The Anatomie of Abuses: Contayning A DISCOVERIE, OR BRIEFE Summarie of such Notable Vices and Im­perfections, as now raigne in many Chri­stian Countreyes of the Worlde: but (es­peciallie) in a verie famous ILANDE called AILGNA: Together, with most fearefull Examples of Gods Iudge­mentes, executed vpon the wicked for the same, aswell in AILGNA of late, as in other places, elsewhere.

Uerie Godly, to be read of all true Christians, euerie where: but most needefull, to be regarded in ENGLANDE.

Made dialogue-wise, by Phillip Stubbes.

Seene and allowed, according to order.

MATH. 3. ver. 2. Repent, for the kingdome of God is at hande.
Lvc. 13. ver. 5. I say vnto you (saith Christ) except you repent, you shall all perish.

Printed at London, by Richard Iones. [...]aij. 1583.

To the Right Hono­rable, Phillip Earle of Arundell: Phillip Stubbes wisheth helth of body & soule, fauour of God, increase of Godly honour, re­ward of laudable vertue, and eter­nall felicitie, in the Heauens, by IESVS Christ.
NOBILITAS Patriae DECVS

THE Lord our God (right honorable) hauing by the power of his word, created Heauen and Earth, with all thinges what soeuer, for the comfort and vse of Man: the last of all other (euen the sixt daye) made Man after his owne similitude and likenesse, that in him he might be glorified aboue all other Creatures. And therfore, wheras in making of other thinges, he vsed onely this Woord, FIANT, be they made, or let them be made: when he came to make Man, as it weare aduysing himselfe, and asking councell at his wisdome, he said, FACIAMVS HOMINEM, let vs make▪ Man, that is a wōderful Creature: and therfore is called in greek MICROCOSMOS, a litle world in himself. And truely he is no lesse, whether we consider his spirituall soule, or his humaine body. For what Creature is theare vppon the face of the Earth comparable to man, either in body or in mind? what creature hath a soule immortall inherent in his body, but onely Man? what Creature can forsee things [Page] to come, remember things past, or iudg of things present, but onely man? what Creature beareth the ymage of God about with him, but Man? what Creature is made so erect to behould the Heauens, as man? What Creature may be likened to man, either in proportiō of body, or gifts of the soule? And (finally) what Creature hath the promise of the resurrectiō & glorificatiō of their bodies, & of eternall life but onely Man? Than seeing the Lorde hath made Man thus glorious, and preferred him in euery degree, before al other Creatures (the Angelicall Creatures set a part) it is manifest, he hath done it to some end & purpose, namely, that he might be glorified in him, and by him aboue all other his works, according to the measure of his integritie excellency and perfection. And hereby we may learn that it is the will of GOD, that we bend all our force to the aduauncing of his glorious Name, the edification of his People, and the building vp of his Church, which he hath redemed with the bloud of his deare Sonne.

Which thing (mee think) is notably figured foorth vn­to vs in the .25. of EXODVS wher the Lord commaunded Moyses to build him a Tabernacle, or howse of prayer, to this end and purpose (doubtles) that therin his lawe might be read, his Ceremonies practised, Sacrifices, Victimates & Holocaustes offred, and his glorious Name called vppon and obeyed. To the erection wherof, euery one conferred some what, some brought gold, some siluer, & some brasse, lead & tinne, other brought silk, purple, skarlet, and other ornaments, and the meanest brought some what, namely, skins heare, sand, lyme, morter, wood, stone, and such like. Euen so (right honorable) would the Lord haue euery one to conferre some what, euen such as he hath, to the buil­ding of his spirituall howse, the Church purchased with the bloud of Christ. Wherfore seeing it is so, that euery one is to further this spirituall building to his possible power, I haue rather chosen with the simplest, and meanest sort to bring, though but heyre, sand, skins, lyme, morter, [Page] wood or stones, than altogether to contribute nothing.

Not doubting, but that the chief Maister and Builder of this howse, Christ Iesus, will not dislike, but accept of my poore contribution, no lesse than he did of the poore wydowes Mite, to whom was imputed that she had cast more, in Gazophilatium Templi, into the treasury of the Temple, than all the rest: for what she wanted in effect, that she supplyed in affect, And for that also the Lord our GOD committing his talēts to euery one, whether more or lesse, not onely requireth of vs the same againe simply, but also, as a straight computist, demaundeth interest and gaine of euery one of vs: & for that not only, he is a mur­therer & a Homicide before God, who slayeth or killeth, a Man with materiall sword▪ but he also, vho may preuent the same, and will not. And not onely, he is guiltie of haynous transgression that committeth any euill really, but also he who consenteth to it as he doth, who holdeth his peace, or he who by any means might auoid it, and ei­ther for negligence wil not, or for feare of the world dare not. Therfore, albe it, that I haue receiued, but one poore talēt, or rather the shadow of one, yet least I might be re­proued (with that vnprofitable Seruaunt) for hyding my small talent in the Earth▪ not profiting therwith at all, ei­ther my self, or others, I haue aduētured the making of this litle treatise, intituled, (The Anatomy of Abuses,) hoping that the same (by diuyne assistance) shall somewhat con­duce to the building of this spirituall howse of the Lord.

And although I be one (most honorable Lord) that can do least in this Godly course of life (palpable barbarisme forbidding mee so much as once to enter into Wysdomes school) yet for that somewil not, for feare of losing world­ly promotion (though in the meane tyme they lose the Kingdome of Heauen,) Other some dare not for displea­sing the world: I say, for these, & semblable causes toge­ther, with the zeale and goodwill I beare vnto my Coun­trey, and feruent desire of their conuersion and amende­ment, [Page] I haue taken vpon me the contryuing of this book: Which GOD, graunt may be with like plausible alacritie receiued, as with paines and good will, I haue published it, for the benefit of my Cuntrey, the pleasure of the God­ly, and amendement of the wicked. And I doubt not, that as none, but the wicked, and peruerse whose gawld backes are tutched, will repyne against mee, so the Godly and vertuous, will accept of this my labour, and trauaile herein, whose gentle fauour and goodwill, shall coun­terpoyse, (and farre surmount with mee) the maligne sto­macks, and stearn countenances of the other. After that I had (right honorable) fully perfected this booke, I was minded, notwithstanding, both in regard of the straunge­nes of the matter it intreateth of, and also in respect of the rudenesse of my penne, to haue suppressed it for euer, for diuerse and sundrie causes, and neuer to haue offred it to the viewe of the world. But, notwithstanding, being ouer­come by the importunat request, and infagitable desire of my freinds, I graūted to publish the same, as now you see, is extant.

But, when I had once graunted to imprinte the same, I was in greatter doubt than before, fearinge, to whome I might dedicate the same so rude and impolished a worke. And withall I was not ignorant, how hard a thing it is in these daies to finde a Patrone of such books as this, which sheweth to euery one his sin, and discouereth euery Mans wicked waies, which indeed, the vngodly cā not at any hād abyde, but as it were mad-mē disgorging their stomacks (Cum in Authorē tum in codicem plenis buccis, & dentibus plusquàm caninis rabidè feruntur:) they rage, they fume and rayle both against the AVTHOR and his booke. Thus (vacillante animo) my minde wandring too and fro, and resting, as it weare in extasie of despaire, at last I called to mind your honorable Lord­ship, whose praises haue pearced the Skyes, and whose lau­dable vertues are blowen, not ouer the realme of England [Page] onely, but euen to the furthest costs and parts of the world.

All whose vertues, and condigne prayses, if I should take vppon mee to recounte, I might as well number the starres in the Sky, or grasse of the Earth.

For, for Godly Wysdome, and zeale to the truth, is not your good Lordship (without offence be it spoken) comparable with the best? For sobrietie, affabilite, and gentle curtesie to euerie one, farre excelling many.

For your great de [...]otion and compassion to the poore oppressed, in all places famous: For Godly fidelitie, to your Soueraigne, loue to the CVNTREY, and ver­tues in generall, euerie where most renowmed.

But least I might obscure, your Worthie commenda­tions with my vnlearned penne, (lytle, or no thing at all emphaticall) I will rather surcease, than further to proceed, contenting my selfe rather to haue giuen a shadowe of them, than to haue ciphered them foorth, which indeed are both infinit, and inexplicable.

In consideration (whereof) not withstanding that my Booke be simpler, baser, and meaner, than that it may (without blushing) present it self to your good Lord­ship (being farre vnworthie of such an honorable Per­sonage) yet accordinge to your accustomed clemency I most humbly beseache your good Lordship to receiue the same into your honors Patrociny and protection, ac­cepting it as an infallible token of my faithfull heart, seruice, and good will towardes your honorable Lord­ship: For proofe whereof, would GOD it might once come to passe, that if not otherwyse, yet with my hum­ble seruice, I might shewe foorth the faithfull and euer willing heart I beare in brest to your good Lorde­ship, protesting before Heauen and Earth, that though power want yet shall fidelitie, and faithfulnes faile neuer.

And because, this my Booke is subiect (my verie good Lord (to as many reproches, tauntes and reproofes, as euer was any litle book (for that few cā abyde to haue their sin [...] [Page] detected) therfore I haue had the greatter care to commit the same to the guardance and defence of your honour, rather than to manie others, not onely for that GOD hath made your honour a Lamp of light vnto the world, of true nobilitie and of al integritie and perfection, but also hath made you his substitute, or vicegerent, to reforme vices, punish abuses, and correcte sinne.

And as in mercie he hath giuen you this power and au­toritie, so hath he giuen you a hungrie desire to accom­plish the same according to his will: Which zeal in your sacred brest, the LORD increase for euer.

And as your Lordship knoweth, reformation of maners and amendement of lyfe, was neuer more needfull, for, was pride (the chiefest argument of this Booke) euer so rype? Do not, both Men and Women (for the most part) euery one in generall go attyred in silks, veluets, damasks, satans, and what not? which are attyre onely for the no­bilitie and gentrie, and not for the other at anie hand? Are not vnlawfull games, Playes and Enterluds, and the like euery where vsed? Is not whordome, couetousnes, vsurie & the like daylie practised without all punishment or lawe?

But hereof I say no more, referring the consideration, both of these and the rest, to your Godly wysdome. Besea­seaching your good Lordship, to perdon my presumption in speaking thus much, for (Zelus domini huc adegit me:) the zeal of my God hath dryuen me heather.

Knowinge, that the LORD hath ordeined you, to himselfe a chosen vessell of honour, to purge his Church of these Abuses, and corruptions, which as in a table are depainted and set foorth in this litle booke.

Thus I cease to molest your sacred eare [...]s any further with my rude speaches, most hūbly beseaching your good Lord ship not onely to admit this my Book into your honours patronage and defence, but also to persist the iust Defen­der therof, against the swynish crew of rayling ZOILVS and flowting MOMVS, with their complices, to whome [Page] it is easier to depraue all things, than to amend any thing them selues. Which, if I shall perceiue to be accepted of your honour, besides that I shal not care for a thousand o­thers, disliking the same, I shall not only think my self to haue receiued a sufficiēt guerdon for my p [...]es, & shalbe therby greatly incoraged (if GOD permit) hereafter, to take in hand some memorable thing to your immortall prayse, honour and renowne, but also shall daylie pray to GOD, for your good Lordship long to continue, to his good pleasure and your harts desire, with increase of Godly honour, re­ward of laudable vertue, and eternall felicitie in the HEAVENS, by Iesus Christ.

Columna gloriae virtus.
Your Honors to commaund, PHILLIP Stubbes.

A PREFACE TO THE READER.

I Thought it conuenient (good Reader, who soeuer thou art, yt shalt read these my poore labou­res) to admonish thée (least hap­ly yu mightest take my woords otherwise than I meant them) of this one thing: That wheras in the processe of this my booke, I haue intreated of certen ex­ercyses, vsually practised amongest vs, as name­ly of Playes and Enterludes, of dauncing, ga­ming, and such other like: I would not haue thée so, to take mée, as though my speaches ten­ded, to the ouerthrowe and vtter disliking of all kynd of exercyses in generall: that is nothing my simple meaning. But the particulare Abu­ses, which are crept into euery one of these seue­rall exercyses, is the onely thing, which I think worthie of reprehension.

For, otherwise (all Abuses cut away) who séeth not, yt some kind of playes, tragedies and enter­luds in their own nature, are not onely of great anciētie, but also very honest and very commen­dable [Page] exercyses, being vsed and practised in most Christian common weales, as which containe matter (such they may be) both of doctrine, eru­dition, good example and wholsome instruction? And may be vsed in tyme and place conuenient, as conducible to example of life and reformation of maners. For such is our grosse & dull nature, that what thing we sée opposite before our eyes, [...]o pearce further, and printe déeper in our harts [...]nd minds, than that thing, which is hard onely with the eares, as Horace, the hethen Poët can witnesse. Segnius irritant animum, dimissa per aures, quàm quae sunt hominum occulis obiecta. So, that when honest & chast playes, tragedies, & enterluds, are vsed to these ends, for the Godly recreatiō of the mind, for the good example of life, for the auoyding of that, which is euill, and lear­ning of that which is good, thā are they very tol­lerable exercyses. But being vsed (as now com­monly they be) to the prophanation of the Lord his sabaoth, to the alluring and inuegling of the People from the blessed word of God preached, to Theaters and vnclean assemblies, to ydlenes, vnthriftynes, whordome, wantōnes, drunkēnes, and what not? and which is more, when they are vsed to this end, to maintaine a great sort of ydle Persons, doing nothing, but playing and loytring, hauing their lyuings of the sweat of other Mens browes, much like vnto dronets de­uouring ye swéet honie of ye poore labouring bees, [Page] than are they exercyses (at no hand) sufferable. [...] But being vsed to the ends that I haue said, they are not to be disliked of any sober, and wise Christian.

And as concerning dauncing, I wold not haue thée (good Reader) to think that I condemne the exercyse it self altogether, for I know the wisest Sages and the Godlyest Fathers and Patriar­ches that euer liued, haue now and than vsed the same, as Dauid, Salomon, and many others: but my woords doo touch & cōcerne the Abuses there­of onely. As being vsed vppon the Sabaoth day, from morning vntill night, in publique as­semblies and frequencies of People, Men & wo­men together, with pyping, fluting, dromming, and such like inticements to wantonnesse & sin, together with their leapinges, skippings, & other vnchast gestures, not a few. Being vsed, or ra­ther abused in this sort, I vtterly discommend it.

But vppon the otherside, being vsed in a mans priuat-chamber, or howse for his Godly solace, and recreation in the feare of GOD, or other­wise abroade with respect had to the time, place and persons, it is in no respect to be disalowed.

And wheras I speake of gaming, my meaning is not, that it is an exercise altogether vnlawful. For, I know that one Christian may play with another, at any kind of Godly, honest, ciuile ga­me, or exercise, for the mutuall recreation one of the other, so that they be not inflamed with co­ueitousnes, [Page] or desire of vnlawfull gaine: for the cōmaundemēt saith, thou shalt not couet: wher­fore, if any be voide of these affections, playing rather for his Godly recreation, than for desire of filthie lucre, he may vse the same in the feare of God: yet so as the vse therof be not a let, or hin­derance vnto him, to any other Godly exploit.

But, if a man make (as it weare) an occupation of it, spending both his tyme and goods therein, frequenting, gaming howses, bowling allyes, and such other places, for gréedinesse of lucre, to him it is an exercise altogether discommendable and vnlawfull. Wherfore, as these be exercy­ses lawfull, to them that know how to vse them in the feare of GOD, so are they practises at no hand sufferable to them that abuse thē, as I haue shewed. But take away the abuses, the thinges in themselues are not euill, being vsed as instru­ments to Godlynes, not made as spurres vnto vice. There is nothing so good, but it may be a­bused, yet because of ye abuses, I am not so strict, that I wold haue the things, themselues remoo­ued, no more than I wold meat and drinke, be­it is abused, vtterly to be taken away.

And wheras also I haue spoken of the excesse in Apparell, and of the Abuse of the same, as wel in men, as in women generally, I wold not be so vnderstood, as though my speaches extēded, to any, either noble, honorable, or worshipful: for, I am so farre from once thinking that any kind of [Page] sumptuous, or gorgeous attire is not to be worn of any of them, as I suppose them rather Orna­ments in them, than otherwise.

And that they both may, and for some respects, ought to were such attire (their birthes callings, functions and estats requiring the same) for cau­ses in this my Booke laid downe, as maye ap­peare, and for the distinction of them from the inferiour sorte, it is prouable both by the Woord of GOD, Ancient Writers, and common practise of all ages, People and Nations, from the beginning of the World, to this day.

And therfore, when I speake generally of the excesse of Apparell, my meaning is of the infe­riour sorte onely, who for the most parte do farre surpasse, either noble, honorable, or worshipfull, ruffling in Silks, Ueluets, Satens, Damasks, Taffeties, Gold, Siluer, and what not? with their swoords, daggers, and rapiers guilte, and reguilte, burnished, and costly ingrauen, with all things els, that any noble, honorable, or wor­shipfull Man doth, or may weare, so as the one cannot easily be discerned from the other.

These be the Abuses, that I speake of, these be the euills, that I lament, and these be the per­sons that my words doo concerne, as the tenure of my Booke consideratly wayed, to any indif­ferent READER doth purport.

This much I thought good (Gentle Reader) to informe thee of, for thy better instruction, as [Page] well in these few points, as in all other the like, whersoeuer they shall chaunce to occurre in my Booke. Beseaching thée, to construe al things to the best, to beare with the rudenes therof, and to giue the same thy good-woord, and gentle acceptaunce. And thus in the LORD, I bid thée, fare­well.

Thyne to vse in the Lord, PHILLIP Stubbes.

Phillippus Stubeus CANDIDO LECTORI.

OFfendit nimia te garrulitate libellus
fortè meus, Lector miror id ipse nihil.
Obsitus est etenim verborū colluuione
plusquàm vandalica, rebus & insipidis.
Quare si sapias operam ne perdito post hac
nostra legendo, legas vtiliora, vale.
¶Idem in Zoilum.
ZOILE cum tanta rabie exardescis in omnes,
nō aliter rabidus, quàm solet ipse canis:
Dent [...] Theonino rodens alios, calamoque,
incessens hos, qui nil, nocuere tibi:
Vipeream in cunctos vibrans O Zoile linguam,
linguam quā inficiunt toxica dira tuam:
Cum Debacchandi sinis [...]it Zoile nullus,
hora quieta tibi nullaque praetereat:
Cum tumeas veluti ventrosus ZOILE bufo,
demiror medius quòd minus ipse crepes.
¶Aliud in eundem.
Daemones ad tetrum descendat Zoilus antrum,
hunc lacerent furiae, Cerborus ore voret▪
Imprecor at misero quid paenas, cui satis intus?
daemona circumfert pectore namque suo.
¶Eiusdem aliud.
Si tibi prolixus nimium liber iste videtur
pauça legas, poterit sic liber e [...]e breuis.

A. D. In cōmen­dation of the Au­thor and his Booke.

IF Mortall-man may challenge prayse,
For any thing done in this lyfe:
Than may our Stubbes, at all assayes,
Inioy the same withouten stryfe.
Not onely for his Godly zeale,
And Christian life accordinglie:
But also for this booke in sale,
Heare present, now before thine eye:
Herein the Abuses of these dayes,
As in a glasse thou mayest behold:
Oh buy it than, hear what he sayes,
And giue him thankes an hundred sold.

I. F. In Commen­dation of the AVTHOR and his Booke.

SHall men prophane, who toyes haue writ,
And wanton pamphlets store,
Which onely tend to noorish vice:
And wickednes the more,
Deserue their praise, and for the same,
Accepted be of all,
And shall not this our AVTHOR than
Receiue the Lawrell pall?
Who for good will in sacred brest
He beares to natiue soyle,
Hath published this Godly Booke,
With mickle paine and toyle.
Wherein, as in a Mirrour pure
Thou mayest behold and see,
The vices of the World displayed
Apparent to thy eye.
He flattereth none, as most men do,
In Hope to game a price:
But shewes to all their wickednesse,
And Gods diuyne Iustice.
A Godlyer booke was neuer made,
Nor meeter for these dayes:
Oh read it than▪ thank GOD for it,
Let T'HAVTOR haue his praise.

THE AVTHOR AND HIS BOOKE.

NOw hauing made thée, seelie booke,
and brought thée to this frame:
Full loth I am to publish thee,
lest thou impaire my name.
The Booke.
Why so? good Maister, what's the cause,
why you so loth should be,
To send mée foorth into the World,
my fortune for to trye?
The Author.
This is the cause, for that I know,
the wicked thou wilt moue,
And eke because thy ignoraunce:
is such, as none can loue.
The Booke.
I doubt not, but all Godly Men,
will loue and like mée well,
And for the other I care not,
in pride although they swell.
The Author.
Thou art also no lesse in thrall,
and subiect euery way:
To MOMVS and to ZOILVS crew,
who'le dayly at thée bay.
The Booke.
Though MOMVS rage, and Zoilus carpe:
I feare them not at all,
The Lord my GOD in whom I trust,
shall soone cause them to fall.
The Author.
Well, [...]th thou wouldest so faine be gone,
I can thée not withhold:
Adieu therfore, GOD be thy speade,
And blesse thée a hundred fold.
The Booke.
And you also good Maister mine,
GOD blesse you with his grace:
Preserue you still, and graunt to you
In Heauen a dwelling place.

The Anatomie of the Abuses in AILGNA.

¶The Interlocutors, or Speakers.
Spudeus. Philoponus.

God geue you good morow, Maister Philo­ponus.

Philo.

And you also, good Brother Spudeus.

Spud.

I am glad to sée you in good health,Flying fame oftentimes lyeth, for it was bruted abroad euery where in our countrey (by reason of your discontinuance, I thinke) that you were dead, long agoe.

Philo.

In deede, I haue spent some tyme a­broad, els where, then in my natiue countrey, (I must needs confesse) but, how false that Re­port is (by whom soeuer it was first rumored, or▪ how farre so euer it be dispersed) your pre­sent eyes can witnesse.

Spud.
[Page]

I pray you, what course of lyfe, haue you lead in this your longe absence, foorth of your owne countrey?

Philo.

Truely (brother) I haue lead the life of a poore Trauayler,The place wher the Au­thour hath trauayled. in a certaine famous I­lande, once named, Ainabla, after, Ainatirb: but nowe presently called Ailgna, wherein I haue liued these seuen winters, and more, tra­uailing from place to place, euen all the Land ouer indifferently.

Spud.

That was to your no litle charges, I am sure?

Philo.

It was so: but what thā? I thank God I haue atchieued it,Trauailing chargeable. and by his dyuine assist­ance prosperously accomplished it, his glori­ous name (worthie of all magnificence) bee e­ternally praysed therefore.

Spud.

And to what ende, did you take in hand this great trauayle, if I may be so bould as to aske?

Philo.

Truely, to sée fashions, to acquainte my selfe with the natures, qualities, proper­ties,The causes that moued the author to take this tra­uaile in hand and conditions of all men, to breake my selfe to the worlde, to learne nurture, good de­meanour, & cyuill behauiour: to sée the goodly situation of Citties. Townes and Countryes, with their prospects, and commodities: and fi­nally, to learne the state of all thinges in ge­nerall: all which I could neuer haue learned in one place. For who so sitteth at home, euer [Page] commorante or abiding in one place, know­eth nothinge, in respecte of him, that trauay­leth abroade: and hee that knoweth nothing, is lyke a brute Beaste, but hee that knoweth all thinges (whiche thinge none doeth but God alone) hee is a God amongest men. And séeing there is a perfectiō in knowledge, as in euery thing els, euery man ought to desire that perfection: for in my iudgement, there is as muche difference (almost) betwixt a man that hath trauayled much,The differēce betwixt a mā the hath tra­uayled, and a man that hath not. and him that hath dwelt euer in one place, (in respect of know­ledge, and science of things) as is betwen a man lyuinge, & one dead in graue. And ther­fore I haue had a great felicytie in trauay­ling abroade.

Spud.

Seing that by diuyne prouidence, we are heare met together, let vs (vntill we come to ye end of our purposed iorney) vse some [...]on­ference of the state of the World now at this daie▪ as well to recreate our minds, as to cut of the tedyousnes of oure iorneye.

Philo.

I am very well contente so to doe, beinge not a litle glad of your good compa­nie: For, Comes facundus in via, pro ve­hiculo est. 1. A good Companion too tra­uayle withall,The benefite of a good Companion to trauayle withall. is in steade of a Wagon, [Page] or Chariot. For as the one doth ease the pain­fulnes of the way, so doth the other alleuiat ye yrksomnes of the iourney intended.

Spud.

But, before I enter combat with you (because I am a countrey man,A request to auoid offēce. rude and vn­learned: & you, a Cyuilian, indued with great wisdome, knowledge and experience) I most humbly beseech you, that you wyl not be offended with me though I talke wt you somwhat grosly, without eyther polished wordes, or fy­led speeches, which your wisdom doth require, and my insufficiencie and inabylitie is not of power to affoorde.

Phil.

Your spéeches (I put you out of doubt) shal not be offensiue to mée, if they be not of­fensiue to God, first.

Spud.

I pray you, what maner of Countrey is that Ailgna, where you say you haue tra­uailed so much?

Philo.

A pleasant & famous Iland, immu­red aboute with the Sea,Ailgna, a goodly cūtry. as it were with a wall, wherein the aire is verie temperate, the ground fertile, and abounding with all things either necessary to man, or néedefull for beast.

Spud.

What kinde of people are they that inhabite there?The people of Ailgna.

Philo.

A strong kinde of people, audacious, bold▪ puissant, and heroycal, of great magnani­mitie, valiauncie and prowes, of an incompa­rable feature, of an excellente complexion, and [Page] in all humanitie, inferiour to none vnder the Sunne.

Spud.

This people, whome God hath thus blessed, must needes bee a verie godly people, eyther els they be méere ingrate, to God the authour of all grace, & of these their blessinges especially?

Philo.

It gréeueth me to remember their liues, or to make mention of their wayes,The liues of the people of Ailgna. for notwithstanding that the Lorde hath blessed that Lande, with the knowledge of his truth aboue all other Landes in the world, yet is there not a people more abrupte, wicked, or peruerse, liuing vpon the face of the earth.

Spud.

From whence spring all these euills in man, for we sée euerie one is inclined to sin naturally, and there is no fleshe which liueth, and sinneth not?

Philo.

All wickednes,From whēce all euilles spring in mā. mischiefe, and sinne, (doubte you not brother Spud.) springeth of our auncient ennemie the Deuill, the in [...]ete­rate corruption of our nature, and the intest­ine malice of our owne hearts, as from the o­riginals of all vncleannes, & impuritie what­soeuer. But we are now newe creatures, and adoptiue children, created in Christ Iesus to doe good woorkes,We ought to haue no dea­ling with the workes of the fl [...]sh, which God hath prepared for vs to walke in. Wherefore wee ought to haue no fellowship with the workes of dark­nesse, but to put on the armour of light Christ [Page] Iesus, to walke in newnesse of life and to worke our saluation in feare and trembling, as the Apostle saith, and our sauiour Christ biddeth vs so work, as our workes may glo­rifie our heauenlye Father. But (alas) the contrarie is most true, for there is no sinne, that was euer broached in any age, which florisheth not nowe. And therfore the fear­full daie of the Lord cannot be farre of: at which day all the World shall stand in fla­shing fier, and than shall Christ our Sauiour come marching in y clowdes of heauen, with his Taratantara sounding in each mans eare: arise you Dead,The day of Dome not regarded. and come to iudgement, and than shall the Lord reward euery Man after his owne workes. But how little this is esteemed of, & how smally regarded, to cōsider it greeueth me to the very harte, and there is almost no life in mee.

Spud.

It is but a follie to greeue at them, who sorowe not for them selues. Let them sinck in their owne sinne:Euery Man must answer for him selfe. lyue well your selfe & you shall not answeare for them, nor they for you. Is it not writen? vnusquisque portabit suū onus. Euery one shall beare his own bur­den. Anima quae peccauerit, ipsa morietur ye soule that sinneth shall dy: wherfore surcease to sorow or greeue any more for them: for they are such, as the Lord hath cast of into a repro­bat sence, & prei [...]dicat opinion, & preordinat [Page] destruction, that his power, his glorie and iu­stice may appeare to all the World.

Philo.

Oh brother, ther is no christē mā, in whose hart shineth scintillula aliqua pietatis, any sparke of God his grace, which will not gréeue to sée his brethren & sisters in the Lord, members of the same body, coheyres of ye same kingdom, & purchased with one & the same inestimable price of Christ his bloud, to runne thus desperatlie into the gulphe of destruction and laberinth of perdition. If the least and meanest member of thy whole body, be hurt, wounded, cicatriced or brused, doth not the hart, and euerie member of thy body,The mutuall harmonie of one member with an other feele the anguish and paine of the grieued parte, seking & endeuouring them selues, euery one in his office & calling, to repaire the same, and neuer ioying, vntill that be restored again to his for­mer integritie & perfection? Which thinge in the balance of Christian charity, consideratly weighed, may mooue any good Man to mourn for their defection, and to assay, by all possible means, to reduce them home again, that their soules maie be saued in the daye of the Lord. And the Apostle commandeth vs, that we be (alter alterius emolumento) an ayde and helpe one to an other. And that we do good to all men, dum tempus habemus, whylest we haue tyme. To wéepe with them that weepe, to mourne with them that mourne, and [Page] to be of like affection one towardes an other. And common reason aduertiseth vs, that wee are not borne for our selues onelie: for, Ortus nostri partem patria, partem amici, partem parentes vendicant. Our Countrey challengeth a part of our byrth, our brethren and frendes require an other parte,No mā born for himselfe. and our parentes (and that optimo iure) doe vendicate a third parte▪ Wherefore I will assay to doe them good (if I can) in discouering their abuses, and laying o­pen their inormities, that they séeing the grée­uousnes of their maladies, & daunger of theyr diseases, may in time seeke to the true Phisiti­on, & expert Chirurgion of their soules Christ Iesus, of whome onelie commeth all health & grace, and so eternally be saued.

Spud.

Séeing that so many and so haynous sinnes do raigne and rage in Ailgna, as your wordes import, and which mooue you to such intestine sorrowe, and griefe of minde, I pray you describe vnto me more perticularly, some of those Capitall crimes, and chiefe Abuses, which are there frequented, and which disho­nour the maiestie of God the most, as you sup­pose?

A particuler descrip­tion of PRIDE, the principall A­buse: and how manifold it is in AILGNA.

PHILOPONVS.

YOu do well to request me to cipher foorth vnto you parte of those great Abuses (and Cardinall Uices) vsed in AILGNA, for no man in anie Catalogue, how prolixe soeuer, is able to comprehend the summe of all abuses there in practise.The number of Abuses in­finite. And whereas you woulde haue mee to speake of those Capitall or chiefe Abuses, which both are deadly in their owne nature, and which offende the maiestie of God moste. Mée thinke you shake hands with the sworne enemies of God the Papistes, who say, there are two kindes of sinne, the one veniall, the o­ther lethall or deadly.All sinne in it owne na­ture is mor­tall. But you must vnder­stand, that there is not the least sinne, that is committed eyther in thought, woorde, or déede, (yea, Vae vniuersae iustitiae nostrae, si remota misericordia iudicetur. Wo be to all our righteousnes, if mercie put away they should bee iudged:) but it is damnable, dempta miseri­cordia Dei, if the mercie of God be not exten­ded. And againe, there is no sinne so gréeuous, which the grace and mercy of God is not able [Page] to counteruaile withal, & if it bee his pleasure to blot it out for euer. So yt you see now, there is no sinn so venial, but if the mercie of God, be not stretched out, it is damnable: nor yet a­nie sinne so mortall, which by the grace and mercie of God, may not bee done away. And therfore as we are not to presume of the one, so wee are not to despaire of the other. But to returne againe to ye satisfying of your request. The greatest abuse,The greatest abuse which offendeth god most▪ is pride. which both offendeth god moste, & is there not a little aduaunced, is the execrable sinne of Pride, and excesse in appa­rell, which is there so ripe, as the filthie fruits thereof haue long since, presented themselues before the throne of the maiestie of God, cal­ling and crying for vengeance day and nighte incessantly.

Spud.

Wherfore haue you intēded to speak of Pride the first of all, geuing vnto it the first place in your tractation? Because it is euill in it selfe, and the efficiente cause of euill, or for some other purpose?

Philo.

For no other cause,Pride the be­gyning of all euill. but for that I thinke it to bee, not onely euill and damnable in it owne nature, but also the verie efficient cause of all euills. And therfore the wise man was bolde,ECCLES. 10. to call it Initium omnium malo­rum, the beginning and welspring of al euils. For as from the roote all natural thinges doe grow, & take their beginning: so from ye cursed [Page] roote of pestiferous Pride do all other euilles sproute, and thereof are ingenerate. Therfore may Pride be called not improperly, Mater­cula & origo omniū vitiorū, What is it but pride dares attempt it. the mother and nurse of al mischief: for what thyng so hay­nous, what cryme so flagitious, what deed so perillous, what attemptso vēterous, what en­terpriseso pernicious, or what thing so offēsiue to God or hurtful to mā, in all ye world, which mā (of himselfe a very Sathanas) to maintain his pride withall, wil not willingly atchieue? hereof wee haue too muche experience euerye day, more is the pittie.

Spud.

How manyfold is this sin of Pryde, whereby the glorie of God is defaced, and his maiestie so gréeuously offended?

Philo.

Pride is tripartite, namely, ye pryde of the hart,Pride is three fold, pride of the hart, pride of the mouth and pride of apparell. the pride of the mouth, & the pryde of apparell, which (vnles I bee deceiued) offen­deth God more then the other two. For as ye pride of the heart & mouth is not opposite to ye eye, nor visible to the sight, and therefor intice not others to vanitie & sin (notwithstanding they be gréeuous sinnes in the sight of God) so the pride of apparel, remaining in sight, as an exemplarie of euill, induceth the whole man to wickednes and sinne.

Spud.

How is the pride of ye hart cōmitted?

Philo.

Pride of the hart is perpetrate, whē as a man lifting him selfe on highe, thinketh [Page] of himself, aboue that which he is of himselfe: dreamyng a perfection of himselfe, when he is nothyng lesse: And in respect of himselfe, con­tempneth, vilefieth and reproacheth all men, thinking none comparable to him selfe, whose righteousnes, notwithstanding, is lyke to the polluted cloth of a menstruous woman:

Therfore, the Pryde of the Heart, maye bée saide,What pride of the hart is. too bée a Rebellious elation, or lyftynge vppe of the mynde, agaynste the Lawe of God, attrybutynge and ascry­bynge that vnto himselfe, whiche is proper to God onely. And although it bee the Lorde, Qui operatur in nobis velle, & posse, who worketh in vs both the wil and power to do good, Ne gloriaretur omnis caro, leaste anie fleshe should boste of his owne power and strength, yet Pride, with his Cosin germayn Philautia PHILAVTIA. which is Selfeloue, perswadeth him, y he hath néede of no mans helpe but his owne: that he standeth by his own proper strength & power and by no mans els, & that he is al in all, yea, so perfect and good, as no more can be exacted of hym.

Spud.

How is Pride of wordes, or pride of mouthe, committed?

Philo.

Pride of the mouth,How pride of wordes, or of the mouth is committed. or of wordes, is, when we boast, bragge or glorie, eyther of our selues, our kinred, consanguynitie, byrth, pa­rentage, and suche like: or when we extol our [Page] selues for any vertue, sanctimonie of lyfe, sin­cerytie of Godlynes, which eyther is in vs, or which we pretend to be in vs. In this kinde of Pride (as in the other) almost euery one of­fendeth: for shal you not haue all (in a maner) boast & vaunt themselues of their Auncetors, and progenitors? saying, & crying with open mouth: I am a Gentleman, I am worshipful, I am Honourable, I am Noble, and I can not tell what: my father was this, my father was that: I am come of this house, and I am come of that: Wheras, Dame Nature, bryng­eth vs all into the worlde, after one sorte, and receiueth all againe, into the wombe of our mother, I meane, the bowelles of the earth, al in one and the same order and manner, with­out any difference or diuersitie at all, wherof more hereafter shalbe spoken.

Spud.

How is Pride of Apparell cōmitted?

Philo.

By wearyng of Apparell more gor­geous,How pride of apparel is perpetrate & cō ­mitted. sumptuous & precious than our state, callyng or condition of lyfe requireth, wher­by, we are puffed vp into Pride, and inforced to thinke of our selues, more than we ought, beyng but vile earth and miserable sinners.

And this sinne of Apparell (as I haue sayde before) hurteth more then the other two: For the sinne of the heart, hurteth none, but the Author, in whom it bréedeth, so long as it bur­steth not foorth into exteriour action: And the [Page] Pride of the mouth (whiche consisteth, as I haue sayd, in ostenting and braggyng of some singular vertue, eyther in himselfe, or some o­ther of his kinred, and which he arrogateth to himselfe (by Hereditarie possession, or lineall dissent) though it be meere vngodly in it own nature, yet it is not permanent, (for wordes fly into the aire, not leauing any print or cha­racter behinde them to offend the eyes.) But this sinne of excesse in Apparell, remayneth as an Example of euyll before our eyes, and as a prouocatiue to sinne, as Experience daylye sheweth.

Spud.

Would you not haue men to obserue a decencie,A decorum to be obserued. a comlinesse & a decorum in their vsuall Attyre? Doeth not the worde of God commaund vs to do all things decenter, & se­cundum ordinem ciuilem: decently, and after a cyuile maner?

Philo.

I would wish, that a decencie, a comly order, and as you say, a decorum were ob­serued, as well in Attyre, as in all things els: but, would God the contrarie were not true: For most of our nouell Inuentions and new fangled fashions,Our apparell rather defor­meth, than adorneth vs. rather deforme vs then ad­orne vs: disguise vs, then become vs: makyng vs rather, to resemble sauadge Beastes and stearne Monsters, then continent, sober and chaste Christians.

Spud.

Hathe this contagious infection, of [Page] Pride in Apparell, infected and poysoned any other countrey, beside Ailgna, suppose you?

Philo.

No doubt, but this poyson hath shed foorth his influence, and powred foorth his stinking dregges ouer all the face of the earth, but yet I am sure, there is not any people vnder the Zodiacke of heauen, how clownish, rurall or brutish soeuer, that is so poisoned with this Arsnecke of Pride, or hath drunke so deepe of the dregges of this Cup, as Ailgna hath, with griefe of conscience I speake it, with sorow I sée it, and with teares I lament it.

Spud.

But I haue heard them saye, that o­ther Nations passe them,No Cuntrey so drunken with pride as Ailgna. for exquisite brauery in Apparell: as, the Italians, the Athenians, the Spaniards, the Caldeans, Heluetians, Zuit­zers, Venetians, Muscouians, and such lyke: now, whither this be true or not, I greatly de­sire to knowe.

Philo.

This is but a visour, or cloke, to hide their Sodometrie withall: onelye spoken, not prooued: forged in the deceiptfull Mint of their owne braynes: For (if credit may be giuen to ancient writers,) the Egyptiās are said, ne­uer to haue chāged their fashion, or altered the forme of their first Attire, from the beginning to this day: as Iacobus Stuperius, lib. de diuer sis nostrae aetatis habitibus, Pag. 16, affirmeth: The Grecians, are saide, to vse but one kynde of Apparell without any chaunge: that is to [Page] wit: a longe Gowne, reaching downe to the grounde.

The Germaynes, are thought to be so pre­cise in obseruing one vniforme fashion in Ap­parell, as they haue neuer recéeded from their first Origina: as the said Stuperius sayth, in these wordes: Non enim mores leuiter mu­tare vetustos, Germanus vnqnam consueuit incola: Whiche in Englysh Uerse, is thus muche in effect.

¶The Germayne people neuer vse,
lightly to chop and chaunge
Their customes olde, or els Attyre,
wherin abroade they range.

¶The Muscouians, Athenians, Italians, Brasilians, Affricanes, Asianes, Cantabri­ans, Hungarians, Ethiopians, or els, what Nation soeuer, vnder the Sunne, are so farre qehinde the people of Ailgna, in exquisitnesse of Apparell, as in effect, they estéeme it litle or nothyng at all, so it repell the colde, and couer their shame: yea, some of them are so smally addicted therto, that settyng apart all honestie and shame, they go cleane naked. Other some meanly apparelled, some in Beasts skinnes, some in haire, & what euer they can get: some in one thing, some in another, nothing regar­ding eyther hosen, shoes, bands▪ ruffes, shirts, or any thing els. And the ciuilest nations that are, bee so farre estraunged from the pride of [Page] of apparell that they esteme him as brauelye attyred that is clothed in our carzi [...]s, frizes, ruggs, and other kinds of cloth, as we do him that is clad all ouer in silkes, veluets, satens, damasks, grograins, taffeties, and such like. So that herby you sée, that they speak vntruly that say, that other nations exceede them in brauerie of apparell. For it is manifest that all other Nations vnder the sun how strange, how new, how fine, or how comly soeuer they think their fashiōs to be, when they be cōpa­red with the dyuerse fashions, & sundrie for­mes of apparell in Ailgna, are most vnhand­same, brutish and monstrouse. And herby it appeareth that no People in the World is so curiouse in new fangles, as they of Ailgna be. But graūte it were so, and admit that others excelled them, (which is false) shall we do euill, because they do so? shall their wicked­nesse excuse vs of sinne, if we commit the like & worse? shall not the soule that sinneth dye? wherfore let vs not sinne of presumptiō, with the multitude, because they do so, least we be plagued with them because we doe the like. Moreouer those Cuntreyes are rich and wel­thie of them selues,Other coun­treyes not to be blamed though they, go in silk [...] veluets, and why: abounding with all kinde of preciouse ornaments, and riche attyre, as silks, veluets, Satens, damasks, sarcenet, taffetie, chamlet, and such like (for al these are made in those foraine cuntreyes) and therfore [Page] if they weare them, they are not muche to bee blamed, as not hauing anie other kind of cloathing to couer themselues withall. So if wee would contente our selues with such kinde of attire,Other Coun­tryes esteme not so muche of silkes, vel­uets, as we do. as our owne Countrey doeth minister vnto vs, it were much tollerable. But wee are so surprised in Pride, that if it come not from beyond the seas, it is not worth a straw. And thus we impouerish our selues in buying their trifling merchandizes, more plesant thā necessarie, and inrich them, who rather laugh at vs in their sléeues, than otherwise, to sée our gret follie in affecting of trifles, & departing wt good merchandizes for it. And howe litle they estéeme of silkes, veluets, satens, damasks, and such like, wee maye easely see, in that they sell them to vs for wolles, frizes, rugges, carzies, and the lyke, whiche they coulde neuer doe, if they estéemed of them as much as we doe. So that you sée they are forced of necessytye to weare such riche attyre, wanting other things (whereof we haue store) to inuest themselues withall. But who séeth not (excepte wilfullie blynde) that no necessitie compelleth vs to weare them hauing abundāce of other things to attire our selues with, both hansomer, warmer, and as comlie as they in euerie respecte? But farre fetched, and deare boughte, is good for Ladyes they say.

Spud.

Doe you thinke it not permitted to any hauinge store of other necessary clothing [...] [Page] to weare, silks, veluets, taffeties, & other suche riche attyre, of what calling soeuer they be of?

Ph.

I doubt not,Euery man may weare apparell accor­ding to his callinge. but it is lawfull for ye po­testates, the nobilitie, the gentrie, yeomanrie, and for euerye priuate subiecte els to weare attyre euery one in his degrée, accordinge as his calling and condition of life requireth, yet a meane is to be keept, for, omne extremum vertitur in vitium, euery extreme, is turned into vice. The nobilitye (though they haue sto­re of other attyre) and the gentrie (no doubte)The nobility may weare gorgiouse at­tyre, and why. may vse a rich, and preciouse kynd of apparell (in the feare of God) to innoble, garnishe & set forthe their byrthes, dignities, functions and callings, but for no other respecte, they may not in any maner of wyse. The maiestrats al­so, & Officers in the weale publique, by what tytle soeuer they be called (accordinge to their abylities) may were (if the Prince, or Super­intendent do Godly commaund) costlie orna­ments and riche attyre,Maiestrats may were sumptuouse attyre & why to dignifie their cal­lings, and to demonstrat and shewe forth, the excelency, and worthines of their offices, and functions, therby to strike a terroure & feare into the harts of the people, to offend against the maiesty of their callings: but yet would I wish, that what so is superfluous or ouer­muche, either in the one, or in ye other, shold be distributed to the helpe of the pore members of Christ Iesus, of whom an infynite number [Page] daylie do perish, thorowe wante of necessarie refectiō, and due sustentation to their bodies. And as for the priuat subiects, it is not at any hand lawful that they should weare silke, vel­uets, satens, damasks, gould, siluer and what they list (though they be neuer so able to maintain it) except they being in some kinde of of­fice in the common wealth,Not lawfull for priuate subiectes to weare sump­ [...]ous attyre. do vse it for the [...] dignifying and inno [...]ing of the [...]ame. But now there is such a confuse mingle mangle of apparell in Ailgna, and such preposterous ex­cesse therof, as euery one is permitted to flaūt it out, in what apparell he lust himselfe, or can get by anie kind of meanes. So that it is verie hard to knowe, who is noble, who is worshipfull, who is a gentleman, who is not: for you shall haue those, which are neither of the nobylitie gentilitie, nor yeomāry, no, nor yet anie Magistrat or Officer in the common welth,Hard to know a Gentleman from another by apparell. go daylie in silkes, veluets, satens, da­masks, taffeties▪ and such like, notwithstan­ding that they be both base by byrthe, meane be estate, & seruyle by calling. This is a great confusion & a general disorder, God be mercy­full vnto vs.

Spud.

If it be not lawfull for euery one, to weare, silks, veluets, satens, damasks, taffe­ties, gold, siluer, preciouse stones, & what not, wherfore did the Lord make & ordein them?

Philo.

I denie not, but they may be worne [Page] of them, who want other things to cloth them withal, or of ye nobylity, gentilytie, or magiste­ry, for the causes abouesaid,Wherfore the lord made riche orna­mentes▪ but not of euery proud [...]xnet indifferentlie, that haue store of other attyre inough▪ And yet did not the Lord ordeane these riche ornaments and gorgiouse vestments to be worne of all men, or of anie, so muche as to garnish, bewtifie, and set forth, the maiesty & glorie of this his earthly king­dome: For, as cloth of gold, Arase, tapestrie, & such other riche ornamēts, pendices and han­gings in a house of estate, serue not onely to manuall vses and seruyle occupatiōs, but al­so to decorate, to bewtifie & become the house, and to shewe the riche estate and glorie of the owner:Wherto riche ornamentes do serue▪ so these riche ornaments and sump­teouse vestments, of the earthly territory of this World, do not onelie serue to be worn of them, to whome it doth appertaine (as before) but also to shew forth, ye power, welth, dignity riches, and glorie of the Lord, the Author of all goodnesse. And here in, the prouidence and mercy of God appeareth most plainelye, for wher there is store of other clothing there hath he geuen, lesse store of silks, veluets, sa­tens, damasks▪ and such like: and wher there is plenty of them, there is no clothing els, al­most, & thus the Lord did deale, for that euery cuntrey ought to contente themselues, with there owne kind of attyre: except necessytie [Page] force the contrarie, for than we are to vse our libertie in the feare of God.

Spud.

I praye you let mee intreate you, to shewe me wherefore our apparell was giuen vs, and by whome?

Philo.

Your requeste is both diffuse and in­tricate, and more than my weake and infirme knowledge is able to comprehend:When, where, and for what cause our ap­p [...]rell was geuen vs. yet, least I might bee adiudged vnwilling to doe good, I will assay to doe the best I can.

When the Lord our God▪ a spiritual, intel­lectible vnderstanding substance, incomprehensible, immensurable, & inaccessible, had by his woord, and heauenly wisedome Christ Iesus, created and made ye world, & all things ther­in contayned, ye sixte day he created man, after his own similitude and likenes, in innocencie, holines, righteousnes, & all kind of perfection, he placed him in Paradise terestrial cōmaun­ding him to tyl & manure ye same. Thā ye deuil, an old maligner of mankind, who before was an Angel in heauē, & through sin of pride in arrogating to himselfe ye seate & throne of Gods maiesty, cast down into ye lake of hell, enuying [...] mans glorious estate, which he than had lost, came vnto man in Paradise,The fall of man by the malice of the deuill. & inticed him (o [...] torteouse serpent) to eat of ye forbidden fruite▪ wherof the Lorde God had forbidden him t [...] tast, on pain of his life: notwithstāding, Ada [...] condescending to his wife her perswasions, o [...] [Page] rather to the Serpent, hauing buzzed his ve­nemous suggestions into their eares, tooke of the apple, & did eat, contrary to ye expresse commandement of his God. This done their eyes were opened, thei saw their nakednes, & were not a litle ashamed (& yet before sin was com­mitted, they being both naked, were not asha­med, but sin once committed, they became vn­cleane, filthie, lothsome, & deformed) & sewed them garmēts of fig leaues together, to couer their shame withall. Than the Lord pittying their miserie, & loathing their deformity, gaue thē pelts, & felles of beasts to make them gar­ments withall, to the end that their shamefull parts might lesse appeare: yet some are so bra­sen faced & so impudent,Impuden [...] beasts. that to make y deuill & his members sport, will not sticke to make open shew of those parts, which God cōmaundeth to be couered, nature willeth to be hid, & honesty is ashamd once to behold or looke vpō.

Spud.

I gather by your words thrée speciall poynts. First, yt sin was the cause why our apparell was giuen vs. Secondly, yt God is the author, & giuer therof. Thirdly, yt it was giuē vs to couer our shame wt all, & not to féed ye in­satiable desires of mēs wātō & luxurious eies?

Philo.

Your collectiō is very true. Than see­ing yt our apparel was giuē vsWherfor our apparell was geuen vs. of god to couer our shame, to kéep our bodies frō cold, & to bee as pricks in our eies, to put vs in mind of our [Page] frailties, imperfections and sin, of our back­slyding from the cōmaundements of god and obedience of the highest, and to excite vs the rather to contrition, and compunction of the spirit, to bewayle our misery, & to craue mer­cy at ye mercifull hands of God, let vs be thākfull to God for them, be sorie for our sinnes, (which weare the cause therof) and vse them to the glory of our God, & the benefyte of our bodies and soules, against the great day of the Lord appeare. But (alas) these good creatu­res, which the Lord our God, gaue vs for the respects before rehearsed, we haue so peruer­ted, as now they serue in stead of the deuills nettes, to catche poore soules in: for euery one now adaies (almost) couet to deck and painte their liuing sepulchresMens bodies lyuing sepul­chres. or erthly graues (their bodies I meane) with all kind of brauerie, what soeuer can be deuised, to delight ye eyes of the vnchast behoulders, wherby God is dis­honored, offence is encreased, and much sinne daylie committed, as in further discourse shall plainly appeare.

Spud.

Did the Lord cloth our first parents in leather, as not hauing any thing more pre­ciouse to attyre them withall, or for that, it might be a permanent rule, or patern vnto vs (his posterity) for euer, wherafter we are of force to make all our garments, so as it is not now lawfull to go in richer arraye, without [Page] offendinge his maiestie?

Philo.

Although ye Lord did not cloth thē so meanly, for that he had nothing els, more pre­ciouse to attyre them withall (for Domini est terra, & plenitudo eius, the earth is the Lords and the fulnesse therof, saith the Lord by his Psalmist: And by his Prophet. Gold is myne, siluer is myne, and all the riches of the world is my own) yet no doubt, but he would yt this their meane & base attyre, should be as a rule, or pedagogie vnto vs, to teach vs yt we ought rather to walke meanelye,In our appa­rell we ought rather to o­by necessity, than to feed vanity. and simplye, than gorgiously, or pompously: rather seruing pre­sente necessitye, than regarding the wanton appetits of our lasciuiouse mindes: Not with­standinge I suppose not, that his heauenlye maiesty would, that those garments of lether, should stand as a rule or pattern of necessytie vnto vs, wherafter we shold be boūd to shape all our apparell for euer, or els greeuouslye to offende: but yet by this, we may sée, his blessed will is, that we should rather go an ace beneth our degrée, than a iote aboue. And yt any sim­ple couering pleaseth the Godly, so that it re­pell the colde, and couer the shame, it is more than manifest, as well by the legends both of prophane Historyographers Cronologers, and other writers, as also by the censures, exam­ples and lyues of all Godly, since the begin­ning of the world: And if the Lord would not, [Page] that the attyre of Adam, should haue been [...] ▪ signe, or patterne of mediocritie vnto vs,Adā his meankind of attire was a [...]igne [...] mediocrity vnto vs [...]n our [...]pparell. h [...] both in mercy would, & in his almighty power could haue inuested them in silks, veluets sa­tens, grograins, gold, siluer, & what not. But the Lord our God foresawe, that if he had clo­thed man, in rich and gorgiouse attyre (suche is our proclyuitye to sinne) he wold haue bene proude therof as we sée it is come to passe at this day (God amend it) and therby purchase to himselfe, his body and soule, eternall dam­nation.

Spud.

Than it seemeth a thinge materiall, and of great importāce, that we resemble our first Parēts in austerity, and simplicity of ap­parell, so muche as maye be possible, doth it not?

Philo.

I put no religion in goinge,No religion reposed in apparell. or not goinge in the like simple attyre of our parēts Adam, & Eua, (as our Papistes, Papists? no, Sorbonists, Sorbonists? no, Atheists, atheists? no, plaine Sathanists do, placing all thier re­ligion in hethen garments, & Romish raggs) so that we obserue a meane and exceade not in pride. But notwithstanding, if we appro­ched a litle nearer them, in Godly simplicitie and Christian sobrietie, both of apparell and maner of lyuinge, we should not onely please God a great deale the more, and enritche our Cuntrey, but also auoyd many scandals & of­fēces, [Page] which grow daily by our excessiue ryot▪ and ryotouse excesse in apparell. For doth not ye apparell styrre vppe the heart to pride?The fruite of Pride. doth it not intice others to sinne? and doth not sin purchase hell the guerdon of pride?

Spud.

But they say, they please God, rather than offend him in wearing this gorgiouse at­tyre, for therby the glory of his workmanship in them doth more appeare. Besides that, it maketh a man to be accepted, and esteemed of in euery place: wheras otherwise, they should be nothing lesse.

Philo.

To think that the Lorde our God is delighted in the splendente shewe of outward apparell,The Lord ac­cepteth no man after his apparell. or that it setteth forth y glory of his Creatures, and the maiesty of his kingdom I suppose ther is no mā (at least no perfect chri­stian man) so bewitched or assotted. For that weare, as much, as to say, that stinking pride, & filthie sinne, tended to the glory of God, so that the more we syn the more we increase his prayse and glorye. But the Lord oure God is so farre from dilightinge in sinne, that he adiudgeth them to eternall Death, and damnation, that committe the same. Than who is he that will take pleasure in vayne apparell, which if it be worne but a whyle, will fall to ragges, and if it be not worne, will soone rotte or els be eaten with mothes. His wayes are not our [...] [Page] wayes, his iudgements, not our iudgements, as he sayth, by his Prophet: and wheras they holde, that Apparell setteth foorth the glory of his Maiestie in his creatures, makynge them to appeare fairer,No attyre can make the creature of God seeme fayrer. than other wyse they would of themselues, it is blasphemously spoken, and muche derogateth, from ye exellency and glory of his name. For saith not God by his prophet Moyses, that after he had made all creatures, he beheld them all, & behould they weare (and especially mā, the excellentest of all other his creatures, whom he made after his own simi­litude & liknesse) excedinge good? And were all creatures good & perfect, & only mā not perfect nor faire inough? If these their speeches were true (which in the fulnesse of their blasphemie they shame not to speake) thā might we easily conuince the Lord of vntrue speaking, who in his sacred word, informeth vs, that mā is the perfectest Creature, & the fayrest of al others, yt euer he made (excepting the heuenly spirits, & Angelical creatures) after his own liknesse: as before. O mā who arte thou, that reasonest with thy Creator? shall the clay say vnto the potter, why hast thou made me thus?Euery one is to contente him selfe with his crea­tion and to pr [...]yse God for it. Or can y clay make himselfe better fauored than the potter, who gaue him his first stamp & propor­tion? Shall we think that stinking pride, can make the workmāshippe of the Lord to seeme fayrer? Than why did not the Lord cloth vs [Page] so at ye first? or at least, why gaue he not com­maundemēt in his will, & testament which he sealed with the price of the bloud of his sonne to cloth our selfes in riche & gorgiouse apparel to set forth his glory ye more? But away with these dogs, & hellish haggs, who retaine this opiniō, that cursed pride glorifieth God, & set­teth forth or bewtifieth his workmāshippe in his creatures. In vain is it, for me to expostu­lat with them, for doubtles nō hould this, but such as be misecreants (or deuills incarnate) & men cast of into a reprobate sence,The Lord ou [...] God is a con­suming fire, to destroy all impeniten [...] si [...]ner [...]. whom I beseech the Lord in the bowels of his mercy, either speedely to cōuert that they perish not, or els confounde, yt they hurte not, that peace may be vppō Israel. Thus hauing sufficient­ly (I trust) refelled their false positiōs, I leaue them to the Lord, beseechinge them (as they tender their own saluation linguas cōpescere digitis: to stoppe their sacrilegiouse mouthes with ther fingers, & not to spit against heauen or kicke against the pricke as they do, anie longer. For the Lord our God is a cōsuming fier, & vpon obstinate sinners shal raine down fire & brimston, & consume them in his wrath. This is our portion acquired by sinne.

Spud.

But what say you to the other branch of their conclusion, namely, that Apparell ma­keth them to be accepted, and well taken in euery place?

Philo.
[Page]

Amongest the wicked, and ignorante Pezants, I must néedes confesse, they are the more estemed, in respect of their apparell, but nothing at all the more, but rather the lesse, amongest the godly wyse. So farre of will all wyse mē be,The wise will not ac­cept of any, after apparell. from accepting of any for his gay apparell onely, that (be he neuer so gallantly painted, or curiously plumed in the deceiptfull [...] fethers of pride) they wil rather cōtemne him a great deale ye more, taking him to be a mā, puffed vp with pride and vaine glorie, a thing both odiouse, & detestable to God & good men And seeing it cānot stand with the rule of god his iustice, to accept or not to accept any ma [...] for his apparell, or any other externe shew [...] deceiptfull vanytie, it is manifest, that ma [...] doinge the contrarie, is a Iudas to the truth, [...] Traytor to iustice, & an enemy to the Lord [...] wherfore farre be that from al good christian [...] and if those that go richely clothed should b [...] esteemed ye rather for their rich apparel, tha [...] à contrario must those that go in meane, an [...] base attire, be the more contemned, and despi­sed for their pouertie. And than should Chris [...] Iesus our great Ambassador from the king [...] heauen, & only Sauiour, be comtemned: for [...] came in poore, & mean array: but Christ Iesu [...] is blessed in his pore raggs, and all others ar [...] cōtemned in their rich & precious attyre. U [...]der a simple cote, many tymes lyeth hid grea [...] wisdom & knowledg: & cōtrarely vnder bra [...] [Page] [...] somtime is couered great ydiotacy and folly.Wisdom not tyed to exte­riour pompe of apparell. Hereof euery daies successe offreth proofe sufficient, more is the pytie.

Spud.

Wherfore would you haue men ac­cepted, if not for Apparell?

Philo.

If any be so foolish to ymagin, that he shalbe worshipped, reuerencedReuerence due to vertue not to attyr [...]. or accepted the rather for his apparell, he is not so wyse, as I pray God make me. For surely for my part, I will rather worshippe & accept of a pore mā (in his clowtes, & pore raggs) hauing ye gifts and ornamēts of the mind, than I will do him yt roisteth & flaunteth daylie & howrely, in his silks, veluets, satens, damasks, gold or siluer, what soeuer, without ye induments of vertue, wherto only al reuerence is due. And therfore as any mā is indued, or not indued with ver­tue, & true godlynesse, so will I reuerence, or not reuerence, accept, or not accept of him: wherfore if any gape after reuerēce, worship, or acceptation, let them thirst after vertue, as namely, wisdome, knowledge, discretion, mo­destie, sobrietie, affability, gentlenesse, & suche like, than can they be without reuerence, or acceptatiō no more than ye sonne can be wtout light, the fire wtout heat, or the water wtout his naturall moysture.

Sp.

Thā I gather you would haue mē accep­ted for vertue & true Godlines, wold you not?

Ph.

I would not only haue mē to be accep­ted & reuerenced for their virtue (though the [Page] chiefest reuerence is onely to be attributed to him,Wherfore man is to be worshiped and had in reuerence. whose sacred brest, is fraught with vertue, as it may well be called, the Promptuarie or Receptorie of true wisdome and Godlines, but also (in parte) for their byrthes sake, pa­rentage and consāguinitie, and not only that, but also, in respect of their callings, offices and functions, whether it be in the Temporal Ma­gistery a or Ecclesiastical presbitery (so lōg as they gouerne godly and well:) For, the A­postle sayth, that those Elders which gouerne wel amongst vs, are worthie of double honor: But yet, the mā whom God hath blessed with vertue and true godlynes, thoughe he be ney­ther of great byrth nor callynge, nor yet any Magistrate whatsouer, is worthie of more re­uerence and estimation then any of the other, without the ornaments of ye minde & gifts of, vertue aboue said. For what preuayleth it to be borne of worshipfull progenie,Gentilitie without ver­tue is no gē ­tilitie. and to be destitute of all vertue, which deserueth true worship? what is it els, then to carie a golden Swoorde in a Leaden Scabbarde? Is it any thyng els, then a goldē Coffyn or painted Se­pulchre, makyng a fayre showe outwardly, but inwardly is full of all stinche, & lothsom­nes? I remember once I red a certaine storie of one, a Gentleman by byrth and parentage, who greatly reproched, and withall disdayned an other, for that he was come to great authorytie [Page] onely by vertue, being but a poore mans child by byrthe: What? saith the Gentleman by birth, arte thou so lustie? Thou arte but a coblers sonne,The exor­dium of vir­tue, is the ex­ordium of gentilitie, & worship, and want of the one, is the de­cay of the o­ther. and wilt thou compare with me, being a Gentleman by byrth, and calling? To whome the other answeared, thou arte no Gentleman, for thy gentilitie endeth in thee and I am a Gentleman, in that my gentilitie beginneth in me. Meaning (vnlest I be decei­ued) that the wante of virtue in him, was the decay of his gentility, and his vertue was the beginning of true gentilitie in him selfe: for virtue therfore, not for apparell, is euerye one to be accepted. For if we should accept of men after apparell onely respecting nothinge els, thā shold it come to passe, that we might more esteme of one, both meane by birth, base with­out virtue, seruyle by calling, & poore in estate, more than of some by birthe, noble, by virtue honorable and by callinge laudable. And the reason is because euery one, tagge and ragge, go brauer, or at least as braue as those that be both noble, honorable and worpshipfull.

Spud.

But I haue hard say, there is more holynesse in some kynd of apparell, than in othersome, which makes them so much to af­fecte varytie of fashions, I thinke.

Philo.

Indéed I suppose that the summe of their religion, doth consiste in apparell.No holynes in apparell. And to speake my conscience I thinke there is more [Page] or as muche holynesse in the apparell, as in them, that is iust none at all. But admit that there be hoylnesse in apparell (as who is so in­fatuat to beleue it) than it followeth that the holynes pretended is not in them, & so be they plaine Hipocrits to make shew of that, which they haue not. And if ye holines by there attire presaged be in them selues, thā is it not in the garments, & why do they than attribute that to the garments, whiche is neither adherente to the one nor yet inherent in the other? Or if it wer so, why do they glory of it to the world, but I leaue them to their follie, hastinge to other matters more profitable to intreate of.

Spud.

But I haue hard them reason thus. That which is good in it own nature, cannot hurt:An argument trimly con­tryued. apparell is good, and the good Creature of God, ergo no kynde of apparell can hurte. And if there be anie abuse in it, the apparell knowethe it not. Therfore take awaye the abuse, and let the apparell re­maine still, for so it maye (say they) without anie hurte at all.

Philo.

These be well seasoned reasons, and substantiall asseuerations in déed, but if they haue no better arguments to leane vnto, than these, their kingdome of Pride will shortlie, fall without all hope of recouerie againe.

The apparell in it owne nature is good, and the good Creature of God (I will not de­nie) [Page] and cannot hurte except it be thorowe ouer owne wickednesse abused. And therfore wo be to them that make the good Creatures of God instruments of dampnation to them selues, by not vsing them, but abusing them. And yet not withstanding, it maye be said, to hurte, or not to hurte, as it is abused, or not a­bused. And wheras they would haue the a­buse of apparell (if any be) taken away, and the apparell to remain still, it is impossible to supplant the one, without the extirpation of the other also. For it is trulye said, sublata causa, tollitur effectus: But not, subrepto effe­ctu, tollitur causa. Vnpossible to take away pride, except sumptuouse apparell be taken away also. Take away the cause, and the effecte falleth, but not contrarylye, take away the effect, and the cause falleth. The efficiente cause of Pride is gorgiouse attire, the effect is pride it selfe ingenerate by attire: But to begin to plucke awaie the effecte (to wit pride) and not to take awaye the cause first (namelie sumptuouse attyre) is as if a man intendinge to suppl [...]t a Trée by the rootes, should begin to pull [...]he fruite, and braunches onelye, [...]or to pull downe hea­uen, should dig in the earthe, workinge alto­gether preposterouslie, and indyreclye.

And the reason is, these two collaterall Cosins, apparell, and Pride (the Mother and DaughterApparell and pride combi­ned togethe­as mother, & daughter. of mischiefe) are so combi­nate together, and incorporate the one in [Page] the other, as the one can hardlie be dyuorced from the other, without the distructiō of them both. To the accomplishmente wherof God graunte that those holsome lawes, sanctions, and statuts, which by our most gracious and serene princesse (whome Iesus preserue for euer) and her noble, and renoumed Progeni­tors, haue beene promulgate, and enacted her­tofore, may be put in execution. For in my opinion, it is as impossible for a man, to were preciouse apparell, and gorgiouse attyre, and not to be proude therof (for if he be not proud therof, why doth he weare suche riche attire, wheras meaner is both better cheape, easier to be had, as warme to the bodie, and as de­cent, and comly to any chast christians eye?) as it is for a man to cary fire in his bosōe,Vnpossible not to be proud of rich attyre. and not to burne. Therfore would God euery mā might be compelled to weare apparell, accor­ding to his degrée, estat, and condition of life: which if it were brought to passe, I feare least some who ruff [...] now in silks, veluets, satēs, damasks, gold siluer, and what not, shold be glad to weare frize cotes, & glad if they might get them.

Spud.

What is your opiniō? did the people of the former world so much esteeme of appa­rell, as we doe at this present day, without re­spect had either to sex, kind, order, degrée estat, or callinge?

Philo.
[Page]

No doubt but in all ages, they had their imperfectiōs and faults, for Hominis est errare, labi, & decipi, it is incident to man, to erre, to fall, and to be deceiued.The Godly haue euer de­tested pride of apparell. But notwith­standinge as the wicked haue alwayes affec­ted not onelie pride in apparell, but also all other vices whatsoeuer, so the chaste Godly, and sober Christians, haue euer eschewed this excesse of apparell, hauing a speciall regard to weare suche attyre as might neyther offend the maiestie of God, prouoke them selues to pride nor yet offend any of their Brethren in any respecte. But (as I haue said) not onely the Godlie haue detested and hated this vaine superfluitye of apparell in all tymes since the beginning of the Worlde,The verie he­then haue cō ­temned sumptuouse ap­parell. but also the verie panims, the heathen Philosophers, who knew not God▪ (though otherwise, wyse Sages, and great Clarks) haue contemned it, as a pestife­rouse euill: in so muche as they haue writ (almost) whole volumes against the same, as is to be seene in most of their Books yet ex­tant.

Spud.

Are you able to proue that?

Philo.

That I am verie easilye,Testimonie [...] of hethen people who derided rich [...] attire. but of an infinyte number, take a taste of these few. Democrates béeing demaunded, wherin the bewtie, and comlie feature of man, or woman consisted? aunswered, in fewnes of speaches well tempered together, in virtue, in integrity [Page] of life, and suche like. Sophocles seinge one weare gorgeouse apparell, said to him, thou foole, thy apparell is no ornamente to the, but [...] manifest shewe of thy follie. Socrates be­ing asked what was the greattest ornamente in a woman? answered, yt which most shew­eth her chastitie, and good demeanoure of bo­dy, and mind & not sumptuouse attyre, which rather sheweth her adulterate life. Aristotle is so district in this point, that he would haue men to vse meaner apparell, than are per­mitted them by the lawe: The Wife of Phi­lo the Philosopher, Virtue is the comlyest or­namēt of all. being vppon a tyme de­maunded why she ware not gold, siluer, and preciouse garments, said, she thought the ver­tues of her husbande sufficiente ornaments for her. Dionisius the king sente the richest garments in all his wardrobes to the noble Womē of the Lacedemonians, who returned them from whence they came, sayinge, they would be a greatter shame to them, than ho­nore. Kinge Pirrus sente riche attyre to the Matrones of Rome, who abhorred them, as menstruous clowtes. The conceiued opinion amōgest the Grecians to this day is, that it is neither gold, nor gorgiouse attyre that adorneth either Man or Woman, but vertuous conditions, and such like. Diogines Dio [...]ines his [...]suerity. so much contemned sumptuous attyre, that he chose rather to dwell in wildernesse amon­gest [Page] brute beasts, all his lyfe longe than in the pompouse courts of mightie kings one daye to be commorante. For he thought if he had the ornaments of the minde, that he was than faire ynoughe, and fine inough also, not, needing any more.

A certen other Philosopher, addressed himselfe towards a kings courte in his Phi­losophers attyre, that is in meane, base and poore aray: But soe sone as the Officers espied him, they cried awaie with that rogue, what dothe he soe nie the kinges maiestye courte.

The poore Philosopher seing it lighten so fast, retyred back, for feare of their thunder­clappes, and repayringe home, appaireled himselfe, in riche Attyre, and came againe marchinge towards the court, he was no soo­ner in sight, but euery one receiued him plau­siblie, and with great submission, and reue­rence. When he came in presence of the kinge, and other mightie potentats, he kne­led down, and ceased not to kisse his garmēts. The king and nobles marueylinge not a litle therat, asked him, wherfore he did so?

Who aunswered,The exam­ple of a Phi­losopher de­riding the pompe [...] World. O noble kinge, it is no marueyle, for that whiche my vertue and knowledge could not doe, my Apparell hath brought to passe. For I comminge to thy gates in my PHILOSOPHERS [Page] weede, was repelled, but hauing put vpon me this riche attyre, I was brought to thy pre­sence with as great veneration and worship as could be. Wherby is to be séene in what detestation he had the stinkinge Pride of ap­parell, takeing this occasion to giue the King to vnderstand the inormious abuse thereof, and so to remoue the same as a pestilent euill out of his whole dominion & kingdome. I read of a certen other Philosopher that came be­fore a king,The exāple of a Philoso­pher who spat in the kings face. who at the same tyme, had inui­ted his nobles, to a feast or banquet, the Phi­losopher comming in, and seinge no place to spit in (for euery place was hanged with cloth of gold, cloth of siluer, tinsell, arrace, tapestrie, and what not) came to the kinge and spat in his face, saying, it is méet (o king) that I spit in the fowlest place. This good Philosopher (as we may gather) went about to withdraw the king from taking pleasure or delight, in the vaine glistering shewe, either of apparell or any thing els, but rather to haue conside­ration of his owne filthynes, miserie, & sinne, not rysing vp into pride, and spitting against heauen, as he did, by dilighting in prowde at­tyre and gorgeouse ornaments. Thus we sée the verie painims, and heathen people, haue from the beginning dispysed this excesse of ap­parell, both in them selues, and others, whose examples heerin god graunt we may folowe.

Spud.
[Page]

But you are not able to proue that any good Christians, euer set light by pre­cious attire, but alwayes estéemed it as a spe­ciall ornament to the whole man, As for these Heathen they were fooles, neyther is it mate­riall, what they vsed, or vsed not?

Philo.

I am able to prooue, that euen from the beginning of the world, the chosen and pe­culiar people of God, haue contemned proude Apparel, as things (not onely) not necessarie, but also as very euilles themselues,Probatiō, that the former world hath contemned pompouse attyre. and haue gone both meanely and poorely in their vsuall attyre. What say you to our Grandfather A­dam, and Eua our Mother? Were they not clo­thed in peltes, and skins of beasts? Was not this a meane kinde of Apparell thinke you? Was it not vnsitting to sée a womā inuested all ouer in leather? But yet the Lord thought it precious, and seemelie ynough for them.

What saye you to the noble Prophet of the world Elias, Elias. did hee not walke in the solitude of this worlde in a simple playne mantell or gowne, girded to him with a girdle of leather? Elizeus ye Prophet,Elizeus. Samuell. did not he in a manner the verie same. And what say you to Samuell the golden mouthed Prophet, notwithstanding yt hee was an Archprophet, and a chiefe seer of that time, did hee not walke so meanely, as Saul seking his fathers Asses, could not know him from the reste, but asked him, where was [Page] the séers house? This must néeds argue that he went not richer then the common sorte of people in his time.The children of Israell. The Children of Israell béeing the chosen people of God, did they not weare their Fathers attire fortie yéeres togi­ther in the wildernes? was not Iohn the Bap­tist Iohn Baptist. clothed with a garment of Camels heare? girded with a thong of the skin of the same insted of a girdle or succinctorie about his loines Peter Peter. the déere Apostle of our Sauiour, was not distinct from the rest of his Felowes, A­postles by any kinde of rich apparel, for then the maid would not haue said I know thée by thy tung, but rather by thy apparel.

The Apostle Paul writing to the Hebrues saith, that the persecuted Church, bothe in his time, and before his dayes were clothed some in Shéep skinnes, and some in Gote skinnes, some in Camels heare, some in this and some in that, and some in whatsoeuer they coulde get, for if it would hide their shameful parts, and kept them from the colde, they thought it sufficient, they required no more: but to speak in one woord for all, did not our Sauiour Ie­sus Christ weare the very same fashion of ap­parell, that his Cuntrey-men vsed, that is a cote without a seame either knit or weaued? which fashions the Palestynians vse there,The humili­ty and pouer­tie of Christe vppon earth. yet to this day, without any alteration or chaūge as it is thought. This his attyre, was not [Page] very hansome (one would think,) at the least it was not curious, or new fangled, as ours is, but as the Poet wel said, initimur in ve­titum [...]ēper cupimus (que) negata, desired things forbid, and couet things are denied vs, lothing the simplicitie of Christe, and abhorring the christian pouertie and godly mediocritie of our Forefathers in apparel, are neuer con­tent except wée haue sundry sutes of apparel, one diuers from an other, so as our Presses crack withall, our Cofers bruse, and our backs sweat with the cariage therof: we must haue one sute for the forenoone,Superfluitie of apparell With dyuer­sitie of fashi­ons. another for ye afternoone, one for the day, another for the night, one for the workeday, another for the holieday, one for sommer, another for winter, one of the newe fashion, an other of the olde, one of this colour, another of that, one cutte, an other whole, one laced, another without, one of golde, and other of siluer, one of silkes and veluets, and another of clothe, with more difference and varietie than I can expresse: god be merciful vnto vs and hasten his king­dōe that all imperfectious may be doon away.

A peculiare Discrip­tion of apparell in A [...]lgna by degrees

YOu haue borne me in hand of many and gréeuous abuses reigning in Ailgna, but now setting aparte these ambagies and [Page] superfluous vagaries) I pray you describe vn­to me more particularly the sundrie abuses in Apparell there vsed, running ouer by degrées the whole state thereof, that I maye sée as it were the perfect Anatomie of that Nation in Apparell, whiche thinge I greatlye desire to knowe.

Philo.

Your request séemeth both intricate, and harde, considering there bee Tot tantae maeryadaes inuentionum, So manie, and so fonde fashions, and inuentions of Apparell e­uerie day. But yet, lest I might be iudged vn­willing to shewe you what pleasure I can, I will assay (pro virili mea, omnibus neruulis vndi (que) extensis) with all the might and force I can, to satisfie your desire. Wherefore to be­gin first with their Hattes.

Sometimes they were them sharp on the crowne, pearking vp like a sphere, or shafte of a stéeple,The diuersity of hattes in Ailgna. standing a quarter of a yard aboue ye crowne of their heades, some more, some lesse, as please the phantasies of their mindes. O­thersome be flat, and broad on the crowne, like the battlements of a house. An other sort haue round crownes, sometimes with one kinde of hande, sometime with an other, nowe blacke, now white, now russet, now red, now gréene, now yellowe, now this, nowe that, neuer con­tent with one colour, or fashion two dayes to an ende. And thus in vanitie they spende the [Page] Lorde his treasure, consuming their golden yeares, and siluer dayes, in wickednes & sin. And as the fashions bee rare and straunge, so are the thinges wherof their Hattes be made diuerse also: for some are of silke, some of vel­uet, some of taffetie, some of sarcenet, some of wooll,The sundrie things wher­of hattes be made. & which is more curious, some of a cer­taine kind of fine haire, far fetched, and deare bought you maye bee sure. And so common a thinge it is, that euerie Seruingman, Coun­treyman, and other, euen all indifferently, do weare of these hattes. For he is of no account or estimation amongst men, if hee haue not a veluet, or a taffatie Hatte, and that muste bee pincked and cunningly carued of the beste fa­shion. And good profitable Hattes bee they, for the longer you weare them, the fewer holes they haue. Besides this, of late there is a new fashion of wearing their Hattes sprung vp a­mongst thē, which they father vpon ye French­men, namely, to weare them without bandes, but how vnséemelie (I will not say how Assy) a fashion that is,Wering of hattes with­out bandes. let the wise iudge. Notwith­standing howe euer it bee, if it please them, it shall [...] displease me. An other sort (as phan­tasticall as the rest) are content with no kind of Hatt, without a great bunche of feathers of diuerse and sundrie colours, peaking on toppe of their heades,Wering of Feathers in hattes. not vnlyke (I dare not say) Cockscombes, but as sternes of pride and ensignes [Page] of vanitie, and these fluttering sayles and fethered flags of defiance to vertue (for so they are) are so aduaunced in Ailgna that e­euery Childe hath them in his hat or cap, ma­ny get good liuing by dying and selling of thē, and not a fewe prooue them selues more the [...] fooles in wearing of them.

Spud.

These Fethers argue the lightnes of their fond imaginations, and plainly cōuince them of instabilitie and folly, for sure I am, hansome they cannot be, therefore Ba [...]ges of pride they must needs be, which I think non [...] wil weare but such as he like them selues.

But to your intended discourse.

Philo.

They haue great and monsterous ru­ffes,Great ruffes deformed & ill fauored. made either of Cambrick, holland, lawn or els of some other the finest cloth that can be got for money, whereof some be a quarter of a yard deep, yea some more, very few lesse.

So that they stand a full quarter of a yarde (and more) from their necks hanging ouer their shoulder poynts, insted of a vaile. But if Aeolus with his blasts, or Neptune with his stormes, chaunce to hit vppon the crasie bark of their brused ruffes, then they goe flip flap in the winde like rags flying abroad, and lye vpon their shoulders like the dishcloute of a [...]lutte. But wot you what? the deuil, as in the fulnes of his malice, first inuented these [Page] great ruffes, so hath hée now found out also two great stayes to beare vp and maintaine this his kingdome of great ruffes (for the de­uil is king and prince ouer all the children of pride) the one arch or piller wherby his king­dome of great ruffes is vnderproppedTwo arches or pillers to vnder proppe the kingdom of greatruffes withall, vide­licet suppor­tasses, and starche. is a cer­taine kinde of liquide matter which they call Starch, wherin the deuill hath willed them to wash and diue his ruffes wel, which when they be dry wil then stand stiffe and inflexible about their necks.

The other piller is a certain deuice made of wyers crested for ye purpose, whipped ouer ei­ther with gold, thred, siluer or silk, & this hée calleth a supportasse or vnderpropper. This is to be supplyed round about their necks vn­der the ruffe, vpon the out side of the band, to beare vp the whole frame & body of the ruffe, from falling and hanging down.

Spud.

This is a deuice passing all the deui­ces that euer I sawe or heard of. Then I perceiue the deuill not onely inuenteth mischeif, but also ordaineth instrumentall meanes to continue the same.

These bands are so chargeable (as I sup­pose that but fewe haue of them, if they haue, they are better monyed them I am?

Philo.

So few haue them as almost none is without them, for euery one how meane or [Page] simple soeuer they bee otherwise, will haue of them thrée or foure apéece for fayling. And as though Camericke,Euery pesant hath his sta­tely bands & monstrouse ruffes, how cost lie so euer they be. Holland, Lawne, and the finest cloth that maye bee got anie where for money, were not good inough, they haue them wrought all ouer with silke woorke, and per­aduenture laced with golde, and siluer, or o­ther costly lace of no small price. And whether they haue Argente to mayntaine this geare withall or not, it forceth not muche, for they will haue it by one meane or other, or els they will eyther sell or morgage their Landes, (as they haue good store) on Suters hill, & Stan­gate hole, with losse of their lyues at Tiburne in a rope.

Spud.

The state and condition of that Land must néedes be miserable, and in tyme growe to greate scarcitie and dearth, where is such vayne Prodigalitie, and excesse of all thynges vsed.

Philo.

Their Shirtes, which all in a man­ner doe weare (for if the Nobilitie or Gentrie onely did weare them, it were somedeal more tollerable) are eyther of Camericke, Holland, Lawne,The shirts vsed in Ailg­na. or els of the finest cloth that maye bée got. And of these kindes of Shirts euerie one now doth weare alike: so as it may be thoght, our Forefathers, haue made their Bandes & Ruffes (if they had any at all) of grosser cloth, and baser stuffe, than the worst of our shirtes [Page] [...]re made of now a dayes. And these shurts (somtimes it happeneth) are wrought through out with nedle work of silke, and suche like, and curiouslie stitched with open seame, and many other knackes besydes, mo than I can describe.

Spud.

These be goodly shurts indeed, & such yet as will not chafe their tēder skinnes, nor vlcerat their lyllie white bodyes, or if they do, it wil not be much to their gréeuances I dare be bound. Is it anie maruell, si Cristas eri­gant & cornua attollant, if they stand vppon their pantoffles, and hoyse vp their sayles on highe, hauinge these dya [...]ond shurts on their delicate bodies: but how soeuer it is, I gather by your words, that this must néeds be a nice, and curious People, who arethus nusseled vp in such daintie attyre.

Philo.

It is very true,Nicenes of apparell ma­keth the bo­dy tender. for this their curio­sity, and nicenes in apparell (as it were) tran­snatureth them, makinge them weake, tender and infirme, not able to abide such sharp con­flicts and blustering stormes, as many other people, both abraode farre from them, and in their confines nie to them, do daylie sustaine. I haue hard my Father, with other wyse Sa­ges affirme, that in his tyme within the com­passe of foure or fyue score yeres, when men went clothed in black, or white frize coates, in hosen of Huswyues carzie of the same colore, [Page] that the shéep bore them (the want of making and wering of which clothe, together with the excessiue wering of silks, veluets, satens, da­masks, taffeties, and such like, hath and doth make many a thousand in Ailgna, as poore mendicāts to begge their bread) wherof some weare strait to the thigh, othersome litle big­ger: and when they ware shurts of hempe, or flax (but now these are to grosse,Our prede­cessours we­ringe meaner apparell were stronge than we. our tēder sto­macks cannot easilye disgest such roughe and crude meats) men weare stronger than we, helthfuller, fayrer complectioned, longer ly­uinge, and finallye, ten tymes harder than we, and able to beare out any sorowe or pay­nes whatsoeuer. For be sure this pampering of our bodies, makes them weker, tenderer, and nesher, than otherwyse they would be if they were vsed to hardnesse and more subiect to receiue anye kind of infection or maladie. And rather abbreuiat oure dayes by manye yeres than extenuate our liues one minut of an houre.

Spud.

I thinke no lesse: For how stronge men were in tymes past▪ how lōg they lyued, and how helthfull they weare, before suche Nicenes, and vayne pamperinge curiositie was inuented, we may reade, and many that lyue at this daye, can testifie. But now through our fond toyes and nice inuentions, we haue brought our selues into suche pusil­lanimitie, [Page] and effeminat condition, as we may seeme rather nice dames, and yonge gyrles, than puissante ag [...]nts, or manlie men, as our Forefathers haue bene.

Philo.

Their dublettes are noe lesse mon­strous than the reste:The mon­strous dublet [...] in Ailgna. For now the fashion is, to haue them hang downe to the mid­dest of their theighes, or at least to their pri­uie members, beeing so harde-quilted, and stuffed, bombasted and sewed, as they can verie hardly eyther stoupe downe, or decline them selues to the grounde, soe styffe and sturdy they stand about them.

Now what handsomnes can be in these dubblettes whiche stand on their bellies, like or muche bigger than a mans codpeece, (so as their bellies are thicker than all their bo­dyes besyde) let wyse men iudge. For, for my parte, handsomnes in them, I see none, and muche lesse profyte.

And to be plaine, I neuer sawe any weare them:Great bellied dublets b [...]to­ken gourmā ­dice, gluttony and such like. but I supposed him to be a man in­clined to gourmandice, gluttonie and suche like.

For what may these great bellies signifie els, than that either they are suche, or els are affected that way. This is the truest signi­fication, that I could euer presage, or diuy­ne of them. And this maye euerye one [Page] iudge of them that séeth them, for certaine I am there was neuer any kinde of apparell e­uer inuented, that could more disproportion the body of man then these Dublets wt great bellies hāging down beneath their Pudenda, (as I haue said) & stuffed with foure, fiue or six pound of Bombast at the least: I say nothing of what their Dublets be made,Dublettes of dyuerse fa­shions. some of Sa­ten, Taffatie, silk, Grogram, Chamlet, gold siluer, & what not? slashed, iagged, cut, carued, pincked and laced with all kinde of costly la [...] of diuers and sundry colours, for if I shoulde stand vpon these particularities, rather time then matter would be wanting.

Spud.

These be the strangest doublets that euer I heard of, and the furdest from hansom­nes in euery respect, vnlesse I be deceiued.

Philo.

Then haue they Hosen,Hosen of di­uerse & sun­dry fashions. which as they be of diuers fashions so are they of sun­dry names. Some be called french-hose, some gally-hose and some Uenitians. The french-hose are of two diuers makings, for the cōmon french-hose (as they list to call them) contay­neth length, breadth, and sidenes sufficient, and is made very round. The other contay­neth neither length, breadth nor sidenes, (bée­ing not past a quarter of a yarde side) wherof some be paned, cut and drawne out with costly ornaments, with Canions annexed reach­ing down beneath their knées▪

[Page]The Gally-hosen are made very large, and wide reaching downe to their knées onely, with thrée or foure guardes a péece laid down along either hose. And the Uenetian-hosen, they reach beneath the knée to the gartering place of the Leg, where they are tyed finely with silk points, or some such like, and laied on also with rewes of lace, or gardes as the other before. And yet notwithstanding all this is not sufficient, except they be made of silk, veluet, saten, damask and other such precious things beside: yea euery one, Seruing man, and other inferiour to them in euery condition,The [...] hosen. wil not sticke to flaunte it out in these kinde of hosen, with all other their ap­parel sutable therunto.

In times past, Kings (as olde Historiogra­phers in their Bookes yet extant doo recorde) would not disdaine to weare a paire of hosen of a Noble, tenne Shillinges, or a Marke price, with all the rest of their apparel after the same rate: but now it is a small matter to bestowe twentie nobles, ten pound, twen­tie pound, fortie pound, yea a hundred pound of one paire of Bréeches. (God be mercifull vnto vs.)

Spud.

This is a wunderful excesse as eu [...] I hearde of, woorthy with the Swoorde [...] Iustice rather to be punished, then with pap [...] and pen to be so gentlie confuteed.

Philo.
[Page]

Then haue they nether-stocks to these gay hosen,The diuersity of neither-stocks worne in Ailgna. not of cloth (though neuer so fine) for that is thought to base, but of Iarnsey worsted, silk, thred and such like, or els at the least of the finest yarn yt can be, and so cu­riouslye knit with open seam down the leg, with quirks and clocks about the ancles, and sometime (haply) interlaced with gold orsiluer threds, as is wunderful to behold. And to such insolency & outrage it is now growen, that e­uery one (almost) though otherwise verie poor hauing scarce fortie shillings of wages by the yéer wil be sure to haue two or thrée paire of these silk neither-stocks, or els of the finest yarne that may be got, though ye price of them be a Ryall or twentie shillinges, or more, as commonly it is, for how can they be lesse? when as the very knitting of them is worth a noble, or, a royall, and some much more?

The time hath béene, when one might haue clothed all his body well, for lesse then a pair of these neither-stocks wil cost.

Spud.

I haue seldome hearde the like,The mis [...]rie of these daies I think verely that Sathan p [...]ince of darknes & Father of pride, is let loose in y land, els it could neuer so rage as it dooth, for y like pride (I am fully perswaded) is not vsed vnder the sonne, of any nation or people how barberous so euer, wherfore wo be to this age and thrise accursed be these dayes, which bring foorth [Page] such sowre frutes, & vnhappie are that people, whom Sathan hath so bewitched, & captiued in sin. The Lord holde his hād of mercy ouer vs.

Philo.

To these their nether-stocks, they haue corked shooes, pinsnets,Corked shoes Pantoffles, and pinsnets. and fine panto­fles, which beare them vp a finger or two frō the ground, wherof some be of white leather some [...] of black, and some of red: some of black veluet, some of white, some or red, some of gréen, raced, carued, cut and stitched all ouer with silk and laid on with golde, siluer, and such like: yet notwithstanding, to what good vses serue these pantofles, except it be to wear in a priuate house, or in a mans Chamber, to kéepe him warme? (for this is the onely vse wherto they best serue in my iudgement)Pantoff [...]es, & slippers are a let to those that go abrod in them. but to go abroad in them as they are now vsed al together, is rather a let or hinderāce to a man then otherwise, for shall he not be faine to knock, and spurn at euery stone, wall or poste to kéep▪ them on his feet? wherfore to disclose euen the bowels of my iudgement vnto you, I think they be rather worne abrode for nice­nes, thē either for any ease which they bring, (for the contrary is moste tru [...]) or any han­sōnes which is in them.Pantoffles vneasie to go in. For how should they be easie, when as the héele hangeth an inch or two ouer the slipper on the ground? Inso­much [...]as I haue knowen diuers mens legs swel with the same.

[Page]And handsome how should they be, when as with their flipping & flapping vp and down in ye dirte they exaggerate a mountain of mire [...] gather a heape of clay & baggage together, lo­ding the wearer with importable burthen?

Spud.

Those kinde of pantoffles, can nei­ther be so handsome, nor yet so warme as o­ther vsuall commō shoes be, I think. Ther­fore the weringe of them abrode rather im­porteth a Nicenes (as you say) in them that weare them, than bringeth any other commo­dytie els, vnlesse I be deceiued?

Philo.

Their coates, and Ierkins, as they be diuerse in colors,The varytie of coates and Ierkins. so be they diuerse in fa­shions, for some be made with colors, some without, some close to the bodie, some loose, co­uering the whole body downe to the theighe, like baggs, or sacks that weare drawen ouer them, hidinge the dimensions, and proportiōs of the body: some are buttened downe the brest▪ some vnder the arme, & some downe the back, some with flappes ouer the brest, some without▪ some with great sleeues, some with small, and some with non at all, some plea­ted and crested behind, & curiouslye gathered, some notso, & how many dayes (I might say houres or minuts of houres in the yeare,) so many sortes of apparell some one man will haue, and thinketh it good prouision in [...]aire weather, to lay vp against a storme. But if [Page] they would consider that their clothes (except those that they weare vppon their backs) be non of theirs, but the poores, they would not heap vp their presses, and ward [...]obes as they do. Do they think that it is lawfull for them to haue millions of sundry sortes of apparell lying rotting by them, when as the poore mē ­bers of Iesus Christe die at their doores for wante of clothing?The poor [...] ought to be prouided for. God commaundeth in his law, that there be no miserable poore man nor begger amongest vs, but that euery one be prouided for and maintained of that abundā ­ce, which God hath blessed vs withal:Our smal re­gard to the poore. But we thinke it a great matter if we geue them an old ragged coate, dublet, or a paire of hosen, or els a penny or two, wheras not withstanding we flow in abundance of all things. Than we thinke we are halfe way to heauen, and we need to do no more. If we geue them a peace of brown bread, a messe of porredge (nay the stocks & prison, with whipp [...]ge cheare now and than is the best portion of almes which many Gentlemen geue:) at our dores, it is counted meritorious, and a worke of supere­rogation when we fare full delicatelye oure selues feeding on many a danity dish. There is a certen Citye in Ailgna called Munidnol, where as the poore lye in ye streats,Cold charitie to the poore. vppon pal­lets of stra [...], and well if they haue that to, or els in the mire and dirt, as commonlie it is [Page] hauing neither house to put of their heads, co­uering to kéep them from the cold, nor yet to hide their shame withall, penny to buy them sustenance, nor any thing els, but are permit­ted to dye in the streats like dogges, or beasts without anie mer [...]ie, or compassion shewed to them at all. And if anye be sicke of the plague (as they call it,) or any other disease, their Maisters and Maistres are so impudent (being, it should séeme at a league with Sa­than, a couenante with Hell, and as it were obliged them selues by obligation to the deuil neuer to haue to do with ye works of mercy) as straight way, thei throw them out of their do­res. And so being caried foorth either in carts, or otherwyse, and thrown in the streats, there they end their dayes most miserably.The Turkish impietie of some towards the poore di­seased. Truely Brother if I had not séen it, I would scarsly haue thought, that the like Turkish cruelty, had bene vsed in all the World. But they say, vnus testis occulatus plus valet, quàm mille auriti: one eye witnesse, is better to be bely­ [...]ed, than a thousand eare witnesses besydes. But to leaue these excursions, and to returne from whence I haue digressed, I think it the best: For I am perswaded they will as much respect my words (or amend their maners) as the wicked World did at the preaching of our Sauiour Christe Iesus, that is, iust no­thing at all.

Spud.
[Page]

Well then, séeing they are suche a stifneckned People, leaue them to the Lord, and procéed to your former tractation.

Philo.

They haue clokes there also in no­thing discrepante from the rest, of dyuerse and sundry colors,The sundry fashions of cloks. white, red, tawnie, black, greene yellowe, russet, purple, violet, and infynite o­ther colors: some of cloth, silk, veluet, taffetie, and such like, wherof some be of the Spanish, French, & Dutch fashion. Some short, scarsely reachinge to the gyrdlestead, or wast▪ some to the knée, and othersome traylinge vppon the ground (almost) liker gownes, than clokes. These clokes must be garded, laced, & thorow­ly faced: and somtimes so lyned, as the inner side stādeth almost in as much as the outside: some haue sléeues, othersome haue none, some haue hoodes to pull ouer the head, some haue none, some are hanged with points & tassels of gold, siluer, or silk, some without al this. But how soeuer it be, the day hath bene, when one might haue bought him two clokes for lesse, thā now he can haue one of these clokes made for, they haue such store of workmanship be­stowed vppon them.

Spud.

I am sure they neuer learned this at the hands of our Proconsul and chief Prouost Christ Iesus,The coūting house of all euill, is mans braine. nor of any other y euer lyued godly in the Lord: but rather out of the de­ceiptfull forge of their own braines haue they [Page] drawen this cursed Anatomy to their owne destruction in the end, except the repente.

Philo.

They haue also bootehose, which are to be wondered at, for they be [...]f the fynest cloth,The vain ex­cesse of botehosen. that may be got, yea fine inough to ma­ke any bād, ruffe, or shurt needful to be worn: yet this is bad inough to were next their gre­sie boots. And would God this weare all: but (oh phy for shame) they must be wrought all ouer, from the gartering place vpward, with nedle worke, clogged with silk of all colors, with birds, foules, beasts, and antiques pur­trayed all ouer in comlie sorte. So that I ha­ue knowen the very nedle work of some one payre of these bootehose to stand, some in .iiij. pound, vi. pound, and some in x. pound a péece. Besides this, they are made so wyde to draw ouer all, and so longe, to reach vp to the waste that as litle or lesse cl [...]the would make one a reasonable large shurte. But tush, this is no­thing in comparison of the reste.

Spud.

I would thinke that bootehosen of grosser lynnen,The varitie of fashions conuince vs of follie. or els of wollen clothe, weare both warmer to ride in, as cōly as the other, though not so fine, and a great deal more du­rable. And as for those gengawes wherwith you say they be blaunched and trimmed, they serue to no end, but to feade y wanton eyes of gazing fools, & planly argue ye vertiginie, & in­stability of their more than fātastical brains.

Phil.
[Page]

To these haue they their Rapiers, Swoords and Daggers gilt, twise or thrise o­uer the hilts,Swords and daggers guilt & damasked. with scaberds and sheathes of Ueluet or the like, for leather, though it be more proffitable and as séemely, yet wil it not carie such a porte or countenance like the o­ther. And wil not these golden swoords & dag­gers almoste apale a man (though otherwise neuer so stout a Martialist) to haue any deling with them? for either to y end they be worne or els other swoords, daggers and rapiers of bare yron and stéele were as hansom as they, & much more conducible to that end, whereto swoords and rapiers should serue, namely for a mans lawful and godly defence, against his aduersarie in time of necessitie. But wher­fore they be so clogged with gold and siluer I know not, nor yet wherto this excesse serueth I sée not, but certain I am, a great shewe of pride it is, an infallible token of vain glorie, and a [...]greeuous offence to God, so prodigallie, and licentiouslie to lauish foorth his treasure, for which we must rēder accoūts at the day of Iudgement, when it shall be saide to euerie one,Luce. 16. Redde rationem Vilicationis tuae, Come giue accounts of thy Stewardship.

A particulare Discri­ption of the Abuses of Womens ap­parell in Ailgna.

THus hauinge geuen thée a superficiall viewe, or small tast, (but not discouered the hūdreth part) of the guyses of Ailgna in mēs apparel, & of the abuses cōtained in the same, now wil I with like celeritie of matter impart vnto thée, the guyse and seuerall Abu­ses of the apparell of wemen there vsed also: wherfore geue attentiue eare.

Sp.

My eares be prest to heare, begin when you wil, and truely herin you shal pleasur me much, for I haue greatly desired to know tho­rowly the state of y Lād, euen a crepundiis (as they say (from my tender yeres, for the great prayse I haue hard therof) Wherfore, I pray you proceed to the same, & though I be vnable wt any benefit to coūteruail your great pains, yet ye Lord I doubt not, wil supplie my want.

Ph.

The Lord our God is a mercifull God, & a boūtiful Rewarder of euery one, that tru­steth in him, but yet (such is ye magnificency & liberalitie of that gētle sexThe reward of the femall sex.) that I trust I shall not be vnrewarded at their hands, if to be cal­led a thousād knaues be a sufficiēt guerdō for my pains. But though it wilbe a corrosiue to their hautie stomacks, & a nippitatū to their tender brests to heare their dirtie dregs ript vp and cast in their diamond faces, yet hope­ing [Page] that they, séeing the horrour of their im­pieties, and tragicall abuses laide open to the world, (for now they sléep in the graue of obliuion) wil at the last like good Conuertes and Penitentiaries of Christe Iesus leaue of their wickednes, call for mercie at the hands of God, repent and amend. I will procéed to my intended purpose.

The Women of Ailgna vse to colour their faces with certain oyles, liquors, vnguents and watersColoring of faces with oyntments and waters. made to that end, whereby they think their beautie is greatly decored: but who séethe not that their soules are thereby deformed, and they brought déeper into the displeasure and indignation of the Almighty, at whose voice the earth dooth tremble and at whose presence the heauens shall liquifie, and melt away. Doo they think thus to adulte­rate the Lord his woorkmanship,Adulteration of the Lord his workmā ­ship in his Creatures. and to be without offence? Doo they not know that he is Zelotipus a ielous God, and cannot abide any alteration of his woorkes, otherwise then he hath commaunded?

Yf an Artificer, or Craftsman shoulde make any thing belōging to his art or science & a cobler should presume to correct the same: would not ye other think him self abused, and iudge him woorthy of reprehension?

And thinkest thou (oh Woman) to escape the Iudgement of God, who hath fashioned thée, [Page] to his glory, when thy great and more then presumptuous audacicitie dareth to alter, & chaunge his woorkmanship in thée?

Thinkest thou that thou canst make thy self fairer then God who made vs all? These must néedes be their inuentions, or els they would neuer go about to coulour their faces, with such sibbersawces. And these béeing their inuentions what can derogate more frō the maiestie of God in his creation? For in this dooing they plainly conuince the Lord of vntrueth in his word who saith he made man glorious, after his owne likenes, and the fay­rest of all other terrestiall Creatures. If he be thus faire then what néed they to make them fayrer? Therfore this their colouring of their faces importeth,They that colour their faces deny the Lord of glory to bee true God and so no God at all. (as by probable coniecture may be presupposed) that they think them sel­ues not faire enough, and then must GOD néeds he vntrue in his woord.

And also they deny the Lord to be either merciful or almightie or bothe, and so conse­quently no God at all: for if h [...]e could not haue made them faire, then is hée not almightie, and if hée could and would not, then is hée not a merciful God, and so euery way they fall in to the finck of offence, béeing ashamed of the good creation of the Lord in them, but it is to be feared least at the day of Iudgement, the Lord wil be ashamed of them, & in his wrath [Page] denounce this heauie and ineuitable sentence condemnatorie against them,Sentence condemnatory a­gainst those that coulour their faces. Departe from mee you cursed into euerlasting fire prepa­red for the deuil, and his Angels, I knowe you not: (I say) departe, for you were asha­med of mee, and of my creation in you.

Spud.

Wherof doo they make these waters, and other vnctions wherwith they besmeare their faces, can you tel?

Philo.

I am not so skilful in their matters of pride, but I holde this for a Maxime, that they are made of many mixtures, and sundry compounded simples, bothe farre fetched and déer bought, cunningly couched together, and tempered with many goodly condiments and holsome confections, I warrant you, els you may be sure they woulde not applye them to their amorous faces,Inuectiues of the Fathers against payn­ting and cou­louring of faces. for feare of harming or blemishing the same.

Philo.

S. Ciprian amongst all the rest, saith, a Woman thorow painting and dying of her face, sheweth her self to be more then who­rish. For (saith hée) shée hath corrupted and defaced (like a filthie strumpet or brothel) the woorkmanship of GOD in her, what is this els, but to turne trueth into falshood, with painting and sibbersawces, wheras the Lord saith, Thou canst not make one haire white or black. In an other place hee saith,Qui se pinguunt in hoc seculo, aliter quám creauit [Page] Deus, metuant ne cum dies resurrectionis venerit, artifex creaturam suam, non recog­noscat. Those which paint or collour them selues in this world otherwise then GOD hath made them, let them feare least when the day of iudgement commeth, the Lorde wil not know them for his Creatures.’

Againe, Feminae crines suos inficiunt malo praesagio, capillos enim sibi flammeos aus­picari non metuunt. Whosoeuer doo color their faces or their haire with any vnnatu­rall collour, they begin to prognosticate of what colour they shalbe in hel.’

S. Ambrose saith that from the coullouring of faces spring the inticements to vices, and that they which color their faces doo purchase to them selues the blot and stain of chastitie.

For what a dotage is it (saith hee) to chaūge thy naturall face which God hath made thee, for a painted [...]ace, which thou hast made thy self? If thou béest faire, why paintest thou thy self to seeme fairer? and if thou be not faire, why doost thou hippocrittically desire to séeme faire,No painting can make a­ny to seem fairer but [...]owler. and art nothing lesse? Can those things which besides that they be filthie▪ doo cary the brand of God his cursse vpon their backs for euer, make thée to seeme fayrer? I could show you the sharp Inuections, and grounded rea­sons of many [...], as of Augstine, Hierome Chrisostome, Gregorie, Caluin, Peter Mar­tyr, Gualter, and of an infinite number mo [...]: [Page] yea of all generally since the beginning of the world, against this whorish and brothellous painting and coulouring of faces, but to auoid prolixitie, I will omit them, deferring them to further oportunitie, for pauca sapienti, To a wiseman few woords are sufficient.

Spud.

It must needs be graunted, that the dying and coulouring of faces with artifici­all colours,Colouring of [...]aces, the de­uils ne [...] and vnnaturall Oyntments is moste offensiue to God, and derogatorie to his Maiestie: for doo they think that the God of all glorie, and who only decketh and ador­neth the Sun, the Moon, the Starres and all the hoast of heauen with vnspeakable glorie, and incomparable beautie, cannot make the beautiful and faire enough (if it please him) without their sibbersawces? And what are they els then the Deuils inuentions to intangle poore [...]oules in the nets of perdition?

Philo.

Then followeth the trimming and tricking of their hedsTrimming of their heds. in laying out their hair to the shewe, which of force must be curled, frisled and crisped, laid out (a World to sée) on wreathes & borders from one eare to an other.Simia erit simia etiam si aurea gesta [...] insignia. And least it should fall down it is vnder prop­ped with forks, wyers & I cā not tel what, ra­ther like grime sterne monsters, then chaste christian matrones. Then on y edges of their bo [...]stred heir (for it standeth crested roūd about their frontiers,Laying out of their haire & hanging ouer their faces like [Page] pēdices with glasse windowes an euery side) there is layd great wreathes of gold, and sil­uer curiouslie wrought, & cunninglie applied to the temples of their heads.Gold wrea­thes circum­gyring the temples of their heads. And for feare of lacking any thing to set foorth their pride withal, at their heyre thus wreathed and cre­sted, are hanged, bugles (I dare not say, ba­bles) ouches, rings, gold, siluer, glasses, & such other gewgawes and trinckets besides, which for that they be innumerable, and I vnskilfull in wemens termes, I can not easily recount. But God giue them grace,Gewgawes hāged about their Fron­tiers. to giue ouer these vanities, and studie to adorn their heads with the incorruptible ornaments of vertue, & true Godlynesse.

Spud.

The Apostle Paul (as I remember) commaundeth w [...]men to cherish their heyre, saying, that it is an ornament to them, & ther­for me think, this abuse of curling and laying it out (if eyther were lawfull) is muche more tollerable than dying their faces.

Philo.

If curling,Curling and crisping, and laying out of heyre. & laying out of their own naturall heyre weare all (which is impious, and at no hand lawfull, notwithstanding, for it is the ensigne of Pride, and the stern of wantonnes to all that behould it) it were the lesse matter, but they are not simply contente with their owne haire,Bought heyre and colored, vsed to be wor [...] but buy other heyre, dying it of what color they list themselues: & this they were in the same order as you haue [Page] heard, as though it weare their owne natural heir: and vppon ye other side, if any haue heyre, which is not faire inough, than will they dye it into dyuerse colors almost chaunginge the substance into accidentes, by their dyuelish & more than thrise cursed deuyses. So, wheras their heire was geuen them, as a signe of sub­iection, and therfore they were commaunded to cherish the same, now haue they made (as it were) a Metamorphosis of it, making it an ornament of Pride, and destruction to them selues for euer, except they repent.

Spud.

This is a styfnecked People, & a [...] ­bellious, I sée well, that thus dareth in euerie respecte, to peruert the straight wayes of the Lord, digginge vp to them selues cesterns of iniquity, & pittes of aduersity, which in th, end without the great mercy of God will be their vtter confusion.

Philo.

Than on toppes of these stately tur­rets (I meane their goodly heads,Capitall or­naments for the head. wherin is more vanitie, than true Philosophie now and than) stand their other capitall ornaments, as french hood, hat, cappe, kercher, and suche like, wherof some be of veluet, some of taffatie, some (but few) of woll, some of this fashion, some of that, and some of this color, some of that, according to the variable fantasies of their serpētine minds. And to such excesse is it growen, as euery artificers wyse (almost) wil [Page] not stick to goe in her hat of Ueluet euerye day,Hartes of veluets, taffaty, worn in common. euery marchants wyfe, and meane Gen­tlewomen, in her french-hood, and euerye poore Cottagers Daughter, in her taffatie hat, or els of woll at least, wel lined with silk, veluet, or taffatie. But how they come by this (so they haue it) they care not, who payeth for it they regard not, nor yet what hurt booth to them selues, and others it dooth bring they feare not: But runne daylie a malo, ad peius, Trahit sua [...] quenque vo­luptas. (as they say) from one mischiefe t [...] an other, vntill they haue filled vp the mesure of their euill to their owne perdition at that day.

They haue also other ornaments besydes these to furnish foorth their ingenious heads, which they cal (as I remember) cawles, made Netwyse,Cawles made Netwyse. to th'ende, as I thinke that the clothe of gold, cloth of siluer, or els tinsell (for that is the worst) wherwith their heads are couered and attyred withall vnderneath their cawles maye appeare, and shewe it selfe in the brauest maner. Soe that a man that séethe them (there heads glister and shine in suche sorte) wold thinke them to haue golden heads.

Thus lauishe they foorth the goods of the Lorde,Golden heads fraught with leaden wit. which are none of their owne (but lent them for a tyme) vppon Pride and naughti­nesse, delighting (as it seemeth) in nothing so [Page] muche, as in the stincking puddle of vanitie and sinne, which will be their owne decay at the last. Another sorte of dissolute minions, & wantō Sempronians (for I can term thē no better) are so far bewitched,Making of holes in their eares, to hang rings and Ie­wels by. as they are not ashamed to make holes in their eares, wher­at they hang rings, and other Iewels of gold and precious stones. But what this signi­fieth in them, I will hould my peace, for the thing it selfe speaketh sufficiently. There is a certen kinde of People in the Orientall parte of the World (as Writers affirme) that are suche Philauto [...] louers of them sel­ues and so prowde with all, that hauing plen­tie of precious Stones, and Margarits amon­gest them,A people who cut their skin to set precious stones in them selues. they cut and launce their skinnes, and fleshe, setting therin these precious Sto­nes, to the end they maye glister and shine to the eye.

So, except these Women weare minded to tread their pathes and folowe their dire­full wayes in this cursed kind of vnhard of Pride, I wonder what they meane.

But because this is not so muche frequen­ted, amongest Women as Men, I will say noe more thereof, vntill further occasion be offred.

Spud.

Except it weare a People wedde [...] to the deuills eldest Daughter Pride, for I thinke, chastitie amongest them maye dwell [Page] a Uirgin for any that wil marry her) and gi­uen ouer of God, I neuer heard the like.

I am perswaded, neither the Libertines, the Epicures nor yet the vile Atheists euer excée­ded this people in pride, nor the wickednes of them might euer counterpease, with the wickednes of these people. God be merciful vnto them.

Philo.

You heare not the tenth parte, for no pen is able so wel to discribe it, as the eye is to discry it. The Women there vse great ruffes,Great ruffes Neckerchers and partlets vsed of Wo­men. & neckerchers of holland, lawne, came­rick, and such cloth, as the greatest thred shall not be so bigge as the least haire that is, then least they should fall down, they are smeared and starched in the deuils liquore, I meane Starch: after that dryed with great diligence, streaked, patted and rubbed very nicely, and so applyed to their goodly necks,Supportasses [...]he▪ pillers of [...]ride. and withall, vnderpropped with supportasses (as I tolde you before) the statelie arches of pride: beyond all this, they haue a further fetch nothing in­feriour to the rest, as namely thrée or foure degrées of minor ruffes, placed gradatim, step by step one beneath another, and all vnder y Maister deuil ruffe, [...]inor ruffs▪ the skyrts then of these great ruffes are long and side euery way ple­ted and cre [...]ted ful curiously, God wot. Then last of all, they are either clogged wt golde, sil­uer, or silk lace of stately price, wrought all [Page] ouer with néedle woork, speckled and spark­led héer & there with the sonne, the moone, the starres and many other antiquities straunge to beholde.The great curiosity of rufs and neck­ [...]rchers. Some are wrought with open woork down to the midst of the ruffe and fur­ther, some with purled lace so cloyd and other gewgawes so pestred, as the ruffe is the least parte of it self. Sometimes, they are pinned vp to their eares, sometimes they are suffe­red to hang ouer their shoulders, like wind­mil sayles fluttering in the winde, and thus euery one pleaseth her self with her foolish de­uices, for suus cuius (que) crepitus sibi bene olet, as ye prouerb saith: euery one thīketh his own wayes best, though they leade to distruction of body and soule, which I wish them to take héed of.

Spud.

As in a Camelion are said to be [...]all coulours, saue white, so I think, in these people are all things els saue Uertue and christi an sobrietie.Proteus Proteus that Monster could ne­uer chaunge him self into so many fourmes & shapes as these women doo, belike they haue made an obligation with hel and are at agrée­ment with the deuil, els they would neuer outrage thus, without either feare of God or respect to their weak Bretheren, whom héer­in they offend.

Philo.

The Women also there haue dublets & IerkinsWomen we­ring dublets and Ierkins. as men haue héer, buttoned vp the [Page] brest, and made with wings, welts and pini­ons on the shoulder points, as mans apparel is, for all the world, & though this be a kinde of attire appropriate onely to man, yet they blush not to wear it, and if they could as wel chaunge their sex, & put on the kinde of man, as they can weare apparel assigned onely to man, I think they would as verely become men indéed as now they degenerat from god­ly sober women,A curse to them that weare cōtra­ry apparell to their sex. in wearing this wanton lewd kinde of attire, proper onely to man.

It is writtē in the 22. of Deuteronomie, that what man so euer weareth womans appare [...] is accursed, and what woman weareth mans apparel is accursed also. Now, whether they be within the hands and lymits of that cursse, let them sée to it them selues. Our Apparell was giuen vs as a signe distinctiue to discern betwixt sex and sex, & therfore one to weare the Apparel of another sex, is to participate with the same, and to adulterate the veritie of his owne kinde. Wherefore these Women may not improperly be called Her­maphroditi, Hermaphro­diti. that is, Monsters of bothe kindes, half women, half men.

Spud.

I neuer read nor heard of any people except drunkē with Cyrces cups, or poysoned with the exorcisins of Medea that famous and renoumed Sorceresse, that euer woulde weare suche kinde of attire as is not onely [Page] stinking before the face of God, offensiue to mā, but also painteth out to the whole world, the venereous inclination of their corrupt conuersation.The diuersity of Go [...]es.

Philo.

There Gownes be no lesse famous also, for some are of silk, some of veluet, some of grogran, some of taffetie,Simiae in purpuris. some of scarlet, and some of fine cloth, of ten, twentie or for­tie shillings a yard. But if the whole gowne be not silke or veluet, then the same shall be layed with lace, two or thrée fingers broade, all ouer the gowne of els the moste parte.

Or if not so, (as lace is not fine enough sometimes) then it must be garded with great gardes of veluet,Costly gownes, foure or six fingers broad at the least, and edged with costly lace, and as these gownes be of diuers and sundrie colors so are they of diuers fashions changing with the Moon, for sōe be of the new fashion, some of the olde, some of this fashion, and some of that,Diuers fashi­ons of Gounes. some with sléeues hanging down to their skirts trayling on the ground, and cast ouer their shoulders, like Cow-tayles.

Some haue sléeues much shorter, cut vp the arme and pointed with silk-ribons very gal­lantly, tyed with true-looues knottes, (for so they call them.)

Some haue Capes reaching downe to the middest of their backs, faced with Ueluet or els with some fine wrought silk Taffatie, [Page] at the least, fringed about very brauely▪ & (to shut vp all in a word) some are pleated, & ryueled down the back wōderfully, with mor [...] knacks, than I can declare. Than haue they PetticotsPotticots. of the best cloth that can be bought and of the fairest dye that can be made. And sometimes they are not of cloth neither, for that is thought to base, but of scarlet, grograin taffatie, silk, and suche like, fringed about the skirts with silk fringe, of chaungable coloure. But which is more vayn, of whatsoeuer their petticots be, yet must they haue kyrtlesKyrtles. (for so they call them) eyther of silk, veluet, gro­gra [...], taffatie, saten, or scarlet, bordered with gards, lace, fringe, and I cannot tell what be­sydes. So that when they haue all these goodly robes vppon them, women séeme to be the smallest part of themselues, not naturall wo­men, but artificiall Women,Women the least part of themselues. not Women of flesh, & blod, but rather puppits, or mawmets of rags & clowtes compact together. So farre hath this cancker of pride eaten into the body of the common welth, that euery poore Yeomā his Daughter, euery Husband mā his daugh­ter,Poore Mens Daughters excesse. & euery Cottager his Daughter will not spare to flaunt it out, in suche gownes, petti­cots, & kirtles, as these. And not withstanding that their Parents owe a brase of hūndred pounds more than they are worth, yet will they haue it quo iure quauè iniuria, eyther [Page] by hooke, or crooke, by right or wrong as they say, whereby it commeth to passe, that one can scarsly know, who is a noble woman, who is an honorable, or worpshipull Woman▪ from them of the meaner sorte.

Spud.

Their parents & Freinds are muche to be blamed,Parents [...] blame. for suffering them to go in suche wanton attyre. They should not allowe them such large pittāce, nor suffer them to measure their apparell, after their own licentious yar­des of selfe will, and wicked desires.

Philo.

Than shall they be sure, neuer to ha­ue good day with them. For they are so impu­dent,The impu­dēcy of proud harlots. that all be it, their poore Parents haue but one cow, horse, or shéep, they wil neuer let them rest, til they be sould, to maintain them in their braueries, past all tongue can tell.

And to say the truth, some Parents (worthie to be inaugured with the lawrell Crowne of triple follie) are so buxome to their shamelesse desires, and so exorable to their prostitute re­quests,Our remisse leuitie of Pa­rents [...]o their Children. y they graūt to their too too nice daugh­ters more than they can desire themselues, ta­king a singular felicity & surmoūting pleasure in sing them to go plumed and decked in the Feathers of dece [...]ptfull vanity.

Sp.

This ouer great lenitie, & remisse liber­tie in the educatiō of youthe, in respect of the euent, and successe in the end, maye rather be counted an extrem cruelty, than a Fatherly [Page] pitie of them towards their children: For what maketh them so soone whores, strum­pets, and bawdes, as that cockering of them doth?

What maketh them apt & prone to all kind of naughtynesse,What maketh Whores, and strumpets. but this? Nothing in th [...] World soe muche. For giue a wild horse the libertie of the head neuer so litle, and he will runne headlonge to thyne and his owne destruction also.

So long as a sprigge twist or braunche, is yong, it is flexible and bowable to any thing a man can desire, but if we tarie till it be a great trée, it is inflexible and vnbowable: If wax be taken whylest it is hote, anye character maye be easily imprinted, but ta­rying till it be hard, it receiueth no printe at all.

So, correct Children in their tender yeres, and you may bow them to what good lore you will your selfe, but tarie till they be old, than is it to late, as experience teacheth daylie.

Philo.

Their neitherstockesNetherstocks of gernsey or silk. in like maner are either of silke gearn [...]ey, worsted, crewell, or at least of as fyne yarn, thread, or cloth as is possible to be had cunningly knit, and cu­riously indented, in euery point, wherto they haue korked shooes, pinsnets, pantoffles,Corked shoes pinsnets, pā ­toffles, & such like for wo­ [...] and [Page] [...]ippers: some of black veluet, some of white, some of gréene, and some of yellowe: some of spanish leather, and some of English lether, [...]itched with silk and imbrodered with Gold, [...]nd siluer all ouer the foote, with other gew­gawes innumerable: All which if I should endeuoure my selfe to expresse, I might with more facilitye number the sands of the Sea, the Starres in the skye, or the grasse vp­pon the Earth so infinit, and innumerableThe innu­merable fa­shions of wo­mens attire. be their abuses.

For weare I neuer soe expre [...]e an Arith­metrician, or Mathematician, I weare neuer capable of the halfe of them, the deuill bro­cheth soe many new fashions euery day.

Wherfore to their Author I leaue them, not omittinge to tell you by the way (as an interim) of a certen kynde of swéete Pride vsed amongest the Gentlemen and Gentle­women in Ailgna.

Spud.

I haue learned out of the Booke of God, that all Pride is stincking before the face of GOD,Pride stin­king before the face of God. wherfore I greatlye desyre to knowe what abortyue Miscreant this is, for it is some portenteous mishapen monster, I am perswaded.

Philo.

Is not this a cert [...]n sweete Pri­de,The hauing of ciuet, musk and other perfumes a sweet kind of Pride. to haue cyuet, muske, swéete powders, [Page] fragrant Pomanders, odorous perfumes & such like, wherof the smel may be felt and perceiued not only all ouer the house or place where they be present, but also a stones cast of, almost, yea the bed wherin they haue layed their delicate bodies, the places where they haue sa [...]e, the clothes and thinges which they haue touched shall smell a wéeke, a moneth, and more after they be gon. But the Prophet Esaias Esai. Cap. 3. telleth them, instead of their Pomaun­ders, musks ciuets, balmes, swéet odours and perfumes, they shall haue stench and horrour in the nethermost hel. Let them take héed to it and amend their wicked liues.

And in the Sommer-time whilst floures [...] gréene and fragrant, yee shall not haue any Gentlewoman almost, no nor yet any droye or pussle in the Cuntrey, but they will carye in their hands, nosegayes and posies of flouresNosegayes, & posies of flowers, worn and caried abrod. to smell at, and which is more, two or thrée Nosegayes sticked in their brests before, for what cause I cannot tel,Beware the Spanish pip. except it be to allure their Paramours to catch at them, wherby I doubt not but they get many a slabbering kisse, and paradeuenture more fréendship be­sides, they know best, what I mean.

Spud.

You wil be thought very straight la [...]ed to speak against these thinges, for I haue heard it said, that these swéet smels are bothe corroboratiue to the sences and confortatiue [Page] to the spirits, and which doo viui [...]e and recreate aswel the body as the minde.

Philo.

They are so far from comforting the braines, or lightning the spirits of men, that as mystes and exhalations which euaporate from these earthly bodyes, and are drawen vp by the attractiue power of the Sun,These eu­rious smelles obnub [...]lat the spirits & darken the sences. Moon, and starres doo rather obnubilate and darken the beames of the Sun, not suffering his ra­diatiōs to disparcle abrode. So these (in a ma­ner) palpable odors, fumes, vapours, smells of these musks,Sweet smells of musks cy­uet, and such like, do anoy the spirits. cyuets, pomanders, perfumes balmes & suche like ascending to the braine, do rather denigrate, darken and obscure ye spirit and sences, then either lighten them, or comfort them any manner of way. But howsoe­uer it falleth out, sure I am, they are ensignes of pride, allurements to sinne and prouocati­ons to vice. After all this, when they haue attired thē selues in the midst of their pride, it is a world to cōsider their coynesse in gestu­res,The vain ge­stures & coy­nes of women in the mid­dest of their pecok fethers. Fingers clog­ged with rings. their minsednes in woords and speaches, their gingerlynes in trippinge on toes like yong goats, their demure [...]icitie and babish­nes and withall their hawtie stomackes and more than Cyclopicall countenāces: their fin­gers are decked with gold, siluer, and precious stones,Womens trincke [...]s. Sweeted gloues. their wristes with bracelets, and armlets of gold, and other preciouse Iewels, their hands are couered with their swéet wa­shed [Page] gloues imbrodered with gold, siluer, and what not, & to such abhominatiō is it grown, as they must haue their looking glasses caryed with thē whersoeuer they go:Loking glas­ses, the deuills spectacles. And good reason, for els how cold they see the deuil in them? for no doubt, they are the deuils spectacles to al­lure vs to pride, & cōsequently to distructiō for euer: and aboue al things they must haue their silk scarffesSilk skarfes. cast about their faces & fluttering in the winde with great tassels at euery end, either of gold, siluer or silk. But I know wher for, they wil say they weare these scarfes, na­mely, to kéep them from Sun-burning. But I wold aske these Nice lings one question, wher in if they cā resolue mée, thē I will say as they say, y scarffes are necessary, and not flags of pride.A question to skar [...]e werers. Can that thing which is moste glorious & fair of it self, make any thing foule or ilfauo­red? the sun is a most glorious & fair creature, & therfor cānot make thē fowler, then they are of their own nature. Frō whence then is it, y the Sun burneth them & altereth their orient colour into woorser hue? The cause therof pro­céedeth from their own genuine corruptiō and natural imperfectiō, for no more is their fow­lenes to be ascribed to the stelliferous beames of y glistering sun, then ye stench of a dead car­casse, may be said to come of y Sun, & not ra­ther of it own corruptiō & filthines. They bu­sie thēselues in preseruing the beautie of their bodyes, which lasteth but for a time, & in time [Page] is cause of his own corruptiō, & which in effect is nothing els then putrifactiō it self, & a dung­hil couered with white & red, but for y beautie of ye soule they care nothing at all. When they vse to ride abrod they haue inuisories or visors made of veluet,Visors, or in­uisories of veluet, to ride abrode in. wherwith they couer all their faces, hauing holes made in thē against their eyes, whereout they look. So that if a man that knew not their guise before, should cha­unce to méet one of them hée would think hée met a monster or a deuil, for face hée can sée none, but two brode holes against her eyes, with glasses in them.Sues voluta­bris versan­tur. Thus they prophane ye name of God & liue in al kinde of voluptuous­nes, & pleasure wursse thē euer did the hethen.

Sp.

What think you, are not the inuētors, & first finders out of these new toyes & dyuelish deuices in great daunger, and partakers with them of the euill committed.

Philo.

It cannot be,The first fin­ders, and in­u [...]ntors of new fashions, are culpable of all the euil that cōmeth by them. but the Inuentors of these new toyes, are in great daunger before God, as they who shall render accoūts to god not only for the inuentiō of them, but also for the euil cōmitted by them. For whosoeuer, is author of any euil must néeds answer for the euil. And surely y authors of these newfāgles, are not vnworthy to be canonized saints whē the yéere of Iubilie cōmeth (I meane saincts of sathan) for there is no déed so flagicious, no fact so dangerous, nor any thing so hainous, which with alacritie is not plausibly cōmitted for the [Page] maintenance of these Diuelish toyes and de­uices: And albeit that the Persons themsel­ues who offend this way shal dye in their sin­nes, their owne bloud being powred vppon their owne heads, yet the Authors of these new toyes, wherthorow they offended, shalbe giltie of their deathes and surely answear for their destruction in the day of the Lord.

Spud.

But say they, if I make them not, an other wil,A vaine ex­cuse. & it is as good for me to make them, as an other, & it is my lyuing, wherfore I am discharged of blame, if I make them (being cōmaunded) with sweat of my face, and with trauaile and paine to get my lyuing?

Philo.

We are commaunned indéed to get our lyuing with the sweate of our face,We are boūd to get our ly­uing in well doing, not in euill doing. but how? Not in doing those things, which are euill of themselues, and also drawe and intice others to euill, but in things lawful and good, & which induce to goodnesse. And to say, others will make them if I do not, no more excuseth them of offence, thā for a Murtherer or Thief to say, if I had not robbed, or killed this man another wold, dischargeth him from the pe­naltie of the iudiciall lawe to be inflicted a­gainst him. Is it lawfull for vs to do euill, because others do it? Or dooth the wickednes of an other,A [...] to Artificers that inuent new fashions. delyuer me from blame, if I com­mit the same offence? no, nothing lesse. Wher­fore, let Taylers and Artificers beware, how [Page] they eyther inuente or make these new deuy­ces and Dyuelish fashions euery day: And being requested to make them, if they percei­ue them tende to vice, and allure to sinne, let them refuse them in the name of God, more tendering the saluation of many, than the pri­uat commodytie of themselues alone: which thing, if euery one wold do, he should delyuer his own soule, & support an infinit number frō falling into the gulphe of sinne, and so in short tyme these new toyes, fond deuyces and chil­dish babelries, (new fashions I should say,) wold soone vanish away, and come to naught▪ which God graunt may once be séene.

Spud.

Did the women of the former world attire themselues in suche sorte, as these wo­men do?

Philo.

The Women of the former age you may be sure neuer appareled themselues like one of these: But least you should thinke, that ye Godly onelie lyued thus austerly, you shal heare how litle the very hethē and barbarian Women haue, and do at this present estéeme of apparell, as Stuperius witnesseth, whose words are these speking of the Egiptian w [...] ­men: Vestimenta sciunt nec noua pristini [...] mutare, verum semper his in cultibus gaudent perpetuo tempore congredi, quascunque gen­tes hunc per orbem visitent, Which may be thus turned into English verse.

[Page]The Egiptian Matrones neuer vse
Their fashion of attyre to change,
But euer keep one forme to chuse
Although they visite Nations strange.

AND as all Writers doo affirme, all the Women there, indifferētly to with their haire hanging downe, with a broade hat vppon their heads, and other attyre as playne as the rest, soo farre are these People from Pride, and hunting after strange fashions as our Women doo.

The Women of Affrica are witnessed by the fame Stuperius, and others, to be so farre from affecting strange fashions, or cu­riosity in aparel, that they cloth themselues in a manner al ouer, ferinis pellibus, with beasts skinnes, furres, and such like. And this they think so riche attire, as they vse it altogether, when they celebrat their festiual solēne daies, or when they go abrode to be séene.

The Brasilian Women estéeme so litle of apparell also as they rather chose to go naked (their secret partes onely being couered) then they wold be thought to be proud, or desirouse of such vanities.

The Cantabrian Women likewyse with many others do the same. In High Germany the Women vse in effect one kind of apparel, or habite, without any differēce at all, nothing like other Natiōs delighting in new fangles: [Page] yea the wiues there, are so far from pride, that they will not disdaine to carie all their house­hould stuffe and other trinckets about with them vppō their backs in tyme of extremitie. These Mayds & Uirgins go very plain, with kerchers only on their heads, their haire han­ging down behinde, in token of Uirginitie.

Thus you see, euery Natiō, how barbarous soeuer, are much inferiour to ye people of Ailg­na in pride & excesse of apparell: and yet these examples I alledge not to th'end I wold wish all others to vse ye same, or ye very like brutish kind of auster habite, but to shew how farre they be from Pride, & how much the other be wedded to ye same. And as for the vertuous & godly christian women from the beginning of the world, they haue so litle cared for the vain glory of apparell, & so litle (or rather nothing at al) were they a quainted therwith, as they hunted for nothing els so much as for the or­naments of the mind, as wisdom, continency, chastitie, & true godlynesse, thinking the same bewtie sufficient. They coūted it great shame to cloth their bodies with sumpteous apparel, & their minds to be naked, & voide of true ver­tue. So, if these womē wold seek after ye bew­tie of ye mind, they wold not affect apparell so much, for if they be faire in body alredy, than néed they not gorgeous apparel to make them fairer: & if they be deforme in body, it is not y [Page] that can make them fairer. And either their bewtie consisteth in them, or in their apparel: If in them, than not in the Apparell, & so it is meere foolery to were them. And if in apparel, than not in them, and so cannot the garments make them fayre, whome God, & nature hath made otherwise: wherfor, look in what shape, forme, or condition euerye one is created by God, let him content himselfe with the same, without any alteratiō or chaunge, with prai­se to his Creator.

Spud.

They hold (notwithstanding) that it is the pride of the heart, which God so muche hateth, and detesteth.

Philo.

It is verye true that GOD puni­sheth the pride of the heartPride of the heart. with eternal dam­nation (if they repent not) for he will be ser­ued, and obyed either with the whole man, or els with none. Than if he punish the pride of heart with euerlasting damnatiō, he must néeds (in iustice) punish the pride of Apparell with the like,Pride of ap­parel equiua­lēt with Pride of the heart. being booth ioyned in one predi­camēt of sinne, and the pride of apparell much more hurting before the world, thā the other.

Also, it is manifest, that the pride of appa­rel, riseth first from the corruptiō of the heart, as the effects from the cause, the fruite from the roote of the trée▪ than if the pride of ye heart, which, notwithstanding, it hurteth not out­wardly, but is secret betwixt God, and him­selfe, [Page] be damnable in it owne nature before God, than must it néeds be, that the Pride of apparell, (which sheweth it selfe to the world, both offensiue to GOD, and hurtfull to mā, and which also is the fruite of the pride of the heart, and throweth almost as many as be­hold it, at least, as many as followe it, into the déep dungion of hell) is much more pernicious and damnable than the other.

Spud.

Hath the Lord plagued this sinne of pride, with any notable torture or punishmēt, euer from the beginning of the World vnto this day, or hath he omitted the reuenge ther­of as a thing of small force, or importance?

Philo.

Most fearfull plagues, and dreadfull iudgements of GOD haue in all ages béene powred vppon them that offended herein, as all Histories both holy, and prophane do beare record. For proofe wherof, I wil geue you a taste but of a few, wherby may appeare how wonderfully the Lord in all ages, tymes, kin­reds & peoples hath punished those that tho­row pride (like wicked recusants, and back­slyders from God) haue rebelled against his maiestie.Examples of God his pu­nishmēts ex­ecuted vppon them that of­fended in Pride, in all ages. The deuill, who before was an An­gell in Heauē, arrogating to himselfe the im­perial throane of the maiesty of God, was cast downe into the déepth of Hell burning with fire and sulphur for euer.

Adam, desiring to be a God (for the serpent [Page] tould him he should be as God, knowing both good & euill) was for the sin of Pride throwne downe to the bottome of Hell, & not onely he, but all his posteritie to the end of the World. The hoast of Core, Dathan, and Abiram for their exceding pride, in stirring vp mutenie, rebelling against their lawfull Magistrate were swallowed vp quick into hell, the earth opening her mouth, & deuouring them, with­all their complices whatsoeuer. The People of Babylon intēding to builde a tower, whose top should tutche the Skye, thinking that if God should drown ye world againe with wa­ter, they would be sure inough on the toppe of their high turr [...]ts, yea they intending to sit with God himselfe (if néed weare) weare all confounded, and a diuerse language put into euery mans mouth, that none knew what an other spake. And thus were they forced to lea­ue there building, and dispersed themselues a­broad vppō the face of the earth, wherof sprāg the first diuersitie of languages in the world. Wherfore when we heare any language spo­ken we know not, it may be a memorandum A memoran­dum. to vs to put vs in minde of our Pride, which was the cause therof.

Goliah, the great Gyant, the huge Cyclops, and swor [...]e enemy to the Children of Israell, for his pride against the Lord, was slaine by Dauid, the faitfull Seruaunt of the Lord.

[Page] Antiochus Antioch [...] intending to ouerthrowe, and sacke Ierusalem, to spoile the Sanctuarie and Temple of the Lord, and to kill the people of God, was for his pride ouerturned in his cha­ret ryding thetherward, his belly brust and fil thy wormes crawled out, moste lothsomly, and in sine, beganne so to stinke and swell, as nei­ther his Seruants nor he himselfe cold abide his owne sauoure, and thus ended his lyfe in great miserie, and wretchednesse.

Nabuchodonosor, Nabuchodo­nosor. was for his pride cast out of his Kingdom and forced to eat grasse with wild beasts in the wildernesse.Daniel.

King Saule, K. for his pride and disobedience, was deposed of his principallitie and Kingly regimente, and in the end slewe him self on [...] Gelboe most desperately.

Sodoma and Gomorra, were both destroyed with fire & brimstone frō heauen for their sin of pride, & contempt of the Lord. All the world in the daies of Noah was drowned with vni­uersall deluge for pride & contumacy of heart.

King Hezekiahs for his pride in shewing to the Ambassadors of the king of Babylon, 2. Reg. Cap. 20. all his treasure (for he sent Messengers vnto him wt gifte & lettres congratulatorie, for ye recouerie of his helth) lost al his iewels, tresures & ri­ches, wt his owne sones also, being transported captiues into Babilon: K. Dauid▪ for his pride in numbring ye people contrary the wil of god [Page] was greuouslie punished, and thréescore and ten thousand of his People slaine with a grée­nous pestilence for the same.2. Samuel. 1. c. 24. Vers. 15.

King Pharao for his pride against the Lord, (for he thought him selfe a GOD vppon the Earth, and therfore asked he Moyses in deri­sion, who is the Lord) was drowned in the read Sea with all his hoast. The proude Pha­risey The proude Pharisey. iustifying himselfe, for his pride was re­proued of the Lord, and reiected.

King Herode K. Herode. for attiring himselfe in sump­teous aray, & not ascribing glory to the Lord, was strucken dead, by an Angel, and wormes consumed his flesh immediatly. Al these, with infinit millions moe in al ages, haue perished thorow pride, and therfore let not this people think that they shall escape vnpunished, who drinke vp pride as it weare swéet wyne, féede vppon it, as vppon delicious meats, and wal­lowe in it, as a filthie swyne doth in the dirtie myr [...]: will the Lord punish his peculiare peo­ple, and elect vessels, and let them goo frée?

Wherfore I wold wyshe them to be warned, for it is a terrible thing to fall into ye hands of GOD,God his Pla­gues are pre­pared, if we repent not. who is a consuming fire, & a fearfull God. His bowe is bente, his arrowes of iud­gements are drawen to the head, his fire is kyndled, his wrath is gone out, & ready to be powred vppon the contemners of his lawes. Tempt not the Lord any longer, prouoke not [Page] his wrath, exasperate not his iudgements to­wards thée: for as mercy procéedeth frō him, so doth iustice also: And be sure of it, he payeth home at the last. For as in mercie he suffreth no good deed to be vnrewarded, so in his iust iudgmente there is no wickednes, which he leaueth vnpunished. And yet notwithstāding their wickednesse and pride is such, as stinc­keth before the face of God, and maketh the Enemies to blaspheme and speake euill of the wayes of the Lord: For say they, the men of Ailgna are wicked, & licentious in all their wayes, which easily appeareth by their appa­rell, & new fangled fashions euery day inuen­ted. The beastly Epicures, the Drunkards, & swilbowles vppon their ale benches, when their heads are intoxicat with new wine, wil not stick to belch foorth,Our new fan­gles and toi [...]s, are occasions, why all na­tions mocke, and flo [...]te vs. and say, that the inha­bitantes of Ailgna go brauelye in Apparell, chaunging fashions euerie daye, for no cause so much as to delight the eyes of their harlots withall, and to inamoure the mindes of their fleshly paramours. Thus be this People a laughing stock to all the world for their pride,Our lyuing a slaunder to the truth. a slaunder to the word of God & to their pro­fession, scandalles to their brethren, a dishonor and reproch to the Lord, and very caterpillers to themselues, in wasting and cōsuming their goods and treasures vppon vanyties & trifles.

Spud.

Séeing that by diuyne assistance, you [Page] haue now finished your [...]ractation of the Ap­parell of Ailgna, shew me (I pray you) what other abuses be there vsed, for I am perswa­ded, that pride the Mother of all sinne, is not without her Daughters of sinne semblable to her selfe?

The horryble vice of Whordome in Ailgna.

Philo.

THE horryble vice of Whordome also is ther too too much frequēted,Whordome in Ailgna too too ri [...]e. to ye great dishonor of God, the prouoking of his iudgements against them, the staine and ble­mish of their profession, the euill example of all the world, any finally to their owne dam­nation for [...]uer, except they repente.

Spud.

I haue heard them reason, that mu­tuall coition betwixt man and woman, is not so offensiue before God.Vain and vn­godly reasons p [...]etending that whor­dome is no [...]nne. For do not all Crea­tures ( [...]ay they) as wel reptilia terrae, as vola­ti [...]a Coeli, the creping things vpon the earth, as the flying Creatures in the aire, and all o­ther Creatures in generall both small & great ingender together? hath not nature and kynd ordained them so? & geuen them mēbers inci­dēt to that vse? & doth not ye Lord (say they) (as it were wt a stimule, or prick by his mandat, saing crescite & multiplicamini, & replete ter­rā, increase, multiplie, & fill the earth,) stirre thē [Page] vp to the same? Otherwyse the World wold become barren, and soone fall to decay: wher­fore they conclude,Oh wicked Lybertynes. that whordome is a badge of loue, a cognizāce of amitie, a tutch of [...]ustie youth, a frendlie daliance, a redintegration of loue, and an ensigne of vertue, rather merito­rious than dānable: these with the like be y ex­ceptiōs which I haue hard them many times to obiect, in defence of their carnal pollutions.

Philo.

Cursed be those mouths, that thus blaspheme the mightie God of Israell, and his sacred word▪ making the same clokes, to couer their sinne withall, worse are they than Ly­bertines who thinke all things lawfull, or A­theistes, who denie there is any God. The de­uills themselues neuer sinned so horribly, nor erred so grossely, as these, (not Christians, but dogges) do, that make whordom a vertue, and meritorious: but because you shal sée their de­ceptiōs displayed & their dānable abuses, more plainly discouered, I will reduce you to ye first institutiō of this Godly ordenāce of matrimo­ny. The Lord our God hauing created all things in Heauen,The first in­stitution of matrimonie. earth, or Hell whatsoeuer, created of euery sex, two, male & female of both kindes, and last of al other creatures, he made man after his own likenesse, & similitude, ge­uing him a womā,Gen. 2. Mat. 19 made of a ribbe of his own body,Marc. Luc. 16. to be his companion,1. Cor. 6. & comforter, & linc­king them together in the honorable state ofEphe.5. [Page] venerable wedlocke, he blessed them both, say­ing, crescite, multiplicamini, & replete terrā. Increase, multiplie, & replenish ye earth: wher­by it is more than apparent, that the Lorde, whose name is Iehouah, the mightie GOD of Israell, Mariage in­sti [...]uded for. 4 ca [...]ses. is the Author of Godly matrimony, instituting it in the tyme of mans inconcency in Paradice, and that as mée séemeth for foure 1 causes. First, for the auoydaūce of whordom: 2 Secondly, for the mutuall comforte, & consola­tiō, that the one might haue of the other in all 3 aduersities & calamities whatsoeuer: Thrid­ly, for the procreation,All mutuall copulation, except ma­riage, is vn­lawfull. and Godly propagation of Children in the feare of the Lord, that both the world might be increased therby, and the 4 Lord also in them glorified. And fourthlie, to be a figure or type of our spirituall wedlocke betwixt Christ and his church both militant, and triumphante. This congression, and mu­tuall copulation of those that be thus ioyned together in the Godlye state of blessed matri­mony▪ is pure virginitie, and allowable before God and man, as an action wherto the Lorde hath promised his blessing thorow his mercy, not [...] by our merite, ex opere operato, as some shame not to say. All other goinges together and coitions are damnable, pestiferous, and execrable▪ So, now you sée, that wheras the Lord saith, increase, multiplie, & fill the earth, he alludeth to those that are cheyned together [Page] in the Godly state of matrimonie and wed­lock, and not otherwyse: For to those that go together after any other sorte, he hath de­nounced his curse and wrath for euermore▪ as his alsauing word beareth record. And wheras they say that all cr [...]atures vppon the Earth do ingender together, [...]ow all cre­atures do goe togither in their kind [...] I graunte it is true. But how? in suo genere, in their owne kinde. There is no creature créeping, on the earth, or flying in the aire, how irrationable soeuer that dooth degenerate as man dooth, but kéepethe the same state and order wherein they were made at the first, and so if man did, he should not commit abhominable whordom and filthie sinne as hée dooth. It is said of those that write de natura animalium, that (almost) all vnreasonable beasts and flying fowles af­ter they haue once linked and vnited them sel­ues togither to any one of the same kinde▪ and after they haue once espoused them selues the one to the other,The fidelitie of vnreasonable creatures in mariage one towards an other. wil neuer after ioyne them selues we any other, til the one be dissolued frō the other by death. And thus they kéepe the knot of matrimonie inuiolable to the end. And if any one chaunce to reuolte and go togither with any other during ye life of his first mate, at the rest of the same kind, assemble togither, as it were in a councel or parliament, and ei­ther kil or gréeuously punish the adulterer or adulteresse whether euer it be, which lawe I [Page] would God were amongst Christians established. By all which it may appéer how horri­ble a sinne whordome is in nature, that the very vnreasonable creatures doo abhorre it.

The Heathen people who know not God, so much lothe this sti [...]king sinne of whordome, that some burne them quick, some hang them on gibbets, some cut off their heds, some their armes,How much the Heathen haue detested whordome. legs and hands, some put out their eyes, some burne them in the face, some cut of their noses, some one parte of their bodye, some another, and some with one kind of tor­ture, and some with another: but none leaueth them vnpunished:Sundery pu­nishments of whordome a­mongst the Heathen. so that we are set to schoole to learn our first rudiments (like yung Noui­ces or Children scarce crept out of the shel,) how to punish whordome, euen by the vnreasonable creatures and by the heathen people who are ignorant of the deuine goodnes.

God be merciful vnto vs.

Spud.

I pray you rehearse some places out of the woord of God, wherin this cursed vice of whordome is forbidden, for my better in­struction.

Philo.

Our Sauiour Christe in the eight of Iohn speaking to the woman,Testimonies out of the woord of god wherin whordome is for­bid, whom the ma­licion [...] Iewes had apprehended in adulterie, bad her go her way and sin no more. If it had not béen a moste greeuous sin, he would ne­uer haue bid her to sin therin no more.

[Page]In the fift of Mathew he saith, who so lu­steth after a woman in his hart, hath committed the fact alredy, and therfore is guiltie of death for the same.Mat. 5. To the Pharises, asking him whether a man might not put away his wife for any occasion? Christe answered, for no cause, saue for whordome onely, inferring that whordome is so hainous a sinne, as for the perpetration therof it shalbe lawful for a man to sequester him self from his owne wife and the wife from her owne husband.Mat. 19. The A­postle Paul sayth,Mat. 10. know you not that your bodyes are the members of Christe, Luc. 16. shall I then take the members of Christe (saith he) and make them the members of an whore?1. Cor. [...]. God forbid, knowe yée not that he who coupleth him self with a harlot is become one body wt her? flée fornication (saith he) therfore, for e­uery sinne that a man committeth is without the body, but who committeth fornication sinneth against his owne body. And in an [...]other place: knowe you not, that your Bodyes are the temples of the holy ghost, which dwelleth within you? And who so destroyeth the Temple of God, him shall God destory.

In an other place, he saith: be not deceiued, for neither Whoremonger, Adulterer, For­nicator, incestuous person nor such like shall euer enter into the kingdome of heauen. A­gain, Coni [...]gium honorabile est inter omnes. [Page] Mariage is honorable amongst all men, and the bed vndefiled, but whooremongers and a­dulterers God shall iudge. In the Reuelation of Saint Iohn it is said, ‘that they who were not defiled with women, doo waite vpon the Lamb, whether soeuer he goeth.’ The Apostle Paul willeth vs to be so far from fornication, ‘that it be not once named amongst vs, as be­commeth Saints,’with infinit such places, which for bréefnes I omit, re [...]erring you in the olde Testament to these and such like pla­ces, namely, the 20. of Exodus. 20. of Leuiti­cus. De [...]tronomie 22. Deutro. 27. 2. Reg. 11. Leuit. 18. Exodus. 22. Num 5. Eccle. 9. Pro. 33. Pro. 7. verse. 24.

Spud.

As you haue now prooued by inuincible testimonies of holy Scripture, that whor­dome is forbidden by the Lord: so I pray you shew mée the gréeuousnes thereof by some se­uere & rare examples of Gods iust iudgement executed vppon the same from the begining.Genesis 7. 8.

Philo.

The whole world was destroyed wt water,Punishments of whordom in all Ages. not any liuing thing left vpon the erth, (saue in ye Ark of Noath) for the sin of whordō incest & brothelry vsed in those daies. Sodoma and Gomorra two famous Cities were con­sumed with fire and brimstone from heauen for the like sin of whordom adulterie and for­nication.Genesis. 19. The citie of ye Sichemits, Genesis. 24. man, wo­man and childe weare put to the edge of the [Page] swoord, for the rauishing of Dina the daugh­ter of Iacob. The Lord also tolde Abimelech, that if he did not let go vntouched Sara, Abra­ham his wife,Genesis. 20. bothe he and all his housholde should dye the death, notwithstanding he did it ignorauntly.Ge. 26. The very same hapned to I­saac also.Ge. 18. Iudas vnderstanding that his daughter in law was impregnate and great with childe, and not knowing by whom, comm [...]n­ded that she should be burned without any further delay.2. Reg. 16. Was not Absalon, king Dauid his sonne plagued all his life for going into his Fathers Concubines? And did not Achi­tophel who gaue councel so to do hang him­self? Was not Ruben the first borne sonne of Iacob, Ge. 29. accursed for going vp to his Fathers bed, and lost he not his birth-right, his digni­tie and primacie ouer his Bretheren for the same? Were there not abooue thréescore and fiue thousand men slain for the adulterie doon with one Leuits wife?Iudi. 20. Was not king Dauid punished all y daies of his life for his adultery doon with Bersabe, Vrias his wife?2. Reg 13. 12. Was not his sōne Amon, for lying with Thamar, slain? Was not Salomon béeing peruerted with he­then women cast out of the fauour of GOD,1. Reg. 1 [...]. notwithstanding, being otherwise, the wisest Prince in all the world? Did not Achab at the perswasions of Iesabel, 3. Reg. 2 [...]. his cursed wife, fal­ling to Idolatrie and woorshiping of Idolles [Page] and deuils, suffer moste cruel punishment in this life all his dayes, besides what he suffe­reth now God onely knoweth. Were not the Israelite, Nume. 25. and Madianitish woman both slain by that woorthy man Phinees, who ran them both thorow the priuy members with his Ia­uelin or swoord?Iud. 16. Was not Sampson brought to a miserable end, his eyes beeing bothe put out, and he made to be a laughing stock to all men, thorow his too much fauouring of wantō women? [...]. 22. Was not king Pharao wunderfully plagued for but intending euil in his hart to­wards Sara Abraham his wife? Did not the Lord slay (with a moste gréeuous mortalitie) foure & twentie thousand of ye Israelites in one day, for whordome and adulterie with the women of the Moabites and Madianits?

By these and such like fearful Examples of the iustice of God powred vpon these whore­mongers & adultrers, we may learn to know the gréeuousnes of the same, and the punish­ment due to all whoremongers and fornica­tours either in this life, or in the World to come, or els in both: for if the Lord deferre the punishment of whordome in this life, hée re­seruet [...] it for the world to come, suffering the wicked to wallow in their sinne, and to fil vp the measure of iniquitie, that their damnati­on may be iust. And if the Lord l [...]ft not sin vnpunished, no, not in his most déer Saints, [Page] what he wil doo in them who dayly crucifie him a new, let the world iudge?

Spud.

Now am I fully perswaded by your inuincible reasons, that there is no sin grea­ter before the face of God, then whordome, wherfore, God graūt that all his may auoid it.

Philo.

You haue said true, for there is no sinne (almost) comparable vnto it, for besides that, it bringeth euerlasting damnation to all that liue therin to the end, without repentāce, it also bringethWhat [...]ui whordome bringeth to mans body in th [...]s life. these inconueniences, with many mo, vidilicet, it dimmeth the sight, it impaireth the hearing, it infirmeth ye sinewes, it weakneth the ioynts, it exhausteth the ma­row, consumeth the moisture and supplemēt of the body, it riueleth the face, appalleth the coūtenance, it dulleth ye spirits, it hurteth the memorie, it weakneth y whole body, it bring­eth it into a consūption, it bringeth vlcerati­ons, scab, scurf, blain, botch, pocks & biles, it maketh hoare haires, & bald pates: it induceth olde age, & in fin [...], bringeth death before nature vrge it, malady enforce it, or age require it.

Sp.

Séeing y whordome bringeth such soure sauce with it, namely, death euerlasting after this life, and so many discōmodities besides in this life, I wunder that men▪ dare cōmit the same so securely as they doo now a dayes?

Philo.

It is so little feared in Ailgna, that vntill euery one hath two or thrée Ba­stardes a péece, they estéeme him no man, [Page] (for that, they call a mans déede) insomuch as euery s [...]uruie boy of twelue, [...]. sixtéen or twenty yéeres of age wil make no conscience of it, to haue two or thrée, peraduenture half a dosen seuerall women with childe at once, and this exploite béeing doon, he showes them a faire pair of héeles, and away goeth he, Euro voloci­u [...], as quick as a B [...]e (as they say) into some strange place where he is not knowen where, how he liueth, let the wise iudge, for coelum non animum mut [...] qui trans mare currunt, though they ch [...]u [...]ge their place of abode,Whormon­gers [...]unagates. yet their naughtie dispositions they retaine stil.

Then hauing estraunged them selues thus for a small space, they returne againe, not to their pristine cursed life I dare say, but vnto their cuntrey, and then no man may say, black is their eye, but all is wel, & they as good chri­stians as those that suffer them vnpunished.

Spud.

The state and condition of that Cun­trey is most miserable if it be true you report, it weare much better that euerye one had his lawful wife, and euery woman her lawful husband, as the Apostle commaundeth, then thus to bedrowned in the filthie sin of whor­dome.

Philo.

That is the only salue and soueraine remedy, which the lord ordained against whordome,M [...]riage, an antidotarie against Whordome. that those who haue not the gift of con­tinencis might mary, and so kéep their vessels [Page] vndefiled to the Lord. But notwithstāding, in Ailgna there is ouer great libertye permitted therin: for litle infants,Maring of infants in swadling cloths. in swadling clowts, are often maried by their ambicious Parents and frends, when they know neither good nor [...]uill, and this is the origene of much wicked­nesse, & directlie against the word of God, and examples of the primityue age. And besydes this, you shall haue euery sawcy boy,Euery Boy snatcheth vp a Woman to wyfe.. of x.xiiij. xvi. or xx. yeres of age, to catch vp a woman & marie her, without any feare of God at all, or respect had, either to her religion, wisdom, in­tegritie of lyfe, or any other vertue, or which is more, without any respecte how they maye lyue together with sufficient maintenance for their callings and estat. No no, it maketh no matter for these things, so he haue his pretie pussie to huggle withall, it forceth not, for that is the only thing he desireth. Than build they vp a cotage, though but of elder poals, in euery lane end, almost, wher they lyue as beggers al their life. This filleth the land with such store of poore people, that in short tyme (except some caution be prouided to preuent the same) it is like to growe to great pouertie and scarsnes, which GOD forbid.

Sp.

I cānot sée how this geare shold be holpē?A restraint of mariage.

Ph.

What if a restraint were made, y none (except vppon speciall and vrgente causes) should marie before they come to xx. or xxiiij. [Page] yéeres, or at ye least, before they be .xiiij. or xviij yeeres old, would not this make fewer beg­gers, than now there are?

Sp.

But if this were established, thā should we haue moe Bastards, and of the two, I had rather we had many legittimats, than many illegittimates.

Philo.

The occasion of begetting of many [...] Bastards were soone cut of,How whor­dome may be suppressed. if the punishment which either God his lawe doth allowe, or els which good pollicy doth constitute, were ag­grauated, and executed vppon the Offenders.

For the punishment appointed for whordom now is so light,The punish­ment for whordome ouer remisse. that they estéeme not of it, thei feare it not, they make but a iest of it. For what great thing is it, to go ij. or thrée dayes in a white shéete before the congregation, and that somtymes not past an howre or two in a day, hauing their vsnall garmēts vnderneth, as commonly they haue? This impunitie (i [...] respecte of condigne punishement, which that vice requireth) doth rather animate and imbolden them to the acte, than feare them from it. In so much, as I haue heard so [...]e miscreants impudently say, that he is but a [...]east, that for such white lyuered punishment would abstaine from suche gallant pastyme: but certen it is, that they who thinke it suche sweet meate here, shall find the sawce sowre [Page] and stiptick enough in Hell.

Spud.

What punishment would you haue inflicted vppon such as commit this horrible kinde of sinne?

Philo.

I would wish that the Man or Woman who are certenlye knowen with­out all scruple or doubte,What kind of punishmēt whordome ought to haue. to haue committed the horryble fact of whordome, adulterie, incest, or fornication, eyther should drinke a full draught of Moyses cuppe, that is, [...]ast of present death▪ or els, if y be thought too se­uere (for in euill, men will be more merci­full, than the Author of mercie him selfe, but in goodnesse, fare well mercy,) than wold GOD they might be cauterized, and seared with a hote yron on the chéeke, fore­head, or some other parte of their bodye that might be séene, to the end the honest and chast Christians might be discerned from the a­dulterous Children of Sathan: But (alas) this vice (with the rest) wanteth such due punishement, as GOD his Word doth commaunde to be executed ther vppon.

The Magistrates wincke at it, or els as looking thorowe their fingers, they see it, and will not sée it.

And therfore, the Lorde is forced too take the sword into his owne hands, and to exe­cute punishment him selfe, because the Ma­gistrates will not.

[Page]For better proof wherof marke this strange & fearful iudgment of god shewed vpon two ad­ulterous persōs there, euen ye last day in effect, y remēbrāce wherof is yet gréen in their heds.

There was a man whose name was W. Ratsurb, being certenly knowen to be a noto­rious vserer (and yet pretending alway a sin­gular zeale to religion, so that he wold seldom tymes go without a byble about him, but sée the iudgements of God vpon them that will take his word in their mouthes, and yet lyue cleane contrarie, making the word of God a cloke to couer their sinne and naughtynesse withall) who vppon occasion of busines visi­ting Lewedirb a place appointed for the cor­rectiō of such that be wicked lyuers, saw there a famous whore, but a very proper Woman, whō (as is said) he knew not, but whether he did, or not, certē it is, that he procured her de­lyuery from thence, bayled her, & hauing put away his owne wife before, kept her in his chamber, vsing her at his pleasure. Whylest these two mēbers of ye deuil were playing the vile Sodomits together in his chamber, & ha­uing a litle pan of coles before them wherin was a very litle fire, it pleased GOD euen in his wrath, to strike these two persons dead in a moment. The Woman falling ouer the pan of coles, was burned that all her bowels gushed out, the man was founde lying by, his [Page] cloths in some partes being scorched and bur­ned, & some partes of his body also. But which is most wonderfull, his arme was burned to the very boone, his shirte sleeue, and dublet, not once perished, nor tutched with the fire. Wherby may be thought & not without great proba­bilitie of truth, that it was euē the fire of God his wrath from Heauen, and not any natural fire from the earth. And in this wonderfull, & fearfull maner weare these cupple founde: which God graunt may be a documēt to all ye heare or read the same, to avoyde the like of­fence, and to all Magistrates, an Example to see the same punished with more seueritie, to the glorie of God, and their owne discharge.

But so farre are some, from suffering con­digne punishment for this horrible sinne, that they get good maintenance with practising the same. For shall you not haue some, yea many thousands, that liue vppō nothing els, and yet go clothed Gentlewomenlike, both in their silks and otherwyse, with their fingers clog­ged with rings, their wrists with bracelets, & Iewels, and their purses full of gold and sil­uer? And here of they make no conscience, so their Husbands know it not. Or if they doo, some are such peasants, and such maycocks, that either they will not, or (which is truer) they dare not reproue them for it. But & if the Husband once reproue them for their misde­meanour, [Page] than they cōspire his death, by some meane or other. And all this commeth to passe, because the punishment therof is no ex­tremer, as it ought to be. And some both Gen­tlemen and others (wherof some I know) are so nusled herein, that hauing put awaye their owne wyues, do kéepe whores openly, without any great punishment for it, and ha­uing be [...]ne conuented before the magistery, and there béene deposed vppon a booke to put away their whores, haue put them foorth at one doore, and taken them in at the other.

And thus they dally in their othes with the Lord, and stoppe the course of the lawe, with rubrum argentum, wherof they haue store to bestowe vppō such wickednesse, but haue not a mite to giue towards any good purpose.

Wherfore, in the name of GOD, let all men that haue put away their honest wyues be forced to take them again, and abandon all whores, or els to taste of the law. And let all whores, be cut of with the sword of right iud­gement. For, as long as this immunitie and impunitie is permitted amongest vs, let vs neuer looke to please GOD, but rather pro­ [...]oke his heuie iudgements against vs. And the reason is, for that there is not sinne in all the World, but these whores, and whore­maisters will willingly attempt, and atchei­ue, for the inioying of their whordome?

[Page]And Hell, destruction, and death euerlasting is the guerdon therof, and yet men cannot be aware of it. The Lord remooue it from all his Children, and present them blameles before his tribunall seate, without spotte, or wrincle at that great day of the Lord.

Spud.

What memorable thing els haue you séen there frequented▪ For séeing you haue be­gun, in parte, I pray you describe the whole?

Gluttonie and drunkennesse in Ailg.

Philo.

I Haue séene that which gréeueth mée to re­port. The People there are marueilously giuen to daintie fare, gluttonye, bellichéer, & many also to drunkennesse, & gourmandice.Daintie fare, gluttony and gourmandice vsed in Ailg.

Sp.

That is a manifest argumēt of good hos­pitality, which both is cōmended in y word of God, & which▪ I know you wil not reprehēde.

Ph.

Godly hospitalitieGodly hospi­talitie to be commended. is a thing in no wis [...] worthy of reprehensiō, but rather of great cō ­mendatiō, for many haue receiued Angels in­to their houses, at vnawar [...]s, by vsing y same, as Abraham, Lot, Tobras, & many others. Yet if hospitality flow ouer into superfluitie & rio­tous excesse, it is not tolerable: for now adaies if ye table be not couered frō the one end to y o­ther as thick as one dish can stād by another, [Page] with delicat meats of sundry sorts, one cleane different from an other,Varietie of dishes, and meats, with their curious sawces. and to euery dish a s [...]uerall sawce appropriat to his kinde, it is thought there vnworthye y name of a dinner. Yea so many dishes shal you haue posteruing the table at once, as the insaciablest Helluo, the deuouringest glutton, or the gréediest cor­morant that is, can scarse eat of euery one a litle. And these many shall you haue at the first course,Excesse of meats. as many at the second, and perad­ [...]entu [...]e, moe at the third, besydes other swéet [...], and delicat [...], of spice­ries, and I cannot tell what. And to these dainties, all kind of wynes are not wanting, you may be sure. Oh what nisitie is this? what vanitie▪ excesse, ryot, and superfluitie is heare? Oh▪ farewell former world? For I haue heard my Father say,The austerity and Godly simplicity of the former World in meats, and drinke [...]. y in his dayes, one dish, or two of good wholsome meate was thought sufficient, for a man of great worship to dyne withall, and if they had thrée or four kinds, it was reputed a sumptuous feast. A good péece of beef was thought thā, good meat, and able for the best, but [...]ow, it is thought too grosse: for their tender stomacks are not able to disgest such crude and harsh meats: For if they shold (their stomacks being so que [...]sie as they be,Nice, tender stomacks. and not able to concoct it) they should but euacuat the same againe, as other filthie excrements, their bodies receiuing no noorish­ment [Page] therby, or els they should lye stincking in their stomacks, as dirte in a filthie sinck or pryuie. If this be so, I marueile how oure fore-Fathers lyued,The faraginie or rough fare of our Fore-fathers. who eat litle els, but cold meats, grosse and hard of disgesture? Yea, the most of them fead vppon graine, corne, roots, pulse, herbes, wé [...]ds, and such other baggage, and yet liued longer then wée, helthfuller then we, were of better complection then we, and much stronger then we in euerie respect: wherfore I cannot perswade my self otherwise, but that our nicenes and curiousnes in dyet, hath altered our nature, distempered our bo­dies,Our nice fare hath altered our bodies and chaunged our nature. and made vs more subiect to millions of discrasies and diseases, then euer weare our Forefathers subiect vnto, and consequently of shorter life then they.

Spud.

They wil aske you again, wherfore god made such varietie of meats, but to be ea­ten of men, what answere giue you to that?

Philo.

The Lord our God ordained indéede, the vse of meat and drinks for man to sustain the fraile, caduke and brittle estate of his mortall body withall for a time.Medietie to be obserued in meats. But he gaue it him not to delight and wallow therin continually, for as the olde Adage saith, Non viuen­dum vt edamus, sed edendum vt viuamus. Wée must not liue to eat, but wée must eat to liue, wée must not swill and ingurgitate our stomacks so ful, as no more can be crammed [Page] in. The Lord willed that they should be or­dinarie meanes to preserue the state of our bo­dyes a time whilste we liue, and soiourne in this vaste wildernes of the worlde, but not that they should be instruments of destuction to vs bothe of body and soule.When meats and drinks are Instru­ments of de­struction vn­to vs. And truely they are no lesse, when they are takē immoderatly without the feare of God. And dooth not the impletion and sacietie of meates and drinks prouoke lust, as, Hiero saith, Venter Mero e­stuans, spumat in libidinem, the belly enfla­med with wine, bursteth foorth into lust. Doth not lust bring foorth sinne,Ge. 24. and sin bring foorth death? The Childre [...] of Isr [...]el, giuing them selues to delicat [...] & gluttony, fel to Idola­trie, [...] & [...], worshipping stocks stones and deuils in-sted of the liuing God.

The [...]onnes of [...] the Priest, giuing them­selues to daintie [...] & belly-chéere,1. Reg. 2. fell into such [...], as the Lord sl [...]w them all, & their father also, for that he chastised them not for the same▪ The Children of blessed Iob in midst of all their banquetings & ryot, were slain by the lord, the whole house falling vpon them, and destroying them most piti [...]ully. Bal [...]ha­sar, king of the Chaldeans, Daniel. 5. in midst of all his good chéer,Verse. 5. saw a hand, writing vpon the wall these woords, mene techel upha [...]sin: signifiing y his kingdōe should be taken from him, and so it was, and he slain the same night by the [Page] hand of y lord. The rich glutton in the Gos­pel, for his riotous feastings & proposterous liuing was cōdemned to ye fire of hel.Luc. 16. Our Fa­ther Adam with all his of-spring (to the end or ye world) was cōdemned to hel-fire, for ta­king one apple to satisfie his glotonus desire withall.Mat. 4. Gluttony was one of the chiefest ca­nons, wherwith the deuil assa [...]led Christe, thinking therby to batter his kingdome & to win the féeld for euer, yet not withstanding, ye greeuousnes héerof, the same is thought to be a coutenāce, & a great credit to a mā in Ailg. But true hospitality consisteth not in many dishes nor in sundry sorts of meats (the sub­stance wherof is chaunged almoste into acci­dents thorow their curious cookries, & which doo help to rot y bodies & shorten their daies. but rather in giuing liberally to the poor,Wherin hos­pitalitie con­sisteth. and indigent members of Iesus Christe, helping them to meat, drink, lodging, clothing & such other necessaries wherof they stand in néed.

But such is their hospitality y the poor haue ye least part of it: you shal haue 20. 40. 60, yea, a C.li. spent in some one house in bāqueting & festing, yet y poor shall haue litle or nothing,The small leef of the poore. if they haue any thing, it is but ye refuge meat, scraps & patrings, such as a dog would scarse eat sōtimes, & wel if they can get y too: insted wherof, not a few haue whipping chéerto feed thē withall: it is coūted but a smal matter for [Page] a man that can scarslie dispend fortie pound by the yéer, to bestow against one time, ten or twentie pound therof in spices. And truely so long & so gréeuously hath this excesse of glut­tonie and daintie fare su [...]ffeted in Ailgna, as I feare mée, it will sp [...]e out many of his Maisters ou [...] of dores before it be long. But as some be ouer largeous, so other some are spare enough, for when any meat is stirringLocking vp of Gates whemeat is stir­ring. then lock they vp their gates, that no man may come in. An-other sorte haue so many houses, that they visit them once in vij. yeer, many Chimnies, but little smoke, faire hou­ses, but small hospitalitie. And to be plaine, there are three cankers which in proc [...]sse of time wil eat vp the whole common Welth, if spéedy reformatiō be not had, namely,Three deuouring Cankers dain­tie Fare, gorgious Buildings, and sumptu­ous Apparel, which thrée Abuses, especially, yet not without their cosin germanes doo flo­rish there. God remooue them thence for his Christes sake.

Spud.

I had thought that dainty fare & good chéer had both noorished ye body perfectly, and also prolōged life, & dooth it not so think you?

Philo.

Experience,Who more subiect to in­firmit [...]es then they that fare best. as my former intimati­ons you may gather, teacheth clean contrary: for who is sicklier thē they, that fare deliciously euery day? who is corrupter? who bel [...]heth more, who looketh wursse, who is weaker, [Page] and féebler then they? who hath more filthie colour, flegme and putrifaction (repleat with grosse humors) then they? and to be bréef, who dyeth sooner then they? Doo wée not see the poor man that eateth brown bread (wher­of some is made of Rye, barlie, peason, beans oates and such other grosse graines) & drink­eth small drink, yea sometimes water, feedeth vpon milk, butter and chéese, (I say) doo wee not see such a one, helthfuller, stronger and longer liuing then the other, that fare dain­tily euery day? And how should it be other­wise? for wil not the eating of diuers and sundry kindes of meats of diuers operations and qualities (at one meale) engender distempe­rance in the body? And the body distempered, [...] wil it not fall into sundry deseases? one meat is of hard disgesture, another of light, & whilst the meate of hard disgesture is in concocti [...]g the other meat of light disgesture dooth putri­fie and stink, & this is the very mother of all diseases: one is of this qualitie, another of y, one of this operatiō, another of that, one kind of meat is good for this thing, another is nau­ght for that. Then how can all these contra­rieties & discripancies agrée togither in one body at one & the same time? wil not one c [...]ntrary impugne his contrary? one enemy resist an other; Then what wiseman is he that wil receiue allthese enemies into the castle of his [Page] body at one time? Doo we not se by experiēc [...] that they y giue thēselues to dainty fare,The spedy [...]ecay of those [...]hat geue thē [...]elues to [...]aintie fare. and swéet meats, are neuer in helth? dooth not their sight wax dim, their eares hard of hering, their teeth rot & fall out? dooth not their breth stink, their stomack belch foorth filthy humors, and their memory decay? doo not their spirits and sences becōe heuie & dul by reason of exhalations & impure vapors which rise vp in their gingered brests & spiced stomacks: & sumyng vp to ye hed they mortifie ye vitall spirits & in­tellectiue powers? dooth not ye whole body be­come pursie & corpulent, yea somtimes decre­pit therwith & ful of all filthy corruptiō. The Lord keep his chosen from the tasting therof.

Sp.

You spake of dr [...]kēnes, what say you of y?

Phi.

I say, ye it is a horrible vice & too too much vsed in Ail. Euery cūtrey, citie, towne, vil­laged & other, hath abundāce of alehouses, ta­ue [...]ns & I [...]nes, which are so fraughted with mault-wormes night & day, that you would wunder to se them. You shal [...]haue them there sitting at ye wine, and goodale all the day long, yea all the night too, peraduenture a whole wéek togither,The beastly vice of drunknees requen­ [...]ed in Ailg so long as any money is left, swilling, gulling & carowsing from one to an other, til neuer a one can speak a redy woord. Then when wt the spirit of the buttery they are thus possess [...]d, a world it is to consider t [...]eir gestures & dem [...]nors, how they stut and stāmer, stagger & réele too & fro, like madmen, [Page] some vomiting spewing & disgorging their filthie stomacks, other some (Honor sit auribus) piss [...]ng vnder the boord as they sit, & which is most horrible, some fall to swering, cursing & [...]āning,The spirite of the butte­ry, is drunk­nes, and ex­cesse. interlacing their spéeches we curious tearms of blasphemie to ye great dishonour of God and offence of the godly eares present.

Sp.

But they wil say y god ordained wines & strong drinks to chéer y hart, & to sustain the body therfore it is lawful to vse thē to ye end.The Iothso­me qualities of those that be drunke.

Phi.

Meats (moderatly taken) corroborate ye body, re [...]resh ye arteries, & reuiue the spirits, making them apier euery member to doo his office as god hath appointed: but being immoderatly takē (as cōmonly they be) they are in­strumēts to damnatiō to ye abusers of ye same, & noorish not ye body but corrupt it rather, & casteth it into a world of deseases: And a man once drunk with wine or strong drink, ra­ther resembleth a brute beaste,The transsi­guration of those that [...] drunke. then a christi­an man: for doo not his eies begin to stare & to be red, fiery & blered, blubbering [...]oorth seas of teares? dooth he not frothe & fome at the mouth like a bore? dooth not his tung faulter & stāmer in his mouth? dooth not his hed séeme as heuie as a milstone, he not being able to bear it vp? Are not his wits & spirits as it were drow­ued? Is not his vnderstanding altogher de­cayed? doo not his hands & all his body quiuer & shake as it were with a quotidiā feuer? Be­sides these, it cast [...]th him into adropsie or plu­resie [Page] nothing so soon, it inféebleth the sinewes, it weakneth y natural strength, it corrupteth the blood,The discom­modities of drunkennes. it dissolueth ye whole man at ye lēgth, and finally maketh him forgetful of him self altogither, so that what be dooth being drunk he remembreth not being sober. The Drun­kard in his drunkennes killeth his fréend, reuileth his louer, discloseth secrets and regar­deth no man: he either expelleth all feare of god out of his minde, all looue of his fréends & kinsfolkes, all remembrance of honestie, ciui­litie & humanitie: so that I will not feare to call drunkerds beasts, and no men, and much wursse then beasts,Drunkerds wursse then Beasts. for beasts neuer excéed in such kind of excesse, or superfluitie, but alway modum adhibent appetitum, they measure their appetites by the rule of necessitie, which would God wee would doo.

Spud.

Séeing it is so great an offence before God, I pray you show me some testimonies of the holy Scripture against it, for whatsoe­uer is euil, ye woord of God I doubt not repro­ueth the same.

Philo.

It séemeth you haue not read ye holy fcripture very much, for if you had, you should haue found it not only spoke against, but all [...] throwē down euen to hel, for proof whereof of infinit places, I wil recite a few. The Pro­phet Esaias thundereth out against it,Esais. 5. saying, ve qui consurgitis mane ad ebrietatē sectandā

[Page]Wo be to them that ryse earlie to followe drunkennesse,Testimonies against drun­kennesse, out of the word of GOD. wallowing therein, from mor­ning to night, vntill they be set on fire with wyne & strong drinke. Therfore gapeth heil, & [...]peneth her mouth wyde, that the glory, mul­titude, and welth of them that delight therin, may go downe into it, saith the Prophet.

The Prophet Hoseas Hoseas. c. 4. saith, fornicatio, vinū, & mustum auferunt animum, Whordome, wyne & strong drinke infatuat ye heart of mā.

The Prophet Ioel, Ioel. 1. biddeth all Drunkards awake, saying, wéepe and howle you winebi [...] ­bers, for the wickednesse of destruction that shall fall vppon you.

The Prophet Habacuck, Habacuck. 2. soundeth a most dreadfull alarme, not only to all Drunkards, but also to all that make them drunken say­ing: wo be to him that geueth his Neighbour drinke, till he be drunke, that thou mayst sée his priuities. Salomon saith,Prouerb. c. [...]. wyne maketh a Man to be scornfull, and strong drinke ma­keth a Man vnquiet, who so taketh pleasure in it, shall not be wise. In an other place, kéep not companie with wynebibbers, and riotous Persons, for such as be Drunkards shal come to beggerie. In the xxiij. of his ProuerbesProuerb. 23. he saith. To whome is woo? To whome is so­row? to whome is strife? to whome is mur­muring? to whome are woūds without cause? and to whome are red eyes? Euen to thē that [Page] tarie longe at the wyne, to them that go, and séek mixt wyne. And againe: Looke not thou vppon the wyne when it is red, and when it sheweth his colour in the cup or gooth downe pleasantlie, for in the end, it will bite like a serpent, and hurt like a Cockatrise,Prouerb. 31. or Basili­cock, which slay or kill men with the poison of their sighte. Again, it is not for Kings to drin­ke wyne, nor for Princes to drinke strong drinke.Luc. 21. Our Sauiour Christ in the gospell of of S. Luke biddeth vs take héed that we be not ouercome with surffeting and drunknes and cares of this lyfe, least the day of the Lorde come vppon vs vnawares.

Paule to the Ephesians Ephe. 5. biddeth beware that we be not drūk with wine, wherin is excesse, but to be filled with ye spirit. The same apostle in an other place, saith, y neither whoremōger adulterer, Drunkard, glutton, ryotous person, nor such like, shal euer enter into ye kingdome of Heauen. By these few places out of many, you may sée the inormitie of this vice, which is so much euery where frequented.

Spud.

Let me intreate you to shew me some examples withall, wherby I may see, what euill it hath done in al ages?

Philo.

Gene. 19. Drunknes caused Lot to commit most shamefull incest with his owne two Daughters, who got them both with Child, [Page] he not perceuing it, neither when they lay downe, nor when they rose vp. See how drunkennesseExamples a­gainst drun­kennesse. assotteth a man, depriuing him of all sence, reason and vnderstanding.

Drunkennesse caused Noah to lye with his priuities bare in his Tabernacle, in suche beastlie sorte, as his wicked Sonne Cham ie­sted and [...]coffed at the same.

Thorow drunkennesse, Holophernes, that great and inuincible Monarche of the Assy­rians, was ouercome by a Woman, hauing his head cut from his shoulders with a fau­chone. Thorow drunkennesse,Luc. 16. King Herode was brought to suche ydiocie, and foolishe dotage, that he caused the head of good Ihon Baptist, to be cut of, to satis [...]ie the request of a dauncing strumpet.Luc. 16. That riche Epulo of whom Luke maketh mention, was for his drunkennesse, and ryotous excesse condemned to the fire of Hel for euer, with many moe ex­amples, which for shortnes I omit. Now see­ing than that drunkēnesse is both offensiue to GOD, and bringeth such euil [...]s in this lyfe present, let vs in the name of GOD auoyde it, as a most wicked thing, and prenicious euill. For euery Dr [...]nkard is so farre e­stranged from himselfe,How farre Drunkards are estranged from them­selues. that as one in an ex­tasie of mind, or rather in a playne Phren­sie, he maye not be said to be, sui animi com­pos, or a man of sounde wit, but rather a [Page] very Bedlem, or muche worse, no Christian, but an Antichristian, no mēber of Christ Ie­sus, but an impe of Sathā, and a lymme of the Deuill. Wherfore, in the name of God, let vs auoyd al excesse, imbrace temperancie, and sobrietie, & receiue so much meats and drinks as may satisfie nature, not the insaciat appe­tits of our fleshly desires. Knowing that except the Lord blesse our meats and drinks within our bodyes, and giue them power & strength to nourish and féede the same,Wh [...]t if God blesse not our meats. and our bodyes their naturall powers, euery mēber to doo his office, and dutie, our meates shall lye in our stomacks stincking, smelling, and rotting like filthie carion in a lothsom sinck. So farre of ought we to be from abusing the good creaturs of God, by ryot, drunknesse, or excesse, that we ought neuer to take morsell of bread, nor sope of drinke, without humble thankes to ye Lord for the same. For we neuer read, that our Sa­uiour Christ euer eat,Geuing of thanks befor meat, & after. or dranke, but he gaue thankes (or as we call it, said grace) both be­fore the receipt therof, and after. This néeded he not to haue done in respect of himselfe, but for our erudition & learning, according to this saying. omnis Christi actio, nostrà est instru­ctio. Euery action of our Sauiour Christe is our example and instructiō, to follow as néere as we are able. And thus much of drūkenesse, which god graūt may euery wher be auoided.

Spud.
[Page]

Shew mée I pray you ye state of that Cuntrey a [...]litle further: is it a welthie Coun­trey with in it selfe, or otherwyse poore and bare?

Philo.

It is a most famous Yland, a fertile Cuntrey,Ailgra a fa­mous Yland. & abounding with all maner of store both of riches, treasure, & all things els what­soeuer, but as it is a welthie and riche Coun­trey, so are the inhabitaunts from the highest, to the lowest, from the priest, to the populare sorte, euen all in generall, wonderfully incly­ned to couetousnes, and ambitiō, which thing, whilest they follow, they cā neuer be satisfied: for, erescit amor nummi, quantū ipsa pecunia crescit. The loue of mony, doth by so much the more increase, by how much more ye monie it selfe doth increase: and ye nature of a couetous man is such,The nature of a couetou [...] man. that tam deest quod habet, quàm quod non habet: as well that thing which he hath, as y which he hath not, is wanting vnto him. A couetouse man may wel be compared to Hell, which euer gapeth and yawneth for more, and is neuer content with inough. For right as Hell euer hunteth af [...]er more, so a co­uetous mā drowned in the quagmire,The insacia­ble desi [...]e of a couetouse man. or plash of auarice and ambition, hauing his summam voluptatem reposed in momentaine riches, is neuer content with inough, but still thirsteth for more, much like to a mā sicke of the ague, who the more he drinketh, the more he thur­teth: [Page] the more he thursteth, the more he drin­keth: the more he drinketh, y mor [...] his disease increaseth: Therfore I hould it true, which is writ, bursa auari os est diaboli the powch of a rich couetous Man,The purse of a riche Man. is the mouth of the deuill, which euer is open to receiue, but alway shut to giue.

Spud.

But they will easily wipe away this blot, namely in saying, are we not boūd to prouyde for our selues, our wyues, our children & famelie▪ Doth not the Apostle hold him for an infidell and a deneger of the faith, who prouy­deth not for his Wyfe and Family? Is it not good to lay vpsomthing against a stormie day? wherfore, they wil rather déeme thēselues good husbāds, than couetous or ambicious persons.

Philo.

Euery Christen Mā is bound in cō ­science before God,How farre e­uery Man is boūd to pro­uyde for his Familie. to prouide for their hous­hould & Family, but yet so as his immoderat care surpasse not the bands, nor yet transcend the limits of true Godlynes His chiefest trust & care is to rest onely in the Lord, who giueth liberally to euery one y asketh of him in veri­ty & truth, & reprocheth no mā, & withall he is to vse such ordinarie meanes, as God hath ap­pointed▪ to y performaunce of ye same. But so farre frō couetousnes & frō immoderate care wold ye Lord haue vs,Immoderate care for riches reproued. y we ought not this day to care for to morow, for (saith he) sufficient to ye day, is the trauail of the same. After all these [Page] things (with a distrustfull, & inordinat care) do the heathen séek, who know not God, saith our Sauiour christ, but be you not like to thē. And yet I say, as we are not to distrust the proui­dence of God, or despaire for any thing, so are we not to presume, nor yet to tempt the Lord our God, but to vse such secundary and instru­mental meanes, as he hath commaunded and appointed to y end & purpose, to get our owne lyuing & maintenance withall. But this peo­ple leauing these Godly meanes, do all runne headlōg to couetousnes & ambition, attēpting all waies, & assaying al meanes possible to ex­aggerat & heap vp riches, ye thick clay of dam­natiō to thēselues for euer. So (likwise) Lād-lords make marchandise of their pore tenāts,Land-Lords racke their tenantes. racking their rents, raising their fines & incō ­mes, & setting thē so straitely vppō ye tēter hoo­kes, as no man cā lyue on them. Besides y, as though this pillage & pollage, were not rapa­cious enough, they take in,Inclosing of common [...] from the Poore. and inclose com­mons, moores, heaths, and other common pa­stures, wher out the poore commonaltie were wont to haue all their forrage and féeding for their cattell, & (which is more) corne for them selues to lyue vppon: all which are now in most places taken from them, by these gree­dye Puttockes, to the great impouerishing and vtter beggering of whole townes and parishes, whose tragicall cries and incessant [Page] clamors haue long since, pearced the Skyes, and presented them selues before the Maiesty of God, saying: how long Lord, how long wilt thou deferre, to reuenge this villanie of thy poore Sainctts, and vnworthie members vp­pon the earth? Take héed therfore you riche men, that poll and pill the poore, for the bloud of as manye as miscarie any maner of way, thorow your iniurious exactions, sinister op­pressions, and indirect dealings shall be pow­red vppon your heads at the great daye of the Lord, Cursed is he (saith our Sauiour Christ) that offendeth one of these litle ones, it were better that a milstone were hāged about his neck,Iniurie to Christ his members, is iniury to Ch [...]st. & he cast into ye middest of the sea. Christ so entierely loueth his poore members vppon earth, that he imputeth the contumely which is done to anie one of them, to be done to him­selfe, and will reuenge it, as done to himselfe: wherfor, GOD giue them grace to lay open their inclosures againe, to let fall their rents, fines, incommes and other impositions, wher­by GOD is offended, their poore Brethren beggered, & I feare mée, ye whole realme will be brought to vtter ruine & decay, if this mis­chiefe be not met withall,Inclos [...]res. and inco [...] ̄tred with verie shortlie. For these inclosures be the cau­ses, why rich men, eat vp poore men, as beasts doo eat grasse. These I say are the Caterpil­lers, and deuouring locustes that massacre the [Page] poore, & eat vp ye whole realme to ye destruction of the same: The Lord remooue them.

Upon the other side, the Lawyers they goe rufling in their silks, veluets and chaines of Gold, they build gorgeous howses,Lawyers ru­fling io poore Mens riches. sumptu­ous edefices, and stately turrets: they kéep a port like mightie potētates, they haue bands and retinewes of men attendant vppon them daylie, they purchase castels & towers, Lands and Lordships, and what not? And all vppon the polling and pilling of the poore commons.

They haue so good consciences, that all is fish, that comes to the net, thei refuse nothing that is offred, and what they do for it in pre­ferring their Poore clients cause, the Lorde knoweth, and one day they shall finde it: If you haue argent, or rather rubrum vnguen­tum, I dare not say Gold, but red oyntment, to grease them in the fist withall,Oyntment to greese lawiers in the fist withall. than your sute shall want no furtherance, but if this be wanting, thā farewel clyent, he may go shooe the goose for any good successe he is like to haue of his matter: without this, sheriffes & Officers wil returne writs with a tarde ve­nit, or with a non est inuentus, smally to the poore mās profit. So long as any of this oint­mēt is dropping, they wil beare him in hand, his matter is good and iust, & all to kéep him in vre, till all be gon, and than will they tell him his matter is naught: and if one aske thē [Page] why they tould not their cliēts so in y begin­ning: they will answere, I knew not so much at the first,The pretēsed excuse of L [...]wers, when their cliants haue loost their plees. ye fault is in himselfe, he tould me ye best, but not the worst: he shewed mee not this euidence & that euidente, this president, and y presi [...]ent, turning al the fault vpō ye suggester wheras ye whole fault indeed is in himselfe, as his own conscience cā beare him witnesse: In presence of their clients, they will be so earnest one with another,The slaightie practises of lawers. as one (that knew not their slaightes, wold thinke they would go together by the eares) this is to draw on their cliēts withal (but immediatly after their clients being gon, they la [...]gh in their sléeues, to see how pretily they fetch in such [...] of money, and y vnder the pretence of equitie, and iustice. But though thei cā for at [...]e (pre­stigiatorum insta [...]) like cūning deceiuers, cast a mist before ye blind world, yet the Lord who séeth (suborned by none) y secrets of all harts shall make them manifest to al the world,The fraudu­lent dealing of marchant Men. and reward them according to their [...]. The marchāt mē by their marting, chaffering and changing, by their counterfait balances & vn­true waights, and by their surprising of their wares, heap vp infinit treasures. The Artifi­cerArtificers. & Occupyers, euen all in generall, will not [...]ell their wares for no reasonable price, but will sweare & teare pittifully, y such a thing cost thē so much, & such a thing so much, wher­as [Page] they swear as false, as the lyuing Lord is true: But one day let them be sure y the Lord (who saith, thou shalt not sweare at all, nor deceiue thy Brother in bargaining) will reuenge this villanie done to his Maiestie.Great dearth in plenty of all things.

Into such a ruinous estat hath couetousnes now brought that Land, that in plentie of all things, there is great scarsitie and dearth of all thinges. So, that, that which might haue been bought heretofor within this twen­tie, or fourtie Yéers, for twentie shillings, is now worth twentie nobles, or xx. pound. That which thā was worth twentie pound, is now worth a .C. pound, and more: Wherby the rich Men haue so balaunced their chests with Gold and siluer, as they cra [...]ke againe. And, to such excesse is this couetousnes growne, as euery one y hath money will not stick to take his neighbors house,Taking of howses ouer Mens head [...]. ouer his head, long before his yéers be expired: Wherthorow many a poore man, with his wyfe, childrē, & whole fa­melie, are forced to begge their bread all their dayes after. Another sorte who flow in welth, if a poore mā haue eyther house or Land, they will neuer rest vntill they haue purchased it, giuing him not the thirde parte, of that it is worth. Besides all this, so desperately gi­uen are many,The desperat desire of Men to get money that for the acquiring of siluer and Gold, they will not sicke to imbrew their hands, and both their armes in y blood of their [Page] owne Patents and Fréends most vnnatu­rally. Other some will not make any con­science, to sweare and forsweare themselues for euer to lye, dissemble and deceiue the dée­rest frends they haue in the world. Therfore the heathen Poët Virgill said very well: O sacra auri fames, quid non, mortalia pectora cogis: Oh cursed desire of gold, what mischief is it, but thou forcest Man to attempt it, for y loue of thée? This immoderat thirst of Gold & monie,Many brou­ght to rufull end thorow meanes of Gold and siluer. bringeth an infinit nūber to shame­ful end: some, as homicides, for murthering & killing: some as latrones, for robbing & stea­ling: some for one thing, some for another: So that surely I think, maior est numerus Ho­ [...]minum, quos dira auaritiae pestis absorpsit, quam quos gladius vel ensis per [...]orauit: the number of those whom the pestilence of aua­rice hath swallowed vp, is greatter, than the nūber of those whom the sword hath destroid: the Lord asswage the heat hereof with ye oyle of his grace, if it be his good pleasure and wil.

Spud.

If I might be so bold, I wold request you to shew me out of the word of god, where this so detestable a vice is reproued?

Philo.

Our Sauiour Christ Iesus,Math. 6. the Arch­doctor of all truth in his Euangely,Testimonies out of the word of God against coue­tousnes. the sixt of Mathew, saith: Be not carefull for to morow day, for the morow shall care for it selfe.

Againe, be not carfull for Apparell, what [Page] you shall put on, nor for meat what you shall eat, but séeke you the Kingdome of Heauen, & the righteousnes therof, and all these things shal be giuen vnto you. He charged his Disci­ples to be so farre from couetousnes,Luc. 6. as not to cary two coates with them in their iorneys,Math. ix. nor yet any money in their purses. He tould his Disciples another time, stryuing which of them should be y greattest, that he who wold be the greattest, must condescend to be seruāt of all. When the people wold haue aduaūced him to haue béene King, he refused it, and hid him self: He telleth vs, we cannot serue two Maisters, God & Mammon: he biddeth vs not to set our minds vppō couetousnes, inferring that wher our riches be, there will our harts be also. He saith, it is harder for a rich Man (that is, for a Man, whose trust is in riches) to enter into the Kingdome of God, than for a Camell to go thorow the eye of a néedle. The Apostle biddeth vs if we haue meat & drinke and clothing, to be centent,1. Timo. v [...]. for they that will be rich (saith he) fall into diuerse temptations and snares of the Deuill, which drowne Men in perditiō.Psalm. 39. Dauid saith, Man disquieteth him selfe in vaine, heaping vp riches, & cannot tell who shall possesse them:Prouerb. [...]. Salom. cōpareth a co­uetous man, to him ye murthereth & sheadeth innocent bloud.Proue. xxvii. Againe, Hell and destruction are neuer ful, so the eyes of Men can neuer be [Page] satisfied. The Apostle S. Paule, saith, neither Whormōgers, Adulterers, nor couetous per­sons, nor Extortioners shal euer enter into the Kingdom of Heauen. And saith further, y the loue of monie is ye root of al euil.Mat. 5. Christ, biddeth vs be liberal,Luc. 6. & lend to them that haue néed, not looking for any restitutiō again, & neuer to turn our face away frō any poore mā, & thā ye face of the Lord shall not be turned away frō vs. By these few places it is manifest how farre frō al couetousnes ye lord wold haue al cristiās to be.

Spud.

Be their any examples in scriptures to shew foorth the punishmentes of the same, inflicted vpon the Offenders therin?

Philo.

The Scripture is full of such fearful examples,The punish­men of co­uetousnes shewed by examples. of the iust iudgements of God pow­red vpon thē that haue offended herein. Wherof I will recite three or four, for the satisfying of your Godly mind. Adam, was cast out of Paradice for coueting that fruit, which was inhibited him to eat. Giese, the Seruant of E­lizeus ye Prophet,4. Reg. 5. was smitten with an incu­rable leprosie, for y he to satisfie his couetous desire, exacted gold, siluer, & riche garments of Naamā ye K. of Siria his seruant. Balaam was reproued of his asse,Num. 22. for his couetousnes in go­ing to curse ye Children of Israel, at the request of K. Balac, who promised him aboundance of gold & siluer so to doo. Achab y K. for couetous­nes to haue pore Naboth his viniard slew him [Page] and dyed after himselfe, with all his progeny, a shameful death. The Sōnes of Samuel were for their infaciable couetousnes,Sa. viii. deteined frō euer inioying their Fathers kingdome. Iudas for couetousnes of mony sould the Sauiour of the world, and betrayed him to the Iewes, but afterward dyed a miserable death, his bellye bursting & his bowels gushing out. Ananias & Saphira his wi [...]e,Act. v. for couetousnes, in cōcealing part of y price of ther lāds frō y apostles, were both slain, & died a fearful death. Achā was sto­ned to death by y lord his cōmandemēt for his couetousnes in stealing gold, siluer, & Iewels, at the sacking of Iericho, & al his goods were burned presently. Thus you sée how for coue­tousnes of mony, in all ages, Men haue made shipwrack of their consciences, and in the end by the iust iudgemēt of God haue dyed fearful deaths whose iudgmente I leaue to the Lord.

Spud.

S [...]eing that couetousnes, is so wicked a sin, & so offensiue both to God & Man, & per­nicious to the soule, I marueile what moueth Men to followe the same, as they doo?

Ph.

Two things moue mē to affect mony so so much as they do:What make Men to affect money. y one, for feare least they shold fal into pouertie & beggery (oh ridiculous infidelitie) ye other, to be aduanced, & promoted to high dignities & honors vpō earth. And thei see, ye world is such, ye he who hath moni enough shalbe rabbied & maistered at euery word, and [Page] the vaine title of worshipfull, and right wor­shipfull, though notwithstanding he be a dun­ghill Gentleman, or a Gentleman of the first head, as they vse to terme them. And to such outrage is it growne that now adayes euery Butcher,Euery Begger almost is cal­led Maister at euery word. Shooemaker, Tailer, Cobler, Hus­band-man, and other, yea euery Tinker, ped­ler and swinherd, euery Artificer and other, gregarii ordinis, of the vilest sorte of Men that be, must be called by ye vain name of Maisters at euery word. But it is certen, that no wyse Man, will intitle them, with any of these na­mes, worshipfull and maister (for they are na­mes and titles of dignitie, proper to ye Godly wyse, for some speciall vertue inherent, either els in respect of their birth, or calling due vn­to thē,) but such Titiuillers, flattering Para­sits, and glosing Gnatoes, as flatter them, ex­pecting some pleasure or benefit at their hāds, which thing if they were not blowen vp with the bellowes of pride, and puffed vp with the wind of vainglori they might easily perceiue. For certen it is, they do but mocke and flatter them with these titles,Refusing of [...]aine Titles. knowing that they de­serue nothing lesse. Wherfore, like good Recu­sants of that thing which is euill, they should refuse those vainglorious Names, remem­bring the words of our sauiour Christ, saying: be not called Maister, in token there is but one onely true Maister and Lord in Heauen: [Page] which only true Maister & Lord: God graunt all other may followe bothe in life and name, vntil they cōe to perfect men in Iesus Christ.

Spud.

The people béeing so let vpon coue­tousnes, as I gather by your speeches they be, is it possible that they wil lend mo [...]ey with­out vsurie, or without some hostage, guage or pawn? for vsurie followeth couetousnes, as the shadowe dooth the bodie.

Great Vsurie in Ailgna.

Philo.

IT is as impossible for any to borrowe money there (for the most part) without vsurieVsury. & loane, or with out some good hostage, guage or pledge, as it is for a dead man to speak with audible voice.

Spud.

I haue heard say, that the positiue, and statute lawes there,The possitiue Lawes. doo permit them to take vsurye, limitting them how much to take for euery pound.

Philo.

Although the ciuile lawes (for the a­uoiding of further inconueniences) doo permit certain sommes of money, to be giuen ouer­plus beyond or abooue the principall, for the loane of mony lent, yet are y vsurers no more [Page] discharged from the gilt of vsurie before God therby: then the adulterous Iewes were from whordome, because Moyses gaue them a per­missiue law for euery man to put away their wiues, that would, for euery light trifle. And yet the lawes there giue no libertie to com­mit vsurie,The lawes of Ailgna per­mit no vsurie. but seeing how much it rageth, lest it should excéed, rage further and ouer flowe the banks of all reason and godlynes. As couetousnes is a raging sea and a bottō ­lesse pit, and neuer satified nor cōtented, they haue limited them within certain méeres, and banks (to bridle the insatiable desires of co­uetous men) beyond the which, it is not lawful for any to go: but this permissiō of ye lawes argueth not, that it is lawful to take vsury, no more (I say) then y permission of Moyses ar­gued that whordome & adulterie is lawfull & good, because Moyses permitted them to put a way their wiues, for ye auo [...]ding of greater e­uil: for as christ said to y Iewes frō ye begīning it was not so, so sa [...] ▪ I to these vsurers frō the begīning it was not so, nor yet ought so to be.

Spud.

If no interest were permitted, then no man would lend, & then how should ye poor doo? wherfore the lawes y permit some small ouer-plus therin doo very wel.

Philo.

Non faciendum est malum, vt inde veniat bonum, we must not doo euil, that good may come of it: yet the lawes in permitting [Page] certain reasonable gain to be receiued for the loane of money lent, lest otherwise the poore should quaile (for without some commoditie the rich would not lend) haue not doone much amisse,The lawes permit some ouerplus, but commaund it but if they had quite cut it of, and not yéelded at all to any such permission, they had doon better. But héerin the intent of the lawe is to be perpēded: which was to impale with in the Forrest, or park of reasonable and conscionable gain, men who cared not howmuch they could extorte out of poore-mens hands, for the loane of their money lent, and not to authorise any man to cōmit vsurie, as though it were lawful because it is permitted.

Therfore, those that say that the lawes there doo allow of vsury, & licence men to commit it fréely, doo slaunder y lawes, & are woorthy of reprehension: for though the lawes say, thou shalt not take abooue ij.s. in y pound, x.li. in a hundred, and so so foorth. Dooth this prooue y it is lawful to take so much, or rather y thou shalt not take more then y? if I say to a man, thou shalt not giue him abooue one or two blowes, dooth this prooue y I licence him to giue him one or two blowes,Forbidding to outrage in mircheef, is not permissi­on to comit mischeef. or rather that he shal not giue any at al, or if he doo, he shal not excéed or passe ye bāds of resonable mesure: so this law dooth but mitigate ye penalty: for it saith y the party y taketh but x.li. for y vse of an C.li. loseth but y x.li. not his principal.

Spud.
[Page]

Then I perceiue, if Usurie be not lawful by the lawes of the Realm, then is it not lawful by the lawes of God.

Philo.

You may be sure of that. For our Sauiour Christe willeth vs to be so far from couetousnes and vsury, as he saith:‘giue to him that asketh thée,Math. 5. 6. and from him that would borrow,Luc. 6. turn not thy face away.’

Againe,‘Lend of thy goods to them who are not able to pay thée again, and thy reward shalbe great in heauen.’ If wée must lend our goods then to them,The word of God against vsurie. who are not able to pay vs again, no not so much as the bare thing lent, where is the interest, the vsurie, the gaine and ouer-plus, which we fish for so much? Therfore our Sauiour Christe saith, beatius est dare, potius quam accipere. It is more blessed to giue, then to receiue. In y 22. of Exodus, Exodus. 20. Deut. 24. 23.Deut. 24. 23. Leuit. 25.Leuit. 25. Nehe. 5.Nehe. 5. Eze. 22. 18.Ezech. 22. 18. & many other places, we are for­bidden to vse any kinde of vsury or interest, or to receiue again any ouer-pluss, besides the principall, either in money, corne, wine, oyle beasts, cattel, meat, drink, cloth, or any thing els what soeuer. Dauid asketh a question of the Lord saying,Psalm. 15. Lord who shall dwell in thy Tabernacle, and who shall rest in thy holy hil? wherto he giueth the solution him self saying: euen he that leadeth an incorrupt life, & hath not giuen his mony vnto vsurie, [Page] nor taken reward against the innocent, who so dooth these things shall neuer fall. In the [...]5. of Deut. the Lord willeth vs not to craue again the thing we haue lent to our neighbor, for it is the Lords frée yéer.When it is not lawfull to [...] aske again our goods lent. If it be no lawful (then) to aske again y which is lent, (for it is not the law of good conscience for thée to exact it, if thou be abler to beare it, then the other to pay it) much lesse is it lawful to demaund any vsury or ouer-plus. And for this cause the Lord saith, let there be no begger amōgst you, nor poore person amongst the Tribes of Israel. Thus you sée the woord of God abandō neth vsurie euen to hel, and all writers bothe diuine and prophane, yea the very heathen people, moued onely by the instinct of nature and rules of reason, haue alwaies abhord it.

Therfore Cato, Hethen men against vsury and inte [...]est. béeing demaunded what vsu­rie was, asked againe, what it was to kill a man? making vsurie equiualent with mur­ther: And good reason, for he that killeth a a man, riddeth him out of his paines at once, but he that taketh vsury is long in butchering his pacient▪ suffering him by little & little to languish, and sucking out his hart blood, ne­uer leaueth him so long as he féeleth any vi­tall blood, (that is lu [...]re and gaine) comming foorth of him.vsury equall with murther. The Usurer killeth not one, but many, bothe Husband, Wife, Children, seruants, famelie and all, not sparing any.

[Page]And if the poore man haue not wherewith to pay▪ aswel the interest, as the principall, when soeuer this gréedy cormorant dooth de­maund it, then sute shalbe cōmenced against him, out go butter-flies and writs, as thick as haile, so the poore man is apprehended, and brought coram nobis, Sute cōmen­ced against him that is not able to pay aswel the Vsury as the Principall. and béeing once conuented, iudgement condemnatorie and diffini­tiue sentence procéedeth against him, compel­ling him to pay, aswel the vsury and ye loane of the money▪ as the money lent. But if he haue not to satisfie aswel the one as th'other, then to Bocardo goeth he as round as a ball, where he shalbe sure to lye vntil he rotte one péece from an other, without satisfaction bée made.To prison with him that cannot pay the vsury. Oh cursed Caitiue, no man but a de­uil, no Christian but a cruel Tartarian, and mercilesse Turck: darest thou look vp toward heauen, or canst thou hope to be saued by the death of Christe, that sufferest thine owne flesh and blood, thine owne bretheren & sisters in the Lord, and which is more, the flesh and blood of Christ Iesus, vessels of saluation, co­heirs with him of his superiall kingdom, a­doptiue sonnes of his grace, & finally, saints in heauen,No mercy in imprisoning o [...] poor-men for vsury. to lye and [...]ot in prison for want of paym [...]nt of a little drosse, which at the day of dome, shall beare witnesse against thée, g [...]aw thy flesh like a canker, and condemn thée for euer: The very s [...]ones of the prison [Page] walles shall rise vp against thée, and con­demne thée for thy crueltie, Is this looue? Is this charitie? is this to doo to others as thou wouldest wish others to doe to thée? or rather as thou wo [...]ldest wish the Lord to doe vnto thée? Art thou a good member of the bodie, which not onely cuttest of thy selfe from the vine,No crueltie to be shewed, but mercy and compa­sion ought to be extended. as a rotten brau [...]ch and void lop, but also he west off other members f [...]om the same true vine, Christe Iesus? No, no, thou art a member of the Deuil, a limme of Sathan, and a Childe of perdition.

W [...]e ought not to handle our bretheren in such sorte, for any worldly matter whatsoe­uer. Wée ought to shew mercie and not crueltie to our bretheren, to remit trespasses and offences, rather then to exact punishment, re­ [...]erring all reuenge to him, who saith:

Mihi vindictam, et ego retribuam. Uenge­ance is mine, and I wil rewarde (saith the LORD.)

Beléeue mée, it gréeueth mée to heare (walk­ing in the streats) the pitiful cryes, and mise­rable complaints of poore prisoners in durāce for debt,The petiefull crying of Prisoners in prison for dept. and like so to continue all their life, destitute of libertie, meat, drink, (though of the meanest sorte) and clothing to their backs, lying in filthie strawe, and lothsome [...]ng, wursse then anie Dogge, voide of all charitable consolation, and brotherly comfort [Page] in this World, wishing and thyrsting after death, to set them [...]ibertie, and loose them from their shackles, giues and yron bands:

Notwithstanding, some mercilesse tygers are growe [...] to such barbarous crueltie, that they blush not to say,A tygerlicke [...]yrannicall saying. tush, [...]e shall either paye mée the whole, or els lye the [...] till his héels [...]ot frō his butt [...]s, and before I will release him, I will make d [...]ce of his bones. But take héed thou Deuill (for I dare not call thée a Man) le [...]t the Lord say to thée, as he said to that wic­ked Seruant (who hauing great sommes for­giuen him,Math xviii. Marc. xi. wold not forgiue his Brother his small debte, but catching him by the throte, said: pay that thou owest) [...]ind him hands and feet, and [...]ast him into vtter Darknes, wher shall be weeping, and gnashing of téeth.

An Usurer is worse thā a Thief, for the one stealeth,An Vsurer worse than a Thief. but for need, the other for coueitous­nes and excesse: the one stealeth, but in the night commonly, the other daylie and houre­ly, night and daye at all times indifferently.

An Usurer is worse than a Iew,An Vsurer worser than a Iew. for they [...]o this daye, will not take anye vsurie of their Brethren, according to the lawe of GOD.

They are worse than Iudas, for he betraied Christ,An Vsurer worser than Iudas. but once, made restitution, and repen­ted for it (though his repentance sprang not of faith, but of despaire) but these Usurers be­tray Christ in his mēbers daylie and hourly [Page] without any remorse or restitution at all.

They are wursse then hel it self,vsurers wurss [...] then [...]el. for it puni­sheth but only the wicked and reprobate, but the Usurer maketh no difference of any, but punisheth all alike. They are crueller then death,An Vsurer wursse then Death. for it destroyeth but the body, and go­eth no further, but the vsurer destroyeth both body and soule for euer. And to be bréef, the Usurer is wursse then the Deuil himself,An vsurer wurse then the Deuil. for the Deuill plagueth but onely those that are in his hands, or els those whome God per­mitteth him, the Usurer plagueth not onely those that are within his iurisdiction alredy, but euen all other without permission of any. Therfore saith Ambrose, if any man com­mit vsurie,The sayings of Godly Fa­thers and Writers a­gainst vsury. it is extortion, rauin & pillage, and he ought to dye. Alphonsus called vsury nothing els then a life of death. Lycurgus ba­nished all kind of vsury out of his lands. Cato did the same. Agessilaus, Generall of the La­cedemonians, burned the Usurers bookes in the open market places. Claudius Vaspa­tiannus, and after him Alexander Seuerus, made sharpe lawes against vsury,Vsurers puni­shed with sundry tortures. and vtter­ly extirped the same. Aristotle, Plato, Py­thagoras, and generally, all writers bothe ho­ly and prophane, haue sharply inueighed a­gainst this deuouring canker of vsury, & yet cannot we, that fain would be called christi­ans auoid it. And if it be true, that I heare [Page] say, the [...]e be no men so great doers in this no­ble facultie and famous science,Scriuiners the Diuels agents to set forward Vserie. as the Scri­ueners be: For it is sayd (and I feare mee too true) that there are some, to whome is com­mitted a hundred or two of poundes, of some more, of some lesse, they puttinge in good sureties to the owners for the repayment of the same againe, with certaine allowance for the loane thereof, then come there poore men to them, desiring them to lende them suche a som of money, and they wil recompence them at their owne desires, who making refusall at the firste, as though they had it not (to acuat [...] the minds of the poore petitioners withall) at last they lend them how much they desire, re­ceiuing of the poore men what interest & assu­rāce they lust themselues, and binding them, their lands, Goodes, and all, with forfaiture thereof, if they fayle of paym [...]nt: where note by the way, the Scriuener is the Instrument wherby the Diue [...]l worketh the frame of this wicked woorke of Usurie, hee beeing rewar­ded with a good fleece for his labour:The Scriui­ners fleece, or pittaunce for his paynes. F [...]r, firste he hath a certaine allowance of the Archdiuel who owes the money, for helping him to such vent for his coyne: Secondly, he hath a greate deale more vsurie to himselfe, of him who bo­roweth the money, than he alloweth y owner of the mony: And thirdly, [...]e hath not the least part for making the writings betwene them. [Page] And thus the poore man is so implicate and wrapped in on euerie side, as it is impossible for him euer to get out of the briers, without losse of all that euer hee hath to the very skin. Thus the riche are inriched, the poore begge­red, and Christ Iesus dishonored euerie way, God be mercifull vnto vs. De his hactenus.

Spud.

Hauing (by the grace of Christe) hy­therto spoken of sundrie Abuses of that coun­trie, let vs procéed a little further, howe doe they sancti [...]ie and kéepe the Sabbaoth day? In godly Christian exercises, or els in prophan [...] pastimes and pleasures?

The Maner of san­ctifiyng the Sabaoth in Ailgna.

Philo.

THE Sabaoth day, of some is well san­tified, namely in hearing the Word of GOD read, preached and interpre­ted, in priuat and publique Prayers, in sin­ging of Godly Psalmes, in celebrating the sa­cramēts, & in collecting for y poore & indigent, [Page] which are the true vses and ends wherto the Sabaoth was ordained. But other some spend the Sabaoth day (for the most part) in frequenting of baudie Stage-playes and enterludes, in maintaining Lords of mis-rule (for so they call a certaine kinde of play which they vse) May-games, Church-ales, feasts and wake­esses: in pyping, dauncing, dicing, carding, bowling, tennisse playing: in Beare-bay­ting, cock-fighting,Prophane exercises vpon the Sabaoth day. hawking, hunting, and such like. In kéeping of Faires, and markets on the sabaoth. In kéeping Courts and Léets: In foot-ball playing, and such other deuilish pastimes: reading of laciuious and wanton bookes, and an infinit number of such like practises and prophane exercises vsed vppon that day, wherby the Lord God is dishonou­red, his Sabaoth violated, his woord neglect­ed, his sacraments contemned and his Peo­ple meruelously corrupted, and caryed away from true vertue and godlynes. Lord re­mooue these exercises from thy Sabaoth.

Spud.

You wil be déemed too too Stoicall, if you should restrain men from these exercises vpon the Sabaoth, for they suppose, that, that day was ordained and consecrate to that end and purpose, only to vse what kinde of exercises they think good thēselues, & was it not so?

Phi.

After that the Lord our God had created the world, and all things therin contained, in [Page] six dayes, in the seuenth day he rested from all his woorks, (that is from creating them, not from gouerning them) and therefore hée commaunded y the seuenth day should be kept holy in all ages to the end of the world:When the Sabaoth wa [...] ordained. then after that in effect 2000. yéeres, he iterated this Commandement, when he gaue the law i [...] mount Horeb to Moyses, & in him to all the Children of Israel, saying, remember (for­get it not) that thou kéep holy the seuenth day &c. If we must kéep it holy, then must we not spend it in such vain exercises, as please our selues, but in such godly exercises as he in his holy woord hath commaunded. And (in my iudgement) the Lord our God ordained the seuenth day to be kept holy, for foure causes especially. First to put vs in minde of his wunderful woorkmanship, & creation of the world and creatures besides. Secondly, y his woord (the Church assēbling togither) might be preached,Wherfore th [...] Sabaoth wa [...] instituted. interpreted & expounded, his sa­craments ministred sincéerly according to the prescript of his woord, & that suffrages & praiers bothe priuat & publique might be offered to his excellent Maiestie. Thirdly, for that e­uery christiā man might repose himself from corporall labour, to the end they might y bet­ter sustain the trauailes of the wéek to ensue, and also to ye and, y all beasts & cattel, which the Lord hath made for mans vse, as helps & [Page] adiuments vnto him in [...]his daylie affaires & businesse, might rest and refresh them selues, the better to go thorow in their traueiles af­terward. For, as the hethen Man knew very wel, sine alterna requie, non est durabile quic­quàm. Without some rest or repose, there is not any thing durable, or able to cōtinue lōg. Fourthly, to th'end it might be a typical figu­re, or signitor to point (as it were) with the finger, and to cypher foorth and shadowe vnto vs that blessed rest & thryse happie ioye▪ which the faithfull shall possesse after the day of iud­gement in the Kingdome of Heauen. Wher­for [...], séeing the Sabaoth was instituted for these causes, it is manifest, that it was not appointed for the maintenance of wicked and vngodly pastymes and vaine pleasures of the flesh, which GOD abhorreth, and all good men from their hartes do loth and deteste.

The Man of whome we read in the law,Punishme [...]t for violating the sabaoth. for gathering of a few small stickes vpō the Sa­baoth, was stoned to death, by the commaun­dement of God from the Theator of Heauen.

Than if he were stoned for gathering a few sticks vppon the Sabaoth day, which in some cases might be, for necessities sake, and did it, but once,Violaters of the saboth. what shall they be, who all the Sa­baoth dayes of their lyfe giue them selues to nothing els, but to wallow in all kind of wic­kednesse and sinne▪ to the great contempt both [Page] of y Lord, and his Sabaoth? And though they haue played the lazie lurdens al the weke be­fore, yet that day of set purpose, they wil toile and labour, in contempt of the Lord and his Sabaoth. But let them be sure, as he that ga­thered stickes vpon the Sabaoth, was stoned for his contempt of the same, so shall they be stoned, yea grinded to peeces for their contēpt of the Lord in his Sabaoth.

The Iewes, are verye strict in kéeping their Sabaoths,The Iewes very precise in keeping sabaoth. in so muche, as they will not dresse ther meats and drinks vppon the same day, but set it on the tables ye day befor. They go not aboue ij. miles vpō y sabaoth day, they suffer not the body of any Malefactor to hang vppon the gallowes vppon the Sabaoth day, with legions of such like supersticiōs. Wher­in, as I do acknowledge they are but too scru­pelous, and ouershoot the marke, so we are therin plaine contempteous, and negligent, shooting short of the marke altogether.No work to be done vpon the sabaoth, except neces­site inforce it. Yet I am not so strait laced, that I would haue no kinde of worke done vppon that daye, if pre­sent necessitie of the thing require it (for Christe hath taught vs, the Sabaoth was made for Man, not Man for the Sabaoth) but not for euery light trifle which may as well be done other dayes as vpon that day. And al­though ye day it self in respect of ye very nature and originall therof be no better thā another [Page] day, for there is no difference of dayes except we become temporizers, all béeing alike good [...] yet because the Lord our God hath commaunded it to be sanctified & kept holy to him self, let vs (like obedient & obsequious Children) submit our selues to so loouing a Father, for els we spit against heauen, we striue against the stream, and we contemn him in his ordi­nances. But (perchance) you wil aske me, whither the true vse of the Sabaoth consist in outward abstaining from bodilye labour and trauaile? I answere no: the true vse of the Sabaoth (for Christians are not bound onely to the Ceremonie of the day) consisteth as I haue said,Wherin the true vse of the Sabaoth con­sisteth. in hearing the woord of God truely preached, therby to learn and to doo his wil, in receiuing the sacraments (as seales of his grace towards vs) rightly administred, in vsing publique and priuate prayer, in thanksgiuing to God for all his benefits, in singing of godly Psalmes and other spiritu­all exercises and meditations, in collecting for the poore, in dooing of good woorkes: and bréefly in the true obedience of the inward man. And yet notwithstanding, wée must abstain from the one, to attend vpon the other: that is, wée must refrain all bodily la­bours, to the end that wée may the better be restant at these spirituall exercises vppon the Sabaoth day.

[Page]This is the true vse and end of the Lord his Saboth, who graūt that we may rest in him for euer.

Spud.

Hauing shewed the true vse of the Saboth, let vs go forward to speke of those Abuses particularlye, wherby the Saboth of the Lord is prophaned. And first to begin with stage playes and enterluds: What is your opinion of them? Are they not good ex­amples to youth to fray them from sinne?

Of Stage-playes and Enterluds, with their wickednes.

Philo.

ALL Stage-playes, Enterluds and Com­medies, are either of diuyne, or prophane matter: If they be of diuine matter, than are they most intollerable, or rather Sacrile­gious, for that the blessed word of GOD, is to be handled, reuerently, grauely, and sagely, with veneration to the glorious Maiestie of God, which shineth therin, and not scoffingly, flowtingly, & iybingly, as it is vpon stages in Playes & Enterluds, without any reuerence, worship, or veneration to ye same: the word of our Saluation, the price of Christ his bloud, & the merits of his passion, were not giuen, to [Page] be derided, and iested at as they be in these filthie playes and enterluds on stages & scaf­folds,The deriding of the word of God in sta­ge playes. or to be mixt and interlaced with baw­dry, wanton shewes & vncomely gestures, as is vsed (euery Man knoweth) in these playes and enterludes. In the first of Ihon we are taught, that the word is GOD, and God is the word. Wherfore, who so euer abuseth this word of our God on stages in playes and en­terluds, abuseth the Maiesty of GOD in the same, maketh a mocking stock of him, & pur­chaseth to himselfe, eternal dānation. And no marueil, for the sacred word of GOD, and God himselfe,Reuerence to the maie­stie of God du [...]. is neuer to be thought of, or once named, but with great feare, reuerence and obedience to the same. All the holy com­panie of Heauen, Angels, Archangels, Cheru­bins, Seraphins, and all other powers what­soeuer, yea the Deuills themselues (as Iames saith) doo tremble & quake, at the naming of God, and at the presence of his wrath, and doo these Mockers and Flowters of his Maiesty, these dissembling Hipocrites, and flattering Gnatoes, think to escape vnpunished? beware therfore you masking Players, you painted sepulchres, you doble dealing ambodexters, be warned betymes,A warming to Players. and lik good computi [...]tes cast your accompts before what wil be the re­ward therof in the end, least God destroy you in his wrath: abuse God no more, corrupt his [Page] people no longer with your dregges, and in­termingle not his blessed word with such pro­phane vanities. For, at no hand, it is not law­full, to mixt scurrilitie with diuinitie,Not lawfull to intermixt diuynitie, with scurrili­tie nor di­uinitie with scurrilitie.

Theopompus, mingled Moyses law with his writinges, and therfore the LORD stroke him madd. Theodictes began the same practise, but the Lorde stroke him blind for it. With many others who attempting the like deuyses, were al ouerthrowne, and died miserably: besids, what is their iudgemēt in the other World the Lord onely knoweth. Upon the other side, if their playes be of pro­phane matters, thā tend they to y dishonor of God and norishing of vice,What if play­es be of pro­phane mat­ter. both which are dā ­nable. So that whither they be the one or the other, they are quite contrarie to the Word of grace, and sucked out of the Deuills teates, to nourish vs in ydolatrie hethenrie, and sinne.

And therfore, they cariyng the note, or brand of GOD his curse vppon thei [...] backs, which way soeuer they goe, are to be hissed out of all Christian Kingdomes, if they wil haue Christ to dwell amongst them.

Spud.

Are you able to shewe, that euer any good Men from the beginning, haue resisted Playes and Enterluds?

Philo.

Not onely the word of GOD doth ouerthrow thē, addiudging them, & the main­tainers [Page] of them, to Hell, but also all holie coū ­sels, and sinodes, both generall, nationall and prouinciall,The word of God, al Wri­ters, counsels and Fathers haue writ a­gainst playes, and e [...]ter­luds. together, with all Writers both diuyne and prophane, euer since y beginning haue disalowed them, and writ (almost) whole volumes against them.

The learned Father Tertullian in his booke de Speculo, saith, that playes, were consecrat to that false ydoll Becchus, for that he is said to haue found out, and inuented strōg drinke.

Augustinus de ciuit. Dei, saith,Wherfo [...]e playes [...] ordeined. that plaies were ordeined by the Deuill, and consecrat to heathen Gods, to draw vs from Christia­nitie to ydolatrie, and gentilisme. And in an other place: Pecunias Histrionibus dare, vi­tium est innane, non virtus. To giue money to Players, is a gréeuous sin.

Chrisostome, calleth those playes, festa Sathani, feasts of the Deuill. Lactantius, an ancient learned Father, saith, Histrionum impudissimi gestus, nihil aliud nisi Libidi­nem mouent: The shamelesse gestures of Plaiers, serue to nothing so much, as to moue the flesh to lust,Concilium. 3. and vnclennesse. And therfore, in the .30.Carth [...]. Cap▪ 11 Counsell of Carthage, & Synode of Laodicea, Synode▪ Laodicea. it was decréed, that no Christen Man,Cap. 54. or Woman, should resorte to playes and enterludes, where is nothing but blasphemie, scurrilitie and whordome main­tained. Scipio, seeing the Romaines bente [Page] to erect Theaters, & places for plaies, dehorted them from it,Write [...]s both diuyne and prophane a­gainst playe [...] and Enter­luds. with most prudent reasons and forcible arguments. Valerius Maximus saith, playes were neuer brought vp, sine re­gni rubore, without shame to the Cuntrey.

Arist.

debarreth youth accesse to Playes & Enterluds, least they séeking to quench the thirst of Venus, doo quench it with a potle of fire. Augustus, banished Ouid, for making Bookes of loue, Enterluds and such other a­morous trumperie.

Constantius, ordeined that no Player shold be admitted to the table of the Lord. Than séeing, that Playes were first inuented by the Deuil,The ends of playes and Enterluds. practised by the heathen gentiles, and dedicat to their false ydols, Goddes and God­desse [...]: as the howse, stage and apparell, to Ve­nus: the musicke, to Appollo: the penning, to Minerua, and the Muses: the action and pro­nuntiation to Mercurie and ye rest, it is more than manifest, that they are no fit exercyses for a Christen Man to follow. But if there were no euill in them, saue this, namely, that the arguments of tragedies,The argu­ments of tra­gedies. is anger, wrath, immunitie, crueltie, iniurie, incest, murther & such like: the Persons or Actors, are Goddes, Goddesses, Furies, Fyends, Hagges, Kings, Quéenes, or Potentates. Of Commedies, the matter and ground is loue,The ground of Comme­dies. bawdrie, cose­nage, flattery, whordome, adulterie: the Per­sons [Page] or agēts, whores, queanes, bawdes, scul [...]lions, Knaues, Curtezans, lecherous old men [...] amorous yong men, with such like of infinit varietie: If I say there were nothing els, but this, it were sufficiēt to withdraw a good chri­stian from the vsing of them. For so often, as they goe to those howses where Players fre­quēt▪ thei go to Venus pallace & sathās synago­gue to worship deuils, & betray Christ Iesus.

Spud.

But notwithstanding,Theaters and curtaines Ve­nus pallaces. I haue hard some hold opinion that they be as good as ser­mons, and that many a good Example may be learned out of them?

Philo.

Oh blasphemie intollerable:No playes cō ­parable to the word of God Are fil­thie playes & bawdy enterluds comparable to the word of God, y foode of life, and life it selfe? It is all one, as if they had said, bawdrie, he­thenrie, pagārie, scurrilitie, and diuelrie it self, is equall with the word of God. Or that the Deuill, is equipolent with the Lord.

The Lord our God hath ordeined his bles­sed word, and made it the ordenarie mean of our Saluation, the Deui [...]l hath inferred the other, as, the ordenarie meane of our destru­ction, and will they yet compare the one with y other? If he be accursed,He is cursed that saith playes and enterluds are comparable to sermons. y calleth light dark­nes, & darknes light, truth, falsehood, & falshood truth, swéet, sowre, and sowr sweete, than a fortiori is he accur [...]d that saith that playes & enterluds be equiualent with Sermons, Be­ [...]ids [Page] this, there is no mischief which these plai­es, maintain not. For, do they not norish ydle­nes? and otia dant vitia, ydlenes is the Mo­ther of vice. Doo they not draw the people frō hering the word of God, from godly Lectures, and sermons? for you shall haue them flocke thither thick & thréefould, whē ye church of God shalbe bare & emptie. And those y will neuer come at sermons wil flow thither apace. The reason is,Wherfore so many [...]flock to see playe [...] and enter­luds. for that the nūber of Christ his elect is but few, and the number of the reprobat is many, the way y leadeth to life is narow, and few tread y path, y way that leadeth to death, is brod, & many find it. This sheweth, they are not of God, who refuse to here his word (for he that is of God, hereth God his word saith our Sauiour Christ) but of the deuill, whose exer­cyses they go to visite. Do they not maintaine bawdrie,The fruits o [...] theathers, & playes. insinuat folery, & renue ye remēbrance of hethen ydolatrie? Do they not induce whor­dome & vnclennes? nay, are they not rather plaine deuourers of maydenly virginitie and chastitie? For proofe wherof, but marke the flocking and rūning to Theaters & curtens, daylie and hourely, night and daye, tyme and tyde to see Playes and Enterludes,The Godly demeanoures vsed at playes and enterluds where such wanton gestures, such bawdie speaches: such laughing and fléering: such kissing and bussing: such clipping and culling: Suche winckinge and glancinge of wanton eyes, [Page] and the like is vsed, as is wonderfull to be­hold. Than these goodly pageants being done, euery mate sorts to his mate, euery one brin­ges another homeward of their way verye fréendly, and in their secret conclaues (couert­ly) they play ye Sodomits, or worse. And these be the fruits of Playes and Enterluds, for the most part. And wheras, you say, there are good Examples to be learned in them:

Trulie,The goodly examples of Playes and Enterluds. so there are: if you will learne fal­shood, if you will learn cosenage: if you will learn to deceiue: if you will learn to play the Hipocrit: to cogge, lye and falsifie: if you will learn to iest, laugh and fléer, to grin, to nodd, and mow: if you will learn to playe the vice, to swear, teare, and blaspleme, both Heauen and Earth:What things are to be ler­ned at playes. If you will learn to become a­bawde, vncleane, and to deuerginat Mayds, to deflour honest Wyues: if you will learne to murther, s [...]aie, kill, picke, steal, robbe and roue: If you will learn to rebel against Prin­ces, to cōmit treasons, to comsume treasurs, to practise ydlenes, to sing and talke of baw­die loue and venery: if you will lerne to de­ride, scoffe, mock & flowt, to flatter & smooth: If you will learn to play the whore-maister, the glutton, Drunkard, or incestuous person: if you will learn to become proude, hawtie & arrogant: and finally, if you will learne to comtemne GOD and al his lawes, to [...]are [Page] neither for heauen nor hel, and to commit al kinde of sinne and mischéef you néed to goe to no other schoole,Theater [...] [...] Seminaries of pseudo christianit for all these good Examples, may you sée painted before your eyes in en­terludes and playes: wherfore, that man who giueth money for the maintenance of them, must néeds incurre the damage of premunire, that is, eternall damnation except they repēt. For the Apostle biddeth vs beware,A dyuine premunire. least wée communica [...] with other mens sinnes, & this their dooing, is not only to communicat with other mens sinnes, & maintain euil, to the di­struction of thē selues & many others, but also a maintaining of a great sorte of idle lubbers and buzzing dronets to suck vp and deuoure the good honie,What it is to communicate with other mens sinnes. wherupon the poor bées should liue.

Therfore I beséech all players & Founders of plaies and enterludes, in the bowels of Iesus Christe, as they tender the saluation of their soules, and others, to leaue of that cursed kind of life,An Exhotation to plaiers. and gi [...]e them selues to such honest exercises, and godly misteries, as God hath cō ­maunded them in his woord to get their li­uings wtall: for who wil call him a wiseman that plaieth the part of a foole and a vice? who can call him a Christian, who playeth ye part of a deuil,The [...] due to Play [...]ers. the sworne enemie of Christe? who can call him a iust man, that playeth the part of a dissembling hipocrite? And to be breef, [Page] who can call him a straight deling man, who playeth a Cosoners trick? And so of all ye rest. Away therfore with this so infamous an art, for goe they neuer so braue,Players liue vpon beg­ging. yet are they coū ­ted and taken but for beggers. And is it not true? liue they not vpon begging of euery one that comes? Are they not taken by the lawes of the Realm,Players counted Rogues by the lawes of the Realm for roagues and vacabounds? I speak of such as trauaile the Cuntries, with playes & enterludes, making an occupation of it, and ought so to be punished, if they had their deserts. But hoping that they will be warned now at the last, I wil say no more of them, beséeching them to consider what a fearful thing it is to fall into the hands of God, & to prouoke his wrath and heauie displeasure against them selues and others, which the Lord of his mercie turn from vs.

Spud.

Of that sorte he the other kinde of playes, which you call Lords of Mis-rule? for mée thinke, the very name it self caryeth a taste of some notorious euil.

Lords of Mis-rule in Ailgna.

Philo.

THE name indéed is odious both to God and good men,Lords of Mis-rule in Ailgna. & such as the very heathen people would haue blushed at, once to [Page] haue named amongst them. And if the name importeth some e [...]il, then what may ye thing it self be, iudge you. But because you desire to know the manner of them, I wil showe you as I haue séen them practised my self. First, all the wilde-heds of the Parish, conuenting togither, chuse them a Graund-Captain (of all mischéefe) whome they innoble with the title of my Lord of Mis-rule,The manner how Lords o [...] Mis-rule are vsed to be played. and him they crowne with great solemnitie, and adopt for their king. This king anointed, chuseth forth twentie, fortie, thréescore or a hundred lustie Guttes like to him self to waighte vppon his lordly Maiestie, and to guarde his noble person. Then euerie one of these his men, he in­uesteth with his liueries, of gréen, yellow or some other light wanton colour. And as though that were not (baudie) gaudie enough I should say, they bedecke them selues with scarfs, ribons & laces hanged all ouer wt golde rings, precious stones & other iewels: this doon,The monste­rous attyring of my Lord of Misrules Men. they tye about either leg xx. or xl. bels, with rich handkercheifs in their hands, and sometimes laid a crosse ouer their shoulders & necks, borrowed for the most parte of their pretie Mopsies & loouing Besses, for bussing them in ye dark. Thus all things set in order, then haue they their Hobby-horses, dragons & other Antiques,The rable­e [...] [...] deuils guard [...] togither with their baudie Pipers and thundering Drummers to strike [Page] vp the deuils daunce withall, then marche these heathen company towards the Church and Church-yard, their pipers pipeing, their drummers thundring, their stumps daūcing, their bels iyngling,The beha­ [...]iour of the Deuills band in the temple of God. their handkerche [...]s swinging about their heds like madmen, their hob­bie horses and other monsters skirmishing a­mongst the route: & in this sorte they go to the Church (I say) & into the Church (though the Minister be at praier or preaching) dancing & swinging heir hādkercheifs ouer their heds, in the Church, like deuils incarnate wt such a cōfuse noise, y no man can hear his own voice. Then the foolish people, they looke, they stare, they laugh, they fleer, & mount vpon [...]ourmes and pewes to sée these goodly pageants solem­zed in this sort.Receptacles. in the Cemiteries or church yards for the deuils agents Then after this, about the Church they goe againe and again, & so foorth into ye church-yard, where they haue cōmonly their Sōmer-haules, their bowers, arbors, & banqueting houses set vp, wherin they feast, bāquet & daunce al that day, & (peraduenture) all the night too. And thus these terrestriall furies spend the Sabaoth day.

They haue also certain papers, wherin is painted some babblerie or other, of Imagery woork, & these they call my Lord of mis [...]rules badges,My Lord of mis-rules cognizances. these they giue to euery one, that wil giue money for them, to maintaine them in their hethenrie, diuelrie, whordome, drunkennes, [Page] pride, and what not. And who will not be buxo [...] to them, and giue them money for these their deuilsh cognizances, they are mocked, & flouted at,Wearing m [...] Lord of mis-rules badges not a little. And so assoted are some, that they not only giue them monie, to maintain their abhomination withall, but al­so weare their badges & cognizances in their hats or caps openly. But let them take héede, for these are badges, seales, brands & cogni­zances of the deuil, whereby he knoweth his Seruants and Clyents, from the Children of God. And so long as they weare them:

Sub vexillo diaboli militant contra Domi­num et legem suam. They fight vnder ye bāner and standerd of ye deuil against Christ Iesus, and all his lawes, Another sorte of fantasti­call fooles bring to these hel-hounds (the Lord of mis-rule and his complices) some bread, some good-ale, some new-chéese, some olde, some custards & fine cakes, some one thing, some another:Sacrifice brought to this filthie Ydol, my L. of mis-rule. but if they knew that as often as they bring any thing to the maintenance of these execrable pastimes, they offer sacri­fice to the deuil and sathanas, they would repent and withdraw their hands, which God graunt they may.

Spud.

This is a horrible prophanation of the sabaoth (the Lord knoweth) & more pesti­lent then pestilence it self, but what? be there any abuses in their May-gāes like vnto these.

Philo.
[Page]

As many as in the other. The order of them is thus, Against May, Whitsonday or other time, all the yung men and maides, olde men and wiues run godding ouer night to the woods▪ The order of their May-games. groues▪ hils & mountains, where they spend all the night in plesant pastimes, & in the morning they return bringing wt them birch & branches of trées, to deck their assem­blies withall, and no meruaile, for there is a great Lord present amongst them, as super­intendent and Lord ouer their pastimes and sportes, namely, Sathan prince of hel: But the cheifest iewel they bring from thence is their May-pole,A great Lord presēt in May games, as su­perintendent therof. which they bring home with great veneration, as thus. They haue twen­tie or fortie yoke of Oxen, euery Oxe hauing a swéet nose-gay of floures placed on the tip of his hornes, and these Oxen drawe home this May-pole (this stinking Ydol rather) which is couered all ouer with floures, and hearbs bound round about with strings from the top to the bottome, and sometime painted with variable colours, with two or thrée hū ­dred men,The manner of bringing home their May-poles. women and children following it with great deuotion. And thus béeing rea [...]ed vp, with handkerchéefs and flags houering on the top, they straw the ground rounde about, binde green boughes about it, set vp sommer haules, bowers and arbors hard by it. And then fall they to [...]aunce▪ about it like as the [Page] heathen people did at the dedication of the I­dols, wherof this is a perfect pattern, or ra­ther the thing it self.May-poles a pattern of the hethen▪ Ydols I haue heard it credibly reported (and that, viua voce) by men of great grauitie and reputation, that of fortie, thréescore, or a hundred maides going to the wood ouer night, there haue scaresly the third part of them returned home againe vndefiled

These be the frutes which these cursed pa­stimes bring foorth.The frute of May-games. Neither the Iewes, the Turcks, Sarasins, nor Pagans, nor any other natiōs how wicked, orbarbarous soeuer, haue euer vsed such deuilish exercises as these, nay they would haue béen ashamed once to haue named them, much lesse, haue vsed them. Yet wée that would [...] Christians, think them not amisse. The Lord forgiue vs, and remooue them from vs.

Spud,

What is the manner of their church ales, which you say they vse, for they séem vncouth and straunge to mine eares?

The Manner of Church-ales in Ailgna.

Philoponus.
[Page]

THE manner of them is thus,The manner of Church- [...]les in Ailg. In cer­taine Townes where drunken Bachus beares all the sway, against a Christ­mas, an Easter, Whitsonday, or some other time, the Church-wardens (for so they call them) of euery parish, with the consent of the whole Parish, prouide half a score or twenty quarters of mault, wherof some they buy of the Church-stock, and some is giuen them of the Parishioners them selues, euery one con­ferring somewhat, according to his abilitie, which mault béeing made into very strongale or béere, it is set to sale, either in the Church or some other place assigned to that purpose.

Then when the Nippitatum, this Huf-cap (as they call it) and this Nectar of lyfe, is set abroche, wel is he that can get the soonest to it, and spend the most at it, for he that sitteth the closest to it, and spends the moste at it, he is coun [...]ed the godliest man of all the rest,The filthiest beast, the godlyest man. but who, either cannot for pinching pouertie, or otherwise wil not stick to it, he is coūted one destitute bothe of vertue and godlynes. In so much, as you shall haue many poormen make hard shift for money to spend therat, for it, béeing put into this Corban, they are perswaded it is meritorious & a good seruice to God. In this kinde of practise, they cōtinue six wéeks, a quarter of a yéer, yea half a yéer togither, swil­ling [Page] and gulling, night and day, till they be as drunke as Apes, and as blockish as beasts.

Spud.

Séeing they haue so good vtterance, it should seeme they haue good gaines. But I pray you how doe they bestowe that money, which is got therby?

Philo.

Oh, well I warent you, if all be true which they say: For they repaire their Chur­ches and Chappels with it,How the mony is spent which is got by Churcha­les. they buy bookes for seruice, cuppes for the celebration of the Sacrament, surplesses for Sir Ihon, and such other necessaries: And they maintaine other extraordinarie charges in the parishes besy­des. These be their exceptions, these be their excuses, and these be their pretensed allega­tions, wherby they blind the world, and con­ueigh themselues away inuisibly in a clowd. But if they daunce thus in a net, no doubt they will be espied.

For if it wer so, y they bestowed it as they say,Wil the Lord haue his hou­se build with maintenance of euill. do they think that the Lord will haue his howse build with drunkennesse, gluttony and such like abhominatiō? Must we do euill, that good may come of it? must we build this house of lyme and stone, with the desolation, and vt­ter ouerthrow of his spirituall howse, clensed and washed in the preciouse blood of our Sa­uiour Iesus Christ? But, who séeth not that they bestow this money vpon nothing lesse, than▪ in building and repayring of Churches [Page] and Oratories? For, in most places, lye they not like swyn coates? their windowes rent, their dores broken,The decay of Churches, which are la­cerat, rent and torn. their walles fall downe, the roofe all bare, and what not, out of order? Who séeth not the booke of GOD, rent rag­ged and all betorn, couered in dust, so as this Epitaphe may be writ with ones finger vp­pon it, ecce nunc in puluere dormio: (Alas) behold I sleep in dust, and oblyuion, not once scarse looked vppon, which lesse red vpon, and the least of all preached vppon. And on the o­ther side, who séeth not, (for this I speak but in way of parenthesis) in ye meane tyme, their owne howses and mansion places,Sūpteousnes of their owne mansions. are curi­ously build, and sumpteously adorned: which plainly argueth, that they rather bestow this drunken got-money, vppon prophane vses and their own priuat affaires, than vpon the howse of prayer, or the temple of God: And yet this their doing is wel liked of, and no mā may say, black is their eye. For why? Thei do all things well, and according to good order, as the say. And when time commeth, like good accoumptantes they make ther accoumptes, as please themselues.

Sp.

Were it not better, & more consonant to y truth, that euery one contributed somewhat according to his abilitie to y maintenance of templaries & oratories, thā thus to maintaine thē, by drunkē churchales? as you say, thei do?

Philo.
[Page]

It weare muche better: And so we read, the Fathers of the old Testament,Churges are to be main­tained by mutuall con­tribution of euery one after his power. euery one after his abilitie did impart some what, to the building and restauration of the Ta­bernacle, which Moyses erected to the Lord. So, as in the end, there was such aboundance of all things, as y Artificers, consulting with Moyses were glad to request the People, to stay their liberalitie, for they had more, than they knew what to do withall. These People made no drunken Church-ales to build their edefice withal: notwithstanding, their impor­table charges and intollerable costes. But as their zeel was feruēt, and very commendable in bringing to the Church, so our zeal is more than frosen & blame worthie in detracting frō the Church: and bestowing it vpon whordom drunkennesse,Our zeal wa­xen cold and frosen, in re­spect of the zeal of the former world gluttony, pride, and such like abhominations: God amend it▪

Spud.

How do they solemnise their feastes and wakesses there, and what order do they obserue in them?

The maner of keep­ing of Wakesses, and feasts in Ailgna.

Philoponus.

THis is their order therein: euery towne, parishe and Uillage, some at one tyme of the Yéere, some at another (but [Page] so that euery towne, parish & village kéep his proper day assigned and appropriat to it self, (which they call their Wak day) vse to make great preparation, and ordenaunce for good chéer. To the which all their Fréends and kyns-folks farre and néer are inuited, wher is such gluttony: such drunkennesse: such satu­ritie and impletion vsed, as the like was ne­uer séen. In so muche, as the poore men that beare y charges of these feasts and wakesses,Saturitie in feasts and wakesses. are the poorer, and kéep the Worser howses a long tyme after. And no marueil, for manie spend more at one of these wakesses, than in all the whole yéer besides.The great charges of Wakesses. This makes many a one to thripple & pinch, to runne into debte and daunger, and finallie, brings many a one to vtter ruine and decay.

Spud.

Wold you not haue one fréend to vi­site another at certen tymes of the yéer?

Philo.

I disalowe it not, but much com­mēd it. But why at one determinat day, more than at another (except busines vrged it) why should one and ye same day continue for euer,Against wa­kes & feasts. or be distinct from other dayes, by the name of a wake day? why should there be more ex­cesse of meats and drinks at that day, than at another? why should they abstaine from bode­ly labor. ij. or thrée dayes after, peraduenture, the whole week, spending it in drunkennesse, whordome, gluttony, and other filthie Sodo­miticall [Page] exercyses.

Spud.

Séeing you allowe of one Fréend to [...]isite another, would you not haue thē to con­gratulat their comming with some good chéer?

Philo.

Yes truely, but I allowe not of such excesse of ryot & superfluitie as is there vsed. I thinke, it conuenient for one Fréend to vi­site another (at sometimes) as oportunitie & occasion shall offer it selfe,Wherto wa­kesses and feasts do very aptly tend. but wherfore shuld the whole towne, parish, village and cuntrey, kéepe one and the same day, and make such gluttonous feasts as they doo? And therfore, to conclude, they are to no end, except it be to draw a great frequencie of whores, drabbes, theiues and verlets together, to maintai [...]e whordome, bawdrie, gluttony, drunkennesse, thiefte, murther, swearing and all kind of mi­schief and abhomination. For, these be the ends wherto these feastes, and wakesses doo tende.

Spud.

From whence sprang these feasts and wakesses first of all, can you tell?

Philo.

I cannot tell,From whence these annuall feasts and sta­cionarie wa­kesses had their be­ginning. except from the Pa­ganes and heathen People, who whan they were assembled together, and had offred Sa­crifices to their wodden Goddes and blokish ydols, made feasts and banquets together be­fore them, in honour and reuerence of them, so appointed the same yéerly to be obscrued in memoriall of the same, for euer: But whence [Page] soeuer they had their exordium, certē it is, the deuill was ye Father of them, of drown vs in perdition and destruction of body and soule: which GOD forefend.

Sp.

As I remember, you spoke of dauncing before, inferring y the [...]abaoth is greatly pro­phaned therby: whereof I pray you shew mée your iudgement.

The horrible Vice of pestiferous dauncing, vsed in Ailgna.

Philoponus.

DAuncing, as it is vsed (or rather abused) in these daies, is an introductiō to whor­dom, a preparatiue to wantonnes, a pro­uocatiue to vncleanes, & an introite to al kind of lewdenes, rather than a pleasant exercyse to y mind, or a holsome practise for ye body: yet notwithstanding, in Ailg. both men, wemen & childrē, are so skilful in this laudable sciēce, as they maye be thought nothing inferiour to Cynoedus, y prostitut ribauld, nor yet to Sar­danapalus that effeminat varlet. Yea thei are not ashamed to erect scholes of daūcing, [...]choles of d [...]uncing e [...]ected. thin­king it an ornament to their childrē, to be ex­pert in this noble science of heathen diuelrie: and yet this people glory of their christianitie & integritie of life: Indead, verbo tenus Chri­stiani boni vocitentur: But vita & moribus Ethnicis, & paganis peiores reperiētur. Frō [Page] y mouth outward, they may be said to be good Christians, but in life & maners, farre worser than the heathen, or Paganes: Wherof, if they repent not, & amend, it shalbe easier for that Land of Sodoma and Gomorra at the day of iudgement then for them.

Sp.

I haue heard it said, y dauncing is both a recreation for the minde, & also an exercyse for the body, very holsome, and not only that, but also, a meane wherby loue is acquired.

Ph.

I will not much denie,Dauncing a pleasure to them that de­light in vani­ties. but being vsed in a meane, in tyme and place conueniente, it is a certē solace to the minds of such as ta­ke pleasure in such vanities, but it is not good reason to say, some mē take pleasur in a thing ergo, it is good, but the cōtrarie is true rather: For this is (basis veritatis) a ground of truth, y whatsoeuer a carnall man with vncircum­cised heart, either desireth, or taketh pleasure in, is most abhominable & wicked before god: As on the other side, what the spirituall man regenerat, & borne anew in Christ, by the di­rection of God his spirit desireth or taketh de­light in, is good, and according to the will of God. And seeing mās nature is too procli [...]e of it selfe to sinne, it hath no need of alluremēts & allections to sin (as dauncing is) but rather of restraints & inhibitiōs frō the same▪ What a [...]ure­ments to sin, be in daun­cing. which are not there to be found. For what clipping, what culling, what kissing and bussing, what [Page] smouching & s [...]abbering one of another, what filthie groping and vncleane handling is not practised euery wher in these dauncings? yea the very deed and action it selfe, which I will not name for offending chast eares, shall be purtrayed and shewed foorth in their bawdye gestures of one to another. All which, whi­ther they blow vp Venus cole, or not, who is so blind that séeth not? wherfore, let them not think that it is any recreation (which word is abusiuely vsed to expresse the ioyes, or de­lightes of y mind,Dauncing no recreation, but a corro­siue to a good Christian. which signifieth a making againe of that, which before was made) to the mind of a good Christian, but rather a cor­rosiue most sharp and nipping. For seing that it is euill in it self, it is not a thing wherin a Christiā Mans heart may take any comfort.

The [...]nely,The onely thing, wherin a good chri­stian doth delight. summum bonum, wherin a true Christians heart is recreated and comforted, is the meditatiō of y passion of Iesus Christ, the effusion of his blood, the remission of sins, and the contemplation of the ineffable ioyes and beatituds after this life, prepared for the faithfull, in the blood of Iesus Christ. This is the only thing, wherin a Christian mā ought to reioyse, and take delight in, all other plea­sures & delights of this lyfe set a parte, as a­marulent and bitter, bringing foorth fruit to eternall destruction, but the other, to eternall lyfe: And wheras they conclude, it is a hole­some [Page] exercise for the bodie, the contrary is moste true, for I haue knowen diuers by the immoderate vse therof, haue in short time be­come decrepit and lame, so remaining to their dying day. Some haue broke their legs with skipping,Dancing no holsom exer­cise for the Bodie. leaping, turning and vawting, and some haue come by one hurt, some by another but neuer any came from thence without sōe parte of his minde broken and lame, such a wholsome exercise it is. But say they it indu­ceth looue, so I say also, but what looue?

Truely a lustful loue, a venereous looue, a concupiscencious, baudie & beastiall looue, such as procéedeth from the stinking pump and loth­some sink of carnall affection, and fleshly ap­petite,What looue dancing pro­cureth. and not such as distilleth from the bowels of the hart ingenerat by the spirit of God.

Wherfore, I exhort them in the bowels of Iesus Christ to eschue not only from euil, but also from all apperance of euil, as the Apostle willeth them, proceeding from one vertue to another, vntil they growe to perfect men in Christe Iesus, knowing that we must giue accoūts at y day of iudgment of euery minut and iote of time, from the day of our birth to the time of our death: for there is nothing more precious,We must render accounts for time heer lent vs. then time, which is giuen vs to glorifie God in good-woorks, and not to spend in luxurious exercises after our owne fantasies and delights.

Spud.
[Page]

But I haue heard then: affirme that daūcing is prouable by the woord of God: for (say they) did not the women come foorth of all the Cities of Israel to méet king Saule? 1 Sa. 18. and Dauid returning from the slaughter of Goli­ath, with psalteries, flutes, tabrets, Cymbals and other musicall Instruments, dauncing & leaping before them?Exo. 15. Did not the Israelites hauing passed ouer the red sea bring foorth their Instruments and danced for ioy of their deliuerance?Exo. 32.

Againe [...], did they not daunce before th [...] golden Calf, which they had made, in Horeb or Sinai? Did not king Dauid daunce be­fore the Ark of the Lord?2. Sa. 6. Did not the Daughter of Iephtah daunce with tabret and harp at the return of her Father from the Féeld?Iudic, 11. Did not the women of the Israelits dance comming to visit [...] good Iudith? Iudic. 15, Did not the Dam­sel dance before King Herod? Mat. 14, Did not Christ blame ye people for their not dancing, when he said,Luc. 7. wee haue pyped vnto you, but you haue Eccle. 3. not daunced?

Saith not Salomon, ‘there is a tune to wéep and a time to laughe, a time to mourne and a time to daunce?’

And dooth not the Prophet Dauid in many places of his Psalmes commend and com­maund dauncing and playing vpon Instru­ments of Musick.

[Page]Wherfore (for thus they conclude) séeing these holy Fathers (wherof some were guided by the instinction of God his Spirit) haue not only taught it in doctrine, but also expressed it by their Examples of life,No mā wit [...] out errors both in lyfe [...] and doctrin [...] who may open his mouth once to speake against it.

Philo.

The Fathers as they were men had their errors and erred as men, for Ho­minis est errare, decipi et labi: it is naturall for man to erre, to be deceiued & to slide from the trueth. Therfore the Apostle saith: follow mée in all things as I follow Christ: but to ye intent that they who perpend the Examples of the Fathers, and Scripture falsly wrested, to maintaine their [...] deuilish dauncings with­all, may sée their owne impietie & grosse igno­rance discouered, I wil cōpendiously set down the true sence and meaning of euery place, as they haue cyted them perticulerly. For the first: wheras they say that the Women came foorth in daunces with timbrels and Instru­ments of Ioy to méet Dauid and Saule, 1. Sa. 18. I aske them for what cause they did so?The first pil­lare of dauncing ouer­throwen.

Was it for wantonnes or for very ioye of hart, for their Uictorie gotten ouer the Phili­stines their sworne Enemies? Was it in prayse of GOD? or to stirre vp filthie lust in them selues, or for nicenes onely, as our daunces bée?

[Page]Did men and women daunce togither, as is now vsed to be doon: or rather was it not doon amongst women only? for so saith the text, the women came foorth &c. But admit it were neither so, [...] good cō ­ [...]uent to say [...]ers did so, [...]o it is [...]od, or wee [...]y doo the [...]e. nor so, wil they conclude a generall rule, of a particuler example? it is no good reason to say such and such did so, therfore it is good, or we may doo so, but all things are to be poysed in ye balance of holy scripture and therby to be allowed or disalowed, accor­ding to the meaning of the holy Ghost, who is only to be heard and obeyed in his woord.

The Israelitish women hearing of the fame of Dauid, and how he had killed their deadly enemie Goliath, came foorth to méet him playing vpon instrumēts, dancing & singing songs of ioye and thanks-giuing to the Lord who had giuen them victorie and deliuered them, from the deadly hostilitie of him, who sought their distruction euery way. Now what ma­keth this, for our le [...]d, wanton, nice and vbi­quitarie dauncings, for so, I may call them because they be vsed euery where, let the godly iudge: [...]he differēce [...]etween the [...]ances of our [...]orefathers, [...]nd ours. who seeth not rather y this example, (let Cerberus the dog of hel alatrate what he list to the cōtrary) clean ouerthroweth them. Theirs was a godly kind of dācing in praise of God: ours a lustful, baudie kinde of dea­me [...]our, in praise of our selues: the [...]rs to shew their inward ioy of minde for the blessings of [Page] God bestowed vpon them, ours to show our actiuitie, agilitie and curious nicitie and to procure lustful looue and such like wickednes infinit: But to their second allegation:Their s [...]co [...] Pillar shak [...] ye Chil­dren (say they) of Israel danced being deliuered out of the seruitude of Pharo and hauing pas­sed ouer the red sea: I graunt they did so, and good cause they had so to doo: For were they not emancipate and set frée from thrée great calamities and extreame miseries? First frō the serui [...]e bondage of Egipt, from the swoord of Pharo, who pursued the rereward of their hoste, and from the danger of the red sea, their enemies béeing ouerwhelmed in the same.

For these great and inestimable benefits and blessings receiued at the hands of God, they played vpon Instruments of musick, leaped, daunced, and sung godly songs vnto ye Lord, shewing by these outward gestures ye inward ioy of their harts and mindes. Now what conduceth this, for the allowance of our luxu­rious dauncings?How the Isr [...]lits danced [...] Is it not directly against them? They danced for ioy in thanks to god, wée for vainglorie [...]: they for looue to God, wée for looue of our selues: they to shew the inte­rior ioy of the minde for God his blessing, heaped vpon them: we to shew our concinitie, dex­teritie, and vain curiositie in the same: they to stir vp and to make them selues the apter to praise God, we to stir vp carnall appetites [Page] and fleshlie motions: they to shewe their hu­militie before God, and we to shew our pride both before God and ye world. But how so e­uer it be, sure I am, their dauncing was not like [...]ures, cōsisting in measures, capers, qua­uers, & I cannot tel what, for thei had no such leas [...]re in Egigt to learne such vaine curiosi­ty in that lustfull bawdie schoole, for making of brick and tyles.The daūcing of our Forfa­ [...]hers mai not [...]e called a [...], but [...] God­ly [...]. for ioy And notwithstanding, it is ambiguous whether this may be called a daū cing or not, at lest not like oures, but rather a cer [...] ̄ kind of modest leaping, skipping, or moo­uing of the body to expresse the ioye of ye mind in prayse of God, as the Man did, who being [...] by the power of our S [...]uiour Christe, [...]alked in the Temple, leapping, skipping, & praising God.

We neuer read, that they euer daunced, but at some wonderfull por [...]ent, or straunge iudgment of God, and therfore, made not a common practise of it, or a daylie occupation as it were, much lesse set vp schools of it, and frequenting nothing els night and day, Sabaoth day,Their .3. Reason▪ [...]examined. and other, as we do. But to their third Reason: The Israelits daūced be­fore the Calf in Horeb. And what than? They made a Golden Calf, and adored it, maye we therfore do the like? They com­mitted ydolatrie there, therfore is ydolatrie good, because they committed it?

[Page] Adam, disobyed GOD, and obeyed the deuil: is obedience therfore to the deuil good, because hee did so?

Therfore wée must not take héede what man hath doon héertofore, but what God hath commaunded in his woord to be doon, and that followe, euen to the death. But to be short, as it is a friuilous thing to say, because they committed Idolatrie, therfore may wée doo the like, so it is no lesse ridiculous, to say, be­cause they daunced, therfore wée may doo the same: for as it is not lawful to commit Idola­trie, because they did so, so is it not lawfull to daunce, because they daun [...]ed.

So that if this place inferre any thing for dauncing, it inferreth that wee must neuer daunce but before a golden Calf, as they did: but I think by this time, they are ashamed of their dances: therfore, of this place I néed to sayn [...] more, giuing thē to note, that this their dauncing in respect of the end therof, was farre dissonant from ours: for they daunced in honour of their Idol, wee clean contrary though neither the one nor the other be at a­ny hand tollerable.

Their fourth reason,Their .4. Reason. Did not Dauid daunce before the Ark, say they? very true: and this place (as the rest before) refelleth their customarie dauncings of men and wo­men togither moste excellentlie. For [Page] Dauid danced him selfe alone, without either woman, or musicall Instrument to effemi­nate the minde. And this dauncing of Dauid was no vsuall thing, nor frequēted euery day but that one time, and that in prayse of God, for the deliuerie of the Ark of God his testa­ment out of the hands of the Infidels and he­then people: the ioy of this holy Prophet was so vehement, for this great blessing of GOD (such a feruēt zeale he bore to the trueth) that it burst foorth into exterior action, y more to induce others to prayse God also. Would God we would dance as Dauid daunced héer, for the deliuerie of his alsauing woord out of the hands of that Italian Philistin & archenemy of all trueth, the Pope of Roome, for in this re­spect I would make one to daunce, to leap, to skip, to triumph, and reioyce as Dauid did before the Ark.Why Dauid d [...]unced be­fore the Ark. By this I trust any indiffe­rent man séeth, that by this place, they gain as much for the maintenance of their▪ leude dancings, and baudie chorusses, as they did by citing the former places, that is iust no­thing at all, which they may put in their eies and see neuer the w [...]rsse?

Their fift reason.Their fift Reson exami­ned. Did not Ieptath his daughter méet her Father when he came from war dancing before him, and playing vppon In­struments of Ioy. Ieptath going foorth to warre against the Amonites promised the [Page] Lord (making a rashe vowe) that if it would please his Maiestie to giue him victorie ouer his Ennemies, he wold sacrifice the first ly­uing thing that shuld meet him frō his house: It pleased GOD that his sole daughter and heire hearing of her Fathers prosperous re­turn (as the maner of the Cuntrey was) ran foorth to meete her Father playing vppon in­struments, in praise of GOD, and dauncing before him for ioye. Now what prooueth this for their daunces? Truely, it ouerthroweth them if it be well considered: for first, we read that she did this but once, we daylie: She in prayse of God, we in prayses▪ of our selues:Wherfore & how the Daughters of Iepthath daū ­ced. she for ioy of her Fathers good successe, we to stere vp filthie and vncleane motions: She with a virginall grauitie, we with a babish leuitie: she in comly maner, we in bawdie ge­sture. And moreouer, this sheweth, that wo­men are to daunce by themselues (if they wil néeds daunce▪) and men by themselues, for so importeth the Tert, making no mention of any other her collegues,Ther. 6. Reason. Iudith. Ca. 15. or Companions dan­cing with her.

Their .vi. Reason: Did not y Israelitish we­men daunce before Iudith, comming to visit her? I graunt they did s [...]: the storie is thus.

Holofernes, opposing himselfe, against the Israelits, the chosen people of GOD, and in­tending to ouerthrowe them, and to blot out▪ [Page] their remembrance for euer from vnder hea­uen, assembled a huge power, and besieged them on euery side.

The Israelits, séeing themselues circum­valled and in great daunger on eachside, su­borned good Iudith, Iudith cut­teth of the head of holo­fernes. a vertous Godlye Wo­man (for without some stratagem, or pol­licie wrought, it was vnpossible for them in the eyes of ye world, to haue escaped) to repai­re to Holofernes, & by some meanes or other to work his destruction: who guided by the hand of God, attempted the thing & brought it happely to passe. For she cut of his head with his owne fauchine, wrapping his body in the canopie, wherin he lay sléepingly possest as he was with ye spirit of drunkennesse: this done, the Women of Israell came together, and went to visit this worthie Woman, and to cōgratulat her prosperous successe, with in­struments of musick, singing of Godly songs, and dauncing for ioye, in h [...]nor and prayse to God, for this great victorie obtained. Now who s [...]eth not, that these women sang, daūced, and played vppon instrumentes in prayse of God,The vnlaw­fullnes of dauncing of men and wo­men together & not for any other lewdnes, or wanton­nes, as cōmonly the world doth now adaies? This also ouerthroweth the dauncinges of Men and Women together in one companie: for though there was an infinite number of People by, yet the Text saith, there daunced [Page] none, but onely Women, which plainly ar­gueth the vnlawfulnesse of it in respecte of Man. And this being but a particular fact of a sort of imprudent Women, shall we draw it into example of lyfe, and thinke it lawfull, or good, because they did practife it?

It was a custome in those dayes, when God had powred foorth and notable blessing vpon his People from his Heauenly Pallace,A customet daunce in prayse of God. the People in honour, praise and thankesgiuing to God for them▪ would, play vppon their in­struments, sing Godly Songs, daunce, leape, skip and triumphe, shewing foorth the ioye of their mindes, with their thankefulnesse to GOD, by all exteriour gestures, that they could deuyse. Which kinde of thankefull dauncing, or spirituall reioycing, wold God, we did follow, leauing all other wanton dan­cing to their Father the Deuill.

Their .vij. Reason:Ther. 7. Reason. Did not (quothe they) the Damosell daunce before Kinge Herode, when the head of Iohn Baptist was cut of? She daunced indeed: And herein they maye sée the fruite of dauncing, what goodnesse it bringeth: For, was not this the cause of the beheading of Iohn the Bap­tist? Sée whether dauncing,Dauncing styrreth vp lust. styreth not vp lust and inflameth the mind.

For, if Herode with séeing her daunce, was so inflamed in her loue, and rauished in her [Page] behauiour, that he promised her, to giue her whatsoeuer she wold desire, though it were half of his Emperie, or Kingdome: what wold he haue béene, if he had daunced with her? and what are those that daunce with them, hand in hand, chéek by chéek, with bussing and kissing, slabbering and smearing, most beastly to behold? in so much, as I haue heard many impudently say, that they haue chosen their Wyues, and wyues their Husbands by dauncing: Which plainely proueth the wic­kednesse of it. Their .viij. reason:Their. 8. Reason. Luc. 7. Did not Christ rebuke the People, for not dauncing, saying: we haue pyped vnto you, but you haue not daunced. They may as well conclude that Christ in this place, was a Pyper, or a Minstrell, as that he alowed of dauncing, or reproued them, for not excercysing the same.

This is a Metaphoricall, or Allegoricall kinde of speach, wherin our Sauiour Christ, goeth about to reprooue and checke the styf­neckednes, the rebellion and pertinacious cō ­tumacy of y Scribes and Phariseis, who were neither mooued to receiue the glad tydings of the Gospell by the austeritie of Iohn the Baptiste, The more than obdu [...]at hardnes of the Iewes. who came preaching vnto them the doctrine of repētaunce, in mourning sort: nei­ther yet at the preaching of our Sauiour him selfe, breaking vnto them the pure Ambrosia, the Coelestial Manna, the word of life in ioy­full, [Page] and gladsome maner.

Ihon the Baptist he piped vnto them, that is, he preached vnto them, austeritie of life, to mourn for their sinnes, to repent, to fast, pray and such like. Our Sauiour Christ he py­ped (that is) preached vnto them, the glad & comfortable tidyngs of ye Gospell, yet at nei­ther of these kinde of concions, they were any whit mooued, either to imbrace Christ, or his gospell: Wherfore he, sharply rebuketh them, by a similitude of foolishe Children sitting in the market place, and piping vnto them that wold not daunce. This is the true vndoubted sence of this place, which, whether it ouer­throw not all kinde of lewd dauncing (at lest maketh nothing for them) allowing a certen king of spirituall dauncing, and reioysing of the heart vnto God (that I may suspend my owne iudgement) let wyse men determine.Eccle. 3. Their. 9. Reason.

Their .ix. Reason: Saith not Salomon, there is a time to wéep, & a time to laugh, a time to mourn, and a time to daunce? This place is directly against their vsuall kinde of daun­cing. For, saith not the Text, there is a time, meaning, somtime, now and than, as the Is­raelites did in prayse to GOD, when anie notable thing happened vnto them, and not euery daye and howre as we do, making an occupatiō of it, neuer leauing it, vntil it leaue vs. But what, and if Salomon Salomō mea­neth a certen kind of a spi­tuall daūcing or reioying of the heart. speaketh here [Page] of a certen kind of spiritual dauncing, and re­ioysing of ye heart in praise to GOD? This is easily gathered by the circumstances of the place, but specially by the sentence precedent (vz. there is a time to mourn, & a time to dā ­ce &c.) that is, a time to mourn for our sinnes, & a tyme to daūce or reioyse, for the vnspeak­able treasures purchased vnto vs by ye death & passion of Iesus christ. How much this pla­ce maketh for defence of their nocturnall, diu­turnall, wanton, lewde and lascivious daun­cings (if it be censured in the imparciall bal­lance of true iudgement) all ye world may sée aud iudge. And now to draw to an end, I will come vnto their vltimum refugium. Their vltimū refugium. That is: Doth not Dauid both commend, and also cō ­maunde dauncing and playing vpon instru­ments in diuerse of his Psal. In all those pla­ces, ye Prophet speaketh of a certē kind of spi­rituall dauncing and reioysing of the heart to y Lord for his graces & benefits in mercie be­stowed vpon vs. This is the true kinde of dauncing, which the word of God doth allow of in any place, and not that we should trippe like rammes,Why our feet were giuē vs. skip like goats, & leap like mad men. For, to y end our féet were not giuē vs, but rather to represent yeimage of God in vs, to keep Companie with the Angels, & to glo­rifie our heuenly Father thorow good works.

Spud.

Do you condemne al kinde of daun­cing, [Page] as wicked and prophane?

Ph.

All lewde, wanton, & lasciuious daun­cing in publique assemblies & conuenticles, without respect either of sex, kind, time, place, Person, or any thing els, I by the warrant of the word of God, do vtterly condemne: But that kind of dauncing which is vsed to praise and laud the name of God withall (as weareWhat daun­cing is con­demned by the word of God. the daūces of the people of the former world) either priuatly or publiquely is at no hand to be dysallowed, but rather to be greatly com­mended. Or if it be vsed for mans comfort, recreation, and Godly pleasure▪ priuatly (eue­ry sex distincted by themselues) whether with musick, or otherwyse, it cannot be but a very tollerable exercise, being vsed moderatly, and in ye feare of God. And thus, though, I condē ­ne all filthie, luxurious and vncleane daun­cing, yet I condemne not al kind of dauncing generally. For certen it is, the exercyse it self, in it own nature, qualitie & proprietie, though to some it is lawfull, to othersome vnlawfull in dyuerse respects, is both ancient & general, hauing been vsed euer in all ages, as wel of ye Godly, as of ye wicked, almost from the begin­ning. Wherfore, when I cōdemne the same in some, my meaning is, in respecte of the manifold abuses therof. And in my iudge­ment as it is vsed now a dayes, an occupatiō being made of it, and a continuall exercyse, [Page] without any difference or respect had either to time, Person, sex or place in publique assem­blies and frequencies of People, with suche beastlie slabberings, bussings & smouchings and other filthie gestures & misdeameanors therein accustomed, it is as vnpossible to be vsed without doing of inf [...]nit hurt, as it is for a naked Man to lye in the middest of a hote burning fire, and not to consume. But these abuses with other y like (as there be legions moe in it) being cut of from the ex [...]ercyse it selfe, the thing remayneth very commendable in some respectes. Or els, if our daunces tended, as I haue said, to the setting foorth of GOD his glorie (as the daunces vsed in pre­ter time did) to draw others to pietie and san­ctitie of life, and to praise and reioyce in God, to recreat y minde oppressed with some great toyle, or labor taken in true virtue and god­lynes, I would not (being don in the feare of GOD, men by them selues, and Wemen by thē selues, for els it is not possible to be with­out sinne) much gainstand it. But I see the contrarie is euery where vsed to ye great dis­honor of God,Why men [...]old daunce [...]y themselfes and women by themselfs. and corruption of good maners, which God amend.

Spud.

And wherfore, would you haue Men to daunce by them selues, and Women by them selues?

Philo.

Because it is without all doubte▪ a [Page] prouocation to lust and venery, and the fire of lust once conceiued,Why men should dance by thē selues and Women by thē selues. (by some irruption or other) bursteth foorthe into open action of whoredome and fornication. And therfore a certain godly Father saidwel, Omnis sal­tus in chorea, est saltus in profundum inferni, Euery leap or skip in dance, is a leap toward hel. Yet notwithstanding in Ailgna it is coū ted a vertue, and an ornament to a man, yea, and the onely way to attaine to promotion & aduancement, as experience teacheth.

Spud,

Notwithstanding, for my further in­struction, I pray you showe mée what Fa­thers and Councels haue iudged of it, and what they haue writ and decréed against it.

Philo.

If I should goe foorth to shew all the inuectiues of Fathers, all the decrées of coun­cels, and all the places of holy Scripture a­gainst the same,Testimonies of Fathers councels, and Writers a­gainst daun­cing. I should neuer make an end: wherfore, of many I wil select a few, hoping that they wil suffice any reasonable man.

Syrach saith, frequent not the company of a woman, that is a singer or a dauncer, neither heare her,Eccle. 131 least thou be intrapped in her craf­tines. Chrisostome, dylating vpon Mathew saith: In euery dance, the deuil daunceth by, for companie, though not visible to ye eye, yet palpable to ye minde.Mat. [...]. Theophilus, writing v­pon Mark y sixt Chapter saith, Mira collusio saltat per puellam Diabolus This is a wun­derful [Page] deceit, for the deuil danceth amōgst thē for company. Augustine Augustine. writing vpon the 32. Psalme, saith,Erasmus. it is better to digge all the Sabaoth day, then to dance. Erasmus, in his Booke, de contemptu Mundi, saith, Whose minde is so well disposed, so stable, or wel setled, which these wanton dances, with swinging of armes, kicking of legs, playing vpon instruments, and such like would not ouercome and corrupt: Wherfore saith hée, as thou desirest thine owne credit, and welfare, Lodouicus viues. eschew these scabbed and scuruy companie of dauncers.

Ludouicus Viues saith, amongst all plea­sures, dauncing and voluptuousnes is the kingdome of Venus, and the empire of Cu­pid: wherfore, saith hée, it were better for thée to stay at home, and to break either a leg, or an arme of thy body, then to break the legges and armes of thy minde & soule, as thou doost in filthie scuruy dauncings. And as in all Feasts and pastimes, dauncing is the last, so it is the extream of all other vice:Dauncers thought to be mad-men. And again, there were (saith he) from far cuntries, cer­tain men brought into our parts of ye world, who when they saw men daunce, ran away, meruelously affraid: crying out and thinking thē to haue béen mad. And no meruaile, for who seing them leap, skip & trip like Goates & and hindes, if hee neuer saw thē before, would [Page] not think them either mad, or els possest with some furie? Bullinger, Bullinger. paraphrasting vpō Ma­thew, 14. saith, After feasting swilling and gulling commeth dancing, the root of all filthy­nes and vncleannes.

Maister Caluin, Caluin. writing vpon Iob, Ser. 8. Cap. 12. calleth dauncing the chéefe mischéef of all mischéefs, saying there be such vnchast gestures in it, as are nothing els, but intice­ments to whordome.

Marlorate, vpon Mathew saith, whosoeuer hath any care either of honestie, sobrietie or grauitie, haue long since bad adieu to all fil­thie dauncing.

No man (saith a certaine heathen Writer) if hée be sober daunceth, except hée be mad.

Salustius, Salust. commending Sempronia that renowmed whore, for many goodly gifts, condemneth her for her ouer great skil in daun­cing: concluding, that dauncing is the In­strument of lecherie.

Cicero, saith,Cicero. a good man would not dance in open assembles, though hee might by it get infinite treasure.

The Councel of Laodecea decréed that it should not be lawful for any Christiā to dance at mariages or at any sollemne feast.

It an other Councel it was enacted, that no man should daunce at any marriage, nor yet at any other time.

[Page]The Emperour Iustinian decréed, that for no respect in feasts or assemblies, there should be any dauncing, for feare of corrupting the Beholders, and inticing men to sinne.

Thus you may see, bothe Scripture, coun­cels and Fathers, holy and prophane,All Writers bothe holy and prophane against dauncing. heathen and other, euen all ingenerall, haue detested and abhorred this [...]ilthie dauncing, as the quauemire or plash of all abhomination: and therfore, it is no exercise for any Christians to followe: for it stirreth vp the motions of ye flesh, it induceth lust, it inferreth [...]a [...]drie, af­foordeth ribaldrie, maintaineth wantonnes, & ministreth oile to y stinking lamp of deceitful pride: and in summa, nourisheth a world of wickednes and sinne.Dauncing a World of sin

Spud

Now that the wickednes of it, is so manifestly shewed, that no man can denie it, I pray you who inuented this noble science, or from whence sprang it?

Philo.

Héereof,Who inuen­ted dauncing and from whome it sprang, there be sundry and diuers opinions: for some holde and opinion (and ve­ry likely) that it sprang from the heathen ido­latrous Pagans [...]nd Infidels, who hauing of­fred vp their sacrifices victimats and holo­caustes to their false Gods, in reuerence of them, and for ioy of their so dooing, vsed to daunce, leape, and skip before them.

And this may be prooued by the Israelits thē ­selues, who hauing seen and learned the same [Page] practise in Egipt, feared not to imitate the like in the wildernes of Horeb: some again, sup­pose that Pyrrhus one of Sibils Preists deui­se [...] it in Creet. Others holde that the Priests of Mars, who in Roome were had in great estimation for their dexteritie in daūcing, in­uented it:A Supposall who inuēted dauncing. Others think y one Hiero a trucu­lent and bloody Tirant in Sicilia, who to set vp his tyrannie the more, inhibited the peo­ple to speake one to an other, for feare of in­surrections and commotions in his kingdome was the occasiō of y inuenting therof: for whē the Sicilians, sawe that they might not vnder pain of death one speak to another, they inuē ­ted dauncing to expresse the inward meaning and intentiōs of the minde by outward [...]ecks and exteriour gestures of the body, which vse afterward grew into custome, and now into nature. But what so [...]uer men say of it, or from whence soeuer it sprang, S. Chrisostom saith plainly (to whom I willingly subscribe)Vnpossible that dancing should be good. that it sprang from the t [...]ates of the Deuils brest, from whence all mischeef els dooth flow: Therfore to conclude, if of the egges of a Cokatrice, may be made good meat for man to eat, and if of the web of a spider, can be made good cloth for mans body, then may it be prooued that dancing is good and an exercise fitte for a christian man to followe, but not before:

Wherfore God of his mercy take it away [Page] from vs.

Spud,

What say you of Musick, is it not a laudable science?

Of Musick in Ailgna, and how it allu­reth to vanitie.

Philo.

I Say of Musick, as Plato, Aristotle, Ga­len and many others haue said of it, that it is very il for yung heds, for a certaine kinde of nice, smoothe swéetnes in alluring the auditorie to nicenes, effeminacie, pusil­la [...]mitie, A comparison betwixt hony and dancing. & lothsōnes of life, so as it may not improperly be compared to a swéet electuarie of honie, or rather to honie it self, for as ho­nie and such like swéet things receiued into y stomack, dooth delight at the first, but after­ward they make the stomack so quasie, nice and weake, that it is not able to admit meat of hard digesture. So swéet Musick, at the first delighteth the eares, but afterward cor­rupteth and depraueth the minde, making it weake, and quasie, and inclined to all licen­ciousnes of lyfe whatsoeuer.Wits dulled by Musick.

And right as good edges are not sharpned, [Page] (but obtused) by béeing whetted vpon softe stones, so good wits by hearing of soft musick are rather dulled then sharpned, and made apt to all wantonnes and sinne. And therfore Writers affirme Sappho to haue béen expert in musick,Authors of the bringing in of musick. and therfore whorish.

Tyrus Maximius saith, the bringing in of musick, was a cup of poyson to all the world.

Clytomachus, if hee euer heard any talk­ing of looue, or playing vpon musicall Instru­ments, would run his way and bidde them farwel.

Plutarchus, complaineth of Musick, and saith, that it dooth rather femenine the minde as pricks vnto vice, then conduce to godlines as spurres vnto Uertue.

Pythagoras, condemnes them for fooles, and bequeathes them a cloke-bag, that mea­sure Musick by sound and eare. Thus you heare the iudgement of the wise, concerning Musick, now iudge therof as y [...]u list your self.

Spud.

I haue heard it said, (and I thought it very true) that Musick dooth delight bothe man and beast, reuiueth the spirits, comfor­teth the hart, and maketh it apter to the ser­uice of GOD.

Philo.

I graunt Musick is a good gift of GOD,Musick the good gift of God. and that it delighteth bothe man [Page] and beast, reuiueth the spirits, comforteth y hart, and maketh it redyer to serue GOD, and therfore did Dauid bothe vse musick him self, & also commend the vse of it to his posteri­tie (and béeing vsed to that end, for mans pri­uat recreation musick is very laudable.)

But béeing vsed in publique assemblies and priuate conuenticlesOf musick in publique as­semblies, and conuenticles. as directories to fil­thie dauncing, thorow the swéet harmonie & smoothe melodie therof, it estraungeth ye mind stireth vp filthie lust, womannisheth ye minde rauisheth the hart, enflameth concupisence, and bringeth in vncleannes. But if musick openly were vsed (as I haue said) to ye prasie and glory of God as our Fathers vsed it,How musicke were tollera­ble & good. and as was intended by it at the first, or priuat­ly in a mans secret Chamber or house for his owne solace or comfort to driue away the fantasies of idle thoughts, solicitude, care, sor­rowe and such other perturbations and mo­lestations of the minde, the only ends wher­to true Musick tends, it were very commendable and tollerable. If Musick were thus v­sed it would comfort man wunderfully, and mooue his hart to serue God the better, but beeing vsed as it is, it corrupteth good minds, maketh them womannish and inclined to all kinde of whordome and mischéef.

Spud,

What say you then of Musitions, & Minstrels who liue only vpon the same art?

Philo.
[Page]

I thinke that all good minstrelles,The scarsity of good mu­sitions and minstrelles. sober and chast musicions (speking of suche drunken sockets, and bawdye parasits as rā ­ge the Cuntreyes, ryming and singing of vn­cleane, corrupt, and filthie songs in Tauer­nes, Ale-houses, Innes, and other publique assemblies) may daūce ye wild Moris thorow a néedles eye. For how should thei bere chaste minds, séeing that their exercyse is the path­way to all vncleanes. Their is no ship,The marchā ­dise of min­strelles, and musi [...]ions. so balanced with massie matter, as their heads [...]re fraught with all kind of bawdie songs, fil­thie ballads, and scuruie rymes, seruing for e­uery purpose, and for euery Cumpanie.

Who be more bawdie than they? who vn­cleaner than they, who more licentious, and loose minded? who more incontinent thā they? and briefely, who more inclyned to all kind of insolencie and lewdnes than they?The wicked­nes of musi­tions and minstrels. wher­fore, if you wold haue your sonne, softe, wo­mannish, vncleane, smoth mouthed, affected to bawdrie, scurrilitie, filthie rimes, and vnse­mely talking: brifly, if you wold haue him, as it weare transnatured into a womā, or wor­se, and inclyned to all kind of whordome and abhomination, set him to dauncing school, and to learn musicke, and than shall you not faile of your purpose.How to haue Children le [...] ­ned in all wickedne [...]. And if you would haue your daughter whoorish, bawdie, and vncleane, and a filthie speaker, and such like, bring her vp in [Page] [...] [Page] [...] [Page] musick and dauncing, and my life for youres, you haue wun the goale.

And yet notwithstanding it weare better (in respecte of acceptation) to be a Pyper,The scarcytie of dyuines. or bawdye minstrell, than a deuyne, for the one is looued for his ribauldrie, the other ha­ted for his grauitie, wisdome, and sobrietie.

Euery towne, Citie and Countrey is full of these minstrelles to pype vp a dance to the Deuill, but of dyuines, so few there be as they maye hardly be séene.

But some of them will reply and say, what Sir? we haue lycenses from iustices of peace to pype, & vse our minstralsie to our best com­moditie? Cursed be those licences, which ly­cense any man to get his lyuing, with the de­struction of many thousands.

But haue you a lycence from the Arch-iu­stice of peace Christe Iesus? If you haue so, you may be glad,Licences graunted to musitions & minstrels to exercyse their mistery or fa­cultie of mi­schief. if you haue not (for the Worde of GOD is against your vngodly exercyses, and condemneth them to Hell) than may you as rogues, extrauagantes, and straglers from the Heauenlye Country be arrested of the high iustice of peace Christ Ie­sus, and be punished with eternall death, not­withstanding your presented licēces of earth­ly men. Who shall stand betwixt you, and the Iustice of GOD at the daye of Iudge­ment? Who shall excuse you, for draw­ing [Page] so manye thousandes to Hell? shall the Iustices of peace? shall their licenses? Oh no: For neither ought they to graunt anye licen­cens to anie to doo hurt withall,No lycences to do hurte withall are to be graun­ted. neither (if they would) ought any to take them.

Giue ouer therfore your Occupations, you Pypers, you Fidlers, you minstrelles, and you musitions, you Drummers, you Tabret­ters, you Fluters, and all other of that wic­ked broode, for the blood of all those, whome you drawe to destruction thorow your prouo­cations, A Cauet to musitions, minstrelles & all others of twat stampe. and intysing allurementes shalbe powred vppon your heads, at the day of Iud­gement, but hereof enough, and perchaunce more than will like their humour.

Spud.

Is it not lawfull vppon the Sa­baoth daye to playe at Dice, Cardes, Tables, Bowles, Tennisse, and suche other plea­saunt exercyses, wherein Man taketh plea­sure and delight?

Cards, Dice, Tables, Tennisse, Bowles, and other ex­ercyses, vsed vnlawfully in Ailgna.

Philoponus.
[Page]

THese be no Sabaothlike exercyses for any Christian man to follow any day at all,Exercises vn­lawfull vpon the Sabaoth day. much lesse vppon the Sabaoth daye, which the Lord wold haue to be consecrat to himselfe, and to be spent in holy and Godly exercyses according to his will. As for cards, dice, tables, bowls, tennisse, and such like, thei are furta officiosa, a certē kind of smooth de­ceiptfull,Furta offi­ciosa. and sleightie thefte, wherby many a one is spoiled of all that euer he hath, some­times of his life withall, yea of body and soul for euer: And yet (more is the pitie) these be ye onely exercyses vsed in euery mans howse, al the yeer thorow. But specially in Christimas tyme there is nothing els vsed but cards, dice tables masking, mumming, bowling▪ & such like fooleries: And the reason is, they think they haue a commission and prerogatiue that time,All wicked games vsed in Christmas tym [...]. to do what they lust, and to folow what vanitie they will. But (alas) do they thinke that they are priuiledged at that tyme, to doo euill? the holier the time is (if one time were holier than another, as it is not) the holier ought their workes to be. Can anie time di­spense with them or giue them libertie to sin. No, no:No tyme pri­uiledged a man to sinne. the soule which sinneth shall dye, at what time so euer it offēdeth. But what will thei say? Is it not Christmas? must we not be mery? truth it is: we ought both than, and at [Page] all tymes besides to be merie in the Lord, but not otherwyse, not to swil and gull more that time thā at any other time, not to lauish foorth more at that time, than at another times.

But the true celebratiō of the Feast of chri­stmas is,The true keeping of Christmas. to meditat (and as it were to rumi­nat) vppon the incarnation and byrthe of Ie­sus Christ, not onely that time, but all the ty­mes and daies of our life, and to shewe our selues thankeful to his Maiestie for the same: Notwithstanding, who is ignorant, that more mischiefe is that time comm [...]ted than in all the yéere besides? what masking and [...]um­ming, wherby robberie, whordome, murther, and what no, tis committed: what dicing & carding, what eating and drinking, what bā ­queting and feasting is than vsed more than in all the yéere besydes?Wickednes in Christmas. to the great dishonor of GOD, and impouerishing of the realme.

Spud.

Is it not lawfull for one Christian to play with another at anye kinde of game, or to winne his monie, if he can?

Philo.

To play at tables, cards, dice, bowls or the like (though a good Christian man will not so ydlely,Vnlawful for one Christian to play with another to win his money. and vainely spend his golden dayes) one Christian with another, for their priuat recreations, after some oppression of studie, to druie awaye fantasies, and suche like, I doubt not, but they may, vsing it mo­deratly, with interm [...]ssion, and in the feare of [Page] GOD? But to play for lucre of gaine, and for desire onely of his Brothers substaunce (rather than for any other cause) it is at no hand lawfull, or to be suffered.

For as it is not lawful to robbe, steale and purloine by deceit, or slaight, so is it not law­full to get thy Brothers goods from him, by [...]arding, dicing, tabling, bowling, or any other kynd of thefte, for these playes are no better, nay worser than opē theft, for opē theft euery Man can be ware of, but this being a craftie pollitick theft, and cōmōly don vnder pretēce of Fréendship, few, or none at all can beware of it. The commaundement saith, thou shalt not couet, nor desire any thing that belongeth to thy Neighbour. Now, it is manifest, that those that playe for monie, not onelye couet their Brothers monie, but also vse craft fal­shood and deceit to wyne the same.

The Apostle, forbiddeth vs to vse deceipt in bargaining, in buying, or selling, much lesse than ought we to vse deceipt in gaming.

Our Sauiour Christ biddeth euery man, do to an other, as he would another should do vn­to him.A rule to re­straine vnlawfull game­uing. Which rule if it weare dulie obser­ued, weare sufficient to withraw men both from all kynd of gameing, and also from all kynd of indyrect, and vniust dealing.

For as thou woldest not that another man should winne thy money, so thou oughtest not [Page] to desire the winning of his, for thou must do as thou wouldest be done by.

Spud.

If gameing for money be so vn­lawfull, wherfore are there howses, and pla­ces appointed for maintenance of the same?

Philo.

That excuseth not the fault, but ag­grauateth it rather. And truely great pitie it is, that these brothel howses (for so I call all gaming howsesGamiug hou­ses with their wickednes) are suffred as they be.

For, are they not the very seminaries, and nurseries of all kynd of abhomination, what­soeuer heart can thinke, or tongue expresse.

And therfore I marueile y those who keep and maintaine these gaming howses, can euer haue light hearts, or once to looke vp towards Heauen, y not onely suffer this manifest theft in their howses (for gaming is no better) but also maintaine and nourish the same.

The Apostle saith, not onely they that doo euill, digni sunt morte, are worthie of death, but also, qui consentiunt facientibus, those who consent to them that do it.

Call to mind, than what euills come of this wicked excercyse I beseeche you.

For doth not swearing, tearing, and blas­pheminge of the Name of GOD, doth not stinkinge Whordome, Thefte, Rob­berie, Deceipt, Fraude, Cosenage, figh­ting Quareling, and sometymes Murder, [Page] doth not pride rapine, drunkns, beggerye, and in fine, a shamefull end followe it, as the sha­dowe doth follow the body? Wherfore I will not doubte to call these gaming howses, the slaughter howses the shambles or blockhow­ses of the Deuill, wherin he butchereth Chri­sten mēs soules infinit waies, God knoweth, the Lord suppresse them.

Spud.

Weare there euer anie lawes made against the inordinat abuse hereof,Lawes and sanctions di­ [...]lgat a­gainst ga­ming. or haue the Godly in any age misliked it?

Philo.

In all ages and times, both the god­ly sober Christians haue detested it, and hol­some lawes haue been promulgat against it.

Octauius Augustus, was greatly reproched of the Writers of his time, for his great de­light in gaming, notwithstanding, his mani­fold vertues besides.

Cicero, obiected to Marcus Antonius, his often gaming, as a note of infamie vnto him.

The noble Lacedemonians sent their Am­bassadours to Corinth, The infamy purchased by gaming. to cōclud a peace, who coming thither, and finding the People play­ing at dice, and cards, and vnthriftie games, returned back again (infecta pace) their pea­ce vnconcluded, saying, it should neuer be re­ported, that they wold ioyne in league with Dice-players and gamesters.

The same Lacedemonians, sent to Deme­trius in decision of his diceplaying, a paire of [Page] dice of gold. Sir, Thomas Eliot (that worthie Knight) in his Book of go [...]ernance, asketh, who will not think him a light man of small credit, dissolut, remise and vaine, that is a Dici-player, or gamester.

Publius saith. Quantò peritior est aleator in sua arte, tanto nequior est, & vita & mori­bus. How much cōninger a mā is in gaming and diceplaying, so much corrupter he is both in life and maners. Iustinian made a lawe, that none should play at dice,Laws against gaming. nor cards for no cause, neither priuately, nor openly.

Alexander Seuerus, banished all gamesters out of his dominions. And if anie were found playing, their goods were confiscat and they counted as mad men euer after, neuer tru­sted, nor estéemed of anie.

Ludouicus, ordeined y al gamesters shold de­part his lād, for feare of corrupting of others.

K. Richard the second, forbad all kynd of gaming, and namely dice-playing.Punishment for gaming.

K. Henrie the fourth, ordeined y euery Dice-player should be imprisoned six daies for eue­ry seuerall time he offended in gaming.

K. Edward the fourth, ordeined who so kept gaming howses, should suffer imprisonment three yéeres,The penalty for those that keep gaming howses. and forfait .xx.li. & the Players to be imprisoned▪ two yéers, & forfait x. pound.

K. Henri that seuenth, ordeined y euery Dice-player should be imprisoned all a day, and the [Page] Kéeper of the dicing howse to forfait for euery offence vi. shil. viij.d. and to be boūd by recog­nizance to good behauiour.

K. Henrie the eight, ordeined that euery one that kept di [...]ing houses, should forfa [...]t .xl. shil. and the Players to forfait vi. shil. viij.d. with many good lawes and sanctiōs set foorth against this raging Abuse of gaming, which to auoid tediousnes I omit, beseching y Lord to root vp, and supplant these, and all other stumbling blocks in his church what so euer.

Sp.

As I remēber in the Catalogue of abu­ses before, you said, ye sabaoth day was prophaned, by bearbaiting, cockfighting, hau [...]ing, hunting, kéeping of faires, courts, & markets vpō ye said day. Is it not lawful thā to follow these exercises vpon the sabaoth day, neither?

Beare baiting and o­ther exercyses, vsed vnlawfully in AILGNA.

Philoponus.

THese Hethnicall exercyses vpon the Sa­baoth day, which ye Lord hath cōsecrat to holy vses, for the glory of his Name, and our spirituall comfort, are not in any respect tolle­rable, or to be suffered. For, is not the baiting of a Bear, besides that it is a [...]thie, stinking▪ [Page] and lothsome game, a daungerous, & perilous exercyse? wherein a man is in daunger of his life euery minut of an houre: which thing though it weare not so, yet what exercyse is this meet for any Christiā? what christē heart cā take pleasure to sée one poore beast to rent, teare, and kill another, and all for his foolish pleasure? And although they be bloody beasts to mankind, & seeke his destructiō,No Creature to be abused. yet we are not to abuse them, for his sake who made thē, & whose creatures they are. For notwithstan­ding that they be euill to vs, & thirst after our blood, yet are thei good creatures in their own nature & kind, & made to set foorth the glorie & magnificence of the great God, & for our vse, & therfore for his sake not to be abused. It is a mon saying amongst all men, borowed frō y frēch: Qui aime Iean, aime son chiē, loue me, loue my dog, so loue God, loue his creatures.

If any should abuse, but the dog of another mans, wold not [...]e who oweth the dog, think y the abuse therof resulteth to himselfe?God is abused when his Creatures are misused. And shall we abuse y creatures of God, yea take pleasure in abusing thē, & yet think y the con­tumely don to thē, redoūdeth not to him who made them? but admit it weare graūted that it weare lawfull to abuse the good Creatures of God, yet is it not lawfull for vs to spend our golden yéers in such ydle and vaine exer­cyses daylie and hourelie, as we do.

[Page]And some who take themselues for no small fooles are so farre assotted,Keeping of mastyues & bandog [...]. that they will not stick to keep a dosen, or a score of great masti­ues and bādogs, to their no small charges, for the maintenance of this goodly game (for­sooth) and will not make anie bones of .xx.xl. C. pound. at once to hazard at a bait: with feight dog, feight beare (say they) the de­uill part all. And to be plaine, I thinke the Deuill is the Maister of the game, beareward and all. A goodly pastyme, forsoth, worthie of commendation, and wel sitting these Gen­tlemen of such reputation. But how muche the Lord is offended for the prophanation of his Sabaoth by such vnsauorie exercyses, his Heauenly Maiestie of late hath reueiled, pou­ring foorth his heauie wrath, his fearfull iud­gements, and dreadfull vengeance vppon the Beholders of these vanities.

A Fearfull Example of GOD his Iudgement vpon the prophaners of his Sabaoth.

VPon the 13. day of Ianuarie last, being the Sabaoth day. Anno. 1583. the Peo­ple, Men, Wemen and Children, both yonge and old, an infinit number, [...]ocking to [Page] those infamous places, where these wicked exercyses are vsuallie practised (for they haue their courts, gardens & yards for y same pur­pose:) when they were all come together, and mounted aloft vpon their scaffolds, and galle­ries, and in middest of al their iolytie & pasti­me, all the whole building (not one stick stan­ding) fell down with a most wonderfull and fearefull confusiō. So, that either two or thrée hundred, men, wemē and childrē (by estima­tiō) wherof seuē were killed dead, some were wounded, some lamed, and othersome bru­sed and crushed, almost to the death. Some had their braines dasht out, some their heads all to squasht, some their legges broken, some their arms, some their backs, some their shoulders, some one hurt, some another.A wofull crie. So, that you should haue hard a woful crie, euen pear­cing the skyes, parents bewayling their chil­dren, Children their louing Parents: wyues their Husbands, and Husbands their wyues, marueilous to behould. This wofull spectacle and heauie indgement, pitifull to heare of, but most ruefull to behold, did y Lord send down from Heauen to shew vnto the whole World how gréeuously he is offended with those that spend his Sabaoth in such wicked exercises: In y meane tyme leauing his temple desolat and emptie. God graunt all men, may take warning hereby to shun the same, for feare of [Page] like or worser Iudgement, to come.

A fearfull Iudgement of GOD, shewed at the Theaters.

THE like Iudgement (almost) did the Lord shew vnto them a litle befor, being assembled at their Theaters, to sée their bawdie enterluds, and other trumperies pra­ctised. For, he caused ye earth mightely to shak and quauer, as though all would haue fallen down,A wofull spe­ctacle. wherat the People sore amazed, some leapt down (frō the top of ye turrets, pinacles, and towres, wher they stood) to the ground, wherof some had their legs broke, some their arms, some their backs, some hurt one where, some another, & many sore crusht and brused: but not any, but they wēt away store affraid, & wounded in cōscience. And yet cā neither ye one, nor y other, fray them frō these diuelish exercyses, vntill the Lorde consume them all in his wrath: which God forbid. The Lord of his mercie, opē the eyes of the maiestrats, to pluck down these places of abuse, that god may be honored, and their consciēces disbur­the [...]ed.Cockfeigh­ting vpon the Sabaoth.

Besids these exercises, thei flock thick & thrée fold to y cockf [...]ights an exercyse nothing infe­riour to y rest, wher nothing is vsed, but swe­ring, forswering, deceit fraude, collusion, co [...]e­nage, [Page] scoulding, railing, conuitious talking, feighting, brawling, quarreling, drinking, whooring, & which is worst of all, robbing of one an other of their goods, & y not by direct, but indirect means & attēpts: & yet to blaūch & set out these mischiefs wtall (as though they were vertues) thei haue their appointed daies & set howrs,Appointed times for ex­ercise of dy­uelries. when these d [...]uelries must be ex­ercised. They haue houses erected to y purpo­se, flags & ensignes hanged out [...] to giue notice of it to others, and proclamation goes out to proclaim ye same, to th [...]end y many may come to the dedication of this solemne feast of mis­chief: the Lord supplant them. And as for hawking & hunting vpō the sabaoth day,Hawking & hunting vppō the sabaoth. it is an exercyse vpon y day, no lesse vnlawful thā the other. For, no mā ought to spend any day of his life, much lesse euery day in his life, as many do, in such vaine & ydle pastimes: wherfore, let Gentlemen take [...]eed, for be sure ac­counts must be giuen at the day of iudgemēt for euery minut of time, [...]oth how they haue spent it & in what exercyses. And let them be sure no more libertie is giuen thē,No more li­bertie giuen to one than another for mispēding of their goods. to mispend an howre, or one iote of the Lord his goods, than is giuen to the poorest, and meanest per­son y liueth vpō the face of the earth. I neuer read of any in y volume of y sacred scripture that was a good man, and a Hunter.

Esau, was a great hun [...]er, but a reprobat: Is­maell [Page] a great hunter, but a miscreant: Nem­rode a great hunter,No good hunters, scriptur [...]. but yet a reprobat, and a vessell of wrath. Thus I speake not to con­demne hawking and hunting altogether, be­ing vsed for recreation, now and than, but a­gainst the continuall vse therof daylie, hour­ly, wéekly, yéerly, yea all the time of their life, without intermissiō. And such a felicitie haue some in it, as they make it all their ioye, be­stowing more vpō hawkes and hounds, and a sort of idle lubbers to followe them in one yéer, than they will impart to the poore mem­bers of Christ Iesus in vij. yéers,Cost bestow­ed in hauks and dogges. peraduentu­re in all the dayes of their life. So long as mā in Paradice persisted in innocency, all beasts what so euer, we are obediēt to him, and came and prostrated themselues before him. But euer since his [...]all,When all beasts weare obedient to man & wher­fore they [...]ebell. they haue fled from him, & disobeyed him, because of his sin: that séeing he disobeyed the Lord, they again disobeied him. For, so long as man obeied God, so long they obeied him: but so soone as mā disobeyed God, they disobeyed him, & becam enemies to him, as it were seeking to reuēge ye iniurie which mā had don vnto GOD, in disobeying his lawes. Wherfore, the cause why all beasts do fly from vs, and are become Enemies to vs, is our disobedience to the LORD, which we are rather to sorow for, than to hunt after their deaths by the sheading of their blood.

[Page] [...]If necessitie or want of other meats infor­ceth vs to séek after their liues, it is lawfull to vse them in the feare of God, wt thanks to his name: but for our pastimes and vain pleasures sake, wée are not in any wise to spoyle or hurt them.For pleasure sake only no man ought to abuse any of the cretures of God. Is he a christian man or rather a pseudo-christian, that delighteth in blood? Is he a Christian that spendeth all his life in wanton pleasures and plesaunt de­lights? Is hée a Christian that buieth vp the corne of y poor, turning it into bread (as many doo) to féed dogs for his pleasure? Is hée a chri­stian that liueth to the hurt of his Neighbour in treading and breaking down his hedges, in casting open his gates in trampling of his corne & otherwise,H [...]rt by hun­ting to poore Men. in preiudicing him as hun­ters doo? wherfore God giue them grace to see to it, and to mend it betimes ere it be to late, for they know mora trahit periculum, delay bringeth danger. Let vs not deferre to leaue the euil and to doo good, least the wrath of the Lord be kindled against vs, and consume vs from of the vpper face of the Earth?

Spud,

What say you to kéeping of Mar­kets, of Fayres, Courtes and Léetes vpon y Sabaoth day?Not lawfull to keep cou [...]es, Leets Markets and Fayres vppon the Sabaoth day, Think you it is not lawful to vse the same vpon any day?

Philo.

No truely, for can you serue God & the deuil togither, can wée carrie to God and ferrie to the deuil, can we serue two Maisters [Page] and neither offend the one nor the other? can wée serue God and Mammon? can wée please God and the world bothe at one time? The Lord wil not be serued by péecemeale, for ei­ther he wil haue the wholeman, or els none. For saith he, Thou shalt looue the Lord thy God with all thy soule, withall thy minde, witha [...]l thy power, withall thy strength, and so foorth, orels with none at all. Then séeing that we are to giue ouer our selues so whole­ly and totally to the seruice of God, al ye daies of our life, but especially vppon the Sabaoth day,Abuse of the Sabaoth by Fayres, mas­ke [...]s. being consecrate to that end, we may not intermedle with these prophane exercised vp­on that day. For it is more then manifest y these faires, markets, courtes and léetes vp­on the Sabaoth day, are not only a hinderāce vnto vs in the true seruice of God, and an a­buse of y Sabaoth, but also lead vs the path way to hel.The euil in Fayres and Markets. For what cosonage is not there practised? what falshod, deceit & fraude is not there exercised? what dissimulation in bargai­ning? what setting foorth of fucate & deceiua­ble wares, is not there frequēted? what lying swering,The euils in Courtes and Leets practi­sed. forswering, drunkennes, whordom, theft, & sōetimes murther, either there or by ye way thither, is not euery where vsed? In courtes & [...] what enuie malice & hatred is noo [...]rshed? what expostulation, railing, scoul­ding, periuring & reperiuring is maintained? [Page] what opression of y poore, what fauouring the rich, what iniustice & indirect dealing? what bribing, deceiuing, what poling & pilling is there practised? it would make a christiā hart to bléed in beholding it. And yet notwithstan­ding we must haue these goodly pageāts played vpon y sabaoth day (in a wanion) because there are no mo daies in y wéek. And heerby y sabaoth is cōtaminat, Gods woord contem­ned, his cōmandemēts disanulled, his sacra­mēts cōculcate, his ordināces neglected, & in sūma, his blood trod vnder féet and all mischéef maintained. The Lord cut of these with all other sin, both from their soules and thy Sa­baoth, that thy name may be glorified, & thy Church truely edified.

Spud.

Is y playing at football, reding of me­ry bookes & such like delectations, a violation or prophanation of the Sabaoth day?

Ph.

Any exercise which wtdraweth vs from godlines, either vpon ye sabaoth,Playing at Foot-ball. or any other day els, is wicked & to be forbiden. Now who is so grosly blinde, yt seeth not, yt these aforesaid exercises not only wtdraw vs from godlines & vertue, but also haile & allure vs to wicked­nes and sin: for as cōcerning football playing: I protest vnto you, it may rather be called a fréendly kinde of fight,Foot-ball a freendly kind of fight. then a play or recrea­tion. A bloody and murthering practise, then a felowly sporte or pastime.

[Page]For: dooth not euery one lye in waight for his Aduersarie, séeking to ouerthrowe him & to picke him on his nose, though it be vppon hard stones, in ditch or dale, in valley or hil, or what place soeuer it be, hée careth not so he haue him down. And he that can serue ye most of this fashion, he is counted the only felow, and who but he? so that by this meanes, som­times their necks are broken, sōetimes their backs, sometime their legs,Hurt by football playing. sometime their armes, sometime one part thurst out of ioynt, sometime an other, sometime the noses gush out with blood, sometime their eyes start out: and sometimes hurt in one place, sometimes in another. But whosoeuer scapeth away the best goeth not scotfrée, but is either sore woū ­ded, craised and bruseed, so as he dyeth of it, or els scapeth very hardly: and no meruaile, for they haue the sleights to méet one betwixt two, to dashe him against the hart with their elbowes, to hit him vnder the short ribber with their griped fists, and with their k [...]ées to catch him vpon the hip, and to pick him on his neck, with a hundered such murdering deuices: and hereof,Foot-Ball playing a murthering Play. groweth enuie, malice, rā ­cour, cholor, hatred, displeasure, enmitie and what not els? and sometimes fighting, brawling, contention, quarrel picking, murther, homicide and great effusion of blood, as expe­rience dayly teacheth.

[Page]Is this murthering play now an exercise for the Sabaoth day? is this a christian dea­ling for one brother to mayme and hurt ano­ther, and that vpon prepensed malice, or set purpose? is this to do to another, as we would wish another to doo to vs, God make vs more careful ouer the bodyes of our Bretheren.

And as for the reading of wicked Bookes, they are vtterly vnlawfull, not onely to bee read, but once to be named, & that not (onely) vpon the Sabaoth day,Reading of wicked bookes but also uppon any o­ther day: as which tende to the dishonour of God, deprauation of good manners and cor­ruption of christian soules. For as corrupt meates doo annoy the stomack, and infect the body, so the reading of wicked and vngodly Bookes (which are to the minde, as meat is to the body) infect the soule,The euil comming by rea­ding euil Bookes▪ & corrupt ye minde, hailing it to distruction: if the great mercy of God be not present.

And yet notwithstanding, whosoeuer wil set pen to paper now a dayes, how vnhonest soeuer, or vnséemly of christian eares his argument be, is permitted to goe [...]orward, and his woork plausibly admitted and fréendly li­censed, and gladly imprinted without any prohibition or contradiction at all: wherby it is growen to this issue, that bookes & pamphlets of scurrilitie and baudrie, are better esteemed and more vendible then the godlyest and sa­gest [Page] bookes that be: for if it be a godly trea­tise, reproouing vice, and teaching vertue, a­way with it, for no man (almost) though they make a floorish of vertue, and godlynes, will buy it, nor (which is lesse) so much as once touch it. This maketh the Bible, the blessed Book of God, to be so little estéemed. That woorthie Booke of Martyrs made by that fa­mous Father & excellent Instrument in God his Church, Maister Iohn Fox, so little to be accepted and all other good books little or no­thing to be reuerenced: whilst other toyes, fantasies and bableries wherof the world is ful, are suffered to be printed. These prophāe schedules, sacraligious libels, and hethnical pamphlets of toyes & bableries (the Authors wherof may vendicate to them selues no smal commendations, at the hands of the deuil for inuenting the same) corrupt mens mindes, peruert good wits, allure to baudrie, induce to whordome, suppresse vertue & erect vice: which thing how should it be otherwise? for are they not inuēted & excogitat by Belzebub writtē by Lucifer, licēsed by Pluto, printed by Cerberus & set a broche to sale by the infernal furies themselues to ye poysning of the whole world: But let the Inuētors, the licēsors, the printers & the sellers of these vaine toyes and more then Hethnicall impieties take heed for the blood of all those which perish or take hurt [Page] thorow these wicked bookes, shalbe powred v­pon their heads at the day of iudgement, and be required at their hands.

Spud.

I pray you how might al these inor­mities, and Abuses be reformed? For, it is to small purpose to shew ye abuses, except you shewe withall how they might be reformed.

Philo.

By putting in practise and executing those good lawes, wholsome sanctions, and Goldy statutes, which haue béene heretofore, and daily are set foorth and established, as GOD be thanked, they are manie.

The want of the due execution wherof, is ye cause of all these mischiefs, which both rage and raigne amongst vs.

Spud.

What is the cause why these lawes are not executed, as they ought to be?

Philo.

Truely I cannot tell, excepte it be thorow the nigligence, and contempt of the inferiour Magistrates. Or els, perhaps (which thing happeneth now and than) for money they are bought out, diffranchised and dispensed withall, for as the saying is, quid non pecunia potest? what is it, but money will bring to passe? And yet notwithstan­ding shall it be don inuisibly in a clowde (vn­der benedicite I speake it) the Prince being borne in hand, that the same are dali [...] execu­ted. This fault is the corruption of those that are put in trust to sée thē executed, as I ha [...]e [Page] tould you, and (notwithstanding) do not.

Spud.

This is a great corruption & Abuse, doubtles, and worthie of great punishment.

Ph.

It is so truely, for if they be good lawes tending to the glorie of GOD, the publique weale of the Cuntrey, and correctiō of vices, it is great pytie that money should buy them out. For what is that els, but to sell vertue, for lucre: Godlynes, for drosse, yea mens souls for corruptible money? Therfore those that sell them, are not onely Traitors to GOD, to their Prince and Countrey: but are also the Deuils Marchants, and ferrie the bodies, and soules of Christians, as it were in Cha­rons boate to the Stigian flood of Hell, bur­ning with fire and brimstone for euer.

And those that buy them are Traitors to GOD, their Prince and Countrey also.

For if the lawes were at the first good (as GOD he praised al the lawes in Ailgna be) why shuld they be suppressed for money, and if they were euill, why were they diuulged, but had rather béene buried in the wombe of their Mother before thy had euer séene ye light.

And why were lawes instituted, but to be executed? Els it were as good to haue no lawes at all (the People lyuing orderly) as to haue good lawes, and thē not executed.

The Prince ordeining a law, may lawfully repeale & adnull the same againe, v [...]ō speciall [Page] causes & considerations, but no inferiour ma­iestrat or subiecte what so euer, may stop the course of any lawe made by the Prince with out daunger of damnation to his owne soule, as the Word of GOD beareth witnesse.

And therfore, w [...] [...]e to those men, that will not execut the sentence of the lawe (being so Godly, and so Christian as thei be in Ailgna) vppon Malefactors and Offenders.

Uerely they are as guiltie of their blood be­fore GOD, as euer was Iudas of the death of Christe Iesus.

Spud.

Séeing it is so, that al flesh hath cor­rupted his way before the face of God, and that there is such abhomination amongest them, I am perswaded the daye of Iudge­ment is not farre of. For when iniquity shall haue filled vp his measure, than shall the end of all appeare, as Christ witnesseth in his Euangelie.

Philo.

The day of the Lord cannot be farre of, that is most certen▪ For what wonderfull portents, strang miracles, fearful signes, and dreadfull Iudgements hath he sente of late daies, as Preachers & fortellers of his wrath due vnto vs, for our impenitēce & wickednes of life. Hath he not caused the earth to trēble and quake? the same Earth to remooue from place to place? the seas and waters to roare, swell & brust out, and euerflow their bankes [Page] to the destruction of many thousands? hath he not caused the Elements and Skyes, to send foorth flashing fire? to raine downe wheat, a wonderfull thing as euer was heard, and the like? hath he not caused wonderfull Eclypses in the Sunne and Moon, with most dreadfull coniunctions of Starres and Planets, as the like this thousand yeeres, haue not béen heard of? haue not the clowdes distilled downe a­boundance of rayne and showres, with all kinde of vnseasonable wether, to the destroy­ing (almost) of al thinges vppon the Earth? haue we not séene Commets, blasing starres, firie Drakes, men, feighting in the ayre, most fearfully to behold? Hath not dame Nature her selfe denied vnto vs her operation, in sen­ding foorth abortiues, vntimely births, vggle­some monsters and fearfull mishapen Crea­tures both in man & beast. So, that it séemeth all the Creatures of God are angrie with vs and threaten vs with destruction, and yet we are nothing at all amēded (alas) that shal be­come of vs? Remēber we not there is a God that shal iudge vs righteously? that there is a Deuill, who shall torment vs after this lyfe vnspeakably, if we repent not? At that day, the wicked shall find that there is a Material Hell, a place of all kinds of tortures, wherein they shal be punished in fire and brimstone amongest the terrible Company of vgglesome [Page] Deuils world without end, how light so euer they make account of it in this World.

For some such there be, that when thei heare mention of Hell, or of the paines therof in the other World, they make a mocke at it, thin­king they be but metaphoricall speaches, one­ly spoke to terrifie vs withall, not otherwyse. But certen it is, as there is a God, that will reward his Children, so there is a Deuill that will remunerat his Seruaunts: And as there is a Heauen, a Materiall place of perfect ioye prepared for the Godly, so there is a Hell, a Materiall place of punishmēt for the wicked and reprobat, prepared for the Deuil & his Angels, or els the word of God is in no wyse to be credited, which blasphemie, once to think, God kéep all his Children from.

Spud.

But they will easily auoid this, for they say▪ it is writ, at what time so euer a sin­ner doth repent him of his sinne, I wil put all his sin out of my remembrance saith ye Lord.

So that, if they maye haue thrée words at the last, they will wish no more. What think you of these felowes?

Philo.

I think them no men, but Deuills, no Christians, but worse thā Tartarians, and more to be auoided than ye poison of a serpent: for the one slayeth but the body, but the other, both body & soul for euer. Wherfore, let euery good Christen Man take heed of them, and [Page] auoid them. For, it is truely said, cum bo­nis bonus eris, & cum peruersis, peruerseris: with the good, thou shall learne good, but with the wicked, thou shall be peruerted.

Spud.

Do you think than, that that cannot be a true repentance, which is deferred to the last gaspe.

Ph.

No truely: For true repentance must spring out of a lyuelie faith▪ with an inward lothing, hating and detesting of sinn [...]. But this deferred repentāce springeth not of faith, but rather of the feare of death which he [...]éeth imminent before his eyes▪ of the grief and te­diousnes of paine, of the Horror of Hell, and feare of God his ineuitable iudgement, which he knoweth now he must néeds abyde: And therfore, this can be no true repentance. For there is two maner of repētāces, ye one a true repentāce to life, the other a false repentance to death: As we maye sée by Iudas, who is said, to haue repented, and which is more, to haue confessed his faulte, and which is most of all, to haue made restitution, and yet was it a false repentance. And why? because it sprang not out of true faith, but as before.

Peter repented, and wéept bitterly, and was saued therby, though he neither made cō ­fession, nor satisfaction: and why? Because it sprang of a true and lyuely faith. So these fe­lowes may say they repent, but except it be a [Page] true repētance springing of faith, it can serue thē no more to life than the pretensed repen­tance of Iudas did serue him to saluation. Let them beware, for Cain repented, yet is he condemned.

Esau, did repent, yet is he condemned.

Antiochus, did repent, yet is he condem­ned: Iudas did repent, yet is he condemned, with infinite moe: And why so? Because their prolonged repentaunce sprange not of faith, &c.

Thus they may sée, that euerye light affe­ction, is no true repentance: And that it is not ynough to say at the last, I repent, I repent. For, vnles it be a true repentāce indeed, it is worth nothing. But indeed, if it weare so, that man had, liberū arbitrium, free wil of himself, to repent truely when he wold, and that God promised in his word to accept of that repen­tance, it weare another matter. But repen­tance is, donum Dei, the gifte of God, de sur­sum veniens a patre luminum, comming from aboue frō the Father of light, & therfore it is not in our powers to repent when we will. It is the Lord yt giueth the gift, when, where & to whom it pleaseth him: & of him are we to craue it incessantly by faithfull prayer, & not otherwise to presume of our owne repentāce, when indeed we haue nothing lesse, than a true repentance.

Spud.
[Page]

Than thus much I gather by your words, that as true repentance (which is a certen inward grief, and sorrow of the heart, cōceiued for our sinnes, with a hatred and lo­thing of thesame) erueth to saluation thorow the mercie of GOD in Christ, so fained re­pentance saueth not from perdition.

And therfore, we must repent dayly and howrely, and not to deferre our repentaunce to the last gaspe as many doo, than which, no­thing is more perilous.

Philo.

True it is, for maye not he be cal­led a great Foole, that by deferring and pro­longing of repentance to the last cast (as they say) will hazard his body and soule to eter­nall damnation for euer? Wheras by daily repentaunce he maye assure him selfe both of the fauour of GOD, and of life euerlasting (by faith) in the mercy of GOD, thorow the most precious blood of his deare Sonne, Ie­sus Christ, our alone Sauiour and Redemer, to whome be praise for euer.

Spud.

Now must I néeds say as the Wyse King Salomon said, all things are vaine and transitorie,All things are vaine and va­nitie it selfe. and nothing is permanent vnder the Sonne, the workes of men are vnperfect and lead to destruction, their exercyses are vaine, and wicked altogether.

Wherfore, I setting apart all the vanities of this lyfe, will from hencefoorth consecrate [Page] my selfe to the seruice of my GOD, and to follow him in his Woord, which onely is per­manent and leadeth vnto life.

And I most hartelie thanke the Lord God for your good Company this day, and for your graue instructions, promising by the assistan­ce of God his grace, to followe and obey them to my possible power all the daies of my life.

Philo.

God giue you grace so to do, and eue­ry Christen man els,The ioyes of this life tread the path to death. and to auoid all the va­nities, and deceiuable pleasures of this life: for certenly they tread the path to eternal destru­ction, both of body and soule for euer, to as many as obey them.

For, it is vnpossible to wallowe in the delights and pleasures of this World, and to lyue in ioy for euer in ye Kingdom of Heauen. And thus we hauing spent the daye, and also cōsummate our iorney, we must now depart, beseaching GOD that we may both meete againe in the Kingdome of Heauen, there to raigne and lyue with him for euer, through Iesus Christe our Lorde, to whome with the Father, and the holy Spirit be all honour & glorie for euer more Amen.

FINIS.
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