Of the knowledge and conducte of warres, two bookes, latelye wrytten and sett foorth, profi­table for suche as delight in Hys­toryes, or martyall affayres, and necessarye for this present tyme.

¶ Virtuti pariter cunctis contendite neruis: Ignaua (vt scopulos) otia diffugite.

Seeke vertue, noble youth betymes,
Which breadeth honour true:
Base idlenesse, and all her baytes,
Euen as a rocke eschue.

¶ In aedibus Richardi Tottelli. vij. die Iunij. Anno Domini. 1578.

¶ Cum priuilegio ad imprimen­dum solum.


GOe serue thy countreye vvell, my booke,
for that is my desyre.
For these good fruites I onelye looke,
and craue none other hyre.
The myghtye kynge of hostes, hathe sent,
thee vnto Bryttyshe lande:
Good lucke to beare, to prosper well,
the vvarres they take in hande.
God hathe hys bountye shevved, let men
applye their gladd good vvyll,
And serue the Lorde, then shall he blesse
this realme to floryshe styll.
And Englyshe noble ensygnes shall,
in foreyne countreys farre,
Aduaunced be, and martyall Brute,
Shalbee the kynge of vvarre.
For Mars novve vvaxinge olde and lame,
do the meane for to resygne,
hys martyall force to Englyshe prynce,
decreed by doome deuyne.
The Romayne glayue, aduaunced is,
Thessalyan Horse, and speare:
The Macedonyen pyke, and par­thyen bovve, vvell practyzde heare.
The gracyous GOD of myght, hath sent
a Scepter of renovvne,
In sygne of Empyre great, to bee
annexed to the Crovvne.
And father Neptune hath vvithin
thys coaste layde vp in store,
Hys trydent Mace, of povver to rule
the Seas for euermore.
T. P.

The preface.

THe Climate, or Region of the firmament, vnder which euery Countrey is planted & setled, hath great force and influence, for the temperature & complexion of mens bo­dies, whiche also worketh sundrie effectes & motyons in the myndes & disposityons of thē, as for profe: Experience sheweth, that the Italian and Frenchman comenlye, is more enclyned to be courtlyke, prompte, and quicke of spirite, then the Dutcheman or Flemyng, & the Spaniard, the Moore or Libyen, more nimble, more politique, and more subiect to choler, enuie, and pryde thē the man of Sweden, or the Muscouyte being more of fleug­matike constitution of bodye. The Greekes also, for this purpose, haue bene noted of learned men, to be by disposition and motion of nature exquisite searchers of cunninge in manuel craftes, & verie studious in the liberall Sciences. The Egiptians and Iewes (by obseruation of wise men) are founde more geuen to superstitions and idolatric, then other nations: The Scythien, the Turke, and Tartarian addicted to crueltie, and the Persian to delicate life. But to drawe nearer vnto our skope, and marke, The Englyshe man (for whom this trauaill is taken) liuinge in a fertile countrye, and vnder a temperate Cly­mate, and thereby indewed with the more excellent disposition of mynde and bodie, beinge by the great bountie and blessynge of God not vnfurnished of anie vertue, that other people haue: So is there principallye seene in him, that yet remaines of the right stampe or race vndegenerate, an honourable desire to the exercyse of armes, hauinge by the prycke of Magnanimitie, a victorious mynde, af­fectinge fame, soueraigntie, and honour aboue other nations. But least I flatter him whom I loue, and woulde to be warned, Two one­lye poyntes of imperfection, thoughe not yet, nowe, notablie excea­dinge to anie great vice, (how? be it some defectes) are noted to bee in a great parte of Englishe men, whiche maye well bee refourmed. The one is, negligence or securitie: The other is mutabilitie, and va­riable chaunging of mynde, principallie shewed in delectable thin­ges, not of the greatest importaunce, as in daintie fare of sundrye delicate meates, diuers curious buyldinges, and most of all in ma­nye [Page] almost infynite guyses, sortes, and fashions of habyte, yea and diguysed attyre, whearein, oftentimes is planted and bestowed so muche care and studie, that, there is the lesse employed on vertuous and neadefull exercyses. Yea sometime, while tryfles are regarded, thinges most commendable & requisite are neglected. I doe not con­dempne them, but commende ornamentes, they are to bee regarded in a sorte, and not to be reiected: but more worthye thinges to be pla ced before, and with greatest desire & diligence endeuoured. Weare it not to be pytied, that the great helpe and benefite of nature geeuen to this nation, in highnesse of courage, and noble inclynation to prowesse, should be defaced & obscured, that no light effecte, or ver­tue thereof shoulde appeare? yes, but there is an other thinge in it, besydes the pittye of the matter, which is the qualitie and necessi­tie of this time, wherein wee liue, whiche if it be well considered, will sufficientlie perswade (where iudgement is, thoughe feawe wordes be vsed hearein) to stirre vp the sleapinge myndes from slewthe, to abandon tryfles, and fall to the commendable practises meete for men, and necessarie for the troublesome state of the worlde. For what is in want or lett that the Englisheman, hauinge a stronge bodie, good will enoughe, and a fertyle countrey, sufficient to supplye the prouysion and maintenance of a myghtie armye, shoulde not excell other nations in deades & exployctes of Armes, and extende the victorious forces of this Realme, by renowmed conquestes farre? Surely the defectes are, lacke of endeuour, & discipline. By these the Citie of Rome, from extreme pouertye (hauinge most bare & slender Practise & skyll. Dido obtay ned somuch grounde, to buylde the Citie vpon, as might be compassed vvith an ox­es hyde, and that she cut in thonges. beginninges, their territoryes beinge as short, as the content or boun­des of the smallest shyre within this lande) in shorte time, aduaun­ced her Empyre ouer the whole worlde, By these likewyse, the Car­thaginoys, whose towne, countrey, & dominion, weare first bounded by the circuyte and compassinge of an Oxes hyde: Soone after, they grewe in greatnes, to checke & encoūter the mightie estate of Rome, & once put the same in daunger of a mate, by this skill, the coun­trey of Macedone beynge not great, vnder the conducte of the most puissant Alexander, subdued the mightie Monarchye of the Per­sians, with a great parte of the worlde besides, and in his mynde had the plott and conquest of the whole, yea & of an other worlde, if it [Page] had bene to be founde, but GOD stayed his victories, (whiche men coulde not) by cuttinge of his life, about thyrtie yeares of his age. The mightie and victorious Alexander of Englande, whose most re­noumed battaile of Agincourte, and sudry triumphant conquestes in Fraunce, made the whole worlde to shake, was cut of in like youthe, Henrye the fifthe. from no lesse hope, then the other greate Alexander, after that hee had by most excellent disciplyne of warre, in shorte time obtayned many greate victories. By this arte and practise, of later time, an other Pirrhus, Prince of the little Countrey Epirus in Grecia, resisted the huge and grosse powers of the greate Turke: By this, the greate G. Scander­beg. Baiazet. Tamberlane conquered him, and made him his miserable vassall and captyue, in feawe yeares, arysinge from a poore Neteherde, to be Lorde ouer the most mightie Prince in the worlde. By this excercise partelie, thoughe principallye by the huge monstrous multitudes of barbarous Scithyens, the Turkes in no longe time, haue subdued so many kinges and countreyes, and extended their Empyre so farre, into all the three partes of the worlde, & yet prosecuteth and thrus­teth the same further daylie. Now it is to be remēbred that the know­ledge, and practyse of the actes and feates of armes, principallie and properlye are of the profession of noble menne, and gentlemen of greate reuenues. For and by whiche, they were firste ordayned and preferred into that place, to be a wall and defence for their countrye. For the poore man hath not, wheareof to lyue of his owne, if hee em­ploye time, or expences hearein. And thearefore the other, ought to geue example, bothe by his owne industrye in such practises, and also maintayne the same in the meanor sorte. Securitye and longe peace breadeth idlenes, whiche sucketh the valure out of noble myndes. A plaine proofe wheareof, & of the hurte that groweth theareby, ys The arte of Nobilitie. had by the Romaynes, whiche in xxiiij. yeares space, betwene the first and seconde warres of Carthage, weare so farre growen out of vse and good practyse of armes, that wheare as before, they weare euery wheare Conquerours. In the seconde warres, they went, alwaies to wracke, till their sundrye greate losses droue them vnto their olde course & Bias againe. Thus seeynge the causes of these defectes in Englishe men discouered, the cure is the more plaine & casie, & the rather, if the remedie vnto the other impediment be applyed, that [Page] ys want of skill or discipline, which proceadinge & growing partlie vpon the other cause, vz. lacke of practise, the reste, is also to bee sought for and supplyed. For as vse & excercise, maketh prompt, rea­dye, & skilfull in manye thinges: So by most iust & sure argumēt, the contrarie, which is the priuation, or lacke theareof, worketh, & causeth cōtrary effectes: And yet not alwayes in all thinges, doth ex cercise or labour bringe knowledge & perfection, but theare must be skill with all, which in this matter, is for the more parte to be obtay­ned by collection & iudgement of the reportes, historyes, & Chroni­cles written of warres. For in matters of importāce, which haue ma­ny Cauteles, difficultyes, & obseruatiōs: yt is necessarie that a way be opened, & a light geuen vnto him, which would be a passynger hearein, to directe & encline his course vnto this knowledge: For o­therwise he shal trauail & wāder in the darke trades, & vnknowē pathes, like a blynde man, which goeth he woteth not whither. And proue, to that there be diuers groūdes, rules, stratagemes, & enstruc­tiōs to be set downe, printed, & obserued in the memory, of good soul­diers, as a plot & foūdation of their busines: The sūdrie bookes wri­ten of these matters in the latine tongue, & other lāguages, by great learned & expert men, may be a sufficient argumēt hearein. Besides that, reason wil easelye discusse, that the knowledge of the aūcient orders & gouernmēt of warre, with the sundrie sortes & attyre of battail, vsed amonge sundry nations, their maners & practises, the exāples of the antiquitie, the experiēce, pollicies, prudent coūsailes, most profitable and pitthye preceptes, and admonishmentes, moste excellent experimentes, instructyons, behauiour & discipline of the greatest chyeftaines, & most renoumed conquerours that euer weare, be requisite & needefull vnto a good Captaine: for what is the expe­rience or opynion of one man, to the practise & iudgement of a great nūber of such, as haue conquered in all Countreys, vanquished great armyes, ouerthrowē many mightie battailes, & honorablie passed al daūgers of warre? whose doinges be iudicially, & perfectlie noted of most learned and wise men, in sundrie great volumes & writinges, for example & profite of the posteritie, which the vnlearned can not tast or attayne, without some preparatiue by plaine plott drawen, or introductiō in apt order made, to lead thē into the knowledge therof. [Page] For accomplishinge wheareof, thoughe, thoroughe the grossenes of my style, lacke of experience, and sundrye kindes of knowledge, wheare­with a writer of so wayghtie a matter, ought to be furnished, toge­ther with my study of breuitie hearein, & little leasure, which from myne other affaires I had, one time longe after an other, to accomplish this same, I shall not sufficientlye in all pointes, content the exquisite iudgementes whiche are to deame heareof: Yet for the necessitie and scarcitie of writing in this matter: (A willynge minde, and faithful affection to profite my Countreye, thrusting me foorth to beare a bur­thē to bigge for my shoulders:) This labour of myne, may be a begin­ninge to encourage sume other, of their greatest experience, to make larger addition, or supplie hearein. For yet nowe I finde Vegetius one lye, an auncient writer, & Machiauell of these affayres, well trans­lated into Englishe, whiche aucthours being bothe expert in warres, and also verye learned, their industrie herein is of so much the more commendation, as those two qualityes are rare, and seldome mete to gether: For suche a one as hath knowledge, ioygned with courage & experience, is a man worthe men, & maye auayle more then a num­ber: Yet for that the saide Machiauel is deamed sum what diffuse in his treatyse, his opinions also not altogether agreeinge with all mens iudgementes, nor reachinge to many matters mete for the state of our English warres: And Vegetius being a writter, when warres weare vsed in an other course, then they are nowe a dayes: Yt is therefore wished more to be done in this behalfe. And it is maruail to see, how the studies of many men haue ben addicted in this our time, hauing store of rype wittes, whiche can doe verye well: Yet amonge so ma­nye bookes, as are written daylie, of dreames & fantacies, introduc­tions to pleasure, familier fruiteles talkinges, eloquent, formall or a­tions, little material, of pleasant metinges & fables amonge women, of Caunterbury, or courser tales, with diuers iestes, & vaine deuises: in earnest, there is least labour layd on that arte, wheareby, kinges rule, & are ruled and conquered, which erecteth, buyldeth establi­sheth, encreaseth, beautifieth estates, the ende and fruites whereof, is honour most highe, euen aduaunced to the skyes, flowinge wealthe, fame neuer faylinge or forgotten, victorie and dominion withe out [Page] boundes: The contrarie and wante wheareof, is Captiuitye, Ruyne, Dishonour, and desolation. VVhearein to perswade by argument that, which euerye man doth plainelye see, yt weare waste of wordes and tyme. And, to styrre anye man to the studye of this knowledge, Sith the worthynes theareof allureth and draweth all right English men, (which by the pricke and inclinatyon of nature, doe with great desyre runne theare vnto.) I will thearefore omitte to spende further speache hearein, and drawe vnto the matter: whearein to make my course the plainer vnto the Reader, I deuide this worke into two bookes. Wheareof the first entreateth of the Captayne & Souldiours. And the seconde of the disciplyne, obseruations, & admonitions of warre: which two bookes, also for the better helpe of memorye, I ap­pointe and distribute into certaine Chapiters, braunches, or princi­pall pointes, touchinge the substaunce of this matter, as in my table appeareth, beginninge with the diffinition of warres. (Firste in the porche or entrye of this worke to be vnfoulded, before we enter into the particuler, & inner partes theare­of,) beinge the matter where­vpon this buyldinge is founded and framed.



114For it is a con­tention.Reade, it is defi­ned a cōtention.
221Tvvofor Tenne
1430Heard offor Hard
21824Nobisfor Orbis
12727Auoydefor Annoye
24223Endurethfor includeth.

The Table or contentes of the chap­ters contayned in the first booke.

1OF the diffinition of Warre, & of an Armye.Fol. 1
2Of the valure of the generallFol. 2
3Of the vertues, and qualities requisite for the function of the Captaine or generall.Fol. 3
4Of magnanimitie and provvesse in the Gene­rall.Fol. 4
5Of Iustice.Fol. 5
6Of Prudence.Fol. 8
7Of the loue & good affection of the Captaine to his souldiours.Fol. 10
8Whether it bee more expedient to haue one Generall, or manye.Fol. 12
9Of the aucthoritye of the Generall, and vvhat ought to be his chiefe desire, vvished fruites, & ende of vvarres, vvhat person, & of vvhat qualities oughte to be deamed the best and most honourable Captayne.Fol. 13
10Of a Souldier & the qualities vvhich he ought to haue.Fol. 18
11Of vvhat constitution of bodye, trade, and sorte of lyfe the meetest souldiour is to bee chosen, & vvhat exercises and practises are profitable for him to vse.Fol. 21
12Of the sundrye sorte of vveapons vsed by di­uers nations in the auncient vvarres, and vvhiche are novve most necessarie, vvythe sume respectes of pressing of souldiours.Fol. 25

The Table of the seconde Booke.

Capit. 1.OF the disciplyne and admonitions of vvarre.Folio. 26
2To breake or disorder the battaile of the ene­mye.Fol. 29
3Aduertismentes hovv the Armye that is vveaker then the enemyes, maye grovve stronger, or saue it selfe.Fol. 32
4Hovv to conducte an armye, & proceade vvith the same in a foreine Countreye, and of the necessaries thereunto.Fol. 33
5Whether it bee more profitable to seeke for the greate Tovvne, or the lesse, and hovve best to vvynne the same.Fol. 36
6Hovve the excellent Captaynes haue encoura­ged their Souldiours vnto battayle, and made them hardye and valiaunt in fight.Fol. 37
7Hovv to vse victorie, & vvhat clemencie is to be vsed tovvardes the conquered, & of the hurte that commeth by securitie.Fol. 40
8Of the beginninge, and iust cause of vvarre.Fol. 41
9Of victories vvhich is the best, & vvhat truce maye behonourablye made.Fol. 45
10Of the vse and ende of vvarres, & of prepara­tion therefore, in time of peace.Fol. 47

¶ The first booke.

¶ Of the diffinition of warre.

WArre generallye, is sayd to bee the exercyse of armes, agaynst enemies.

But properlye, it is, a Con­tention between princes or estates, by armes and force of men, vnder orders and go­uernment, to obtaine victorye.

Victorie consisteth in three pointes: in Con­quering and subduyng the dominions, bodyes, or goodes of the enemies.

The endes of warres, are twayne.
  • Immediate, to obtaine victory.
  • Mediate, to liue the better af­terwardes in peace and honour.
¶ The diuision of warre.
VVarre is de­uyded into three sortes or kindes.
  • In the open fielde.
    • By Incursiō or skirmish:
    • By battel ioyned.
  • VVithin wall or trench of place fortified.
  • By Nauie on the Sea.

THe skill and knowledge of all which, are verie necessarie for our nation, but especially of the first & the last. Now for explanation of the diffini­tion aboue, I wil go vnto the singuler partes there of. Warre is first sayd to be a contencion which is deryued of the latine woord tendo: it signifieth [Page] properly to bēde, so that with this particle, Con, it is by the Etymologie or Interpretation of the woord, a bēdyng of the forces, an inclinyng of al endeuour, a striuinge vnto some purpose, betwene what parties? it followeth, betwene princes or es­tates, for if it be betwene subiectes without auc­thoritie of the prince, it is a faccion, & if the same be vsed agaynst the prince, it is a rebellion, a con­tention against lawe, duetye naturall, allegeaunce, and agaynst the cōmon wealth. By what meanes and instrumentes is this stryfe made and pursued? By armes and force of menne, whych are to bee vsed for the defence of the Realme, Territories, Lawes, bondes, libertyes and rightes of the same. And this same power of men, which is the pythe and matter of the warre, is also to receyue some forme which shapeth things in their perfecciō: & that therein is guyde & gouernment, for without order and conduct, thys force is not woorthye the name of warre: but it is a tumulte, route or as­semblie of people, prepared not for victorie, but rūnynge headlong, or rather tumblinge headlesse into Ruine. So that it is to bee concluded, that a prynce for the ordayninge and waginge of warre, is to prepare and gather together a power of men vnder orders and gouernmentes, whych power so appoynted, is called an armye, the seuerall bandes and partes whereof must haue sundrie guydes and Captaynes: and ouer the whole bo­die The diffini­tion of an ar­mie. of the armie, there is to be constituted and or­dained [Page 2] one generall head or gouernour.

¶ Of the generall.

WIth the head of thys armye, wee will beginne our second chapter, for that the same consys­tyng of a Captayne, and souldiours, the captaine is the pryncipall part thereof, vppon whom the greatest wayght, and hope of the warres lyeth, not in the force of hys personne, whych is but one singuler man, but in hys policie and skyll, in leadynge and orderynge of his armie, in vsing the aduantages, and foreseeynge the preiudices of warre. As by sundrie examples wee shall well prooue, who hath not read, that Ninus kynge of the Assiryens, by industrie and deedes of armes, Ninus. (wherein hee caused his souldiers to bee practy­sed) raysed thereby & set vp the first Monarchy or greatest estate of the worlde. And agayne, it is as well knowne, that the same nation, beeing effemi­nate vnder the dissolute raigne of Sardanapalus, for want of discipline and good guyde of warre, Sardanapal▪ was subdued by the Medes, whom beefore they had conquered, and their empire earst honoura­blie aduaunced, now shamefullie lost and taken from them: where they were lordes, they became vssalles and captyues, by the valure, and good partes of a Captaine. Milciades of Athens, ha­uinge the conduct of twelue thousand menne, Milciades, ouerthrewe and vanquished an army of an hun­dred [Page] thowsand footemen, and twoe thowsand horsemen, sent by the first Darius, sonne of Hy­daspis, to inuade Grecia. And not longe after, Darius the greatest armie that euer was assembled (by report of histories) lead by Xerxes king of Persia for the same purpose, that the other of Darius was Xerxes. before into Grecia, amoūting nighe to the num­ber of tenne hundred thousand men (by the con­sent of the best wryters) was by the politike and valiant Themistocles vanquished, first in a battaile on the Sea, & afterwards his captaine Mardonius with his whole power conquered in the field the Mardonius. Greciās, thē not farre exceding the nūber of a 100. thousand men. Cimon also about that time a cap­taine of Lacaedemō, by like valure & with a lesse ar­my, Cymon of Lacedaemon. preuailed against great powers of the Persiās by Sea. And Alcibiades the excellent Captaine of Athens beyng no lesse ouermatched with num­ber Alcibiades. of men and munition or furniture of warre, with the skattered forces and repulsed power of Mindaerus & Pharnae­bazus. Leonidas with 4000. as some write Celtae. Brēniꝰ & Be­linus English men, sonnes of Donwallo a Saxon King. the Atheniens, both by Sea and land ouerthrew the Persians and Lacaedemoniens, vnder Mindarus and Pharnabazus their Captaines. In the begyn­ning of these warres, the redoubted Leonidas with vj. hundred Lacaedemoniens, slew nigh 20. thou­sand of the Persians, at their entryng into Grecia. Furius Camillus, whē the Celtae led by Brennus and Bellinus, had conquered Italy, and sacked Roome, gathering together the dispersed relickes and broken bands of the armie before conquered, [Page 3] by wōderful hardines & prowesse, sodainly assay­ling Furius. Camillus. the Celtes in their retorne homewards, ouer­threw them, and bereft them of all the spoyles & prises which they had taken before. Martius Co­riolanus, the noble Romaine, when he had by Ro­maines, Martius. Coriolanus. ouerthrowen the Volsciens & cōquered of their terrytories and townes, beyng afterwards ingratefullie banished of his countrey, and inua­ding the same with a power of Volsciens, beeinge the same people, which late beefore was vanqui­shed, vnder an other Captayne, now by his con­duct, the Romaines being ouer runne, & the ene­mies at the walles of their Citie, they are constrai­ned to craue peace, and to entreate of Martius by all meanes for their sauftie. The subtil Hanniball, Hanniball, which had ouerthrowen many Captains and bat­tals of the Romaines by the knackes and fine fet­ches of a cunning Captaine, yet was he not onely matched: but also mated or wearied by Fabius, by Fabius. policy, delaying to ioigne battail til he had much worne and spēt the other with trauail & want of necessaries for his armie (which could not be sup plied at all times frō Carthage beyng so farre dis­tant) vnto Hanniball, as they might be vnto Fabi­us, at home. But Scipio afterwards, goyng beyōd Scipio. all the cunning of Hanniball, conquered hym in his owne countrey. And the Macidoniens, (for further proofe of this theme, for the importāce & regarde of the guyde & Captaine) vnder the con­duct of Alexander the great, they conquered the [Page] greatest part of the world: & the same people not Alexander. long after, vnder other gouernment, wyth their King Perseus, and their countrey, were by Paulus Aemelius a famous Captayne of the Romaynes Paulus Emelius. Perseus. subdued. So to be short (for that this matter is cō ­uenient to bee touched hereafter) The vertue, wisedome, and dyligence of the Captayne in ta­kinge of some aduaūtages, & his circumspect dea­linge, causeth great assurance and cōfidence of the armie, and his courage and skill in vsing & moo­uing of souldiers, maketh of a cowardlie people, hardie: and the want of the same maketh the har­die people fearefull, and of noe force.

¶ Of the vertues and qualities which a Captaine ought to vnderstand to be requisite for that function, and to be endeuoured of him.

THe gouernmēt & charge of a General or Cap­taine is great, & therefore he ought to be furni­shed and endewed with great vertues. For an ar­mie of souldiers, which are chosen of the lustyest & strongest men of the realme, of what importāce & regarde it ought to be, it is easelye discerned, for it is the strength of the Realme, the wall of the cō ­mon wealth, the piller whereupon the estates of all men therein do stand. And therefore amonge other vertues, these fiue a good Captaine must ne­des haue. That is to say, knowledge, & iudgement in martial affaires, Magnanimitie or valiaunt cou­rage, Iustice, Prudence, & tender affecciō, diligent [Page 4] care or regarde ouer his souldiers and armie. For knowledge: first, that he consider the maner of the warre, the qualities of the countrey, and people, a­gainst whom he is to fight, that he may chose, and weapon his souldiers, apoint & order his bandes & army accordinglye, as for example, in plaine & open countryes, the more shott & horsemen may auaile, especiallie if there bee store of forage with all, and for Incursion the morelight horse, & lesse cariages be necessarie, the reason is plaine, for that they are to shift from place to place, spedily to an­noye then emie here and there, whereunto in the plaine fieldes they haue scope at will, Captaynes also haue ben skilfull to trayne souldiers, to prac­tyse them in exercyses apt and auaylable for the warres, by excellēt & fitt meanes, to plant & graft in thē courage. And further, especiall regard must be had of the state & scituation of the countrey, waies, & groūds, for the saufe passinge cōductinge and setling of his armie or campe, for chosing the field or place for battaile, that he leade not his ar­mie into any trappes, ambushes or streightes. Ar­terentius Varro was deluded & hēmed in by Hā ­niball at the battaile of Cannae in Italie: to the vt­ter ouerthrowe & destrucciō of the Romaine ar­mye, & surely, if the general be a mā learned, as the For this pur­pose great A­lexander ca­ried Homer alwaies in his pocket. most excellent captaines haue ben, he shall reade of like thinges, the knowledge whereof is most a­uaylable in the warres, and the experience of the like hearde of, and in longe time obtayned.

¶ Of Magnanimitie and prowesse in the generall.

THen must there bee lynked and ioyned wyth knowledge, the secōd vertue, that is highnes & hardines of courage, to atchiue great and honou­rable thinges which if it be accompanied and fur­nyshed with valure and force of bodie in a Cap­taine, somtimes by his owne prowesse to giue ex­ample to the rest it is farre the better. And there­fore, it is to be noted that verie seldome through out the histories of all times, a man shall reade of any great victories or conquests had or made, but the generall was a man hardie, & able of his owne bodie for seruice. I could recompt aboue an hun­dred of the greatest captains & victours, that haue ben valiaunt men of person: & amonge all, I re­mēber some of the other sort, good guides of warre without any great force of body, as King Numa, Aristides, Eumenes, & some wemē, as Marthesia, Penthesilia, and diuers of the Amazones, Semira­mis, & Thomiris, two Queenes, wemen of weake bodies, and yet of high & victorious myndes, ob­tained great victories, vnder their owne conduct, being present in the fielde. Of latter time the cur­sed Machomet, being nothing valiant of person, by diuelyshe sleightes and enchauntmentes, and thorough the infidelitie of others, made sundrie great conquestes. And the vngracious Pucelle of Fraunce, in the tyme of Kyng Henrie the sixt hys warres there, by the meanes of the superstitious myndes of the Englyshe men preuayled more in [Page 5] diuers iourneys & attempts against them, then any generall or French Captaine before could doe by force. These be straunge and rare examples, but generally to conclude: prowesse and force in the person of a Captaine is greatly auaylable. For it is Heroicum of most high no­blesse or va­lure. a part of Fortitude, and is called Heroique.

¶ Of Iustice. Cap. v.

THen followeth the third vertue Iustice, whych is a deuyne motion or affection of the mind to deale vprightly, and to render vnto euery man that which vnto him belongeth. Yt may be called a deuyne vertue, for that it procedeth principally of the feare of GOD, who is the head and foun­taine of all Iustice, by whom al power is geeuen, to bee duely vsed and administred. And hee is the most high and aeternall Iudge ouer all. This ver­tue Piusin deum.in homi­nes. is one of the braunches of pyetie, by whych good and vpright men be called godly, or like vn to God. The other part or braunch of pietye, is to serue God religiously, and duely, which because it ought to bee a ground worke, proper vnto euery Christian man: therfore haue I not noted the same as a peculier or perticuler vertue heare: But I say the more Christian the meater Captaine, and the better hee serueth God: the better hee shall hys Prince and Countrey. In this vertue of Iustice the Captaine ought to bee very diligent and circum­spect to see as well the iust rewardes of vertue, as the due punishment and correction of tumultes, [Page] rapyne, iniuryes, disorder and breach of discipline and lawes of warre, wherein, the quantitie and qualitie with the circumstances of time, person, & place, is to be waighed in iudgement by the paise of wysedome, in the balance of endifferency, han­ging vpon the beame and rule of right, that refor­mation may grow, and not confusion follow there of: that by example of a feaw, many may be war­ned, and yet no such remisse clemencie to be vsed, that negligence of Iustice should breake all good order. But if by faire meanes or perswasion, the euil might be wonne or reformed, it is first so to be as­sayed, and when none other remedy, then rygour roughly to be extended: How be it, often times the greatnes of the mischiefe requireth sodaine iustice. For in warres, the like time of deliberatiō & staye in iudgement and execution is not giuen, as in peace, for the generall affaires and state of the ar­mie, maye not be stayed or neglected, for priuate causes. And therefore the Captaines dome, order, or sentence, in this case of spedie Iustice, standeth for law, and is called martial lawe. This lawe king VVhen mar­tiall lawe is to be vsed, and how. Artaxerxes vsed towardes Artabanus, whē he had slaine his father Xerxes, and his brother Darius, conspiring also to dispatche him, and vsurpe the Empyre: After that he had certaine & secrete vnder standing thereof, because that for the great power of him and his sonnes, yt was daungerous to ap­prehende him, he discloseth the same vnto some of his trusty friendes, and calling Artabanus out of [Page 6] the armye, fayning that he would chaunge his ar­mour with him, when he had put of the same, the King remayning stil armed, thrust him thorough with his swerd, and so deliuered his estate from daunger. King Aswerus likewise, caused Aman & his sonnes to be sodainly apprehēded & executed, because that thorough their great power, the stay thereof had bene daungerous. How be it this kind of Iustice, is in the greatest extremitie. But the mar­tiall Law or sentence, would be vsed and execu­ted vnder this forme and order, that the generall calling vnto him such of the Captaines and prin­cipall persons of the Army, as he shall thinke con­uenient thereunto, reciting shortly the maner of the offence, the mischiefe that might grow therof, the odiousnes and villanye of vnnatural Treason, and dissention within an armye, tending to the ouerthrowen of most valiant & worthy persona­ges, of most honorable attemptes, and purposes, the quayling of most great and high endeuours before in that seruice vsed, and to the miserable spoyle of the whole army, with the decay and dis­honour of the countrey of whence they are: and there with all the proofes being heard, and open­ly declared, to geeue iudgement according to the nature of the offence, and commit ouer order, for executing the same. And sometime for the better satisfiyng of the army (if time permit) it is conue­nient for the punishment of criminall causes, to referre the hearinge thereof to the Captaines of [Page] euery bande, and certaine of them to speake theyr mindes, for the qualitie and odiousnes of the of­fence, with some admonishment at the last to the Exod. 18. Iethro gaue counsaile vn­to Moyses to make the like distribution and cōmission of the comen affaires vnto other, that be­ing eased of a great part of that burden, he might bet­ter attend to the more waightie causes. rest of the hearers. And sometime, it is policie to commit the same vnto twelue or more of the mea­ner sort, or commen souldiers, as circumstances may require. And if the partie accused, and vnder iudgement, be a straunger, it is the better order of Iustice, that he haue parte of his triall by some of his owne Countrey, if the matter be playne, that they be not to be suspected of partialitie. And the whilest that other haue the handling of this matter, the generall may the better attend his greater af­faires. For the other part of Iustice, what course is best to be taken in rewarding the valure and well deseruing of those, which with great endeuour, la­bour for same, to the honour and aduaunce­ment of their Countrey: Hearein the good iudge­ment of the Captaine, is to be exercised, for wel no­ting, and right regarding the dispositions, ende­uours, and doinges of each person. For some are geeuen not to make challenge, or claime, of theyr Ambition disturbeth wel ordered states. owne proper deedes and vertues, other will make large report and ostentation of that which they do, setting the same artificially forthe, to the vtter most, and further, sometime clothing themselues with that which they neuer sponne, and thrusting into the glorie of other mens desertes. And diuers Enuious and peruerse men of disposition. there are of disposition to extenuate, and seeme to make lesse the vertues of other, whom they cannot [Page 7] matche in valure. And therefore sith that honour is the right reward of vertue (as the Philosophers a­gree) & that Laudata virtus crescit, and Honos alit artes: commended vertue encreaseth, and honour is the nouryce of valure, which maketh men to excell in practises, the Captaine ought to be wyse, to sifte & perceiue such knackes & cunning colours, from substāce, that he be a iust distributer of the due sa­laire, and rewarde vnto the vertuous, without af­fection or parciality, that they beyng encouraged, encrease, & not discouraged, cease from well do­inge. Moreouer for the maner of rewardes, there is cōsyderation to be had of the person, thus, if he be poore, he may be somewhat enryched thereby, if he meane to bee a continuer in the seruice of warre, to geue him a more highe place, & greater charge in the armie, to call him vnto the more wayghtye & secrete affaires. If he be one that nee­deth or seeketh not wealth, let him haue credite, honour, & aucthoritye the more, vse all curtesye towardes him, findinge meanes to knowe hys de­lighte, wherewith, most to gladde or gratifie him, as with horse, Armour, some rare Iewell, or other acceptable thinge, to geue him, where euer he goe, speache of credite, honorable commendation and report: If he desier to become expert in the know­ledge of warre: by all curtesye and meanes to fur­ther hym thereunto, so that (as neare as maye bee) euerye man accordynge to hys desyre and mynde bee contented. And this due fourme of [Page] iustice obserued, with the conformitie of his other dealinges, shalbe vnto the Captaine, a foundation of most highe enterprises. For the generall, perfor­ming towardes the souldiers, al that on his part is to be perfourmed: he may the better expostulate and requyre in them their endeuours and duityes, which also they will the more willingly doe, if they be wel paied of their wages, which principally must be prouided for, for money is the synewes of warre, & the Captaine ought not to suspende or delaye the paye of the same any time, except for especiall occasion. When the generall oweth not vnto the souldier, but he hath his wages payed, he may franklye cōmaund him to any seruyce of the warres. Furthermore this vertue of Iustice chiefe­lie preserueth the dygnitie of the Captaine, that the souldyers loue him, feare him, and reuerence him, for this is the hoope and bande that bindeth fast together, and strengthneth all the state and af­faires of the warre. This Iustice in the Captaine in­cludeth two other vertues: that he be liberal where cause is, and to be temperate and continent of his lust and affections to any other vanitie. Tempe­rance is generally defined in this Latine verse, Est virtus placitis abstinuisse bonis: A vertue of refrayning or abstinence from alluring euils, whether it be coue­tousnes, ambition, wanton pleasures, or such like. For modestie of Magistrates or Gouernours, due obseruation of Iustice, and iust distributing of ho­nours, preserueth states from sedition. This vertue, [Page 8] greate Alexander, to his greatest honour, vsed to­wardes the captiue daughters of Darius. And Sci­pio after the expugnation and winnyng of new Carthage in Spayne, the wyfe of Luceius (a Prince of that Countrey) of most rare & excellent beaw­tye beyng brought vnto him, he sent her, and all that she had saufe, and vntouched, very honorablie also accompanied home vnto her husband. The fame of whose singuler vertue, & knightlye parte, afterwardes procured him great honour of the Spanierdes, with much helpe and furtherance in his warres there. The wante of which vertue, cau­sed Marcus Antonius to be surprised in the daly­ance of Cleopatra, neglecting his warres, and de­fence, whereby he was ouerthrowen of Augustus Caesar. Holifernes by like vice was curtoled of his head, and the huge hoste of the Assyrians dys­persed. The valure of Sampson by like doting was cut of. The Empires and Monarchyes of the As­syriens and Persians sonke in delicate pleasures, and in intemperance were lost, & all is the spoyle of the hardie, manlike, and martial souldier, which ough, tlike the noble knight Hypolitus to flye the baytes of effeminate wantonnesse, and synke of in­tēperance, seking to reach the Banner of renowme in the highest toppe of vertues tower, following valiant exercises, which maketh the bodie stronge and healthye, and the person honorable: the other hath contrarie effectes.

¶ Of Prudence, the fourth vertue in a Captaine.

PRudence, is an excellent vertue (as necessarye as any thing for our Captaine) which by good aduise, & prudent foresight, guydeth the presēt af­faires VVyse Ianus is paynted with two fa­ces, one loking towardes things past, the other to that which is to come. in the best course and state, conferring them with thinges past, and prouidinge for thinges to come. This Prudēce must haue deliberate cōside­ration of all circumstāces, by iudgement to soūde and search the depthe of that which is doubtful, it is the Rule almost of all his doinges, whereby he deuiseth, disposeth and ordereth them, as for due consideration of the quality of his souldiers, good araye of his Battailles, diligent espyall of his ene­mies doynges, due estimation of thē, for the opor­tunitye, and occasion of takyng of any aduan̄tage, and for the auoydinge of all inconueniences, for the prouision of all necessaries for the campe, for vsynge the endeuours of euery one, as he is most mete, for the assocyatinge vnto his weighty and se­crete counsailes and practises, men of iudgement wise, of inuention politike, and trust approued. And how to trye, and finde the trustye: prudence also, by meanes discerneth. For all thy deuises, ex­cept they be concealed, and close kept from the enemy, til the time of practise of the same, they be seeldōe auailable, & oftentimes hurtful. And as the good cōsideration & iudgemēt of a Captaine is to be sene in those pointes before remēbred, & ought euer to accompanye his doinges: So is inuention [Page 9] requysite vnto hym, to deuyse how to cutt of the strength of the enemye, or circumuent hym, for by this, manie thinges haue ben atchieued, which force could not winne. What the policye of Ci­non and Vlisses at the battaill of Troye, and Zo­pyrus amonge the Babilonians auayled, it is no­toriouslye knowne. This inuentiō, and cunninge to entrapp the enemye, Hanniball had at will, and oftentymes plagued the Romaines there with all. but at the last when he had remayned diuers yea­res in Italye, wastinge and destroyinge of the coū trey, & the Romaynes could by no meanes dryue him foorthe, Cornelius Scipio founde out the waye to ryd him, geuinge this prudent aduise vn­to the Romaines, that they should sende an armye to inuade Affricke, and besyege Carthage, whiche was the head of the enemies Empyre, shewinge that the stroke at the head as it is most daungerous: so it is most feared: & as when the harte is afrayde, the bloud resorteth from other partes, vnto the comforte thereof, as the principall storehouse of lyfe: So sayd Scipio, the Carthaginoys pinched with warres at home, will sende for their powers abroade to succour them, & kepe saufe the home stall. Which hapned and fell out accordinglye, that Hanniball leauinge Italye, and retourninge into Affricke to defende his owne countrey, and resist the Romaine armye ledd thither by Scipio, was there by him ouerthrowne, Carthage taken, and Affricke subdued. So remooued he the daun­ger [Page] & ruine by excellent inuention from Roome, and caryed the same vnto Carthage. was it not a famous policie of Henrie the fifth, at the battaill of Agincourt, when the power of the French mē stoode most vpon horsemen armed with heauie armour, to cause the fielde to bee pitched full of sharpe stakes when they should inuade his battail? which withdrawinge, till they were come vppon the stakes, then had hee placed his archers in an Iland or plott so inuironned or surrounded, that they might saufelie shoote at the enemie, and hee not come to hurte them, by which traine and or­der, the French hoste tumblinge downe in disor­der, was ouerthrowne: whiche inuention is the more honorable, for that it is credible to be of the kynges owne deuisinge. About the time of the ta­kinge of Bullen, by kynge Henrie the eyght, this practise was vsed by a noble Englyshe Captayne, for the winninge of a towne (which was defēded on the weaker parte thereof by a marishe, so that ordynaunce could not bee planted to batter the same) he caused pieces of light wood to be secret­lie made, and cunninglye painted like gunnes, and layinge bordes vppon the marishe, so conueyed ouer his disguysed ordinaunce, by terror whereof at the first summons hastelie made, with great ma­nasse and shewe of the pretended batterye: the towne rendred and yelded vppe vnto him. Great Alexander vsed this cūninge to gett a fort of won­derfull strength, hee conueyed a fewe actiue men [Page 10] vnarmed, vp to a rocke, not doubted or loked vnto of the enemye, for the steepenesse and difficultie to bee clymmed, and when they had possessed the toppe thereof, beinge nighe the walles, where they might greatlie anoy them within the houlde, ma­kinge a great shoute, or noyse of triumph on a so­daine, and aduauncinge their banners as though there had been a great parte of the armye with them and all sure their owne, Alexander also on the other syde then fiercelie skalinge the walles, the people within, beeynge stryken with great feare, and in a maze, the Castell was easelie by him surprised & taken. Thus to conclude of this ver­tue of Prudence: it is the lyne of the Captaine, to measure hys owne doynges, the touchestone, and the syue to trye & sift the sleightes of the enemie, to discerne the substaūce frō the shadow, to shunne hys trappe, not to bee abused by anie paynted or coloured crafte. And this vertue encludeth in it constancie, without which, a man is no man, for as well, without reason, as without iudgement or re­solution, in time to vse the same, after cōsultation and good aduisement hadd, speadye executyon shoulde followe.

¶ Of the loue and diligent regarde of the Captayne vn­to his souldiours. Cap. 7.

THe last parte of the furniture, whiche armethe our Captayne complete, is a tender affectiō & diligēt regarde vnto his souldiers. So that a good [Page] mynde well and vertuouslie enclined and dispo­sed, serueth not, without diligence in exercysinge and geuinge forthe the fruites thereof. And there­fore a Captaine, besydes his prouident care and studie of the generall and publicke weale, and af­faires of his armye, ought also to respect the state and necessities of pryuate persones and commen souldiers. And therefore if the gouernours of Ci­uill estates, haue been called fathers, as the Sena­tours of Roome had first that name, to remember them of the fatherlie affeccion and care, whyche they ought to beare towardes the people: muche more ought the generall, ouer his martiall commō weale to haue a fatherlie minde and regarde, for the souldier leaueth father, all his frendes, and es­tate of liuinge at home, to followe his captaine in foreine countrey, committinge his life and all, to the guyde and good fortune of him. And if lyke desyers, with concorde of studies, affeccions, and continuance of conuersatiō of life, do cause most Causes of af­fection and fryndship. entier loue, and stronge bande & league of frend­shyp: much more, ought this socyetie of myndes, linked and ioyned in honourable desyres and pur­pose, with the vowed felowshippe of bodies in all perylles, (yea in life and in death) vnyte the hartes of the captaine and souldiers, in most deare affec­tion and amitie, which the captaine ought to pro­fesse towardes his souldiers, & they eche towardes other, If the souldier be sicke or hurte, the Cap­taine must prouide Phisitions, of Chirurgien for [Page 11] him, if he be troubled in minde, he ought to be hys friende to visite him, and comfort him, to further his desires, and endeuours, to encourage him, if he be a worthy souldier, to conferre with him some time familierly of his estate, and to further and de­uise how to encrease and amende the same, as wel in the armie, as at home. For perchaunce hee hath none other friende to cherishe, or to haue regarde vnto him in the armie, if he be iniuried, he hath not the commen ayde, and helpe of lawe for his mo­ney, as in peace he may. Therefore the Captayne must be his staye, & helpe in all his necessities. And least it be obiected, that if he had Argos eyes, hee cannot see the wantes of all men, and leasure will not at all times suffer to discharge the partes aboue requyred (to preuent the same) I say, he must one­lye extende his diligence, as farre as maye be here­in. Xenophon wrote vnto king Cyrus, that a Go­uernour ought to be towardes his people kinde, as a father towarde his children. To note some exam­ples of thys vertue, we reade that the great kinge Mithridates vsed such diligence, and had such re­garde vnto all his comen souldier, that of a great armie, he coulde call euery man, priuatelye by hys name, and hauinge people of more then xx. seue­ral natiōs, & languages, he would talke vnto them all familierly in their proper Coūtrey speache. The great king Cyrus before remēbred, which foūded the Monarchye of the Persians, vsed great affabi­litie towardes his souldiers. The excellent Cap­tayne [Page] Scipio, is noted, and honoured for this cur­tesie. Alexander the great, passinge some daies in the desertes, & barrē drye places of Arabia, where as no water was to be foūde, so that both the army & himself weare pained with great thirst, & almost intollerable, in this neade, a cōmen souldiour, had by great trauayll, gotten one helmet full of water, and brought it vnto the kinge: which when he had receaued very thankfullye, he powred it out vpon the groūd, shewing him selfe willing to be partaker of the comē want & necessitie of his armie, where­by the rest seeing the abstinence and noble minde of their Gouernour, forgott the pinche of theyr thirst, & prepared them selues to suffer any hard­nesse, and not to bee weryed, but constantlie to continue, to ouercomeall labours & difficulties. The same Alexander no greater in power, then in noble vertue of minde, an other time passinge a iourney in extreme, & intollerable frost, & sharpe weather, with rough & vncomfortable wayes, fin­dinge a souldiour stiffe, & almost dead with could of the percynge ayer, he caused him presentlye to be caryed into his tente, & theare being sett in his owne chayer, he sawe him tenderlye dressed, and cherished, geuinge vnto him of his owne clothes to keape him warme. Caius Iulius, hauing Alexā ­ders minde in manye thinges, so did he no lesse tender and regarde his souldiers, when he went to battaile, he woulde saye, come fellowe souldi­ours, goe we together, and call them sometyme [Page 12] good friendes. Charles the fifthe, beinge a great Emperour, and of notable skill, and practise in warres, endued also with sundrye noble vertues, ridynge thoroughe his Campe, to viewe the state of the same, a commen souldiour sicke, and wan­tinge necessaryes, cryed out, and rayled vpon him bitterlye, wishinge a vengeance, and the diuell on hym, for that in his seruice beinge fallen into in­firmitye, & disease, now had he neither knowledge nor helpe of him: the Emperour mildelye aunswe­red, good woordes my good souldiour, and thou shalt not want the helpe that may bee had. Now to conclude: thys vertue, not paynfull to plant in thy maners, and exercise in actions and deedes, yet it bringeth great and happy fruites, for it pro­cureth such loue and honour of the Souldiour to the Captaine, that thereby he possesseth the more safetie of person, and quiet of minde, he purchaseth greater fame at home, and abroad, his attemptes & affaires procede the better to effecte, for it maketh the endeuour of the Souldiour wonderfull. Loue is the surest armour that a Gouernour or Cap­taine can put on, and faithfulnes is not by fee, nor feare to be crased or corrupted.

¶ VVhether it be more expedient to haue one Generall, or manye. Cap. 8.

NOw to discusse by the examples of antiquity, & argumēts of reason, whether it be conueniēt to [Page] haue more then one generall, or highe Captayne of the Armie: Belinus and Brennus two Princes, beyng brothers, were ioyntlye gouernours ouer their armie, with which they subdued a great parte of Fraunce, Germayne, and Italye. Fabius, and Porsenna, were likewise constituted ouer the Ro­mainearmie, against the same Belinus and Bren­nus. Romulus and Remus, by equall aucthoritie guyding their armie, surprised the Cytie of Alba. King Mithridates, & Tigranes, ioyntly, lead their powers against the Romaines. Cassius, & Brutus, were ioygned generalles against Octauius Caesar, and Antonius. Fabius & Minutius, were thought to be well matched together against Hanniball: the one graue, and somewhat slowe by his age, the other hott, quicke, and lusty, the one excelling in aduise and experience, the other better able to styrre and endure paynes. So that albeit, it hath bene more vsed, to ordayne, and depute one onely generall ouer an armie, yet twayne may doe very well, as it appeareth by the examples before re­cited, which may the rather be allowed, for that the one Generall being sicke, hurt, or slayne, yet the Armie is not destitute of a heade, or guide. which sometime is the cause of losse of a battaile, the head beeinge striken and Captayne slayne, the bodie of the armie standeth in a maze, and is highlie discomfited, and oftentimes honourable attemptes ceasse thereby, and goe backwardes, as Crassus, by Parthian falshood slaine, the relyques [Page 13] of his armie were shortlie destroyed. Antonius, in his great battaile on the Sea, against Octauius Augustus, fliyng, or rather following Cleopatra, his whole army was ēforced to yelde vnto Caesar. Brennus, as Iustine writeth, beinge dead of hurtes in battaile receaued in Grecia, his purposed con­questes in those partes ceassed, and his armie dys­persed: all that they had gotten beefore, was lost for lacke of a good guyde. Great Alexander bee­inge dead, the glorye of Macedonie dyed, their victories proceaded no farther, their armies retur­ned, and tourned to discention and diuision a­mong them selues: whereby the Empyre was rent and skambled, and shortlie after taken from them by the Romaines. So that, where there hath been but one head or guyde of the warres, the same be­inge cutt of, for the most parte the warrfare hath ended and expired with all: whereas if there had been two generals ordayned, ioyned in auctho­ritie, or else successiuelye three or fower, one after an other nominated & appointed after the death or losse of the generall, to supplie the place, and to establishe the state of the armie, the warres myght still proceade, vntill the purpose & desired fruites thereof bee obtained. But more then two generals of one armie at once, I can not finde by any good president allowed. Nicias Alcibiades, & Lama­chus, were sent as Generals by the Atheniens into Sicilia, & atchieued littel there, & likewise Tideus Adimātus & Menāder, against the Lacedaemoniēs.

¶ Of the aucthoritie of the generall, and what ought to bee hys chiefe desyre, wished fruites, and ende of warres. what personne, and of what qualities, ought to be esteemed the best and most honourable Captayne. Cap. 9.

THe place and state of a generall is highe, his cre­dite, his power, and charge great, and therefore his aucthoritie from the prince by or vnder whō he is deputed and ordeyned, ought to be great. To punishe and pardon, to erect, exalt, & pull downe, to take order, or truce with the enemie, to receaue hostages, remitt prisoners, raunsomes and tributes, to geue lawes, libertie, lordshyp, bandes, condici­ons of captiuitie to the conquered, to ioygne or breake foreine frendshippe vpon vrgent cause, and not otherwise, to impart vnto the souldiers, frank­lie of that which is taken and wonne, to assygne victorious ensignes and solempnitye of honour & prowesse, to geue aduauncement of degrees and dignities vnto the worthye. He maye also leuye, for the great necessitie of the armie, vpon the prynces subiectes where he serueth, & borrowe or receaue ayde of the princes frendes, and herein extende his maisters credite, and the prynce is bounde in honour, to ratifie, allowe, & perfourme thus farre, the dealinge of the generall, by him deputed and appointed, which is also at all times remouable at the pleasure of the prynce, at whose commaunde­mēt [Page 14] the warres cease, ende, or otherwise be turned. And the Captaine, ought not to make or establish peace without the consent, will, and aucthoritie of the prince, nor to render anie towne, countrey, or forte conquered, except for great aduauntage or extreame necessitie. Hystories are full of exam­ples, to prooue the perticulers before recyted, to bee incident to the function of a generall, and therefore in a matter not doubtfull, I will cyte but onelie the large graunt of Gaius Martius, generall of an armye of the Romaines: on a time when a battaill went verie harde with him, hauinge in hys armie, fifteene hundred hyred Souldiours, of whose trust and endeuour he doubted, consy­deringe the strayghtes and daunger wherein hys armye stoode, he promised vnto his sayd straūge retinue, that if they woulde extende their valure to the wynnynge of the fielde, to make euerye man of them a Cytyzen, and free of Roome: whiche in that time was a thinge hyghlie regar­ded of straungers, for the honour, great aduaun­tages, and noble fraunchyses thereof, wherewith beeinge encouraged, they spared not to hazarde their lyues, vsinge suche endeuour that the fielde was wonne. And notwyth standynge that by the ordynaunces of the Cytye, noe man myght bee made a Cytizen without the cōsent of the Senate, yet hee alleagynge beefore them, that necessy­tye is aboue lawe, and that then tyme serued not to seeke the lawes, but rather requyred to [Page] breake them, hee obtayned the graunted free­dome vnto the souldiours, and honourablye hys promise was perfourmed. And it is not incon­uenient, that the prynce should geeue hym cre­dit, power, and aucthoritie in smaller matters, vnto whose order and wisedome hee hath com­mitted an armie, which is the strength of the prin­ces estate. which trust if it can not saufely be com­mitted vnto one, it were better to ioyne an other in gouernment vnto him, then that the place of the generall shoulde lacke or bee lame of power. Nowe to see what the generall ought to desyre or seeke to gaine by the warres, infinite examples of the antiquitie do shew, especially in the most flo­rishinge estates of Roome & Grecia, where vertue & valure were chiefly fostered, all the most excellēt Captaynes sought and endeuoured by victoryes to purchase fame vnto them selues, honour, and aduauncement vnto their countreys, and com­mon wealthes which they loued so dearelie, and regarded so highlie, that their endeuours (vsed & employed for the benefit of the same) seeme to sur mount almost the power of men, and also credite. Glad was he which by dying valiantly, could sin­gulerlye profite his countrey. As Brutus the first Consul, Horatius Cocles, the two Decij, Curtius, Atilius Regulus, Scaeuola, Lucinius Dentatus, Codrus, Leonidas, and iiij. hundred gentlemē of Lacedaemon with him. And of the spoiles & prises of their conquests, the great captaines of Roome [Page 15] and Grecia enriched them selues little, but ren­dred all to the publique treasure, & behoufe of the comen wealth. So that diuers Dictatoures (which was the place of a great Prince, and Gouernour, ouer the whole Empyre, duringe the time of the warres) after the same finished, and great kinges by them conquered, and lead in triumphe with all their treasures, and substance, yet haue they retur­ned little the richer (for all that which passed tho­rough their handes) to their oulde state, and meane degree of liuynge, from whence they weare called, not for their Lordship, but for their vertues. And some of them after, liuynge thriftelye of a little, haue dyed possessed of so short substance: that for the iust honour of their funeralles, due vnto par­sonages of so great vertues, for want of their owne Arist. polit. 3. He loseth the name of a good Citizen, which prefer­reth priuat profit, before the commen weale. abilitie, the commen Treasure hath supplied the charges, and expences thereunto. And thoughe some esteeme fame as a bare rewarde, without fruites of profit, yet they regarded nothing of ry­ches in comparison of honour. The Romaynes ordained for honour to victours, & cōquerours, triumphes, whearein their Generall returninge in great pompe from the warres, all his Captaines & spoyles following his Emperiall charyot, he was with his Armie receaued of his Countrey with all ioye and honour that might be deuised, erectinge also for the perpetuall fame, and memory of such as had greatly aduaunced their Countrey, images set vp in open places, with inscriptions: This was [Page] the father of his coūtrey. This was the champion of Roome, & terrour of their enemyes. And for priuat, & meane souldiours, which first had bour­ded a ship of the enemyes, entred their campe, or Towne, saued a Citizen, slayne a Captaine of the enemyes, gotten an aūcient, broken a rancke, or atchieued any great exploite, they ordayned crownes of siluer, bracellets, & collers of goulde, with such like conisaunces, the worthy wearinge whereof, the souldiours estemed as much, as of great seigniorye. Whereof there is an example, written of a certaine yonge man, in the Armie of Scipio, which had done marueylous deades of Armes in a battaile of his, so that he had deserued such a like rewarde of prowesse, as is spoken of be­fore, in liewe whereof, Scipio thinkinge better to content hym, gaue him a great substaunce of goulde, exhorting him to continewe manlike & valiaunt: but he, verye sadde, threwe downe the monye at Scipio his feete, who demaundinge of hym, whether hee woulde rather haue the ap­poynted rewarde, and ensigne of manhoode, hee aunswered, that therefore he had trauayled: pre­ferringe worshippe aboue ryches. The Generall ought to gyue great regarde both by hymselfe, and by others, which without partialitye, maye bee markers and obseruers, of such as best deserue in battaile. And moreouer, the most expert and valiaunt men shoulde bee from one place, vn­to another, aduaunced to the hyghest degrees, [Page 16] and offices in the Armye, that the commenda­tion, and rewarde bee duelie assigned, accordinge to desert. Also he must obserue, and execute the lawes, and orders of warre, for theare is no Arte without rules, and in none more necessarye rules, then in this: wherein also disorder most of all hurteth, as neglygence in the watche, or warde, in espyall for discoueringe the Countrey, where the Armye soiourneth or is to passe, wante of furniture, or any prouisyon allowed, or charged vnto any man, breache of arraye, mutyne, af­fraye, ryott, faylinge of duetye in any poynte, or transgressinge the Captaynes commaunde­ment, which muste stande for a lawe, and rule vnto the Souldiours. These misdemeanours, and offences, the victoryous Romaynes punished streyghtlye, yea sometyme thoughe aduauntage, and benefite grewe vnto the Armye, by excea­dinge the Generalles commaundement, yet the Captayne in thys offence, hath not spared hys owne Sonne, from sharpe Iustice, and punish­ment of the lawe, and ordinaunce violated. For the due keepinge of Lawes, and orders, is the staye of all the affayres of VVarre. Also the Captayne hath muche more neade to bee wyse in iudgement, then the ciuill Magistrate in peace, for that hee hathe not so manye assystentes, to ayde hym in counsayle, neyther like leasure in deliberation, and aduyse: Some time hauinge so­dayne daungerous comminge on, to disturbe, [Page] and interupt the same. Sodaine passions, (saye the Philosophers) troubleth, and disordreth the minde, and quiete establisheth the vnderstandinge, and ripenethe counsailes. The greke Philosopher Iso­crates sheweth, that two sortes of men theare are to be commended. First he which is of his iudge­ment, able to geue good aduise, the other that is of wisedome to vnderstande good counsaile gy­uen by an other, and of inclination to followe the same: diligence and good will supplieth a num­ber of wantes. There hath bene diuers Generalls of great vertue in trayning of their souldiours, be­inge able of their owne practise, to instructe them in all feates, and pointes of a Souldier, as in well vsinge of armes and weapons of warres, bothe on horsebacke, and on foote, in chosinge and appoin­ting fitt, and good furniture for euery man, and euerye purpose to encounter the ordinaūce and engins of the aduersaries, by policie planting, and hardye, and victorious minde in their souldiours. In which Cirus, Romulꝰ, Paulꝰ Aemilius, Scipio, Hannibal, & Caius Caesar, chiefely excelled. How be it that Captaine, which is able wel to leade, and gouerne an army trayned, ordered, and martialled to his hande is also to be cōmended, and the bet­ter, if he vse consideration, and diligence in taking order, that his souldiours may practise the exerci­ses, profitable for the warres. It is to be regarded, that the Captaine be generally of good nature & disposition, not subiecte to malitious anger, cru­eltie, [Page 17] or enuie, that hee haue his conuersation and conference with the most vertuous and best affec­ted sorte, to suppresse wrongfull dealynge and ryot, the mother of disorder and ruine. The Empe­rour Charles the fifte was cōmended of great so­brietie and diligence in his affaires, and to be verie skilfull in settinge and orderinge his battailes, for anie aduauntage. The Captayne ought to flye the faulte of infidelitie and vntrothe, as from a rocke. For there is no regarde to bee hadde of the man that is not iust & honest, and firme of his woorde, but fycle and variable of promise, which ought alwaies to bee perfourmed towardes souldiours, frende, & enemie. The breache whereof hath ma­nye times bread great myseries, and brought great wracke: as Laodislaus kinge of Hungarie, vppon presumption of dispensation frō the Pope, brea­kinge his faythe geeuen, and league made wyth the Turke, fell afterwardes into his handes & cru­eltie. The Carthaginoys, breakinge league made with the Romaines, and afterwardes beeinge in parle, and towardes a composition or ende verie necessarie & greatlie desired of the Carthaginens, the Romaines demaunded of them what pledges of their trothe they coulde geeue, or what newe Gods they had now to sweare by, & vowe the per­fourmaunce of the cōdicions agreed, seeing they had sworne by all their Goddes before, & had de­ceaued in breakinge their othe: Hasdruball a fa­mous Captaine, one of the companie, aunswered, [Page] we sweare agayne by the same Godds, which now both wee, & you ought better to regarde, for that they haue reuenged by you sharpelie our periu­rie & othe breakinge: but the Carthaginoys con­tinued in their falsehode, and eftsones violated their fayth: wherefore the Romaines determined finallie, not to cease, or geeue ouer warres against them, till they had vtterlie ouerthrowne them, subuerted and destroyed their Cytie and estate, which their iust plague followed. A noble exam­ple, for the due regardinge of his fayth, and othe, shewed Regulus before mencioned, a generall of the Romayne armie, taken prisoner by the Car­thaginoys, and dismissed vppon his othe to re­tourne, if hee did not entreate and obtaine of the Senate of Roome, the exchaunge and deliuerie of diuers great Captaines of Carthage, whom be­fore hee had taken prisoners, whiche thinge him selfe disswaded the Romaines from, for the bee­houfe of the commen wealthe in diuers weightie respectes, and so retourned to Carthage vnto his determined death. Also the general may do much the better if he be able to be his owne secretarie, to endicte orderlie, and aptlie, in his affaires, and to perswade in mutiue discention and case of neede, to vnderstand languages, to reade with iudgemēt in hystories, of the dealinges and stratagemes of great princes & captaines in like affaires, for sure­lie, the greatest captaines that euer were, & almost all those chiefetaines & conquerours of antiquitie [Page 18] were wel lerned. An other thing also there is which maketh a captaine most honourable, & to be as a father vnto his countrey, that is, after warres ēded, if he can frame him selfe to peace, good gouern­ment, & to be as profitable vnto the cyuill estate by his industrie & policye, as he was by his valure in the warres. So to conclude, though it be harde to fynde a martiall man, so farreforth furnished with all ciuill vertues as before recyted: yet is it not like Tullies oratour, or Sir Thomas Moores common wealthe, which represent a shadowe, & not a sub­stance, discoursing of matter like a dreame to bee imagined, & not possible to bee followed, or in such perfection as they preciselie picture to be ac­cōplished. But examples of such chiefetaines as I write of, I haue cyted some, affirming that he may be a good captaine, though he wāt of those partes before declared some thing, but the more bright & resplendēt light of vertues that hee geeueth forth by his exāple, the more honourable he is, the more plētifull is the hope of his successe, the more pros­perouslie proceade his affaires, the more good he doth to his armie, It may wel be sayde, Principis ex­emplo totus componitur nobis. According to the president of the prince, or chieftaine, the subiect conformeth his fashions, & endeuoureth his deedes.

¶ Of a souldiour, & the qualities which he ought to haue. Cap. 10.

THe Souldiour in good course must now follow his captaine. And first we are to shewe the quali­ties & disposition of mynde requysite vnto him.

[Page] For all be it, hee ought to bee affected and encly­ned vnto vertue, no lesse then the Captaine, yet is it in an other sorte, for the difference of their pla­ces, functions, and doynges. For there are dyuers thinges, which appertayne vnto the callinge and exercise of a Captaine, whiche beelonge not to a common souldiour: as for rule, and gouern­ment, politique order and iudgement in the gene­rall affaires, magnificent and bountifull deedes. But the souldiour ought in like sorte, to be a cyuill manne, to feare God, and liue orderlie in his de­gree, as it behooueth the Captaine, beinge in day­lie Deutero. 20. daungers of deathe, whiche are alwayes lesse feared of him which hath an honest and well pre­pared minde, voide of the horrour and burthen of lewde and dissolute dealinges liynge vpon his cō ­science. Suche a good souldiour was the Centu­rion, of whom our Lorde and Sauiour in the viij. of saint Mathaew sayeth, that hee founde not grea­ter faythe in Israel, then in him. And such was the deuoute Cornelius, spoken of in the tenth of the Actes of the Apostles. And it is seldome or neuer seene the dissolute person to prooue a profitable souldier, as if he be an idle, vnrulie, blasphemous, or licentious manne of lyuinge, a ryotous dyce­player or iangler, such bee more meete for an Ale­house then an army. Wherefore good sould your, take thy beginninge of God, Remember first and chyefelie to dyscharge thy duetye towardes him. For wythoute hym noe trauaile bringeth foorth [Page 19] fruite, no pollicy, or purpose planted taketh roote, or effecte. Then oughtest thou next to seake with all diligence, the honour, profit, and saufegard of thy Countrey, which hath bred thee, and noury­shed thee. The same thou art bounde, most sted­fastlye in thy mynde to hould more deare then thy life: for the preferrement whereof, and for the generall good of the armye, no daunger in rea­sonable sorte is to be refused, no endeuour omit­ted. For it is better like a man to dye, for the be­houfe of manye, then by cowardyse to bee slayne with manye. The Souldiour also in his degree, ought to fauour Iustice and right, to defende the honest & vertuous from oppression, to be louinge & helpefull after his power, vnto his fellowe soul­diour. Moreouer it is requisite that he be hardye, constant, and valiaunt, to endurethe bruntes dif­ficulties, and chaunces of warrefare. Yt beseemeth him to bee hyghe mynded (I meane not proude, but rather the contrarye) to endeuour to climbe to the highest top of vertue, and valure. He ought to vse exercises of armes, for encrease of force, & ac­tiuitye, to be diligent, and perfecte in the partes of a souldiour, to keape the orders, & lawes of warre. He must be tractable, and obedient to the com­maundement of his Captayne, and that without styckinge, for he is to houlde for assured, that the Generall, to whom for his skill, and vertues, the Prince, and counsaile, hath committed the strength of the estate, is a person sufficyent well to guyde [Page] the same, which will by wisedome, and sound ad­uise, order, & dispose his affayres. Yt is not com­mendable in a souldiour to be full of tongue, or a busie bodie, but he should be secrete and sober. It is not conuenient for him to bee nicelie accusto­med, but to endure hardnes of lyuinge, in foode & trauaile. VVherefore the martiall knightes of Roome, which brought vp their children to serue their countrey honourably in the warres, they vsed them not dayntilie in dyet, or curiouslye in clo­thing, but caused them diligentlie to be instruc­ted in vertue, and perfectlie practised in manlike martiall exercises. Licurgus expellinge all idelnes and wantonnes, from the well gouerned estate of Lacedaemon, caused the youthe to dyne & suppe abrode in comen places, with an ordinarye fare; harde & short, to cutt of excesse & rvot, the nourice of slouthe, & that they should not sit longe at their Effeminate­nes is contra­rye to force & manlynesse. meate, but be soone gone to the publique exercy­ses, and profitable studyes appointed for them. Delicate custome, and lycentious liuynge spoyled of all valure, the victorious and most redoubted army of Hanniball, wallowinge one wynter in the pleintifull pleasures, and fine fashyons of the cu­ryous Citizens of Capua, wheare they soiourned, by which the iuste reproofe followed, and was imputed vnto their Captayne, that hee hadde the skill and way to conquere, but he knewe not how to vse and prosecute his victories. For if hee had pursued the Romaynes after the great ouerthrow [Page 20] which he gaue them at Cannae, and not runne his Armye on the rocke of ryott, restinge out of time, and waxinge restife by pleasures in Capua: Roome had neuer rysen in seigniorye, or Empyre to bee the loftye Ladie, and Regient of the world, which then beeinge downe, when hee oppressed not by his slackenes, shee toke breath agayne, and reco­uered to his ruyne. By ryott and carelesse rest, in lascyuious lasye pleasures, Marcus Antonius the moste valyaunt Captayne with his Armye was spoyled and vanquished. The great empyre of the Affiryens sonke in this vice, vnder their Prince Sardanapale, and was subdued. Darius drowned the Persian state in delycate lyfe. Italye of later time setled in loose and licentious lyuinge, gee­uinge ouer all vertue, and woorthye excercyses, hath offered occasion, to be so often ouercome by the Hunnes, Gotthes, Sayffers, Spanyerdes, and Frenchmen, and so haue fallen, and shall decaye as manye Nations, as geeue ouer them selues to lyke effeminate beastelyke, and flewthfull lyfe. And thearefore those Princes which raygne in reste onelye by fortune, stande vppon wheeles, roulinge towardes ruyne: But the state whiche hath the foundatyon and defence theareof, vpon vertue, is firme, saufe, and permanent. Good Souldyours shoulde lyfte vp their courages to at­chyue moste hyghe and hard thynges, treadynge abiecte ease, & poorishe pesauntlike idlenes vnder foote, and flying lasciuyous lewde intemperaunce [Page] as from a Scorpion. They ought to contempne dayntines, as a womanlike, and childishe thinge, for the gluttons bodye, or minde, is apte for no good purpose. And yet am I not of his mynde, which woulde haue the souldiour in warrefare, to eate no other breade, or meate, but suche as hym selfe baketh, and dresseth, for, time serueth not eue­rie man alwayes so to doe, and some beinge more vnhandsome in handlinge of the same, their foode should be the lesse healthsome. And other perchāce would be ouer curious, and employe more time thearein, then in the most weyghtie affaires. But it is necessarye that for a neade, euerye souldiour knowe howe of meale, egges, otemeale, oyle, or Moderate dyet. butter, to bake, and make his foode. Men haue had sustinaunce for a time onely by rootes, and that without any hurt of health. He is not woorthy to enioye the bountifull benefites, & plentyfull pro­uision, which GOD hath ordayned for the well­fare of men, that cannot sometime without grud­ging endure some hardnes. For all sortes of men are subiecte vnto necessities, trauayle, and payne, or els this weare no worlde wherein we lyue, but a Heauen, and two heauens a Christian man is not to looke for. Moreouer it is the duetye of a souldi­our with all affection, to loue, and honour hys Captaine, not to forsake him for any daunger, he ought to keape close the secrete affayres, that bee committed vnto him, and for no cause to conceate any thinge from him, that maye be hurtfull vnto [Page 21] him, or the estate of the armie, but hee ought to stretch al his synewes alwaies to profit the same. He must not be ouermuche scrapinge or couetous of spoyles, for so diuers victorious armyes haue bene spoyled and destroyed, whilest they onelie respec­tinge their gaine, haue neglected the enemie, till they haue fallē euen in his mouthe: for sometyme, the enemie hath left hys campe for a trayne that the other in spoylinge thereof, might be surpry­sed in disorder and easelie vanquished, to mocke thē (with Tantalus his apple, as the Prouerbe is,) plucking the bone or possessd praye, out of their iawes. Great Alexāder whē he sawe his hoast ladē, surcharged & wearied with riche spoyles, & also the more sharpelie vrged of the enemy, for desire thereof: he caused all the surplusage of the carrya­ges & stuffe to be burned, first beginning with his owne. Be moderate therefore good souldiour in thy doings, and prynt euery parte of thy duetie in prōpt memory: for surely, I write not these wordes of course, but of trothe, with my careful study, ser­chynge and faythfullye examinynge the poyntes needefull for thy profite, and I trust our most gra­cious God will geue fruites of our labours to his honour, and our countreys good seruice: whose fauour and blessinge bee with all them, whiche of noble courage, zeale of vertue, and coūtryes loue, desire to vse armes well.

¶ Of what constitution of bodye, trade, and qualitie of lyfe, the best souldiour is to bee chosen: and what exercyses and practises are neede­full of hym to be vsed. Cap. 11.

NOwe for the choyse of our good souldiour, for the lykelihode of his strength, courage, and actiuitie, to sett downe a precyse order, for the same by his shoulders, brest, armes, thyghes, feete, or composition of anie other parte of the bodye: I houlde it most vayne: seeinge that good iudge­ment, by the eye discerneth thereof playnelie, and wysedome easelye findeth out fitte exercyses for certayne proofe and tryall hereof, and it is not possible to haue a great armie of men, so framed in all pointes, but the courage & mynde is as much to bee respected as the bodye. But it is necessarye to bee considered, of what age, trade, and maner of lyuinge, best choyse of souldiers maye be made. For their age, the lustiest time of youth for strength, and to endure trauaile, is meetest, as betwene the yeares of two and twentye, and towardes fiftie. How be it, great Alexander had manie of hys best souldiers, aboue those yeares of age. And for their exercyse or trade of lyfe, first it is cleare, that the stronger, better breathed, and harder man of bodie by nature or custome, is the more auaylable for warres: and therefore it is to conclude, that men of suche occupations, as are accustomed most to [Page 22] labour with the strength of their armes, are to bee preferred for this purpose, as smythes, butchers, masons, dyggers in mynes, Carpenters, & most principallye the husbandman, both for his won­ted enduringe of hardnes in fare, and of all wea­thers and toyle in the fielde, beeinge also for the more parte, of honest inclinatiō, & thriftie, which be good partes in a souldier. And the daintier sorte of seruinge men & riotous fellowes, are least profi­table herein. But the cōmō speache of fencers, that they be neuer good souldiours, proceadeth not of iudgemēt. For though there be of them, as of other men, some faynte fellowes, yet for the more part, that inclynation & delight in the vse of weapons, sheweth some manlike courage, & the practise & skill therein, breadeth hardines: and albeit there be other sortes of weapons vsed in warres, yet the exercyse of these, causeth nimblenes & actiuitye to handle anie other. And therefore if he bee not otherwise vnrulie, or naughtelye geuen, he that is practysed and skilfull in vsynge of weapons, is lykelye to prooue a valyaunt and an excellent souldiour. But hee that feareth not to receaue hurte, excepte he knowe howe to inflicte daun­ger & doe harmes vnto the enemie, is not profita­ble. And therefore, when there was one cōmended vnto an expert captaine (by his manie skarres of woūdes receaued) that he was a great souldier, & a verie man, the captaine asked streight, where is the [Page] man which hurt him thus: brynge him vnto mee, (quod he) & I will entertayne him presentlie, for in this case I like the geeuer, better then the taker. Nowe are wee next, to see, what exercyses are most conuenient and expedient to bee vsed of souldiours. And generallie, suche are moste auay­lable in the seruice of warres, as cause anie of these effectes: that is to saye, to harden the bodie, to make it nymbler, stronger, or to bee well brea­thed, as for the purpose, wrastlynge, shootinge, dartynge, leapinge, castinge of great stones, vaw­ting, swymminge, and to labour in armour, hea­uyer then the commen forte, which is vsed in ser­uice, for custome maketh labour lyght, as it is pro ued by the practyse of Milo, whiche begynninge to carriea Calfe into the fielde to pasture, euerie daye on his necke, hee continued with the same burthen, till it was growen a great Oxe, addynge still encrease of goodwil, to supplie the daylie gro­wing of hys burthen, not sufferyng his force to be sodaynlie so surmounted, that he woulde at anie time shrynke or yelde, vnto the trauaile & burthē of the daye before passed: So that custome, see­meth to alter or excell nature, eftsones. Nowe the bodie beeynge made apte and nymble, yet doe there twoe other exercyses remayne, to bee put into the practise of a souldyour, for their skyll & order in warres. The first is, that hee exercyse to handle hys bowe, peece, pyke, or other weapon wherwith he shalbe charged, nimblie, & cūningly, [Page 23] that he be able to doe his feate thearewith, and if he be a horseman, skilfullye to vse his horse and staffe, to bee readie to mount or alight nymblye at a becke, for any purpose or aduauntage to bee taken of the enemye. The other practise is, to be perfecte in keapynge the arrayes, ranckes, and or­ders of warre, in marching, encampinge, & fight, or pursute of thenemye, yea, and in reducing, and bringinge them selues againe into any fourme of arraye, if perchaunce they shalbe broken or disor­dered by force of the enemy, & that spedelie, at the voyce of the Captaine, or sounde of Trumpet, or Drumme, (which alwayes stande by him for the same purpose) or by any other noyse, or certayne signe, which hee vseth, sometime secretelie, and sometime open, to geeue out vnderstandinge of his minde, as to marche, or proceade, to retyre, to take this waye or that. And hearein it is to bee certainlye obserued, a thinge by all experi­ence alwaies approued, that no force of men, pro­uisyon, power, industrie, or furniture can preuaile, without arraye, and order of battaile, against the One trayned souldiour, worth ten untrayned. well appoynted, whereof a feaw, shall easelie van­quishe a multitude disordred, and confusely clus­teringe together. The souldiour thus expert, and by practise thoroughlye manned, furnished and made perfecte mayster, and possessour of his Arte, shall boldelye, and courageouslie proceade into the fielde: For feawe men feare, or shrinke to doe that, whearein they are skillfull, and well practized. [Page] Now for the more endeuour, and exercise to bee vsed and had hearein, thorough out this lande, it is a thinge not after anye other to bee looked vppon, and effectuallye considered vnto refor­mation, leaste wee doynge nothinge, thinke to do muche, & beeinge naked vnder a nette, sup­pose our selues armed, when wee are nothinge couered. (For, such is the dulnesse of some peo­ple.) I will recyte some Examples of the dily­gence vsed by the moste excellent estates heare­in. First in the foundation of the greatest Mo­narchye of the worlde vnder Rome, what or­dynaunces, and continuall excersyses of warre, Romulus established theare, it is not doubtfull. For the Romaynes allwayes after vsynge the same orders, whiche hee instituted, and deliue­red vnto their handes, vppon the same foundati­on proceadynge in prowesse, attayned to moste highe honour of Armes, and erected their fa­mous Empyre. Tullus Hostilius, and Ancus Mar­tius kinges theare, bestowed greate trauayle and in­dustrye, in encreasinge the sayde Disciplyne of warre. In Lacedaemon a Citye of Grecia, which by excellent gouernement grewe to haue domi­nion ouer dyuers Kingdomes, Lycurgus the po­litique Prince, amonge his Lawes and custo­mes, whiche hee established theare, ordayned that all spare tyme shoulde bee expended in vertu­ous exercises, and principallye in the noble prac­tyses of Armes, to gett honour, and souerayne­tye [Page 24] of the enemyes, cleane cuttinge of vnthriftye, wastfull ryott, abandoninge delycate nycenesse, and banyshinge idle, and chyldishe Games, as commen Cardeplaye, Cayles, Coytes, Slyde­bourde, Bowles, and Blowepoynt, which weare throwen oute of the commen wealthe. From whence also hee dyscarded and expelled, Iang­lers, Iesters, Iuglers, Puppetplayers, Pypers, and suche like vnprofitable persons, in steade of which weare mayntayned menne of valure, frequen­tynge, and exercisynge actiuitye of wrastelinge, dartynge, throwinge the Barre, the sledge, vsinge the weapons of Warre, in skyrmishes, and lyke actes to example the practises & exployts of warre, as skalynge of Fortes, skilfull ridinge, runninge at the rynge, marchinge eftsoones in arraye of bat­tayle Vegetius sayth, that Gentlemen to whom the profession of armes is pro­per, as their arte ought from their cradel to their graue, to be practi­sed thearein. &c. And publique places weare appoynted commodiouslye for the commen vsinge of the same, and moste actyue menne to bee teachers hearein. The honourable exercyses called Olim­piades, celebrated in Grecia, withe concourse of people from all partes of the worlde, to trye va­lure, and wynne the Vyctours Crowne, thys contentyon in all practises and qualyties of ver­tue and commendation, caused Grecia first aboue all other nations, to floryshe in honour of armes, learninge, and other laudable trades, wheare the righte and excellent Dyscipline, and order of VVarre was nouryshed and maintened wythe [Page] great soueraintie & dominion. The famous spec­tacle of the exercises of Armes, in Campus Mar­tius, in the latter time of the triumphant estate of Rome was of great industrie, & actiuitie, being al­wayes nolesse honourablye, then duelie on the ho­lidayes frequented, and obserued of al sortes. And at this daye vnder diuers estates in Germanye, this diligence is vsed in trayning of souldiours, & pre­paration for warres, they deuide the inhabiters of euerye citie, or shire, into certaine partes, or bādes, geuing vnto them the names of such weapons, as they will chose to bee charged with for their fur­niture, & seruice in the time of warres, as Archers, Pikemen, Demilaunces & such like, so that theare is no able person, exempted out of these orders, either for exercise, or supplye, & contribution to the charges of one sorte of these weapons, which companies bee thus on their holydaies, and spare times duelie trayned and practised. The Turke also, what numbers hee causeth from verie yonge yeares, to bee brought vp, and skilfullye practised vnto the feates and seruice of warres, and what huge garrisons, and armies of Souldiours, he con­tinuallie maintaineth, it is well knowen: and with all no Prince, Realme, or estate more free from Rebellion of subiectes, and forewarde in victories Plaut. Feliciter is sapit, qui alieno pe­riculo sapit. then he. So to conclude, God graunt, that the ex­amples of others, maye stirre the flacke, and dull sorte, well to vse Armes before their harmes.

¶ Of the sundric sortes of weapons, vsed by diuers nations in the auncient warres, and which are nowe most necessarie, with some respectes of pres­synge souldiours. Cap. xii.

THe weapons which the antiquitie vsed in their warres were diuers. They hadd crossebowes, slynges, dartes, and hatchettes, all which the har­quebus hath nowe displaced, beinge more auay­lable for the warres. They vsed also malles like our pollaxes, glayues, hammers, and battail axes. The Romaines vsed most for their footemen, the swerd Samuel ca. 13 The Isralites for want of weapons vsed their matocks & cowlters. and target, speares or iauelins. The Macedonien weapon, was a longe speare called Sarissa, whych our partizans and pykes well supplie. The Parthi­ens were all light horsemen, vsinge bowes and ar­rowes, by which, in the large plaine coūtreis, where they sought to ioigne battaill, they archieued ma­nie notable conquestes. In steade of the Parthy­ens bowe, mee thynketh the curryer weare of bet­ter vse for some light horsemen, for that he shoo­teth more certainelie, and stryketh more daunge­rouslie then the arrowe, and when hee hath dys­charged, he maye be gone, and remooue lightlie to charge againe, but his horse must bee well ma­naged heareunto, as vnto all other feates of the warre. Moreouer in myne oppinion, it were an ex­cellent furniture for the pikeman to haue a dagge, or a case of dagges at his girdle, for diuers purpo­ses. But it is needefull for euerie souldiour in the [Page] fielde to haue a good swerde and dagger, and for the armed souldiour, the same woulde bee but shorte, with waightie pomells, stronge, & narrowe poynted. One other thinge I woulde saye, and con­clude, for the regarde of souldiours, when a po­wer is to be leuied, and men prest into the warres, if it stande vppon no greater necessitie, but that such choyse maye be made, it is to be respected, that men of occupation, husbandmen, and suche like, (which after the warres ended, maye retourne to their trades, or els haue somwhat of their owne to liue ciuillye with all) be first taken. Secondlie it is to be considered, that men hauinge great charge See also Deut. 20. & 24. of children, or occupyinge, be the rather spared & exempted from the warres. For Iudas Machabeus the most redoubted Captaine of the hoast of Isra­ell, dismissed out of his armie, suche as newely ma­ried wyues, buylded houses, or planted vineardes, whereby their hartes beeynge left at home, they shoulde be the lesse valiaunt, and more lothe to hazarde their lynes. Good order must bee taken, that the commen wealthe be not pestered wyth idle and vnprofitable men, and the same once bee­inge purged, if none be after taken into the warres, but such as by their trades or other staye, are lyke to liue conuenientlie by their owne industrie or hauoyr, except so manie as maye be maintayned by the warres, preferred by pentions, or placed in garrisons afterwardes: souldiours shall not be dis­couraged to see manie of that sorte, the warres [Page 26] beinge dissolued, needie, neglected, and fallen in­to miseries. For surelie the souldiour, that is a ciuill man with all, is an especiall member of his coun­trey, to be regarded more then hee which is lesse able to serue the same, for it is a blessinge of God, both for the vse, necessarie, & of valure, worthye estimation. And therefore principallie, the gene­rall and Captaines ought after the warres ended, to retayne their tender affection towardes the souldiours, which haue serued them well, and to endeuour as they may, to preferre them. But ge­nerallie all good men ought to fauour and fur­ther honest souldiours, which hath a va­liaunt desire to propulse the ene­mie, & to purchase honour and sauftie, vnto their natiue countryes.

The seconde booke.

¶ Of the disciplyne and admonitions of warre.

AL bee it, that there can not bee rules ap­pointed, or prescribed to direct al the do­inges & affaires of warre, as well for that there is no leasure, vppon sodaine mis­chiefes to searche out presidētes or ponder lessons & rules, as also because of the infinite occasions & chaūces, that happen beyonde expectatiō. It were therefore an infinite (I may saye as Hanniball did by the dotinge discourse of olde Formio) a madd peece of woorke, to prescribe a particuler order Formio a philosopher. for euerie acte to be done in the warres, wherein the Captaine must followe the grounde and dy­rection of his wisedome and experience: But yet some certaine obseruatiōs there are for him most needefull: and presidentes of other excellēt cap­taines in great difficulties, maye bee good war­ninges & lessons in the like, to make a foundation and plott of politique inuention, & good iudge­ment, so that the Iron or stuffe thereby maye bee supplyed, but the hammer of the Captaines wise­dome, must worke and frame the same, vnto hys seuerall practises and occasiōs. Now therefore to goe into the matter, let vs see what aduātages, po­licie, by good experience and sure grounde of rea­son, hath taught vs to seeke in ioygninge battaile, and encounter with the enemie. First, if he come by sea, to aryue & take his landynge, Cassibellans [Page 27] example sheweth what is best to doe, who vnder­standinge of Iulius Caesars cōming out of Fraūce to inuade this land of Britayne, he foorth with ga­thered his power together, and ioyning them with the aide of Androgeus king of Kent, they procea­ded to the Sea side, wheare valiauntlie resistinge the arriuall of the Romaines, they were repulsed, and driuen backe to their shippes, well laden with blowes. Which declareth that great aduauntage is had to deale with the enemie, before he haue dis­charged all his power out of the shippes, being dis­ordered, and straighted in rome, and standing on slipperie places, hauinge some impediment of the water, before they can winne the firme shore. The like facilitie is there to withstand the enemie, at the mouthe or entringe of some streyghtes, or at the passinge of highe stepe hilles. Leonidas wyth Leonidas, and the armye of Xerxes. 600. Lacedemoniens keapinge the toppe of the hill where the huge hoaste of the Persiens were to passe, and enter into Grecia, at the streyghtes of Thermopilae, slewe theare more then xx. thousād of them. Caesar before recited, beeing to conueye his Armie ouer a riuer in Fraunce, the passage wheareof was defended & kept on the other side by Vergintorix, leader of the Frenchmen, he there fore knowinge how muche the enemie might a­uoide him, before he could gett ouer, vsed this po­licie to beguyle them: He caused a portion of hys armie drawen out of diuers bandes, to be priuelye lodged in a woode nighe, and theare to frame a lit­tle [Page] bridge, on the sodayne to be cast ouer the ryuer. thē, downe goeth he alonge by the shore, as tho­ughe he sought passage in some other place. The Frēchmen seing him remoue, bearing the iust nū ­ber of his ensignes, not doubting any double dea­ling, followeth wayghting vpō him alonge the o­ther side, Caesar, by that the bridge was made, spede lie retourning, passed ouer without lett or trouble. The like policye may bee well vsed, mee thinketh thus: to espy where sum̄ part of the riuer is shallow or otherwise most conuenientlye to be passed, & thē to carry away the enemy by colour of some at­tēpt in another place, & after to retourne vnto the same by night, or secretelie to lodge some sufficiēt parte of the armye behinde to passe the same, & in­uade the enemie on a sodayne at their backe, while the other parte of the armye proceadeth before, in the viewe, & gaze of the enemy. For the polityke Captayne oughte nothinge lesse to pretende in shewe, then that whiche in purpose he intendeth. For so haue famous Cityes bene surprised on the sodayne vnprouided, while a counterfaite prepa­ration hath bene made by the enemye, & a power lead an other waye, sometime againste a secrete friende, being in apparāce an enemy, till they haue both, ioygned to the mischiefe of a third partye, & so is it a practise at the syege of a Towne, to bende & encline al force & batterie in shewe to one side of the sāe, whē a secrete power is prepared to skale, & surprise it on sōe other parte, little regarded or [Page 28] defended. Hanno a Captayne of Carthage, being streightlie besyeged within a trenche, he enclosed himselfe most stronglye, as it seemed, on that parte where he purposed to breake forthe, which he af­terwardes setting on fire, escaped thorough wyth his armie, the enemies geuing no watche vnto that place. Nabides, at the syege of Lacedaemon, set fire on a parte of the Towne, where enemies weare en­tred, & by the trouble thereof, with a fresh assaulte made of the Townesmen, draue thē out agayne. Hanniball, on a time driuen into a streyght by Fa­bius the Romayne, so that hee was enforced by a great enconueniēce to passe a hill, where the armie of Fabius lay on the top thereof, he therefore cau­sed linkes & brādes, to be fastened vnto the hornes of a great nūber of oxen which weare in the campe, & setting thē on fire by night, the cattail were driuē with great noise & larum, vp to the enemies campe, which hearinge the terrible noise of the beastes, whē they felt the force of the fire, & also being ama zed with the sight, as though they stoode in doubt to fight with the dyuell, that made such a whorlye burlie: Hannibal the whilest, quietly cōueied ouer his armie. Diuers Captaynes whē they haue bene hardlie pursued, or let in like passage by the enemy, they haue setled their armies, and begonne tren­ches, as thoughe they would haue rested theare, or ioygned battaile shortlye, withe the enemye, which markinge & obseruinge the same, hath en­camped, & made the like preparation, whilest that [Page] the other haue vsed oportunitie to passe suche ry­uers, hilles, or gayne such groūde, as they desired. Also the excellent Captaines haue accustomed, when they vnderstoode that the enemie had made strongest the front, or some other singuler part of his battaile, they haue sett against the flanke, or weakest side theareof. Some other, haue suffered them selues to be enclosed by the enemies armie, to the ende, that the same beeinge brought out of order, they woulde breake thoroughe the weakest parte theareof, whiche hath happened to the great hurt of the enemie. Manye thinges theare are to be obserued, which geue great aduaūtage in the ioyg­ninge of battaile, as if thou canst trayne thy ene­mie into a streight or valley, & thy selfe to possesse the hilles, on bothe sides, as Hanniball caught the Romaine armie at Cannae. And alwayes it is good policie to haue the higher ground of the enemy, and to haue the aduauntage of the winde, and the sunne, for the same being in the face of the enemie, thou maist sett furthe a part of thine armye to in­uade his battaile on the one side, or at the backe, that their sight being troubled, they shall not per­ceaue wheare about thou goest, wheareby also if thou haue any ambushe in anye trenche, wood, or couert laide, as he shall marche, he is more apte to come into the same vndiscouered, & then, sodaine daungers when they be not knowen, or perfectlie sene, are the more feared. As the experience here­of was had by Epaminondas, a famous Captayne [Page 29] of Grecia, which supplyed this aduantage of the sonne, another waye, hee caused his light horse­men, in verie dustie wayes, to make an attempte vpon the enemye, and shortlie to withdrawe, and gallop backe before thē, the whilest Epaminondas came about vppon them, on the one syde, before they coulde discerne the order of his battaile, for the dust that was raysed, & so easelie vanquished them. The like practise maye be by a pyle of wood, or olde hedges in the waye of the enemyes sette on fire, to rayse a smoke, for a impedyment of their sighte, till some enterprise bee atchyeued. Where the one parte is exceading stronge, by store of horsemen or of shott, it is vndoubtedlie for the aduantage and sauftie of the other, to keepe in rough groundes, or neare some bankes, hilles, or woodes, & also to keepe their armie close that the horse men or shot be verie nigh vpon them, before they bringe foorth their battaill. So shall not the shott haue leasure or leuell to discharge, likelie to hurte, and horses in suche groundes disordered, and leapinge one vpon an others backe for lacke of roome, shall loose their force to take the starte vpō the enemie. Great policie also it is, if thou canst come with thy armie freshe vpon the enemie, wea­ried with muche trauaile, or beinge in anie mu­tine amonge thē selues, weakened or discouraged by want of victualles, or anie other perplexitie or distresse by ill tydinges out of their countrey, or some losse else where sustayned, before the same [Page] bee salued or supplyed by anie later victorye, or other good happe fallen vnto them, and it hathe been vsed, cūninglie to coygne, and cast abrode, imagined rumours of mischiefes towardes, to ap­pall and dismaye the enemie. Manie singuler and famous exploytes and victories haue been had & done, when the enemie hath been surprysed on the sodaine in disorder, or by nighte, for want of good espyall, when hee hathe not doubted anie daunger, and therefore it is good to bee circum­spect and readie, to stande still vpon guarde and defence, and little to truste the enemie duringe the warres. Titus Didius, beinge weaker then his ene­mie which was remouinge to encoūter a legion, comminge into his ayde, to staye that purpose, hee publyshed thoroughe out all his armie that he entended the next daye to fighte the fielde, and suffered certaine prysoners colourablie to escape, which freshlie coulde so orthe those newes when they retourned into their campe, whereby the ene­mie stayed, and the other sauflie receaued the suc­cour sent vnto him.

¶ To breake, or disorder the battaile of the ene­mye. Cap. 2.

OTher policyes there are to be remembred, and practised, when a battayle is orderlie sette, to breake or trouble the same, and this is one, to geue out with great noyse duringe the fight, that the ge­nerall [Page 30] on the other syde, is slayne, or that parte of hys battaile duringe the fighte, flyeth, or to make some sodaine shewe to be a terrour vnto them. As Caius Sulpitius, caused a manie of Pages vnder Romaine ensignes, with bad cast horses, cartes, & trumperie, to make a great muster & shew sodaine­lye vpon a hyll within sight, whyle he was a figh­tinge with the Frenchmen, whiche thereby being discomfited, he obtayned the victorie. But it is of greater effecte, if in deede there be a troupe closelie conueyed, or an ambushe layed, on the sodaine, to inuade the enemyes fightynge, at their backe, whiche maye most conuenientlie be done, where there be hilles or couert nyghe. Hanniball in a battaile against kynge Eumenes, threwe earthen pottes full of snakes and vipers amonge his ene­mies, wherewith they were presentlie frighted and disordered. The Spaniardes, against the armie of Plutarch in vita Hanni­balis. the Carthaginoys led by Amilcar, put in their fronte, Cartes full of Towe, drawen with Oxen, and ioygninge to fighte, they kyndeled fire in the same, by force whereof, the Oxen thrust furth in­to the battaile of the enemyes, and opened it. The Carts hooked, Horsemen. lyke hathe been done with Cartes full of hookes, by great power enforced and dryuen vppon the fronte of the enemies. For the auoydinge where­of Sylla the Romaine, planted Pyles & stakes be­fore his battaile, whereby the Cartes were stop­ped Stakes. and dyd not hurte. The lyke daunger maye bee auoyded by geeuynge waye vnto suche [Page] engyns, thorough spaces prepared in the fronte or first rankes, till they may bee turned a syde, by which practise also, great power and fierce assaulte of horsemen hath beecome vayne. Nowe to re­medie sodaine mischiefes, whiche maye fall, and to staye the armie from fearefull flight before there be cause: there bee two firme and necessarie rules constantlie to bee kepte, the one is, that no man for anie sodaine chaunce, terrour shewe by any practise or assault of the enemie made by daye or by night, take anie other waye or purpose, but to fight couragiouslie, till there be certaine signe ge­uen by the generall to retyre, or otherwise to deale. The other rule is, that the Captayne cir­cumuented or deceaued by the enemie, seeme to Tu ne cede malis, sed cō ­tra, auden­tior esto. Virg. doe the same willinglie, whiche hee is enforced vnto. Tullus Hostilius, in battayle seinge howe a bande of his hyred souldiours was tourned vnto the enemye, whereby hys menne were muche troubled and affrayed, hee foorthwith gaue vn­derstandinge throughe oute the armie, that there was nothinge done, but by his commaundemēt, and for a good purpose, Scipio goinge to inuade Affryke, hadde before made league and frendship with Syphax kinge of Numidia, whiche after­warde reuoltinge, sent him worde that he woulde be a frende vnto the other parte, but Scipio con­cealed this message from his souldiours, and sayde that hee sent vnto him to make haste on the iour­neye. Moreouer, yf parte of the armye flye, be­before [Page 31] the whole battayle be moued and broken, the wise and valiaunt Captaine may by vehemēt perswasions & meanes, bringe thē backe, & especi­ally the hardynes & noble courage of the general, may auayle hearein. As Lucius Silla, in a battayle againste Mithridates, certayne of hys legions, or bandes beinge put to flyght, he gott before thē with his swearde drawē, crying, if any aske you of your Captaines, saye, we lefte him in the fielde figh ting. Phillip king of Macedon, vnderstanding that his men feared the Scythiās, placed behinde his ar­mie, certaine of his most trustie horsemen, & gaue commaundement to keape in, and turne vpon the enemyes, such as shoulde flye, that they might bee slayne both of them, and of their friendes, wheare­by his souldiours determininge rather to dye ho­nourablye to the benefite of their Countrey, thē with shame, to the hurt thereof they became Con­querours. Some Captaines to geue occasion to the souldiours to vse greater endeuour, and to put out their force thoroughlye, haue throwen an en­signe amongest the enemyes, and appointed re­warde to him which could recouer it againe. And whē they enemye lodgeth within streyghtes, tren­ches, or places enuirōned with hilles, meanes may bee founde to prouoke him to battaile, by cut­tinge of, his foragers, and prouision of victualles, or to faine that thou remouest to some other en­terprise, withdrawinge till hee be dislodged. But Paulus Aemilius in Macedonia to encounter, and [Page] deale with the Armye of Perses, restinge at the foote of the hill Olympus, in a place maruailous­lye by nature enuironned, & by arte fortified, hee Martius a­gainst the Dutchmen, & Flaminiꝰ against Phil­lip kinge of Macedon, conueyed a troupe vp a hill, to come downe vpon the enemy at their backes, while they were in fight belowe. conueyed his armye secretelye by night, vp the stepe, & vnhaunted wayes of the hill, not suspected or watched of the enemye, so that he came downe the more sodainlie vppon them, to their greater spoile & losse. Cato Maior by the verie same means, came vpon Antiochus, beinge stronglye guarded & defended, in the streyghtes of Thermopylae in Graecia, at which enterprise, the kinge Antiochus, being greatly hurte with a stone, his armie fledde. Scipio the excellent Captaine, goinge to subdue Afrique, procured in so great warres, the aide of K. Masinissa, whom shorthe after his arryuall there, he sēt to prouoke Hanno generall on the other side, for the Carthaginois to fight, who seing the small number with Masinissa led, proceaded against him with all his power on a heape, and the other after a feawe blowes, fayninge to flye, brought the ene­my foorth vnto Fooles baye, vpō the hoast of Sci­pio, which he had arrayed and sett in excellent or­der of battaile, readye to receaue the enemie: So was Hanno there slayne, and his disordered Ar­mie put to flyghte. Then Scipio purposinge the syege of the Citye Vtica, and hearinge of the com­minge of Hasdruball and Syphax, with a myghtye power agaynst him, hee planted his Armye vpon an hyll, wheare he might saue and defende his na­uye, and also with sum̄ aduauntage fighte wyth [Page 32] the enemye. And when he had vnderstandynge, that the enemyes had setled bothe their campes nyghe, and that their tentes weare made wythe woode and bull rushes warme, for the wynter time, he sent Masinissa, and. C. Laelius, to sett fire on thē by night, and with all to assayle Syphax, whyche done, the fire also taketh Hasdruballes campe, & the Carthaginoys runninge foorth in heapes vnto the broyle, they fell all into the Romaynes hādes: So that theare weare then slaine almost. xl. thou­sande of them. Thus mightie powers be by poli­cie, smothelie vanquished, and great estates lyghtlie ouerthrowen, & wyse men seing the rocke, wheare­on other men wracke, are warned and waxe ware, taking by their losse, a lesson to guyde their owne affayres.

¶ Aduertysementes how the armye that is weaker then the enemyes, may growe stronger, or saue it selfe. Cap. 3.

IT is a policie in this case, to drawe vnto thee, sum̄ of the enemyes friendes or ayde, by promise of great thinges, hope of large dominyon, & bene­fites, to follow, or by practise to sowe discētion, or mislike, betwene thē, as when Siphax king of Nu­midia, had ioygned league with the Romaines, to ayde thē in the warres of Afrique, the Carthaginois sent Ambassadours vnto him, declaringe the am­bition of the Romaines, howe by litle & litle, they sought cūninglie to subdue al other Princes, & be­ing once entred into Afrique, that they would not [Page] cease, till they had obtayned it all, wheareof his Countreye was parte: and by other such enduce­mentes, withdrewe him from the Romaynes, with all his power to assiste them. The like deuise had Hannibal after, to wynne Antiochus kinge of Ma­cedonia, and Prusias kinge of Bithynia, to the aide of the Carthaginoys. Also it profiteth no lesse, to geue occasion vnto the enemye, to distrust, or dis­place their best friendes or Captaines. The Athe­niens weare alwayes victours, till they banished their excellent Captaine Alcibiades, and shortlye after weare subdued by the Lacedaemoniens. And if the Romaines had not banished Coriolan: The Volsciens before subdued, had not afterwardes put Rome in daūger of ruyne, & vtter ouerthowe. Alcibiades vsed the like practise to make a iarre be­tweene Duke Tissaphernes, and his mayster the kinge of Persia. Hanniball wasted and spoyled wheare euer he went in Italye, sauinge onelye the possessions of Fabius vntouched, which he dyd, to cause the Romaines to houlde their best Captaine suspected. Some haue vsed to the same ende, to make manye priuate conferēces with the Generall of the enemyes, sending sundry letters secretelye, & sometime presentes, working also that some sus­pitious letter, of an imagined conference or prac­tise betwene thē, may come to the Princes hādes, vnder whom such Generall is deputed. By these meanes, haue excellēt Captaynes bene displaced, warres stayed, and the weaker parte in the meane [Page 33] tyme hathe gathered strength. Other wayes there are to detracte battaile, and to saue an armie, at neede, frō the greater power of the enemie, which is to encampe stronglie within some trenche or lyke place, or else to bee backed with some fenne, maryshe, steepe hyll, or ryuer, so that the enemye haue but one waye vnto them: and that beinge the streyghter, is the more aduauntage for the fewer number. Fabius vsed this waye with Hanniball, seekinge and endeuoutinge daylie for thauoy­dinge of dyuers enconueniences, to fighte wyth him: but Fabius encamped alwayes so cunning­lie, and with suche aduauntages for the fielde, that the other without great daunger coulde not deale with him. Marius thus encamped at the mouthe of the ryuer Rhodanus, the infinite multitude of the Duchemen, durst not inuade him, till hee brought foorth his armie into the fieldes. But two other wayes there are, more certaine to bee saufe from the enemie. The one is to puruey thy campe distant at the leaste a dayes iourneye from hym, remoouinge alwayes in the open countrey, that thou bee not stayed by hilles or ryuers &c to passe vnto the sea syde, or suche place where thou desy­rest to rest thyne armie. The other helpe is, if thou bee wylling to assaye the force of the enemie with­out anie great losse, and to abyde him in the fielde, then it is best for thee to keepe thy selfe neare vnto some strong towne of thine owne, or thy frendes, where thou mayst withdrawe thine armie from [Page] pursute of the enemie, if he prooue the stronger in battaile. So did Eumenes saufelie retyre into the Cytie Nora, from the armie of Antigonus. It is good to prouyde for the woorst, as it is common lie saide, for the best will saue it selfe.

¶ Howe to conducte an armie, & proceade with the same in a fo­reyne countrey, & of the necessaries thereunto. Cap. 4.

IT is first to be considered, that armed men, vic­tualls, and moneye, be the accidentes insepe­rable, or rather the substaunce and strengthe of warres. There must bee prouyded also for an ar­mie, store of Iron, and staffe tymber, to make wea­pons of all sortes, with sundrie artificers, for dy­uers purposes, powder must bee had with plen­tie, carriages, and cattaill good store to followe the campe, for necessaryes, with vtensyles and suche like. And if an armie be led into a foreyne coun­trey, there must be the greater store of this proui­sion, and forage also to bee had, and yet maye not the campe bee pestered with caryages, for then it can not so lightlie remoue, as occasions maye re­quire. Also when souldiours haue muche carriage beinge greatlie enritched with spoyles, their min­des are sometime more vppon their baggage, thē vpon battaill. And if they sende often of the same into their countrey, their hartes be also at home. Great Alexander therefore seeinge his armie one time, so laden with booties and pryses, he burned [Page 34] all the surplusage of the carriages whiche myght encumber them, beinge of a great substance. But a more politike and profitable waye it weare, to pro uyde to haue some one stronge towne or twayne, where the warres are, to conuey the same into, which shalbee moreouer a maker of great benefite & vse, daylie vnto the armie, and to the state of the warres dyuers wayes, as for reliefe of suche as bee hurte from time to time, also to receaue suche ayde of men, victualles, or other necessaries, as shal be sent from home, to keepe the same till it maye be saufelie conueyed into the armie, and not surpry­sed of the enemie by the waye. Also it is a neces­sarie place, to soiourne in wynter time, (for the wynter warres be more noysome & tedious then profitable) or to withdrawe into, when the armie or store of thinges is spent, or worne with war­res there, it is a good restinge place till supplie be had of their wantes. And if the same be neare vn­to the Sea syde, and towardes home, It is farre the more commodious. Nowe the waye to ob­tayne and wynne suche a towne or herbour the more easelie, is in the begynninge to make thyne aryuall so dayne, and in a place vnlooked for, that the enemye maye bee surprysed vnfurny­shed. And it is not best to spende muche of thy store of menne or pouysion, in the wynninge of manye Townes at the fyrste. For fyue bat­tayles haue beene fougheten wyth losse of fe­wer menne, them some one Cytye is wonne [Page] withall, and therefore, will not the wise Captayne so weaken him selfe, before the great necessitie & mayne force of battayle. For it is to be conside­red withall, that manie townes taken, requyre ma nie garrisons to bee assigned, for the defence and keepinge of the same, all whiche dismember an armie and put it downe, as muche as anie prac­tise of the enemie against the same maye do. For the armie is the assurāce of warres, without which thou canst little annoye or terrifie the enemie, nor yet longe maintaine or defende thy walled tow­nes from hym, for if hee possesse the countrey with his men, hee shall cutt of tyllage, and stoppe all trades vnto the townes, by whiche they onely maye liue and be maintained. And therefore that Prince that possesseth stronge townes, and dareth not, or hath not power to keepe the fielde, and de­fende his countrey by battaile, if he be cunning­lie dealt with, will vndoubtedlie prooue a pesant. And therefore the knowledge to guyde an armie into the fielde, and to order & make battaile with skill and aduauntage, is misteresse of all dominion and victorye, for thereunto all warres maye bee brought in the ende. And in passinge foorth with his armie, let the generall auoide streightes, obserue good orders, and choose his grounde and wayes commodious as he goeth. Nowe let vs see, whe­ther policie counsayleth, as soone as thou arte en­tered into the enemies countrey, and that he will offer battaile to receaue the same, and shortlie to [Page 35] trye the matter? Herein I am not of opinion, that it is generally best to detracte battail, except there be some aduantage to be taken and vsed in ioygning of the same, for so the one may goe about the other longe enoughe to little purpose. But other circum­stances and accidentes are to be considered in this generaltie. For commonlye it is for the behoufe of him, whose Countrey is inuaded, to seke battaile for auoydinge spoyle of the same: But yet it is to be considered, that if the other bee like shortely to be wearied, or be neare some mischiefe by mutine, or for some wantes forced to forsake the coūtrey, & that it shoulde be daungerous to deale wyth him for his force, then policye perswadeth to protracte battaile on that parte. And generallye the inuader, as longe as he proceadeth with spoyle, to plage the enemy, & to enritche himselfe, hath not necessity to hasten battaile, but maye take the time best for his aduauntage. How be it, occasions may growe on, otherwise, and be vrgent vnto him to ioygne bat­taile spedelye, as by encrease of ayde comminge towardes the enemie, or casuall empayring of his owne present power. Moreouer, vnto him which hath manye hyered souldiers, it is more requisite to make hast vnto battaile, and to end the warres, as well for the great charge of that retinue, as for the daylie daunger of their vnsure seruice, and doubt of reuoltinge vnto the enemye, being mo­ney men, by corruption, or for a greater paye, they lightlie leaue their mayster in his greatest neade. [Page] For seldome haue theare bene greate conquestes made by force of hyred menne. The Romaynes, and the Grekes, warred withe their owne Souldi­ours against all nations. Great Pompeye, withe the natiue people of Italie, ouercame Mithridates with hys huge Armye, of more then twentye Nations. Of later tymes, the estates of Italye haue bene vsur­ped and ouerrunne, by vsinge the helpe of hyred Souldiours. And the Venetiās, (hauing otherwise moste excellent gouernement, and plentyfull pro­uisyon of all thinges, both for peace & warre) but for thys cause onelye, had growen to haue greate Empyre. This Realme of Britayne, hath sum̄ ex­perience of these hurtes, beinge sumtime oppressed by the hyred Saxons, vnder Hengistus. But nowe to trie the truste, and faithe of hired Souldiours before their infidelitie, or defection maye great­lie hurte: It is good before thy greate neade, and daye of battaile, to sende them foorthe wythe a feawe of thyne owne approued men, to sum̄ ex­ploite, supposed to bee of greate importaunce, and to plante priuelie by the waye, or to sende af­ter them a sufficient number of trustye Souldi­ours, to doe the same feate, if the other shoulde bee false, or faile in the same. Also it is policye for the same purpose, to conferre with the Cap­taynes of them that are suspected of suche matters as thou entendest not to doe but in shewe, to see if they wyll keape the same secrete, or geue pri­uye aduertysement theareof vnto the Enemye. [Page 36] The like proofe is made by delyuering to the lea­der of thē, letters sealed, pretending great wayght, and purportinge little, to bee sent foorthe to sum̄ friende, to see whether the same should be opened or not saufelye conueyed in tyme.

¶ VVhether it be more profitable, to seeke the great Towne, or the lesse, and how best to wynne the same. Cap. 5.

NOw is it further to bee knowen, for takinge of houldes within the enemies dominiō, that the larger be rather to be sought for, thē the lesse. And thearefore the Citie which is of greatest trade to en­riche the enemie, or such large towne as is so scitu­ate, that it may most annoye him, if thou be able to furnishe the same with garrisons, is most auaylable for diuers causes. Alcibiades, the excellēt Captaine, entrynge Sicilia to make warres theare, first tooke the greate Citye Rhegium, & nexte besyeged Ca­tina, not farre from Syracuse, the chiefe Citye of the Realme. Scipio began hys warres in Spayne, withe the syege of newe Carthage, the principall citie there both of trade & power: And in like sorte inuadyng Afrique, he foorthwith layde syege vnto Vtica, a famous citie, stāding on the sea side, wheare he also harboured and kept his shippes, so that he might cut of all ayde & succoure, both by lande & sea frō the towne. Now for the maner of subduing holdes, it is to be agreed, that the best waye of wyn ning, is that, whych is with moste speade, & leaste [Page] losse. And thearefore, if a Towne maye not be sur­prised and taken by sum̄ trayne or policie, it is lesse daunger to inuade and force the enemye, by fa­mine, then with the swearde. How Zopyrus suttle­lie caughte the Babiloniens (fayninge him selfe fledde from his Prince, for crueltie shewed vnto him, and being of them vnder fayned friendshipe receaued, betrayed their Citie,) the maner theare­of is declared at large, in the first booke. This shift also hath bene vsed, when a Captayne had vnder­standynge of ayde looked for by the besyeged, he hath apparelled a troupe of his owne souldy­ours, vnder the ensigne of those whiche shoulde come vnto them, and so to haue taken the Towne. Cimon of Athens, besieginge a Towne, by nighte sett fire on a temple in the suburbes of the same whearefore sum̄ of the Townes men rashelie run­ninge out to succour it, the enemie entered in vp­on thē. Also the besieged are more easelie enduced to yelde, by signifiynge vnto them, sum̄ great vic­torie latelye hadde against their Prince, or other streightes that he is brought into. Sum̄ haue prac­tised to haue friendes within a towne, to perswade them, to issue out vpon the enemie, or to doe sum̄ other acte vnto their owne ouerthrowe. And such persons haue geuen intelligence by letters fastened to arrowes, and shote foorthe vnto the enemies, of the state and dealinges within the Towne, as of the weakest parte theareof or least defended, of the custome of the watche, when and howe they [Page 37] maye be deceaued, that the enemie maye enter vpō them vnware. The Frenchmen corrupted Tarpeia a mayden, to lett them in, by a little posterne doore into the Capitall of Roome. But in this case, dili­gent examination must be made by captaines, for double dealinge, that they be not abused in their practises, the same beinge disclosed vnto the ene­mie: which hath sometime suffered parte of the ad­uersaries power, to ēter within his houlde to their destructiō, hauinge prepared, sodainlie to repulse and shutt out the rest. For the takinge of a stronge towne by famine, it is a good waye to winne sum̄ weaker-nighe, & to tourne out the inhabitauntes thereof, that they may be receaued into the other, & so their victualls, the soner consumed. Fabius suffered thē of a towne, whom he woulde besiege, to sowe their fieldes, to the entēt that they shoulde haue the lesse corne in store. Sometime, townes be sieged haue desired a parle or truce for a time, to the ende that the siege not beinge straightlie kept, they might in the meane time receaue in, ayde of mē or victuals. And therefore the siege ought not to be slacked by suche pretence, but good watche to be alwaies abrode. For it hath chaūced that an army lying at the siege of a towne, hath ben on the sodaine inuaded of enemies at the backe, & withall they of the towne haue issued foorth vpon them, to their ouerthrowe. It must be alwaies holden of the good captaine as a principall grounde, that hee haue diligent espyall of the enemies doynges, & [Page] keepe his owne secrete. And therefore hee consul­teth, and conferreth with manie, what is best to be done: but that which he determineth to doe, hee reuealeth to fewe or none. Hee must also haue re­garde, that his custome or certaine order vsed in some doinges, disclose not anie of his purposes vn to the enemie, and therefore the same must bee often varied and chaunged. It is good also to en­campe in suche place as the enemie see not what is done within the campe. For if he perceaue that thou receaue in, anie ayde or encrease of power, or sende foorth anie troupe to anie attempte or ex­ploycte, he armeth him selfe and prouideth accor­dinglie. For as sodaine daūgers be more dreadful: so a man warned before, is saide to be armed.

¶ Howe the excellent Captaynes haue encouraged their souldiers vnto battail, & made thē hardie & valiant in fight. Ca. 6.

IT is to be carefullie considered of the captaine, that his souldiers be not afrayde when he go­eth to battaill, but that they maye valiauntlie de­sire to encounter the enemie. And therefore such meanes, as maye remooue from them doubte or distruste, and put into them courage and hope, are expedient for him to finde. As for the purpose, some people doe stumble muche at sygnes or to­kens which fall before battaill, cōiecturinge there by the determination of God, and euente or suc­cesse of the battaile. wherefore the wyse captayne will chearefullye expounde all suche chaunces for hys aduauntage, as if an auncient happen to fall, [Page 38] vppon the Captaines head, before the battaill, he sayeth, the same is a happie sygne of the victorye fallinge vnto him. For they which haue the sub­stance of vertue, are not to bee feared by the sha­dowe of coniectures. It is written of Scipio, that at his landing in Affryque, his feete slipped, so that he fell downe to the grounde, where at, when hee sawe diuers of his armie dismayed, he laughed say­inge, all is our owne, I haue heare taken possessi­on of the lande. Other haue vsyd by some fayned dreame or olde prophecy, to put their souldiours in firme hope & expectation of victorye. Marius, when he was to deale with the Dutchmen, an ene­mie not accustomed vnto the Romaines, beynge tall bigge men of person, they were not in cleane & quiet conscience with the matter, but somewhat afrayde, whiche Marius perceauinge, sayde, those longe bodies shewe a sure signe, that they be slowe, & lasye lowtes, & so stayed the battaill some dayes, why lest that the Romaynes by custome of often syght, & some skirmishes had with them, were es­tablished in stomacke, & desired to fight with thē. It is written of a captaine, when his armie was in the fielde ready to ioygne battail, some of the for­most ranke beinge afrayde seeinge the braue mar­ching of the enemies, he extēded & helde his cloke before their faces, sayinge, nowe you see nothing to feare, you are saufe, by that meanes reprouing thē, not to dreade beefore there was cause. Alexander the great, whē he was in the fielde with his plaine [Page] [...] [Page 38] [...] [Page] souldiours in his first warres, manie of them bee­inge poore fellowes, hauinge woodden shyeldes, and olde weapons vsed before in his father Phillip his warres, whiche seeinge the huge hoste of Da­rius his enemie, with the brauerie of the people, their armure and all thinges glisteringe, and gor­geous, the noyse of a multitude of charyottes and horses also beinge terrible vnto them, he saide to his men, our enemies are come to make a shewe or maske, & therefore we must make them daunce & runne also. See you those golden armures, gaye weapons, and goodlie geare, it is better to haue woodden shyeldes then woodden men to beare them, the spoyle of this glorious hoste will make you riche & gallant fellowes, for all that you see is yours, if you playe the men, and whatsouer kinge It is written that Hanni­ball shoulde vse the same speache to kinge Antio­chus, lea­dinge his ga­lant armye against the Romaines. Darius hath besides. Also thinke you, that thys dayes battaile, maye geeue vs the dominion & seig­niourie ouer all the worlde. For who can withstād vs, if we conquere the great kinge Darius, the fame of whiche victorie will moste swyftlie flye into Graecia, and to the moste hyghe honour of your countrey all Prynces & nations shall knowe the manhoode and prowesse of the Macaedoniens, and where soeuer you goe, the fame thereof shall followe you. Nowesyth that hyther wee are come foorthe to wynne honoure, lett not our longe trauayles bee frustrate or fruitelesse, and wee to runne home deluded, and laden wyth shame. Our countrey shall then wyth dysdayne [Page 39] behoulde you, remembringe howe your aunces­tours vnder my father, by force euen on their shoulders, lifted vp the dominion thereof ouer di­uers natiōs, & your selues hunted & chased home, shalbe ashamed to see your frindes. And thearefore if we bee here repulsed, wheare shall wee without reproche bee receaued. So that to rest vpon, wee haue but two wayes, wheare of we must determine to take one: that is either to wynne the victorie, or to dye heare with honour. By these perswasions, (wheare as Darius thought by his great pompe, & trayne of men to haue daunted & dismayed the enemie:) Alexander turned the same to be a great encouragement vnto his armye. Furthermore, if the souldiour be afrayde, by store of terrible ordi­naunce, straunge engins, or daungerous deuyses of the enemie, the same must be by like inuention, & industrie preuented or encountred, as by setling sum̄ ambush priuelie to surprise the same, or by set­tinge on sum̄ bande of horsemen, to interrupte the plantinge theareof, or to make sum̄ like exployte as noysome vnto the enemie, that the battaile may come on before the same can take effecte to doe a­nye great hurt. Thus, must the politique captaine make readie, an Oliuer for a roulāde, to remoue all stumblinge blockes and impedimentes, from the good courage of the Souldiour, so that without stickinge, most valiauntlie he maye marche to as­saile the enemie. Iulius Caesar excelled other, for trayninge, and makinge valiaunt & noble minded [Page] souldiours by notable examples, politike instruc­tions, and practises which he vsed to enduce thē thereunto, and to aduaunce their courages to at­tempte and atchyeue moste highe and honorable thinges. And with all he shewed such courtesie and good affection towardes thē, that neuer any man had souldiours of greater endeuour and valure, or more faithfull towardes their Captayne. As it ap­peared a little before the great and finall battayle, betwene him and Pompeye, when his armie was in such necessitye of victualles, that they hadde no foode, but onelie of mylke and rootes, as they coulde mingle the same. Yet made they day­lye skirmishes withe the contrarie parte, and eft­soones preuayled thearein. An other tyme a shippe of Caesars souldiours, beeinge taken by a gouernour vnder Pompeye, which promised vn­to one of them for the good reporte whiche hee had of his manhode; that he should haue pardone, and be receaued to serue Pompeye: he aunswered that Caesars Souldiours vsed to geue life and li­bertie vnto other, and not to receaue the same of almes, or to sell their Captayne for crauenous feare. And so resisting to be apprehēded, after that hee had slayne diuers of his enemyes, hee leaped into a riuer, and escaped by swimming. The soul­diours of Caesar also sustayning so constantlie, the greate and continuall battailles in Fraunce and Germanye, withe terrible trauayles ouer moun­taynes, and harde passage of ryuers and floodes, [Page 40] in the percyng coulde, and sharpe stormes of win­ter, shewed their inuincible courage, & good will to follow their Captayne.

¶ How to vse victorye, and what clemencye is to be vsed towardes the conquered, and of the hurte which commeth by securitye. Cap. 7.

AFter a victorye obtayned, howe to pursue the same, & to deale with the enemye, two thinges are to be considered, one is, the enemye being sub­dued, and all setled and confirmed in quyet, that tyrannie bee not shewed, but reasonable lawes, orders, and conditions established vnto the con quered: The other is, that theare bee no slacknes or negligence vsed, vntill the victorye bee per­fecte, and accomplyshed in euerye parte, daun­gers fledde farre awaye, the force of the Ene­mye broken downe and suppressed. For by se­curitye, these myschiefes haue growen, that af­ter manye battayles withe greate honour, and prowesse foughten, infinyte trauayles sustayned, and sundrye Realmes subdued, one dayes careles securitye and vndiscrete dysorder, hathe sub­uerted all, turnynge the state of Conquerours into captiuitye. As the Carthaginoys, hauynge slayne the two Scipioes in Spayne, and wythe greate ruyne repulsed and pulled downe the Ro­mayne power, not regarding those that remayned theareof dispersed, they weare by the relycques of [Page] the same armie (gathered together vnder Lucius Martius) ouerthrowen. Brennus & Belinus before mencioned, beeinge enryched by the plentifull spoiles of Italie, and sacke of Rome, as they retour­ned in securitie and disorder, weare on the sodaine inuaded by Camillus, withe a feawe of the people before conquered, and the victorie being wrested againe out of their handes, they weare cleane be­reft the fruites of their former conquest. The re­doubted Cyrus, beinge the verye example of great Alexanders noble courage, when he had by mar­tiall prowesse obtayned the mightie estate of Per­sia, and subdued diuers kingdomes, afterwardes inuadinge Scythia, wheare he had a great victorye against that fierce nation, by this policye fayning when he was entred within the Countrey, that he repented of his attempte, and makinge a shewe of hastie fliynge, lefte his tentes stored withe good wynes, and delicate cheare, which the barbarous people pursuing after, so plyed and typled square, that tomblinge together at night surcharged with wyne, and heauie of sleape, Cyrus not farre with drawen, came vpon them, and slewe them euerye mothers sonne: After which victorie, Thomyris Queene of the lande, not discomforted woman­like, (as Cyrus thought, reckoning to rashely with a shrewde hostis) but purposing & preparing a re­uenge, by like crafte to acquite him, & ouer reache him in his owne arte, she fled farre within the coū ­trey, fayninge feare, but meaninge mischiefe, to [Page 41] trayne the enemie followinge in disorder, & roo­minge at random into streigtes, where she had pri­uelye plāted ambushes on the hilles on euery side, which sodainlye inuadinge Cyrus and his hoste, slewe them all, so that of two hundred thousande men, there escaped not one, to make reporte of the battaill. Marcus Antonius, after manie most fa­mous victories restinge in Egipt out of tyme, re­garded not the daungers at Roome, whiche see­med so farre of remooued from him, but soone they came on him, whyle he snorted in carelesse se­curitie to his vtter ouerthrowe. He that will goe drye, must carrye a cloke for feare of the cloude, which sheweth from a farre. I will not waste tyme, to declare the further mischiefes & destructyons chaunced thoroughe rashe and ouerhastie recko­ninge of vnrype victorie, and vnsure saufetye. These maye suffyce to warne him, which maye as­sure him selfe by good order, in armes and battaill to be saufe, & of power inuincible, that by rashnes, for lacke of guyde and circumspect foresyght, hee tumble not vpon the enemies swerde. After one victorie had, foorth with the enemie must bee or­derlie pursued, and not suffered by rest to renue his faintinge force, but when he staggereth, stryke on still till he be downe, and his power fast shutt vp. Then the warres beinge thoroughlie ended, & the captiue liuinge vnder the lawe, & rule of the con­querour, his honour is muche encreased by she­winge of clemencie, & shunninge of hatefull cru­eltye. [Page] For, that humanitie requireth, & this, chris­tianitye See Deut. 20. cōmaundeth to doe. Sum̄ haue vsed their conquestes ouer suche as haue yelded vnto their dominion, that sauinge onelie the chaūge of their prince or gouernour, they haue suffered no alte­ration of lawes, libertie, estate or degree. The Ro­maines vsed to appoint deputies & gouernours, with competent garrisons, vnto the landes con­quered, taxinge them with a meane tribute, and takinge hostages for the same: so they retourned, & left thē quiet. The noble courtesie, which great Alexander vsed towardes the captyue wyfe and daughters of Darius, enlarged & spred abrode his honour, to the furtherāce of his conquestes follo­wing. What a preparatiue was made vnto Scipio his good successe, what a foūdation towardes the proceadinge of his warrelike affaires, by his ho­nourable vsinge of prince Luceius his wife, & ly­beralitie vsed towardes Masinissaes nephewe, the great and continuall seruice of those princes after­wardes in his warres, as before is recyted, suffy ci­entlie sheweth. And whatsoeuer lawes, fraunchyse or grauntes, the generalls of armies haue estably­shed & made vnto the conquered, the princes and estates, vnder whom they were deputed & orday­ned, haue alwaies ratified & inuiolablye obserued and allowed the same compositions.

¶ Of the beginninge, & iust cause of warres. Cap. 8.

FOr that the iust quarell encouragethe, and commenlye bryngethe prosperous successe: it [Page 42] is to bee consydered, what maye bee a good grounde and cause to vse weapons, and begynne warres, by the lawe of nature, Iustice, and pryn­cipallie by the lawe of God: whiche ought to bee the foundation and rule of all our doynges, of whom wee ought to take all our begynninges, by whom affayres prosperouslye proceade, and hap­pelye ende, without whom nothinge encreasethe or groweth to anie good effecte. That warres may bee iustlye made, and howe diuers good menne haue attempted and vsed the same, we reade in the holye booke: Almightie God hath stirred vp dy­uers as well Prynces, as priuate menne, or com­men persons to take armes, and vse force agaynst the wicked. The children of Israell vnder Iosua, by Iosua. the cōmaundement & leadinge of God, conque­red the Cananites, expelled the miscreaunt and idolotrous nations, and possessed their landes. Saul, & Sampson were raysed by him, to plague the Philistynes with battaile. The Assyriens, were King Saul. Sampson. brought by hym into Iudea, for the captiuitye of the people, when they ranne at ryot, and left to serue the true God, whyche moste meruaylous­lye had shewen hys power, and moste tenderlye his loue vnto them. Iudas Machabeus also, and Iudas Mach. Gedeon, were leaders of the Israelytes against the enemies of God by his ordinaunces, by which al­so, Gedeon. Iehu, was mooued to make warres for the des­truction Iehu. of the house of Ahab. And who sēt Titus from Rome, to enuiron Hierusalem, with the most [Page] dreadfull and fatall siege, the ende & ruyne where Titus sonne of thempe­rour Vespa­tien. of, was foretoulde by the mouth of the Almightie. But for our purpose, to shewe howe there maye be iust cause to leuie and prosecute warres, & to dys­cerne of right herein, we are to serch for the roote & originall thereof. The worlde, God created & gaue vnto the sonnes of men, & this conditiō, the geeuer most iustlie annexed, this he enioyned with all, that no man shoulde couet, that whiche to an other belōgeth, and that to euery man belongeth, which he without wrong enioyeth. For in the be­ginninge, when there was no auncient tytles to be made to landes, or lordship: possession caused good right, this is the lawe of nature and equali­tie, & it is also in the ciuill lawe allowed, that those thinges wherein no man hath propertie or interest, are his, which first possesseth them, which he maye lawfullie houlde, & therefore ought not by force to be dispossessed of the same. Muche lesse, where possession is planted, and setled vppon auncyent ryght, or grounded on other good tytle. A later lawe there is, of the most highe God generallie ge­uen, which endureth the iustice of the first lawe, that euerie mā shoulde doe so, as hee woulde bee done vnto. And this is the iust measure, the direct rule, & certaine boūdes betwene righte & wrong, which beeinge considered, we shall knowe how to vse warres, and to dyrecte all our doynges well. Now lett vs runne as farre as wee maye, into the course of antiquitie, to serche the first beginninges [Page 43] and causes of warres, that wee may conferre them with the euentes and successe theareof, for the bet­ter knowledge and iudgement herein. We finde, that Cain the eldest sonne of Adam, in the firste Cain. time of the worlde liued so long, that diuers lādes in the East partes beyng peopled, he buylded a city for feare of his enemies, knowinge iuste cause gi­uen by him to be odious vnto men, for the vnna­turall parricy de and murder of his brother. For at that time, Iaball the sonne of Lamech, was growen Iaball. mightie, and excercised armes against such as vsed vniust violence or oppression. Tubalcain was thē Thubalcain. the first that wrought on Iron, & forged weapons for that purpose. For as yet, theare was no kyng­dome established, nor countrey by conquest sub­dued, the pompe of Princes was not knowen, men desired not then, soueraintie ouer estates, but prepared by armes to shilde their owne, in saufe­tie, when they had no lawe to defende them. This beginninge of warres was made, in the first age, and no more we reade of, till after the floode: when the three sonnes of Noah, with their manifolde issue multiplyed, possessed the sundrye regions of Semin Asia. Cam in Afrique. Iaphet in Europe. Thuball. the worlde. Sem setled in Asia, Cam came into Afrique, and Iaphet inhabited Europe, whose of­spring shortlie spred abrode into the sudry partes, regiōs & prouinces of the same. Then waxed Thu­ball the sōne of Iaphet, mightie in power, and bare rule aboue the rest. This man renued againe the vse of weapons. Soone after, Nimrod began & aduaū ­ced Nimrod. the firste kingdome ouer Chaldea, wheare he [Page] buylt the citie Babell, subduinge people & Coun­treies, by oppression and oultrage of warres, vnder his dominion. And thearefore the same violent Empire, lasted not longe, but it shortlye sonke, & was drowned in the great estate, which Assur ray­sed in assirya, the lande yet now bearinge his name. Assur. He buylt the Citye Niniue, Rezen, & others, by iust conquestes, amplifiynge his seigniorie. After him succeaded Ninus, in the time of the patriarke Abraham, whiche enuironned Babilon withe a stronge wall, and muche beawtified the Citie, as the chiefe seate of his estate. Hee subdued the Bactriens, and other nations, makinge vnto him selfe a mightie Monarchye aboue other Kinges, by honourable, & not iniurious warres, as it may appeare by the continuaunce of thys Empyre, whiche remained amonge the Assiryens, aboue 1300. yeares, vntill the raigne of Sardanapalus, Sardanapalꝰ. whose estate thoroughe his beastlike lasciuyous life, was taken from him by Arbactus, a Prince of the Medes. Abraham him selfe made warres with Arbactꝰ. Abraham. the kinge of Sodome, and fower other Princes, vsinge at that time good order and policye in his battaile. And thearefore they that affirme Ni­nus, Mars, or Hercules, to bee the beginners, Ninus. Mars. Hercules. and firste vsers of warres, and order of battaile, are not learned in reading, for that theare is large proofe of those before alleaged. And as for Mars, he was the sonne of Saturne, whiche was kinge of Crete, at that time when Ianus raygned in Italye, and that was about the time of Mofes. And Her­cules [Page 44] of Thebes, lyued after that, in the time of Saull king of Iudea, or a little before by sum̄ wri­ters, which was soone after the buylding of Troye. Mars made warre of ambition, and lordlye minde to rule: But Hercules, the patron of Iustice, and champion of noble prowesse, thrust him selfe into all daungers of battaile, to redresse iniuries, re­presse rapyne, & oppression, to roote out tirantes, to maintayne & defende right, to spred the valyle of prosperous peace, and wished saufe securitye ouer the worlde, to shewe example of most hyghe vertue and valure, punishinge robbers, and pur­ginge countryes of mischeuous malefactours, and v le persons. For whiche his ryghteous affection, and iust minde, as of deuyne vertue proceadinge, he was after hys deathe honoured and holden as a God. Romulus, to erecte a famous Citie, and es­tablishe Romulus. an happye estate withe excellent lawes, orders, and gouernement, called people toge­ther, and made warres for the compassinge, and encreasinge thereof. So dyd the auncient kinge Belus of Assiria, and Phoroneus in Grecia, sub­due Belus. Phoroneus. people to good order and conuenient course of lyfe, geuinge vnto them lawes for their pub­lique benefite and behoufe. In like sorte Ianus Ianus. Licurgus. before recyted, and Licurgus in Lacedaemon, reduced menne from idlenes, and leude lasye lyfe, vnto good trades, ciuilitye and practyse of vertue, for none other cause desirynge soue­raigntye, but for the good state and profytte of the people. To thys ende Minerua, Cecrops, Minerua. Cecrops. Cadmus. [Page] & Cadmus vsed armes in their times before, (see­ing mē to liue in diforder without gouernmēt, nei­ther comfortably to thē selues, nor cōmodiouslye one for an other,) they extēded their power & do­minion ouer thē, to refourme them into an happie & ciuill sorte of life. And diuers nations haue wil­linglie submitted & put them selues vnder the rule & scepter of such, as they perceaued to be wise, wel disposed, & carefull of the weale of a multitude, to be a patron, & a refuge, by their wisedome & expe­rience vnto thē, in their troubles & neades. Thus Plato. Magistratus excellens. Pastor populi. seeing that inuasion in sum̄ cases is tollerable, yel­ding sufficiēt matter, for noble courages to worke vpō, so that prowesse shal neuer be so shut vp, but it may haue a cōmendable course, if theare be a re­garde to the feare of God, for the vertuous direc­tion & good ende theareof: the warres for defēce must neades more generallie be allowed, whenso­euer wronge is offered, by the enemie of anie estate to the losse, vexation, or empayringe of the same, wheareby in bodies, goodes, mindes, possessions, fraunchises, lawes, iurisdictions, credit, honour, or anye thinge that is of profit or contentation vnto thē, they be anoyed or hurte: the resistinge & en­countring wheare of is iust honourable & necessa­rye. The aūcient warres of Troye & Thebes, arose vpon great wronges offered, the first of them, in the time that K. Dauid raygned, the other, not longe after. The Grekes maintained continuall warres, for their libertie, to preserue their publique states vnder elected gouernours, & especially to auoyde [Page 45] subiection to anie foreine nation, which they es­teamed barbarous and rascall, in respect of them selues. The Scythiens, hauinge no riche or dely­cate possessions of pleasant or frutefull fieldes, no substaunce or store of goodes to loose, yet they fought fiercelie to defende the tombes of their aū ­cestours (whereof they had their greatest care) frō iniuries of the enemie, & defacing. And generallie, nature hath geuē to liuinge thinges, a desire of de­fēce, & resistinge of wronges, wherefore that force is better to be allowed of, thē inuasion. Iudas Ma­chabeus saide to the Israelites, let vs fight for our liues & our lawes. And thus to cut of our course in to the antiquitie of warres, seing that it is not my purpose nowe to wryte thereof, (yet supposinge thus muche not to be impertinent vnto hym, that woulde bee a trauayler in the knoweledge and af­faires of warres) we conclude by plentiful proofe out of the store of histories, accordinge to our propositiō. That warres iustlie made, for the more parte, growe to good effecte, and the violent em­pyre lasteth not longe. Battail attēpted for pompe, or ambitious desire of dominion, not regardinge right or wōge, seldome hath good successe: or els the frutes had thereby, soone fade, suche victories take no roote. But yet it remayneth, to aunswere one obiection, that seemeth to ouerthrowe and quyte condempne all our warres, whiche is, that our Lorde Iesus hath sayde, that he which striketh with the swerde, shall perishe with the same, which is to be vnderstoode, eyther of wrōgfull striking', Math. 26. [Page] or else betwene pryuate persons, which haue the sworde of the prince & defēce of the lawe, to reme­die their wronges. Also, where it is cōmaūded, that he which is strykē on the one eare, should turne the other, toreceaue the like, (it is expoūded) whereas the exāple of such singuler pacience, maye greatlie auaile to make such insolēt oultrage, the more odi­ous & detestable, & that there is a law to punish the same, otherwise warres, & armes maye be vsed for maintenance & defence of vertue & ryght, & great good grow therof. For in the x, of the Actes of the Act. Apost. 10. Apostles we reade, that the cōuersation & order of life of the captaine Cornelius, was verie well plea­singe & acceptable vnto God: and in the tenth of saint Mathaew, our sauiour saieth, I came not to sēd Mathaew. 10. peace into the earth, but a swerde, which proueth, that the same maye be vsed according to the good pleasure of God, thus if we serch his will, we shall finde it, and knowe howe to obserue & keepe it.

¶ Of vyctories, which is the best, and what truce maye be honourablye made. Cap. ix.

THat victorie is most to be preferred, which maye be soonest compassed, & obtained with least ex­pence, inconuenience & losse, especiallie of men: wherein it is to be cōsidered, that the same is made more honourable, & of greater importāce & fame, if periurie, cruel murthers, infamous treasōs, poy­soninge of victualls, or such odious extremities, be not vsed therein. Fabius had excellent regarde of honour in his conquest, when besieginge a citie of the Faliscyens, a schoolemaster which had the [Page 46] chiefest mens sonnes of the towne in gouenrmēt & teaching, trayned them forth on a time apte for his purpose, & for hope of rewarde, brought them into the enemies handes, to the ende that thereby their fathers & frendes shoulde be fayne to render the towne: But Fabius rewarding him, not iumpe accordinge to his expectation, but duelie for hys desertes, he caused the boyes to scurge their schole mayster well with roddes, for betrayinge the trust of their parentes, and so sent them home together singinge vnto the citizens, which hauinge his no­ble vertue in highe admiration, forthwith rendred vnto him the towne. Dauid, sought not by murder to wrest the kingdome out of the hādes of Saul, but punished him which had laide hādes vpon his Lorde, anoynted & elected of God. Caesar procu­red not Pompeye to be slayne, but wept when hee sawe his enemies head. Alexander pursued Bessus, to reuenge the trayterous murther by him cōmyt­ted vpon his enemie, kinge Darius. The Romaines generallie, had regarde to conquere by valure & prowesse, wherefore they grewe most great in Em pire, & were had in honour & awe of all nations: The Carthagynoys contrarywyse not carynge howe, so they had victorie, vsinge foule practises, infidelitie, and all bad shiftes to attaine the same, shortlie lost all. So that the vertue, and honourable dealinge of the generall, shall alwaies auayle muche to the prosperous proceadinge of his warres, and more easye accomplyshynge of victorye. Hee oughte to bee as a tutor, or rather as a father, [Page] tender and carefull ouer the souldiours commit­ted vnto his guyde, good order & diligent proui­dence. The excellent captaines of Roome, desired rather to saue one citizē in battail, thē to destroye manie enemies. Crueltie is to be eschued, excepte when seueritie sharpelie shewed maye geue great example. But where lenitie and prudent meanes maye expresse & worke theffecte of rigour, euen towardes enemies, the same is to be vsed, that they seeinge the excellent vertue, wisedome, and order of gouernment in the conquerour, maye the ra­ther bee allured to commit them selues vnto him, when by suffringe exchaunge of a ruler, thestate of their welfare, shall not be ouerthrowen or vn­done, nor slauerie or vile seruitude, more odious then death, is not sett before them most obstinate­lie & desperatelie to bee encountred. Nowe tou­chinge occasiōs of truce & intermission of warres, Bellum glori­osum, Paci turpi antefe­vendum. it is to be cōsidered, that the same be made & done without dishonour, so that the warres thereby be come not frutelesse, or the armie in worse case then before, as if the enemie craue that for feare, which shall like auaile him, and muche encourage the other partie. But pollicye willeth not to seeke truce or delaye, but by constrainte of necessitie, or for sum̄ auantage to be taken, as sum̄ ayde looked for, or in the meanetime to growe into the secrets of the enemie to sifte his purposes, by conference had with him, to vndermine his doings if he be not very well aduised, to serch the state of his force & gouernmēt. And withal the good captaine must be [Page 47] vigilāt & close in his owne affaires. Thus shal not the time be detracted, & the armie with great char­ges maintayned without good purpose or profit.

¶ Of the vse, and ende of VVarres, and of preparation therefore in time of peace. Cap. 10,

NOw is it to be determined, that the vse of warres ought to be applyed for the defence of right, to shyelde from iniuries, & to plant & settle a cō ­modious state of life, & this vse respecteth & hath regarde vnto a further effecte, to growe thereof: which is the verie finall ende of warres, that after valiaūt victorie or reuenge had of the enemie, peace may follow, and be maintained with honour, free frō violēce & hostile oppression. So that other na­tiōs, seing the discipline, & martial prowesse of an estate so wel appointed & defēded, may feare to of­fer thē iniuries, & gladlye desire to haue league & fauour there, whē things in this good stay, & sauf­lie are cōfourmed & established, thē shall learning, & trades florishe, & craftes men in cūning encrease, Gouldē quiet shal plante good order to foster fru­gality, & bringe foorth the fruites of plenty: where by the lād wel peopled, good gouernmēt shal spred the happie state of a prosperous cōmen weale ouer al. Good excercises shalbe honourablie frequēted, Plato. Optimè tum ciuitates in­stituuntur, cum singuli suis operibus incumbunt. & vertue with all desire & cōtention endeuoured: in which excellent course of life, we shal finde our selues most happie, & doe our Lord God best ser­uice, so that our felicitie may hereafter endure for euer. One thinge more I would saye, & so cōclude, that is, for the prouision of all thinges neadeful, in [Page] time of peace, for the mayntenance of warres: for peace is the nourice of store & encrease of thinges, in which time, if by good prouidence respecte be not had, to haue readie furniture of armour, wea­pons, money, munition, menne prepared bothe in mindes, & by excercise trayned for this seruice, it will cause fainte warres: the affaires whereof be­ing premeditate before hande, proceade the better withe out stickinge or straungenesse, as the iour­neye, where the waye is plaine and well knowen. The time of warres is troublesome to take coun­saile in, and more vnfitte for exactions, but most of all it is vnmete then to take order and to haue thinges to seke, when they shoulde bee occupied. Also this preparation & furniture for the warres, woulde bee had of euerie priuate manne, accor­dinge to his abilitie, as well as in comen stores of corporations and companies. And suche person as is of wealthe, and lesse able by his persone or good counsaile for the seruice and defence of his Countrey, oughte to extende his good will and forwardnes the further, for good purueyance to arme and furnishe others theareunto. For he, that is so sotted in simplicitye, and drowned in base­nes of minde, that hopinge still vpon peace, will neuer aduaunce his consideration or care, for de­fence, in time of warres, but employe all his ende­uour vnto his owne priuate gaine or pleasure, and not laye out anye money for the behoufe of the comen state, is like by his policye to saue a fether, & lose the birde, while hee snatched at a shadowe, [Page 48] he loseth the substaunce. And the example of such grosse carelesse securitie, is verye pernicious vnto a comon weale, for diuers of them, which haue the wealthe of the Realme beinge slacke & negligent in this point, it is not a feawe of the other, though they weare neuer so careful, or wel disposed & ap­pointed to serue, that can sustaine the brunte of warres, & the poore man can little auayle hearein, being thoroughe wante of abilitie, naked both of armour & experience, hauing no spare time for the excercise of armes, whē all his endeuour emploied to purueye for his necessarie lyuinge, can skantlie suffice theareunto: but his trust is, that thoroughe the circumspecte prouidence of them which haue whearewithall to doe good hearein, hee shall en­ioye his pouertye, saufe from captiuitye. So, if the other bee vnfurnished at the time of neade, what doth he, but bringe ruyne vpon him selfe, and hys deare Countrey. Is it not the wished wellfare, and a right happye state, wheare euerye man may en­ioye his owne quyetlie, vnder their naturall and gratious Prince, moste carefull and tender ouer the Countreye and people, vsynge suche lawes, as the wyse menne of the Realme, can best de­uyse and finde oute to bee moste profitable for all sortes of menne: And an horrible miserye more odyous then anye deathe, to haue oure Lawes, lyues, goodes, and what soeuer is deare vnto vs, at the lyst, and vnder the contempte and rule of the insolent and cruell enemye, to bee spoy­led by force, pylled by exactyons, and trybutes, [Page] to liue laden with seruitude & villanyes. If we will haue these auoyded, then must theare be defence Plaut. Libertatem nemo bonus, nisi cum anima si­mul amit­tit. prepared for the good & prosperous estate: Els is the same by peace enriched vnto spoile, and fatted fitt for the tothe of the enemie. For yet neuer was theare great & famous estate, whearein armes and lawes, ciuill gouernement, and martiall prow­esse florished not together. And now for suche as shall serue in the warres, that they might liue ho­nestlie and ciuillye after the same ended, whereby they should lesse feare to put them selues forth in daūgers, if there weare in euery shire of this realme a house ordayned for maymed souldiours, & men worne in the warres, withe suche prouision, that they might be able to lyue theare, & not idlelye as A happye cō ­men weale, wheare good lawes and armes, are duelye vsed. Iustice and chiualrye maintained. lasye lorells haue done heretofore vnder cloke of religion, but orderlie & duelye to serue God, & at certaine feastes & times conuenient, to be leaders vnto the countrey men, in the orders & arraye of warre, and teachers to the ignorant in the best vse of martiall weapons & practises: This I suppose should be well pleasinge vnto almightie GOD, & also right honourable, & pro­fitable vnto the Realme.

¶ Tout poiar & louange a Dieu. Amen.

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