not long suffer them to enioy peace, but rent their hearts with fierie dissention, inflamed their mindes to desire one Soueraigne and abso­lute commander over the whole land; they gather forces, they mu­ster their men, they put on Armes, and to battaile they goe, in which field Hiberus was slaine, (though Hector Boetius write,One brother killeth ano­ther. The second Monarch of Ireland. that he went into Spaine to succeed his father) and Hermon became Monarch of all Ireland. Hermon being thus sole ruler and governour, to avoid the murmure of his people, and the euill opinion (in a manner) of all men conceiued against him, and peaceably to governe the land, fell to purge himselfe, and caused the occasion of the warres to be proclai­med, that he bore armes against his naturall brother, not of malice or desire of soveraigntie, but in defence of his owne person, and safety of his people; and for proofe, that his heart was farre from desire to rule alone, he appointed certaine Captaines, as Kings, to command under him certaine Countries, reserving unto himselfe, one fourth part, and the Country of Meth annexed to the Monarchie, for the better maintenance of his princely estate.

By this meanes, this Realme of Ireland in processe of time,Ireland divi­ded into five kingdomes▪ grew to five kingdomes; the first Leinster, on the East side or quarter, called in Latine Lagenia, and in Irish, Cuige-Laghen. The second, Conaght, on the west side of the kingdome, called in Latine Connacia, and in Irish, Cuige-Chonoght. The third, Vlster, which is the North part of Ireland, named in Latine, Vltonia, and in Irish, Cuigh-Vlladh. The fourth, Mounster, South and South-west, in Latine, Momonia, and in the country speech, Cuige Mughan. The fift and last, a plotte de­falked from these parts, called Meth, comprising (as they are now [Page 16] called) as well East-Meth as West-Meth, in Latine, Midia, or Me­dia, Divers divisi­ons in Ireland. in Irish, Mhidhe. And here must not bee forgotten, that there hath beene in these kingdomes great change and alteration by usur­ping and compounding among themselves, and by dividing of Coun­tries, as we finde Mounster was into two parts, and since have beene there great Earles, deriving their names of Mounster, Ormond in Irish, Oirther Mughane, Desmond, in Irish, Deasmughain, and Tho­mond in Irish, Tuathmughain, the which an Italian comming into Ireland, meruailed at, when he inquired what great men dwelled in the land, for he understood Ormond, to bee orbis mundi, the round world; Desmond, decem mundi, ten worlds; Thomond, duo mundi, two worlds, profecto, said he, Valdè gloriósi tituli, assuredly these are very glorious titles. So were there also in processe of time, diuers o­ther lesser kingdomes, as by the processe of the historie will very well appeare. And here for this time leaving to discourse farther of the Irish kingdomes, I conclude with this one remembrance, that from time to time there was one chosen to be chiefe soveraigne Mo­narch ouer them all;A Monarch alwaies in Ire­land. and the number of Monarchs from Hermon to Laogirius, the sonne of Nealus Magnus, that is, great Neale) in whose time S. Patricke converted them to Christianitie, amounteth to an hundred thirty and one.

Ireland called Hibernia.And now backe againe to the historie where we left. It is said that of Hiber or Hiberus, (who was slaine, as hath aboue beene recorded) Ireland was called Hibernia; certaine it is with the concordance of most and the best antiquaries, that the land was not called Hibernia, neither right Spaniard arived here before the daies of Gurguntius. Divers writers haue diversly delivered the originall name of the land,Divers names of Ireland. some corruptly, some poetically, some etymologically. Ierna, Iuver­nia, Ibernia, Overnia, Vernia, Iris; of the Britaines, Ywerdhon, of the Irish themselues Erin, and tooke that name of Fin Erin, (of whom at large in the booke of Houth) of the Saxons and English it is called Ireland, that is, the land of Erin. All these names originally grew of Hiberus the Spaniard, or in remembrance of Iberus the se­cond King of Spaine; who was the sonne of Tuball, the fift sonne of Iaphet. Annius Viterbiensis writeth, that of this King, the river is called Iberus amnis, Spaine Iberia, and the inhabitants about the ri­ver,Stainhurst de reh. Hib. pa. 17. Iberi. This land of Ireland hath also beene called Scotia Major, (Scotland the greater) after the birth of Christ, but that came of corrupting the word Scytha, as I said before. Lastly, it hath beene called Banno of the Poets or Bardes of the land: Stanihurst thinketh it was so called of the Banne, a river in the County of Weixford, the place is now called Bagganbun, where the Britaines vpon the con­quest arived, and thereof is the rime,

At the creeke of Bagganbun,
Ireland was ylost and wonne.

[Page 17]But for this ancient name Banno,Camden in Hebernia. and other the like which the Po­ets of Ireland haue in use, I referre the courteous reader to learned Camden, in his treatise of Ireland, about the beginning.

Lanquet in his collections of antiquities,Lanquet ad Annum 3652. noteth that the Scottish historiographers about the yeere of the world, 3652. beginne their histories at Fergus, the sonne of Ferquhard, King of Ireland, that he should come with great power out of Ireland, to their aide against the Pictes, and that they fauoured him so much, that they chose him King, and that hee raigned ouer them in Scotland 25. yeeres,Anno mundi, 36521 and how that in his raigne he slue Coile, King of Britaine, at what time by generall consent, there was no Scottish man then commanding in Albania, no Pict at that time seene in Britaine or Ireland, nor Coile King of Britaine in many yeares after. I am of Lanquets opinion, thus he writeth, These histories of the Scots, as they set them forth, bee full of errors, and agree with none other historians. Notwithstanding this Item may not stoppe the course of the historie, and therefore whether he came out of Ireland, (as we here take it) or out of Denmarke, (as some haue thought) well he might be King of Albania, for so was it then called, and not Scotland, and so from him I will terme them Kings of Albania, untill I finde the name Scoti knowne amongst for­raigne writers.

This Fergus (saith Buchanan) hauing orderly disposed of his af­faires in Albania,Fergusius. Buchanan. went into Ireland to pacifie and quiet troubles there risen, and hoising saile for his returne into Albania, he and all his company were cast away in a tempest vpon the rockes at a place of him now called in the British and Irish tongues Karregfergus, or Craigfregus (corruptly in English, Knockfergus.) It is written that he advanced in his banner, a red Lyon Rampant, with his taile folden toward his backe, as it were moved with anger,Armes of Fer­gusius. the which his suc­cessors since have used. After this his infortunate decease, there rose great strife about the succession, his two sonnes, Ferlegus and Mainus were young, and many exceptions were made against them, in the end, the two sonnes were put beside, and the eldest of the sept (after the Irish Tanistrie) tooke place, which fell upon Feritharis an Irish man, brother to Fergus. And this Tanistrie continued (saith Bucha­nan) unto Kenathus 3. during the raigne of fourescore Kings.Tanistrie of Ireland used in Scotland. But I must leave them, and follow onely what concerneth Irish businesse.

About the yeere of the world, saith Lanquet, Anno mundi, 3750. 3750. and odde (not allowing as he protested before, but following the Scottish histories, one Reuthar, commander of the invaders in Albania,Reuthar. (now called Scotland) was vexed with civill warres, and by the Britaines, bani­shed into Ireland, where he lived twelve yeeres: See more of him in Hector Boetius, and Buchanan. The 9. King Albaniensium Scotorum, (so Stanihurst calleth them) was Iosina Thereus, Iosina Thereus. and is the next that seemeth to haue any right or interest in the Irish historie. This man [Page 18] was bred and brought up in Ireland, and favoured the nation (saith Bale) above all others;Io. Bale cent. 14. he sought peace of all men, honoured Chi­rurgions, Physitians and Druydes of Ireland; raigned 24. yeeres, and so ended his dayes.

The next that concerneth our purpose, is Gillus the usurper, who through much treason,Gillus. and many murthers, aspiring to the Crowne of Albania, and deservedly falling into the hatred and mislike of all his subjects, was at length forced by his Nobles, (who rose in Armes against him) to take a fisher-boate and flee into Ireland, where hee was promised aide; but to prevent further mischiefe, one Cadall is ap­pointed generall of an Armie, to pursue the tyrant into Ireland, and meeting him in the field, drove Gillus to flee. When the Irish men had forsaken him, he hid himselfe in a denne, invironed with woods and bogs, where shortly after, an Irish Kerne, for reward, found him out, cut off his head, and brought it to Cadall, after he had tyrannized three yeeres. He was the thirteenth King of Albania.

In the time of Augustus Caesar, a little before the birth of our Sa­viour,Fridelenus the Dane taketh Dublin. Fridelenus King of Denmarke, puffed vp with pride, through some fortunate successes, arrived in Ireland, laid siege to the Citie of Dublin, and finding it not so easie a matter to atchieue, fell to policie; he caught certaine Swallowes that bred in the Citie, tyed fire to their wings, who flying to their nests, fired the houses; while the Citizens endevoured to quence the fire, the Danes entred the Citie, and w [...]nne it.

The King of Leinster after this, gathered forces, and gave the Danes battaile, in which, many fell on both sides; Fredelnus seeing the enemy increase, and his armie decrease, fled the land, and retired into his country.Frotho King of Denmarke. Alb. Krant. Dan. lib. 1. cap. 32. Saxo Gr. hist. Dan. lib. 5. His sonne Frotho, the third of that name, King of Danes (so Albertus Krantzius, and Saxo Grammaticus record) wan­tonly assailed the Britaines, (lustrans magis insulam quam subigens) rather taking a view of the Iland, then subduing it, afterward relin­quishing that course, put foot in Ireland. The historiographers of that side, report hardly of the land, and the inhabitants thereof, and in fine they write, when Cepo the Irish King was overthrowne and put to flight, his brother Kervill (saith Saxo, I take it to be O Carroll) offered tribute, wherewith the Danes being pacified, returned to their Country. This Frotho peopled the Orchades with Danes, and ap­pointed Revillus their commander.

Whilst this Frotho King of Danes was Monarch of Ireland, the light of the world,IESVS CHRIST is borne. Claudius. Arviragus. Flor. histor. the comfort of all Christians, IESVS CHRIST the sonne of GOD was borne in the flesh.

About the 44. yeere after the incarnation of our Lord, (Claudius the Emperour having appeased the troubles of Britaine by the aide of Arviragus, (as Mathew Westmonasteriensis saith) subdued Or­chades, Hebrides, Thule, and all the Ocean Ilands, among the [Page 19] which, Ireland is reckoned,Beda eccles. hist. Angl. lib. 1. c. 3. Eutropius re­rum Rom. lib. 8. the which Beda and Eutropius haue like­wise remembred. But Fabian, Grafton, Holinshed, and Ponticus Viru­nius say further, that he sent certaine legions of Knights into Ireland to subdue the same; what successe they had, is not recorded, a legion consisting of 6666. (as ancient Writers record) no doubt they per­formed some great exploit.Camden pa. 557 Learned Camden writeth of the Brigan­tes (the inhabitants of Yorkeshire, Lancashire,Brigantes. the Bishopricke of Durham, Westmerland and Cumberland were so called) how that in the time of Claudius (as I take it) many of them went to end their dayes in Ireland, and of old were called the Brigantes of Ireland. His words are these, Quod verò Florianus Del Campo Hispanus, nostros Brigantes, &c. Whereas Florianus Del-Campo the Spaniard, Florianus del Campo. hath somewhat arrogantly derived our Brigantes from Spaine into Ireland, and thence into Britaine, being aided by no other conjecture, but that he found in his Country of Spaine, the Citie Brigantia; I feare mee hee hath fouly deceived himselfe. For if the like cause have not given ours and the Brigantes of Ireland the same name, I had rather be of opinion with my most learned friend Thomas Savill, namely, that certaine Bri­gantes and other nations of Britaine also, even from the comming of the Romans into Britaine, departed into Ireland, some for quietnesse sake, and to liue at ease, some for that their eyes should not be infected with the sight of the Roman dominion, and last of all others, lest in their lat­ter age they should willingly seeme to lose the libertie which from nature they had received in their youth. And that Claudius the Emperour, first of any Romane tooke the Brigantes in hand, and subjected them to his Empire and command: Seneca sheweth in these his verses.

........ Ille Britannos
Vltra noli littora ponti, & caeruleos
Scuta Brigantes, dare Romulaeis colla catenis
Iussit, .........
The Britaines farre from knowne seas,
and Brigantes Bucklers blue,
The Roman Claude to Roman becke
did bring, and rebels slue.

Claudius hauing effected all his affaires, (as formerly hath been de­livered) returned to Rome: then saith Gualter Oxon. Omnia regna Arvirago tradidit, he delivered all these kingdomes to Arviragus. He committed them al to his charge, saith Ponticus Virunius. Arviragus. In Mat­thew Westmonsteriensis I reade, regimen insulare Arvirago cessit, the command of the Ilands fell to Arviragus. Harding hath delivered it in verse.

[Page 20]
Orchades Isles in the meane time he conquered,
In which he infeoffed the King, and him preferred.

About this time, Frotho the fourth of that name, King of Danes, (some 30. yeeres after the former invasion,Saxo Gram. hist. Dan. lib. 6. Albertus Krantz. Dan. lib. 1. Frotho 4. saith mine Author) sent great power of Giants out of Denmarke, under the leading of bloudy Haco, and the great challenger and huge monster Starcuterus, to in­vade Ireland. The occasion was as followeth: Starcuterus (before mentioned) being borne farre in the East by reason of shipwracke, ha­ving lost both his ship and fellowes, was cast upon the coast of Den­marke, and hearing of the fame of Frotho, came to his Court. This Giant was greatly admired for stature and strength of body. Frotho commanded a great navie to be in a readinesse, with all manner of ne­cessary provision, made him an arch-pirate, and turned him to the Sea to seeke adventures.Haco and Star­cuterus in Ireland. They touched many lands, and fought with many Giants, at length (saith mine Author) that no Country, though never so remote, should bee freed from the smart of Danish forces, they arived in Ireland. Huglet, King of Ireland, gave them battaile, in the which, Huglet was slaine, and all the Irish put to flight. And yet mine Author, though a Dane, highly commendeth two Irish Lords, Segathus and Suibdanus, the one wounded Haco, the other gave Starcuterus such a blow, that he stood a great while amazed, and had beene slaine,Dufflania or Dublin ran­sacked by them had he not beene rescued. The battaile being ended, the Danes tooke (Dufflinian) Dublin, ransacked it, and found great store of treasure, and some of them remained in the land, the rest re­turned to Denmarke, Starcuterus went into forraigne countries to combat with Giants.

Of the com­ming of the Pictes or Scy­thians into these parts.In the time of Arviragus before mentioned, I finde the greatest probability of the first comming of the Pictes out of Scythia, first into Ireland, secondly, into Albania, now called Scotland, and lastly, into the North of England. And whereas before (page 3.) I made menti­on of the arivall of Scythians, Nemedus and his foure sonnes, and af­ter them of five brethren of their posteritie, and the third time of ano­ther fleete of Scythians that arived in Ireland; and that also by many antiquities it appeareth that the Scots be Scythians, and came out of those parts whence these Pictes brake forth; I purpose now to make a more full discourse of that businesse.

Camden modestly confesseth he knoweth not when they came first into these parts, neither doe I mislike with his conjecture, that they should be old Britaines, who painted themselves, to shew more ter­rible against the Romanes: yet we must confesse, that there are many nations of severall names in Scythia, and Polychronicon, together with Rastall, saith, that the Gothes and Pictes be one nation. The ety­mologie I finde in the storie of the Gothes: Scythia in the Gothicke [Page 21] tongue, signifieth a skilfull archer. Io. Magnus Goth. Hist. lib. 1 cap. 27. Beda eccles. hist. gentis Aug. lib. 1 cap. 1. And these Pictes brought with them the use of darts, which the Irish retaine to this day. But I come to Beda, who goeth plaine to worke. When the Britaines (saith hee) had possessed the greatest part of the Isle, beginning at the South, it hap­pened that a nation of Pictes out of Scythia, with long shippes, (yet not many) entred the Ocean, the winde driving them about, beyond all the coast of Brittaine, they came into Ireland, and arived in the North, and finding there the nation of Scots, desired of them to grant them a dwel­ling place amongst them, but they could not obtaine it, &c. The Scots made answere that the Iland could not hold them both, but wee can give you (said they) good counsaile what you may doe. We know ano­ther Island not farre from ours, reaching to the East, the which we are wont oft to discerne in cleare dayes; if you will goe thither, you may make it your dwelling place, or if any withstand you, take vs for your aide. And so the Pictes sayling into Britaine, began to inhabite the North parts of the Iland, for the Britaines held the South. Pictes saile into Britaine. And when the Pictes had no wives, and sought them of the Scots, they were gran­ted them, onely upon this condition, that when the title of Soveraigntie became doubtfull, they should choose them a King rather of the Femi­nine bloud royall, then of the Masculine, They obtaine wives of the Scots. the which unto this day is ob­served amongst the Pictes. And in processe of time, Britaine after the Britaines and Picts, received that third nation of the Scots upon that part, where the Pictes had their habitation, Scots under Reuda saile out of Ireland into Britaine. who issuing out of Ireland with their Captaine Reuda, either by loue or by the sword, have wonne peculiarly unto themselves those seats which they hold unto this day, and of this their captaine they are called Dalreudin, for in their lan­guage, (Dal) signifieth apart.

And here I cannot but meruaile at Hector Boetius and Buchanan, what confusion they bring into the historie,Hect. Boet. Scot. hist. lib. 4. without regard of the truth, they name Beda, they call Reuda, Reuther, and say that he was the sixt King of Albania, and that the Britaines made him flee into Ireland, and that in the end he was restored to his kingdome againe; which can no way agree with the words of reverend Beda, whose credit we may not impeach, for he saith, they were Scythians, and wanted a dwelling place, and beganne to inhabit the North parts of the Iland. If Reuda were King of Albania, no thanke to the Irish men to direct him thither. But let us goe on with the Pictes.

I finde in Lanquet that the Pictes were rebellious,Anno Dom. 53. an. 9: of Arvi­ragus, Anno. Domini 53. And Polycronicon affircteth, as Beda wrote before, that they came to the North of Ireland in Vespasians time. Stow saith it was in Anno 73. Matthew the Monke of Westminster, in Anno 75. and 76. Leslaeus and Bozius write that Reuda came about the yeere 360. which is very doubtfull, and that then the Pictes wan­ting wives, desired of the Britaines that they might march with their nation, their suit being denied, they went to the Irish, who granted [Page 22] them wives upon the condition in Beda before rehearsed And far­ther, Giraldus Cambrensis, Polycronicon and Grafton concurring, doe say, that Scotland was first called Albania of Albanactus, se­condly, Pictlandia, of the Pictes; thirdly, Hibernia, Ireland, because of the alliance or affinitie in marriage betweene the Pictes and Irish; last of all, Scotland or Scythians land. And hereof it commeth to passe, that Ireland is called Scotland, and Scotland Ireland, the Irish Scots,Polychron lib 1. cap. 1. cap. 37. and the Scots Irish, as one hath largely collected; and the di­stinction of Scotia Major, and Scotia Minor.

Io. Harding Chronig. Mewinus. Harding hath an historie out of Mewinus a Brittish Chronicler, (Harding lived in the time of Henry the fift and sixt, and in the daies of Edward the fourth,) which if it be true, all that is formerly spo­ken of Gathelus and Scota his wife, by the Scottish and Irish Chro­niclers, is of small credit; namely, how that Gathelus and Scota came into these North parts, together with the Pictes, Anno Domini 75. his words are these, speaking of the King of Britaine.

Then to the Peights left alive, he gave Catenesse
To dwell upon, and have in heritage;
Which wedded were with Irish as I gesse,
Of which after Scots came on that linage,
For Scots be to say their language
A collection of many into one,
Of which the Scots were called so anone:
But Mewinus the Bryton Chronicler
Flor. hist. Mewinus was also called Melkinus. Io. Bale cent. 1: cap. 57. wrote his life. The stone Regall of Scotland.
Saith in his Chronicle otherwise,
That Gadelus and Scota in the yeere
Of Christ, seventie and five by assise,
At Stone inhabite as might suffice:
And of her name, the country round about,
Scotland she cald that time without doubt.
This Scota was, as Mewin saith the sage,
Daughter and bastard of King Pharao that day,
Whom Gadele wedded, and in his old age
Vnto a land he went, where he inhabited ay,
Which yet of his name is called Gadelway;
And with the Peights he came into Albanie
The yeere of Christ aforesaid openlie, &c.

Pol. lib. 1. cap. 58 Polycronicon and Cambrensis accord with Harding in this point, that the King gave the Pictes a place to dwell in, which is now cal­led Galleway.Ponticus Viru­nius. And saith Ponticus Virunius, it was desert and waste, where none dwelled in many dayes before. The credit of Harding is [Page 23] great, and he that list to know farther of him, let him reade Bale, Bi­shop of Ossorie, who wrote his life.Io. Bale. Script. Brytan. centur. 8

I will now neither confirme nor confute, but acquainte the reader with such antiquities as I finde, and in a word, to adde something unto that which went before, of the time of the Pictes comming in­to these North, and North-west parts. Florilegus writeth it was Anno Domini 77. Functius and Polydore, Anno Dom. 87. To recon­cile the dissonance, what every one saith may stand for truth, for they came in severall companies, and at severall times, some into Ireland, some into Albania, and some into England.Scotland for Albania from hence forward I will from hencefor­ward leave writing the kingdome of Albania, and write the king­dome of Scotland.

Anno Dom. 73. began Marius the sonne of Arviragus to raigne in Britaine,Anno Dom. 73. (Humfrey Lloide calleth him Meurig) who after his trou­blesome warres, for nine yeeres space against the Picts and Scots, en­ded with the helpe of Iulius Agricola, is said to have aspired towards Ireland, and to have placed garrisons on the coast; and to the end he might performe some exploite there, entertained an Irish Prince that was driven out of his country by civill dissention for his conductor. I finde no issue recorded of this businesse.

In the 15. yeeres civill warres which ensued vpon the death of Lucius, the sonne of Coile, King of Britaine, it is reported,Galf. Mon. that Ful­genius called the Ilanders, Albanians, Pictes, and Irish men to his aide, against whom, Severus the Emperour comming from Rome, gave them battaile neere unto Yorke, where Severus and a Prince of Ireland were slaine, and Fulgenius deadly wounded; the Emperour Severus and the Irish Prince, lye buried at Yorke.

In the antiquities of Ireland, I finde that about the dayes of Con­stantine the great,Booke of Houth. Anno Dom. 310 The history of Realmond, King of Vlster. who beganne his raigne anno Dom. 310.) one Re­almond King of Vlster, fell in love with a Lady of Leinster, who had beene wife to the King of Connaught, a woman (they say) of meane stature, but of singular beautie; when many Princes and Lords of Ireland laboured to winne her fauour, her answer was, that none should enjoy her loue, but a Champion that by Marshall prowesse had prevailed in forraigne countries, quitted himselfe like a man, wonne the Garland, and brought tribute with him to his native soile. Realmond being overcome with the love of this Lady, hoised up saile and went for France, where he encounrted with a Champion, and wonne a Garland called Civica. Afterward comming to great Britain, hee challenged the Duke of Cornewall, and got of him a tribute,Duke of Cornewall. Castreus the Gyant thence he went into Scotland, and encountred with Gyant Castreus, and prevailed; (such was the manner of winning honour and dignity by marshall feates in those daies, saith Saxo Grammaticus) last of all he came backe to Ireland, and acquainted his love,Sax. Gram. hist. Dan. lib. 7. the Lady he for­merly sought for, with his travaile, his dangerous adventures, and [Page 24] his good successe, and now having prevailed abroad, hee doubted not at home in regard of his kingdome, his kindred and valour, but to obtaine her fauour. Shee being made throughly acquainted with his affaires abroad and at home, gave many a sigh in his absence, fea­ring some mischance might come to him, and wishing she had not so peremptorily answered him; but he no sooner came in place, but she relented from her former hardnesse, and with all speed the solemnity of marriage was performed. But the match was disdained by others, insomuch that he was hated of the Princes and Nobilitie of Ireland, who had formerly affected the Lady, whereof grew mutinies, con­tentions, and at last open warre, and hee finding himselfe weake, in comparison of his enemies, was forced to flee into Denmarke, where hee found favour and great aide of worthy Souldiers which came with him into Ireland,The Danes come to Ireland. where he and his generation, together with the Danes and their posteritie, effected many notable acts, and con­tinued many yeeres.

The Danes of the lyne of Fin Eryn, that came out of Denmarke, were these,The genealo­gie of Fin Erin, or Fin Mac Coyll. David the Kings sonne who had to his sonne borne in Ireland, Deure Dove, who had foure sonnes, Covrry, Boyskene, Fy­agh, and Oghe; Boyskene had a sonne called Garreneslo, and Con-Caghmore was his sonne; Con had a sonne named Ferrelogh, and he had a sonne called Trenmore, this Trenmore had to his sonne, Coylle Negoe, and he had a sonne called Fin-Fa, alias Fin Mac Coylle and he had a sonne caled Oshen, and he had a sonne called Osker. This Oshen lived in Anno Dom. 432. in the dayes of Saint Patricke, unto whom he made relation of many things before going, and was by him bap­tized, being of the age of seven score yeeres. For proofe of this histo­rie, I finde in Saxo Grammaticus that wrote the historie of the Danes, that Fin and Finni were a great sept there, hardy, stalworth men, gi­ven to preying, and burning of towne and country, and happly the Irish conversing with them,Eric or Erin what it signifi­eth. did learne those parts of them) and that the name of Eric was of the royall bloud among them; so Fin Erin turning c. into n. was a great commander there, and conducted into Ireland many Danes.Erin or Ireland of whom so called. And happly, Ireland of old, because of his great command, and his posteritie, might after him be called Erin: this is but my conceit, happly others can say more thereof. These Danes increased and multiplied exceedingly, and became great Com­manders and Captaines over the whole land, and tooke vpon them the defence thereof against all forraigne invasion. In processe of time fell out the battaile of Fentra in Mounster, valiantly fought by the Irish and Danes, whereof the Irish Chroniclers make great accompt; it was fought chiefly in Mounster, by the Princes and power of Ire­land, with the aide of the Danes, and generation of Fin Mac Coylle, and Fin Eryn, in which field, they say, all the forraigne enemies that came out of Scotland, Cornewall, Normandie, Germany, Spaine [Page 25] and Denmarke it selfe, were overthrowne. The occasion was as fol­loweth.

Many Gyants and worthy Champions there were in those daies in Ireland, of Irish and Danish birth, hired by them for their defence;Occasions of the battaile of Fentra. these trauelling into forraine countries, fought many combats, and got yeerely tribute unto their country, as the manner then was among such challengers. For this they were generally envied, and a day was appointed by the invaders to arrive together in Ireland to ouer-runne the country, and roote out the whole nation. The first company to the number of thirtie thousand, landed at the Derrie,Strangers in­tend the utter subversion of the Irish nati­on. where Con­kedagh one of the Princes of the North, being prepared for them, by a sleight, set their shipping on fire, and met with them in a place where they were all overthrowne, so that with their Armes, those among the Irish that formerly wanted, were furnished and made fit for the warres. The second company of this combination came to Lambay, landed their men at the Follesse of Skerries, set their men in battaile array, and marched to a place now called Cnoc-nagean, that is the hill of dead mens heads, where Dermotte Lamhdhearg King of Leinster met them, fought a cruell battaile with equall fortune for the space of foure daies;A strange bat­taile if it be true. the Irish by reason of the spoile and victory got at the former battaile, were mightily encouraged, and also the milke and fresh meate which the country yeelded them, and the strangers wanted, made them the more able to fight; to be short, the strangers were overthrowne, and thirty sixe thousand of them slaine, whose Armes furnished Ireland throughly to encounter with the rest of the combination.

The third company came to Fentra in Mounster, where the forces of Ireland being gathered together, kept them from landing the space of seven dayes, with the slaughter of many on both sides, so that the sea-shore at sundry times was died redde with the bloud of the slaine karkasses, untill that one Gillemore, sonne to the King of Thomond,Gillemore of Thomond re­volteth. (being male-content for that he was remoued from the voward of the battaile to the rere) revolted, and by night stole to the enemie, and directed them where they should safely land their men, which accor­dingly came to passe, so that the Irish knew it not untill the strangers had set their owne shippes on fire: hee withall brought the invaders to such advantage of ground, that they refreshed themselues for ten dayes without any annoyance from the Irish, and afterward when they came to skirmish, did himselfe divers times fight valiantly, im­bruing his hands in the bloud of his owne naturall countrimen. At last it fell out after some bickering, that hee called for water to wash his hands that were all full of the bloud of his countrymen, which was left stand after he had therein washed, and soone after calling for a cup of wine, was answered that there stood a bowle of wine upon the table; he forgetting that he had formerly washed therein, dranke [Page 26] it up, insomuch, that the standers by said; What fellow is this, more like a brute beast then a man, that drinketh his owne bloud, and eateth his owne flesh? Gillemore hearing this, tooke it to heart, notwithstan­ding dissembling his griefe and anger,Gillemore re­turneth. the next night conveyed him­selfe away, and submitting himselfe to his father, delivered unto him the state of the strangers, which turned to their great disadvantage and hinderance.

Shortly after, the day of battaile was appointed, where the stran­gers were overthrowne,The battaile of Fentra. and (as they say) seven score thousand men slaine. The Irish had supplies and extraordinary meanes at home, the strangers could not come by it; the Irish plaid with them at all ad­vantages, the woods and the bogs defended them as occasion ser­ved. This battaile with the preambles and circumstances, continued one whole yeere, the strangers had no shipping to flee unto for suc­cour, the ground was unknowne unto them, their lodging and fare was cold, hard, and scant, so as their hardinesse could not hold out, their end was lamentable, and the honour was bequeathed to the Irish nation. The Princes of Ireland having thus with great successe foiled their enemies, delivered their people from utter overthrow, and quieted the land, rested themselves a while. Afterward, partly for recompence of good service, and partly for safegard of the land, appointed the Danes (whom they had formerly hired, who also un­to that time had served them truely) over the whole land to prevent forraigne invasion, forewarned by the field of Fentra and the former attempts; these Commanders with their particular places of com­mand, I thought good to impart to the courteous reader.

  • The severall garrisons of the Danes.
    Osker Mac Oshen Mac Fin with his Souldiers kept the haven of Dublin.
  • Fian Mac Fenrasse kept the Winde-gates.
  • Wony Etagh Mac Cas Foule kept Wicklo.
  • Creyon Mac Wony kept Arcklow.
  • Eye Onagh Mac Kellenkas kept Weixford.
  • Dono Mac Kayder kept Rosse.
  • Fellum Mac Eye Keyge kept Dungarvan.
  • Bresell Mac Eydow kept O Keylle.
  • Gaero Mac Doheyere kept Corke.
  • Ollen Aye Nyarg Mac Bressell kept Kynsale.
  • Collo Mac Keilt kept Dingle Koysse.
  • Con Keor Mac Bren Mac Foyll kept Fentra.
  • Osker Mac Cromkeyn kept Trallie.
  • Don Dowe Mac Reymowre being a King over the sept of Fin Mac
  • Koyle kept Lymnagh, that is, Limericke.
  • Eye Boge Mac Fin kept Inyskagh.
  • Coll Kroytt kept Corke Vaysken:
  • [Page 27]Eye Mac Sroy kept Canborne.
  • Eye clone Drylinge kept Donrys Oveyragh.
  • Bressell Mac Eye Begge kept Galloway▪
  • Deyre Dovenagh Magher Morne, kept Inysbresyn.
  • Eye O row Mac Fin kept Kleere.
  • Collow Daver kept small Iland.
  • Enos Dayrk kept Koymaghtbe.
  • Enos Maygh Ercoipie kept Galley.
  • Feartagh Mac Ferolagh kept Moyc.
  • Low Magh Mac Karbren kept Sligo.
  • Smerger Drought kept Bondroys:
  • Keyll Croagh Kede Gonagh O Navnyd, Assero▪
  • Brasell Mac Doyer kept Donagall.
  • Mogh Small Mac Smoyll kept Fanyd.
  • Eey Mac Kehow kept Loughfoyle.
  • Darawryd Rowrer kept Bonban.
  • Sperenagh Claw kept Knockfergus.
  • Magh love kept Ardolloe.
  • Donogh Mac Dermotte Evne, kept Ardglas.
  • Art Oge Mac Morne kept Dondorme.
  • Eye Mac Carra Meyke Morne kept Carlingford.
  • Flaas Fere Leyfroke Greffey Fin Mac Koyll, kept Don dalke.
  • Rey ne Roysklaygh Mac Fin Mac Koyll kept Drogheda.
  • Shealvagh Mac Dermotte Doyn kept Gormanston.
  • Covuloe Mac Wowdyrge kept Irelands eye.
  • Derlleys Mac Dovgar kept Howth.

These were the chiefe Commanders by direction from Fin Mac Koyll, Beacons ap­pointed in Ireland by Fin Mac Koill. who tooke farther order that Beacons should be set up in sun­dry places of the land, where in time of danger they might have direction for reliefe, and draw to a head for their defence; which or­der continued unto the field of Kaghcaro, otherwise called Ardkagh or Ardkath, the occasion whereof was as followeth.

In the time of Karbre Lifeacher, Monarch of Ireland, the Danish Captaines with their bands and garrisons,Karbre Lifea­cher Monarch of Ireland. waxed insolent and outra­gious, they weighed not what Prince or people said, they grew strong and rich, not caring what they did: they brought vp fond cu­stomes of their owne devising, oppressing the people, and disdaining the gentle admonitions of the Kings and Nobilitie of the land. A­mong themselves they decreed, that no Maid should marry without their license, that none should hunt the Hare, Otter, Foxe, Wolfe, Marterne or Deare,The insolent devices of the Danes. but should pay them what they pleased to rate it at, and that none should use any other pastime without their privi­tie. The Kings and Nobilitie of the land called a Parliament, ende­vouring to reforme these abuses, charging them to surcease from their [Page 28] outrages, or to leave the land. The Danes answered, that they came in with the sword, held by the sword, and with the sword they would be driven away. The day of battaile was appointed to be fought at Amaghery Ongallin, now called Margallin in Westmeath, though the field be called Ardkagh, which is by interpretation, a set field.

The Danes sent to Denmarke, intimating their griefe and lamenta­ble estate, craving aide of the King, and that he would be pleased to send his sonne to be their Generall, who (according to their request) shortly after landed with tenne thousand stalworth souldiers (so the old phrase runneth) and they comming together, made up twenty and eight thousand, and seven hundred. The Kings of Ireland with their forces were threescore and five thousand.Forces of the Irish and Danes. The Danes or Nor­wegians being valiant and venterous, hastened to the battaile at the day appointed. The Kings in like sort with their forces hearing that their enemies approched, set themselves in battaile array, and came to a place where they all kissed the ground, readie to dye one with another, and gave (after their manner) such a crie, as if heauen and earth met together, and therewith somewhat amazed their ene­mies,Garrestowne. The marshal­ling of the Danes at the battaile of Ardkath. so that the place to this day is called Balle-Nangartha, in En­glish, Garrestowne.

The strangers placed themselves on the South-west side of the hill, that the forces of the Kings being on the other side, somewhat be­neath them, might not easilie discrie their Armie; they appointed their worst men for their Rereward, that seeing the Voward valiant­ly encountring and prevailing, they might thereby be the more en­couraged. They placed their rascals on their jades, nagges and labou­ring garrons, on the top of an hill, where at this day is a little Mote in remembrance thereof, giuing them in charge, that when the forces of the land espied them, and drew neere, they should retire to the maine battaile for refuge and succour; they hoped by these meanes, that the Kings when they saw so great a company flee, would breake their order and array to pursue them, and so lay themselves open to utter ouerthrow; and then was their intent to have made the King of Denmarkes sonne, King of the land, and to have enioyed the Realme to them and their posteritie for euer.

The Kings of Ireland being seven in number, tracing a while on the top of an hill (which therefore was called after that,Hol-trase. Order of the Kings of Ire­land at the▪ field of Ard­kath. the hill of Trase, now Hol-trase) divided themselves into two battailes. Gillemore, O Connor Dunnes, sonne of Connaght (one that had stood out in rebel­lion against the Kings untill that time) had in the Voward the lea­ding of the light footmen, whereof they made least account; he ther­by to winne their favours,Dermot Lamh­dhearg King of Leinster. and they to hazard him first. Dermotte Lamhdhearg, King of Leinster had the charge of the horsemen; their bonnys were double armed, well appointed, active and venturous souldiers. Dermot being well mounted, got him to an advantage of [Page 29] ground, and turned him to the armie with this speech.

My friends and fellowes in Armes,The King of Leinsters speech. whose great valour hath been oft tryed; understand (I beseech you) the cause of this battaile. Whereas heretofore we have sought out these, and hired them in our warres for our defence and good of our country, against our forraine enemies, to be at our service and command, they have committed all manner of outrage against vs, and extortion upon the people of this land; they abused our wives, ravished our widowes, defloured our daughters and maidens; their meat, their drinke, their bedding, will not content them, but they must have money for eating, drinking and sleeping. Where they should have beene our true and dutifull serui­tors, they disdained the Princes of the land, and made the people their villaines. By maintaining of them, wee made our country men idle and unapt for the warres, by inriching of them we have begge­red our selves, and now see the villany of these verlates, our provisi­on, our furniture, our Armes, and forces of our native soile, they bend against us, and not onely this, but they have drawn to their pre­sent aide, afresh, both Danes and Norwegians. Wherefore plucke up your hearts, quitte your selues like men, our cause is good, wee fight for our selves, our wives and children, and the libertie of our country; if we lose, we are lost for euer, and our children become bondslaues, and our country subiect to these bloudy rascall strangers.

He had no sooner ended his speech, but they all kissed the ground, and gave a terrible shout, that the woods about them rang thereat. On the other side, one Osker Mac Oshen, experienced in the warres, and bold of speech, craved of the Danes and Norweyes libertie to speake, and began as followeth.

My masters and fellowes,Osker Mac O­shen his speech. the cause of this our assemblie is knowne unto you; it is to maintaine that which we honourably wonne in the field, and was granted our ancestors and their posteritie, the which we have in writing to shew, under the hands and seales of the ance­stors of these faithlesse Kings and Princes that be in Armes against us. There is no haven, creeke or port in Ireland, but that our prede­cessors and we tooke the charge of them, since our first arrivall here out of Denmarke, and valiantly defended the [...] maugre the beards of all forraigne enemies. We fought many a battaile for them, wee wanne them tributes, and procured them discharge of tributes, the which forraigne champions in combats had obtained of them, and now for recompence, they endevour eyther to banish us the land, or put us to the sword. Will yee understand what they are, surely a people that keepe no promise with us, therefore we doubt not but the better to speed: and excepting a few of their Princes and Gentlemen that are valiant men indeed, and daily exercised in feats of Armes, the rest are but pesants, poore and needy slaues, bare arst, bare legd, and bare footed, and of small strength. For Armes, they weare a skull, a [Page 30] sword by their side hanging in a Wyth that compasseth their middle, and a Target; other some have darts; the best thing in them is, they are swift of foot, & I hope we shal speedily have the experience of that when we see them run away. Their good meate & best drink we took, and made them fast, their treasure we tooke to furnish us in apparell and Armes, and left them unfurnished and bare, their bedding wee had, and made them lye on the ground, their wives, widdowes and maides were at our command to keepe us warme in the night, and we gave them leave to lye among their swine. The best soile we tooke to our selves,Fabian part 6. cap. 198. wri­teth that the Danes did the like in Eng­land. and gave them mountaines and bogges: alas poore sillie fellowes, these be they that now take Armes against us. Where­fore faint not, be of good courage, and we shall prevaile; let us winne vantage of ground, and get the side of the hill, and bogge against them, that their horses prevaile not, and once master them, we shall quickly over-runne the pesants; now last, kisse one another, in token that you will live and die one with another.

The battaile of Ardkath.His words being ended, they marched forward with Pipes, Cor­nets, and Trumpets sounding. Their chiefe armes were Skeynes, Speares, Darts, Slings, and Sparthes, (which we call Galloglas Axes:) they sent their boyes and varlets, as they had formerly determined, to the top of the hill. The King of Leinster that had the leading of the horsemen, no sooner espied them, but (contrary to the plot laid downe upon the hill of Trase) put spurres to his horse, and with a loud voyce said, follow me, they were straight upon their backes that fled, so that the Danes had no leisure to receive them for their safe­gard, but were driven to kill their owne before, as the Irish did be­hinde. Immediately came the light foot under the leading of Gille­more, and together with the horse, charged the voward of the Danes, so that the rascals of the Danes, and the light footmen of the Irish were slaine, with the death and hurt of many a Dane. Then came the great battaile of the Kings of Ireland in rescue of the horse, with a great and terrible noise, and gave a stout charge upon the enemie (that kept the ground, I meane the side of the hill) and fiercely bare them downe to the bottome, where they fought a cruell battell with equall fortune, almost the whole day, untill the King of Denmarkes sonne was slaine by the King of Leinster,The King of Leinster slai­eth the King of Denmarke his sonne. The Danes overcome. whereupon the Danes fled, the Irish followed, and had the killing of them without resistance, till horse and man were weary, and the Danes in a manner all destroyed. Of the Irish were slaine (as I finde in the antiquities of the land) foure Kings, twenty five Kings sonnes, and of others, nineteene thousand, seven hundred and threescore, though others extenuate the matter. They say the horses went to their bellies in bloud, also the ayre with the stinke was infected, and thereof shortly after rose a grie­vous plague, which cut off the wives, children, and servants of the Danes, and of many of the Irish that were slaine.

[Page 31]There was at this field, one Ferreis a Dane,Ferreis a Dane fell madde. a valiant souldier in the fight, but escaping with life, for very sorrow of the overthrow, and losse of his friends, fell madde, and kept company with wilde beasts to his dying day. Fin Mac Coile, Fin Mac Coile. one of the principall Captaines of the Danish sept, was in Rome at the time of this field; many things are reported of him worthy remembrance. His chiefe house was cal­led Baragh-llys in Vlster; he was a man in his prosperitie of great command in Ireland, so that the Danes and Norweyans had through him great dealing and entercourse with Ireland, and Ireland with them. But yet (as it sometime falleth out among the deerest friends) many jarres and broiles and factions fell betweene them, and especi­ally betweene the sept of Klan ne Morne, and Klan ne Boisken, The Danes disagree in Ireland. both which sides still relieved themselves out of Denmarke. The King of Denmarke at last hearing of the same of Fin Mac Coile, sent for him, and tooke such a liking to him, that he concluded to marry him unto his daughter. Fin went thither with three thousand souldiers: the King one day as they conversed together, asked after the manner of the death of his three sonnes, Comen, Law-ne-Meyd, and Feagh, who formerly went into Ireland to maintaine one of the factions; Dermot O Doyne, (one of Fins company) answered, trouble not thy selfe, O King, this is the hand that killed thy sonne Comen; one Osker said, this is the hand that killed thy sonne Law-ne-Meyd; Keyn Mac Fin also said, this is the hand that killed thy sonne Feagh. Herewith the King was wroth and said, Fin Mac Coile, thou and thy men are my prisoners; forthwith they drew their Skeynes, the Kings guard for feare fled, they tooke him prisoner, carried him aboord their shippes,Fin Mac Coile taketh the King of Denmarke prisoner. hoised up saile, and brought him to Ireland, so as the marriage was dasht, and the King driven to pay a ransome for his libertie, before he could get from them. This Fin Mac Coile also fought with a Gy­ant that landed at Houth, and came to challenge combats for tribute,Overcommeth a Gyant. and by policie, not by strength, overcame him: his policie was this; he caused him in the night, (for the space of three nights) to be kept waking, and in the day time to be fought withall, and thereby wea­kened his strength, and foiled the Gyant. Toward his end,Gorre burneth Fin Mac Coiles house. one Gorre an old man, after these former warres and troubles, came to his house (before spoken of) and boasted unto the Gentlewomen then present, of his feates in warre, and the combats he had fought, whereat they laughed; he being offended with them, sware in his anger that hee would burne them all, got old timber and straw, put it in the house, fired it, made fast the doores, and compassed about the house with men that none might escape. They cryed unto him out of their win­dowes to save their lives, but he was inexorable, and could not bee drawne to any compassion, and when the house was readie to fall, he fled into Mounster, and there hid himselfe in a Cave. Fin Mac Coile came home from hunting, and beheld this wofull desolation, [Page 32] how his Wife, his Maides, his old Souldiers, his Horses, his Grey­hounds, his Plate and houshold stuffe, his Shields, Iackes, and Shirts of maile, and his instruments of Musicke, were consumed to ashes, made after Gorre into Mounster, where he found him, and after some skirmish of both sides, tooke him, and brought him to the place where he had committed this villany. Gorre when hee beheld the bones of them that were burned, laughed, and being asked why, his answer was, that hee laughed at them that formerly laughed at him. This wil [...]e Gorre being kept that night from execution, in the dead of the night stole away, and was found in a Cave, where by commandment of Fin Mac Coill, Hugh Gorre his owne sonne killed his father,He is killed by his own sonne. The end of Fin Mac Coill. and after became madde himselfe. And the end of Fin Mac Coill was, that he dyed a beggar and in great miserie. So farre out of the booke of Houth. Now to continue the storie.

It is written of Maximus, who beganne his raigne in Britaine, Anno Dom. 387, that he tooke great displeasure against the Scots and Irish, for partaking with Conan, and upholding the faction be­tweene him and Carodoch:W. Harrison in the descripti­on of Brit. Georg. Buchan. veg. Scot. lib. 4. thus it is written; Maximus drave the Scots out of Britaine, and compelled them to get habitation in Ire­land, the out Iles, and the North part of the maine, and finally divi­ded their region betweene the Britaines and the Pictes. He denounced warre also against the Irish men, for receiving them into their land; but they craving peace, yeelded to subscribe, that from thenceforth they would not receive any Scot into their dominions.

H. Boet. Scot. hist. lib. 6. Hector Boetius penneth this matter at large, that all the Scots were banished, and despersed themselves into the Hebrydes, Orchades, Norwey, Denmarke, and some into France and Italie. And where Maximus somewhat tendred their utter ruine and overthrow, and referred them to the Pictes for favour, the Pictes most cruelly gave sentence, that the Scots which fled not, should eate the Pictes sword, &c: And of Ireland he writeth, Vpon the first comming of this newes, all Ireland mourned and made great lamentation; and when they had deliberately examined the exiles, and understood all the accidents that befell them in Albion, they appointed certaine dayes for a parley, sum­moned from East to West, all the Princes of the land to meete their Mo­narch at the certaine day and place prefixed, Irish consult how to helpe the Scots a­gainst the Ro­mans. to consult how and by what meanes the Roman forces might be resisted, and the kingdome of Albi­on restored to their allies and cousins the Scots. When they could de­vise no remedie (for they feared the power of the Romanes) they thought good to put up all iniuries, and to intreate for peace. To this purpose they sent Ambassadors to Maximus the Romane Captaine, who at the first sharpely rebuked them, for that they had sent aide into Albion a­gainst the Romanes their confederates and favourites, and in especiall, seeing that unto that day, Ireland of all the kingdomes of the world, felt little smart of the Romane sword. In the end he received them into [Page 33] favour, and granted them peace upon these conditions. Conditions of peace between the Romans and Irish. That they should thenceforth receive no enemies of the Romanes into the Realme of Ire­land, neither any that gave aide against the Romanes, and that no re­bell of the Irish under pretence of marchandize, should thenceforth set foot in Albion. These conditions of peace being concluded, the Irish were quiet, and trode not upon Scottish soile. So farre Boetius.

Not long after this (according to Ponticus Virunius) Guanius, Ponticus Viru­nius lib. 4. King of Hunnes, and Melga King of Pictes having long hulled here and there, and roved upon the seas, were by Gratianus (after their inva­ding of Britaine and Scotland, in the absence of Maximus) over­throwne, and driven out of the kingdome, and forced to flee for re­fuge into Ireland: soule weather followed these two Kings, and Ire­land gave them hard entertainement at the first. Notwithstanding I finde, that this Guanius and Melga, after the death of this Gratianus, (who usurped the kingdome of Britaine for the space of foure yeeres upon the death of Maximus, who had slaine Gratianus the Empe­rour) prepared againe for Britaine, and brought with them the exiled Scots with Irish and Ilanders for their aide. But to proceed.

Thomas Cooper, who afterwards was Bishop of Winchester, spea­king of the returne of the Scots from exile (in his continuing of the Chronicle of Lanquet) maketh the same to be Anno Dom. 423. and withall delivereth his conceit,Tho. Cooper. that the Scots about this time came first out of Ireland into that country, which of them was called Scot­land. If he had referred it to a further yeere, namely when the sixe sonnes of Muredus King of Vlster came to Scotland, haply it would have carried some probabilitie: but to say that it was the first com­ming of the Scots into Scotland, I doe no more like of it,Rerum Scot. lib. 5. then George Buchanan doth, neither doth it concurre with the antiquities prece­dent or subsequent. Cambrensis and Stanihurst doe direct me in this course. Here I am to note, (saith Cambrensis) that in the time of Neall, Monarch of Ireland, the sixe sonnes of Muredus, King of Vlster, Cambrensis. with no small navie, possessed the North parts of Britaine, whence the nation issuing out of them, and by speciall name called Scottish to this day, inhabite that northerne angle; but upon what occasion they came hither, how and by what great treasons (rather then voyages) they ba­nished the Pictes from those parts, a stout nation, farre passing them for armes and courage, I referre to our Topographie of Britaine. Stan. in appen­dice. Stani­hurst addeth; this inrode into Albania was a little before the com­ming of Patricke. So that these Noble men of Ireland came into Scot­land in the time of Neale, and Patricke came into Ireland in the time of Leigerius the sonne of Neale, as hereafter more at large shall ap­peare.

In the meane time we reade, how that (Anno 430. according to Functius) Celestinus Bishop of Rome sent Palladius into Scotland,Anno Dom. 430. Prosper in Chro. Palladius. who was the first that gave them Bishops, for unto that time, the [Page 34] Churches without Bishops,Geo. Buchanan. [...]ey Scot. lib. 5. were governed by Monkes, with lesse pride and outward pompe, but with greater sanctitie and meekenesse of spirit, &c. I make mention of him, for that (as our Irish Anony­mus, and Iocelin doe write) he landed in the North parts of Ireland, where he hardly escaped with life,Iocelin in vita Sancti Patricij cap. 24. as it is reported, thence he went to the Ilands, where he did much good, lastly he came to Scotland, prea­ched the Gospell, rooted out the Pelagian heresie, and consecrated them Bishops, &c.

Christian faith in Ireland.At this time (as it is written in the life of Declanus) Christian reli­gion first beganne, and tooke roote in Ireland, not as some have dreamed, by Saint Iames the Apostle, neither by Saint Patricke, whom they terme the Apostle of Ireland. The truth of the historie is as followeth. There was one Colmannus in Mounster, a reverend Priest,Colmannus and Dymna. The life of Saint Declanus. (and the first Christian which I finde upon record in Ireland) that baptized one Declanus, and delivered him to be brought up unto one Dymna a Christian schoolemaster, under whom he profited so much, that his fame was spread farre and nigh, so that upon good ad­vice and counsaile, he travailed to Rome, where Celestinus the Pope consecrated him Bishop, where also he met with Albaeus a Bishop of Irish birth. In his returne from Rome, he mette with Patricke in Italie, conversed a while with him, and being inioyned by Celestinus, hastened to Ireland, and left Patricke that was bound for Rome. De­clanus after his arrivall in Ireland, came among his owne sept (whom mine Author calleth Nandesi, and I take to be the ancient house of the Decies) not farre from Lismore,Familie of the Decies. and there preached the Gospell, and converted many to the Christian faith. Thither came unto him, (saith the Legend) seven holy men Mocellog, Beanus, Colmanus, La­chuyn, Moby, Fyndlug and Caminanus▪ they builded them celles, conversed together, and planted the Christian faith over all Moun­ster.Engus King of Mounster. He went to Engus the sonne Nafrygh, King of Mounster, whose Pallace was in Cassill, who gave him leave to preach, yet received not the faith; the reason of this favour (as I finde it) was for that En­gus had married his mother, and had issue by her, Colman and Eo­chard. Colman was by Saint Albaeus the Bishop baptized, and then received the Ecclesiasticall habite, Eochard raigned after his father King of Mounster.

Saint Declanus took a second iourney to Rome, and was reverent­ly entertained by David Bishop of Menevia; after the effecting of his businesse, he returned into Ireland, and arrived in a place called Ard-naciored, in Latine Altitudo ovium, now called Ardmore, the which soile the Lord of Nandesi gave him,Ard-naciored, i. Altitudo ovium, now Ardmore. where goodly buildings have beene, and as the record runneth, Civitas sancti Declani quae in eo loco posita est, vocatur Ardmore, id est, Altitudo magna. Farther in the same Legend I finde, Quatuor sanctissimi Episcopi, cum suis dis­cipulis fuerunt in Hibernia, ante Patricium praedicantes in ea Christū, [Page 35] scilicet, Albaeus, Declanus, Ybarus & Kyaranus (alias Keran), Albaeus, Decla­nus, Ybarus, Keran. & hi plures ad Christum rete evangelico traxerunt, sed tamen sanctus Pa­tricius Majores Hiberniae, & potentiores ad fidem convertit. In their time Patricke sent from Celestine Bishop of Rome came to Ireland whom these foure Bishops with their followers saluted, and seeing Patricke (after the humour of humorous people) more graced then themselves, jarred with him, they would not (forsooth) have any of forraigne nation to patronize the land. In the originall it is recorded: Ybarus nulla ratione consentire Sancto Patricio, Emulation. nunquam ei subditus esse voluit, nolebat enim Patronum Hiberniae de alia gente habere, & conflictus magnos inter se ipsos Ybarus & Patricius fecerunt. But af­terward by much adoe, they were reconciled. See gentle reader the infirmitie of men, and emulation following the same. At Cassill they were reconciled by Engus King of Mounster, whom Patricke bapti­zed, who after his baptisme, founded there the Cathedrall Church,Cassill Church is built and made mother-Church of Mounster. A Parliament. in the honour of Saint Patricke, made it the Metropolitane See of Mounster, and assigned Albaeus the first Bishop there. This King held there a Parliament of spirituall and temporall persons of his king­dome, ratifying the premisses, pacifying all quarrels, and yeelding contentment to all sides, The Legend reporteth, in quo decretum est ut Albaeus secundus Patricius, & Patronus Mumeniae esset; & Decla­nus secundus Patricius, & Patronus esset Nandeisi, & Nandeisi sua Di­ocesis usque ad finem seculi esset. Postea sancti Episcopi salutantes & benedicentes regem Engusum, ad sua in osculo pacis, cum spirituali gau­dio, ad opus Domini seminandum regressi sunt. Wherein it was decreed, that Albaeus should be a second Patricke and Patron of Mounster, and that Declanus should be a second Patricke and Patrone of Nandeisi, and that Nandeisi should be his Diocesse to the end of the world. After all, these holy Bishops saluted and blessed King Engus, and in the kisse of peace, with spirituall ioy, returned every one to his charge, to sow the worke of the Lord. A great pesti­lence in Mounster. Immediately there insued a grievous plague over all Mounster, and especially at Cassill, which was the death of thou­sands; the manner of it was this, first they had the yellow jaundies, then they fell downe for dead. King Engus lamented greatly the death of seven Nobles of Mounster, that were pledges with him at Cassill, and miscarried in this mortalitie. Not long after, Declanus en­ded the way of all flesh, and lyeth buried at Ardmore.

Albaeus, The life of Saint Albaeus. (as his owne Legend delivereth) the second Patrone of Mounster after Patricke the generall Patrone of Ireland was borne in Elyach, now called Ely O Caroll. His fathers name was Ol [...]nais, his mothers, Sandith, a maid servant in the house of King Cronanus, King Cronanus of Eliach. the Lord of Eliach was then called a King. Cronanus in his rage, bid his servants hang the whoore, and kill the childe; the servants loath to dispatch an innocent, tooke him out of his Pallace, and laid him un­der the side of a rocke. One Lochanus the sonne of Lugyr passing by, [Page 36] pittied the childe, tooke him to his horse, and set him to nurse among certaine Britaines, in the East part of Elyach. Palladius (saith the sto­ry) passing from Rome toward Scotland, and travelling through Ire­land, baptized him. The Britaines sent him into France, where hee was trayned up in Christian schooles, and brought up under Bishop Hilarius, who sent him to Rome, where he was consecrated Bishop, and remained one whole yeere and fiftie dayes, preaching and ex­pounding holy Scripture, with great admiration. And saith the Le­gend, there came unto him out of Ireland, fiftie grave and reverend men, of which number there were 12 Colmans, 12 Coenigeni, and 12 Fintans; the Bishop of Rome sent them backe into Ireland, they came to Dolomoir, where Sampson Bishop of that See gave them en­tertainement.King Fintan baptized. There he baptized (saith the storie) King Fintan. After he had baptized and converted many unto the faith, and builded many Churches, and founded many Hospitals for lazers, he came to Ymleach,Ymleach or Emley. now called Emley, a Bishopricke, and in the Legend, ter­med his owne Citie, fell sicke, and there left his bones. He conversed with Biga, (whom learned Camden calleth Bega) & Bretach Nunnes, and with Nessanus a great Antiquarie,Biga and Bre­tach Nunnes. Nessanus the Antiquarie. The life of Saint Kyaranus or Keran. saith mine Author, whose an­tiquities I never saw.

Kyaranus or Keran, alias Piran, (another of the foure Bishops that lived in Ireland before Saint Patricke) commeth next to be spo­ken of. Of him, Capgrave and the Martyrologe thus write, that hee was a Bishop and Confessour, and termed Sanctorum Hiberniae pri­mogenitus. And yet I finde in Molanus, that one Saint Mansuetus, (Bishop of Tullum now called Tullense oppidū, a towne in Flanders) was of Irish birth, fellow Disciple with Saint Clement, under Saint Peter the blessed Apostle, not trayned up in Ireland in the Christian faith, but in forraigne countries, where he was both baptized, instru­cted, and made Bishop, and where he now resteth. But to returne to Keran, he was borne in Ossorie, having to his father Domnell, (saith another, Lugnaeus, whereby I gather, there were two of that name) to his mother Wingella, famous for life, learning, and sanctitie, in the dayes of Saint Patricke. He lived in the Ile of Cleere some 30 yeeres, from thence he went to Rome, where hee met Saint Patricke, who came to Ireland 30. yeeres after Pyranus was of note; in Rome hee continued 15. yeeres, expounding holy Scripture with great admi­ration, (as another saith 20. yeeres) there the Bishop of Rome con­secrated him Bishop. He came to Ireland, and was the first Bishop of Ossorie, having his See at Keran in Elie O Carroll. Hee refreshed, (saith mine Author) Saint Patricke, Keran the first Bishop of Ossorie. and tenne Irish Kings for the space of three dayes, he confirmed Rhodanus in the faith, visited the Virgin Cota (with her Priest Geranus) whose cell was a rocke of the [...]eas, not farre from the Citie of Cluan in Mounster. He was a man of an austere life, never ware woollen garment, but the fell of Wolves [Page 37] and wilde beasts. As he came to his lodging, in time of Lent, and ha­ving inquired what provision they had, answere being made, that they had but a pestle of Porke, he commanded it to be laid on the ta­ble, one scornefully refused the dyet, he misliking with him, threatned him an ill end, which accordingly came to passe. When by the course of nature he saw his end approach, he called his friends unto him, and said: My welbeloved children and friends, God hath dispo­sed that I should trauaile out of Ireland into Cornewall, and there ex­pect the end of my dayes; I cannot withstand the will of God; I doe admonish you brethren, to uphold the place, with good workes and examples of life, for there shall come children of perdition and death among you, ye shall have mortalitie and warres, the Churches shall become waste and desolate, and the truth shall be turned into iniqui­tie, faith shall not shine with good workes, the Pastors will looke to themselves more then to their flocke, feeding themselves more then their sheepe: last of all, I beseech you brethren, pray for me that my iourney may be prosperous, and that after my decease, I finde not my King and my God angry, but gentle and appeased, when I shall appeare before him. He tooke leave, came to Cornewall, and resteth some fifteene miles from Petrok-stow, 25. miles from Mousehole, where he is remembred for their Patron. Cambr [...]nsis writeth,Itinerarium Cambriae. that in Caerdise in Wales, there is a Chappell called Saint Perans Chap­pell, where King Henry the second in his returne from Ireland, repai­red to heare divine service, as he hath remembred it in his Booke in­tituled Itinerarium Cambriae. And thus much of Saint Keran or Saint Peran.

Of Ybarus the fourth Bishop before Saint Patricke, The life of Saint Ybarus. I finde some discourse in the Legend of Abbanus the Abbot, how hee baptized him, and brought him up in learning, and how they went together to Rome, and after their returne, conversed in Ireland with Saint Pa­tricke, as formerly in part hath beene delivered in the life of De­clanus.

This Abbanus is renowned in Ireland for building of Celles and religious houses; besides three Monasteries in Connaght,The life of Ab­banus the Ab­bot. he built in Mounster, Ceall Achard Conchun, alias, Kill Achard, where Saint Finan (whom he baptized) after his death was Abbot.Saint Finan. In the bor­ders of Muskerry he builded the Nunnery of Husneach, and left it to Saint Gobnaid and her Virgins, another Monasterie also by Kilcullen. In Nandesi (as I take it now called the Decies,) by the towne of Briogoban, he founded Kill-na-Marban, and at the foot of the moun­taine Crotte in Muskerie, the famous Monasterie called Cluain-Airdmobecoc, where Saint Becanus was Abbot,Saint Becanus. the which after­ward, because of Becanus his lamentation in devout sort (as it is writ­ten) for his sinnes, was called Ceall Nander, Cella lachrymarum, the cell of teares. He founded also Cluain Findglaise, & Cluain Conbrum, [Page 38] and went into Ely, where he baptized and converted unto the faith, thousands, as the Legend reporteth, in a place afterward called Rath-Becain, in Latine, Atrium Becani, where Abbanus is recounted Pa­tron. He builded a Monasterie upon the river Berba, called Ross-Mac-Treoin,Emenus the Abbot. where the Abbot Saint Emenus resteth; also in Meath, Ceall-Ailbe, and committed the charge thereof to the holy Nunne Segnith and her associates, and in the North part of that country, a Nunnery, Ceall Abbain, where he made an end of his course, and slept with his fathers. There was great strife for his corps, betweene the North and the South, the Lords of the country strove for it in Armes. The North pleaded, here hee first builded and made his a­bode, the South answered, with us was he borne, with us hee most conversed, and we will have his corps, or else we will leave our car­kasses in this place. The body was laid in a Cart, bruit beasts had the drawing of it, when both sides were in Armes, the silly beasts were frighted, and ranne away with the dead, and where he was bu­ried, I have not found as yet. His Monkes howled, and kept a lamen­table stirre;Civitas Ma­garnoid. the record runneth thus. Populus civitatis Magarnoid in Australibus Laginensibus sic dicebat. Iste sanctus a Domino ad nos mis­sus est, & per multos annos apud nos vixit, & monasteria multa et cel­las in nostra regione edificavit, et ipse est noster Sanctus et venerabilis Pater, qui nostrā civitatem similiter construxit, qui post multa miracu­la, apud nos, ad Dominum migravit, et per eum semper a Domino adjuvari speramus, et scitote, quod nos morti omnes prius trademus, an­tequam revertamini, eo a nobis absente. Ad hanc vocemira principum et militum utrorumque arsit, surgentes in furorem magnum, conten­dere et rixari conantes. Tunc verò monachi & clerici, quibus non li­cebat bellare, seorsum exierunt, ululantes & flentes, & fusis lachrymis dicentes; heu heu Domine Deus, cur concedis tam maximam caedem, tantorū nobilium virorum, circa corpus famulitui, qui in sua vita mul­ta bella prohibuit? He had familiaritie with Saint Beartanus an Ab­bot, Brendanus, Molyng, Flannanus, Munnu, Gobban, and with Co­lumba the reverend Priest.

The life of Saint Patricke.Saint Patricke was sent into Ireland by Celestinus Bishop of Rome before named, five yeeres after Palladius was sent into Scotland. So writeth Iohannes Major Scotus, and Functius therein followeth him; but I thinke they are too forward in their computation, for hee came into Ireland,Anno Christi, 422. Iocel. in praef. ad vitam Patric. Anno 432. and for this beside Iohn Bale Bishop of Osso­rie, I have warrant from Iocelin the Monke of Furnese, who wrote his life at the request of Thomas, Primate of Ardmagh, Malachias Bishop of Dune, and Sir Iohn de Courcy Earle of Vlster; and out of Sigeber­tus and Iohn Clyn Guardian of the Fryers Minors in Kilkenny in his collections of Irish antiquities,Sigeb. ad an. 432. Iohannes Clyn Antiq. Hiber. who also saith, that he was 16. yeeres old when the Pirates brought him out of Britaine into Ireland, that he was sixe yeeres in servitude, that he was eighteene yeeres under [Page 39] Saint Germane a Bishop in France, that he spent thirty and five yeeres in converting Ireland and other Ilands to the faith, that he bestowed thirty three yeeres in contemplation, and that hee died anno aetatis, one hundred twenty two.

Bale writeth his life. Patricius surnamed Succetus Magonius, Iohn Bale Scrip. Britt. cent. 1. & 14. of most writers called Magnus for his excellent vertues, had in Britaine to his father one Calphurnius a Priest (the sonne of Ponticus a Priest, saith Iocelin) and to his mother one Conche of Pannonia (Concessa saith Probus) sister to Saint Martin (cosin saith Iocelin:) hee was brought up under godly tutors, when Maximus reigned, first under his uncle Martin, afterward under Germanus Bishop of Auxerre in Burgoyne, from thence he came to Italy, and so to Rome, where for his grave carriage and singular learning, descending of noble race, he got the name of a Senator, Patricius. His first name, saith Flori­legus was Nannus, and in his consecration hee was called Patricius; Sigebertus and Stanihurst write, that in his baptisme hee was called Suchat or Suchar; of Saint German, Magonius; and of Celestinus, Pa­tricius; the like saith Beda in his Martyrologe.

Celestinus then Bishop of Rome sent him together with Segetius a Priest, anno 432 after Palladius the Grecian,Segetius sent with Saint Pa­trick. unto the Scots and I­rish, to defend them from the Pelagian heresie; he with a wonder­full fervency of spirit preached the Gospell unto the Irish nation, travailing in the vineyard of the Lord the space of thirty nine yeeres, converted them unto the Lord with his great learning, and sanctity of life. Whereupon among other miracles (the which he is said to have wrought) upon the top of an hill, like a second Elias, he pray­ed and fasted forty dayes and nights, in a vision hee received of Christ the Gospell, and a staffe, (an Hermit gave him the staffe saith Iocelin.) Hee destroyed the prophane temples of false gods, hee erected monuments of piety, builded Churches, ordained Ministers, releeued the poore, redeemed captives, healed the sick, delivered the possessed, raised sixty dead persons, baptized twelve thousand, if all be true which Vincentius, Antonius, and Capgrave report of him.Saint Patricks works. Out of the treasure of his pure heart, many Authors affirme, that he wrot in Latine these bookes.

  • De antiquitate Avalonica lib. 1
  • Itenerarium Confessionis lib. 1
  • Odoeporicon Hiberniae lib. 1
  • Historia Hiberniae ex Ruano lib 1
  • De tribus habitaculis lib. 1
  • De futura electorū vita lib. 1
  • Abiectoria quaedam 366 lib. 1
  • Sermones quoque lib. 1
  • Probus lib. 2. of his life men­tioneth it.
    Ad Cereticum tyrannum epist. 1
  • [Page 40] Ad Avaloniae incolas epist. 1
  • Ad Hibernenses Ecclesias epist. plur.
  • Ad suos Britannos epist. plur.

The manuscript Legend of Ireland reporteth, that Saint Patrick in his Epistles wrote his owne life. The Antiquaries report, that in his conflicts with the sages of the Gentiles, this Apostle of the Irish wrought no lesse miracles then of old Moses under Pharaoh, or Peter under Nero, and that he endured many dipleasures. In the end after his death, hee was buried neere the City of Dune, but the yeere a­mong the Historiographers is not agreed upon;S. Patrick buri­ed in Downe. yet in remembrance of him this distichon was made.

Hi tres in Duno tumulo tumulantur in uno,
Brigida, Patricius, atque Columba pius.

Saint Patrick died first, Brigida six yeeres after him, and Columba many yeeres after her, yet were all three buried in one grave. What Bale hath formerly written, I find he hath gathered out of Vincentius, Antoninus, Authors that wrote of Saint Pacrick. Capgrave, Leland, Gildas, Giraldus Cambrensis, Bostonus Buriensis, and Florilegus; and all that Iocelin hath at large written, and what Legenda Plumbea, and the booke of Houth report, to avoid prolixity, and to shunne fabulous conceits, I omit. Now to the Irish Chroniclers.

They deliver, that in his captivity in Ireland being sold to Mil­cho King of Vlster (saith Iocelin) to Milach (saith Stanihurst) to Cuul­cu (saith Florilegus) to Macbuaine saith the Irish Anonymus, Ioc. in vita Pa­tricis cap. 12. and to reconcile them all, I take it that Milcho was called Milcho Macbuaine: he kept swine six yeeres; no disgrace unto him, for Marcellus Bishop of Rome (he that will not beleeue other writers, will credit the Mar­tyrologe of Sarum) by the commandement of Maximian the tyrant, kept swine many yeeres. When Patricks six yeeres were expired, one of the swine turned up a clod, under the which lay so much mony as paid his ransome. When he came the second time, he landed at Carlingford, and inquired after Milcho whose captive hee had beene, who would not giue eare to his doctrine, but immediately after his death,Milcho his daughters are babtized. Laigerius Mo­narch of Ire­land, withstan­deth S. Patr. his two daughters of one name, Emeria were baptized. Laigeri­us ▪ (in Iocelin, Leogarius) Monarch of Ireland, the son of Neale hark­ning unto Magicians and Sooth-sayers, gave commandement, (toge­ther with his brother Corbre) unto the Country, for the banishing of Saint Patrick, but Dichu and Rius (two brethren and great Com­manders under him) received the faith, and Conil brother to Laige­rius, who also himselfe shortly after grew indifferent, winking at them that did receive it, so that his Queene and his yonger brother received the faith, and his two daughters. And of Laigerius he thus [Page 41] prophecied: because thou hast alwaies withstood my doctrine, and ceased not above measure to persecute me, and hast above all disdained to beleeve in him that made all things, thou art the childe of death. And whereas of right, thou with the rest,Saint Pat. pro­phecie of the Monarch. yea before all thy confede­rates, oughtest presently to enter into everlasting torments; yet inso­much as thou meekely commest unto me, craving pardon, and like King Achab, humblest thy selfe before my God, the Lord will not forthwith bring upon thee the evill which thou hast deserved; not­withstanding there shall none of thy seed after thee sit upon thy seat, but shall serve thy yonger brother that beleeveth in my God, and his seed after him for ever.

As this holy man travailed in preaching the Gospell,Mocho Bishop of Dune. he met with a young man whose name was Mochaa or Mocho, keeping swine, in whose physiognomie hee perceived towardnesse and sparkles of grace; he taught him, baptized him, trayned him up in holy Scrip­ture, made him Deacon, Priest, and Bishop of Dune where he lyeth buried. Clonsillan and Kellestowne, some five miles west of Dublin, have him for their Patron, where under an high rocke runneth a Spring called S. Mochon his Well. Next he baptized one Benignus, called also Stephanus, so Probus writeth, with his father, mother,Benignus or Ste­phanus, succes­sour to Saint Patricke. A Nunne (saith Iocelin) was in love with him, sent for him to her bed, but the signe of the Crosse made all well. Erchus or Her­kus a Bishop. & fa­milie, who proved so good a member in the Church of God, that he succeeded S. Patricke in Armagh; this Benignus, saith Capgrave, lyeth buried in Glastenburie. Saint Patricke also received into the faith, one Erchas, the sonne of Dega, saith Iocelin, whom he also made a Bishop. The Martyrologe of Sarum calleth him Herkus. At that time, one Pheg a Poet, and (saith Probus) Duptachus an Irish rymer or Poet in Lastgerius his Court, desired baptisme, and afterward all the dayes of his life, converted his vaine rymes into Chrihian Poems, and did much good thereby among the common people.

Saint Patricke had brought with him into Ireland out of Italie, one Mac Cartyn, of Irish birth, so I reade in the martyrologe of Sarum,Ioc. cap. & seq. Mac Carly. Saint Pa [...]. sisters. and three sisters of his owne, which proved very fruitfull. Lupita (who lived a Virgin, and lyeth buried at Armagh) Trigridia and Darercha. Tigridia had seventeene sonnes, and five daughters; the men became Priests, Monkes, and Bishops; the daughters were made Nunnes: the Bishops were called Brochadius, Brochanus, Mogeno­chus, and Lumianus. Darerca the yongest sister had two Bishops to her sonnes, Melrioch and Munis: the martyrologe of Sarum recko­neth her children thus, Mele, Melk, Muncse, Bishops, Riok, Finian and Bolke Abbots. Where I thinke there is some errour, that Melri­och in Iocelin is Mele, and Ryok in the maytyrologe.

Of Lumianus I reade, that he baptized a Lord of the country,Lumianus Bi­shop of Ahtrum. cal­led Fedlemus, and his sonne Forkernus, whose mother was a Britain, his dwelling was at Ahtrum. There Lumianus by their meanes buil­ded a Church some twenty five yeeres before the founding of [Page 42] Armagh, the which he tooke for his Bishops See, and ordered Forker­nus to succeed him there. The possessions (saith mine Author) which were first given to this Church, afterward by the donations of other Princes, fell to belong to Armagh.

The holy man Patricke laboured still in the vineyard of the Lord;Conallus Lord of Connaght. he baptized Conallus, alias Conill, Lord of Connaught, brother to Laigerius, and his familie, who gave Patricke a country called Dompnac. Patricke, and builded for himselfe a dwelling place called Raith-Artair. After seven yeeres, this Conill sent him to his brother Logan (Cogan saith the Booke of Houth) King of Leinster, whom hee baptized, together with Amolgath (whom I take to be the ancestour of the house of O Malaghlin) a great Lord of a country, and his seven sonnes, (Florilegus saith they were seven Kings.) After this, this ho­ly man comming out of Meth, and having passed over the water at Finglas, went up to a hill some mile from the village Athcled, now called Dublin. When he had viewed the place and soile adjoyning, he blessed the same,Saint Patricks prophecie of Dublin. and is said to have prophecied thus; This village is now but small, it will be great, it will be inlarged with wealth and worship, neither will it leave increasing untill it bee advanced to the seate of the Kingdome.

In a while after, he came to the village, where the inhabitants hea­ring of the wonders which the Lord wrought by his hands,Dublin belee­veth and is baptized. went out to meete him with much ioy, and beleeved by his preaching, and were baptized. My Author addeth that upon complaint made unto him, how that they were annoyed with brackish waters, which of necessitie they were driven to use, he walked about the village, turned up cloddes, digged the earth and found a Spring, which is now cal­led Saint Patrickes Well.

Saint Patricks Well. Morguus of Castleknoke.From this village Athcled, hee went to Castleknok, where one Murguus dwelled and commanded those places, who hearing of Pa­tricks comming, refused to give him entertainement, but sent him word that he was asleepe, in which sleepe (as the storie saith) he died, of which accident the common saying ariseth, Thou sleepest Murguus sleepe, applyed to those that sleepe heavily, or are given to overmuch sleepe.

From Castleknok, he bent his course towards Mounster, and came to King Engus, Engus and Da­ris receive Saint Pat. alias Oengus Mac Nafroic, who received him ioyful­ly, and brought him to his Palace at Cassill, saith Iocelin; where also one Daris a great Lord in that country, shewed him much kindenesse. When he had baptized the King, and many thousands with him, he came to Vrmiunnan now called Ormond,Vrmiunnan or Ormond. where in like sort they re­ceived the faith, and the inhabitants in remembrance of him builded a Church, and dedicated the same to his name. From Mounster (where he preached seaven yeeres) hee tooke his iourney backe to Vlster,King Eochu and his daugh­ter baptized. and came to King Eochu, whom he baptized, & his daughter [Page 43] Cumia, whom he made a Nunne, and committed her to the charge of the Nunne Cecubris (in the Nunnery of Drumdukain) whom Pa­tricke first vailed of all the women in Ireland.Cecubris the first Nunne in Ireland. Also he baptized Olca­nus, who went into France to studie, and upon his returne, [...]rected schooles in Ireland, and had many schollers, whereof a great num­ber were afterwards Bishops, he himselfe towards his end, became a Bishop, and ended his dayes in sanctitie. When Saint Patricke had baptized a second Conallus (a petite King) and his brother Fergus, he prophecied of Fedlemus the sonne of Fergus, King Conallus and Fergus baptized. and of Columba the sonne of Fedlemus, what a holy man hee should prove, as after hee did, and was the founder of an hundred Monasteries.

Saint Patricke for all this travaile sailed into Britaine for coadiutors and fellow-labourers in this worke,Saint Pat. in Britaine. where he opposed himselfe both in publike and private against the Pelagians and other heretickes which disturbed the peace of the Church,Pelagians. and brought with him thirty learned men, whom afterward he consecrated Bishops. So that to this day in Britaine, (as in Anglesey, Bristoll, Exeter, and other places) there are Churches built in remembrance of him. He also con­verted the Isle of Man to the faith,Isle of Man. and there is a Church which also beareth his name, and left them one Germanus to bee their Bishop, after whose death hee ordained for that place, Conidrius, Ronillus and Machaldus. Vpon his returne into Ireland, hee met with sixe of his Disciples, of Irish birth, that had beene Students beyond Seas, whom in the end he made Bishops; Lugacius, Columbanus, Meldanus, Lugadius, Cassanus, and Cheranus. Then he made (saith Iocelin) a se­cond iourney unto Athcled now called Dublin; upon his comming, (which was about twentie yeeres after their conversion) and found them all given to idolatrie, and withall, one Alpinus a King with his Queene, and his retinue,Eocchiad and Dublinia raised from death. lamenting the death of Eocchiad their sonne & heire, and the drowning of their sole daughter Dublinia. Pa­tricke preached, the people beleeved, the King hearing of him ho­ped to reape some comfort; to bee short, (saith mine Author) the dead are raised to life, and Athcled ever after in remembrance of the Kings daughter Dublinia, was called Dublin.Dublin whence so called▪ Saint Pat. man­ner of teaching

Saint Patrickes manner was, first to Catechize, secondly to Bap­tize, lastly to minister the Sacrament of the Lords Supper. When with the aide of the country, he builded Churches, hee would not name them after any Saints name, but Domnach the Church of the Lord. And when he had procured a Church to be builded in a place called Achad Fobuit, and consecrated his Disciple Sennachus, alias Seachuallus Bishop there, the humble sute of Senachus unto him was, that the Church should not be called after him, as the manner was, (saith mine Author) in many places among the Irish people.Iocelin c. 1 [...]2. The onely doctrine Patricke read and expounded unto the people, was the foure Evangelists, conferred with the old Testament. Hee is [Page 44] reported to have given many blessings, and to have denounced many curses. He had many Disciples, Kertennus, Winnocus, Winwallocus, likewise saith Molanus, Elberus, Ibarus, Connedus, Secundinus, Asicus, Fiechus, Sennachus, Olcanus, with many others which he made Bi­shops. I finde mention also of Riochus that kept his Bookes and Pa­pers, and of Rodanus that kept his Cattell, that hee made them Bi­shops, and the world made them Saints.

Ireland is greatly beholding unto him, for it is recorded that hee went up to the top of the Mount Hely (I take it to be a hill in Ely, O Carrols country) where he made three petitions unto Almighty God for the people of Ireland that had received the faith.Saint Patricks three petitions for Ireland. Flor. histor. Anton Chron. part 2. tit. 11. cap. 18. First, that every one might have grace to repent, though it were at the last houre. Secondly, that they might not be utterly destroyed by Infidels. Lastly, that no Irish man should live till the day of Iudgement; Quia delebitur per orationem sancti Patricij septem annis ante judicium; for it shall be destroyed by meanes of Saint Patrickes prayers, seaven yeeres before the comming of Christ to iudgement. Probus maketh mention of other Pe­titions, which for that I hold them fabulous, I will not rehearse. He procured (as it is written of him) seaven hundred Churches to bee builded in Ireland,Saint Patricks workes and la­bour in Ireland Iocelin cap. 187. ordained five thousand Ministers, consecrated three hundred and fifty Bishops, successively, understand, in his time.

Darius (the Booke of Houth calleth him Dares, in Probus Dair) a Noble man,Ioc. cap. 164. and 198. affecting Patricke, and seeing him beare low saile, and shrowding himselfe with all humilitie in Vlster, drew him to dwell at Drumsailech, now called Armagh, and having used meanes there for the building of a Church, Patricke went to Rome, procured all confirmations necessary to his purpose, arrived againe in Ireland, and being of the age of 122. yeeres, ended his life in the time that Aureli­us Ambrosius raigned in Britaine, and Forthkerrus was Monarch of Ireland, Brigida and Ethembria who then were accounted two holy women, shrowded him to his grave, when Thassach a Bishop had ministred the Sacrament. Probus writeth that the Britaines came with great forces,Strife for Saint Patricks body. attempting at severall times to fetch away his corps, and that the men of Vlster did withstand them. As for the purgatorie that is fathered upon him, I must referre the reader to the yeere of grace, 850. where he shall finde a second Patricke founder thereof.

The life of Saint Brigide.In our Patricks time flourished many good Christians, renowned at this day, and as an Antiquarie and collector of antiquities, I desire the christian reader to accept of them as I finde them. And I will be­ginne with Brigida that gave Saint Patricke his winding sheete, shee was borne (as Iohn Clyn writeth) anno 439. in Fochart not farre from Dondalke,Bernard in vita Malachiae. as Bernard deliuereth, she was the base daughter of one Duptacus, haply Laigerius his rymer before spoken of) a Noble man (saith Bale of the North parts, a Captaine of Leinster, saith the Book of Houth. Capgrave writeth, that her mother in wantonnesse having [Page 45] conceived, and her belly being espied to be up, Duptacus his wife cau­sed her to be turned out of doores; Duptacus to avoid the i [...]alousie and disquietnesse of his wife, delivered her to a Poet or Bard, (a Ma­gician saith Bale) who kept both Mother and Daughter, and trayned her up in such learning as he had skill in. Shee proved so singularly learned, and was in such account among all men, that a Synode of Bishops assembled by Dublin, used her advice in weightie causes,A Synode by Dublin. as I reade in the Booke of Houth. She became a Nunne, and wrought but one miracle, (saith Bale) that is, shee used meanes to purge a Bi­shop, one Bronus or Bruno from fornication, when the fact was ma­nifestly proved against him. In the authenticke manuscript Legend of Ireland, I finde that she kept most in Leinster, and builded a Cell for her abode under a goodly faire Oke, which afterwards grew to be a Monasterie of Virgins, called Cyll-dara, in Latine, Cella Quer­cus, the Cell of the Oke, now Kildare, and saith mine Author,Kildare: ibique maxima civitas postea in honore beatissimae Brigidaecrevit, quae est ho­die metropolis Laginensium. The first Bishop by her meanes was Con­lianus, alias Conlaidus. Stanihurst reckoneth the succession of the See in this sort.

  • Lony.
  • Ivor.
  • Conlie.
  • Donatus.
  • David.
  • Magnus.
  • Richard.
  • Iohn.
  • Symon.
  • Nicolas.
  • Walter.
  • Richard.
  • Thomas.
  • Robart.
  • Boniface.
  • Madogg.
  • William:
    Bishops of Kil­dare.
  • Galfride.
  • Richard.
  • Iames.
  • Wale.
  • Barret.
  • Edmund Lane.

Who flourished in the yeere, 1518. So farre Master Stanihurst:

Hector Boetius putteth us in remembrance of the honour given her by Scots, Pictes, Irish and English nations,Scot. hist. lib. 9▪ and how that many Churches beare her name. The superstitious Irish in processe of time, found out a Bell called Clogg Brietta, Brigids Bell, whereunto, to de­ceive the simple people, they attribute great vertue and holinesse, the which together with other toyes they carried about, not onely in Ireland, but also in England, and were by Act of Parliament in En­gland, banished the land in Henry the fifts time. Cambrensis repor­teth that the harmonie of the foure Evangelists (the worke of Saint Ierome) was caused by Brigid (most of it) to be written in letters of gold, and was as curious a worke (saith he) as ever I saw, and called Brigids Booke, the which was kept as a monument (saith Stanihurst) at Kildare.

She deceased about the yeere 510. (another saith,Brigides death. anno 548.) and about the yeere 524. she was translated from the Hebrides into Dune, [Page 46] and resteth by Saint Patrickes side, as formerly hath beene declared in his life. Ireland hath given her this Epitaph.

Flos patriae, pietatis amans, virtutis alumna,
Sidus Hibernorum, Brigida virgo fuit.

In her Legend I finde mention of Ercus, a Bishop, the disciple of Saint Patricke, borne in Mounster, also of Saint Ruanus a Bishop, Saint Numidus, Saint Praecipuus, Saint Daria a Virgin, Saint Dar­lugdach called a Virgin, and yet had a daughter that was baptized in the presence of Brigide. Saint Darlu­dach. This Darlugdach was the second Nunne, and succeeded Brigide in Kildare, whose remembrance is celebrated the same day with her.Illand King of Leinster. Illand King of Leinster gave Brigide great ho­nour, of him I read in her Legend, that hee was a most worthy Prince, and fortunate in all his affaires. Illand Rex Lageniae qui tri­ginta bella in Hibernia vicit, octo certamina in Britannia, occidit En­gusium regem Momoniae cum Ethna uxore, quos Patricius baptizavit: Illand King of Leinster, who wonne thirty battailes in Ireland, and eight combats in Britaine, slue Engusus King of Mounster, and Ethna his wife, whom Patricke had baptized.

The life of Cae­lius Sedulius.About this time lived Caelius Sedulius, whom Damianus à Goes, a Knight of Portingall challenged for a Spaniard. Bale writeth hee was a Scot, and Stanihurst that he was borne in Ireland. I will first lay downe what Bale hath, next what Stanihurst reporteth. Caelius Sedulius (saith Bale) by nation a Scot. by calling a Priest, Iohannes Bale Script. Brit. cent. 14. a man tray­ned up in learning from his youth, cleaved as a diligent scholler unto Hildebert, the most learned Archbishop of Scots, as Tritemius delive­reth. After the decease of his master, being desirous of farther know­ledge, he tooke a painefull voyage in hand, travailed throughout Spain, France, Italie, Greece and Asia; last of all, after he had read in Achaia most learned lectures, to the great profit of many, hee came backe to Rome, where with great labour he distributed most abundantly in like sort the treasure of singular learning. Hee was a man exercised in holy Scripture, of a singular wit, excellently well seene in all manner of se­cular literature, passing both for verse and prose, so that Gelasius, Bi­shop of Rome, in the decrees, dist. 15. calleth him reverend Sedulius, and gave his workes no meane commendation. Pat [...]rius the disciple of Gregorius Magnus, and Remigius Antisiodorensis, in his commenta­ry upon him of old have published his fame and renowne. Sedulius both in verse and prose hath published many workes, whereof in Boston of Burie, and Tritemius, I onely found these that follow. Vnto Mace­donius the Priest, a singular worke, which he intituled

The workes of Caelius Sedulius. Carmen paschale—lib. 4
Pascales quicun (que) dapes conviva requiris▪
Elegia vel exhorta­torium ad fideles lib. 1
Cantemus socij Dom. cantemus honorem.
[Page 47] De signis & virtutibus—lib. 1
Domino meo charissimo.
Gesta et miracula Christi—lib. 4
Expulerat quondam, &c:
Superutroque testamento—lib. 2
In Psalmos Dividicos —lib. 1
Collectanea in Paulum—lib. 14
Antequam Apostolica verba.
In Paulum ad Romanos—lib. 1
Sciendum est quod hoc.
Ad Corinthios—lib. 2
Quod nomen suum proponit.
Ad Galatas —lib. 1
Hoc est non ab humana▪
Ad Ephesios—lib. 1
Refere scriptura testante.
Ad Philippenses—lib. 1
Metropoli Macedoniae cum.
Ad Colossenses—lib. 1
Hac vice Apostolatus autor.
Ad Thessalonicenses—lib. 2
Quod non dicit Apostolus.
Ad Timotheum —lib. 2
Non secundum praesumptionem.
Ad Titum Discipulum -lib. 1
Hanc epistolam scribit de
Ad Philemonem —lib. 1
In carcere vel in catenis.
Ad Hebraeos —lib. 1
Quoniam apud Haebraeorum.
De factis Christi prosaice lib. 2
Ad Caesarem Theodosiū lib. 1
Romulidum ductor Clariss.
Epist. ad diversos—lib. 1
Sedulius Scotigena dilect.
In editionem Donati—lib. 1
In Prisciani volumen —lib. 1
Carmina diversi generis lib. 1
He published also cer­taine Hymnes which the Church useth.
  • 1
    A solis ortus cardine
    Ad usque terrae limitem
    Christum canamus principem, &c.
    Hostis Herodes impie
    Christum venisse quid times? &c.
  • 2
    A solis ortus cardine
    Ad usque terrae limitem
    Christum canamus principem, &c.
    Hostis Herodes impie
    Christum venisse quid times? &c.

He flourished in the yeere after the Incarnation, 450. under Theodo­sius Iunior the Emperour, what time Fergusius the second raigned in Scotland after his miserable exile by the Romanes. Of this Author, Si­gebertus and Bostonus write more. So farre Bale.

Stanihurst pleadeth for Ireland, and writeth:R. Stan. prefa [...]. ad lib. 1. de r [...]b. Hib. Sedulius was not only of Irish birth, but also the light of all Ireland, neither will we suffer any longer so excellent a man out of his native soile contrary to all right to exile or wander, but he is rather to be restored to his former inheritance, as it were with a new solemnity of birth. Append. ad cap. 17· In another place hee seemeth to qualifie the matter (having already chalenged Damianus a Goes of iniurie) and to reconcile the dissonance of varying writers, that the Scottish is taken for the Irish, and the Irish for the Scottish; and to satisfie the reader, noteth the confusion, how that all the commenta­ries of Sedulius upon the Epistles of Paul beginne, Sedulij Scoti Hiber­nensis, &c. the Commentarie of Sedulius the Scot of Ireland. And to shut up this challenge of all sides, I finde that there was a second Se­dulius, a man of no lesse fame and learning, and hee is said to bee a [Page 48] Scottish man, therefore let Ireland being more antient then Scotland, take the first, and Scotland the last.

The life of Fridelinus Via­tor Io. Bale script. Britanic cent. 14.In the like sort (excepting the challenge) standeth Fridelinus Via­tor, so called by reason of his great travaile; his stile is, Scotorum Hi­bernicorum regis olim filius, the sonne sometime of the King of the Scots in Ireland, whom I couch among them of Irish birth, because of the ancient stile and distinction often used by Buchanan, Scoti Al­banenses, and Scoti Hibernenses, the first he challengeth for Scotland, the second he referreth to Ireland, and therefore I accept of him as granted. He was a Kings sonne of Ireland, excellently studied in Phi­losophie, earnestly addicted to the ecclesiasticall course of life, and to the end he might plant religion, and spreade abroad christianitie, enterprised a voyage farre from his native soile: This holy man first of all taught here and there throughout France, he came to Poi­tiers, and became father of the Monkes of Saint Hilarie, and with the aide of King Clodovarus, erected a stately Monasterie, the like he did at Mosella in Flanders, upon the top of the mount Vosagius, at Ar­gentine, Curia Rhetiorum, and elsewhere throughout Burgun­die. Lastly, he came to Angia Seckingensis upon the Rhene, to the end he might there also build a Cell; after many godly Sermons and learned Interpretations, he is said to have written a Booke of exhor­tations unto the sacred Virgins. He flourished in the yeere 495. and resteth in the Monasterie of Seckinge before spoken of.

Saint Fekin.Ireland remembreth the feast of Saint Fekin, that hee was of the Kings bloud, and an Abbot, cured many of the flixe or fluxe, and dy­ed thereof himselfe.

The life of Saint ModwenMany things are written of Saint Modwen, (whom the Britaines call Mawdwen) the daughter of Naughtheus the Irish King, who heard Saint Patricke preach, and of her companions Orbila, Luge, Edith, Athea, Lazara, Sith (whom the Irish call Osith) Osmanna, and of Brigid spoken of before, whereof some began with Patricke, and ended with him, some began with him, and lived many yeeres after, (as Capgrave writeth in the life of Modwen) to the time of the Bishop Collumkill, (otherwise called Colme and Columba) and the Eremite, Abbot, or Bishop Kevin.

Saint Sith the Virgin.Saint Modwen was a Nunne, lived 130. yeeres. The Irish, Scots, and English (in which countries she had travailed) strove for her corps, at length Columkill the Bishop gave sentence for England, where shee resteth at Andreisey▪ Bale writeth how that one Galfride, Abbot of Burton upon Trent, in the time of King Iohn, wrote the life and memorable acts of this Irish Virgin Modwen, unto the posterity, with great applause.

Capgrave writeth the life of Saint Sith, (otherwise called Osith) that was brought up under Modwen, that she was a Kings daugh­ter, and borne in England: Leppeloo the Carthusian, and other [Page 49] forraigne Writers say little of her, saving that the Danes (being Hea­thens) cut off her head, and that shee tooke her head in her armes, carried it uprightly three furlongs off, knockt at the Church doore, (being lockt) with her bloudy hands, and there fell downe.The reader is not bound to beleeve this. The Martyrologe of Sarum confoundeth Dorothy, and Saint Sith thus; the 15. of Ianuarie the feast of Saint Dorothie otherwise called Saint Sith, is kept in Ireland, who refused marriage, fled into a Monasterie, where the devill appeared unto her, and there mine Author left her.

Of Osmanna the Virgin I finde little,Osmanna the Virgin. saving what Capgrave repor­teth, that she was of the bloud royall in Ireland, and having infidels to her parents, fled into France, dwelled upon the banke of Loire, the river of Lions, and there in peace ended her dayes.

I read that about this time one Tathe, the sonne of an Irish King,Tathe the Monke [...] forsooke his fathers possessions, went to the Diocesse of Landaffe in Wales, and became a Monke, builded a Monasterie, and there left his bones.

Gualterus Calenius, Archdeacon of Oxford; Caxton and others doe write, that Aurelius Ambrosius, The stones of Salisbury sent for into Ire­land. after his valiant exploits and noble victories, went to a Monasterie neere Cair-caredoch, now cal­led Salisburie, where through the treason of Hengist, (which the Bri­taines call Toill y Killill Hirion, the treason of the long knives) the No­bles and Princes of Britaine were slaine and buried, called his Coun­cell, and demanded what monument were meete to be made there in remembrance of so many Nobles of the land there resting in the dust of the earth. Carpenters, Masons, Carvers, Ingravers, and Tombe-makers, being out of all places sent for, came thither, delivered their opinions, but concluded nothing. Then stepped forth a Bishop, which said; O King, if it may stand with your pleasure, there is one Merlin of Worcester, a Prophet, a searcher of Antiquities, a man of rare gifts, I wish his opinion in the matter. Merlin came, and being advised, said as followeth. ‘Most Noble King, upon occasion offe­red, I went lately into Ireland, and having ended my businesse, I was inquisitive of antiquities, and sight of monuments, where a­mong other things, being brought to a mountaine of Kildare, I saw so rare a sight, in so rude a country, as might bee seene; there was a round row of huge stones, the which none of this age had so framed, neither could be, unlesse Art had mastered the common skill of man; send for them, and set them vp as they are there cou­ched, and they will bee a monument whilst the world standeth.’ Hereat the King smiled and said; how shall we convey so great stones into Britaine, from so farre a countrey, and to what end? as though Britaine yeelded not as good stones to all purposes? Merlin replied, be not displeased O King, there is a hid mystery in those stones, they are medicinable, and as I was given to understand in Ireland, the Gyants of old dwelling in that land, procured them from the farthest [Page 50] part of Affricke, and pitched them there, in them they bathed them­selves, and were rid of their infirmities. The Britaines hearing this, were perswaded to send for them, the King appointed his brother Vter-Pendragon, with Merlin, and fifteene thousand men to effect the businesse. In a short time, they arrived in Ireland. Gillomer King of Leinster,Gillomer, King of Leinster. raised an Armie to resist them, and reviled the Britaines, saying, what fooles and asses are you? are the Irish better then the British stones? and turning himselfe to his Armie, said, come on, quit your selves like men, keepe your monuments, and defend your coun­try. Vter-Pendragon seeing this, animated his company, they met, and manfully encountred in the end; Gillomer fled, and the Irish were discomfited. Vter-Pendragon marched on, they came by Mer­lins direction to the place, and beholding the hugenesse of the stones, they wondred, yet they joyed that they had found them. To worke they went, some with Ropes, some with Wythes, some with Lad­ders, and carried them away, brought them to Britaine, and pitched them in the Plaine of Salisburie, which place is now called Stone­henge.Stonehenge.

Beside this, there are divers monuments of Gyants in Ireland, as at Dundalke, Louth, Ardee, and on the hilles not farre from the Naas: the like Saxo Grammaticus reporteth of the Danes,In praefatione ad hist. Dan [...]. a nation famous for Gyants, and mighty men, and this, saith he, the great and huge stones laid of old upon Caves and Tombes of the dead, doe declare.

Io. Harding.About this time, Passent the sonne of Vortiger that fled into Ger­many for aide, arrived in the North parts, Aurelius Ambrosius met him, and put him to flight; Passent came into Ireland, delivered his griefe unto Gillomer King of Leinster, craved him to extend his Princely favour toward him; Gillomer on the other side complained of the wrong done him by Vter-Pendragon and the Britaines, name­ly, how they had slaine his subiects, wasted his country, and carried away his rare monuments, concluding that hee was willing of him­selfe to be revenged of them, much more finding this opportunitie. Caxton saith, he came with fifteene thousand Irish to aide Passent a­gainst the Britaines; the Armie was great, for with Passent came Ger­mans, Irish and Saxons, and arrived at Menevia (now called Saint Davids) at which time Aurelius Ambrosius being sicke of poyson, (by the procurement of Passent) of which he died, Vter-Pendragon was appointed Generall of the field, met with the invaders, fought a bloudy battaile (where many fell on both sides) and in the end, slue Passent and Gillomer, Gillomer, King of Leinster, slaine at Saint Davids in Wales. and ouerthrew the Germans, Irish, and Saxons, and was crowned King of England.

I doe finde in Antiquaries, together with Florilegus, Fabian, Cax­ton, Holinshed, and Fleminge, (men of great iudgement) that the Pictes and Scots in the dayes of King Arthur (who succeeded his fa­ther Vter-Pendragon) ioyned with the Saxons, and drew to their [Page 51] aide, Gillomer, second of that name, King of Ireland, so that Arthur sent for Howell his sisters sonne, King of little Britaine in France, who came with fifteene thousand fighting men, and ioyning forces with Arthur, foyled the Pictes, Scots, and Saxons, vanquished the Irish King, and chaced him into Ireland, and the yeere following, viz. five hundred twenty and five, in revenge of the former aide, hee came into Ireland, offered King Gillomer battaile,Anno Dom. [...]25. hee then being Monarch of Ireland (as Caxton and the book of Houth record) assem­bled the Princes and Nobles of the land; and it is said that King An­guish came to the field with five thousand horse,Homage for Ireland. but Arthur constrai­ned them to yeeld, and to acknowledge by doing their fealtie, to hold the Realme of Ireland of him. Whereof Harding saith,

The somner next Arthur went to Ireland,
With battaile sore forefoughten y conquered,
And of the King, had homage of that land
To hold of him, so was he of him feared;
And also gate (as Chronicles have us lered)
Denmarke, Friseland, G [...]tland and Norwey,
Iseland, Groenland, the Isle of Man and Orkney.

The booke of Houth recordeth, that anno Dom. 519. Arthur sum­moned to a speciall feast of solemnitie of the round Table, Gillomer the Monarch of Ireland, and King Anguish, with the Princes and No­bles of the land, where they continued during the whole time of the solemnitie. In which triumph it is recorded that Garret, King of Or­keney, sonne to King Lotho, and nephew to Arthur, being one of King Arthurs Knights, together with his two brethren, performed most valiant exploits, encountred with Anguish, King of Ireland, Goranus King of Scotland, Cador, Duke of Cornewall, and with o­ther Princes, and wanne great honour. This Anguish claimed tri­bute from Marke, King of Cornewall, that formerly was wonne by combate,Marogh, one of K. Arthurs Knights▪ and sent Morogh (whom Caxton calleth Marhaus) the Queene of Leinsters brother, who was also one of King Arthurs Knights, to demand it; he was a valiant Gentleman, often tryed, and ever quitted himselfe with honour. The Frenchmen calleth him Le Morhoult d'Ireland;Rich. Robinson in his bookes of Armes and Archerie. and a Citizen of London thus blazoneth his Armes.

In silver shield, on fesse of pee­ces five throughout the same,
He bare a Lyon Rampant red and arme greene, whose name
Might seeme to signifie in truth, each mighty enterprise,
A prey most fit for his courage, as is the Irish guise.

[Page 52] Marke, King of Cornewall denieth the tribute, offereth the com­bate, and Sir Tristram undertaketh it for him. Morogh for himselfe pleaded that he was to encounter with none, unlesse he were a King or Queene, a Prince or Princesse sonne; the circumstances being con­sidered and agreed upon, the combatants meete, and fiercly fight, the battaile was a long time doubtfull; in the end, Sir Tristram gave Sir Morogh with his sword, a sore blow, that a piece of the edge stucke in his scull, whereupon the combate ended, Morogh returned into Ireland, and shortly after died of the wound. This doth Caxton and the booke of Houth deliver at large.Caxton, and the booke of Houth. But I may not end thus with Sir Tristram, he also was sore wounded with a Speare, whose head was venomed, and could not be cured untill that by counsaile he repaired to the country where the venome had beene confected. Whereupon he came to Ireland, and to King Anguish his Court, and having great skill upon the Harpe, he recreated himselfe, delighted the house, and fell in loue with La Bell Isod the Kings daughter,Sir Tristram, & La Bell Isod. and she with him. In processe of time the Queene had learned that he had given her bro­ther Morogh his deaths wound, and comparing the piece of the swords edge which was taken out of the skull, with his sword, found them to agree, and banished him the land. Not long after upon con­ference had with Marke, King of Cornewall, of marriage, and com­mending the beautie and vertues of La Bel Isod spoken of before, hee commeth to Ireland to intreate of marriage betweene King Marke and her. And having effected his purpose, taketh her with him to Cornewall,Marke, King of Cornewall married La Bell Isod. Iealousie. where Marke espoused her with great ioy and solemnity; but the old secret love betweene Tristram and her, had taken such impression in both, and so inflamed their hearts, that it could not easi­ly be quenched, so that in processe of time, Marke espied it, and in his furious jealousie, slue him as he played upon the Harpe to recreate La Bel Isod; and thus as his love began with the Harpe, so it ended at the Harpe; it is recorded that Isod came to his grave and swouned. She was (saith mine Author) so faire a woman, that hardly who so beheld her, could not chuse but be enamoured with her. In Dublin upon the wall of the Citie, is a Castle called Isods towre, and not farre from Dublin, a Chappell with a Village named Chappell-Isod: the originall cause of the name I doe not finde, but it is coniectured, that her father King Anguish, that doted on her, builded them in remem­brance of her, the one for her recreation, and the other for the good of her soule.

The life of Congellus a Britaine.About the time that King Arthur raigned, lived many famous men of Irish birth, renowned for their great learning and sanctitie, and commended by divers Antiquaries, both at home and abroad to the posteritie. But before I come to speake of them, I must first make mention of Congellus a Britaine by birth, who builded the Monaste­rie of Bangor, not farre from West-Chester, which was called the [Page 53] Colledge of Christian Philosophers, and became the first Abbot thereof himselfe, in the dayes of King Arthur, anno Dom. 530. I make mention of him, because Bernard in the life of Malachias, repor­teth this Colledge or Abbey which he built, to have beene the head or principall Abbey of all the Monasteries in Europe, the seminarie or bee-hive of many thousands of Monkes, after the Apostolike man­ner, getting their living with the sweate of their browes, and the la­bour of their owne hands. And the rather for that he had to his Dis­ciples of Irish birth, Columbanus that travailed France, Germanie, and Italie, Breudan that furnished Ireland and Scotland with holy men, with Luanus and others, of whom I shall have occasion to speak in their places. This Congellus also (Bernard is mine Author) founded the Abbey of Benchor, alias Bangor, here in Vlster,Bangor in Vlster▪ where many sin­gular learned men of Irish birth were trayned up, yea Britaines, Sax­ons, and Scots also, and dispersed themselves farre and nigh, (as here­after shall more plainely appeare) into forraigne countries, converted and confirmed thousands in the true faith. The which Abbey of Ben­chor, was afterward destroyed by Pyrates, and nine hundred Monks slaine in one day, and so continued waste unto the time of Malachias Bishop of Armach, whereof I will speake hereafter.

Yet in an ancient manuscript Legend of Ireland, I finde that this Congellus the Abbot was borne in Dail Naraid in Vlster,Congellus sup­posed to be Irish. of honou­rable Parents, and upon some displeasure conceived, forsooke his native soile, came to Mounster to Saint Fintan Abbot of Cluoyn Ednech at the foote of Mons Blandina, where he was ioyfully recei­ved, who after long instruction, through the counsaile of Fintan, re­turned to his native soile, and entred the Monasterie of Saint Kiaran in Cluayn Mac Noyse, where Bishop Lugidus gave him orders; and that in a while after, he founded the famous Abbey of Benchor in Vlster, in the country called Altitudo ultorum, Altitudo Vlto­rum, now cal­led the Arde [...] to the East sea (as I reade in the life Mocoemog) containing three thousand Monkes, and that seven yeeres after, hee went into Britaine, and founded there a Monasterie that swarmed with Monkes, as formerly in part is delive­red, whither out of all places by sea and land, they flocked unto him, for the same of learning which there was professed. He, when hee had setled his affaires there, returned into Ireland, and now resteth at his monasterie of Benchor. The fame of both Monasteries or Colledges of Christian Philosophers and famous men thither frequenting, and entercou [...]sing with domesticall and forraigne students, mee thinkes, should reconcile Britaine and Ireland now being in one, and breed an agreement among Antiquaries.

Brendan, among others, was famous at this time, borne in Con­naght, brought up under Hercus a Bishop,Brendans life. and directed by Barintus a Monke, he was excellently seene in the liberall sciences, and travai­led into Britaine to the Abbey of Bangor, where hee learned the [Page 54] monasticall rules of Congellus, from thence he went to Llancarvan and builded a Monasterie, became the father of three thousand Monkes that got their living with the labour of their hands, and sweate of their browes, left to oversee them Machutus and Molochus, travailed over Ireland and Scotland with other countries; after seven yeeres peregrination, he returned to Ireland, and became Bishop of Kerry, (of old called Kiaragi, but now Ardfertensis) where he ended his dayes, and lyeth buried at Cluenarca, otherwise called Luarcha. Yet in the life of Ruadanus, I finde hee was buried at Cluanferta. Other things that Capgrave, the martyrologe, and Bale have, I omit.

When Saint Brendan was olde, Saint Fynbarry was a childe, hee is now the Patrone of the Cathedrall Church of Corke;Saint Fynbarry. his Legend runneth thus: There was a certaine King in Ireland, called Tegerna­tus, who had to his handmaid, a very beautifull Damosell; this King gave charge throughout his dominion, that none should be so bold as to touch her, for it was supposed he kept her for his owne tooth. Yet (saith the Legend) one of his souldiers, whose name was Amor­gen, (a blacke Smith) got her with childe, the which being brought to light, and the time of her travaile nigh approaching, Tegernatus commanded that Amorgen the father, the faire harlot the mother, (with her great bellie) should bee cast into the fire, and burned to ashes. But (saith the Legend) they were all miraculously deliuered, and the childe safely brought into the world. At his baptisme he was named Loanus, but in a while after, three religious men that had the charge of him (by reason of the beautie of his white lockes, and gra­tious aspect) called him in Irish, Fuenbarrah, whom now wee call Fynbarry. He was brought up under Bishop Torpereus, the disciple of Gregorie, Bishop of Rome, and was conversant with Fa [...]turus, (another Legend calleth him Fyachna) a King in Ireland, who did alot him a certaine portion of land in his country. Bishop Torpereus gave him orders, after which he went (saith the Legend) into Alba­nia now called Scotland, did much good there, and went from thence to Rome, and was consecrated Bishop in the time of Gregorie the first, then he returned to Ireland,Lee [...]lu. landed on the South side of the river Lee, where one Edo a Noble man gave him a parcell of ground, where (with the aide of many good men) he built the old Citie of Corke, and the Cathedrall Church, annexing thereto a faire Church yard, wherein now standeth a watch Towre, builded by the Danes. The Legend speaketh of a priviledge granted to that Church-yard, which I take to have beene brought in through the covetousnesse of the Priests: That what faithfull soever being penitent, shall bee buried there, shall not after this life, feele the torments of hell; as if every faithfull penitent Christian were not freed from hell, wheresoever he be buried. But let us proceed: Torpereus Bishop of Cloan his Schoole­master, [Page 55] was the first man that was buried in that Church-yard. After this, Finbarry went to Calangus a reverend man, then Abbot of Clo­ane, and concluded betweene themselves, that in the feare of God, they would both be buried in one place, and so indeed it fell out, for there Finbarry fell sicke, received the Sacrament at the hands of Ca­langus, ended his dayes, and was brought to the Church-yard of old Corke, and there interred; shortly after, followed Calangus, and there Bishop Torperus the first Bishop of Cloane, Finbarry the first Bishop of Corke, and Calangus the first Abbot of Cloane, keepe to­gether in the dust of the earth, waiting for the resurrection at the last day. The fabulous circumstances of the Legend I leave to old Wives and long winters nights; yet to satisfie the reader that I met with the Originall, I will lay down part of the Latine rithmes sung yeerely on his day, being the 25. of September, not worthy of translation into English, and here they follow.

Infantis clari matremque patremque ligatum
Ex officio Sancti Finbarri.
Ambo Rex quondam, flammis praeceperat uri;
Interea mirum bellum gessere elementa,
Ignis edax stupuit, non audens mandere ligna.
Hic nondum genitus jam matris ventre moratus,
O nova res! miris cepit clamare loquelis,
Obstupuit rex, &c.
Ad Christi verbum ducentes tres seniores
Infantem secum nitidum, vultuque decorum,
Dogmata ut sacra cunabulo disceret evo
Contigit ut nimio, solis fervore sitiret;
Tunc senibus quidam praeceperat ire ministrum
Vt potum puero cerva deduceret almo
Statim cerva petens vitulum lac fudit abundè
Et potum, &c.
Rex quondam retinens plenam turpedine prolem
Luminis expertem natum, mutamque puellam
Praeclarum Christi famulum iam rogitavit
Vt natos miseros ditaret munere caro
Illico respexit caecus, & muta locuta
Ad natum regis caecum, mutamque puellam
Fynbarry precibus salvavit conditor almus▪
Sanctus Fynbarrus quondam cum rege sedebat,
Cumque salutabant laeti sese, vice versa,
Audierant fletum tristem, magnumque lamentum:
At rex confestim turbatus, heu mea, dixit,
Regalis conjux nunc mortem gustat amaram.
Tunc dixit Christi famulus, depone merorem,
Namque potest dominus vitam donare defunctis.
[Page 56]Fynbarry precibus tunc foemina viva resurgit.
Fynbarrus residens Rex atque sub arboris umbra:
Tunc placuit Regi miracula cernere quaedam
Auxiliante Deo Fynbarrus quae faciebat;
Interea corylus gignebat tempore veris
Maturos fructus, valdè largèque cadebant.
Miratur corylum vernalem gignere fructum.

With many such strange things with which I will no longer trouble the reader, nor keepe him from that which followeth.

Now commeth in the confused name of Colme, Columba, Colum­banus, Columkillus, and Colmannus; who all lived at one time, about the dayes of King Arthure, and were all of Irish birth, but are great­ly mistaken by the Antiquaries.

Columbanus.The first called Columbanus by Adamannus and Capgrave, in the life of Columba, was, as they write, Episcopus Laginensis, a Bishop of Leinster, but the Diocesse of which he was Bishop, I finde not na­med.

Columba.The second by Beda (whom, for authority and antiquitie, I reve­rence) is called Columbanus presbiter & Abbas, Priest and Abbot, whom Capgraue calleth Columba, borne of Noble Parentage in Ire­land. Adamannus who wrote his life, saith, his father hight Feidli­myd, the sonne of Fergus, his mother Ethnea, and that the second yeere after the bloudie battaile of Cule-Dreibne, he came to Britaine in the time of Gildas sapiens, Battaile of Cule-Dreibne. and converted the Pictes. But before his departure out of Ireland, he founded a Monasterie (saith Beda) à copia roborum, in the Scottish tongue called Dearmagh. Capgrave termeth it Roboretum, the grove of Okes. In Britaine (saith Beda) he builded a Monasterie in the Iland called Hu, (Capgrave calleth it Iona) where he lyeth buried, ending his dayes at the age of 77. yeeres, whose death Aidanus King of Scots greatly lamented. Beda reporteth that some wrote of him, which work came not to his hands, and that in the observation of Easter he followed no other direction, then hee found in holy Scripture. Here (gentle reader) two scruples are to be removed from among our Irish Antiquaries; the first Beda dissolveth, namely that of him the name of Columkilli came in;Beda Ang▪ hist. lib. 5. cap. 10. Columba, now a dayes (saith he) of some men compounding Cella and Columba, is called Columcelli, and in Capgrave we reade Columkillius. The second scru­ple is, where Beda writeth that he was buried in the Isle Hu, the An­tiquaries of Ireland record his funerall to have beene at Downe, (as formerly I have written) in one Tombe with Patricke and Brigide; I hold both may be true, namely that he was buried in the Isle before spoken of, and being thence translated into Downe in Ireland, (as Brigide was before) now resteth therein one grave with Patricke and her.

[Page 57]The third Columbanus, otherwise called Columba, of Irish birth,3 Columba. was a most famous man of that time for learning and vertue, eterni­zed in writing by Ionas an Abbot his disciple, also by Capgrave, Bale, Surius, Baronius, Lippeloo and Stanihurst. In his youth he was migh­tily tempted with the feminine sex, nihil tam sanctum religione, (saith mine Author) [...]amque custodia clausum, quod penetrare libido nequeat.

He forsooke his native soile, went to Congellus, Abbot of Bangor, continued there many yeeres, and having formerly taken with him twelve of his country men, called twelve followers, hee went into France, and made them Cabanes, after the Irish manner, in stead of Monasteries. Many fabulous things are reported of Wolves, Beares, and Fowles of the ayre, that they had no power over him. When he had continued together with his followers, twenty yeeres in one place, he was banished thence, and being desirous to returne to Ire­land, Clotarius sonne to Chilpericke staid him, yet he tooke his course into Italie, where Agilulphus King of Lombardie received him most honourably, and in Italie hee died, saith Beda in his Martyrologe, though Capgrave write it was in Almaine,Io. Capgrave. whose report of him I may not omit. He builded (saith he) certaine famous Monasteries in Almaine, into the which, (as it is said) they admit onely Irish men unto this day. He wrote (saith Lippeloo) a booke against the Arians. Bale reckoneth his other workes that he published.

  • In psalterium commentar▪ lib. 1.
  • Collationes ad Monachos lib. 1:
  • De moribus monachorum metrice lib. 1. Haec praecepta legat.
  • Epistolas ad Commilitones lib. 1.
  • Monasteriorum methodos lib. 1.
  • Adversus Theodoricum regem adulterum lib. 1

This Columbanus had many learned men of Irish birth,Columbanus his Irish disciples▪ Deicolus. Gallus. brought up under him. The Martyrologe of Sarum remembreth one Deico­lus an Abbot. Capgrave and Walafridus Strabo commend one Gallus, whom Columbanus left behinde him in Almaine. And when Gunzo Duke of Suevia would have made him Bishop of Constance, he pre­ferred one Iohn his Deacon and disciple, to the roomth, and kept the desert himselfe. Surius writeth, Italie glorieth of Columbanus, Almaine of Gallus, and Flanders of Kilianus. Hee wrote, as Bale re­membreth,

  • In electione Iohannis Orat. 1. Sempiternus & inaestimabilis Deus.
  • Gubernandae ecclesiae formam lib. 1

Ionas likewise his disciple,Ionas a Monke is by Tritemius commended and recko­ned among the great learned men of Ireland, who at the request of [Page 58] certaine brethren, penned for the good of posteritie.

Vitam Abbatis Columbani
lib. 1 All are found among Be­da his workes.
Vitam Attalae Monachi
lib. 1 All are found among Be­da his workes.
Vitam Eustachij Abbatis
lib. 1 All are found among Be­da his workes.
Vitam Bertolfi Abbatis.
All are found among Be­da his workes.

4 Columb.There was a fourth Columbanus a Monke in Luxonium, countri­man and kinsman to Columbanus going before, who dyed in his pre­sence; so much I finde of him in Capgrave, and no more of him ei­ther there or in any other.

Colmannus and Colme. Colmannus I must referre to his place, and Colme I must leave to the vulgar and corrupted speech; yet in one Author I finde, that Colme is buried with Patricke and Brigide, which must be understood to be Columbanus spoken of before.

About the latter dayes of Saint Martin, Bishop of Toures in France, Ninianus a Britaine (whom Beda worthily commendeth) comming from Rome, was made Bishop of Lyndsey, Lindesfernen­sis, whom Aidus (otherwise called Aidanus and Aedanus) Finanus and Colmannus, all three of Irish birth, orderly succeeded in the dayes of King Arthur.

About this time, Carthagus commonly called Mocudu, Mochudu and Mocodi was the first Bishop of Lismore,Saint Mochudu he descended of the sept of Fergusius, the most potent Prince of Vlster, whose of-spring were dispersed over Ireland, his father matched with the royall bloud of Mounster, he had to his Schoolemaster one Carthagus a Bishop. It is alledged in his Legend, (penes authorem sit fides) that it was prophe­cied, he should become a great man, and build two cities; the first, Raithe (or Raichen) in Feraceall; the second, Lismore. This diversi­tie of names comming upon accidents, is known unto them that have skill in the old Irish. It is remembred in his life, that in his youth, 30. Virgins were in love with him, and that hee prayed unto God, to turne their carnall into spirituall love, which was granted, yet (saith mine Author) to requite their former love, he builded them all Cells, and they dwelled in his parish, and conversed with him all the dayes of their lives. He had disciples that proved rare men, Mochue, Mo­coemoge, Gobbanus, Sraphanus, Lazreaanus, Molva, Aidanus, Fia­chus, Findeling, with others. He was compelled to forsake Raithen, and travailed west-ward, untill he came to the river Nem, now called Band more, falling from the mountaine Chua▪ and running into the sea, whereupon Lismore is builded, and given to Saint Mocodi. For the Lord of that country, Nandeisi Melochtrig, the son of Cokthacg, before witnesse, granted him that seate, to build both Church and Citie,The life of Saint Machu­tus or Maclo­vius. where he resteth, and whom one Molcolmog succeeded.

Machutus otherwise called Maclovius, though Bale and Capgrave [Page 59] call him a Britaine, yet I finde that he was borne in Ireland, and that he was the sonne of one Lovi, and therefore called Maclovy. Mola­nus writeth, that he crossing the seas, and having good successe, led an Eremites life in Britaine, and was the disciple of Saint Brendan of Ireland. He accompanied with one Aaron, and kept with him in an Island of his name, (saith Molanus) called Aaron, but now I finde it in the North-west parts of Ireland,Iles of Aron. belonging to the Earle of Or­mond, called the Isles of Aran. Lastly, he was made Bishop of Ale­tha, and is honoured at Gemblacum in Flanders, where the Church (say they) is patronized by Saint Machutus, alias Maclovius, hee li­ved (saith Bale) about the yeere 540. what time Arthur commanded Britaine.Io. Bale cent. 1.

Kentegernus then also lived,Saint Kenteger­nus. and now is remembred in Ireland and in Wales: the Martyrologe of Sarum reporteth, that his Mother wist not how, when, nor by whom he was gotten, yet was shee an holy woman, (saith mine Author) and much loved our Lady. She was cast downe headlong from a rocke (saith mine Author) into the sea, and tooke no hurt, then put into a Boate alone without Sayle or Oare, came into Ireland, and presently travailed with child. He became an Abbot of 965. Monkes, kept company with Saint David, and in the end was a Bishop.

Ruadanus borne in Ireland, of Noble Parentage,Ruadanus his life. his father hight Byrra, of the of-spring of Dnach, but inhabited the West part of Leinster, of olde called Osraigie, but now Ossorie, whose sept is called Dnachs, in those parts unto this day▪ He left Ossorie, and hearing of the fame of Saint Fynnan, a wise and a learned man, dwelling in his owne towne, (so saith mine Author) commonly called Clonard, of Cluayn jarhaird in Meath, and confines of Leinster, resorted to him, who for the space of certaine yeeres, brought him up in sacred letters, gave him orders, and sent him to Muscraytrie in Mounster, where he was borne, where also he builded a Monasterie, which standeth to this day, and is maintained by the Lords of the soile. From thence he went to a place called Lothra, where he builded another Monaste­rie, and lyeth there wayting the generall resurrection. Saint Brendan at the same time builded a Cell not farre from that place, called Tu­lach Brenayd, that is, (saith mine Author) Collis Brendani, left Rua­dan the charge thereof, tooke his blessing, and begun his travaile, as the Legends at large doe write. Ruadanus is said to have written these bookes in the Latine tongue.

  • De miraculosa arbore lib. 1
  • De mirabili fontium in Hibernia natura lib. 1
  • Contra Diarmoyd regem lib. 1

Saint Faghua lived in the time of Finbarry, Saint Faghua his life. and founded a Mona­sterie [Page 60] upon the sea in the south part of Ireland, where he became Ab­bot, the which seat grew to be a Citie, wherein a Cathedrall Church was builded, and patronized by Faghua. This towne of olde called Rossai Lithry, but now Roskarbry, hath beene walled about by a Lady of that country, but now according to the fruits of warre, a­mong the Carties, O Driscales, and other septs, scarce can the old foundation be seene. There hath beene there of old (saith mine Au­thor) magnum studium scholarium, a great Vniversitie, whereto re­sorted all the South-west parts of Ireland for learnings sake. Saint Brendan Bishop of Kery, read publikely the liberall sciences in that schoole. Farther of Faghua or Faghuanus, mine Author recordeth, that he being sapiens & probus, a wise and a good man, by mishap fell blinde, and with many prayers, and salt teares, desired of God, resti­tution of his sight, for the good of his Covent, and the Students brought up under him; a voyce he heard, (saith mine Author) goe get some of the breast milke of Broanus the artificers wife, wash thine eyes therewith, and thou shalt see. He went to a Prophetesse called Yta or Ytha, to learne how to come by this woman, and it fell out that this woman was her sister, hee found her out, washed his eyes, and recovered his sight; whether it be true or no, I know not, I report it as I finde it.Saint Yta the Abbatesse. This Saint Yta was an Abbatesse, whose originall was of Meth, but she was borne in Mounster.

Saint Mocoei­noge.Vpon the storie of Faghua dependeth the Legend of Mocoeinoge, interpreted in Latine, meus pulcher iuvenis, my beautifull young man, who proved learned, an Abbot and a Bishop, being the childe of those breasts that washed Faghua his eyes; many admirable things are re­ported of him wherewith I will not trouble the reader. He conversed with Coemanus or Chemanus, Cannicus, Finianus Abbas, Colman a Bishop,Divers learned men. Daganus Abbot of Inbyr-dayle in Leinster, Mocobe his owne disciple, Illepius the disciple of Mocobe, Molna, Mofecta, Cunmi­nus longus, the sonne of Fiachua, and Cronanne, who lyeth buried at Rosscre, Luctichernus and Lazerianus, with Yta, Patronesse of Huae Conaill, & her Abbot of Cluayn Mac Noys, & Abbot Engus, & Abbot Congallus, of Vlster, Mocoeinoge resteth in the county of Typperary, by a long foord in the way from Kilkenny to the Holy Crosse (as they cal it) where sometime was a Citie & a Monasterie called Liath, but now a Village bearing his name, Liath Mocoeinoge. He had in his life time much adoe with Coemanus, Bledin, Ronanus, Foelanus, Diarmoda, Sugbue, Lords of Ely, (now called Ely O Carroll) and with Falke Fland, King of Mounster, whose chiefe Pallace was in Cashell.

Saint Coeinge­nus.Saint Coeingenus shall next be spoken of, in Latine as much to say, as pulchrogenitus, he was ordered by Bishop Lugidus, & led an here­meticall life in a Cell, in a place of old called Cluayn Duach, where he was borne and brought up. Now the place is called Gleand-daloch (saith mine Author) Vallis duorum stagnorum, Gleand-daloch. a valley of two pooles [Page 61] or standing waters, Dymnach. where one Dymnach a Lord of the soile founded a Cathedrall Church, in the honour of Saint Coeingenus, ioyned ther­unto a faire Church-yard, with other edifices, and divers buildings, the which in mine Author, legenda sancti Coeingeni) is termed civi­tas de Glandelogh. In the life of Saint Patricke I finde, that hee pro­phecied of two rare men, Albanus and Coeingenus, and that this should be a Bishop, and that one Molingus should succeed him; I finde this true in the See of Glandelogh. Coeingenus was a great lear­ned man, and wrote these bookes.

  • De Britannorum origine lib. 1 Bryto sive Brutus.
  • De Hibero & Hermone lib. 1 Hyber & Hermon.

Molva before mentioned in the life of Mocoeinoge, Saint Molva his life. (of his mother called Lugidus, but of his master, Congallus) was a great learned man, borne in Mounster, in Huafi, of the sept of Corcach. His father hight Carthach, alias Coche, his mother Sochla, that is, Large; hee was brought up under Congallus in Vlster, in his Abbey of Benchor, where he received orders, and was sent into his native soile of Moun­ster, for the good of his country. Hee came to the schoole of Saint Finnian, in the confines of Leinster, and profited there very much,Saint Finnian his schoole. Luacha mons. Synna flu. from thence he went to mount Luacha in the South-west part of the river Synna, together with his disciples, and craved of Foelanus, Lord of that soile, license there to inhabite, who refused him, so that he went to his kindred in Osraigi, (now called Ossorie) who recei­ved him ioyfully. In a while after, he went to mount Smoil, now cal­led mo [...]s Blandina, where he cast his staffe,Mount Smoill and builded a Monasterie in a place called Rosse Bualead, by licence of Berachus Lord of that soile, (in Latine, Dux Laigy) where he decreed, saith the Legend, ut nulla mulier ibi semper intraret, that no woman should alwaies enter into it, which was, and may well be observed to this day, yea while the world endureth. In the same place was afterwards a famous citie builded, called Cluayn ferta Molua, in Latine, latibulum mirabile sancti Molvae, the secret habitation of Saint Molva. He conversed with Saint Flannanus, Molayssi, alias Molassus, Divers Bishops and learned men. Sethua Bishop of Saigir or Sagri, where it lyeth, I finde not, but by all likelyhood it should not be farre from Cluayn Ferta, with Moedog Archbishop of Leinster, Einenus Abbot of Rosse Mac Treoin in Kenselach, upon the river Berua, founded by the olde Saint Abbanus, with Daganus Abbot of Ardgabraine in Nandesi, called Achad Dagani,Berua fl. Saint Cronan in insu­la Cree, Stellanus his disciple, Manchenus and Munnu, Abbot of Techmunnu in Kenselach in the South part of Leinster. Hee ended the way of all flesh, and resteth in the Monasterie of Cluayn Ferta, where one Lachtanus succeeded him. He is said to have wrought ma­ny wonders, and if the reader laugh not, I will penne him one. [Page 62] Molva in an evening walking among the cattell of his monasterie, heard a company of Wolves howling for their prey; hee was moved with pitty, called them to him, washed their feet, made them a feast, and gave them lodging. The Legend faith further, that they thence­forth familiarly conversed with the Heard keepers, and chased away other Wolves and theeves. He wrote

Regulas Monachorum, confirmed by Greg. 1.

The life of Saint Munnu. Munnu spoken of in the former Legend, came of good parentage, of the house of Neill, his father was Tulchanus, his mother Fedelyr, he was brought up under Silell a learned man in the North of Ireland. Hee proved a singular learned man, and wrote a booke de pascate, which was in his time in question, he outlived Congallus and Colum­ba, and conversed with Baithenus and Lazerianus, Abbot of Leigh­lin, he dwelt a while in Ely, from thence hee went to Athcayn in Kinselach, and in Achad Lia [...]htrom he builded a monasterie called Teach-Munnu, alias Thech-Munnu, where hee gave up the ghost, 12. of the Kalends of November, and yet the Martyrologes place him the sixt Kalend of the same moneth. In his storie I finde mention of a controversie betweene him and Lazerianus, Lazerianus. who builded a Mo­nasterie, In stagno Hiberniae Dai ynis, in Latine, bovis insula, in the North part of Ireland, so it is written in the life of Aedanus; after­wards he came to the river Berba (now called the Barrow) and there became Abbot of fifteene hundred Monkes. In their time, the old controversie about the observation of Easter, was vehemently urged of all sides; a great disputation and parlie was appointed in Campo Albo (saith mine Author) upon the Barrow. Munnu held the old, the other the new observation. To be short, Munnu gave this offer, brother Lazerianus (saith he) let us not spend time, neither trouble this people with this tedious question; choose for the tryall of the truth, one of these three things, take two bookes, one of the old, the other of the new Easter, cast them into the fire, looke which the fire saveth, let the truth rest there; or take two Monkes, one of thy side, another of mine,If they were as fa [...] in those daies, as most of them pro­ved after, there would have beene old fry­ing. and cast them both into an house set on fire, he that commeth forth safe, let him carry the truth. Or let us goe to the grave of some holy Monke, and raise the dead, and stand to his sen­tence, when we shall keepe Easter this yeere. Lazerianus refused his offers, and said, I will no longer contend with thee brother Munnu, for I know thy worthinesse and sanctitie is such, that if thou com­mand the mount Margee over against us to remove to this Campus albus,Mount Margee and this ground to remove thither, I am of opinion it will bee so, thus they broke up and did nothing.

Cannicus or Kennicus was borne in the North of Ireland (in Con­naught as I gather) his father was called Lugaid Lechteag a Poet,Saint Kenny his life. his mother hight Maula or Mella, hee was trayned up in Britaine in the christian schoole of Docus, thence he went to Rome, and took orders [Page 63] in Italie, returned into Ireland, preached the Gospell most zealously, and (saith his Legend) wrought many miracles. He conversed with great learned men, namely Eugenius, Bishop of Ardratha,Learned men. Baithenus and others. Adamannus in the life of Columba formerly spoken of, and the second of the name, writeth (wherby I gather the time of the learned men of that age) how that at one time, Cannicus, Congallus, Brendanus, Cormacus, and Fynbarry visited Columba, and were all present when he celebrated the divine mysterie. Colmanus the sonne of Feraid, Lord of Osraide or Ossragy, now called Ossorie, was Kan­nicus his deare friend, who after he had received the faith, gave him many villages, where he builded Cels and Monasteries, but chiefely at Achadbo, where he resteth. When the time of his departure out of this sinfull world drew nigh, he sent for Fintan the Abbot, and re­ceived at his hands the blessed Sacrament, and so departed the fift of the Ides of October.

In remembrance of this Cannicus, Kilkenny. there is now a famous towne in Leinster called Kilkenny, parted into the English and Irish towne, with a small fresh or brooke that falleth into the Nure; the chiefe Lord under the King, is the Earle of Ormond and Ossorie; the En­glish towne is governed by a Soveraigne, Bayliffes and Burgesses, the Irish towne is governed by the Bishop of Ossorie and his officers, and the Bishopricke of Ossorie, whose principall see was first in Ely, and called Sire Keran (as formerly I have written in the life of Keranus) afterward translated to Achadbo, is now setled in Kilkenny. The first founder of Saint Kennies Church there, was Hugh Mapilton, the fift Bishop of that See, after the conquest, about the yeer 1240. There was also about the same time, a Church builded over against the towne, upon the East side of the Nure, in the honour of Saint Maula the mother of Saint Kenny, Saint Kennies Church. whose memory is continued in that towne, by her plague that fell among them, and thus it was.

There was a great plague in that towne, and such as died thereof being bound with Wythes upon the Beere, were buried in Saint Mau­las Churchyard; after that the infection ceased,Saint Maula and her plague women and maides went thither to dance, and in stead of handkerchiefes and napkins to keepe them together in their round, it is said they tooke those Wythes to serve their purpose. It is generally received, (take it gentle reader as cheape as you finde it) that Maula was angry for propha­ning her Church-yard, and with the Wythes infected the dancers so, that shortly after in Kilkenny, there died of the sicknesse, man, woman and childe.

Aedanus (divers times before spoken of) was of honourable pa­rentage, borne in Connaght, his father hight Sothna, his mother,Aedanus his life Ethne, of the sept of Amluygh, his companions were Molassus, alias Lazerianus, and Airedus, also he conversed much with Saint David, Bishop of Menevia, (now called Saint Davids) and is there called [Page 64] Moedock; this David was his master. The martyrologe of Sarum cal­leth him Maeldock; my Author yeeldeth the reason, writing how that his mother conceiving with childe of him, his father dreamed that he saw a starre fall from heaven upon his wife, the mother of this Aedanus, and therefore when he was borne, he was called in Latine, filius stellae, in Irish, Moedog, that is, the sonne of the starre. Master Fox writeth, that hee builded the Monasterie of Maibrose by the floud of Twide. David the holy man advised him to repaire to his native soile for the good of his country, after that hee had for a good space followed the Christian Britaines against the faithlesse Saxons. He came to Ireland to Anmyre, Anmyre, King of Connaght. King of Connaght, from thence to Leinster, and builded Monasteries in Kinselach and Cluayn More, what time Edus or Edanus, Edus or Edanus King of Con­naght. the sonne of Anmyre King of Connaght, levied warre against Brandub King of Leinster, in which battaile, E­dus and all his Nobilitie of Connaght were slaine, and Brandub be­came Monarch of Ireland. After this he went to the North of Eng­land,Brandub, King of Leinster, Monarch of Ireland. and was made Bishop of Lyndsey, Lyndesfernensis: Capgrave maketh two of one Aedanus, the one an Abbot, the other a Bishop, and to reconcile the dissonance, he was first an Abbot, afterwards a Bishop, so writeth Bale. Beda delivereth singular commendations of him, the which to avoid prolixitie I omit. After all this, hee returned to Leinster, to Brandub the Monarch, who upon speciall liking of his vertues, gave him a parcell of land, where he builded a Monaste­rie; the place is called Ferna, now Fernes, where both Church and Monasterie are patronized (as they write) by Saint Moedog, Fernes. where afterwards both Brandub and Moedog were buried, whereof the words in the life of Aedanus, alias Moedog, are these. Magnas dedit rex oblationes Sancto Moedog, & agrum in quo vir Dei construxit monasterium quod dicitur Ferna, in quo Sanctus Moedog sepultus est, & rex Brandub, & genus ejus post eum ibi semper sepelitur. Et mag­na civitas in honore sancti Moedog ibi crevit, quae eodem nomine voca­tur Ferna. Deinde facta Synodo magnatum in terra Laginensium, de­crevit Rex Brandub, & tam Laici quam Clerici, ut Archiepiscopatus omnium Laginensium, semper esset in sede & cathedra sancti Moedog, & tunc sanctus Moedog a multis catholicis consecratus est Archiepisco­pus. The King gave many gifts to Saint Moedog, and a parcell of ground, where the man of God builded a Monasterie, called Ferna, where Saint Moedog is buried, and King Brandub, and his posteritie after him, is there continually buried. And a great Citie in the honour of Saint Moedog is there risen, the which by the same name is called Ferna. Ferne [...] the Metropolitan See of Lein­ster. Afterwards a Synode or Parliament of the Nobilitie of Lein­ster being called together, King Brandub decreed together with the Laitie and Clergie, that the Archbishopricke of all Leinster should al­waies be in the seate and chayre of Saint Moedog, and then Saint Moedog by many Catholikes was consecrated Archbishop. According [Page 65] to which indeed in the Legend of Saint Molva he is called Archiepis­copus Laginensium.

David of Menevia being of great yeeres,King Brandubs death. desired to see him before his death; Moedog visited him, and returned into Ireland in a trou­blesome time, namely when all Leinster was in Armes to revenge upon Saran (a Nobleman of Leinster) the death of King Brandub, whom he had traiterously murthered. This Brandub, the sonne of Eatach, of the progenie or sept of Enna, of whom Censelach hath o­riginall, had a most honourable funerall, and was greatly lamented, and intombed in the Church-yard of Saint Moedog, Ferne, the bu­riall place of the Kings of Leinster. in his Citie Fer­na, where his progenie, the royall bloud of the Kings of Leinster is interred; after his death, Earle Saran (so mine Author calleth him) being tormented in conscience, came to the Kings tombe, lamented the horrible treason he had committed, and could finde no rest to his dying day.

In the time of this Moedog, the three Kings of Tuomond,Warres against Leinster. Con­naght, and Vlster, with an Armie of foure and twenty thousand men, came to Leinster, to revenge the death of Edus before spoken of. The King of Leinster called Moedog, and the Clergie, and commanded them all to pray while he fought, and, saith the storie, God gave the Leinster men the victory, and their enemies were overthrowne.

It is remembred of this Aedanus, how that one comming unto him, and desiring him to assigne him a Confessor, his answer was; Thou needst no Confessor but God, who knoweth the secrets of thy heart, but if thou wilt have a witnesse of thy doings, goe to one Molva a lear­ned man, who shall direct thee in thy course. And yet (gentle reader) I may not overslip one thing, the which Capgrave reporteth in the life of Aedanus or Aidanus, (or Moedog) namely,An Epistle from the Di­vell. how that (for all the sanctitie of the Prelates in those dayes) Satan, with all the inter­nall spirits, sent greeting, with great thankes, unto the Ecclesiasticall state upon earth, in dreadfull characters. For that they wanting no aide in their delights from hellish places, sent such a number of dam­ned soules into the sulphureall pits, through their remisnesse in life, and slacknesse in preaching, as in former ages had not beene seene. Whosoever devised the course, it forceth not greatly, the matter might seeme odious if it contained no truth.

Finnan in Wales, (as my Authors report) called Gwyn, Bishop Finan. was born at Ardez, he travelled forraigne countries, came to his native soile, was Bishop of Farne, saith Beda, baptized Penda King of Mercia,Capgrave. Martyrologe. con­secrated Cedd, Bishop of East Saxons, and lyeth buried at Cuning­ham in Scotland, called of the Britaines, Kilgwinin. There was al­so one Finan an Abbot, borne in Mounster, sent by Saint Brendan to Smoir, now called Mons Blandina, to inhabite there,Abbot Finan. who came after­wards to Corcodizbue, where hee was borne, builded Cels and Mo­nasteries for religious men, contended with Falbe Fland, King of [Page 66] Mounster.Finan of Clu­ayn jarhaird. A third Finan there was, who was master of Ruadanus a great learned man, and dwelt at Cluayn jarhaird in Meath.

Colmannus. Colmannus, whose life Bale writeth at large, was a godly learned man, borne in Ireland, the sonne of one Fiachra, of the bloud Royall, and highly commended of Beda, hee was brought up after the Apo­stolike rules of Congellus, he succeeded Finan in the Bishopricke of Farne, alias, Linsey. In his time there was great stirre about the ob­servation of Easter, when some alledged custome, and some urged the authoritie of Rome; he pleaded the Gospell both against this stir, and the like trouble that rose about the shaving of Priests crownes, the which he reiected (saith Beda) and seeing that he could not pre­vaile,Beda. forsooke his Bishopricke, and went with certaine Scots and Sax­ons into the Hebrydes, where he ended his dayes.

Beda writeth, how that in the yeere 664. there fell strange acci­dents upon the eclipse of the Sunne, (which was the third of May) in England and Ireland, and a great mortalitie in both lands, in the time of Finan and Colman the godly Bishops. Gentle reader, thou shalt heare himselfe speake. The plague pressed sore that Iland of Ire­land, no lesse then England; there were then as that time, many of noble parentage, and likewise of the meane sort of English birth, in the dayes of Finan and Colman the Bishops, who leaving their native soile, had re­paired thither, either for divine literature, or for more continencie of life, whereof some immediately gave themselves to monasticall conver­sation, others frequenting the Cels, gave diligent eare to the lectures of the readers. All which the Scots (he meaneth the Irish men) with most willing minde daily relieved, and that freely, yeelding unto them bookes to reade, and masterly care without hire. Among these, there were two young men of great towardnesse, of the Nobles of England, Edelthun and Egbert: the first was brother to Edilhun, a man belo­ved of God, Edelthun and Egbert. who formerly had visited Ireland for learnings sake, and being well instructed, returned into his country, was made Bishop of Lin­disfarne, and for a long time governed the Church with great discreti­on. These men being of the monasterie of Rathmelfig, and all their fel­lowes, by the mortalitie, either cut off or dispersed abroad, were both vi­sited with the sicknesse; and to make short, that which mine Author layeth downe at large, Edelthun died thereof, and Egbert lived untill he was fourescore and tenne yeeres old. So farre Beda.

There was another Colmannus, otherwise called Colmanellus, an Abbot,Colmannus, or Colmanellus. of the sept of the Neilles, borne in Hoichle in Meth, what time the King of Leinster, with an huge armie wasted the North, he became first Abbot of Conor in Vlster, where the godly Bishop Mac Cnessey resteth. From thence he came to the place where he was born, and there (saith his Legend) he met with Eadus the sonne of Aimire­ach, Eadus the sonne of King Aimireach. a King of Ireland, Edus Flan a Lord of that country, of the sept of the Neills, his kinsman, Saint Columba Cylle, and Saint Cannicus [Page 67] the Abbot who received him ioyfully. Edus Flan gave him a parcell of land to build upon, and to inhabit, called Fyd Elo, afterwards cal­led Colmans Elo, where hee founded a Monasterie, and now resteth himselfe.

Carantocus, in the martyrologe Cartak, Carantocus or Cervagh. was the sonne of Keredi­cus, a King of Ireland, a good Preacher, the Irish called him Ceruagh, his mother was a Britaine, and was delivered of him in Wales. Hee travailed over Ireland and Britaine; King Arthur is said to have ho­noured him greatly, and gave him a parcell of land, where he builded a Church. In his latter dayes he came to Ireland, and died in a towne called after his name, Chervac: So much Capgrave. There was ano­ther of that name, an Abbot in France, of whom Ionas maketh men­tion in the life of Columbanus, but not of Irish birth.

Now to intermit a while from speaking of these learned men; I finde that Aurelius Conanus, (who slue Constantine that succeeded King Arthur, and raigned in his stead thirty three yeeres) valiantly by force of Armes brought under his command, as Gualterus Oxoni­ensis writeth, Norwey, Denmarke, Ireland, Island, Gothland,Ireland subiect to the King of England. the Orchades, and Ocean Ilands. I finde also that Malgo, the nephew of this Conanus, who (as it is in the English history) succeeded Vor­tipore, vanquished the Irish Pictes, or Scots, which the Britaines called y Gwydhil Pictiard, which had over-runne the Isle of Man,Ile of Man▪ of them called, Tyr Mon, and slue Serigi their King with his owne hand at Llany Gwydhil, that is, the Irish Church at Holy-head; so write Sir Iohn Price Knight, and Humfry Lloyd in the description of Cambria. Florilegus saith, that he subdued sixe Ilands of the Ocean adioyning unto him, which Harding thus reckoneth.

And conquered wholy the Isle of Orkenay,
Ireland, Denmarke, Iselond and eke Norway,
And Gotland also obeyed his royaltie,
He was so wise, full of fortunitie.

When Careticus was King of Britaine, who began his raigne,Anno Dom. 586 Anno Dom. 586. the Saxons intending to make a full conquest of the land, called to their aide, for a number of Pirates and sea rovers, that were mighty and strong, and scoured the Seas and the Ilands, whose Captaine was Gurmundus, one calleth him an African. Fabian wri­teth, that he had two names, and was called Gurmundus, Gurmund [...] and Afri­canus; howsoever, I finde, that hee was the King of Norweys sonne, and for his successe in England, referre the reader to that historie; and for his behaviour in Ireland, I will acquaint the courteous reader with what I finde, in which the Writers no [...] not agree. Cambrensis and Polycronicon followed bad presidents, and were deceived; Stani­hurst stammereth, writing one thing in English, another thing in [Page 68] Latine;Dowlinge and Grace. the best record I finde, is in Thadie Dowlinge, Chancellour of Leighlin, and Iames Grace of Kilkenny. They write that Gurmund was in Ireland, but no King or Conquerour, that with strong hand he entred Leinster like a raging Pyrate, prevailed for the time, and that the Princes of the land, not being able then to withstand his forces, yeelded unto the iniquitie of the time, and wincked at his rash enter­prises. And whereas he gave forth his stile, King of England, they laughed at it, and he perceiving the wilinesse and ingeniositie of the people, and having small stomacke to continue among them, (by reason of many mishaps which befell him) left the land, and went for France to seeke adventures, where he ended his dayes. Further they write, that he had a sonne called Barchard, alias Burchared Mac Gur­mond, whom his father made Duke of Leinster, and Baron of Mar­gee.Duke of Lein­ster and Baron of Margee. He was commonly called, O Gormagheyn; Hee builded Gur­mund grange in Monte Margeo, with other memorable things for him and his posterity; hee is said to have beene the founder of the mother Church or priorie of old Leighlin, but I rather beleeve hee was a Benefactor or endower thereof in the time of Saint Eubanus the originall Patron; and that one Lazerianus a Bishop and Confessor, Anno 651. procured the perfection of the whole, as in the Leighlin records more at large doth appeare. Againe, it is recorded that Duke Burchard lyeth buried on the North side of the Chancell of that Cathedrall Church, over against the Treasurers stall, under a marble stone, as it was found for certaine, Anno 1589. by Thadie Dowlinge, Chancellour, and others, with this Epitaph.

Hic jacet humatus Dux fundator Leniae (i. Leighlenie)
En Gormondi Burchardus vir gratus Ecclesiae.

Here lyeth interred Duke Burchard, the sonne of Gurmond, foun­der of Leighlin, and a gratefull man to the Church.

There are, saith mine Author, other remembrances of this in those parts, as Gurmunds-grove, and Gurmunds-foord, the which I over­passe.Baron of Sliew Marrig. Mons Margeus, in Irish, Sliewe Marrig or Sliew Marighagha, (which is the mountaine reaching along by Leighlin to Butlers wood) wherin, as before I have touched; Gurmunds-grange standeth, was, as I haue learned, of old, granted to one called de Sancto Leode­gario, by the name and honour of Baron de Marrighagha, but time and place have brought the name to degenerate and turne from En­glish to Irish. Of late yeeres a Gentleman of the name, dwelling at Dunganstowne, neere Catherlagh, (affirming himselfe to be lineally descended from Baron Sentleger) made claime unto the same, but the successe I hearken not after, as impertinent to my purpose.

Anno 587. Ireland hel­peth the Bri­taines.About the yeere 587. Athelfrid the Saxon King of Northumbers, so tyrannized over the Britaines, that they were faine to take Ireland [Page 69] for their refuge, and Atdan, King of Scots pittying their state, raised forces to defend them, but could not prevaile, so great was the mise­rie of the Britaines.

Anno Dom. 635. was Cadwallin crowned King of Britaine; Cax­ton and Florilegus write of cruell warres betweene Edwin, sonne un­to Athelfrid, King of Northumbers, and Cadwallin;Ireland hel­peth Cadwal­lin. how that Ed­win made him flee into Ireland, destroyed his land, cast downe his Castles, burnt his Mannors, and divided his land among his friends, and lastly, how that in a good while after, Cadwallin came upon him with forces out of Ireland, slue Edwin, and recovered all his posses­sions.

In the dayes of this Cadwallin, Kenevalcus, Agilbertus of Ireland, the first Bishop of Winchester. (otherwise called Cewalch) King of West Saxons, builded the Church of Winchester, made it a Bishops See, and the first Bishop he placed there, was one Agilbertus, who came out of Ireland, who in a short time after, was deposed, say some; Grafton with other writers record not the cause, but Beda writeth that he was offended, for that Kenelwalkus divided the Province into two, that he left the See, went into France, became Bishop of Paris, and there ended his dayes; and how that Kenelwal­kus sent for him againe and againe, but his flat answer was, for that he had dealt with him so unkindely, he would never returne.

I must here insert that which Cambrensis writeth of the antiquities of Brechinia or Breknoke in this sort;Brachanus, sonne of Hau­laph, King of Ireland. there was of old of that coun­try, which now is called Brecheinoc, a governour that was a man both mighty and Noble, whose name was Brachanus, of whom the country of Brecheinoc, (Brecknokshire) is so called, of whom one thing came un­to me worthy the noting; the histories of Britaine doe testifie that he had foure and twenty daughters, that were all from their childhood brought up in the service of God, and happily ended their dayes in the holy pur­pose they tooke upon them. Doctor Powell the great Antiquarie of Britaine, in his learned annotations upon him, explaineth the same thus. This Brachanus, (saith he) was the sonne of one Haulaph, King of Ireland, his mother was one Mercella, the daughter of Theoderike, the sonne of Tethphalt a petite King of Garthmarthrin, to wit, of the coun­try which tooke the name of this Brachanus, and at this day is called Brechonia, or Brechinia, in British, Brechinoc, in English, Breknok. This Brachanus had to his daughter, one Tydvaell, the wife of Conge­nus, the sonne of Cadell a petit King of Powis, and the mother of Broch­mael, surnamed Scithroc, who slue Athelfred, alias Ethelfred, King of Northumberland, at the river of Deva (called of the Britaines, Doverdwy) and foyled his armie about the yeere of our Lord, 603. Here Breknoktowne, and Breknokshire have cause to glorie of Ire­land, that gave them the name and honour which they hold to this day, and Ireland to glory of them that gave their Kings sonne Mar­cella their Lady, and all that country in her right.

[Page 70] Beda eccles. hist. lib. 3. cap. 26.Also I cannot omit another thing of that age, the which Grafton reporteth of the Clergie; and I finde in Beda more reverently delive­red, for that I have formerly spoken much of them, and shall have occasion to speake something hereafter, especially seeing Bedaes words are generall, to be understood as well of the one land, as of the other, if not rather of Ireland, considering what hath beene delive­red heretofore.Grafton. In those dayes (saith Grafton) the Monkes and Clergie set all their mindes to serve God, and not the world, and were wholly gi­ven to devotion, and not to filling of the panch, and pampering of the body, wherefore they were then had in great reverence and honour, so that they were then received with all worship. And as they went by the streetes and wayes, Priests of for­mer ages: men that saw them, would runne to them, and de­sire their blessings, and well was him then that might give unto them possessions, and to build them houses and Churches. But as they increa­sed in riches of worldly treasure, so they decreased in heauenly treasure; as in the dayes of Aluredus some deale began, and sithen that time, hath sprung not all to the pleasure of God▪ Then they applyed nothing that was worldly, but gave themselves to preaching and teaching of the word of our Saviour Iesus Christ, and followed in life, the doctrine that they preached, giving good example to all men. And beside that, they were utterly void of covetousnesse, and received no possessions gladly, but were enforced thereunto. So farre Grafton.

Anno Dom. 685. was Cadwallader crowned King of Britaines, that Ireland was subiect unto him, Harding testifieth, his words are,

Cadwaladrus after him gan succeed,
Both young and faire in florishing invent;
That Cadwallader was called as I reade,
Who of Britaine had all the Soveraigntie,
Of English and Saxons in each country,
Of Pightes, Irish, and Scots his under regence,
As Soveraigne Lord, and most of excellence.

For other things that concerne him, I referre the reader to the hi­storie of England. He had two nephewes (his daughters sonnes) na­med Iv [...]r and Heuyr, who fled into Ireland saith Powell, and when they saw their time, came with forces against the Saxons, gave them three battailes, with many skirmishes and inrodes, yet in the end, were foiled, as in the proper historie more at large appeareth. And here ended the rule of the Britaines which had long continued.

Saint Dympna the Virgin.I must now acquaint the reader with such as for learning and san­ctitie were of note during this age, beginning at the yeere 600. Za­charias Lippeloo, out of Petrus Cameracensis, writeth, that about this yeere 600. there was an heathenish and idolatrous King in Ireland, [Page 71] who had one Dympna to his daughter, who secretly was baptized by one Gerebernus a Priest that travailed the land for such purposes. The daughter being sole heire, and her mother being now dead, the father was very carefull to see her well matched according to his de­gree, and accordingly acquainted his dearest friends and counsellers with his intent and purpose, who likewise travailed carefully in the cause, but could not speed to the fathers contentment. As shee grew in yeeres, so she excelled in beautie, and the father being as wicked as she was good and faire, became enamoured of his owne daughter, and importunately offered her marriage. Shee at the first being ama­zed at the motion, yet at length gathering spirit, desired respite for forty dayes, and withall desired that it would please him to adorne her with such attire, jewels and ornaments, as became a Kings daugh­ter to weare, all which being granted, she privately sent for Gereber­nus the Priest, and acquainted him with all the circumstances. The Priest advised her, that the safest way for her to avoid the incestuous King, was to avoid the land; shee immediately with the Priest, toge­ther with her fathers Iester and his wife, tooke shipping, and arrived at Antverp. When they had rested there a while, and recreated them­selves, they of devotion (saith mine Author) sought out among woods and desarts, a solitarie place to remaine; in this resolution they came to a poore village called Ghele, (Gela saith Molanus) and from thence they went to a thicket called Zammale, where they rid some small quantity of ground, made a Caban to hold them all foure, where they continued well some three moneths, praying and fasting. In the meane while the Irish King missing his daughter Dympna, lamented greatly, made great inquirie, and offered great rewards to know what became of her, and having gotten inkling of her course, hoised up saile after her, and landed at Antverp, immediately hee made search, and sent messengers with large offers about, if haply they might heare of her. At the length, by the coyne which they offered for reward, she was found out, for they said, there was a faire young woman, re­maining in a solitary place, which had sent for reliefe for her selfe, and three persons more with the like coyne. The messengers were brought to the place, who knowing her ranne forthwith with newes to the King, and he with much ioy made haste to the Caban, and when he saw her, said; O my onely daughter Dympna, my love, my de­light, and the ioy of my heart; what constrained thee to despise a regall dignity, to forsake thy native soile, to forget the naturall affection of a Childe toward her Parent, to flee from thy father a King, and to follow, as a childe, this old decrepit bald Priest, and so willingly to con­descend to his unsavorie injunctions? hearken to mine advice, returne with me into Ireland, yeeld to thy fathers desire, and I will advance thee above all the Ladies in Ireland. Gerebernus the Priest, preventing the young Gentlewoman, turned him to the Irish King, and rebuked [Page 72] him sharpely, denouncing him for a most wicked and abhominable person; then he turned him to the Gentlewoman, and charged her never to give eare to so lewd a man. With this the King and his company being mightily moved, commanded the Priest to be taken aside, and his head to be taken off his shoulders. Afterward the fa­ther turned him to his daughter, O daughter, (saith he) why suf­ferest thou mee thy father to bee thus vexed? why contemnest thou my love towards thee? yeeld, and thou shalt want nothing. Shee with a sterne countenance made answer, Thou infortunate tyrant, why goest thou about with deceitfull promises, to withdraw me from my set­led purpose of shamefastnesse? I defie thee, and all thine. Thou cruell ty­rant, why hast thou slaine the Lords Priest? shalt thou escape (thinkest thou) the iudgement of the Almighty? what torture thou wilt lay upon me, I weigh not: with this, the father being furiously moved, com­manded his souldiers to cut off her head, and they being loath to doe it, he tooke the sword that hung by his side, and with his own hands strucke off her head, and with expedition returned into Ireland. Thus the Priest and Dympna died, of the Iester and his wife I reade no­thing, belike they returned home againe. Molanus writeth, that many yeeres after, the bodies of Dympna and Gerebernus were sought ou [...], taken up, and solemnly enterred. The Irish in the County of Louth doe honour her; belike her father dwelt there.

Saint Bertwin.Saint Bertwin, an Irish man, was brought up in the Monasterie of Othbell in England, from thence he went to Rome, where hee led a solitarie life the space of two yeeres; in his returne, he came to the For­rest of Marlignia in Flanders, where he builded a Chappell; lastly, he was made Bishop of Molania, where he ended his dayes. Sigebert ad an. 651. writeth, Many out of Eng▪ or Scot. (he knew not well the coun­tries) as strangers travailing in France, preached the word of God, and did much good, Hub Tho Com­ment. de Tungris & Eburonibus. to wit, Etto, Bertwinus, Eloquius. This Bertwin ly­eth buried nigh Namurcum (saith Molanus) of old called Namur, no­vus murus, but now Namurra, so writeth Hubertus Thomas Leodius.

Livinus. Livinus, borne in Ireland, and brought up in Scotland and En­gland, under Benignus the Priest, and Augustine the first Bishop of the Saxons, by whom he was made Archbishop (saith Molanus) of the Scots, (saith Christianus Massaeus, of Ireland, saith Bale, Silvestris Scotiae, Molanus nat. Sanctori Belgij. Chron lib. 13. of the Ilanders and Red-shanckes) the which charge, after cer­taine yeeres, he committed to Sylvanus his Arch-deacon, and gave himselfe to travaile, and tooke with him his three disciples, Saint Foillanus, Helias, and Kilian, and came to Gandavum. Of him, Chri­stianus Massaeus writeth thus: In the yeere of our Lord, 631. Saint Livinus by nation a Scot, Archbishop of Ireland, came to Ganda­vum, with three disciples, and remained there one moneth, from thence he went to Esca, preached Christ, and converted many, there some hard-hearted people slue him, when he was beheaded, hee rose [Page 73] up, tooke with him his owne head, (beleeve it who list) and carried it to Houtthein, where the Angels had made a sepulchre for him. He is said (saith Bale) to have written a booke of Homilies, and in the yeere 1007. to have beene translated to Saint Bavons Church in Gandavum. There was another Livinus a French man, a Fryer mi­norite, and slaine, as they say, about the yeere 1345. and of fame at this day in Flanders.

Arbogastus borne in Ireland, a godly Preacher,Arbogastus. Anno 646. and a great Wri­ter, was the second Bishop of Argentine, Anno 646. who also for his great wisedome, was taken by Dagobert King of France, to be of his Councell. He left behinde him for the good of the Church, a booke of Homilies. So much Bale out of Munster Molanus writeth, that about the yeere 647. some of the familie of Pipinus, the first Duke of Brabant, father of Saint Gertrude, sent for many Preachers out of Ire­land and Scotland into Brabant, and the bordering regions, to plant the Christian religion among them,Fortanus. Vltanus. Egbertus. Wicbertus. Willibrodus. Fortanus and Vltanus are there named. Lippeloo saith, that about the yeere 696. Egbertus, Wicbertus and Willibrodus were famous learned men in Ireland, continued there a long time, afterwards dispersed themselves into farre countries, and with happinesse ended their dayes.

Molanus hereof writeth farther thus.Saint Switberd. In the imperiall towne cal­led Werda, the birth of Saint Switberd, (whom Beda calleth Suidber­tus) the Bishop and Confessor is solemnized: who in the time of Pipinus, (the first Duke of Brabant) together with Saint Willibrod, preached soules health unto the nations thereabouts. This man, among other dis­eases, was wont to cure the disease in the throate, called of the Physiti­ans, the squinancie. He is termed the second of those Apostolike men which came out of England and Ireland to preach the Gospell unto the Frisians, Hollanders, and the nations about them Among whom, being as yet but a Priest, he converted many, chiefly the inhabitants of the great Village Duerstadt, the which now is the towne of W [...]ic. He converted also the Citie Hagenstein, which now is a village ad­ioyning unto Viana. And when as by the industrie of him and Wil­librodus, the number of the faithfull daily increased, at the intreatie of the brethren in Trajectum and Friseland, both of them consented he should be consecrated Bishop. Whereupon Saint Switbert (whom Beda saith to have beene modest of life, and meeke in heart) went in­to England, and was consecrated by Saint Willfride Bishop of Mer­cia (Kent, saith Beda, had then no Bishop) in the yeere 695. But Saint Willibrode went unto Duke Pipinus, and having gotten leave of him, departed to Rome, where the yeere following, Pope Sergius consecrated him. And although Switbert, by reason of some small time, had the start of Willibrode, yet Willibrode went before him in dignitie, for he was the first Archbishop of Trajectum, and especial­ly by Pope Sergius, consecrated Archbishop of Frisia, and directed [Page 74] to that people. And (saith Beda) Sergius changed his name, and cal­led him Clement, because (saith Molanus) hee consecrated him on Saint Clements Even. And he also writeth, that he was Archbishop of the nations now called Frisii, Transiselani, Trajectenses, Hollan­di and Zelandi, whereas Switbert is not called Bishop of Trajectum, but fellow Bishop with Saint Willibrode. Yet he is by speciall name called the Apostle of Teisterbandia, Westfalia, and of the Boructua­rians: for Marcellinus writeth, that hee converted the county of Teisterbandia, and together with it, in a manner, all Batua, and the greater part of the lower Friseland unto the faith. He also exceeding­ly increased the number of the beleevers in the Church, at Trajectum; he founded many Churches, and dedicated the temples of Idols un­to the honour of God. In the historie of Marcellinus, certaine places by especiall words are named; as in Zandwic, in the Ile of Tila, which at this day cannot be found in Arkell and Hoernaer villages of the Lordship of Gorcomia, in Schoenreford, (now called Schoenre­woert) by Leerda, in Authensden, nigh Huesden in Wondrighen, (now called Worckum) in Aelborch, Giesen and Riiswij [...]ke between Worckum and Huesden, in Almkerk (which is the territorie of Alte­nae) in Maelsem, Erkum and Avesaede in the Lordship of Buria, with many other places. In these countries hee hallowed Churches, continually praying with great devotion for the people which hee had converted, and with wholesome admonitions drawing them to the heavenly dwellings. He converted the Westfalians and Boructu­arians, which at this day are thought to bee the people Markenses. Further, the renowned Duke Pipinus gave him Werda upon the ri­ver of Rhene,Werda given to Saint Swit­bert. for his good, and for the establishing of his principality: which place is elsewhere called the Iland of Saint Switbert, though now it be part of the continent or maine land. Pipinus gave him also great store of treasure, wherewith he builded there a Monasterie, and replenished the same with a great company of the servants of Christ. In the end, this Saint Switbert died in the yeere 717. and lyeth buri­ed in the Monasterie of Werda-Caesaris which he had founded.

Beda writeth, that Willibrode lived in his time, and went on the thirtieth and sixt yeere of his consecration, Archbishop of Friseland: Molanus delivereth his end, that namely he ended his dayes at We­stervoert, and was buried at Elste in Gelderland; but of Egbert and Wigbert the Martyr (before mentioned) he reporteth out of Beda and Marcellinus, Beda lib. 5. cap. 10. that Wigbert was one of the companions of Egbert, and for the space of many yeeres, had led an Anchors life in Ireland, that he sailed into Friseland, and for the space of two whole yeeres, preached unto that nation, and to their King Radbodus, and seeing that he could doe no good among them, returned againe to Ireland. And when as Egbertus the servant of God, had sent the second time unto the Friselanders and Saxons, famous men for life and learning, [Page 75] Acca, Willibaldus, Winiboldus, Lebuinus, Werenfridus, Marcellinus, Adalbertus, Ewaldus senior and junior, together with Willibrode, he sent the said Wigbert, who no sooner landed, but King Rad [...]od cau­sed him cruelly to be tormented to death in Fosetes-land [...], an Iland in the confines of Friseland and Denmarke; for that the Christians of that place by his preaching of the Gospell, had destroyed there the Idoll groves of Iupiter and Fosta.

There was a later Wigbertus, Patron of Hersweldia, remembred in the Martyrologe, whom I would have the reader take notice of, to avoid the confusion of times. And last of all, of Willibrode and Wil­fram, there is a storie, how that Raboldus after long perswasion, see­med willing to be baptized, and having one foot in the water, de­manded where be the nobilitie of Frizeland, my Father, Grand-fa­ther and kindred? Answer being made, that they were in hell, hee with-drew himselfe from baptisme, saying, I will goe after the grea­test company, take your heaven to your selfe.

Molanus when hee had at large written the lives of the foresaid learned men that came out of Ireland, he maketh in his Chronicle a recapitulation of them, the which will helpe the memorie of the rea­der, therefore I thought good to lay it down. Egbert the second time essaied to convert Friseland and Saxonie, gathered together twelve Apostolicke men, Willibrode, Switbert, Acca, Wigbert, Wilibald, Wi­nibold, Lebuinus, Ewaldus, surnamed the blacke, (in Irish, Duffe) Ewaldus the white, Werenfridus, Marcellinus and Adalbertus.

1 Saint Willibrod and Saint Switbert, Willibrode. by common consent of the bre­thren, were elected and consecrated Bishops. Saint Willibrode was made Archbishop of Friseland, he received by the donation of Duke Pipinus, the Citie of Traiectum, with all thereunto appertaining. He founded in the territorie of Saint Thomas, a Colledge of regular Canons. In the towne of Rhen he is said to have found the body of Cunera, one of the eleven thousand Virgins. He travailed in preaching without Friseland; [...]e had in Latharingia, two women disciples, Herlind and Relind, Nunnes of Maeseike, which now is of Leodium or Leege in Flanders. He converted the Hulstenses, Axellanos, Hasuenses, Birfletanos. At Trevires, in the Church of Saint Marie and Martyres, hee founded a Monasterie of Monkes Benedictines▪ At Epternacum among the Lux­emburgs, he founded a famous Monasterie, wherein hee was buried, Anno 736.

2 Saint Switbert was consecrated in England, Switbert. and converted many in Traiectum, Holland, Gelderland, chiefely Wiic, Hagelsteyn, Alcma­ria, Waterla [...]dia, Gerconium, Bomelia, Tiela, Huesda, Bura, Ba [...]ua with other places. Hee is called the Apostle of Teisterbandia, Westfalia, and of the Boructuarians. He builded a Monasterie in Werda Caesaris, where he ended his dayes, Anno 710.

3 Acca went into England to the consecration of Saint Switbert, and [Page 76] when Switbert returned, he became Bishop of Lindisfarne.

Wigbert is said to be martyred in Fostilandia adjoyning upon Frise­land by Radbodus King of Friseland, who also slue Saint Egelmund the Martyr.

5.6 Wilibaldus and Winiboldus being brethren, went to Aistadi­um in Germanie.

7 Lebuinus converted the Transiselanians, and resteth among them in Daventria.

8.9 The two Ewaldes went to Nabia, preached Christ, and were martyred by the old Saxons.

10 Werenfridus converted many to the faith at Arnhemium in Westervaert, and at Neomagum in Elst.

11 Marcellinus preached 65. yeeres, chiefely in Trenta, Twenta, Ou­denzeel and Daventria.

12 Adelbertus was the first Archdeacon of Traiectum, preached in Kenemaria, together with Engelmund an Englishman before spoken of, and lyeth buried at Velsen in Egmondan monasterie.

He writeth farther of Wiron and Plechelinus, Bishops of Friseland, who came thither together with Otgerus a Deacon, out of these parts, and were entertained by Pipinus, Duke of Brabant.

Fursaeus, Foi­lanus, Vltanus.Many things are written by Beda, Capgrave, Surius, Baronius, Molanus, Lippeloo and others, of Fursaeus, Foilanus, (whom Beda calleth Fullanus) and Vltanus. They were three brethren, and the base sonnes of a King of Leinster, they flourished about the yeere sixe hundred fiftie and odde. Fursaeus is said to have had many visi­ons and dreadfull conflicts with divels and infernall spirits. He prea­ched unto the Irish, Scots, Britaines and Saxons; hee went into France, where he wrought many miracles, (saith Molanus) and be­cause of the fame that went abroad of him, one Ercanaldus gave him at Latiniacum, a parcell of land to build a Monasterie, also hee gave him another piece of ground at Perona, sometime a towne in Flan­ders, but now of France, and parcell of Gallia Comata, where he buil­ded another Monasterie, and drew unto him, (saith mine Author) germanos fratres, Foilanus and Vltanus, and there ended the way of all flesh. They of Cambray doe honour him as a Bishop, not that hee was a Bishop, but an Apostle of certaine places. The mar­tyrologe of Sarum reporteth, how that after his death, the angels and the deuils strove for his soule, how that the soule returned to the bo­dy againe, and how that he lived afterwards. Here the Author is de­ceived, for it was a trance that he was in, out of which after certaine conflicts, he came to himselfe againe, and finally in godly sort ended his dayes. I finde in the life of Mocoeinoge, that there was one Fur­saeus a Bishop, but more ancient then this.

Many other learned men of Irish birth, contemporane with Fursaeus.With Fursaeus there were at one and the selfe same time, many fa­mous men of Irish birth, renowned for learning and sanctitie, which [Page 77] gave themselves to travaile, and dispersed themselves to farre coun­tries, as Foilanus and Vltanus (before mentioned) also Mombolus, Boetius, Eloquius, Adulgisius, Columbanus, Hetto, Helanus, Tresanus, Germanus, Veranus, Gobanus, Corbrican, Dicull, Fredegandus, Col­manellus, Madelgarius, Algisius and others. After they had visited Rome, they came backe (saith Molanus) into France and Flanders, Fursaeus and Adelgisius into Perona, Foilanus and Vltanus into Pos­sa, Eloquius and Algisius into Theoras, the reverend Priest Hetto, un­to the lake adioyning unto Corbriolum, where he builded a Mona­sterie called domus Petri. Further, saith Molanus, in the confines of the Attrebates, there is a Village called Buym, which hath a Church cal­led Saint Hetto, whereupon is written, In hoc loco Hetto Hiberniensi­um Episcopus mansionem habuit, in another place of the Church, Hic reposuit Hetto Hibernensis Episcopus reliquias de corpore sancti Cle­mentis Papae & Martyris. In another place he writeth of Hetto, Go­ban, and Corbrican, that they were three brethren, and in their re­turne from Rome, died at Walciodorum, and lie buried at Fesca. Beda left but a bare mention of Goban and Dicull, onely this, that they were companions of Foilanus.

Foilanus was slaine in a place in Flanders, called Carboriar.Foilanus. Saint Bernard writeth, that in the place where he was slaine, there is a Mo­nasterie builded by the name of Saint Foilane ordinis praemonstraten­sis, in the Diocesse of Cambray.

Fredegand preached in Antverp, where now hee resteth,Fredegand. and is greatly honoured.

Mombolus became an Abbot in the Monasterie of Fursaeus in France, a perceiving a conspiracie of his covent against him,Mombolus. forsook the place, and withdrew himselfe, together with a few of his compa­ny, unto a place of old called Condrynus, upon the river Isara, where he led an hermites life, and ended his dayes. There was another of that name, a Saint of Burdeux, but not of Irish birth.

Eloquius preached most painefully throughout France and Saxo­nie,Eloquius. and being seated at Latiniecum in the Monasterie which Fursaeus had founded, perceived some treacherie practised against him, with­drew himselfe (as formerly Mombolus had done) to a solitarie place called Grimacum, upon the rivers of Some and Isara, where he depar­ted this life, afterwards his body was translated to Walciodorum in Flanders, and there he resteth.

About this time, Saint Autbert, borne in Ireland,Saint Autbert. was Bishop of Cambray; he converted Hannonia, and is called the Apostle of Flan­ders; of him Molanus writeth thus, Autbertus had beene for certaine yeeres, Hiberniae gubernator, governour of Ireland, (the which I take to be some ecclesiasticall charge) by which occasion, many singular good Preachers heretofore mentioned, came the more willingly out of Ire­land unto us.

[Page 78] Trithemius reporteth of this time in this sort, There were many Monasteries of Irish men in Germanie, Herbipolis and other places, but when their zeale waxed cold, and that they fell to remisse and dissolute life, they were expulsed, and their habitation became waste and deso­late.

Saint Chilian.Saint Chilian (otherwise written Kilian) whom Bale calleth a Scot, Surius, Baronius, and Lippeloo, write that hee was an Irish man of Noble Parentage. Molanus writeth, in Hibernia regio sanguine pro­creatus, that he was begotten in Ireland of royall bloud; another saith he was a Kings base sonne. This man became a Monke, went to Rome, together with Colman a Priest, and Totnan a Deacon of the same country birth, in the time of Conon, Bishop of Rome, about the yeere 687. to sue unto the Bishop there, that Ireland might be released of the curse that was denounced against the land, and the inhabitants thereof, for the Pelagian heresie. Molanus writeth, that he served in Saint Peters Church in Rome, eleven yeeres, but he was directed an­other course, for he was consecrated Bishop of Herbipolis in the East parts of France, and together with his fellowes sent away. There they converted Gosbert a French Duke, which had married one Geila his brothers wife. It is Iohn Baptists case, he rebuked him for it, and shee hearing thereof, sent certaine lewd persons in the night, which mur­thered them all three, and privily buried them, lest so horrible a fact should come to light; but God that will have no such villany concealed, brought it out, the tormentors became madde, and con­fessed the whole. Beda in his Martyrologe reporteth, how that at Wir­ciburge in Austria, the birth day of Kilian the Martyr, and his two companions, is solemnly kept the eight of Iuly.

Saint Fiacre. Molanus saith, that in his travaile he met with Saint Fiacre, some­time his fathers servant, but he following carefully his direction, staid not with him, but passed on in his iourney. This Saint Fiacre, (saith the Martyrologe) was base sonne of some King in Ireland, went into France, and became an heremite; there are small remembrances of him in Surius and Lippeloo, saving that for a womans sake which cal­led him a Witch, Sorcerer, and Inchanter, hee commanded that no woman should put foot into his Cloister, and if any should doe so, he prayed that God would lay some plague upon her; to try this, a wo­man sent her maide to take the ayre of the Cloyster, but she tooke no harme; upon a second tryall, a fairer then she presumed so farre, that her shinne, her knee, and her thigh, (saith mine Author) and some parts above, tooke swelling, and that went for a punishment. In an antient manuscript Legend of the life of Congellus or Congallus, I finde that Saint Fiacre returned into Ireland, and became Abbot of Airard in Leinster upon the river of Berba, now called the Barrow, in the Barony of Odrone, and that he went to the Abbey of Beanchor in Vlster to visite Congellus, at whose hands Congellus received the [Page 79] Sacrament, and gave up the Ghost. There also it is further alledged, that this Fiacre builded a Monasterie in Leinster, in the honour of Saint Congellus.

The martyrologe aforesaid, remembreth Saint Cataldus a Bishop, Saint Finan an Abbot, Saint Sacodine a Virgin,Saint Cataldus. Saint Finan. Saint Sacodine. who forsooke her husband, and entred religion, to have lived then: and how that In­drake, a King of Ireland, forsooke his royaltie,King Indrake, Dominica. went to Rome with his sister Dominica, led a private life, and died beggers. Capgrave calleth him Indraktus, saying that he was a Kings sonne, and tooke with him, beside his sister, nine persons more.

About this time, (saith Capgrave) one Muriardachus, Monarch of Ireland, together with his wife Sabina, Muriardachus Monarch of Ireland. lived in the true faith and feare of God, who being mighty and wise, commanded in good sort all the Princes of the land. In this his good successe and peaceable governement, he was envied, so that a petite King his neighbour, came upon him in the night, murthered him with his Queene, and all his familie, excepting one daughter, whose life hee saved for her beauties sake. This cruell tyrant after assaulted this faire Gentlewo­man to his filthy lust, and when with faire perswasions he could not prevaile, at length by force he oppressed her, so that shee conceived and bare him a sonne, called at the time of his baptisme, Milluhoc, but afterwards, Cuthbert.

This Cuthbert being borne (as my Author writeth) at Kilmacro­drike, some three miles from Dublin,Saint Cuthbert. his mother tooke him to Scot­land to her two brethren, Meldan and Eatan, that were Bishops.Meldan and Eatan Bishops, sonnes to the Monarch of Ireland. From thence hee went into the North parts of England, and was brought up among the holy Monkes of those dayes, in the Monaste­rie of Mailros, under the Abbot Boisilius, whom he succeeded in the same Monasterie. Anno 651. And Anno 676. he went to the Ile Farne, which was uninhabited, and continued there nine yeeres, building, teaching and preaching, and (as Beda writing his life delivereth) wor­king in harvest time with his owne hands. The fame of his vertues and holinesse went farre abroad, so that Egfride, King of the Nor­thumbers, made him Bishop of Lindesfarne, to which dignitie hee was consecrated at Yorke by Theodorus the Archbishop, Anno 685.

In his time,Anno 684. the aforesaid Egfride sent Brith with a great host into Ireland to be revenged of them, for that he was given to understand,Saxons in Ire­land. they had aided his enemies against him; these Saxons over-ranne the land, killing, burning, and spoyling, they spared neither Church nor Monasterie, so writeth Beda. Berthus vastavit miserè gentē innoxā, & nationi Anglorum semper amicissimam: Beda eccles. hist. lib. 4. cap 26. Berthus pittifully spoiled this harmelesse people, who alwaies most kindely affected the English nation. Cuthbert reproved him for it, and the Ilanders cried unto the hea­vens, and prayed God to avenge their cause. Beda reporteth farther, [Page 80] how that he bent his forces afterwards against the Pictes and Scots, and would not be advised by Cuthbert and Egbert, and that his blou­dy course had no good successe, and that then Egfride, the glory of the Saxons began to decay, the which Florilegus attributeth to the crie of the Irish, and the courage of the Pictes and Scots, and Bri­taines. In his time, saith Carodoc, it rained bloud in Britaine and Ire­land; the Milke likewise and the Butter, turned to the colour of bloud, and the Moone appeared all bloudie.

Cuthbert, when he had beene Bishop two yeeres, forsooke his Bishopricke, and went to the Ile Farne, where hee led an hermites life, and left the world, Anno Dom. 687. It is written of him that he forbade his Monkes and Priests, the company of women, and that they should not come within any Cloyster, for that the devill appea­red unto him in his Church in the shape of a woman most faire and beautifull. Yet I finde that he conversed much with Ebba and Verca, and with Elfleda, King Egfrides sister, and repaired oft to their Nun­neries, did eate and drinke with them, and sent Elfleda a linnen or threed Girdle for a token, which tooke away a swelling and crampe that troubled her, and that he was shrouded in the winding sheete, which the Nunne Verca had sent him. Anno 875. Ardulphus, Bishop of Lindisfarne, fearing the incursion of the Danes, who destroyed Churches, and defaced Tombes, tooke the corps of Cuthbert, and attempted the transporting of it into Ireland, but the winde was a­gainst them, and compelled them to land in England, then they brought it to Cuncacester, some sixe miles from Durham, where it rested some yeeres. Anno 925. (though Stow referre it to the yeere 995.) Aldunus (who was the first Bishop of Durham) preventing (as formerly Ardulphus did) the invasion of barbarcus people, remo­ved it to a place full of bushes and thornes, now called Durham, and with the aide of Earle Vthred, builded a Church over it, where (now at length) it resteth. Edmund the second Bishop of Durham, enlarged the Church, and beautified the place of his buriall, and long after, were brought thither, the bodies of Balther and Bilfride, that had beene Anchors, Acca and Alkmundus that had beene Bishops, Eb­ba the Nunne, and familiar of Cuthbert, Boisilus the Abbot his ma­ster, King Oswine, and the bones of Beda that rested at Girwin, so wri­teth Capgrave. He that will see farther of Cuthbert and his patrimo­nie, (so called in the Bishopricke of Durham) of the endowments and grants given by Christian Princes, and of the reverend opinion held of the place, because of the sanctitie of Irish Cuthbert, let him repaire to learned Camdens Brigantes, the which for that they concerne the antiquities of England more then Ireland, I omit.

Anno 701.Now to come to the 700. yeere of Christ. I will beginne with A­damannus, who flourished Anno 701. as Florilegus writeth, in the time of Alfred, King of Northumbers, whom Beda highly commen­deth, [Page 81] and as it may be gathered and borrowed out of his workes, many things to furnish his historie of England. I finde of divers re­ported, that he was in Ireland, and did much good. I take it he was of Irish birth, for I cannot finde the contrary. Bale summarily out of Beda and others, writeth in his life as followeth. Adamannus Co­ludius, by profession a Monke, not vowed, but of the Apostolike order, Adamannus his life. and governour of that famous Monasterie, which of old, Columbanus the disciple of Congellus had founded in the Ile Hu, made himselfe a patterne of vertue to be followed of many; hee was a man studious and singularly well seene in holy Scripture, as Tritemius witnesseth, neither ignorant of prophane literature, wise and faire spoken; hee was for his life and conversation, renowned, and for opinion of sanctitie, recounted the father of many Monkes, so that hee travailed in a manner all the North regions of Britaine; he was a notable Preacher, instructing with heavenly admonitions, Irish, Scots, Pictes, and Anglosaxons. Hee wil­lingly gave eare to all such as made report of any memorable acts of Pa­lestina by their travaile, and of other places of the holy Land, with the site thereof, trusting thereby to attaine unto a better sight in the holy Scripture. Then it fell out (say the Chronographers) that one Arnul­phus, a Bishop of France, comming from Ierusalem, and being winde-driven to that place, arrived there, and throughly enformed Adaman­nus, the which he shortly after committed to writing, and dedicated unto Alfred, King of Northumbers, with these titles.

  • De locis terrae sanctae lib. 1.
  • De situ Ierusalem lib. 1.
  • De paschate legitimo lib. 1.

With certaine Epistles. So farre Bale. I have seene beside these, a Manuscript worke of his, of the life of Saint Columba in three bookes.

About the yeere 740. saith Lippeloo, Gualafer Bishop of Dublin,Gualafer, Bi­shop. Saint Rumold. Zachar. Lip. de vitis Sanct. tom. 3. was famous, who by his prayers obtained that Cecilia, wife to Da­vid King of Scots, and daughter to the King of Sicilia, being bar­ren, did conceive & beare a sonne called Rumoldus, who after the de­cease of Gualafer, was made Bishop of that See, and consecrated by the Archbishop of Canterbury, and two other Prelates. He went in­to England, afterwards to France, and came to Rome, Anno 752. in the time of Stephen 2. he resigned his Bishopricke, from thence hee went into Brabant, and by his prayers (saith mine Author) got one Eliza, wife to Earle Ado, of the age of 66. yeeres, to conceive. In the end he went to repaire an old Church, agreed with workemen, wrangled with them so, that they for one quarrell and other, and es­pecially for that they held him to be rich, hoping to get some part of his wealth, knockt him in the head with a hatchet, and there lay [Page 82] Saint Rumolde. Molanus in discreet sort examineth this historie, and delivereth that this Rumoldus tooke with him beyond the seas, one Saint Himelin, now Patron of Fenacum, the place in Dutch is Sijnte Himelijns Vissenaken, some said he was of his bloud, others some, that he was of his bloud and bone.Io. Molanus nat. Scotorum Belgi [...] ex Martyrologo Mechlin. His words are these. Some suppose that Saint Rumold was the sonne of Erfinus King of Scots, after whom suc­ceeded in the kingdome, the third and fourth sonne, Fergusius and A­chaius, but the names of the first and second sonne are not extant. They adde happely unto the rest, that because he was the King of Scots his sonne, it stood him upon to forsake the Bishopricke of Dublin, when Solvathius that raigned betweene Fergusius and Achaius, warred against the Irish, and upon this occasion, he tooke his iourney to Rome, and at his returne, preached the Gospell at Mechlin. All which, by con­ferring the times, would have some great probabilitie, unlesse the an­tient Monuments and Records of Mechlin, had avouched him to have beene the sonne of one David a King, and to have beene brought forth in­to the world, by the intercession and devout prayers of Gualafer, Bishop of Dublin, and of him baptized, whereby I gather, that he was the sonne of some King of Ireland. Neither is it any mervaile, though we reade not of this David, when as Saint Bernard witnesseth, that Ireland was not governed by one King, but by many; the orderly succession of which Kings, I suppose for the most part is now perished. If you urge that hee came of the Scottish bloud royall; I admit it, for it is so sung every where throughout the Diocesse of Mechlin, but that of old the Irish men were understood and comprehended under the name of Scots, by the life of Saint Patricke and elsewhere, is very manifest. To this purpose is that which Beda affirmeth, that Ireland is properly the country of the Scots, and Ionas also writeth in the entrance to Columbanus his life, how that the Scottish nation inhabit the Iland of the Irish. This Rumoldus died, Anno 775. and is honoured in Mechlin for their Patron.

Virgilius soliva­gus· Virgilius Solivagus, borne in Ireland, and descended of noble Pa­rentage, in his yeeres of discretion, forsooke his native soile, and to­gether with certaine companions of the same countrey birth, went into Germanie, where Anno 754. hee was made Abbot of Salis­burge, by Odilo, Duke of Bavaria, and shortly after, Bishop of Iuva­viens; the name of which Bishopricke, hee procured to bee changed, and called it the Bishops See of Salisburgh, where he builded a sump­tuous Cathedrall Church, and was the first founder thereof. In his time, one Boniface an English man, and the Popes Legate in Germany, tooke upon him to rebaptize, contrary to the Canons of the Church, such as had beene (as hee thought) formerly not rightly baptized. Virgilius (having had conference with Sydonius, Archbishop of Ba­varia) opposed himselfe against him. The matter came to hearing be­fore Pope Zacharie, who gave sentence, that Virgilius was in the right, and Boniface his Legate (for all his great authority) in the [Page 83] wrong opinion. Hee prudently governed his Church some thirty yeeres, and gave place to nature. So farre Bale, out of Gaspar Brus­chius.

Learned Camden alledgeth out of Rhegino, that in the time of Ca­rolus magnus, Invasions of Norwegian [...] and Danes. which must needs bee about the yeere 767. certaine Norwegians or Normans entred Ireland, and were repulsed, and fur­ther of them I have not read: but in the British Chronicle of Caradoc Llancarvan, I finde that Anno 799. the Danes came into England, and destroyed a great part of Lindsey and Northumberland,Anno 799. over-ranne the most part of Ireland, and destroyed Rechreyn.

The accidents of the eight hundreth yeere after Christ, now fol­low. And first of all, Functius offereth occasion to write, how that Anno 820. Regnerus, King of Denmarke, invaded Britaine, and how that his prosperous successes in Britaine, Scotland, and the Orchades, puffed him up, and emboldned him so much, that he passed into Ire­land, slue the King of the land, tooke the Citie of Dublin, where hee remained an whole yeere, and then returned to Denmarke.

Next commeth Turgesius his time to bee examined, who was of Norwey, and came with great power of Esterlings into Ireland, van­quished King Edlumding, or Edlimidus, or in Irish, Felim Mac Ed­mund, and raigned thirty yeeres. Here (gentle reader) observe certain errours or escapes (whether of ignorance, wilfulnesse, or negligence, I know not) the which I finde betweene Cambrensis, Polychronicon, Fabian and others, touching Gurmund and Turgesius. First, that Gur­mund and Turgesius should be one man, the end of them both by a generall consent of Writers, reproveth that; for Gurmund dyed in France, and Turgesius was slaine in Ireland. Secondly, (whereat Gi­raldus marvaileth) how that the Antiquaries of England make men­tion of Gurmund, but nothing of Turgesius, and that the Writers of Ireland speake of Turgesius, but little or nothing of Gurmund; so that Turgesius by reason of his raigne and continuance was knowne unto them, and Gurmund, if he were here, made small abode, (as I have for­merly written) and therefore became a man unknowne. Thirdly, that Turgesius should be Gurmunds deputie in Ireland, or his brother (as I reade in Fabian) cannot possibly stand with the truth: for on all sides it is agreed, that Gurmund came to Britaine, and ioyned with the Saxons against Careticus, who began his raigne in Britaine, anno 586. but, as saith Cambrensis, Turgesius Captaine of the Norwegi­ans, Danes or Esterlings, came to Ireland in the daies of Fedlimidius, which was 400. yeeres from the comming of the first Patricke into the land, in the which time there had raigned thirty three Kings or Monarchs; then this knot with facilitie may be untied,Turgesius came to Ireland, Anno 832. for Patricke came to Ireland (as I have formerly delivered) An. 432. adde 400. to it, then Turgesius came to Ireland, Anno 832. But forward with the history.

[Page 84]When these Norwegians or Esterlings had got footing in the land to their content, and planted themselves the space of thirty yeeres, they builded Castles, Fortes and Wardes, they cast up Tren­ches, Bankes and Ditches for safegard and refuge. Toward the end of the terme before mentioned, Turgesius was enamoured on a faire Gentlewoman, the onely daughter of Omalaghlin, King of Meth, and desired her for his Concubine; he practised with the father for ob­taining of his purpose, the father not willing to yeeld, nor daring to displease, resolved him thus: Appoint the day, the houre, and the place, and sequester your selfe from your Court and retinue, and I will send my daughter unto you with twelve or sixteene Gentlewo­men, of the choice and beautifullest maidens of my country, and take your choice of them; if my daughter please you best, she is at your command.

When the time appointed came, and the Lecher longed to satis­fie his filthy lust, Omalaghlin attired his daughter in princely sort, and sent her to King Turgesius, with sixteene young men in womens attire, which had long Skeines under their Mantles. These young springals were faire, beautifull, effeminate, and amiable to look upon; they were brought to his chamber, and presented before him, he ta­keth the Gentlewoman by the middle, and kisseth her, the Striplings out with their Skeines,Turgesius slaine and stabbed him, having the Lady in his armes, whereof he presently dyed, whilst they fell upon a few loose and dissolute persons that were about him, whom they killed every one.

Omalaghlin that lay in ambush all this while with certaine horse­men, (expecting the end of this exploit) reioyced greatly when hee saw his daughter and her company make so speedy a returne, and un­derstanding that his practise was effected as he desired, sent Scoutes and Cursitors, Messengers and horses over the whole land, declaring what had happened. Immediately, Meth and all Leinster are in Armes, the Princes and Lords from euery place throughout Ire­land, repaired to Omalaghlin, and being glad of liberty, reioyced with him at the destruction of Turgesius and his Guard. To make the sto­ry short, (for they made short worke with it) they set upon the Nor­wegians and Danes, killed them every mothers sonne that escaped not by flight, seized upon all their possessions, so as together with their lives, they lost all their lands and goods: and, saith the Irish Chronicle,Iacob. Grace. Thad. Douling. tunc cepit conquestus Hibernicorum, Then the Irish began to conquer.

This Omalaghlin King of Meath, being in great trust, credite and favour with Turgesius (no man greater at that time) demanded of him (concealing the plot that lay hidden in his heart against the Norwe­gians) by what meanes certaine ravenous and pestiferous fowle (hee meant the Norwegians) lately brought into the land, which greatly [Page 85] annoyed the country, might be destroyed? Turgesius answered, if they breed, destroy their egges, birds, and nests; which answer, the Irish made good upon the Norwegians.

Not long after (saith Cambrensis and Polychronicon) after what? They meane, after the murthering of Turgesius, and rooting out of all the Norwegians and Esterlings, there came againe out of Norway, and the Northerne Ilands, as remnants of the former nation, and whe­ther they knew of themselves, or by relation of their Parents and Ance­stours, the land to be fruitfull, & commodious; thither they came, not in warlike sort, but in peaceable manner, to use the trade of merchandise; when they had entred certaine Ports and Havens of Ireland, with the licence of the Princes of the land, they builded therein divers Cities. For the Irish nation, (they speake of that time) naturally given to idle­nesse, would not sulcate the seas, neither give themselves to merchan­dise, so that by one consent of the whole land, it was thought good, that some certaine nation, by whose industrie the commodities of other regi­ons wanting in Ireland, might be hither transported, should be suffered to dwell in some parts of the land. Amelanus, Sita­racus and Ivorus. Their Leaders and Captaines were three brethren, Amelanus, Sitaracus and Ivorus, when they had first builded three Cities, Dublin, Waterford, and Limericke; the command of Dublin fell to Amelanus, Waterford to Sitaracus, Lymericke to Ivorus, and from these by degrees, in processe of time, they gave them­selves to build other Cities in Ireland. This nation (quae nunc Oas [...]man­nica gens vocatur) which now is called the Esterling nation, or East men, at their first comming, demeaned themselves toward the Kings of the land, in a most royall and peaceable mander, but when the num­ber multiplied of their owne kinne, and they had fortified their Cities with wals and trenches, they began to revive the old hatred that was hid in their hearts, and obstinately to rebell. They were called Oostman­ni of their corrupt Saxon tongue, as men of the East. Of these and the former Norwegians, the Irish tooke the use of the Sparthes, now called Galloglas axes. So farre Cambrensis verbatim, and Polychron in sub­stance.

Divers have diversly delivered their opinion, and misreckoned themselves in their computation of yeeres, when these Cities before spoken of were builded. Stanihurst in his description of Ireland, re­ferreth it to the yeere 155. and that they were builded by Amelanus; in another place he alledgeth it was after Gurmundus his dayes, done in like sort by Amelanus. It is such an errour as I cannot well impute it to the Printer. Cambrensis and Polychronicon doe not lay down the yeere, but the time about the yeere: what beside is added, is but fan­cie and conjecture, for their testimony is the ground of all. For where they write that these brethren came to Ireland after the death of Tur­gesius, then it was after the yeere 862: wherein hee died, but how soone or how long after, there is no certaintie. That they builded [Page 86] these Cities, I doe not beleeve, I had rather say with Stanihurst, that they reedified them, for those places were after a sort builded, and in­habited many yeeres before their arrivall. I take it that as Merchants, they builded themselves dwelling houses, walled the townes, and made keyes to moore their shippes, neither doe I hold it that every one severally builded a Citie, but all three together with the aide of their country Merchants upon their arrivall in their safe Ports, buil­ded and planted their country people, and rested not long, for the Irish fell upon them, and banished them out of the land, for their ri­ches, pride, and rebellion.

Patricke, the Abbot.In the yeere 850. lived Patricke the Abbot of Ireland, Abbot and Confessor. For there were two Patrickes, the first a very learned and godly man, the second a Abbot, and given to superstition, and foun­der of the fabulous Purgatorie, which goeth in Ireland under the name of Saint Patrickes Purgatorie; so write Ranulphus, Monke of Chester, and Bale, Bishop of Ossory, though Stanihurst allow not of it, but attribute it to the first Patricke, and that without warrant.

In his time there rose a great rebellion in Ireland, so that hee fled into Britaine, and lyeth buried in Glastenbury. The Martyrologe of Sarum reporteth, that in Ireland they keepe the feast of Patricke the Abbot, the 24. of August. Stanihurst to further his credite, delive­reth that he wrote a booke of Homilies, and certaine Epistles dire­cted to the Irish.Saint Patricks Purgatory. The sounder opinion is, (the which Stanihurst at unawares remembred out of Claudianus) that the place there, was in like sort as it is now in the time of Paganisme, and was long before Saint Patrickes dayes, And it seemeth to be after the manner of con­cavities in the bowels of the earth, where the ayre entring naturally to avoid Vacuum, and the winde following, whisteleth and crieth like dolefull ghosts; the silly ignorant and simple people being deceived through perswasion of covetous Priests, that some soules and spirits doe penance there for their sinnes, call it a Purgatorie. And further we see by reason and daily experience in Miners, that if any be much under grownd, the dampnesse of the earth takes away their lively co­lour, and makes them looke ghastly, and if they continue any long while there (the vitall spirits being barred of their usuall course) they are mightily tormented, cast into trances, and distracted, and being once delivered from the place, report things at randon of heaven and earth, beleeve them who list.

Albertus Krantz Dan. lib. 2. Albertus Krantz, reckoning up reports given forth out of severall countries touching visions, apparitions, voyces, illusions, inserteth among them, Patrickes Purgatorie in Ireland, and concludeth, that they are to be accounted among old Wives fables.Ant. chron. p 2. tit. 11. cap. 1 [...] Antoninus alledg­eth Vincentius for his Author, how that in those dayes, the historie de fossae sancti Patricij of Saint Patrickes pit or ditch, was not of many allowed, the reason is alledged, for that it is there avouched, that the [Page 87] soules in that Purgatorie, goe not straight to heaven, but into some terrestriall Paradice, whereas the received opinion is, (saith he) that there is no middle place betweene Purgatorie and the celestiall Para­dice.

In the time of Alphred, alias Alured, King of West Saxons, anno 872. as Fabian and Cooper have noted, there was a grievous maladie raigning among the people, called the euill ficus, Evill Ficus. which also tooke the King, so that (say mine Authors) an Irish maid came out of Ireland, called Modwen, whose Monasterie in time of rebellion,Modwen. was destroy­ed, and cured the King. In recompence whereof, she had land given her in the North, whereon two Monasteries were founded, and now she resteth at Aundersey by Burloa. Polychronicon and Holinshead re­port the historie, as if Alphred had gone into Ireland unto her. I al­ledge this historie to put the reader in minde, how that formerly I have written of one Modwen, who lived immediately after Saint Pa­tricke, and was of Irish birth, about 400. yeeres agoe▪ Were it not for the time, by many circumstances, they both should be one, but to re­move all doubts, and to uphold the credite of antiquaries, I will say they were two, of one country birth, and now rest in one place▪

There was great amitie betweene Alphred or Alured before men­tioned, and Gregory, King of Scots, in whose time,Anno 877. Anno 877. (Graf­ton, Cooper, and Buchanan are mine Authors) great troubles and mi­sery fell upon Ireland; the circumstances in briefe were these. The Citizens of Dublin found themselves grieved, and mightily wronged by the Scots of Galloway; that whereas certaine tall ships of theirs were wind-driven thither, the Scots fell upon them, rifled them, and thereof made a prey. In revenge whereof, the people of Dublin ga­thered Irish forces, arrived there, and preyed the country. Gregory the King having intelligence thereof, hastened with his forces, to encounter with them; the Irish fearing the worse, got them with their pillage aboard their shippes, and hoised up sailes for Ireland: Gregory prepareth his navy, and shortly after arriveth in Ireland.

The King at that time (saith Buchanan) was but a childe, whose name was Duncanus, or Donatus, or rather Dunachus;Brian and Cornelius. the Protectors or chiefe commanders of the land about the King, were Brian and Cornelius, who had drawne the land into two factions. The Irish hering of the comming of Gregory, fortified themselves upon the ri­ver of the Band, but there the Scots overthrew them; Brian was slaine, and Cornelius put to flight. The Scots left them not so,Scots at the Band over­throw the Irish. but pursued them, preyed the country without resistance, constrained the townes before them to yeeld, and hearing by the way that Cornelius gathe­red all the forces of Ireland against them, made ready to ioyn battaile, in the which, Cornelius and all his forces were foiled, so that for a safeguard of his life, hee fled to Dublin, and his armie dispersed themselves abroad. Gregory followed him, laid siege to Dublin, and [Page 88] by reason there were so many received within that fled from the field, they could not long indure the strength of the puissant King of Scots without,Dublin receive the Scots. Cormack, Bi­shop of Dub­lin. wherefore by generall consent of the Citizens, Cormacke, Bishop of Dublin, opened the gates, received the King of Scots, with­out losse of any man of either side, or damage of goods. Immediately Gregory the King of Scots, went to his cousin Duncan the young King, saluted him, and delivered unto him that he came not for his kingdome, ne for gold nor silver, ne for commodities of his country, but onely to be revenged of them that had formerly injured his sub­iects. And as for you, said he, cousin Duncan, I beare you no malice; without bloud I came into the Citie of Dublin, without bloud I will depart; recompence of the Citizens of Dublin I seeke none, the inha­bitants betweene this and the Band have satisfied me and my people, let the Citizens pay it them againe, and make no more such rash at­tempts into Scotland. With this they lovingly departed, and conti­nued friends, to the great honour of the King of Scots.

After this, Anno 897. poore Ireland had another scourge, for saith Caradoc Llancarvan in his British Chronicle,Anno 899. Strange wormes. and likewise Poli­chronicon, this country was destroyed with strange wormes, having two teeth, so that there was neither corne nor grasse, nor food for man or beast, for all was consumed that was greene in the land, at the season of the yeere: The nine hundreth yeere followeth.

Anno Dom. 900.The Saxons that divided Britaine (as formerly hath been declared) into many kingdomes, began now to grow weake in their estate; and the Danes that troubled in a manner all Christendome,Danes in Ire­land. were falling to naught: yet Anno 905. saith the British Chronicle, the Danes en­tred Ireland, preyed, spoyled, and fired the country, slue in the field, Garmot, (so he calleth him) alias Cormac, Monarch of Ireland, and the sonne of Cukeman, a man both godly and religious; and also Kyr­valt, sonne of Morgan, King of Leinster. Then they roved round about England, hulling upon the seas, and landing where they espied advantage, destroyed with fire and sword as much as lay in them.

Anno 911. they came againe into Ireland (saith Cooper) holding on in their former outrages.

Anglesey spoy­led by them of Dublin. Anno 913. (saith Carodoc) the men of Dublin with great forces came to Anglesey, preyed and destroyed the Iland, and returned to Ireland: the cause I finde not, but that sea and land was bent to mis­chiefe, the fire upon the land, and piracie upon the sea.

Anno 925. the second yeere of the raigne of Adelstane, the base sonne of Edward the first, (called Edward Senior) King of West-Saxons, was a great armie gathered by the said Adelstane, against Hawlaffe, King of Ireland, the sonne of Suthricus, and a Painym, saith Polychronicon, Hawlaffe, King of Ireland. Bromford saith Grafton. who came with the whole power of the Scots and Danes against him, and gave him battaile at Brimesturie, where Adelstane had the victory, and slue the said King Hawlaffe, and the [Page 89] King of Scots, and five Kings of the Danes and Normans, and twelve Earles, so that he brought all the land of England and Scot­land into subjection, which none of his Predecessours had ever at­tempted. So farre out of Caradoc in the British Chronicle.

Polychronicon writeth of Hawlaffe, that he was the sonne of Sitri­cus, and had married the daughter of Constantine, King of Scots, and by his aide entred the mouth of the river of Humber, with a strong navy, and when both armies had encamped themselves, Hawlaffe used this policie; He tooke a Harpe, and in Harpers attire, went to Adelstanes Tent, where he harped, and viewed their di [...]t, dispositi­on, and behaviour, tooke money for his musicke, which in heart he disdayned, he secretly, as he thought, hid the money in the ground, and went away. A souldier that sometime served Hawlaffe, espied it, and told Adelstane the whole; why, saith Adelstane, diddest not thou acquaint me sooner? he answered, O King, the faith I owe thee now, sometime I ought to Hawlaffe, if I had beene false to him, thou wouldst have suspected me afterwards; but now remove thy Tent, for he will suddenly come upon thee. For all the haste that Adelstane made, Hawlaffe came in the night, slue a certaine Bishop and his com­pany that were fleeing, and many others: hee hasted to Adelstanes Tent, but he was provided, and in armes, and at the breake of the day, set upon his enemies, and foiled them, as formerly is delivered.

Anno 926. (Saxo Grammaticus, Albertus Krantz, and others are mine Authors) Knutus and Herald, sonnes to Gormo, King of Denmarke, following the steps of their fathers, gave themselves to Pi­racie; roved, crossed, and hulled upon the seas, all was fish that came to their nets; they arrived in Ireland, and laid siege to Dublin. The King of Leinster sent especially, and laid an ambush within a mile of Dublin, and whilst the Danes scaled the wals without, the Citizens manfully defended themselves within, and others were carelesse of themselves abroad; one of the espials levelled an arrow at Knutus, and gave him such a wound, that he shortly dyed thereof. The Danes prevailed, but their ioy upon his death was turned into sorrow; Gor­mo the father so intirely loved this Knutus his sonne, that he vowed, whosoever brought him newes of the death of his sonne Knutus, for recompence, should die the death. Thira, daughter to Edward the Martyr, (saith Functius) the mother, being a Christian (though Gor­mo were a bloudy Infidell) having certaine intelligence of the death of Knutus, durst not reveale it, but used this policie: shee caused instead of her husbands princely robes, (wherewith he was on a mor­ning to make himselfe ready) mourning cloathes to bee laid before him, and such funerall exequies, as were used to be prepared for the witnessing of the sorrow and griefe conceived for the departure of some deare friend; woe is me (saith Gormo) now my sonne Knutus is dead, this I gather by these circumstances. Then answered Thira the [Page 90] Queene, you my Lord discover it, not I. Gormo dyed for sorrow, and Thira lamented in one day the departure of her Lord and hus­band the King, the death of her sonne, and her owne dolefull wid­dowhood.

Anno 939. (so writeth Caradoc) Abloic a most worthy Prince, and Monarch of Ireland deceased.

Anno 940. after the death of Athelstane, his brother Edmund raigned over Britaine. He subdued the Danes that remained in Nor­thumberland, together with others that came out of Ireland to in­vade the land with Anlaffe their Captaine, saith Fabian; he slue some, and banished the rest, so writeth Cooper.

Saint Maries Abbey foun­ded by Dublin Anno 948. the Abbey of the blessed Virgin Mary, by Dublin, was founded by the Danes.

Molanus writeth of one Columbanus an Abbot of Irish birth that became a recluse or an anachorist, Anno 957. in the Church yard of the Monasterie of Gandavum, where he kept the space of two yeeres, and there ended his dayes. This yeere, saith Caradoc, Congelach, King of Ireland was slaine, but he sheweth not where nor how.

Anno 959. Edgar, the sonne of Edmund, beganne his raigne o­ver England, he reduced all into one Monarchie. Camden found in a Charter, where Edgar delivered of himselfe, that it pleased God of his mercy to grant unto him, together with the command of England, to subdue all the Ilandish kingdomes of the Ocean, together with their fierce and mighty Kings as farre as Norwey, and the greatest part of Ireland, with Dublin the most noble Citie thereof, unto the kingdome of England.

Anno 966. Rodericke, the sonne of Edwall Voell, Prince of Wales, was slaine by Irish men that landed there for a prey, spoyled the country, and destroyed Aberfraw. Caradoc so complaineth of them.

Molanus writeth of one Forananus a Bishop, which flourished, Anno 980. he termeth him Bishop of Domenormor,Forananus his life. and Metropoli­tane of Ireland and Scotland: where he mightily erred in the name of the place, of the person, and his stile. For hee was Bishop of Dro­more in Ireland, and no Metropolitane at all, but to his purpose hee findeth him among his Saints of Flanders, and saith, that he was war­ned in a vision to travaile; so that he with a company of Irish Priests, arrived in France, and came to Rome, in the time of Benedict 7. from thence he came backe to the Monasterie of Walciodorum, where hee and his Priests became professed Monkes, of the order of Saint Be­nedict, for the space of twelve yeeres, and there ended their dayes. The Monkes there, saith he, were wont among other Saints at Easter, yeerely to call upon him▪ Sancte Foranane ora pro nobis, untill that the reformers of Bursfeld wiped him out of the Catalogue of Saints, for that he was not canonized by the Church of Rome.

[Page 91] Anno 988. (as I finde in the British Chronicle) Elwmaen, the sonne of Abloic, King of Ireland, was slaine, and a great number of people dyed with famine; that is alwaies the end of civill warres and rebellion in Ireland.

Anno 1004. the Scots (I know not the cause) entred Ireland, and after their manner, as also the Danes did then in England, preyed,Scots in Ire­land. bur­ned, and destroyed: they tooke Gulfath and Vbiad, Irish Lords, and put out their eyes, they ransacked also the Citie of Dublin.

Anno 1012. Grace and Dowlinge, the Irish Antiquaries doe con­curre,Battaile of Clantarfe. (the English Writers are silent) and deliver how that Bernai­dus, commonly called Brian Bowrow, Monarch of Ireland,Bri [...]n Boroave. and his sonne Murcath, alias Murchardus Mac Brian, with other Kings of the land subiect unto him, gathered great power, and met at Clantarfe, nigh Dublin, and gave a sore battaile unto Sutraic, alias Sutric, the sonne of Abloic, King of Dublin, and unto Moilmordha, King of Leinster. This Sutric, to withstand the Monarch, had hired to his aide, all manner of strangers he could get by sea or by land, as Danes, Norwegians, Scots, Britaines, Pirates, and sea rovers. The fight was desperate, the field all bloud, a horse (they say) was sometime to his belly in bloud. There were slaine that day of the one side, Brian the Monarch, and his sonne Murchard; of the other side, Moilmordha King of Leinster, Rodericke the Arch-Pirate, and Captaine of the strangers, with others of both sides innumerable. Sutrick was sore wounded, was brought to Dublin, and shortly after died of his wound. I pray thee gentle Reader, who got by the bargaine? As farre as ever I could learne, a woman set them together by the eares.

The Booke of Houth, after the Irish observation, delivereth the story thus. There was a Merchant in Dublin,The cause of the field of Clantarfe, out of the booke of Houth. commonly called the white Merchant, a Dane, the fourth sonne of the King of Denmarke who had a faire wife of Irish birth, and he being full of iealousie, and ready to travaile for merchandize into farre countries, desired of Bri­an Borow, Monarch of Ireland, that his wife (untill his returne) might waite upon his Lady, soiourne in his house for the safeguard of her person, credit, and honestie, the which was granted, and the King undertooke it. This Merchant made as speedy a returne as he could, and being landed early in a morning, with a privy key, entred the chamber where his wife lay, and found Morogh Mac Brian the Kings sonne in bed with his wife; hee wheeled about, devising what was best to be done, at length resolving himselfe to depart for that time, tooke Moroghs sword, and put it into his owne scabbard, and his in­to Moroghs scabbard. Hee went to the King, and complained of the abuse here spoken of; the King answered, He is my sonne, give thou iudgement upon him; saith the Merchant, let him keepe the whore still, I will be revenged upon him and his partakers in the field, as soone as [Page 92] possibly may be, and I doubt not but all Ireland shall rue the day of this villanie. Immediately he went to Denmarke, brought over to his aide, thirty thousand Danes and Norwegians, landed at Clantarfe, whereof the field was called the field of Clantarfe; hee summoned Morogh and his favourites to fight, and thought at the first to have taken Dublin. Brian Borow fearing this, made more haste then good speed, tarried not for the forces of the land, that were comming with his sonne Donogh to his aide, but rashly with his sonne Morogh, (the Author of all this mischiefe) gave them battaile. The which bat­taile all the forenoone being cruelly fought, seemed all to leane on the Irish side, but in the afternoone, the Danes that were in the rere, and yet fresh for any fight they had, were directed to wheele about, and to take the voward unknowne unto the Irish, which fiercely fought and encountred with the wearie and wounded Irish, and wonne the field. Here was Brian Borow, and his sonne Morogh, and eleven thousand of the Irish slaine.

One thing further (gentle reader) note, there was a Priests sonne, accounted a tall man of armes, who in the beginning of the battaile, fled away, fearing the hardinesse of the Danes and Norwegians, and went to Donogh Mac Brian, the brother of Morogh, who was com­ming with forces to the field, and perswaded him to retraict; saying further, that there was no hope of good successe to bee obtained in this field. This man being taken, confessed the whole treason, and for punishment, was carried to the winde gates, twelve miles from Dub­lin, set alive standing in the ground, with a great heape of stones a­bout him, as it pleased the Commanders to direct. In Stanihurst I finde that the the chiefe Potentates of the Irish, were Brian Borow, Miagh Mac Brian, (whom formerly I termed Morogh) Tady O Kel­ly, Dolir Ahertegan, and Gille Barramed, and that they were buried at Kilmaniham, over against the great Crosse.

Anno 1031. as it is remembred by Caradoc in the British Chroni­cles, there was great stirre and bloudshed in South-Wales, by the meanes of Howell and Meredith, the sonnes of Edwyn ap Evean ap Owen ap Howell Dha, that made claime unto that country against Rytherch ap Iestyn, Prince of South-Wales. Howell and Meridith hired unto them a King of Ireland, (whose name is not set downe) which brought with him a great armie of Irish-Scots; the armies met, the fight was cruell, much bloud on both sides was shed, in the end, Rytherch the Prince was discomfited and slaine, by which means they attained unto the governement of South-Wales, the which they ioyntly ruled, and bountifully rewarded the Irish King.

There is at Sauntrie, some three miles from Dublin, yeerely re­membrance of Saint Pappan that was borne there.Saint Pappan. Molanus calleth him Poppon. He travailed into France, builded there many Monaste­ries, (saith mine Author) and preferred to governe them many men, [Page 93] became an Abbot himselfe, and departed this life, Anno 1048. and lyeth buried at Stabuletum in France, where hee governed. Lastly, mine Author noteth, that he was a Saint, but never canonized.

Conan, the sonne of Iago, Prince of North-Wales, married Ra­nulph, the daughter of Alfred, King of Dublin, who in the warres betweene Iago his father, and Griffith the sonne of Lhewelyn ap Sit­sylte, sometimes King of Wales, (saith Caradoc) was driven to flee into Ireland for safegard of his life. This Conan, Anno 1041. came with Alfred his father in law, with great power out of Ireland to recover his country: they shortly landed in Wales, and by treason, secretly tooke Griffith the King, and carried him towards their ships, but when it was knowne, the country upon the sodaine rose, armed themselves, followed the Irish men, made great slaughter of them, rescued their Prince, and drove Alfred and Conan, with the rest of their forces, to their shippes, and so to Ireland.

Stow following Fabian, writeth how that Anno 1049. certaine forces out of Ireland, (whom hee calleth Irish Pirates) with 36. ships, entred the mouth of Severne, landed in a place called Westlap­ham, and with the helpe of Griffith King of South-Wales, spoyled along those coasts, and did great mischiefe. Afterwards Griffith, and those Irish Pyrates, ioyning their powers together, passed over the river Wie, and burnt Dumenham, and slue man, woman, and childe, leaving nothing behinde them, but bloud and ashes. Worce­ster, Glocester, and Herefordshire, rose in Armes against them, but many of them in cruell fight being slaine, the rest put to flight, the Irish returned home merrily, loaden with spoyle.

Anno 1050. Conan gathered an armie of his friends in Ireland, attempting the second time the recoverie of his inheritance, he hoy­sed up saile towards Wales, but on a sodaine there arose such a tem­pest upon the seas, that scattered his Navie, and drowned the most part of his ships, so that he gave over the voyage for that time.

About this time (wherein the English and British historiogra­phers doe agree) Robert, Archbishop of Canterbury, accused Earle Godwin and his five sonnes, (especially Swaine and Harold) of trea­son, and Queene Editha the daughter of Godwin, of adulterie, who being called before the King, refused to appeare, and therefore were banished the land, and the Queene was put away from the King. Godwin and Swaine fled to Flanders, Harold and Leofwin (Warwell saith Holinshead) to Ireland, and the Queene was sent with one Maid to the Monasterie of Wilton. Immediately the King disposed of all their possessions. It was not long after ere Godwin and Swaine got shippes, men, munition, and all necessaries in Flanders, the like did Harold and Leofwin in Ireland, they all met upon the seas, to wit, the father, the mother, and the five sonnes; they spoyled the Ile of Wight, Partland, Peveneseny, Romny-heath, Folkeston, Dover, [Page 94] and Sandwich, and entring the Thames, destroyed Sheppey, and bur­ned the Kings houses at Mielton.Or Midleton. Then they met with the kings Fleet upon the seas, and being ready to fight, Bishop Stigand stept be­tweene them, and reconciled both sides in such sort, that the King re­stored them their lands and goods, tooke home the Queene, and ba­nished Robert the Archbishop, with all the French men which had put buzzes and suspitions into the Kings head.

Anno 1054. as Powell in his annotations upon Caradoc, hath lear­nedly collected; King Edward by evill counsell (as it was thought) banished Algar, Earle of Chester, which had treason laid to his charge, whereupon Algar gate him into Ireland, and there provi­ding him eighteene shippes of warre, well appointed and manned with stalworth men, of Irish birth, returned and joyned himselfe with Griffith, King or Prince of Wales, who both together, invaded the country of Mercia about Hereford, where Ranulph, Earle of that country (who was sonne to King Edwards sister, named Goda, by her first husband Walter de Manut) came against them with a great ar­mie, and met them about two miles from Hereford, where after a sore fight, by the space of three houres, Ranulph and his armie were discomfited, and about 500. of them slaine, and the rest put to flight, whom Griffith and Algar pursued to Hereford, and entring the towne, set the Cathedrall Church on fire, and slue the Bishop named Leogar, with seven of the Canons, and most lamentably (as it falleth out in warres) spoyled and burned the towne. King Edward being advertised hereof, gathered an armie, and sent Harold the sonne of Earle Godwin against them, who pursuing the enemies to North-Wales, passed through Stradlewyde to Snowdon: but Griffith and Algar being loath to meete Harold, got them againe into South-Wales, whereof Harold being advertised, left one part of his armie in North-Wales, to resist the enemy there, and returning with the re­sidue to Hereford, caused a great trench to be cast round about the towne, with a high rampire, strongly fortifying the gates of the same. After this, by meanes of a parlee had with Griffith and Algar, at a place called Biligellagh, a peace was concluded, whereupon Algar being pardoned by the King, and restored againe to his Earledome, returned home to Chester.

About two yeeres after, Algar was accused againe of treason, and the second time exiled the land, fled into Ireland, where he was most ioyously received of his old followers, and offered more kinde­nesse, then he requested, for hee had most honourably dealt with the Merchants and owners of the former ships, and most kindely intrea­ted, and bounteously rewarded the Irish souldiers, the which then in his second extremity, was not forgotten. With shippes, men and munition out of Ireland, he bent his course to Wales, repaired to his old friend Griffith, Prince of Wales, where he was most welcome, [Page 95] and shortly restored againe to his Earldome by the meanes and in­treaty of certaine strangers, which had lately there arrived out of Norway.

Camden writeth how that Anno 1066. Godred, surnamed Cronan, the sonne of Hiraldniger, of Island, invaded the Ile of Man, thence came into Ireland, did the like unto Dublin, and a great part of Leyn­ster, made great spoyle, and went backe againe.

The British Chronicle reporteth of Dermot, (a King in Ireland) that in Anno 1068. he was murthered, but the manner hee sheweth not; the commendation he giveth of him is this: He was the worthi­est and noblest Prince that ever ruled in Ireland.

Polychronicon reporteth, how that Anno 1072. at Winsore before William the Conquerour, and the Cleargie, the controversie between the Archbishops of Canterbury and Yorke was heard at large, and decided, and that Bedaes historie was shewed, where it appeared that from Austen the Monkes time, till Bedaes death, (about 140. yeeres) the Archbishop of Canterburie had primacie over all Great Britaine & Ireland, that he had held Councels by Yorke, summoned Bishops of Yorke, consecrated Bishops, and punished Bishops of Yorke for their offences, and iudicially removed them.

Philip Flatesburie a great Antiquarie, whom Stanihurst follow­eth, and Iames Grace of Kilkenny, with Dowlinge his ioynt Col­lectour doe write, how that Anno 1074. Patricke, Bishop of Dublin, was consecrated in Pauls Church in London, by Lanfranke, Archbi­shop of Canterburie, upon commendatorie Letters of Teridionatus, alias Terdilnacus, Monarch of Ireland, and Godericke, King of Lein­ster, and with teste of the Clergie and Laytie of that Diocesse of his lawfull and orderly election. Further I finde recorded, that it was the manner to consecrate Bishops in this sort, and that the Monarch of Ireland in regard of his royall principalitie and title of honour with other priviledges belonging to his Monarchie, had negative voyce in the nomination of Bishops throughout his Realme. Secondly, how the Archbishop of Canterbury took of him that was so consecrated, a corporall oath of Canonicall obedience (as his predecessours for­merly used) to him and his successors; and lastly, gave him letters te­stimoniall thereof to the Monarch and King of Leynster:

Cambrensis sheweth the reason of this consecration, namely, how that in Ireland as then, there was no Archbishop, but one Bishop consecrated another, untill that Anno 1148. Iohannes Papiron, a Priest Cardinall, sent from Eugenius 3. together with Christian, Bi­shop of Lismore, Legate of all Ireland, came to the land, and brought with them foures Paales. But of this more in another place.

The same Flattesburie writeth further, how that the said Lan­franke in like sort consecrated Donatus, Bishop of Dublin, Anno 1085.

[Page 96]About this time, Godwin and Edmund, sonnes to King Harold, (my Author is Thomas Walsingham, Monke of Saint Albans) which for­merly had fled into Ireland for succour, unto Dermotte Mac O Nell, King of Ireland, returned with 66. saile, landed in Sommersetshire, (saith Stow) where Brian, the sonne of Eudo, Duke of Brabant, met them and gave them battaile, wherein (saith Stow) the brethren gate the victory, and the Irish men with many great preyes out of Corne­wall and Devonshire returned into Ireland. But Walsingham (which seemeth more true) writeth that it was a bloudie battaile, wherein 1070. of the English and Normans, with certaine of the Nobilitie of the land, were slaine, and the enemies with aide of their ships, fled, and brought heavy newes home to their deerest friends in Ireland.

It is very like that William the Conquerour immediately upon this, sent great forces into Ireland, to bee revenged of them for relie­ving or assisting his enemies: for Stow writeth out of William of Malmsbury, thus: Lanfranck, Archbishop of Canterbury, being in such favour with King William, that the said William thought not good to deny any thing that hee requested, procured by his industrie, that the said King left his ill custome of selling his prisoners which hee tooke in Ireland, which was a thing hardly granted unto him, and to Wolstan, Bishop of Worcester, the gaine that the King had by the sale of those Irish men was such.

The British Chronicle reporteth how that Anno 1087. and the last yeere of William Conquerour, the sonnes of Blethlyn ap Convyn, sometime King of Wales, gathered their strength together against Rees ap [...]yder, who not being able to meete with them, fled to Ire­land, and there he purchased to himselfe great friends, and got an ar­mie of Irish men and Scots, to whom hee promised great rewards when he should obtaine his kingdome, & so landed in South-Wales with these strangers, and when his friends heard thereof, they drew unto him, and the other came in all haste to vanquish him before hee had made a head, and gathered forces together; to bee short, at Wechryd they gave battaile,Or Llechryd. where they were discomfited, and two of the brethren slaine, to wit, Madoc and Kirid, and the other fled and forsooke the country. As soone as Rees was in quiet possession of his country, he sent away the Irish men with great rewards.

All the Lords of the Ilands sent messengers unto Murchard, alias Moragh O Brien, King of Ireland, that it would please him to send them some worthy man of royall bloud to be their King, during the nonage of Olanus, the sonne sonne of Godred, King of Man. Where­upon he sent unto them one Dopnald Mac Tady, whom hee deepely charged to governe that kingdome, which of right appertained not to him, with all kindenesse, love and modesty; but hee was no sooner warm in the kingdome, but he forgot his instructions, and the charge his Lord had given him, he poled, he pilled, and practised all kinde of [Page 97] tyranny, for the space of three yeers. Then all the Lords of the Ilands rose in armes against him, and banished him out of those parts, so he fled into Ireland, of whom they never heard any further newes.

Stanihurst findeth that Anno 1095. there came certaine Esterlings to the North side of Dublin adjoyning to the Liffie, and seated them­selves there, so that of them to this day, the place is called Ostomon­towne, and corruptly, Oxmonton, and the Parish, Saint Michans, Saint Michan lived, Anno 1095. of one Michanus a Dane and a Bishop which founded the Church, unto whom Murchard, or Moragh King of Leynster, gave that par­cell of land to that use. The faire greene or Commune, now called Ostmontowne-greene, was all wood, and hee that diggeth at this day to any depth, shall finde the ground full of great rootes. From thence, Anno 1098. King William Rufus, by licence of Murchard, had that frame which made up the roofe of Westminster Hall, where no English Spider webbeth or breedeth to this day.

Cambrensis in his Itinerarie of Cambria, reporteth, how that King William standing upon some high rocke in the farthest part of Wales, beheld Ireland, and said, I will have the shippes of my kingdome brought hither, wherewith I will make a bridge to invade this land: Murchard King of Leynster heard thereof, and after he had paused a while, asked of the reporter; hath the King in that his great threat­ning, inserted these words, if it please God? No, then (said he) seeing this King putteth his trust onely in man, and not in God, I feare not his comming.

Anno 1095. Murchard, (so writeth Holinshed) alias Morogh, Samuel, Bishop of Dublin. King of Leynster, with the Clergie, and people of the Citie of Dublin, ele­cted one Samuel a Monke of Saint Albans, an Irish man borne, to the governement of the Church, and Bishops See of Dublin, and accor­ding to the antient custome, presented him by sufficient letters of te­stimony unto Anselme Archbishop of Canterburie, to be consecra­ted by him, who (according to their request) did so, and tooke of him an oath of Canonicall obedience after the usuall manner.

Anno 1097. the Citizens of Waterford perceiving that by reason of the great multitude of people in that citie,Malchus, first Bishop of Waterford. it was necessarie for them to have a Bishop, obtained licence of their King and Rulers, to erect in their Citie, a Bishops See, and besought them to write to An­selme, Archbishop of Canterburie, to have his consent therein, and permitted them to nominate a man meete for the place. Hereupon Morogh King of Leynster, wrote unto Anselme, informing him of the whole matter, wherein one Malchus was commended and pre­sented unto him to be admitted and consecrated if he thought good; these letters were subscribed by Murchard, King of Leynster, Der­motte his brother, Bishop Dufnald, Idiman, Bishop of Meath, Samu­el, Bishop of Dublin, and Ferdomnachus, a Bishop in Leynster. An­selme considering their request to be honest and necessarie, examined [Page 98] the man, gave him the oath of Canonicall obedience, and consecra­ted Malcus Bishop of Waterford.

About this time, to wit, Anno 1098. the Normans having slaine Rees ap Twyde, Prince of South-Wales, they bent their forces a­gainst Griffith ap Conan, Prince of North-Wales, by the conduct of Hugh de Montgomerie, Earle of Saloppe and Arundell, (called of the Welchmen, Hugh Gough,) and of Hugh Vras, Earle of Chester. Griffith the Prince fled to the mountaines, and sent for aide into Ire­land, (saith Caradoc) where he received cold comfort, then to avoid farther mischiefe and treason, which hee suspected to have beene wrought against him, fled into Ireland. In the same season, Magnus King of Norway (so Stow calleth him) the sonne of Olavus, the sonne of Harold Harvager, came with great forces, and subdued the Iles of Orknay, with the Ile of Man, entred into Anglesey, incountred with Hugh, Earle of Salop, who withstood his landing, in the which skir­mish, Hugh the Earle had an arrow shot in his face, which pierced his braine, of which he died; whereupon the Normans retraited. Mag­nus invadeth Ireland (saith Saxo Grammaticus) and Griffith the Prince of Wales returned to his country, and made peace with the Normans, and governed the same fiftie yeeres. Many things worthy of memory are recorded of this Griffith ap Conan. Powell writeth that hee was an Irish man by his mother, daughter of the King of Dublin, and also by his Grandmother, and that hee was borne in Ireland, and that he brought over with him out of that country into Wales, divers cunning Musitians, who devised in manner, all the in­strumentall musicke upon the Harpe and Crowth that is there used, and made lawes of minstrelsee to retaine the Musitians in due order.

I have not yet done with Magnus the Norwegian, of him Cam­den writeth a worthy storie. Magnus (saith he) caused a fleete to bee in readinesse of an 160. saile, and sailed into the Orkeneys, the which he forthwith subdued, he passed through all the Ilands, made them subject unto him, and arrived in the Ile of Man; when hee beheld how pleasant the Iland was, he made choice thereof for habitation, fortified therein, which of him to this day beares his name. Hee so hampered the inhabitants of Galloway in Scotland, that hee made them bring him timber to his Port for the frame of his fortifications. Afterward he sailed to Anglesey in Wales, where he met with two Hughs, both Earles, the one he slue, the other he put to flight, and made the Iland subiect unto him. The Welsh men gave him many gifts and rewards, he bade them farewell, and so returned to Man. He sent to Murchard, alias Morogh, King of Ireland, his shooes, com­manding him to hang them upon his shoulders upon Christmas day as he passed through his Hall, in the sight of his Embassadors, that thereby he might understand that he was subject to Magnus the king. When the Irish men heard thereof, they tooke it in ill part, and [Page 99] chafed exceedingly, but King Morogh, a wise and a sage Prince, smi­ling at the conceit, with great modesty and discretion gave this an­swer. I will not onely beare his shooes, but I had rather eate them, then that King Magnus should destroy any one Province in Ireland. Whereupon he fulfilled his command, honoured his Ambassadors, sent many Presents unto King Magnus, and concluded a league. The Ambassadors upon their returne, related all circumstances gave great report and commendation of the land, delivered how pleasant and fruitfull the soile was, the temperature of the ayre, and how healthfull the dwelling was. Magnus hearing this, immediately it ranne in his head to conquer all Ireland; he commanded a great fleet to be in a readinesse, and he himselfe going before with sixteene saile privily to espie and search out the strength of the land, and unadvi­sedly ranging from his shippes, was upon a sodaine compassed and hemmed in by the Irishmen, and slaine, with all in a manner that were with him. Thus Magnus is become Minimus, in fine, hee was buried in Saint Patrickes Church of Downe. So farre Camden in sub­stance. The British Chronicle writeth, how that before this insolent attempt, he had procured for his sonne, a daughter of King Morogh in marriage, and that he made him King of Man, but I doe not finde that he enjoyed it.

Carodoc writeth, how that Anno 1101. Robert de Mountgomerie, Earle of Salop, and Arnulph his brother, Earle of Pembroke, rebel­ling against King Henry, Robert sent for aide to Magnus, but could get none, Arnulph sent Gerald of Windesore, his Steward to Mur­chard, alias Morogh, King of Ireland, to desire his daughter in marri­age, the which hee obtained with promise of great succours, which did encourage him the more against the King; whereupon Arnulph went with all haste into Ireland for his wife and Irish forces. Earle Ro­bert seeing himselfe disappointed, sent to the King, desiring him that he might forsake the Realme, which thing the King granted, and he sailed into Normandie. Arnulph received message from the King, that either he should follow his brother, and depart the land, or yeeld him­selfe to his mercie, he chose to forsake the land, and fled into Ireland. Not long after, Owen the sonne of Cadogan, after hee had done great mischiefe and spoile upon the English, Normans, Flemings, and Welsh men, fled into Ireland to King Morogh, who joyfully received him, for he had beene there before, returned to Wales, and fled thi­ther the second time, and in like sort the third time.

Anno 1113. or thereabout, Griffith the sonne of Rees ap Twyder, Prince of South-Wales, who for feare of the King, had beene of a childe brought up in Ireland, came to Gerald, Steward of Pembroke his brother in law, and others of his friends, to recover his country, whom the King by secret policies and practises pursued, so that hee was forced to flee againe.

[Page 100]In the time of King Henry the first, I finde that there was great stirre betweene Murchard or Morogh, King of Leynster, and the Citizens of Dublin, for it seemeth that hee used grievous exactions and tyrannies over them, so that the Dublinians in revenge of him, sent for Godred, King of Man, and the Ilands, so writeth Camden, and made him their King. Morogh mustereth his country, gathereth for­ces, procureth aide, marcheth against his enemies, pitcheth his campe at the towne of Coridelis, sent his brother (by the mother side) Osi­bell, with three thousand horse well appointed to Dublin, where hee was slaine by Godred, and by the men of Dublin, and the rest discom­fited and put to flight. Godred found himselfe well satisfied with spoiles, and returned to Man; they of Dublin likewise thought them­selves in some sort reasonably well revenged of their King, quitted themselves for a while, and by mediation and intercession after many Presents and Gifts were reconciled. There was great banquetting and feasting, and ioy outward of all sides, but inward, lay venome and treason, like sparkles of fire covered with ashes, which broke forth not long after, as I am readie to deliver. Stanihurst, Grace and Dowlinge doe write, that the Councell of the Citie determining to establish and decree many good lawes and orders, for the publike weale of the towne, and commons of the same, appointed a solemne day of meeting, sent for Morogh their King, humbly craving with all loyall circumstances, his presence, counsaile, and assistance among them at the day appointed, the which hee granted; when the day came, and that they had debated many matters, the King as he sate merrily in his chaire, sporting himselfe, and reporting some pleasant historie, one suddenly stept unto him, and tooke away his weapon, the rest came upon him, and stabbed him to the death; they were not content with this, but they cast him into a base grave, and in further contempt and dispute of his person, they threw a dogge upon him, and earth upon them both, the which Dermotte his sonne revenged afterwards, as shall appeare in processe of the historie.

About the yeere 1134. after Functius his computation, one Ha­rold, borne in Ireland, (so writeth Saxo) gathered forces, and be­came the terrour of Norway, affirming withall, that he was the sonne of Magnus the Dane that invaded Ireland, and for truth thereof, he would declare it by fire. When the time and place was appointed, with his bare feet he trode upon a fierie plate, and felt no hurt: the Norwegians admired, and would make him their King, which was the roote of many mischiefes in Norway. He was a man faire spoken, strong, hardy, and swift of foot, and it seemeth, after the manner of Ireland, that he went much bare, so that the soles of his feet were as hard as horne, and could not easily take harme by fire, by which meanes he deceived the Norwegians. Nicholaus, King of Denmarke, corrupted Magnus of Norway by secret meanes to cut him off. [Page 101] Magnus practised with Ericus a Danish Captaine, to dispatch him immediately after his Coronation. To bee short, Ericus came with great forces to Scypetors, (a Village where Herald was) in the night time, laid siege to his Pallace, and by the breake of day, pulled him and his sonnes forth by the head and shoulders, and put them to death.

In the time of Henry 1. King of England, flourished Celsus, Celsus, Bishop of Armagh. Bishop of Armagh, and ended his dayes with the entrance of King Stephen to the Crowne. He descended of Noble Parentage in Ireland, whom Saint Bernard with others, for divers rare and singular gifts, highly commendeth; he had beene brought up in the Vniversitie of Oxen­ford, where in the liberall sciences, and profound literature, he excel­led others of his time; when he perceived by the infirmities of his bo­dy, that age hastened to an end, and that his naturall course was in short time to be finished, he desired of them that were present, their favours, and prayed them to use meanes unto others that were ab­sent, and especially unto the two Kings of Mounster, (so Bernard wri­teth) that Malachias might succeed him in the Bishopricke of Ar­magh. He was a married man, and died of great age, and lyeth buried with his wife and children in the said Church.

Malachias in the time of King Stephen, succeeded Celsus in the Bi­shopricke of Armagh, whose life Saint Bernard, Malachias, Bi­shop of Ar­magh. Abbot of Clareval­lis, Capgrave, and Conganus, an Abbot of Ireland have written at large. He was borne in Ireland amongst barbarous people (saith Ber­nard) yet in his birth and native soile, hee sucked of them no more barbarousnesse, then the Sea fish take of the salt water. His Parents for wealth and might, were in great account in those dayes; he was brought up at Armagh, under Imarius the Anachorite, where Celsus made him both Deacon and Priest at the age of 25. yeeres, from thence with licence of Imarius and of Celsus, he went to Malchus, Bi­shop of Lismore in Mounster, a man of Irish birth, that had beene a Monke sometimes in the Abbey of Winchester in England, and from thence advanced to the Bishopricke of Lismore. And to make the historie plaine, there was at that time, great warres betweene Cor­macke, King of Mounster, and his brother for the Soveraignty; the brother prevaileth, Cormacke fleeth to the Bishop of Lismore, and in his distressed estate, tooke a Monkes Cell, and led a private life. Ma­lachias was appointed his Tutor, where Cormacke continued untill that a King there adjoyning, pittying his miserie, gathered forces, and restored him to his kingdome.

Immediately after this, Letters came for Malachias in most earnest sort, that he should come to Armagh, where not farre off, an Vncle of his, a man of great command, a Lord of a country, rich and po­tent (that held in his hands all the wasted Monasterie of Bench [...]r, alias Bengor) dwelled; of which Monasterie I have spoken before in [Page 102] the raigne of King Arthure. Malachias upon his comming, restored these possessions, and reedifieth the old Monasterie, and appointed one Malchus, brother to Christianus, Abbot of Mel [...]efont, governour of the place; when Malachius was thirty yeeres of age, he was made Bishop of Conor, (Conorets saith Bernard) where hee met by his owne report, (more then I am willing to lay downe in writing) so rude and barbarous a people, as worse could not be found upon the face of the earth, yet the holy man ceased not to travaile among them by preaching and teaching, and by all meanes possible to winne them; not long after, a certaine King of Vlster destroyed Conor, and put the people to the sword, burned and spoyled, and made havocke of all, whereupon Malachias with a hundred and twenty brethren, fled to Mounster, where King Cormake gave him great entertaine­ment, and ayded him greatly in the building of the Monastery of Ybrak. By this time, Celsus spoken of before, fell sicke and dyed. The rude people thrust in Mauritius that usurped the place some five yeeres, then Malchus, Bishop of Lismore, and Gislebertus the first Le­gate that came to Ireland, from the Pope, called the Bishops and Princes of the land together, appointed Malachias for the place. And when death had swiftly cut off the intruder Mauritius, that damna­ble nation thrust in Nigellus, but he prospered not long, so that Mala­chias enjoyed it quietly. Of the injury done to that Church, and the abuse of that time, heare Bernard, (as he learned of Conganus and o­thers) report. The see of Ardmach (saith Bernard) for the reverence and honour of Saint Patricke the Apostle of that nation, which con­verted that whole land to the faith, in the which See living, he ruled, and in which dying, he rested, is had of all men from the beginning, in so great reverence, that not onely the Bishops and Ministers of the Clergie, but the Kings and Princes of that nation, carry themselves in all obedience unto their Metropolitane, so that he being one, ruleth all: but there crept in a most detestable custome, through the divel­lish ambition of certaine mighty men, that the holy See was obtai­ned by inheritable succession, neither were any suffered to enioy the Bishopricke, but such as were of their tribe and familie, neither did this execrable succession hold for a small time, but for the space of fifteene generations, now in this diabolicall malice elapsed. And so farre this wicked and adulterous generation had confirmed to it selfe this lewd interest, yea rather an injurie to be punished with all manner of death, that if at any time there should want Clerks of that race, yet never wanted Bishops. To be short, there were before Celsus, eight Bishops married men, besides himselfe, without orders, yet learned men; from hence over all Ireland, issued that dissolution of ecclesiastiall dis­cipline, which Malachias found in Conor, the rooting out of godly censure, and the abandoning of religion; from hence every wherein stead of Christian meekenesse, was brought in cruell barbarousnesse, [Page 103] yea, paganisme and infidelity under a Christian name; for that which was not heard of from the originall of Christianitie, without order, without reason, the Metropolitans at their pleasure changed, and in­creased the number of Bishops, so that one Bishopricke contented not it selfe with one Bishop, and no marvaile, for how could it fare well with the members of so diseased a head? they possessed the Sanctuary of God in this sort, the space well neere of two hundred yeeres; hee meaneth unto the dayes of Celsus and Malachias. Cambrensis in his itinerarie of Cambria, had relation no doubt unto this, where he with Baldwin, Archbishop of Canterbury, in visitation about Wales, came to the Church called lure padaen vacor, that is, the Church of great Paternus, mis-stiled with the governement therof, for thus he writeth: This Church, like as many more throughout Ireland and Wales, hath a Laye man to their Abbot, use hath prevailed, and a lewd custome hath crept in, that great and mighty men in Parishes, have beene by the Clergie appointed Patrons and defendors; afterwards have usurped unto themselves the right thereof. Immediately hee reporteth of a travailer that came hither out of little Britaine in France, that had for his further knowledge seene many countries, and fashions of sundry nations, and entring into the said Church on the Sabbath day, way­ted for divine Service, they rung the Bell, they tould, they waited long, at length came in the Abbot, with some twenty after him in armes, and wilde lookes, every one having (fon villuge, so the Britaines ter­med it) a forrest Bill on his shoulder; the travailer asked which is the Abbot, answer was made the formost, with the greatest forrest Bill; the travailer asked, hath he any other ornament, or doth he use any other weede? answer being made, no, then said hee, I have travailed farre enough, I will see no more fashions whilst I live, after that I have seene an Abbot carry a forrest Bill upon his backe. Now to returne whence I have made this digression, for the abuse of the Church causeth me to abuse the reader.

Malachias, when he had peaceably enioyed Ardmagh some three yeeres, with the consent of the three Bishops and Princes, he resigned his place to Gelasius, and returned to his former Bishopricke, not of Conor, but of Dune, for he had placed one in Conor before, to wit, Oedanus his disciple; here Bernard noteth that where Dune and Co­nor were before this time united through ambition and covetousnesse, this man of devotion and conscience, separated them againe, dividing the Churches as they had beene of old, for the good will he bare to Armagh, he tooke his iourney towards Rome, landed in Scotland, came to Yorke, sailed to France, and lodged at Clarevallis; hee came to Rome in the time of Innocentius 2. who made him his Legate of Ireland, in the roomth of Gislebert, the old man spoken of before, which had made sute to be removed. Boniface appointed Armagh to be a Metropolitane See, but did not effect it, and promised the pall [Page 104] which he did not performe; Bernard maketh mention of two Metro­politan Sees, one procured by Celsus, the other by Malachias; but where and how I finde no antient record. Bale is of opinion they were in vocibus, and not in rebus, for lacke of money to pay for them. Vpon his returne hee came to Clarevallis, thence to England, so to Scotland, (where King David most royally entertained him) and lastly, to his Abbey of Benchor in Vlster. Of his conversation, heare Bernard: from the day of his birth, to the day of his death, hee lived sine proprio, without claiming propertie in any thing; he had neither men servants, nor maid servants, neither townes nor villages, neither any reuenue ecclesiasticall or temporall in his Bishopricke; for his pro­vision, (ad mensam episcopalem) hee had no certainty allotted him whereupon a Bishop might live, hee had no certaine Monastery or dwelling place, for hee daily went about all the Parishes, preaching the Gospell, and living by the Gospell, as the Lord had ordained, saying, the labourer is worthy of his reward; of his labours and such as travelled with him, he carried about to relieve them all; to be short, Malachias neither in dyet or rayment was discerned from the rest of the brethren; when he went a preaching with footmen, he went on foot, being a Bishop and a Legate: and here Bernard exclaimeth, when he entreth into the consideration of the difference betweene him and his brethren, and the nephewes of the Apostles, so he calleth them. Towards his latter dayes, hee sorrowed that Ireland had not the pall, and as oft as he thought upon Innocentius 2. his promise, he sighed, who (as formerly I have delivered) had promised, not per­formed; when he heard that Eugenius his successor was come unto France, he thought it a fit time to obtaine his purpose, he tooke ship­ping for Scotland, where King David received him as in times past, and thence unto England, where the jarre betweene the King of England, and the Pope, hindred his passage, yet he got into France, and straight to Clarevallis, where hearing that Pope Eugenius was returned to Rome, he rested himselfe, fell sicke of an ague, and there dyed, being of the age of 54. yeeres, Anno 1148. 4 Nonas Novem­bris, so farre Bernard in substance, yet Antonine saith hee dyed, Anno 1140.

In his time lived Conganus, Abbot of Benchor, who enformed Ber­nard of the whole life of Malachias, and wrote at large thereof him­selfe, inserting many fabulous things, and saith Nicholas Magwire, he wrote not onely the life of Malachias, but also the life of Bernard. I finde him to be the Patron of Killaskin, otherwise called Killeshin, in Monte Margeo, and the Barony of Marghagha in Leynster, spo­ken of before.

In this time lived Tundalus Magus, so surnamed, because suspected for a Sorcerer, borne and brought up in Mounster (in Cashell, saith Lepelo, in the West of Ireland) of Noble birth, and by calling a [Page 105] Knight: Antonius out of Vincentius reporteth, that hee was fierce and cruell, and in the end became a Carthusian Monke, for that or­der beganne as we may reade in the life of Bruno, the first founder thereof, upon some great extremity, (whereof the Proverbe rose, de­speratio facit Monachum, desperation maketh a Monke) it seemeth that he had in his life time committed some hainous offences, and was mightily tormented in conscience, and fell into trances and ex­tasies; upon his recovery he delivered unto the world, strange & dam­nable untruths, (saith Bale) of Heaven, Hell, Purgatory, and I wot not what, for a man distracted, knoweth not what he saith. Bale writeth, (talia ad terrorem fingebant scelestissimi; Nebolones some­what excusing him, and extenuating his imbecillities and biddeth him farewell: Clarint Stephano Rege in Anglia dominante; & satana apud Hybernos suas vires exercente; hee flourished when Stephen raigned over England, and the divell domineered over Ireland. Hee wrote a booke of Revelations, the which Melchior Canus, Albertus Crantzius, and Gobelenus have utterly condemned. He wrote also the life of Vrsula, and the 11000. Virgins, printed at Cullen, the which Zazarias Lepelo counteth for lyes and fables.

Anno 1142. the Abbey of Molyfont was founded by Donatus, alias Donogh, King of Louth, alias Vriell, some call him Donogh O­carvell; the first Abbot was Christianus, who afterwards was Bishop of Lysmore, and Legate of all Ireland.

Anno 1144. William, Bishop of Winchester, by authority of Pope Celestine 2. in a Councell held at London, brought in the use of cursing with Bell, Booke, and Candle, which liked the Irish Priests well, to terrifie the Laytie for their Tithes. Foxe.

Anno 1148. there fell great variance betweene Owen, surnamed Gwyneth, Prince of North [...]Wales, and Cadwallader his brother, they were both the sonnes of Griffith ap Conan, Prince of North Wales. This Cadwallader fled into Ireland, and hired to his aide, Octer Mac Octer Curbell Mac Therulfe, with a great number of Irish men, and red shankes, for 2000. markes, and landed at Abermeany in Carnar­vonshire, against whom, Prince Owen came with great power, but be­fore the Armies met, there was a peace concluded betweene the bre­thren, which when the Irish men understood, they kept with them Cadwallader, as prisoner, for their pay formerly promised, so that hee was faine to deliver 2000. heads of Cattell, besides many prisoners and spoyles that were taken in the country; but Prince Owen as soone as he knew his brother to be set at liberty, set upon the Irish men (his stomacke was full of revengement) slue a great number of them, and recovered all the Cattell, with the prisoners, and other spoyle, so that in the end, as many as escaped with life, returned to Ireland with sorrow, shame, and losse, and made no bost of their voyage; so wri­teth Carodoc.

[Page 106]The same yeere, Anno 1148. Iohn Papire a Priest Cardinall, toge­ther with Christianus Bishop of Lismore, the Popes Legate over the whole Land, being sent by Eugenius, came into Ireland. And in An­no 1151. saith Mathew Paris, but by the consent of most Writers, Anno 1152. summoned a Councell, where in the presence of the Bi­shops, Abbots, Kings, Dukes, & the Antients of Ireland, by the Apo­stolike authoritie, Colledge of Cardinals, & consent of the Bishops, Abbots, & others there present, they ordained foure Archbishopricks in Ireland, and gave them foure pales, to wit, Ardmach, Dublin, Ca­shell, and Tuam. In Ardmach, then sate Gelasius, in Dublin Grego­ry, in Cashell Donatus, in Tuam Edanus; these were the first Arch­bishops of Ireland. The records from that time to this day, of the foure Provinces, the foure Archbishoprickes with their Bishops and Suffragans, in Latine, and vulgar speech, with their titles of Saints and Patrons, together with the unions of them in processe of time following, I finde thus,

Anno 1151. these Abbies were founded, de Beatitudine, de duillio, de Magio, de valle salutis, and happily the Monasterie which Mathew Paris and Polychronicon spake of upon this occasion. There was a Knight (say they) called Owin, of Irish birth, which had long served King Stephen in his warres, got licence to repaire unto his native soile, and to visit his friends; when hee came to Ireland, hearing the fame of the Purgatory of the second Patricke the Abbot, and not the Bishop, so I reade in Polychronicon, it came in his minde to visit the same, he being in the Cave, and concavities under ground, saw strange sights, and making report thereof unto King Stephen, obtai­ned licence of him thenceforth to leade a religious and solitary life: he obtained also of King Stephen, (so Mathew Paris writeth) a par­cell of ground in Ireland to build a Monasterie called Luden, an Ab­bey of white Monkes, where Gervasius became the first Abbot, and where Gilbert a Monke trayned up Owen in the order thereof. This Gilbert (saith mine Author) wrote as Owen told him all the reports that are now extant of that Purgatory, so that it seemes to be no an­tient matter, but a late device, first found by this Owen, in the late dayes of King Stephen.

Anno 1152. was the battaile of Monad more fought in Ireland, betweene Leinster and Mounster men,The battaile of Monad more. where (saith Holinshed) the flower and chiefest personages of Leinster and Mounster were slaine, and saith Iohn Plunket, Mounster lost the field, Anno 1154. Terdie­lach, King of Connaght dyed, there succeeded him, Rorie Oconochor Rowag, commonly called Roderic, who slue his owne brother that aspired to the kingdome of Connaght, and in this successe, attemp­ted further, and became Monarch of Ireland.

Henry 2 was crowned King of England, 1154. Henry 2 King of England, the sonne of Mathilda the Empresse, subdued Scotland, Ireland, Orchades, and the furthest Ocean Ilands; [Page 107] he was Protector of France, and was offered the kingdome of Ieru­salem: this Noble Henry was crowned King of England, Anno 1154. he married Elenor, daughter and heire of William, Duke of Aqui­taine, the which Elenor had been formerly married to Lewis, King of France, and upon dislike, divorced, under pretence that they were within the fourth degree of consanguinity: he was knighted by Da­vid, King of Scots, and after many broyles, & much bloudshed, adop­ted by King Stephen for his sonne, and consequently proclaimed heire apparant to the Crowne of England, and thereupon after the dis­cease of Stephen, crowned with great ioy and applause of the people.

Anno 1154. the same yeere that Henry the second was crowned, the Abbey of Kyrie-eleeson was founded.

Anno 1155. saith Mathew Paris and Fabian, and the first or se­cond of Henry 2. raigne, (though Stow referre it to the 7. and Anno 1160▪ the King cast in his minde to conquer Ireland, hee saw that it was commodious for him, and considered that they were but a rude and savage people, for so the historiographers doe write, whereupon in his ambitious minde, he sent unto Adrian, Bishop of Rome, one Iohn Salsbury, (who by the said Bishop afterwards was made Bishop of Carnolum in France) with others, delivering his sute to that effect. Adrian being a man of English birth, heard his Ambassadors the more willingly, considered the matter advisedly, together with his colledge of Cardinals, and granted him his request, as followeth: Adrian the Bishop, the servant of the servants of God, to his most deer sonne in Christ, the Noble King of England, sendeth greeting and Apo­stolike benediction: your magnificence hath beene very carefull and stu­dious how you might enlarge the Church of God here in earth, and in­crease the number of his Saints and elect in heaven, in that as a good Catholike King, you have and doe by all meanes labour and travell to enlarge and increase Gods Church, by teaching the ignorant people the true and Christian religion, and in abolishing and rooting up the weedes of sinne and wickednesse. And wherein you have, and doe crave for your better furtherance, the helpe of the Apostolike See (wherein more speedily and discreetly you proceed) the better successe we hope, God will send, for all they which of a fervent zeale and love in religion, doe begin and enterprise any such thing, shall no doubt in the end, have a good and prosperous successe: And as for Ireland, and all other Ilands where Christ is knowne, and the Christian religion received, it is out of all doubt, and your excellencie well knoweth, they doe all appertaine and belong to the right of Saint Peter, and of the Church of Rome, and we are so much the more ready, desirous and willing to sow the accepta­ble seede of Gods word, because we know the same in the latter day will be most severely required at our hands: you have (our welbeloved sonne in Christ) advertised and signified unto us, that you will enter [Page 108] into the Land and Realme of Ireland, to the end to bring them to obe­dience unto Law, and under your subjection, and to root out from among them, their foule sinnes and wickednesse, as also to yeeld and pay yeere­ly out of every house, a yeerely pension of one penny to Saint Peter, and besides also will defend and keepe the rites of those Churches, whole and inviolate: We therefore well allowing and favouring this your godly disposition, and commendable affection, doe accept, ratifie, and assent unto this your petition; and doe grant that you (for the dilating of Gods Church, the punishment of sinne, the reforming of manners, plan­ting of vertue, and the increasing of Christian religion) doe enter to pos­sesse that land, and thereto execute according to your wisedome, whatso­ever shall be for the honour of God, and the safety of the Realme: and further also we doe strictly charge and require, that all the people of that land, doe with all humblenesse, dutifulnesse, and honour, receive and accept you as their Liege Lord and Soveraigne, reseruing and accepting the right of holy Church to be inviolably preserved: as also the yeerely pension of Peter pence out of every house, which we require to be truely answered to Saint Peter, and to the Church of Rome. If therefore you doe minde to bring your godly purpose to effect, indevour to travell to re­forme the people to some better order and trade of life, and that also by your selfe, and by such others as you shall thinke meet, true, and honest in their life, manners, and conversation, to the end the Church of God may be beautified, the true Christian religion sowed and planted, and all other things done, that by any meanes shall or may be to Gods honour, and salvation of mens soules, whereby you may in the end receive of Gods hands, the reward of everlasting life, and also in the meane time, and in this life, carry a glorious same and an honourable report among all nations. The King upon the receit hereof, was very glad, and let it lye dorment by him, untill better opportunity was offered, as here­after shall appeare.

Anno 1166. Moragh Mac Cocholan, King of Ireland, called a great Councell at Dublin, gave battaile to the King of Leinster, and killed him, and shortly after was himselfe slaine by Ororic, which succee­ded in the soveraignty; the same yeere saith Guttyn Owen in his Bri­tish Chronicle, Henry 2. being at Chester, hired many shippes out of Ireland for his ayde, against North-Wales, but hee discharged them immediately, for his purpose tooke no good effect, in as much as the present troubles of Normandy called him away. In this pastime (so the old English delivereth) or rather the hurly-burly of the world, amids the warres of France, Flanders, and England; Ireland was all in armes, the occasion was as followeth.

Dermot Mac Moragh, King of Leinster, was a long time enamoured with the wife of Ororike, King of Meth, some call him Morice, some other Mordich, she was the daughter of Omalarghlun, whom nature had made faire, the world a Queene, and lust a Harlot: the booke of [Page 109] Howth reporteth at large, how Ororic was old, his Queene young and wanton, and that in derision, when he came from hunting, and being an hungred, she gave Apples to eate, which had beene in some undecent place of her body to be spoken of, so that the scent of them was strong, whereat she smiled; her Lord and husband having se­cretly learned her lewd practise, tooke with him the day following, two of her foster brothers a hunting, gelded them, baked their stones, brought the Pie hot to his Lady and her Gentlewomen, when hee had commended the rarenesse of the meat, the fond wantons and giglets, fell to it, when they had satisfied themselves, saith Ororic, how like you this Pye, excellent good meat say they; it is (saith hee) the meat which you love raw and rosted, what is that (say they) the stones of your two foster brethren; with that she cast up a wilde look, and never beheld him cheerefully againe. Ororic her Lord and hus­band being in pursuit of kerne theeves and outlawes that had migh­tily annoyed his people in the furthest part of his country, she with all celerity, supposing it a fit time, sent for her lover Dermotte, the message was no sooner delivered, but hee was a horse backe, posting to the Harlot; to be short, he tooke her away with him, at which time (O false heart) she strugled, she cryed, as though she were unwilling, and that hee forced her. Ororic immediately heard of it, gathered his forces together, mustred his people, craved ayde, and among others, wrote unto Roderick, Monarch of Ireland as followeth.

Though I am not ignorant, (most renowned Prince) that humane causes are to be weighed in the balance of patience, and that a man endued with vertue, will not effeminate himselfe by reason of the un­constant and mutable minde of a Harlot, yet in so much this horri­ble crime, (whereof I am fully perswaded) came to your eares be­fore my messenger could deliver his letters, a thing heretofore not heard of, as farre as I remember, not practised against any King of Ireland; severity causeth me to call for justice, when charity admoni­sheth me not to seeke revengement. If thou behold the shame, I con­fesse it redoundeth to me alone; if you weigh the cause, it is common to us both; what confidence shall we repose in our subjects that are bound unto us in regard of our Princely command, if this effeminate adulterer, or rather queller of chastity, shall escape unpunished for so abhominable a fact? for the unchastised offences of Princes, notori­ously committed in the sight of al men, breed a most pernitious imita­tion, as precedents unto the people; in summe you have sufficient ex­perience of my good will and affection towards you, you see mee wounded with the cruell darts of fortune, vexed with infinite dis­commodities, and now extremely driven to my utter shifts: It re­maines, (seeing I am wholly yours) that not onely with counsell, be­ing requested, but with armes, being urged, you revenge my quarrell: this when you will, and as you will, not onely I aske, but require at your hands. Farewell.

[Page 110]The Monarch for some former quarrell against Dermot was all on fire, and joyning forces with Ororic, entred Leinster with fire and sword, the people cry woe and alacke (O bone in Irish) now are wee punished for the lewdnesse of our Prince. Dermot lulling himselfe in his lovers armes, heareth the newes, starteth upon a sodaine, behol­deth his Lady, hath no power to speake, runneth forth, calleth his men, cryeth for aid, throughout his country, none gave [...]are unto him; the country thought now (whereas they could not) that God will be revenged on him for his exactions, cruelty, tyranny, and all other villanies practised upon his subjects, and especially for deflou­ring another mans wife: when he saw himselfe quite forsaken, voyd and destitute of all ayde, he betooke himselfe to the sea, and fled for England, but what became of the Harlot I cannot learne; belike shee hanged her selfe when she had set all the country in uprore. Anno 1169. (Iohn Clin and Iohn Stow are mine Authors) now that Dermot is fled, I am to insert a story out of the British Chronicles of Conwey and Strotflur Abbeyes, afore I discourse of him which was in the same yeere, that he tooke the sea, how that Owen Gwyneth, Prince of North-Wales, had a sonne called Ryryd, who in the right of his wife, as it seemeth, was Lord of Clochran in Ireland, and another sonne begotten vpon an Irish woman, called Howell, and a third sonne cal­led Madoc. This Madoc finding his country in great contention, and his brethren at civill warres, prepared certaine ships with men and munition out of Wales and Ireland, and sought adventures by seas, he sailed west from the coast of Ireland, so farre north, that hee came to a land unknowne, where he saw many strange things. This land in the opinion of Humphrey Lloyde, the great Antiquary of Britaine, must needs be some part of that country, of which the Spaniards af­firme themselves to be the first discoverers since Hannos time. For by reason and order of cosmographie, this land to the which Madoc came, must needs be sonne part of Nova-hispania, or Florida; where­upon it is manifest that the same country was long before discovered by Britaines and Irish men, afore either Columbus or Americus Vespa­tius, led any Spaniards thither. Of the voyage and returne of this Madoc, there be many fables, the which I will not report. He prepa­red ships for a second voyage, and tooke with him men and women to inhabit that land, therefore it is to be presupposed that he and his people inhabited part of those countries, for it appeareth by Francis Loves, that in Acusanus and other places, the people honoured the Crosse, whereby it may be gathered, that Christians had been there before the comming of the Spaniards: but because this people were not many, they followed the manners of the land, and used their lan­guage. I am of opinion with others, that the land whereunto Madoc came, was some part of Mexico; first of all, for that the inhabitants of that land report, their Rulers to have descended from a strange [Page 111] nation that came from a far country, which thing is confessed by Mu­tesuma, King of that country, in his orations made for quieting of his people at his submission to the King of Castile, Hernando Curtecius being then present, which is laid downe in the Spanish Chronicles, of the conquest of the West-Indies; secondly the british words and names of places used in that country to this day, doe argue the same, as when they talke together, (they say) Gwrando, which is hearken or listen in British. Also if you peruse Sir Humphrey Gilberts disco­very, they have a Bird, which they call Pengwin in Brittish and Cor­nish, a white-head, but the Iland of Corroeso, the Cape of Britaine, the river of Gwyndoor and the white rocke of Pengwyn, be British or Welch words: whereby it appeareth, that it was that country which Madoc and his people inhabited: now remembring my selfe that my pen hath not carryed me so far unto forraigne countries by sea, but that I expect Dermots returne by sea and by land into Ire­land. Dermot Mac Morogh came to Henry 2. in Normandie, made his moane (as formerly in substance is delivered) craved aide for his restitution into his country, being a King exiled, although distressed and void of comfort, unlesse hee might obtaine it at his Majesties hands; the Kings hands being full of warres, he granted him his fa­vourable letters as followeth.

Henry, King of England, Duke of Normandie and Aquitaine, Earle of Anjow, &c. unto all his subiects, English, Normans, Welch, and Scots, and to all nations and people being his subiects, greeting; where­as Dermot Prince of Leinster most wrongfully (as he enformeth) bani­shed out of his owne country, hath craved our ayde, therefore for so much as we have received him unto our protection, grace and favour, whosoever within our Realmes, subiects unto our command, will ayde and helpe him whom wee have embraced as our trustie friend, for the recovery of his land, let him be assured of our favour and licence in that behalfe.

Dermot returned ioyfully with these letters, and came to Bristoll, where at that time, Richard, surnamed Strangbow, Eare o [...] Penbroke and Chepstow lay, hee shewed his letters, caused them at severall times, publikely to be read, conferred with Earle Richard, and con­cluded to give the Earle his sole daughter and heire in marriage, and his whole interest in the kingdome of Leinster after his decease. Ri­chard undertooke of the other side to effect all his desire. As Dermot wayted for a winde, it came in his minde for the shorter cut into Ire­land, to goe by land into Saint Davids, where he was refreshed, and greatly pittied by the Bishop there, and concluded in like sort (as with the Earle before) with Robert fitz Stephens, and Moris Fitz Ge­rald, by the mediation of the good Bishop there, to restore him unto his kingdome, upon condition that hee should give them and theirs for ever, the towne of Wexford, and two cantreds of land next [Page 112] adjoyning; upon this hee tooke shipping, secretly came to Fernes, and lived privately among the Clergie all that winter, expecting per­formance of promises out of England. Anno 1170. Abbatia de Castro Dei, was founded in the same yeere, and the first day of May, (so writeth Stow) Robert Fitz Stephens, with David Barrie, and Hervie de Monte, Mariscospie of Strangbow his nephew, according to his promise, with thirty Knights, threescore Esquires well mounted, and three hundred foot, being Archers well appointed, of his owne kin­dred, and trayning up in feates of armes, and the choice souldiers of all Wales, landed at the Bann, not farre from Wexford; hereupon the rime runneth.

At the Creeke of Bagganbun,
Ireland was lost and wonne.

Here some allude unto the blinde Prophecie of Merlin, that hee should meane this noble Warrior and worthy Knight, where he saith; A Knight biparted shall first enter with force of Armes, and breake the bounds of Ireland: this they would have understood of Robert Fitz Stephens, an English man, borne in Normandie, and of Nesta his mother, daughter to R [...]es ap Tuyder Prince of South Wales; so I finde in Cambrensis; but if Merlin had foresight in this, I had rather take his Prophecie verified in respect of his Armes and Ensignes, which were biparted, being of two sundry changes, namely, party par pale gules and ermine, a saltier counterchanged; for commonly all Prophecies have their allusions unto Armes, and by them they are discovered, though at the first not so apparant, before the event there­of take place.

The next day after, in the same place, landed Morice Prendergast, whom Stanihurst calleth Prendelgast de Rofensi Walliae Demetiae Pro­vinciâ, as Cambrensis writeth; the which I take to be about Milford in South-Wales, accompanied with ten Knights, and a great num­ber of Archers in most gallant sort in two ships. Immediately, Ro­bert Fitz Stephens directeth his letters to Dermot, who could scarce reade them for joy of their arrivall, and sent forthwith his base sonne Donald with five hundred men to salute them, and hasteneth after himselfe with all speed; off goeth his poore mantle wherein hee ob­scurely shrowded himselfe, on goeth his princely attire; the Irish men follow him, the fame thereof is spread over the whole land: such as before in his distressed state flatly forsooke him, now runne and flat­ter, and fawne upon him; to be short, they meete, they confirme the former leagues with oathes, and ioyne forces together, and they march towards Wexford, to lay siege to the towne; the townesmen a fierce & wilfull people (to the number of 2000.) sally forth with full purpose to give them battaile in the field, but when they heard the [Page 113] Trumpets sound, the horses neyghing, and beheld their glittering Armes, the ratling of their furniture, horse and men in compleat Armes, and all most comely in battaile array, (the like of them not formerly seene, neither heard of) they alter their mindes, they retire into the towne, they make fast their gates, and fire the suburbs. Fitz Stephens came to the wals, filled the trenches with armed men, and appointed his Archers to levell at the wals and turrets, if occasion were offered: the townesmen manfully defended themselves, threw over the wals great stones and pieces of timber, hurt many, and made them voyd the place, among whom, a couragious Knight, called Da­vid Barrye, adventured to scale the walles, but with a great stone which fell upon his head-piece, he was cast downe to the ditch, and carried away by his fellowes with safeguard of his life, upon this they goe to the sea strand, and fired all the ships and vessels which they found there.

The next day after, upon better advice and deliberation, they ap­proach unto the wals, and gave a new assault, the townesmen within beganne to distrust their state, being upon this sudden arrivall of the strangers, not sufficiently provided of men, munition, and victuals, to encounter with them, and remembring againe, how most unnatu­rally they had rebelled against their Prince and Soveraigne, they sent messengers to Dermot, to intreate for peace, (alas it was farre from the heart) the which was granted, and tooke of them pledges and ho­stages for the performance thereof. Lastly, Mac Moragh, according to his former promise gratified these first adventures, hee gave unto Robert Fitz Stephens, and Morrice Fitz Gerrald, who was as yet in England, the towne of Wexford, and the territories thereunto ad­ioyning, and unto Hervie de Monte Morisco, two cantreds on the sea side, betwixt Wexford and Waterford.

Dermot Mac Moroch and his company now take heart, they en­crease their Army with Wexford men, and become 3000. strong. The next iourney they bend their course towards Ossory, where one Donald, or Mac Donell was Prince, whom Dermot hated deadly, and for this cause Donald suspected Dermots sonne and heire to have much familiaritie with his wife, and therefore in his jealous humour, ap­prehended him, imprisoned him, and pulled out both his eyes, (but say they) though sight failed him, his feeling did not, for she loved him the more, in so much that she satisfied his lust, and ranne away after him. When Robert Fitz Stephens, and the Gallants of Britaine entred the country, they found neither dastards, nor cowards, but va­liant men with horse and foot; they found the country fast with woods, bogges, and paces trenched and plashed; yet the valour of the adventurers was such, presuming upon former fortunes, to have the like future successes, with loose wings drove them out of the woods and bogges, into the plaine and champion land, where the [Page 114] horsemen with their speares overthrew them, and the foote finding them groveling, runne them thorow, and ended their dayes; the Gallowglasses followed, and cut off their heads. And here Dermot Mac Morogh is mightily condemned, he being originally for exacti­on, extortion, cruelty, tyranny, and other damnable offences, iustly exiled, now sheweth no Princely stomacke, but a base Wolvish minde; for when 300. of the Ossory mens heads were throwne at his feete, (alas they had not offended) hee viewed them all, and finding one whom he knew, and mortally hated, he held him by the head and eares, and most brutishly with his teeth, bit the nose and lips of the dead, whom without the ayde of the Britaines, hee durst not be­hold in the face. In this bloudy course, Dermot directed these worthy warriours, they more affecting the prey for their present mainte­nance, then the bloud of any person, to spoyle, burne, waste the coun­try, and murther the poore and seely people, which God wot, meant no harme: whereupon Donald, Prince of Ossory, despising Dermot Mac Morogh, by the advice of his Councell and friends, sent to Ro­bert Fitz Stephens in writing as followeth: Sir Knight of Noble race, renowned for martiall prowesse, Donald Prince of Ossory sendeth greeting: Dermot that damnable adulterer in his owne person, with the King of Meths wife, and in his sonnes person with my wife, have drawne thee and those Gallants, (most worthy Knights) into this poore country and naked people: I will yeeld my selfe (it is for the good of my poore followers) into thy hands, peace I crave, and peace let me have. Robert Fitz Stephens acquainted Dermot Mac Morogh with the premises of all sides, the Irish dissembled, (as hereafter shall further appeare) peace they granted, and they acknowledged Der­mot for their Lord and Soveraigne. In all this service, I may not con­ceale what Cambrensis delivereth. David Barry and Meilerius, effe­cted singular exployts, and deserved no lesse commendations. As soone as the good successe of Dermot and the strangers lately arrived, was spread abroad, Rory Oconochor, alias Rodericke, King of Con­naught, Monarch of Ireland, called the Princes and Nobles of the land together, and layeth before them the dangerous estate and im­minent perill of the whole land, how Dermot guilefully had tray­ned in strangers, how hee and the strangers were like to ouer-runne all, unlesse with all expedition, this mischiefe were prevented; in summe they concluded, that every man shall to his Armes, and make ready horse and foot, and set upon these invaders.

Dermot Mac Morogh, having certaine knowledge of this great se­paration and mischiefe intended, and his false harted subjects, that lately fawned vpon him were fled to the enemies, fearing the puisance of the Monarch, and the forces of the whole land, called Robert Fits Stephens, and said vnto him; Fortune is fickle, our state is an ague that commeth by fits, my friends fleet away, and argue false hearts, no [Page 115] marvaile though I bee disquieted, if you stick not to mee I am undone: Robert Fitz Stephens replied, Wee have left behind us our deare friends and our native soyle, wee have fired all our shippes, not upon intent to runne away, wee haue already in armes ingaged our lives, fall out as fall out may, wee will live and dye together, bee you true to us, wee will not bee false to you: Dermot hereupon gathering his spirits together, got him and his followers to a certaine fastenesse, not farre from Fernes, where hee intrenched and plashed himselfe, being invi­roned with woods, hils, rockes, bogges and waters, a place to mans seeming inaccessible and invincible, to endure for a while wandring clowds, and threatning stormes of his adversaries, to vanish and bee caried away with waving winds of fortune and unfortunate warres: Whose foresight and ready wit Robert Fitz Stephens highly com­mended, Immediatly there came a Messenger from Roderic the Mo­narch unto Robert Fitz Stephens with this message: The Britans may not by the Lawes of Armes, display their Banners and Ensignes in forreine possessions, and dispose the lawfull heires of their inheritance, but they are with licence of the Irish to pack home whence they came: It is a blemish for the Brittish nation, iniuriously to giue aide to a shamefull fact, neither may the lechery of Dermot, be mantled under British cloaks, wherefore depart and forsake him that is forsaken of God and man. And here by my messenger receive to defray your charges, and trans­port you to your native soyle. Robert Fitz Stephens answereth, your present I will not accept, faith and troth I have pawned to my friend Dermot, I will not breake: hee forsakes not me, I will not forsake him, neither leave him distressed; you speake of lechery, what is that among martiall men? I heare you have Bastards your selfe, to what end is your embassie? If Roderick give councell, we need it not; if he Prophecie, we credit not his oracle; if he command as a Prince, we obey not his auto­rity; if hee threaten as an enemie, a figge for his Monarchy. The messenger returned with small welcome, going and comming; Ro­deric bethought himselfe againe, and sent letters to Dermot, per­swading him to be at peace with his country people, and to banish the strangers out of the Land; he rejected his councell and despiseth the messenger: Roderic seeing that his private practises tooke small effect, put himselfe in armes, assembleth his forces, and delivereth un­to them these speeches: You right worthy and valiant defenders of your Country and liberty; Consider with what people and for what cause wee are now to fight and wage battell, the enemy of his owne Country, the tyrant over his owne people, the exile fugitive, behold hee is returned backed with strangers, and purposeth to destroy us and the whole Nation; hee being an enemy, hath brought in those enemies, which have beene ever hatefull unto us all, and are most greedy to have the Soveraignty and Dominion over us all, protesting openly and firmely avouching, that by fatall destiny they are to bee Commanders [Page 116] over this land. And so farre hath he poured out his venome, that there is no favour, nor mercy to be looked for at his hands. O cruell beast, (yea more cruell then ever was beast) who lately bit with his owne teeth, the nose and lips of the dead: he to satisfie his insatiable malice and bloudy minde, spareth neither man, woman, nor childe: he deserveth well to be hated of all, that opposeth himselfe an enemy to all; wherefore my lo­ving and deere country men, be well advised, looke about you, and con­sider advisedly, how by the like meanes, (I meane civill warres) all Realmes and nations for the most part have beene overthrowne and brought to utter ruine. Iulius Caesar attempted the invasion of Bri­taine, was twice foyled, and indured the repulse, but when Androgeus Duke of London fell at variance with the King, to be revenged, sent for Iulius, who thereupon returning, subdued the land. The Britaines be­ing at discord, and hating their vicious King Careticus, the Saxons finding opportunitie to over-runne all, sent for Gurmundus the arch-Pirate and terror of the Ocean seas, who ioyning forces together, foyled the Britaines, and banished their King: not long after, Isembert aspi­ring to the Crowne of France, procured the said Gurmund to his ayde: behold the end, Gurmund was slaine, Isembert overthrowne, and his whole practise came to nought. Wherefore let us with one minde, like those valiant Frenchmen in our rightfull cause, in the defence of our country, and safeguard of the lives of our wives and children, couragi­ously give the onset upon our enemies. And whiles these strangers are but few in number, let us stoutly issue out upon them. The fire while it is but in embers and sparkles, may easily be covered with ashes, but if it breake into flames, it is hard to be quenched▪ wherefore it is expedient we stoppe beginnings, and prevent sicknesse when it creepeth least; when it takes roote, it will hardly be cured: wherefore cheere my hearts, wee fight for our country and liberty, let us leave unto our posterity an im­mortall fame, let us march on, and lustily assault them, that the over­throw of a few, may be a terrour to many, and that it may be a president unto all forraigne Potentates, never to attempt the like againe.

Dermot Mac Morogh and his men receive intelligence of this march, and the approach of the enemy, and beholding his men, some­what dismaid, turned him to them with loving countenance: yee men of Leynster, my naturall subjects, of my flesh and bloud, whom loy­alty, truth and kindred hath hitherto lincked together; let us live to­gether, and dye together, in the defence of our persons and country; you see how that wicked and ambitious minded Rodericke, the Au­thor of many mischiefes, not contented with his owne country and kingdome, seeketh now the soveraignty and dominion over the whole land, the which, I hope, God will not permit. You see his glory, his pride, and audacious attempts, how he lifteth up his head, and loo­keth aloft: he trusteth to his multitude, doubt you not but that God is on our side, and the rightfull cause ours, though wee of country [Page 117] birth, to you Leinster men I speake, bee not so many as they are, nei­ther so well appointed, it forceth not, for victory is not measured by multitude, but by valour and courage, and oftentimes, wee know, that a few stout and hardy men have foiled troupes of sluggards, da­stards and white liverd Souldiers: If you mistrust any defect in your selves, behold a present supply at your back and elbow.

Doe not you see these Worthy Knights, these Valiant Warriers these Noble gallants, the flowre of Brittaine? their valour in part you have sufficiently tryed, their furniture excelleth, their order and aray is most comely, they have forsaken their native soyle, their friends and kindred, and all for our sakes; will they fly? no, they have burned their Ships, the Land will yeeld them neither succour nor refuge, neither will the bloody tyrant Roderic shew any mercy; wee are sworne the one to the o­ther, while breath lasteth and life endureth. If the enemy pretend with the sword to chastise us for our sinnes, as it appeareth by their slaunde­rous & shamelesse reports; alas, what have you done? God knoweth, your consciences are cleare, your cause honest, to take Armes in defence of your Prince, and Countrey? Why doe they not behold the blemishes, nay the hainous enormities and villanies that raigne among them? Their carrows, their kerne, their theeves, their murders, their swearing, their lying, their drunkennesse, their whordome and bloody minds who reformeth? The Tyrant Roderic hath murdered his owne naturall brother, hee hath three wives alive, he hath eleven bastards by severall women: O villaine, to behold a mote in our eye, and cannot see a beame in his owne. If the tyrant make challenge and pretend title to Leinster, because the same hath sometimes beene tributarie to some one King of Connoght; by the same reason also may wee demand and challenge all Connoght; for our ancestors have beene sole Governours of both, and Monarchs of all Ireland. The Lawes of all Nations doe permit, and allow to resist and withstand force and injury, with force and strength; Let us be of good courage, wee stand vpon a good ground, our seat is na­turally very strong of it selfe, & now by our industry made more defen­sive; feare nothing, quit your selves like men. When Dermot had made an end of his Irish Oration, Robert Fitz Stephens in the Brittish tongue turneth him to the Brittaines. You my companions in mar­tiall affaires, you lusty young gallants that have endured with me many perils, yet still retaine your noble and valiant courage; consider whence wee came, what wee are, and the cause we have in hand; we are lineally descended from Troy, whose fame hath filled the whole earth, and now lately some of us out of Normandy, have seated our selves in Brittaine, and have to our wives, children, and kindred of the ancient and noble Brittish race; of the one we cary our valiant and noble mind, of the other wee learned the experience in feates of Armes; wee are not come hi­ther as pirats and theeves, to robbe and spoile (as it is well knowne unto you) wee had our native soile to inhabit, wee had our kindred about us, [Page 118] and the countenance of great persons, wee came after the course of the World, as Marshall men (but in an honest cause) to take our adven­tures. Heere wee are, our friends are with us, our foes are in armes a­gainst us, wee are well appointed, the enemy is but a wilde, naked, ras [...]all and savage people: feare nothing, our cause is good; Dermot sought us, we sought not him, hee loveth our nation, and our friends in former times have found friendship in his Countrey, hee is a Prince lately exi­led, whose fall is more to be pittied then envied; we are to comfort him, to aide him, and to restore him to his Kingdome. It is more honorable to make then to be a King, and to restore then to exile: he is a Prince of a bountifull mind, hee hath promised large for us and our heires after us, hee hath in part already most faithfully performed, his yeeres are many, and his daies are but few; after him wee shall enjoie his, and if we overcome the enemy, wee shall possesse all: feare not death; it is but a short delay betweene transitory and eternall life, it is but a short pas­sage from vaine and temporall delights, to certaine and perpetuall joies, if we conquer here, wee shall inherit here, and purchase unto us immor­tall fame; if we misse here, we are sure of a Kingdome in another world. Roderic considering with himselfe, the events of warres how doubt­full and uncertaine they are, wrought all meanes to intreat for peace, being timerous to adventure battaile with strangers, whose force hee mightily feared, and whose puissance and valour being renowned, he was loth to encounter withall; he sent messengers unto Dermot Mac Morogh, promising him that hee and his heires should in peace and quietnesse enjoy all Leinster, and acknowledge him for his chiefe King and Monarch, and to yeeld unto him the service and homage that to that belonged; and that he should deliver him his sonne Cun­thurus (Cnothurinus saith Stanyhurst) for pledge and hostage. And if the peace were truly kept and performed, Roderic promised to give him his daughter in marriage, and in the end when Leinster should bee quitly setled and reduced to the old Irish order, Dermot should drive away the Brittans and strangers, and procure no more into the Land; all this was concluded vpon, and solemnely undertaken by oathes on both sides, yet all was but flat dissimulation. In the nook of this, landeth at Wexford Maurice Fitz Girald, brother to Robert Fitz Stephens by the mothers side, in two ships, having in his com­pany, tenne Knights, thirty horsemen, archers and foot a hundred, whereof Dermot was very glad and mightily encouraged on everie side. And immediately tooke with him Morice Fitz Girald, and bent his forces towards Dublin, to be revenged on them, for many wrongs, and especially for the death of his father, whom they murthered in their Councell house, as formerly hath beene delivered, and after for more despite buried him with a Dog: They left Robert Fitz Ste­phens behind busily imployed in building of a Fort or a strong hold some two miles from Wexford, in British and Irish called the Car­ricke. [Page 119] As they drew neere Dublin, they preyed, they spoyled, they burned all before them. Dublin trembled for feare, the townesmen intreated for peace, the which was granted upon the delivery of cer­taine pledges and hostages▪

In the meane while, no small stirre arose betweene Roderic the Monarch, and Donald, Prince of Limerike for chiefery. Whereupon there arose deadly hatred and martiall warres: Roderic drew all his forces against him; Dermot Mac Moroogh sent to Robert Fitz Ste­phens, that in all haste he should draw forces to the ayde of Donald Prince of Limirike his sonne in law, which was accordingly affected, where Roderic was foyled, lost his chiefery, and with shame enough returned to his own country. Now Dermot Mac Morogh is puffed up with these prosperous successes, and whereas a while agoe, he would have contented himselfe with Leynster alone, now Connaght and all Ireland seeme little enough unto his aspiring minde. Secretly hee ac­quainteth Robert Fitz Stephens, and Maurice Fitz Gerald with his purpose, and offereth any of them his daughter and heire with his in­heritance after, upon condition, that they should send for supplies of their kindred and country men, to effect his enterprises; they modest­ly thanked him for his offers, and refused his daughter, for that they were both already married, and withall wished him to write for Ri­chard Strangbow, with whom he had formerly concluded to that ef­fect, unto whom he addresseth his messenger, and directeth his let­ters in this forme:

Dermot Mac Morogh, Prince of Leinster, to Richard Earle of Chep­stow, the sonne of Earle Gilbert, sendeth greeting. If you doe well consi­der the time of men and matters, as we doe which are distressed, then would you regard whether we have cause to complaine of men, or to ma­ligne and curse the infortunate time. Even as the seely Storkes and Swallowes with their comming, prognostic [...]te the summer season, and with westerly windes are blowne away: we have observed times and sea­sons fit for your arrivall and transportation, if your affaires had cor­respondently accorded unto our expectations. East and West no doubt would have fitted our purpose, but hitherto being frustrated of your long desired presence and promises, unlesse the most valiant Knights of your country birth, (whose valour and prowesse my penne is not able to paint unto the posterity) had upheld our state and dignity. We beseech you a­gaine and againe, in the league and amitie of Princes, not to use further delayes; our successe hitherto hath beene to our hearts desire. Leynster is our owne, your comming will inlarge our bounds, the speedier it is, the more gratefull; the hastier, the more joyfull; the sooner, the better wel­come. Richard Strangbow was pleased with these letters, glad of the successe of Robert Fitz Stephens, and cast with himselfe, how hee might speedily passe for Ireland. He repaired to King Henry 2. hum­bly beseeching him, either to restore him to such possessions, as by [Page 120] right of inheritance did belong unto him, or to give him Passe to seek adventures in some forraigne country, and among some strange na­tion. Stanihurst excellently conceited, layeth downe the Kings an­swer: Henry smiling within himselfe, saith, Loe, whether and where thou wilt goe and wander for me, it shall be lawfull for thee, take De­dalus wings and flye away. Strangbow betweene [...]east and earnest, takes this for a sufficient licence, and makes ready for Ireland, and sends before him, Reimond le Grosse, nephew to Robert Fitz Ste­phens, and Morice Fitz Gerald, sonne to William Fitz Gerald, the el­der brother, which land at Dundorogh, commonly called Dunde­nold, West of Wexford, with tenne Knights, forty Esquires, and fourescore Archers and foot; whereupon Omolaghlin Ophelin, Lord of the Decies, raised the country, consulted with the townesmen of Waterford, and concluded that it stood them upon, with all expedi­tion, to set upon the strangers; they made ready 3000. men by land, they runne up and downe the shore, they row; their song was kill, kill, kill, Reimond straight upon his arrivall, had fortified himselfe, the Waterfordians march against him in battaile array, the Britaines being but sixscore and ten, came forth to make good the field against 3000. Reymond perceiving in the skirmish that the enemy over-laid them, retired to his Fort, the Irish perswading themselves at that in­stant to give the Britaines an utter overthrow, thicke and thinne, with all haste pursued them, and the formost entring at the foote of the last Britaine into the Fort, had his head cloven in two with Reymonds sword, immediately saith Reymond, strike the drumme, follow mee fellow souldiers; the Irish being disordered, and out of battaile array, and discouraged with the death of one man, flie away; then they which in this doubtfull skirmish were like to be vanquished and quite overthrown, became victors, conquerours, & wan the field; they cha­sed the Waterfordians that were out of order, & at their wits ends, & slue of them, saith Cambrensis, above 500. persons, and being weary of killing, they cast a great number of those whom they had taken pri­soners, headlong from the rocks, into the sea. In this service, Sir Wil­liam Ferand, a Knight, deserved singular commendations, and was the onely man of all the Britaines, saith Stanihurst that was slaine: Thus fel the pride and rash attempt of Waterford, thus decayed their strength and force, and thus became the ruine and overthrow of that Citie, which, as it bred a great hope and consolation to the Britaines, so was it the cause of a great desperation and terrour to the enemy. They tooke 70. of the best men in Waterford prisoners, they enter into consultation, and call a martiall court, what was to be done with them. Reymond full of pittie and compassion, delivereth his opinion; you my noble and valiant companions, and fellow souldiers, for the in­crease of whose honour, vertue and fortune, wee presently seeme to contend, let us consider what is best to bee done with these our [Page 121] prisoners and captives: for my part I doe not thinke it good, nor yet allow that any favour or curtesie should be at al shewed to the enemy, but understand you, these are no enemies now, but men; no rebels, but such as be vanquished and cleane overthrowne, and standing in defence of their country by evill fortune and hard destiny, are subdu­ed; their adventures were honest, and their attempts commendable, and therefore they are not to be reputed for theeves, factious persons, traitors, nor yet murtherers; they are now brought to that distresse and case, that rather mercy for example sake is to bee shewed, then cruelty to the increase of their misery to be ministred: surely our an­cestors in times past, (although indeed it bee very hard to be done) were wont when fortune favoured, to temper their loose mindes, and qualifie their unruly affections, with some one discommoditie or o­ther: wherefore let mercy and pitty, which is in man most commen­dable, worke so in us, that we that now have overcome others, may subdue our owne mindes, and conquer our owne affections. For mo­desty, moderation, and discretion, are wont to stay hasty motions, and to stoppe the course of rash devices. O how commendable and honourable is it to a Noble man, that in his greatest triumph and glo­ry, he counteth it for a sufficient revenge, that hee can revenge, and be wreaked! Iulius Caesar, whose conquests were such, his victory so great, and his triumphs so many, that the whole world was noysed therewith, he had not so many friends who reioyced for the same, but he had many more enemies that maligned and enuied his succes­ses, not onely in slanderous words, and evill reports, but many also secretly conspired, devised and practised his death and destruction; And yet he was so full of pitty, mercy, and compassion, that he never commanded nor willed any to bee put to death for the same, saving onely one Domitius, whom he had of meere clemency for his lewd­nesse before pardoned, for his wickednesse released, and for his trea­chery acquitted. And thus as his pitty did much increase his honour, so did it nothing hinder his victories. Oh how beastly then and im­pious is that cruelty, wherein victory is not ioyned with pitty! for it is the part of a right Noble and Valiant Conquerour, to count them enemies, that doe wage the battaile, contend and fight for the victo­ry, but such as be conquered, taken prisoners, and kept in bonds and captivitie, to take and repute them for men; that hereby fortitude and force may diminish the battell, and end the quarrell, as also hu­manitie may increase love, and make peace. It is therefore a great commendation, and more praise worthy to a noble man, in mercy to be bounteous, then in victory to be cruell. For the one onely lyeth in the course of fortune, but the other in vertue. And as it had beene a great increase of our victory, and an augmentation of honour, if our enemies had beene slaine in the field, and overthrowne in the battaile; so they being now taken and saved, as it were men returned from [Page 122] rebels to the common society, and fellowship of men. If wee now should kill them, it will bee to our great shame, dishonor and re­proach for ever. And for as much as by the killing and destroying of them, wee shall bee never the neerer to have the command of the country, and never sooner to be Lords of the Land) and yet the ran­soming of them very good for the maintenance of the Souldiers, the good fame of us, and the advancement of honour) wee must need thinke that it is better to ransome them, then cruely to kill them; for as it is requisite, that a Souldier in the field fighting in armes, should then thrist for the blood of his enemy, trie the force of his sword, and valiantly stand to his tackle for victory; so when the fight is ended, the warres ceased, and the armour laid downe, and all strongnesse of hostility set apart, then in a Noble man must humanity take place, pitty and commiseration must be shewed, and all kindnesse of curtesie must be extended.

With this they were all drawen to some mildnesse and remorse, and ready to shew favour in hope of friendship againe. Henry de Monte Marisco, who came thither to salute Reimond, stands vp in op­position, bent to blood and villany, in whom there was neither man­hood in battell abroad, nor mercy in consultation at home, and spake as followeth: Reimond hath very exquisitly discoursed of pitty and mercy in set speeches, uttering his eloquence hath shewed his mind, and declared his opinion, perswading and inducing us to be­leeve that a strange land were to be conquered sooner by mercy and fond pittie, then by fire and sword; but I pray you, can there bee a worse way then to hold that course. Did Iulius Caesar or Alexan­der of Macedonia, by such meanes or in such order conquer the whole world; did the Nations from out of all places runne to sub­mit themselves under their command, and imperie in respect of their pitty and mercy, and not rather compelled so to doe for feare and per­force? For people whilst they are yet proud and rebellious, all pitty and mercy set apart, are by all manner of meanes and wayes to bee subdued: but when they are once brought under subjection and bondage, & ready to serve and obey, then they are with all curtesie to be intreated and kindly dealt withall, so that the state of the Govern­ment be in safety and void of dāger, herein & in this point, must pitty be used; but in the other severity or rather cruelty is more necessary: here clemency is to be shewed, but in the other rigour without favour is to be ministred. Reimond perswadeth that mercy is to bee extended as upon people already subdued and subjected, or as though the ene­mies were so few and of so small a number, as against whom no va­liant service nor chivalry can be exploited; and yet they are ready to joine with us, whereby our force may bee increased, and our power augmented: but alas, doe not we see, how that the whole notion and people of Ireland are fully bent and (not without cause) altogether conspired against us? surely me thinks Reimond is contrary to him­selfe, [Page 123] for why? his coming hither was not to dispute of pitty, nor to reason of mercy, but to conquer the nation, to subdue the peo­ple: Oh what an example of impious pitty were it then, to neglect our owne safety, and to have remorse and compassion vpon others distresses! moreover wee have here in the field and in armour, more enemies then friends, we are in the middle of perils and dangers, our enemies being round about us in every corner: and shall wee thinke this to be nothing, but that we must bee also in the like distresse and danger among our selves: Round about us our enemies are infinit, and within our selves, some there be which practise and work our de­struction: And if it should happen that our Captives and Prisoners should escape, and breake loose out of their bonds, which are but ve­ry weake and slender, no doubt they would forthwith take our own armour and weapons against us; well, well, the Mouse is in the cub­bord, the Fire is in the lappe, and the Serpent is in the bosome, the enemie is at hand ready to oppresse his adversarie, and the guest is in place with small curtesie to requite his host. If our enemies, when they come in good array, and well appointed to give the onset, and to wage battel against us; if they should happen to have the victorie, & the vpperhand over us, would they deale in pitty and mercy? would they grant us our lives? would they put us to ransome? Tush, what needs many words, when the deeds are apparent; our victory is to bee used, that the destruction of these few may bee a terror to many, whereby all others, and this wild and rebellious nation may take example, and bewar how they meddle and encounter with us; of two things we are to make choice of one, for either we must valiantly and couragiously stand to performe what we have taken in hand, and all fond pitty set aside, boldly and stoutly to overthrowe and van­quish this rebellious and stubborne people, or (if we shall after the mind and opinion of Reimond altogether be pittiful and full of mer­cy) we must hoise up our sailes, and returne home, leaving both the Country, and all that we have already gotten, to this miserable and wretched people. When Herveie had made an end of his speech; they put it to voyces, and the voyces went on Herveis side; where­upon the Captaines (as men condemned) were brought to the Rockes, and after their Limbs were broken, they were cast head long into the Seas, and drowned every mothers sonne.

Vpon the 23. of August, being Saint Bartholomewes Eeve, and yeere aforesaid, to wit, Anno 1170. Richard, surnamed Strangbow Earle of Strigulia (whose original and of-spring in another place her­after (if God permit) shall bee laid downe) landed in the Haven of Waterford, where Dermos Mac Morogh, Robert Fitz Stephens, and Maurice Fitz Gerauld, and Reimond le Grosse met him, and joy­ned their forces together? Reimond le Grosse was made generall of the field, they tooke small rest after their arrivall; for upon Bartholomew [Page 124] day being tuesday, with Banners displayed, in good aray they assaulted the City by water and by land, the townesmen manfully defended themselves, and gave them two repulses: Reimond having compassed the towne, espied without adjoyning unto the towne wall (where now standeth a strong Bulwarke) an old Cabban, propped with old timber, and entred into the old wall, the which proppes they sawed asunder, then downe falleth the cabban, and withall a great part of the wall: the breach thus made, the Brittains doe enter, and in the streets kill man, woman and child, and there left them in heapes: In Reignald tower, upon the wall of the tower they found one Reignald (I take it the tower beareth the name of him) and Omalaghlin Ophelim, Lord of the Decies, whose lives Dermot Mac Morogh saved: they found there other two, whom they put to the sword, they rifled the houses, they ransacked the City, they made havock of all, lastly they left there a strong ward. Then according to precedent cove­nants, Dermot gave his daughter Eva in marriage to Richard Strang­bow, and after solemnity thereof, they all marched with their forces towards Dublin: For Dermot bare them a deadly hatred, and hi­therto winked at them, untill further oportunity served, for the vil­lany and cruelty they shewed to his father; the townsmen of Dublin foreseeing his revenging mind, procured to their aid as many as they could throughout the land, they trenched, they plashed in paces, streets and narrow places, all the wayes along to Waterford, to hinder their march. Dermot was not ignorant thereof, whereupon he led the army from out the common and beaten way, through the Mountaines of Glandelogh, and came safe to the walles of Dublin. There the Citizens sent messengers to intreat for peace, and amongst others, Laurence O Toole Arcbishop of Dublin: while they parled without for peace, Sir Remond le grosse, and Sir Miles Cogan scaled the wals; for, saith Cambrensis, they were more desirous to fight under Mars in the field, then in the Senate to sit with Iupiter in Councell; they made a breach, they enter the Citie, they put all to the sword: in the meane while, Hastulphus the Commander of the City, with a great many of the better sort, with their Riches and Iewels, escaped and fled by the Sea to the North Ilands.

When the Earle had spent a few daies in the towne, he left Miles Cogan Governour therof, and by the perswasion of Dermot Mac Mo­rogh, he drew his forces into Meth to be avenged of Ororicke, whom some call Morice, some Murdich, who was the cause of his exile, and whose wife Dermot had formerly taken away. The Earle no sooner entred the Countrey, but the Army was given wholly to the spoile; they robbed, they spoiled, they burned, and wasted all before them: Roderic King of Conoght and Monarch of Ireland, seeing his neigh­bours house set one fire, thought it high time to looke to his owne, and wrotte to Dermot Mac Morogh, contrary to the order of Peace, [Page 125] formerly concluded, thou hast procured and allured a swarme and multitude of strangers, to invade this land; all the while thou didst containe thy selfe within compasse of thine owne territories, we win­ked at thy proceedings, but forasmuch as now thou not caring for thy oath, nor regarding the safety of thy hostages, hast so fondly and falsly passed thy bounds, I require thee that thou wouldest retire, and withdraw these excourses and inrodes of strangers, or else, to begin, I will not faile to cut off thy sonnes head, and send it to thee with speed.

Dermot despised the messenger, and would scarce vouchsafe to reade his letter; upon the messengers returne, Roderic was mad, and in his rage, caused his pledges head, the sonne of Dermot Mac Mo­rogh to be cut off. In this troublesome time, the Primate of Armagh called the Prelates and Clergie to a Synod; at Armagh, assembled a Councell; where, according to their wisedomes, they endeavoured to finde out the cause of these miseries that fell upon the land, they in­quired not whether the Bishops had bought their Bishoprickes for money, whether their Parsons did pray, whether their Ministers were lettered; what whoredome, symony, or lechery, with other enormities, raigned among the Clergie, but simply, like themselves, posted over all to the Laytie, and concluded (insipienter) that the iust plague fell upon the people, for merchandizing of the English nation; for then they bought and sold of the English birth, such as they found, and made them bondslaves; so they served Saint Patricke, cal­led the Apostle of Ireland, who was a bondman sixe yeeres in Ire­land, but Patricke preached Christ, and the English nation reformed the land. Here the sacred letters reconcile all, the stone which the buil­ders refused, is become the corner stone, and why so? the answer follow­eth, it is the Lords doing, and it is marvellous in our eyes. But I may not so leave my Prelates, they synodically decreed as followeth: that all the English men within the land, whatsoever they were, should bee manumised; a worshipfull piece of worke, and no thanke to them all, for the English sword was then ready to cut off the Irish heads: this reformation was but a sweeping of a house with a Foxes tayle.

The prosperous successes of Earle Richard, surnamed Strangbow, were no sooner effected, but fame flyed abroad, and flatterers carried it to Henry the seconds eares, and made him jealous, as Kings com­monly are, that a subject as Richard was, should not onely in the right of his wife, content himselfe with Leinster, but most presump­tuously without licence, as the King alledged, attempt the conquest of a kingdome, where he formerly by grant of Adrian, was interes­sed. Whereupon the King in his iealous rage, indeavouring to stop the Springs and Water-courses, proclaimed: We, Henry, &c. Forbid and inhibit, that from henceforth no shippe from any place of our domi­nio [...], shall traffique or passe into Ireland; and likewise charge that all our subjects upon their dutie of allegiance, which are there commo­rant, [Page 126] shall returne from thence into England before Easter next follow­ing, upon paine of forfeiture of all their lands, and the persons so diso­beying, to be banished our land, and exiled for ever.

The Earle seeing himselfe in this distresse, being in perill to lose his friends, and to want his necessaries out of his native soile, by enter­course of Merchants, calleth a Councell; where it was agreed and concluded, that Sir Reimond Legrosse should bee sent over to pacifie the King (who then was in Aquitaine) with these letters: Most puis­sant Prince, and my dread Soveraigne, I came into this land with your Majesties leave and savour (as farre as I remember) to aide your ser­vant Dermot Mac Morogh; what I have wonne, was with the sword, what is given me, I give you, I am yours, life and living at your com­mand.

Vpon the receit of these letters, there fell of all sides, three disasters, the King was mightily incensed against Earle Richard, and therefore delayed Sir Reimond Legrosse, and gave him no answer; secondly, the death of Thomas, Archbishop of Canterbury troubled him excee­dingly, and to helpe the readers memory with the time, it was as the rime delivereth,

Annus millenus, centenus septuagenus
Primus erat, primas quo ruit ense Thomas.

The third was, that Dermot Mac Morogh a most bountifull Prince, died and was buried at Fernes.

Anno 1171. Hastulpus, late Governour of Dublin (of whom I have formerly spoken) returneth, and entreth the haven of Dublin, with threescore saile to his aide, of Ilanders, Norwegians, and Esterlings, they forthwith landed, and unshipped themselves, and had to their Captaine, saith Cambrensis, one Iohn Wood, some call him mad Iohn, for the prankes he playd, for wood and mad beare one sense. Stani­hurst calleth him Pewood, Douling, Heywood. They were all mighty men of warre, and well appointed after the Danish manner, being harnessed with good Brigandines, jackes and shirts of maile; their Shields, Bucklers, and Targets, were round, and coloured red, and bound about with iron, and as they seemed in armes, so were they no lesse in mindes; iron-strong and mighty; they marched in battaile array towards the East gate of the Citie. Miles Cogan the Gover­nour, with a faire company (yet but a handfull to the number of the enemy, sallied forth, and gave them battaile, where both sides lost many a tall man. Miles Cogan seeing himselfe overlaid with the furi­ous rage and multitude of his adversaries, gave backe, and retired in­to the towne; by this time, Richard Cogan his brother had secretly issued out with a good company, at the South posterne gate, compas­sed the Danes, and being at the foot of the rereward, made mighty [Page 127] cry and shout, whereat the Danes were amazed, and the two bre­thren had the killing of them before and behinde. The Danes brake their array, threw their Armes away, fled towards their ships, where many also for haste were drowned. In this skirmish, Iohn Wood was slaine, and Hastulphus taken prisoner, and put to his ransome. The prodigalitie of this Hastulphus was such, that he contented not him­selfe with life, but braved and bragged of his exploits, in the hearing of Miles Cogan, and therewithall delivered, that that attempt was no­thing, but a taste or proofe of the Irish valour, and shortly, they should see another manner of forces assault them; What (saith Miles Cogan) is it not enough for him to have his life, but he must threaten us with further rebellion; goe, take him, and cut off his head. And thus the blabbe of his tongue, turned to his confusion.

Shortly after, the Irish and country birth, lying aloofe, wayting for all opportunities, and understanding of some unkindenesse and displeasure conceived by King Henry the second, against Earle Ri­chard, and in that quarrell generally against all the Britaines and in­vaders of Ireland; they put their heads together, they plot, they draw their draughts and devices, to lay siege to recover the Citie of Dub­lin, and the chiefest instrument was Laurence O Toole, Archbishop of Dublin, who wrote unto Roderic, King of Connaght, & unto Gotred, alias Godfrey, King of Man, and to all the Princes of Ireland, that it would please them (some in regard of neighbourhood, othersome in regard of naturall affection unto their native soile and distressed coun­try men of Irish birth) put to their helping hand, ioyne their forces together, lay siege to the Citie of Dublin by sea and by land, relieve their brethren, rid them from the Britaines hands, and restore them to their former liberty. The Bishop for the good opinion that was held of his learning, gravitie, and sanctitie, prevailed, insomuch, that Gotred, King of Man, came into the harbour of Dublin, with thirty saile. Roderic the Monarch and forces of Ireland came by land, and incamped within sight of the towne. Within the towne, were Earle Richard Strangbow, Maurice Fitz Gerald, Reimond Legrosse, lately ar­rived from out of England, Miles Cogan, Richard Cogan, with other worthy men and Citizens, to the number of thirty thousand fighting men. As they were prepared for battaile, (as commonly one mischiefe falleth in the necke of another) Donald, the base sonne of Dermot Mac Morogh, came in post to the Earle, and delivered how that Ro­bert Fitz Stephens in his Fort of Carreck by Wexford, was besieged with three thousand men of Wexford and Kinsele, by the conduct of Donald, Prince of Limeric, sonne in law to Dermot Mac Morogh, who before time in his extremity, and in the warres betweene him and Roderic the Monarch, for chiefery, (at the request of Dermot Mac Morogh, was relieved by Robert Fitz Stephens, and so aided, that he foiled his enemy; and thus good is recompenced with evill. In [Page 128] this perplexitie and doubtfull danger, Maurice Fitz Gerald full of courage, turneth him to the Earle, and the martiall men in these words: you most valiant men, wee came not into this land, neither were we procured hither to be idle, or to live deliciously, but to try fortune, and to seeke adventures; wee stood sometime upon the top of the wheele, and the game went of our side, now mee thinkes for­tune wheeles about, let us not be dismaid, for that which is low now, will be up againe, and so we must tarry and take our time; such is the mutability among the sonnes of men, the fickle and uncertaine course of humane causes, so that prosperitie and adversitie, enterchangeably doe follow the one after the other. After day, commeth the night, and when the night is passed, the day dawneth againe; the sunne ri­seth, and spreads his beames over the face of the earth, holdeth his course to his fall, passeth the night season, and riseth againe; we who before this time have made great triumphs, and had the wings of for­tune to flye withall, and are now clowded and inclosed by our ene­mies on every side, our victuals are scant, the King our Soveraigne Lord frowneth upon us, we are barred of release by sea and by land, our friends cannot helpe us, our enemies are ready to devoure us: plucke up your hearts, if God be with us, we care not who is against us; but alas my brother Fitz Stephens, whose valiantnesse, and noble enterprise brake the yce, and made way for us into this Iland, is now shut up in a weake hold, and feeble place, with wife and children, too weake and slender to keepe out so great a force. O trayterous Do­nald of Limiric, O trecherous and halfe-hearted people of Kensele and Wexford! peace is war, trust is trechery, and truth is falshood among them: why then doe we tarry, why doe we linger? is there any hope of reliefe from our native soile? no, no, the matter is now otherwise, and we our selves are presently in a worse case, for as our nation at this present is odious and hatefull unto the Irish men, so are we also mis-led with some disgrace in our country, wherefore in so much as fortune favoureth the forward and couragious, and discoura­geth the dastard and faint-hearted, while our wits are fresh, while our bodies are able, while wee are all on heart, let us give the on-set; though we are not so many in number as they are, our courage and valour is knowne to exceed theirs, they are but naked wretches, and unarmed people. Reimonà Legrosse immediately breaketh out in these speeches. My Vncle Maurice hath gravely delivered his minde, he hath pithily advised us, and prudently councelled us: this is no time to sit in councell, to spend time in speeches, or to use delayes, the danger is at hand, the enemy is at the doore, wee are compassed by sea and by land, there is no flying, we must fight it out; our provisi­on is spent, England dares releeve us no more, Ireland defieth us, the Kings Maiestie (I know) dispraiseth not our activities, and yet gra­ceth not our successes; he discommendeth not our valour, yet envieth [Page 129] all our glory, though in words he reporteth well of our service, yet in deeds secretly hindereth the course thereof; lastly, he feareth that which we meant not, and doubteth of that which we thinke not of; wherefore all doubts and delaies set apart, let us, as becometh men of our sort, try the course of fortune, and proue the force of the ene­my; let that appeare unto them which is knowne unto us; of what race we came, and of what stock wee are discended. Camber the first King of Cambria our native Country, was our Ancestor, and the sonne of that Noble Brutus, the first and sole Monarch of Brittaine, whose Ancestor was Troos, the founder of that most antient City of Troy, who descended from Dardanus the son of Iupiter, from whom is derived unto us, not onely the stemme of antient Nobility, but also a certaine naturall inclination of valiant minds, and couragious stomachs resolutely to follow all exploits of prowesse and chivalry; and shall we now like sluggarts, degenerate from so noble a race, and like a sort of Cowards, be afraid of these naked and unarmed Raskals, in whom there is no valour, by reason of knowledge or experience in Armes? Shall such a rable of savages pinne us up within the wals of little Dublin? When in times past all the Princes in Greece kept warres the space of ten yeeres and odde months, against our Ance­cestors in the famous City of Troy; and could not preuaile against them, untill they used treasons, and practised treacheries which bred unto them a more infamous victory, then a glorious Triumph? Let it never be said, that the blood of the Trojans shall be stained in our pusillanimity, and receive reproach by our peevish dastardy: Fortune, though she be pourtraied to be blind, as ever void of right judgement, and to stand upon a rolling stone, as being alwaies flitting and un­constant; yet for the most part, shee helpeth such as be of couragious minds, & valiant stomachs; you wil say, we are but a few, and the ene­my infinit in number; what then? Victory consisteth not in multi­tudes, neither conquest in numbers: Did not Thomiris the Scythian Queene, with hundreds, overthrow Cyrus with thousands, and tooke him and slew him? Did not Laomedes the Spartane encounter (ha­ving but foure thousand Souldiers) with mighty Xerxes, who brought five hundred thousand to the field, and overthrew him? Did not Alexander with a few Macedonians ouerthrew Darius, the great Monarch of Persia? Did not he take him, his wife, and daughters prisoners, and make a Conquest of Persia? Have not wee in our persons (all praise be given to God, the giver of Victory) e­ven you, right honorable Earle at Waterford, my uncle Fitz Ste­phens at Wexford, my selfe at Dondorogh with a few given many the foile; what remains, sith time shall sooner faile then matter want? let us like men shew resolute minds in this service. And to conclude, my mind then and opinion is, that we doe issue out upon them as se­cretly and as suddenly as we may, and give the onset.

[Page 132]And for so much as Roderic of Conoght, is the generall of the field, in whom lyeth the chiefest force, and on whom all the rest doe chief­ly depend, it shall be best to begin with him, and if we can giue him the overthrow, all the rest will flie, and we shall obtaine a glorious victorie; but if we shall fall into their hands and be slaine, yet shall we leave an honorable report and an immortall fame to our posteritie. He had no sooner ended his speech, but every man armed himselfe to goe forth, and give the onset: They divided the Army in three bat­tailes; and although at the first, they contended for the Vanguard, yet quickly they were accorded and marched forward. Reimond le Grosse resolutely given, with twenty Knights, and souldiers well ap­pointed, tooke the Vanguard. Miles Cogan with thirty Knights, and many a worthy warriour, kept the maine battaile. Earle Strangbow, and Maurice Fitz Gerald, with fourty Knights, Gentlemen and com­mon souldiers, took the Rereward, in every ward were placed some of the Citizens, and other some with martiall men, left at home for the guard and safety of the City: early in the morning when the enemy was unarmed & out of order, little thinking that so few within durst attempt to give the onset to so many without, they fell upon them, killed without mercy, and the rere was so forward, that they came with the Vanguard by wheeling about to the slaughter of the ene­mie. Roderic all this while trusting to his troupes and multitude of people, feared nothing, he took his ease and pleasure, and was bathing himself; but when the larum was up, & that he saw his men on every side fall to the ground, never tarried, called for man nor Page to array him, but tooke his mantle and ranne away all naked, and hardly esca­ped with life. The Britaines pursued after, and had the killing of them all that day, in the evening they returned into the Citie, not onely with the honour of the field, but rich booties, and praies of vi­ctuals, armour and other pillage, as much as man and beast could cary: Immediatly, also the rumor hereof, the other Campes were dispersed, namely, Laurence the Archbishop (whom it had beseemed better to have beene at home with his porthouse, then in Campe with rebels) Mathelan Machalem, Gillemehelmocus, Otuetol, Ororic Prince of Meath, Ocarol, alias Ocarvell Prince of Vriell, Machfalin, Ochadese, with many other great Commanders, where every man shifted for himselfe; of Gotred, alias Godfray King of Man that came by Sea, I find nothing, for upon this disaster he tooke him to the seas the next day, without any further deliberation; Miles Cogan is left to go­verne Dublin, and the Earle with his Army marched towards Wex­ford, to raise the siege at the Carreke, to relieve Robert Fitz Stephens; as he passed by Odrone, the forces of Leinster, by the conduct of Do­nole Obrene Prince of Limerik, and Donald Prince Osery set upon him, and fought a cruell fight, but he went on with the losse of one man. As he came to the borders of Wexford, certaine messengers [Page 131] met and informed him of the mischance that happened to Robert Fitz Stephens, and the firing of the Towne of Wexford; adding more­over, that the Wexfordians were fully determined, if the Earle came any further towards them, they would cut off all the heads of Fitz Stephens and all his company, and send them unto him; whereupon with heavy cheere and sorrowfull heart he changed his mind & tur­ned to Waterford. But afore I proceede any further, I am to deliver the manner of the treachery and villany shewed unto Robert Fitz Stephens: Donold of Limric, sonne in Law to Dermot Mac Morogh, while his father lived, he was one that favoured the Brittains, and not without cause; but now forgetting humanity returneth to his vomit, bends his course towards Wexford, and while other states of Ireland by East and by North, with might & maine practised the rooting out of the Brittains, he flies to the South, and raiseth Wexford, & Kensile to lay siege to the Carreke, the fort of Robert Fitz Stephens. First they begin with force, and seeing that failed them, they fall to guiles and subtilities under color of peace, pretending nothing but pure love, tender affection and safeguard of his person, and all that were with him; they bring with them two Bishops, the one of Kildare, the o­ther of Fernes, in their formall moods, with other Religious persons (O damned Prelats) and they had with them the Masse Booke, the host, with certaine Reliques; upon these they take corporall oathes, and sweare with great solemnity and protestations as followeth: (For the good will and affection wee beare unto you) whom we have alwaies found a curteous and bountifull Prince, we are to signifie un­to you this much; how that Dublin is taken, the Earle Strangbow, Maurice Fitz Girald, Reimond le Grosse, Miles Cogan, with all the En­glish are put to the sword, and now Roderic the Monarch, with all the power of Conoght and Leinster posteth hither to rase even with the ground, all the Forts, Holds, and Castles, which the English­men have, and especially to apprehend you Robert Fitz Stephens, and Willam Not, that were the forerunners into this Land of all this mis­chiefe; wherefore take this for truth and be well advised what to doe, if they take you there is no mercy; if you will put your selfe with your company and goods into our hands, in the faith of Christiani­ty we sweare we will safely transport you and yours unto Wales, so shall you not lose so much as a haire of your head; wherefore the great Army being at hand, yeeld, come forth and shippe your selfe for Wals. Robert Fitz Stephens (who would not in this case give credit) yeelded himselfe into their hands, immediatly (more like Iewes then Christians) they strippe them out of all that ever they have, they hang one, they throw another over a rocke, they breake anothers necke, one hath his eyes puld out, another hath his tongue cut, some they scourge with thongs, other some they take, and with sledges breake their Armes and thighes, the greatest kindnesse they [Page 132] shew is iron and imprisonment, the which Robert Fitz Stephens en­dured; now leaving these bloody Massacers and themselves, I will turne to Waterford after Earle Strangbow. When Earle Strangbow came to Waterford, he found there Hervie de Monte Marisco new­ly arrived out of England, with letters from the King, requiring him forthwith to repaire unto his Majesty. Strangbow together with Hervy tooke the first wind and went for England, and found the King at Newham not farre from Glocester, where he was in rea­dinesse with a great Army to saile out into Ireland, whereafter sun­dry altercations passed betweene them, at length (as they say) by meanes of Hervy, the Kings displeasure was appeased, and it was a­greed that the Earle should sweare alleageance to the King, and yeeld and surender unto him the City of Dublin, with the Cantreds there­unto adjoining, as also such Townes and Forts as were bordering upon the Sea side, and as for the residue he should have and reteine to him and his heires, holding the same of the King and his heires.

Strangbow was no sooner knowne to be in England, and Reimond at Waterford, but Ororic Monoculus, the one eyed Prince of Meath, mustred a great number of Souldiers, and laid siege to the City of Dublin. Miles Cogan the Governour withall his company (while the enemy was carelesse) upon a sudden issued out and fell upon them unawares, and made a great slaughter of them, among whom both Ororic and his sonne were slaine.

In the British Chronicles copied by Owen Cretten out of the Abbies of Conwey in North-wales, and Stratflur in South-wales, I find re­corded that when King Henry the 2. made preparation for the con­quest of Ireland, Richard Strangbow Earle of Strigale, Marshall of England, being reconciled to the King, had all his Lands in England and Normandy restored unto him againe, and thereupon the King made him Seneschall (Steward, saith he, of Ireland) Then came Rees prince of South-wales, and offred the King to further his Conquest, 300. Horses, 400. Oxen, and for performance of all services gave him 14. pledges; when they were presented the King made choice of 30. principall Horses, gave backe all the rest, confessing himselfe greatly pleasured at his hands.

Anno 1172. upon Saint Lukes day the 18. of October, Henry the 2. the 17. yeere of his raigne, the 41. of his age, entred the Haven of Waterford so writeth Cambrensis that lived then, and being landed to the harty joy of the English, and fained welcome of the I­rishmen, had by them of Wexford formerly spoken of, Robert Fitz Stephens in irons presented before him, whom the Wexfordians (herein I commend Stanihursts indifferent dealing) rather of malice & cankard spight, then for just cause, did charge with many hainous crimes. The King advisedly to pacifie the rage of furious people, for [Page 133] for the present time, committed him to prison, whence shortly after, he was with honour and credit, discharged, and advanced to his great preferment.

After that the King had a little rested himselfe, and the messengers scattered themselves with newes over the land, the Princes were a­mazed, they knew the Kings greatnesse was such, if faire meanes would not, force should constraine them, and therefore in policie re­solved themselves to yeeld allegiance, homage and fealtie. Whereup­on Dermot Mac Carty, Prince of Corke, began, became tributarie, sware faith, truth, and loyaltie to the King of England. And the King thereupon gave the kingdome of Corke to Robert Fitz Stephens and Miles Cogan as hereafter more at large shall appeare.

From Waterford the King raised his army, and marched towards Lismore, where he tarryed two daies, and from thence he marched to Cashill, not farre from the Shure, and thither came to him, Do­nald O Bren, Prince of Limric, who submitted himselfe, became tri­butarie, and swore fealty; whereupon the King as hee had formerly done with Corke, appointed a Governour for Limric: then also came in Donall, Prince of Ossorie, and Omelaghlen Ophelin, Lord of the Decies, with all the chieftaines of Mounster, submitting themselves, as others had formerly done, surrendring unto the Kings hands, their territories, and holding them againe at his pleasure. Thence the King returned to Waterford, left there his houshold, and Robert Fitz Barnard, governour of the towne, and marched with his army to­wards Dublin. In his iourney there came unto him of the chiefest commanders of the land, Omathelan, Machelan, Ophelan, O Mac Chel­weie, Gille Mac Holemoc, O tuell helly Ocathdhessy, O Caraell of Vriell, and Roric the sonne of Monoculus of Meth. But Roderic the Monarch came no neerer then the Shanon, where Hugh de lacy, and William Fitz Aldelme, by the Kings command met him, and hee desiring peace, submitted himselfe, swore allegiance, became tributarie, and did put in (as all others had done) hostages and pledges for the per­formance of the same. Thus was all Ireland, saving Vlster, brought in subjection, and every Prince of the other parties, in his owne person, saving Roderic King of Connaght, submitted himselfe: but he subtil­ly alledged, that he submitted Connaght, but not the command of all Ireland, the which he reserved for the Monarch and his successors: but of this hereafter if God permit.

Christmas drew on, which the King kept at Dublin, where hee feasted all the Princes of the land, and gave them rich and beautifull gifts, they repaired thither out of all parts of the land, and wonderfull it was to the rude people to behold the Majestie of so puissant a Prince, the pastime, the sport, and the mirth, and the continuall mu­sicke, the masking, mumming, and strange shewes, the gold, the sil­ver, and plate, the precious ornaments, the dainty dishes, furnished [Page 134] with all sorts of fish and flesh, the wines, the spices, the delicate and sumptuous banquets, the orderly service, the comely march, and seemly array of all officers: the Gentlemen, the Esquires, the Knights, and Lords in their rich attire (such as rugged Mantles and Irish Troosses were never acquainted withall) the running at Tilte in com­pleat harnesse, with barb'd horses, where the staves shivered and flew in splinters, safer to sit, then upon an Irish Pillion that playeth crosse and pile with the rider, the plaine honest people admired, and no mer­vaile: but now to more serious matters. Henry 2. having thus con­quered Ireland (with the envy of the French and forraigne Princes) without one drop of sweat, without drawing of sword, or shedding of one drop of English bloud, (as it became his Princely calling) tur­ned himselfe to reforme the state Ecclesiasticall, and the misdemea­nours of holy Church, whereof Cambrensis writeth: In the yeere of Christs incarnation 1172. and in the first yeere, when Henry the most Noble King conquered Ireland, Christianus, Bishop of Lismore, and Legate of the Apostolike See; Donatus, Archbishop of Cashill; Laure­ance, Archbishop of Dublin; and Catholi [...]us, Archbishop of Tue­mond, with their Suffragans, and fellow Bishops, Abbots, Priors, Deanes and Archdeacons, and many other Prelates of the Church of Ireland, by the commandment of the King, did assemble themselves, and kept a Synod at Cashill, and there debating many things concerning the wealth, estate, and reformation of the Church of Ireland, did pro­vide remedies for the same. At this Councell, in behalfe of the King, (whom he had sent thither) there were Raffe, Abbot of Buldeway, Raffe, Archdeacon of Landaffe, Nicholas, the Kings Chaplaine, with divers other Clerkes; sundry good statutes and wholesome lawes were there de­vised, which were after subscribed and confirmed by the King himselfe, and under his authority, which were these that follow.

First, it is decreed that all good and faithfull Christian people throughout Ireland, shall refraine and forbeare to marry with their neere kins folkes and cousins, and match with such as lawfully they might doe.

Secondly, that children shall be catechized without the Church door, and baptized in the Font appointed in the Church for the same pur­pose.

Thirdly, that every Christian doe truely and faithfully pay yeerely, the tithes of his Cattell, Corne, and all other his increase and profits, to the Church or Parish where he is a parishioner.

Fourthly, that all the Church lands and possessions throughout all Ireland, shall be free from all secular exactions and impositions, and espe­cially that no Lords, Earles, or Noble men, nor their children nor fa­mily, shall extort or take any cony and livery, cosheries or cuddies, or any other like custome from thence, forth, in or upon any of the Church land and territories; and likewise that neither they, nor any other per­son, [Page 135] doe thenceforth exact out of the said Church lands, old wicked and detestable customes of cony and livery, the which they were wont to ex­tort upon such townes and villages of the Churches, as were neere, and next bordering upon them.

Fiftly, when carik or composition is made among the laye people, for any murther, that no person of the Clergie, (though he be a kinne to a­ny of the parties) shall contribute any thing thereunto, but as they bee guiltlesse of the murther, so shall they be free from paying of money for any such release for the same.

Sixtly, that all and every good Christian, being sicke and weake, shall before the Priest and his neighbours, make his last Will and Testa­ment, and his debts and servants wages being paid, all his moveables to be divided, (if he have any children) into three parts, whereof one part to be to the Children, another to his Wife, and the third part to be for the performing of his Will; and if so be that hee have no children, then the goods to be divided into two parts, whereof the one moytie to be to his Wife, and the other to the performance of his Will and Testament. And if he have no Wife, but onely Children, then likewise the goods to be divided into two parts, whereof the one to himselfe, and the other to his children:

Seventhly, that every Christian dying in the Catholike faith, shall be reverently brought to the Church, and to bee buried, as appertai­neth.

Eightly and lastly, that all the divine Service in the Church of Ire­land, shall be kept, used, and observed in the like order and manner as it is in the Church of England; for it is meet and right, that as by Gods providence and appointment, Ireland is become now subject, and under the King of England: so the same should take from thence, the or­der, and rule, and manner how to reforme themselves, and to live in better sort.

Gelasius, Primate of Armagh, was not at this Synod, but at his comming to Dublin, hee concurred with his Collegues, and confir­med the premises. He was a man of great learning, godly life, and great age; when by reason of age, sight, and strength, and stomacke failed him, as he travailed, he had with him alwaies, a white Cow that gave him milke, and was his onely sustentation. Gilbert succee­ded this Gelasius in that See. The Antiquaries of that time have re­corded, that the winter during the Kings abode in Ireland, there rose such stormes and tempest by sea and by land, that no newes could be heard either out of England or Normandie, neither Shippe or Barke crosse the seas, untill mid-Lent, at what time with an easterly winde, there came out of England, and Aquitaine in France, newes unto the King, how that there came into Normandy in France, two Cardinals from Alexander the third, to wit, Albertus and Theodi­nus, to enquire of the death of Thomas, Archbishop of Canterbury: [Page 136] Whereupon the King sent in post before him, to signifie that he was returning with all speede, and that he would conferre with them in Normandie. And leaving Ireland, hee was very sorry that time and leisure served not to lay things in better order for the stay of the land. And also suspecting the greatnesse of Richard, Earle Strangbow, whom at that time he tooke with him into England; hee appointed to go­verne Dublin, Hugh de Lacy, to whom he had given in Fee, the ter­ritorie of Meth, with twenty Gentlemen to his Guard. Robert Fitz Stephens, and Morice Fitz Girald, with twenty others to attend their persons. Likewise he left Governours over Waterford, Humfrey de Bohune, Robert Fitz Bernard, and Hugh de Graunt devil with forty persons to their guard. Lastly, hee assigned over Wexford, William Fitz Adelme, Philip de Bruesa, and Philip de Hastings, with twenty to their guard, and tooke shipping at Wexford, Munday in Easter weeke, by sixe a clocke in the morning, with full saile, and lan­ded the same day about noone, at Saint Davids in Wales; so writeth Cambrensis in his vaticinall historie, and in his Itinerarie of Cambria. What time the King was in Ireland, there fell a great plague in his army, which was some cause of his departure from Dublin to Wex­ford. Cambrensis out of the mouth of the common people, attributeth it unto certaine Archers, cessed at Finglas, that cut downe the trees of the Church-yard, and therefore were they iustly punished, and left their bones there every one; but the British Chronicle, and Ho­linshed also, more likely to be true, affirmeth that there fell a plague a­mong the Kings souldiers in Ireland, by reason of the change of the ayre, and victuals, and concourse of people, corrupting the same.

The names of the men of account orderly as they came to the con­quest of Ireland.

  • Dermot Mac Morogh, Prince of Leinster, after his returne out of England, wintred at Fernes, expecting the comming of these Con­querours.
  • Robert Fitz Stephens, the Kings Constable at Abertivy:
  • Anno 1170.
    David Barry.
  • Hervie de Monte Marisco, married Nesta, daughter to Maurice Fitz Girald.
  • Willi [...] Nott.
  • Maurice Prendregast.
  • Meilerus.
  • Maurice Fitz Girald.
  • Reimond le Grosse, nephew to Robert Fitz Stephens, married with Basilia, the sister of Earle Strangbow.
  • William Ferrand.
  • Richard Strangbow, Earle of Penbroke.
  • Miles Cogan. brethren & nephewes to Robert Fitz Stephens, and Maurice Fitz Girald.
  • Richard Cogan. brethren & nephewes to Robert Fitz Stephens, and Maurice Fitz Girald.
  • [Page 137] Henry 2. King of England, &c.
    Anno 1172.
  • Hugh de Lacy.
  • William Fitz Adelme.
  • Raffe Abbot of Bulldewa in Normandie.
  • Raffe, Archdeacon of Landaff.
  • Nicholas, the Kings Chaplaine.
  • Humphrey de Bohune.
  • Robert Fitz Bernard.
  • Hugh de Grandevilla.
  • Philip de Brensa.
  • Philip de Hastings.
  • Silvester, Giraldus, Barry, Cambrensis.
  • Iohn Ridensford.
  • Girald. the two sonnes of Maurice Fitz Girald.
  • Alexander. the two sonnes of Maurice Fitz Girald.
  • William Makrell.
  • Philip Mercr [...]s.
  • William Morice, Fitz Girald his eldest sonne, married with Elen, sister to Earle Strangbow.
  • Griffin the sonne of William Fitz Girald the elder brother.
  • Philip Welsh.
  • Adam Herford brethren.
  • ...... Herford brethren.
  • ...... Purcell, Lievetenant of the Army, slaine by the Waterfor­dians.
  • Nich. Wallingford a Prior, afterwards Abbot of Malmesburie.
  • David Welsh, nephew to Reimund.
  • Ieffrey Welsh.
  • Reimund of Kantan.
  • Reimund Fitz Hugh.
  • Milo of Saint David.
  • Robert Poer.
  • Osbert of Hertford.
  • Willin Bend [...]ger.
  • Adam of Gernemie.
  • Hugh Tirell.
  • Iohn de Courcey.
  • Hugh Cantwell.
  • Redmond Cantimore.

Alliance of the chiefe Conquerours of Ireland.

Nesta the daughter of Rees ap Tuyder, Prince of South-Wales,

  • Loved
    • Henry the first, King of Eng­land, father to
      • Henry father to
        • Henry Fitz Henry.
        • Meiler Fitz Henry.
        • Robert Fitz Henry.
  • was maried twice,
    • 1 Steven Custos castri Abertivi.
      • Robert Fitz Stevē
        • Rafe,
        • Mered [...]cal [...]as Meredith
        • Milo.
    • 2 Gerald of Windsor.
      • Williā Fitz Girald who had is­sue,
        • Reimund le Grosse, who married Basilia, Strangbowes Sister.
        • Griffeth.
      • Mau­rice Fitz Girald
        • William married El­len, Sister to Strang­bow, Camb. or by o­thers, Alma, Daugh­ter of Strangbow.
        • Girald.
        • Alexander.
        • Nesta, married to Her­vie de monte Marisco.
        • Milo or Miles.
        • David, Bishop of Saint Davids.

[Page 139]Not long after the Kings departure out of Ireland, Ororic of Meth craved a parlee, with Hughe Delacy; pretending reformation of abuses, and establishing of perfect love and amity; but meant no­thing else, saving falshood, treason and villany: the place being ap­pointed (Cambrensis calleth it Ororics Hill, I take it to be the Hill of Taragh) and oathes taken of each side, with conditions that all armes should be laid aside, and few persons approach to the place, Ororic contrary to the covenants, laid an ambush, that upon a signe or token given by him, they should forth with issue out of the bushes, and ditches, and effect his traiterous devices: The night before the parly, Griffith the nephew of Robert and Morice, being the sonne of Wil­liam the elder brother, dreamed in his sleepe, that he saw a great heard of wild hogges, rush upon Hugh Delacy, and his uncle Maurice, and that one of them being more furious and raging then the rest, had rent them with his tuskes, and tore them in pieces, if he had not with his force rescued them, and killed the Bore: this dreame trou­bled him exceedingly, wherewith he acquainted his company; and made him and the rest be the more upon their keeping, to prevent treachery: The houre of parlee came, they met and confered toge­ther. Griffith not forgetting his dreame, made choice of seven tall men of his owne kindred, in whom he reposed great trust and confi­dence, well mounted, with swords, sparthes, and sheilds; raunged the fields (as nigh the Hill as they might) and made sundry Carreers and brave Turnaments, under pretence of recreation and pleasant pastime; yet alwaies casting an eye to the Hill, to see the end of this parlee.

Hughe Delacy and Ororic, being somewhat long together, Ororic to worke his treason, stept aside, faining to make water, upon the signe he gave his men brought him his horse, and sparth, the which he taking upon his shoulder, ment therewith to have cloven Hughe Delacy his head, if the interpreter had not stept betweene, whose arme was cleane cut off and himselfe wounded to the death.

Maurice Fitz Girald and Griffith his nephew rush in, the trai­tours of the one side, the true men of the other are together by the eares; when Ororic the traitor tooke horse to runne away, Griffith with his launce runne him through, and killed him and his horse and three of his men, cut off his head and sent it to the King of England: this was the end of Orirics treason, and the effect of Griffiths dreame.

Immediatly upon this, Earle Richard (being formerly upon re­conciliation made with the King, appointed Seneschall of Ireland) is now sent out of Normandy, by especially commission from the King, with Reimondle grosse his brother in Law, in joint commission to governe the whole land, & to be his Lieutenant in Ireland; where he found the Irish saith Cambrensis, constant in inconstancy, firme in [Page 140] wavering, and faithfull in untruthes: he found emulation betweene Hervy and Reimond, and the Army in a mutiny, for lacke of pay at Herveies hands; whereupon he made Reimond Lievetenant of the forces. Reimond immediatly mustred his men, drew them forth to the Decies among the Rebels, where they preyed and spoiled. Se­condly, they marched to Lismore, where they did the like. Lastly, along the Sea cost, they goe with their booties, preyes and rich pil­lage towards Waterford; and finding at Dunganan some thirteene botes out of Waterford and other places, they lade them with their preys, intending by water to saile for Waterford; while they waited for wind, Corke men envyed their successe; prepared 32. Barks, manned and furnished them out out of their Towne, to overthrow Reimond and the English men, and to recover the preyes; they met, they fought cruelly; Corke men are overthrowne, and their Captain Gilbert Mac Turger was slaine, by a valiant Knight Philip Welsh, and finally Adam Herford with all his charge, safely arrived in Water­ford. Reimond was not at this skirmish, but by the way he met with Dermot Mac Corty Prince of Desmond, who with great power was come to the aid of the men of Corke. They likewise skrimished and fell to a cruell fight, where Dermot forsooke the field with small cre­dit, and Reimond went to Waterford with foure thousand head of cattell.

Immediatly upon this, newes came out of England unto Reimond, that William Fitz Girald his father, was departed this life; where­upon he sailed to Wales, and Hervey De monte Marisco was appoin­ted by the Earle, Lieutenant of the forces. This Hervey to advance his credit, purposed to worke some exploits, and drew out of Dublin the Earle to Cashil; there also after consultation by mandat from the Earle, he appointed the Souldiers that were at Dublin to meet him: When they came as farre as Ossorie, Donald Prince of Limirik, ha­ving by his espials before hand intelligence thereof, stole upon them in the morning; slue of them foure Knights, whereof O Grame an Irish man was one, and foure hundred souldiers; with this the Earle was discouraged, and went to Waterford; the Irish gathered heart and determined to roote out al the Englishmen. So that Roderic Prince of Conoght tooke this opportunity, passed the Shannan, and wasted all to the walles of Dublin. The Earle being in this perplexity wrote unto Reimond, that was in Wales. As soone as you have read those our letters, make all the haste you can to come away, and bring with you all the helpe and force you can make, and then accor­ding to your own will and desire, you shall assuredly enjoy that which you long looked for. Immediatly he prepared himselfe, together with his cousin Meilerius; shipped 30. young Gentlemen of his own kindred. 100. horsemen, with 300. archers & foot, of the best & chosen men of all Wales; and in 20. Barkes arrived in Waterford: It was at such time [Page 141] as the Waterford men had determined to kill every English man within the walles; but when they saw the Barkes come in with flags, and banners displaid, they were astonied, and staid their course.

Reimond entreth the towne of Wexford, setteth all in order, taketh the Earle with him, and all their forces, and went to Wexford; hee had left behinde him one Purcell his Lievetenant to guard the town, whom the Waterfordians slue, and put to the sword, of English birth, man, woman and childe; but such as had fled to Reynolds towre, plagued them sore afterwards, drove them to intreate for peace, the which they obtained with hard conditions: And, saith the booke of Houth, the Waterfordians were ever after the lesse beleeved. For all the troubles in England and Normandie, and these treasons and rebellions in Ireland, the King was not unmindefull to quiet the people, and to establish himselfe and his heires in the kingdome; first, he sent Embassadors to Rome to cleere himselfe of the death of Tho­mas of Canterbury: secondly, he sent messengers thither concerning the state of Ireland, whereunto Alexander the third, answered as fol­loweth, Alexander the Bishop, the servant of the servants of God, to his dearely beloved sonne, the Noble King of England, greeting, grace and Apostolike benediction. Forasmuch as things given and granted upon good reason, by our predecessors, are to be well allowed of, rati­fied and confirmed; wee well considering and pondering the graunt and priviledge for and concerning the dominion of the land of Ire­land to us appertaining, and lately given by Adrian our predecessor; we following his steps, doe in like manner confirme, ratifie and al­low the same, reserving and saving to Saint Peter, and to the Church of Rome, the yeerely pension of one penny out of every house, as well in England, as in Ireland; provided also that the barbarous peo­ple of Ireland by your meanes be reformed and recovered from that filthy life, and abhominable conversation; that as in name, so in life and manners they may be Christians; and that as that rude and dis­ordered Church, being by you reformed, the whole nation may also, with the profession of the name, be in acts and deeds, followers of the same. And saith the booke of Houth, Alexander the third be­sought the devill to take them all that gainesayed this Kings title, Amen. Henry 2. sent this priviledge to Ireland by Nicholas Walling­ford, a Prior, afterwards Abbot of Malmesbury, and William Fitz Adelme. And then being at Waterford, they caused an assembly, and a Synod of the Bishops and Clergie within the land to be gathered to­gether, where, in open audience, this priviledge of Alexander, and the other of Adrian (formerly spoken of) were read, and published, and ratified. Reimond having setled his affaires at Wexford, marched towards Dublin, the noyse of his comming drave Roderic the rebell of Connaght away; he was no sooner come to Dublin, but the newes of the rebellion of Limric followed after, where Donald O bren [Page 142] having sworne faith and fealty unto Henry 2. is now revolted and turned to his vomit. Reymond maketh preparation, mustereth his men, chose out 26. gallants, 300. horsemen, and 300. Archers, and foote, and commeth to Lymeric, where he found the Bridges drawn, the river swift and impassable, the townesmen upon the walls, with all manner of defence for their safeguard. David Welsh, a lusty Gen­tleman, maketh no more adoe, but putteth spurres to his horse, and with good guiding thereof, crosseth the river, and got to land; imme­diately he calleth to his company, come, I have found a Ford: yet for all that, none would follow, but Ieffery Welsh, and Meilerius Fitz Henry. Then Reimond turneth him to the army with these words: You worthy men, who of nature are valiant, and whose Prowesse we have well tryed, come away, the way heretofore not knowne, and the river hitherto thought not passable, by our adventures, a foord is now found therein; let us therefore follow him that is gone before, and helpe him being now in distresse; let us not suffer nor see so worthy a Gentle­man thus for our common cause and honour, oppressed, to perish, and to be cast away before our eyes, and in our sight, for want of our help, and by meanes of our dastard cowardize. It is no time to use many words, the shortnesse of the time, the present necessitie of this Noble Gentleman, and the state of our own honour, urgeth expedition, and requireth haste. And even with the words, he put spurres to his horse, and adventu­reth the river, after whom, followed the whole company, every one striving who might be formost. And as God would, they passed all o­ver safe, saving two souldiers, and one Gwydo a Gentleman: when they had recovered land, the enemy fled, whom they pursued, and in the chase slue a number of them, they entred the towne, got great spoyles and riches, but greater honour and fame. When all was quiet, Reimond left there a strong Garrison, and Miles of Saint Davids, Lievetenant over them, and returned to the borders of Leinster.

Envy hardly sleepeth, but is still devising of mischiefe; Hervie de monte Marisco, though now by marriage allyed unto Reymond, yet by malice worketh his overthrow, enuying his honour and prosperous successe, sendeth secret letters to the King against him, which are not worthy to be recorded, being but the sinke of secret malice. The King, (as the nature of Princes is to be jealous and suspitious of any great­nesse) is easily brought to credit Hervie, and thereupon sendeth foure of his servants to Ireland, Robert Poer, Osbert of Herlotte, or Here­ford, William Bendeger, and Adam of Gernemie; two of them to stay with Earle Richard, and the other two to bring Reimond away with them; as Reymond was ready to goe for England, newes came that Donald, Prince of Lymeric had besieged the towne, and that the gar­rison was greatly distressed, and in want of victuals: the Earle, with Reimond and the foure Gentlemen, fell to consultation, what course to hold; they found in the army a secret mutiny, where the souldiers [Page 143] said flatly, they would not serve that way, unlesse Reimond were their Captaine; to be short, it was concluded that Reimond should under­take the service; when he had mustered and made choice of horse and foot, he marched towards Lymeric: Donald, Prince of Ossory, who bore private grudge to Donald of Lymeric, Morogh of Kencile, with other Irish men, then served and attended upon Reimond. By the way a Post came, and certified Reimond, that Donald of Lymeric had raised his siege, and was come to the pace of Cashill to give him bat­taile; this pace of it selfe was naturally very strong, but by trench­ing, and hedging, and plashing of trees, it seemed invincible. When of each side they were ready to joyne battaile, Donald, Prince of Os­sory being desirous to see his enemy of Lymeric and Thomond o­verthrowne, turneth him to the English men with these words: You worthy▪ Noble, and valiant Conquerours of this land, you are this day valiantly to give the onset upon your enemies, which if you doe af­ter your old and accustomed manner, no doubt the victory will be yours; for we with our sparthes, and you with your swords, will sharpely pur­sue them, as they shall very hardly escape our hands, & avoid our force, but if it so fall out (which God forbid) that you be overthrowne, and hove the worse side, be you assured that wee will leave you, and turne to our enemies, and take part with them. Wherefore be of good courage, and looke well to your selves, and consider that you are now farre from any Fort or place of refuge, and therefore if you should be driven to flye, the same will be long and dangerous unto you. As for us, ye may not trust to us, for we determine to sticke to them who shall have the victo­ry, and will pursue and be on the jackes of them who shall flye and runne away: and therefore be no longer assured of us, then whilst yee be Con­querours: Meilerius, who had the foreward, being somewhat mo­ved and warmed with those words, suddenly, like a blast of winde, entred the Passe, pulled away the bushes, brake downe the hedges, the Pioners filled the trenches, and speedily made plaine the way, with no small slaughter of the enemies, and so they marched with­out any great perill to Lymeric, where they releeved the army, and set things in order, and rested a short time. Roderic of Connaght, and Donald of Thomond finding themselves weake, craved a parlee, it was granted them: Roderic would needs keepe on the water, and Do­nald kept the wood. Who would trust them that would trust no o­ther? Reimond chose the midst betweene them both; to be short, a peace was concluded, they both submitted themselves, gave hosta­ges, made fealtie, and swore to be true thenceforth for ever to the King of England, and to his successors after him. This service was no sooner performed, but there came messengers to Reimond from Der­mot Mac Carty Prince of Desmond, humbly craving his aide, against his eldest son Cormac O Lechan, who was in armes against his natural father: with the advice of his Councell; Reimond granteth aide, hee [Page 144] marcheth towards Corke and subdueth the rebell, the sonne dissem­bleth with the father and clapt him in prison: the father requiteth the sonne with like: he got him in under colour of peace, clapt him in pri­son and cut off his head.

And not long after, saith Cambrensis, the men of Corke at a parlee not farre from the Towne, slew their Prince Dermot Mac Carty, and most of his company.

Anno 1177. (so writeth Holinshed) Henry the 2. held a Parlia­ment at Windsore, where Laurence Archbishop of Dublin was pre­sent; as what time Roderic King of Conoght sent thither the Arch­bishop of Tuam, the Abbot of Saint Brandon, with one Laurence his Chaplen; offring all submission and loyalty. The King wil­lingly heard them, and gladly concluded a Peace at the importunate suit of his Messengers to avoid further trouble; injoyning Roderic to pay him in token of subjection, a tribute of Cow hides, the Charter of agreement was drawne and subscribed as follow­eth.

A Charter of agreement be­tweene Henry 2. K [...]ng of En­gland, and Ro­deric King of Connoght. Hic est finis & concordia quae facta fuit apud Windesore, in Octabis Sancti Michaelis, Anno gratiae 1175. Inter Dominum Regem Angliae Henricum secundum; & Rodericum Regem Conaciae, per Catholicum Tuamensem Archepiscopum & Abbatem C. Sancti Brandani, & Magistrum Laurentium Cancellarium Regis Conaciae.

1. Scilicet quod Rex Angliae concedit predicto Roderico Ligio homini suo Regnum Conaciae quamdiu ei fideliter serviet, vt sit Rex sub eo, paratus ad servitiū suū, sicut homo suus & ut teneat terrā suam, ita bene & in pace sicut tenuit antequam Dominus Rex Angliae intra­ret Hiberniam; reddendo ei tributum: & totam illam terram & ha­bitatores terrae habeat sub se, & justiciae ut tributum Regi Angliae inte­grè persolvant, & per manum ejus sua jura sibi conservent, & illi qui modo tenent, teneant in pace, quam diu mansuerint in fidelitate Regis Angliae, & fideliter & integre persolverint tributum & alia jura sua quae ei deben [...], per manum Regis Conaciae, salvo in omnibus jure & honore Domini Regis Angliae & suo.

2. Et si qui ex eis Regi Angliae, & ei rebelles fuerint, & tribu­tum & alia jura Regis Angliae, per manum ejus solvere noluerint, & a fidelitate Regis Angliae recesserint, ipse eos justitiet & amoveat, & si eos perse justitiare non poterit; Constabularius Regis Angliae & fa­milia sua de terra illa juvabunt cum ad hoc faciendum, quum ab ipso fuerint requisiti, & ipsi viderint quod necesse fuerit, & propter hunc finem reddet predictus Rex Conaciae Domino Regi Angliae tributum singulis annis; scilicet, de singulis decem animalibus, unum co [...]ium placabile mercatoribus, tam de tota terra sua quam de aliena.

3. Excepto quod de terris illis quas Dominus Rex Angliae retinuit in dominio suo, & in dominio Baronum suorum nihil se intromittet: Scilicet Duvelina cum pertinentijs suis, & Midia cum omnibus perti­nentijs [Page 145] suis, sicut unquā Murchart Wamai Leth Lachlin, eam melius & plenius tenuet, aut aliqui qui eam de eo tenuerint. Et excepta Weseford­ia cum omnibus pertinentijs suis, scilicet cum tota Lagenia, & excepta Waterf. cum tota terra illa quae est a Waterf. usque ad Dungarvan; ita ut Dungarvan sit cum omnibus pertinentijs suis, infra terram illam.

4. Et si Hibernenses illi qui aufugerint redire voluerint ad ter­ram Baronum Regis Angliae, redeant in pace reddendo tributum predi­ctum quod alij reddunt, vel faciendo antiqua servitia quae facere sole­bant pro terris suis, et hoc sit in arbitrio Dominorum suorum, et si aliqui eorum redire noluerint, Domini eorum et Rex Conaciae accipiat obsides, ad omnibus quos ei Cōmisit Dominus Rex Angliae ad volunta­tem Domini Regis et suam, et ipse dabit obsides ad voluntatem Domini Regis Angliae illos vel alios, et ipsi servient Domino de Canibus et Avibus suis singulis annis de presentis suis, et nullum omnino de qua­cunque terra Regis sit, retinebunt contra voluntatem Domini Regis. Hijs testibus Richardo Episcopo Wintoniae, Gaufrido Episcopo Eliensi, Laurentio Duvelinensi Archepiscopo, Gaufrido, Nicolao, et Ro­gero Capelanis Regis, Guilelmo Comit. Essex, et aliis multis.

Moreover at that Parliament, the King gave an Irishman named Augustine, the Bishopricke of Waterford, which was then voyd, and sent him unto Ireland, with Laurence the Archbishop of Dublin, to be consecrated of Donatus Archbishop of Cashill.

Anno 1176. Bertran de Verdon founded the Monastery of Cro­kisdan. As Reimond marcheth towards Leinster, newes came unto him from the Lady Basilia his wife, that Strangbow was dead, the which hee concealed with good countenance; and called a secret councell of the wiser sort and trustiest friends, how to dispose of the State of the Land, afore the Irish were acquainted therewith: it was agreed upon for that the enemy were many, the forces but few, they should strengthen all their holds upon the Sea cost untill the K. plea­sure were further knowne, and withdraw the midland garrisons to supply and compleat the same. And among others they thought good to take the garrison out of Lymerik and deliver the Towne to the charge of Donald Obrien of Thomond Prince of Lymericke; he being sent for, came in poast, understanding Reimonds pleasure, was the gladdest man that might bee, and undertooke the charge, Viz. to keepe the Towne to the Kings use, and at his pleasure to re-deliver it, as also in the meane time to keepe the peace: this he under­tooke with Corporall oathes, and solemne vowes; and thereupon delivered hostages. But the Englishmen were no sooner over the one end of the Bridge, but Donald broke the other end, and set fire in the foure quarters of the Towne, saying there shall no English race rest here any longer: This they beheld with their eyes, to their no small griefe of mind. Cambrensis inveyeth against this Donald Obrien cal­ling him traitour, wicked, impudent, perfidious, perjured and what [Page 158] not? This was in Anno one thousand, one hundred, seventy seven.

Earle Strangbow left behinde, one daughter of tender yeeres, and lyeth buried in the Church of the blessed Trinity in Dublin, over a­gainst the Pulpit, in the body of the Church, whose exequies, Lau­rence O Toole, Archbishop of Dublin did solemnize with great reve­rence; whereupon the King sent into Ireland, William Fitz Adelme to be his Lievetenant, with the allowance of twenty Gentlemen of his houshold, and joyned with him in commission, Iohn de Courcy, with the allowance of tenne men to attend his person. Robert Fitz Stephens, and Miles Cogan, who had nobly served him in his wars two yeers, with the allowance of twenty men to attend their persons; at which time, saith Holinshed, the Irish men paid the King a tribute of twelve pence yeerely for every house, or else for every yoke of Ox­en, (alias plow) which they had of their owne.

Richard, surnamed Strangbow, had to his father, Gilbert, likewise surnamed Strangbow, for his valour & strength; this Gilbert was E. of Ogye in Normandie, & Lord of Totenhā, Alverdiston, & Wolaston in England, so created by Henry 1. William the son of Osbert, a Nor­man, E. of Ogie in Normandie, had issue, Richard, E. of Ogie, this Ri­chard had issue Walter & Gilbert, aforesaid father to Richard E. Strang­bow; William Fitz Osbert came into England in the ayde of William the Conquerour. And as far as I can learn, Walter was the first Earle of Penbroke (the Britaines call it Penbraich More, the head of an arme of the sea) whence both the Countie, and the most noble Earldome have their denominations. Arnulph de monte Gomerik, the yonger sonne of Roger de montegomerik, that was by William the Conque­rour created Earle of Arundell and Shrewsbury, builded the Castle of Penbroke, where Henry the seventh was borne; William the Con­querour gave him Divet and Cardigan, hee was Earle of Ogie, and the second Earle of Penbroke, and married the daughter (by the mediation of Girald de Windsore, Constable of his Castle) of Mo­rogh, King of Leinster in Ireland. Gilbert, surnamed Strangbow, was created by King Stephen, the third Earle of Penbroke, hee was Earle of Ogie in Normandie, Lord of Totenham, Alverdiston, Wolaston, and Cardigan, and in England succeeded Arnulph. Henry the first made him Earle of Strigule, now called Chepstow, and gave him Cardigan; this Gilbert builded Castrogie, alias Castrum Ogie, in Gwent, and the Castle of Stratmirike.

Richard, surnamed Strangbow, succeeded his father Gilbert; his stile as I take it is thus. Richard, surnamed Strangbow, Lord of To­tenham, Alverdiston, Wolaston, and Cardigan; in England, Earle of Penbroke, Earle of Strigule, alias Domonius de Chepstow in Eng­land, Earle of Ogie in Normandie, Earle of Leicester, Earle Marshall of England, Vicegerent of Normandie, Lord Lievetenant of Ireland, and Prince of Leinster in the right of Eva his wife, sole heire of Dermot Mac Morogh, King of Leinster.

[Page 147]This Richard had issue by his first wife, a sonne, a fine youth, and a gallant stripling, who following his father with some charge in bat­taile array, as he passed by Idrone in Leinster, to relieve Robert Fitz Stephens in Wexford, upon the sight and cry of the Irish men, when his father was in cruell fight, gave backe with his company, to the great discouragement of the host, yet the Earle got the victory, and commanded with the teares in his cheekes, that his sonne should be cut in the middle with a sword for his cowardize in battaile; he was buried in the Church of the blessed Trinitie in Dublin, where now his father resteth by his side, and caused the cause of his death for an Epitaph to be set over him.

Nate ingrate mihi pugnanti terga dedisti,
Non mihi, sed genti & regno quoque terga dedisti.
My sonne unkinde didst flye the field, the father fighting hard,
Nor me, nor English birth didst weigh, nor kingdome didst regard.

How the sonne pleaded with his father for the place of service, and how the father answered, Stanihurst hath many circumstances here­of, and delivered, that his owne father in his fury, and in the face of the enemy, cut him off, and marvaileth that Cambrensis would con­ceale it, and in the end taketh it as a matter of truth, both by the te­stimony of the Tombe in Christ Church, as also by the industry of Sir Henry Sidney, Knight, a great favourer of Antiquities, in preser­ving the same, to the knowledge of the posterity.

Richard Earle Strangbow by his second wife Eva, the daughter of Dermot Mac Morogh, had issue, one daughter, Isabell, whom Richard the first gave in marriage to William Maxfield, Lord Maxfield, Earle Marshall of England, of whom (God willing) I shall have occasion to speake further, when I come to his time.

The same yeere that Strangbow dyed, viz. 1177. (so Holinshed writeth) Iohn de Courcy entred Vlster, discomfited the Irish, and wanne the Citie of Dune, where the body of Saint Patricke, Saint Colme, and Saint Brigide the Virgin rests, whom Courcy calleth tria jocalia Hiberniae, the three jewels of Ireland. At the winning of Dune, Roderic King of Connaght, and Monarch of Ireland, (at severall times before sworne to the King) raised a mighty army against Cour­cy, where Roderic was overthrowne, and the Bishop of Dune taken prisoner among other rebels; the which Bishop, at the request of Cardinall Vinian (then present) was set at liberty. This Cardinall, saith mine Author, intitled Sancti Stephani de monte Celio, was sent from Alexander 3. and comming into England without licence, was pardoned by Henry 2. and permitted to goe into Scotland, and the north parts, where his commission directed him; when he had ended [Page 148] his businesse in Scotland, he passed over into Man, where he held his Christmas with Gotred, King of Man, and after the Epiphanie, sailed from thence into Ireland, and came thither (saith Newbrigiensis) the same time that the English men invaded the country, and was enter­tained by Roderic, and the Bishop of Dune, and others, with great reverence.

The Irish men aske councell of Vivian the Legate, what in that case he thought best to be done, whether they should fight, or yeeld unto the English nation; he gave counsell, forgetting what Adrian 4. and Alexander 3. had formerly granted and said, fight in defence of your country. This Legate (craftily preventing all mishaps) took the Church of Dune for his sanctuary, and had in readinesse the Popes commission, and the King of Englands Passe unto the Captaines of Ireland for his safe conduct: From thence he went to Dublin, called the Prelates, held a councell, and filled his bagges with the sinnes of the people; the English Captaines understanding of it, gave him in charge, either to depart the land, or to goe to the warres, and serve for pay with them, and no longer to receive money for nought.

In the booke of Howth it is further alledged, how that this Legate in his Synod at Dublin (whether it were to curry favour with the English men, and to colour his other pranckes, it forceth not greatly) shewed and published openly the King of Englands right to Ireland, with the Popes grant and confirmation, and accursed all those that gainesaid the same.

Now to the true history of Sir Iohn de Courcy, as worthy a Knight for martiall prowesse, as ever trode upon Irish ground, whom Cam­brensis lightly overskipped, partly upon private grudge, for that Sir Iohn de Courcy allowed him not for Vicar generall in Ireland, and Se­cretary to the State, partly in favour of Sir Hugh Delacy, who malig­ned and envied the honor and renowne, and prosperous successes of Courcy; lastly for feare of King Iohn, into whose displeasure Courcy fell, through the false accusation of Lacy and his faction, yet the cer­tainty of his exploits hath beene preserved, and in Latine committed to Paper by a Fryer in the North, the which booke Oneil brought to A [...]magh, and was translated into English by ..... Dowdall, Primate there, Anno 1551. He was by father a Norman, by mother a Cambri­an or Britaine, and married the daughter of Gotred, King of Man; he was a Gentleman descended, as it seemeth by his coate, of an antient house, of whom the Irish men hold that Merlin prophecied, where he wrote: A white Knight sitting on a white horse, bearing birds in his shield, shall be the first which with force of Armes, shall enter and subdue Vlster.

He served King Henry the second in all his warres, and in France he met with a worthy Knight, Sir Amoricus Tristeram, who mar­ried Courcy his sister, and whether it was derived of the Ladies name, [Page 149] or for that they were married on Saint Laurence day, ever after hee and his posterity after him, was called Sir Amoricus de Sancto Lau­rentio, whence the Noble house of Howth is lineally discended, wher­of hereafter in another place more at large. These two Knights be­came sworne brethren in the Church of our Lady at Roane; where solemnely they vowed to serve together, to live and dye together and equally to devide betweene them what they wanne by the sword, or should be given them in regard of their service: Thus they conti­nued in France, Anjou, Normandy, and England; and when Sir Iohn de Courcy was joyned in commission with William Burgh Fitz Adelme and others; Sir Amoricus de Sancte Laurentia, accompanied him into Ireland, where Courcy receaved a graunt of the King, by Patent for him and his heires or assignes after him, to enjoy in that Land all that he could Conquer with the sword, reserving to the King homage and fealty; they landed at Houth and there fought a cruell fight by the side of a Bridge, where Sir Iohn de Courcy being sickly, taried abord the shippe. Sir Amoricus being Chiftaine and Generall of the field by land▪ behaved himselfe most worthily; many were slaine on both sides, but Sir Amoricus got the victory, with the lose of seven of his owne blood, sonnes, uncles and nephewes, wher­upon for his singular valour and good service there performed, that Lordship was allotted unto him for his part of the conquest, with o­ther things which Sir Iohn de Courcy gave him. Immediatly, Sir Iohn de Courcy, Sir Amoricus de Saint Laurence, and Sir Roger Hoer, so well appointed as then contented them, directed their course to­wards the North; the principall cause that moved them (besides their valour) was the hard government of William Fitz Adelme, Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, whose conditions Cambrensis who then lived and was conversant with him, delivereth in this sort. He was co­vetous, proud, malicious, envious, a favorite of wine and women and good to none, but to his back and belly: and by his backe he un­derstood his kindred, and by his belly he ment his children, for he op­posed himselfe, most enviously against the Garraldins, Fitz Stephens and Barries, the first most valiant Conquerors of the Land, and a­gainst their posterity, &c.

While Courcy is on his way, give me leave, gentle Reader, to e­ternise the Memoriall of Maurice Fitz Gerald: As he was of birth and parentage nobly and worshiply discended, so was he in conditi­on and for martiall prowesse every way renowned. Cambrensis his kinsman commendeth him greatly and no lesse then he deserved. He left this world to the great griefe of all the true harts in Ireland, and lieth buried in the Monastery of grey Friers without the wales of Wexford, his ..... sonnes whom William Fitz Adelme maligned, builded the Castle of Fernes. In his time, (saith Cambrensis) at Wir­lo, where Maurice Fitz Girald dwelled, there was a Monster, begotten [Page 150] by a wicked man of that nation upon a Cow, a vice (saith he) at that time too common among that nation. It had the body of a man, but all the hinder parts of an oxe, from the anckles of the legges, and the wrists of the armes, he had the hoofes of an oxe; his head was all bald saving a few small and thinne haires; his eyes, great, round, and blacke like an Oxe; nose he had none, but two holes; speake hee could not, but onely bellow like a Cow: this Monster did daily resort to the house of Maurice Fitz Girald about dinner time, and such meat as was given him, he tooke it in his hoofes, and put it to his mouth, and so fed himselfe. Diviners in those daies construed this of the govern­ment of Fitz Adelme, the which in their opinion was monstrous, but there I leave, and returne to Courcy.

Iohn de Courcy after foure dayes, some miles come to Daud with­out resistance, and unlooked for, contrary to all mens expectation, the which in a word hath beene spoken of before: strange it is to see what a sudden feare will worke. Dunlenus, (whom I take to be O Do­nell) no base nor meane Commander of that place, fled away, left armes, men and munition behinde, happy was hee (in his owne opi­nion) that he had escaped the hands, he wist not of what enemy; the trumpets sounded, the armour ratled, the women clapt their hands, the children cryed, the townesmen to goe, the leaders entred, the soul­diers ryfled, the towne upon a sodaine was ransacked, doores, win­dowes, cupboards, chests flew open, the army after long march, and sore travaile, being in great want and weakenesse, had their housing, firing, dyet, and fare of the best, bedding, cloathing, gold, silver, plate, and rich booties, without checke or controulement of any, and re­spite for certaine daies to breath, rest, and recreate themselves. In the necke of this out of Scotland, the winde blew one Vinianus a Cardi­nall (spoken of before) which tooke upon him to intreate a peace betweene the two nations, but could not prevaile. After eight dayes, Roderic the Monarch, and O Donnell, King of Duune, had mustred their men, gathered forces, gotten great ayde, and prepared an hoast of tenne thousand fighting men, and came to besiege the City. Sir Iohn de Courcy, having but seven hundred, thought best not to bee cooped within, nor caged like a Bird, prepared to give them battaile abroad, marched forth, and ordered his army as followeth; he divi­ded his men into three companies, the horsemen being seven score, were set in a winge on the left hand, under the leading of Sir Amori­cus de Saint Laurantio, every horseman having a bowman behinde him. On the right hand, Sir Roger Poer, who had married Sir A­moricus Neece, led the foot company, close by a bogge side, in the midst came Sir Iohn de Courcy, with his company; the way was nar­row where they should encounter, and the English men had the vantage of a great hedge and ditch of the one hand, and a bogge on the other to gall the enemies horses, where no horse could enter [Page 151] within them. Odonell seeing the Horsmen to be but a few, comman­ded his foot and maine battaile to make a stand untill hee sent them word to march on, meaning to make short worke with the Horse­men, and so to breake the necke of the strength of the battaile; the Horsemen joyne battaile, the Archers gall Odonels horses with arrowes, whom the English launce slew not, the horse unsadled, and when the English quiver was empty, the archer with his sword haught the horses and dispatched the men that were unhorsed and cast to the ground. Odonels horsemen being somewhat discomfited retired, Sir Amoricus cals upon Courcy and Poer, to bring on the foote, who metting with the foote and maine battaile of the Irish (that expected newes from Odonell) fought most fiercely: No instrument of Warre could be heard, the cry of both sides pierced the clouds, the gald hor­ses grievously complained, the maimed souldiers groueling on the ground and gasping for breath gave pittifull groanes; the Irish flang darts and stones, the English shoote arrowes, the Irish with sparthes and galloglasse axes, the English with speares and swords encounter on both sides most valiantly; the splints of brokē staves fly about their eares, and eyes, sparkles of fire from their swords and targets, and the blowes upon their helmets yeelded the sound of hammers working upon anviles, both sides deserved honor and singular commenda­tions; the slaughter was great on both sides, and continued long; many of the English were slaine, and a number of the Irish were left alive, they determined to make an end of the English that day; the rere of the Irish march couragiously, the English had the bog of the one side, and the ditch of the other, and the entrance to them was ful of heads, legs, and armes, dead corps, armor and horses dead, and lying a long striving with death, that they could not approch, where­upon they broke their battaile aray, dispersed themselves, and from the paces entred the plaines. Sir Amoric watching his opportunity, called Ieffrey Montgomery his sisters sonne and standard bearer, and said: Have not we quitted our selves like men this day, and shall wee dishonour the field so much as to suffer yonder company to escape our hands; come, advance your Standard, let us wheele about and give the on-set: Montgomery replied, it seemes strange unto mee, to see your stomach passe your strength, we have wonne honour advisedly, and shall we now rashly lose it? of seven score, we have but forty horses left, the rest are wounded, tired and not fit for service: then said Amorich give me the Standard, I will beare it my selfe; if that be your pleasure (saith Mountgomery) you shall not heareafter charge me with cowardise, under this Standard have I got honour, and under this Standard (if God so so please) I will dye. With this they wheeled about and overtooke the foot of the Irish, being loden with armes, and wearied with fight, with their launces they strooke them to the ground, they gave the on-set a fresh upon the horsemen which were about 200. and had [Page 152] Connor O Laghlin to their leader, who retreated in battaile array, rea­dy to answer the fight. Sir Amoricus in that skirmish was twice vn­horsed, and by his men lift up againe, afterwards in a filthy foord he was unhorsed againe, and his horse slaine under him: whereupon some of his troope lighted, stood very stoutly by him, tooke wea­pons out of the dead mens hands that lay along the way, & kept the Foord from horse and man, untill Sir Iohn de Courcy came to the res­cue, at which time many of the Irish were slaine, and the rest fled a­way: thus in the end God gave the victory unto the English men, af­ter the losse of many a brave man, and especially Lyonell Saint Lau­rence, nephew to Amoricus, whose death was greatly lamented. When they had buried their dead, and gathered their armes, they re­turned to Dune.

The Midsummer following, Courcy fought the second battaile nigh the walles of Dune (saith Stanihurst) and overthrew fifteene thousand men in Vlster. And saith the booke of Houth, after that field, Vlster men had small stomacke to give any onset upon the En­glish men: yet I finde the field to have beene bloudy of both sides, and that Sir Amoricus was sore wounded, laid under a hedge, eating hony suckles for his reliefe, where he left much bloud, and was carri­ed away betweene foure men; his wounds were so many, and so dan­gerous, that no Physitian or Surgeon could promise life the space of nine dayes, yet in the end, recovered. Next unto him was his sonne Sir Nicholas Saint Laurence, a most valiant Knight so sore wounded in nine severall places, that he was once left for dead, but at length re­covered, to the great comfort of his friends.

The third battaile that Sir Iohn de Courcy fought, was in Ferng, a­gainst eleaven thousand Irish men: the occasion was thus, Courcy had builded many Castles throughout Vlster, and especially in Fern, where Mac Mahon dwelled; this Mac Mahon with solemne protesta­tions vowed to become a true and faithfull subiect, gave Courcy ma­ny gifts, and made him his Goship, which is a league of amitie high­ly esteemed in Ireland. Whereupon Courcy gave him two Castles with their demeanes to hold of him. Within one moneth after, this Mac Mahon returning to his vomit, brake downe the Castles, and made them even with the ground. Sir Iohn de Courcy sent unto him to know the cause that moved him to fall to this villanie: his answer was, that he promised not to hold stones of him, but the land, and that it was contrary to his nature, to couch himselfe within cold stones, the woods being so nigh, where he might better warme him­selfe, with other slender and scornefull answers. Courcy to be reven­ged of him, saw no better course then to prey his country, mustred his men, entred the land, and swept all the cattell before him. The prey was so great, that it could not be driven, unlesse it were devided into three parts, and to that end, this company in like sort was pro­portioned [Page 153] betweene the foremost of the voward, and the last of the rereward, there was three miles distance; the paces were narrow, the way miry and boggy, with thicke bushes on either side, the Irish be­ing (as I said before) eleven thousand in number, stood upon all ad­vantages, had their espials upon them, divided themselves likewise, and stept in betweene every of the English companies, and upon a sudden, made such a cry, and gave such a shout, that the woods rang thereof, and the Cowes ranne like divels upon the drivers, and over­threw horse and man, so that there were more slaine and trode under foot in the mire and dirt, of the English men, by the Cowes, then by the sword of the rebels. Vpon this cry, all the Cowes were lost, and the men fell to blowes, where the Irish being acquainted with every blinde way, made better shift then the English. Courcy and his bro­ther Amoricus, with such as were alive, hastened out of the woods, and came to a Plaine, where they viewed each other some quarter of a mile distant. Sir Amoric turned backe, and cast up his eyes, and saw Sir Roger Poer that had married his Neece, about a sevenight before, pulled and halled by the Irish, and carried away prisoner; follow me, saith he unto his company, I will rescue him, or I will dye on the place; he suddenly comming upon their heeles, set upon them, and carried away Sir Roger Poer; with that, the Irish gave such a shout, that all the rest of their company that were dispersed and scattered a­mong the bushes, gathered themselves together to that place, to an­swer the cry, and stept betweene Sir Amoric and Sir Iohn Courcy, so that with great perill of their lives, and losse of many men, they came together to that place; when they met, they bewailed their losses, and being environed with bogges and marishes, they forsook their horses, and fell to kill them, and shifted for themselves; the Irish most eager­ly pursued them, and at length, one William Lawyard overtooke Cour­cy, hee with his company turned their faces, fought a cruell fight, wherein (saith mine Author) there were slaine of the Irish men, sixe score. After this skirmish, followed Arte boy, with three hundred, and set upon Courcy, who slue of the Irish, nine score: last of all, Mac Mohon, the ground of all this mischiefe, came blowing, and set upon Courcy, with whom the base sonne of Sir Amoricus encountred, slue him, and fourescore of his men, and drove the rest to flye, the day being thus spent, the night made an end of that battaile: as the night fell, Sir Iohn de Courcy by good hap, lighted upon an old Fort of his owne, moted or trenched about, where there was a good watch kept, he being glad of them, and they of him, camped there with his forces that night, and the enemy within halfe a mile of them, as it appeared by the great fires they made after their travaile. Sir A­moric Saint Laurance after a short nap or slumber, tooke a few with him, went to espie the enemies campe, and made a speedie returne, he pressed upon his brother Courcy and the campe, to wake them, and [Page 154] delivered unto them these speeches: I have scouted abroad, and spared you in your heavie sleepe, I viewed the enemies campe, whom I take to be 5000. strong, and that by the scope of their cabbins; wee are but 500. fighting men, all wearied with sore fight, long travaile, and somewhat discouraged with hard fortune, not fit to make any great enterprize, or to performe any worthy exploit; nay a worse matter, there are among us such as have deadly wounds, but the dead sleep suppresseth their com­plaints, and further, our men watch without sufficient release, and the enemy hath his fill every way; our case is desperate, if the enemy set up­on us to morrow, we are not able to withstand him, wee shall be slaine every mothers sonne; wherefore I thinke best that we now set upon them that are now feasting and sleeping, voyd of all feare of us, whom in their opinion, they hold for men quite overthrowne, and never able to make a head againe, and that we leave some of our sicke men here to ward, and take some of the fresh men with us. When hee had ended his speech, there was silence for a certaine space, wherein one looked upon the other. Then Sir Iohn Courcy spake, I looked all this while for some of these young gallants, and your fellow souldiers to deliver their cou­rage; but one thing further, Sir Amoric, where are their horses be­stowed? he answereth, your white horse, and my blacke gelding, I have cunningly conveyed away, and the rest I can point you to with my finger. Then saith Sir Iohn Courcy, this is mine advice: Let two men ride these two horses, and gather their horses together, and or­derly in each side drive them upon the enemy, all wee in armes will come after, and suddrnly give the shout upon them in their slee pes, and serve them with their horses, as they served us with our kine: Every man liked well of this course, and when they came to the place, they had the killing of them at their owne desire. There the English came, victualled, apparrelled, armed, and horsed themselves, never better in their lives. Of 5000. Irish, there escaped not above 200. which ranne so fast, (saith my Author) that a horse could not hold them. Of the English, the day before, 400. men were missing, but in that mornings worke, onely two. Lastly, Sir Iohn Courcy, with some hearts ease, returned to his old Fort, where hee had camped that night, rested there a while, and sent to Dublin and elsewhere a­mong his friends, for supplies of men and other necessarie provisi­ons. There are some out of the schoole of envy, with grace, to dis­grace Courcy, (whom I have in part touched before) that report the story otherwise, which deliver not wherein he was to be honoured, but wherein he was foyled, fortuna de la guerra, that hee was driven with eleven persons in armes, to travaile a foot some 30. miles, for the space of two dayes, the enemy still pursuing, (the which they lay not downe) all fasting without any reliefe, untill hee came to an old Castle of his owne, which savoureth not altogether of truth, but for­wards with the history.

[Page 155]The fourth battaile that Sir Iohn Courcy fought was in Vriell, for this cause: Courcy had sent certaine of his servants into England, for victuals, munition, and divers necessaries; the ship was by foule weather driven into a creick in Vriell, cald Torshead; O Hanlan with others being acquainted with all circumstances, bord the ship, put men and mariners to the sword, and make a prize and havocke of all: Courcy hearing of this, gathered his forces together; draweth to­wards the Nury to come into Vriell to be revenged of them for this injury; by the way he was given to understand, that all the Irish of those parts were in armes prepared for him in their defence, to justi­fie their doings, and that they had camped by South of Dundalke, and by North of the river Dondoygon. Courcy having marched to a place within a mile and a halfe of the Irish campe, made a stand, cald his brother Amoric, Sir Roger Poer, with others, and consulted what course was best to be held. Sir Roger Poer being full of courage, be­gins: I thinke best to hold still with us the favour of Fortune; they are many, we are but few, the longer we behold them, the worse wee shall like them; the souldiers would be set a worke, and the more we linger, the more doubts and buzzes will enter his braine; for often wee see, that the sight maketh, and the sight mar­reth.

Next, Sir Amoric delivereth his opinion: we came not hither to make hasty worke, but advisedly to performe service; true it is, as you have delivered, they are manie we are but few in comparison of their number; afore we give battaile, there are 3. things (as I take it) re­quisite to be considered, the cause wherefore we fight, the number of both sides, that they be somewhat equally matched, and the place where both joyne battaile together. I would not have any of my speeches drawn to discourage or dismay any valiāt mind. To the first, our parentage is knowne, we are no base people, our valour is tryed, our enemy hath the proofe thereof; we come not to steale, but to be revenged of the theeves that murthered our men, & robbed us of our necessary provision. Secondly, where we find our company small, and our side weake, and the ground not fitting us for any advantage, where force cannot further, let policie take place; my advice is that a begger or a Frier shall goe from us to the Irish campe, and informe them, that Sir Hugh Delacy came yesternight with a great force, to Drogheda, and that he saw two miles off a great army of horse and foot, somewhat westerly of him, which he supposeth to bee the En­glish Army, that marched all night from Tradaf towards Dundalke; in the meane while, my sonne Nico: with twenty choice horsemen, together with our lackies and horseboies, for the greater shew upon our hackneis and garrans, shall wheele Westwards on the right hand, that it may concurre with the Fryers tale, and give us a signe what we shall doe, and we will march after to see the event; when the ene­my [Page 156] hath discried us, we shall perceive by his stirring what he meanes to doe; if they turne face to us and offer fight, our foot shall recouer Dondalke afore theirs, and with our horses wee will so handle the matter, that we shall sustaine no great losse: if they fly and take the river, the sea comes in, we shall overtake them afore halfe passe over. All were well pleased with his device, and followed the direction. Nico. Saint Laurence with his company, wheeles before, Sir Iohn de Courcy a loofe followeth after, Sir Roger Poer takes the rereward; the enemy having discried them takes the river: Sir Nico. gave the signe, whereupon the English Army give a great shout and follow­eth their heeles; the Irish breake their araie, they tumble one upon another in the water: the cariage drowns some, the sea and the swift­nesse of the tyde take others away; such as would not venter the water, were slaine by the English; Othanlan and his company that had passed the water, seeing the slaughter of his men, could not come to the rescues, by reason of the salt water: the Englishmen having quitted that place, were directed by the Fryer to a foord on the left hand, where they passed over, and pursued the rest: The Horsemen overtooke the Foot of the Irish, and skirmished with them, untill Sir Iohn de Courcy came by that time; the sea likewise had stopped the Irish from flying, at a great water, a mile from the Lurgan on the Southside of Dundalk. The Irish seeing themselves in this strait, turne their faces, choose rather to dye with the sword like men, then to be drowned in the seas like beasts. There were in that place, some 6000. Irish, and about 1000. English, there was no advantage of ground, it booted not to fly on any side; the coward must in that case try himselfe a man, the fight was sore, no mercy but dead blowes: The foot of the English drew backe, Sir Iohn de Courcy their leader, was left in the midst of his enemies with a twohanded sword, wa­shing and lashing on both sides, like a Lion among sheepe (saith my Author) Nicolas posteth to his father Amoric, that was in chase of ths scattred horsemen of the Irish, and cried, alas father, mine uncle Sir Iohn is left alone in the midst of his enemies, and the foot have forsaken him; with that Sir Amoric lighted, killed his horse and said, here my sonne take charge of these horsemen, and I will lead on the foot company, to the rescue of my brother Courcy; come on fellow souldiers saith he, let us live and dye together: He gave the on-set upon the foot of the Irish, rescued Sir Iohn Courcy that was sore wounded, and with cruell fight in manner out of breath; with the sight of him, the souldiers take hart and drive the Irish to retreit; the slaughter on both sides was great, few of the Irish and fewer of the English were left alive: The Irish got them to the Fewes, and the English to Dundalke; but who got the best there is no boast made.

Not long after, Sir Iohn de Courcy went into England, where the [Page 157] King in regard of his good service, made him Lord of Conoght and Earle of Vlster; upon his returne (saith Stanihurst) which was in the Canicular daies, he fought at the Bridge of Ivora a cruell battaile, and prostrated his enemies, with great honour; and for that I find litle written thereof, I thought good thus lightly to passe it over, as others before me have done: After this he builded many Castles in Vlster, made bridges, mended high wayes, repaired Churches, and governed the Country in great peace, untill the dayes of King Iohn, where I shall have further cause to discourse of him.

Amids these tumults in the North, Miles Cogan bestirred him­selfe, in the West; he passed the Shannon into Conoght with 540. men, where (saith mine Author) never Englishman entred before, whereupon the Conoght men, drove before them, all their cattle into the fastnesses, carried with thē as much as they could, fired the rest, with their Townes, Villages, Houses and Cottages. Milo marched as far as Tuam, where he rested 8. dayes, and finding man and beast fled, and the Country barren of victualls, he returned towards the Shan­non, and by the way met with Roderic the Monarch, which lay in ambush with three Companies waiting his comming: At their mee­ting, they skirmished a long while, and fought a cruell fight, where the enemy lost many, and Milo but three men, then hee passed the ri­ver and came safely to Dublin.

Anno William Fitz Adelme, the Kings Lievtenant is cal­led into England: Hee was a man that did no honour to the King, neither good to the Country, whom every good man in his life time detested, and all Irish Chronicles after his death have defamed. In his roome the King appointed Hugh Delacy Deputy of Ireland, and joy­ned in Commission with him Robert Poer Seneschal of Wexford and Waterford.

Not long after, the King sent into Ireland Miles Cogan and Ro­bert Fitz Stephens with others, and gave them (in regard of their ser­vice) all South Mounster, to with the Kingdome of Corke in Fee for ever, to be equally divided betweene them, except the City of Corke, and one Cantred thereunto adjoyning; also he gave unto Philippe de Bruse all North Mounster, to wit the Kingdome of Lymerick. After they had pacified Dermot Mac Carty, Prince of Desmond, quieted the Country, and divided their territories, they conducted Philippe de Bruse to Lymerick to take possession of the Kings graunt given him in those parts.

As they came to the walles of Lymerick, the Citizens of spight in sight of them all, to the end that no Englishman should roost there, set the Town on fire. Philippe de Bruse was therewithal discouraged, and his Company, in so much that when Robert Fitz Stephens and Miles Cogan, offred to adventure their lives in the recovery of the Kingdome of Lymerik, with all their aide and assistance; he refused [Page 158] it, and returned with them to Corke, esteeming it farre better to lose Lymric, and with safetie to dwell among his lovers and friends, then to lose life and kingdome by dwelling among such Iewes, as will fire their owne houses, and cut all English throats.

In a while after, Miles Cogan, and Raffe the sonne of Robert Fitz Stephens, who had lately married Miles daughter, went towards Lis­more to parlee with Waterford men, and determined that night to lodge with one Mac Tyrid, who had solemnly invited them. As they waited in the field, expecting the comming of the Waterfordians, this Mac Tyrid unawares stealing upon them, most traiterously slue them, and five of their company, whereupon the whole country was in up­roare, insomuch that Dermot Mac Carty, and all the Irish in those parts, together with Mac Tyrid, that most perfidious traitor, were in armes, determining thenceforth to be no longer the Kings loyall subjects; when they had gathered their forces together, they laid siege to Corke, meaning to cut off Robert Fitz Stephens, and all the English men there. Robert Fitz Stephens being distressed in Corke, fearing the open enemy without, and mistrusting the secret enemy within, sent post to Wexford, to his nephew Reimond le Grosse, pray­ing him to come to his aide. Reimund forthwith, with twenty knights, and one hundred foot and bowmen, entred the Lee, landed at Corke, encountred with the enemies, killed some, drove other to flye, and compelled the rest to submit themselves, and sue for peace.

When the King understood of this, he sent Richard Cogan, bro­ther unto Miles, to supply his brothers roome in the kingdome of Corke, a man no way inferiour to his brother for valour and martiall prowesse; in his companie came Philip Barry, and Girald Barry his brother, (otherwise called Silvester Giraldus Cambrensis, the famous learned man) nephewes of Robert Fitz Stephens, with a jolly troupe of horse and foot, chosen and picked men. Robert Fitz Stephens, and Richard Cogan enjoyed this kingdome of Corke peaceably for cer­taine yeeres, and in processe of time, for want of heires male of them, it came to two daughters, the one of them was married to Robert de Carew, the other to Patricke de Courcy, and they in right of their wives, enjoyed the same during their lives, and after them, their heires, untill such time as by a division growne (as I take it in Eng­land) betweene the two houses of Yorke and Lancaster, the Irish men expelled them, and recovered the country unto themselues. Anno 1178. The Monasterie, Beatae Mariae Roseae vallis, called Rosgl [...]s, was founded. Yet others thinke it was in Anno 1189. I may not forget Harvey de monte Marisco, (of whom often mention is made before) who after many spitefull parts, treacheries and false accusations ex­hibited by him unto the King against most noble servitors, became a Monke: the man was sore troubled in conscience, and in his course he made the common saying true (desperatio facit Monachum.) Hee [Page 159] had founded (saith Felcon) the Monastery of our blessed Lady, de Portu Donbrodthi, he gaue unto the Monasterie Saint Trinitatis of Canterbury, his territories & advousons along the sea coast, between Waterford and Wexford, and there cloystred himselfe; I would (saith Cambrensis) he had changed his conditions with his habit.

The same yeere (saith Holinshed) there came from Pope Alexan­der 3. into England, two Cardinals, Alberto desuma, and Petro de sancta Agatha, whose commission was to summon the Bishops of England, Ireland, Scotland, with the Isles, and Normandie, to the generall Councell of Lateran in Rome: after they had obtained li­cence to passe through his dominions, the King swore them upon the holy Evangelist, that in their Legateship they should not attempt any thing that might be hurtfull to the King or his dominions, and that upon their returne, they should visite him homewards: where­upon out of Ireland there went thither, Laurence, Archbishop of Dublin, and Catholicus, Archbishop of Tuam, with some other five or sixe Irish Bishops, whom the King likewise swore, that they should not procure any damage to his Realmes and dominions.

The Realme of Ireland at this time was singular well governed by Hugh de Lacy, a good man, and a wise Magistrate, who for the good of the land and the people, established many good orders: he made Bridges, and builded Townes, Castles, and Forts, throughout Lein­ster, as Sir Iohn de Courcy did in Vlster in his time; the Priest kept his Church, the Souldier his Garrison, and the Plow-man followed his Plough, yet cankred envy quieted not her selfe, practised mischiefe against him, so that he was charged before the King, to attempt the Crowne of Ireland, and make himselfe absolute Lord of the land, and that he had married the King of Connaghts daughter, (saith Holin­shed) contrary to the Kings pleasure. The King immediately (as Princes are jealous of great men) called him into England, appointed governours, Iohn Constable, and Richard Peche. This Lacy behaved himselfe so discreetly and dutifully in England, that he cleered him­selfe of all suspition, that the King was resolved of his truth and fide­lity, and sent him backe againe into Ireland, with further credit then formerly he had done, and that within three moneths, and gave him the absolute command and Lievetenantship of the land, and joyned as assistant unto him, Robert Salisbury, calling home the former go­vernours.

It was not long, but he was upon malitious occasion, the second time sent for into England, and one Philip of Worcester, (Cambren­sis is mine Author) a valiant souldier, a bountifull and a liberall man, with a most brave troupe of horse and foot, arrived in Ireland, with command to send over Hugh de Lacy, and he to remaine there as Go­vernour of the land, until Iohn his sonne came over. Stanihurst is of opinion, that he went over into England, and cleering himselfe, spee­dily [Page 160] returned againe, which cannot well stand with the course of the history; for when Philip of Worcester tooke upon him the governe­ment, Lacy hastened the building and finishing of the Castle of Der­wath (whereof my penne immediately shall make report) and there ended his dayes. And now to Philip of Worcester, and his compa­nion Hugh Tirell, Cambrensis, and Stanihurst especially, write most bitter of them: of Philip, how that first of all he resumed and seized unto the Kings use, the lands of Ocathesie, and divers other parcels which Hugh de Lacy had sold away, and these he appointed to serve for the Kings provision, and the Governours diet. And after the winter was past, he assembled and mustred his men and companie, and began to travaile from place to place. In March about the middle of Lent, he came to Armagh, where he extorted, and perforce exa­cted from the Clergie there, a great masse of money and treasure, and from thence he went to Dune, and from Dune to Dublin, laden with gold, silver, money, and monies worth, the which he extorted in e­very place where he came, and other good did he none. Hugh Tirell his fellow scraper, tooke from the poore Priests at Armagh, a great brasse panne or brewing fornace, which served the whole house: see the iust iudgment of God, (the which then was so constraced, as Cam­brensis hath delivered in his Vaticinall history, and likewise in his to­pagraphie) Philip at the townes end of Armagh, was taken with a sudden pang, and the same so vehement, that it was supposed hee should never have recovered it. When he came to himselfe, a poore man standing by said, Let him alone, he must have breath till he come to the divell, and then the divell will have him, and all that he extor­ted from us. Hugh Tirell that carried the panne as farre as Dune, and the Priests curse withall, in night time had his lodging set on fire, where house, and houshold-stuffe, and all that he had there, was con­sumed to ashes, together with the horses that drew the same (and so no thankes to him) he left it behinde him for lacke of carriage. The Castles which Lacie builded for the good of the Land, were these. First, Laghlen, of old called the Blacke Castle, upon the Barrow be­tweene Ossory and Idrone, of which Castle by Henry 2. command­ment, Robert Poer had the charge, untill in cowardize sort he gave o­ver the same, and forsooke it; whereupon Cambrensis then living, ma­keth this invective: O what worthy Champions and fit men for martiall feates, were this Poer and Fitz Adelme, to inhabit and com­mand such a nation as is destitute of noble and valiant mindes? but a man may espie the variable sleight of fortune, disposed to smile at foo­lery, how from the base dunghill, hee advanceth to high dignities: for why? they two had more pleasure in chambering, wantonnesse, playing with young girles, and on the Harpe, then in bearing of shield, or wearing of Armour: but in sooth it is to bee admired, that so Noble a Prince as Henry 2. is, would send such cowards to com­mand, [Page 161] or to direct in place of service. But to the history. This blacke Castle now called New Leighlin, for difference of Old Leighlin, which is the Bishops seate, standeth in the Barony of Ydrone, which was the antient inheritance of the Carews: who being Barons of Ca­rew in Wales, so farre as I can learne, one of them married the daugh­ter and heire of the Barron of Ydrone, and so the Carewes became, and were for the terme of many yeeres, Barons of Ydrone, untill the troublesome time of Richard 2. when the Carewes with all the En­glish of Ireland, in manner were driven to forsake the land.Castles buil­ded by Sir H de Lacy. He buil­ded in Leix for Meilerius Tachmeho, alias Cachmehe, and as for Kil­dare, with the country adjoyning, the which, as Cambrensis writeth, was by Earle Strangbow given him, the Governours in Hugh de La­cy his absence, subtilly tooke it away from him, under colour of ex­change, and gave him Leix, a wilde savage country, with woods, pa­ces, bogges, and rebels farre from succour or rescue. In Meth, he buil­ded Clanarec, Dunach killar, alias Killairie, the Castle of Adam de Ieypon, alias sureport, and Gilbert de Nugents of Delvyn. In Fotheret of Onolan, alias Fethred Onolan, in Latin, Rotheric, he builded a Ca­stle for Reimond, and another for Griffin his brother, the sonnes of William Fitz Girald, for Walter of Ridensford, he builded in Omor­chu, alias Moroghs country Trisseldermot, otherwise called Trisdel­dermot, about five miles from Caterlogh, and likewise Kilka, in the country of Kildare. For Iohn de Hereford, he builded a Castle in Col­lach, otherwise called Tulacfelmeth: for Iohn declawsa, alias Clavill, he builded a Castle upon the Barrow, not farre from Leighlin, now supposed to be Carlogh, though some attribute it to Eva, Earle Strangbow his wife; yet it is evident next after the Danes, that the En­glish men builded all the Castles of Ireland. He builded also neere A­boy, a Castle that he gave to Robert Bigaret, another not farre from thence, which he gave to Thomas Fleminge, another at the Narach on the Barrow, for Robert Fitz Richard; lastly, he builded the Castle of Derwath, where he made a tragicall end; for on a time when each man was busily occupied, some lading, some heaving, some playste­ring, some engraving, the Generall also himselfe digging with a Pick-axe, a desperate villaine among them, whose toole the Lord Lieve­tenant used, espying both his hands occupied, and his body bent downewards, with an axe, cleft his head in sunder; his body the two Archbishops, Iohn of Dublin, and Mathew of Cashill, buried in the Monasterie of the Bectie, that is, in Monasterio Beatitudinis, and his head in Saint Thomas Abbey at Dublin, whose death (I read in Ho­linshed) the King was not sorry of, for he was alwayes jealous of his greatnesse.

Vpon the death of Lacy, Sir Roger le Poer a most worthy Knight, who served valiantly in Vlster, in company with Sir Iohn de Courcy, being made Governour of the country about Leighlen in Ossorie, was [Page 162] in most lamentable sort traiterously slaine; and upon that occasion, there was (saith Cambrensis) a privy conspiracy over all Ireland a­gainst English men: But gentle Reader, I must backe a little, to bring on the yeeres to concurre with the history.

Anno 1180. The Monastery De Choro Benedicti, and of Ieripont was founded. The same yeere dyed Laurence Archbishop of Dublin (whose life foraine Writers, as Surius, Baronius, Molanus, and Lep­pelo with others have written) his father hight Maurice, his mother Iniabre Principis filia, a great Commander in Leinster; the Marty­rologe of Sarum saith he was bastard: This Maurice being at conti­nuall warres with Dermot Mac Morogh King of Leinster, upon a league of amity concluded betweene them, delivered unto him for pledge his youngest sonne Laurence; Dermot sent him to a desert solitary place and barren soile to be kept, where he was like to perish with famine: Maurice hearing thereof, tooke 12. of Dermots princi­pall followers, clapt them in prison, and sent Dermot word, that hee would cut off their heads, unlesse he would release and send him his sonne out of that slavish and miserable servitude: Dermot released the youth, and delivered him not to his father, but to the Bishop of Glandelogh, and the Bishop charged his Chaplen with his bringing up; the Chaplen trained him up so vertuously, that in a short time after he was made Abbot of Glandelogh, & shortly after that againe, upon the death of Gregory Archbishop of Dublin, he was chosen to suceed him. So holy a man was he, as some of mine Authors doe write, that he caused one of his men to whippe him twice a day, be­like he had deserved it in his youth. His Legend reporteth that in time of famine and scarcity in Ireland, [...]e releeved daily 500. persons at his doore for 3. yeres space. Henry the 2. did not favour him, for he had both in publicke and private at sundry times (as formerly in part hath beene touched) beene an instrument of rebellion and of many mischiefes against the English nation, and at the Councell of Lateran, contrary to his Oath, inveighed bitterly against the King; Stainhursh excuseth him, saying, that hee pleaded for the immunities of the Churches of Ireland, somewhat prejudiciall to the Kings preroga­tive. He came to the King at Canterbury, where the Monkes recei­ved him with solemne Procession, and hee gave himselfe one whole night to prayers before Saint Thomas his shrine, for good successe in his affaires with the King: A foole espied him in his Pontificall weed, wholly devoted to Saint Thomas Becket: And said, I can doe no better deed then to make him equall with Saint Thomas; with that tooke a club, ranne through the throng, and gave him such ablow upon the pat, that the blood ran downe his eares; the man was so sore wounded, that it was thought hee would streighway yeeld up the Ghost; the cry was up, the foole runne away, the Bishop taking breath called for water, and in a short time after was healed: his sute [Page 163] unto the King was, (as foraigne Writers deliver) for Deronog King of Ireland; but saith Holinshed, which is likeliest to bee true, it was in the behalf of Roderic King of Conoght, which had often promi­sed true subjection and fidelity unto the King, but never performed; he had brought with him Roderic his sonne as a pledge for perfor­mance of convenants, formerly passed betweene them; as the pay­ment of tribute and such like; but the King neither liked the one or the other, but charged the Archbishop not to depart without his li­cence.

The King shortly after tooke shipping at Sandwich and sailed into Normandy. The Archbishop followed him, and there dyed of an Ague; whereupon (as Holinshed writeth) the King sent Ieffray De Haile, one of his Chaplens and a Chaplen also of Alexander the Popes Legat into Ireland, to seize the Archbi. see into his hands, and further it is alleaged, that being the Popes Legate of Ireland; he ab­horred incontinency so much, that for augmentation of penance, hee would absolve no dissolute Priest, but sent them to Rome for absolu­tion; and proved in regard of former favours, there, Amicus Curiae, so that he sent thither out of Ireland at one time, 140. Priests, saith the Legend, De peccato Luxuriae convictos Romam misit absolvendos; convicted of Lechery: Behold gentle Reader, the holy lives of the Priests of that age, and the Sanctity of the Romane Sea, in pardoning of them all, propter quid, alias propter quas. Pope Honorius the 3. Anno Pontificatus 9. vel 10. Canonized this Laurence for a Saint, who is Calendred the 14. of November, or as the Bull of his Canoni­zation hath, the 18. of the Calends of December, which is all one; the which Bull followeth in these words.

Honorius Episcopus, servus servorum Dei, universis Christi fide­libus, in Rothmugensi Provincia constitutis salutem, & Apostolicam benedictionem. Ineffabilis providentia Dei congruentibus singulis quibus (que) temporibus ordinariè, dispensans in splendoribus S