A COLLECTION OF CERTAINE LEARNED DISCOVRSES, WRITTEN BY THAT FAMOVS MAN OF MEMORY ZACHARY VRSINE; Doctor and Pro­fessor of Divinitie in the noble and flou­rishing Schoole of NEVSTAD.

For explication of divers difficult points, laide downe by that Author in his CATECHISME.

Lately put in Print in Latin by the last labour of D. DAVID PARRY: and now newlie translated into English, by I. H. for the benefit and behoofe of our Christian country-men.

AT OXFORD, Printed by IOSEPH BARNES, and are to be sold in Pauls Church-yard at the signe of the Bible▪ 1600.

TO THE READER.

COurteous & Christi­an Reader: at their in­stant request whom it most concerned, and of mine owne inclina­tion, which shall (I professe) bee ever ser­vile to thy godly desi [...]es, I did sixe moneths since begin (and only beginne) to teach this stranger to speake English (A strāger indeed for language, but for consent in doctrine our natural country-man, and fellow-citizen in the heavenly Hierusalem.) This course vpon special occasion interrupted, I haue now the second time attempted and perfited, at the importunity of my friend this [...]rinter, whose commodity had otherwise beene much pre­iudiced by prevention.

[Page] If I haue truely expressed the Authors in­tent, it is as much as I can desire, or thou ex­pect. Jf I haue failed thereof, I hope it is nei­ther ordinarily, nor groslie; wherefore being vnworthy of pardon, much more of praise, I humbly pleade for thy favourable censure. Hast is the enemie of circumspection, and seldome meetes a swift and wise resolution. Thou wilt (I presume) the rather beare with me, if thou remember but this, that I was compelled to make a three weekes worke of it, in a time when (besides this) I did of dutie dispatch more businesse, and of necessity en­dure more griefe and heavinesse, then in so small a space did ever afore befall me. Some proofe hereof may be this, that for certaine howers I was enforced to imploy others, whose stile (I know) thy quicke re [...]ish can iu­diciously distinguish.

Touching the Author, all I can say is too little, and of that little (least thou surfette on me, eare thou come to him) take only this lit­tle. He was in his life laborious, religious, & like an Angell amongst men; in his stile princely, pure, and plentifull like a sweeping torrent; in his learning (which was of all sortes, especially in Divinity) sound, subtile, [Page] and profound as the deepe Ocean.

The difficulty and obscurity which must needs be where is great depth, naturall bre­vity, and necessitie of schoole-termes should haue beene plained and cleered (as farre as my weake vnderstanding could perfourme) had not the niggardly shortnesse of time, & envious occurrent of businesse, and disquiet of minde beene a barre to my honest intent. Time may minister occasion of supplying these and all other defectes: In the meane while for mine encouragement and thine owne good, accept these first fruites of my studies in this kinde; and remember to read, not for contention, but instruction. And so I leaue thee to God; whom I desire a [...] well to enable thee to the conceaving, as he did this his servant to the vnfolding of the most deep mysteries and subtle controversies of reli­gion.

A TABLE OF THE SEVE­ral discourses contained in this booke.

  • 1. Two prefaces of D. David Parrie prefixed before the two last partes of the Catechisme in the first Edi­tion.
  • 2 An exhortatiō of Vrsine to the study of Christianity.
  • 3. The Antiochian beleife touchinge the incarnation of the Word, against Paulus Samosatenus: with the ca­tholique faith and beliefe touching the vbiquitie of Christes bodie. Out of the 4. booke of Vigil. against E [...]tych.
  • 4. An epistle of Vrsine vpon predestination: with some fragments of certaine of his Epistles.
  • 5. Parte of an oration vpon this question: Whether, & how far forth Christ died for all: by D. David Parie.
  • 6. A shorte introduction to the controversie of the Lordes supper, by David Parrie.
  • 7. A breife exposition of the controversie about the Lordes supper: betweene the Consubstantialists, and maintainers of the truth: by D. Zacharie Vrsine.
  • 8. Positions of D. Zacharie Vrsine, about some prin­cipall pointes of Christian religion.
  • 9. The funerall oration of D. Frances Iunius, vpon the life and death of D. Zacharie Vrsine.

A PREFACE TO THE THIRD PART OF [...] his Catechisme touching Sacra­ments. Wherein is sifted and refuted the slaunderous and Satyricall Declamation of Bellarmine, prefixea before the second Tome of his Disputations, touching the Sacraments. *⁎*

THE third part of the Ca­techisme setteth downe briefly the true doctrine of the Sacraments, disco­vering withal at large the very fountaines thereof; not only clearing to the capacity and conceite of younge beginners the chiefe controversies of our time, especially of Bap­tizing of Children, Transubstantiation, Consubstantia­tion, and Excommunication (depending on the do­ctrine of the Sacraments) but also diving so far in­to the depth of them, that even the diligent and learned sort may therewith all rest satisfied. Ma­ny controversies and contentions of wrangling [Page 2] Sophistes are there of purpose lefte vndiscussed: for why shoulde a learner bee wearied with that, wherevpon those subtile disputants cannot them­selues as yet resolue? or why should men be ouer­curious & costly in trimming vp a trifle? notwith­stāding, by those solid grounds of doctrine it may easily app [...]te, how vaine and varying from Gods word they are, howsoeuer they vaunt themselues to the view of the simpler sort in rich seeming robes of reueren [...], but pretended Antiquity. For Truth is a touch-stone, seruing for the triall both of it selfe, and also of error.

But we shall hereafter finde occasion to tal [...] of these matters in our publike schooles more at large. For the presumption of the Iesuites is growne to that height of impudēcy, that nothing can be so absurdely disputed by their schoole men, whereupon they doe not thinke themselues able by their sophistry to set so faire a varnish, that both learned, and vnlearned shall accept it for currant Catholique. And if there bee any (as doubtlesse there are many things) so grosse & false, that they admit no colour, then with shamelesse oaths they face vs downe, that they were neuer written, or so much as once approued by any of their Catho­liques. For these (if I bee not deceiued) are those three impute Spirites, Apoc. 16. 13 lately spewed out of the mouth of the Dragon, to bewitch the Monarches of the worlde, and vnder-proppe the ruines of Popery.

Here they dispute busily, whether Sacraments be [Page 3] thinges reall, or rationall, or accidentally composed and consisting of things and wordes? and therefore Whe­ther they may properly bee defined, or no? and if they may, whether the vulgar definition (that is, A visible signe of invisible grace,) doe indifferently agree vnto them all? Coldely indeede and slenderly they teach, that Sacramentes are visible and sensible signes, signifying an holy thing by way of likenes & proportion: but perversly they deny that vn­to them is required the expresse commandement of God in Scripture; they deny that in them is a­ny promise of grace and remission of sinnes, yea or so much as annexed vnto them by the ordi­nance and appointment of God: in a word, they deny that they are ordained to stir vp, nourish, & confirme our faith. But they maintaine, that they are the causes of grace in vs, that they bestow grace vpon vs, that they are the instruments of iustifica­tion, that of themselues they effect grace, iustifica­tion,Opus opera­tum. and sanctification by the very worke done, that is, by the naturall power and vertue of the sacra­mental action it selfe thereunto appointed by God; or (as others wil) by the power of God assistant to the things signed, according to covenant, euen without faith or in warde motion of the receiver. And this force and efficacy they attribute onely to sacraments of the New Testament: as for those of the Olde. some there are which leaue vnto them only the bare and naked signification of iu­stification; others besides that doe also yeeld the effect of iustification, but only in regarde of the [Page 4] worke of the worker, Opus operā ­tis. that is in respect of the devoti­on and desert of the vser. And here againe some except circumcision, as iustifying through the vvorke done; others reckon it with the rest. And this is that stale stuffe of the olde school [...]-men, which these late iuncketters haue nowe againe sumptuously dressed, and dished out to the world for delicates.

Especially Bellarmine the Arch-sophist of this age doth flatter himselfe in these follies,Bellarmine a calling disputant. that he is fully perswaded he can obscure the cleere sunne­shine. And therefore insolently and ill-besee­ming the duty of so great a disputant, he slaunde­reth & taunteth our Doctors (most of them now dead) neither shewing nor obiecting to them fal­shood or paralogismes in their proofes, but onelie with scorne and disdaine giving them the lie, & the lie: which strange manner of disputation is now taken vp for a fashion amongst those railers. But the most worthy Divines Whitaker, Danaeus, Sibrandus & the rest haue now so discovered the folly of that most insolent man, that even the le­suites themselues are ashamed of their Galiah, and beginne to repent them of his too great liberty v­sed in disputation.Bellar­mines saty­ [...]all pre­f [...]e to his 2. Tome of of Sacra­ments exa­mined and [...].

He hath prefixed before his second Tome of disputations which lately hee set forth about the sacraments A Satyric­all Declamation or Libelling speech, wherein he professeth that he will play▪ Stage-part, and represent vnto his Romish audito­ry a spectacle not vnpleasant, concerning the furi­ous [Page 5] contentions of Heretiques. His maine pur­pose therein is to oppose our Doctors betweene themselues each against othe [...], and by his vpstart sophistry to de barre vs the speciall vse of the Sa­craments, namely the sea [...]ing of the promise of grace, and strengthning of our faith. But how perversely he dealeth I haue here thought good briefely to declare.

First of all he goeth about to shew out of Lu­ther, Of the word Sacr [...]ment. Carolostadius, Melancthon, Zwinglius, and Calvin, that the worde Sacrament hath beene by di­verse, and those our wrighters, partly received, partly reiected. As if the Schoole-men themselues did neuer doubt or dispute about the originall sig­nification, propriety, and vse of a Sacrament? And if at any time our wrighters haue seemed to make que­stion of the worde, yet it is a cleere case, that by consent of all it hath beene hitherto receaved in our churches▪ and retained vnto this day with­out controversie. Wherefore that which he spea­keth of Luther and Melancthon is plainely frivo­lous. The opinion of Carolostadius (a man gauled by Luther) none in a maner haue followed. With Zwinglius he doth manifestly cavil. For he indeed could haue wished the word Sacrament had never beene receaved by the Germanes; but why? truely for no other reason, but because he detesteth the horrible abuse of a Sacrament, in swearing there­by: a thing (alasse!) to familiar with the Germanes. As for Calvin, that he should little allowe of the word, and reprehend it, yet not accompt it a mat­ter [Page 6] worthy the striuing about, it is an impudent devise of the Iesuits, which without shame hee might babble out in his theater at Rome, frō whēce Calvines Christian Institution is exiled.Instit. lib. 4. cap. 14. They who with iudgement shal read the whole 13. Section wherevnto afterwardes the Iesuit pointeth, shall see that Calvin doth not reprehend the word, but the subtility of Sophists, who out of the significati­on of the Latin word do impugne the confirma­tion of our faith by Sacraments.

Then comming to the nature of a Sacrament, he bringeth forth vpon the stage Luther, Zwingli­us, and Calvin as it were skirmishing there-about betweene themselues: saying, that Luther would haue the Sacramentes to be only testimonies ordai­ned by God, for the stirring vp of our faith: Zwinglius certaine engadgings of our selues vnto God: lastly, Calvin ioining (as it were) both opinions into one, would haue them to be signes of Gods loue towardes vs, sealing our faith; and testimonies againe binding vs vnto Godlinesse. And this is the conflict. But in­deede the Iesuite would faine shew his auditors a fault where none is.

The consent of Calvin & Luther in this point is so evident,Of the na­ture and force of a Sacramēt. that it needes no proofe. That the opinion of me [...]re tokens and markes of our binding and profession is by way of cavill fathered on Zwinglius, the Iesuite himselfe afterwardes vnwittingly wit­nesseth, where he writeth, that the opinion of Ca­rolostadius and the Anabaptistes touching meere to­kens of our profession hath beene as wel by others, as [Page 7] by Zwinglius confuted, and almost quite buried: And this that he write [...]h is true. For Zwinglius both elsewhere, and also in his booke wrighten to the Princes of Germany, doth plainly enough expoūd himselfe wrighting after this manner: The verie signes are so ordained by Christ himselfe, that even by their analogie and proportion they prevaile very farre, in le [...]ding vs vnto the thing present by faith and contem­plation. And afterwardes more plainely; The Sacra­ments are not in vaine; for they shewe vs the saluation giuen by God, thither they [...]ourne our thoughts, & con­tinually EXERCISE OVER FAITH which immedi­atly they promise, & drawe vs to brotherly charity. And whilest all this is don, one & the same Spirit worketh in vs, who inspiringe somtymes without meanes, som­tymes with meanes, draweth whither, how farre, and whom it pleaseth him. Thus farre Zwinglius. Now wh [...]t could haue ben spoken more clerely touch­ing the consent betweene Luther and Caluin, then that Sacramēts were ordained for this end, namely to leade vs by similitude & proportion vnto the thing present by faith, to declare vnto vs our saluation, to turne our thoughts, to exer­cise our faith, and to be meanes and instruments of the holy Ghost? Is this of Sacraments to make meere tokens & markes of our Profession & obligati­on vnto Christ, and his church? the Iesuite doth o­penly wrong our Doctors.Defence of Luthers o­pinion [...] as Sacraments confirm [...] faith.

Neyther doth he stay here, but hath a farther fling at euery of them by course. He exclaimeth on the opinion of Luther, that sacraments strengh­then [Page 8] our faith, as so absurd, that nothing possi­bly could be devised more absurd. And why, I pray? Because (forsooth) that is the vse of mira­cles: for this is the sume of all he saith.

But absurd is the Iesuite himselfe,Ideo [...] differē ­ren [...] ge­ner [...]am ab vnà specie quia &c. who there­fore remoueth the Generall Difference from one Kind, because it agreeth with the other; whereas he cānot be ignorant, that General Differences are cōmonly & indifferently in all their Kindes. Is not this the generall vse of all diuine signes, to put men [...] mynde of Gods pleasure & benefites, and to seale vnto vs the certainety of our faith in his promises? for ther­fore doth God [...]incke those signes with his word, that so he might prouide for our weaknes, & con­firme vnto vs his promises. Yf the Iesuite make doubt hereof, let him ouer-runne the scripture from the first Sacrament or immortality in Para­dise, vnto the last signes of [...]he small comminge of Christ; & he shall finde they agree all in this, as well vniuersall, as particular; as well those that were deliuered in things naturall, as miraculous; as well ordinary, as extr [...]ordinary:) But I hope he will not deny that a miracle is a diuine signe & Lombard himselfe can teach him that a Sacra­ment is one sorte of diuine signes.Lib. 4 [...]. 1. How farre miracles & Sacramēts agree in their vse. Miracles ther­fore & sacraments agree in this vse, but that mira­cles are seales, either of the whole doctrine in ge­nerall, or of some certaine promise; Sacraments, onely & especially of the promise of grace.

Neyther makes it to the purpose that he saith miracles are of themselues knowne, E [...]s [...] [...]ta. & depend not a­ny [Page 9] way on preaching; & that Sacraments are not vnderstood, vnlesse they be confirmed by the te­stimony of the word: [...] speaketh [...] the force of miracles is vaine. They may indeed of themselues strike into [...], but they can no more of them selues teach & con­firme that heauenly doctrine whereof they are seales then can the Sacraments without decla­ration of their doctrine. Besydes, how followes this? [...] themselues do not seale vnto vs the promi [...]es, as [...] they do not at all seale thē. Suppose miracles haue force & efficacy of them­selues; that hinders not but that Sacraments also may haue their force & efficacye by the appoint­ment of God. For both naturall, & miraculous, and also voluntary signes doe signifie, though in one sorte the flame be signified by smoake, in an other the power of God by miracle, in a third the promise of grace by sacrament.

After this he scoffes at that comparison (as foo­lish) wherein our wrighters lyken the worde to Princes Charters o [...] Letters Patentes, II That the [...] & a writ [...], a Sa­crament & a [...] is not absurd. and the Sacrament to their seales: maintaining the con­trary, that the word rather should be called the seale of the sacrament, thē the Sacramēt the seale of the worde. And why so? Because (saith hee) as the seale without the wrighting hath his force, and not the wrighting without the seale; so the word of God euen without sacrament hath very great authority, the Sacrament without the worde none at all. But twise ridiculous and foolish is the Iesuite: first in at­tributinge [Page 10] force to the seale without the wrigh­ting, & none to the wrighting without the seale: secondly in making the worde a seale, because of it selfe it hath authority. For (tell me Bellarmine) what force hath the Popes leaden bull? or what doth it seale vnto you being plucked from his pardon? and if you deny that the wrightings & charters are acknowledged without their seales; I answere that this is neither generally, nor of it selfe true. [...]. Did you neuer see any billes, hand­writings, acquittances, or rescriptes of Princes ratifyed without their seales? The wrightings e­ven of good men, much more of Princes, & most especially of God himselfe, haue and deserue sufficient authority in themselues, as appeareth in times past how the wrightings of Emperors were wont to bee confirmed rather by markes subscri­bed, then by waxen seales. But by accident, that is, by reason of the fraile faith & life of man it is now come to passe, that wrightings though con­firmed by many seales are scarsely sure enough. Now what folly is it in you, of the word to make a seale, because without any sacrament it is of sufficient authority? whatsoeuer is in it selfe au­thenticke, will you presently take that for a seale? A seale is the visible signe of any writting, whose vse is not so much to adde authority, as to ascer­taine vs of the truth. Such a signe is not the word of God. But it is more fitly compared vnto wrightings, because therein God instructeth his Church in his will, & doth as it were bequeath [Page 11] vnto it certaine goods, or good things. It hath in it selfe authority from God the author; the sacra­ments are thereunto added as seales, not (as you suppose) that from them it might receiue autho­rity, but that by them God might strengthen our feeblenesse & infirmity. For they are visible pic­tures, or rather the promises themselues attired in certaine ceremonyes, & (as it were) visible wordes, Tract. 80. [...] c. 15. & contra [...]. 19. cap. [...]6. as Austin pretely termeth them; because they picture and present vnto our eies those be­nefites which the vvorde soundeth vnto our eares. But more credit is giuen to a thinge seene then onely heard.

Thirdely he cavilles with Luther in this sorte.III Baptisme of children doth not di [...]prooue the strēgthning of our faith by sa­ments. If a sacrament were nothinge els but an instru­ment to stirre vp and nourish [...]aith in vs; why are infantes, mad men, and men asleepe sometimes baptized in the Church? But why doth he not lykewise make a question ofFor they also are christened amongst Pap [...]stes. belles, churches, & altars? let your church (if it will) baptize madde men, and men asleepe: as for infantes of the church of Christ, we answere that they indeed al­though wanting the vse of reason are notwith­standing baptized, because of the commaunde­ment and promise of God. But (you will saye) they do no beleeue: ergo baptisme confirmes not their faith. Deny not what you know not. They belee [...]e not as men of age: ergo beleeue they not at all? yf this be true, why may not this also be as true? they are not reasonable as men of age: therefore they are not rea­sonable at all. To them is promised the holy Ghost [Page 12] workinge faith in vs, to them is promised the grace of the couenant [...], & the kingdome of God. And although actually they do not beleeue, yet why may they not as well by inclination beleeue through grace, as by inclination they sin through nature? As therefore they beleeue: so baptisme is vnto them a seale confirming their faith. But who sayd a Sacrament was nothing else but an instrument to stirre vp, & nourish our faith? there are more vses of a Sacrament besides this. But ad­mit baptisme doe not confirme fayth in insants; yet it will confirme them when they are come to age. For the fruit of baptisme is not restrayned to one moment;August. li. 4. ca 4. de Bap. Lomb. lib. 4. dist. 4. ca. 7. witnesse Austen & Lombard him­selfe. Yet are they to be baptized, that their a­doption & regeneration may be sealed vnto thē, and they distinguished from Infidels: which things, as they are not to be accounted nothing; so truly we doubt not but that through baptisme they are imparted & sealed vnto the infantes of the church, not (as you teach) because of the worke don, but in regard of the Institution & appoint­ment of Christ. Thus therefore the Iesuite seeth how the baptisme of Children doth not dissemble or take away the confirmation of faith.

But here masking wholy vnder a vizard of the Anabaptistes, Bellar­mines so­phistical di­lemma for Anabaptists recorted. Infants (saith he) who while they are in baptizing crye & struggle, either vnderstand what is doing, or not: yf they doe not vnderstand, neyther doe they beleeue, and are in vaine baptized; & then the Anabaptistes preuaile: yf they vnderstand, then are [Page 13] they willfull sinners, & sacrilegious, & then againe the Anabaptistes preuaile. Indeed the stage-man play­eth his part cunningely. But what if with an ar­med dilemma (as he termeth it) I should lyke­wise say? The Iesuite, that writt this, is eyther a good man, or a cauiller. If a good man, he should not so haue tyed, & then wee haue the better: if a cauiller, he should not be beleeued, & then againe we haue the better. Is not this the like reason? Either horne and part of the Iesuites dilemma is deceiptfull: and in the for­mer there is a double fallacy.Fallacia est▪ à secundum quid, cùm sic colligit. First frō that which is but partely true he concludeth as if it were sim­ply and wholy true; as where he reasoneth thus, Infants do not vnderstand: ergo they do not beleue; it is true of the actes and vse, not of the possibilitie of beleefe. I meane that possibilitie, not which wee haue by nature,Est eti [...] ̄ pa­ralogismus non causae. but by grace of that promise, I will be thy God, & the God of thy seede,. Secondly he disputeth from that which is no cause as if it were a true cause, thus, Infants do not actually beleeue: ergo they ought not to be baptized. For the cause of bap­tizing of infants is not the actuall vnderstandinge or beleefe of infants, but the promise pertaining vnto them,Act. 12. 38. as being children of the couenant, & Church, as Peter wittnesseth, Let every one be baptized in the name of Iesus Christ &c.: because to you and to your children is the promise made.

In the latter part of his argument is the same sophisme. Infantes when they are to be baptized cry. struggle, & often vse mishapen & distorted motions. But why? is it because they striue against the sa­cred [Page 14] action of baptisme? no, but because some o­ther thinge grieueth them, as that they endure some passion paynefull to their tender infancye. But what thinkes the Iesuit of those Infants which were vnder bloudy circumcision? what thinkes he of Abraham an oldeman? of the males of his fa­milye? & of the Sichemites? was there (thinkes he) no struggling? no mishapen or distorted motion? Or why should he rather terme infants sacrilegious, then he doth his Vestal Nannes, who in tune of their confession, penance, and com­municating (so lessoned by the E [...]ers) do often let fall many à tender teare? who in sacred a­ctions vse more misshapen motions then the Preist at Masse? nay did the Iesuit himselfe never weep for devotion in saying Masse, and so proue himselfe sacrilegious? Bellarmine [...] so great a Doc­tor (me thinke) should be a shamed of so child­ish trifles. Here what Austin sayth of this matter. Wheras infants striue as much as they can by cryes & shrinkings, Epist. 75. ad Dard. it is not imputed vnto them, & all their resistance is accounted nothing &c. because they know so little what they doe, that they are not thought to do it. the like vnto this we may read, in his 23 Epistle, & in his 4. booke & 25. Chapter of Baptisme a­gainst the Donatistes.

In the end he dismisseth Luther with this frūp. I pray [...] what Gospell, Apostle, or Prophet did he euer read that Sacraments of the new Testament were seals of the worde of God? was it (belike) in the Gospell of Saint Luther? But where as he sayth were seales of [Page 15] the worde of God, for were seales of the promise of grace, it is but a cunning peece of forgery, thereby to make vs seeme to repose all the au­thority of Gods worde on the Sacraments, which we before haue refuted. Thus he presumes to pul a dead lyon by the beard, whose very lookes, were he liuing, he durst not abide. But I pray, Sir, tell vs first in what Gospell you read that Sacra­ments are not seales of the promise of Grace, nor con­firme our faith, but that they bestowe grace, that they iustifie & sanctifie, if they be of the old te­stament, by vertue of the very actiō of the receiuer; if of the new, by the worke done, evē without faith, or any good intēt, or motiō of the receiuers (wher­as contrary-wise the scripture speaketh playnly, that Circumcision profitteth [...] them that keepe the lawe, Rom. 2. 26. but to the transgressors thereof it is vncircumcision. Mar. 16. 16. Those which beleeue and are baptized shall be saued. 1. Cor. 11. 28. Wee must examine our selues, [...] so eate of this holy bread) In what gospell (I saye) reade you this? Belyke in som Layolan or Gregoriō Calendar. Now one the other side hearken where Luther hath reade, that sacramēts are seals of the promise of grace. God sayth of circumcision,Gen. 7. 11. That it may be a signe of the couenant betweene me and you. But Paule in­terpreteth this couenant to be grace, Rom. 4. 11. & the righte­ousnesse of fayth. Exo. 12. 13. Of the Passeover, That bloud shall be vnto you for for a signe vpon those houses where yee are, that seing that bloud I may passe over you. But this Passeover did signifye the grace of Christ. 1. Cor. 5. 7. Of Bap­tisme, Mat. 28. 28. Baptize all nations in the name (that is, in the [Page 16] authority, commaundem [...]nt, & steede) of the father, Act. 22. 16. the sonne, & the holy Ghost. And: Arise, wash away thy sinnes. And, Baptisme is the washing of new birth. Tit. 3. 5. Baptisme saueth vs. not that wherewith wee wash away the filth of [...], but that whereby with a good conscience we make request vnto God. 1. Pet. 3. 21. Of the Lords Supper:1. Cor. 11. 25. This cup is the new testamēt in my blood. Also Doe this in remembrance of me. This if you vnderstand you haue the thinge you sought for, namely where in scripture Sacraments of both lawes are said to be seales of grace. (For why, as you vse to say, should sacraments of the new testa­mēt be of worse conditiō thē those of the old?) if you do not vnderstand, you are not worthy to be called a maister in Israel, which know not thatForma [...] [...] esse. Basil. lib. 3. contra Eu­non. na­turally it belongeth vnto all sacraments to signifie & seale vnto the faithfull some promise of grace. Listen farther vnto the Fathers of the Church, as Basil, who confesseth plainly what you deny impudēt­ly: [...], that is, For baptisme is the seale of saith. Tertull. li. de poenit. And Tertullian, spea­king of baptisme in this sort;August. de cat. rud. cap. 18. This washing is a seale of our faith: And Austen, who termeth the sacra­ments certaine visible seales of heauenly thinges. Do you not now blush at your owne question, Where red Luther this?

So dismissing Luther he settes vpon Zwinglius, taking vpon him to lash (for sooth) & scourge his opinion That Sacramentes are signes of engadg­ing our selues vnto God. But we haue already proved that here the Stage-mā doth but play the caviller. [Page 17] At the length rouzing himselfe more terribly against Caluin, Of [...] Betweene Luther (saith he) & Caluin this is the difference, that whereas hath [...]ake the Sa­craments testimonies or scales of Gods promise, Luther will haue that promise to be of present iustificatio [...], [...] Cal­uin of eternall election. And least he should [...] to say an vntruth, he cites a place out of Cal [...]n, Antidor. concili [...], Sess. 6. ca. 5. as if he should there say, that infants are baptized, not to the end they might be receiued into adoption of the sonnes of God, but that vnto them the promise of life might be sealed, vnto whome before by grace of predestination it pertained.Cauill And out of the 7. Session and 8. Canon, as if there hee should wright, that the right end and vse of sa­craments is this, to ascertaine vs of the eternall ado [...] ­tion & grace, whereunto before the foundation of the world we were predestinated, Thus farre the Iesuite, but all impudently & without shame. For Caluin in neither place speaketh one [...]ote of eternall e­lectiō, or the grace of predestination. Only in the former this he saith: Insants are for this reason bapti­zed, because they are heires of the promise. For vnlesse the promise of life did before pertaine vnto thē, that man should prophane baptisme, whosoeuer did but minister it vnto them. In the latter these are his wordes. All­though baptisme be the hand-wrighting of that mutuall obligation which is betweene God & vs, yet the especiall vse thereof is, to assure vs of free remission of our sinnes, and perpetuall grace of adoption. But is this to deny that sacraments are seales of the promise of presēt [Page 18] iustification? Is this to restraine sacraments one­ly to thinges past, as namely to the grace of electiō? But this is Bellarmines trust and fidelity in citing the wordes and sentences of the Fathers and our Doctors. Such are his two whole▪ volumes of dis­putations, namely a rude rable of false quotatiōs, which if the learned shall vouchsafe in courtesie to examine, they shall soone see this doubtie dis­putant left as as dry as a kexe. But to the purpose. That the sacraments are seales of our eternall election, although I deny not but that in the lawfull vsing and worthy receiuing of them it is most true yet remember I not, that Caluin hath any where thus written, nay the Vbiquitaries of our daies slander Caluin & Beza as maintainers of a cleane contra­ry error, to witt, that they vtterly deny the sa­craments to be seales of our election: which also is altogether false. But the simple & naked truth of Calvines doctrine is this. Sacraments profite bee­ing vsed a righte, and doe exhibit seale and confirm [...] grace vnto the worthy receiuer, not in regard eyther of the worke wrought, or the deserte of the worker, but in respecte of the promise of God instituting or ordaininge them, as also through the faith of the worthy receiuer. And here by grace he vnderstandeth euen our saluation it selfe, together with all the precedent causes, meanes, and consequentes thereof, such as are, our free election, remission of sinnes, rege­neration, sanctification, and life eternall: So that by the name of grace he cōpriseth, both grace past and already giuen, togither with that which is presēt [Page 19] and to come, but especially that which is there in the sacramente exhibited and present. For euen our election before the world was, is sealed and and assured vnto vs by the sacraments, not as it is from aleternities decreed by God, or as a thing done heretofore and past, but as the present and constante decree of God reuealed in the Gospell concerning our saluation in Christ, and by the same sacramentes everlasting life is confirmed not as a future good, but as already we haue takē possession thereof by faith.

For confirmation of this truth I could produce an infinite number of testimonies out of Caluin his Christian institution: but it shall suffice to re­fute the Iesuite by the coūter-poyson of his Coū ­sels: Can: 7. on the sacraments Caluin saith thus: God in the sacramēts doth promise grace not only of ele­ction, but also of iustification, Can. 4. Sacramentes are seales of the Gospell. And can it bee denied but that the Gospell is a promise of actuall & present iustification by faith? Can: 8. In baptisme God washeth vs by the bloode of his son, & by his spirite doth regenerate vs. In the sa­crament of the supper he feedeth vs with the body and blood of Christ. Can 7. of baptisme: this is a principall part of baptisme, that is assureth us of free remission of all our sins: & what is this els but present sustification? and these may serue to cōvince the Iesuit of a militious slāder, cōcerning the seals of our electiō, that Cal­v [...] vnderstandeth them not onely of things past.

But who seeth not his absurd collection, that if the Sacraments may goe for seales of our eter­nall [Page 20] election, that then they shall not be seales of present iustification? Are not election & iusti­fication subordinate, and consequents one of the other? so farre are they from abolishing one the other, that the contrary should rather be infer­ed; they are seales of our eternall election, there­fore of iustification & present grace. For iustifi­cation is so proper, & naturall an affecte of elec­tion, that there can be had no certainty of the latter, without assurance of the former. For they who are iustified in Christ, Eph: 1. 4. are also chosen to him before the foundation of the world. Whome God hath pr [...]desti­nated these also hath he called, Rom 8. 30. iustified, and glorified. Now then let the Iesuite with open mouth exclāe on Caluins opinion as false, absurde, dangerous, and impious. And why forsooth false? Because (saith he) Caluin, contrary to that which the Scripture teacheth, restrayneth Sacraments only vnto the thinge past, namely to the grace of election. But this cauill is already refuted.

And why absurde? Because (saith he) he reach­eth that by the Sacraments the promises are sealed vn­to our consciences, & yet that infantes are lawfully bap­tised, which noyther haue vse of reason nor conscience. But we haue already sufficiently proued, that neyther infantes borne in the Church of beleeu­ing parentes, are altogether voyde of reason o [...] faith, if we respecte the promised grace, although actually they haue neyther the faith nor reason, which is in those of riper yeares: nor that bapti­sing of Children & confirmation of their faith [Page 21] by Sacraments is therfore to be differred because they doe not beleeue, seeing of the Sacramentes there are other endes & purposes whereunto they are ordained.

But why pernicious and dangerous. Because he teacheth that the children of the faithfull are borne iust and holy, and hath perswaded many that the sacraments are not necessary vnto the receiving of the grace of Christ. Whence it is come to passe, that many contemne the said sacraments, and in the meane while the soules of many infantes never purified by the saving vvaters of baptisme, abide in perpetuall corruption. And is it in deed pernicious to teach, that the children of the faithfull are borne holy, that is, not straungers, but heires of the covenāt, according to that promise; I will be thy God, and the God of thy seede? That there­fore is likewise pernicious which the Apostle tea­cheth;Rom. 11. 16 If the roote be holy, the branches also are holie. And the vnbeleeving wife is sanctified by her husbande, Cor. 7. 14. else were your children vncleane; but now they are holy. And this is the chiefe comfort of godly parentes, that they knowe that both branch and roote are sanctified, that is, that they & their children may from their mothers wombe plead priviledge in the covenant with God, by vertue of the free pro­mise made vnto them and their seed after them.

But they are by nature the sonnes of wrath? Who knowes not that? Calvin teacheth both that they are the sonnes of wrath in regard of nature; and sonnes of the covenant in respect of grace: according to that of Saint Peter; Act. 3. 25 Yee are the sonnes of the Prophets & [Page 20] nall election, that then they shall not be seales of present iustification? Are not election & iusti­fication subordinate, and consequents one of the other? so farre are they from abolishing one the other, that the contrary should rather be infer­ed; they are seales of our eternall election, there­fore of iustification & present grace. For iustifi­cation is so proper, & naturall an affecte of elec­tion, that there can be had no certainty of the latter, without assurance of the former. For they who are iustified in Christ, Eph: 1. 4. are also chosen to him before the foundation of the world. Whome God hath prodesti­nated those also hath he called, Rom. 8. 30. iustified, and glorified. Now then let the Iesuite with open mouth ex [...]āe on Caluins opinion as false, absurde, dangerous, and impious. And why forsooth false? Because (saith he) Caluin, contrary to that which the Scripture teacheth, restrayneth Sacraments only vnto the thinge past, namely to the grace of election. But this cauill is already refuted.

And why absurde? Because (saith he) he teach­eth that by the Sacraments the promises are sealed vn­to our consciences, & yet that infantes are lawfully bap­tised, which neyther haue vse of reason nor conscience. But we haue already sufficiently proued, that neyther infantes borne in the Church of beleeu­ing parentes, are altogether voyde of reason or faith, if we respecte the promised grace, although actually they haue neyther the faith nor reason, which is in those of riper yeares: nor that bapti­sing of Children & confirmation of their faith [Page 21] by Sacraments is therfore to be differred because they doe not beleeue, seeing of the Scramentes there are other endes & purposes whereunto they are ordained.

But why pernicious and dangerous. Because he teacheth that the children of the faithfull are borne iust and holy, and hath perswaded many that the sacraments are not necessary vnto the receiving of the grace of Christ. Whence it is come to passe, that many contemne the said sacraments, and in the meane while the soules of many infantes never purified by the saving vvaters of baptisme, abide in perpetuall corruption. And is it in deed pernicious to teach, that the children of the faithfull are borne holy, that is, not straungers, but heires of the covenāt, according to that promise; I will be thy God, and the God of thy seede? That there­fore is likewise pernicious which the Apostle tea­cheth:Rom. 11. 16. If the roote be holy, Cor. 7. 14. the branches also are holie. And the vnbeleeving wise is sanctified by her husbande, else were your children vncleane; but now they are holy. And this is the chiefe comfort of godly parentes, that they knowe that both branch and roote are sanctified, that is, that they & their children may from their mothers wombe plead privilege in the covenant with God, by vertue of the free pro­mise made vnto them and their seed after them.

But they are by nature the sonnes of wrath? Who knowes not that? Calvin teacheth both that they are the sonnes of wrath in regard of nature; and sonnes of the covenant in respect of grace: according to that of Saint Peter; Act. 3. 2 [...]. Yee are the sonnes of the Prophets & [Page 22] of the covenant. That is spoken against the Pelagi­ans denying originall sinne; this against the so­phistes, tying grace to the sacraments: neither of these is perniciously taught, because either [...] & according to scripture. Let Calvines Christian in­stitution be searched, and his Commentary on those words of Saint Paule; we are all by nature the sennes of wrath. Thence may the Iesuite, and Selneccer, and Hunnius, and all the rabble of Calvines adversaries learne, that originall sinne is as naturall vnto vs as poison to a serpent, & yet neverthelesse the chil­dren of the faithful are a seede blessed even from their mothers wombe. Or if it like them better) let them heare and reconcile David confessing of himselfe,Psal. 51. 5. Behold I am borne in sinne, and my mother cō ­ceived me to inquity. And yet else-where he com­fortes himselfe in this manner,psa. 71. 4. 5. On thee haue I de­pended from the time wherein I was borne, and from my mothers wombe thou art my God: or God himselfe cōplaining in this sort of mans nature.Gen. 6. The thought of mans heart is wicked from his childhood, and yet Ie­remie witnessing, Before I framed thee in thy mothers belly I knew thee; & before thou camest out of her womb I sanctified thee. Thus the Iesuite sees in what re­spect Calvin saith that infantes are borne holy: namely not simply, and wholy, but in some sort I shall hardly beleeue vnlesse the Iesuites shewe it, that it is found in Calvin that they are borne iust. For in this life it is not all one to be holy, and to be iust.

Now whereas hee patcheth this vnto the rest, that Calvin hath perswaded many, that the sacraments [Page 23] are not necessary vnto the receiving of the grace of Christ, and that therevpon hath followed the contēpt of baptisme with the destructiō of many souls, this is part­ly a cavill, & partly a plaine sophisme. A cavill that Calvin should altogither deny the necessity of sa­cramēt, a sophisme in imputing to his doctrine the contempt of baptisme, which the Iesuite faineth to haue ensued therevpon.

Indeede he doth not binde God and grace vn­to the sacraments, nor falsly placeth in thē an ab­solute necessity, as do these Sophisters. His purpose is only with Bernard to cond [...]ne, not the absence, but contempt of sacramentes. But is this to per­suade many that sacramentes are not necessary. Heare (I pray you) what himselfe hath written of this matter in his [...]stitution. Now (saith hee) even hereby it appeareth that their conceit is to be cassiered, who adiudge all that haue not beene baptized vnto eter­nall death, &c. The promise of God is manifest: whosoe­ver beleeveth in the sonne shall not see death, nor come into iudgment, but is already passed from death into life. Which I would not haue so taken, as if I meant that bap­tisme might be contemned without offence (for I am so farre from excusing this contempt, that I affirme the league and covenant of God thereby to bee violated and broken) thus much it suffiseth to proue, that it is not so necessary, that we must needes thinke him damned, who shall be debarred all meanes and opportunity of ob­taining it. But if we yeeld to their devise we must with­out exception condemne all those whom any chance shall hinder from baptisme, how great so ever bee their [...], [Page 24] whereby Christ himselfe is possessed. And in his Anti­dot [...] (saith he) that the vse of those helpes of our salva [...]n which Christ hath giuen vnto vs may be said to be nec [...]ry, [...] there is opportunity of receiving [...]. Howbe [...] [...]he faithfull are alwaies to bee admoni­sh [...] that the necessary of a sacrament is none other the [...] [...] wherevnto the power of God is not to [...]. Indeede there is no good man whose [...] tremble at that [...], The Sacramēts ARE THINGS SVPERFLVOVS, &c. These are his word▪ which thoroughly retort and refell the [...].

But children are borne holy, therefore they need not be baptised, whence en [...]th a contempt of baptisme. Nay rather contrarywise because they are borne holy, that is, sons and heires of the covenant, they had neede be baptised. For (saith Calvin elsewhere) they are not received into the church by baptisme for a­ny other reason, but because before they were borne they did appertai [...]e vnto the body of Christ. Otherwise the children of Christians ought no more to be bapti­zed then the children of Turkes. Wherefore Pe­ter exhorteth the lews to be baptised in the name of Iesus Christ. Wherefore? because (saith he) the pro­mise was made to you and to your children. This ther­fore is the reason why baptisme is due vnto our children and not vnto the children of Turkes be­cause they from their mothers wombs are childrē of the promise, which these are not. Wherefore the contempt of baptisme cannot ensue on that, which vnto the godly, is the chiefe motiue of de­siring [Page 25] and ministring baptisme: neither neede we to feare least that should turne to the destruction of soules, wherevpon is grounded the especiall comfort of parentes & children, togither with the iust desire of baptisme. And if the Iesuite proceed therefore to accoūt the baptisme of childrē vaine, because the infants of the church even from their birth are reckned in the covenant: let me intreate him to learne of his maister Lombard, that baptisme is a sacrament of remission of sinnes before graunted through faith. But O heavy sentence pronounced by the Maister of Sentences, Infantes dying vnbapti­sed, though in carrying vnto baptisme are damned! O not onely pernicious, but impious also and cruell divinity of the Iesuites, enthralling God vnto ele­ments, chaining his power with absolute necessity (wil he nil he) vnto signes and sacraments, con­demning no lesse bloudily, then impiously vnto hel many thousands of infantes who without any faulte of theirs coulde not bee baptized, yea al­though they be adiudged by Christ himselfe vn­to the kingdome of heaven. I know the authori­ty of Austine is here pretended, who writ that in­fantes dying vnbaptised must needes be damned, but to milde and gentle damnation. And if they so applaud this error of that most holy & learned Father, why doe they not as well mainetaine an other of the same Fathers, altogither relying on the same [...] that infantes likewise without receiving the [...] s [...]p­per cannot bee saved? Heerevnto they force Saint Ambrose, but the learned not without good cause [Page 26] doe rather thinke that Prosper was the author of those books wherein this is found then Ambrose. For what Ambrose thought may appeare by his o­ration of the death of Valentinian; as also how god­ly is the iudgement of Bernard concerning the godly not baptized: God be mercifull vnto me. For I cannot desparre of saluation, for want onely of the wa­ter of baptisme: I can not accoumpt faith vaine, I can not confoud hope or forgoe charity, especially it onely im­possibility, & not contempt forbidde that water.

Last of all the Iesuite inueigheth against the opinion of Ca [...]uen as impious. But why! because (saith he) it maketh the sacraments false, the mini­ster sacrilegiouse, Gea himselfe altar, & as it were per­tured. For if a sacrament be a diuine oath & seale, wherby the promise of eternall election is sealed, then as often as it falleth out (which is very often) that the reprobate are baptized, euen so often is cōmeth to passe that the wordes of the sacrament are false, & God him­selfe altar in the mouth of the minister. This iniuri­ous vntruth is more sharpe & shamelesse then all the rest, whose bull-warkes notwithstanding, builded forsooth on the seales not of presēt grace but onely of election already past, we haue suffi­ciently battered. The rest is answered in a worde: that sacraments do promise and seale vnto vs the grace of God, if they be in their right vse: which is not, when they are received by the reprobate. This only might suffice to cause the Iesuites cavill to vanish like smoake before the winde. Howbe­it I am content to answere more distinctly.

[Page 27] A sacrament doeth not become false, though sometimes it bee in vaine ministred vnto the re­probate making shew of faith. For in it selfe it stil remaineth a seale of grace, though not vnto thē, because they beleeue not: as the sonne howsoe­ver in it selfe glorious and glistring, yet shineth it not vnto the blinde, because they see not. For it is a signe, conditionall, so offering and sealing grace vnto vs, that withal on our parts it requireth faith & conversion: which whosoeuer bring not with them, it neither bestoweth nor sealeth vnto them any thing, neither is it vnto them a sacramēt, that is, a seale of grace, through their owne fault: for it is no vse but an horrible abuse of a sacrament, to be received of the reprobate without faith. The scripture every where teacheth that nothing can be accounted a sacrament without the vse there­vnto appointed by God:Rom. 3. 35. If thou be a transgressor of the law thy on cumcision is made vncircumcision. And This is not to eate the Lordes supper. Cor. 11. 20. And he which of­fereth an oxe, Es. 66. 3. is as if he offerea a dogge. The baptisme of Simon. Magus was a true sacrament, but not vn­to him,Act. 5. 21. for his hypocrisie, as Peter witnesseth, Thou hast no part nor fellowsh p [...]nth businesse, for thy hearte is not right. That sop in the Lords supper was a true sacrament, but poison to Iudas, not because in it selfe it was evill, but because the evill man did e­villy receiue that which was good. To conclude, by Lombard his owne confession, baptisme is alike holy, whether ministred vnto the good or evill: & there­fore alike true. But will you cal Peter sacrilegious, [Page 28] because to Simon Magus a reprobate, but profes­sing the Apostolique faith, he in Gods name oste­red grace, and to his power sealed it by baptisme? But this he did not absolutely, but with conditiō if he truely beleeued: as Phillip said vnto the Eu­nuch, thou maist bee baptised, if thou beleeue withall thy heart. If therfore he did not truely beleeue he sea­led nothing vnto him, as rightly faith your friend Lombard, The visible baptisme did nothing profit Simon Magus, because he wanted the invisible. Moreover he discharged his duety, which was not to search the secrets of hearts, or sounde the vnmeasurable gulfe of Gods predestination, but to baptise the professors of faith, whether hypocrites, or no. For the church iudgeth not of things so secret, but on­ly the hart-searching God. The like reason serveth for all other Ministers, which ought to iudge of those that are to bee baptised, not according to Gods predestinatiō, but mans professiō & Christs commandement. This if they doe, themselues are not sacrilegious, but the reprobate hypocrits who vnreverently and irreligiously presse to the sa­craments.

But fie on that his blasphemy, where hee saith, that if sacraments bee ministred vnto reprobate hypo­crites yet vnrevealed, then God must lie by the mouth of the minister. Did God (thinkest thou) lie by Peters mouth when he baptised Simon Magus? He seti­ously and sincerely by his word & sacrament of­fereth adoption and grace vnto al, purposing also to bestow it, but cōditionally, if they beleeue: & cō ­mandeth [Page 29] thē to beleeue, and receiue by faith the grace offered. But to infidels and hypocrites he is so far frō promising or sealing any grace of adop­tion and election whē they force themselues vn­to the sacrament, that he threatneth them with a terrible and feareful iudgement. Hee therefore is true in offering, howsoeuer the grace offered to the vnbeleeuers be of none effect.

But (saith the Iesuite) he doth not onely offer, Art. 2. but indeede also bestowe it, when men are indeede baptized. We graunt it. For this Calvin also confesseth in Antidot. Artic. Paris. speaking on this manner. The godly do all confesse that in baptisme is offered, Antidot. Concil. Sess. 7. in Can. 7. yea & exhibited or giuen vnto vs both remission of our sins, & grace of the holy spirite. But (saith he els where) these good fathers by reason of their grossenesso doe not here obserue, that what grace so euer is by sacraments bestowed on vs, must notwithstanding be imputed vnto faith; For he which sondereth faith from the sacramērs, doth as [...]f he seuered the soule frō the body! God there­fore doth indeed giue that which he offereth, but vnto those that beleeue. To the vnbeleeuing he neyther promiseth nor performeth any thinge as longe as they continew in their vnbeleife: & that through their owne fault; because by infidelity they refused the good offered, & as much as in them lieth, make a mocke of God which offereth it. This Cauill therefore of the lesuites is no lesse impudent and blasphemous against God, then was that of the Iewes, who accused God of per­fidiousnesse, vnlesse he would performe the coue­nant [Page 30] evē to the vnbeleeuers: which the Apostle retorting: shall (saith hee) their vnbeleife make the faith of God vaine? Rom. 3. 3. God forbidae. Let God be [...], & euery man a lyar.

Well then. Let vs now returne the Iesuites blasphemy vpon his head. Both he & his mailler Lombard teach, that reprobation is nothing else, but that some there are on whom God will haue no mercy. For so doeth the maister of sentences define it. Suppose thē that the Iesuite even by the very worke wrought either of baptisme or of the masse should bestow the grace of sanctificatiō vpon Simon Ma­gus or the like reprobate, shall not hee and the sa­crament become now sacrilegious, in conferring grace on a reprobate, of whom God will haue no mercy? may shall not he make God himselfe a lier and contrary to himselfe, in his name bestowing, or testifying (vnlesse he altogither exclude God out of the sacraments) that God himselfe bestow­eth the grace of sanct [...]fication on a reprobate, on whom notwithstanding hee hath for all eternity decreed to bestowe nothing, and on whom God will haue no mercy. From this blasphemy howe the Iesuite can acquite himselfe maintaining his opinion of the worke wrought, let him looke to it. But howsoeuer he acquite himselfe. he must with­all discharge Calvin of the cavill devised against him.

Let this suffice briefly for answere to the per­verse peevishnesse of this stage declaiming Iesuit. The rest which hee disputeth towardes the ende [Page 31] pertaineth nothing to vs: well they may prevaile vpon those against whom they were vvritten, namely Swenckefield & his brethren Vbiquitaries, common corrupters of the doctrine of Christ his person, and the sacraments.

A PREFACE TO THE FOVRTH PART OF the Catechisme, wherin are desciphered the pestilent pamphlets of some Divines of this age: and Calvin the most valiant Champion defendant of Christ his glory is briefely cleered of the slaunderous crime of Arrianisme. *⁎*

THe argumēt of this part, (which is Of mans thank­fullnesse towards God) en­forceth me to enter the Common complaint of all the godly against the bruit blockishnesse and foule in gratitude of the world, which after so ma­ny inestimable benefits heaped by almightye God most aboundantly on these our latter daies, hath onely thus farre profited, that vnthankfull men continually become worse and worse, as if they had sworne perpetual warre against so good a God, & gracious a benefactor. For howe huge a cloud of witnesses of Gods cōtinuall kindnesse. [Page 33] doth enuiron vs round about what hath been de­nied vnto this age that men could haue wished, thereby to haue made this life happy & blessed? I speake not of blessingee common or generall, how many, & how pretious are those we haue receiued in particular? The light of the Gospel & sincerity of doctrine renewed; the purity of sa­craments, the trew worshippe of God, and rea­ding of holy scripture restored, the discouery of Antichrist, the chasing of darknesse, the flight of supersticion, the ruine of of idolatry, & the liber­ty of the church after long seruitude restored. These so inestinable treasures how few of vs doe worthily regard▪ & not rather with bestiall bloc­kishnesse overpasse, or shameles impudency dis­daine? One saide some times of the Athenians that they knew what was good, but did it not. How much more may we Christians be ashamed of our selues, who not only do not that which we know to be good, and know it by the light of the Gos­pell (not as they did by the light of nature:) but also doe euen those thinges which we know are not good? The whole worlde is now possessed with security, profanenes, ambition, luxurye, en­vy, contempte of doctrine, abuse of sacraments, surfet of preaching, & what not? How many are there of those which withhold the truth in vnrighteousnesse▪ of those which professe God in their knowledge but deny him in their life? of backesliding Apostataes, who eyther inforced by the vnsta [...]ednesse of the [...] owne conceipt, looke [Page 34] backe to the Aegigptian flesh-pottes, or begui­led by seducing spirites daily reuolt from Christ to Antichrist, like dogges returning to their yo [...] mit? but this ingratitude is perhappes a fault in­cident to the common sort.

O then that the greater part of our Prelates would ascend vnto these breaches, and draw a counter-mure and sence before the house of Isra­el, & not lyke subtile foxes secke to fat [...]e them­selues with the spoiles, & publique scandales of the church, as Ezechiel complained of the pro­phets of his time. It hath bin euer a great plague vnto the church to make sale of the word of G [...]d or wrest it to the affections of men, to the lust & fauour of the mighty, to pride and vaine glory, to couetousnesse and luxurie. But much more perniciouse is that plague which at this day with applause of the multitude consumeth the very bowelles of the church, namely the decay of ec­clesiasticall iudgment: whereas in the meane time through ambition, auarice, enuy, & desire of attempting any thing, as euery one is of face most brazē, of tongue most intēperate, so much the rather he affecteth, & by fauour of the multi­tude obteineth the most eminent places of dig­nity in the church. Hence proceede those infor­tunate broils betweene gouerners of the church, who for the most part studying strife not quiet­nesse, & plotting quarrell vpon quarrell, labour by all meanes possible that ecclesiasticall contro­verfies (by which they study to advance them­selues [Page 35] to a rich and glorious estate) may neuer come to the lawfull hearing, debating or quie­ting. Hence also haue proceeded so many pesti­lent & pernicious wrightings neuer spiced with any spirit of mildenesse & charity, but seasoned with the vnsauoury salt of vnulence & malice, & tainted with the poisoned s [...]inges of harefull slan­ders, wherwith (for sooth) at this day Diuinity is thought to bee beautified, and our doctrine of holinesse shall be presented vnto posteritie. This is the head of the mischeife;Two sorts of slounde­rous wrigh­tings among Diuines. which that it may the better be cōceiued I speake of two sortes of wrightings now published.

The first is meerely slanderous, wherein the memory of Christes faithfull seruantes deseruing passing wel of the church (namely Zwinglius Cal­vin, Bucer, Martir, [...], Zanchius, Bizi, Gry­naeus, & others as well liuing, as dead, who teach that the fleshly feeding on Christes body with our mouthes is contrary to the truth of the Gos­pell) is fowly wronged, their fame rent & razed, their wrightings (whence notwithstanding those foxers after their preaching cā be cōtent in their priuate studies to borrow most of ther skill) are spightfully taxed, their true sense peruerted their wordes wrongfully wrested, & lastly themselues proclaimed authors of most damnable heresies.

In this kinde next vnto Schmi [...]line that Arch-Vbiquitar [...]e excelled lately one Selneccer, and now Hunnius and Heilbrunner; wherof the former hath not long since put in printe twelue chiefe heades [Page 36] mischievously compiled; the later hath in maner afore-saide lately published fifteene chapters of Calvines errors: the middlemost being a Questi­onist burdeneth Calvin with A [...]sme, [...]iting certaine places which by the Fathers were inter­preted of Christ, but by him somewhat other­wise vnderstood. But no ingratitude more spight­full, then to slaunder them by whose paines thou haste reaped profitte, and the Church in generall so greate a benefite; no presumption more intollerable, then to bite and beate sel­low-servaunts, and to revile the deale and [...] nothinge lesse sutable to the dignity of a Di­vine, then to play the sycophant or false accu­fer.

Let vs for examples sake instance in that one place of Genesis the 3. concerning the seede of the vvoman that shoulde breake the serpentes heade which they complaine to bee horribly corrup­red by Calvin, because hee interpreteth the seeat of the vvoman not particularly of Christ alone, but generally of the whole Church and posterity of the woman. But were they not shameless [...] in mangling that interpretation of Calvines which should be wholy cited, they would s [...]ne be: sha­med of so grosse a cavil. For to let passe, that ma­ny ancient Fathers before Calvin, and amongst them Chrysostome doeth so interpret that place▪ First they never date deny,Homil. 17. [...] Genes. that the seede of the serpent, wherevnto the seede of the vvoman is op­posed, must by right in this place be generally vn­derstood. [Page 37] Secondlie the vntruth of this cauill is hereby descried, in that they wright that Cal­vine, should restraine this enmity to men and ex­ternall, that is common and visible serpentes: whereas Calvine expresseley addeth, that GOD in this place vnder the name of the serpent, doth especially [...] at Sathan, against whom he thun­dereth out this iudgement. Lastly, that hee so interpreteth the womans seede of the Church, that withall especially he includeth CHRIST the head of the Church, his very wordes doe wit­nesse which they wickedly dismember, when he addeth. VVhereas experience teacheth that all the so [...]es of Ad [...]m are farie from vanquishing the divell; vvee must therefore needes haue recourse vn­to one heade, that so wee may learne to vvhome es­pecially this victorie doeth pertan [...]e. So Paule lea­deth vs from the seede of Abraham vnto Christ. &c. But is this to make slay vpon the externall enmi­ty betwixt men and serpents? to restraine the vi­ctory vnto men? to exclude Christ?

All this not withstanding Hunnius proceedeth yet father, chardging Calvin with the shifting of many most evident oracles concerning Christs protecting and p [...]tronaging the blasphemies of the lovnes, furthering that damned heresie of Arrianis [...]e, weakening the grounds and argu­mentes of the Church, and disanulling the au­thoritye of aunciente Fathers. These indeede are grieuous crimes, whereof notwithstanding I coulde casilie cleare him, were it not for mis­pendinge [Page 38] too much time and talke. But by the two first slaunders wee may easily iudge of all the rest.

And is it indeed so euident an oracle when Moses saith: Bara El [...]him: that a verbe singular ioyned with anoune plurall must needes signifie the vnity of the diuine essence, & trinity of per­sons? This Caluin tooke for none of the sufficient rest proofes of so great a matter. But if it bee so strong and evident an argument of the Trinity, wh [...] did not you (Master Hannius) place it with the [...] in your tracte vpon the Trinity? why did you quite over slip it?

The words of Eue, [...] Gen. 4. Canuhiis [...] hath Ieho­vah: Calvin thus translated; I haue obtained a man to the Lord: Hunn [...]us exclaimeth against him for cor­rupting a most evidēt testimony of the God head of the M [...]suas: [...]. because (in his opinion) Eue [...]aith, I haue obtained a man he Lorde. for a [...]h in Hebrew is a perpetuall note of the accusatiue case. But if this be true, why then did the 70. Interpreters trā ­slate it by the Lord? [...] [...]. the Tha [...]gum before the Lord the ancient Latin, & [...] through the Lord? the Dutch translation of Luther 45. yeares since of the Lord? Per Deun. Domini. doe all these play the lewes with Calvin? I instance no farther.

Well then: shall Calvin therefore be an here­tique, for n [...]t simply approving these and other such like argumentes vsed by the Fathers against heretiques? must he needs therefore be an Arrian and a lew? too hard a slander of so excellent a ser­vant [Page 39] of God. For what man is there that with grea­ter courage and learning hath maintained against all heretiques the reverend mistery of the sacred Trinity, or Christes eternall Deity? who hath euer­more sharpely reproved and repressed those mad dogges Servetus, Gentilis. with their confederates in villany, Alciat, B [...]andrat and the rest?

And if he observed some proofes not plaine or pregnant enough vsed by the ancient fathers in their conflictes against heretiques, what of that? for al this he hath resolutely avouched an hūdred other thinges concerning the eternall Deity of Christ against all fallacies and forgeries of lews & heretiques: whereof least any should make doubt, I will shew iust proofe by one or two examples out of his commentaries.

Gen. 1. v. 3. Which alone, saith he (meaning the creation of the world by the word of God) is suf­ficient to refu [...]e the blasphemie of Servetus. Heere the foule-mouthed heast doth barke. saying that this was the first beginning of the Word, when God commandea that there should be light. Whereas much better might be in­ferred the eternal essence thereof, considering that there we [...]e vpon the suddame created by the word of God, such things as before were not Where fore the Apostles proofe of Christs Divinity standes with good reason, that wher­as hee is the Worde of GOD, by him were all thinges created.

Exod. 3. v. 2. Proving that Christ was that An­gell of the Lord, he wrighteth after this manner: The anciens Doctors [...] truely thinke that the eternall [Page 40] Son of God was so called in respect of his Mediatorship. And shortly after No maruell therefore if the eter­nall worde of God, being one & the same in essence and deitie with the father, tooke vpon him the name of a [...] angel, in regarde of he embassage by him afterward to be vndertake. The two oracles of Esaie in the 7. cha. and [...]4. v. touching the fruit of the virgins wōbe called Immanuel: & in the 9. cap. & 6. v. cōcer­ning a sonne giuen vnto vs, he doth so violently extorte from the Iewes, & so strongly proue thē to be meant of the onely begotten sonne of God borne of the virgin Marie, that no man lightly could haue done it better. And where Ieremie in his [...]3. ca. & 5. v. speaketh of raysinge vp a budde or branch vnto Dauid, he vseth these words: Here therefore God recall [...]th them vnto the Messias. And soone after, Without doubt heere the Prophet speak­eth of Christ. Where also at largelie refuteth the Iewes, endeuouring to streame this branch to all the posteritie of Dauid. And after against the same Iewes: One & the same redeemer as called as well the sonne of Dauid as Iehouah. How is he called the sonne of Dauid? because he was to [...] of that liue. How then Iehouah? Hence trulie is gathered that [...] there is some thing more excellent the man and he is called Iehouah or the Lord, because he is the onely begotten sonne of God one altogeather with the fa­ther in nature, glorie, eternitie, & Divinitie.

In the 12 ca. & 14. v. of the prophecy of Hose, shewing how he is both Iehouah & also an angell: Christ (saith he) the eternall wisedome of God, did [Page 41] put on the person of a Mediator before he was clothed with our flesh. He was therefore even then a Mediator, and in that respect also an angell. Meane while he was also then Iehouab, who is now God manifested in the flesh. And afterwards Thus is this place worthie the remembrance to witnesse the Deitie of Christ.

Vpon the 4. ca. of Micah, the 3. v. The Prophet M [...]cah speaketh of God himselfe, not expressely mentio­ning Christ, because he was not as yet manifested in the flesh: how be it we know that this was fulfilled in his per­son, that God hath gouerned the worlde, & subdued vnto himselfe all the nations of the earth, we therefore avouch Christ to bee true God, because he did not onely minister to his father, as Moses or any other of the Prophets; but was himselfe also high souereigne of his church. & in the 7. ver. of the same chap. Though Christ was the true seede of Dauid, yet was he withall Iehouah likewise, that is God reuealed in the flesh.

In the 1. of Zachar. the 19. v. Wee must remem­ber what I saide before: that this cheife a [...]gell was the mediator & head of the church. But he also is Iehouah. because we know that Christ is God manifested in the flesh.

Zach. 2. v. 8. Hence we geather that Christ is here pr [...]figured, who is himselfe verie Iehouah, but withall the angell & messenger of his father. & in the 10 ver. We see therefore that the name of Iehouah is fitted vnto Christ, & that there is no difference of na­ture betwixte the father & the sonne, but that they are to be distinguished onely in person. As often therefore as Christ declareth his Diui [...]itie, he taketh vnto him­selfe [Page 42] the name of Iehouah: But afterwardes he shewed that in himselfe he hath some thinge peculiar and dis­tinct, namely this, that he is the messenger or Embassa­dour of his father.

Zach. 3. ver. 3. Now we see that he is termed an Angell, who was of [...]n named Iehouah. For my [...] therefore I make no question but that the name as wel of angell as of ehouah should be referred to the per­son of Christ, who is the true & onelie God.

Zach. 11. ver. 14. This wee must holde for a prin­ciple, that Christ from the beginning was the true Ie­houah. Because therefore the son of God is of the sa [...] nature with the Father, & also one God together with him, &c. with like fidelitie & perspicuitie doth he euerie where in his commentaries vpon the new Testament, maintaine the eternal Deitie and Coexistence of our sauiour Christ. [...].

Coloss. 2. v. 2. This in the meane time is a memora­ble place to proue the Deity of Christ, and his vnity of essence or nature with the father. For having prefaced somewhat touching the knowledge of God, hee straight waies applieth it as well to the Sonne as to the Father. Whence it followeth that the Sonne is one and the same God with the father. See gentle Reader what hee wrighteth vpon those words of the Apostle, God was manifested in the flesh. After many words: So saith he by this one testimonie is the true and catholike faith excellently fenced and fortified against Arrius, Marcion, Neflorius, and Eutyches.

Ioh. 5. v. 20. Although the Arria [...]s haue endevou­red to shifte this place, & some there be even at this day [Page 43] which subscribe vnto them: here notwithstanding vvee haue a notable testimony of the Divinitie of Christ.

Act. 7. v 20. So this place yeeldeth apparant proofe of the eternel Deity of Christ, & vnitie of essence with the Father. But in so cleere a case what neede more words? A thousande like places are every where obvious in his golden wrightings, which may yeeld plentiful matter vnto al posterity to stoppe the beastly barking of these raging dogs.

But to return to my purpose, if Calvin in this cōflict did not make all fi [...]h that came to net, but signified that many things approued by auncient Fathers were now too much exposed to cavil of heretiques being otherwise of himselfe a most va­liant maintainer of Christs eternal maiesty, which preeminence even the slanderous adversary (to his griefe) must of conscience yeeld vnto him: must he therefore be proclaimed an Arrian, or pa­tron of Arrians? doth he deserue to be so contu­meliously distained, as if carried headlong with a violent streame of vaine glorious boasting, he did of set purpose corrupt the plainest oracles of scrip­ture touching the mystery of the sacred Trinity, & eternal Deity of the Son & holy Ghost [...] or as though he wrested the Christians weapons out of their hands? or by manifest consent were an opē abetter of the Arrinish glosies? No, no, would to God rather you Vbiquitaries did not so, o [...] would at least cease to spread the infection of your Ar­rian leprosie throughout the church. He indeede made choise of some argument before others, not [Page 44] vnadvisedly, or to such purpose as you slaunde­rously imagine, but as himselfe often profesieth, because he did wish we would bring nothing but what were sound and substantiall.

And good reason: for he found by experience in his conflictes with Servetus, Gent [...]is, & the like monsters, which were arguments of strength and perspicuity, and which were not; which did pow­erfully presse the adversary, and which did not▪ And therefore he saw well that he was to cōbate not with number but waight of arguments, & by his example taught others how to encounter he­ret [...]ques, who are now growen far more subtile & slippery then heretofore was either Samosate [...] himselfe, or Arrius, or any other of their principal patriarchs For now the adversary which by these his instruments impugneth the glory of Christ is growen old and wily. There are now (to vse the words of Cip [...]ian) almost sixe thousand yeares ac­complished,De exhort. [...] ad For­tunarum. since first the Divel beganne thus to war against God. He hath by this t [...] even by practise of antiquity throughly instructed here­tiques in all sleightes of attempting, all tr [...]kes & devises of vndermining. Lastly, seeing the spirites of the Prophets are subiect to the prophets; this worthy & excellent servant of God did only by wrighting advise, not prescribe vnto the church any interpretations or opinions of his own. Cease therefore (ingratefull exclaimers) to for [...]e out a­gainst him the pestilent poison of slaundering tongues in your pulpits, which without him ma­ny [Page 45] of you were scarsely able to mainetaine with credit.

But to let these passe, I come now to the secōd sore of wrightings which is both heretical and in­tollerable, for monstrous paradoxes therin main­tained, plaine principles of divinity d [...]faced. opē testimonies of scripture perversely corrupted, he­resies long since condemned lately restored, and imposed vpon the simple vulgar for verities Evā ­gelicall. In which kinde the most bitter A [...]chilo­chian disputant Huber [...]us an impudēt back iuding Apostata doth now Lord it; whom hatred against the truth truely knowen, but want only denied & wilfully impugned doth euerie day more then o­ther so swiftelie sweepe away with a continuall current of barking and back-biting, that mē may iustly suspect him for a fearfull example of one giuen over by God into a reprobate sence. God of his mercie g [...]aunt him a better minde if he be not past cure, or at least so bridle his furie, that he cary not others with him headlong to destru­ction.

He as an impe of Pelagius, & mouthy sectary of E [...]icur [...]us filleth all Germanie with horible ex­clamations,Thess. 19. 60. 65. 66. 68. 94. 112. 182. 187. 214▪ 735. 75 [...] [...] that all men without exception, as well faithfull, as Infideli; alreadie dawned, as hereafter to be condemned, reprobate, as others, suppose doggs & hogs, as Christ his sheepe; Nero & Heliogabalus, as Dauid & Iosaphat; Iudas, as Peter are by the death of Christ reconciled vnto God, sanctified, iusti­fied, their sius pardoned, thēselues receiued into [Page 46] the bosome & sauor of God,Lib. germ. pag 94. 98. 99. 106. 10 [...] &c. in a word saued (ap­plaud your patrō & procter, ò you dogs, & hogs, which hath opened so wide a gate vnto Athe [...]sme) no mā dāned for sin,Schmidlin, and Osian­der condē ­ned by this Apostata, for putting out of con­troversie that with God there is a certein number of thē which shall be sa­ved. but only for vnbeleife▪ that in God there is no eternal decree of electiō & repro­batiō; that God hath not defined a certaine [...]ūber of them which shalbe saued; that al mē euer since the fal of Adam are elect in Christ, that Election grace and forgiuenes of sins is generall and cōmon vnto all and that with God there is no speciall E­lection, but this speciall Election is only in respect of men, as every man privately applyeth to him­selfe that grace which is cōmon vnto al; that God knew from everlasting who woulde embrace his grace offered, and who againe would make ship­wracke thereof; that to Elect is nothing else but to invite and win mankinde vnto himselfe;Protocol. that many of the Elect do perish;Mompelg. 503. that the certeinty of Gods giftes and graces whereof wee boast out of Rom. 11. 29. where they are said to be without re­pentance is a vaine brag; that our Electiō in Christ is founded on a supposition and condition If wee beleeue; that it relyeth wholy on our faith; that faith is not given vs indeed without the grace of God, howbeit the meanes by which it is giuen vs are in our own power, that the vnregenerate haue an arbitrary ability to run assone as God calleth them by his worde; that they can of them selues perceiue and vnderstand the Lordes voice when he crieth vnto them; that the cause why of many who vse the same meanes, some beleeue and per­severe; [Page 47] [...] her some beleeue not, or beleeving per­severe not, is the right or not right vse of the meanes, & that this vse is in our owne power; that the 9. Chapter to the Romanes treateth not of Predestination to life or death; that this doctrine of pedestination maketh God a lying God, a cruel God, a God reioycing in euill, and an vniust God; that it ouerthroweth the ministery, & lea­veth no place for wholsome exhortation; that it breedeth securitie & despaire in men: and an hundred other postions of this kinde, wherwith if you conferre the auncient pestilent heresies of Pedagius & Coelestius, they will concurre with this doctrine, & meete therwith as iust as germans lipes. For the Pelagians taught the selfe same as appeareth both out of the writinges S. Austen, & out of the epistles of Prosper, and of Hilarie. vnto him, touching the reliques & remainder of the Pelagian heresie in Fraunce. They taught that in deede all men had sinned in Adam, The erro­neous doc­trine of the Pela­gians. and that no man was saued by his owne workes, but by the grace of God in regeneration, howbeit the prop­tiation of Christes bloud is (say they) proposed vnto all without exception, that whosoeuer will laie hold on faith, & receiue the Sacrament of Baptisme may be saued; that God knew before the framing of the world, who would beleeue & cōtinue faith full, & that he predestinated them vnto his king­dome whom he forsawe to be such, as being free­lie called by grace would proue worthie their E­lection, and departe this life with a laudable & [Page 48] happy end; & that therefore all men are admo­nished to beleeue & liue well, that no man might despaire of attaining saluation. They denied that there was a set number predestinate of God, least the vse of exhortation thereby should bee voide, and the force and edge of preaching re­bated. They avered that all serious industrie in weldoing was cleane remooued, & all manner of vertues cancelled, if Gods decree preuent men [...] willes; that vnder the title of Predestination the Stoicks fatall necessitie was againe set on foote and established; that the. 9. Chap. to the Rom. was was neuer vnderstoode by the auncient Fathers of the Church of a free Election preuenting our will and merits; That this doctrine thwarteth & crosseth the edification of preachers & teachers; and were it true, yet is it not to be divulged and vttered in publicke, because it may minister vnto some cause of despaire; & the hearts of ignorant men are by this kind of dispute set on mamme­ [...]ing: because the Catholike faith may be taught and defended without it. Fausius added vnto mans endevour the helpe of grace, that for sooth graces & mans endeuour yoaked together finish [...] workes which remaine, & God by his worde worketh in us it will that which wee read or heare: but to cons [...]et, or [...] consent therevnto is so absolutely our owne, that if we [...] will the master is to thwathput in execution; if we [...], we make the working of God to bee of no force or ef­fect with vs.

These and such like were the olde braine sicke [Page 49] sollies of the P [...]lagians, which I thinke no man so far to seeke in Christian religion, that he con­ceiueth not howe this cursed wretch hath set them downe worde for worde as it were, & pub­lished for newe oracles.

Nevertheles I know his protestatiō wil be, that hee hath hitherto neuer sucked at the noisome sinke of Pelagius heresies, but in heart detesteth them. But Puccius that newe vpstart Pelagian as vaine & wauering an Apostata as Huber himselfe hath cleered the case; Puccius, who lately tramp­ling the truth of the Gospell vnder his feete, and betaking himselfe to the Iesuites, hath so openly and shamfully set a broach againe and defended the Pelagian errours, that very shame & consci­ence with-helde the Iesuites of Prage from pub­lishing in printe that monstrous booke of his. He togither with his Haber our Apostata main­teineth all the former positions, & yet himselfe would not seeme, no nor endure the name of a Pelagian. Howbeit in most matters he is more ap­parant to be such a one. For that which this our Apostata oftentimes feighneth he will doe, & yet for verie conscience dares no where performe, he taketh on him to define predestination on this maner. Predestination is an order, foreseene and pro­posed by God vnto himselfe, wherein he hath decreed from all eternitie, what should befall euery, particular person, which he hath created partakers of Christ their Sauiour, & heires of an euerlasting heritage, leauing to euery one free w [...]ll in this life to fall, or not to fall from [Page 50] him, as he shall make choise vnto himselfe when he [...] possessed of the vse of reason. For h [...] will was that [...] many as forsooke not their [...]reat [...] should be saued but they who persisted stedfast in their faith & allegiāce unto him, & manfully resisted the adversaries should be his approued and chosen, & not onely be saued, to reigne also with Christ in his kingdome:, & in life eter­nall. Againe who for a time started aside & fell fr [...] him, should be reformed & purged by temporary punish­ments: but they who make one vtter defect, & [...]a [...]ely resist the secret working of his spirite, should become reprobates & inflexible. Thus farre Pucciu [...] He farther maintaineth that as Christ is the Crea­tour, so is he the Redeemer also of all men, and every particular man: that all are borne in the state of salvation and grace; and by Consequent are blessed, if they procure not the [...]r own destr [...] ­ction through infidelity, and vnbeliefe; that E [...]tion and Grace are generall, that Faith is a gift of God generall, and common vnto all [...], nay tha [...] it is natural; & that al men haue a pronenesse vn­to prety; that the difference of good and evil [...] on earth ariseth from the good or evil vse of the knowledge of God; that Reason in deciding con­troversies of Religion is sovereigne Emperesse; [...] that this doctrine wel agreeth with that doctrine of the Apostle Rom. 9. 10. 11. only it is repugna [...] to S. Auste [...]s disputations, and certaine Councel and Schoolemen, who are wholy groūded on the opinion of S. Austen. He beseecheth the Ies [...] [...] & amongst them especially Bellarmine, that the [Page 51] cleaue & sticke not over-much vnto the defini­tions & interpretations of Austen & the School­men; and that they no longer debar and defeate the worlde of this his notable course of interpre­ting and vnderstanding the Scriptures, &c.

Now I demand of this our Apostata & his pur­ple Prelate of Tubinge, whether they heere de [...]ery Pucc [...] as a Pelagian or no? I know wel they will answere that this is a dunghil of Pelagian draffe & filth. He are therefore yet a little farther this your vpstart gloser Puccius. He hath prefixed before the 33. chapter of his booke this argument: I will shew how the Divines of Wittē [...]erge Luthers successorsioin [...] [...] opinion with vs: but Beza and the rest of Calvnes complices persist in their headstrong wilfulnesse, and cor­rupt divers textes of Scripture. Afterward he brea­keth out into your praises, and applaudeth your good proceedings in Christian doctrine on this maner. Whilest I was comp [...]ling this tract I happened [...]n the answere of Th. Beza Calvines successour to the Actes of the Conference held in Mountpelier published at Tubinge; which Aunswere was printed at Geneva in the yeare of our Lord 1588; wherein I saw how despe­rately the Calvinists contende with Lutheran Divines both about other opinions, and expressely in this touching Predestinatiō; I perceived how miserably they mutinize within themselues, who stray and wander without the [...] and limits of the Church and succession of the Apo­stles. Howbeit the zeale of truth wherewith I was infla­med caused me to re [...]oice, whereas I sawe that the Di­vines of Wittenberge had laid aside a great parte of [Page 52] Luthers tyrannous crueltie, and barbarous absurdity [...] this pointe. And that THEY CONSENT VVITH VS IN THE SVB­STANCE OF THE THING IT SELFE although they stagger and erre in the interpretatu [...] of the Scriptures, and Sacramentes. This Pucc [...] ­us reporteth of our good neighbour Divines [...] Wittenberge. Out vpon this dolefull and lamen [...] ­table consent! out vpon this shamefull [...]oint co [...] ­spiracy!

Heere they will call heauen and earth to wi [...] ­nesse, that this pertaineth not vnto thē, that the [...] desire is to haue their opinions refuted by vs: [...] not long since that currish A postata wished for [...] Champion on whom he might fasten his holden [...] and purchase to himselfe a name by his glorio [...] conflict. But let him knowe that no man is [...] mad as to enter combate with a selfe condemne desperate person. In vaine he provoketh me [...] name, notwithstanding, in the meane space, know that I haue not beene retchles [...]e in defen [...] of the truth, and arming my hearers against th [...] his doctrine, whilest I haue at home ripped his ruderabble of detestable opiniōs. And in the [...] Treatise of the Vniversalitie of Redemption that fa [...] ­mous personage D. IAMES KIM [...] ­DONCE the worthy Governour of our Vn [...] ­versit [...], whom in honour I heere name, hath im­ployed himselfe, debating the maine question, resolving it very iudiciously in his publike L [...] ­ctures. Concerning the rest it were impertine [...] [Page 53] to chew a dry Colewott, and harpe daily on one string.

Augustine long since, and Alipius his com­panion, as Hierome testifieth in his Epistle dated vnto them, hath taken much paines and travel in confuting the heresie of the Pelagians, and hath written thirty whole bookes distinguished by diverse titles, besides certaine Epistles in which of purpose hee beateth downe this Pe­lagian outrage. Prosper reporteth of aboue three hundred who wrote against that heresie. Augustine himselfe witnesseth that it was con­demned in fiue seuerall Councels in Africke. There is a notable tracte of Fulgentius his first booke vnto Monimus extant touching the two­folde predestination of GOD, the one of the good vnto glorye; the other of the evill vnto punishmente. Maxentius also hath certaine shorte Theses directed against these Pelegianst and that golden booke of Luther of MANS SLAVISH WIL against that halfe-Pelagi­an declamation of Erasmus is every where com­mon and obvious. Lastly, there are diverse sound disputations of BRENTIVS, HESHV­SIVS, SCHNEPFFIVS, and especially HEREBRAND touching this matter. And doeth the cursed Apostata looke then that some one of vs should stoppe his blasphemous mou [...]h? Let him over-read these, and refute them: or if he be not able so to doe, henceforth let him surcease his profaning Gods truth.

[Page 54] The truth of Scripture shall stand invincible a­gainst this barking dogge, and the very gates of hell it selfe; which teacheth of redemption by Christ. oh. 3. 36. Hee that beleeveth in the Son, hath everlasting life: and hee that beleeueth not the Son, shall not see life but the wrath of God abideth ô [...] abideth, it abideth on him.Epes. 1. 3. Of Predestinatiō & grace, He hath chosen vs in Christ before the foūdations of the world. Whō he [...] hath Predestined, Rom. 8. 30. thē also he called. Yet the children were borne it was said,Rom. 9. 11. 12. 13. 18. The older shal serue the younger▪ As it is written, I haue Loved Iacob, and haue hated Esau. Therefore he hath mercy on whom he will, [...] whom he will he hardeneth. The Election hath ob­teined it,Rom. 11. 7. and the rest haue beene hardened. Of faith, al Men haue not Faith. 2 Thest. 3. 2 Vnto You it is givē for Christ, that not only yea should Beleeue in him, but also suffer for his sake.Phil. 1. 29. It is God which work [...] bin you both the [...] and the deed.Act. 13. 48. And as Many is were Ordeined vn­to eternall life Beleeued. Of Perseverance. The foū ­dation o God remaineth Sure, 2. Tim. 2. 19. and hath this seale, The Lord knoweth who [...] his.Ioh. 10. 28. I giue vnto my sheepe etern [...] life (Eternall saith Christ, not for three daies) and they shall Never Perish, neith [...] shal any man plucke thē [...] of mine hand. I haue praied for thee that thy Faith Faile Not. Luc. 22. 32. False Prophets shall shew great signes and wonder [...] so that,Mat. 24. 24. if it were possible, they should deceiue the very elect. I give thee thankes O Father, Lord of heaven and earth,Mat. 11. 25. 26. because thou hast hid these things from the [...] and men of vnd [...]rstanding, and hast opened them vnto babes. It is so, O Father, because thy good pleasure was such. Let them, who carry themselues as [...] [Page 55] as heauen, learne first to adore and bow the knees of their heartes at these and such like mysteries of Gods truth, ere they peise them after the light phantasies of their owne braine.

Here I had purposed to haue declared in briefe what a variable inconstant Proteus they imagine God to bee: what a newe stampe of Diuinitis they haue coined: what principles of religion they in ringe, what scriptures they scoffingly shift and shake of. But I haue not the leasure of per­forming thus much; yet can I not but briefely insert one example at least amongst many of the desperate boldnes of this impudent man.

Whereas Luke saith of the Antioclnans Paules hearers,Act. 13. 48. And they Beleeued, As Many as were Ordeined vnto eternall life, he manifestly setteth downe who they were, and why they beleeued the Gospell: to wit, They who were predestinate and ordeined by God in Christ before the foun­dation of the worlde vnto faith, repentance, & life eternall. Herein there is a ioynt consent of all the true professou [...]es of Christian religion. Chry­sostome saith,Homil. 30. in Act. They beleeued who were before Ordai­ned, that is, before Appointed by God.

But heare what this newe Prophet saith; They beleeued (saith he) who were ordained vnto eternall life, that is, as many as followed and traced the order prescribed by God, & were to be saued by him: or, as imbraced Gods ordination, [...]b [...]ied him, swarued not frō this his ordination, is others, were preserued vnto life eternall. Who ever sawe a more shamelesse man? [Page 56] Let him shew vs in scripture that which he vaun­ [...]eth of his order: let him proue vnto vs, that to be ordeined: Ordinem, se­qui. vnto life eternall is equiualēt & al one with that, to follow Gods prescribed order. First there­fore 1 of this forgeue he can pretend no colourable 2 shew out of scripture. Next the vniuersall con­sent of all Interpreters both olde & newe con­vinceth 3 him. Thirdly Luther himselfe vnmasketh his impudent face in his mother-tounge Transla­tion 4 Fourthly the Scripture crieth out vnto vs▪ & telleth vs, that they which beleeue are said to be ordeined vnto life eternall in Christ, not for ob­seruing▪ Gods order, that is to say, the meanes di­recting vs vnto life, but for the eternall decree a­lone of God, I meane the predestination of the Elect vnto saluation: and that they are not now ordeined of themselues, but were from euerlast­ing preordeined of God: so that this Gods ordi­nation is precedent vnto faith, and the other subordinate meanes of saluation both in respect of time, and in that it is their cause and they are the effects of this cause. For so the Apostle te [...]ch­eth Ephes. 1. And Rom. 8. Whome he knewe before those he predestinate; 1 Thess. 5. 9. he meaneth God. And in an other place: God hath not appointed vs vnto wrath 5 but to obtain [...] saluation &c. Fifthly they were ordei­ned vnto life eternall as vnto their end. Now the ordination of man vnto his end issueth from God 6 the creator, not from himselfe the creature. Sixt­ly Paccius himselfe saith that this order which man ensueth as prescribed by God is to beleeue [Page 57] the Gospell, and so to be saued. But if so, then through this forgerie the sence of this place shall be on this manner: As many as were ordeined be­leeued, that is forsooth, as many as beleeued, bee­leeued. Then which iteration nothing can be de­vised more absurde and foolish. To conclude, let vs graunte & winke at the glosse, and let him tel vs why (according to this opinion) some were ordeined, that is, some followed Gods order and good motions, other some followed it not. For this they did either of themselues, or through the assistance of Gods speciall grace: If of themselues; then hence forth let him not deny the name of a Pelagian: If of God; then remaineth there yet an other question, to wit, why God gaue grace vn­to some, and not vnto other some; and escape he cannot, but that he must either tye grace vnto mans will, as did Pelagius; or confesse Gods speci­all ordination, which is the truth wee labour for.

AN ORATION OF D. ZACHARY VRSINE, exhorting to the study of Christianity: pro­nounced by him in the ELIZABETH Schoole when he began his Lectures vpon PHI­LIP MELANCTHON his groundes of Divinitie intituled Eramen Theologicum. *⁎*

SInce by advise of your re­gents and overseers in stu­dy, I haue beene wished to deliuer vnto you some short summe of Christia­nity, I must acknowledge my weakenesse farre vna­ble to support a burden of such waight. For this is a doctrine ever past vnderstanding not only of the most wise and sharpe-sighted of this worlde (vn­lesse instructed by the voice of the Church and power of the holy Spirit) but for a great part vn­knowen even to the Angels themselues, vntill it pleased the sonne of God to reveale it out of the deepe wisedome of his eternal father, which if all [Page 59] the wits and tongues of men and angels shoulde straine themselues to vnfold and grace with curi­osity of stile and depth of invention, they coulde never be able to speake any thing correspondent to the dignity and deserte of so diuine a subiect. Being therefore to my selfe guilty of mine owne defects, I had rather leaue this labour to some o­ther, who might more worthily attempt, & more happily perfourme it then my selfe: but conside­ring againe the place and person I sustaine, I haue thought it my duty to do you al service in furthe­ring your salvation, & to shew obedience to God inviting me to these religious labours, and promi­sing (which is the chiefest thing) his gracious assi­stance, which who so enioieth neede not despaire of any thing, for it pleaseth God to shew his migh­ty power in weake and abiect instruments, accor­ding to that of the Psalmist, Out of the mouth of babes & sucklings hast thou ordeined strength, because of thine enemies, that thou mightest still the enemy and the avenger. Psal. 8. 3. The worde which he vseth signifieth a childe which beginneth to speake & vnderstand. But it is a thing vsual to attribute the name of children, not vnto those only which are so in years, but vnto those also which are such in vn­derstanding or doing ought besides. They also which are infants in years, are sufficient witnesses of Gods goodnesse and providence. The mani­fest tokens of Gods presence in miraculous propa­gation, preservation, & sustaining of mankind do sufficiently refell and [...]efute Di [...]s and Ath [...]sts of [Page 60] al sortes, both such as deny at all that there is any God, and such as doe not acknowledge him to be such a God as he professeth himselfe to bee. But Christ in 21. of Mat. 16. v. draweth this place to a confession, in which sence it agreeth to vs al, euen as many as thincke or speake ought of God. For we are infantes in vnderstanding & vtter­ance of all heauenly things. Wee learne in this life some smale rudiments of them, as truly and religiously saith the Emperour Gratian in his con­fession to Ambrose: Wee speake of God so much, not as we ought, but as we can. Yea even the Prophets and Apostles confesse as much of them selues. As 1 Cor. 13. 9. Wee know imperfectly & we prophecie imperfectly. But when that which is perfect shall come, then that which is vnperfect shall be abolished. And in the [...]2 ver. Now we see through a glasse darkely, But then shall wee see face to face.

But though both those rudiments which wee learne be feawe, & the word of preachinge bee plained to our capacitie, wherein God himselfe speaketh to vs as vnto infants, & suffereth vs to speake like infantes of himselfe, yet will God so exact of vs in this life skill in this doctrine of him­selfe, that otherwise he giueth vs no hope of an other life, & these rudiments (how simple so euer) do so farre exceede all humaine wisedome, that betwixt the one and the other is no compa­rison. For these principles or groundes are a wise­dome vnknowne to reason, necessary & sufficiēt to everlasting saluation. Let vs, therefore not on­ly [Page 61] acknowledge our infancie, but also shew our selues willing to be reckned in the number of sucklings & infants. For as the childe groweth not that is not sustained with the mothers milke or o­ther conuenient norishment: so neither must we refuse the milke of Gods worde, whereby we are norished and susteined vnto eternall life, least we be put besides all hope of our perfection. This is that spirituall infancy,Mat. 21. pleasing God as Christ witnesseth when he rebuketh the Pharises which were offended at the children singing in the tēple Hosanna to the sonne of Dauid. These are those in­fantes, in whose wordes it pleaseth him to bee powerfull, by whose mouth, as the psalme ad­deth, he perfiteth his strength, or (as they translate it who consider the originall) he stablisheth his kingdome. But he speaketh of that strength or king­dome which is seene in this life:The king­dome of Christ. which is for the son of God to appoint & vphould his ministrie, to gather his dispersed church, to quicken the faithfull beleeuers by the preaching of the Gos­pell, to sanctifie them by the holy spirite vnto eternall life, to protect his church in this life a­gainst the kingdome of Satan, after this life to raise vp the faithfull vnto life eternall, that in thē his Deitie may raigne openly, not by ministry.

What the foundation of this kingdome is Saint Paule teacheth, 1. Cor. 3. 11. saying, Other foundati­on can no man lay then that which is said, which is Iesus Christ. The foundation is Christ, first in his per­son, for that he beareth, keepeth and comprehen­deth [Page 62] all the members and parts of this kingdome, vnited and ingraffed in him, as doth the founda­tion al other partes of the building, or as doth the vine all the branches: [...] then to the doctrine of him­selfe, that is of his person and office. For as good lawes are the strength and sinewes of kingdomes politique; so this kingdome is composed, confir­med and ordered by this doctrine deliuered of Christ. And as the house cannot stande without the foundation, so except we know who Christ is, and what he hath perfourmed for our sakes, al re­ligion besides is but vaine, forged, none at all.

This foundation is laid by the mouth of sucke­lings and b [...]bes which beleeue, and being [...]red vp by the holy Ghost doe learne & embrace the doctrine which they hea [...]e & so grow into Christ, in whom they be ingraffed.

In this weighty worke God vouchsafeth to vse our infancy for an instrument, to the advancemēt of his glory (whilest the weightines of the worke, and weakenesse of the instrumentes doe plainely shew, that all this is done not by our strength; but by the power and might of the almighty God:) and also to abate the pride of his enemies, whilest their might and power is surpassed by our weak­nesse, and our shew of wisedome doth in the ende shew that nothing is more foolish then their wis­dome, as it is said; your strength shall be in silence and hope. For the son of God destroieth the workes of the Devill, deliuering those that beleeue from his tyranny, pardoning and putting away their sins, [Page 63] beginning in them righteousnesse & life eternal, defending his church, accusing & discovering the malice of his enemies, repressing & punishing thē both now, and in the finall delivery of his church from all evils. And all this (manger the gates of hell) he doth partly bring to passe and partly te­stifie by the vnworthy & simple mouthes of mē; as it is said 2. Cor. 10. v. 4 The weapons of our wa [...]far [...] are not carnal, but mighty through God to cast dovvne boldes, casting downe the imaginations, and eve [...]e high thing that is exalted against the knowledge of God, and bringing into captivity every thought to the obedience of Christ, And having ready the vengance against all disobedience, when your obedience is fulfilled.

As therefore the basenesse of the vessell doth not preiudice the preciousenesse of the merchan­dize therin conteined: so neither must you dis­daine the meanesse and infancy of him that deli­vereth this doctrine vnto you, as derogatinge ought from the weight of those reasons, which shall be alleadged to perswade you to the seriouse studie of Christian religion.Catechi­sing is ne­cessary. But purposing forth­with to recite some of them, I find my selfe so plunged in the depth therof, that I can hardely resolue where to beginne. Yet because I must of necessitie handle some of them, let that be the first which should be the rule of all our actions & studies,1 For Gods commaun­dement. namely the will of GOD reuealed in his word. For we now conferre togeather which are fellow-citizens of the church. Knowing for certaine that the bookes of the Prophets and [Page 64] Apostles are sure interpreters of Gods will and purpose. In them are preceptes everie where de­livered and repeated, commaunding without exception to search & know the doctrine there­in conteined. This is that precept of the sabaoth deliuered in the ten commaundements, this is that whereof our sauiour saide in the 10 of Luc. 42. v. that one thing was necessarie. This is that wis­dome whose knowledg he saith is eternall life: this Dauid commēdeth, as in many other places, so in the first psalme, where he layeth downe as it were a breife therof. But this our heauenly fa­ther, mercifull to mankinde, & carefull for our saluation thought not sufficient; he added there­fore a peculiar charge of proposing a sūme of this doctrine vnto all, especially the younger sorte, & this▪ is that which wee terme Catechizinge. As Deuter. 4. 9. Thou shalt (saith he) teach thy sonnes. And Deuter. 6. & 11. Lay vp these wordes in your heartes & in your mindes, and hange them for a signe in your handes, & place your eies thereon. Teach thy children to meditate in them, when thou sittest in thine house, & wa [...]kest in the waie, & when thou liest downe, & when thou rizest vp. Thou shalt wright them vpon the postes and dores of thine house, that thy daies and thy childrens daies may be multiplied in the land. Here we see parents & those which are [...]nsteed of pa­rents are commaunded to teach, & prouide that there be teaching: the yonger sort to learne; both sorts daily to inculcate, repeate, & meditate vpō this doctrine. Now whereas he will that this doc­trine [Page 65] should be deliuered to our children, & al­waies placed before our eies, it is plaine that he requireth breuitie and perspicuitie, that is a cate­chisme or shorte summe of Christianitie, with an exposition neyther tediouse nor difficult. So Paule 2. Tim. 1. v. 13. Keepe the trew paterne of whol­some words, which thou hast heard of me in faith and loue, which is in Christ Iesus. Heere together with the definition of our Catechisme, we haue the ex­ercise and practize therof commaunded.

This trew paterne wherof the Apostle speaketh doth signifie trew sentences of each parte of this doctrine.True pat­terne of wholesome wordes. breifly and orderly comprized, & as it were presented to our view: with a forme of teaching and speaking that is proper, plaine, and suta­ble to the wrightinges of the Prophets & Apo­stles. Wherupon he nameth them wholsome wordes deliuered by himselfe in faith, What a ca­techisme is. or concerninge faith and loue which is in Christ, that is in the acknowledging of Christ: as euerie where he reduceth all pietie & religion to faith and charitie. The Catchisme ther­fore is a sūme of the doctrine of faith and loue in Christ, deliuered by the Prophets and apostles. Or A summe of Christianitie, breifely, orderly, and plainely comprized. For we must not deuise a doctrine of our owne, but of necessitie referre our selues (as it is said E­sai the 8. v. 20.) to the lawe and to the testimonie. But hereunto also must be added an exposition, to vnfolde truely the partes and method, and to interpret plainly the wordes and phrase.

This reason alone might be sufficient to stirre [Page 66] vp mē not prophāely minded,2. Our sal­vation. to the study of this heavenly doctrine.God con­verteth & saveth such as are of age & vn­derstāding by know­ledge of this doctrine as the chiefe in­strument of his word For to such the wil and com­mandement of GOD is sufficient though there were no other reason besides. But since it hath pleased our merciful God to yeeld vnto our weak­nes some reasons why he hath giuen vs this com­mandement, it behoueth vs to consider of them with all reuerence. Now God teacheth vs that we must therefore learne this doctrine, because by knowledge thereof, & no other meanes, he pur­poseth to convert & saue all those, who through age are able to vnderstand, and amongst thē such as shal be heires of eternall life. It is a confident & strange saying of Saint Paule Rom. 1. 16. The gos­pell is the power of God vnto salvation to every one that beleeveth. And 1. Cor. 1. 18. For the preaching of the crosse is to them that perish foolishnesse: but to vs which are saved it is the power of God. And in the same chapter the 21. v. It pleased God by the foolishnesse of preaching to saue them that beleeue.

But this opinion as it is delivered & confirmed by many & weighty testimonies of the holy Spi­rit:Of the effi­cacy and power of the holie spirit by the mini­stry; a­gainst the Swencke-feldians. so it is very forcibly impugned by the Devill. For the Father of lyes seeing that this paradox of the foolish preaching of the crosse did not a little possesse the mindes of men, tooke occasion to in­cite brainsicke heads to say that this our teaching was in no wise a meane to convert soules, but that God without meanes did imparte and communi­cate himselfe to vs, and that we did but make an idoll of our own words, and here they power out [Page 67] wonderful words, seeming in shew very glorious. But harken (I pray you) and consider vpon what grounds they stand. God (say they) needeth not at all this voice of ours, either ministry, reading, or meditation, to convert men: therefore he vseth no such meane, neither is the learning therof ne­cessary to salvatiō. Now therfore (I speake to you which are children) is there any amongst you of so shallow and childish conceite which will not skorne him that shal reason in this sort? God by his omnipotency can easily bring to passe, that a man without bookes, or teachers, or study may become learned (as the Apostles & others in the primitiue church did speake with tongues which they neuer learned) he can make the earth fruit­full without labour of the husband-man, hee can susteine mans nature without meate, as hee did Moses and Christ forty daies: and therefore it is a labour vnnecessary, (not a meanes to compasse what we wish and expect) either for schollers to busie themselues about bookes and study, and to go to their instructors & schooles, or for husband men to manure their grounde, or for any of vs to spend our life in susteining our life. Doe you see vpon what rockes of blindnesse and distraction the Divell doth driue these vnhappy men, who hauing neuer learned the grounds of godlines or good artes, nor loving the labour & toile of lear­ning, would notwithstāding seeme what they are not, desiring to extol thēselues against the know­ledge of God, not doubting to subiect the eternal [Page 68] wisdom to their vile censures? for they shew them selues as wel witles, as shameles, in alleaging exā ­ples either of such as by miracle were cōuerted, as Paule, or endewed with giftes extaordinarie, as the Apostles in the Pētecost: or of many hearing the Gospell & not beleeuing, or lastly in [...] such places of scripture as pre [...]ch vnto vs the power and office of the holy Ghost. We know (God be thanked) & confesse, the God can without helpe eyther of teachers or learners cō ­verte whom he will, and that the end and vse of miracles is this, to shew that the order of nature (wherin he is powerfull) was by him before crea­ted, and is still by him most freely preserued. We know further, that the conuertinge of soules is the gifte of God aboue, so that looke how much greater and more miraculouse a worke it is to re­store man being lost vnto salvation, then to cre­ate him of nothing, so much more impudency & madnesse is it rather to attribute our redemption then our creation to the force & efficacie of mans wordes. This also we know, that it pleased God by foolish preaching to saue those that beleeue, why it hath so pleased him, although he need not make vs accoumpt, yet is he content to yeeld vs some reasons ever of this his purpose, though he propose not the like reasons to the godly and vn­godly.Causes why the mi­nistry was ordeined. To the vngodly he yeeldeth this reasō, be­cause his iustice in cōdemning their malice, which resist the word reueald, should be more manifest in sight of the whole church, their consciences al­so [Page 69] bearing witnesse. But we may also consider o­ther causes, which make for our instruction and comforte. Wheras the voice of the ministrie and all our conceipt of God is vailed with darkenesse, wherin we now behould God, and know his plea­sure, hence he admonisheth vs of the greatenesse of our fal, whereby it is come to passe that now we enioy not the presence of God, dealing with vs as it were a far of & by interpreters, stirring vs vp to aspire vnto that heavenly schoole wherein God will be seene of vs face to face, and shal be al in al. Besides God in this life will haue the searching, meditation, and confession of this doctrine tou­ching himselfe and his will, not to bee concealed in the mindes of men, but to bee openly sounded and celebrated, and therefore on his authority he hath bound vs to a necessity of knowing it, pro­mising thereby to restore vs to salvation. Further­more, being willing to haue vs fellow-labourers in the most excellent of his divine workes, wherein could he better shew his loue to vs miserable cre­atures, except in giving his only begotten sonne a ransome for our sinnes? wee therefore affirme, the reading, hearing, and knowing of this do­ctrine, to be a necessary instrument of our salva­tion; not in respect of GOD, but in regarde of our selues: not because GOD coulde not otherwise haue converted vs (as the builder cannot builde an house without his tooles) but because he would not otherwise doe it. True faith is indeede the gift and worke of none but GOD [Page 70] onely, yet so that it is wrought in vs by the holy Ghost through the hearing of Gods word. Pauls planteth, Apollos watereth, but God giueth en­crease. And when Paule tearmeth the gospel prea­ched by him the power of God vnto saluation to as ma­ny as beleeue; & Ephes. 4. v. 11. He gaue some to bee Apostles and Prophets, and some Evangelists & some pastors and teachers, for the gathering togeather of the sainctes, for the worke of the ministerie, for the edifica­tion of the bodie of Christ; can any more gloriouse worde be spoken concerning the office of tea­ching? let not vs therfore presume to be wiser thē God, let not vs forsake thinges ordinarie to fol­low thinges extraordinarie, neyther let vs so much esteeme the pride and reprobate coniuma­cie of such as contemne the voice of the Gospell, that we lesse regard and reuerence the force and fruit of Gods ordinance in his instrumēts of mer­cie; as neither the sloth and peruerse peeuishnes of some schollars, being baries to profit and all good proceedings, can perswade others, that in­struction and study are things vnnecessary to the attaining and encrease of learning and vertue: but let vs rather with al submission and thankefulnes embrace this sweetest comforte, whereby we are assured that our labours please God, and are not vndertakē by vs in vaine: according to those say­ings Eccles. 11. 1. Cast thy [...]read vpon the waters, for after long time thou shalt finde it againe. 1. Cor. 15. 58. Your labour is not in vaine in the Lorde. Mat. 18. 20. Wheresoeuer two or three are gathered togither in my [Page 71] [...]ame, I am in the middest of thē. Were not these pro­mises wel knowne vnto vs, and certaine in them­selues, in this so great fury of Satan and misery of mankinde, our best teachers and most careful fur­therers of the publique salvation were in conditiō most vnhappy, & could not maintaine this place without great difficulty. I truly for mine own part knowing my selfe to be of no reckoning, feele my selfe so surprised with sorrowe, that for griefe I should nether be able to abide this place, nor giue passage to my speech, did not I certainely know, that evē in this cōpany there ar some, whose harts receiue and approue true & wholsome doctrine, & are by the holy Spirite inflamed with desire of acknowledging and worshipping God aright, & are living temples of God, such as shall hereafter glorifie him with the Angels in heauen. Neither do I so speake this as if I did expect that all men should haue like knowledge of this doctrine, and equal giftes of the holy Ghost without difference (for Saint Paule willeth vs in the 12. to the Ro­maines to bee wise according to that measure of faith which God hath given to every man) but it is necessary that al which look to be saved should hold the same foundatiō, that is, they must know and beleeue what Christ is, and what he hath per­fourmed for every of vs, as it is said by Iohn the 17. cap. & 3. v. This is life everlasting, to know that thou art the only true god, & whō thou hast sent Iesus Christ. Ioh. 3. 36. He that beleeveth in the senne hath eternall life. By these and other such like sentences we vn­derstande, [Page 72] that it is a true saying, which Dionysi [...] (falsly sirnamed Areop [...]gita, but indeed supposed to be of Corinth) doth attribute to the Apostle S. B [...]rtolme, The gospell is short and long. The shortnes thereof is manifest, excelling therein the lawe of Moses, and this ought and may be rooted in eve­ry of our harts and minds, which is the reason why a briefe of the gospell is so often deliuered & re­peated by the Prophets and Apostles. But the wisedome of the gospell will far more hardly bee sounded and searched through all eternity then that of the law. But knowing for certainty that we must in this mortality begin our eternal life (for we shal be cloathed vpon our cloathing if we be not found naked) the nature of true conversion is, ne­ver to suffer those which are conuerted vnto God to rest in their race, but kindleth in them a perpetuall desire of of proceeding. Therefore is that commaundement giuen in the 2 of Peter 3. 18. Increase in grace & knowledg of our Lord & saui­our Iesus Christ. & Ephes. 2. 19. Now therefore yee are no more strangers, but Citizens with the saintes, & of the houshould of God. And ar built vpon the founda­tion of the Apostles & Prophets, Iesus Christ himselfe being the chiefe corner stone; in whome all the building coupled togeather groweth vnto an holy temple in the Lord. And Marc. 9. 24. He prayeth, Lord I be­leeue, but helpe thou mine vnbeleife. And Luc. 17▪ 5. his disciples pray, Lorde encrease our faith. The godly are saide and commaunded to goe for­warde, & do also pray themselues that they may [Page 73] goe forwarde. They are not therfore of that sort of men which haue no desire to go forward. Yet must not such be discouraged, who finding in themselues lesse light & vigor do with true greife of hart acknowledge and bewaile their weaknes and curruption. For thus saith the eternall father of his son Esay. 42. 3. A bruized reede shall he not breake. & the smoking flax shall he not quench. And the son of his father M. 18▪ 14. It is not my fathers wil that any one of these litle ones should perish. & himselfe of hīself, Ioh. 6. 37. Al that the father giveth me shal come to me, and him that cōmeth to me I cast not away. Wheresoever is vnfeigned godlines, that cōmeth from God, and is by him furthered, and there vn­to are linked by the indissoluble bande of Gods truth all the blessings of the gospell which are e­ternal and without repentaunce. For did not the certainety of our faith and salvation depend vpō the free mercy of God alone, whereby he recea­veth into favour all such as beleeue, and not vpō degrees of our renuing & amēdment, our cōfort (God knows) were built but on a weake founda­tion.Three tri­als of a Christian man. Hēce may be gathered three trials of a Chri­stian man, first the embracing of this foundation, secōdly a desire of going forward (which two in­clude every of vs vnder the vniversall promise of eternal salvatiō) thirdly this comfort, that for dif­ference or inequ [...]lity of giftes & degrees we shall not be c [...]st of and suffered to perish, which com­fort must be opposed to the griefe conce [...]ved [...]p­on our owne vnworthinesse. These [...] [Page 74] can neuer be separated hath Saint Pauls compri­sed in 1. Corinth. 3. ca. 11. v. saying, Other founda­tion can no man lay then that which is laid, that is Iesus Christ. And if any man build on this foundation gold, sil­ver, pretious stones, timber, hay or stubble, Every mans worke shal be made manifest; but he shal be safe himselfe, neverthelesse yet as it were by the fire. By this there­fore, which hath hitherto beene spokē, it is mani­fest, that Gods commaundement, and each mans particular salvation exhorteth and bindeth al mē, and amongst them the younger sort (which are a great part and seminary of the church) to learne aslone as their yeares will permit, this foundation of Christian doctrine: which most grauely and se­verely admonisheth all such of this parte of their duty, who take vpon them the charge of instru­cting youth.

For both teachers & learners are all debtors of diligent & serious care of preseruing pietie & religion;The preser­uation and propagatiō of pure & sincere re­ligion to prosterity. debters, not vnto our selues only, but to as many as are oures and belong any way vnto vs, yea and to all succeeding posteritie. For wee see by daily experience how easily in small processe of time manifolde defacings & corrup­tions and at length finall & vtter abolishment o­vertaketh that religion and doctrine, the summe whereof is not breifely and perspicuously set downe, knowne in publique, daily repeated, & beaten as it were into mens vnderstandings. Nei­ther are we ignorant of the common prouerbe how the caske or barrell reteineth still the sauour and [Page 75] smell which it first receiued be it good, or ill. Whereas then for the most parte the evill we learne taketh such deepe roote in vs, and cleaueth so fast vnto vs; and youth not being daily instructed and trai­ned vp vnto pietie threatneth a barbarous con­tempte of God, and profaning of religion to en­sue in time to come; againe wheras scarcely by the greatest endeuour, and continuall care of go­uernours we are wonne to any good, no man of discretion and iudgement but will grant that it is wisedome & our duty to attēpt betimes so weigh­ty and difficult a matter.

The institution therefore of Catechisme is not only necessary for preseruing pure & sincere do­ctrin with vs & our posterity after vs,4 The ca­pacity of youth, and [...]uder sort. but in regard of youth to whō (as hath already bin proved) it is to be imparted, because it is framed fit for their capacity. For if it be wel said of other arts wherin this age is to be informed, In al thy precepts vse such bre­vity, that intelligēt wits may sone cōceiue, & faithfullie preserue them in memory: how much more is shortnes and plainenesse to be affected and practised in this heavenly wisedome so strange vnto mans vnderstāding? especially whereas the testimonies of holy Scripture ratifie and confirme our experi­ence herein,Heb. 5. 13. 14. saying; Every one that vseth milke is in­experte in the worde of righteousnes: hee is a babe. But strong meate belongeth to them that are of age. There­fore both the Apostle Paule thus intimateth and signifieth vnto vs his maner of teaching,1. Cor. 3. 2. 3. I gaue you milke to drinke, and not meate; for yee were not yet able [Page 76] to beare it, The conti­nuall cu­stome of the church. neither yet now are yee able. For yee are yet carnall: and since the first preaching of the gospel in the church some notable argument or subiect of doctrine short and pithy, plaine and easie hath beene extant and derived vnto posterity. Inso­much as certaine compendious summes delive­red by Gods owne mouth seeme to bee of equall growth, and continuance with mankinde both of the law, as; If thou continue righteous, thou shalt be ac­cepted: and also of the Gospell as, The seede of the woman shall breake the head of the serpent. So not long after the promise and the covenant was re­peated vnto Abraham. Finally in processe of time certaine briefe Articles were published a­broad in the Apostles writings, the forme and manner of confession of Christ and Christian Re­ligion beeing proportionably applyed to that which GOD had revealed in every age. Fur­ther that this our custome of teaching, which we call Catechisme, was practised both in the Primi­tiue Church, and in the Apostles dayes, Paule witnesseth Romaines 2. verse 18. where hee tear­meth the Iewes, instructed in the lawe from then childehoode and Galat. 6. 6. where he saith, let him that is taughte in the vvoorde make him that hath taught him, partaker of all his goods. Luke also in his 1. Chapter. verse 4. That thou mightest acknow­ledge the certainetie of those thinges vvhereof thou hast beene instructed. For as much then as these testi­monies are such as deserue to be preferred before all others, whereas the Authors of them imme­diately [Page 77] followed the Apostles times, I therefore instāce in no one example, supposing it to be ge­nerally knowne out of the commō histories. I ra­ther adde this, that if the primitiue Chruch being yet in her infancy, did with so great cōtancy ob­serue and retaine this custome & forme of instru­ction established, as we see, not by the counsel & advice of man, but the deepe wisedome and pro­vidēce of God; how much more ought we in this doating age of the world, in which the church is ready to giue vp the ghost, & the light therof be­ing extinguished, loathsome darkenes more and more ready to overshadow the whole world; how much more ought we,6. The he­resies and dangers of the last times. I say, adde vnto the small measure of our diligence in maintaining & advā ­cing the doctrine of the church, rather thē detract any the smallest portiō thereof. For this is that age of which it is spoken Mat. 24. v. 23. Then if any shal say vnto you; Mat. 24. 23. Lo here is Christ, or there, beleeue it not. For there shall arise false Christs, and false Prophets, and shall shew great signes and wonders, so that, if it were pos­sible, they should deceiue the very elect. And Paule at large discourseth, 1. Tim. 4 & 2. Tim. 3. & Peter also in his 2. Ep. 23. c. of the iniquity & danger of these last troublesome time; by the illusiōs of the Divel wrought by the hands of those false prophets his supposts & proctors. Now these predictiōs of the miseries which are to befall these later daies are written & revealed vnto vs not only for our cōlo­latiō & cōfirmatiō in the truth & faith of Christ: but to be a spur vnto vs that we cōtinue [...], [Page 78] and careful to provide such weapon & furniture as is requisite to the beating downe and razing to the ground the bulwarkes of all errours. For thus beginneth Christ this dolefull prophecy, Take heed that [...]o man deceiue you. Mat. 24. 4. Let vs therfore thinke it necessary not only for them to whom is, or here after may be committed the charge of preaching & teaching in the Church, but for every particu­lar man also which desireth to be saued, to haue a true concerte and opinion of every point of Chri­stian Religion grounded and deepe rooted in his heart; to be fenced and fortified as strongly, as by all meanes he may, against sectes and heresies: & that they who haue received commission of go­verning and teaching in the Church ought with great paine and travell either themselues teach & instruct, or take care that they who are commit­ted to their cure and charge be taught and instru­cted in al these; vnlesse they had rather as vnfaith full and carelesse stewards and dispensers of the word giue an account of the destruction of their flocke. Wherin the entire good affection of your parentes is worthy high commendation, in that they haue taken especiall order for your daily in­struction in the principles of religion not at home only in their private houses, and Churches; but a­broad also in publike and free schooles. For they well perceiue what ignorance then ensued, and how wide a gate was then set open vnto the Di­vell to intrappe all men in these groundes of do­ctrine, when first the custome of the primitiue [Page 79] church in teaching, & requiring againe the points of Catechisme at the handes of the Catechumeni began to be slacked, and in the end finally de­caied, and in place therof the vaine and childish spectacle of Popish confirmation succeeded: They well foresee, that as great mischaunces, or greater then these are like to betide vs, vnlesse God in mercy looke on vs, and in time visite vs. Then which danger as nothing can fal out more dread­full and lamentable to the godly; so the godly and religious can inuent no greater ioy and com­fort vnto themselues, then to be able assuredly to promise vnto themselues, that their children & childrens children shall long time after their de­cease enioy that blessed light of the truth which shineth among vs. Wherfore if we be not vtterly bereft of all humane affections, and waxe not cruell against those who loue vs rather then thē ­selues; let vs endeuour by all meanes not to fru­strate through our retchlesnes this their good hope conceiued,7 The re­ward of the embra­cing of the Gospel, and the punish­ment of the con­tempt therof. and annihilate their earnest har­ty desires: but let vs togither with them present our selues thankfull vnto God, who purposing to gather vnto himselfe out of this scōbe of the world an everlasting church, by causing the Sun of this Gospell to retire backe and shine in our hea [...]tes, hath so chased awaie the cloudes and darkenes of the kingdome of Antichrist, that no man, vnles wilfully shutting his eies and stopping his eares he resist Gods truth disclosed vnto him, cannot but perceiue, and cleerly see the diuell [Page 80] vnmasked of those visardes of deceipt & errour, wherin he vaūted himselfe, & blinded the world. Which if we shall performe, Christ the sonne of God shal cōtinue vnto vs al his benefits in former times, and heape daily new blessinges on vs ac­cording to his promise; To him which Hath, that is, to him which hath a desire of proceeding, i [...] shall be giuen: But if we doe otherwise, the paines which are threatned in the cōtrary doome shal overtake vs, From him which hath not shalbee taken away even that he hath. The Scriptures themselues and the histories of all times cry and thunder out in our eares Gods iealousie in not being able to endure the contempt of his Gospell revealed, Esay com­plaineth,Es. 5. 24. 26. They haue cast of the law of the Lord of hosts, and contēned the word of the Holy One of Israel There­fore is the wrath of the Lord kindled against his people, and he hath stretched out his hand vpon them, Amos. 8. 11. 12. and hath smitten them. And Amos threatneth: Beholde the dates come, saith the Lord God, that I will send a fam [...]s in the land, not a famine of bread nor a thirst for water, but of hearing the word of the Lord. And they shal wan­der from sea to sea, and from the North even vnto the East shall they runne to and fro to seeke the worde of the Lord, and shall not finde it. Behold we see the Israe­litish nation, which God had enriched with so ho­norable titles and priviledges, and made famous and glorious over all the kingdomes of the earth for the many strange eventes, and wonderful mi­racles shewed amongst them; behould wee set this [...] natiō now grown base & cōtemp­tible [Page 81] troden vnder foot of the very out casts of the earth, and in the very mid-day and noone-light of their prophecies so besti [...]lly and blockis [...]ly blind that the consideratiō of this their example is able to moue and stir vp evil men, I say not vn­to laughter or indignation, but rather to st [...]ke in­to their harts a dreadfull horror of the like iudge­ment. Nowe that the contempt and neglect of sound doctrine touching God and our salvation is the cause of so great mischiefes & miseries wee haue for testimony the voice of the prophets and of Christ himselfe,Ioh. 5. 43. Ioh. 3. 43. I am come in my Fa­thers name, and yee receiue me not, if another shall come in his owne name, The perse­cution in England in Q. Maries daies. him will yee receiue. I omit the re­hearsall of other examples; that one of the late most flowrishing and happy kingdome of Eng­land I will touch in a word, not only because the example is exceedinge lamentable, but be­cause also there is none so very a childe in all this Auditory in vvhose time it chaunced not. For of late yeares that kingdome and Coun­trey of Englande beeing endowed and beauti­fied with the profession of the Gospel in the hap­py Reigne of King Edwarde the VI. the Chur­ches and schooles of learning being nobly [...]oun­ded, honorably enriched, & religiously ordered; the king himselfe, though but 16. yeares of age, yet so farre aboue the hope of his yeares indued with such singular piety, [...]dmirable learning, and all Princely vertues that in all that glorious king­dome nothinge might seeme more glorious then [Page 82] the king and governour himselfe, that kingdome of late yeares was inferiour in perfect happinesse to no nation of the earth. But [...]o on the suddaine through the vntimely decease of that most noble Edward a Prince of so great hope, the Popish ty­rannicall dominion reentered this kingdome, and tooke ful possession thereof, wasting and spoiling with imprisonments, banishments, fire and sword the most famous churches of that Realme, taking some of the best renowned for learning and inte­grity of life without all respect either of age, sexe, or dignity▪ and torturing them with fiery flames; and other punishments of like barbarous cruelty: and scattering and dispersing others towardes all partes and corners of the earth: It is now the fifth yeere since this scourge & these calamities haue leine heauy on this land and oppressed the same, I rather acknowledge and bewaile our owne of­fences, then take on me to censure the defaulte [...] of others. Howbeit the report of English exiles is yet [...] in mine eares, wherin they much com­plained of and bewailed the ingratitude, security & loathing of the Gospell, which had overtun their whole countrie. And do we then seeme to regard our good estate we enioy more thē they? I would we did. When Pilate had mingled the bloud of the Galileans which he slewe with the sacrifices,Luc. 13. 3. Vnles yee repent, saith Christ, yee shall all perish▪ The tumultes and downe falles of Empires and kingdomes wherwith the church is shaken are open conuersant before our eies, and threatē [Page 83] and menace vs some bitter scourge. The Tur­kish cut throtes gape on vs ready to d [...]v [...]ur vs striuing by mai [...]e force to take Christ from amōg vs and by [...]n [...]rusion to seate their profane Maho­me [...] st [...]ede of Christ in our churches; of whome reporte goeth that they daily withdrawing Chri­tian youth vnto their b [...]asphemou [...] filthy, Paga­nism [...], and sheading and su [...]king the b [...]oud of our a [...]es and kinsfolke, threaten and attempt farther irruptions and inuasions on our bo [...]ders. That ex­ecrable sincke the Courte of Rome curseth and banneth vs, crying out Away with vs that wee may be rooted out from of the earth; heresies d [...]ily bud and blossome both, within and with­out the Church, and the erroures and corruptions of truth crept into the Church are beyond all number. And verily nowe is that time when vn­les the Lord reserue a [...]eede vnto vs nought re­maineth but that we should become as Sodom and Gomorrah. O then let vs not be so iron har­ted, let vs not be so bitter enemies of our owne soules, that we regard not these Gods merciful vi­sitations, and threatnings of more sharper iudge­ments to ensue. O let vs seeke the Lord while he may be found: let every one take ca [...]e of his owne salvation, and beare in minde whatsoeuer thinges concerne the same, so that if the frame of nature should on a suddaine be dissolved we may be rea­dy cheerefully to meet the Lord in the aire▪ this comming in glory.

These things which I haue hitherto spoken cō ­cerne [Page 84] all in generall,8 Church-doctrine especi [...]y ough [...]t to be known vn­to scholers. but more particularly vs that professe the studies of learning. For it is the common consent of all that ever either founded, or governed schooles, or euer were conversant in them, or would that others should frequent them, that they who are here brought vp shoulde be­come not only more learned but better mānered also then other men. Which trueth being so evi­dent, they describe a schoole to be A company ap­pointed by GOD, of such as teach and learne scien­ces meete & necessarie for mankinde both touching God and other good things, that the knowledge of God amōgst men be not cleane abolished, that the Church be continu­ed and preserued, that manie may be made heares of life eternal, that discipline be maintained, and that men may enioie other honest commodities issuing out of the artes.

We therefore shoote wide and misse much of the m [...]ke we ai [...]e at, vnlesse we holde it for cer­taine and true, that our earnest and diligent ende­vour in these schooles and nu [...]ce [...]es of Christ, & Christianity must bee employed not so much for this ende that we may be the more fraught vvith humane and divine learning, but rather that be­ing beautified and adorned with all laudable be­haviour towards men and holinesse to the Lord, may be found acceptable in the sight of God and men. And it is a truth apparāt in the Church, that all the exhortations vnto civill vertues without the doctrine of piety is nought else but an estray­ing and swar [...]ing from God, true godlinesse, per­fect iustice, and assured salvation. For the holy [Page 85] Ghost hath pronounced this sentence; that what­soever we doe not with intent thereby to glorifie GOD, whatsoever vvee doe not in the name of CHRIST, whatsoever is not of faith, it is all, even altog [...]ther sinne. VVherefore vvere the doctrine of the Church secluded from our schooles, we should not only not be able to teach or learne any thing that belongeth to true and entire vertue, such as GOD requireth of vs; But that small portion and remainder we haue should make vs of evill men worse and more impious, and that indeed not by the increase thereof so much, as by the decrease and defect of those spirituall and super­naturall qualities, without which nothing is ho­ly, nothing wholsome vnto vs. And heere al­though the consent of men wise and iudicious may satisfie vs, yet let GODS preceptes pre­vaile more with vs,Ioh. 5. [...]. which commaunde vs re­search the Scriptures, 1. Tim. 4. [...]3. to giue attendance to reading, to divide the worde aright &c. Nowe whereas no man can without schoole learning and exercise either himselfe perceiue and discerne aright, or expound and impart vnto others in any good or­der and perspicuity, who is so purblinde that hee seeth not the neere affinity wherwith the study of Religion & piety is linked with schoole▪ learning? Let vs therefore esteeme that to bee the exercise of greatest weight & momēt in scholes, which is a worke of greatest importāce in the world, & with out long & cōtinual schole-exercise cānot be per­formed by vs, I mean the vnderstāding & expoū ­ding [Page 86] of the writings of the Prophets & Apostles. And whereas we haue opportunity offered vs of sear­ching out & sitting the truth of doctrine in grea­ter measure then other Countries and people; of a truth if wee faile to vse the same wee giue the vvorld occasion to suspect our cold zeale in Reli­gion, & our punishments for this our negligence and ignorance shall be the greater For God hath giuen vnto scholers especially the charge and care of preserving and advauncing this his trueth not for our owne sakes only, but for the good of others also. For other men with good reason ex­pect instruction in the Scriptures, and the inter­pretation of the word at their mouthes, who for their learning are able to vnderstande diverse tongues, and search the course of doctrine.

Whereas then [...]eligion and Christianity is to be taught in schooles, that children may wel con­ceiue▪ it Catechisme is especially necessary. For neither can this age learne any thing except it be taught [...] briefe▪ neither cā either the teachers, or the learners handle aright and in good order the parts of any science, whereof both of them haue not digested in minde some rude summe. Both these are the cause why so often in Scriptures we read short briefes of Religion repeated; as Repent, and beleeue the Gospell. He which beleeueth, and is bap­tised shalbe saued. Fight a good fight, keepe the faith, and a good conscience &c. Col. 3. 16. And wheras it is said Col. 3▪ 16. Let the word of God dwel in you plenteously, & in all wis­dome, the Apostles meaning is, that wee must vse [Page 87] explications & interpretations such as are sutable with the sentences and doctrine of the Prophets & Apostles.Philip Me­lancthons examen. Neither is Catechisme any other thē a summary declaration of such sentences of Scrip­ture. Now whereas this litle examen we intende to propose vnto you is such, and the Author thereof hath faithfully and with great dexterity compri­sed the chiefe grounds of Christianity in proper & plaine tearmes; & it seemeth that it would bee very beneficial that in other churches ther should the like forme of Catechisme be extant, prepare your selues to the speedy learning thereof, & sup­pose that these our simple writings are the swad­ling clouts wherein Christ as it were swathed will be found of vs. You see how many vrgent causes they are which they commend vnto you, which they earnestly exhort you to embrace, which I beseech you to carry in minde & memory as they haue bin set downe vnto you: The cōmandement of God, your own salvation, your duty which you owe to po­sterity, the good example of a reformed church, your ma­ner of life, your age or years▪ your friends desires, & hopes the imminent dangerous times, the rewardes & punish­ments we are to looke for at Gods hands. But as our ad­monitions & exhortations are necessary, so with­out the secret motiō & working of the holy spirit we know they litle availe. Let vs therefore turne our selues & looke towards God, & giue him har­ty thanks for this his inestimable benefite, that it was his good pleasure to bring vs into the worlde in this sun-shine of the gospel, & let vs begge and craue to be taught & governed by him.

OF THE INCARNATION OF THE WORD. A confession made by the fathers of the Church of Antioch against Paulus Samosatenus.

Taken out of the Actes of the first Ephes [...]e Coun [...]l [...].

WE confesse that our Lord Iesus Christ, begotten of his Father before all worldes, but in the latter times conceiued by the holy Ghost of the virgin Mary according to the flesh, is but one person, of the godhead & humane flesh subsisting Perfect God, & perfect man: per­fect God euen with the flesh, but not accordinge to the flesh; perfect man euen with the godhead, but not according to the Godhead. Wholy to be worsh [...]pped, euen with the flesh but not accord­ing to the flesh: wholy worshiping, even with the god [...]ead but not according to the godhead. [...], euen with the bodie, but not according to the body. Wholy formed, or endu­ed [Page 89] with shape & fashion, euen with the divinity or godhead, but not according to the Diuinitie or godhead. Wholy coessenciall, that is of o [...]e and the selfe same nature togeather with God, even with the bodie, but not according to the body: as likewise he is not coessential to men ac­cording to his godhead, but being in his god­head he is coessētial to vs according to the [...]. For when we say that he is consubstantial, or of the same nature togeather with the father accor­ding to the spirite, we say not that he is con [...]ub­stantial with men according to the same spirite. And contrariewise when we prea [...]h that after the flesh he is cōsubstantial to men, we do not preach that according to the flesh he is coessential with god, for like as he is not coessētial with vs after the spirite (for so he is coessential with God) euen so is he not according to the flesh coessential to God, but consubstantial with vs. But [...] pro­nounce these thinges to be different and [...] betweene themselues, not to deuide that o [...]e vndeuided person, but to shew a distinction be­tweene nature and properties of the word and the flesh, which can neuer be confounded: so we professe and reverence that vnitie, which causeth this indiuisible vnion and composition.

Vigilius in his 4. booke a­gainst E [...]tyches.

If the worde and flesh bee of one nature, [Page 90] how commeth it to passe,Therefore contrari­wise, if the flesh bee found eve­ry where, how comes it that the nature of the flesh & worde which is e­very where is not one? that the worde being e­very where, the flesh also is not founde every where? for what time it was heere on earth, it was not then in heauen: and now because it is in hea­ven, even therefore it is not in earth: so sure wee are that it is not in earth, that even according to the flesh we verily expect that Christ shall come from heavē, whom according to the word we be­leeue to be with vs alwaies here on earth. Wher­fore (as your selues confesse) either the word to­gither with the flesh is contained in some place, or else the flesh togither with the word is in every place, for one nature is not in it selfe capable of contrarieties. But these two differ very far, to bee contained in some place, & to be in every place: and because the word is every where, & the flesh is not every where, it appeareth that one and the same Christ consisteth of both natures, & is in e­very place by nature of the godhead, and contai­ned in some one place according to the nature of his humanity. So that the same Christ was both created & without beginning, subiect to death, and yet immortal, the one by nature of the worde as he is God, the other by nature of the flesh, as the same God is also man. Being therefore both the son of God & man, he hath a beginning, was created, & is comprehēded in some place by na­ture of his flesh, being otherwise before all begin­ning vncreated, and without limitation of place, according to the nature of his godhead. He is in­ferior to the Angels in respect of his flesh, but e­quall [Page 91] to the Father as touching his Deity: deade sometimes in his māhood, ever-living in his god­head. This is the catholique faith and confession, which the Apostles delivered, martyrs co [...]firmed, and the faithfull to this day h [...]ue retained. W [...]r­fore impiously, as tainted with the p [...]enous he­resie of E [...]yches you presume to taxe Leo, whiles by the different actions of one Lorde Ch [...]st hee proveth the verity of both natures in him: so that what he wrought for demonstration of the [...] of two natures, you pervert as if it were a proo [...]e of two persons.

OF PREDESTINATION.
A letter of Vrsinus to his friend, briefely conteining a full and learned dis­course of predestination, with wholsome advise for the weaker sorte to follow.

HItherto I haue not had leasure to peruse your discourse of predestinati­on. Neither haue I now; but I steale so much time from other my affaires which I deferre, that I may at lēgth satisfie your request, which in my o­pinion is not so necessarie, if it would please you to read D. Beza and P. Matyr on this question [Page 93] whervnto I thinke you were before directed by me. Hereby also I would giue you to vnderstād, that hitherto I haue rather wanted abilitie then will to gratifie you. Of you let me entreate this courtesie, that you do not by disputation trouble others, who either will not heare ought besides that which they haue before conceiued, or can not readilye vnderstand those thinges whereof they never thought before, and haue in their in­fancie learned false in steede of trew principles & foundations. And were I not fully perswaded that in this question you would frame your selfe to Christian wisdome and patient for bearance of the weaker sorte, I would not answeare one worde to your demaunde.

The doctrine of predestinat [...],The do­ctrine of Predestination is not difficult. is not in my iudgment (as you wright) the most difficult point in all Christianitie, if we read holy scripture with­out preiudice or affectiō, & with serious purpose, not to reforme God after our phansies, but to learne of him, and to yeeld all glorie vnto him & none to our selues. For by these meanes that is now become easie to me which before seemed very difficult, whilest I depended on the authori­tie of men, who neuer vnderstoode themselues, nor could resolue me. There is no one common place of Divinitie, wherof more is wrighten by the prophets and apostles, then this verie place of Prouide [...]ce, Election, and free will: in so much th [...] I can not but marvell learned Christians [...] so doubt thereof.

[Page 94] Do you as I haue don, who for this onely reason, that I might gather, weigh, and confer [...]e whatso­euer [...] conteined as well in sermons as examples of holy scripture to this purpose, haue diligently perused the whole bible, euen from the be­gining of Genesis to the end of the Revelation, Which after I had don, I did partely perc [...]iue, & p [...]rte [...]y detest that skumme of disputation, and foggie fume of fallacie and soph [...]strie, labou [...]ing (but to no purpose) to eclipse the gloriouse sunne­shine of this doctrine. You may at your better leasure do this in Italie, where you shall haue no exercise of religion besides reading the bible, & priu [...]te prayer. Which libertie some verie good [...]en heretofore haue wanted, who otherwise had neuer ben so entangled. But eve [...] be are this in [...]inde whereof before I warned you. Yf for the present every thinge be not plaine and easie to you, be not therfore troubled, but by leasure di­ligently meditate with your selfe callinge vpon God, and houlding that foundation, which a­mogst the godly is without cōtrouers [...]e: remem­bring alwaies that not your selfe, but God is au­thor of your salvation, and of all besides what­soeuer you are, haue, or d [...]e, be it great or little. So shall you be sure not to erre with any danger of conscience and salvation, although you be not able to conceaue and vnfolde whatsoeuer you desire. Knowledge puffeth vp, but charitie edi­fieth.

First you must put a difference betweene pro­vidence [Page 95] & predestination, a [...] betweene the whole and the part.I Difference betweene providēce & predesti­nation. For Providence is the eternal, immu­table, and most excellent counsaile or decree of God, whereby all things haue their event tēding to the glory of the creatour, and salvation of the elect. Predestination is the eternal purpose of God, of beginning and perfiting the salvation of the e­lect, & forsaking or vtter casting of the reprobate to eternall punishment: Wherefore it containeth Election and Reprobation as partes of it selfe.

Secondly,II Distinction betweene good & e­vil offence. distinguish betwixte Providence of good [...]nd evill of offence (for the evill of punishmente hath a reference to good, namely to iustice, and in that respect is found in God:) God doeth provide that is in his providēce, purpose, & wil perfourme in purposed time, order, and manner: and in this respect he is said to be the cause, efficient, and au­thor of things. These things are not only done ac­cording to providence, but also by the providēce of God. As for evill or sin, that hee foreseeth from eternity, that is, hee decreeth or is willing to per­mit it, or not to hinder others from doing it: but him selfe i [...] in no wise an agent, either in them or by them. Wherfore himselfe is not the cause of e­vill, but in iustice excellency and depth of wise­dome he suffereth others to be the causes therof▪ So that these things are done according to Gods providence, but not by it because God did not decree to doe, but to suffer others to doe them. now to permitt or suffer, is nothing else but not to hinder sinne in any action, or not to cause men [Page 96] to be conformable to the law of God and nature.What it is to [...] or suffer. And in this sence God doth tolerate or suffer si [...], when he doth not either lighten our minds with his holy spirite & knowledge of his will, or turne our hearts to make this the principall ende of our actions, that we doe the knowne wil of God, and by this our obedience honor him. Which two things except it please God to worke in vs, what ere we doe, how good, iust, and holy so ever, it is but sinne and corruption in the sight of God.

Thirdly, make a distinction betweene God & his creatures,III The diffe­rence be­t [...]ne the [...] and [...] second [...]. or second causes, especially [...]n mat­ters concerning the government of the worlde. First the creatures are bounde one to further the safety, & hinder the destructiō of an other wher­soever they can; because God hath so commaun­ded all, and themselues may deserue it one of an 1 other: And being converted thy selfe, remember to cō ­firme thy brethren. God is bound to none, as not to create them of nothing, so neither to preser [...]e them, either in their being, or in that good, in­nocent, and happie being wherin they were cre­ated Because whatsoeuer good wee all enioy we haue it from him, neyther can he receaue any good, fellcitie, and commoditie of any man, be­cause of his infinite and most absolute all-suffici­encie in himselfe. [...] 11. Who hath giuen vnto him first, that he should be recompensed? [...] 20. 15. Is it not lawfull for me to do with mine owne as pleaseth me▪ 2 Secondlie Gods iustice requireth, that being him­selfe the cheifest good and author, and end of all [Page 97] thinges, he should referre all to his owne glory, and (if need were) rather suffer all the creatures of the worlde to perish, then any part of his glory should be left vnsatisfied. As for the creatures, they owe both themselues and all they haue, not to themselues, nor to others, but to God. There­fore Paule desired euen to be accursed from Christ, if by the saluation and conversion of his brethren he might aduance the glorie of Christ.Rom. 9. 3. Thirdely God may therefore most iustly permit & 3 tolerate the sinnes of his creatures, that is, not hinder them, because by his infi [...]te wisdome, power, iustice, and goodnesse, he knoweth how to vse this toleration and permission, to his owne glory, and the saluation of his elect. This the cre­atures can not do, and therefore they are subiect to the law of hindering offences as much as in them lieth. Fourthly God is the first cause and au­thor 4 of all good in the worlde: the creatures are onely instruments of such good thinges, as are by them performed, whome God in the absolute freedom of his excellent will & pleasure vseth, & by his prouidence preserueth in that nature and manner of doing which he hath prescribed Fifte­ly 5 God alone is simply immutable (▪ I am God and am not changed.) All creatures are mutable, some of their owne nature, which worke onely by vn­certaintie: [...] the vnstable action of elements, matter, and motion of creatures: or by vncertain­tie or contingency, and yet freely to, as the wils of angelles an [...] [...] are in deede of their [Page 98] owne immutable, and therfore necessarie agents in that which they doe, yet are as easie to be alte­red by God as the rest: so the motion of the sonne is naturally such as we see: yet God at his plea­sure can either stop or interrupt the course therof. 6 Sixtly, God alone is simply & absolutely free, that is, of himselfe moving all things, in himselfe mo­ved and depending of none, hauing in himselfe the reason, & cause of al his purposes, with grea­test power and authority of disposing al things o­therwise from eternity, if so he had beene pleased, imposing necessity or contingence & vncertaine­ty vpon al things, himselfe not tied to such condi­tions by any thing. Eph. 1. 9. According to his good pleasure which he had purposed in himselfe. But the li­berty of reasonable creatures is not absolute, that is, depending of no other; for although they moue themselues by some internal cause, vnderstandinge offering some obiect, and will of his owne accorde without constraint chosing or refusing it, yet are they over-ruled by an other agent, namely God, who both offereth obiects of what nature & qua­lity, howsoever & to whōsoeuer it pleaseth him, and also to them and by them affecteth, moveth, inclineth, and boweth the wils of whomsoeuer, whensoeuer, and how far soever he will himselfe. That mans conceipt of God is too contumelious which putteth no difference betweene the liber­ty which is in God and his creatures. Wherefore Gods providence and working in all things, doth not destroy but vphold and encrease the libertie [Page 99] of our wils. For the more God mooveth or for­saketh them. the more violently, & consequently with more freedome and fervencie of desire they are carried eith [...]r to good or evill. Wherefore thē indeed we shall with greatest freedome will that which is good when God shall so be all in al, that wee can will or wish nothing but what is good, which shal be (with the favor and grace of God) in the life to come.

Fourthly,IV. The diffe­rence of effectes in respect of. we must distinguish the manner of effects or things done. For the same effect procee­ding from divers causes, may in respect of thē bee diversly taken. For as it proceedeth from a good cause so it is good, as from an evil so evill, as from a cause contingent and mutable, or necessary & immutable, so may it be accounted contingent & mutable, or necessary and immutable. Wherfore in respect of God, in whō we haue our being, life, & motion, all things which were made are good, as well bad as good, considering that God is abso­lutely & immutably good, and therefore can nei­ther will or do any thing but what is good, and a­greeable to his nature, and the law wherein hee hath revealed vnto vs his nature and ius [...]ice. In respect of creatures, all good thinges as they are good, are by God vpheld in their goodnesse, al e­vill things as they are evil, degenera [...]e from that goodnes wherein they were cre [...]ted (God suffe­ring and forsaking them) and are not therevnto restored by God. So in respect of the liberty and freedome of God al things are done cont [...]gent­ly [Page 100] and by vncertainety, yea even those thinges which seeme to depende most necessarily on second causes, as the motion of the heavens: but in respect of Gods immutable decree all events are necessary, as when the souldiers crucifying Christ did not breake his bones, but pierced his side with a speare, which in respect of second causes were meerely contingent.

Fiftly we make distinction of sinnes,V Difference of sinnes. whereof some in themselues and in their owne nature are sins, namely such things as are forbiddē by God, not are by special law or exception commanded, as the robbing of the Aegyptians, the offering of Isaac: others by occasiō or accident, namely such thinges as are either commaunded or allowed by God, but perverted by the creature, and not perfourmed in such sort as they were commaun­ded, as are the sacrifices, praiers, and almes-deeds of wicked men and hypocrites. Whether of these two sorts of sinne a mā commit, either that which is sin in it selfe, or the other which is sin by accidēt and occasion, certaine it is, that through his owne fault & imperfection he committeth it. But that which God intendeth in these actions of men is ever good and iust.

Lastly, we must distinguish the necessity of cō ­straint and immutability; VI Two sortes of necessity for it were too grosse to confounde them. For the former moveth vio­lently and by externall cause, the latter natu­rally, some internall cause in the agent moving and being moved, as by nature it is apt. These [Page 101] thinges when I perceiued, GOD opening my eies, I did not reckon one [...]ote of those foolish fables; Testimo­ni [...]s out of the New Testament. that GOD was made the cause of sinne: that contingence or casualitie and libertie were taken awaie And all this I learned out of infinite places of scriptures: as Genesis 20. Therefore haue I kepte thee that thou shouldest not sinne against mee, nor did I suffer thee to touch her. Genesis 45. GOD sent mee before you for your safety. And againe, I was not sent hither by your purpose but by the will of God, who hath made me as it were a father vnto Pharaoh. Gen. 50. Feare not, can we resist Gods will? You thought evil against me, but God turned it to good, that hee mighte exalte mee, as you novve see, and preserue manie people. Exodus 4. 7. 10. 11. 14. I vvilt harden the heart of Pharaoh and of his servauntes, and I will shew my wonders in the lande of Aegypt And in the 9. chap. Therefore haue I placed thee in the kingdome, that I might shew my power in thee, and my name might be declared in all the world. Exod. 12. God gaue his peo­ple favour in the sight of the Aegyptians, so that they lent iewels vnto them, and they robbed the Aegyptians. Exod. 21. If a man hath not laide waite for him vvhome hee hath slaine, but God hath given him into his handes: which he speaketh of murder done by misfortune or chance. Exod. 22. Every man slay his brother, his friend, and his neighbour. They which did this are commended, who without this commaundemente had done very evill: yet had not God so cōmanded them, but vpon some other occasion provoked their minds therevnto, [Page 102] he might as iustly haue punished those isolaters by sinning instrument [...], as he did by these iust ex­ecuters of his iudgement because they were not governed by [...]ecret providēce, but by the manifest and open will of God Exod. 33. I wil shew mercie to whom I will shew mercy, and I will haue compassion on whom I will haue compassiō, Num. [...]3 God is not as mā that he should be, or as the son of man that he should be changed. Hath he therefore said, and shall bee not doe it? [...] he spoken and shal it not be fulfilled? I am sent to [...], I cannot forbid [...]e a blessing. Deut. 5. O that there were [...] such an heart to feare me, & ever to keepe all [...] commandements, that [...]t might go well with them and with their children for ever. By these & the like p [...]aces God sheweth what he liketh, wherein he is delighted, and what ple [...]seth him. [...]ut by Exod. 33. I will haue mercy on whom I will haue mercy: and the like, he sheweth what he wil effect or bring to passe amongst men and in whom. Deut. 13. If a Prophet shall say, let vs go and fo [...]low strange Gods, tho [...] [...] to his vo [...]ce, because the Lord [...]empteth you, that it may appeare whether you loue him or no. And in the same place, Let the Prophet he slaine, be­cause he hath spoken to turne you from the Lorde your God. Deut. 29. And God gaue you not an vnderstāding hart, even vntil [...] this day Ios. 11. [...] pleased God to har­den then he [...], that they should fight against Israell & be overthrowen, and should not finde mercy but perish▪ as God had commanded Moses. Iudg 2 & 3. God forsooke the nations which he cōmanded to be rooted out. 1. Sam. 2 They did not ha [...]ken to the voice of their father, because [Page 103] God would slay them. And in the same booke the 10. cap.. Parte of the house wente with him, whose heartes God had touched. And againe 10. The spirit of the Lorde departed from Saule, and an evill spirite of the Lord or from the Lord did vexe him. 2. of Sam. 12. Behould I will st [...]rre vp evill against thee from thine owne house, and I will take thy wiues before thy face, & giue them to thy neighbour, and thy sonne shall be with thy wifes openlie. For thou diddest it secretlye, but I will do this thing before all Israel, and in the sight of the sunne. & ca. 17. The counsaile of Achitophel is o­verthrowne by the Lordes countenance. & ca. 24. The wrath of the Lord was kindled against Israel, and hee mooued Dauid to say vnto Ioab. & 1. Chron. 21. Sa­tan rose vp against Israel, and prouoked Dauid to nom­ber the people. 2. Sam. [...]2. And. 2. Chron. 10. Reho­boam suffered not the people to be at rest, for it was Gods will. And [...]. Chron. 11. This is don by my will▪ 1. Kinges. 22. God gaue the sp [...]rite of lying. 2 Chron. 36. God stirred vp the heart of Cy [...]. Esd [...]. 6 God had tourned the kinges hearte vnto them Iob. 1. The Lord hath giuen, & the Lord hath taken awaie. Iob. 12. He bringeth counsailers to a foolish end. Iob. 14. Th [...] hast appointed the boundes thereof which cannot be pas­sed. Psal. 105. He tourned their heartes to hate his people. Psa. 115. He hath do [...] what soever he would. Ps. 16. The Lord hath made al things for his owne sake, [...] even the wicked for the day of evill ver. [...]3. The [...] is cast into the lap but the whol [...] d [...]sposition herof is of the Lord ca. 2 [...]. The heart of the kinge is in the [...] hand, he turneth it as rivers of waters whether [...] [Page 104] Ecclesiastes the seventh. Consider the vvorkes of the Lord, that none can amend him whom he hath despo­sed. Wisdom 8. W [...]sdome reacheth from one end to an other, shee hath a sposed all thinges mightely and order­ly. Read the 12. and 19. Chapters of the same booke and S [...]rac. 17. They cannot make their hearts of s [...]onie to become fleshlie. Esai. 10. O A [...]shur the rod of my wra [...]h &c. in his hand is mine indignatiō. I will send him to a dissembling nation, that shall take the [...] of them. Reade the whole place, which alone sufficeth to refell that obiection of the cause of sinne. Like places are [...]ound in the 13 cap. And Esa. 14 The Lord of hostes hath de­creed, and who can al [...]er it? Esa. 43. Everie one that calleth on the name of the Lord, him haue I created for my glorie▪ him haue I fashioned, him haue I made. And in the same place, I will bring it to passe, and who shall withstand it. Esa. 45. I am the Lord making peace & creating evill. And 46. Cap. My determination shall stand &c: I haue spoken and I will bring it to passe, I haue proposed and will do it. Ierem. 13. If the Aethi­opian can chaunge his skinne, or the leoparde his spottes, you also will be able to do well, hauing learned to do ill. Ierem▪ 30. God hath opened his treasurie, and brought forth vesselles of his wrath. Lament. 3. Who is he that saith, and it cometh to passe, and the Lord commaund­eth [...]? Doth not evill and good proceede out of the mouth of the [...] high: Ezech. 12. I will speake a word and bring it to passe. Ezech. 14 When a Prophet hath cried and spoken ought amisse, I the Lord haue decea­ved [Page 105] that Prophet. Ezec. 18 I will not the death of him that dieth. Much like that Deu. 5. O that there were to them &c. As aboue hath been said. Ezech. 20. I gaue them commaundements which were not good. Eze. 29. Nebuchadnezer my servant caused his armie to serue a great servitude against Cyrus. Ezech. 36. And I will giue you a new hearte, & put a new spirite in the middest of you: and I will take awaie this stonie heart from your flesh. Compare the 17 of Sirach & Ier. 13. & Ezech. 58 I will lead thee about, & put a bridle in thy mouth, & bring thee forth. At that day shall many thinges come to thy minde, & thou shalt thinke evill thoughtes, & shalt say, I will goe vp to the land &c. Compare this with Esai. 10. Dan. 4 Hee worketh according to his will, both in the armies of heauen & al­so in the habitations of the earth; and there is none can staine his hande, or say vnto him, whi [...] hast thou done this? Amos. 3. There is no evill in the citie which the Lord hath not done: which is spoken of the evill of punishment, though often times it fall out by ac­cident, that there be also an evill of offence, which God suffereth to concur, Micah. 4. Manie nations are gathered togeather, but they know not the thoughtes of the Lord.

Mat. 7. A good tree cannot bringe forth evill fruit,Out of the New testament. & in the same chapter they which are built vpon a rocke shall not fal. Read Melancthons commentarie vpon that place Luc. 10. One sparrow falleth not to the ground. Math. 11. I thanke thee (father) for that thou haste hidden these thinges from the wise [Page 106] Mat. 13. To you it is given to know, but vnto others it is not given. Mat. 16. & every where in the Evange­lists, That Christ ought to goe to Hierusalem, and suffer many things. Mat. 18. It is necessary that offences should come. Mat 20. Is it not lawfull for me to doe with mine owne what I will? Many are called, but few bee chosen. Mat. 24. All thinges must come to passe. And in the same place, It is not possible that the elect should [...]rre, finally; Ioh. 6. Whatsoever my father hath given mee shall come vnto me, and him that commeth to me I vvil not cast forth. And No man can come vnto me except the father draw him. And This is the will of my father, that of al whatsoever he hath given me I should loose no­thing. Ioh. 10. Other sheepe also I haue, which I must bring vnto my flocke. And My sheepe no man taketh out of my hand. Ioh. 11. Caiphas whē he was high Priest did prophecy. Ioh. 12. Therefore they coulde not be­leeue, because he had blinded their eies. Ioh. 13. I knowe them whō I haue chosen. Ioh. 14. Which spirit the world cannot receiue. Ioh. 15. You haue not chosen me, but I you. Act. 1. The prophecies concerning Iudas ought to haue beene fulfilled Act. 2. Him haue yee taken by the hands of the wicked, being delivered by the determinate counsell and foreknowledge of God, and haue crucified & slaine. Act. 3. Through ignorance yee did it, but God so fulfilled the things which he had foretolde. Act. 4. They came togither to doe whatsoever thy hand and counsell had before decreed to be done. Act. 13. They beleeved, as manie as were ordained to eternal life. Act. 17. He gi­veth life & motion vnto all things. And In him we liue, mooue, and haue our being. Rom. 1. God delivered them [Page 107] over to a reprobrate minde Rom 8 All thinges worke for the good of those that loue God Rom. He hath mercie on whom he will, and hardeneth whom he will. Reade Pa [...]s whole disputation. Rom. 11. Election prevai­led: the rest are hardned. And The graces of God are without repentance. 1. Cor. 4. What hast thou that thou hast not received. Eph. 1. He hath chosen vs in himselfe before the creatiō of the world, that we m [...]y be [...] And Predestinated according to his purpose, who doth [...] the counsell of his owne will Read the chapter it selfe Phil. 1. It is God which worketh in vs both to will and to perfourme, of his meere good will. 2. Thes. 2. H [...]e c [...]t strong errors amongst them Pervse the plac. 2. Tim▪ 2 The foundation of the Lorde standeth sure 1 Ioh. 2. They went out from amongest vs, but were not of vs. 1. Ioh. 4. Herein appeareth his loue, in that he loved vs first. Revel. 17. God wil put into their heartes to do his will. But I haue al [...]eadged too many places, pur­posing to touch onely a f [...]w, for you may of your selfe finde out infinit such l [...]ke places of scriptu [...]e.

Herevnto may be added certaine arguments, which no man shall ever be able to ref [...].

Gods omnipotencie suffereth nothing to b [...]e done which he doth not either simply or [...]son sort will. Argumēts [...]. For looke what simplie he will not, [...]hat 1 by no meanes can be done.

His infinite wisedome doth not suffer [...] [...] 2 thinge in the world to be done without his ad­vice and couns [...]ll.

Whilest he willeth the end (which is [...] 3 his purpose, most excellent, he also willeth [...] [Page 108] meanes leading to these ends: at the least in some respect, but not as they are sinnes.

4 All thinges in the worlde which are good and positiue, haue their being from him, and are ru­led by his prouidence. And therfore al motiues or motions tending to any end, as they are motins, be ruled and directed by God.

5 The counsels of God depend not on the works of creatures, but contrarywise the actions & mo­tions of creatures depende vpon the counsell of God.

6 His foreknowledge even of thinges most mu­table is immutable. Wherefore it dependeth vp­on a cause immutable, that is, vpon his owne e­ternal decree. All this confirmes a providence vni­versall over all things particular.

As much may be said for Gods eternal and im­mutable Election. A [...]ioms of eternal & immutable Election.

There can be no good at al in any thing, which 1 God from all eternity hath not decreed to effect or bring to passe.

2 Those whom once he loveth, he loveth from al eternity, and for all eternity: we cannot therefore be assured of the present grace of God towarde vs, excepte wee bee also assured of his eternall grace and loue, vnlesse we wil imagine God to be mutable.

3 We must beleeue eternal life.

4 Our hope must be certaine.

5 Wee must pray for eternall salvation without condition or doubt.

[Page 109] Christs intercession for the elect is ever sure.6

These (amongst a great many others) contente me,Answere to obiections. & perhaps you. Now therfore after al this let vs heare what it is that you obiect.

First (say you) this doctrine carrieth men away I from Gods revealed will vnto his secret will,Election doth not lead vs frō the revea­led to the hidden will of God. from the word to impressions or perswasions wroughte by faith, before credit or beliefe be given to the word heard. What is this? If you haue at any time seene this wrighten in our doctrine, why doe you not produce or note the places? If you thinke it a consequent therevpon, why doe you not frame your argumente, and drawe your conse­quence? what kind of Logique is this, or of whom did you learne it, to raile deadly and damnably against innocentes, without any shew of proofe? but if you cā neither shew where we haue wrigh­ten it, nor by good & apparent cōsequence force our doctrine to it (as out of doubt you cānot) why then doe you so shamefully slander vs? we never so much as thought of any such matter. Nay, all that we haue hitherto taught is quit cōtrary They which perswade you & others such thinges of vs, they lie as wickedly & as impudētly as the divel. Away then with these monstrous forgeries. It is (good Sir) the expresse worde of God, that they which with an earnest and thankefull mind in trew repentance embrace the benefit of Christ offered in the Gospell, should certainly perswade themselues that they are in fauour with God through Christ, and m [...]st assured heirs of [...] [Page 110] life, and that not for workes eyther don by them­selues or fore seene by God, that by the meete and free mercie of God, wherby he hath vouch­safed from all eternitie to make choise of them before others, which except he had don, they had surely perished in the blindnesse and impi­etie with others. Wee make the worde of God the maior of our syllogisme; the testimonie of consci­ence, that we beleeue and repent, the minor: in this manner: He that beleeueth in the sonne hath e­ternall life, But I beleeue in the sonne: hence wee draw this conclusion, which was in question Er­go I haue eternall life. Now I pray tell me; is this to lead you from the worde, or to iudge of the grace of God and our saluation otherwise then out of the worde? Truely if your selfe will iudge otherwise, you shall perish everlastingely.

You adde farther,Answere to the in­staunce of Paule. that we wrest and corrupt the text of Paule, and search too curiouslie into the secrets of God. And yet you neither do, nor can aleadge any example; but in steed of proofes you pester vs with a fe [...]w scurrile declamatorie termes.Rom. 11. 33. If we did moue such questions, whie God hath rather chosen one man then another, Peter then Iu [...]as, to eternall life? whether others be also elected? What is the nomber of the elect? &c. Then had you [...] son to revile vs. For these are that vnsearch­able depth wherof Paul speaketh, and the know­ledge of them is no way necessarie to our saluatiō. [...] the cheife cause of our salvation is Gods free election, that this election is sure and immura­ble, [Page 111] that it is made known vnto vs by such effects as we find in our selues, nāely stirred vp by faith, repentance, and hearing the worde of God, these are things whereof God would not haue vs igno­rant, but hath in his worde a thousand times re­peated, for his glory and out comfort. Wherfore your acclamations concerne vs nothing, howsoe­ver you please your selfe in them.

Secondly: you cannot abstaine from the stale & drie dros [...]e of the Manichees and Stoickes, for want of better weapons to offend vs. We for our parts detest that dotage of the Stoickes touching II necessitie inhaerent in things themselues, Dotage of the Stoickes & Manichees falsly obie­cted. which shoulde binde and subiect to it selfe God and all thinges besides. Contrariwise we maintaine that God is the most free and chiefe ruler of al things, which doth al things according to his good pleasure, whose hād no man can withdraw, which is eternall, immuta­ble, ever the same. Why doe you vnder the name of fatal lawes deride his most excellent, wise, free, and immutable decree? A man might well laugh at the folly of these toyes, but for that blasphe­mous impiety which you adde, that no Christian can endure to laugh at, but rather be vehemently therewithall offended. Doe you thinke it absurd, that al things which are and ever shal be, were be­fore the fal known vnto God, & by him decreed? Then belike you laugh at Paule, saying that be­fore the foundation of the world grace was given vs in Christ,Eph. 1. 4. and at Saint Iames saying,2. Tim. [...]. 9. that Gods [...] are knowne vnto him from the beginning▪ Act. 15. 18. [Page 112] that is fromal eternitie. But is it possible that you hauing ben so long conuersant in Philosophie & Diuinitie, should in your phansie frame vnto vs a mutable God▪ Truelie if you speake seriousely, I except against your wisedome, if you iest frend­ly, I must preiudice your modesty. Do you think that God was mutable, in threatning, but sp [...]ring the Ninevites? He had determined to spare them, as well before as after his threats. But (you will say) why then did he threaten them? for this ve­rie cause, that by threatning he might conuerte, and hauing converted, might saue them. There­fore God was not diuerse, or altered his purpose [...] for even when he threatned thē, he vnderstood this condition, except they repented▪ and this repē ­tāce he did before all eternitie purpose by threat­ning to worke in their mindes.

Besides, you obiect vnto vs a greivouse crime, in saying we ouerthrowe & take away Disciplie [...], prayer, magistrates, and lawes. Not to fast (I pray) for breaking your shinnes. If whatsoeuer God hath decreed shal com to passe, as without doubt immutablie, and necessarily it must, discipline (say you) praier, magistrates, and lawes are to no pur­pose▪ it were trew, if he had decreed without thē that his decrees should come to passe. But if by these meanes he would saue some, restraine o­thers, and make a thirde sorte inexcusable, and hath therefore commaunded to vse them, that by this commaundement he might the rather mooue vs to make vse of thē, and by this meanes [Page 113] attaine the good he hath decreed vnto vs, then who a [...] you that presume to be a reformer of gods counsels, and mutter that he hath decreed, ordai­ned and commanded things vaine and to no pur­purpose? God hath decreed to make da [...]e to mor­row; vvill you therefore conclude that the sunne riseth in vaine? Because God every yeare bringeth corne from out the earth, will you therefore con­clude that the benefit of heaven and husbandrie might be taken away? what schoole ever taught you f [...]om admitting the first cause to conclude a remoue of second causes? when God decreed the end, he likewise ordained & decreed means vnto that end, & gaue vs charge to vse thē: if we vse thē, it is at his pleasure; if not, by his iudgement & our fault it is at our owne perill.

Your obiectiō of Manichae in blasphemy touch­eth not vs but S. Paul, one vnspotted with that heresie. All are created good by one good God, by his most iust permissiō they fell corrupting & tur­ning away themselues from God. Out of this pe­rished heape he elected & reprobated frō all eter­nity whom he woulde. Manes acknowledgeth none of all this. It is therefore a damnable slaun­der to say that GOD did reprobate any, con­trarie to those sayings, GOD will not the death anie, but that all men shoulde bee saued. Hee would not that any shoulde perish, but all bee saved in respect of his goodnesse and l [...]ue towardes his creatures (which will not suffer him to re­ioice in the destruction of his handy-vvoorke) [Page 114] as may appeare by commanding, calling, and invi­ting to repentance: although the force and efficacy hereof prevaile not in all. For in his word he hath oftē said, that he reioiceth in no mās death, as it is death, destruction, and torment, but calleth & in­viteth all men vnto himselfe, though not all after one sort. But that hee would effect or bring to passe that all without exception should obey and be saved, he not only said it no where, but in ma­ny places expresly said the contrary. So that the Scripture is not contrary to it selfe, teaching that God reioiceth in the salvation of all, and yet hath left some to reprobation.

III Thirdly, Enthusias­mes or Re­velations falsly obie­cted. I thinke that distrusting the waight of your arguments, you meant to carry it away with multitude, and did therefore vse the same argu­ment both in first and also in the third place: vn­lesse perhaps you will rather haue it an amplifi­cation taken from the name of Enthusiastes, that you may not be thought to haue omitted this or­nament. But go to, what agreement betweene vs and them? you say, that neglecting the word, we expect ravishments of the minde from the body; but in which of our wrighters haue you heard or red any such thing? this is spoken of vs with as lit­tle modestie, as that before, when you said we de­parted frō the revealed will of God. We say that God doth worke in vs faith, and our conversion; but by his word after his ordinarie māner of wor­king, where vnto he hath bound vs, reserving to himselfe liberty of working extraordinarily when [Page 115] soever he wil, as also of moving by his word, whō, when, and how far it pleaseth him.

As inconsideratly you adde (and I know not whether against your conscience,The will of man is not [...]le. hauing bin so long an auditor of our profession) that according to our doctrine the will of a man doth nothing. In both arguments againe you dispute from ad­mitting the first cause to the excluding of the se­cond. The will of man is an agent, but being be­fore mooued, acted, inclined, softened and re­nued by God through his worde: I meane not forced, as a stone, or a blocke, but alured and in­vited by some obiect offered to the minde. The will of Paul was Gods worke, in that he would do those thinges which the Lord woulde. It was Gods iudgment and the Iewes offence, that they would not be gathered to geather by Christ. It is in vaine that grace goeth before, vnlesse it do ef­fect the accompanying of our will. What say you then of like māner of working? why rather harkē you not to that doctor of the church which saith It is God which worketh in vs both to will and performe. Phil. 22. I will now tell you a great matter, but verie trew. Wee can in no wise maintaine the puritie of the article of free and certaine iustification, against that sorte of merit which the Papistes terme me­ritum cōgrui, except that impious devise of Gods generall grace, leaving the acceptaunce, vse, or refusall of it selfe in our owne power, be cōdēned, & the eternal & immutable loue of God towards his elect be freed from obscurity & sophismes.

[Page 116] IV Fourthlie, you vvould seeme to doe a thing or­dinary extraordinarily,God is not the cause of sinne. placing the strēgth of your arguments in the maine battaile, filling your for­ward and re [...]-vvard with pioners and base hang bies, contrary to that custome which you knowe to be obserued and commanded by Rhetoricians in their schooles. Your chiefe argument is this, which you set forth to the vtmost. If God haue de­creed to giue over some to blindnes, sinne, & death▪ then God by this meanes is made the cause of sin. But this is easily answered. First here againe I finde your wāt of cōmon ingenuity, wheras you say that these are the words of many of our wrighters, that God doth effectually worke sin in the reprobate. You talke of ma­ny, but do (& I am perswaded cānot) produce one. For we frō our harts detest this opiniō, as infinite testimonies of our writers will easilie proue.

But you wil say it followeth vpon our doctrine. For he which decreed to suffer men to fin, is the author of sinne. See what an argument you haue made, which (if it be turned the other way) is e­nough to confute you in your own conceit. For he which permitteth sinne, not being bound to hin­der any man from sinning, having besides autho­rity and righte to punish vvith forsaking and ca­sting of to eternal tormentes, he is neither author nor favourer, but sufferer and iudge of sinne. But in this sorte GOD permitteth sinne: therefore God is not any vvaie the author of sinne. If you proceede and vrge; but that privation or with­dravving of grace vvhich he inflicteth insteed of [Page 117] a punishmente, is sinne; you commit a fallacie of accident. For the punishment of it selfe, as it is inflicted by God, is most iust; by accident, as be­ing plucked by men on their owne heads by the first sinne of Adam, and the rest ensuing, so it is sinne. Your argument had carried more co­lour, if from Gods providence you had conclu­ded this effecting of sin: although in deed it had beene but the same fallacy For God did most effe­ctualie and vehemently will the crucifying of his sonne by them, who aftervvardes executed it: yet did he not will, but suffer their murder (which hee aftervvardes horriblye punished) to concurre with his most iust, most holy, and (beyonde all others) most admirable and glorious worke, vvhich by them hee perfourmed. Hee vvould the warres of Nabuchadnezar, but hated his wic­kednesse. His vvill it vvas that Absolon shoulde vvarre against his Father David, and defile his vviues, but these thinges in respect of GODS vvill, vvere most iust punishmentes vpon Da­vid, but as Absolon did them, onlie to vsurpe the kingdome and oppresse his Father, not ha­ving therein any commandement of God to fol­lovv, so they were treason, & incest. This wicked­nes of Absolo [...] by accident concurreth with Gods iudgment, which he executeth by him. As much you shall prevaile if you saie that God is thē made the author of sinne, when as men forlorne and forsaken by him cannot choose but sinne. For you accuse the scripture, and God himselfe, often [Page 118] saying as much as this, but without dāger of such blasphemie. Because mankind of their own free wil did in Paradise pul on thēselves this necessity V of sinninge.

Fifth, [...] no do­c [...]ne of r [...]son but of the gos­pell. you tell vs this is a doctrine of the law. What then? is it therefore false? is not the law as true as the Gospell? furthermore, you say it is drawne from reason it selfe. You had neede be more eagle-sighted in Plato & Aristotle his books, then I and all men besides haue bin, which could never finde it there. But in a word, know that it is learned out of the hidden mysteries of the gos­pell. Doe you thinke that Paules intent was in the 9. 10. 11. and 12. to the Romanes, and 1. to the Ethe­sians to preach the Law? I doe not thinke you be­leeue it. And what doth neerer concerne the very m [...]rrow of the Gospel, then the eternal, free, and immutable loue of God towards his elect, which Christ s [...]ith was the cause why he [...] gaue his onely begotten son for vs, much more saved vs everla­stinglie, being once engraffed into him through faith, and finished in vs the worke which hee had begun? I know not what may concerne the gos­pell if these things doe not. It may suffice againe to admonish you (as before) of main [...]taining the purity of our article of iustificatiō. But those words of yours, (O bow that exclamation troubled mee, TO WHOM DOTH GOD OWE ANY THING [...]) filled [...] partly with admiration, partly with indignatiō & griefe. I was out of pat [...] ­ence when I read thē. Surely either you haue bin [Page 119] little conversant in reading holy scriptures, or to much possessed with affection & preiudice, whē you so sawcily condemne the words of scripture. Is it not the exclamation of Paule, Rom. 11. 35. Who hath first giuen vnto the Lord, that he may recompence him? Truly nothing more comfort­eth me, then this vnspeakable loue of God to­wardes me, that oweing no more to me then to Iudas or Cain, yet for all that, of an enimie he hath made me a son, by the death of his onely begot­ten. For that which you aleadg of Gods binding himselfe vnto vs by promise, is nothing at all to the purpose. What then (I pray) will you pre­tend, before the applying of this promise? To whom doth this promise bind God, but vnto him that embraceth it by faith? But who embraceth or receiueth it besides those, on whō God vouch­safeth to bestow this benefite? he obligeth him­selfe to as manie as beleeue, and this very obliga­tion proceedeth of his free goodnesse. But where ( [...]el me) where in scripture do you read, that God bindeth himselfe by any promise to giue faith & repentance vnto all? this you wil never be able to shew vs. Leaue then to bee troubled with the words of Christ proceeding from a most inwarde feeling of piety & true humility before God, nei­ther dreame that by them Papisticall doubts are confirmed, whereas rather in deed without them the certainety of faith cannot consist.

Sixtlie: they should long since haue beene a­shamed 6 of the argument they bring for vniversal [Page 120] promises.The pro­mises are v [...]iuersall vnto those that be­leiue. For themselues are faultie in that which they obiect vnto vs. You answeare the argument, and yet vse it. Yf this vniuersall promise did par­taine to all men, what a confusion of impietie & absurditie would follow? But if it must be restain­ed vnto those that beleeue (as indeed it must) we also maintaine this vniuersall truth and com­forte, hauing learned out of Gods worde, that all and they alone which beleeue be heires of eter­nall life, and so receiued into fauour by God, that they shall for euer all continew thenn, and not one perish, according to those scriptures: No man shall take awaie my she [...]pe from me: Of that which my father hath giuen me I wil not loose &c: Ioh 10. 28. &. 6. 39. That, if it were possible, the verie elect should be seduced. Whom he hath chosen, Ma [...]. 24. them he hath called, iustified, & glorified. This is the conclusion of Christian faith and consolati­on,24 Rom. 8. 30. and this article is placed in the end of the creed, that we might beleeue eternall life, and with the Apostle sing [...] that triumphant song, who shall seperate the elect, &c. They on the other side do openly and greeuousely wrong the maiestie of God, whilest they imagine his loue to be mu­table as the loue of man: as for the goldy, them they depriue of their comfort, they weaken, dis­grace, and vilifie the force, vse, and comfort of v­niuerfall promises, whilest they feine, that some truely beleeuing may finally fall aware & perish: that they which are new in fauor with God were not so from all eternitie, nor shall be euerlasting­ly: which being most absurd, it followeth neces­sarily, [Page 121] that because they will not be certaine of Gods future and eternall grace, therefore they can not be certaine of the grace present. The scripture teacheth, that as many as beleeue are to be sa [...]ed: they oppose the contradictory, that s [...]me which beleeue are not to be saued. Where is now your comfort, by which you may include your selfe in the vniuersall fall? These are those secret sleights of the [...] devill, which must be obserued & avoyded.

Augustines exposition vpō Paules Epistle to Ti­mothy, 1. Tim 2. 4. of al sorts of men,God will haue all men saued. fitteth that place proper­ly as may appeare by the drift and words of Saint Paule. But to the cōtētious I vse to yeeld thus far, that it is spoken of al particular men, according to the effect towards all, & vocation, but not according to efficacie. As for our wrighters, none of them would endure, much lesse desire that an indefinite might be substituted in place of an vniversall.

Your coockow song of contradictory wils, is VII broken of by an answere of vniversals.In God are not contra­dictorie [...] willes. For there is no contradiction in this; God will that al which be­leeue should bee saved, and that none which beleeue not should be saved. Againe, you do ill to confound the commandement pertaining to all men (that all shoulde come vnto Christ) with the promise: for Christ wil ease, not al men, but al which come vn­to him. And therfore as the excludeth none, no not the reprobate, & such as perish, from the commā ­dement: so likewise he excludeth frō the promise none which come vnto him, that is, which beleeue in him.

[Page 122] At odious is your exprobation of respect of per­sons. God is no respecter of persons. That may be committed when a thing is gi­ven of debt or duty,Rom. 10. 12. not when it is given of free mercy, as God giveth. He is rich to all, yet not gi­ving the same giftes and benefits to all, because in his most spacious pallace hee will haue variety of furniture. But whereas the Apostle in this place speaketh principally of eternal riches, you spight­fully omit what he addeth: Calling vpon him.

Wil you know vpon what ground we acknow­ledg two sortes of election?Two, nay three sorts of election in scripture I will shew you three sortes in scripture. First God chose the people of Israel to be his church. Secōdly Christ chose the twelue Apostles, to spread the Gospell abroad in the world, thirdly he chose not al of either of these to eternall life, because amongst the Israelits ma­ny were called, but feaw chosen, amonst the A­postles one was a Deuil. But he knew whom he had chosen, I meane to eternall life, and not only to the Apostleship, wherevnto also he chose Iu­das. So there are three sorts of vocation or calling: first to the visible church,Three sortes of vocation. whereof it is saide manie are called: secondlie to the church of Saints, which calling is internall and effectuall, which Paule na­meth 1 according vnto his purpose, vz. of saving those 2 which are called: thirdly, to some certaine charge 3 or dutie in this life, so my vocation is to labour in this schoole.

The will of God,Voluntas signi & be­ [...] placi [...]i. named will of revelation and good-pleasure the Schoole-men haue well distingui­shed, not as contrary, or two wils but one wil, and [Page 123] that partly manifested and partly cōcealed, part­ly proving and partly efficient, which are thinges agreeable to the nature of God.

Eightly you conclude with a grosse and pesti­lent VIII cavil,The do­ctrins of pers [...]ue­rance doth not m [...]ke v [...]presump­tuous, but beleeue eternall life. that the doctrine of final perseueran [...]e maketh men presumptuous, but do you call it presumption to beleeue eternall life? You deale too contumeliously with the holy spirit and too heynous is this ingratitude for so great a benefi [...] which God through Christ in this life bestowed on vs, namely the certaintie of our saluation, pur­chased for vs by Christ, which is the summe and foundation of our comforte and religion. For what comforte were it to know,Col 3. 3. that indeed Christ did ones purchase saluation for vs,1. Pet. 1. 5. but e­verie moment it is a thousand waies subiect to be lost? we must therefore know, that our life is with Christ in God, and there as safely kept, as is the life of Christ him-selfe reigning in heauen. This is a thousand times saide in scripture. Read Me­lancthon vpon the 7. ca. of Mat. in the place a­boue cited. Read the 5. and 8. chapt. to the Rom. I see you doe not put difference betweene secu­ritie of the spirit & of the flesh, and that you stag­ger even in the verie grounds of Christianity, if in heart you maintaine this tedious opinions. If it be so, I am verie sorrie for you, and doe exhorte you to read the scriptures diligently.The elect may loose the spirit of God, out not wholy no [...] finally.

That also is a meere cavill, that we should saie, the elect cannot forgoe the holie spirit. Nay they often loose manie gi [...]es of the same spirit, but re­couer [Page 124] them againe by repentance. For they do not quite revolt from God, and become profes­sed enimies of the truth, that is, they sinne not a­gainst the holy Ghost, nor so fal, that finally they perseuere in their errours against the foundatiō, and in their sinnes against conscience. Neyther doth this comforte make men secure, because it concerneth them onely, which haue a purpose to beware of falling, abhor nothing more then of­fending God. there is therefore a manifest con­tradiction in that diuelish scoffe of the wicked, which say, If I be elected, I wil do what pleaseth me, be­cause it shal not hurt me. For God will haue vs be sure that we are elected, but this we can not do with­out faith and repentance. All thinges worke for the best, trew, vnto them that loue God: There is no condemnation to them which walke according to the spirit [...]. These two ioyned togeather exclude se­curitie, & stirre vs vp to cheerefulnesse and ala­critie to runne our race, according to the com­maundement, make your election certaine. On the other side they sleep securely in their sins, which dreame that it is in their owne handes to take and lay aside repentance whensoeuer and as of­ten as they list, and play with GOD at their pleasure. But (say you) I woulde faine shifte of this triall, wherevnto the certainetie of salua­tion doeth call. That is it the Divell woulde haue.

Those sayings, Matthew the two and twentith and tenth, Hee vvhich continueth to the ende &c? [Page 125] Revelations the second and tenth, To him, that overcommeth I vvill giue a crowne &c. Doe not de­rogate from the certaintie of saluation, but are exhortations wherby God vpholdeth vs in that certainetie, stirring vp in vs a desire of godlinesse, and hatred of sinne.

The like slaunder it is, when you say that vvee teach men to iudge of election a priore or by the cause. Eyther malitiously they dissem­ble our opinion, or else they vnderstande nei­ther themselues nor vs. VVee iudge by the effect, that is by faith and repentaunce, of the cause, that is of election. But to iudge thus is to iudge a posteriors, that is by the effect. That wee ought not to determine of any before the ende of his life whether hee shall bee saued or no; if you meane it of others you say well, if of our selues, or of euerie mans ovvne consci­ence and certainetie in himselfe, it is a detesta­ble, wicked, diuelish, and blasphemous sayings, overthrowinge the whole foundation, and groūd­worke of saluation. Hee that taught you this, taught you a doctrine of diuels, though he were an angell from heauen. But I will tell you an o­ther lesson, except you be certaine before the end of this life whether you shall be heire of eternall life, you shall neuer so be after this life. For faith in this ve [...]e certainetie, which is the beginning of eternall life, this all must haue in this life, vvhich looke for that other life. If you haue thought on the nature and definition of hope, [Page 126] that it is a sure and certaine expectation of eternall life, you should haue found no such thing there. My hart doth stand on end to think of your blasphe­my. I would not for an hundred thousand worlds be so seperated from Christ, as to be vncertaine whether I were his or noe. These are heathenish blasphemes, the verie entrance of hell. Where­fore you do well to confirme it with testimonies of the heathen: for these thinges refarre wide of the worde of God. Why doe you so co [...]rupt the wordes of scripture, wresting them from a [...]onne. like to a seruile feare? what mystere, what blind­nesse is it for a man to boast of vniuersall promi­ses, and not to sifte himselfe, and trie whether he be of their nomber, of whom the promises speak▪ This is in deede to bring in amongst men carnall security, and a shadow of faith, which in the con­fl [...]ct driueth vs head-long into desperation. I do not th [...]nke Luther & Melancthon taught any mā so to babble and fome out these vniuersall pro­mises. But the carrier calles for my letters, and I haue to my great paines spent the whole night in wrighting these lines. Farewell. Let me entreat you to provoke me no more with such disputati­ons.

Fare-well hartily,

OF THE CAVSE OF SINNE Parte of a letter of Vrsinus to his friend, concerning the cause of sinne.

ONe terrible bug-beare they haue, of the cause of sinne, all the rest is foolish, and not worthy the aun­swearing. But even that also is a childish fallacie of accident. For by accident, that is, through defect, fault, and error of the will of the Divel or man, sin commeth to bee that worke, which God by will (most iust & most agreeable to his nature & the Law) wil haue done, permitting in the mean time the sins of the creature, that is, not so correcting & directing it, that it may do iustly togither with God doing iustly: or els while he doth not enligh­ten it with the knowledge of his will, or doth not so turne it by his spirit, that it may doe that which it doth, for obedience sake to the revealed will of God. So that God ever doth well, both by those that are good, and also by those that are evill. But the creature doth well togither with God, in that goodnes wherein it is created, preserved, or there­vnto againe restored by God. The good therfore which it doth is the work of God, which himselfe doth will and effect; the evill which it doth is frō [Page 128] it selfe. Now this euill is not done, but permitted by God, whiles he doth not cause the will of the creature to become good, and to do good togea­ther with God doing good. For the same worke in respect of diuerse causes is both good & euil, mutable & immutable, contingent & free, as the causes them-selues are diuerse which concu [...]e in producing therof. Hee which sees not this, sees nothing. But if I can I will one day answeare you in feawe wordes. For whether I can or no, & whē I can I doe not yet knowe, besides that it is tedi­ous to me to handle these stale sophismes. Learne in secret, & whē your thoughts are at leasure, me­ditate on this: that every man may trouble a true, but God alone can quiet it. If you would not crie rost­meat, you might haue fared much better.

THAT PROVIDENCE DOTH NOT DE­ROGATE FROM PRAIER.
Part of an other letter to the same friend; wherein is debated this question, Whether the doctrine of Providence doe derogate from praier.

THe godly exercise of praier wel a­greeth with the doctrine of Provi­dence; and is confirmed & establi­shed thereby. For whosoever beg­geth at Gods handes with an vp­right heart things necessary to sal­vation, the same is verily perswaded, that he forth with receiveth them. The contrary opinion sha­keth & rooteth vp our faith & cōfidence in God, and suffereth vs not stedfastly to beleeue the last Article of the Creed. But praier when it sueth for things on which salvatiō depēdeth not, patiently & humbly submitteth it selfe vnto Gods will, not desiring to obtaine any other thing then that which GOD in his secret counsell hath decreed best, and most profitable for vs. Nothinge more slacketh our obedience in this pointe; no­thing more disturbeth our comforte and quiet of minde herein, then that errant cōtingency where­by the Academicks & Epicures beare the world In hand that the events of thinges are not gover­ned and determined by Gods divine counsel. Re­call [Page 132] to minde that distinction of thinges to bee praied for, often taught, and daily repeated vnto children by our country-man Philip Melancthon, and this whole controversie of praier shalbe clee­red and put out of doubt. Herevvith meeteth our opinion, but the contrary opinion swarveth who­lie from it; so that truth wel suteth with truth, but fal­shoode agreeth neither with truth, nor falshoode. The summe of all is; you must ground your cōfidence on God, and craue all good things of him, and be thankful vnto him for the same no otherwise thē as if all thinges proceeded from him without any your endeavour; and yet must you performe your dutie with as great diligence and industrie, as if you were able to procure and gaine all thinges of your selfe, and by your selfe without him Whoso­euer directeth not the whole doctrine and dispu­tation of Providence and Election vnto this end, he waxeth vaine in his curiositie, & intangleth him­selfe in many snares, which himselfe laieth for him selfe. On whomsoever God hath decreed to heap his blessings, to them he hath appointed the spirit of praier. If then hee hath giuen thee a desire to praie, assure thy selfe this gift is not in vaine, but thou shalt alwaies bee heard according to Gods own promise. This is the Consequent thou ough­test to deduce and gather on good ground & in­fallible conclusion out of that precedent benefit. Seest thou thē the cōtrary of this thy fear? For no­thing lesse impeacheth, nothing more cōfirmeth the desire, custome, and consolation of prayer [Page 130] then the doctrine of Providence. I much marueile that you yet still dreame of the ghostes & spirits of particular men. Howe often haue you hearde and reade the contrarie to be trew, howsoeuer the miserable Sophists of our time groping in the thicke darkenes of their Academicall blockish­nesse cavill hereat. For without the doctrine of Election and certainety of salvation the vniver­salitie of promised grace which appertaineth to al the faithfull, and to them alone, can neither stand or be mainetained, nor applyed to the comforte and vse of the godly. How often hath it beene re­iterated vnto you, that you must iudge of Electi­on a posteriors from the subsequent signs & effects it causeth. For you must repute and iudge your selfe elected by that measur of faith which is re­quired in the elect. Yea this is true & liuely faith, for a man to beleeue that he is elect vnto eternall life for Christs sake. Search then & sift thine own conscience whether there be found in thee faith, repentance, and & vnfeigned desire of the grace and fauour of God: & then pronounce thy selfe one of Gods elect, al curious disputatiōs set apart. I protest before God that I [...] see not by what meās I could haue stood stedfast in many my priuate greeuances, had I not held this one comfort im­pregnable. No man shall take my sheepe out of my handes &c. What are all other comfortes if this be not at hand with vs,Ioh. 10. that all thinges, good and evill befall vs not casually, but by the eternall decree & pur­pose of God worke for our saluation. 9. Iun. 1575.

A PREFACE OF AN ORATION pronounced on Easter evē by a certaine student of Divinity in the famous Vniversity of Hei­delberge touching this question.
To whom the benefite of the Death and Resurrection of Christ appertaineth: and how Christ died for all men.

COncerning the story & benefite of our Lordes Resurrection I suppose I haue hitherto suffici­ently treated:You may referre this discourse [...] to the fifte question on that Article of the Creede He died. It follow­eth that I proceede vnto the last point proposed, I mean, to whom this bene­fite appertaineth. Wher­fore directing our course as it were by the load­star of scripture we pronounce by vertue and au­thoritie thereof that so precious & inestimable a benefite belongeth vnto all the faithfull, and to them alone; and we exclude the wicked & vnbe­leevers, as long as they remaine such, from ha­uing any interest therein. For all the faithfull, & they alone haue a taste of the sweetnes of those fruites (suppose,The fruites of Christs Resurrecti­on belong to all the faithfull & to them a­lone. free iustification before God, a quic­kening from the death of sinne and of the body, & lastly immortall life and glory) these heauenly blessinges, I say, all the faithfull and they alone partake and enioy; because they all, & they alone apply thē vnto themselues through faith. For these are they who heare Christes wordes, who beleeue, & haue eter­nal [Page 133] life, Ioh. 3. 36. & 5. 24. and come not into condemnation. These are they who are iustified by faith, are reconciled vnto God, Rom. 5. 1. and haue peace with him through our Lord Iesus Christ. 1. Pet. 1. 3. These are they who being regenerate by the holy Ghost are raised with Christ vnto newenes of life, Act. 15. 9. whose heartes are purified by faith, 1. Thess. 4. 14. Finally these are they which sleepe in Iesus whome one day God will bring with him hauing raised them from the dead,1. Cor. 10. 5 that they may enioy for ever the glory of his hea­venly kingdome. Nowe the wicked being vtter­ly voide and destitute of faith which iustifieth, howe should they, I pray you, partake in any of these blessinges,Heb. 11. 6. with whom God is not pleased, (for without faith it is impossible to please God) who be­long not vnto Christ, neyther are heires of the kingdome, who neither haue title nor right In Christ Iesus, nor To Christ Iesus (as the lawiers vse to speake) how should Christ appertaine vnto them? How should the benefites be extēded vn­to them? Nay rather all these are by the mouth of the sonne of God himselfe farre remooued & debarred these tteasures, and are adiudged vnto eternal maledictiō & everlasting death. For thus saith he in the Gospell;Ioh. 3. 18. 36 He that beleeueth not, is cō ­demned alreadie, Rom. 8. 9. & the wrath of God abideth on him. And Paul testifieth If any man hath not the spirit of Christ, the sāe is not his; which place of the apostle I suppose to be very pertinēt to this presēt purpose. For if the vnfaithfull belōg not vnto Christ, neyther are they of Christ; it may soūdly be argued, & well cō ­cluded by the logiciās rule of Relatiues that Christ [Page 134] with his benefites pertaineth not vnto them: and as they are not Christs: so neither is Christ theirs. For how, I pray, should Christ pertaine vnto thē, whom one day at the last iudgement he shall pro­nounce before all the world aliants and strangers from him, his benefites, and his kingdome: of whō he shall testifie that he never knew them: lastly, whom he shall cast, as being the cursed workers of iniquitie, into hell fire.

Yea but,Chriist di­ed for all men. saie you, Christ died for the sinnes of all▪ Therefore he rose againe for the iustification of all. The answere herevnto is two-folde, either of which is 1 true and sóund.All that be­leeue. First, as often as the Gospell ex­tendeth the fruit of Christs merites and benefites vnto all, it must be vnderstood (as saith Saint Am­brose) of the whole number of the faithfull and elect. For this is the vsuall and common voice found everie where throughout the whole course of the gospel: He which beleeveth shall be saved, and commeth not in­to iudgement. He which beleeveth not, shall be damned, and is iudged already, and the wrath of God abideth on him. Wherefore the Gospell dispossesseth all vn­beleevers of Christs benefites, not onlie by a flat ex­clusion, but also by positiue vertue of that condition of faith and repentaunce, by which he promiseth ex­presly or covertlie his benefits vnto mē, & which it appeareth is neuer found in the reprobate, that is, such as do persist, and wil stil persist in their im­pietie. Christ therefore is thus said to be dead for all: that is, for all the faithfull and elect; for whom a­lone he also praied, and in whom alone he findeth [Page 135] the end and fruit of his death. But to extende the benefites of Christs death vnto infidels, & repro­bates,Ioh. 17. 9. for whom he neuer praied, whom he neuer knewe, or tooke for his owne, Mat. 7. 23. and on whom the wrath of God abi­deth for ever; Ioh. 3. 36. what els is this but against his ex­presse commaundement to giue holy thinges vnto dogges, Mat. 7. 6. and cast pearles before swine. This answere may be strongly maintained by the authoritie of holy scripture, and testimonies of sound fathers 2 and is much available vnto Christian consolatiō.For the vn­beleevers. only in re­spect of the sufficiency of the price which he paied. Howbeit there is an other answere no lesse true, wherwith we may satisfie the most contentious wranglers; that Christ died for all men absolutely and without exception to wit, if you respect the sufficiencie of the merite, and the price which he paied. It is out of all doubt and controversie that the death of the Son of God is of such weight & worth that it may serue to purge and cleanse the sinnes not of one world only, but thousands of worlds; if at least all m [...] would apprehend by faith this salue of sin. But the question concerneth the efficacie and participati­on it selfe of the fruits which we mainely deny to be common to the beleeving, and vnbel [...]ing, or to be generally promised or given in the [...]; and we hold it no sound doctrine to [...] in this respect Christ died alike for all [...] and reprobate.

But here some men possessed with an [...], as if the Church had not other controve [...] [...] [...]nough, spew out on vs their stinking [...] open mouth, taking it grievously, that [...] [Page 136] not those heavenly treasures and iewels equallie to the godly, and vngodly; to the faithful, and vn­faithfull; to the elect, and reprobate; to Christs members, and the Divels vassals; to the sheepe, & to the swine. They make lowd out cries on vs for denying that Christ died for al. They say this our assertion is tainted with a more odious blasphe­my then any of the Saracens, Turkes, and Pagans; and that by it Christian Religion is cleane over­throwne.

It is not my purpose to encounter with these monsters of men, only I must needs touch the slā ­der they fasten on vs. For what slaunder is there, if this be none. When we distinguish the worth of the merue from the efficacie and participating of the bene­fites, and restraine according to Scripture and the iudgement of the soundest Fathers this participa­tion to the whole number of the faithful alone ga­thered from amongst the Iews & Gentiles; do we then deny that Christ died for all?

But that the truth of this controversie may the more appeare,Why we must distin­guish be­tweene suf­ficienc [...] and the efficacie of Christs satisfactiō. and these busie heads, if it be possi­ble, may by some satisfaction on our part be set at rest, let vs in briefe set downe the force of our maine reasons whereon wee ground this our di­stinction.

And first the holy Scripture it selfe teacheth vs plainely this kinde of distinction, and forceth vs therevnto For you shall finde it in scripture som­times absolutely spoken that Christ tasted of death for all men:Heb. 29. that he gaue himselfe a ransome for al men:1. Tim. 2. 6. [Page 137] that he is the recōciliatiō for the sins of the whole world.1. Ioh. 2. 2. Againe you shal read that Christ praied,Ioh. 17▪ 9. not nor san­ctified himselfe,Ioh. 10. 15. that is, offered vp himselfe for the world,Mat 20. 28. but for the elect which were giuen him:Isai. 53. 11. That hee laid downe his life for his sheepe. that hee gaue his life for the ransome of many:Mat. 26. 28. that by his knowledge: he iusti­fieth many:Rom. 8. 9. that hee shed his bloud for many: that the world cannot receiue the holy spirit, because it seeth him not, neither knoweth him: and because it hath not the spirite, therefore it is not CHRISTS. These places carry some shew of contrariety, were it not that the former are vnderstood by vs of the suffi­ciency of satisfaction, and the latter of the efficacie and working vertue thereof.

Furthermore other places occure which seeme to impart vnto the wicked the benefit of redemp­tion;2. Pet. 2. 1. as when Peter saith that they denie even the Lord which hath bought them▪ 2. Pet. 1. 9. that they were purged from their old sins. And Paule also saith, that they were sanctified with the blood of the Testamēt: Heb. 10. 29. al which the Scripture els where enforceth vs to interpret either of the vaine glorying of Hypocrites of their re­demption and sanctification: or els to vnderstand thē no otherwise then of the extent and sufficiencie of Christs satisfaction: whereas it simply excludeth the vnfaithfull and vnrepentant from the benefit of Redemption, and constantly avereth that they are yet held captiues in the snares of Devill, 2 Tim. 2. 26. that they are overswayed by him and carried headlong to worke wickednes; that the wrath of God abide. hon them (he saith, is abideth, not it returneth, as if it had [Page 138] at any time relinquished them) lastly that Christ never knew them much lesse redeemed them.

Now if I were purposed to produce the opini­ons of Fathers,The Autho­rity of Fa­thers and Schoole­men. and the sounder Schoole-mē who thus interpret the Scripture with vs, I should lead you into a large field of discourse. Notwithstan­ding it is not vnfitting my purpose to cite at the least some few of them for confirmation.

Let vs heere Cyrill thus recōciling those words of Christ, Cyrill. in Ioh li. 11. cap. 19. I pray not for the world with that sayinge of Iohn. He is a propitiation for the sinnes of the whole worlde. Iohn (saith he) seemeth to dissent from us Sauiour. For our Sauiour heere refuseth to pray for the world; but Iohn affirmeth that he is the propitiation and reconciliation not for our sinnes onely, but for the sinnes of the whole worlde: But the blessed Euangelist S. Iohn because he was a Iewe, least the Lord should seeme to be an aduocate with his father for the Iewes onely, & not for other nations, which as soone as they were called obeied, of necessirie added for the whole world. But the Lord Iesus separating you from them which are none of his, saith, I pray for them a loue who keepe my sayings, and haue takē my yoke. For whose mediatour and high Priest he is, he doth for good cause imparte vnto them alone the benefite of his mediation. Hitherto Cyrill.

Let vs hear Prosper also in this answeare to Vi­centius obiections clearly distinguishing on this manner. Looke Au­gust. Tom. 7. As far forth (saith he in his answere to the first obiection) as you respect the greatnes and power of the price, Or as you respect the our whole cause of mankinde, so the bloud of Christ is the [Page 139] redemption of the whole world: but they who passe the time of their life heere without faith and without the Sacrament of regeneration, they haue no part in this redemption. Wheras then in regard of the one whole cause of mankinde truely vndertaken by our Lord Iesus Christ all are well saide to be redeemed, & yet all are not freed from captiuitie; withovt doubt the appropri­ation of redemption is theirs out of whome the prince of this worlde is cast & dislodged: and are nowe no longer [...]ims of the diuell, but mēbers of Christ: whose death was not so cōmunicated vnto all mankind, that it should effect the Redemption of these who were not to be regenerated and renewed in the spirit: but so, as that, that which was by one example perfor­med in behalfe of all, might by the Sacrament be confir­med in some particulars. For the potion of immortalitie being a confect of our infirmitie and Gods truth, is of force in it selfe to profite all, but if it be not dr [...]nke it salueth not.

The same Prosper making answere to the demāds of the Frēch-mē in plaine tearms alloweth of this phrase, Cap. 9. Christ died for the faithfull alone,Ioh. 11. 51. 52. which these men condēne as smelling of Turcisme: his wordes are these; Wheras then our sauiour is rightly said. To haue beene crucified for the redēption of the whole world in regard of the true and reall taking vnto him mans nature, and in regard of the common losse wee sustained in the person of the first man Adam: yet he may well be saide to be crucified only for those to whome his death was availeable. For the evangelist saieth that Iesus should die for the nation, and not for the nation [Page 140] onely, but that he should also gather togeather in one the childrē of God which were scattered Thus far Prosper.

Gregorie saith; On Ezech. lib. 1. hom. cap 2. Inn. li. 2. ca. 21. Myst. mys. The author of life gaue himselfe o­ver vnto death for the life of the Elect. Innocentius. 3. who liued a bont the 1200 yeere of our Lord thus writeth; The bloud of Christ was shed FOR THE PREDESTINATE ALONE as touching the efficacy therof. For the shedding of the righteous bloud for the vnrighteous was of so rich a price, that if the whole world would beleeue in their Redeemer, the snares of the Deuill should take bold of none.

Bernard saith; Serm. 10. de 9. vers. in Psal. 91. Christ according to the fulnes of time indeed died for the wicked, but according to Gods decree of Predestination for his brethren and friends.

Thomas on the 5. of the Apoc. writteh on this mā ­ner. Of the redēptiō purchased by the passiō of Christ we may speak in a double sence & signification, either respe­cting the sufficiency therof; & so his passiō redeemed all, because as cōcerning himself he deliuered al For his pas­siō is sufficient to serue & redeeme al, yea if there were a thousand worldes as saith Anselme in his 2. booke and 14. Chapter Cur Deus homo &c: or els we speake therof respecting the efficacy, & in this sence he redee­med not all by his passion, because all cleaue not fast vn­to the Redeemer, and therefore feele not nor perceiue the virtue of redemption.

The same authour againe saleth; Serm. de ve­rit. maie. 26 Quaest. 7. The merite of Christ as concerning the sufficiency thereof equally belongeth vnto all, but not concerning the efficacy which happeneth partely by reason of free-wil, & partly by rea­son of Gods election, by whome the effectes and fruites [Page 141] of Christs merits are mercifully bestowed on some; and by the iust iudgment of God are withheld frō other some.

Lambard in his third book Distinct. 22. ca. Christ offered himselfe vp to God the Trinity for almē as tou­ching the sufficiēcie of the price paid: but for the elect alone, as touching the efficacy; because he wrought salvation only for the Predestinate. What should I say more, where as these present proofes declare suffi­ciently that this interpretation of holy Scripture is not vpstart or profane, but of ancient received in the Church, and grounded on evident truth. One only place of Peter Galatine a Monke indeed, but yet a learned Divine and skilfull in the He­brew I intend to alleadge, that these clamorous punies & novices in divinity may better see how that whatsoever is either vnknowne vnto them, or standeth not with their monstrous inventions is not presently new-fangled & heathenish. Thus therefore he wel & truely commenteth on these words of Esay,Isai. 53. 11. My righteous servant shall iustifie ma­ny &c. Although the passion of Christ ought to bee suffi­cient to wash away the sins of all men, De Br [...]anis Catholic [...] verit. li. 8. cap. 14. yet it washed not them all away, but their sins only who shoulde beleeue in him, & repēt. For this cause he saith, And himselfe bare the sinnes of many.

Now omitting authorities let vs bring forth the reasons▪ which this vpstart Pelagian progeny by their profane & absurd opinion doth especiallie oppose against vs.

They labour tooth and naile to prooue that Christ died for all: why no man denieth it. For this [Page 142] is the voice of Scripture. The Vbi­quitarie Pelagian opiniō tou­ching the restoring of all into favor and grace with God by the death of Christ, bee they repro­bates, or dogs, and swine. They adde heerevnto, that he died for all, and everie particular man. We de­ny not simply this their assertion, although wee finde not where the scripture speaketh on this mā ­ner. They farther vrge that he died for all and evr [...]e particular, both elect and reprobate for Cain & David, for Iudas and Peter, for them which shall bee damned in like sorte as for them which shalbe saved, without all re­spect either of their faith or infidelitie. This is a hard saying. They run on still, and say he died for all and everie of these not onely in respect of the sufficiency of his sacrifice and satisfaction, but also in regard of the ef­ficacy of the same. What meaneth this newe devise I pray? That forsooth Christ by his death and bloud­sheading hath truely and effectually deliuered from death, purged from si [...], sanctified, reconciled vnto God, and restored vnto his grace and fauour by his death & bloudsheading all and euerie single man, yea even those who are not saved, but haue beene eversince Caine, & are at this day, and shall bee hereafter damned. This is their abominable sottish opiniō, on which they build an other as false and foolish, that forsooth, All the wicked as many as heretofore perished, or at this day perish, or hereafter shall perish; they neyther perish [...]d, ne perish, nor shall perish, for their sinnes (wher­as they are washed away by the bloud of Christ Iosus) but for vnbeleife alone. They who are not vtterly ignorant of this controversie and question wil ea­sily grant that we here coine nothing of our own, nor speake any thing with intent to slander & re­proach them: But oh how horrible a sound is this [Page 143] in Christian eares?

These quaint and gay Procters of wicked imps mainetaine that all vngodly and filthie dogs before & after the death of Christ,The fal­shood and impiety of the fore­said opini­on. are received into the grace & favour of God. We say first that this is a false & dive [...]lish opiniō; because it impugneth scripture, which every where maketh open proclamation that the wicked and vngodly as long as they remaine destitute of faith and repentance, are not in the grace and favour of God, but are, and continuallie remaine the children of wrath and eternal malediction: neither are they delive­red from sin and death, but are held captiues and ensna­red by the devill, alreadie condemned, and plagued with the heavy wrath of God.

Secondly,The absur­dity therof. we affirme that this their forgerie is most absurd & vaine; because it shamefully over­throweth both it selfe, and maine principles of the Christian faith. For let vs but propose vnto our selues this Thefis or assertion; All mē without excep­tion faithfull and vnfaithfull, before and after the death of Christ are truelie & vndoubtedly received into grace and favor with God by the bloud of Christ; what, trow yee, will be the is [...]ue ensuing herevpon? verily a huge heape of absurdities.

First original sin with the guilt thereof shall by this their position be vtterly taken away; and it will proue in their opinion [...]n open falshoode to say that all men are borne the children of wrath, because in their iudgment all are borne in the fa­vour and grace of God. But herein the Scripture iointlie pronounceth on our side that we al are by [Page 144] nature the children of wrath.

Secondly all the children of Turkes, Saracens▪ Canibals who at excluded from the couenant & Church of God, shall heerby be borne in the grace and favour of God: and by force of Conse­quence there shall be saluation without the Co­venant of God, and without his Church. O those sauage and cruel monsters of our age, who shame not to seate the infantes of Turkes & Infidels borne without the church in the bosome and fa­uour of God: nor dread to plucke vnmercifully the poore infants of Christians dieng befor Bap­tisme out of the bosome of God, and plung them head-long into hell fire. For who knoweth not that they so fondly bind the saluation of infants to the Sacrament of Baptisme, that they expre­ssely depriue them of euerlasting happines, and violently hale them out of Gods grace & fauour who die before Baptisme, vnlesse they haue ben assoiled by the praiers either of their parents or freindes But if it be trew that by baptisme they are againe receiued into the fauour of God, howe then w [...]l this peremptory disputer maintaine that long since all mankinde was accepted into the same.

Thirdly, therefore this their straunge conceite bruseth and quasheth in pieces an other opinion of theirs concerning the infantes of the faith [...]ll borne out of grace, assailed by the Devill before Baptisme; and damned.

Fourthly all the wicked which before the death [Page 145] of Christ fell into hel fire, and were againe recon­ciled vnto God by the death of [...]hrist, & restored into his grace and favour▪ how (if this your [...] goeth for truth) how then, I say, fel they thēce, who were received into it being dead, whereas they could no more offend through incredulity? wherefore those vngodly persons shal either cō ­tinue in Gods favour, and be saved without faith, or shal, cōtrary to your position, be cast headlong again frō thēce without your crime of incredulity.

Fiftlie, Incredulity either shal go for no sinne; or if it be a sinne, then all sinnes shall not be purged by the death of Christ: or if all be cleansed, at least the sinne of incredulity shal be of more force and vertue then the death of Christ. But to say either of these were erroneous & impious: For increduli­ty not only is it selfe a sin, but the mother & nurce also of al other offences: & cleaveth fast togither with other sins even to the regenerate: howbeit it is purged & forgivē to thē by the bloud of Christ.

Sixtly, it is a shameful & grosse he to affirme that the wicked are dāned not for their vngodly sins, but for their incredulity. As if it were not registred & recorded in Scripture,1. Cor. 6. 10 Theeues, covetous persons, drunkards and such like shall not inherite the kingdome of God. As if Christ in his final iudgement shal not say vnto thē, depart into hell fire, &c And as if for­sooth incredulity were not the chiefe of sins. Nay we argue the clea [...]e contrary, that they are cōdē ­ned for sin, because they are condēned for incre­dulity. For tell mee what sinne is more grievous [Page 146] and he [...]ous then incredulitie. Heere our Apo­stata sporteth and toreth ouer childishly. In­credulity, saith he, is not now considered as it is in it selfe a sin: but only as it refuseth the meanes of saluation. For what is it, Sir, to refuse the meāes of saluation? Is not this a contempt of God? Is it not a most detestable sinne & offence? verely in­credulitie is therefore a sinne, because it refuseth saluation with the meanes therof.

Seventhly this their monstrous opinion beareth the wicked in hande that howsoeuer the truth of the Church doctrine touching originall sinne, & the guilt of the wicked stande immoueable, yet it is at no time inherent in them, nor can truly be attributed vnto them. For let vs take a Turkish infant, or some barbarous ancient person, who neuer heard one syllable of the death of Christ, and therefore cannot be saide to haue despised it through incredulity; now let these disputers tell vs at what time they wil account these to stand in the grace and favor of God, to be reconciled vn­to him, iustified, and sanctified, whether in their mothers wombe, or soone after their birth, vvhe­ther in their childhood, or in their youth, whether in their perfect age, or in their old yeares: lastlie, whether in their life time, or after death. Nay let them tell vs if ever they are admitted into favour, how they fall from it, whereas neither any sinne, nor actuall incredulity is able to deiect thē thēce. For the latter of these is not incident vnto them: and the former are satisfied for by Christ. What­soever [Page 147] they here answere, the effect of all will proue that either they wil auere that some please God without faith: or that some are cast out of Gods sight and fauor without actuall incredu­litie; both which are false and impious, and mu­tually destroy one the other.

Lastly, what cā be spokē more blasphemous, then that God hath accepted into favor and lovingly fostereth and cherisheth all the vnfaithful & wic­ked, such as were Cain, Saul, Iudas, Herod, Caligula, & to conclude in a word al sort of malefactors, & filthy swine? what comfort can there be more cō ­tēptible, then that thou art redeemed by Christs death, reduced into amity & friendship with him; wheras many thousands of those, which haue bin in like sort restored, notwithstanding perish ever­lastingly. My very heart quaketh and trembleth to prosecute these monsters any farther. Who is there then that thinketh not this so false an opi­on, impious, absurd, and blasphemous to be far re­mooved and banished quite out of the precincts & bounds of the Church.

Here me thinkes I here them cry themselues e­ven hoarse againe; The promises of the Gospell are v­niversall: they pertaine vnto All, they pertaine vnto Al. We therefore first demand of them this question, what manner of Consequence this is to say, The promises are vniversall; therefore reprobates and filthie dogs and hogs are restored vnto the favour and grace of God. Why is not the contrary rather inferred▪ The promises of the Gospel haue all of them a conditiō of faith [Page 148] and repentance annexed with them; therefore they per­taine not at all to dogs and hogs. Then againe, as oftē as they vrge vs with their. All, All: so often will we reply vnto them our Beleeving, Beleeving. For the promises indeed are vniversall, but in regarde of the repentant, and such as beleeue the Gospell. And here we appeale before the whole world to the very letter of the promise: Come vnto me all saith Christ,Mat. 11. 28. but he addeth, which labour and are laiden: that is, faint and sinke vnder the burthen of your sins, which falleth out in those which are re­pentant. And againe, elsewhere in another place: So God loved the worlde that hee gaue his onlie begotten son that everie one which beleeveth shoulde not perish, Ioh. 3. 16. but haue life everlasting. Rom. 3. 22. And Paule saith; The righ­teousnes of God by the faith of Christ Iesus vnto all and vpon all that beleeue.Gal. 3. 22. And in another Epistle; The Scripture hath concluded all vnder sin, that the pro­mise by the faith of Iesus Christ should bee given to thē that beleeue.Ioh. 3. 36. And Christ againe teacheth howe that he which beleeueth on the son hath everlasting life. And Peter also,Act. 10. 43. All the Prophets witnes that through his name all that beleeue in him shall receiue remission of sinnes. The like reason is to be yeelded of all o­ther promises of the Gospell. For they haue a cō ­dition of faith and repentaunce either expressed or vnderstood and cannot without blasphemy be vnderstood of any other then of the whole num­ber of the faithfull.

They except against this our doctrine: that by this meanes the promises are made to be particu­lar. [Page 149] Let the Author of the bookes De Vocat. Gent. of the calling of the Gentiles (whether this Aut­thor be Ambrose,Lib. 1. ca. 3. whose title the books do beare, or Prosper as it is supposed by some) answer for us, The people of God saith he, A speciall vniversity of the faithful & elect. haue their fulnesse, and al­though a great number of mē neglect or cast from them the grace of their Saviour; yet there is a certaine spe­ciall vniversity of the elect, and foreknowne of God, severed and discerned from the generality of all, to this intent that a whole world might seems to be saved out of a whole world: and all men might seeme to bee redeemed from out of all men. Wherefore the promises the Gospell remaine Vniversall to the faithful, howso­ever they appertaine not vnto dogs and swine. The Maior also of this practicall Syllogisme remai­neth Vniversall;

  • The promises pertaine to all that beleeue.
  • But I beleeue.
  • Therefore they appertaine vnto mee.

Againe,

  • Christ died and praied for al that beleeue.
  • But I beleeue.
  • Therefore he praied, and died for me.

Nowe they are colde comforters who teach afflicted cō ­sciences to reason on this manner;

  • Christ died for all men.
  • But I am a man.
  • Therefore Christ died for me.

Against the s [...]under of pure parti­culars. For why, may not a Turke, dogge, or hogge wallowing in the mire conclude on this maner. O notable comfor­ters, and proclaimers of the grace of God. The [Page 150] strength and very sinews of Christian comfort is, not to be a man, but to bee in graffed in Christ by faith.

Farther they obiect out of the Apostle, that Al men are quickened and made aliue in Christ, 1. Cor. 15. [...]2. even as all die in Adam. Where if they absolutely define that all are quickned in Christ, the Scripture & expe­rience shall [...]fute and put them to silence. This i [...] it thē which the Apostle saith, that Christ bestow­eth grace on all that are his: as Adam communica­ted and shared death with all that are his. And the one indeed, [...]eaning Christ, through grace which is a worke of more moment; the other, meaning Adam, by naturall propagation which is a thing more easie. And that this is the scope & sence of S. Paule the wordes which followe next in order plainely proue. For when hee had said that all are quickened in Christ, he forthwith add [...]th: But eve­rie man in his owne order: Ibid. 23. The first fruits is Christ; the [...] they that are of Christ, that is to say, they which be­leeue, who also were giuen him by his Father, and for whō he earnestly praied vnto his Father. And S. Augustine interpreteth this place not altogither vnlike vnto vs, whereas he saith, that it was there­fore said that all are quickned in Christ, [...] because all, who [...] Adam, are the members of Christ: but be­cause as no man in the naturall body death but in Adā: so no man is quickned in the spirituall bodie, but by Christ.

Neither is there any more place lefte for this cavill, that by this [...] Adam is made stro [...]ger [Page 151] then Christ, if he drawe headlonge with himselfe into destruction and the pitt and gulfe of death more then Christ saueth and freeth from the very mouth of hell: For the power of each party is not to be measured & esteemed according to the nomber of them which die and are quickened; but rather according to the manner wherby destruction & quickening is pur­chased or effected, and also by the greatnes of the benefites either lost or regained. To hurte is a matter of ease, but to heale a worke of much paine and travell as saith the proverbe. You may sooner and with much more ease destroy whole hundreths, thē preserue & saue one; you may in shorter time cast a number from of the bridge into the stream, then deliuer one only from the perill and danger of drowning: In like manner it was a worke of more ease to destroy all mankind: then to restore one man out of that generall ruine and destructi­on. That the Devill was able to doe, and Adam also was able to doe it; this none but Christ could perfourme. Wilde beastes, and calamities haue power to hurt, and murther man: but it is in the power of no creature to repaire mans losse of sal­vation and life eternall; but this was reserved to the power of GOD alone creator of all thinges, wherefore the death of Christ had beene of grea­ter force then the sinne of Adam, yea though it had restored but one only man vnto life. And certaine it is and an vndoubted truth, that the blessings recovered by Christ, so far surpasse those whose losse we sustained by Adam, as heavenly [Page 152] things, and things eternall excell earthly and cor­ruptible things. For Adam as the Apostle witnes­seth is of the earth, earthlie: but Christ is heave [...]lie▪ Adam is a living soule, but Christ is spirituall: A­dam cast vs out of an earthly paradise, but Christ hath p [...]ced vs in an heavenly Paradise, and hath given vs everlasting happines.

Thus [...] haue thought it meete and conve­nient to proceede [...] setting downe the [...] of Christs death and resurrection, which all appears came to them all, and them alone who sticke fast vnto Christ by faith; & in making answere to the cavils and slaunders of Heretiques, &c.

A SHORT INTRODVCTION TO the Cōtrouersie of the Sacramēt of the Lords Supper, vnfolding the substaunce of the cheifest questions cōtroversed or not controuersed therin b [...]tweene the profes­sors of the Gospell.
Compiled and written by D. Dauid Parry.

Foure generall Premises.

1 LEt our yong Diuines carry in memorye that the questions touching the Cere­monies and rites of the Supper are to bee distin­guished from the doctrine, which is the promise of the Gospell annexed vnto the outward and visible rites.

2 Let them also learne to put a difference be­tweene the questions cōtroversed, and not controuersed, aswel concerning the rites, as concerninge the doctrine.

3 Let them knowe that the questione contro­versed about the rites and ceremonies are not so principal, nor of such circumstance, as the other which concerne the doctrine; and that for the most part they may, and ought to be decided in equitie according to the circumstances of [...], place, and person: yet with this caueat, that all be done for edification.

4 Let them know moreover, that the maine question▪ touching the doctrine of the Lordes [Page 154] Supper not controversed hitherto by any are three: and againe on the other side the questions controversed are also three; wherunto all the rest may easily be refered. Touching both these I will verie briefely instruct the yonger sorte.

The three questions touching the Lords Supper not called into doubt or controversy are these.

I. What the Supper of the Lord is?

All the professors of the Gospell agree in this pointe, that the Supper of the Lorde is a Sacra­ment of the new Testament, instituted and ordeined by Christ, wherin together with the taking of bread and wine the true body and bloud of Christ is receiued, and the communion or participation of Christ with all his blessinges and benefites is sealed vp in the heartes of the faithfull beleeuers.

II. What are the endes or vses of the supper instituted by Christ.

Herein also all the professours of the Gospell agree in one, that this receiuing of the Sacrament confirmeth our faith of the promises of grace both be­cause this [...] the generall and common vse of all Sacraments whatsoeuer; & also because Christ himselfe hath said of this Sacrament,Luc. 22. 19. 20. Doe this is remembraunce of mee. And, This cuppe is the newe Couenant in my bloud.

III. What is giuen & receiued i [...] the Lords Supper.

[Page 155] In this also there is a mutuall consent of all; that the bread and wine are giuen and receiued visibly & corporally by the hand and month of the minister & communicants: but the body & bloud of our Lord with all the benefits of his passion are invisible and spiritually giuen and receiued by them both.

In all these, I say, there is a ioynt agreement betweene al diuines which professe the Gospell: as for vaine brablers, whose brawles and iaries may not be the measure wherby to iudge of the consent, or controverses of the churches profes­sing the Gospell, they neyther agree in these, nor in any other.

The three questions called into doubt or controuersie are these.

The first question.

What is the vnion of the Signe signifying or the Thing signified in the Lordes supper: whether it be Transub­stantiation, or Consubstantiation, or only a mysticall re­ference or relation of the one to the other.

To this question we make an answere conso­nant to the Catholicke faith in three seuerall pro­positions, the two of which are Negatiue, and third Affirmatiue.

1 Proposition.

The Sig [...]es and the Things are not vnited by Tran­substantion, that is, by such a charge as in which the substance of [...]he Signe are transformed into the substāce of the Thinges, the accidents onely remaining.

The reasons of the first proposition.

[Page 156] 1 The first reason is because as Ireneus saith there are two thinges which haue a Sacramenta­ry proportiō in the Eucharist, which the Accidents of bread and wine, & the substance of the body and bloud of Christ can by no meanes haue.

2 The second reason is deduced out of the wordes of Christ who saied. This is my body, not, let this bee, or, bee made my body.

3 The third reason is because the bread is termed bread both before the action of Consec [...]tion, in the action, and after the action.

4 The fourth reason is because the sounder Fa­thers reteine the name of bread in the Lords Sup­per; and when they speake by way of Hype [...]b [...]le of chāging of the bread, The chāge of the things in the Sacra­ments [...]s the cause of the change of the nāes they will be vnderstood to speake Sacramentally As Theodore [...] Diolog. 1. witnesseth saying; it was the will of Christ that they who vse the Sacraments should not bend and set their mindes on the nature of the thinges which are seene, b [...]t should beleeue that which was made through grace by alteratiō of the names. Here in the same diologue he teacheth that we must vnderstand a sacramen­tall change in these wordes; Christ honoured the visi­ble signes with the title and name of his body and bloud, NOT BY CHANGING THE NAME, but by adding grace to the nature.

The second proposition.

II. The Signes and things signified are not vnited by Consubstantiation, that is, by a reall Existence of two bodies in the same place, or, by the close conveiance of one within the other, such as we see is of the corne in a sacke, [Page 157] of [...] in a mans purse, of an Infant in his cradell, or of [...] in a roundler. For this is a likelihood of things vnited in substance.

The Reasons of the second proposition.

1 The first reason is, because the words of Christ, This is my bodie doe signifie vnto vs, not vvhere Christs body is, neither what it is IN, WITH▪ or VNDER the bread: but what the bread it selfe is▪ and ought to be vnto the godly in this vse.

2 The second Reason is, because the body of Christ is a true instrumentall, finite, & visible bo­dy; after his ascension no longer present on the earth or every where, but cōversant and remaining in heaven, even vntil his last comming.

3 The third Reason is, because the sounder Fa­thers do teach that the body and bloud of Christ is in the bread & wine, not as in a caue orden, but as in a mystery, and by a mystery. Chrysostome opers imperfecto Math. Homil 11. saith In holied and sancti­fied vessels is conteined not the true body of Christ, but the mysterie of Christs body.

The third proposition.

III. The Signes and Things haue their coherence in the Lords Supper by a Sacramental vnion. Now this vnion is of like quality with that vnion which is commō to the whole kinde of Sacraments; other­wise it should not be a sacramentall vnion, but by a title of distinction should be tearmed, The vnion in the Lords Supper. But in al the other Sacraments their is an vnion of Relation and respect, to wit. A [Page 158] mysticall signification of the Thinge signed by the Signe, a sealing, exhibiting, & receiving thereof after a lawful vse, which is not without the faith and repentance of thē which approach vnto it to vse it.

The reason [...] of the third proposition.

1 The first is drawne from the nature of the whole kinde, in this sort;

  • There is such an vnion in all Sacraments;
  • Therefore in the Supper also.

The Antecedent or former proposition of this argumēt is manifest out of the definition & principal end of the Sa­craments.

2 The second is framed on this manner;

  • The bread is the body of Christ either in the truth of the thing (as Augustine accor­ding to Prospers opinion speaketh) or in a mysterie signifying it.
  • But it is not the body of Christ essentially & [...] the truth of the thing▪ because there is no Transubstantiation.
  • Therefore it is the body of Christ in a myste­rie so signifying.

3 The third reason is, because al the arguments by which the sacramentall speech in the wordes of the Supper is proved are hithervnto belong­ing. For a sacramental vnion requireth sacramen­tall phrases and termes.

4 The fourth is, because we haue the testimo­nies of the Fathers, that the bread is a signe, figure [Page 159] and sacrament of the body of Christ no longer absent, but present; and yet present not in the outward and visible elements of bread and wine, but in the worde ioyned with them; present, I say, not to the mouth, but to the heart; not local­ly and in place, but mystically, and spiritually.

The obiection of Papists for their Transub­stantiation drawne out of the words of the Supper.

  • This which Christ gaue,
    Obiect.
    and the Preist con­secrateth is the body of Christ;
  • Therefore it is not bread.

The argument holdes from the rule of thinges different; as if a man should say, This is a man, ther­fore it is not an Oxe.

Wee deny that this argument is framed, as you say,Auns. from the inducing of one speciall by the re­mouing of the contrarie of the same kinde: be­cause it is rather a faulty processe in argumentati­on frō the inducing of a sacramētal respect which is but an Accident, to the displacing and deniall of the subiect & substance; such as this is, if I should say, This man is a Father; Therefore he is not a man. For so they argue, This bread is the body of Christ therefore it is not bread. There is therefore in this argument a Fallacie of Accident no lesse absurd the if you should thus conclude▪ This thing is a table▪ therefore it is not wood. For although the body of Christ bee not the forme or Accident of bread [...] yet the Relation and respect which the bread [Page 160] hath by vertue of the promise vnto the body of Christ is the forme of a Sacrament: Whence it is a weake kind of reasoning to say; A doue is the holy Ghost; therefore it is no longer a doue Circumcision is the couenant of God; therfore it is no longer Circum­cision. The cupp is the New Testament; therfore it is no longer a cuppe.

The answere to all the testimonies of the Fa­thers which the Papists alleadge for the change of the signes is common; that they are all to hee vn­derstood of the Sacramentall not of an essentiall and reall mutat on, which is apparant out of the consent of foundest Fathers in this point of the sacrament.

II. The second question.
Howe both the signes, & the heauenly things signified are exhibited or receiued in the Lords Supper.

This question is in controuersie betweene vs both with the Papists & the Vbiquitaries, because both of them are of opinion that the things being present in their signes, or vnder the shewes of the signes are covertly and miraculously caried vp and downe in the hands of the ministers, hād­led by them, and put into the mouthes of the Communicants. We contrariwise teach, that the thinges with their signes are both togither exhi­bited and receiued with their signes in the lawful vse of the Supper, but in a diuers manner. For the [Page 161] signes are handled by the Ministers, and takē by the mouth of the Communicants: But the things themselues are given by Christ our high Priest, & received by faith. This point may in like sort with the former be expressed in three propositiōs; two negatiue, and one affirmatiue.

1. The first proposition.

The things signified, that is, the bodie and bloude of Christ, are neither handled, nor reached out by the hand of the Ministers to be receaved corporallie in the signes.

The Reasons of this first proposition.

1 The first reason is collected negatiuelie from the whole kinde of Sacraments, thus,

  • In no Sacrament the Ministers handle or bestowe things spirituallie signified.
  • Therefore neither in the Lords Supper doe they handle the thing spiritually signified.

The Antecedent is proved both by an inducti­on or instance in every Sacrament, which is evi­dent by the adversaries owne confession; and also the proportion betweene the Sacrament, and the worde. Marc. 1. I am the voice crying &c. Ioh. 1. I baptise with water; he which cōmeth after me shall bap­tise with the holie Ghost, and with fire. 1. Cor. 3. 7. Neither he that watereth, nor hee that planteth is anie thing, but God which giveth the encrease. Therefore it holdeth alike also in the Sacraments, which are the visible word.

2 The second reason is this.

[Page 162]

  • The things signified are not corporally, IN, WITH, or VNDER the signes, as hath beene shewed.
  • Therefore they are not handled, or distribu­ted by the hand of the Minister.

3 The third reason proceedeth thus,

  • The things signified in the Supper are spiri­tuall, which coupled with their signes are offered in the promise of grace.
  • But the promise of grace is not handled with hands &c.

4 The fourth reason is the testimonies of Fathers; as Chrysost. Sermone de Euch. [...]. Thinke not whē yee come to these mysteries, that yee receiue the Lordes body at the hands of a mā, that is to say the Minister; with many other such like places.

II. The second proposition.

The things signified I meane, the body and bloude of the Lord are not received WITH, IN, and VNDER the bread and wine by the mouth of the body.

Reasons of the second proposition.

1 The first is, because they are not bodily pre­sent with, in, and vnder the signes as hath beene shewed quest. [...] propos 2.

2 The secōd i [...] because they passe into the bel­ly which is the receptacle appointed for bodily meates 1. Cor. 6. 13. For all which entereth in at the mouth, goeth downe into the belly Mat. 13.

3. The third is because the promise, wherin the things are offered, is not receiued by the mouth.

III The third proposition.

[Page 163] The thinges signified, suppose, The lordes bodie and bloud are receiued spritually by faith.

1 The first reason is deriued from the conditiō of the whole kinde; because in Sacramēts the things signified are receiued by faith: by which alone as we are iustified; so we receiue all the benefites of the new Testament.

2 The second is, because the promise of grace is not apprehended but by faith. Nowe the com­munion of the body and bloud of Christ is the promise of grace. See Vrsin. Volum. 1. Pag. 103.

The argument of a certeine famous Disputant framed in defence of the eatinge Christs body with our mouth.

  • Ob. To whatsoeuer instrument the eating of one thing in the Lords Supper appertaineth, to the same the eating of the other ought to appertaine.
  • But the eating of one body, that is the bread, in the Lordes Supper appertaineth to the mouth.
  • Therefore the eating of the other, which is Christs body, appertaineth to the same.

Ans. 1 The Maior is true in such meates as are naturally conioined, of containe one the other, of the which sort is a a Pye. Now the bread and the body of Christ are not so ioined togither. In these then it is false.

The Maior thus he proues;

  • [Page 164]Whosoeuer includeth in the same worde of eating both bread and wine, & the body & blood of Christ affirmeth also that they are both receiued vvith the same instru­ment.
  • But Christ includeth both bread & wine, & his body & bloud in one & the same worde of eating.
  • Therefore CHRIST affirmeth that they are both received with the same instrumēt of eating.

Ans. 1. The proofe of the Maior faileth, be­cause an vniuersal affirmatiue should be concluded in Barbara.

2 The Maior beggeth that which is in contro­versie and is denyed. The falsenesse thereof appeareth Iohn the third, where CHRIST in­cludeth in the same worde of birth the spirit and the flesh: and yet it followeth not that they both are borne after the same manner, or by the same instrument.

3 The Minor also is false. For this worde of eating is referred to the hollyed breade, not to the bodie, but by way of consequence. For it properly pertaineth vnto that, which the Lord tooke in his handes and brake, which was bread, and not his body. This reason is vvorthy the marking for that according to the Papistes and such as simplie mainetaine Consubstantiation the bodie of CHRIST is not there before the wordes of consecration (as they call them) are [Page 165] pronounced, but beginneth to bee there in the very last instante of the pronouncing of these wordes, This is my bodie. But according to the Vbiquitaries, which are as it were chymicall con­substantiators, it is there indeede, as in any other breade, but it is not yet edible vntill after con­secration. CHRIST then commaunded not to eate that with our mouth in the breade, which as yet was not in the breade, or as yet was not edible.

Then againe he proues the Maior of his former syllogisme.

  • A word having but one signification is to be taken but in one.
  • But eating both of the breade and of the bo­dy of Christ hath but one signification, viz. with the mouth.
  • It is then to bee taken in one signification of both.

Ans. 1. Heere againe faileth the proofe of the Maior, being an vniversall affirmatiue, which should haue bin concluded in Barbara.

2 The Minor is a begging of that which is in cō ­troversie.

The third question.
Vnto whom these things are offered, and of wh [...] they are receiued.

Heereunto is there made aunswere in tvvo [Page 166] Propositions, both being affirmatiue.

1. Proposition.

The things signified are receiued by the faithful alōe 1 Reason. Because only they that beleeue re­ceiue the promises by faith.

2 Reason. Because they alone that beleeue haue the spirit of Christ, from the which his life-gi­uing fleshe cannot be separated.

3 Reason. Because in them onely that beleeue, Christ remaineth, and they in Christ Eph. 3 17.

4 Reason. Because they alone that beleeue re­ceiue and haue life. Ioh 3 & 6.

2. Proposition.

The vngodly comming without faith receiue the signes without the things themselues.

Looke the reasons as they are set downe in the Church pag 58 [...].

Looke the obiections for the eating of the vn­god [...]y, Ibid. pag. 5 [...]2.

A BRIEFE EXPLICATION OF the whole controversie concerning the Lordes supper betweene the Consub­stantials, and the true beleevers.
The chiefe pointes of this explication.

1 What errors the Consubstantials impute vnto vs.

2 The arguments of the Consubstantials against our doctrine of the supper.

3 The shifts of the Consubstantials including some of our obiections.

4 Arguments against the presence and corporall ea­ting of the body of Christ, IN, WITH, and VN­DER bread.

5 The arguments wherby the opinion of the Vbiqui­taries is refelled, and the truth of sound doctrine confirmed.

The errors which the Consubstan­tials falsly impute vnto vs with their refutation.

Ob. IN the doctrine of of the Lordes Supper there are (say the Consubstantials) two extreams to be avoided: for both every vertue, & every truth stand­eth betweene two extremes. The one is of the Pa­pistes, the other of the Sacramentaries: and on each side it seemes to be fourfould. The errors of the Papistes are. 1 Transsubstantiation. 2 The worshippe of bread. 3. The sacrifice of the masse. 4. A maiming of the sacramēt Ans. They set downe indeede the errors of the Papistes, but they cannot refute them: because their opinion agreeth more with the opinion of [Page 168] the Papists, then ours doth.

For first,The Con­substanti­als retaine the errors of the Transub­stantials. although they teach not Transubstan­tiation, yet they teach Consubstantiation, whereof there is nothing delivered in the word of God.

2 Whereas they teach the bodilie presence of Christ, it must needs be that they also worship Christ in the bread, whom they suppose to bee bodily present in, vnder, with, and to the bread; which is a thing no lesse idolatrous, then if they worshipped the bread. For wheresoever Christ is, whether in a visible or invisible manner, there he is to be wor­shipped.

3 They establish the sacrifice of the Masse, because, as it hath bin already said, whilest they are bound to worship Christ in the bread, they are enforced to aske of God forgiuenes of their sinnes for that Christs sake, whome they beare in their handes; which is nought els but the Popish oblation of Christ.

4 They of force admit the mangling or abridg­ing one part of the Sacrament. For they reteine the foundation, on which the Papistes builde this errour. For wheras they hold a corporal presence of Christ in, with, vnder or to the bread, they must necessarilie either withholde the cuppe from the Communicantes, because, in their doctrine and opinion, the bloud of CHRIST is in his bo­dy: or else they must separate CHRISTES bloud from his body; then which nothing can be more absurd.

Wee offend not, as they charge vs, in the defect, [Page 169] but keepe the meane.The true catholique opinion keeping a iust meane betweene the [...] of the [...] & Consub­stantials of­fending in the excesse; & the [...] of­fending in the defect. For wee teach the spirituall presence and participation; that is to say, that all the faithfull which eate and drinke the breade and wine are truelie made partakers of Christ himselfe, and al his benefites, and so made one with him, that they become flesh of his flesh, & bone of his bones. But ther, as it hath beene already demonstrated, offende as doe the Papists in the excesse.

Yea but, say they, these are the errours of the Sacramentaries, to say that

Obiect. 1. The Sacraments are only bare signes and tokens.

Ans. We teach no such doctrine: but we teach that the Thinges signified are exhibited and received togither with the Signes, although not corporallie, yet in such manner as fitteth Sacraments.

Obiect 2. CHRIST is present onlie according to his working.

Ans. Neyther is this our doctrine, but we teach that Christ is present and vnited vnto vs by the holy Ghost, howsoever his body be farre remooued and absent from vs; in like sorte as he is wholy cōuersant with vs by his ministery, although it be otherwise in re­spect of his other nature.

Obiect. 3. In the Sacrament is only an imaginarie, figuratiue, and spirituall bodie of CHRIST, not an essentiall bodie.

Aunsw. Touching the imaginarie bodie obiected wee neuer made mention thereof, but our whole doctrine is concerning the true flesh of CHRIST, vvhich is presente vvith vs, yea though hee re­maine [Page 170] still in heaven. Father we say, that we receiue the bread and the body, but both in their proper manner. Ob. 4. The true body of Christ which hung on the crosse, and the true bloud which was shed for vs is distributed; but spiritually: that, it is receiued of them only which are worthy Cōmunicants; and the vnworthy receiue nothing but the bare signes to their iudgement, and condē [...]ation▪ Ans. This obiection is indeed the very doctrine we preach, and therfore we grant the whole, as being consonant and agreeable with the word of God, the nature of the Sacramentes, the Analogie of faith and the communion of the faithfull with Christ.

II. The arguments whereby the Consubstantials labor to [...] [...]hrow our doctrine touching the Lords Supper, togither with their Confutation and Answeres.

Arg. 1. The words of Christs institution are plaine & evident, THIS is my bodie, THIS is my bloud.

Auns. The words they cite are swords to cut their owne throats. For they say that [...] vnder, or with the bread, Christs bodie is reallie receiued; where­as Christ saith, that the bread it selfe is his bodie. Ther­fore they do the Church a double wrong. One, in that they thrust on her their owne words insteed of Christs. Another, in that they think her so blind that shee cānot see the diversity of these two say­ings. The bread is in the bodie; and, The bread is the bo­dy Moreover they make Christ a lier. For they de­ny that the bread is his body, and say, that his bo­dy [Page 171] is in the bread. Let them looke what answere they wil make vnto Christ in the last day of iudg­ment concerning this despightfull and reproach­full bla­sphemy. The Papists themselues rather re­teine Christs words then our Consubstantials. For they teach that the bread is so the body of Christ, that for sooth it is chāged into the body of Christ. But these men keepe not the word, but follow, as they say the sence and meaning. Wherefore wee must search diligētly whether of vs [...]s in the truth. Our doctrine shall be proved in the end.

Repl. In the same place this expositiō is added which is given for you, and which is shed for you.

Ans 1. Thu [...] to argue is to begge that which is in controversie. For they take this as granted, that the bread to properly tearmed the body, which remaines yet to be proved.

Ans. 2. We answere by retorting the argumēt, thus That which we properlie call the bodie of Christ was given for vs:

But the bread was not giuen for vs.

Ergo, &c.

Auns. 3. As the bread is the bodie broken; so the brea­king of the bread is the breaking of the body:

But the breaking of the bread is improperly and my­sticallie the breaking of the bodie of Christ. For the breaking of the body is the crucifying ther of.

Th [...]refore the bread brokē is in a mystical sence the bodie broken.

Arg. 2. The second argument is drawne from the au­thor Christ himselfe, which is true.

[Page 172] Ans. This argument takes that for a groūd which is in controuersie: for they must proue that Christ said his body was in, vnder, or with the breade. Nay one may speake figuratiuely, & yet plainely to. Replie. 1. He is omnipotent. Ergo he can be everie where, yea even in the bread.

Ans. 1. Though he could make two contra­dictories at once true, yet he will not.

2. God cannot do thinges contradictorie, be­cause he is truth. But to will thinges contradicto­rie is the part of a lier. We do not therfore deny the truth and omnipotencie of God, but their lyes; nay we defēd it, saying that God doth what he speaketh. But they oppugne it, by teachinge that in God are contrarie willes.

Repl. 2. Christes bodie hath manie prerogatiues wherby it differeth frō our bodies, as namely, that it was born of a virgin, walked on the sea, was at one time in the graue, in bell, and in paradise, passed through dores shut.

Auns. These examples are partly improper or vnlike, partely false. Vnlike

1 Because they may also be incident to trea­tures: as walking on the water to Peter, passinge through shut doores to spirites.

2. Because they imploy a contradiction, for when he is said to bee borne of a virgin, he is not at the same time said not to bee borne of a Virgin. But at once to be finite and infinite implieth a­contradiction. False

1 For he passed not through closed doores, wheras they might yeeld and giue backe to him.

[Page 173] 2 For neyther did he passe through the dore of the sepulcher, wheras that is said to haue ben opened by the Angell:

3 For neyther was Christes body at one and the same instante in manie places,Augustine. ad Dardan. epist. 57. Read the place. which they seeme to haue taken from Augustin, But he saide, that his body was in the graue, his soule in hel, his Dei­ty everie where.

Arg. 2. The third argument is taken from the cir­cumstance of time, thus

  • No man Speaking seriously speaketh figuratiuely,
  • Christ appointing his last Supper spake seriously:
  • Ergo he speake was figuratiuelie.

Ans. 1. I deny the maior: for els it would follow, that no man speaking figuratiuely should speake seriously, which is most false. For God in al the sa­craments, though he speake figuratiuelie, yet he speaketh seriouselie, I haue earnestely desired (saith Christ) to eate this passeover with you. I am the vine, you are the branches. Let this cup passe from me. If it be thus in the greene wood, what shal become of the [...] He alleadged the 22 ps. Al this though he speake figuratiuelie, yet did he also speake thē seriously.

Ans. 2. To the maior I answere, that no man thē vseth resting or obscure sigures. But this is a plaine figure, because cōmon: & his disciples speake this to him, where wilt thou that we make ready the passeo­ver for thee? It is vsual in al sacramēts. It is forcible, because it expresseth the likelihood between the signe and the thinge signified, with the certaine­tie of their coniunction in lawfull vse.

[Page 174] Ans. We may thus [...]. Because Christ spake seriously, therefore he vsed a figure, liuely expres­sing the thing.

Repl. Christ said; his cup is the new Testament. Now

  • In testaments we vse to spe [...]ke properly.
  • Christ here ordained a Sacrament. Ergo &c.

Ans. I deny the Maior. & retort it: because whē he would institute the Sacrament, he spake figura­tiuely, calling his supper a testament, which is to be vnderstood figuratiuely.

1 Because otherwise there should be two covenants, one proper, the other the Lords supper.

2 Because otherwise all should bee excluded from the covenāt of God, which could not come to the Lords supper, and al that received it should be in the covenant.

2. Repl. IN MY BLOVD. Therfore the reall bloud of Christ is in the supper & is drūke by our mouth. Auns. We answere by retortiō, because the new Testamēt was made by the bloud of Christ that was shed vpō the Crosse, & which i [...] applied vn­to vs by faith, not receiued through the mouth. For els they should be excluded which cannot come to this Sacrament.

3. Repl. There is an Emphasis in this worde Newe. That which in the Olde Testament was done figura­tiuely, is in the Newe done really.

1. Auns. If they adde, Christ body is eaten therfore with the boddy mouth there is more in their conclusi­on, then is conteined in their Proposition because there was no figure in the old Testament, which [Page 175] signified the bodily eating of Christ.

2. Auns. We answere againe▪ thus by retortion,

  • The body of Christ is eaten no otherwise in the new Testament then in the Olde.
  • But in the Olde it was eaten only spiritually.
  • Therefore it is so eaten also in the Newe.

Repl. 3. The New testamēt differeth from the Olde; because in the Olde there are types and figures, but in the Newe the body it selfe. Heb. 9. Cor. 2.

Ans. 1. This difference of the Olde and New Testament, That in the Olde Christ is not eaten bodi­ly, in the Newe he is, no where expressed in the Scripture. In these sayings of the Apostle which they cite, A body signifieth that the shadowes of the Olde Testament are fulfilled by Christ; be­cause A body is there opposed to those shadowes. Againe because he calleth it The body of Christ, which phrase sheweth that these types are fulfil­ed by Christ.

Ans. 2. Againe we answere by concession or graūt of as much as they conclude▪ Although we haue Christ exhibited in the Newe Testament, and he be borne man; yet hence it therefore followeth not that his body is in the bread, but only that it is in the Newe Testament.

Arg. 4. From the consent of the Evangelists, end of Paule. Matthew (as Theophilact counteth) wrote his [...] the 8.) [...]are after the ascension: Marke in the 10 Luke the 15. Paule the 20. & they al vse the san' [...] wordes.

  • [Page 176]A speech often vttered in the same words is not fi­guratiue:
  • Such an one is that speech of the Lords Supper,
  • Therefore it is not figuratiue.

Ans. 1. We deny the Maior, because when any figure is cleere, manifest, & Emphatical, as this is, it is reteined.

Ans. 2. The Evāgelists do allso repeat the words of Christ, which he spake figuratiuely. That same though figuratiue is often repeated, Thou shalt baptise with the holy Ghost, & with fire. Ioh. 1. Mat. 3.

Ans. 3. Besides it is a fallacy from mis;taking of the Cause; because a speech is not therefore repeated because it is figuratiue or proper, but that it may be the better rooted in the heartes.

Ans 4. Againe we deny the Mainor, 1. Because Mathewe & Marke say This is the bloud of the New Testament▪ Luke saith, This cuppe is the Newe Testa­ment in my bloud. 2. Mathewe & Marke, say This is my body: Luke & Paule adde, which is deliuered for you. 3. Luke saith, which is deliuered for you: Paule, which is broken for you. 4. Paule saith, The bread is the communion of the body of Christ. For although in this place he treateth not of purpose of the Sup­per, yet he exhorteth thervnto.

Repl. 1. The meaning notwithstāding is one & the sā [...]

Ans. Wee seeke not now after the meaning [...] of the wordes, but whether the wordes are the very selfe same.

Repl. 2. Ther is [...] mētion at all made of any figure. Where there is no mention made of any figure, there [Page 189] is no figure.

  • Heere there is no mention made of any figure.
  • Therfore here is no figure.

Ans. 1. We deny the Maior, because that were fonde, and men should seeme to boast of their skill, if they should say they had vsed some ex­cellent figure. The scripture also speaketh often figuratiuely; and yet it addeth not that it spake figuratiuely.

Auns. 2. Wee deny the Maior, because they make mention of a figure, whilest they expounde it; which is manifest by the nature of the Subiect & Predicat. The bodie was borne of the virgin, was crucified, &c. Breade is made of meale.

Auns. 3. He commaundeth that this should be done in remembrance of him; therefore the bread is termed his body as a memoriall.

Auns. 4. Mathewe & Marke say, This is the bloud of the New Testament: Paule and Luke, This is the Newe Testament in my bloud, Nowe the Newe Testament is an obligation of God, for the recei­ving into favour of such as beleeue, and repent: & of them, for the exhibiting of faith, and obedience vnto him.

Auns. 5. Paule saith that, The bread is the commu­nion of the body of Christ, which is no bodily eating. 1. The faithful are therby one body in Christ. 2. He compares it with the cōmuniō of the altar in the olde Testamēt, which was not corporall. 3. It can be attributed to the faithfull alone, & not to the vngodly.

[Page 178] 4 Iohn expoundeth this communion by remissiō of sinnes. If we walke in the light, we haue fellowshipe with him, and the bloud of Iesus Christ the sonne of God cle [...]eth us from all sinne.

Repl. 3. Nay Paule vseth three wordes which are three demonstrations.

1. COMMVNION.

Ans. But this Communiō is an vnion with Christ, and an enioying of all his benefites by faith. To this belongeth the similitude of the Body and the Members; of the Vine, & the Branches; which hath no reference to any corporall eating. This com­munion both was & is common to all the godly from the beginning of the world, to the end therof. But they could not eate it bodily: That wee may growe in him, of whome the whole body is coupled. He that cleaueth to the Lord, is one spirit with him. And wee are all baptised by one Spirit into one bodie. But this wee knowe that wee dwell in him and he in vs, in that he hath given vs of his Spirite. This vnion then is that communion which is by the holy Ghost, and therefore spirituall. For breade cānot be this communion but only by a figuratiue speech called Metonymie.

2 GVILTY OF THE BODY.

  • He that is guiltie of the body of Christ eateth it.
  • They that receiue veworthily are guiltie of the bo­dy of Christ.
  • Therefore they eate it corporally. For spiritually they can not: for if they should so care, they were not guiltie.

[Page 179] Ans. I doe deny the Maior. For he is guilty of the bodie of Christ who by his sins crucifieth it, and despiseth the benefite of Christ. Now vnto this gu [...]lte there is no neede of anie bodily eating; but not to receiue Christ by faith when he is offe­red vnto vs. So the iniurie offered vnto the Arke is said to be offered vnto the Lord.

3 Nor discerning the bodie of the Lord.

  • They that discerne not the bodie of the Lorde eat it▪
  • The guiltie discerne it not:
  • Therefore they eate it.

Ans. We grant if the Maior be taken sacramē ­tally, viz. of that bread which is named Christs bodie, it is true: if properly, it is false. For not to discern [...] is not to yeeld honor therevnto due, to contemne him, and not to receiueth thing signified. So Heb. 10. ver. 29 they are said to treade vnder feete the Son of God, and to account the bloud of the covenant an vnholy thing, which contemne him.

Arg. 5. Drawne from the testimonies of the Fathers and godlie antiquitie in the vncorrupt Church.

Ans. The sayings of the Fathers are to be taken Sacrament allie, or of the spirituall Communion. They saie often that the bodie and bloud of our Lord is giuen vnto vs with the bread & wine. If thē they allowe of Corporall presence they allowe also of the Papistes Concomitancie, or the separation of the blouds from the bodie.

1. Augustine saith: Thou receiuest that in the bread, which hange on the Crosse; that in the cuppe, which wa [...] shed from Christ his side.

[Page 192] Ans. In the bread as in a signe, that is, togither with the Signe thou receivest the thing signified. Whē we receiue the bread we are sure that we haue Christ.

2 Cyrillon Iohn saith: By a naturall participatiō, [...] spiritually, but also corporally: not only according to the spirite, but also according to the flesh: corporally, and essentiallie.

Auns. Cyrill speaketh not of the manner of eating, but of the thing eaten: he sheweth that we are made partakers not only of the spirit, but also of the hu­mane nature of Christ. Now he meaneth the spi­rituall communion.

1 Vpon it he citeth the places of Ioh 6. 54. & 1. Cor. 6. 15. where there is no mention made of any corporall eating.

2 He speaketh of the presence of Christ not in the bread, but in vs.

3 He proveth this abiding of Christ by the vse of the supper, not by the corporall eating of it.

4 He so describeth it, as that he faith it shall en­dure in the life eternall.

5 He speaketh of that Cōmunion which is pro­per to the Saints; now that is spirituall. For else it should also happen to the wicked.

III. The Shiftes of th [...] Consubstantials in elu­ding some (not al, for there are more obie­cted against th [...]) of [...]ur obiections.

1 We doe not meane (say they) a naturall and [...] eating.

[Page 193] Ans. We obiect not this against them, but on­ly we aske, whether Christ be eatē bodilie, either after a grosse or sub [...]e manner. How so ever they answere, there is too much idolatrie in their opi­nion. For Christ refuting the Capernaites distin­guisheth not the eating of himselfe into a grosse & subtile manner, but he simply saith that his bo­dy cannot be taken with a bodily mouth. For hee saith that he shall ascend, and that the words which he speaketh are spirit and life.

Ob. 2. We mainetaine not the vbiquitie. For thereof is not one word mentioned.

Ans. Here is to be noted the disagreement of ou [...] adversaries about Vbiquitie. Neither is there one word mentioned to this purpose, that the body of Christ is at once in many places. For it is a proper­ly belonging only to his divine nature, to be [...] once in many places. Moreouer vpon this opiniō of theirs followeth the Vbiquitie, for hee which at once is all in divers places, must needs be infinite, & therefore necessarilie everie where.

Ob 3. We doe not destroy the article of Christs ascen­sion.

Aunsw. But they stumble at it. For whilest they avouch, that as often as the Lordes Sup­per is celebrated. CHRIST is eaten corpo­rally, they must needes say that hee remay­neth invisibly vpon earth, (whereas indeede hee is saide to haue left the worlde, to haue ascen­ded from▪ an inferior to a superiour place, there to remaine in heaven vntill he come to iudgment.) [Page 194] or that he descendeth from heauen, as often as the Lordes supper is celebrated. This is allready refuted. How then is he in the breade?

Obiect 4. Wee take not awaie the doctrine of the proprieties of his humane nature.

Ans. Yes quite awaie. For they will haue his humane nature to be such, as is neither seene, felt, nor circumscribed.

Repl. But Christ layde a side these infirmities, and reserued his naturall proprieties.

Ans. Nay these are his naturall proprieties, which being taken awaie the truth of his humane nature is also taken awaye. Augustine: take away the space & dimension of bodies, and they wil be no where.

Obiect. 5. We do not abolish the doctrine of commu­nicating proprieties.

Aunsw. Yes they doe. For they applie the properties of the divine nature (which are attri­buted to the whole person in cōcrete) vnto both natures: I will be with you vnto the end of the worlde: this they take as spokē of both natures. Which is as much as if saying Christ was circūcised, I should thus vnderstand it, Christ was circumcised both in his godhead, and also in the flesh.

Repli. This onelie wee adde, that those articles concerne not this place.

Ans. By this reason all sectes might shift of all testimonies of scripture. But by their leaue they concerne this place for two reasons.

1 Because.

[Page 195] They are wrighten of the body of Christ.

But the body of Christ concerneth the Lordes sup­per:

Ergo these articles also concerne this place.

For they teach vs how Christes body is to be eaten.

2. Because no one article of faith is contrarie to an other, but everie one is a rule by which we must interpret an other: so the doctrine of ius­tification pertaineth to this, because in the Lords Supper must no other righteousenesse be sought, then by the bloud of Christ.

Obiect. Wee must not sette downe the manner howe.

Ans. Here is a double errour. 1. When they say we must not define or set downe the man­ner, and so they contradict scripture, which de­fineth it, & teacheth vs that it is spirituall, & that the vnion with Christ is made in faith by the ho­ly Ghost. 2. Themselues set downe the man­ner, as appeareth manyfestely by their wrigh­tings.

Obiect. 7. It is trewe that Durandus sayth: Wee heare the wordes, perceaue the motion, beleeue the presence, and knowe not the manner.

Ans 2. This neither helpeth you, nor hurteth vs, because Durandus was a Papist.

Aunsw. Wee may graunt this saying, so it bee rightly vnderstoode. VVee heare the worde this is my bodie, not that in the breade wee doe [Page 196] with our mouthes feede on the bodie of Christ. We perceiue the motion, that is, that the breade entereth into our mouth, not the body of Christ We know not the manner, that is perfectly, namely how the holy Ghost is everie where all in Christ, and in all the god he, and how he doth vnite vs in Christ. We be­leeue the presence, but such a presence as is the ea­ting▪ and as is the vnion of the members and the head.

Ob. 8. This [...], that the bodie and bloud of Christ is given vnto [...], cruelie, substantiallie, and [...].

Ans. We grant that wee eate the true bodie of [...] then the whole disputation is to no pur­pose. 1 Because they coufesse that we are made partakers of the true bodie of Christ, and that we [...] of the manner▪ which also we grant. 2 Because the reasons o [...] refutations which they bring are or no moment.

4 ARGVMENTS, WHEREBY IT IS proved, that the bodie of Christ is present neither IN nor VNDER, nor TO the bread of the Lords supper, nor is corporally eaten IN it, VNDER it, WITH it, &c.

1. BEcause he tooke on him very nature of mā. Besides, we cannot eate him otherwise then did his disciples in the first supper.

2 Hee did truely ascende from earth into hea­ven.

[Page 197] 3 Such is the eating of him, as is his aboad with vs,

4 Al the godlie of the Old and new Testament haue the same aboad with Christ.

5 Christ alone can offer himselfe to his Father. Nowe in the vse of the Lordes supper wee must needs craue of God remission of sins. If therefore he be present with the bread, wee must desire this of him, & so we offer bread. In the new testamēt it is not lawful to direct our praiers to any one cer­taine place.

6 Those good gifts which are promised only to the godly, are spiritual. To these and others aboue cited, may be added the consent of Fathers, as Ambrose, Athanasius, Augustine, Basill, Ba [...]e, Ber­tra [...]s, Chrysostome, Clemens Alexandr [...], the Nicene Counsell, Cyprian, Cyrill, Dionysius, Gelasius▪ Gregorie the Greate, Gregorie Naz [...]zen, He s [...]chius, Hierom, Hilarie, Irenaeus, Iustin, Leo, Macarius, Orig [...]n, Proco­plus, Gaza, Tertullian, Theodoret, &c?

5. Arguments whereby the opinion of the V­biquitaries is refe [...]ed, and the truth of the right doctrine confirmed.

Arg. The Marcion [...]es and Manichees fained that Christ had no true & solid humane bodie, but onlie an imaginarie or seeming bodie, so that he did only seeme to haue flesh & bones, whereas indeed he had none. And that the verie incarnation, and al motions [Page 198] and operations of Christ did only appeare in shew, wheras indeed there was no such thing.

But this opinion of Vbiquitie, and real com­munication of proprieties, revoketh from hell that phantastique dotage of Marcion and Manes.

Wherefore this also, as the Man [...]chea [...] here­sie, is to be condemned & banished from Gods Church, vnto the very deepest pit of hell.

The Minor is thus proued, The Vbi­quitaries beleeue and teach, that all properties of the Deity were at the instant of conception, real­ly transfused from the Deity of the Worde, into the humane nature assumed by Christ. Hence follow these absurdities.

1 Christ shall not be truelie borne of the Virgin, if ac­cording to the nature of his humanity, hee were truely & essentiallie without his mothers wombe before he were borne, and after his birth were ac­cording to his humane nature as truely and sub­stantiallie in his mothers wombe as before.

2 In his humane nature Christ was not truly weak and subiect to passions, if then also he were parta­ker of divine maiestie and omnipotencie.

3 He was not truely dead, if in the verie instant of death both in soule and bodie he were essentially everie where present with his Deity. For his soule everie-where-present with his everie-where-pre­sent bodie could not reallie bee separated by di­stance [Page 199] of place, and therefore his body could not die but imaginarily.

4 He did not truelie ascend into heavē, but we must say it was onlie an imaginarie and phantastique shew, if in bodie he were there substātially before he ascended thither, & after he ascended, never­theles he remaine in the earth, nay in the very bo­dies of the faithfull, by substantiall presence of the same bodie, as truely as before, if these things did indeed so fall out, it will follow that the same bo­die of Christ was at once weake and yet omnipo­tent, base and glorious, able to suffer and vnable, dead and living, limited and vnlimited, which to saie were blasphemie.

To avoide these prodigious and impious absur­dities, they tell vs, that

Ob. Christ in respect of his bodie was in deed limited, weake, passible, & mortall in the time of his humiliation: because he did empty himselfe, & would not before his re­surrection shew forth that maiestie which hee imparted to his bodie.

Ans. They doe ill to interpret this emptying of concealing all his glorie and maiestie for the time wherein he tooke our nature vpon him: whereas indeed it is to be vnderstood of the divine nature of the worde, as it vouchsafed to take vpon it the shape of a servant, that is, the Masse of our nature, and would become man. Besides, it would followe that Christ did even then shew forth the power & maiestie communicated to his flesh, when he was truely subiect to infirmitie, and circumscribed by [Page 200] his body: as which weeping he raized Lazarus, and beeing taken by the Iewes, healed Mal­chus which was wounded by Peter. But what is it to fetch backe the Marcionites from hell, or in the greatest mystery of religion to speak blasphe­mie, if this be not?

Argum. 2 This is the blasphemie of Samos [...]te [...], Airtus, and the late Antitrinitaries▪ that the man Christ is not properlie and naturally God, but on­ly by accidentall participation of the Divine pro­prieties, maiestie, honor, power, and vertue. In like manner conceaue the Vbiquitaries of the dei­tie of the man Ch [...]ist, de [...]ining the personal vnion, by this only cōmunicating of proprieties, wherby the flesh of Christ is made omnipotent & present in every place. So that the same man is, and is cal­led God, not because properly and naturally he is so, but because from God there is giuen vnto him infinite power, maiestie, glorie, and all giftes of the holy Gost without measure. But this acci­dentall bestowing of the deitie and all properties therof, did not make Christ properly and natu­rally God▪ but onely by divine grace, or God im­properly so called; because he is not the naturall deitie of the worde, but a certaine participation thereof with force and efficacie. But therfore was it obiected by trew Christians against the Arrians that they ouerthrew the trew and eternall Deitie of Christ, because they did not accoumpt him God by nature but onely by participation of dignitie and maiestie through grace. Seeing therefore the [Page 201] Vbiquitaries only of equaling our Immanuel to God by participation of proprieties, do take awaie his trewand eternall deity, we do with good reason condemne and detest this doctrine of theirs as blasphemo [...]ie and hereticall. This their owne wordes and sentences do witnesse, as Brentius in Recognie. Pag 20. Iacob. Andr. Thes. 20. disputation. Tunigeus. Item. Thes. 25 & 26. Et Apolog. Ingol­stad. 26. Where it is gathered, that the opinion of the Vbiquitaries of the deitie of the man Christ, is all one with that of the Arrians and Antitrinitaries, that is, that by all these he is accoūpted not God by nature, but onely by grace of participation, a new, temporarie, created, and adoptiue God. Which if it be trew, Christ shall not be [...], God & mā, but [...], a Divine man; such as also he is accoūted by the Vbiquitaries, who (at witnesseth Seruetus in his first booke De Trimitate) say that God may cōmunicate vnto man the ful­nesse of his Deitie, & giue vnto him his Diuinitie, maiestie, power, and glorie. Which blasphemie, being the same both, we vtterly hate and detest. Argum. 3. N [...]storius taught that God (which is the word) vvas vnited vnto man onlie by par­ticipation of equalitie in maiestie, honour, pow­er, vertue, and operation. And that the diffe­rence of the wordes dwelling in man assumed by it, and in other saintes, consisteth in nothing but in the verie gifts and graces bestowed on man by God. This also the Vbiquitaries teach; because they say there is no differēce betweene the dwel­ling [Page 202] of the Deitie in Peter and Christ, except such as is taken from communicating the giftes and properties of the Deitie: maintaining that in this respect the manhoode as [...]umed by Christ is God, because the Worde doth nothing without it, but al things by it. And this is nothing els but to make the mā Christ to be God onlie by accident. Wher­fore the opinion of the Vbiquitaries is al one with that of the Nestorians.

Tertullianus. [...] ▪ de Trin. pag. 610. If Christ be o [...]lie [...]an, howe is hee present wheresoever hee is called vpon? whereas to be present everie where, is not the nature of man but of God? By this sentence is [...] felled the V­biquitie of the humane nature in Christ.

Obie▪ But the vnion of the divine and humane nature in Christ is inseparable:

Therefore wheresoever his divine nature is, there also is his humane nature.

Ans. It is true that the vnion is inseparable, for the worde neuer forsaketh the nature once assu­med. But the vvord is not so in the humane na­ture as a soule encloased in our bodies. For wheresoever are our bodies, there also needes must be our soules, and the soule once without the bodie, is not present with it. But the word is not so in the man Christ, but is so inseperably and personally in the humane nature, that withall it is without the humane nature in all partes of the worlde by [...]e [...]letion or filling everie place, and in the godlie and Angels by speciall presence. For the personal vnion of two natures overthroweth [Page 203] not the generall action of the presence of his ma­iestie; nor hindereth the speciall action: because the word is effectuall in the faithfull and regene­ [...]ate.

RVLES AND AXIO MES OF CER­TAINE CHEIFE POINTS of Christianitie.
Proposed by Vrsmus to be disputed on publiquelie, partly in the Vniversitie of Heidelberg, & partlie in Collegio Sapientia.

OF THE DOCTRINE OF THE CHVRCH.

1 THe doctrine of the church, or Christi­an religion, is a doctrine of Gods law and the Gospell of Christ, perfect and incorrupt, as it is deliuered in the bookes of the Prophets & Apostles, by which alone God lead­eth men to eternall life.

2. The whole doctrine of Christianitie is con­teined in these two partes, the lawe, and the Gospell.

3. The foundation of Christian religion is the Decalogue or ten commaundements, and the arti­cles of our faith rightly vnderstoode.

4. Which is all one, if we say the foundation is the doctrine of Gods nature and will.

5. Paule also meaneth the same 1. Cor. 3. Whē that the foundation is Christ.

6. The church must needes knowe difference between the doctrine delivered vnto it by God, and that which is deliuered to it by religion of o­ther nations▪

[Page 205] 7 The first difference is, that the gospell of Christ is only knowne in the church; other sectes are al­togither ignorant thereof. All heretiques maine­taine errors either touching the son of Christ, or concerning his office.

8 The second, that the church retaineth the whole doctrine of Gods law, other sectes are ignorant of the first table of the lawe, and in the second ob­serue only some parte, touching externall disci­pline.

9 The third, that the church learneth the know­ledge and worship of God, out of his whole word, and out of that alone, neither taking ought from it, nor adding to it: as for other religions, they doe not only cast away the greater parte of Gods truth, but also vnto the final portiō of law, which they retaine, adde idolatrie, granting and appro­ving manie thinges repugnante to the second ta­ble of the decalogue.

10 Even the trewest philosophie must be dis­cerned from the doctrine of the church: for trew philosophie comprizeth onely that parte of this doctrine which the second table commaundeth▪ as for the whole & entire loue of our neighbor, of that it teacheth vs nothing, & framing to it selfe an idol insteede of the true God, erreth much frō the trew worship of the trew God.

2 OF HOLIE SCIPTVRE.

1. The summe of holy scripture is conteined in the decalogue and creede.

[Page 206] 2. Which is also manifest, because it is all con­teined in the lawe and the Gospell.

3. For what soeuer is there in conteined, ey­ther it concerneth the nature, or will, or workes of God, or the sinne of deuills and men?

4. The wil of God cōsisteth in precepts, threats, and promises.

5. The workes of God are eyther his benefites, as the creation, preseruation, and gouerninge of al things, the collecting & vphoulding his church by the mediation of his sonne: o [...] his iudgments, as the punnishments of offenders.

6. Of all these we are taught, either in the law, or in the Gospell, or in both.

7. The same is plaine by the division of the whole scripture into the new & olde Testament or couenant.

8. For this word couenant doth signifie that in scripture we are taught that GOD promiseth or performeth vnto menne either before or since the manifestation of Christ in the flesh, and what he requireth againe of them, and for what cause.

9. Which also the scripture intendeth, profes­sing to teach Christ.

10. For whatsoeuer is therin deliuered, eyther it pertayneth to the trew knowledge of Christs person, or his office.

11. The differences betweene the doctrine delivered in scripture and the religions of other sectes, are these. First in the doctrine of the trew [Page 207] church is taught the whole Gospell of Christ, but other religions either knowe it not at all, or to their owne errours ioyne some part thereof, whose vse they neyther know nor conceaue.

12. Secondly: in the doctrine of the Prophets & Apostles is delivered the whole lawe of God, & that rightely vnderstoode: other religions cutt of the cheife points therof, namely the trew know­ledge and worship of God, or the first table of the commaundements, and the internall and spi­rituall obedience of the second table, retaininge onelie a parte therof, namelie the precepts of Disciplines, or externall and civill duties to­wardes men.

13. But though even they also doe boast and glorie of the trew God and his worship, yet doe they erre from him for 3 causes. First because na­turall testimonies are not sufficient to the know­ledge of the trew God. Secondly, because vnto thē men ioyne many errors of their owne. Thir [...]ly because for want of the light of Gods worde, they vnderstād not even those thinges which in word they truely professe, but corrupt them with an e­vill interpretation.

14. Either they commaund onely so much touching aff [...]ections and inclinations disagreeing with the secōd table as may serue to bridle them, which is but a parte of this doctrine, or they doe accuse and condemne all, or els they doe not so much accuse and condemne them as doth the doctrine of the church.

[Page 208] 15. Other sectes admit & approue some things against the externall obedience of the second ta­ble, God by his iust iudgment giuing them over into a reprobate sense.

16 We pronoūce the doctrine of holy scripture to be true, not for the authority of the church, but be­cause we know it was delivered vnto vs by God.

17▪ That it is from God, we know by testimonie of the holy Ghost in the hearts of the godly: by our deliuerance from sinne and death, whereof this only religion doth assure vs: by the puritie & integritie of the lawe, which is founde onely in the church: by the prophecies and the fulfilling ther­of: by miracles proper only to the church: by the antiquitie of this & late vpstarte newnesse of o­thers: by the consent and agreement of everie parte in this doctrine, and the disagreement in o­thers: by the hatred of Satan and all the wicked against this doctrine: by the miraculouse preser­uation & defence therof against the Diuell and the worlde: by the punnishmentes inflicted vpon the enemies therof: by the constancie of martyrs and confessors who had sure comforte euen in death by their holy life, by whom it was deliuered and spread abroade.

18. No opinion of God or his will and worship must be receaued, which is not set downe in scrip­ture: & we must so fa [...] giue credit to other doctors of the church, as they confirme their doctrine out of the prophets and apostles▪

19. This is not only proued by testimonie of [Page 209] holie scripture, whereby we are commaunded in cases of religion to depende on it alone; but also by the nature & definition of faith and the wor­ship of God, both which must needes be groun­ded on Gods worde: also by the perfectiō of this propheticall & apostolicall doctrine; and by the diverse callings of Prophets, apostles, & other doctors & teachers of the church.

3. OF THE CERTAINETIE AND AVTHORITIE OF HO­LIE SCRIPTVRE.

1. It is certaine that onely this doctrine of reli­gion, which is cōteined in the bookes of the pro­phets & apostles, is deliuered by God himselfe, & doth not only nor principally relye vpon the au­thoritie of the church, but most especially vpon the testimonie of God & the scripture it selfe.

2. The first and principall argument wherby this authoritie of holy scripture is established amōgst vs, is the witnesse of Gods holy spirit in the hearts of the faithfull.

3. This witnes as it is peculiar to the godly, so it only causeth vs in true faith to embrace the do­ctrine of the prophets & apostles: all the rest may be vnderstood even of them which are not rege­nerate, and do indeed conuince or forceablie per­swade vs of the truth of this doctrine, but except we haue also this witnesse of the spirite, they can neuer moue our mindes to embrace and giue cre­dit to them.

4. The seconde argument is, because this doctrine only sheweth men the causes of evill, & deliuer­rance [Page 210] from sinne & death, agreeing with the per­fect iustice and goodnes of God, and also satisfy­ing our consciences.

5 The third, because only the doctrine of the pro­phets and Apostles retaineth Gods law entire & pure; but all other Religions frame vnto thēselues Gods, and their worship, without any authoritie from God, and approue many things contrary to the law naturally knowne vnto vs.

6 The fourth, because history and experience doth witnesse, that the evēt hath answered those predictions which haue beene heere and there set downe in scripture.

7 The fift, is, the miracles added to this doctrine.

8 The sixt, antiquity, because this religion vva [...] the first, and hath continued the same, from the beginning of the world vntill this day.

9 The seventh, the consent and agreement of all parts of this doctrine betweene themselues, which is not in other religions.

10 The eighth, is the hatred of Satan and all the wicked against this doctrine.

11 The ninth, is Gods preservation and defence of this doctrine against all his enemies.

12 The tenth, the punishment of such enemies as persecute or corrupt this doctrine.

13 The eleventh, the constancy of Martyrs and confessors. Tertullian. The bloud of Martyrs is the seed of the church. The Martyrs of the church differ from others [...] in multitude, 2 in alacrity & cheere­fulnesse in vndergoing dangers & death it selfe, [Page 211] 3 the defenders of wicked doctrine suffer when they are convicted of errors, but the godlie are by tyrannicall force carried awaie to punishment.

14 The twelfth, their holinesse of life by whom it was delivered and spread abroad, farre exceeding the vertues of heathen men, and such as followed other religions.

15 Seeing therefore this only doctrine of religi­on is true and Divine, no opinion can binde our consciences to beliefe or obedience, which is not established by testimonies of holy scripture right­ly vnderstood: but no opinion disagreeing there­withall is to be so much as receiued.

OF GOD AND THE TRVE KNOW­ledge of him.

1 MAn being destitute of the true knowledge of God, is most vnhappy.

2 It is no true knowledge of God, which agree­eth not with Gods own opening of himselfe, nor is ioined with true loue and feare of God.

3 Of this opening & knowledge of God in mā ­kinde there are 3 degrees, 1 By Gods workes shi­ning in nature: 2 by the word of God delivered to the church: 3 by the grace of the holy spirite lightning the mindes of the regenerate through consideration of the workes and word of God.

4 For that there is a God, these testimonies cō ­pell all reasonable men though ignoraunt of the doctrine of the church to confesse. 1 The most wise order of things in nature: 2 The excellencie [Page 212] of the minde of man: the knowledge of naturall principles, and amongst them of this, that there is a God: 4 The feares of conscience in the wicked: 5 The punishments of sinne in this life: 6 The in­stituting and preservation of Civile order: 7 The vertues and singular motions in heroike mindes: 8 The significations of future things: 9 The desti­nating and appointment of all thinges vnto cer­taine ends: 10 The order of causes not proceeding to infinitie.

5 That there is but one true God, besides the testimonies of Gods word, these also proue. 1 The revealing of one true God only: 2 The most high and excellent maiestie, perfection, and omnipo­tencie of the true God. 3 Because more then one would be either idle or superfluo [...].

6 Lastly, they who doe not oppose themselues against reason, confesse that God is a nature spiri­tuall, intelligent, eternal, divers frō al other things, incōprehensible, in it selfe most perfect, immuta­ble, of infinite power, wisdome, & goodnes, iust, chaste, true, merciful, bountifull, most free, angrie for sinne, governing the world.

7 But without the light of Gods word men nei­ther vnderstand these things which they confesse of God, neither know anie of those things, which the voice of heavenly doctrine, that is, the scrip­ture, addeth to this knowledge of God, as of the eternal father and son & holy Ghost, of the crea­tiō of things, sending his son, gathering his disper­sed church, vniversall iudgment, & eternall life.

[Page 213] 8 Wherefore the testimonies of God in nature are to be considered, but whosoeuer seeke GOD without the doctrin of the church, they substitute an idoll in steede of the true God.

9 Moreover the true knowledge of God is not to be learned out of the very word of God, with­out the speciall grace of the holy Spirit.

10 And in the ende, all the knowledge of God which mē haue in this life, is but slender, and be­gunne, nor shal be perfited, but in the celestiall e­ternitie.

11 The eternal Father,Three per­sons of one God. Son, and holy Ghost are three persons

12 Indeed distinct one from an other.

13 Equall in all essentiall or naturall properties of the Deitie.

14 And of one essence or nature.

15 By the divine essence church vnderstādeth that which the eternall father,What is meant by essence. son, & holy Ghost, (every of them beeing absolutely considered in himselfe,What a person is or his owne nature) are, & are called. But by this word person they meane that which everie of the three is, and is called, beeing considered as he is compared with the other, or respectiuely, or according to the manner of their exillence.

16 That the sonne is a divine subsistence or per­son,The Sonne [...] person of the [...], or a subsistence. it is prooved, because 1 He is named the pro­per and only begotten Sonne of GOD, that is, his naturall Sonne: 2 Hee is saide in scripture to haue taken vpon him the nature of man, and before that to haue beene the sonne of GOD. [Page 210] [...] [Page 211] [...] [Page 212] [...] [Page 213] [...] [Page 212] [...] [Page 213] [...] [Page 214] 3 He is called the word which by Iohn is described to be a person subsistent and by Salomon wisdome sub­sistent. 4 He is the mediatour betweene God and man, who must needs haue beene from all eterni­tie. 5 He is named an Angell even before his in­carnation. 6 Lastly, he is described to be CHRIST borne of the virgin, naturall and true God & the sonne of God.

17 That the holie Ghost also is a subsistence or person subsisting it is plaine 1. Because he appeared in a visible forme:The holy Ghost a person. 2. Because in scripture hee is called God, 3. Because in his name we are bapti­sed. 4. Because to him are attributed thinges pro­per to a person.

18 But that these persons are distinct one from an other,That these persons are distingui­shed. hereby it is manifest, 1. Because the Fa­ther, Sonne, and holy Ghost are also called for reference and respect which they haue one to an other: and, 2. Because the scripture saith that the Sonne and holy Ghost are not one with the Fa­ther, nor the holie Ghost with the Sonne: 3. Be­cause they are said to be more then one; and be­cause properties are attributed to one, which a­gree not to an other.

19 The equalitie of godhead in these three per­sons is prooued by expresse testimonies of scrip­ture,That the persons be equall. by their personall proprieties, because not some parte, but the whole divine essence is communicated to the Sonne by the Father, and to the holy Ghost by the Father and the Sonne: 2. By such attributes or proprieties as are com­mon [Page 215] to the divine nature: 3. By the workes of GOD; and by equalitie of honour due vnto them.

20 That they are consubstantiall it is certaine,That the persons are consubstā ­tiall. 1 Because they are Iehovah which is one; 2 Be­cause they are in scripture described as the true GOD, which is onely one: 3. Because there is one spirite of the Father and of the Sonne: 4. Be­cause the Father communicateth to the Sonne and the holy Ghost, and the Sonne to the holie Ghost, not an other, but his own proper essence, and that whole and vndevided.

21 The differences of these persons in the Dei­ty are either internall,Two sortes of differen­ces in the persons. from those operations which they exercise one towardes an other: or externall, from those operations which they exer­cise towardes the creatures.

22 The internall differences are,Internall. that the Father is the first person of the Deity, neither borne nor proceeding from any other, but being of it selfe, which from all eternitie begate the sonne, and from whom the holy Ghost proceedeth: the Son is the second person of the Deity, begotten from all eternitie of the Father, and from whom the holy Ghost proceedeth: the holy Ghost is the thirde person of the Deity proceeding from all e­ternity from the Father and the sonne.

23 These workes vvhich the Deity exerciseth towardes the creatures,Externall. although they bee com­mon to the three persons, yet the order which the three divine persons obserue in performing them [Page 216] make their difference externall: as that the Father doth all things of himselfe, by the Sonne and ho­lie Ghost; the Son & holy Ghost not of thēselues; but the Sō of the father by the holy ghost; and the holy GHOST of the father & the Son by him­selfe.

24 And hence it is that some benefites are pro­perly said to be gifts of the holy ghost, nor because the father hath no part in them, but because hee bestoweth them vpon vs by the son or the holie ghost, as when the son is called the wisedom, the word, counsellor, angell, apostle, image of the Fa­ther, power of the father, vniting vnto him the hu­mane nature, and therefore incarnate, and man, and mediatour, intercessor, priest, redeemer, iusti­fier, shepheard, head, and king of his church. Sit­ting at the right hand of his father, iudge of quick and dead &c. Also that the holy ghost is called a sanctifier, that is a person immediately lightning vs, regenerating, vniting vs to God, comforting and confirming vs.

OF THE CREATION OF THE WORLD.

1 THe order in nature, the minde of man, the knowledge of principles, civill discipline, final causes, the finite orderly chaine of causes, do shew that it was created by some principall crea­ting spirite.

2 Yet because of the knowledge of God now obs [...]ured in men by sin, for the continuall change [Page 217] of corruption and generation, for the absurditie of imagining the creator to bee idle, and for losse of the historie of the creation and originall of the world, there is no truth & certainety to be found concerning the creation of the worlde, but in the doctrine of the church.

3 Therefore the sacred scripture teacheth vs that al things begā to be, & to haue bin created by the only true God, the eternall father, sonne and holy Ghost, according to the eternall purpose and pleasure of this true and eternall God.

4 But this eternall father created all thinges of nothing by his sonne and the holy Ghost, most freely, without any alteration or chaunge of him­selfe, or any labour: so that all was verye good.

5 The ende of the creation of the worlde vvas chiefly the glorie of God: other ends subordinate vnto this are the manifestation and contemplati­on of Gods wisedome, power, and goodnesse in his workes; his providence, or preservation, and perpetuall governing of all things, especiallie the goodnesse & bountie of God toward his church: and to conclude, that al other things might seru [...] for the life and safety of man.

6. OF THE SAME.

1 VVHatsoeuer is, is either the creatour, or his creature.

2 All other things which haue begun to be be­sides [Page 218] this one, onely, eternall, and trew God ma­nifested in his church, were created by the one trew God.

3. In that beginning of time wherein it pleased God to haue it so:

4. And that of the eternall father by the sonne and holy Ghost.

5. By the most free purpose & decree of Gods will.

6. With out anie motion, change, or laboure of the creator,

7. And that of nothinge.

8. And so that al things were most excellent in their kind.

9. Not that the creator might thereby be made better or more perfect.

10. But that in the creation he might impart his goodnesse and ioy to reasonable creatures.

11. And afterwardes preseruinge, ruling, and sustaining by his providence al thinges which he had created, he might for ever be beneficiall vnto them, especially to his church.

12. And that being willing that other creatures should serue especially for mans vse and saftie,

13. He might declare vnto them his wisedome, goodnesse, power, and ioy.

14. And being knowne by his workes, [...]ee might for euer be praised by reasōable creatures, for his wisedome, bountie, power, and ioy.

7. OF THE ANGELS.

1 IT is certaine that there are angells both good and bad.

2. But both good and bad angelles are spirites, that is, incorporall substances, not subiect to sen­se, liuing, intelligent, excellent in strength and wisedome.

3. Finite in nature and proprieties.

4. Created by God of nothinge, then when o­ther things were created.

5. In trew holinesse, iustice, and blessednesse.

6. Wherin the good Angells are by the singu­lar grace of the creator confirmed,

7. That they may agnize and praise him for ever.

8. And be Gods ministers to finish the saluatiō of the elect, and represse and punish the euill.

9. But the evill angells by their proper and free will, a [...]d by their owne fault fell from God, and are made enemies of God, and the good an­gels and mankind.

10. And therefore through hatred against God they force men to sinne, & practize their destru­ction.

11. And these are immutable evill, cast of from God into eternall punishment.

12. But God suffered them to fall, and saueth them being fallen, that he may shewe his anger and iustice in their punishments, and by them may punishe, chastize, and exercise the elect.

9 OF GODS PROVIDENCE.

1. Not onely the doctrine of the prophets and apostles, but also the testimonies of God shininge in nature doe proue, that the world is preserued & gouerned by Gods prouidence. As the order which is seene in the principall partes of nature: the minde or soule governing the actions of men with her prouidence: the lawe of nature giuen to men that it might be vnto them a rule of their life: rewardes and punishments: conscience; the ordering of politique affaires: heroick motions & vertues: the fore-tellinges of future eventes: the ends whereunto things are ordained: and lastely the verie nature of the most omnipotēt, wise, iust, and excellent God.

2. Gods prouidēce is the eternall counsell of God, most free and immutable, most wise & iust, accor­ding to which God bringeth to passe all good in all his creatures, & suffereth sin to be committed: and directeth all both good and evill to his glory and the saluarion of the elect.

3. This purpose or counsell in God is not onlie a knowledge or science in God, but also the forcible decree and will of God, wherby he hath determi­ned from all eternitie both what he himselfe will doe, & what he will haue become of his workes; & whatsoeuer he hath decreed, he also effecteth in fit time & order.

4. Good thinges are the substaunces of al things, the properties & faculties giuen vnto thē by God al motions, mutatiōs, actiōs, & events of al things, [Page 221] as they are naturall motiōs, or obedience to Gods wil, or benefites and blessinges of God, or pun­nishments of the evill.

5. That all these thinges are done by the pow­erfull will of God,That all things are done by th [...] [...] ­table pro­vidence of God. as manie most euident testi­monies of scripture, so also these reasons do con­firme. 1 Because of Gods omnipotencie nothing can be done in the worlde which God simplie wil not haue done. And therfore what soever is done, God must needes either simplie or in some sorte be willing that it should be done. 2 Because a most wise governour, such as God is, suffereth no­thing of al that is in his power, to come to passe be­sides his will and purpose. 3 Because he which is willing the ends of thinges should come to passe, is also willing either simplie or in sorte, that all thinges and events by which we compasse those ends should come to passe. 4 Because Gods purposes & decrees depend not on the actions of secōd causes. 5 Because the immutable fore knowledge of God cannot be groūded but on an immutable cause, that is, gods wil & decree. 6 Because God is the first cause of al naturall good things, amongst which also are reckned the motiōs of each thing.

6 Wheras evill is of two sorts, one of offence, the other of punishment, and that which is a punish­ment is an execution of iustice, & therfore good, it ought likewise to be referred vnto Gods will, as the principall cause thereof.

7 But the evil of offence or sin,Evill of pu­nishment & offence. as it is a motion, or triall, or exercise, or chastisement of the godly, [Page 222] or a punishmēt of the evil, so it is from Gods pro­uidēce effectiuely, that is, so that God is the author of it: but as it is sin, not effectiuely, but permissiuely.

8. Now this permission is not a ceasinge of Gods prouidence and working in the actions of evill men, wherby it may come to passe that those ac­tions may seeme not to depend of any other cause then of the creatures which a [...] [...]gents: but a withdrawing of his heauenly grace, wherby God executinge the decree of his will by reasonable creatures, eyther doth not reveale vnto the cre­ature his will, which will haue that action done, or ells boweth not the will of the creature to obey this diuine will in that action. Which so standing, the creature sinneth necessarilie in deed, but with all voluntarilie, and freely, & by Gods most iust iudgment, whiles God by it bringeth to passe the iust & good worke of his will & prouidence.

9. God therfore will haue those actions & mo­tions (which the Divells & men by sinning doe effect) to come to passe, as they are motions and executions of Gods iust iudgment: but as they are sins he neither willeth, nor appoueth, nor effect­eth them: though he forbid, hate, & horiblie pun­nish them, yet notwithstanding in Divels & men [...]e suffereth them to concur with his iust actions, whilest for verie good reasons & most iust causes, he doth not effect in them by his spirit the perfor­mance of these actiōs iustely, that is, according to the prescript of Gods will.

10 Neither is God therfore the author of confu­sion, [Page 223] which is in the actions of the evill, for what they will & do inordinatlie, that is, against the cō ­maundemēt of God, that God will haue done in excellent & most wise order. Lastly, euen sinnes themselues as they are sins, be done by Gods pro­vidence, though not effecting, yet permitting, & prescribing them boundes, & directing thē whi­ther it pleaseth him.

11 Neither is God by this doctrine made the au­thor of sin, because the sin of the sinfull creature doth by accident concur with the good and iust worke of God, which he in his owne coūsel deter­mineth, & by the sinfull creature executeth. And therefore in respect of Gods will those actiōs are iust and right, which in respect of the wicked by whom they be done are sinnes.

12. And these things are manifest: first by the vniversall nature, causes & effects being such of thēselues, & naturally or by accidēt. For whē the same effect hath many causes, some good & some badde, that same effect in respect of good cau­ses is good, in regard of bad causes is bad: & good causes of thēselues & naturally are the causes of good effects, but by accidēt of euil effects or sins: which is foūd in the effect by some other euill or sinful cause: & cōtrarywise, euil causes are of thē ­selues the causes of evil, but by accidēt they may be causes of that good whith is foūd in the effect.

13. Secondly the truth of these matters appear­eth by the immutable nature of God the foūtaine and author of all good. For Gods wokes are e­qualy [Page 224] good, whether he effect thē by evil or good instruments, neither are they battered by good, or made worse by evill instruments, seeing their iu­stice and goodnes dependeth not on the nature of the instruments, but of God which maketh vse of the instruments: but on the other side the crea­tures can neither be nor continue good, nor do a­nie thing that is good, except God make them good, vphold thē in goodnes, & so governing thē that they may work that which is good with God who by thē worketh that good which he will.

14 Yet hereby we do not attribute vnto God cō ­trary wils.Contrarie wils are not in God. For God wil & wil not the same actiōs in divers respectes. Hee will as they are confor­mable to his most iust iudgement and order: and he will not, but rather hateth and detesteth, yet permitteth them to be done, as they are contrary to his order and law, against which they are com­mitted by the wicked.

15 Neither doth the necessity of consequence, which happeneth to the events by the immutable decree of Gods providence, take away that con­tingēce or casuality which they haue frō the mu­table nature of second causes, or from the power & liberty of God, whereby he so decreed from al eternity; if we distinguish rightly betweene both, as that there is a respect betweene causes work­ing immutablie or mutablie. For thereby euerie man may see, that the same effect proceeding frō [...]auses partly mutable & partly immutable, may wel be called cōtingēt in respect of mutable cau­ses, [Page 225] and necessary in respect of causes immutable.

16 Neither doth this immutable providence of God derogate ought from the vse of teaching & our desire of wel-doing,Providēce taketh no [...] away the vse of meanes. as if these things were in vaine or to no purpose: for admitting a first cause it is not necessarie to denie the second causes; nor the first, admitting the secōd. And God hath pro­mised to saue vs, not without, but by these means, and hath for this reason cōmanded vs to vse thē, expecting the good successe of them from him.

17 But when God in scripture is denied to will the actions of Divels or sinful men, that is to bee vnderstood as they are sins, or to that end where­vnto they are done by divels & mē: not as they are actions, or done vnto that end which God in the order of providence respecteth. For actions are di­stinguished by their endes.

18 The church thus perswaded her selfe and tea­ching others of Gods providēce, doth vtterly cō ­demne & detest the furies & madnes of Epicures and Academiques, with the devises of all others, which wil haue gods providēce either to be none at al, or not to extēd vnto all things in the world, or els to be only a certain kinde of fore-knowledg in God not any decree and execution.

19 As much it condemneth the blasphemies and errours of the Manichees, Stoickes, Liber­tines and others, which make GOD the au­thour of sinne, or take from him his libertye whereby from all eternitie hee made his de­crees, or else abolish the operations and vse, or [Page 226] differences of second causes, working either ne­cessarily, or contingently, or voluntarily & freely.

20 This doctrine is to be retained in the Church for Gods glory,The vse of this doctrin of provi­dence. that so it may appeare that God is the governour of all things, yet not the author of sinne, but the most free and excellent effector & giver of all good things. It is also so necessarie for our instruction and comfort, that we may become thankefull vnto God, as being the well spring of all goodnes: and patiently suffer evils, as happe­ning vnto vs by his will, perswading our selues that all things shal serue for our salvation: that ac­knowledging God to bee the author of punish­ments we might amende, & not despaire of Gods helpe, though we be left destitute by second cau­ses: that we trust not in our selues, but in feare of God aske all good things of him: that wee may know that God taketh especial care of his church: that we iudge not rashly of the works & counsels of God: that we contemne not others, because God of his free boūty hath bestowed better giftes vpon vs: that in all things wee follow the will and order prescribed vnto vs by God.

10 OF SINNE.

1 ONly the doctrine of the church sheweth entirely the nature, causes, and effects of sinne.

2 Sinne is whatsoeuer disagreeth with the lawe of God; that is, any defect, or inclination, or actiō [Page 227] against the law of God, offending God, and ma­king the offender guiltie of temporall punishmēt and eternal, except remission be granted for our meadiator the sonne of God.

3 Every sinne is either actuall or originall.Dist▪

4 Originall sinne is the guilt of all mankinde for the fall of our first parentes, and a privation of the knowledge and will of God in our minds, and of our inclination to obey God in will and hart, with an inclinatiō in both to resist the law of God, fol­lowing the fall of our first parents, and derived from them to al posterity so corrupting our whole nature, that for this corruption we are all guilty of Gods everlasting wrath, and can doe nothing ac­ceptable to God, except remission be granted for the sonne of God our mediator, & renuing of na­ture by the holy spirit.

5 Actuall sinne is every action in minde, will, or heart, or in externall partes and members erring from God, or a leaving of those things vndone, which the law of God commandeth to be done.

6 Every sinne is either raigning or not raigning in vs; Distinct. 2. which some call mortall or veniall.

7 Sinne raigning is that, against which the sinner doth not resist by the grace of the holy spirit, re­nuing him to eternall life, therefore he is endaun­gered to eternall death, except he repent and ob­teine remission by Christ.

8 Sinne not raigning is that against which the sin­ner doth resist by grace of the holy spirit renuing him vnto eternall life, and therefore he is not eu­dangered [Page 228] to eternal death, because he repenteth and obteineth remission by Christ.

9 Everie sinne in its own nature is mortal, Distinct. 3. that is, deserueth eternal death, but it is made venial, that is, it doth not bring eternall death in the regene­rate, by reason of grace for Christes sake.

10. Everie sinne is either against conscience,Distinct. 4. or not against conscience.

11. Sinne against conscience is, when hee which knoweth the will of God, of set purpose doth a­gainst it.

12. Sinne not against conscience is that which is cō ­mitted by one ether not knowing the wil of god, or else is acknowledged by the sinner to be a sin, and is bewailled, yet cānot perfectly be avoided in this life, as originall sinne, and manie sinnes of ignorance and infirmitie.

13. Every sin is either vnpardonable & against the holy Ghost,Distinct. 5. or pardonable & not against the holy Ghost.

14 Sin vnpardonable, or against the holy Ghost is an oppugning or casting away of Gods truth of set purpose, after the mind by testimony of the holy Ghost is instructed & confirmed in the truth, which sin they that cōmit, are punished by God with blindnes, so that they neuer repēt, & conse­quently neuer obtaine pardon.

15. Sins pardōable or not against the holy Ghost, are al other sins, wherof some repēt and some doe not.

16. Al that are elected by God vnto eternall life [Page 229] are so vpheald by him, that they neuer sin against the holy Ghost.

17. There doe abide some reliques of sinne in all the regenerate, as long as they are in this life, first original sinne, secondlie manie actual sinnes of ignorance, omission, and infirmitie, which not­withstanding they acknowledge, and bewaile, & resist them: and therfore they retaine a good con­science, & remission of sinnes: thirdly some runne oftē times into errors crossing the verie groūds, or into sins against conscience, for which they loose their good conscience, and consolation, and gifts of the holy Ghost, and should be damned, if they did perseuere therein to their liues end: they pe­rish not in them because they repent in this life.

18. There is a threefold difference wherby sinners regenerate differ from the wicked:The diffe­rence be­tweene sin­ners rege­nerate and not rege­nerate. first a perpetu­al purpose which God hath to saue them: secondely certaine and sure repentance at the last: thirdely some beginning of faith & cōversiō ever in their sinnes, which at some times is greater, & of more force, and so wrastleth against sin, that they slip not into errors against the groundes, nor into sins against conscience: at other times lesser & more feeble, & is for a time ouercome by temptations, yet preuaileth so far; that they never quite revol [...] frō God, which were once truely conuerted. And therfore sin in the regenerat, is either to be termed only not raining, or els if errors against the foūdatiō or sins against cōscience may be called raining sins, [Page 230] as some tearme thē, this raigne of sin must needes be diligently distinguished in those that be rege­nerated, and those that be not, as that God is in deed grievously angry even with the regenerate when they sinne, yet ever with a purpose of amē ­ding and saving them, and that in them all waies remaineth some sparkle of faith and conversion, & some hatred of sinne which is an enemy there vnto, so that they do not simply without any re­sistance giue over themselues vnto sin, & delight therein, as do the wicked which sinne without a­ny resistance, and with all their hearts.

19 Every sinne is either a sinne of it selfe and in its owne nature,Distinct. 6. or els by accident.

20 Sinnes of themselues or in their owne kinde and nature, are all such as are forbidden by the law of God.

21 Sinnes by accident are such actions of men not regenerate, as are indeede commanded by God, yet displease him, for many defects and sins cō ­curring in the wicked: or actions indifferēt which are done with scandal.

22 God is the cause of no sinne;The cause of sinne. but the wil of di­vels and men, of their own accord turning them­selues from God, is the efficient cause of al sinnes: the efficient cause of originall sinne in men, is the fall of our first parents: but originall sin is the pre­cedent cause of all actuall sinnes, which followed vpon the first fall.

23 The effectes of sinne are punishments temporal and eternal:The effects [...]f sinne. and because God punisheth sins with [Page 231] sinnes, therefore sinnes following are effectes of sinnes precedent.

24 But although all sinnes deserue eternal dam­nation, yet all sinnes are not equall: but as there are degrees of punishments, so also there are de­grees of sinnes in Gods iudgement.

11 OF FREE WILL.

1 FReedome of wil in God & reasonable crea­tures, is a faculty of chusing or refusing that which reason perswadeth to be chosen or refused, of their owne proper motion, without any con­straint.

2 And that is called free, which is indued with that facultie; the word arbitrium signifieth the wil it selfe, but such a will as followeth or refuseth the iudgement of the minde in chusing: and therfore comprehēdeth both faculties, that is to say of vn­derstanding and will.

3 Free-wil therfore is a facultie or power of wil­ling or nilling, chusing or refusing without con­straint, of its owne proper motion or aptnesse to either of both which the vnderstanding telleth is to be chosen or refused.

4 Two things therfore there are, which are cō ­mō to that free wil which is in God, & that which is in reasonable creatures: the first, that they doe al things with deliberation and counsel, or by helpe of the vnderstanding, shewing the obiect: the se­cond, that the will of its owne accord and naturall [Page 232] force without constraint, willeth or nilleth that which the minde hath conceaved.

5 But the differences betweene that freedome which is in God, & that which is in the creatures are three: the first is in the vnderstāding, because God from al eternity doth most perfectly vnder­stand and beholde all things, neither can be ever be ignorant of any thing, or any way erre in iudg­ment: the second is in the will, because Gods wil is ruled, bowed, or dependeth of no other cause thē of it selfe: but the wils of Angels and men, are in such sort the causes of their owne actions and mo­tions, that neverthelesse by the secret counsell of God, and his power and efficacie ever and every­where present, they are mooved to the choice or refusal of obiects, either immediately by God, or by instruments and meanes sometimes good, some­times bad, such as it best pleaseth God to vse: and it is impossible for them to do any thing without the eternall and immutable counsell of God. The thirde is both in the vnderstanding, and also in the wil▪ because God as he knoweth all things immu­tably, so also he hath decreed from everlasting, & willeth immutably all thinges which are done as they are good, and permitteth them as they are sins: but as in creatures the knowledg & iudgmēt of things is mutable, so also is their will.

6 This liberty in mē is lost by sin, but beginneth to be renued in ou [...] regeneratiō, & shal be perfectly restored in the life eternal. So that the 4. divers estates of mē which are distinguished in time, doe make 4. degrees therof.

[Page 233] 7 The first degree of liberty was in our nature before the fall,4. States of men. wherein our will was fit to perfourme her whole obedience to Gods law, yet not so confir­med, but that being tempted by the divell vvith some shew of good, it might fall from that obedi­ence by its owne proper motion.

8 Yet because the creatures per [...]isting in obedi­ence cannot be but by confirmation from God, mans will did yeeld vnto temptation in deed wil­lingly, but withal necessarily, and being fallen in­to sinne, lost that libertie vnto God, which it had to make choise of evil or good, and being turned from retained only liberty or freedome to evil.

9 Therfore the second degree of liberty is least of al, which is nature decaied but not as yet rege­nerat, wherin though there be a wil fit to perform the external discipline of the law, yet because it cannot so much as begin the internal & spirituall obedience, without which al external works, evē the best in shew are sin, & condēned by God, the wil leaveth not to chuse freely, but yet it cā chuse nothing but sin, because of inherent corruption and turning away from God.

10 The third is in man renued but not as yet glo­rified, in whom the will vseth her libertie & free­dome, partly to wel doing, & partly to evil doing. For because it is regenerate by the holy Ghost, it is againe inclined to obey God, but because this regeneration is not yet perfect, there remaine yet some evil inclinatiōs: wherfore it begīneth indeed spiritual obediēce pleasing god, but cānot perfit it [Page 234] in this life; but then and so farre it doth well, and persevereth in that which is good, when & as far as it is guided and gouerned by the holy Ghost.

11. The fourth degree is the chiefest and most perfect in the life eternall, or after our glorificati­on, wherin our will shall be able to vse her liberty onely to that which is good, and not to choose that which is evill, because of our perfect know­ledge & feruent loue of God, & thorow inclinatiō to righteousenesse and hatred of sinne, and per­petuall direction of the holy Ghost.

12. This doctrine of free will must needes bee retained in the church, that so the cheifest & most perfect libertie and immutabilitie, effectinge all good in vs, may be attributed onely to God, as the first cause: all excuse may be taken from sin­ners; and to the end that being trewly humbled before God by knowledge of our miserie & cor­ruption, we may of him alone craue the preserua­tion and perfiting of our saluation, and being cō ­victed by testimonies from God himselfe, may the rather be mooued to faith and obedience to his worde.

12. OF FAITH.

1. This worde faith taken in his largest signifi­cation, doth implie a certaine and sure knowledg, by proofe of such witnesses, as are thought vnlik­ly to deceaue.

2. In the doctrine of the church there are foure sortes of faith mentioned, an historicall, a tempo­rary, [Page 235] a miraculous, and a iustifying faith.

3. Historicall faith is a knowledge perswaded of the truth of such thinges as are set downe by the Prophets and Apostles.

4. Temporarie faith is a knowledg of the doctrine of the church, together with ioy conceaued vpon knowledge of the truth, or other true or seeming good things, without applying the promise of grace to him that beleeueth, and therefore with­out trew conuersion or final perseuerance.

5. Miraculous faith, or a faith, wherby miracles are wrought, is a sure knowledge by special reve­lation of Gods will, of working some miracle at his request or prediction, by whome it is to bee wrought.

6. Iustifying faith is that knowledge wherby a man doth strongly perswade himselfe of the truth of all Gods word reuealed vnto him, assuring him­selfe that the promise of Gods grace through Christ pertaineth vnto him, and in confidence of this fauour of God towardes him, overcommeth all sorrowe and feare.

7. For this confidence of iustifying faith is a motion of our will and heart, composed of ioy in the cer­taintie of Gods present grace towards vs, & hope of future deliverance from all evill.

8. There is therfore no faith but that which is grounded on the revealed will of God.

9 The holy Ghost worketh all faith is vs, either by the voice of heauenly doctrine, or by immedi­ate revelation.

[Page 238] 10. But wheras it is the wil of God, ordinarily to kindle, cherish, & confirme faith in vs by the do­ctrine of the church: all are bound to hearken & meditate theron.

11. Many hypocrites in the church haue hade temporarie faith: historicall faith and faith of mi­racles is common to the good and evill: iustifying faith is in this life giuen onely to all these that are elected to eternall life.

12. Iustifying faith doth alwaies comprehend in it historicall faith: but is not alwaies ioyned with faith of miracles: as also faith of miracles hath euer historicall or temporarie faith ioyned with it, but not alwaies iustifying faith.

13. Faith even in the most godly sorte of men is imperfect in this life, and feeble: yet whosoe­ver feeleth in his hearte a serious purpose to be­leeue, and wrastling with doubt, he may & must surely perswade himselfe, that hee hath trewe faith.

14. Trewfaith once kindled in the hearte though in some sorte it often faint and be obscu­red, yet it is neuer wholy extinguished.

15. But after this life it is changed into a more full and certaine knowledge of God & heauenly thinges, namely a present feellinge and experi­ence of happinesse with God, which knowledge the scripture nameth a knowledge by seeinge face to face.

16. Faith which is only historicall causeth des­paration, and heauinesse of Gods iudgment, [Page 239] though accidentally.

17 Temporarie faith causeth a certaine ioy, but not pacifying our consciences, because not pro­ceeding of a true cause; and worketh in vs confes­sion, and some shew of good workes, but only for a time.

18 Faith of miracles obtaineth those miracles, whereof it is, from God.

19 Wee obtaine righteousnes before God, and participation of Christ and all his benefits, onely by that faith which applyeth to euerie particular man the promises of grace.

20 True conversion and beginning of new obe­dience according to al the commandements as it cannot goe before this faith, so it cannot but ac­companie it.

OF THE OFFICE AND PERSON OF Christ the onely Mediator.
Disputed by D. Zach. Vrsine in the Vniversitie of Hei­delberge for his degree of Doctorship, an. 1562.

The Proeme.

WHereas God hath not only appointed in his church a ministerie of his word, and cōmāded & approved this vocatiō to the office of teaching, which is practised in the church; but also hath cōmēded this most high & dāgerous functiō of all others that are performed by men, to those which haue both the knowledge of heauenlie [Page 240] doctrine, and also indifferent abilitie to deliuer the same, and by innocencie of life giue vnto the hearers examples, of that which they teach: and doth by the mouth of S. Paule pronounce them guiltie of others offence, which place or consent to them that place in this order men vnfit, that is, such as by life or evill doctrine giue offence to the church. 2 Tim. 5. Lay not thy handes rashly one a­nie, & be not partaker of others offences: these things I say being so, it is without doubt necessary, that such as in churches or schooles shall vndertake parte of this labour of teaching, bee first heard by such as can iudg of the truth of doctrine, and willinglie submit themselues to the triall & cen­sure of men. I therefore, although in cōfidence of mine owne worthinesse I may so little presume to present my selfe to this publique view of learn­ed men and young students, that I bring neither learning, nor experience, nor iudgment, nor anie thing at all to plead in my behalfe for the patient presence and attention of the learned, besides great trembling, and earnest entreatie of Gods as­sistance and your fauour: yet seeing they who haue ben some times cōuersant in scholes should not draw back from triall; and seeing it is a part of ingenuity & faithful dealing, not to conceale euē a mans owne weaknes: I haue thought it fit both for discharg of my duty & my further learning, not peremptorily to withstand their commaund, whose pleasure it is that I should come into this place.

[Page 241] But because the custome and purpose of these disputations is to determine vpon some principal pointes of Christianity, I haue determined at this time to repeate & discusse that argument of scrip­ture, which is touching the office and person of one onlie mediatour betweene God and man, evē Christ Iesus our Lord: both because it compriseth a short grounde and summe of Christianity; as also because ever our forreine and hom-bread contentions do most concerne this point. I purpose therefore after my manner to recite as breifely and plainly as I can, the sence and meaning of some propositions, to­geather which reasons and testimonies taken out of holy scripture.

1. Position

After man by sin was separated from God, the most absolute and perfect a iustice of God, would not suffer him to be reconciled vnto God, except some b very man, borne of that mankind which had sinned, yet himselfe free c from al spot of sin, had endured sufficient punishment for mans sins, and perfourmed the full obedience of Gods law.

a. Gen. 2. 17. In the daie that thou eatest therof thou shalt die the death Deut. 27. 26. Cursed be he that cō ­tinueth not in all the wordes of this lawe to doe them, Mat. 5. 26. Thou shalt not come out thence till thou hast paide the vtmost farthinge. Rom. 8▪ 3. God send­ing his own sonne cōdēned sinne in the flesh, that we &c.

b. Rom. 5. 12. 15. As by one man sin entered into the worlde, &c. Cor. 15. 21. For since by man came death, by man also came the resurrectiō of the dead. 1. Tim. 25. [Page 242] Heb. 2. 14. 15. 16. Aug. de ver [...] relig. That nature was to bee assumed which was to be delivered.

c. 2. Cor. 5. 21. He made him which knew no sin for vs &c. Heb. 7. 26. For such an high Priest it became vs to haue, which is holy, innocent, vndefiled &c.

II. But the merit of no persō which was not God, could be equall to the sin of all man-kind, much lesse greater then it d. Act. 20. 28. God hath purcha­sed his church with his owne bloud. Rom. 18. 3. When it was impossible to the law in as much as it was weake be­cause of the flesh, God &c.

III. Such a person also as had beene only a crea­ture, could not haue ben able to endure the weight of Gods anger against the sins of mākind, and to deliver himselfe out of it.

e. Psal. 30. Lord of thou marke what is do [...]e amisse, who shall be able to endure it? Deut. 4. 24. The Lorde thy God is a consuming fire.

IV. Moreouer it stood him vpon by his desert & intercession to obteine, & by his power to restore vnto vs that righteousenesse & life which we had lost, & to free vs from sin & death, & to defend & saue vs vntill we were perfectly restored. f.

f. 1. Cor. 15. 21. By man came the resurrection of the dead. Ioh. 10. 28. I giue vnto my sheepe eternall life▪ Ioh. 6. 39. & 15. 26. Mat. 11. 27. Eph. 4, 8. 9. 1 [...]. Heb. 7. 26. 1. Cor 15. 22. 23.

V▪ Lastly it is necessarie that all which should bee saued, being engraffed into the body of this mediator, should be borne & caried by him for ever. g.

g. Eph. 3. 17. That Christ by faith may dwell in our [Page 243] hearts. Io. 15. 4. Abide in me, & I [...]n you. As the brāch cānot beare fruit in it selfe except it abide in the vine: so neither can you except ye abide in me. Rom. 8. 9. He that hath not the spirit of Christ is none of his.

VI. For these causes therfore in the mediator Christ is the divine nature, which is the secōd per­sō of the deity, & is called the word, & the onely [...]begottē sōne of the eternal father, one God with the father & the holy Ghost, cōsubstātial & equal to the father in all things. h.

h. Ioh. 1. In the beginning was the word, & the word was with God, & the word was God. Rom. 9. 5. Which is God aboue all, to be praised for ever. Phil. 2. 6. Who be­ing in the forme of God, thought it no robbery to be equal to God. &c. Cor. 2. 9. In him dwelleth all the fulnesse of the Godhead bodilie. 1. Tim. 5. 16. God was manifested in the flesh. Heb. 1. 8. But vnto the sonne he said▪ thy seat, ò God, endureth for euer. 1. Ioh. 5. 20. And we are in him that is true, that is in his sōne Iesus Christ: this same is verie God and eternall life.

VII. There is also in him i an humane nature, true & whole, cōsisting of a soule & a body, formed by nature of the holy Ghost of the substāce of the vir­gin Mary his mother, & frō the very instāte of cō ­ceptiō perfectly sāctified together with the soule.

1. Gen. 3. The seede of the woman. Gen. 1 [...]. The seed of Abraham. Ma [...]. 1. the sōne of Abraham & Dauid Rom. 1. Of the seed of David according to the flesh. Luc. 1. The fruit of Maries wombe. Heb. 2. Partaker of flesh & bloud: he tooke vnto him the seed of Abraham. Mar. 26. My soule is heavie euen to the death.

[Page 244]VIII. But this person of the Deitie alone, which is called the word, did so as [...]ume vnto it selfe the na­ture of mā, that both these natures from the time of conception and after do inseparably remaine one person, and the masse of the humane nature is carried and supported by the deitie. k.

k. Ioh. 1. The worde was made flesh. Col. 2. In him dwelleth all the fulnesse of the Godhead corporally Heb. 2. He tooke vnto him the seed of Abrahā. Act. 20. God purchased vnto himselfe the church by his owne bloud.

IX. Neither yet by this vnion is one nature chāged into an other, but both do still retaine their di­stinct properties, whereby the creating nature is distinguished from the creature. l.

l. Rom. 1. He was made of the seede of David accor­ding to the flesh. 1. Pet. 3. Mortified the flesh, quickned in the spirit. 1. Pet. 4. Hee tooke on him the shape of a sl [...]ue.

X. Hence is it that names signifying the office of Christ are as well & truely attributed to both na­tures severallie, as to the whole person: but the proprieties agreeing only to one nature, cannot be truelie said of the other nature by it selfe, but may well be attributed to the whole person, by that forme of speech, which they cal a communica­ting of proprieties. m.

m. Leo ad Flavian. cap. 4. See Damas [...]en de fide or­thodox [...]. lib. 3. cap. 4.

[Page 245]XI. Therefore all Christ is everie where, although his humane nature, since his ascension vntill the da [...]e of the last iudgment, be no where but in hea­ven. n.

n. Math. 28. 6. He is risen, he is not here, Mat. 26. 11. Mee y [...]e haue not alwaies with you. Ioh. 16. 28. I leaue the world & go vnto my father. Act. 3. 21. Whom the heavens must containe, vntill the time of restoring of all thinges.

XII. And the godlie in what place of heauen of earth so ever they abide, are vnited to the humane nature assumed by the son of God, as members to their head, the same holy spirit dwelling in Christ by vnitie of essence with the word, & in the god­lie by grace. o.

o. 1. Cor. 12. 13. By one spirit we are all baptised in­to one body. Eph. 4. 4. There is one bodie and one spirit. 1. Ioh. 4. 13. By this we know that we abide in him and hee in vs, because he hath given vs of his spirit. Rom. 8. 11. If the spirit of him who hath raised &c: dwell in you &c. Iren. lib. 3. cap. 19. As of drie meale one lumpe cannot be made, nor one bread: so neither could we which are many, be made one in Christ Iesus, without that water which is from heaven.

A THANKES GIVING AFTER HIS DISPVTATION.

OVt of question there is no wise man which can chuse but thinke well and honorably of [Page 246] scholastical exercises, if he vnderstand the weigh­tie causes for which they are performed: namely that the doctrine of God & other things whose knowledg the life of man especially needeth, may be publiquely taught & vnfolded, the consent of many good men in the truth may be shewed & mainteined, & true opiniōs may be illustrated & confirmed in the minds of learners. It is a worthy aunciēt saying recited by Plato, Neither gold not diamond so glistereth to the eie, as the cōsent be­tweene good men in opiniō. But much more louely & acceptable to the good and vertuous in the quiet conferences of good & well meaning men is the vse of that thing wherof this is spoken. For therefore doth God preserue schools & church­es, because he would haue the doctrine of him­selfe & his will, to be publiquelie professed. And that it is most true that cōference hath brought forth artes & sciences, the examples of many men shew, who are not destitute of witt, but because they haue none to teach them besides themselues, they are not only deceaued in many things, but also s [...]eldom escape self-pleasing arrogancy, & o­ther faults which follow neglect of conference. For which causes their good intent deserueth cō ­mendation, which endeuour to encourage or grace these meetings, with their discourse, or presence, or paines, or authoritie, or approbati­on.

First therefore wee giue thankes vnto the e­ternall God our father, and his sonne our Lord [Page 247] Iesus Christ, for preseruing & maintaining schools and other places of entertainement & releife, and would haue the pure light of the Gospell to shine both in others & also in this our societie, cherish­ing and furthering it with the studies of the best arts. Also I thanke our Honorable Chancellor & other right worshipfull & reverend men, also the learned maisters and studious young men, who haue partely by their advise instructed me, partly by their presence graced my exercise, & declared their good wil towards it. I beseech God that he would vouchsafe to encrease and continue vnto all and everie of vs those benefittes which hither­to he hath bestowed on vs to the aduancemēt of his glorie, & the saluation of vs and many others besides, through IESVS CHRIST our Lord. Amen.

A THANKS GIVINGE AF­TER HIS DEGREE TAKEN.

THe greatest benefits that God hath bestow­ed, and such as are farre to be prefered be­fore all others of this life, are these, that he ga­thereth and reserueth to himselfe an euerla­sting Church, makinge vs citizens thereof: that hee giueth peace to small states vvhich are re­tiringe and restinge places of the Church: that hee hath placed ouer them gouernours seruing him in true religion, cherishinge the church and all good learning: that hee vpholdeth schooles; [Page 248] and giveth vnto them fit teachers, and inflameth the mindes of some men with desire of learning the truth and delivering it to posteritie, but espe­ciallie that he sendeth amongst vs the light of the gospell, clensing & refining it from idols, freeing vs from Antichristian darkenes, ordaining strength out of the mouthes of infantes and sucklings, at whose voice alone the very gates of hell, though terrible in themselues, do tremble & fall to ever­lasting ruine. It is out of question that al these be­nefits doe not happen vnto vs by chance, or mās wisedome, but are given and continued to vs by the singular providence and bountie of God, as may appeare partly by their greatnes and excel­lencie, and partly by this, that amongst so greate furies of the worlde and the devill, and so great weakenes & infirmitie of thēselues, they coulde not otherwise be retained.

First therefore wee giue eternall thankes vnto almightie GOD, for vouchsafing to bestow vp­on vs so great benefits. Secondly we giue them also their due commendations, who by their godlinesse and vertue desire to preserue these be­nefites to mankinde. VVherefore with all reve­rence and duetie wee thanke the most mightye Prince Elector our gracious Lorde,Fredericke the third. for encoura­ging and gracing this schoole and all good artes with exceeding loue and curtesie. Also vvee thanke all other the noble and vertuous gentle­men, especiallie our worthy Chancellour. Last­lie, wee thanke the Right worshipfull and lear­ned [Page 249] Doctors and Maisters, our reverende and very good Patrons, and all the rest of the lear­ned and honest sorte, who gracing this my pub­lique proceeding with their presence, haue wit­ [...]essed their good will towards vs and our studies, and would haue our calling commended to God in their publique praiers: And I hartely beseech GOD, that he woulde vouchsafe the encrease & continuance of these his great benefits which he hath bestowed vpon v [...], and woulde graunte vs all grace to vse them to his glory, and the good of his Church, through IESVS CHRIST our Lord, Amen.

XIV.
OF MANS CONVERSION.

I.

NO man shall ever enioye eternall happi­nesse in the life to come,Repentāce necessarie. which doeth not repent in this life and turne awaie from his sinnes vnto God.

II.

True repentaunce or conversion is a change or renuing of man wrought by the holy GHOST,What re­pentāce is. whereby man vppon tiue acknowledgement of GOD and his will (revealed in the Lawe and the Gospell) and his owne corruption, doth se­riouslye feare GODS anger and iudgemente against sinne: and is sorie that by his sinnes he [Page 250] hath heretofore and doth still offend God: and yet obeying the commādement of faith in Christ and amendment of life, resteth secure vpon the mercy of God,Come vnto me all yee &c. and his promise of grace by confi­dence in our mediator Christ: through whom, be­cause he is perswaded that God is pleased, he sub­mitteth himselfe vnto him, as a sonne to a loving father: and for this his receiving him into favor studieth to shew himselfe thankefull vnto God for ever.Heare yee him, &c. Eph. 4. 21. If so bee yee have heard him & haue beene taught by him as the truth is in Iesus, That is that yee cast of concerning the conversation in times past the olde man, which is corrupt through deceiueable lustes. And be renued in the spirite of your minde, and put on the newe man vvhich after God is created in righteousnesse and true holinesse. Tit. 3. 5. Hee sa­ved vs by the vvashing of the nevve birth, and the renuing of the holie Ghost. Rom. 7. 18. I knowe that in mee, that is in my flesh, there dwelleth no goodnesse, &c.: to the ende of the chapter. Isay 5. 16. vvash and be cleane.

III.

This repentaunce consisteth of tvvo partes, which the scripture calleth mortifying of the old man, and quickning or raising againe of the new man. Romanes 6. 6. Our olde man is crucified with him. Galathians the seconde and nineteenth. By the lawe I am deade to the lawe, that I may liue to GOD: I am crucified with Christ, &c. Coloss. 3. 12. Buried with him through baptisme, in vvhom yee are also raised vp together, through the faith of the opera­tion [Page 251] of God, &c. Coloss. 3. 5. Mortifie therefore your earthly members, &c.

IV.

The olde man or vnrenued is he which is igno­rant or doubtfull of God, and is subiect and yeel­deth to evill desires. But the newe or renued man is he which knowing GOD aright, serveth him in true righteousnesse and holynesse. Ephes. 4. 24.

V.

The mortifying of the olde man is vpō knowledge of our owne corruption, & Gods anger lying hea­vy on vs therefore, to feare and sorrow for our of­fences to God, and therefore heartilie to hate and avoide all sinne.

VI.

But the quickning of the new man is vpon know­ledge of Gods mercie towardes vs in Christ, to reioice and quiet our selues in God, and to haue a fervent desire to obey God in all his comman­dements. Rom. 7. 22. I am delighted with the lawe of God in my inwarde man.

VII.

This renuing in infantes which are sanctified by the spirite of GOD,Renuing of infantes. is onelie a beginning, that is a receauing of new qualities and inclinati­ons: and therefore may more fitlie bee called regeneration or newe birth then repentaunce. But in men of riper yeares it concerneth moti­ons and good actions, in the minde, will, and hearte. Luke the first and fifteenth▪ Hee shall bee [Page 252] filled with the holy Ghost from his mothers womb. Mat. 19. To such belongeth the kingdome of heauen.

VIII.

Nether yet is it perfited in those of riper yeares before the end of this life:Imperfect renewing. & therfore they which are conuerted, haue in them part of the new, and part as yet of the olde man: vntill such time as together with the life they lay aside all the oldnes or corruption of nature. Roman. 7. 23. I see ano­ther law in my members. 1. Ioh 1. 10. If we say we haue n [...] sinne we lie or deceaue our selues.

IX

Therfore the whole life of the godly is and must be a certaine continuall repentance and conuer­sion,Conuersiō must be all our life. wherin they must strongly persist and pro­ceede, fighting against the flesh and the diuel vn­to the end of their life 1. Cor. 9. 24. So runne that yee may abtaine. Phil. 3. 13. Brethren I coūt not my selfe that I haue attained to it. Revel. 22. 11. He which is ho­ly, let him be more holy.

X

The victorie in this combate is not doubtfull.Conuersiō truely be­gon is not ex [...]inguish­ed. For in them in whome trew conversiō is once be­gon (although sometimes they fal greeuously by humaine infirmitie, and the reliques of the olde man or sinne, which in this life they beare about them:) it is neuer so extinguished, but that they againe struggle vp from their fall & are at length saued. Math. 7. 24 They that are built on the rocke do not fall. Phil. 1. 6. He which hath begon in you a good worke will finish it. 1. Ioh. 2. 19. If they had ben of vs [Page 253] they had remained with vs. 1. Ioh. 3. 9 He which is borne of God sinneth not, but his seede remaineth in him.

XI.

But for al this it is not lawful for any mā frō this will of God to take occasion of sinning the more freelie,THE cer­taintie of perseuerīg breedeth not carnal securitie. or deferring and casting of the time of his repentance. For that promise of the present & e­ternall grace of God pertaineth to such as liue in true repentance and feare of God, not in carnall securitie. For all such as liue securely are in danger to be forsaken & hardened by the iust iudgment of God, and dying without repentance, to perish euerlastingly, but because of the vncertaine con­tinuance of this life, & especially because of Gods anger against such as with securitie & against cō ­science abuse his mercy. Mat. 24. 28. If the evil ser­vant shall saie, my Lord delaieth his comming, &c. And v. 24. Watch, because yee kow not the daie & the houre &c. Rom. 2. 4. Or despisest thou the riches of his boū ­tie and patience? &c.

XII

The principal efficient cause of our conversion is the holie Ghost, Causes of cōuersion. neither is any man converted but by his speciall favour. But he effecteth it in mē of ripe yeares, especiallie by knowledge of Gods word and faith there vnto given: which is in all that repent & in them alone: so that neither faith is without conversion, nor conversion without faith. Psal. 51. 12. Create in me ô God a cleane heart. And v. 13. I will teach the wicked thy waies. Ier. 3. 18. [...] me [...] Lord and I shall be converted: because af­ter [Page 254] thou diddest cōvert mee I repented. 1. Cor. 4. 15. I haue begotten you through the gospell. Act. 15. 9. By faith the heart is clensed. Heb 4. [...]. The word they hard profited them not, because it was mixed with faith in them that heard it. Iames 2. 17. Faith without workes is dead. Rom. 14. 23. That which is not of faith is sinne.

XIII.

As therefore vnto faith: Diverse me [...]nes of conversiō. so also to the effecting, exercising, & furtherance of repentance in men, God vseth many means, or external helping cau­ses: as the good examples of others: the punish­ments of the wicked, the rewardes of the godlie, especially crosses and chastisements. Mat. 5. 16. Let your light &c. Rom. 11. 11. By their destruction came salvation to the Gentiles, to provoke them to emulation. Also ver 21. If God spared not the naturall branches, beware least hee spare not thee also. Psal. 58. 12. And men shal say verily there is fruit for the righteous; doubt lesse there is a God that iudgeth the earth. Ps. 119. 71. It is good for me that I haue beene in trouble that I may learne thy statutes. 1. Cor. 11. 37. When we are chastised, we are instructed by the Lord.

XIV.

The proper and perpetuall effects of true repē ­tance are,Effectes of repentāce. confession of our owne vnworthines & of Gods mercy, and all good workes. But things indifferent, as fasting, laying aside our comely & costly attire &c. are helps & signes of repentāce, not alwaies or necessarily, but such as may bee vsed at the discretion & convenient occasions of the godly. But eternall life and other Gods good [Page 255] giftes & benefites, are not effectes or deserued re­vvards, but consequents & free requitals of repē ­tance; as also of faith & good works Ps. 51. Against thee only haue I sinned; Dan. 9. 7. To thee O Lorde be­longeth righteousnes, but vnto vs confusion. Mat. 3. 9. Bring forth fruits worthy of repentance 1. Tim. 4. 8. Bo­dily exercise profiteth little. Luc. 17. 10. When yee haue done all, say, we are vnprofitable servants.

XV. As therfore al the elect are in this life cōver­ted,The repro­bate never truely re­pent. so none of the reprobate do truly repent: but the more they are vexed with an evill cōscience, & feeling or fear of punishmēt, so much the more falling into despaire they storme against God & his iudgements, turne themselues away frō God, sin the more grievously, and blaspheme openly: or some time for feare of punishment, or desire of glory or other commodities of this life, they for­sake their errors, embrace and professe the truth, abstaine from external offences, and make a shew of holinesse, being indeede hypocrites, without faith, loue or feare of God, and therefore in the end fall quite away. Examples are frequent, of Caine, Esa [...], Iudas, Saul Ahab, Esaie the fifty and se­venth and one and twentith. There is no peace with the wicked. Matth. 21. 44. and Hebre. 66. They which haue once bin lightned & after fall, are not any more re­nued by repētance, & 2. Pet. 2. 20. For if they after they haue escaped frō the filthines of the worlde, by the know­ledge of our Lord, &c. are yet entāgled againe therein & overcome, their latter ende is worse with them then the beginn [...]ng.

XVI.

The Papistes opinion touching repentaunce i [...] impious, that contrition may bee and is sufficient for our sinnes, and that it is a merit of remission of sins: that confession or reckning vp al [...] mans sins to the Minister is necessarie: that the workes or rites cōmanded not by God, but by the Ministers, are necessary, and satisfactions for the eternal pu­nishments, or those of purgatory, due to our sins. Psal. 90. 11. Who hath knowne the greatnesse of thine an­ger [...] Tit. 3. 5 He hath saved vs, not by those iust workes which we haue done, but of his mercy by the w [...]shing &c. Psal. 19. 13. Who can vnderstande his faults? clense mee from my secret faultes. Esa. 29. 13. Math. 15. 8. In vaine they worship me with traditions of men.

XV. OF THE LAW OF GOD.

1 A Law in generall is a sentence commanding that which is honest, and binding the rea­sonable nature to obedience, with a promise of reward if that obedience be performed, & threat­ning of punishment, if it be violated.

2 Of lawes some are divine, some humane.

3 Humane lawes are either civill or ecclesiasti­call.

4 The principall differences betweene divine and humane lawes are these: that diuine laws do partly concerne Angels and men, partly all, and partly some men: humane lawes concerne onely some men. Secondly divine lawes, besides exter­nall [Page 257] actions, doe also require the internall quali­ties and motions: humane lawes commaunde only certaine externall actions. Thirdly, divine lawes propose not only corporall and temporall, but also spirituall and eternall punishments and rewards [...] humane lawes promise and threaten re­wards and punishments only corporall and tem­porall. Fourthly, obedience to divine lawes is the end of humane laws: humane must serue to the observatiō of divine laws. Fiftly, of divine laws some are eternall, and some mutable; all humane lawes are mutable. Lastly, divine laws can be abrogated by none but God; humane lawes for probable causes many bee chaunged and abrogated by men.

XVI. OF THE PARTS OF GODS LAW.

1 THere are in holy scripture found 3. partes of Gods law. That is to say, Mora [...], Ceremo­nial, and Iudiciall.

2 The morall law, whose summe is conteined in the ten commaundements, is a doctrine agreeing with the eternall and immutable wisedome and rule of iustice in God, discerning good and evill, naturally knowne, and bread in reasonable crea­tures, in the creation, & many times after repea­ted and declared by the mouth of God, teaching vs that there is a God, and what manner of God he is, binding all reasonable creatures to perfect obedience & conformity externall & internal to [Page 258] that rule, promising the favour of God and life e­ternal to all that performe perfect obedience, and denouncing the anger of God & eternal punish­ment, to all that are not perfectlie conformable therevnto, vnlesse there be granted remission of sins & reconciliation through the son of God our mediatour.

3 The law of nature before the fal was altogether the same with the moral law of god: but the knowlege of God being after the fall obscured in mans minde, the lawe of nature is now become only a part of the decalogue or ten commandements, be­ing obscure and maimed especially in the know­ledge and worship of God, for which cause also God repeated and declared againe in his church the whole body of his law.

4 Ceremonial lawes are certaine precepts of cere­monies, that is, of actions, and externall solemne gestures, or such as must be performed in the publique service of God, with observation of the self­same circumstances, ordained either to signifie future things, or for orders sake.

5 Iudiciall lawes concerne the externall defence of discipline, according to both tables of the deca­l [...]gue, or concerning civil governmēt amongst the Iewes, that is, touching the order & duties of ma­gistrates; iudgments, punishments, contracts, and differences of being Lord or owner of ought.

6 This distinction of divine lawes, must be ob­serued, both because of the difference of these laws, which being neglected their right force and [Page 259] meaning cannot wel be vnderstood, & also that we may well iudge and instruct others in the ab­rogation and vse of the law.

7 These are the differences betweene the lawe moral, and ceremonial and iudicial lawes. First, moral commandements or precepts are natural­ly knowne: ceremonial and iudicial are not.

8 Secondly, moral lawes binde al reasonable cre­atures, ceremonial and iudicial were only prescri­bed to the Iewes.

9 Thirdly, moral lawes are ever in force, ceremo­niall and iudiciall are not.

10 Fourthly, moral lawes commaund external & internall obedience, ceremonial and iudicial cō ­maund only obedience external, which notwith­standing must be ioined with internal moral obe­dience.

11 Fiftly, moral lawes are general, not limited with certaine circumstaunces, ceremonial and iu­diciall are special, that is, determined by certaine circumstances.

12 Sixtly, ceremonial and iudicial laws are types foreshewing some thing; moral laws are not types but signified by types.

13 Seventhly, moral lawes are a principall vvor­ship of God, or the ende of other lawes; cere­monial and iudicial owe service to the moral, that by them these may the better be obserued.

14 Eighthlie, lawes ceremonial yeeld to the mo­rall; but morall lawes yeelde not to the ceremo­niall.

XVII. OF THE VSE AND ABRO­GATING OF GODS LAW.

1 THe ceremoniall and iudiciall lawes of Mo­ses in respect of obedience due to them, are abrogated by the comming of the Messias.

2 The moral law is abrogated in respect of the curse, not in respect of obedience due to it.

3 Vses of the ceremoniall and iudicial lawes of Moses, partly were, & partly are these. First a schoo­ling or leading vs vnto Christ, that is, a signifying, or shadowing of spirituall and heavenly things in the kingdome of Christ.

4 Secondly, a distinction of Gods people from o­ther nations.

5 Thirdly, an execution or putting in practise the law moral, which requireth a limitatiō of ma­ny circumstances, both in church & cōmōweale.

6 Fourthly, [...] testifi [...]ng of our obedience toward [...] God.

7 Fiftly, the sealing of Gods covenant by cere­monies, which were sacramental signes.

8 Sixtly▪ a preservation of the Mosaicall policie, til Christs comming, by iudicial lawes, which were the sinewes and forme of the common weale.

9 Lastly, a confirmation of the new testament, by comparing the fulfilling of all things with the types.

10 The morall law, in time of our innocencie, had other vses, then now it hath, as, a perfect confor­ming of the life of man to GODS will, a good [Page 261] conscience, and sure confidence in Gods loue & favour.

11 In this our corrupt nature these vses it hath▪ first a maintaining of discipline within and with­out the church.

12 Secondly, an acknowledgement of our sinnes, which two vses pertaine vnto all men, and are that p [...]dagogie or schooling of the law, wherby we are led vnto Christ.

13 Thirdly, an information to the true worship of God, which vse is peculiar to the renued or rege­tate.

14 And these are the principal vses; besides which there are also some others as namely, a testimony that there is a God, & what maner of God he is.

15 A note of the church, which is distinguished by integrity & purity of the law from all other sects.

16 A testimonie of that excellency of mans nature which was before the fall, & which is restored vn­to vs by Christ.

17 A testimony of eternal life, wherin the law shall be fulfilled, seeing in this life it is not fulfilled, and God made it not that it shoulde never attaine its proper and principall end.

OF THE EXPOSITION AND DIVI­sion of the Decalogue.

1 THe Decalogue or ten commandements, cō ­taining a summe of the whole law of God, are to be vnderstood according to that expositi­on, which hath beene delivered by Moses, the Prophets, Christ and his Apostles.

[Page 262] 2 The law of god requireth perfect obediēce both▪ inward & outward, in the mind, wil, hart, & actiōs, that is, in our words, deeds, and external gestures.

3 Our obedience to al the other commandemēts must be referred vnto the first, because the loue & glory of God must be the impulsiue & final cause of al our obedience.

4 The interpretation of every law must be gathe­red from the end for vvhich it was made.

5 For divers ends one & the same vvorke may be cōmanded or contained in divers cōmandemēts.

6 Precepts affirmatiue & cōmanding do include also the negatiue and prohibition: & contrarily.

7 Some principal kind of thing being cōmanded or prohibited, other kinds also which are neere & like vnto that are vniversally commanded or pro­hibited.

8 Where the effect is commanded or forbidden, there likewise we must vnderstand that the cause is also commanded or prohibited.

9 With the relatiues their correlatiues also are cō ­māded, becaus the on cānot be without the other

10 There are two tables of the decalogue, the first cō ­priseth in 4. cōmādements certaine duties to bee performed immediatly tovvards God: the second teacheth in 6 cōmandemēts what duties must be performed towards our neighbour immediatlie, but towards God mediatly, that is towardes our neighbor for the cōmandement & glory of God.

11 The precepts of the second table yeeld place vnto the precepts of the first.

[Page 263] 12 That is the truer divisiō of the decalogue, which reckneth the second commandement of images, the tenth of concupiscence.

OF THE FIRST COMMANDEMENT.

1 The first table giueth precepts of duties to­ward God; the secōd of duties toward our neighbor, but so that the former immediatly, the latter is mediatly referred to God.

2 Whereas the first cōmandement chargeth vs to haue for god only the true god manifested in the church, it doth especially cōprise the internal worship of God, which cōsisteth in mind, will, & hart.

3 The principal parts or points of this worship are these: true knowledge of God, faith, hope, & loue of God, feare of God, humility before God, & pa­tience.

4 God may in some sort bee knowne of the crea­tures, namely as far forth as it pleaseth him to re­veale himselfe to every man.

5 There be two sorts of knowledge of God, one simply & absolutely perfect, whereby God onlie knoweth himselfe, that is, the eternal father, son, & holy Ghost know themselues, & one an other, & vnderstād wholy & most perfectly their whole infinit essence & maner of being (for none but an infinit vnderstādīg cā perfectly know that which is infinit) the other in the creaturs, wherby angels & men do indeed vnderstād the whole & entire nature & maiesty of god as being most simple, but not wholy; that is, they vnderstand it only so far as he revealeth it vnto them.

[Page 264] 6. That knowledge of God, which is in the cre­atures, if it be compared with that, wherby God vnderstandeth and knoweth himselfe, is to be ac­coumpted imperfect, but if we respect degrees therof, some of it is perfect, some imperfect, not simplie but in comparison, that is, in respect of the inferior or superior degree.

7. That is perfect, wherby the blessed angels & men in heauen know God by excellent vision or beholding of minde, as much as is sufficiēt for cō ­formitie of the reasonable creature with God. Imperfect is that, whereby men knowe God in this life lesse then they might, and therfore by Gods commaundement ought, by benefit of their cre­ation.

8. Imperfect knowledge is of two sorts, Christi­an or theological, & philosophical, Christian know­ledge is that which is learned out of the doctrine of the Prophets and Apostles: Philosophical is that which is gathered from principles naturally knowne, and the beholding of Gods workes in nature.

9. Christian knowledge is of two sorts, Spiritual or true, liuely, powerfull and sauing: and Literal. The spiritual is a knowledge of God and his will, kindled in our mindes by the holy Ghost accord­ing to the worde, and by the word, causinge in our will and heart an inclnation and studie to knowe, beleeue & practize more and more those thinges, which God in his [...]rd commandeth vs to know, beleeue, and do. The [...] is a know­ledge [Page 265] of God either reteined from the creation, or afterwardes wrought in our mindes by the ho­ly Ghost through the worde of God, which is not accompanied with a mans desire of conforming himselfe therunto.

10. Both spirituall & literal knowledge is either immediate, wh [...]ch by instinct of the holy Ghost without ordinarie meanes, or mediate, which is wrought of the holy Ghost by hearinge, reading, and meditating on the scripture.

11. The ordinarie meanes of knowinge God, and that which is presci [...]bed vnto vs by God, is by studie and meditation of the scriptures, and ther­fore we must by this meanes labour to come to the knowledge of God, and therefore not desire and expect from God some extraordinarie & im­mediate enlightning, except of his owne accord he offer it vnto vs, and confirme it by sure & cer­teine testimonies.

12. But although God hath declared in his word how farre in this life he would be knowne of vs, yet naturall testimonies of God are not su­perfluous, because they condemne the impiety of the reprobate, and confirme the saluatiō of the elect, and are therfore everie where alledged by God in scripture, and must be considered by vs.

13. But withall, this we must be perswaded of them, that they are indeede true, and agree [...]ble with Gods worde, but ye [...] they are not sufficient to the true knowledge of God.

14. Besides, although natural testimonies doe [Page 266] not teach any thinge false of God, yet men with­out the light of Gods word conceaue out of them nothing but false opinions cōcerning God, both because those testimonies do not shew so much as is deliuered in the worde, as also because men by reason of their natiue blindenesse and corruption, doe mistake, misinterpret, and manie waies cor­rupt even these verie testimonies, which by natu­ral iudgment might be vnder-stoode.

15. And therfore in the first commaundement is forbid de and condemned all ignorance of such things as God hath proposed vnto vs for to know of him, in his worde, and in his workes, as well of creation as redemption of the church: also all er­rors of such as imagine either that there is no God, as the Epicures, or manie Gods, as the heathen, the Manichees, the worshipers of angels, dead men, o­ther creatures, the witches, the superstitious, those that put confidence in creatures, or those which imagine a God diverse from him which hath ma­nifested himselfe in the church, as philosophers, Iews, Mahometās, Sabelliās, Arriās, Samosatēs, P [...]cu­matomachians, and the like, which do not acknow­ledge that God which is the father eternal, with his sonne and holie spirit coeternal.

XX. OF THE SIXE FIRST COM­MAVNDEMENTS.

IN the first precept is cōmaūded the immediate internal worship of God, wherof the principall parts are, true knowledg of God, faith, hope, loue of God, feare of God, &c. as in the the 3 and [Page 267] 10 section of the title going next before, besides all this, herein is forbidden contemp of God, vn­beliefe, doubtfulnesse and distrust in God, tem­porarie faith, apostasie, carnal securitie, tempting of God, desperation, doubt of deliuerance from sin and eternall life, hatred of God, inordinate loue of our selues and the creatures, servile feare, pride, vainglorious hypocrisie, impatience, rash­nesse.

2. The second precept is a rule of our whole wor­ship of God, that wee worship not God with any kinde of worship, besides that wherewith he cō ­maunded himselfe to be worshipped: wherfore it commaundeth the true & forbiddeth al the fain­ed and false worship of God, especially idols and images made to represent and worship God: also negligence of magistrates, whereby images or o­ther instrumentes, which either doe or may easily serue to idolatrie, are tolerated in places subiect to their authoritie, much more the worship of thē; also hypocricie and prophanesse.

3. The thirde precept requireth that externall worship which everie man ought to performe, that is, the furtherance of the true doctriue touch­ing God, lawfull swearinge, zeale for Gods glory: if forbiddeth omitting, wearines, and corrupting the doctrine concerning God, neglect of his glo­rie, blasphemie, denyal or dissemblinge the truth, vnseasonable confession, abuse of libertie in things indifferent, scandals in life and members, neglect of praier, prayer made after an evill [Page 268] manner, or not the true God, or not lawfully: in­gratitude, denyal, neglect and abuse of Gods be­nefites; refusall of necessarie ot [...]es pe [...]urie, ido­latrous, vnlawfull, rash swearinge, vnconstancie of lightnesse in defence of Gods▪ glorie, and erringe zeale.

4. The fourth precept containeth that externall worship of God, which is publique in his church, or the preseruation and vse of the ministrie, that is, publique preaching and studie of religion, ad­ministration and vse of the sacraments: publique praier: honor & obedience dew to the ministerie, that is, a mainteining of the ministerie and spiritu­all sabbaoth, which is, obedience to this doct [...]ine. It forbiddeth neglect of the duty of teaching, cor­rupting and maiming of doctrine, neglect of exhortation to vse the sacraments and their law­full administration: contempt of doctrine, and cu­riositie in searching things not necessarie: contēpt and prophanation of sacraments: neglect of pub­lique praier▪ hypocriticall presence at them, such recital of thē as is vnprofitable to the church; with drawing others frō the ministerie: abolishing the ministerie, calling ther vnto men vnworthy, errors about the vse of the ministerie, contēpt of minis­ters, disobedience to the ministerie, ingratitude or harde dealing against the ministers, neglect of schooles and schollers.

5. The fifte precept commaundeth civile orde [...], or mutuall duties of men betweene superiors and inferiors; wherof some are peculiar to p [...]rents, as [Page 269] nourishing, defenc, instruction, and domesticall education of their children: to teachers, as scho­lastical discipline and instruction: to magistrates, as commaunding the discipline of the whole deca­logue, and putting the precepts therof in executiō, by defending the innocēt, punnishing offenders, ordeining and executing politique lawes in com­mon weales: of maisters, as to commaund their fa­milies that which is iust, to giue rewardes, and go­uerne by domisticall discipline: of such as are ho­norable for age or authoritie, as to direct others both by examples and advise: inferiors, as honor, that is reuerence, loue, obedience, gratefulnesse, mild­nesse towards superiors. Other some are commō to all men, as vniversal iustice, and iustice particu­lar distributiue, diligence, loue of parents, grauity, modestie, gentlenesse. Ther-fore it condemneth, in parents neglect or loosenesse of education, neg­lect of defence, or foolish zeale for children: In parents and teachers, neglect of instructiō, corrupt­ing, too much indulgence or fauor, too much cru­eltie. In magistrates, slouth and tirannie: in maisters granting too much libertie, vniust commaundes: defrauding men of their dew hyre or rewarde, too much roughnesse: in men of authoritie foolish coū ­sell, light and euill manners, neglect of yong­er sort or others whom they may help or correct: in inferiors defect of reuerence, loue, obedience, gratification, mildnesse, or excesse, when more of these is attributed vnto them then the lawe of God doth permit. But in all omitting of dutie, dis­obedience, [Page 270] eye-service, error or respect of per­sons in distributing offices, honors, or rewardes, slouth, busie curiosity, want of loue to parents, vn­iust indulgence towards children, ingratitude, vn­iust gratification, lightnesse, pride, immodesty, ar­rogancie, shew of modestie, too much rigor & se­verity, too much gentlenesse.

6 The sixt precept provideth for the safety of our owne and others life and body: & therefore com­mandeth particular iustice, hurting no man gen­tlenesse, mildnesse, quietnesse, cōmutatiue iustice in punishmēts, fortitude, humanity, mercy, friend­ship. It forbiddeth vniust harming the life or body of our selues or others, too much pitty, wrath, vn­iust anger, desire of revenge, strife, cruelty, respect of persons, turbulency, vniust gratificatiō for qui­etnesse sake, cavill vpon too strict law, private re­venge, fearefulnesse, inhumanity, hatred of our neighbour, inordinate loue of our selues, reioicing in other mens harmes, wāt of pitty in mens mise­ries, lightnesse or inconstancie in contracting or dissolving friendship, cousenage.

OF THINGS INDIFFERENT.

1. OF humaine actions some are in their owne nature good or evill, some indif­ferent.

2 Of their owne nature good are such as be ex­pressely commaunded by God, which wee must needes doe, according to the intente of the lawe [Page 271] rightlie vnderstoode.

3. Evill in their owne kinde are such as are ex­pressely forbidden in Gods lawe.

4. Indifferent are such as are neyther commaū ­ded nor exhibited by God.

5. These may either be done or omitted with sinne, or without sinne.

6. They are sinnes when they are either done by the vnregenerate, or of the regenerate, but with scandall & offence of themselues or others.

7. They are no sinnes when they are done of the regenerate without scandal.

8. They are necessarie to be done when they cannot be omitted without scandal.

9. Therfore of themselues they are lawfull and good, but yet indifferent and arbitrarie: by acci­dent they may be evil and vnlawful, or necessary.

XXII. OF MANS IVSTIFICATI­ON BEFORE GOD.

1. That righteousenesse wherby we are iustifi­ed before God, is the fulfilling of Gods lawe.

2. Legal iustice is the fulfilling of the lawe, per­formed by him, which is named iust.

3. Evangelical iustice is the punnishment of our sinnes, which Christ endured for vs, freely impu­ted by God to them that beleeue.

4. Since the fall of man no man besides Christ alone in this life is iustified before God by the righteousenesse of the lawe.

5. Wee are iustified onely by faith in Christ.

[Page 272] 6 And yet the righteousnes of the law must in this life be begun in al that will be saved.

XXIV. OF THE SACRAMENTS.
Publiquely disputed at Heidelberg the 23. of Au­gust. Anno. 1567.

1 GOd from the beginning did ioine vnto his promise of Grace certaine signes or rites, which are in the church vsually called sacramēts.

The proofe recited by the respondent afore dispu­tatiō, after the ancient custome of the vniversity.

From Adam there haue beene sacrifices, which God ordained because they pleased him. Circumcision vvas commaunded vnto Abraham. By Moses the sorts & rites of sacrifices were encreased, and other ceremonies added, vvhich endured vnto Christ; who ordained and substituted in their steede, baptisme and the mysticall supper of the Lord.

2 The sacraments are signes of the eternall co­venant betweene God and the faithfull, that is, they are rites commaunded vnto the church by God, and added to the promise of grace, that by them as by visible and assured testimonies God may signifie vnto vs and witnesse, that according to the promise of the gospell, he doth communi­cate Christ and al his benefits to them vvhich vse these signes in a liuely faith, that so hee may con­firme vnto them a confidence & assurance of this promise, and the church by these visible markes may be distinguished from al other sectes, & pub­liquelie [Page 273] professe her faith & gratefulnes towards God, continue & encrease the memory of Christs benefits, and be bound and provoked to mutuall loue and charitie vnder one head, Christ Iesus.

The proofe. This definition is expreslie set downe, Gen. 17. 11. Exod. 20. 10. & 31. 14. Ezech. 20. 12. Ye shall keepe my sabbaths, &c. That rites were com­manded vnto the church by God, it appeareth by indu­ction: also the rites are added vnto the promise as visi­ble signes thereof. Because the rites of all sacramens doe not only signifie our duties toward God, but especially & principally Gods benefits towardes vs: as circumcision signifieth remission and mortifying of sinne. Deut. 30. 6. Col. 2. 2. 11. sacrifices and the Passeover, the killing and eating of Christ, 1. Cor. 5. 7. Ioh. 1. 19. Heb. 8. 9. 10. Nei­ther doe we only signifie so much by confessing and solem­nizing them; but primarilie and principallie God signifi­eth so much vnto vs, testifying and confirming by cere­monies of the sacraments. For the ministers as well in administration of sacraments as preaching the word, re­present the person and office of God towardes his church. Matthew the eighteenth, and twentie nine. Teach and baptise all nations. Ioh. 1. 33. He that sent mee to baptise. Iohn 3. 22. and 4. 2. Iesus is said to bap­tise, when not himselfe, but his disciples in his name did baptise. So of the signe of inauguration to the kingdome 1. Sam. 10. 1. The Lord hath annointed thee, when yet Samul was sent to annoint Saule.

The sacraments therefore doe strengthen our faith, because the scripture witnesseth that they are signes of the mutual & eternal covenāt betwixt God & the faith­full: [Page 274] because by them God signifieth vnto vs the bestow­ing of such benefites as are promised in the Gospell, and we must as well beleeue God signifying vnto vs his will by signes as by wordes;Sacramēts confirme our faith. because in their lawfull vse they haue annexed vnto them a promise of grace, not onely as they are sacrifices, & shew our obedience, but also as they are signes of grace deliuered vnto vs by God: as: Hee that beleeueth and is baptised shall bee saued. It shal be an acceptable sacrifice to make attone­ment for him. Mar. 16. 16. Lastely, because the scripture, to con­firme the receauing or depriuing of the things signified,Leuit. 1. 4. alleadgeth the receauinge or depriuing of the signes, as Psal. 51.Psal. 51. 9. Thou shalt sprinckle me with hysop & I shall be clensed. Deut. 3. 6. The L. shal circūcise thine heart &: Al we which are baptized into his death. Rom. 6. 3. The bread which we breake, 1. Cor 10. 16. is it not the communion of Christs bodie?

Herevpon are annexed other final causes; The ends of sacra­ments in respect of vs. They di­stinguish the church from other sectes; this appeareth by effect and by testimonies, as, A stranger shall not eate therfore. What thē availeth circumcisiō? verie much.Exo. 12. 45. For vnto them were committed the wordes of God Yee gentiles, which in times past were called the vncircumcision,Rom. 3. 1. because in that time yee were without Christ,Eph. 2. 11. strangers from the covenant and common wealth of Israel,Gen. 17. hauinge no hope of the promise, and without God in the world. They are a confession & publique thankesgiuing for Christes benefites. It shall bee a signe of the co­venant betweene me and you; and it shall bee my covenante in your flesh. As often as yee [Page 275] shall eate this bread, shewe yee the Lords death.1. Cor. 11. 26. They continew the memory of Gods benefites. This day shall be vnto you for a remembrance.Exod. 12. 14. It shall bee asigne vnto thee vpon thine hande,Exod. 13. 9. & a remem­braunce betweene thine eies.Luc. 22. 19. Doe this in re­membrance of me. They are a band of charitie: for because they which vse them are in league with God, they are also in league betweene thēselues. Epe. 4. 5. One Lord, one faith,1. Cor. 10. 12. one baptisme &c. We being manie are one bread, one bodie. For we are all partakers of one bread.

3. Rites and ceremonies not commaunded by God to be signs of the promise, are not sacramēts.

The proofe. The signes can confirme nothinge but by his consent and promise, from whom the thinge pro­mised and signified is expected. Therfore no creature cā ordaine and institute testimonies of Gods will.

4. Two things are to be considered in al Sacra­ments. 1. Visible, earthly, and corporal signes, which are rites or ceremonies, and visible or cor­poral things, which God exhibiteth or offereth vnto vs by his ministers, and we receaue corporal­ly, that is, by the partes and senses of our bodie: [...] the things signifyed, which are invisible, heauen­ly, and spiritual, that is Christ himselfe and all his benefites, which are through faith communicated vnto vs by God spiritually, that is by power and vertue of the holy Ghost.

The proofe. The distinction is manifest, by an induction. Also the receauing of the signes is corporall and externall: but the thinges signifyed are [Page 276] 1 receaued spiritually or by faith: Because they are pro­mised onely vnto such as beleeue; but the signes are no other wise ratified, then the promises whervnto they are 2 annexed. Also because the signes shew that vnto our eies, which the promise declareth vnto our eares. As therfore the promise is a vaine sound: so also are the cere­monies 3 vaine without faith. Lastly, because the thinges signified, are the participating of Christ and all his bene­fits. But this can noway be graunted to any man, either in the vse of sacraments, or without it, but by faith a­lone.

5. The signes or elements are not to be chang­ed in nature or substance, but only in respect of their vse.

The proofe. This is cleere by induction and sense. I baptize you with water. The breade which wee breake is the communion of Christes bodie. Here bread and water are named in the vse.

6 The cōiunction of the signes & the thing sig­nified is not physical, that is naturall and reall, but relatiue, that is to say, this cōiunction is a diuine ordinance, wherby things inuisible and spirituall are represented by thinges visible and corporall, as it were by certaine visible wordes, and are in the right vse offered & receaued togeather with the signes.

The proofe. Such is the cōnexion of all signes with the things signified, that they represent the things signi­fied, and confirme the receauing of them, for they are as it were testifying pleadges and seals, although they be not in the same place with the signs. The reasō is, because to [Page 277] make something a signe of an other thing, is not to include or tie the same thinge to the signe; but to order the signe to signifie the thing [...], whether it be in the same place with the signe, or in some other. Also the nature of the things signified by sacraments doth not admit this. For some of them are spiritual substances, as the holie Ghost: some ac­cidents, not in the sacramental signes and elements, but in the heartes of men, as the giftes of the holy Ghost: some are diuine actions, as remission of sinnes, some are corpo­rall, and locally in one only place, not wheresoeuer the sa­craments are vsed: as the flesh and bloud of Christ.

The names and proprieties of the things signi­fied are attributed to the signes, and contrarie the names and proprieties of the signes to the things, because of the similitude and likenesse betweene both, or for significatiō of the things by the signs, or for the ioyned offeringe and receauinge of the thinges togeaher with the signes in the lawful vse of the sacraments.

The proofe. The scripture speaketh this of sacra­ments: Gen. 17. 10. Act. 7. 8. Circumcisiō is the league or couenant. Exod. 12. 11. the eatinge of the lambe is the Passouer. Exod. 31. 7. the sabbaoth is the eternal co­uenant. Exod. 24. 8. The bloud of the sacrifice is the bloud of the couenant. And Levit. 17. 5. The attone­ment of our soules. Heb. 9. 5. Over the arke was a co­ver shadowing the mercie-seat. Ephes. 2. 26. The bap­tisme of water is the washinge that clenseth vs from sin, Mat. 26. 26. 28. the bread & wine is the body & bloud of Christ. And 1. Cor. 10. 16. It is called the commu­nion of the body and bloud of Christ. And so expound­eth [Page 278] it selfe, Gen. 17. 11. Rom. 4. 12. Circumcision is a signe of the covenant. Exod. 12. 27. The paschall lamb [...] was a signe of the passeover. Exod. 31. 14. The sabbaoth a perpetuall signe of grace and sanctification. Heb. 9. 24. Ceremonies are similitudes & types of true things. Marc. 16. 16. He that beleeveth and is baptised shal bee saued, Luc. 22. 21. The bread of the Lords supper is com­manded to be eaten in remembrance of Christ.

8 The lawfull vse of sacraments is, when such as are converted obserue those rites which God hath commaunded, for such ends as God ordai­ned the sacraments.

The proofe. That onelie is the lawfull vse vvhich agreeth with Gods institution: but the institution com­prehendeth these circumstances of persons, rites, and endes: therefore these once broken, the fignes are pre­sentlie abused. Esa. Ier. 7. Psal. 50.

9 In this vse the things signified are alwaies ta­ken togither with the signes.

The proofe. For thus much the rites do signifie, & the promise annexed to the rites doth containe: as Mar. 16. He which shall beleeue and be baptised, shall bee saued: but God is true, speaking to vs as well by signes as by wordes. Therefore the signes are not in vain [...] though the things be taken in one sorte, the signes in an other.

10 But without the vse appointed by God, which is not without conversion, neither the ce­remonies haue the nature of a sacramēt, nor gods benefits thereby signified are receiued with the signes.

[Page 279] The proofe. The signes of the covenant confirme no­thing to them which keepe not the covenant, or substitute others in their places, or refer them to an other end: but sacraments are signes of the covenant, wherby God bin­deth himselfe to grant vs freelie remission of sins, & eter­nal life for Christ: ergo they confirme not them in the grace of God which are without faith and repentance, or vse other rites, or to other purpose then God hath ap­pointed. Besides, it is superstitious and idolatrous to attribute the [...]est [...]fying of Gods grace either to an exter­nall worke without promise, or to a worke devised by men. Wherfore this abuse of sacraments hath not the grace of God annexed vnto it, or confirmeth any man therin; as it is said, Rom. 2. 25. Circūcisiō availeth if thou keepe the law, but if thou be a trāsgressor of the law, thy circumcision is made vncircumcision.

11 The Godly receiue these signes to their sal­vation, the vvicked to their condemnation: but onely the godly can receiue the things signified, to their salvation.

The proofe. Vs saith Peter, vz. which beleeue, amongest whome hee reckneth himselfe, baptisme sa­veth, not the washing away of the filth of the flesh, but the request of a good conscience vn­to God. And Paule 1. Corinth. 10. 16. the breade which wee breake is the communion of Christs bodie. And whereas the Sacraments are an external instrument, wherby the holy Ghost cherisheth & preser­veth our faith, is followeth that as the preaching of the word, so they also further the saluatiō of the faithful. But contrariwise the wicked, by abuse of sacramēts, cōtēpt of [Page 280] and his benefites which are offered them in the worde & sacraments, and confession of that doctrine, which with a trewe faith they do not embrace, heape vnto themselues the anger of God and fearfull punnishment, according to these sayings: He that offereth an oxe is as if he kil­led a man, hee which offereth a ramme is as if hee slew a dog. &c. Esa. 66. 3. He which eateth and drinketh vnworthily, eateth & drinketh his owne damnation, not making any difference of the Lordes bodie: for this cause manie amongst you are weake and sicke, and many are fallen a sleepe. 1. Cor. 11. 27. But the things signified, because they are receaued only by faith, and are either the true causes of saluatiō, or saluatiō it selfe, namely Christ and his bene­fittes; they neither can be receaued by the wicked, nor of any but vnto saluation; as Christ saith, Ioh. 6.

12. But in the elect, after they are converted, the fruits of a sacrament (though vnworthily re­ceaued) do in the end follow.

The proofe. The promise, and the signes of that pro­mise, which hath a cōdition of faith annexed vnto it, are ratified and take effect, whensoeuer the condition is per­formed; but such [...] the promise which is signified and confirmed by the sacraments: therfore if there be faith beleeuinge the promise and signes, whether in the vse or after, the things promised and signified are then recea­ued.Eze. 16. 59. I might deale with thee as thou hast done; when thou didest despise the oath in breakinge the couenant, Nevertheles I will remēber my co­uenant made with thee in the daies of thy youth, & wil cōfirme vnto thee an euerlasting couenant.

[Page 281] 13. Of sacraments, some are once onely to be receaued, some often-times; some are to be mi­nistred onely to those of ripe yeares, others euen to infants also, according as they are ordained for once making a couenaunt with all those that are conuerted, and which are to be receaued into the church; as circumcision and baptisme: or institu­ted to renue the couenant and preserue the vni­tie and fellowship of the church, after our fall & cōflict against temptatiō: as the arke, the paschal lambe, with other sacrifices, & the Lords supper.

The proofe. The iterating or renewing of baptisme is no where commaunded; the reason is manifested: be­cause those sacraments are instituted to be an initiating, or solemn receauing into the church which is euer firme to him that repenteth or persevereth. But the iteratiō of the vse of other sacraments is commaunded: as in sacra­fices, in the Paschal lamb, in worshiping before the arke, in sanctifying and clensing it is apparent: Also of the Lordes supper it is said, As often as yee do this, yee shall shew the Lords death. The reason is, because they are testimonies, that the couenant begunne in circumcision & baptisme is ratified and firme to him that repenteth. And this often exercising of our faith is necessarie.

14. The thinges common to the sacramentes of the new and olde testament are those, which are before set downe in the definition of a sa­crament. The differences betweene both are these, that the sacraments of the olde testament did prefigure Christ which was then to [...] [Page 282] the sacramentes of the newe testament represent vnto vs Christ with all his benefits, being alreadie come: the olde were others, and more rites, as circumcision, sacrifices, washings, the Pascall lambe, the sabbaoth, worshipping before the arke &c: the new are likewise others, and onlie tvvo, baptisme, & the supper of the Lord: the old were obscure; the new are more plaine & easie: the old were commanded to Abrahams posteritie & their housholds: the new to the whole church culled and collected out of Iewes and Gentiles.

The proofe. That one definition serveth for the sa­craments of both new and old testament, we haue alrea­die prooued before. That there is a difference in the number and forme of rites, appeareth by an induction. For in the new testament it is plaine there are but two; because no other ceremonies having a promise of grace annexed are commanded by Christ. That sacraments of the olde testament shewe Christ to come, of the newe alreadie come, it is manifest by their interpretation delivered in scripture, whereof we spake in their definition. They dif­fer in plainenesse, because in the new testament are few­er,NOTE. Abraham had a more excellent faith then any in the new testa­ment: not for plaines but for stedfastnes. and those signifying things alreadie fulfilled, in the olde there are more rites, and those shaddowing future thinges, all whose circumstaunces were not yet knowne. Lastlie, by induction it appeareth, that the old were commaunded onelie to Abraham and his posteri­tie, and their servauntes: the new to all even as ma­nie as will be members of the church: as Genesis the seventeenth. Everie man childe of eight daies olde a­mongest you shall bee circumcised in your generations▪ as [Page 283] well hee that is borne in thine house, as he that is bought with monie of anie stranger which is not thy seede. Exod. 12. No stranger shall eate thereof. Math. 8. Teach all nations baptising them, &c.

15 Both Sacraments and preching of the gospel are Gods worde, which hee exerciseth tovvardes his church by the Ministers, because they teach, offer, & promise vnto vs the same communion of Christ and his benefites, and are external instru­ments of the holy Ghost, wherby he moveth our hearts to beleeue, and therefore maketh vs par­takers of faith in respect of Christ and his bene­fits. Neither yet is the working of the holy Ghost tied vnto these sacraments; nor doe they at al pro­fit but rather hurt such as with faith do not apply them to themselues, as the very words & rites do signifie.

The proofe. That the Ministers do all in GODS name in administration of sacramentes, and that by the sacraments God doth signifie, that is, teach, offer, & pro­mise vnto vs the communion of Christ, we shewed before in our second proofe. Whereupon followeth this other con­clusiō, that the holie ghost therby moueth our harts to be­liefe. For because sacraments are a visible promise, they haue the same authoritie to confirme faith in vs, as hath a promise made by word. Whence also followeth a third cōclusiō. For that which serveth to kindle & stir vp faith in vs, the same also serveth to the receiving of the com­munion of Christ: because wee haue this communion through faith. The breade is the communion of Christ bodie. Baptisme saveth vs, &c. And yet [Page 284] the holy Ghost doeth not alwaies by them confirme our faith: because neither by the word doth it alwaies kindle faith in vs; as the examples of Simon Magus and infi­nite others doe shew. That the vse of sacraments with­out faith is hurtfull, is alreadie prooved in the eleventh proposition.

16 The word and the sacraments differ, because the word signifieth gods wil towards vs by speach, the sacraments, by gesture: by the worde faith is be­gun and confirmed, by the sacraments onlie faith begun is confirmed: the word euen without the sacraments doth teach and confirme, which the sacraments doe not without the word: without the knowledge of the word they that are of ripe years cannot be saued; but without the vse of sacramēts (if it be not by contempt) men may be both re­nued and saued: the word is to be preached to the vnbeleeuing and vvicked, the church must admit to the sacraments only such as God will haue vs account members of the church.

The proofe. Sacramentes without the worde going before doe neither teach, nor confirme our faith: because their signification is not vnderstood but by preaching or expounding them by the word: neither can a signe con­firme any thing but what is before promised. This maie be proved by example of the Iewes, who either did or die obserue those ceremonies, abolishing or not vnderstanding the promise of grace and of Christs benefits.

Men of yeares cannot bee saved, excepte they haue knowledge of the word, either by teaching after the ordi­narie way, or by revelation after an extraordinary waie. [Page 285] Because Hee that beleeveth not in the sonne is alreadie iudged. Ioh 3. 18. Faith is by hearing, hearing by the word of God. Rom. 10. 17. But without sacraments they maie be saued; because though by some necessarie occasi­on they be hindred from them, yet may they beleeue, as the theefe on the crosse: or if they be infants, they may be sanctified according to the measure of their yeares, as Iohn in the wombe of his mother, & manie other infants which died before the daie of their circumcision.

The word also must be preached to the wicked, because it is ordained for their conversion.

The sacraments must be administred vnto thē, which are to bee acknowledged for members of the church: because they are instituted only for the vse of the church. Act. 8. 17. If thou beleevest thou maist be baptised.

17 This is common to Sacrame [...]ts and sacrificer, that they are workes commanded of God to bee done by vs in faith: but yet a sacrament and a sa­crifice do differ, because by a sacramēt God doth signifie and witnesse his benefits which he perfor­meth vnto vs: but by sacrifice we perfourme and offer our obedience vnto God.

The proofe. That sacraments are workes comman­ded of God to be done by vs in faith, wee haue shewed in the 1. 2. 3. and 10. proposition. Both are mentioned Heb. 11. 4. By faith Abel offered vnto God a greater sa­crifice then Caine &c. That Sacraments are signes of Gods will towards vs, it is prooved in the second propos.

18 And therefore the same ceremonie may haue the nature of a sacrament & of a sacrifice; because [Page 286] thereby God giving vnto vs visible signes, testifi­eth his blessings and benefits towards vs; and wee by receiving them doe likewise testifie our duty towards him.

The proofe. This is manifest by the Pascal lamb and other sacrifices; also by the sabbaoth: which were an obe­dience commanded by God, whereby the godlie did wor­ship him, and shew themselues gratefull to him: & with­all were signes of Gods benefits which they receaved by the Messias. So baptisme is a profession of Christianisme, and a signe wherby Christ witnesseth that we are washed in his bloud. The Lords supper is a thankesgiuing for the death of Christ, and an admonition, that we are quickned for and by his death, are made his members, and shall as bide in him for ever.

AN ANSWERE TO SOME ARGVMENTS against the Sacraments.
Certaine obiections against the afore-said propositi [...]ns of Sacraments, with short answeares of Vr­sinus therevnto, taken in a publique dis­putation. Anno. 1567.

1 OBiection against that part of the seconde proposition; Sacraments are signes of the e­ternall covenant.

  • The signes of an eternal covenant are eternal;
  • But these signes are not eternal:
  • Ergo neither is the covenant eternall.

The proofe of the maier denied is; In relatiues one be­ing taken away, the other also is taken awaie. [Page 287] Aunswer to the rule, whereby the maior is prooved, by distinguishinge. In relatiues hauing but one onely correlatiue, as a father, a sonnes one being taken a­waie, the other also is taken awaie: but this rule houldeth not where are more correlatiues then one; as to this couenant of God are correlatiues not onelie the signes, but they also with whō this couenant is made, who shal endure for euer, &c: But these signes are correlatiues to the couenāt, not simplie as it is a couenāt, but as it is a couenāt cōfirmed by signes.

Note, that in the second parte of this proposition, be­tweene God and the faithfull, are included also the posteritie of the faithfull, as the part in the whole, though actually they doe not yet beleeue, as infantes. Therefore the definition is not more stricte or particular then the things defined.

Obiect. 2. against that part of the secōd propositi­on; And so cōfirmeth in thē the cōfidence of this promise.

That which is giuen to such as haue no faith, can­not confirme faith, because there is none to be confirmed.

Baptisme is giuen to infantes which haue no faith:

Ergo baptisme doth not cōfirme faith. And so conse­quētly al sacramēts do not confirme the cōfidēce of this promise.

Ans. 1 to the maior by a distinctiō. It cānot cōfirme faith in them at that instāt whē it is giuen thē, & they haue no faith yet may it cōfirme faith in thē, whē they are of ripe yeares, and doe beleeue and haue faith.

Auns, 1 The minor also is verye doubtfull, whe­ther infantes, especiallie of the renewed [Page 288] and regenerate, be destitute of faith: seeinge that vnto them al [...]ertaine these promises: I will be thy God and the God of thy seede. To such belong­eth the kingdome of God &c.

3. Obiection against the sixte proposition.

The truth of signes beinge once exhibited and ful­filled, the signes themselues do cease;

But in the newe testament the truth of the signes is exhibited and fullfilled.

Ergo the signes of the new testament are ceased.

Auns. Wee graunt all, yf you by signes vnderstand such signes, as signifie future things, & things hereafter to be fulfilled, such as were the signes of the olde testa­mēt: but we deny the maior, if by signes you vnderstand such as seale vnto vs things alreadie performed, such kinde of signes are the sacraments of the new testament. Obiect. 4. Against that part of the tenth proposition, which is not without conversion.

The Papists sacraments are celebrated without re­generation;

Yet are they sacraments.

Ergo sacraments may be celebrated without con­version

Auns. The minor may be denied in respect of such as are not converted. For to such, sacraments are no sacra­ments, that is, signes of grace: especially seeinge they turne them into meere idols. But they become sacra­ments vnto them, that is, signes of grace: when they are converted: and if they never be converted, they lyke­wise neuer become sacraments to them.

Repl. Enforceing an absurditie.

[Page 289] They who corrupt the wordes and forme of the institution of any sacrament (as baptisme) doe also overthrowe the nature and substance of the same.

The Papistes do the former.

Ergo they doe also the l [...]tter: And therfore their baptisme is not baptisme; and so by consequent wee which were baptized in time of Poporie, must be rebaptized.

Auns. To the maior. They overthrowe the substance of baptisme; trew, to themselues and such as approoue them, and be not cōuerted; but not to them that acknow­ledginge their errors are conuerted, and adiorne them­selues to the church of Christ.

Obiect. 5. Against that parte of the eleuenth; The godlie receaue the signes to their saluation.

That only can be receaued by the godly to their sal­vation, which bringeth with it saluation, or is a cause therof;

But the things signified doe bringe alone saluation, and are the causes therof:

Ergo the things signified onely, (and not the signes) are receaued by the godly to their sal­uation.

Auns. To the maior by distinction. That only which bringeth with it saluation can be receaued vnto saluati­on; trew, to cause or bestow saluation but that also which bringeth not saluation, that is, which is neither the ef­ficient, nor forme, nor material cause of saeluation, may be receiued vnto saluatiō, that is to confirme saluation. I exp [...]de my selfe thus. Both the thinges and the signes [Page 290] are receaued vnto salvation: but the signes in one sorte, the things in an other. For the things are a cause of sal­uation, and parte therof: but the signes haue in them­selues no such quickening force, but onely confirme our saluation as they are ioined with the things.

Obiect. 6. Against the twelfth proposition.

That which bringeth with it condemnation, bring­eth no fruits;

The vnworthie vse and receauing of sacraments bringeth condemnation, as it is prooued in the e­leventh proposition:

Ergo it bringeth no fruits.

Auns. Wee graunt all, before the conversion, not af­ter; for then the vnworthie vse and receauing is made worthy.

Repl. Condemnation doth not follow conuersion;

The fruit of vnworthy receauing the sacraments is condemnation:

Ergo fruits followe not conuersion.

Auns. It is true of condēnation. But here we speake of the fruits of a sacrament vnworthilie receaued, which before the conuersion for vnworthy receauinge was con­demnation; but after the conversion is chaunged into our good and saluation &c.

Obiection. 7. Against that parte of the thirteenth Some sacraments are vsed only once.

That which maketh to the cōfirmation of our faith must be often vsed;

All Sacramentes make to the confirmation of our faith:

Ergo all sacramentes are to bee often vsed.

[Page 291] And so by consequent wee shoulde bee often baptized.

Auns. to the maior, which is true, if God haue appointed that they should be often vsed. But he wil not haue the sacramentes of our receauinge into the church, and our regeneration to be [...]terated: because by them hee doth once onelie begette vs, and enter league with vs, as by circumcision and baptisme; but by the other hee doth often confirme the league or couenant which hee doth enter with vs, as by the Pascall lambe, & the Lords supper.

Obiections. Against the second difference of the worde and sacramente in the sixteenth propositi­on.

They which are to be admitted to the more worthy, should not be forbidden the lesse worthie;

The wicked are to be admitted to the hearing of the worde, which is more worthie thē the sacramēts, as is prooued 1. Cor. 1. 17. God sent me not to baptize, but to preach the Gospell:

Therefore the wicked are not to bee forbidden the sacraments.

Auns. We denie the maior if you take it vniuersally; because it is neither euerie where nor alwaies trew.

Repl. That should not be forbidden wherof may fol­low fruite;

Of receauing the Lords supper euen by the wicked may follow fruite:

Ergo the wicked are not to be forbidde the Lordes supper.

Auns. to the maior. He should not be forbiddē if God [Page 292] forbad him not; but the church hath receiued this com­mandement of God, That it must not doe evill that good may come of it.

9. Obiection against that part of the same proposition. The word must bee preached even to the vnbe­leeuing.

Christ forbiddeth vs to cast pea [...]les to swine and dogges;

Therfore the wicked must not be admitted to the hearing of the word preached.

Ans. To the antecedent: by dogs and swine are not meant simplie he wicked, but such enemies as mecke & persecute the doctrine: barking and impugning it like dogs, and treading it vnder foote like swine. Against such this argument were of force.

XXIV. OF BAPTISME.

1. Baptisme is a sacrament of the new testamēt, whereby Christ witnesseth to the faithfull being baptized with water in the name of the father, & of the sonne, and of the holy Ghost, that all their sinnes are forgiuen them, the holy Ghost giuen vnto them, and themselues ingrassed into the church and bodie of Christ: and they againe pro­fesse that they receaue these benefittes of God, & therfore euer after will and must liue to him, and serue him. And this same baptisme was begun by Iohn Baptist, and continued by the Apostles; this only was the differēce, that he baptised men into Christ which should suffer and rize againe, but these into Christ which had suffered, & was rizē.

[Page 293] 2. The first end of Gods institutiō of baptisme is, that God herby might signifie & witnesse, that by the bloud and spirit of Christl [...] doth clense those that are baptized from their sinnes, and en­graffeth them into the bodie of Christ, and mak­eth them partakers of all his benefits.

3. The second is that baptisme may be a solēne receauinge or enroulinge of men into the visible church of Christ, and a distinction therof from al other sectes.

4. The third, that it may be a publique & solēne profession of our faith in Christ, & of bindinge our selues to faith in him, & obediēce towards him.

5. The fourth, that it may be an admonition of our plunging into afflictions, and our risinge and deliuerance out of them.

6. Baptisme hath by Gods commandement & the promise of grace a certaine power to seale and witnes, annexed by Christ vnto these rites right­lie vsed. For Christ by the hand of his ministers bapt [...]zeth vs, as by their mouth he speaketh to vs.

7. There is therfore in baptisme a 2 fold water one external, visible, & earthly, which is the elemētary water: the other internal, uisible, & heauēly which is the bloud & spirit of Christ: there is also a twofold washing, the on external, visible, & signifying nāely the sprinckling or powring on of water, which is corporal, that is receaued by our bodily parts & [...] the other internal, invisible, & signified, namely remissiō of our sins by Christs bloud shed for vs, & our regeneration by his spirit, & our bei [...] [...] [Page 294] grafted into his body which is spirituall, that is, is received in spirit, & by faith. Lastly, there is a two fold minister of baptisme one external of external baptisme, which is the minister of the church, bap­tising vs in water with his hand: the other internall of internal baptisme, which is Christ himself, bap­tising vs with his bloud and spirit.

8 Neither is the water turned into the bloud or spirit of Christ, neither is the bloud of Christ pre­sent in the water or in the same place with the wa­ter, neither are the bodies of such as are baptized sprinkled invisibly therewithal, neither is the ho­ly Ghost in substance or vertue more in this water then elsewhere; but in the lawful vse of baptisme he worketh in their heartes which are baptised, and spiritually doth wash and sprinkle them with the bloud of Christ, and vseth this external signe as an instrumēt, & as a visible word & promise, to vphold & stir vp the faith of such as are baptised.

9 Therfore when baptisme is said to be the wa­shing of regeneration, or to saue vs, or to wash a­way our sins; it is meant; that externall baptisme is a signe of the internall baptisme, that is, of rege­neration; salvation, and spirituall washing & that this internall washing is ioined with the external, whensoever baptisme is lawfully vsed.

10 Yet is sinne an baptisme so abolished, that we are freed from the guilte of GODS anger and eternall punishment, and regeneration is be­gunne in vs by the holy Ghost, & the reliques of sin remaine in vs to the end of this life.

[Page 295] 11 But all and only the renued, or the regene­rate baptised to those endes for which baptisme was instituted by Christ, do lawfully receiue bap­tisme.

12 The church lawfully ministreth baptisme to all and onelie those, whom it ought to recken in the number of such as be renued, and members of Christ.

13 Whereas also infants of Christians are of the church, whereinto Christ would haue al that per­taine to him bee receiued and registred by bap­tisme, and therefore baptisme is now in steede of circumcision, whereby iustification and regene­ration, and receiving into the church, were sea­led by & for Christ as yet to come, as in baptisme by and for the same Christ already come, as well to infantes as to those of riper yeares pertaining to the seed of Abraham: and whereas no man can forbidde water, that they should not be baptized which haue receiued the holy Ghost clensing & purifying their heartes, truely those infantes must needs bee baptised which either are borne in the church, or together with their parents come over to the church.

14 As the promise of the gospell, so baptisme also receiued vnworthily, that is before conversi­on, is firme and procureth salvation to such as re­pent, and the vse thereof, before vnlawful is now made vnto them lawfull.

15 Neither doth the wickednes of the Minister make the baptisme vaine & of no force, if it bee [Page 296] done into the faith and promise of Christ: & ther­fore the church ought not to rebaptise evē those that haue bin baptised by heretiks, but to informe them in the true doctrine of Christ and baptisme.

16 And as the covenant once begun with God remaineth perpetually stedfast to such as repent, even after their sinnes from that time committed; so also baptisme once receaved, confirmeth those that repent in remission of sinnes for all their life, and therefore ought neither to be [...]terated, nor deferred to the end of life, as if on that condition onlie it did clense vs from our sinnes, if we cōmit­ted no more after we were once baptized.

17 But all that are baptised with water, vvhe­ther infantes or aged, are not made partakers of the grace of Christ. For Gods eternal election and calling to the kingdome of Christ is free.

18 Neither are all excluded from the grace of Christ which are not baptised vvith water. For not the want but contēpt of baptisme excludeth from the convenant made by God with the faith­ful and their children.

19 And whereas the administration of Sacra­ments is a part of the ecclesiastical ministery, they which are not called thervnto and especially wo­men, must not presume to take vnto themselues authoritie of baptising.

OF THE LORDS SVPPER.
Disputed in the Coll. of Wisdome the 2. of May, Ann. 1575.

1 ONe of the Sacramentes of the new testa­mēt is called the Lords supper, not because [Page 297] it must needs be solemnised onlie in the evening or at supper time, but because it was instituted by Christ in the last supper that he made with his dis­ciples before his death. The Lords table it is called, because therin the Lord feedeth vs. The sacramēt of the bodie and bloud of Christ, because therein are these thing [...] communicated vnto vs. The Eucha­rist, because therein are solemne thanks giuen vn­to Christ for his death and benefits towardes vs. Synaxis or assemb [...] because it must be celebrated in assemblies and meetings of the church. It is al­so amongst ancient wrighters named a sacrifice, because it is a representation of that propitiatorie sacrifice which Christ perfourmed on the crosse, with an Eucharisticall sacrifice or sacrifice of thāks­giuing therefore.

2 The Lords supper is a sacrament of the newe testament wherein by commandement of Christ the bread and wine is in companie of the faithful distributed and receiued in remebrance of Christ, The defni­tion or na­ture. that is, that Christ maie witnesse vnto vs, that hee feedeth vs vnto etern [...]ll life, with his bodie and bloud giuen and shed for vs: and we render vnto him solemne thankes for these benefits.

3 The first & principal end & vse of the Lords supper is that Christ may thereby witnesse vnto vs 1 that he died for vs and with his body and bloude feedeth vs vnto eternal life,The endes. that by this witnes­sing he may cherish and increase in vs our faith, & by consequent this spiritual feeding The second is 2 a thanks-giving for these benefit of Christ, with a [Page 298] publique & solemne profession of them, and our 3 duty towards Christ. The thirde is a distinction of 4 the Church from other sectes. The fourth, that it may be a bond of mutuall charitie amongst Chri­stians: seeing they are all made members of one 5 bodie. The fite, that it may bee a bonde and oc­casion of frequent assemblies of the church, see­ing Christ would haue one bread, and one cup to be distributed amongst many.

4 Hence hath the Lordes supper that first vse, which is,How the Lords sup­per confir­meth our faith. a confirmation of our faith in CHRIST, because CHRIST himselfe by the hand of his Ministers reacheth & dealeth vnto vs this bread and cuppe in remembraunce of himselfe, that is, that by this token and signe, as by a visible word, hee may admonish vs, that he died for vs, and that he is vnto vs the meate of eternal life, whilest hee maketh vs his members, and because he an­nexeth a promise vnto this rite, that he will feede with his owne bodie and bloud such as eate this bread in remembrāce of him: when he said, This is my bodie: and because the holy Ghost by this vi­sible testimony moueth our minds and harts with more certainety to beleeue the promise of the gospell.

5 There is then in the Lords supper a twofold kinde of food and drinke: one externall, visible, and earthly, namely the bread and wine: the o­ther internall, invisible & heavenly, namely the body and bloud of Christ: there is also a twofolde eating and receiving, the one externall, visible, [Page 299] and signifying, which is the corporall receiving of bread & wine, that is such a receiving as is per­fourmed by the handes, mouth, and corporall senses; the other internall, invisible, and signi­fied, which is the fruition of the death of Christ, and a spirituall engraffing vs into the bodie of Christ; that is, such an eating as is not performed with the hands and mouth of the bodie, but by spirit and faith. Lastly, there is a twofold minister of this foode and cup; one externall of the exter­nall foode and cup, which is the minister of the church deliuering to vs with his hand the bread & wine; the other an internal minister of the internal food and cup, which is Christ himselfe feeding vs with his owne body and bloud.

6 The signes and elements serving for cōfirma­tiō of our faith,The signes of the Lords sup­per. are not the body & bloud of Christ, but the bread and wine: for the body & bloud of Christ are receiued that we may liue for euer, but the bread and wine are receiued, that we may bee confirmed in the certaintie of that celestiall food, and more and more enioy it.

7 Neither is the bread changed into the body and the wine into the bloud of Christ,The māner of Christs presence in the Lordes supper. neither are the bread and wine abolished, that so the bodie & bloud of Christ may succeede in their places, nei­ther is the very body of Christ substantially pre­sent in the bread, or vnder the bread, or where the bread is: but in the lawfull vse of the LORDS supper the holy Ghost vseth this signe and Sa­crament as an instrumente to stirre vppe faith [Page 300] in vs; whereby he dwelleth in vs more and more, and ingraffeth vs into Christ, making vs become iust for him, and by him to gaine everlasting life.

8 But when Christ saith: This, that is this bread, is my bodie: Sacramen­tal speech. and this cup is my bloud, it is a sacramen­tal or metonymicall kinde of speech, whereby is at­tributed to the signe the name of the thing signi­fied, that is, we are taught that the bread is the Sa­crament or signe of Christs bodie that is, doth re­present and witnesse that Christs body was offe­red for vs on the crosse, and giuen to vs for foode of eternal life, and is therefore an instrument of the holy Ghost to continue & increase this foode in vs, as Paule saith, The bread is the communion of Christs body, 1. Cor. 10. 16. that is, that thing whereby we are made partakers of Christs body: and else where: We haue al dr [...]nke of one drinke into one spirit. 1. Cor. 12. 18. The same is meant whē it is said that the bread is called the body of Christ by similitude which is betweene the thing signified and the signe, namely because the body of Christ nourisheth our spirituall life, as the bread the corporall life: and because of the sure connexion of receiving the thing and the signe, in the lawfull vse of a sacrament. And this is that sacramentall vnion of the bread, & the bo­dy of Christ, which is expressed by the sacramen­tall speech:Sacramen­tall vnion. not that local coniunction, which by some is devised.

9 As therefore there is one body of Christ, A twofolde feeding on the body of Christ. pro­perly so called, and an other sacramental, which is the bread in the Eucharist or Lordes supper: so [Page 301] also the feeding on Christs body is of two sortes; the first sacramentall, which is an external & cor­poral receiving of the signe, namely the bread & wine; the second real, or spirituall, which is the re­ceiving of the body of Christ: Ioh. 6. and it is to beleeue in Christ, and by faith dwelling in vs by his spirit, to be engraffed into his body, as members ioyned to the head, and branches to the vine, & so to be made partakers of the life & death of Christ. Wherby it appeareth that they which teach thus are falsely accused, as if in the Lords supper they did admit nothing besides the bare and naked signes, or participation of the death of Christ, or his benefits, or the holy Ghost alone, excluding the true, reall, and spirituall communion of the bodie it selfe of Christ.

10 The lawfull vse of the Lords supper is,The lawful vse. when the faithfull obserue this rite instituted by Christ, in remēbrance of him: that is to stir vp their faith and thankefulnesse.

11 As in this vse the body of Christ is eaten sa­cramentally and really;How the wicked ear. so without this vse, as by infidels and hypocrites it is indeede eaten Sacra­mentallie, but not reallie: that is, the sacramental signes, as bread and wine, are indeede receaued, but not the things themselues signified by the signes, namely the bodie and bloud of Christ.

12. The doctrine of the Lords supper is groun­ded vpon manie & those very forcible argumēts.The co [...] ­mation. All places of scripture, which mention the Lords supper, do cōfirme it. And Christ doth not cal any 1 [Page 302] 2 invisible thinge in the bread his bodie giuen or brokē for vs, but that verie visible bread which he brake: which because properlie it could not be so meant, himselfe addeth an exposition, that hee woulde haue that bread receaued in remēbrance of him, which is as much as if hee had saide, that this bread was a sacrament of his bodie. Also he 3 saith that the supper is the new testament, which is spiritual, one, and eternall. And Paule saith that it is a communion of the bodie and bloud of Christ, because all the faithfull are one bodie in Christ, which can haue no fellowshippe with the 4 divell. Also he maketh the same engraffinge into Christes bodie, by one spirit in baptisme, and the 5 holy supper. The whole doctrine and nature of sacraments doth confirme it, which represent vn­to 6 our eies the same spiritual cōmunion of Christ to be receaued by faith, which the worde or promise of the Gospell declareth to our eares: and therfore they are called by the nāes of the things signified, and haue not (except in the lawful vse) the receauing of the verie thinge annexed vnto 7 them. The articles of our faith cofirme it, which teach that Christes body is true humane, not pre­sent in manie places at once: and that now it is re­ceaued vp into heauen, and shall there remaine, vntill the Lord returne to iudgment: that the cō ­munion of the godlie with Christ is wrought by 8 the holie Ghost, not by enterance of Christs bo­dy into the bodies of men: & therefore al the pu­rer antiquitie of the church with verie great and [Page 303] open consent professed the same doctrine.

13 The Lords supper differeth from baptisme, 1 In rite and manner of signifying, because the wash­ing 1 signifieth remission and clensing of our sins,Differēces of baptisme and of the Lords sup­per. by the bloud and spirit of Christ, and societie of the afflictions and glorification of Christ. But the distribution of breade and wine, signifieth the death of Christ imputed vnto vs for remission of sinnes, and that wee beeing nowe ingraffed into Christ are become his members. 2 In special vse, 2 because baptisme is a testimony of our regenera­tion, or covenant betweene God and vs, and of our admission or being receiued into the church: but the Lords supper witnesseth, that we are per­petually to be nourished by Christ abiding in vs, and that the covenant which we haue once made with God shall ever endure steadfast, and that we shall for ever abide in the church and bodie of Christ. 3 By the persons to vvhom they must bee 3 ministred. Baptisme is due to all which are to be accounted for members of the church, vvhe­ther aged or infantes: the Lords supper to them onely which can vnderstande and celebrate the benefites of Christ, and examine themselues. 4 In often vse. Baptisme must only once be recei­ved,4 because the covenant of God once begun, is ever firme and steadfast to them that repent, But the Lords supper must be often receiued, be­cause the renuing of that league, and often remē ­brance thereof, is necessary for the strengthning of our faith. 5 In the order of vsing; because bap­tisme 5 [Page 304] must be ministred before, the Lordes supper never but after baptisme.

14 They come worthily to the Lords table which examine themselues,Who may not come to the Lords sup­per. that is, which are endued with true faith and repentance. Which who so do not finde in themselues, they must neither pre­sume to approach without them, least they eate and drinke iudgement to themselues, nor deferre repentaunce whereby they may approach, least they pull vpon themselues hardnesse of hart and eternall punishments.

15 The church ought to admit to the Lords sup­per all that professe that they embrace the foūda­tion of Christian doctrine,Who may be admit­ted. & purpose to obey it: and to prohibit all such as being admonished by the church and convicted of their errors, will not for all that desist from their errors, blasphemies, or manifest sinnes against conscience.

16 The Pope hath done wickedly in taking the breaking of bread from amongst the rites of the the Lords supper, as also in barring the people the vse of the cup. He hath also done wickedly in ad­ding so many ceremonies, never commanded by the Apostles. Hee hath fowly transformed the Lords supper into a theatricall masse, that is, into a foolish imitation of Iudaical traditions, & stage-like gestures. But most impious & idolatrous are those devises, to perswade that the masse is a pro­pitiatorie sacrifice, wherein by the Masse-Priests Christ himselfe is offered vp to his father for the quicke and dead: and by vertue of consecration [Page 305] is substantially present, and so abideth as long as the bread and wine remaine vncorrupt: and be­stoweth the grace of God and other benefits on them for whom he is offered, and by whom he is eaten with the bodily mouth, without any good motion of their owne: and also that he is to be a­dored & worshipped, as he is included and borne about vnder those two kindes, namely bread and wine. For these damnable and abominable idols it is very necessary that the masse bee banished from the Christian church.

A FVNERALL ORATION OF D. FRANCES JVNIVS, Professor of Divi­nity in the famous Schoole of Neustade; vp­on the death of D. ZACHARY VRSINE, a most worthy man and vigilant Do­ctor and Professor of Divinity in the saide Schoole of Neustade.

WE haue lately lost (noble and worthy auditors) the most faithfull servaunt of God Zacharie Vrsine, a re­verende vvitnesse of our Lorde Iesus Christ, a right vertuous man, my sweete fellow-professor, and one most beneficiall to Gods church: of this man are we deprived, and this our orphan-schoole left destitute of her parent. The greatnesse of which losse if I woulde amplifie, I shoulde but giue occasion of more heavinesse to [Page 307] your mindes, that are already in this case too ten­derly affected, and faile exceedingly of that ex­cellency of discourse, which in so excellent a sub­iect may iustly be expected. For though faine I would, and could hartily wish that I might speak much to this purpose, yet I neither thinke it fit, considering I should but minister fuell to the fire of your affection; nor accompt my selfe able, as well for divers defects which I feele in my selfe of wit, learning, exercise, & continuance of conver­sing with that man of happy memorie, whereby I am much disabled; as also because if I were fur­nished with gifts of vtterance (which in my selfe I acknowledge to be very slender) yet nowe the waight of this vvorke, the scantnesse of time, and vehemencie of my griefe haue debarred me all vse and practise of them. Wherefore I would indeede haue perswaded some others of our col­ledge to take some paines in this matter thereby to ease mine owne study and sorrow; but they ex­cused themselues vvith the publique griefe and their owne most affectionate heavinesse. And must wee then needes neglect the commendati­on of that sacred soule, if in this publique calami­tie of the Church and our schoole, wee giue our selues wholy to mourning and lamentation? But that perhaps wil seeme an vndutiful nicenes & tē ­dernes to such as know not the vehemēcie of our griefe. Besides (to vse the words of S. Amb.) though it do but increase our griefe to wright of that which grie­veth vs, yet because cōmonly we content our selues with [Page 308] the remembrance of him whose losse we lament, for th [...] in wrighting a whilest that our mindes by meditation are wholy fixed on him, wee imagine him to liue in our dis­course; it is a thinge that must be done, except we will be thought to haue buried in silence the memorie of a pledg so well deseruing, and to haue vouchsafed him no honor, or els to haue avoided all incitemēts to greife, wher as for the most part, to greiue is the especial comfort of such as are greiued. Shall we then differ this commenda­tion any longer? no truelie; but rather let vs stirre vp your mindes to maintaine his memorie both now & to al posteritie hereafter: for (as Nazianzen saith) good men ought to be especially remembred, and they whose memorie is godlie and p [...]offitable. But stay then: am I the boldest of this companie of pro­fessors? not so. But perhappes I am the most offi­cious and forward to shew my dutie? truelie nei­ther am I so greed [...]e of the glorie of this actiō that I could finde in my heart to snatch it from others by prevention. How then? am I belyke the most vnwise of all others? truelie I do not arrogate to my selfe any great wisedome, onely I hope this my dutie shal be without off [...]ces & with thought hereof I am much comforted. But what mooued mee aboue others to take vpon me the penninge and pronouncing of this oration? Because of dutie one of vs must needes haue done it; & that which was a dutie in all, greife excused in other, and might as well haue done in me, had not very necessitie not onelie required, but also euen ex­acted it at my handes. For first I owe as much to [Page 309] the memorie of that iust man my good fellow-professor, as others doe, namelie an honorable re­membrance of him. Moreouer I owe so much du­tie and more to this our Schoole, which may iust­ly callenge my diligence, as well in this as in o­ther causes. Lastelie I shall hereby provide both for the publique good, and also for mine owne credit: for otherwise who would not be readie to obiect against me that sayinge of Sophocles?

Alasse! how soone thanklesse posteritie
Leaues to retaine a dead freindes memorie?

But these learned and iudicial men herepresēt, may in the common heauinesse make this bene­fit, that they perswade themselues they may shift of the burden of this exercise without preiudice of their credit: as for me, the necessitie of my place enforceth either to prouide some other who will and may better discharg it then my selfe, or els to submit my selfe to the hazard of your censures. The waight of my other affaires do ouermuch dis­tract me, the conscience of mine owne weaknes doth amaze mee, the worth and greatnes of the thinge it selfe deters me. All this notwithstāding, the authoritie of this schoole preuaileth ouer mine affaires, good ensample and publique paterne of the church forceth my conscience, and necessitie it selfe doth thrust me forward setting aside re­spect of the worthe and maiestie of this subiect, to say some thinge therof in this assemblie. Trusting therfore to your courtesie and indifferencie (wor­shipfull and worthie auditors) first I desire & en­treate [Page 310] you to heare favorably this my oration, no way matching (I confesse) that matchlesse mans desertes, or your expectation, or mine owne duty, but onely fitting my poore mediocritie: then that you woulde vouchsafe lovingly to excuse mee (plucking onelie some few fruites from that most rare and sacred tree (if I neither flourish out this picture with those curious colours, nor furnish out this table with those diuers and daine [...]i [...] dishes which that rich store house might afforde, but ra­ther supplie what mine ignorance hath omitted, and pardon both for shortnesse of time and vehe­mencie of griefe, whatsoever I shall happen to speake vnadvisedly. For in that man I purpose not to speake of that wee admired whilst it vvas present, and now want being absent (for I neither know nor can reckon al) nor of many such things as I know, and haue much thought of (for even that also were almost infinite, and would seeme incredible to manie) but I intend in few words to lay downe a briefe of those vertues and good giftes which heretofore wee haue all seene, and whose losse wee now lament, and to shaddowe out vnto you the damage redounding to vs all by the vntimely death of that man of fame, that by this fi [...]e wee may bee inflamed to strong faith and serious repentaunce, and more and more frame our selues to imitation of this worthy wit­nesse and valiant champion of CHRIST IE­SVS.

Zacharie Vrsine was borne at Pres [...]aw of honest [Page 311] parentage by discent, in the yeare of our Lorde, 1536. Hee was naturallie for constitution of bo­die strong; but more strong of minde and cou­rage, especiallie after there had beene ioyned to the goodnesse of his nature, artes, and sciences, and other most excellent and heavenlie giftes & qualities. But touching the giftes of his body we shal not neede to speake much, considering that some of them are indifferentlie common to all men, others besides men, are also incident vnto beastes. For although in themselues they be cō ­modious, and such as every man may wel wish to further him in laudable attemptes, yet they make nothing to the true glorie and commendation of those in whom they are found: wherefore I am re­solved to giue vnto him his deserued commenda­tion, not as he was man, but a most absolute Di­vine. But touching the vertues of his mind, which by consent of al good men deserue of themselues to be desired, and possesse the perpetual fruit of true glorie, what shal I saie? whence shoulde I be­ginne, or when should I end, if I should endevour to speake all that might be said of this most holie & choice vessell, ordained to the glorie of his ma­ker? I should sooner want time then matter in so iust a cause. Nowe then I see well what I haue to do. I must prescribe vnto my selfe certaine limites & bounds, beyōd which (would I never so faine) I may nor stray: that so, both I may promise to my selfe the things wherof I meane to speake, & you before hād may cōceiue what you are like to hear.

[Page 312] First thē I giue you to vnderstand, that this our deare Vrsine was a man absolutely furnished with manie and those exceeding greate and singular giftes of wit and vnderstanding. Also this I saie, that with these most singular, exquisite, and in­credible giftes of witte vvas ioyned a most stricte course of life, respecting the publique good of the Church. Lastly, I tell you, that his godly death is vnto vs a most sure argument both of his ele­ganeie of vvitte and strictnesse of life. VVithin these boundes I doe of purpose empale my selfe, that so you remembring this may the more easily recall to memory all the rest, and with authoritie call me homewardes, if I offer to wander beyond these listes.

Concerning that wit whereof we spake, I am verily perswaded that this worthy man was most aboundantly stored with many and those verie heauenlie giftes thereof: which I desire may bee spoken without offence, and taken without envy of any man. For vvaying vvith my selfe that strength of wit which is naturall, I see not vvhat was wanting in him that might be founde in any man: but when I thinke of those vertues where­by our wits & mindes are adorned and strength­ned to the studies of humanitie and religion, then me thinke I remember how by the finger of God almost all were heaped vpon this one man. And that this which I speake is true, al men can witnes who but once conuersing vvith him haue had experience of his singular vertues, vvitnesse his [Page 313] familiar acquaintance, witnesse his friends, wit­nesse innumerable multitudes of those vvhich haue vsed his advise, witnesse many greate and principall men, which haue preferred him be­fore al men to bee the oracle of their counsels, & th [...] censurer of their wrightings: vvitnesse innu­merable peoples, nations, churches, and last­lie bookes of his, by whose varietie of learning CHRISTS people hath alreadie a long time beene fedde and recreated, albeit they like mo­dest children, obeying the modest will of their natural Father, dissemble and conceale his name. VVhich beeing so, vvhat neede I any farther blazon the worth of so incomparable a wit? For if I consider with my selfe his naturall wisedome ioyned vnto this witte, beholde immediatelie there are presented to my viewe vvhole troopes of conferences, Letters, Lectures, Sermons, wrightings, bookes, beeing as it vvere vvhole shoppes and store-houses of his wisedome. If at any time I bethinke my selfe of his inventi­on, vvhat could a man conceiue of sharper edge? (as the Poēt said) more forwarde and swift? more diligent & industrious, then was that force, wher­with it pleased almightie GOD to endue this vessell of holinesse? If I respect that magnanimi­ty and quicknesse of conceipt vvhereby all hu­maine things he conceaved & skorned, what mā on the earth did more easily, & in the twinckling of an eie, (as vvee vse to saye) overpasse all those thinges, vvhich to those celestiall spirites [Page 314] seeme vile & base, then he did? If tenacite of me­morie which is the continual companion of good wittes, I finde in this man a memorie immortally good. But after this fruitful and happie witte was once manured & husbanded by ingenuous artes and sciences, then indeede began he to aduance the singularitie of his nature vnto a perfection far exceedinge all others. For he trulie was so skilled in all artes and sciences, that he might worthilie bee thought possessed with that famous circle of sciences, so much commended by auncient phi­losophers. He was as well seene as any man in the arte of pure, plaine, elegant, and true speech. He had so diligently and artificially vsed each part of philosophy, that you should not take him to haue beene a scholler to philosophie, but rather philo­sophie to haue bin a scholler to him. He was most skilful in the Mathematiques, he knew exquisitly al that pertained to Naturall philosophie, and was so excellently cunning in Moral and politique affaires, that he might worthilie be accoumpted a singular miracle of the worlde.

Moreouer (to the intente that learninge this, wee may proceede yet farther) how manie and greate men did hee to his greate cost visite, that he might throughly informe himself in the know­ledge of these thinges, and perfite himselfe by diligent imitation. For hee visited, hearde, & swallowed not onelie with eyes and eares, but allso with insatiable thirst of mynde those most cleere and eminent lightes of all Europe, which [Page 315] then shined in Wittemberge, Leipsich, Paris, and Zurich, gathered from them all the sweete hony of learninge, whose combes are nowe extant, delicious and wholesome to vs for this schoole, to Germanie his deare countrie, and to the whole church of God, which is the common mother of vs all, but bitter and pernicious to all wic­ked men and heretiques. What should I heare speake of exercise, wherein this greate servant of God and minister of the church did so greatlie delight, that with too severe and strict medita­tion and exercise, wherevnto hee was wholie ad­dicted, hee neglected all care of his bodilie health. And this hee did then especially, when hee had satisfied his minde with the knowledge of humaine artes, least perhappes that might befall him which often befall vnskilful fencers, whoe a longe time flourish & beate the aire with­out once touching the body, & after much paines takē to no purpose, whē they come indeed to the sharp, are soone over come in fight: for it is indeed a great matter and ever cōmendable to excell all others in naturall gifts & strēgth of witt, but grea­ter, to grace that solid natural iuice of wit with the florishinge pleasinge coloure of humaine arts, but greatest, & that which exceedeth all the rest is, when both iuyce & colour are steeped & purified in the sacred foūtaines of this diuine & heauenlie doctrine: not that our minds might anie more be coloured as in times past with pure purple, but that every one in the spirite of his minde may bee renewed after the image of his creator. [Page 316] And if any man in our memorie, without doubt this valiant champion of Christ hath performed, laboured, and carefully perfited it. For first he per­ceaued, and verie wisely, that those daintie orna­ments of humanitie ought to be hand-maides vn­to the word of God and holy scripture. Then this he laid downe for a ground, that he was not at his owne, but others disposing. Also he vnderstood that as many as addicte themselues to the service of God, obtaine of him saluatiō, but such as with­draw themselues from vnder his hand, doe fayle therof. But then (good Lord!) how feruēt a stu­die did the meditation of these things breede in the sanctified soule of this Christian champion? what feare? what desire? what zeale? Hēce sprōg his faith in Christ, his hope, and (that which is the bond of all perfection) his charitie: all heauenlie vertues, which whē once they were rooted in him by God the father, they could neuer be rooted out, or corrupted by any temptation, violēt fraud, prosperitie, or adversitie. What shall wee farther say, if all this was not enough, but that the inno­cent man must daily punnish himselfe? for he did seuerely chastize his bodie to bring it to subiectiō vnto Christ. It is incredible how carefull and reli­gious hee was not to be wiser thē in sobrietie was fit for him: he did ever captivate vnto Christ that naturall wisedome wherin he excelled; he neuer durst determine anie thinge but out of the plaine and knowne worde of God, he would avouch no­thinge but what he had receaved by most sure [Page 317] faith of the holy Ghost; lastely he was alwaies of this minde, that nothinge was to be altered from the common receaued customes and opinions, except the vnresistable veritie of Gods worde did both commaund and force. But that he might with more certaintie compasse all these things, he was exactelie skilled in the tongues, a most neces­sarie instrument amongst others for a true diuine: and these he had alwaies readie, and vsed them wheresoeuer was neede with passinge dexteritie and wisedome. A man for iudgment most profūd, for prouidence wise, cunning to devise, quicke to invent, laborious to search, sharpe to discusse, readie to perceaue, in deliueringe a truth most faithfull, in refellinge a falshoode most powerfull, farre from uanitie, diligent in all he vndertooke, armed at all points with the complete harnesse of a true Diuine, a stronge repeller of falshoode, & an invincible fortresse of defence for veritie. This man (worthy audience) by profession a diuine, indeed a champion of Christ, haue we lost, wee haue (I say) lost by the will of God this earnest maintainer of Gods truth, this victorious aduer­sarie of Satan; this faithfull touchstone aud rebuke of the fraudes and sophismes which he vseth to plot and devise, this valorous vanquisher and destroyer of heresies we haue seene taken from a­monge vs: and we all lament this most heavie plague and greivous wounde inflicted on vs and the whole church of Christ. But whether do I wā ­der? Doe you not now perceaue (noble and ex­cellēt [Page 318] auditors) that by degrees I am fallen to the second point whereof I purposed to speake? For hitherto I haue giuen you to vnderstand that this our Doctor was a rare man for excellencie of wit, learninge, trust, and skill in matters of religion, the learnedst among divines, and most divine a­monge the learned. Now it followeth necessarily that I speake somwhat of that second parte which I proposed, that so to this theorie and knowledge I may ioyne his vertuous life and practize.

The manner hereof was this: he was an other iust Zacharie before God, and laboured with all his might to ioyne innocencie of life to those ex­cellent giftes of witt bestowed on him by nature, arte, ane the heauenlie grace of God: I call you to witnesse that haue conuersed with the man open­ly and familiarlie. Whatsoeuer he had of nature, did hee not (after he had faithfully bettered it by liberall artes, and profited it by grace infused from heauen) imploy it wholie to the studie and du­tie of pietie, charitie, and humanitie? Some per­chaunce will thinke it incredible, some enuiouse­lie spoken; yet I must needes say it. I thinke this age hath bred verie few, whose studious part and dutiful minde might be compared with this mans hearte and minde. Which I speake not because I woulde flatter him: for whie should I flatter the dead? nor that I yeeld too much to our freindship and familiaritie, for it was a greife to me that I was almost alwaies absent from so worthie a man; and now to be cutt of from all hope of acquaintance [Page 319] with him which I haue so much wished, this is that which grieueth me most of all. I speake the truth, & that which in cōscience I thinke; I haue obser­ued in this mā so much diligence of studie, and so much gratiousnes of curtesie & faire behavior, as can very hardly be matched, must lesse bettered by any mā. And how might this be known? beeaus in pietie, charitie, and curtesie he satisfied al other men, but never could satisfie himselfe. But who, I pray, is there that can witnes thus much? nay who is there that cannot witnes it, if he haue but heard the name of Vrsinus? heard it, say I? nay I call thē to witnesse which know not so much as his name. There haue beene manie in our memorie, which haue most greedilie gathered the most sweete & wholsome fruite of his labours, as from a tree vn­knowne, & haue togeather with vs thirsted after the water poured from his river and bowells by Christ. It were to long to confirme these thinges by examples, testimonies, and arguments: & per­happes to some of you vnprofitable, to others tea­dious. But out of manie I will make choice only of som feaw, & frō his plentifull panterie & stor­house, furnish you out a frugal & thriftie bāquet. His first rudimēts of religion he had learned of a child; which is a great matter. In proces of time he encreased & furthered thē most aboūdātly: which is more. But the greatst matter & most memorable of al the rest, is that whē he was aged (if a man of years may be termed aged, at which years it plea­sed God to take away and extinuish that light, [Page 320] shining to the testimonie of that true light) but being, I say, aged, he as much confirmed that his studie of godlinesse and religion, as when he did most.

Lastly, at all times (that I may, if it be possible, conclude al in a word) without measure or end he was so carried away with desire of godlinesse and reverence of his maker, and did so burie himselfe therein, that from the principles of wisdome pro­ceeding every daie very much forvvard, he in the end attained that perfection, wherwith the most righteous God hath now crowned him. And though himselfe procured & vsed no other suffi­cient witnesses of these his most holy endevours (which God very well knew and approued) be­sides that great searcher of harts, God, & our Lord Iesus Christ whom he serued in spirit: yet am I able to alleadge two most evident proofes thereof, namely his faithful praiers, & sacred meditations. But then (will some man say) did this Vrsinus, whō you cōmend, vse to cal witnesses about him when he wēt to praier? did he offer himselfe to the view & hearing of others as if he had beene on a thea­ter and not in his closet? no truely. That most sim­ple man, one far from al shew of this humaine va­nitie & affectiō of vaine glory, thought it alwaies sufficient to be seene in secret by his father▪ which seeth in secret, vvas verie warie in beeing seene of others, confirmed himselfe by Christiā praier, did not vaunt himselfe by pharisaicall boasting. Do I then guesse and speake by coniecture? nor so, but [Page 321] avouch it vpon certaine knowledge. For such in­deede was this man of God, most carefull of the truth, the church, the afflicted brethren, & al mē, wholie bent to faithful praier, whereby like ano­ther Iosue conversing night & day in the light of heavenlie things, he did with feruent praier saue and defend the people of his charge, & with the sword of Gods word chased and put to flight the enemies of the faith. But what should I speake of his meditations? We founde (ô deere Vrsine) that thou didst truely obserue, what Demosthenes had before in word & deed approued, That easie things were harde to bee conceived by the negligent, and harde things easie to the diligent. So certaine was it that thou thoughtest nothing vnworthy thy medita­tion. For what easie thing did escape him? What difficult thing was there wherevnto he did not at­taine? Whatsoever the eternall spirit of God deli­vered in the bookes of the Prophets & Apostles, all that he beleeued faithfully, searched diligent­ly, and attained by med [...]ating theron miracu­lously. For those he accoumpted the worthiest paines, which were bestowed in those divine stu­dies. As often as I thinke on the greate, labori­ous, and peremptorie desire of meditation which was in this man, (and I cannot but thinke of it verie much and often) I still call to minde that elegāt sentēce of Ba [...]us the Great, seeing the truth is harde to finde, wee must euerie where seeke after it. For if the conceiuing, as of arts, so also of true [...] and religion, be made greate by that continu­all [Page 322] encrease vvhich by little and little is gathered together, there is not that thing so meane & sim­ple, which they that enter into that kind of know ledge may or ought to despise. But what thinke you of this, that there was nothing delivered by those great men & principall philosophers which this my busie fellow professor did not by medita­tion attaine, were it neuer so crabbed, deepe, and obscure? was he not well seene in the moral wrigh­tings of Aristotle and other wrighters? was not natural philosophie plaine, open, and easie vnto him? did hee not absolutelie conceiue the drift and na­ture of Aristotles Organon? the subtiltie of vvhich worke some flie, as despairing of the vnderstan­ding thereof, others with rash iudgement cōdēne it, as the fatal and pernicious Scylla or Charybdis of youth: the subtiltie and commoditie of vvhich vvorke Vrsine sharpelie and speedilie perceaued, and presented it as it were in a table to be percei­ved and perused by others. What should I heere speake of the Mathematiques, vvhose foundations are commonlie grounded on serious meditatiō of mind, whose principles are cōtained in axioms or petitions as they cal thē? Their difficult preceptes were not vnknowne to Vrsinus, vvho by serious meditatiō, not fleeting & slender insight, throughly pervsed thē all. Well then, let vs now see what witnesses we can produce for this matter. After I haue vsed his own testimony, I wil then thinke of others. Vrsine himself in the whole race of these his too shorte daies, is a most substantial witnes of his [Page 323] owne meditatiōs, & al those vertues which before I haue recited. For what duties of piety, or Christiā charity, or cōmō curtesie did he omit? his religious duty toward God, God himselfe did see, acknow­ledg & seal, & hath now at the last rewarded. But because the best vvay to knowe the tree is by the fruit, let me (with your patience) a litle turne your thoughts to the fruits of his godlinesse & religion. Truly I thinke that in holy scripture they are the greatest fruits of godlines, which cōcerne the ad­vancemēt of Gods glory. And whē was this sacred soule at al wāting herevnto? whē did it not ende­vor & labor vehemently to giue light everie day more thē other to the truth, & therwith to lightē others with whō it did cōverse, that so it might dis­pel the foggy clouds of error? But those duties of piety are most neerely linked vnto charity, which concerne both edifying of the church, & the sal­vatiō of our neighbors. Wherfore now I wil speak iointly of both sorts of duties, & demōstrate how painful this couragious soldier of Christ did labour by his speech, his wrightings, & his whole minde, that he might not in the least maner trip or wāder frō his duty. As therfore the duties of piety & cha­rity ar between thēselues agreeable, & vnited: so also they liued, encreased, & altogither shōe forth of this mā when he lived. For if we respect the ex­ercises hee vndertooke in regarde of these duties, good Lord, how great was his faith? his diligence? his fasting? his watching? for not onelie the fruits ensuing heereon can witnesse thus much vnto vs, [Page 324] but also that macerating and pullinge downe his bodie, that taminge of his flesh, that outwarde man worne and spent with sore passed labours, so that hee died an vntimelie death. I woulde to God (my deare Vrsine) thou hast not so week­ned thy selfe with vnmeasurable [...], that thou mightest longer tyme haue [...] vs, [...] schoole, & Gods church For thou diddest so far respect god, that thou diddest no way respect thy selfe. Alasse, alasse, deere Vrsine the light of Ger­manie, the pillar of the church, the father of this our schoole, and the immortall glorie of this coū ­tie Palatine, I woulde thou couldest haue been perswaded, to haue taken thy-selfe a little from thy-selfe, and respited thy-selfe a little from thy continuall cares, that so wee, this schoole, & the whole church might a little longer haue enioyed thee? when I in times past admonished thee som­what to this purpose thou madest mee aunswer, that bodilie exercise did little profit: where vn­to I replied that it was profitable, and that by entercourse it was to bee ioyned with the ex­ercise of the mynde, and that it was elegantly proved by Chrysostom to the people of Antioch: all this I tryed with him, but to no purpose. But what meane I? the Lordes will hath been done, it is better to bee silent, then to reply. Who then is there which can shew, that the duty of this worthy and laborious man was ever want­ing either in speech or wrightinge, as long as hee was any way able to shew it? for mine owne part I [Page 325] know not whether the remembrance of his in­vincible paines, which hee vncessantly vsed in perfourmance of these duties, did more greiue me, or the conceipt of that fruite, whith without care of him selfe hee dealte vnto all posteritie doth delight mee: although tyme may were a­waie greife, but this fruit shall continue beyonde all tyme. Yf I respect private conference, thy mynde was an wholesome and well sured trea­sure: if thy publique speeches, it was the oracle of God, at least for that measure that may be found in mortalitie: if both togeather, that thy divine disposinge and dispensinge of the mysteries of God, doth not the brightenesse therof dazel and blinde the eyes of my mynde and vnder­standinge? Thou man of God, thou well fur­nished Divine with all the holie complete ar­moure of divinitie, thou excellent amongest all divines, when diddest thou at anie time cease from preaching and professing of the truth? when diddest thou cōceale those mysteries which were stored vp in thy armoury, that is, in thy mind? whē wert thou at any time idle? it is strāge that I wil tel you, yet very certainly true, there neuer came in my presēce idle word out of his mouth: all things did streāe frō him so exquisit, levelled, weighed, & premeditated. What should I speake of his publi­que discourses? his excellēt sermōs first preached by him at Heidelberg were in admiration with all men; the variety & multiplicity of learning, which he vsed in his lectures did refine, adorne, better & [Page 326] make fruitfull the wits of many, vvhich now in all parts of the Christian vvorld plant, sovv, & water the garden and fielde of God, which build vp the house of the liuing God, and lastlie which by their labours of imitatiō do represent this their faithfull maister, as it vvere reviued by them & recalled frō death. Nay his ordinary table which he vsed in the house of wisdome, vvas so spread vvith varietie of flowers & sweet fruits of that more sacred sort of philosophie, so stored with provision new & old, that it might wel seeme, not a table of vulgar phi­losophie, but a sāctuarie of celestial wisdōe. There the voice of scripture resounded, which is the on­ly messenger and interpreter of vvisdome, there vvere her foster-children, honesty and modestie, and (to vse the words of Eustathius in Macrobius) with sobriety, godlines. There was variety of hi­storie, natural and morall; there sate by all the sci­ences, and one after an other interposing did by entercourse breath louely & liuely freshnes into the whole assembly. If any mā wil reckon these a­mong his discourses, he may for me; but I knovve these were ful & iust lectures, adorned with notes of al sciences, & beautified with admirable graces. And these ar the great vertues of his discourses. But who wil not marvel that al these vertues shoulde dailie be polished & adorned by wrighting, that most excellēt & ready maker & master of eloquēt discourse? For this mirror of mē tooke pleasure to feed the fluencie not only of his tōgue, but also of his wit by wrighting: which is a thing that Tullie cōmādeth & cōmēdeth to as many as desire to ex­cel [Page 327] in speakīg & teaching. Therfore al his lectures, cōmētaties, observatiōs, & notes were wrightē: so that frō his own writings he had cōtinuall helpes, both for his owne memory, & also for others dire­ctiō. But amōgst all these writings I maruell at no­thing more, thē that he could steale so much vacāt time frō thē, as to answere to many & those verie weighty questions. He opened the vnderstāding of things, & freely gaue coūsaile to such as reque­sted his advise, & thē was he most dutiful, whē he was supposed to think of nothing lesse thē dutie. This the learned & vnlearned, the poore & rich, neighbors & strāgers, friends & enemies cā verie wel witnes: none of al which cā iustly complaine, that he was either not regarded of him, or not sa­tisfied by him. He endevored so curteously, gētlie & faithfully to doe good to all, that he might win al, & ioine thē to his L. Christ. But some mā wil say these are priuate matters: where are those publike proofes of his piety & charity? these thinges are so opēly witnessed & proued, that they are indeede cleerer thē the cleere sun-shine at noone-day. For those elegāt wrightings heretofore we haue seene at Heidelberg, came most out of this store house: & those which here, I say here 5. yeares since vvere spred amōgst vs, were al wrightē by the same hād; and that hand which here hee guided by his skill, God hath now possessed there with vndoubted rest. Tell mee (thou vpstarte Eutyches) what didst thou ever feele more heavy then this hand, ex­cept the hand of God, which doth vex, persecute, [Page 328] excruciate, torment, & pursue them? What Belle­raphon did more strongly beate downe thy Chimae­ra? what Hercules thy Hydra? Who did ever more couragiouslie confound that thy Cerberian mon­ster of Vbiquitie? But that I may not long dwell on a matter vulgar and trivial, thou Sarmatian A­rius shalt not escape the hand of this heroike chā ­pion, though issuing from vs. This same is he that hath provided, filed, polished, sharpned and fit­ted vnto vs armour, prepared for the destructiō of thy impious opiniō: of whose force I haue thought good to fore-warne thee, that thou maiest now at length begin to looke backe to God & reverētly feare the eternal son of the eternal God which is, was, and shal be one together with the father for ever and ever: which if thou wilt not doe, vnder­stand then that there is denounced from this mā eviction of thy blasphemie, and from God, thy downefall, ruine, and destruction. What trust thē, vvhat diligence shall we thinke was in this sweet and sacred soule, who suffred no hower, no mo­ment of the day to passe without some profit? The proofes of pietie & charitie consist especiallie in these 2. causes; first in maintaining true doctrine, secondlie in assailing and suppressing that which is false. Who thē is there that can addict himselfe more religiouslie, learnedlie, fitlie, presselie, vehe­mentlie, faithfullie, diligentlie & stoutlie to true and sound doctrine then he hath done? To speak somwhat of his curtesie, what greater favor could he do, then that whereof before I spake, vvhich [Page 329] was his diligence in vnfolding questions, and gi­ving advise? Which in this man was ever so elabo­rate, that he cleered all doubts most evidently, discouered all sophismes most subtilly, readilie, & with passing dexterity and agility, not with the words of humane wisedome, but by the power of the holy spirit. Why thē should any heere obiect, that he was a man of churlish and surly dispositi­on? In deed as they which are paineful in their stu­dies are somewhat surly to such idle and slouthful children as delight more in childish sportes then manly studies: so they that are most diligent are somewhat way warde to men of vanity. For to my selfe and other good men that knew him, no man was more curteous and affable. And if at a­ny time he made it a religiō to stir from any mat­ter which he busily intended, I likewise made it as great a religion to cal him away frō it: because I would presuppose, that either he was very busie or not very wel. In my occasions of busines (saith Tullie) I am very doubtful, when having begunne any thing I am called to some other matter: nei­ther can I so easilie conioine things interrupted, as finish them once purposed. Touching health there is none so foolish but (if he doe not beleeue me) may learne as much by nature & experience. Wherefore he is but a drone, that will be trouble­some to a busie bee; and he too vnciuil, foolish, & importune, vvhich takes such harmeful diligence for a duty. Of this sort there are many so foolish, and iniurious to good men, that they scarce accōpt [Page 330] them men, vnlesse they will every waie be as foo­lish as themselues. What shall I here shew that, I often see verie greate men complaine of this mat­ter, that they are sodainlie called awaie frō those studies that are sacred, weightie, and required of their place, and compelled against their willes to spend most of their time in trifles, & idle discour­ses, and so almost to nothing, to their owne great greife, and the publique damage of the church. How often, and how grieuously doe Nazianzen, Austin, and Ambrose confesse that they haue takē these withdrawings and callings awaie from their studies? They truely deale more wisely, so they be not over stricte, which imitate that same Basi­lius the Greate, and Chrysostom, For they so close­ly betooke themselues to their function, that they preuented all such withdrawings, as are wont, ey­ther rashly or without respect of dutie to be impo­sed vpon learned men. They saw well that if you admit these importune saluters at the first, they will afterward challenge it as a right to be troble­some to good men, & by their example provoke other men to the same importunitie: but that you shoulde provide for best, if at the first you tooke some care, & prevented these vncourteous curte­sies In this sort therfore did this good soule do ser­uice to God, and the church, or else tender his owne health. Thou rather art churlish (ô thou im­portune mā whosoeuer thou art!) which vncurte­ously desirest that, which Vrsinus of curtesie might & of duty ought to deny. It is folly not to excuse [Page 331] him that is busied in affaires of the church; but not pardon him that tendereth the health of his owne bodie is in humanitie: & both contrarie to the lawe of charity. Although (to come to the last part of my speech) this our deere brother was not so hindered, but that whē he was vnable to lift his handes, his tongue stambering, & his iawes almost closed vp, almost panting & gaspinge for breath did yet attend to these studies & duties. For whē his strength failed, & the iuice & bold in his body was decaied, how often did hee thinke of this our Schoole? How often did he cōplaine that he was idle amidst that painfull buisinesse of his infirmi­tie & sicknesse? How reasonablie did he persist in those wrightings he had vndertaken, vntill that soule which coulde bee conquered & tamed by no afflictiōs, begā to fleete & flie out of his brokē, cōquered, & tamed corps? ô blessed is that faith­full and wise seruant, whom his Lord when hee commeth shal finde so doing? happie is that man, whose God is the Lord?

And that this man of famous memorie, our be­loued freind, is now in that hill of Sion, in the ci­tie of the liuing God, in the heauenlie Hierusalem, amongst myriads of Angels, in the companie & church of those first▪ begottē which are gathe­red into a heuēly armie, with the iudge of al flesh, with God & the spirit of the iust that are now perfited, with the mediator of the New testamēt Iesus Christ, & the sprinkling of the bloud of our saluatiō, both those argumēts which before I vsed, [Page 332] namely those heauēly gifts of wir, faith, hope, stu­dy of pietie, charitie, humanitie, and all other du­ties and curtesies do evidently confirme, as also that most happy ende which hee made doth cer­tainly demonstrate. For, not to speake of this, that his soule long since lived vnto God, & was dead vnto this wretched and miserable world, (for so I speake holilie with Christes Apostle of an holy thing) when mention was made vnto him of faith, hope, charity, resurrection, life, glory, and eternall happinesse, Lord how did he assent, applaude, & sweetelie smile at it! how did he cast vp his eies to our Redeemer! to whom as he had long before cō ­mended himselfe, so also he did at length surren­der his soule most peaceably, & so was wafted out of the deepe sea of this world, into a most pleasāt harbour of salvation and rest, euen the bosome & embracings of our heauenlie father. Who is there heere (I beseech you) amongst vs, that wil not re­ligiouslie crie out for ioy, and wish together with me! O let my soule die the death of the iust, and let my ende be like vnto his. For he truely saw, he saw by liuelie faith heauen open vnto him, & Christ the Prince and perfiter of our faith sitting at the right hand of maiestie in the heauens, incomparable glory provided for him, the whole companie of that heauenly church welcomming him, lastly all making to saluation, since he did so quietly yeeld vp his soule vuto God the Creator and Father of spirits, that so hee might liue with him eternallie. This then is that soule (noble and worthy audi­tors) [Page 333] this is that sanctified soule and acceptable to God, which to our great losse is of late daies takē from vs: although (as sometimes Cyprian and Am­brose saide) wee haue not lost it, but sent it before, purposing our selues in good time to follow. We haue not lost but repaied him, as Epictetus warneth vs. For he which gaue him hath required & recei­ued him backe againe. Why then do we mourne for him whom we haue not lost? We lament that so sweet and fit an instrument of Gods glorie is receiued backe from vs: we lament this foreshew­ing of euil hanging ouer vs, and now ready to be­fall vs: we lament the present ouer-flowing of wic­kednes, iniustice, and al perfidious dealing, which commonly preuaileth so much the more, as it per­ceiueth these meanes of protection and saluation to be taken from vs. For haue we not reason to la­ment the losse of that instrumēt, of whom it is sin to conceale any thing that may worthily be spo­ken in commendation? I know right well (noble auditors) that many here present are able to speak more to this purpose then I either haue done or can do. For that dailie familiarity which you had with our Vrsine, hath enriched you with store of matter, and variety of learning with eloquence. But seeing of duty & deserte I haue yeelded you the first place in this matter, and you haue vouch­safed me the second; you wil also (I hope) willing­ly pardon me, for substituting in my roome a Di­uine to speake of a Diuine, and attribute vnto this man that which himselfe spake sometimes of A­thanasius [Page 334] the stoute mainetainer of the truth, and Antagonist of errors. He was the Lords faithful labo­rer, a man of God, the reconciler of men, the trompet of truth, the pillar of the church, Gods true champion, con­stant in the faith of Christ, most fit for defence against poisenous heresies: who though he were peaceable & mo­derate in all things, yet could hee neuer patiently endure, that for quietnesse sake God should be betraied but was a vehement warrier and an invincible Herioicke spirit in this case: cōmending some, moderately chastising others; correcting some mens coldnesse, bridling others heate: providing for some that they fall not, labouring that o­thers which were fallen might be raised againe; simple of maners, divers in discharge of many duties; wise of talke, wiser in vnderstanding; wherefore he so liued, was so in­structed, and so instructed others, that as his life & man­ners might be a list & limit to vpright dischardge of the like dutie: so also his opinions may bee examples as it were authenticke lawes of faith and religion. All this I may wel speake in commendation of this our Di­vine, which the same Divine spake sometimes in cōmendatiō of Athanasius. And would God haue taken from vs and the church such an instrumēt, except he had bin angry for our sins? did not God condemne the wickednes of the world, when hee tooke Enoch vnto himselfe? vvas not all Israel on fire after Elisaeus was dead? was not Iuda miserably persecuted & put to the worst after the death of Iosias? haue not we read that Coūt Stilico said destruction attended on Italie when so worthy a man as Ambrose was dead? was not Africke, Germanie, and [Page 335] lād sorely vexed, after they had lost Austē, Luther, & Bucer? And I am of opinion that God doth but reveale vnto vs some great & present anger of his, and fore-shew some seuere iudgemēt against this vngratefull generation, by the death of other fa­mous men, & of this choice instrument by name. But what if God not by worde onely but also in­deed haue oftē stirred vp our vnrepētant harts to a profitable meditatiō & terrour of these thinges? Wee truely haue read, seene, & obserued howe great and manifold signes and tokens God vseth to shew both in heauen and earth, before hee ta­keth away those sacred lights from amongst man­kind: How vehementlie he doth as it were clothe heauen and earth with mourning and lamentati­on, how fearfully he threatneth to set all on fire. All which he doth to no other end but by many testimonies of his anger to call vs to repentance, and may giue vs to vnderstand that hee choo­seth rather to disburden his anger vpon al things then to strike mankinde: and in the end when hee is so neere, that for often offending his patience hee is readie to directe the arrowes of his anger against our verie heades; that then hee may shewe that those good men in whome hee taketh most delight, are deliue­red from danger of this generall fire and fear­full diluge of distruction. Wherefore (noble audience) this is the thinge for which wee mourne and sorrow, this is that wherwith we are moued and so neerelye touched: and [Page 336] and truely we shew our selues iron & flintie har­ted, if we should nor be broken with these heauy and feuere tokens and fore-runners of Gods pu­nishments, and submitte our selues by obedience vnder the hand of the almightie. I see also an o­ther thinge to be much bewailed and lamented. But what is that? Whie this, that if iudgment doe not immediatly ensue on these threats, the world growes insolent vpon the death of such men, in­vaideth the truth by open and secret practizes, raizeth vp heresies, hardeneth it selfe in all mis­chiefe, and encourageth it selfe to see those men takē awaie whith are aduersaries to his opinions, and spoileth and wasteth the church, beinge last destitute of her vigilant and faithfull pastors, do­ctors, and guardians. These fearfull dangers, these sore discommodities, these shamfull mischeiues, do beare, racke, and kill, the hearts of all good men: the feare of these thinges (that I may say somewhat concerning my selfe) doth not so much enforce me to bewaile the losse of this my sweete deere and meere fellow-professor, that powerfull teacher and blessed soule, as the leauinge of vs all destitut of such a one, & the presaging of of those evils, which I beseech God of his mercy to turne awaie from vs.

And thus (worthie and learned auditors) you haue seene shadowed by my pencil the life of our deere VRSINE, whose memorie shall be bles­sed for ever. I know we must not long either la­ment him, or pittie his memorie. Yf by my words [Page 337] I haue againe renued anie mās heauinesse, let him togeather with me call to minde how much good we reaped by him in his life time. What good so­euer we receaued of him, we did not therfore re­ceaue it that we should envie his good. Let vs ra­ther everie of vs looke to this, that as he was good to all, so we also may in such sorte follow spiritual good things, that by them we also may become good. He gaue himselfe painfully to good studies, let vs also do the like. He frankelie dealte vnto all men that rich treasure, which he had by his stu­die stored, and God by his heauenlie grace had in­fused; let vs also followinge his example bestowe vse & fruitiō of those good gifts which by Gods grace are grounded in us, on our fellow-seruants: let vs further pietie, charitie, courtesie, quietnes, and the common good; and let vs in the sight of God, and in this schoole, as in a most choise the­ater bring vp studious youth both for life and learninge to the same ende, and strengthen both our selues and others in the faith of Christ. And thou beloued youth, thou svveete assemblie, which couldest haue wished that thine instructor to haue liued longer for thine ovvne sake, for our sake, for this schoole, for the church, & the whole world; bemoane no longer his absence, vvhome thou reioycest to haue hade present with thee sometimes by example of life, & whome yet thou makest vse of in those his ever-memorable wrigh­tings. Endeuour rather to stirre vp more Vrsines about thee. He hath one heir of his bodie, vvho, [Page 338] wee hope will also bee heir of his vertues. But the way is open to you all to bee partakers of his inhe­ritance. Goe to, now you are well growen, enter then, & set foote in possession of this inheritance. You want neither wit, nor helpes of studie, not yet the waie; one thinge onely remaineth, that yee wante not will, and bee not wanting to your selues. Applie then diligently your will and your selues to these studies; applie your selues verie faithfully & painfully to all duties of pietie, chari­tie and humanitie; toile and laboure herein, & be vnto vs another VRSINE euery man in his place. And though every one of you cannot bring to the building of this tabernacle the golde, sil­ver, and iewels of VRSINE, yet despaire not presently; iron, brasse, woode, Goates haire, and stones are also acceptable vnto God. You that cannot bee Captaines, or in the first rancke; bee not therefore discouraged: there is also need of some to bee in the second, third, fourth, tenth, and twentieth rancke: and Christ witnesseth, that even such also haue an order and place in his Fathers house. It shall be no disgrace to bee euen a doore-keeper in the house of the liuinge God. For of this euen David, (a man after Gods owne hearte) was not ashamed; neither be you nowe ashamed, neither shall it euer repent you, to des­cend into these listes, to enter into these studies, to attend these duties, or to follow these exam­ples. They shall (saith Fabius) carrie themselues farre higher, which endevour to come to the top, [Page 339] then such as before despairing of comming so high as they would, do straight set vp their rest a­bout the bottome. But what of that? neither I my selfe which now speake to you am any thing neere this noble patterne, (I speake only of my selfe, as for the giftes of my fellow professors, I admire, and in duty reverence them) neither can you attaine therevnto by your owne indu­stry. But alasse that VRSINE, that man of re­membrance of God (for so his name doth signifie in Hebrew) is taken from vs: now there remaineth to vs only the remembrance of so excellent a mā. What then shal we do? That Iah, that strong God, who remembring his servant Zacharie, advanced him to so high a top of faith godlinesse, and lear­ning, Christ that prophet and our only king, is ve­ry present with vs, both by his external maiestie, & also by cōmunicating vnto vs the holy Ghost. Let vs repaire to this teacher, advise with this ma­ster, and follow this guide: let vs in confidence of his grace and assistance constantly goe through with those studies and duties wherevnto wee are c [...]lled. Let not the impiety of heretiques boast it selfe, nor the adversaries heart swell and waxe insolent or prowde, because the rodde of him that chastised them is broken: for there shall soo­ner come a viper out of the roote of the serpent, & the fruit therof shal soner become a flying dra­gon (as Esaie in times past did prophecie) then we shall bee forsaken of our God, & exposed to the [Page 340] raging violence of the furious, or foolish dreames of the mad sorte of men, vvherewith (alasse?) the church often times is to much afflicted.

Omnipotent eternall God, mercifull father of onr Lord Iesus Christ, vvhose good vvill and plea­sure it hath ben to informe youth vvith the whol­some doctrine both of that thy servant, and also of others vvhom thou hast appointed to gouerne this schoole, and to seale everie of our mindes with the spirite of thy promise and truth: now frō our hearts wee acknowledge that by takinge frō amongst vs this thy seruant thou art not alittle of­fended with vs, and that worthily. Wee confesse it (ô God!) and accuse & condemne our selues and our sinnes, for which it pleased thee both the last yeare to send thy sword of pestilence amōgst vs, and also this last followinge to extinguish that bright-shininge light, which thou hast placed in the eminēt candle-sticke of this famous schoole. Wee beseech thee (ô GOD and father of mer­cies) not to suffer thy wrath to proceede any far­ther against this poore floocke, neither call vs & our sinnes to accoumpt, least thy wrath kindle more against vs, and so we perish from this waie. But rather (because here thou hast placed thy standard, and hast giuen thy worde and promise that they shal be blessed which retire themselues vnto thee; gouerne vs (ô Lorde) by thy spirite, that we may kisse thy beloued sonne, and looke for all saluation from him. Destroy the plottes & purposes of Satan, preserue thy people, giue vnto [Page 341] this church, this schoole, and this whole countrie good & faithfull pastors, Doctors, & ministers: Defend those whom thou hast giuen, and blesse them aboudantly with all manner of blessinges, keepe the commons & students in iust dutie, holi­nes, charitie, & peaceablenesse; Lastly we hum­blie beseech thee as beinge our omnipotent and gratious Father, to finish & perfit in vs al things, which shall anie way perteine to the glory of thy holy name, the cōmon edifying of this people, & our owne soules health, in Christ Iesus our Lord, who liueth and rayneth with thee in the vnitie of the spirit, one God eternall, for ever and ever. Amen,

He slept sweetlie in Christ at Ne [...]stade the sixt day of March, as six of the clocke in the evening, in the yeare of our Lord, 1583. after hee had le­ued 48. years, 6 moneths, 22 howers, & was bu­ried the 8. of March, in the quiet of the Church.

FINIS.

Faultes escaped.

Pag. liu.

`93. 15. never neither 95 marg. evill offence, evil of offence. 98. 1 owne immutable, owne nature immutable. 98. marg. in respect of, in respect of their causes wheron they depend. 105. 17. staine, restraine. 110. 2. that by, but by. 113. 27, anie, of any. 126. 3. my hart, my haire. 16. 12. mystery, misery. 132 1. A PREFACE, A PART. 201. 8. Tunigeus, Tubingens. 204. 21. When, When he saith. 205. 4. sonne of Christ, person of Christ. 206. 19. that God, what God. 219. 24. immutable im­mutably. 222. 14. this divine, his divine. 233. 13. from, from God. 242. 3. him which, him to be finne for vs which. 254. 4. mixed not mixed 265. 7 which by instinct, which is wrought by &c. 268. 1 or not the, or not to the. 274. 21. not eate ther­fore, not eate thereof. 293. 24. visible, invisible.

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