THE MEANING OF THE FRONTISPIECE.

LEARNING the ATLAS of the world, does beare
Earths burthen up; sustaines this lower Spheare;
VVhich else had fall'n, and her declining light
Had slept in shades of IGNORANCE and NIGHT.
RIOT and SLOTH, and dull OBLIVIONS head
Our ATLAS spurnes, whose conquering feet does tread
Vpon those slavish necks, which else would rise
(Like selfe-lewd Rebels) up and tirannize:
Grave HISTORIE, and renown'd GEOGRAPHY
Keepe Centry here; their quickning flames doe fly
And make a SUNNE whose more refulgent rayes
Lightens the VVORLD, and glorifies our DAYES:
By that faire EUROPE viewes the ASIAN shore,
And wilde AMERICK courts the Sunburnt MOORE:
By this, th'extreme ANTIPODES doe meete
And Earths vast bulke is lodg'd within one SHEETE.
M. S.

HISTORIA MVNDI OR MERCATORS ATLAS. Containing his Cosmographicall Descriptions of the Fabricke and Figure of the World. Lately rectified in diuers places, as also beautified and enlarged with new Mapps and Tables by the Studious industrie of IODOCVS HONDY ENGLISHED by W. S. Generosus & Regin. Oxoniae.

LONDON Printed for MICHAELL SPARKE▪ and SAMVELL CARTWRIGHT 1635

HISTORIA MƲNDI: OR MERCATOR'S ATLAS.

Containing his COSMOGRAPHICALL Description of the Fabricke and Figure of the WORLD.

Lately rectified in divers places, as also beautified and enlarged with new Mappes and Tables;

By the studious industry OF IVDOCVS HONDY.

ENGLISHED BY W. S. Generosus, & Coll. Regin. Oxoniae.

Pingitur his tabulis Orbis, simul Orbis & urbes;
Gemmae sunt urbes, annulus Orbis erit.

LONDON Printed by T. Cotes, for Michael Sparke and Samuel Cartwright. 1635.

MVNIFICENTIA REGIA [...]

GEORGIVS D. G. MAG. BR FRET HI [...] REX F. D.

TO THE TRVELY NOBLE, and no lesse worthily honoured Sir H. Marten Knight, Iudge of his Majesties high Court of the Admiralty of England, and Iudge of the Pre­rogative Court of Canterbury.

SIR

MERCATORS Geographicall Historie, fit­ly Emblematiz'd by the Sunne, hath with refulgent rayes illuminated the Transma­rine World. But now rising up in our Cri­ticall Horizon, it feares the Eclipse of Envie, and therefore desires your worthy and learned Patronage, that being free'd from such interposing shaddowes, it may shine forth as the Meridi­an Sunne. Your great, and good Fame, inviting and encouraging strangers to boldnesse, is my Apologie for this Dedication. For since the world is so much obliged to your Vertue, Learning, and up­right Integrity, it will appeare a iust gratitude to devote this Cos­mographicall World to so favorable a Moecenas. The Translator in the performance, and Dedication, is enforced to ayme at an infe­rior Object; and to descend beneath his owne descent and Birth, which improved in the Ʋniversitie of Oxford, flattered him with hope of a kinder Fortune. But modest ingenuitie permits not a larger Character of himselfe, and the Brevitie of few words is most intelligible to the judicious. The worke in the Originall was written by a famous learned Cosmographer, and a great light of [Page] his time Mercator, whose labours are here humbly presented, & his ashes sleeping in their Vrne (if they could be sensible of joy) would rejoyce in so worthie a Patron. Let the Authors, and your owne worthinesse mitigate my presumption, that J whose life hath beene all Tristia, have presumed to offer up the whole World at so high an Altar. Pardon this double Ambition, and be pleased to accept this Sacrifice, from the hand of the most humble Sacrificer,

The Servant of your Worthy Vertues; WYE SALTONSTALL.

Ad Mercatoris dignissimum & doctissimum Moecenatem.

LEarned Moecenas; I confesse that I
Was borne to love and honour Poesie.
And though I doe not write a gingling Line
To please the silken Tribe with a smooth Rhyme;
Nor strive against Minerva's sacred will
To extract Non-sense from a forced Quill.
I shunning these two mad Extreames of Wit,
To sing your Praise more humbly thinke it fit;
Since justice (the maine Pillar of a State)
Vertue, and Learning, which did transmigrate
Out of the ancient Sages, now doe rest
In the faire Mansion of your worthy Brest.
Vnto Pythagoras we may credit give,
Their Soules inform'd but once, their vertues live
In you by Transmigration, who have stood
The great Protector of the Common good.
And may you live to protect Mercators story,
Vntill you are exalted unto Glory.
W. S.

TO THE GENTRIE OF GREAT BRITTAINE.

IT is an Argument of worthinesse, to love worth in others, and vertue you know consisteth in action; so that Gen­tlemen should be alwayes doing some worthy deede, or patronizing that which is done. If you therefore con­sider the worthinesse of the Author or Worke, you will joyne your helping hands to support Atlas groaning under the burthen of the world. Mercator drew these Descriptions of the Integrall parts of the World in Latine, but now they are drawne forth in English colours, which are but changeable accidents, for the re­all substance of Mercators World remaineth the same in that manner as he fashioned it. But of late with great care, cost, and fidelitie, these Descriptions have beene con­verted into English with new additions and much enlar­ged, that the benefit thereof might have a larger extent, for bonum quò communius eò melius, Good becomes better when it is communicable to all. And besides, seeing per­sonall travells in these tempestuous times, cannot be at­tempted with any safety, here you may in the quiet shade of your Studdies travell at home. If therefore a worke that is Bonum, utile & jucundum, good, profitable, and pleasant, may deserve your favour,TO Hic labor, hoc opus est, this is it. So that as Alexander grieved that there was but one World for him to conquer, so you will be sorry that there was but one World for Mercator to describe. Enjoy therefore that which is both good in it selfe, and was undertaken for your good, and benefit. Valete.

W. S.

The Preface to the cour­teous Reader.

THat many sollid and urgent reasons did en­duce them, who among the liberall Disci­plines which without controversie are very profitable to mans life, doe give the first place to the noble Art of Geographie, they shall best know and discerne, who shall con­sider both the excellencie, and pleasure, as also the incredible profit of this Art. For, as concerning the digni­tie and excellencie thereof, it doth not intreate of meane matters of small moment, as brute beasts, the fruits of the Earth, pretious stones, mettalls, and other workes of nature, the handling whereof no reasonable man will contemne; but it presenteth to our sight the whole Globe of the Earth as it were in a Mirrour or Looking-glasse, and doth shew the beautie and ornaments of the whole Fabricke of the world, and containeth all things in her ample and spacious bosome, and like the vaste Sea, it doth not onely open and lay forth the hidden and remote Islands, but also all other Countries. To omit the neere affinitie which this noble Science hath with Astronomie, which mounting above the earth doth contemplate the Heavens.

Moreover, if men as often as they heare some relation of this or that Country, of any strange unknowne people, or of any rare and unusuall Creature, or of the continuall burning of the Mountaine Aetna, also of divers Islands lying here and there in the great Oce­an, and also of Salvage Nations, some whereof goe naked without cloathes, others feede on mans flesh, and the like matters; or doe reade the wonderfull histories of the East and West Indies, (in which there are many things which doe rather seeme fabulous than [Page] true) doe apprehend them with such great admiration, and give such earnest attention thereunto, out of the desire which they have to heare such novelties; how much more may the curious Readers delight in this worke, which, as we said before, doth containe and represent the whole Globe of the Earth, with all the Countries, Kingdomes, Do­minions, Woods, Mountaines, Valleys, Rivers, Lakes, People, Cit­ties and innumerable Townes thereof, with the Seas flowing about it: all which any one may here view on dry land, without endange­ring his body or goods; and in this travell his friends shall not be sol­licitous or take care for him in his absence, or earnestly desire his re­turne. Besides, in this peregrination or travell he shall want no de­light that may drive away the tediousnesse of the journey; for while he fixeth his eyes on severall Countries and places, he shall straight way behold the speciall gifts and peculiar excellencie of every Coun­try, and observe a wonderfull variety therein, which are very delight­full to the mind, for as the Proverbe saith, A good merry companion is as a Coach upon the way.

But they shall chiefely discerne the great and manifold benefits of this Art of Geography, who in their eye-travell, and viewing of severall Countryes, shall consider the scituation and disposition of Countries; the Customes, observations, lawes, and manners of the In­habitants, and shall afterwards traffique, and send commodities to severall places, or resolve to study the liberall Arts; seeing no Poet, nor Historian can be well read with profit, nor be conveniently ex­pounded or declared by any Interpreter or Commentator, without the helpe and knowledge of this most Noble Science. I omit here to mention how absurd and unfit it is, that he who hath no skill nor knowledge in these matters, should give his opinion and judgement in the publicke assembly or councell of the Common-wealth, when consultation is held about the discovery of some unknowne Country, or in time of warre concerning the bounds and confines of any Pro­vince.

But Princes and Noble men ought chiefely to bestow great paines in studdying this most excellent Art, in regard it may be very use­full unto them in undertaking journies and voyages when occasion requireth, as also at home for fortifying the Frontiers of their owne Territories, or the directing and conducting of any warlike expedi­tion. For that irrecoverable dangers have ensued when an army hath beene led through places unknowne both to the souldiers and [Page] Captaine, both Livy and many other Historiographers have abun­dantly testified by cleere and manifest examples.

And moreover, as it is very necessary, profitable and pleasant to know all Countries, Kingdomes, Dominions, and Provinces, with their scituation, disposition, and qualities; so in like manner the severall Seas, Rivers, Lakes, and memorable waters thereof, ought to be considered exactly in these times, when voyages are so fre­quently made, unto knowne and unknowne Countries, so that not a­ny one will continually reside at home, and abstaine from making discoveries both by Sea and Land. So that Polidore Virgils complaint is now vaine, who in the fifteenth chapter of the third Booke concerning the Invention of Matters, doth condemne mankind of too much rashnesse, and madnesse, in regard he cannot bridle his affections and desires with reason: and though God hath given him the Earth, being a firme and immovable element, abundantly pro­ducing all things necessary and convenient for mans life, yet he be­ing not content therewith, hath made a Scrutiny and search into the starres, the heavens, and the vaste Seas. To the same purpose Ho­race sung formerly, in his first Booke, and third Ode:

He had a heart of Oake or Brasse,
Who did lanch forth a brittle ship, to passe
At first through the rough Seas,
And did not feare, when he set forth
The Affrick wind striving with the North wind, &c.

And a little after in the same place:

No sort of death he sure did feare
That saw the Monsters swimming there,
And could behold them with drye eyes
With the swelling Sea and rockes which in it lyes.

And afterward he addeth;

In vaine did God divide the land
from the unsociable Seas,
If impious ships can sayle unto
forbidden Ports when they doe please.
But mankind bold still to adventure
doth on forbidden mischiefe enter &c.

And hereunto Propertius in his third Booke doth allude, in that Elegie wherein he be wayleth Petus his Shipwracke, where he singeth thus:

[Page]
Goe crooked shippes, of death the fatall cause,
Which on himselfe man with his owne hand drawes▪
Vnto the earth, wee added have the Seas,
That the miseries of misfortunes may increase.

And a little after:

Nature to ensnare the covetous man,
Doth let him sayle upon the Ocean.

But these reasons are not able to discourage any one, but rather to quicken their industry, greedily to take any occasion to know, view and discover divers Countries both neerehand and remote; partly by undertaking long voyages: and those that cannot conveniently travell, may gather the knowledge of all Countries out of Bookes and exact descriptions. And truely that studdy is irreproveable, so that it ought rather to be accounted laudible, profitable, pleasant and necessary. For Strabo in the first Book of his Geography saith right­ly, that man ought to live on the Sea as well as on the land, and that God made him equally an Inhabitant and Lord thereof Therefore they deserve great praise, who have laboured in this Art, as Abra­ham Or [...]elius, Daniel Cellarius, Anthony Maginus, Paul Merula, Peter Bertius and others: but especially that most lear­ned Mathematician Gerard Mercator, although he were preven­ted by death, so that he could not finish his Geographicall worke, in­tituled Atlas. But Iodocus Hondy did supply this defect, ad­ding not onely those Tables which were wanting to make the worke perfect, but also accurate descriptions thereof, by the labour and stud­dy of Peter Montane. This worke we doe publish againe in this new Edition, being accurately reuised, and purged from many grosse errours; and the studious Reader shall finde that the enlargement of this Booke is not to be contemn'd, being set forth with divers ad­ditions, and some new Tables added, as he may see in the descriptions of England, Ireland, Spaine, Friesland, Groonland, Vltra­jectum, and other Countries, that shall compare this Edition with the former. Therefore Curteous Reader, enjoy these our new la­bours, favour them, and Farewell.

TO The vertuous and learned Gentle­men of Innes of Court, Mercator dedicateth his Atlas or Cos­mographicall Medi­tations.

TO you that are the Ornament of the Temples,
And by your actions give such faire Examples
Vnto the Vulgar, that their Iudgements can
Discerne that Vertue makes a Gentleman:
To you Mercator offers by my hand
The Worlds Portraicture, wherein Sea and Land
Which make one Globe, are drawn forth in each Part
In Plano, with such Iudgement, Truth, and Art,
That Pictures of all mortall beauties are
Weake shaddowes of fraile dust, nor can compare
With these sweete Picces; for who would not be
A Lover? when he sees Geographie
Drawne forth in such fresh colours, that invite
The eye to gaze with wonder and delight?
And while it gazes doth such pleasure finde
That it convayes loves flame into the minde.
I know your Iudgements, let none henceforth be
Your Mistresses but faire Geographie.
W. S.

Reverendae, & Eruditae Matris Acade­miae Oxoniae in Albo Mercatoris Famae Inscriptio.

QVis ille Mundum cogit in leges suas,
Potentis artis machinâ!
Non illubenti quis jugum victor dedit
Vt serviat feliciùs!
Angustijsque clausit insuetum novis,
Vt major inde prodeat!
[Page]Et quae lacerent membra magni corporis,
Dedit videre singula.
Per quicquid usquam est sparsa, nec lacera tamen
Integriora reddidit.
Non hunc vetustis edidere saeculis
seu Roma, sive Graecia
Aevo priores, & labore praevios,
At post-futuris impares
Dicemus istos; orbis incunabulis
Quos admoveri fas erat.
Quos & minores expedire fascias
Debebat, ut mundo rudi.
Adultus at jam crevit, & cingi petit
(Quod repperit) solutius,
Quin & Britanno, (quod Britanni gaudeant)
Cinctu decorus visitur.
N. S. Oxonia

Aeque Eruditae &, Almae Matris Cantabrigiae, [...].

[...]
[...]
[...]
[...]
[...]
[...]
[...]
[...].
R. B. Cantabriglae

In Praise of Mercators Workes:

INdustrious Camden; Englands brightest starre,
By's Art gave light to us and after Times;
Mercators Sunne shines more resplendent farre
By's History, describing all the Climes
And uncouth Contnents, strange for us to view
The Rockes, the Isles, the Rivers and their falles,
Gods greatest Workes, and Natures rarest shew,
Which here lies ope, with Mountaines, Hills and dales;
And in these Mappes thou mayest at home descry
What some have sought with Travaile farre and neere;
At easie rate they all heere open lie
To feast thy Iudgement with delicious cheare:
Then crowne his Temples with deserving Bayes
That such a Trophee, to thy use could raise.
W. D. Exoniae.

To the worthy Translator.

IF, what that famous Lyrick-Poet writ
In praise of Poetrie, so full did fit;
That,
Omne tulit punctum qui vnscuit utile dulci. Hor. de Arte poetica.
He, of All, deserves the prize and praise,
Which mixeth Profit, with his Pleasant-Layes:
Then (sure) the same of Historie is true;
And of all Histories, to This, most due.
To this, I say; This Atlas of Earths frame,
This Geographick-Structure of much fame;
This Worlds bright Light, Delight, and Sunne most faire,
Discovering all Earths specious Countries rare,
In such a Cosmographicall display,
In such a faithfull and exact Survey.
That (Now) at least, Eleven faire Languages
Themselves with Its Translation sweetly please.
What thankes (Me thinkes) then unto Thee remaines,
Praise-worthy Saltonstall, for thy great paines▪
In thus Translating on our English-Soyle
So choyce a Peece, Wherein, without much toyle;
Yet with much Pleasure and Vtilitie,
The Minde all-bent on Forraine Noveltie
May heere at home, even in his Chamber view
Each Country in his state and station true;
In figures faire lively delineated,
And in exact descriptions demonstrated.
For which, let Belgia give her Hondy praise,
And we, our Saltonstall deserved Bayes.
I. V.

In due commendation of the Author, with an Allusion of Atlas his suppor­tation of the World.

1. An Acrosticke on Mercators Atlas.

Mercators Atlas Mirror of all storie,
Expresse in Tropes of deepe Cosmographie,
Reader admire in reading; for, It's Glorie
Claimes a precedence past equalitie
All that Laborious Artists can compose
Triangles, Circles, Lines and Parallels;
Only (deare Hondius) these thy Maps disclose,
Raising to life a Worke that all excels.
Atlas by fiction do's the World uphold;
Thou, more, by Art, dost all the Orbe containe:
Let Poets pencill forth thy praise in Gold,
And all that reape the Harvest of thy paine;
So shall thy fame to every Age remaine.
[Page]Heere mayst thou reade what ere thou wouldst desire,
The manners of thine owne and foraigne Nations,
And in thy Study onely but retire
To view their customes, strengths and Scituations.
Then praise his Name, such gifts to Man that gave
Whereby thou maist much cost and labour save.
M. R.

De Mercatoris Atlante in Anglorum sermone edito.

ATlas Latine, fortis in laudes tuas
Graeco politus carmine Heinsius fuit:
At Nostrum Atlantem, qui novus prodit modò,
Laudare non audere, laus, post Heinsium.
R. B. S. S. M.

Ad Anglum Lectorem.

SCire cupis mores hominum, lustrareque terras?
hic depicta tibi cuncta videre licet.
Ne Linguae ignotae exaniment, hunc consule nostrum
Atlantem: notus sic tibi mundus erit.
Orbem fuloit Atlas, opus hoc intellige: Atlantem
Lector, & Atlant is non leve fulcis onus.
R. B. S. Hosp.

On this Translation, an HEXASTICHON.

MErcator, sure thy Merchandize is good,
Having so current for so long time stood
In forreine Countries; but in British soyle
Vnkenn'd, unkiss'd, till Saltonstall with toyle
And study, rich, in thee, his natives made,
Teaching thee with our English (now) to-trade.
THOM. VICARS, olim Reginensis. Oxon.
NIli diluvium steriles faecundat agellos.
Floscula sparsa iuvant: stercora lucra ferunt;
Inde decus Solis, late quia lumina spargit.
Rivi fama patet, flumina longa trahens.
Sic linguis varijs, doctum lucrantur opellae
Laudem, diffusae: nos tamen omne bonum.
Hebrae [...], Graeci exonerant: gens undique docta
Alueum in Brittanicum, qui scatet arte nova,
Olim non notus, noto divisus ab orbe
Huc tendi petijt navita nullus iter.
Olim tendebat cla [...]us mercator ad Indos,
Iam oras Angligenúm, curva carina petit.
Ast hic Mercator non est omninò viator
Musaeo merces; littus & aequor eme.
Pet. Vowel.

To his learned (though unknowne) friend the Author of this Translation.

SOmewhat amongst the rest of those that presse,
To honour this thy Worke, would I addresse
Vnto thy praise, and therein strive to be
As breife and sweete as this Epitomee.
The World is here contracted, and in this
Thou shewest us what the lesser world (Man) is,
And therein work'st a wonder, that the lesse
Should comprehend the greaters spaciousnesse.
As thou hast thus reduc'd both to a span,
So shall my lynes thy worth, and in this one
Expresse thy world of that Coelestiall fire,
Whose beames we love not more than we admire.
I. G.

Verses in Commendation of this description of the terrestriall Globe, by G. W.

WIth cost and perill, some adventure farre,
Yet, ne're the richer, nor the wiser are:
But giddily through many Climates rome,
And come lesse honor'd, and worse manner'd home,
Some others, Men and Citties, having seene,
Epitomize each place where they have beene;
From ev'ry quarter, bringing like the Bee,
The quintessence of all the flowres they see:
And best are pleased when they shall contrive
The honour, and the profit, of their Hive.
This is one end of Travaile; and, the next
To that, which makes the world an ample Text,
Whereon to meditate, and Preach abroad
The many praisefull Attributes of GOD [...]
For, though two other Bookes are now unsealed,
He, by the World, was first of all revealed.
The Second volumne of that large Record,
(Which is Earth's Globe) this Treatise doth afford,
Abstracted so (by this our Authors paine)
That, now, a Closet may the same containe:
And, they that have not heart, nor meanes, nor time,
To make their progres, through each forraine Clime,
Or view the World's remotest parts, at large,
May see them, now in breife, with little charge;
Without those paines or perills which are found,
In compassing, or traversing, this ROVND.
And (which doth much endeare it) this will show
more profitable Truths, than many know
[Page]By hazzards, Pilgrimages, or expence:
Yea, and with more exact intelligence,
Than could be gotten (if these Charts were lost)
By tenne mens paines, and fiftie times the cost.
Then sleight not Readers, that which here is tend'red
Nor let ill payments, for good-workes, be rendred:
But know (before miscensure this despiseth)
What profit from our Authors paines ariseth:
For by this Worke, you have (though small it showes)
A World of Kingdomes at your owne dispose.
Hereby, at leasure and with pleasure too
(When any suddaine use requireth so)
Within your owne command you may survey
Earth's wide extended Empire every day;
Rise (in an instant) from your seat, and see
The farthest Kingdomes which discovered be;
Inform'd become, how small or large they are;
What profits, and what Rarities be there;
What Cities they afford, what Hills of Fame,
What Aire, what Soyle, what Rivers of great Name;
How govern'd, how confined, how defended,
What Foes they have, and how they stand befrended
With many other things, which much may steed
To serve your pleasures, or in time of need.
And when your Inquisitions there are done
You may (with swifter motion than the Sunne)
Remove to any Province when you please,
From thence againe to her Antipodes;
Yet neither be compelled to adventure
About the spheare, nor seeke it through the Center:
For onely by the turning of the hand,
The place desired, in your view shall stand,
And at one Prospect, shew it with all those
Adjacent Countries, which the same enclose.
More might be said. But, I may think you prize not
An honest mans report, if this suffice not:
And therefore will no more thereon insist;
But leave you to accept it as you list.

Concerning the use of these Tables.

PTolomie and we in this booke, doe make the Longitude to be a segment of the Aequator, or Aequinoctiall Circle, com­prehended with the Meridian of that place, and the Meridi­an of the Fortunate Islands: for from these Islands the beginning of Longitude is taken.

Some doe not begin the Longitude from the Fortunate Islands (which are now called the Canaries) but from the Flandrian Islands, which are now called the Azores, because the needle of the compasse doth point there directly toward the North. But the superficies of the Globe contayneth in Longitude 360 degrees.

The Latitude is the Arch or Segment of any place betweene the Aequinoctiall and Parralell which is drawne through the verticall point of the same place, and it is alwayes to the elevation of the Pole.

Latitude is twofold, either Northerne, or Southerne, and there are reckoned from the Aequinoctiall to either Pole 90 degrees of Latitude.

We have noted the degrees of Longitude and Latitude on the sides of all the Tables, and for the most part, the degrees of Lati­tude on the toppe and bottome, and of Longitude on the right and left hand, except when some Country is to be described that is more extended betweene the South and North.

The severall degrees both of Longitude and Latitude, according to the capacitie of the place, are sometimes divided into 60, some­times into [...]. parts, which are called minutes, and we have noted the degrees with greater Arithmeticall figures, and the mi­nutes with lesser for difference sake.

If one would finde out the Longitude and Latitude of any place, where the Meridian Parralells are, by taking with a paire of com­passes the distance thereof from the side of the Table, and afterward by applying the compasses to the other side. If thou takest the di­stance from the East side, the compasses being turned from that side to the North side, will shew the degree and minute of Longitude. If thou hast the distance from the North-side, turne thy compasses from thence to the East side, and it will shew the Latitude. But if the Meridians be not Parralells, the Latitude of a place is found in the same manner, but in the Vniversall Tables where the Parralells are circular, the distance of a place being taken from the next side, will shew the same on the East side. But the Longitude is to bee taken with a thred or Ruler, layd upon the place and turned untill it doe point out on the Northerne and Southerne side, the same minute of the same degree, and wheresoever it be, that is the Longitude of the place.

How to finde out the distance of degrees or Miles betweene two Citties, or any other Places.

WE have added scales of Miles to all the Tables, by which thou mayst easily finde out the distance of all places in this mannner.

Take a paire of Compasses, and open them untill the 2 feete doe touch the extreame points of the places given, then appy them without any alteration to the scale of miles, and the numerall figures noted there­on will give the distance.

But if the Distance of places doth exceede the length of the Scale, then with thy compasses thou shalt take the length of the Scale, and thou shalt turne the Compasses from one place to another, as farre as the distance of places will permit, and then reckon the miles together. But because the length of miles in all Countryes is unknowne, thou shalt more certainely take the distance of places with thy Compasses, and apply the Compasses without variation to the degrees of Latitude, which will give the true distance, by multiplying them by the Miles of the knowne Country.

But the Miles doe differ much in divers Countries, and therefore I will here insert their difference in the chief Countryes.

Of common German Miles; which we Hollan­ders doe also use
15 doe answere to one Degree.
Of the middle sort of German Miles
12 doe answere to one Degree.
Of great German Miles
10 doe answere to one Degree.
Of common French Miles
25 doe make one degree.
Of great French Miles
20 doe make one degree.
Of Italian Miles
60 are contained in one Degree.
Of English Miles as many, or as some will have it
50 contained in every Degree.
Of English Leagues
20 do make one degree.
Of Spanish Leagues
17 do make one degree.
Houre-Leagues, and Itinerarie houres
20 do make one degree.
Of Swedish and Danish Miles
10 do make one degree.

A Table of the Cosmographicall Descriptions, Mappes, and Tables contained in Marcators Atlas.

The first figures directing to the Descriptions, The second to the Mappes.

  • 1 THe World, Fol. 3. and 5.
  • 2 Europe, Fol. 8. and 9.
  • 3 Africke, Fol. 12. & 13.
  • 4 Asia. 18, 19.
  • 5 America. 22.23.
  • 6 The North-Pole. 28, 29.
  • 7 Iseland, 33.35.
  • 8 The [...]s of Brittaine. 38, 39.
  • 9 Ireland, 43, 45.
  • 10 Ireland 2 Tab. 48, 49.
  • 11 Ireland 3 Tab. 53.55.
  • 12 Ireland 4 Tab. 58.59.
  • 13 Ireland 5 Tab. 63.65.
  • 14 Scotland. 68.69.
  • 15 Scotland 2 Tab. 73.75.
  • 16 Scotland 3 Tab. 78.79.
  • 17 England 83, 85.
  • 18 England 2 Tab. 88.89.
  • 19 England 3 Tab. 92.93.
  • 20 A Particular Description of Wales. 97.
  • 21 England 4 Tab. 99.101.
  • 22 England 5 Tab. 105.107.
  • 23 England 6 Tab. 110.111.
  • 24 England 7 Tab. 116.117.
  • 25 Norwey and Swethland 121.123
  • 26 The State Politicke of the King­dome of Denmarke, 126.
  • 27 The Kingdome of Denmarke, 132.133.
  • 28 Denmarke 137▪ 139.
  • 29 Denmarke 3 Tab. 142.143.
  • 30 Denmarke 4 Tab. 147, 149.
  • 31 Borussia or Spruceland. 152.153
  • 32 Liefland. 157, 159.
  • 33 Russia or Moscovie. 162.163.
  • 34 A more Particular Description of some Provinces of Moscovia. 165.
  • 35 Lithuania D. 168.169.
  • 36 Transyluania or Siebenburgen. 173, 175.
  • 37 Taurian Chersonesus 178, 179.
  • 38 Spaine 183, 185.
  • 39 Portugall and Algarbia. 197. 199.
  • 40 Gallicia, [...]on; & Asturia de Oviedo, 202, 203.
  • 41 Biscay & Guipuscoa 207.209.
  • 42 Castile Old and New. 212.213.
  • 43 Andalusia 217, 219.
  • 44 Valentia and Murcia. 222.223.
  • 45 Aragon and Catalonia 227, 229
  • 46 Catalonia more particularly de­scribed. 233.235.
  • 47 France 245.247.
  • 48 Brittanie, Normandie, and Bel­sia 259.261.
  • 49 [...]emovicium, 264, 265.
  • 50 Xaintogne 269, 274.
  • 51 Aquitaine 274.275.
  • 52 Provence, 269.271.
  • 53 Picardie and Campania. 284. 285.
  • 54 France. 289, 291.
  • 55 Picardie. 294.295.
  • 56 Campania 298, 299.
  • 57 Bell [...]vacum 303.305.
  • 58 Boulogne 307.309.
  • 59 Aniou. 311.313.
  • [Page] 60 Bitur [...]cum 316, 317.
  • 61 Burbun [...]. 321, 323.
  • 62 Burdigala 326, 327
  • 63 Per [...] ▪ C. 332.333.
  • 64 Turene D. 335, 337.
  • 65 Pulavia 338, 339.
  • 66 Cadurcium 343, 345.
  • 67 Bressia 348, 349.
  • 68 Lions 351, 353.
  • 69 Languedoc. 356, 357
  • 70 Delphinate of France 359.361
  • 71 Lotharingia D. 362.363.
  • 72 Lotharingia D. South part. 367 3 [...]9.
  • 73 Burgundie D. 372, 373.
  • 74 Burgundie C. 377, 379.
  • 75 Savoy D. 382, 383.
  • 76 Helvetia, 387, 389.
  • 77 Lur [...]chgow. 392, 393.
  • 78 Wist [...]spurgergow. 397.399.
  • 79 Lake Leman 409, 411.
  • 80 Argow 414, 415.
  • 81 Rhetians 419, 421.
  • 82 Low Countries 422, 423.
  • 83 Flanders 439, 441.
  • 84 Easterne part of Flanders 444, 445.
  • 85 Brabant D. 449 451.
  • 86 Helland, C 454, 455.
  • 87 Zeland C. 459, 461.
  • 88 Gelderland, 464, 465.
  • 89 Zutphania 469, 471.
  • 90 Vitrajectum 472.473.
  • 91 Machlin 478, 479.
  • 92 Groeninga 481, 483.
  • 93 Trans-Issalana 484, 485
  • 94 Artois. 487, 489.
  • 95 Hannalt 4 [...]2, 493.
  • 96 Namur [...] 497.499.
  • 97 Lu [...]enburg D. 500, [...]01.
  • 98 Lamburg D. 505, 507.
  • 99 Germanie [...]09, 511.
  • 100 Germanie 518.
  • 101 West Friesland 5 [...]2 5 [...]3.
  • 102 Embdanum and Oldenburg 536, 539.
  • 103 Westphalia 1 Tab. 541, 543.
  • 104 Bremes 545.
  • 105 Westphalia 2 Tab. 547, 549.
  • 106 Munster B. 552, 553.
  • 107 Westphalia 3 Tab. 555, 557.
  • 108 Colen 560, 561.
  • 109 Westphalia 4 Tab. 563, 565.
  • 110 Leiden 566, 567.
  • 111 Muers 571, 573.
  • 112 Waldeck 576, 577.
  • 113 Palatinate of Rhene, 580, 581.
  • 114 Wirtemberg 585, 587.
  • 115 Alsatia the Lower 589, 591.
  • 116 Alsatia the Higher, 594, 595.
  • 117 Saxonie the Lower 599, 521.
    Heere the figures goe ta [...] but I follow them, as the pages are misfigured.
  • 118 Brunswicke D. 524, 525.
  • 119 Hessen 529, 531.
  • 120 Nassaw 534, 535.
  • 121 Duringen 537, 539.
  • 122 Frankenland D. 542, 543.
  • 123 Bavaria D. 547, 549.
  • 124 Bavaria Palat. 552, 553.
  • 125 Saxonie the higher D. 557, 559.
  • 126 Brandenburg D. 562.563.
  • 127 Pomerania D. 649, 651.
  • 128 Rugia 652, 653,
  • 129 Bohemia 656, 657.
  • 130 Meriav [...] 660, 661.
  • 131 Austria 664, 665.
  • 132 Saltzburg 669, 671.
  • 133 Poland K. 674, 675.
  • 134 Poland 679.681.
  • 135 Hungarie 683, 685.
  • 136 Italie 688, 689.
  • 137 Lumbardie 704, 705.
  • 138 Valesia 707.
  • 139 Lumbardie 2 Tab. 709.711.
  • 140 Lumbardie 3 Tab. 714, 715.
  • 141 Genoa D. 720, 721
  • 142 Lumbardie [...] [...]23 72 [...]
  • 143 Bres [...] and Midan, D 728. 729.
  • 144 Millan D. 734, 735.
  • 145 Verona 737, 739.
  • 146 [...]riul [...] [...]42, 743.
  • 147 Istria 741.
  • 148 Carniola 746.
  • 149 Tuscany 747, 748.
  • 150 Spo [...]to D. 752, 753.
  • 151 Campagna di Roma 757, 759.
  • 152 Abruzco 762 763.
  • [Page] 153 Puglia Piana 767, 769.
  • 154 Corsica and Sardinia 772, 773.
  • 155 Sardinia 775.
  • 156 Sicilie 777, 779.
  • 157 Stirmarck 782, 783.
  • 158 Slavonia 786, 787.
  • 159 Walachia, 790, 791.
  • 160 Greece 794, 795.
  • 161 Macedon 799, 801.
  • 162 Morea 804, 805.
  • 163 Candie 809, 811.
  • 164 Barbarie 814, 815.
  • 165 Aegypt 816, 818.
  • 166 Morocco 819, 821.
  • 167 Abissines D. 824, 825.
  • 168 Guinea 829, 831.
  • 169 Turkish Empire 834, 835.
  • 170 Holy Land 839, 841.
  • 171 Asia the Lesser 844, 845.
  • 172 Cyprus 849, 851.
  • 173 Persia 855, 857.
  • 174 Tartarie 860, 861.
  • 175 China 865, 867.
  • 176 East Indies 870, 871.
  • 177 Islands of the East Indies 875, 877.
  • 178 Iapan Isle. 880.881.
  • 179 Zetlan I. 885, 887.
  • 180 Islands of the West Indies, 890, 891.
  • 181 Cuba, Hispaniola, &c. 893, 895.
  • 182 Virginia 898, 899.
  • 183 New Virginia 905.
  • 184 Description of New Spaine M. 905.
  • 185 New Spaine 906, 907.
  • 186 Firine Land 911, 913.
  • 187 Peru 914, 915.
  • 188 Summer Islands or Berm. 917, 919.
  • 189 Southerne America 920, 921.
  • 190 Straites of Magellan. 925, 927.
  • 191 New England after the booke before the Table.

THE TYPE OF THE GLOBE OF THE EARTH.

WHereas by the Necessitie of Nature, Order doth alwayes require, that Univer­sals should bee set before Parriculars, and the Whole before the Part, for the better understanding of the present Matter: I also, being bound by this Law, ought to set be­fore this first Volume of our Geographie, an universall Type of the Globe of the Earth, and of the foure Parts thereof, Eu­rope, Africk, Asia, and America, that so I may more happily follow my intended matter: and also, that in the severall following Tomes hereafter, he that shall desire to have the Delineation of his owne Country, may have a perfect Worke before him, being not deprived of this so profitable a speculation. For the contemplation of Generals is pleasant, and very necessary to him, who desireth to have the least knowledge of the World and naturall things. For if you please to consider the manner of the rising and setting of the Sunne, what is the cause of Summer or Winter, whence is the inequality of the Dayes and Nights, or lastly, what hath beene the originals, or propagations of things, what hath beene the actions, the atchievements, the mutations, and conversions happening in any place, even from the first Creation, you shall learne all this no where better, than out of these five adjoyning Tables, with­out all danger, and with honest recreation of minde. And even as it is not sufficient for any one, though hee have a large dwelling-place, to know the severall parts of his house, as the Porch, the Wine-cellar, and Butterie, the Kitchin, the Parlour, the Supping-roome, the Bed cham­ber, the Closet, the Studie, &c. whereby hee may use them conveni­ently; but also it is fit and necessary, that hee should know, in what part and street of the Citie his house standeth, and thence hee may straight­way discerne, if any fire or tumult happen in the Citie, how neare or [Page 2] how farre he is from danger: So it is no lesse necessary to know in what part of the world thou dwellest, what people are neare thee, and which are farther off, that when warre approacheth, thou mayst know when to feare, and when to be quiet in minde. Lastly, though Cosmographie be the light of all Ecclesiasticall and Politicall Historie, and that the be­holder may learne more from thence, than the Traveller by his long, tedious and chargeable labour, who often changeth his C [...]lum non animum mu­tant qui tran [...] mare currunt. Horat. Climate, onely, but not his condition; yet you shall receive little benefit there­by, if you doe not joyne the Generall Tables to the Particular. Now these Generall Tables are gathered out of the great description of the Globe of the Earth (whose beginning of Longitude, or position of the first Meridian wee have followed in every one of them) and out of my great Europa, which I published at Duysburg. In the meane time, Rea­der farewell, and enjoy this worke, and diligently consider with the Poet Buchanan, the glory of this thy habitation granted unto thee only for a time, who doth so compare it with the heavens, that he may there­by lift up those mindes which are drowned in these earthly and transi­tory things, and shew them the way to more high and Eternall mat­ters.

How small a part that is, thou mayst perceive
Which we into proud Kingdomes here doe cleave
With stately wordes; we part it with our sword,
And buy it with our bloud that forth is powr'd;
We make great Triumphs when that we have got
Some part of this same little earthen clot:
For this same heape it selfe being view'd alone
Is large, and of a great extention:
But it will seeme a Point, if that it be
Compar'd with Heavens starrie Canopie.
Or like unto a seed, upon which ground
Ancient Gargetius many worlds did found:
This is mans seate, and this a house affordes
Vnto wilde Beastes, and to all sortes of Birdes.
And how much from this prison house of clay
Doth the Seas flowing water take away.
And that which breakes through the Herculean boundes,
And parteth Europe from the Lybian groundes,
With Seas, which limits to Arabia yeelds,
And those which straighten the Hyrcanian fields.
Then adde to these the Lakes that are beside,
With Moores and Marshes being large and wide;
And Rivers which the Mountaines downe doe throw
From their high tops, or those which stand below
In Lakes unmov'd; and while with hastie course
These take part of the earth away by force;
And these with deepe gulfes drowne the world again,
The greatest part of land that doth remaine
In cover'd o're with water, and doth seeme
Like a small Island in the Sea to swimme.
[Page 3]In this againe what barren sands there be,
And great vaste Mountaines without fruite or tree?
How much of it is scorch't with too much flame?
Or how much is benum'd with cold againe?
Or how much lies unfit for to be till'd?
Or how much is with mortall poysons fill'd?
O shame, O madnesse, of a fond desire!
How little cause hath glory to aspire!
Anger doth rage, feare troubles, griefe doth fret;
And want even by the sword doth riches get,
By treacherie, fire, nor poyson doth it spare:
Thus humane matters full of troubles are.

OF THE WORLD.

THis Universe, which rather presents it selfe to the con­templation of the minde of man, then to the sight of the Eyes, for the perfect elegancie, and absolute puritie there­of, is called in Latine Mundus. This Pliny, in the 11. Lib. The name by whom, & why given. Cap. 1. of his Naturall Historie, calleth, That which cove­reth all things with his Circumference. And Apuleius painting forth an admirable picture of it calleth it, That which consists in the societie of heaven and earth, and of those things which belong unto their natures. The same Apuleius more elaborately describes the world thus, or to this purpose. The world (saith hee) is a garnished ordinance of things, the just charge and custodie of the Gods, whose pole, (for so I call the Cen­ter) beeing strong and immoveable, passeth through the earth, the Mo­ther and nourisher of all living creatures. All the higher parts, as may be seene, being enclosed and hidden with the moistnesse of the aire in manner of a covering: Beyond is the house of the Gods, called Heaven, which wee see is full of divine bodies, as the faire and shining lights of the Sunne, Moone, and the other Starres, with which it is carried about by the diurnall and nocturnall motion in such a perpetuall course, as shall never have an end. Now that the forme thereof is gathered round together like a Globe, the name thereof doth declare, and the consent of men calling and painting it in manner of a Globe, besides diverse arguments that prove the same: As because such a figure is most capable, most simple, and doth bend in all parts towards it selfe, sustaines it selfe, includes and containes it selfe, wanting no joyning together, nor having any end or beginning in any of its parts: as also because where­soever you behold it, it hath a circular forme in all its parts, which can­not happen in another figure. Therefore it was a ridiculous imagination of them who supposed that it had not a Lactantius lib. 5. Institut. cap. 24. deri­deth those that say the Heaven is Sphericall. Sphericall round figure, but either an angular, or ovall, or some other forme. There be two parts of the World, the Aetheriall or heavenly, and the Elementary or sub­lunary. The Aetheriall is that cleare part which containeth all the ce­lestiall Spheeres, and is free from [...]. Aristot. de Caelo lib [...] cap. 3. alteration. The Elementary is that which is placed beneath those Orbes, and it admitteth generation and [Page 4] corruption, and containeth not onely simple Bodies, as Fire, Aire, Wa­ter, Earth: but also those which are compounded of them, whereof wise men have delivered five kindes. For some are imperfectly mixt, which we call Meteors, as Hayle, Raine, Snow, Thunder, Lightning, Winde; others perfectly mixt, but without life, as Stones, Mettalls, &c. There are others which have a vegetable soule, as Plants; and those which have a sensible soule, as Brute Creatures: Lastly, there are some in the highest and last degree of compound things, which beside all these have a reasonable soule, as Men. We, leaving those things which belong to Astronomers and Philosophers, will chiefly consider the Globe of the Earth. The whole Earth being diversly divided by Seas, Rivers, and Marshes, doth make altogether an absolute Globe. Homer for no other cause calleth it Orbicular. And Numa Pompilius for the same consideration, did consecrate a round Temple to Vesta, the mo­ther of Saturne, whom Poets take for the earth. And that the figure thereof can be no other, both Aristotle hath demonstrated by the reason of heavy things making towards one certaine point, and also Mathema­ticians prove by the Eclipses, and shadowes of Dyalls. Besides it is found out by the long and certaine observations of Travellers, that the longitudes and latitudes of places doe varie according to their severall distances, so that it is most certaine without any farther demonstration, that there are So called frō the Greek [...]. 1. ha [...]to [...]um. Perioeci, that is to say, those that dwell under the same Parallel, and So named [...] [...]. [...] adverso [...]abitare. Antoeci, that is, those that dwell alike distance from the Aequator, but the one Northward, and the other Southward, and So stiled from [...] & [...] q. d. adversa ve­stigia figentes. The compasse of the Earth. An­tipodes, that is, people dwelling on the other side of the earth, with their feet directly against ours. Antiquitie sheweth that the compasse of this Globe, where it is largest, is 360 degrees; and this latter age doth affirme the same, wherefore if to every degree you allow 15 Ger­mane miles, or 60 Italian miles, it will be easie to finde out the The circum­ference acco [...] ­ding to this ac­count is 540 [...]. Germane miles or 21600. Ita­lian miles. The qualitie of the Earth. circuit of the whole earth. All the parts whereof (as Plinie saith in his 2d booke of Naturall Historie, Cap. 68. and as others also have delivered) are but a point in respect of the World, for the whole Earth is no better. This is the matter and seate of our glory, here we beare honours, here we exercise government, here wee covet riches, here men doe make tumults, and wage civill warres, thereby to make themselves roome upon the earth by slaughtering one another. And (that I may passe over the publicke furie of nations) this is it in which we drive forth our bordering neighbours, and by stealth encroach upon their Country, so that hee that hath most enlarged his territories, and driven the adjoyning inhabitants from their bounds, in how small a part of earth doth he rejoyce? or when hee hath enlarg'd it to the measure of his owne covetousnesse, what portion doth hee ob­taine for all his labour? Thus farre Plinie. And let this suffice concerning the earth as it does make one Globe with the Sea. Now as it is distin­guisht from the waters, and called in the Scriptures drie land, it is the proper habitation of men. And for the great desert thereof, we give it the name of Mother. This receiveth us at our birth, nourishes us being borne, and being once brought to light, it doth alwayes sustaine us: Lastly, when we are cast off and forsaken by nature, then chiefly like a mother shee hides us in her bosome. This also is to be added, that a The outmost end whereof is called a Cape. Promontorie is called a part of land lying out farther than the rest, and [Page 5]

OF THE WORLD.
TYPUS ORBIS TERRARUM

יהוה

‘Domini est terra & plenitudo eius, orbis terrarum, & universi qui habitant in eo.Psalmo 24.

[Page 6] is contrary to a Bay. Such are the Lacinian and Sephyrian in the farthest part of Italie, the Lilybaean in Sicilie, and the Sigaean in Asia. That is cal­led an Iland which is washed on every side with the Sea: such are Crete, Cyprus, Sicilie, &c. A So called, quasi Paenè In­sula. Paeninsula is that which is joyned to the Conti­nent by a narrow ridge of Land, which the Greekes call Isthmos, and the Paeninsula it selfe, Chersonesus is a compound word of [...] and [...] q. d. Insula deserta aut inculta. Chersonesus: such are the golden Chersonesus; the Cimbricke, the Dacike, the Tauricke, and others.

In this place something also is to be added concerning the Sea: one Sea is called the This Seasome Writers call Mare magnum, others Mare internum. [...]u­stathius calls it Mare Hesseri­um; and be­cause of France Spaine, Germa­nie, Brittaine, &c. it is to­ward the East, the Spaniards call it Mar de Levante. 1. The East Sea, al­though in holy Scripture it bee called Mare Occidental [...], as being West frō Hierusalem. Mediterranean, the other the The Ocean is so called from the Greek word [...]. 1. [...] as Se­linus affirmeth, and hath beene called Mare Atlanticum, or the Atlanticke Se [...] [...]s it is evi­dent in Tullies Semnium Scip. where it is said, that every Country that is inhabited, is compassed a­bout with the Atlanticke Sea▪ which we call the Ocean. Ocean. The Ocean, which the holy Scripture doth call the gathering together of the wa­ters, doth exceed all the other Seas in bignesse and largenesse, and is spread abroad through the whole earth, and wandring with a winding course by diverse coasts of the world, and by the Shoares, Iles and Pro­montories of severall Nations, it changeth its name with those places. As in one place it is called the Westerne Ocean, in other places the Easterne, Aethiopian, Spanish, Atlanticke, Scythian, French, Brittish, Germane, Nor­therne, and Frozen, and elsewhere by moderne observation it is called Mare del Sur, or the peaceable Sea, the Archipelagus of Lazarus, the Indian Sea, Lantchidol. There are many Bayes belonging to it, as the Arabian, the Persian, the Gangeticke, the Great, the Sarmaticke, the Mexican, and the Ver­milian. There are two famous Streights of the Ocean, the one ofThis Streight is by diverse diversly called, sometime Fretum Hereuleum: Plinie lib. 3. cap. 5. calleth it Fretum Gaditanum: Avienus, Herculis v [...]am; and Herma, Strabo, Pietum columnarum; Livie, Fretum Oceani: Florus, Ostium Oceani; Ausonius, Fretum Iberum, &c. Gibral­tar, the other of This Streight deriveth its name from one Magellanus a Spaniard, who first discovered it about the yeare of our Lord 1520. Magellan, to which may be added Ania, which lyeth between the farthest Westerne parts of America, and the Easterne parts of Tartaria. The Mediterranean Sea divideth Africke from Europe, and hath diverse names according to the situation of diverse Countries. As the Iberian, the Balearick, the French, the Tuscane, the Sicilian, the Adriatick, the Ionian, Cretian, Aegyptian, Pamphilian, Syrian, Aegean, Myrtian, Icari­an, and the Sea of Propontis. Concerning the motion of the Sea, which they call the Tide, seeing it is a matter most worthy of admiration, we are to speake something of it in this place. The Tide is said to be a mo­tion of the Sea, wherby it floweth upward, & having finished his course, ebbeth backe againe. As there is one cause thereof so there are many e­vents and effects concerning it. For in some places there is little or no Tide at all. On the Northerne Coast of the Pacificke Sea, there is none. In the Tuscan, Tyrrhene, and Narbonian Sea, in the Celtiberian Sea at Bar­chino, and in the Mexican at Cuba, with the neighbouring Islands there is none at all. But elsewhere it is great; as at Bengala in the Indies neere to Ganges, in the Gothicke, Germane, Brittish, and Portugall Ocean, and so great in the Erythrean, that the despisers of holy Scriptures have fained, that Moses used to passe over on dry-land by the opportunitie of the Ebbe, which could not be, because even to Sues, which lyeth backward, the Sea covereth that Shoare; neither going backward doth it leave it so naked as that by its ebbing it should discover the lower parts, over which the Hebrewes passed. The Tides in the Ocean are alwaies greates then those in Bayes, yet are they more discerned about the shoares, then in the deep. [Page 7] But concerning them we will speake more in another place.The commo­dities of the Sea. The Sea is not altogether barren, but bringeth forth Fish, Plants, and pretious stones, and it is to be noted how Nature, with Dedalus cunning, hath re­presented in the Sea all the chiefest things which are seene either on the Earth, or in the Aire. I let passe the Sea-Elephants, the Sea-Hogges, the Torteises, Dog-fishes, Sea-calves, Sea-horses: I omit the Falcons and Sea-swallowes, seeing Nature hath exprest even man himselfe, in the Mairman, in the Siren, and Nereides: and also in the Monke-fish: as for the Corrall, the Pearles, the Amber, Gumme, Sponges, and infinite other things. Whom do they not worthily draw into the admiration and a­doration of Gods power? But of this wee have spoken sufficiently. Let us come now to the distribution of the Globe of the Earth. The Ancients have divided the Globe of the Earth sometimes into two parts, some­times into three: the division into three parts, Europe, Asia, Africke, or Libya, is most famous among the Ancients, to whom the new World was not yet knowne. But America being found, our age hath added that for the fourth part. Our Mercator doth distinguish this Globe of the Earth into three Continents: hee calleth that the first, which the Anci­ents divided into three parts, the second that which we now call Ame­rica: the third, the Southerne, or Magellanicke land. But we will divide the whole Globe into five patts, Europe, Africke, Asia, America, and the Southerne Land.

EVROPE.

EUROPE, though it be least of all, yet with the chiefe Delineators of the terrestriall Globe, we will describe it in the first place, either for the excellencie of the soyle, or the company of the inhabitants, or in regard of their famous acts, who have hitherto possessed it. Pliny calleth it the Nurse of a People conquering all Nations, and the most beautifull part of the Earth: besides, though other parts be greater, and larger, yet they are lesse inhabited; and therefore for these and other causes wee may justly begin first with Europe, which was the most noble inheritance of And therfore by some called Iapetia. Europe, whence so called. Iaphet (who being Noahs eldest sonne enlarged his Territories even to the Land of his brethren, Sem and Cham) so much concerning the order: in the next place we must shew the Etymologie of the name. Herodotus noteth, that the originall of this name was not knowne: some say it was called so from one Europa a Whence also called Tyria. vid. Herod. l. 4. Tyrian, the daughter of Agenor King of the Phoenicians, of whom it is an ancient Vid. O vid. l. 3. Metamorph. fable, that Jupiter having, transformed himselfe into a Bull, and having set her on his backe, carried her from Sydon into Creete, or Cyprus. Others rejecting fables, do thinke she was carried away in a ship built in the forme of a Bull: Others say it was a ship which had the protection of Iupiter, and the image of a Bull upon it. Palephatus of Creete writeth, that it was a ship called the Bull, which brought away from the Tyrian Countrie, Europa the Kings daughter as captive, with other maids: Some do suppose that it was a militarie Legion, which among other Ensignes had one Standard with the figure of a Bull in it. Some say it was so called in regard of the beau­tie of this Region which may be compar'd to a Virgine, carried away for the love of her beautie. And some (not unlikely) have said, that it was called so from Europus, who, as it is left to memory, had heretofore a Kingdome in this part of the World. Becanus, beeing unwilling to be per­suaded that Europe hath a Greeke name, seeing the Cimmerians did inha­bit it before the Greekes, & the former had a different Language from the latter, thinketh that it was so called from the excellencie of the people. For the monasyllable H [...]ylin in his Geographie. pag 29. derides this derivation with Oh the wit of man! VER, being pronoūced by the dipthong, signifies some great and excellent thing; and HOP, doth denote a multitude of men. The Asiaticans do generally at this day call the Europeans Franki­men: the Turkes call those of the Romish Religion Franki, and those Romei who are addicted to the Greeke Religion. The Abyssines in Africke, which divers Records do testifie, do call us Alfrangues, and the Christi­ans Countrie Frankia. So much for the Name: the Situation and Quan­titie followes: concerning which it is to be held, that Ptolomy, and other Ancient Writers did place Europe betweene the 4. & 9. Climes, between the 11. and 21. Parallels: betweene the Degrees of Latitude is the distance of a place, North or South from the Ae [...]uator or middle of the World. Latitude 36. and 54. and of Longitude is the distance of any place, East and West, from the chiefe Me­ridian, and is measured by the Degrees of the Aequator. Moderne Geo­graphers place the first Meri­dian, not as the Ancients in the Canaries, or [...]rtunate I [...]lands, but in the Iland of S. Michael, one of the 9. Azores in the Atlantick Sea. Longitude 17. and 61. but in our age, seeing the Declination of the Sunne, as it is observed, is changed, and many places are added to this our Europe, for they have now discovered to the 72. Degrees of La­titude [Page 9]

EVROPE.
EUROPA

[Page 10] toward the North; a further description of Climes and Parallels hath beene devised, so that Europe is situated betweene the 4th and 18th A Clime is a space of the Earth compre­hended be­tween th [...]e [...] Pa­rallels, lesser in­nominne Cir­cles which compasse the Earth from [...]st to West. Climes serve to distin­guish the length of dayes in all places; in the first 24. from the Aequator, both North and South, eve­ry one length­ens the day halfe an houre, afterward they encrease by Weekes and Moneths, till it comes to the length of halfe a yeare. Climats; and betweene the Parallels 11. and 36. Lastly, betweene the degrees of Latitude 36. and 72. but almost betweene the degrees of Longitude 17. & 71. If it be considered from the Promontorie of Spaine, which is called at this day Cabo S. Vincentij, even to a right line drawne from the head of the River Tanais to the Northerne Ocean: but the shortest Longitude is betweene the 17th and 58. degrees, counting it from the same Promontorie of Spaine, even to Malea a Promontorie of Pelo­ponesus, and excluding the Islands of the Aegean Sea, which may bee reckoned as part of Europe: so that the most Southerne parts of Europe are in the 36. degree of Latitude, as the Mountaine Calpe in Spaine, one of Hercules Pillars, the Southerne Promontory of Sicilie, heretofore cal­led Odyssia, and the head of Peloponnesus, or Morea, anciently Taenaria, and now Cabo Maini: in which places the longest day is 14. houres, and 30. minutes. But the most Northerne limits of it are in the 71 de­gree and a halfe, as the Promontory of Scandia, the farthest Land North­ward, now called Wardhuys, where the longest day is 2. moneths, 22. dayes, and 7. houres. Moreover, we make account that a line drawne straight forward from the head of Tanais to the Northerne Ocean is the Easterne limite of Europe, following the common account. For anci­ent Writers doe not agree concerning the Easterne boundes of Europe. Aristotle, Plato, Herodotus, and others who are of their opinion, doe divide Europe from Asia by the River or Isthmus of Phasis, which is be­tweene the Euxine and Caspian Sea. Dionysius, Arrianus, Diodorus, Poly­bius, Iornandes, doe divide it by the River Tanais. Abraham See Ortelius in his Thea­trum orbis ter­rarum. Ortelius makes the bounds of Europe toward the East to bee the Aegean Sea, the Euxine Sea, the Maeoticke Lake, the River Tanais, and the Isthmus which lyeth straight forward from the head Springs thereof towards the North; and others make other bounds. Ptolomaeus doth part Europe from Asia, by the same River of Tanais, and a line drawne from the head thereof toward the Northerne Sea. Now (wee subscribing unto him with other most skilfull Geographers, and descending from the Line and River of Tanais towards the South) let us with others place the Easterne bounds thereof in the Maeoticke Lake, the Cimmerian Bospho­rus, the Euxine Sea, the Thracian Bosphorus, the Propontis, and the Aegean Sea even to the Mediterranean Sea, which parts it from Africke South­ward: on the West, the great and wide Ocean beates upon it. Lastly, on the North it is encompassed with the Northerne Sea. Strabo doth attribute to it the forme of a Dragon, of which Spaine doth represent the head, France the necke, Germany the body, Italie and the Cimbrian Chersonesus the right and left winges.The tempe­ratenesse of the Aire. For the most part it enjoyes a temperate Aire, and milde Weather. Whence Europe is every where inhabited, although very incommodiously and hardly in those places which are beyond the 60th degree of Latitude, in regard of cold. And it doth not onely farre excell the other parts of the World in the won­derfull temperatenesse of the Climate, temper, pleasantnesse, and great company of the inhabitants;The fertility of the Soyle. but also in the abundance of Fruits, Trees, Plants, all kinde of living Creatures, Mettals; and in the plentie of all [Page 11] other things which are necessarie to sustaine mans life. Yet it hath not vines everywhere, but where wine is wanting it supplies the defect thereof with drinke made of fruits. This (for here I cannot refraine from praising it) is the mother of the Conquerours of the World.The governmēt of the Anci­ents, and their successours. Here Ma­cedon did heretofore bring forth Alexander, Italie the Romanes: who in a certaine succession (God in his Eternall Providence so decreeing) did conquer the whole World, so farre as it was knowne: and Germany doth at this day bring forth Princes of great Prowes. Have not here beene borne many noble Heroes, which have added to their Empire America unknowne (as the most do suppose) to the Ancients, and the better and stronger parts of Asia, and Africke? Is it not the onely mother of many Kings and Princes fighting in Christs cause? This our See Ortelius in his booke before cited. Europe, besides the Romane Empire, hath above eight and twentie Kingdomes instructed in Christian Religion, if we adde the foureteene, which Damianus à Goes reckons to be in Spaine, whence wee may estimate the dignitie of this Countrie: what shall I speake of the populousnesse, and renowne of the cities thereof. Heretofore Africa hath beene proud of her Carthage, Asia hath beene puffed up with her three Cities, Babilon, Ninivie and Hieru­salem. America doth glory at this day in Cusco, and new Spaine in Mexi­co: but who seeth not in these times the like and greater, almost in eve­ry Countrie of Europe? Let any one in his minde onely walke over Italy (for this doth afford an example of all the rest) the sumptuous magnifi­cence of Rome, the Royall wealth of Venice, the honourable Nobilitie of Naples, the continuall commerce and traffique of Genoa, the happie and fertile pleasantnesse of Millaine, and the famous wonders, and com­modities of other places. So that the other parts of the World may be silent, for none are equall to Europe. The Countries in it (as they are now called) are Spaine, France, Germanie, Italie, Hungarie, Transilvania, Dalma­tia, Greece, Poland, Lithuania, Moscovie, Russia, Denmarke, Swethland, Norway: besides the Isles in the Northerne Ocean, which are, England, Scotland, Ireland, Island, Frisland, and others in other places; and those in the Me­diterranean Sea, as the Baleares, which are two Isles in the Spanish Sea cal­led Majorica and Minorica, also Corsica, Sardinia, Sicilia, with the Isles of Malta, Corfu, Creete, and many others. And as for the Lakes,The Lakes and Rivers. standing Pooles, Rivers, and Waters having diverse vertues in them, which (be­side their fish, whereof they yeeld an incredible company) are as it were a wall unto Countries, who can number them? What should I mention the Seas?The Seas. it would be tedious in this place to reckon up their commodi­ties, profits, and delights, these things shall therfore be unfolded in their proper places. Europe doth not want Mountaines, among which the Pi­renean hills, and the Alpes, are alwaies white with continuall snow, and it hath many woods and forrests, which afford pasturage for cattell,The publique & private workes. The Lawes & Institutions. and have few harmefull beasts in them. What should I speake of the private or publique workes, both sacred and profane that are in this part of the World? Here are innumerable magnificent Temples, innumerable Abbies, many famous Pallaces of Kings, innumerable faire and magni­ficent houses belonging to Noble-men and Princes: and many rare buildings, both publique and private. We have here Justice and Lawes: we have the dignitie ofIt is obser­vable that there is no part of Europe, whe­ther Continent or Island, that hath not long since beene Christened. Christian Religion, we have all the delights of [Page 12] mankinde,The company of Senators. we have the strength of Armes, innumerable Senators, Men venerable both for Wisedome and Learning: and if you please to com­pare famous men together, there was never so great a company of He­roes, and Noble men in other parts of the World, as in any one part of Europe. Besides, this part of the World is so studious of Arts and Sci­ences, that for the invention and preservation of many things, it may worthily be called,The Vniversi­ties the Mother and Nurse of Wisedome. In this are ma­ny excellent and flourishing Who number it no lesse then [...]8. Universities, but in other Countries there is nothing but meere Barbarisme. It would be too much to reckon up the vertues of the Inhabitants; but as for the vices (as who is without some?) they are noted in some short sayings, which I will here adde: The people of Franconia are foolish, rude, and vehement. The Bavarians are prodigall, gluttons, and railers. The Grisons are light, talkative, and braggers.The manners of the people. The Turingi are distrustfull and contentious. The Saxons dis­semblers, craftie, selfe-willed. The Low-country-men are horsemen, de­licate, and tender. The Italians proud, desirous of revenge, and wittie. The Spaniards haughtie, wise, covetous. The French eloquent, intempe­rate, and rash. The People of Denmarke and Holsteine, are great of stature, seditious, and dreadfull. The Sarmatians great eaters, proud, and stealers. The Bohemians inhumane, new-fangled and robbers. The Illyrians un­constant, envious, seditious. The Pannonians cruell, and superstitious. The Greekes miserable. And there is another saying no lesse pleasant. A Bridge in Poland, a Monke of Bohemia, a Knight of the South, a Nunne of Suevia, the Devotion of Italie, the Religion of Prutenicks, the Fasts of Germans, and the Constancie of Frenchmen are nothing worth.

AFRICKE.

AFRICKE followes: which was so called, if we beleeve Nisias, from Afer a companion of Hercules, who accom­panied him even as faire as Calis. But if we trust Iosephus, and Isidorus, The name by whom & why given. from one of the posteritie of Abraham, whose name was Afer: or (as Festus doth suppose) from the Greek word And a pri­vativum. [...], which signifies cold, for it is free from cold, because the most part of it is situated betweene the The Tropicks are two nomi­nate Circles that be Parallel to the Aequa­tor, frō which the Northerne Tropicke, called the Tropicke of Cancer, is di­stant 23. de­grees [...]/2 and the Southerne, cal­led the Tropick of Capricorne, as much. Tropicks. The Arabians doe call it Fricchia, from the word Farruca, which with them signifies to di­vide: for Africke is almost divided from the other parts of the Earth. Or else it was so called from Ifricus a King of Arabia Foelix, who (they re­port) did first inhabite this Country. The Greekes call it Libya either from Libya the daughter of Epathus, or from the Greeke word [...], which signifies stonie, or because Libs or the Southwest-wind bloweth from thence. In the Scriptures it is called Chamesia;So called, from Cham the sonne of Noah, who inhabited this Country, See Psal 105.23. the Arabians, and Aethiopians doe call it Alkebula, and the Indians Besechath. The So stiled because when the Sunne is under that Aequinoctiall Circle in the Heaven, which answers to this on the Earth, the daies and nights be of one length Ae­quinoctiall Circle doth almost cut the middle part of Africke. The [Page 13]

AFRICKE.
AFRICAE DESCRIPTIO

[Page 14] Tropicks passe not beyond it, [...] either Northward or Southward, but it is stretched out beyond either of them ten degrees and more. It is boun­ded towards the North, with the Mediterranean Sea, and the Streights of Hercules; towards the East with the Arabian Bay, or the Erythraean Sea, and with the Isthmus which is betweene the Mediterranean Sea and the Arabian Bay; to the South it is washed with the Aethiopian Ocean: and on the West with the Atlanticke. It hath the forme of a Peninsula, which is joyned to Asia by the Isthmus above mentioned. And though the length thereof which lyeth from West to East, is shorter then the length of Europe; yet the length thereof from the North, toward the [...] Habassia, [...] the higher Aethiopia. South is such, as Europe can hardly be compared with it: for it taketh up almost 70 degrees, but Europe scarce 35. Beside, Europe is full of windings, but Africke is uniforme and continued. Europe (as I said before in the description thereof) is every where inhabited; but this is full of Deserrs and inhabitable places. That was formerly knowne, but not this: where it is inhabited, Africke doth excell in fruitfulnesse. But for the most part,The [...]. it is not inhabited, but full of barren Sands, and Desarts, and troubled with many kindes of living Creatures. It is reported that the fruitfulnesse of the fields is very wonderfull, and doth give the tillers such a harvest, as doth requite the labour with a hundred-fold increase for that which is sowne. That is wonderfull which is spoken of the fer­tilitie of Mauritania: viz. that there are Vines which two men cannot fadome about, and bunches of Grapes a cubit long. There are very high trees neare to the Mountaine Atlas, plaine and smooth without knots, and leaved like the Cypresse tree. Africke doth bring forth Ele­phants and Dragons, which lie in waite for beasts, and kill them with winding about them: besides, it hath a great number of Lyons, Buffs, or wilde Oxen, Libbards, wilde Goates, and Apes. Herodotus repor­teth, that Asses with hornes bred here, besides Dragons, Hyenaes, rough Wolves, begotten of the Wolfe and Hiena, Panthers and Ostriches, roughtd besides many kinds of Serpents, as Aspes, & Crocondiles, to which nature hath made the O RI [...]e of India, who stealeth into the Crocodiles mouth when he g [...]p th [...] and a [...]ng his bow­els killeth him. Ichneumon an enemie, &c. But, as the same Author wit­nesseth, there is neither Stagge nor Boare in it. Africke bringeth forth the Basiliske: and although many things are thought to be fabulous which are reported of him; Yet it is certaine that Leo being Pope, there was a Basiliske which infected Rome with a great plague by his noy­some breath. There are also divers kindes of Hence came the old pro­verbe, Africa semper aliquid apportat mon­st [...]i. Monsters, whose diversi­tie and multitude they ascribe to the want of water, whereby the wild beasts are enforced to come together at a few Rivers and Springs. The Romanes divided Africke into sixe Provinces. The Proconsularie Pro­vince, wherein was Carthage; Numidia, under the jurisdictin of a Con­sull; Bizacchius, Tripolitana, Mauritania Caesariensis, and Mauritania Siti­phensis. The Division. Ptolomie in the beginning of his fourth Booke doth reckon twelve Provinces or Countries, Mauritania Tingitana, Mauritania Caesa­riensis, Numidia, Africa properly so called, Cyrenaica or Pentapolis, (for so Ptolomie calls it) Marmarica, Lybia properly so called, the Higher and Lower Egypt, the Innermost Lybia, Aethiopia under Egypt, & the Inner­most Aethiopia. Leo Africanus doth divide all Africke into foure parts, Barbarie, Numidia, Lybia, and the Countrie of Black-Mores. But in this Leo [Page 15] is deceived, because hee hath not made the Red Sea the bound of Africke, but Nilus; whereby it comes to passe that hee joynes Egypt and the Easterne part to Asia. Let us therefore, besides those foure parts reckoned up of Leo, place in Africke, Egypt, the Higher Ae­thiopia, the Lower and outermost Aethiopia, and the Islands. Egypt is stretched forth in a long tract of Land, from the South unto the North. The bounds thereof, on the West side are the Desarts of Ba­rca, Lybia and Numidia beyond Nilus, together with the Kingdome of Nubia. On the South it is bounded with the Country of Bugia and Nilus, where it runneth a little from the West Eastward. On the Eastside there are the Desarts of Arabia, which lye betweene Egypt and the Red Sea; and on the North side it is enclosed with the Mediterranean Sea; Other things concerning Egypt wee will unfold in the particular De­scription thereof. At this day they call all that part of Africke, which reacheth from Egypt to the Straits of Gibraltar, and is included with the Mediterranean Sea and the Mountaine Atlas, Barbaria: and it containes the Kingdomes of Morocco, Fesse, Tremisen, Tunis, and Barca, of which wee will speake more largely in the Description of Barbarie. At this time it shall be sufficient to shew the Reader the division and bounds thereof. The Kingdome therefore of Morocco is divided into these Pro­vinces, Hea, Susa, Guzala, the Land of Morocco, Ducala, Hoscora, and Ted­letes: it is bounded with the Atlantick Ocean, with the Mountaine Atlas it selfe, and the Kingdome of Fesse. The Kingdome of Fesse hath on the West the Atlanticke Sea, on the North the Straits of Hercules, on the East the River Mulvia, on the South the Kingdome of Morocco. The Countries therein are Temesna, the Territory of Fesse, Asgara, Elhabata, Errifa, Gare­tum and Elchausum. The Kingdome of Tremisen, is bounded on the South with the Desart of Numidia, on the East with the great River, on the North with the Mediterranean Sea. The Kingdome of Tunis doth containe the whole tract of Land from the great River, to the River of the Countrie of Mestata. The Countries thereof are five, Bugia, Constan­tina, the Territorie of Tunis, Tripolis, and Ezzaba, Barcha now called, but that it was an [...]ly called Barca is evident [...]on of Virgil when hee saith, Late­que [...]. Barca, or Barcha is stretched forth from the borders of Mestata to the confines of Egypt. Numidia is called at this day Biledulgerid; the bounds thereof are the Atlanticke Sea on the West side, the Mountaine Atlas on the North, the confines of Egypt on the East, the Desarts of Libya on the South. The Regions thereof are Tesset, Tegelmessa, Seb, Biledulgerid, Dara and Fezzen. Lybia was called by the Ancients Sarra, because it is a Desart. It begin­neth from the Kingdome of Gagoa neere Nilus, and is extended toward the West, even to the Kingdome of Gualata, which lyeth neere to the Atlantick Sea, on the North the Kingdome of Numidia doth border on it, on the South the Kingdome of the Nigritans or Blackmoores. The Nigri­tans are so called either from the blacke colour of the inhabitants, or frō the black river which glideth through their Country. They have on the East the Confines, or the Borders of Nilus, on the West the Westerne O­cean, on the South partly the Aethiopian Sea, and partly the Kingdome of Manicongus; but on the North the desarts of Libya. The Kingdomes ther­of are five and twentie, namely, Galata, Gumea, Melli, Tombutum, Gago, Guber, Agadez, Cano, Caseva, Zegzeg, Zanfara, Gunangara, Boruum, Goago, [Page 16] Nubia, Biro, Temiamo, Dauma, Medra, Gora, the Territorie of Anterot, the Territorie of Giolosa, the Coast of Guinea, the Territorie of Meligens, and the Kingdome of Benin. The Abyssines do inhabit the higher or inner­most Aethiopia, whose Prince is called Abusively so called, but rightly Preste Iohan or Gyam, which in the Aethiopian tongue signifies Great or Migh­tie Prince. Prester Iohn. His Country is large, & doth almost touch either Tropicke, and it is extended betweene the Ae­thiopian and the So called frō the rednesse of the sands Red Sea, on the North it hath the people of Nubia and Bugia that borders on Egypt; on the East the Red Sea; on the South the Mountaines of the Moone; on the VVest the Kingdome of Manicongus, the River Niger, the Kingdome of Nubia, & the River Nilus. These King­domes are subject to him, Barnagnes, Tigremaum, Tigraim, in which is the Cittie Caxumo, Angote, Amara, Xoa, Goyami, Bagamedrum, Gueguere, Fa­tiagar, Damar, Dancali, and Dobas. The lower or outermost Aethiopia is the Southerne part of Africke, unknowne unto Ptolomie. The beginning thereof on the East side is above the River Zaire not farre from the Ae­quinoctiall, and it doth contain all the littorall part of Africk, and beyond the Aequinoctiall, even to the Straits of Arabia. The Regions thereof are five, first the Country of Ajana, in which are the Kingdomes Del, and Adea Magaduzzum. Secondly, the Countrie of Zanguibara, the King­domes whereof are, Melinda, Mombazza, Quiloa, Mozambique, Manoemu­ci, Cephala, Manomotapa, Torra, and Butua; the Kingdome of Cafria, and Manicong, in which there are sixe Provinces, Sunde, Pango, Songo, Bamba, Barra & Pemba, to which are added the Kingdomes of Angola, Loangi, & Anzichi. There are some very great Lakes in Africke, which seeme rather to be Seas, thē Lakes, of which the chiefest is Zembre, which is fifty miles in compasse, & out of it there flow the Rivers, Nilus, Zaire, and Cuama. Be­sides, this part of the VVorld hath great Rivers, as Nilus, Niger, Senaga, Cambra, Zaire, Cuama, & the River called the River of the Holy Ghost, all which by their overflowing do wonderfully water it, & make it fruitfull. It hath many great mountains,The Lakes. Rivers. Mountaines. amongst which the chiefe is So called frō Atlas, in times past [...] K. of the Moores, whom the Poets same to have beene Metamorpho­sed into this Mountaine this hill is now cal­led Anchisa: the inhabitants that dwell a­bout it name it Adiris; Soli­nus, Duris; o­thers call it A­strixis, or A­stre [...]xis. but Di­oscorider calleth it Tmolus. Atlas, who rising out of the vast sands lifteth up his high head above the clouds, so that the top thereof cannot be seene. The inhabitants call it the Pillar of Heaven. It beginneth from the VVest, where it gives the name to the Atlanticke Sea, and from thence by a continued winding ridge it exten­deth it selfe towards the East: towards the borders of Egypt it is round, rugged, steepe, and unpassable by reason of steepe rockes; also wooddy, and watered with the breaking forth of springs. The top of this Moun­taine is covered even in the Summer with deepe snow: yea sometime the backe thereof (if the North wind be sharpe) is covered with a snow deeper then the highest tree, whereby both men and cattell do perish. There is another very high mountaine called This Moun­taine is called by Ptolomie, Pliny, and o­thers, Deorum cursus. Sierra Liona, whose top is alwaies hid with clouds, from whence a terrible noise is heard at Sea, so that it is called the Mountaine of Lions. The Mountaines also of the Moone, much renowned by the Ancients, are here placed under the Tropicke of Capricorne: they are very rugged, of an incredible heigth, and inhabited by wild people; and neere them there are such low and deepe valleies, that it may seeme that the Center of the Earth is there. Lastly, there are the Mountaines Cantaberes in the Kingdome of Angola, verie rich in silver mines, and other which wee will mention in our particu­lar Descriptions. The chiefe Islands about Africke are these. In the [Page 17] Atlanticke Ocean, there is the Isle called, Portus Sancti, or the Isle of the Holy Port: Madera, the Canarie Islands, and Caput Viride, or the Greene Cape. The Isle of the Holy Port was so called from the disco­verers, who having failed thither with much danger and difficultie, would have this place so called in memory thereof. The compasse of it is about fifteene miles. Madera tooke his name from the great plen­ty of trees that grew here. The circuit of it is about an hundred and forty miles. The Canaries were so called from the multitude of dogges that were found there: they were called by the Ancients, the So named either frō t [...]n fruitfulness or goodnesse of A [...]e as Stepha­nus thinketh. Fortunate Islands▪ Pliny doth mention sixe: Ombrio, Innonia the greater, and lesser, Capraria, Navaria, and Canaria. Ptolomie calls them Aprosuum, Hera, or Autolala, Pluitalia, Casperias, Canaria and Centuria, and doth place them all almost in a right Line towards the North. Ca­damustus maketh ten, seaven tilled, three desert: the names of those that are manured are the Islands of Fracta Lancea, Magna Sors, Grand-Canarea, Teneriffa, Gomera, Palma, and Ferro. Cape Verde, or the greene Cape is planted with greene Trees, and from hence it hath that name. The Isles thereof toward the West, doe lie in the midst of the Ocean: as the Islands of S. Anthony, S. Vincent, S. Lucia, S. Nicholas, the Island of Salt, Bonavista, Maggio or May, Saint Iames, and the Island cal­led Insula del fuego. In the Aethiopian Ocean are the Islands, called Insula Principis and Saint Thomas his Island. Behinde the Promontory called Caput Bonae spei, or the Cape of good Hope, there are other Islands, but none inhabited except the Island of Saint Laurence.

ASIA.

The name by whom & why [...]n. ASIA succeeds Africke in my division. This name was allotted it from the Nymph Daughter to [...]anus and Teth [...]. Asia (as Varro wit­nesseth) of whom and Iapetus Prometheus was borne: Others say it was so called either of Asius the sonne of Atys, or from Asius the Philosopher, who gave the Pal­ladium of Troy to the custodie of the Citie, for which, that they might gratifie him, his whole dominions (which before was called Epirus) they called Asia. And from hence afterward, as from the more noble part, all the whole tract of Land began to bee called [...] Asia. Moreover, as Lybia doth both signifie a third part of the World, and a part of this part: So it is observed, that Asia doth signifie both the whole Continent, and that part which is hem'd in with the Mountaine Taurus, wherein doe dwell the Lydians, the Carians, the Lycaonians, Paph­lagonians, Ionians, Aeolians, and others; which part, for distinction sake, is commonly called Asia the Lesse: the Turkes call it From the Greeke wo [...]d [...], wha [...]h signifieth the East, because it lyeth East­ward of Asia the Great. Natolia. There is saith Varro, Lib. 4. an Asia which is distinguisht from Europe, in which is Syria: and there is an Asia which is called the former part of Asia, in which is Ionia, and our Province. But all Asia is called in the Holy Scrip­tures From [...]m the [...]me of Noah. Semia. It is almost wholly situated in the Northerne part of the World from the Aequinoctiall Circle, to the 80th degree of Northerne Latitude, except some Ilands pertaining to Asia, some whereof are stretched out beyond the Aequator Southward. Hence arises a great dif­ference through all Asia, The Situation. in the length of the artificiall dayes. For in the last Parallel, which is drawne not farre from the Aequinoctiall, the longest day is almost twelve houres. About the middle of Asia, the longest day is fifteene houres, and in the most Northerne Parallel their light continually endureth almost for foure whole Moneths in Summer. According to the Longitude, Asia is stretched forth from the Meridi­an of 52. degrees, even to the Meridian of 196. according to some: but if we follow the description of Mercator, the most Westerne Meridian thereof passeth through the 57th degree neare to the furthest Westerne part of Asia the Lesse; and the most Easterne Meridian through the 178th degree. On the North it hath the Scythian Sea, on the South the Indian, on the East the Easterne Sea, on the West the Bay of Arabia, or the red Sea; the Mediterranean and Euxine Seas. And as in the higher part it cleaveth to Europe, so in the Southerne part it is joyned to Africke by an Isthmus: yet Pliny and Strabo with some others doe stretch out Asia e­ven to Nilus, The tempe­ratenesse of the Aire and doe reckon all Egypt to Asia. In Asia the face of the skie is both pleasant and wholesome, the Aire milde and temperate. Yet all Asia doth not feele this temperatenesse: for the right hand and left hand parts thereof are exceeding hot and cold. The pleasantnesse of this Country is so great, that it became a Proverbe: All the Land is so renowned both for the fertilitie of the fields,The fertilitie of the So [...]le. the varietie of fruits, and large pasturing of cattell, and for the abundant plenty of those things [Page 19]

ASIA
ASIA

[Page 20] which are exported, that it doth easily excell all other Countries. Here is wonderfull plenty of Fruits, Spices, and Mettalls. Hence we receive Balsam, sweet Canes, Frankincense, Myrrhe, Cassia, Cinnamon, Gari­ophylus, Pepper, Saffron, sweet Woods, Rozine, Muske, and all kinde of precious stones. Here we may behold many different sorts of living Creatures.The various kindes of li­ [...]ing Creatures. For it bringeth forth a number of Elephants, Camells, and many other living Creatures both tame and wilde: we may here also admire the wits, riches, and power of the Inhabitants. Here Man was first created by God; here was the first Seat of the Church of God; here Artes were first invented; here were Lawes first made; here the Doctrine of the Gospell first granted to miserable mortall men, with the hope of Salvation through Jesus Christ the Sonne of God. Here the confusion of Languages was sent downe amongst men, in the destru­ction of the Tower of Babel. The government of th [...] Ancients. Here first Dominion over inferiours be­gan. Here Nimrod began to raigne, of whom we reade in Cap. 10. vers. 8.9.10. Genesis. But the first Monarchs of the whole Country of Asia were the Assyrians, the last whereof was Sardanapalus, a man given to wantonnesse, and effe­minate softnesse, who being found by Se [...] Iust [...]n. lib. 1. and Diodo­ [...]us Siculus, lib. 2. cap. 7. Arbactus amongst a crew of whores, and not long after being overcome by him in battaile, hee made a great fire, and cast himselfe and his riches thereinto. Afterward the Empire came to the Persians: Among whom Whom Iunius saith, the Scrip­ture calles Ah­asuerus. Either 1.4. Xerxes the sonne of This is meant of Darius the son of Histaspi [...]. Darius did maintaine a warre, begun by his father, five yeares against Greece, and he brought out of Asia into Europe an army of ten hundred thousand men, and passed them over a bridge which he built over Hel­lespont: he came also accompanied with Herodotus reckons all his forces by Sea and Land to be 2641610 men. besides Con [...]uoines, Eunuchs, wo­men bakers & [...] an [...] ten hundred thousand ships, but with a vaine endeavour; for he that durst threaten God, insult over the Sea, put fetters upon Neptune, darken the Heavens, levell Mountains, and shake the whole World, was faine, his army being put to flight, to passe over the narrow Sea in a fisher-boate, the Bridge being broken by the tempests of Winter. Darius was the last Persian Emperour, whose be­ing conquered & overcome by Alexander, made way to the Monarchie of the Macedonians, for Alexander did first translate it out of Asia into Europe. All Asia, according to the severall government thereof, may thus be divided. The first part is under the Turkes command, the origi­nall whereof is from Mahomet, and is a large Territory. The Duke of Moscovia doth possesse a second part, enclosed with the frozen Sea, the River Oby, the Lake Kitaia, and a Line drawne thence to the Caspian Sea, and to the Isthmus which is betweene this Sea and Pontus. The Great Cham Emperour of Tartarie doth possesse the third part, whose borders on the South are, the Caspian Sea, the River Iaxartes, and the Mountaine Imaus; on the East and North the Ocean: on the West the Kingdome of Moscovia. The King of Persia, called the Sophie, hath the fourth. This hath on the West side the Turke; on the North the Tartarian, on the South it is washed with the Red Sea, but on the East with the River In­dus. The fift part doth containe India, both on this side and beyond Ganges; which is not governed by one alone, but by many Rulers, for every Country thereof hath almost a severall Prince, some whereof are tributarie to the great Cham. The sixt part contayneth the large King­dome of China. The seaventh containeth all the Islands scattered up and [Page 21] downe in the Indian and Easterne Sea. Among which are Tabrobana and Zetlan, the two Iava found out not long since by the Portugalls, Bor­neo, Celebes, Palohan, Mindanao, Gilolo, with the spice bearing Moluccoes, also Iapan, with Nova Guinea lastly found out; concerning which it is not yet known whether it be an Island, or joyned to the Southern Continent. But the Ancients, as Strabo and Arrianus, have made many divisions of it. Ptolomie doth divide it into 47. Countries and Provinces, the de­scription whereof hee delivers in his fift, sixt, and seaventh Bookes of Geographic, and doth set them forth in twelve Tables. It hath three Cities famous through the whole World, Babylon, Ninivie, The Cities. and Ierusa­lem. It hath great Lakes full of fish,Lakes and the Caspian Sea in manner of a Lake, which never commeth to the Ocean. Also many Rivers,Rivers. among which the chiefest are Tigris, Euphrates, which Moses mentioneth in Ge­nesis, Iordane, Indus, Ganges, &c. Here are also great and wonderfull Mountaines,Mountaines. among which is the Mountaine Eustathius affirmeth that this Mountain was so called by the reason of its magni­tude, for, saith he, among the Ancients all great & strong things were called [...], and as it is cal­led Taurus, & many other names by hu­mane Writers so the Scripture calleth it Ara­rath, if we shall beleeve A [...]a [...] Montanus and Becanus. Taurus, which comming from the Easterne shoare, divides all Asia; on the right hand where it first riseth from the Indian Sea, it beareth Northwards: on the left hand, it is Southerne and bending toward the West, untill the Seas meet with it: as here the Phaenician, & the Ponticke. There the Cas­pian and Hyrcanian Seas, together with the Meoticke Lake; as if Nature on purpose had opposed it: But though this Mountaine bee shut as it were betweene these bounds, yet with many windings it runneth forth even as far as the neighbouring Cliffs of the Rhiphaean Mountains, being famous wheresoever it goeth; and knowne by many new names. At first it is called Imaus, and by and by Emodus, Paropanisius, Circius, Cham­bades, Pharphariades, Croates, Oreges, Oroandes, Niphates, and Taurus: where it doth as it were exceed it selfe Caucasus, where it spreadeth its armes as if it would embrace the Sea, Sarpedon, Coracesius, and Cragus, and againe Taurus. But where it openeth it selfe, it taketh its name from the Havens, which are sometimes called the Armenian, elsewhere the Caspian, and Cilician. The bredth of it in most places is three thou­sand furlongs, which is 5625. Italian Heylin saith, that reckoning its severall bendings in & out, it is 6250. miles long, & 375. miles broad p. 519. The publicke workes. miles: that is, from the Coast of Rhodes, even to the farthest bounds of China and Tartaria. But of these things enough. I passe now to the publicke workes, which have beene heretofore very stately and magnificent, and worthy to bee numbred among the seaven Miracles of the World. Amongst them the first were the walls of Babylon, which See Iustin Hist. lib. 1. Semiramis built, or at least did repaire being ruinate, with brickes joyned and laid in a pitchy kind of mortar, they were two hundred foot high and fiftie broade, so that Chariots might meet thereon; they had three hundred Towers, and should have had more, but that in some parts the Marshes were insteed of walls. It is reported that for this so great a worke three hundred thousand workemen were employed. Herodotus reporteth, that the walls of Babylon were fiftie royall cubits thicke, and two hundred high, and round about there were placed in them a hundred brazen Gates. The second was the Temple of Diana of Ephesus, which was built by all Asia in two hundred and twenty yeares, as Histories doe testifie: And it was seated in a Moorish place, least it should be endangered by Earth­quakes; And least they should place the foundation of so great a buil­ding [Page 22] upon unfirme ground, they strewed it over with coales trodden downe, and on it they laid fleeces of wooll. The length of the Temple was 425. feet, the breadth 220. The Pillars in it were an hundred and seaven and twenty, all made by severall Kings, of which 36. were car­ved: Ctesiphon was the overseer of the worke. There was also a Monu­ment which Artemesia Queene of Caria did erect in memory of her de­ceased husband, which is to bee counted among the wonders of the World; it being 25. Cubits high, and compassed about with thirty Pil­lars: it was sixe and thirty foote wide Northward and Southward. Lastly, there was that magnificent Temple, which Salomon began to build in the fourth yeare of his raigne, not unfit to be reckoned with the seaven wonders of the World. First of all, Read 1. King. chap. 5. and 6. thirty thousand men were set to cut trees, as Cedars and Cypresse in Lebanon: and there were fourescore thousand stone-cutters. The bredth of the Temple was twenty Cubits, the length sixtie, and the height an hundred and twen­ty. The matter of the nethermost building was of white stone: the largenesse of the Porch was ten Cubits, there were twenty secret cham­bers, passing one into another, and others placed under these. The beames were of Cedar, the roofes of Cedar guilded over, and the walls in like manner: The Sanctuary of the Holy place was distinguished from the body of the Temple with a wall, in which were carved gates, with drawing Curtaines enterwoven with many flowers and winding borders: besides two Cherubins of pure gold, the pavement under foot was beset with studdes of gold: the gates were twenty Cubits in height, and twelve in compasse. There was a brazen vessell of so great a big­nesse, that it was fitly called the Sea; round about which stood twelve Calves, three together, and looking severally toward the foure corners of the World. This vessell did hold three thousand measures contain­ing 72. Sextaries. There were also other figures, which it would be too long to rehearse. There was a brazen Altar of ten foot height, & double as much in length. Also one golden Table, and ten thousand golden Pots and Dishes, &c. But let these things suffice which have beene spo­ken of this part of the Word: I come now to America the fourth part of the World.

AMERICA.

America, whence so cal­led. WHen Christophorus Columbus had In the yeare 1492. found out this fourth part of the World unknowne to the Ancients; some call it But impro­perly, for the true India is a part of Asia, & deriveth its name from the River Indus, which this Country can­ [...]ot. India, others for the largenesse of it Novus Orbis, or the new World: for it is as great and bigge as all our World, that is, Europe, Africke, and Asia, being joyned together: as it may appeare by viewing our generall Table. It is called also A­merica from Americus Vesputius a Florentine, who next after Columbus dis­covered the Easterne part of the Southerne America: in which are the Countries of Paria and Brasilia; but it is uncertaine when America began first to be inhabited: certaine it is, that for many ages it lay unknowne; [Page 19]

AMERICA.
AMERICAE DESCRIP.

[Page 24] for that which some suppose concerning the Romans, is more easily said then proved, and that fiction is accurately refuted by Gasparus Varrerius. Some suppose that Venient an­ [...] s [...]la seris, quibus occanus vin [...]ula rerum laxet, & in­gens pateat tel­lus, nec sit terris ultima [...]hule. Seneca by Poeticall inspiration did sing some rap­tures concerning it in his Medea: but it is madnesse to suppose that these parts in that age were knowne either to him or any other. Christo­phorus Columbus of Borne at Nervi in the Countrie of Genoa. Genoa, after it had beene many ages unknown unto us, did first finde it out being employed by the King of Castile, after hee had learnt it out, (as some beleeve that would detract from the glory of so famous an enterprise) from a certain Spanish Marriner, who had long endured foule weather on the Atlanticke Sea; it was performed in the yeare 1492. After him Americus Vesputius did attempt the same for the King of Portugall, and brought backe the reward of his enterprise, because (as we said) the whole Continent is called from his name Ame­rica. The Situation. The whole Country from the North to the South, is stretched out in the forme of two great Peninsulaes, which are joyned together by a slender Isthmus: the one of them is called Northerne America, the other, Southerne America. The Longitude thereof is extended be­tweene the Meridionall degree 190, and the Meridionall degree 67. The terme of its Latitude towards the South, is the Straits of Magellane, that is, under the degree 52. and towards the North, it is not knowne high­er then 67. It hath therefore on the East the Atlanticke Sea, which they commonly call Del Nort; on the South, the Southerne Land of Magel­lane, disjoyned from it by a narrow Sea flowing betweene: on the West, Mare Pacificum, or the Peaceable Sea, called Mare Del Zur; and on the North it is doubtfull whether there bee Land or Sea. The whole compasse in sayling round about it, is about 32000 miles, as the most approved thinke. For it hath beene sayled round about, except that Country which lyeth Northward, whose coasts are not yet discovered. The whole Country is changeable and full of varietie; at first it wan­ted both Corne and Wine: but instead thereof it bringeth forth Read Heylin. pag 770. Maiz. a kinde of pulse, for so they call it; as they call Wine Chichia, boates Canoas, their Princes Cacicos. They do not plough the ground to reape, but having digged trenches of a small depth, they put three or foure granes in one of them, and so cover them with earth. The severall stalkes doe beare three or foure eares, and every one of the eares doe beare three or foure hundred graines and more. The stalke of Mayz doth exceed the height of a man, and in some Countries it is gathered twice in a yeare. They have also another kinde of bread, beside that which they make of Maiz, which they call Or Cassader. Cazabi. This is made of Iucca, which is a roote of the bignesse of a Turnep, which sendeth forth no seed, but certaine knottie, hard stalkes, cloathed with greene leaves like Hempe. Those stalkes when they are ripe, they cut into peeces of two hands length, which they bury in heapes under the earth; and as oft as they would make that kinde of bread, they digge up of them as much as they thinke good, because they will soone be corrupted and grow naught. Moreover, there are two other kindes of rootes, the one they call the Or Potatoes. Battata, the other the Haia, almost alike in shape, but that the Haiae are lesse and more savory: they ea [...]e the fruite of them within sixe Moneths after they are planted, which though they have a kinde [Page 25] of sweet taste, yet such as will soone cloy one; beside, they have but little juyce, and doe procure winde in the stomacke. Those Countries have also a great number of trees, which doe bring forth wilde Grapes. Their Grapes are like Sloes which grow upon thornes and bushes, and are covered with blacke leaves: but because they are more woody then juycie, therefore the inhabitants doe not make wine of them. There are in this Country Trees bearing Olives, but such as are of an unpleasant smell, and of a worse taste: and diverse other kindes of fruits in great abundance, as those which they call Hovi, Platani, Pineae, Guiavae, Ma­mei, and Guanavanae; it bringeth forth Sugar, Cotton-wooll, Hempe, and other things as with us, beside divers sorts of strange Trees and Herbes. It hath sweet Spices, Pearles and pretious stones; it aboundeth with incredible plenty of Gold and Silver, and with other Mettalls, and Mi­neralls. But it had not when it was discovered, either Oxen, Horses, Mules, Asses, Sheep, Goates, or Dogges. Wherefore it is no wonder if the inhabitants were strucken with amazement at the first sight of a Horse. Mice were first brought thither by a Ship of Antwerpe, which sayled very farre through the Straight of Magellane. Since which time either by the fruitfulnesse of the Country, or of the Creatures them­selves, they are multiplyed and increased in so exceeding a manner, that they spoyle the fruits of their harvest by knawing the hearbes and trees. It doth bring to us divers living Creatures, partly knowne to us, and partly unknowne. Among other things there is found a prodigi­ous Beast, which hath on her belly another belly placed in the likenesse of a purse: and as often as she changeth her denne, she hides and car­ries her young ones in that bagge. This Creature hath the body and snowte of a Foxe, the feete and hands of a Monkey, and the eares of a Batte. There is also another kinde of Creature (which the inhabitants doe call Cascuij) like a blacke Hogge, hairy, hard skinned, having little eyes, broade eares, cloven hoofes, armed with a short trunke or snowte like an Elephant; and having so terrible a cry or braying, that he makes men deafe: but his flesh is sweet to eate. Here is found a great com­pany of wilde Boares, and fierce Tigers; and Lyons also, but those ve­ry fearefull, and such as will runne away at the sight of a man. Here are also Peacocks, Phesants, Partridges, and divers other kindes of Birdes, but farre differing from ours: But of these wee will speake more largely in our particular descriptions. All America is divided (as wee said before) into two great Peninsulaes, whereof the one, which lyeth on this side of the Aequinoctiall, is called the Northerne America; the other the Southerne, because the greatest part of it is stretched out beyond the Aequinoctiall: although some Countries of it are neare unto the Aequi­noctiall. The Northerne America is divided into many Regions, as namely, Quivira, Nova Hispania, Nicaragua, Iucatan, Florida, Apalchen, Norumbega, Nova Francia, Terra Laboratoris, and Estotilandia. There are many parts of the Southerne America, but these are the chiefest which have already been gotten and taken from the Savages: as Castella aurea, Plopaiana, Peruvia, Chile, and Brasilia: It doth glory especially in two Cities, Cusco and Mexico. Cusco is the Metropolis or chiefe Citie of Southerne America, which, both for bignesse, strength and magnifi­cence, [Page 26] for the invincible fortification of the Castle, and the great com­pany of nobility; for the order and placing of the houses, and for plea­santnesse of situation, may worthily compare with the fairest Cities of France or Spaine. No common people are admitted into it, but it is the seate of Noble men and great Princes, who in that Country doe live in great numbers, partly within the walls of the Citie, and partly in Villa­ges neare the Citie. Here are foure especiall Pallaces of Noble men, who doe governe the Common-wealth, which are stately and with great cost built with square carved Marble stone. And all the streets being straight, in many places make the forme of a Crosse, and through every one a pleasant River runneth in a channell walled on each side with stone. The forme of the Citie is foure square, lying sweetly on the side of a hill: on the steepe ascent of a Mountaine, a wonderfull faire Tower doth adorne the Citie, whose beauty or largenesse if you consider, those which have viewed many Countries, have seene few in all Europe like unto it. Mexico or Temistitan is a rich and famous Citie in Nova Hispania, whereof wee will treate hereafter in the description of Nova Hispania: now we proceed to other things. This part of the World is watered with many famous Rivers,The Lakes & Rivers. the most whereof doe bring downe gold; and it is full of Lakes and Springs In the Lakes and Rivers there are great plenty of fish: among which there is one kinde of them of chiefe note, which by the inhabitants of Hispaniola are called Manati. This Fish is somewhat like a Trout; he is five and twenty foot long, and twelve foote thicke, in his head and tayle hee resembles an Oxe; he hath small eyes, a hard and hairy skinne, of a light blew co­lour, and two feete like an Elephant. The femalls of this kinde of fish doe bring forth their young ones, as Cowes doe, and doe let them sucke at their two dugges.The Moun­taines. Here are also very many Mountaines, a­mong which, as Benso witnesseth, is a fire-vomiting Mountaine, which out of its hollow mouth doth send forth such great flakes of fire, that the blazing of it in the night doth cast forth a light which may bee seene above an hundred miles. Some have supposed that the gold mel­ting within, doth afford continuall matter to the fire. For a certaine Dominican Frier, when he would make tryall thereof, caused a vessell of gold to bee made with an iron chaine: and afterward going to the Mountaine with foure other Spaniards, he let downe the vessell with the chaine into the hole of the hill; and there by the heate of the fire the vessell with part of the chaine was melted: and having tryed it againe with a bigger chaine, it hapned to melt againe in the same manner. Here the Cities generally are stately built, the wayes paved, and the houses very faire and beautifull. It is reported that here was a Kings garden, wherein herbes and trees, with their bodie, boughs, and fruits did stand of solid gold, and as bigge as those which grow in Orchards. And it is reported that here was a Kings Conclave, in which there were all kindes of living Creatures, made of precious stones, partly painted, and partly inlaid, and engraven. That which is reported concerning the two wayes in this Country is worthy of memory, the one whereof lyeth through the rough Mountaines, the other stretcheth through the plaine fields, from Quito a Citie of Peru, to the Citie Cusco, for the [Page 27] space of five hundred miles. The beauty of this worke is encreased, by many wonderfull heapes of stones, which were not brought thi­ther by the strength of Horses, or Oxen, (both which the inhabitants wanted) but by the hands of men. The field way is defended on both sides with walls, and it is five and twenty foote broade, within which little streames doe runne, having their bankes planted with shrubby trees, which they call Molli. The other being hewed out of stones and rockes, passeth through the middle of the Mountaines, having the same bredth: Moreover the way in the uneven and lower part of the Val­leyes, is fortified with fences, as the nature of the Country requires. These wayes King Gninacava (who lived not long since) caused to to be clensed, and the ruinous walls to be repaired and adorned, other­wise the worke is more ancient, and there were placed all along by the way side Innes both faire, and pleasant, (they call them Tambi) in which all the Kings traine were received. And let this suffice concer­ning the foure parts of the World in generall: now our method doth require that we should describe particularly the partes of Europe, which was set before in the first place.

THE NORHTH-POLE: AND A DESCRIPTION OF THE COVNTRIES SITVATE ROUND ABOUT IT.

HAving made (courteous Reader) a Generall Description of the whole Globe, and the foure parts thereof methodical­ly, and according to the order of nature; I purpose, in Imi­tation of Ptolomie the Prince of Cosmographers, to begin the Geographie of particular Countries from the Pole it selfe and the Countries lying round about it, that so descending from the higher to the lower parts, and proceeding from the left hand to the right hand, I may by degrees joyne the North with the South, and the West with the East, which I pray God may be profitable to the Com­mon-wealth. The Pole is the extremitie, or end of the Axis, which is a Line drawne through the Center of the Globe, the Latines call it vertex. There are two Poles, the Northerne, and the Southerne. The Northerne is that which is alwaies beheld towards the North, and therefore also it is called the Northerne and So called for its nearnesse to a constellation in the North Hemisphere called [...] which signifieth a Beare. Articke Pole. The Southerne, is that which appeareth to those onely which dwell toward the South, and therefore it is called the Meridionall, Southerne, and So called be­cause it is oppo­site to the Ar­ticke Pole. Greenland, whence so cal­led. Antarticke Pole. And thus much in this place shall suffice concerning the Poles. I come to the Countries situate round about the Articke Pole: which are Groen­landia or Greeneland, Frizlandia, or Freesland, Nova Zembla with some others, of which wee will entreat briefely as farre as they are knowne. The London Marchants call this Island K. Iames his new Land. The qualitie of the Aire and Soyle. Groenlandia, or Greeneland is so called from the greennesse thereof, & is an Island for the most part yet unknown, it is situate betweene the Nor­therne Circle & the Pole, the farthest paralels therof towards the South are the Degrees of 65, and towards the North the Degrees of 78. In this Island, if wee beleeve Nicolas Zenetus (who in the yeare 1480. endu­red much hard weather in the bordering Sea) there is continuall winter for nine Moneths, all which time it doth never raine there, neither doth the snow, which falleth at the beginning thereof, melt untill the end, yet is not this harmefull to the grasse, for here is a great increase both of grasse and fodder. Therefore here is great store of milke-beasts in re­gard of the great plentie thereof, so that they make store of Butter and Cheese, which they sell to those they traffique withall. There are onely two inhabited places knowne unto us in Groenland, Alba and the Mo­nasterie of Saint Thomas, of which wee will speake by and by. The Slow Sea, which is also called the frozen Icie Sea, doth touch upon Greeneland. There is in Greeneland a Monasterie of the Preaching Order: and not farre from it a fire-vomiting Mountaine like Aetna, at the foot whereof there is a fountaine of running waters, by whose great heat [Page 29]

THE NORTH-POLE.
POLUS ARCTICUS cum vicinis re­gionibus.

[Page 30] they do not onely make hot all the roomes of the Monasterie like a hot­house, but also they bake their bread and dresse their meat, without the helpe of fire. The whole fabricke of the Monasterie doth consist of brit­tle sandie stones, which the Mountaine doth cast forth in the midst of the flames. This fountaine doth warme the neighbour gardens so that they continually flourish with divers kindes of flowers and herbes. And the Sea neare unto it, by the vertue of these waters, is never frozen, but lyes continually open both for the fish and the use of man: which makes so great a concurse of fish to resort hither from colder places, that not onely these Monkes,Freezland. but also the Inhabitants round about do live plentifully. Frislandia or Freezland was an Island altogether unknowne to the Auncients: being greater than Heyling saies almost as bigge as Ireland. Ireland. The Climate is very in­temperate. The Inhabitants have no fruits, but live for the most part upon fish. The chiefe Towne thereof hath the same name with the Island, and it belongeth to the King of And therefore now subject to the King of Denmarke. Norway. The Inhabitants for the most part live by fishing. For in the Haven thereof so great a plentie of all kind of fish is taken that many ships are loaded with them, and so car­ried to the Islands lying neare it, as Zieglerus writeth. The same man writeth that the Sea next to the Island on the West being full of rockes and sands, is called the Icarean Sea, and the Island in it is called by the Inhabitants Icaria. Nova Zembla. This Island in our time beginneth to be known again, & that by the Discoverie of the English. Nova Zembla is an Island si­tuated under the 76 Degree. Here the aire is very sharpe, and the cold most vehement and intolerable. It is a wild, woodie, and rugged Country, where neither leaves nor grasse grow, nor any living crea­tures, but those which live by flesh as Foxes, and Beares, whereof there is great store not onely in this Island, but in most of the Northerne Countries. There are Sea-monsters here whose bodies does exceede the bignesse of an Oxe, and are commonly called Walruschen: they are headed like a Lyon, their skin hairy, they having foure feete, and two teeth sticking forth of the upper part of their mouth beeing smooth, hard, and white, and are worth as much as Elephants teeth. The Bayes here are called Weggates Bay, Forbishers Bay, and Davises Bay; Weigates Bay is streitched out towards the East even to the place called Crucis An­gulus, toward the Aerctapelietes to the place called Dissidit Angulus, a a little enclining to the East. On the Southerne side of the Continent of Weggats Bay, William Barendson found some wild men called Samiutae. The shape of their cloathes which they use, is like that which our Painters do bestow on woodmen, or Satyres, but yet they are not wild men, but endued with a good understanding. They are cloathed frō head to foot with the skins of beasts called Rangiferi: for the most part are of Pigmies are here supposed to inhabit. low stature, broad faced, small eyed, short and splay-footed, and very nim­ble both to runne and leape. They have coaches unto which they put one or two of these Rangiferi, which will draw it with one or two men in it with more speede then any of our Horses can do. Forbishers Bay was so called from Martine Forbisher an English man, who in the yeare 1577. seeking a passage to Cathaia by the North, arrived at this Bay, in which hee found both Islands and many men, concerning which wee will adde some things. The men thereof being strangers to all civilitie, [Page 31] do eate and feed upon the raw flesh of beasts and fishes. They are cloa­thed with the skins of wild beasts taken in hunting, and they eate raw hearbes like beasts. Their Tents are covered with Whales skinnes; the cold being continually very sharpe in these parts. They use Dogges which are like unto our Wolves, and having yoked them together, they do make them draw things over the ice. Their weapons are Bowes and Arrowes, and slings. There is no wood there, but much Deere. The men do not plough the ground, as beeing content with that it bringeth forth of its own accord: they live by hunting: their drinke is the warme blood of wild beasts, or else ice water: there are no Rivers nor Springs, because the violence of the cold doth so shut up the Earth, that springs of water cannot breake forth. The men are very laborious, strong, hun­ters, and cunning fowlers: they use a certaine kinde of boate made of leather, wherein one man can but sit, who maketh use but of one Oare, his right hand holding his bow wherewith hee shoots at the birds. The like hath beene seene in England. Davises Bay also was so called from Iohn Davis an Englishman, who in the yeare 1585. and the two follow­ing yeares did search along the Coasts of America, or rather the Sou­therne Coasts of Greenland from the 53. Degree to the 75. to finde out a passage that way unto China. Concerning the foure Euripideas in the table those things which you see are taken out of the Register booke of Iames Cnoxen Buscoducensis, who doth report that a certaine English Mi­norite Frier of Oxford, being a Mathematician, did describe the Coun­tries lying neare unto the Pole, and measured them with his Astrolabe in this following shape, as Mercator hath gathered them out of Iames Cno­xeus Booke. Hee saith that these foure Seas are carried with such vio­lence to the Innermost Gulfe, that ships being once entred can never be driven backe againe with any winde, and that there is never so great a winde, as that it can drive about a wind-mill. But these things are as true as Lucians fables, seeing they who have viewed these places in which those seas are said to be, do finde no such Euripi, or swift flowing Seas at all, namely the Hollanders who have discovered the Sea even to the 81. Degree of Latitude. But concerning the habitation of the Northerne people, let us heare Iulius Scaliger in his 37. Exercitation, where he thus speaking concerning a voiage from the Northerne Sea towards China. There are (saith hee) divers arguments brought by divers men on both sides, and it is diversly judged of, whether it be possible to saile by that Sea. But these are ours. They would have us to saile from the mouth of the River Duvina, all along that Countrie which encompasses all Scythia even to the East corner: in which winding course wee are to change the Northerne wind for the Westerne. But those which speake thus, it is certaine they do not know the nature of this Sea, nor of the Windes and Coast: For the West and East windes are so rare in this Sea that they are almost scarce knowne. But so many North windes are there here that it seemes Nature hath committed the government of these parts unto them alone. There are many foards blinde and muddle. In winter, which continueth ten moneths, the superficies or upper part of the Sea, is as hard as any pave­ment. In Summer there are continuall mists, which in the afternoone as fast as one is expelled another rises. Besides, the Ice is very dangerous, the great pieces whereof floting up and downe, are like moving Islands running one amongst ano­ther. It is certaine that by the late Navigations of the Hollanders in the [Page 32] yeare 1594. and in the two following yeares, it was hoped, that wee might saile out of the Northerne Sea to the Eastern parts of the World. But very difficultly, in regard of the Ice, and long winter nights. William Barentson did denie that it was possible to saile by the Bay of Nassovia to China, not onely for the Ice, but also because hee found by divers ob­servations, that it was not a Sea but a Bay, and especially because hee found there was no Tide nor Ebbe: and yet hee was in great hope that a way might be found out by the most Northerne part of Nova Zembla. But seeing there are every day new voyages made to discover the pas­sage that way to China, experience will teach them at last whether it can be done or not. It is manifest that our ships have sailed even to the 81. Degree of Northerne Latitude, and yet found the Sea open: but yet afterward at the 76. Degree they have beene hindred with great pieces of ice, and the night comming on, so that they could proceed no further. The Sunne left them the 4. of November in the yeare 1596, and was seene again the 24. of Ianuary in the following yeare, all which time these valiant Argonantes, for so I may call them, hid themselves in a little shed which they built up in Nova Zembla, untill the 14. of Iune. For though the voyage of the Iason and his Companions, who sayled to Colche [...] to fetch the golden fleece, of whom reade Valerius Fla [...]cu [...] Lib. 1▪ Argonantes is made so famous by posteritie, yet if it be compared with this it will seeme but a toy; for who hath beene, for the space of 13. Moneths separated from the societie of men, before the Hollanders, who wanting all necessaries, and enduring extre­mitie of cold, did even under the 76. Degree of Latitude, build them­selves houses to receive them, and defend them from the violence of the weather, in which they lay buried and covered over with deepe snow almost ten whole moneths? I conceale that which they suffered in returning, being compell'd to leave their ships and betake themselves to their boate. I omit to speake of the cruell, fierce, and great Beares, and Sea-Monsters, with which they oftentimes were enforced to fight. All which troubles, labours, and difficulties they most valiantly by the pro­tection and favour of the Divine power did overcome.

ISELAND.

ISELAND is the greatest of all those Ilands in the We­sterne Ocean, which are subject to the Kings of Norwey; it takes this name from the cold,The name by whom, and why given. wherewith it is partly fro­zen. It is also called Suelandia, from the Snow: Also Gar­dartsholme, that is, the Iland of Gardart. The most doe suppose this to bee that Thule mentioned by the Ancients, which also Ptolemie doeth call Thule; the middle whereof he placeth in the 30. De­gree of Latitude, and 63. of Longitude. Solinus placeth it five dayes and nights sayle from the Orcades. An Island the most famous of all o­ther with Poets, when by this, as being the farthest part of the World, they would intimate any thing farre distant. Whence Virgil saith, Tibi serviat ultima Thule, may the farthest Thule serve thee. But Sinesius doub­teth whether there were ever any Thule: and Giraldus writeth, that it was never seene, and the more Learned are doubtfull in their opinions.See Heylin. p 8 The most doe affirme (as wee said) that Iseland was heretofore called Thule: yet Saxo the Grammarian, Crantzius, Milius, Ionius, and Peucerus are of a contrary opinion unto them. But of this enough: I returne a­gaine to Iseland. The Situation. It is situated not under the Which is a great circle rounding the Earth from Pole to Pole, and passeth through the Islands called Azores: See marg. pag. 10. first Meridian, as one hath noted, but in the eigth Degree from thence. The length of it is an hun­dred German miles, as the common Writers have it, and Ionas addeth to these foure and fortie. The Latitude or breadth is sixe and fiftie German miles. It hath an ungentle ayre, and for the most part it is unhabited, especially towards the North, by reason of the vehement Westerne windes, which will not suffer the shrubs (as Olaus writeth) to rise up. The Land is unfit for tillage, neither doth it beare any graine; but all that have written of this Isle doe report, that it hath such abundance of grasse, that unlesse the Cattell were somtime driven from the pasture,The quality of the Soyle and Ayre. they would be in danger to die, and be choak't with their owne fatnesse. Ionas himselfe confesseth, that they have no labouring beasts, but Horses and Oxen: and here all the Oxen and Kine have no hornes, nor their Sheepe likewise. They have little white Dogs, which they very much esteeme. They have abundance of white Faulcones, and white Crowes,The varietie of living Cr [...] ­tures. which prey upon the young Lambes and Hogges. Also there are white Beares and Hares. Also (as Islandus witnesseth) there are Eagles with white traines: which Pliny (as he saith) called Pygargos. Velleius repor­teth, that this Island beareth no tree but the Birch and Iuniper trees: so that there is great scarcitie of wood through the whole Island, unlesse by chance (which somtimes happens) some great trees being rooted up by the violence of the winde, are brought out of the Northerne parts, and like wracks cast upon these moores, which the Inhabitants use in building houses and ships. It hath beene subject to the King of Norwey, (as Ionas reporteth) from the yeare 1260. in which they first did ho­mage to him: In regard whereof, the King of Denmarke and Norwey doth yearely send thither a Governour, who keepes his residence in the Castle called Bestede, whom they now obey, as heretofore they did their [Page 34] Bishops, by whom they were converted to the Christian Faith, under the reigne of Edelbert. In the time of Harald the Faire-haired, the first Monarch of Norwey, some thinke it began to be inhabited: for when hee had expell'd a great company of Noble men out of Norwey, they (forsaking their owne Countrie) came with their whole Families and dwelt here. It is likely, that these things happened a thousand yeares after Christ; but as Islandus Ionas writeth about the yeare 874, who de­clareth the succession and names of these Bishops. Crantzius nameth Islephus to be the first Bishop. But it seemeth, as we may collect out of the E [...]logues of Nicolas Zenius, that it was under the command of the Norwe­gians two hundred yeares before, where we reade, that Zichmus King of Frisland did attempt to get this Island by force of Armes, but was re­puls'd by the King of Norwey's Garrison Souldiers, placed in this Island. The whole Island is divided into foure parts. The Easterne part they call Ausilendingasiordung, the Westerne Westlendingasiordung, the Nor­therne Nortendingasiordung, the Southerne Suydlendingasiordung. They have no Cities, but Mountaines in stead thereof. Here is a Fountaine,The Fountaines. the exhalations whereof will change any thing into stone, and yet the shape thereof shall still remaine. And there is a Fountaine of pestilent water, which will poyson any one that tastes of it. There is water that tastes like beere. The Northerne Ocean, in which this Island is situate, doth afford such great plenty of fish, and is so commodious to the Com­mon-wealth of Iseland, The Sea. that all the Inhabitants doe live and maintaine their Families by it. I should want time to reckon up the severall kindes of Fish that are in the Sea, yet it will not be amisse, to remember some of the rarest. Among which there is a kind of Fish called Nahual, where­of if any one eate, he dieth presently; and he hath a tooth in the inner­most part of his head, which standeth forth 7 cubits in length, which some have sold for an Vnicornes horne, and it is beleev'd to have a great vertue against poyson. This Monster is fortie yards long. The Royder is an hundred and thirty Elles long, and hath no teeth; his flesh is most sweet and pleasant in eating, and his fat doth heale many diseases. There is the Brittish Whale, which is thirty Elles long, having no teeth, but a tongue seven Elles in length. And there is a kinde of a great Whale, which is seldome seene, being rather like an Island it selfe than a Fish. In regard of the hugenesse of his body, hee cannot follow the lesser fi­shes, yet hee takes them by cunning and craftinesse. There is also an o­ther Fish called Stantus Valur, all grisly, and something like a Thornback, but much greater; when he appeareth he seemes like an Island, and o­verturneth Ships with his Fins. There are also Sea-Oxen, called Seenaut, of a grisly colour, and divers other fishes. I come now to the Moun­taines.The Moun­taines. In Iseland (saith Georgius Agricola) there are three very high Mountaines, whose tops are alwayes white with continuall Snow, the bottomes doe burne with continuall Fire. The first is called Hecla, or Hecklfort; the second, the Mountaine of the Crosse; and the third Helga, that is, the holy Mountaine. Not farre from Hecla there are Mynes of Brimstone, which is the onely commodity of traffique, that belongs to the Inhabitants of Iseland. For Merchants doe fraight and loade their ships with it. The Mountaine when it rageth, doth send forth a [Page 35]

ISELAND.
ISLAND.

[Page 36] noise like thunder, casteth forth great stones, vomiteth out Brimstone, and sils all the ground with ashes round about it, so that the Countrie cannot be inhabited for two entire miles round about it. They which draw neere to this Mountaine to consider and view more curiously the causes why it burnes, are somtime swallowed up alive by some hidden breach in the Mountaine, for there are many, and those covered so with ashes, that no man can beware of them: therefore they call this place The Papists thinke that here is th [...] feined Purga­torie Carcer sordidarum animarum, the prison-house of uncleane soules. Be­sides it happeneth, that the yee being loosed, doth in great peeces for 8 moneths together beat against the shore, and maketh such an horrible sound, that the Inhabitants say, it is the crying and howling of those soules. There is an other Mountaine of the same nature called Helga: this Mountaine in the yeare 1581, (as Ionas witnesseth) did cast forth fire and stones with such a thundering noise, that foure score miles from thence, they thought some great pieces of Ordnance had beene shot off. In one part hereof, strange Spirits are seene in the liknesse of men, so that those who doe not know them to bee dead before, would thinke they were alive: nor doe they finde their errour before the ghosts doe vanish away. But these things Ionas thinkes are fabulous, or else the delusions of the Devill. Crantzius and Olaus doe write, that the Islanders, for the most part, doe dwell in Caves, which they digge in the sides of the Mountaines, especially in the Winter time. But Ionas, on the contrary, saith, that there are many Temples and houses built of wood very faire and costly. The Island hath two Cathedrall Bishopricks, as Holar, or Hallen, under which are the Monasteries Pingora, Remested, Modur, Mun­keniere; and Scalholt, under which are those Monasteries Videy, Pyrne­bar, Kirckebar, and Shieda. Yet wee understand by the writings of Vel­letus the Authour of this Table, that there are nine Monasteries in it, and three hundred and nine and twenty Churches. The Bishops are sent thi­ther out of the Universitie of Hassnia, the only University in Denmarke; one of them governeth the Northerne part of the Island, the other the Southerne. And each of them hath a free Schoole joyned to his house, in which hee is bound to be at the cost of the bringing up and teaching of foure and twentie Children.The manner [...] of the Inhabi­tants. The Inhabitants live, eate, and lodge in the same houses with their Cattell. They live in a holy simplicity, seeking nothing more than what Nature grants them, for the Moun­taines are their Townes, and the Fountaines their delight. A happie Nation, not envied by reason of their poverty, and so much the happier because it hath received the Christian Religion. Yet the English and Danish Merchants doe trouble their quiet, not suffering them to be con­tent with their owne; for they frequenting this Island, to bring away fish from thence, have brought among them their vices together with their wares. The memorable acts of their Ancestours, they doe cele­brate in Verse, and doe keepe them from oblivion by engraving them on Rocks. They live, for the most part, by Fish, which being dryed and beaten,Their foode. and so made into a kinde of meate, they use at their Table in­stead of bread. But the wealthier doe eate bread twice baked. Hereto­fore they dranke water, and the richer milke, but now they have learned to mingle corne with it, which is brought hither from other places, and [Page 37] they scorne to drinke water, since strangers have begun to traffick with them. For those of Lubeck, Hamburrough, and Rostoch comming every yeare with their ships to this Island, doe bring thither corne, bread,Th [...] Tr [...] fick o [...] [...] beere, wine, honey, English cloathes, linnen cloth, iron, steele, gold, sil­ver, womens coyfs, and wood for building houses and ships: and they doe expect for these, Iselandish cloth (commonly called Watman) great store of Brimstone, dried fish, butter, tallow, hides, skins of wilde beasts, foxes, white faulcons, horses, and the like. Here is so great plenty of fish, that they lay them in great heapes out of doores, and so sell them, the heapes being higher than the tops of their houses. There is also so great store of salt butter, that they put it up in sweet chests of fortie foot long, and five foote deepe, besides that which they barrell up. And here we will adde Erasmus Michael's Verses concerning Iseland, as hee hath them in his third Booke Of Sea matters.

Vltima Parrhasias Islandia spectat in Arctos, &c.
The farthest part of Iseland looketh North,
And Westward some Degrees it is streight forth,
Which hath not onely a rich pleasant soyle
While as it doth the yellow Brimstone boyle
Within its cavernes blinde, which at the last
All mingled with sand, it forth doth cast:
Or when the Meddowes bring forth fodder store,
And all the vales with grasse are clothed o're;
But when upon the shore it fish doth heape,
Whose number can't be told, it is so great:
Or he distinguisht every severall sort,
Which it by shipping doth abroad transport.
For though here plenty of all things is found,
Yet most of all in fish it doth abound.
'Tis rich, the Inhabitants are stout of minde,
And where it lyes against the Southerne winde
Hecla still burneth with continuall flame,
Which it at open holes sends forth againe.
It casts forth ashes with a fearfull sound,
While pitchie flames doe to the Starres rebound.

THE ILES OF BRITTAINE. ENGLAND, SCOTLAND, AND IRELAND: WITH THE ILANDS LYING ROƲND ABOƲT THEM.

BRITTAINE containeth all those Ilands which lying betweene Spaine and Germany, are stretched forth in a great quantitie of Land toward France. Lhuyddus saith that not long agoe it was called Prydanium;The name by whom & why given. Sr Thomas Eliott would have it called Prytania, being incited thereunto through the love of contention rather then truth, against the authority of Aristotle, Lucretius, Iulius Caesar, and other ancient Writers. But because heretofore all the Brittaines did paint themselves with woade, which gave them a blewish colour, that so their faces might be more terrible against their enemies in war; and in regard that in their ancient Language they did call any thing that was painted and coloured, Brit: some doe rightly suppose that the Graecians, understanding that the in­habitants were called Brith and Briton, did adde to Brith Tania, which signifies a Country, and therefore If this bee true, then did it not receive its denomina­tion from Bru­tus. See Heylin pag. 455. The temper of the Aire. The fertilitie of the Soyle. The varietie of living Crea­tures. Brittaine was called the Country of Brittaines, that is, the Country of painted and coloured men, like as Mauritania is called so of the Moores, Lusitania from Lusus, and Aquita­nia the Region of Waters. Brittaine is endowed by Nature with all guifts both of Aire and Soyle, in which neither the cold of winter is too violent, (as the Oratour hath it, speaking to Constantine) nor the heate of Summer, and it is so fruitfull in bearing corne, that it is sufficiently stored with Bread and Drink: Here the woods are without wilde beasts, and the earth without harmefull Ser­pents. On the contrary, innumerable flockes and heards of tame cattell, full of milke, and loaden with their fleece; yea, whatsoever is necessary to life is here: the dayes are very long, so that the nights are not without some light, and the Sunne which seemeth in other Countries to goe downe and set, doth seeme here only to passe by. Among all the Iles of Brittaine, two do exceed the rest in greatnesse: Albion, The Ile of Al­bion. (under which are contained England, and Scotland,) and Ireland. The greatest of these is Albion, now alone called Brittaine, which was a name formerly common to them all: and this name is ra­ther deduced out of Books, than used in common speech, only the Scots doe yet call themselves Albinich, and their Country Albin. Concer­ning the name of Albion, the Grecians first gave it to this Ile for distincti­on sake, seeing all the neighbour Ilands were called the Iles of Brittaine: so that it did first arise from the vaine and fabulous lightnesse of the Gre­cians in faigning names. For seeing they called Italy, from Hesperus the sonne of Atlas, Hesperia; France, from the sonne of Poliphemus, Gallatia, &c. It is not unlikely that they fabulously named this Iland Albion, from Albion the sonne of Neptune, which Perottus and Lilius Giraldus [Page 45]

THE ISLES OF BRITTAINE.
ANGLIA SCO­TIA et HIBERNIA

[Page 40] doe confirme. Others would derive it from Verstegan af­firmeth it was so called ab al­bis rupibus: the white rocks to­wards France. The figure. [...], which, as Festus witnesseth, in Greeke signifies white; whence also the Alpes are so called. The figure of it is Triangular, or three cornerd, and it runneth forth into three severall Angles. The first Promontorie, towards the West, the Englishmen doe call the Cape of Cornewall. The second in Kent, which looketh towards the East, the English call it North-forland. The third is Orcas, or Tarvisium, which lyeth farre North, the Scots call it D [...]ngisbehead: Livius, and Fabius Rusticus, have likened it to a Chee­sell. On the West side, whereon Ireland lyeth, the Which the English and French call the channell of S. George. Vergivian Sea break­eth in, on the North it is beaten with the wide and great Northerne Ocean; on the East, where it lyeth against Germany, with the Germane Sea; on the South, where it butteth upon France, it is beaten with the Brittish Sea. Diodorus in his sixt booke, writeth that the compasse of it is two and forty thousand furlongs. Martian saith, that Brittaine is eight hundred miles long, and three hundred broad, and in compasse 6000. miles. The learned and accurate Writer Camden, doth thus account it; from the Promontorie Tarvisium to Belerium, following the winding of the shoare, is eight hundred and twelve miles: from thence to Kent, 320. miles. Lastly, from Kent to Tarvisium seaven hundred and foure miles: the whole summe is 1836. miles This Iland formerly was di­vided into two parts, as Ptolomie witnesseth in his second Booke: where he parts the whole Iland into Great Brittaine and Little Brittaine. The Great he calls the This division was made by Severus the Emperor, saith Camden. p. 98. Hither part towards the South; the Lesser the Far­ther toward the North. But the Romans neglecting the farther part, be­cause, as Appian saith, it could not be commodious to them, the hither part being reduced into a Province, they at first divided into theThe Romans, saith Camden, called those Provinces of any Country they conque­red which were next unto thē, Primas & su­periore, & the more remote, secundas & [...]se [...] o [...]es. p 99. Lower and Higher, as it is gathered out of Dion. For the hither part of England with Wales, he calleth the Higher, the farther and Northerne he calleth the Lower. Afterward they divided it into three parts, as appeares by Sextus Rufus, into Maxima Caesariensis, Brittania Prima, and Brittania Se­cunda. Afterward, when the forme of the Common-wealth was daily changed, they divided Brittaine in What Coun­tries these five parts contai­ned, and why they were so denominated. See in Camden pag. 98. & 99. five parts, the First, Second, Maxima Caesariensis, Valentia, and Flavia Caesariensis: And these were divisions of Brittaine when it was under the Romans. Some have written that the whole Iland was heretofore divided into three parts, Leogria, Cambria, and Albania; but Camden beleeveth that this was a later division, which seemeth to arise from those three People, the Englishmen, Welch, and Scots, who last of all divided this Iland among themselves. Afterward, the Iland was divided into two Kingdomes, namely England, and Scot­land: but at last, under the happy raigne of Iames the sixt King of Scot­land, these two Kingdomes were They were first united in in the yeare of grace 1603. The Sea. united, and the whole Iland called Great Brittaine. Brittaine, as we said before, is every where environed with the great and wide Ocean, which S. Basil. saith is a great Sea, and very terrible for those that sayle on it. Now it floweth farre into the Land, and then it returneth backe againe and leaveth the Sands naked: it feeleth the efficacy of the encreasing Moone very powerfully, and doth flow in with so great a force, that it doth not only drive backe Ri­vers, but it sometimes sweepes off cattle from the Land, casts forth the fishes on the shoare, and at the ebbe leaveth them there. In a word, so [Page 41] great a matter it was held to sayle upon this Sea, that Iulius Firmicus in his Booke concerning the errours of prophane Religions, cryeth out thus to Constantine the Emperour. In Winter (which was never heretofore done, nor shall bee done) you have passed over the swelling raging waters of the Brittish Ocean, the waves of a Sea almost unknowne to us have trembled under our Oares: and the Brittaines have beene afraid at the unlookt-for presence of the Emperour What would you more? The Elements themselves were con­quered by your valour. It doth not belong unto us to speake here of the commodities which this Sea yeeldeth, of the time when it cherishes the Earth, of the vapours with which it nourishes the Aire, and bedewes the fields, of the divers kindes of Fish, as Salmons, Playces, Crabfishes,The commo­dities. Codfishes, Herrings, &c. of which it bringeth forth infinite numbers. Yet the See Camden pag. 640 and 595. Pearles are not to bee passed over in silence, which in a round shape doe swimme in great shoales as it were following one Leader like Bees; so that Iubas calleth it the Sea of Bees: and also Marcellus makes mention of it. Suetonius doth report that Caesar did first attempt Brittaine in hope of getting these Pearles: and so much concerning Albion or England, now let us passe over to the rost. Among all of them, Ireland doth farre excell, of which wee will speake nothing here, intending to speake of it in particular Tables. The Orcades doe follow,The Orcades. now called the Iles of Orkney, which are about H [...]yler saith they are 3 [...]. pag 51 [...] thirty in number, and doe lie a little way distant one from another, which a certaine ancient record doth so call, as if it were Argath; which is there expounded as much as supra Getas, above the Getes: Camden would rather have it above Cath, for it lyeth over against Cath a Country of Scotland, which in regard of the Promontorie, they now call Cathnesse: whose Inhabitants Ptolomy, though wrongfully, doth call Carini instead of Cathini. In the time of Solinus they were not inhabited, being overgrowne with Reedes and Bullrushes, but now they are tilled and bring forth Barley enough,The fertility of the Soyle. though they want both wheat and trees: there is no Serpent or poyso­nous Creature in them. They have great numbers of living Creatures in them; as Hares, Cunnies, Cranes, and many Swans. There is good fishing in them, of which the inhabitants make great profit. Iulius Agri­cola first sayling in a Shippe round about Brittaine, did finde out and con­quer the Orcades at that time unknowne; and therefore it is unlikely that Claudius did first overcome them, as Hierom affirmeth in his Chroni­cle. Afterward, when the Romans were Commanders over Brittaine, they were the seats of the Picts; and after that they came under the power of the Norwegians and Danes: whence the Inhabitants doe speake the Go­thicke tongue. Last of all, Christiernus King of Denmarke in considerati­on of a summe of money, in the yeare 1474. did passe over all his right unto the King of Scotland. The chiefe of these is Pomonia, famous in re­gard it is the seate of a Bishop, which was called by Solinus for the con­tinuall length of the day Pomona diutina: now it is called by the Inha­bitants Mainland, as if it were a Continent. It hath abundance of Tinne and Lead, and is adorned with a Bishops See in the Towne Kirkwale, and with two Castles. Among these Ptolomie also reckoneth Ocetis, which Camden supposes should now be called Hethy. And saith the same Camden, I am not yet resolved whether I should call Hey, which is among these [Page 42] Plinies Dumna. If it bee not so, I had rather thinke Faire Ile, which hath onely one Towne called Dume, to bee that Dumna, than with Becanus to thinke that it is Wardhuys in Lappland. Iohn Major doth also call one of these Zeland, being fiftie miles in length. Moreover, the Inhabitants of these Iles doe make a very strong drinke by putting store of Barley in it, and are the greatest drinkers of all others; yet Boetius witnesseth that he never saw any of them drunke, or deprived of sense. The next to these are the Ilands called the Hebrides, The names of the Hebrides. in number foure and forty, which Beda calleth Maevaniae; Ethicus, Betoricae Insulae, Giraldus calls them the In­cades and Leucades, the Scots the Westerne Iles: Ptolomie with Pliny and Solinus calleth them Stephanus cal­leth them the Hebrides, others Ebonia [...]nsulae. Ebudae, Pliny writeth that there are thirty of them, but Ptolomie reckons onely five. The first is Ricina, which Pliny calles Rinea, and Antoninus Ridunas, but now it is called Racline, which is a lit­tle Iland just against Ireland. The next is Epedium, now called Ila, an Ile, (as Camden witnesseth) very This Iland is 24. miles long, and 16. miles broad. large, and having very fruitfull plaines: betweene this and Scotland lyeth Iona, which Beda calleth Hy and Hu, be­ing plaine ground, in which there is an Episcopall See in the Towne Sodore, whence all the Ilands were called Sodorenses: it is famous, be­cause here lie buried many Kings of Scotland. Then there is another which Ptolomie calleth Maleos, now Mula, which Pliny mentioneth when he saith that Mella of all the rest is more then 25 miles over. The Ea­sterne Hebuda, now called Skie, is stretched along by the Scotch shoare, and the Westerne Hebuda lying more towards the West, is now called Lewes, of which Maccloyd is Governour, and in the ancient book of Man­nia, it is called Lodhuys, being mountainous, stony, little manured, but yet the greatest; from which Eust is parted by a little Euripus or flowing Sea betweene them. The test, except Hyrrha, are of no note, as being rockie, unpassable, and having no greene things growing in them. The Ilands of Man and Wight doe follow, of which see those things that are spoken in the seaventh Table of England.

THE KINGDOME OF IRELAND.

THE Island of Ireland followeth, which Orpheus, Aristotle, The new and ancient names, by whom, and why given. and Claudi [...]n doe call Isacius cal­leth this King­dome Britan­nia Occidenta­lis, or Westerne Brittaine, and Isidorus and o­thers call it Scotia, because the Scots com­ing from Spaine dwelt here; the Irish Ba [...]di call it Ba [...], whence Festus Av [...]enus calleth it Insu­la sacra: See Camden pag. 643. Ierna, Iuvenal and Mela Iuvernia, Diodorus Siculus Iris, Eustatius Vernia and Bernia, the Inha­bitants Erin, the Brittains Yverdhon, and the English call it Ireland. Divers opinions (as in obscure matters) doe arise concerning the originall of these names. Some would have it called Hibernia from Hiberus, a Spanish Captaine, who first possessed it, and peo­pled it: some say from the River Iberus, because the Inhabitants thereof did first inhabite this Island: some ab hiberno tempore, from the winter season, because it enclines towards the West: the Author of the Eu­logue, from Irnalphus, a Captaine. It was called without doubt Hibernia and Iuverna, from Ierna, which Orpheus and Aristotle mention; but that Ierna, together with Iris, Yverdhon, and Ireland, did proceede from the word Erin, used by the Inhabitants; therefore the Etymologie is to bee drawne from the word Erin. Here pag. 642. Camden affirmes, that hee knowes not what to conjecture, unlesse, saith hee, it bee derived from Hiere an Irish word, which with them signifies the West, whence Erin seemes to bee drawne, being as much to say as the Westerne Countrie. This Island is stretched forth from the South Northward in an ovall forme, not twenty dayes sayle, as Philemon in Ptolemie delivers, but onely 400.The Situation. miles; and is scarce 200. miles broad. On the East it hath Brittaine, from which it is parted by the Irish Sea, which is one dayes sayle: On the North, where the Deucaledon Ocean, which Ptolemie cals the Northern, breakes in, it hath Iseland: On the South it looketh towards Spaine. The Ayre of this Island is very wholsome, the Climate very gentle,The temper of the Ayre warme and temperate; for the Inhabitants neither by the heate of Summer are enforced to seeke shadie places, nor yet by cold to sit by the fire: yet the seedes in regard of the moistnesse of Autumne doe seldome come to maturitie and ripenesse. Hence Mela writeth, that it hath no good Ayre for ripening of seedes: yet in the wholsomnesse and cleernesse of the Ayre it doth farre exceede Brittaine. Here are never any Earth­quakes, and you shall scarce heare thunder once in a yeare. The Coun­trie is a fat soyle, and hath great plentie of fruits, yet it hath greater plenty of pasturage than fruits, and of grasse than graine. For here their wheate is very small, so that it can hardly bee winnowed or cleansed with a fanne. What the Spring produceth, the Summer cherisheth, but it can hardly bee gathered, in regard they have too much raine in Harvest time; for this Island hath windes and raine very often. But (as Mela saith) it is so full of pleasant sweete grasse, that when the Cattell have fed some part of the day, if they bee not restrained and kept from grazing, they will endanger the bursting of themselves. Which also So­linus witnesseth concerning this Island. Hence it proceedes, that there [Page 44] are infinite numbers of Cattell, which are the Inhabitants chiefe riches, and many flocks of Sheepe, which they sheare twice a yeare. They have excellent Horses (called Hobbies) which are not pac'd like others, but doe amble very gently. No creeping thing nor Serpent liveth here, nor also in Crete: and Serpents being often brought hither out of Brittaine, as soone as they came neere the Land, and smell'd the Ayre, they died. Beda witnesseth, that he hath seene some, who have beene stung with Serpents, that have drunk the leaves of Bookes (brought out of Ireland) in a Potion, and straight-way the force of the poyson was allayde, and the swelling of the body went downe againe. Ireland hath greater store of Faulcons and Hawkes, than other Countries. And here Eagles are as common as Kites in some places. Besides, here is so great a number of Cranes, that you shall often see a hundred in a company together. In the North part also there are abundance of Swannes, but there are few Storkes through the whole Island, and those black. There are few Par­triges and Pheasants, but no Pies, nor Nightingales. Here is such great store of Bees, that they doe not onely breede in hives, but also in hollow trees, and in the cavernes of the earth. Giraldus also writeth a strange thing concerning a kinde of Birde, commonly called a Barnacle, that out of certain pieces of wood, floating up and down in the Sea, there comes out first a kinde of Gumme, which afterward growes into a hard sub­stance, within which little Creatures are generated, which first have life, and afterward have bils, feathers and wings, with which they doe flye in the Ayre, or swim in the water, and in this manner and no other this Creature is generated. This Giraldus doth testifie, that hee hath seene some of them halfe formed, which as soone as they came to perfection did flie as well as the rest. There are also many birds of a twofold shape, (as he witnesseth) which they call Aurifrisij, lesser than an Eagle, and bigger than a Hawke; whom Nature, to delight her selfe, hath framed with one foote armed with tallents sharpe and open, the other smoothe with a plaine webbe. There are other Birdes which they call Marinetae, lesse than a Blackbird, being short like a Starling, yet differing from him by the whitenesse of the belly, and the blacknesse of the back. It is a wonderfull thing which was reported concerning these Birdes, for if when they are dead they be kept in a dry place, they will not putrifie or corrupt: and being placed among garments and other things, it will preserve them from moathes. That which is more worthy of admira­tion is that, if being dead, they be hanged up in some drie place, they will every yeare renew and change their feathers, as if they were alive. Ireland contayneth all kindes of wilde beasts. It hath Harts that are so fat, that they can hardly runne, and by how much they are lesser in body, by so much the larger are their hornes. There are great store of Bores, many Hares, &c. but the bodies of all the wilde beasts and birds are lesser here than in other places. It hath many Badgers, and Weesils. It hath few or no Goates, fallow Deere, Hedghogs, Moles; but infinite store of Mice. It hath also Wolves and Foxes. But enough of these things, I returne to other matters. Heretofore Ireland was ruled by many Earles, now it is subject to England, and is governed by the Kings Sub­stitute,The Govern­ment. who is called the Lord Deputie. It came to be under the domi­nion [Page 45]

IRELAND.
IRLANDIA

[Page 46] of the Kings of England about the yeare Camden saith it was in the yeare 1172. p: 649. 1175, at which time Ro­derick King of Connaught stiled himselfe King of all Ireland; and striving to subject the whole Kingdome to himselfe, waged continuall warre with the other Earles; by whose sedition it came to passe, that the other Earles of their owne accord, and without any effusion of blood, did put themselves under the obedience of Henry the second, King of England, from whom all the Kings of England were called Lords of Ireland, untill the time of Henry the eigth, who by the Nobles of Ireland was declared King of Ireland, because the name of Lord grew hatefull to some sediti­ous people.The Cities. There are foure speciall Cities in this Island: First This Town was built by Harald Har­fager, the first King of Nor­way. Dub­lin, the Metropolis or Mother-Citie of Ireland, being the royall Archi­episcopall Seat, giving name to a County. The next in dignity is Water­ford, the third Limbrick, the fourth Corke. There are many other very great Townes, of which wee will speake more largely in the particular Descriptions of Ireland. This Country hath many Lakes and standing waters,Lakes among which there is a Lake in Vlster, twenty miles distant from the Lake Erne, of which wee will speake more largely hereafter. There is a little Lake beyond the Citie Armack, in which if you stick a Speare up some moneths, that part which stuck in the mudde will bee i­ron, that which is in the water stony, and that which is out of the water will remaine wood. There is also the Lake Erne, which is thirty miles long, and fifteene miles broad, being compassed about with thick woods, and so full of Fish, that the Fisher-men often breake their nets, by taking too many at one time.The Rivers. This Island is divided and watered with many faire Rivers, whose names are these: or the River Liffie. Avenliffe, running through Dublin; Boandus through Methe, Banna through Vltonia, Linu [...] through Connack, and Moadus through Kenel. cunillia, Slicheia, and Samai­ra: Besides Modarnus and Furnus through Keneleonia, and many other. But of all the Rivers of Ireland, the Riveror Shennin, is some interpret it, tho ancient River. Synnenus is the chiefe both for the breadth and It runneth (saith Heylin) a course of 200 miles, to the Vergician Sea, and is naviga­ble 60 miles. length of its course, and for the plenty of Fish which is in it. But in generall, the Rivers and Lakes are full of fish bred in them. This Countrie is unequall and mountainous, soft and waterish: you shall finde Lakes and standing waters on the top of the Mountaines. The Mountaines abound with Cattell, & the woods with wilde beasts. Solinus writeth thus concerning the Sea, which floweth between Ireland and England: ‘The Sea betweene Ireland and England is rough and un­quiet all the yeare, and is scarce navigable but in some part of the Summer.’ But hee erres, for it is quiet enough, unlesse it bee stirred up with windes. And not onely in Summer, but also in Winter passengers doe sayle to and fro. All the Sea shores doe abound sufficiently with Fish. Ireland hath in all three and thirty Counties, and foure Archbi­shops. The Bishop of Armach, Primate of all Ireland: the Bishop of Dub­lin: the Bishops of Cassil and Toam: and these foure have nine and twenty Suffragans or Vicegorents. Ireland (from the manners of the In­habitants) is divided into two parts. For those who refuse to obey the Lawes, and live more uncivilly, are called Irishrie, and commonly Wild Irish. But those who are willing to obey the Lawes, and appeare before the Judges, are called the English-Irish, and their Country the English Pale. they speake English naturally and uncorruptly, yet they understand [Page 47] Irish, in regard of their daily commerce with the Irish-men. The Irish-men have some certaine Lords, under whose command the most of them are: but they live under the jurisdiction of the English, but counterfeit­ly, and as long as the English Souldiers doe waste their Territories: yet they appoint Sessions to be kept at certaine times and places, to restraine and punish robberies and theft, committed by night. There those that are accused, if they be convicted, have certaine Arbitratours to judge of the cause, whom they call Brehoni: these are all of one familie, and although they have no knowledge in the Law, yet for their wisdome & honestie of life they are accounted divine. Their warre is partly on hors­back, and partly on foote. The Gentrie have horses well managed, so that without any advantage they will mount them in their armour, and taking a Javelin or dart of great weight by the middle, they will throw or brandish it against their enemie with much ease. Among the foot­men, some are Souldiers in Cassocks very strong, whom they call Gale­glacii, having Cuttle-axes as sharpe as razors, and they are the chiefe strength of the Irish warres. The next are Footmen wearing a light ar­mour, with swords in their hands, and these are called Karnes, and they thinke a man is not dead, untill they have cut off his head. In the third place are footmen, whom they call Daltines, who going unarmed, attend upon the horsmen. The footmen as well as horsmen, as oft as they come to fight with their enemies, doe crie with a great voyce The reason of this, See in Camden, p. 678. Pharro, Pharro: and they use a Bagpipe in stead of a Trumpet. The Irish doe fare sum­ptuously and magnificently: for though they have no delicate dishes,Their Diet. nor great service in their banquets, yet their Tables according to the season of the yeare are well furnished with Beefe and Porke, and other meate. In their Feasts they lye upon Beds: the first place at the Table belongs to the Mother of the Family, who weares a long Gowne or Mantell reaching to her ancles, often dyed, and also sleeved.

THE SECOND TABLE OF IRELAND. IN WHICH ARE VLTONIA, CONNACIA, MEDIA, AND PART OF LAGENIA. VLTONIA.

IRELAND being described in generall, I thinke it worth my labour, before I come to a particular descripti­on of the severall parts: first to make a division thereof, Ireland is divided into five Parts or Provinces. Into Lage­nia, which being Eastward is next to England: Connacia, or Connachtia, which lyeth toward the West: Vltonia on the North side: & Momonia which is situate in the Southerne part. The fift part is called Media, which being placed in the midst, is enclosed with the rest. In these five Provinces there are many notable Territories. As Lagenia doth include Fingal, Offal, Leis, Ossir, and Ormund. Media containeth Slani, Four, and Delvin. In Connacia is contained Clar: in Vltonia is con­tained Vril, Antrimen, Lecal, and Treconch. In Momonia are included Trippitate, Kerie, Cosmay, Desmond, Tomond, and some others. There is ano­ther division of Ireland, which wee have touched in our generall Table, which is diligently to be considered if any one desire to know the state of this Countrie, wherefore hee must observe that Ireland is divided in­to two parts: the English part, and the Irish part. The latter the native Irish do inhabit, the former the Englishmen, and that part in common speech is called the English Province, because it is as it were empaled and environed with the Territories of the English. For after that the English having supprest the Irish Rebells, had restored Dermicius to his Countrie and Kingdome, they seated themselves and built them­selves seats in the chiefest places of Ireland. Afterward seeing that as it were certaine Islands did part them from the subdued Irish, they called that part in which they placed a Colonie, the English Province. In this is contained the greater part of Lagenia, and Media, and that part of Vlto­nia which is called Vril: but the chiefest part of Lagenia, which is called Fingal, neere to Dublin on the North, hath the chiefe place, and Media is next to that. But Mercator useth the same division which wee made of it in the former Tables, describing it in foure Tables, beginning with Vltonia, Connacia, Media, and part of Lagenia. I will make a briefe descrip­tion of all these parts, in the same order as our Author placeth them. Vltonia offers it selfe in the first place. This part of Ireland was first cal­led by the Welch Vltun, by the Irish Cui-Guilli, by the Latines Vltonia, and by the English Vlster: The names of Vltonia. toward the North it is parted with the Narrow Sea:The bound [...]. toward the South it stretcheth it selfe to Connaught and Lagenia; the [Page 53]

THE SECOND TABLE OF IRELAND.
UDRONE

[Page 50] East part is bounded with the Irish Sea, and the West part is beaten with the great Westerne Ocean. This Countrie beeing neere to Scotland, is reckoned one of the Scotch Islands, which are called the Hebrides, and lye scatterd in the Sea betweene both Kingdomes: which Islands the Irish-Scots, the successours of the Ancient Scythians, do inhabit. It is round in forme, and in length from the Haven Coldagh in the North, to Kilmore in the South, it is about an hundred miles; and it is in breadth from Black-Abbey in the East to Calebegh, a Westerne Promontorie, an hundred and thirtie miles and more. The whole circumference or com­passe of it is about foure hundred and twentie miles.The Forme. This Country hath seldome any intemperate weather, for the suddaine and fresh gales of winde do refrigerate and coole the heat of Summer, and soft and gentle raines do mitigate the cold of Winter. Briefly, it is neither in the Cold nor Torrid Zone. The clouds are faire and cleare, and when they are most impure, yet the winde continually driving them about doth make the aire wholsome,The Aire. and at length quite dispelleth them. The equall tem­per of the Clime is the cause that the soyle doth plentifully bring forth divers kindes of trees, some bearing fruit, and others for building. The Countrie is full of grasse and fit for pasturing: very rich in horse, and sheepe, and Oxen. The Rivers are,The Rivers. as I may say, doubly commodious, being navigable to bring up Vessels, and Barques, and also being full of fish and very convenient for the inhabitants in other uses. Among these the first is Vinderius, which is now called the Bay of Knocfergus, from the Town seated on it, & from the safety of the Haven, which the English call Knocfergus, the Irish Caregfergus, that is Fergus his rock, which name it re­ceived from A famous Scot, as Cam­den affirmeth. pag. 669. Fergusius who was drownd there: There is also Banna which (as Giraldus saith) is a very faire River as the Banna in Irish signifies faire. Camden. p. 669 The plentie of Salmons. name witnesseth, it runneth out of the Lake Eaugh, and dischargeth it selfe into the Ocean with a double Channell; it is fuller of Salmons than any River in Europe, because (as some thinke) the water is so cleare, in which Salmons do chiefly delight. And there is the River Logia, which Ptolemie mention­eth, and now is called Lough Foile, which falleth into the Sea with a great streame. There are many great Lakes in it, in which is the Lake Eaugh which spreadeth it selfe abroad from Armaugh: and on the East side are the woods Kilulto, The Lakes. Kilwarney, and Dyffrim, into which the Lake doth so insinuate and winde in it selfe, that it maketh two Peninsula's, Le­cale toward the South, & Ard toward the North: Lecale runneth out far­thest toward the East of any part of Ireland, & the farthest Promontorie therof Marriners do now call Saint Iohns Foreland, Ptolomie calls it Isani­us, perhaps from the Brittish word Isa, which signifies Lowermost. In the Isthmus therof stands Dunam, Here was bu­ried S. Patricke, who as they say, being sent by Celestinus the Bishop of Rome, An. 433. converted this Island to the Christian faith. which Ptolemie mentions, now called Down, being an ancient Towne, and the Seat of a Bishop. Ard lyeth over a­gainst it being divided frō it by a little slip of land. There are also Lakes, of which we have made mention in our generall Table. The Countrie is shadowed with great woods. To speake in a word, although it be barren in some places by reason of Lakes, Bogs, & thicke Woods, yet it is every where full of Cattell, & Grasse, & at all times it abundantly requiteth the labour of the husbandman. Nature is so little beholding here to Art or Industrie, that the flourishing bankes of Rivers embrodered with flow­ers, [Page 51] the shadie Woods, greene Medowes, bending Hills, and Fields fit to beare corne if they were tilled, do seeme to be angrie with the Inhabi­tants, because by their carelesnesse and negligence they suffer them to be rude and wilde. The Voluntii, Darni, Robogdii, The Ancient Inhabitants. and Erdini in Ptolemies time held all this Countrie, who also dispersed themselves into other parts of Ireland. The speciall place in this Countrie is Armach, neere the River Kalis, which although it be not very faire, yet it is the seat of an Archbishop, & the Metropolis of the whole Island. The Irish-men do fabu­lously report that it was called so from Queene Armacha, but See Camden. pag. 66 [...]. Camden thinkes it to be the same which Beda calleth Dearmach, which signifies in the Scotch and Irish language, the field of Redmen. There is one Arch­bishop in Vltonia, who hath his Seat at Armach, & hath these Suffraganes and substitutes under him, with the Bishop of Maeth and Deren, Ardach or Apde, Kilmore, Clogher, Doune, Coner, Klancknos, Raboo, or Ropo, and Dro­moore. For the keeping of the Inhabitants of this Country and Province in order, it was fortified with six and fiftie Castles, there are also nine Market Townes in it. And it is divided into the Hithermost and Fur­thermost. The Hithermost hath three Counties, Louth, Downe, The names of Conn [...]gh and An­trimme. The Farthermost hath seven, Monahon, Tiroen, Armack, Col­rane, Donergall, Fermanagh, and Cavon. Connacia is the second part of Ireland, some call it Connachtia, the English call it Connagh, The bounds▪ and the Irish Connaghti: it is bounded on the East with part of Lagenia, on the North with part of Vltonia, on the West it is beaten with the Westerne Ocean, and on the South it is environed with part of Momonia or Munster, which is inclosed with the River Sineo or Shennin, and lyeth over against the Kingdome of Spaine. The Figure of it is long,The Forme. and at either end both Northward and Southward it is very narrow, but towards the middle it growes longer on either side. It is an hundred and sixe and twentie miles long, from the River Shennin in the South, to Engi Kelling in the North, the greatest breadth is about foure-score miles, from Tro­mer the Easterne bound, to Barrag-Bay the Westerne limit. The whole circuit and compasse of it is about foure hundred miles. The Aire in this Region is not so pure and cleare as in the other Provinces of Ireland, The Aire by reason of some wet places bearing grasse, which are called in regard of their softnesse Bogges, being dangerous, and sending out many thicke vapours. The chiefe Citie of this Province, being the third Citie of note in Ireland, is Galway, in Irish Gallive. Built in the forme of a Towre,The Citie ha­ving a Bishops See in it, and being famous for the frequent resort of merchants thither, and also profitable to the Inhabitants by the conve­niencie of the Haven which is beneath it, and by the easie exportation of Merchandise: not far from hence on the Westerne sidely the Islands which are called Arran, of which many things are fabled, as if they were the Isles of the living, in which no man could either die or be subject to death. The Province of Connaught at this time is fortified with foure­teen Castles, it hath nine Market Towns, & it is divided into sixe Coun­ties or Shires in this manner: the Countie of Clare, of Galway, of Mago, of Slego, of Letrimme, and of Roscomen. Media is the third part of Ireland, The names whence deri­ved. which in their Countrie speech they call Mijh, the English Methe, Giral­dus Midia and Media, perhaps because it is in the very middle of the [Page 52] Island. For the Castle Killaire in these parts, which Ptolemie seemes to call Laberus, The Situation. is in the middle of Ireland, as the name Killair doth denote. The Countrie reacheth from the Irish Sea, even to the River Shennin, which river parts it from Connacia. It hath a wholsome and delightfull aire. It is fruitfull in corne, pasturage, and flocks, abounding with Flesh­meate,The fertilitie of the Soile. Butter, Cheese, Milke, and the like: and in regard of the multi­tude of people, the strength of faire Castles and Townes, and the peace arising from thence, it is commonly called the Chamber of Ireland. Here is the Towne Pontana, which is commonly called Drogheda, a faire Town, and having a convenient Haven for Ships to ride in. But there are some who thinke that the middle part of this Towne, on the other side the Ri­ver,The Townes names. is in Vltonia. There are also these Townes in Media, Molingar, Four, Delvyn, Trimme, Kelle [...], Navan, Aboy, Dulek, and Scrin.

THE THIRD TABLE OF IRELAND. IN WHICH ARE MOMONJA, AND THE REMAINDER OF LAGENIA AND CONNACH.

CONNACIA is the second part of Ireland, some call it Connachtia, the English Connach, and the Irish Connachty. The names It lyeth toward the West, and is bounded with the River Sen, the River Banna, and the Ocean. This, the Auteri and Nagnatae in the time of Ptolomie did inhabite. But there is so neare an affinitie betweene these two wordes, Nagnatae and Connaghty, that they seeme one to bee derived from the other: unlesse we suppose that the word Connaghty did arise from the Haven Nagnatae, which Ptolomy mentions, and from thence the Country got this name. For a Haven is called in their native speech Cuon, to which if you adde Nagnata, it will not bee much different in sound from Connaghty. The fertilitie of the Soyle. The Country as it is in some places fruitfull and pleasant, so in some wet pla­ces covered o're with grasse, and by reason of their softnesse, called Bogs, it is very dangerous, as other parts of the Island are, and full of darke and thicke woods. But the Coasts having many Bayes, and navi­gable in-lets, doth as it were invite and stirre up the inhabitants to im­ploy themselves in navigation, yet sloath is so sweet unto them, that they had rather begge from doore to doore, then seeke to keepe them­selves from Poverty by honest labour. It is reported in the Irish Histo­ries that Turlogus O-mor O-conor, was sole Governour of this Country,The ancient government and that hee divided it betweene his two sonnes, Cabelus and Brienus. But when the English came into Ireland, Rodericke did governe it, and cal­led himselfe King of Ireland, but he being afraid of the English warres, not trying the chance or fortune of the field, put himselfe under obedi­ence to Henry the Second King of England. Who after revolting from his faith given, Miles Cogane was the first English-man who did attempt, but in vaine, to get Connachtia. Afterward, William the sonne of Adelme, whose posterity were called in Irish Bourki, Gilbert de Clare, Earle of Glo­cester, and William de Bermingham chiefe men in England, did subject this Country, and brought it to civilitie. But Bourke, or de Burgo, and his Posterity were a long time stiled and called Lords of Connach, govern­ing this Province together with Vltonia in great peace and tranquillitie, and did receive great revenewes out of it, untill the onely daughter of Richard de Burgo being sole inheretrix of Connachtia and Vltonia, was married to Lionell Duke of Clarence, the sonne of King Edward the third. But he living for the most part in England, and his successors the Morti­mers [Page 54] did neglect their Patrimonie, the Bourks being their kinsemen, to whom they had committed the overseeing of those Lands, making use of the absence of the Lords, and the troublesome times in England, con­temned the authority of the Lawes, entring into league with the Irish, and making marriages with them, and got all Connachtia to themselves, and by degrees degenerating, having left off the English habit, they followed the Irish manners It is at this day divided into sixe Coun­ties: Clare, Letrimme, Galwey, Resecomin, Maio, and Sligo. There are in it the Baron of Atterith, the Baron of Clare, and others. Here is also Galloway, a Towne much frequented by forrain Merchants. It is repor­ted that an Outlandish Merchant who did traffique with the Townes­men, did once aske an Irishman, in what part of Galloway Ireland stood? valuing this Towne as the whole Country, and the whole Country as this Towne. There are reckoned to Galloway, Anner, Clare, Sligo, Arctlo, and Alon, Townes of note.

The Auteri, whom I mentioned before, did heretofore possesse the more Southerne part of this Connacia, where is now Twomondia, or Cla­ria, the Country of Clan-Richard, and the Baronie of Atterith, which plainely intimateth whence came the name of the Auteri. Twomond, called by Giraldus Theutmonia (which though it lie beyond the River Se­nus or Shinnin, may be added to Momonia) is stretched forth into the Sea with a great Promontorie, famous for the Seat of an Archbishop which they call Toam, and for the Earles thereof, namely the O-Brennis, who de­scending from the ancient Earles of Connack, were honoured by Henry the Seaventh, with the Title of Earles of Twomond. This Country or the most part of it the English call Clare-shire, from Thomas Clare the youngest sonne of Gilbert, the first Earle of Glocester, to whom King Ed­ward the first gave this Country. Clan-Richard, that is, the Land of the sonnes of Richard, is next unto this; it tooke its name, according to the Irish custome, from one Richard an Englishman, called de Burgo, or Bur­gensis, who afterward in this Country became a man of great note and power; and out of this Family Henry the eighth created Richard de Bur­go Earle of Clan-Richard, Atterith, commonly Athenri, doth glory in that warlike Baron, Iohn de Bermingham an Englishman, out of which Family the Earles of Louth are descended: but these Berminghams of Atterith, degenerating into the Irish Wildenesse and incivilitie, will scarce acknowledge that they were once English. In this Atterith Geo­graphers doe place the mouth of the River Ausoba, which is now called the Bay of Galway: for Galway, in Irish called Gallive, is seated on it, being a faire Towne, which through the benefit of the River, is filled with many commodities brought thither, both by Sea and Land. Geographers doe also place the River anciently called Ravius, but now Trowis, in Con­nack; it is also knowne by the name of Bannus, for the inhabitants do call it Banny: This River comming out of the Lake Ernus is the bounds of Connack, and Vlster.

I returne to the Inhabitants. The rest of Connack toward the North was heretofore possessed by the Nagnatae, even to the River Bannus, which doth part Vltonia and Connack; where O-Conor, O-Rorck, and Mac-Diarmod, being wilde Irish, doe governe and rule. The shoare is [Page 55]

THE THIRD TABLE OF IRELAND.
ULTONIA CONATIA et MEDIA

[Page 56] backed from Ausoban with the Isles of Arran, Inisceath, knowne hereto­fore by reason of Colmans Monasterie here seated, and Inis Bovind, which Beda translating out of Scotch, calleth Vitulae albae Insulam, or the Island of the White Calfe. Then the shoare runneth back to the mouth of the Ri­ver Libinus, which Camden bringeth unto Dublin, but the place which Ptolomie assigneth, is now called the Bay of Slegah. Here Ptolomie placeth the Citie of Nagnata, but Camden saith, hee cannot tell what that Citie should be. There is one Archbishop here who keepes his residence at Toam; under whom are these Suffragan Bishops, the Bishop of Kilmako, Olfine, Bishop Helphen, Avaughdoune, Clonfert, and Moroo.

MEDIA.

MEDIA is the third part of Ireland, which in the Country speech is called Mijh, the English call it Methe, Giraldus Midia, and Media, Whence the names are de­rived. because perhaps it lyeth in the very middle of the Island. For the Castle of Killaire in those parts, which Ptolomie calls Laberus, is held to be in the middle of Ireland, and so much theSee Camden pag. 663. name it selfe doth expresse: for Lair in the Irish speech signifies the middle. Richard Stanthurst writeth thus concerning the Etymon or signification of the word Media. In the yeare of the World 2535. five brethren possessing the Islands, they resolved to divide it equally into foure Provinces, that so they might governe in them severally. But least their younger brother whose name was Slanius, might bee without some honour, they consented together to bestow on him a share taken out of all foure partes: Which was received by him cheare­fully, and hence some suppose that it was called Media. It stretcheth and ex­tendeth it selfe from the Irish Sea, even to the River Shennin, which Ri­ver doth part it from Connack. The Situation. It hath a wholesome pleasant Aire and deligthfull Prospect. It aboundeth with corne, pasturage and cattle, ha­ving store of Flesh,The fertilitie and fruitfulnes. Butter, Cheese, Milke, and the like, and in regard of the strength of the Townes and Castles, and the peace arising thence it is called the Chamber of Ireland. The Irishmen doe write that this Country heretofore had Kings, and that Slanius afterward became sole Monarch of all Ireland. The auncient go [...]e [...]nment. But when the English had set foote in Ireland, Hugh Lacey did conquer the most part of it, and King Henry the Second King of England granted it unto him to hold in fee, and stiled him Lord of Media. He having his head on a suddaine cut off by an Irishman while he was building the Castle of Derworth, left behinde him Hugh Earle of Vltonia, and Walter Lord of Trim, the Father of Gilbert, who dyed be­fore him. But by the daughters of Gilbert, Margaret, and Matilda, the one part fell by the Ienvills of the House of Lorraine, and the Morti­mers, unto the King: for Peter of Ienvill being borne of that Matilda had issue Ioane, who was married to Roger Mortimer, Earle of March: the other came by the Verdons to many Families in England. In our fore­fathers time by an Act of Parliament it was divided into two parts, namely, into East and West Media. The River Boand or Boyne, which Ptolomie calleth Buvinda, runneth through the East side, and afterward when it hath washed Droghda, a faire and populous Town, called so from [Page 57] the bridge, it divideth that part from Vltonia. The Westerne Media hath nothing worthy of memory or note beside Laberus (which Camden seemes to call Kaillair) and the Towne of Delvin which heretofore did honour Peter Meset, and now the renowned English Familie of the No­gents, with the title of Barons. For Gilbert Nogent (as Richard Stanihurst hath it, who writ eloquently of Irish matters) having a gentlemans e­state, was rewarded by Hugh Lacy, for his service performed in the Irish warres, with the Colonies of Delvin and Four; from him are the Barons of Delvin descended. Those Irish Countries of O-Malaghlem, Mac-Cog­lan, O-Madden, and Mogoghian, whose names have a barbarous sound, we leave unto others. Among the Townes of Media, Pontana is reckoned which is commonly called Droghda, being a faire Towne and having an Haven fit for the receipt of Shippes. But there are some who place the middle part of this Towne in Vltonia, beyond the River. There are also in Media these Townes, Molingar, Four, Delvin, Trimme, Kelles, Navain, Aboy, Dulek, and Scrin. There are also in this Province neare Fonera three Lakes, not farre one from another, whereof every one con­taineth his severall sorts of fish, which never come one to another, al­though the way be passable by the River flowing betweene them: and beside if the fish be carried from one Lake to another, they either die, or returne to it againe. Here is the River Boand aforesaid, called so from the swiftnesse of it: for See Camden [...] Brit. pag. 663. Boan both in Irish and Welch, doth signifie swift, and Nechamus hath sung of it.

THE FOVRTH TABLE OF IRELAND. WHICH CONTAINETH THE EASTERNE PART, AND DOTH present these following Territories to view. Glandeboy, Tirone, Arde, Lecale, Enaugh, Arthule, Newry, Morne, Fuse, Vriel, and many others, also the Cities Armack and Downe. LAGENIA.

IN our Authors division Lagenia followes Media, being the fourth part of Ireland, The names. which the Inhabitants call Leigh­nigh, the Brittaines Leyn, the English Leynster, the Latine Writers Lagenia, and the booke called the holy lives of the Saints Lagen. It lyes all toward the Sea on the East side of Ireland, even from Momonia to the River Neorus, which it goes beyond in many places: it is divided from Conack by the River Senus or Shennin, and from Media by the bounds thereof. In Ptolemies time it was the seate of the Brigantes, the Coriondi, the Menapij, the Cauci, and the Blani, and perhaps from these Blani, their names Lein, Leinigh and Leinster were derived. It is a fertile and fruitfull Country, it hath a gentle Aire, and the Inhabitants are of a curteous disposition. It is now divided into these Counties, Weishford, Caterlogh, Kilkenny, Dublin, Kil­dare, Kings-shire, Queenes-shire, Longford, with which Fernes and Wicklo are now reckoned. These Counties wee will now view in order, with Camden, according to the people which the Geographer writeth did in­habit this part of Ireland. The Brigantes were seated betweene the mouth of the River Suirus, and the two Rivers Neorus and Barrow, which Ptolemie calls Birgus, which flow together under the Citie of Waterford. Because there was an ancient Citie of the Brigantes in Spaine, called Bri­gantia, therfore Florianus del Campo, striveth to fetch the originall of these Brigantes out of Spaine; though if there were any ground for such a con­jecture, they might as probably bee derived from the Brigantes in Brit­taine, which is a neighbour Nation and very populous. But if it bee true, as some copies have it, that they were anciently called Brigantes, then the very name doth perswade us that they were so called from the River Birgus, which they inhabited round about. The Coriondi did in­habite between the Rivers Neorus and Birgus, where is now the Coun­ty of Carleo or Caterlogh, a great part of Kilkenny, and farther even to [Page 59]

THE FOVRTH TABLE OF IRELAND.
ULTONIA ORIENTAL

[Page 60] Ossiria the Higher, beside Ormondia, which the Irish call Vrrown, the En­glish Ormond, and vulgarly Wormewood. In both of these there is no­thing memorable, but the Earles thereof. For Ossiria the Higher hath beene renowned by the Earle Barnabie Fitzpatrick, who was dignified by Edward the sixt with that honour. And Ormond hath had, accounting from Iames the first, thirteene Earles of the famous Familie of the But­lers, whom Edward the third advanced to that honour, and whose ho­nourable Ancestors were heretofore the Butlers of Ireland, whence this name Butler was given them. That which some of the Irish, and those that would be thought men of good credit, doe affirme concerning cer­taine men in this Country that are every yeare turned into Wolves, I thinke it to be fabulous: Although it may be indeed the abundance of melancholy, wherewith they are possessed, (called by the Physitians Lycanthropia) doth stirre up such phantasies, that they imagine them­selves to bee transformed into Wolves. Neither dare I imagine any other thing of these Lycaons transformed in Livonia. At the mouth of Surius the Menapij held a Promontorie toward the Southwest, which is now the Countie Weishford, in Irish Countie Reogh. The name it selfe doth seeme to intimate that these Menapij came from the Menapij a Ma­ritime people among the Belgians. But whether that Carausius, who be­ing made King defended Britaine against the Emperour Dioclesian, was descended from the one or the other, let others determine. For Aure­lius Victor calleth him a Citizen of Menapia, and the Citie Menapia is placed by Geographers not in Holland, but in Camden thinks this Me­napia to bee that which now is called Weishford, see him pag. 659. Ireland. Ptolemie calls this Promontorie Hieron, that is, holy, and I doubt not but it was called so by the Inhabitants for the same respect. For they called in their Country speech, the farthest Towne hereof, at which the English first landed in this Isle, Banna, which signifies Holy. From this Holy Promontorie the shoare runneth forth in a large tract toward the East and North, neare to which there are shallow sands very dangerous for shipping, which Saylers call The Ground. The Cauci, who were a Maritime people of Germany, did inhabite next to the Menapij. These had that Maritime Country, which the Irish Families of the O-Mores, and O-Brins doe in­habite, together with the County of Kildare. The County of Kildare is very pleasant; concerning the pastures whereof Giraldus useth these ver­ses of Virgill.

Et quantum longis carpunt armenta diebus,
Exiguâ tantum gelidus ros nocte reponit.
How much the flocks doe eate in the long day,
The cold dew in the short night doth repay.

But for the company of Gyants which Giraldus placeth in this Coun­try, I leave it to those who admire fabulous antiquities, for I would not willingly doate too much on fables. Beyond the Cauci liv'd the Eblani, where is now the Countrie of Dublin and Meth, being one of the five parts of Ireland. The County of Dublin towards the Sea is of a fertile soyle, having pleasant Meddowes, but so bare of Wood, that for the most part they use Turfe and Coale digged in England. It is full of Townes and People; where the River Liffe hideth it selfe in the Sea, Houth is almost environed therewith, from whence the Family of the [Page 61] Laurences are called Barons of Houth. On the North side of Dublin lyes Fingall, a faire Country well tilled, and is as it were the store-house or Barne of the Kingdome, in regard it yeeldeth yearely so great a quan­titie of corne, that in a manner the earth doth strive with the labour of the husbandmen, which lying in other parts of the Island, neglected and untill'd, doth seeme to complaine of their ignorant sloath. These things being unfolded, let us now passe to the Cities and Townes. Here Kilkenny meetes us in the first place, being neare to the River Neorus, The names of the Townes. Kilkenny signifies the Cell, or Chappell of Canicus, who formerly in this Country was famous for his Religious solitary life. It is a neate fine Towne, abounding with all things, and the chiefe of the innermost Townes of this Island. The Towne is divided into the English and Irish part, the Irish part is as it were the Suburbs, wherein is the Temple of Canicus, who gave the name to it, and it is the Seat of a Bishop. The English Towne is newer, being built by Ralph the third Earle of Chester, it was fortified as some doe suppose, with walls on the West side by Ro­bert Talbot a Noble man, and strengthned with a Castle by the Butlers. Below this, upon the same River of Neorus, a walled Towne is seated, called in English Thomas Towne, in Irish Bala mac-Andan, that is, the Towne of Antonius his sonne, both names were given unto it by the builder Thomas Fitz▪Antonius an Englishman, whose heires are still ac­knowledged the Lords thereof. There stood in this Country that an­cient City Rheba, mentioned by Ptolemy, which was also called Rheban, but instead of a Citie it is even [...] a Citie and no Citie, as he him­selfe saith, being a few Cottages with a Forte. It honoureth the Saint-michaells with the title of Baronet. There is Lechlinia, in Irish Leiglyn, a royall Towne, fortified with a Castle by that Noble Deputie Bellingham. The great Citie of Rosse, hath likewise here flourished in times past, as having beene full of Inhabitants, and Merchandise, and fortified with a wall of great circuit, by Isabell the daugher of Richard Strongbow Earle, which walls doe now onely remaine. For discord arising among the Citizens concerning Religion, the Towne is ruinated and fallen to no­thing: but enough of these things,The Moun­taines and Rivers. I passe to the Mountaines and Ri­vers. Beneath Ormund the hills Bliew Blemi (which Giraldus calleth the Mountaines of Bladina) doe lift up their heads with their convex tops, out of whose bowels as it were, the Rivers Suirus, Neorus and Birgus, doe arise, and running in severall channels before they come to the Ocean they joyne all in one stream, whence the Ancients did call them Tres So­rores the three Sisters. Neorus hemmeth in many Castles and Townes; Birgus, now called Barrow, flowing out of the Mountaine Bladina, and running along by it selfe with many windings, at last passeth Rheba and other Townes. Afterward Neorus and Birgus do mingle their Waters, and having for some miles runne in one channell, they resigne their name and waters to their elder sister Suirus, which by a rocky mouth dischargeth her selfe into the Ocean, where on the left hand there run­neth forth a little Promontorie with a straight necke, which beares a little Tower as a defence or marke for Shippes, built by the Rosses when they flourished that they might safely enter into the Haven. In this part Pto­lemie placed the River Or M [...]d [...]na, which Camden thinkes to bee Slane. See him pag. 569. Modanus aforesaid, and Ovoca neare the Sea, on [Page 60] the back whereof the Castle Arcklo is seated, which River as Giraldus saith, both in the flowing and ebbing of the Sea water, doth still retaine its native sweetnesse, and doth preserve its waters unstained or unmin­gled with saltnesse a great way in the Sea. Here is the River Liffie, which slideth by Dublin, Called Lifni­us▪ or Labnius Fluvius. it is not carried with any violence except after a great storme of raine, but floweth very gently. This River without doubt is mentioned by Ptolemie: but by the carelesnesse of Bookemen, it is bani­shed out of its place. For the River Liffie, is placed in Ptolemies Tables in the same Latitude toward the other part of the Island, where there is no such River. But let us call it backe again to Or Dublin, which is called by the West Brittaines Di­nas Dublin, and by the Irish Ba­lacleigh. 1. the Towne upon Hurdles, for it is reported that the foundation therof was laid upon Hurdles. Eblana its proper place, and give these verses of Necham concerning it.

Visere Castle-cnock non dedignatur Aven-liff,
Istum Dublini suscipit unda Maris.
Aven-liff to see Castle-cnock doth not disdaine,
Which the Sea neare Dublin doth receive againe.

I will also adde that which Giraldus hath concerning Wiclo a Porte or Haven neare to Ovoca: which he calleth Winchiligello. There is a Haven at Winchiligello, on that side of Ireland which looketh toward Wales, whose waters doe flow in when the Sea doth ebbe, and when the Sea floweth, it ebbeth. There is also another very notable one, which when the Sea ebbeth, yet still con­tinues salt and brackish in every part and creeke thereof. There is one Arch­bishop in Lagenia, which hath his seate at Dublin, and Clandelachy, hee is called, Glandeloylong, and Primate of Ireland, having these following Suffragan Bishops under him, the Bishop of Elphine, or Bishop Helphen; of Kildare, of Fernes Ossorie, and of Leighlyn called by some Laghlyn.

THE FIFT TABLE. OF IRELAND. CONTAINING THE BARONIE OF Vdrone, part of the Queenes Countrie, and the Lord Forto­nesy, in the middle of Vdrone lyeth the Citie Laglyn, otherwise Leighlin, adorned with a Bishops Seat. MOMONIA.

MOMONIA followes in our propounded method, in Irish called Mown, in English Munster: the fift and last part of Ireland, it lyeth on the South upon the Vergivian Sea, being divided in some places from Connacia by the River Shennin, and from Lagenia by the River Neorus; it was formerly divided into two parts, the Westerne, and the Southerne. The Westerne part the Gangani, Luceni, Velabri, and Vterim did ancient­ly inhabit, the Vdiae or Vodiae the Southerne part. Now it is divided into seven Counties namely Kerry, Limrick, Corck, Tripperary the Countie of the Holy Crosse, the Countie of Waterford, and Desmond. Wee purpose to runne briefly over these Counties with Cambden, according to the severall people which the Cosmographer attributeth to them. The Gan­gani whom we formerly mentioned in the first place, do seeme by the affinitie of their name to be the same with the Concani of Spaine, whose originall was from the Scythians, and Silius witnesseth that they dranke horses blood, which heretofore the Wild Irish did often use to doe, Kerri (as it is now called) at the mouth of the River Shennin, was Anci­ently their Seat. A countrie full of inaccessible and wooddy mountains betweene which there are many hollow vallies, having thicke woods in them. The Earles of Desmond were heretofore honoured with the dig­nitie of Counts Palatine hereof, but by the wickednesse of men, which would have libertie and yet knew not how to use it, it was long since converted into a sinke of impietie, and a refuge for seditious persons. A ridiculous opinion hath invaded and persuaded the mindes of the Wild Irish, that hee that doth not answer the great shouting or warlike Which is Pharich. crie which the rest make, when they joyne battell, should be suddenly taken up from the earth, and as it were flying be carried into these desart val­lies, from any part of Ireland, and there feed on grasse, drinke water, and yet know not what he is, having reason, but not speech, and at last should be taken by hunters, and brought home againe. The middle of this Countrie is cut into two parts by a River which hath now no name, but floweth by a small Towne called Trailes, now almost ruinated, where the Earles of Desmond had their mansion houses. This River, by the situ­ation of it in Ptolemies tables, doth seeme to be Dur, and saith Camden, I [Page 64] would avouch no lesse, if Duris, which at this day is reckoned among the Hauens of this Westerne Coast, be at the mouth of it, as I have un­derstood by some. Not farre from hence is the Haven Smerwick (the word being contracted in stead of S. Mary Wick,) of which, not many yeares agoe, when Girald Earle of Desmond, a man profound in trecherie towards his Prince and Countrie, did daily by severall inrodes waste the Countrie of Momonia, a mixt band or companie of Italians and Spaniards arrived, being sent unto his aide from Pope Gregory, and the Spaniards, who having engarrison'd themselves in a place, called Fort del Ore, seem­ed not to feare Heaven it selfe. But when that famous and warlike Depu­tie the Lord Arthur Gray came with his forces, hee did soone decide the matter. For forthwith they yeelded themselves, and most part of them were put to death, because it seemed most safe and fit so to doe, the affaires of the Kingdome requiring it, and the rebells being on every hand. The Earle of Desmond himselfe fled to the woods, and having hid himselfe in a Cottage was wounded by a Souldier or two who rushed in upon him, and afterward being knowne, he was beheaded for his tre­cherie and wasting of his Countrie. All Desmonia toward the South is subject to the Gangans, which the Irish call Dassown, the English, Desmond; heretofore three sorts of people dwelt in it, namely the Luceni, the Vela­bri, the Iherni, which are conceived in some Maps to be the Vterini. The Luceni seeme to have drawne both their name and originall from the Lucensii of Spaine, which held the opposite Coast. The Velabri were so called from Aber, which is as much to say as Aestuarii, because they were seated neare the armes of the Sea: hence also the Artabri and Cantabri were so called. Orosius places these at the Promontorie Notium, which Mariners at this day doe call Some call it Cabo del Mar. others Ca [...]a and Cabo de Cler. Biar-head: under this Promontorie the River Iernus is received into the Ocean, neare to which stands Dunck-eran a Bishops Seat, this Dunck-eran, which in the Scottish-Irish, is as much as to say, the Towne Eran, doth not onely expresly shew it selfe to be that Citie Ivernis which Ptolemie mentions, but the river to be that Iernus whereof hee speaketh, which hath its appellation together with the whole Island from Hier an Irish word signifying the West. For it is the farthest River of this Country toward the West, as Ireland is the farthest Island Westward of all Europe. The Iberni, who are also called Vterni, (that is according to Camdens interpretation, the High Irish) did inhabit by this River on one side of the Promontorie, where are the Havens Berebavim and Baltimore, well knowne for the plentie of Herring taken therein: neare to which dwelt Mac-Carti More, an Irish Nobleman who in the yeare 1566. did deliver & render his Lands and possessions into the hands of Elizabeth Queene of England, and received thē againe from Her, to hold thē by fealtie after the manner of England. And at the same time he was created Earle at Glencar, and baron of Valentia. A man in this Countrie of great name and power, and an enemy heretofore to the Giralds, who deprived his Ancesters, being heretofore, as he contended, the lawfull Kings of Desmond, of their ancient right. For these Giralds, or Fitz-Giralds, being descended from the house of Kildare: and having conquered the Irish, did here get themselves large possessions, and of these Giralds Maurice Fitz-Thomas was created by Edward the third [Page 65]

THE FIFT TABLE OF IRELAND.
Hiberniae v. Tabula.

[Page 66] the first Earle of Desmond in the yeare of Grace 1355, & left so firme & so established an inheritance, that the aforesaid honour in a continued successiō did descend to this wretched rebel, of which I have spoken be­fore, who was the tenth Earle after him. Next to the Iberni dwelt the Vdiae who are also called Vodiae, of which names there remaineth some tokens in the Country of Kilkenni; for the greatest part is called Idou & Idouth. These did inhabit the Counties of Corke, Triperarie, Linrick, Kilkenni, and Waterford. In the Countie of Triperarie, there is nothing worthy of me­morie, but that there is a Palatinate in it, and the little Towne called Ho­ly Crosse, that hath great immunities and freedomes granted (as the Monkes have persuaded them) in honour of a piece of our Saviours Crosse which was kept there.The Rivers, Citties and Townes. The famous River Suirus, which the inha­bitants call Showr, is carried out of this Countrie of Triperarie into Kil­kenni. This River running out of the Mountain Blada through Ossiria the Lower of which the Butlers are stiled Earles, and afterward Thurles, of which they are stiled Vicounts, first passeth by the Citie Cassilia or Cas­sel, adorned by Pope Eugenius with an Archbishop, under whom are nine Suffragan Bishops. And from thence growing bigger by the re­ceipt of two other Rivers into it, neere Waterford it dischargeth it selfe into the Ocean. Hitherto I have runne over this part of Ireland with Cam­den, now it remaines to unfold some things concerning the Cities and Townes in the same. Among them the first that offers it selfe is This Citie the Irish and Brittaines call Porthlargy. Water­ford, which is the second Citie in Ireland, and alwaies faithfull and obe­dient to the English governement. For after Richard Earle of Pembroke conquered and tooke it, it alwaies continued in peacable quietnesse and obedience to the English, endeavouring to bring Ireland into subjection; whence the Kings of England did grant them many and divers immuni­ties and freedomes, which Henry the seventh did encrease and confirme, because the Cittizens did behave themselves valiantly and wisely a­gainst Perkin VVarbeck, who with the wings of impudence thought to aspire to the royall Throne. This Citie was built by Pyrats of Norway, which although it have a thick aire, a soile not very pleasant, and very narrow streets, yet such is the conveniencie of the Haven, that it is the second Ctity in Ireland for wealth & populousnes, & is filled with many wise & well behaved Citizens. It hath a safe & quiet Haven, & which is often full of outlandish & forraine ships. For there are many Merchants in Waterford, who in trading do so wisely use their stock, & so warily cast up their accoūts, that in a short time they get great store of wealth; they are not for the most part indebted, but have ready money. There are ve­ry few usurers, which by fraudulent & intolerable interest live upon the goods & spoile of the Cittizens by taking them to pawne. The Citizens are curteous, bountifull, thriftie, hospitable to strangers, and serviceable both in private and publique affaires. This Citie was anciently called Menapia, as Dublin Eblana: or rather Amellana from Amellanus, who built it, as it is reported that Sitaracus built Waterford, and Ivorus Lim­rick; They being Cosen-Germans, and heretofore of great authoritie in Ireland. There is also in this Countrie Limrick, which is the third Ci­tie, that excells the rest, for commodious situation, and for the fairenesse of the River, being watered with Shennin the chiefe of all the Irish Ri­vers; [Page 67] though this Citie bee distant from the Sea sixtie miles, yet the ship-masters doe bring shippes of great burthen even to the walls of the Citie, neither neede they feare any rockes all the way they come up. It is wonderfull to see what store and plentie of fish you shall finde there. Iohn King of England being enamoured with the pleasantnesse of this Cittie, built there a faire Castle, and a Bridge. There is also Corcagia in the Countie of Corke, which the English call Cork, and the natives Korkeach, environed with a wall, not very wide in compasse. It is stretched out so as to make but one street, yet there is a prettie and very faire market place; it hath an excellent safe harbour, but hath heretofore beene so encompassed with seditious neighbours, that they keepe continuall watch and ward, as if they were alwaies besieged, and they scarce marrie their daughters into the countrie, by reason whereof, marrying among themselves, all the Citizens are somewhat allied one to another. The Citizens are strong in Souldiers, they addict themselves to merchandise, and governe their affaires both at home and abroad very frugally. Coenalis writeth, that the holy man Briacus came from hence, from whom the Diocesse of Sanbrioch in Brittaine, common­ly called S. Brieu, tooke its name. But in this hee wandereth from the truth, because he placeth the Coriondi of Ireland in this Citie. For Ptole­mie doth not mention it at all. Yet the River which floweth by it seem­eth to be the same, which Ptolemie calls Daurona, and Giraldus calls Sau­ranus, and Saverenus by changing one letter. Learned pag. 655. Camden saith, that the affinitie which is betweene these names did intimate so much unto him, and that with greater probalitie, then if hee should call the next River Daurona, which running through the Countie Corke and Tri­perarie falls into the Ocean by Lysmor, and is called by Historians Aven­mor, that is, the Great River, of which Nechamus thus writeth:

Vrbem Lissimor pertransit flumen Avenmor,
Ardmor cernit ubi concitus oequor adit.
Avenmor runneth by Lissimors wall
And at Ardmor into the Sea doth fall.

THE KINGDOME OF SCOTLAND.

The names THE Northerne part of the Island of Brittaine is called Scotland, heretofore Albania. The Inhabitants who keepe their ancient speech, doe call it Albain, and the Irish Al­bany, as if it were an other Ireland, which the Bardes call Banno. For Historians doe call Ireland Greater Scotland; & the Kingdome of Scots in Brittaine the Lesser Scotland: Ptolemie doth call it Little Brittaine, Rufus the Second Brittaine; Tacitus calleth it Ca­ledonia, from a certaine Forrest so called. But the Scots were so called from their Neighbours the or Scitti, a people of Ger­many that sei­sed on a part of Spaine. Scyths: For as the Dutchmen call the Scyths and Scots by one name Scutten, that is, Archers: so also the Brittains did call both of them Y-scot, as appeareth by the Brittish Writers. And 'tis manifest, that they descending from the Scyths, came out of Spaine into Anno 424. Ireland, and from thence into that part of Albain which they now possesse, and grew with the Picts into one Nation. Thus much of the Name, the Situation followes. The Southerne bounds towards Eng­land are the Rivers Tweede and Solwey, on the North is the Deucaledon O­cean,The Situation. on the West the Irish, on the East the German, other parts the Ocean and the German Sea doe compasse. It is 480 miles long, but no where a­bove 112 miles broad.The tempera­ture of the Ayre. The Country is more temperate than France, the heate and cold being more remisse, in like manner as it is in England, but yet it cannot be compared unto it in fruitfulnesse. The Earth, for the most part,The fertility of the Soyle. is full of Sulphure or moorish, which affordeth them coale and turfe for firing, especially in those places where there is want of wood. Yet here groweth as much corne as the Inhabitants can spend. The Earth also bringeth forth divers mettals, as Gold, Silver, Quick­silver, Iron, Lead, and Copper. It hath in Drisdale a Gold Myne, in which the Azure stone is found. It hath also pretious stones, especially the Gagate, which burneth in the water, and is quenched with oyle. Al­so excellent pastures, which doe feed and bring up all kinds of Heards: whence they abound with plenty of flesh, milke, butter, cheese, and wooll. When the Scots came to the Picts into Brittain, although they stil provok't the English by warres & robberies, yet the Scottish affaires grew not upon a suddain, but a long time they lay hid in that corner in which they first arriv'd; neither (as Beda noteth) for more than an hundred and seven and twenty yeares, durst they beare Armes against the Earles of Northumberland, untill at one and the same in the yeare of grace 740. time they had almost slaine all the Picts, and the Kingdome of Northumberland by domestick troubles, and by the incursions of the Dane, was almost ruined. For then all the North part of Brittaine came to be called Scotland, together with the Countrie beyond Cluide, and Edenburgh-Frith. The Scots are valiant in warre, and stout souldiers to endure hunger, watching, or cold. The chiefe Citie of Scotland is This Citie the Scotch-Irish call Dun Fa­den. [...]. the Town Eaden. Edenburgh, commonly called Edenburrow, [Page 69]

THE KINGDOME OF SCOTLAND.
SCOTIA

[Page 70] this royall Seate Ptolemie cals the Which the word Edenbur­row much re­sembles, for (saith Camden) Adam in the Brittish tongue signifieth a wing See pag. 6 [...]7. Winged Castell, and not onely the Me­tropolis of Lauden, but also of all Scotland; it hath its situation on the Mountaines, much like to Prague in Bohemia; the length stretched from East to West is a thousand paces, or a mile, the breadth is halfe as much. The whole Citie hangeth, as it were, on the side of a Mountaine, and is highest toward the West; toward the North it fortifies the Citie with its steepnesse, the other parts toward the East and South are envi­ron'd with a wall. On the East side of the Citie is the Kings pallace, which they call King Arthurs Chaire: on the West there is a steepe Rock, and on the Rock a great Towre, which the Scots doe commonly call the maiden Towre, which is the same which Ptolemie cals the Winged Castell. There are also other Cities and famous Townes in this King­dome, which we will describe particularly in their places. In the Valeys there are many Lakes, Marshes, Fountaines and Rivers full of Fish, the greatest part whereof arise out of the Mountaine Grampius, of which wee will make mention in our next Description.The Sea. The Scottish Sea is full of Oysters,The Ports. Herrings, Corall, and shell-fish of divers kindes. Scotland hath many Havens & Bayes, amongst which Letha is a most convenient Haven.Mountaines▪ The Country it selfe is very rugged and mountainous, and on the very Mountaines hath plaine levell ground, which doth afford pa­sturage for Cattell. Grampius is the greatest Mountaine, and doth runne through the middle of Scotland: it is commonly called Grasebaim, or Grantzbaine, Woods. that is to say, the crooked mountaine, for it bending it selfe from the shore of the German Sea to the mouth of the River Dee, and passing through the middle of this Countrey toward the Irish Sea, endeth at the Lake Lomund: it was heretofore the bounds of the King­dome of the Picts and Scots. At Aberdon there are woody mountaines. It is thought, that here was the Forrest of Caledonia, which Lucius Florus cals saltus Caledonius, very spacious, and by reason of great trees impas­sable; and it is divided by the Mountaine Grampius. Moreover not onely ancient writings and manuscripts, but also Temples, Friaries, Mo­nasteries,Publick w [...]ks. Hospitals, and other places devoted to Religion doe testifie, that the Scots were not the last The Gospel was fast p [...]a­c [...]d [...] P [...]llad [...] [...] 4 [...]1 among the Europaeans, who embraced the Christian Religion, and did observe and reverence it above others. The royall Pallace of Edenburgh, of which I spake before, is very stately and magnificent, and in the midst of the Citie is their Capitoll or Parlia­ment-house. The Dukes, Earles, Barons, and Nobles of the King­dome have their Pallaces in the Citie, when they are summoned to Par­liament. The Citie it selfe is not built of bricke, but of free squared stone, so that the severall houses may bee compared to great Pallaces. But enough of this, let us passe to other things. The people of Scotland are divided into three Rankes or Orders, the Nobility, the Clergie, and the Laiety. The Ecclesiasticall Order hath two Archbishops, one of S. Andrewes, The manner of Govern­ment. Primate of all Scotland, the other of Glasco. There are eight Bi­shopricks under the Archbishop of Saint Andrewes, of Dunkeld, of A­berdon, of Murray, of Dunblan, of Brecchin, of Rosse, of Cathanes, and of Orkney: Under the Bishop ofwhich is also called the Bi­shop of Gallo­wa [...]. Glasgo there are three, to wit, the Bishop of Candida casa, the Bishop of or Argile Argadia, and the Bishop of the Isles, namely Sura, Mura, Yla, &c. This is the manner and order of the Nobi­litie, [Page 71] the Kings and the Kings Sonnes lawfully begotten have the first place, of which if there bee many, the eldest Sonne is called Prince of Scotland, the rest are onely called Princes; but when the King is publick­ly crowned, hee promiseth to all the people, that he will keepe and ob­serve the Lawes, Rites, and Customes of his Ancestours, and use them in the same manner as they did. The Dukes have the second place, the Earles the third, and those Nobles the fourth place, who are not known by that Title in forraine Countries, but the Scots doe call them My Lords. This name is so much esteem'd amongst them, that for honours sake they attribute it to their Bishops, Earles, and chiefest Magistrates. In the fifth place are the Knights and Barons, who are usually called Lords. They are in the sixth and last place, who having attained to no title of honour, but yet descended from a noble Familie, are therefore commonly called Gentlemen; as the Brothers, and Sonnes of Earles and Lords, the youngest Sonnes of Knights, who have no part in the Inheritance, because (by the Lawes of Scotland) that commeth unto the eldest Sonne, for the preservation of the Familie, but the common peo­ple call all those Gentlemen, who are either rich or well spoken of for their hospitality. The whole weight of warre doth depend on the No­bility of the lowest degree. The Plebeians or Citizens are partly chiefe men, who beare office in their Cities, partly Merchants, and partly Tradesmen, or Handy-craftes-men, all which because they are free from Tribute and other burdens, doe easily grow rich. And least any thing should be too heavily enacted against any Citie, the King permits that in publick assemblies or Parliaments three or foure Citizens, being called out of every Citie, should freely interpose their opinion concer­ning matters propounded. Heretofore the Clergie was governed by the authoritie of Decrees & Councels, but now (as the rest) they are ru­led by the Lawes, which the Kings have devised, or confirmed by their royall assent. The Booke which containeth the municipall Lawes, writ­ten in Latine, is entituled Regia Majestas, the Kings Majestie, because the Booke begins with those words: In the other Bookes of the Lawes, the Acts of their Councels (which are called Parliaments) are written in Scotch. There are many and divers Magistrates in Scotland, as in other Nations. Among these, the chiefe and next to the King is the Prote­ctour of the Kingdome (whom they call the Governour.) Hee hath the charge of governing the Kingdome, if the Common-wealth at any time be deprived of her King; or the King by reason of his tender age cannot manage the affaires of the Kingdome. There is also a continuall Senate at Edenburrough, so framed of the Clergie and Nobilitie, that the Clergie doth in number equall the Laiety. The Clergie have a Presi­dent over them, who hath the first place in delivering his opinion, un­lesse the Chancellour of the Kingdome bee present, for hee hath the chiefe place in all affaires of the Kingdome. Hee that sits on matters of life and death, they call The great Justice; hee that lookes to Sea-mat­ters, the Admirall: he that lookes to the Campe, the Marshall: and he that punishes offences, committed in the Court, is called the Constable. There are also in severall Provinces, which they call Viecounties, those which are Governours of them, whom by an ancient name they [Page 72] call Vicounts. Their authority in deciding those matters which belong to civill causes, doth depend on a certaine hereditary right, by which they claime also unto themselves those Vicountships. So that these Vi­counts may be said not to be created by the King, but borne unto it by right from their Parents. The Cities also and Townes have their Go­vernours, their Bailiffes, and other Magistrates of that kinde, who keepe the Citizens in obedience, and doe maintaine and defend the Priviled­ges of the Cities, whereby it comes to passe that the Common-wealth of Scotland, by the apt disposition and ranking of Degrees, by the holy Majestie of Lawes and the authority of Magistrates, doth flourish, and deserveth great praise. These are the names of the Dukedomes, Earle­domes, and Vicountships of Scotland: the Dukedome of Rotsay and Al­bania, and the Dukedome of Lennox, the Countie of Carnes, Sutherlant, Rosse, Murray, Buchquhan, Garmach, Garmoran, Mar, Mernis, Angus, Gowry, Frisse, Marche, Athole, Stratherne, Menteith, Wagion, Douglasse, Carrike, Crawford, Annandale, Ourmonth, and Huntley. The Vicountships are, Berwich, alias North-Berwyk, Roxburgh, Selkirk, Twedale, Dunfrise, Niddisdale, Wigton, Are, Lanarke, Dunbretton, Sterueling, Louthean, Lau­den, Clacmanan, Kiuros, Fisse, Perth, Angus, Mernis, Aberdone, Bamph, Fo­res, and Inuernes. There are the Universities of Saint Andrew and Aber­done, the later was adorned with many priviledges by King Alexander, and his Sister Isabel, about the yeare 1240. The former was begun to be established under King Iames, in the yeare 1411. To which is added the University of Glasgo, founded by Bishop Turnbul, anno 1554, and Edenburgh. The disposition of the Scots is lively, stirring, fierie, hot, and very capable of wisdome.

THE SECOND TABLE OF SCOTLAND.

I Have ended that which I purposed to speake of Scotland in generall, our method requireth that we should run through the parts of it in speciall. Scotland is divided (by the Moun­taine Grampius, cutting it in the midst) into the Southerne or Higher part, and into the Northerne or Lower part. It is divided from England by the River Tweede, by the high Mountaine Cheviota, and, where the Mountaine faileth, by a trench made not long a­goe, and lastly by the Rivers Eske and Solway. Beyond these bounds the Countries even from the Scottish Sea to the Irish, doe lie in this manner. The first is Marcia, Merchia or March so called, because it is the limits, and lies on the Marches of Scotland, this reacheth to the left side of Tweede: on the East it is bounded with the Forth Which is an arme of the Sea, where the water ebbes & flowes. The names of Cities. Aestuarium, and on the South with England. In March is the Towne of Berwyke, Bor­wick, or Borcovicum; which the English hold. Here is also the Castle of Hume, the ancient possession of the Lords of Hume, who being de­scended from the Earles of March, became at last a great and renowned Familie. Neare to this Castle lyeth Kelso, famous by a certaine Mo­nasterie, and the ancient habitation of the Hepburni, who a long time by Hereditary right, were Earles of Bothwell, and Admiralls of Scotland, which honours by the Sister of Iames Earle of Bothwell, married to Iohn the lawfull Sonne of King Iames the fift, did descend to Francis his Son. From thence we may see Coldingham, or Childingham, which Beda calls the Citie Coldana, and Vrbs Coludi, and Ptolemie perchance calls Colania. On the West side of March on either side of Tweede is Tifedale, being so called from the River Tyfie. It is divided from England by the Moun­taine Cheviota. After this are three small Countries, Lidesdale, Eusedale, and Eskedale, so named from three Rivers of like name, Lide, Eue, and Eske. The last is Annandale, which is so called from the River of An­nan, dividing it in the midst, which runnes along by Solway into the Irish Sea. Now that wee may returne againe to the Called by Ptolemie Bode­ [...]ia by Tacitus Bodotria and by Boethius Fluvius Levi­nus. Lothiana. Forth or Scottish Fyrth it doth bound Lothiana or Lauden on the East side: the Cochurmian Woods, and the Lamirian Mountaines doe seperate it from Marcia. And then a little toward the West it toucheth upon Lauderia & Twedia: the one so called frō the Town Laudera, the other frō the River Tweede, cutting through the middle of that Country. On the South and West Lidesdale Nithesdale and Clidesdall doe touch upon Tweede, the name of Nithesdale was given unto it from the River Nyth, called by Ptolemie No­bios, which glideth through it into the Irish Sea. The Country is now called Lauden, and anciently Pict­land. The fertilitie of the Soyle. The Rivers. Lothiaria was so cal­led from Lothius King of the Scots. On the East side it is bounded with the Forth or Scottish Sea, and on the West it looketh toward the Vale of [Page 74] Clide. This Country both for curtesie and plenty of all things necessary for mans life, doth farre excell the rest. It is watered with five Rivers, Ti [...], The names of Cities both the Eskes (who before they fall into the Sea doe joyne toge­ther in one channell) Letha, and Almone. These rising partly out of the Lamirian Mountaines, partly out of the Pictland Mountaines doe runne into the Forth. It hath these Townes, Dunbarr, Hadinia, com­monly called Hadington, Dalneth, Edenburrough, Leth and Lemnuch. Somewhat more towards the West lyeth Or Cl [...]ddes­dale. The Rivers. Clydesdale, on either side of the River Clide or Glotta, which in regard of the length is divided into two Provinces. In the former Province is a hill not very high, from whence three Rivers doe discharge themselves into three divers Seas. Called Vedra by Ptolemie. Tweede into the Scotch Sea, Annand into the Irish, and Clide into the Deucalidon Sea. The chiefest Cities in it are Lanarick and Glasco. The names of Cities The latter the River Coila or Coyil runneth by on the West: beyond Coila is Gallovidia or Galloway. It is seperated from Nithesdale with the River Claudanus, almost enclining toward the South, whose bankes doe hemme in the other side of Scotland. The whole Country is more fruitfull in Cattle then in Corne.Galloway. It hath many Ri­vers which runne into the Irish Sea, as Vrus, Dee, Kennus, Cray and Lowys. It is no where raised into Mountaines, but yet it swells with little Hills. Among which the water setling doth make innumerable Lakes,The Situation. which by the first raine which falls before the Autumnall Aequinox doe make the Rivers rise, whence there commeth downe an incredible mul­titude of Eeles, which the Inhabitants having tooke up with wickar-weeles, doe salt up, and make a great commoditie of. In this Country is the Lake of Myrton, part of whose Waters doe congeale in Winter, the other is never frozen. The farthest part on this side is the Promon­torie Novantum, under which in the mouth of the River Lowys is the Bay which Ptolemy calls An [...] Camde [...] ▪ G [...]rigon [...]u [...], be­cause there is a Towne situate called [...]geny. Regrionius. On the other side there flowes into it the Bay of Glotta, commonly called the Lake Rian, which Ptolemy calls Vidogara. That Land which runneth betweene these two Bayes the In­habitants call Rine, that is the Eye of Galloway: they call it also the Mule of Galloway, or the Mules nocke. The whole Country is called Gallo­way, or Gallovid, which in the language of the Ancient Scots signifies a French-man. Beneath Vidogara on the backside of Galloway, Caricta gent­ly bendeth toward the estuarie of Glotta. Rivers Two Rivers doe cut through it:Lakes. one called Stinsianus, and the other Grevanus, on both of which many pleasant Townes are seated. Between the Rivers, in those places where it swells into little hills, it is fruitfull in pasturage, and hath some Corne. The whole Country hath not onely a sufficiency of all things, for the maintenance of men both by Sea and Land, but also doth furnish the neighbour Countries with many commodities. The River Dun doth seperate it from Coila, arising out of a Lake of the same name, which hath an Island in it with a small Castle. There are in the Coun­trie of Caricta, very exceeding great Oxen, whose flesh is tender and sweet in taste, and whose fat being once melted never hardneth againe, but alwayes runneth abroad like oyle. Coila followeth, which Galloway doth bound on the South, on the East it toucheth Clidesdale, on the West it is divided from Cunningam by the River Vrwyn, the River Aire [Page 75]

THE SECOND TABLE OF SCOTLAND.
Scotiae tabula .II.

[Page 76] runnes through the middle hereof, on which is seated Ayr a faire Mar­ket Towne. For the generall, this Country hath greater plenty of va­liant men, then of fruit or cattle, for it is altogether of a light sandie soyle: which doth sharpen the industrie of the Inhabitants, and their sparing life doth confirme the strength of their mindes and bodies. In this Country about ten miles from the Towne Ayr, there is a stone al­most twelve foot high, and thirty Cubits thicke, which is called the deafe stone, for if you hollow or shoot off a Musket on the one side, hee that standeth on the other side next to the stone cannot heare it, he that stands farther off shall heare it better, and he that stands farthest off shall heare it best. After this Cunningam runneth to the North, and straight­neth Glotta, untill it become a small River. It is manifest that the name of this Country came from the Danes, and in their language signifies a Kings house, which is a signe that the Danes sometimes possessed it. Next on the East side is situated Renfroan, so called from a Towne, in which the Inhabitants kept their publike meetings, it is commonly cal­led Baronia. Two Rivers doe cut through the middle of it, which are both called Carth. After this Country is Clidesdale aforenamed, stretch­ed forth to either banke of Glotta, and poureth forth many Noble Ri­vers: on the left hand Aven, and Duglasse, which doe runne into Glotta: on the right hand another Aven, which seperates Sterling on the South from Lothiana, and on the East from the Fyrth, untill at last growing lesser, it hath a Bridge over it neare Sterling. There is one Ri­ver that cutteth through this Country, which is worthy of memory, called Carron, neare to which are some ancient Monuments. On the left side of Carron there are two little hills built by the industrie of men, which are commonly called Duni pacis. On the right side of Car­ron, there is a plaine field that at last riseth into a little hill, being in the middle betweene Duni pacis, and a little Chappell. On the side of this hill there appeareth yet the ruines or remainder of a small Citie. But the foundation of the Walls, and the description of the streetes, partly by tillage, and partly by digging forth squared stones for the building of rich mens houses, cannot be distinctly knowne. This place Beda doth call Guidi, and doth place it in a corner of the trench made by Severus the Emperour. Many famous Roman Writers have made mention of this Trench and Bulwarke. Here many tokens doe remaine, and many stones are digged up with inscriptions, which are either testimonies of ayde formerly received by the Tribunes and Centurions, or of their Se­pulchers in those places. Beyond Sterling is Levinis or Lennox, divided from Renfroan by Glotta, from Glasco by the River Keluin: It is parted from Sterling or Striveling with the Mountaines, from Taichia, by the Forth: at length it endeth at the Mountaine Grampius, at the foot there­of the Lake Lomund through a hollow Vale extendeth it selfe 24. miles in length, and 8. in breadth, which containeth above 24. Islands. Be­sides a multitude of other fishes, it hath some particular unto it selfe, which are pleasant in taste, called Pollacks. There are three things re­ported of this Lake very memorable: First the Fish have no Finnes, but otherwise are of an excellent taste. Secondly, the water when there is no winde is sometime so rough, that it would affright the boldest Mar­riner, [Page 77] from weighing Anker. Lastly, there is a certaine Island fit to feed flocks of cattle, which moveth up and downe, and is driven to and fro with every tempest. But I returne to the Lake, which at last breaking forth toward the South, doth send forth the River Levin, which giveth its owne name to the Country. This River neare to the Castle Brittano­dun, or Dun brittan, and a Towne of the same name, entreth into Glotta. The farthest Hills of the Mountaine Grampius doe somewhat raise the farthest part of Levinia, being cut through with a little Bay of the Sea, which for the shortnesse of it they call Gerloch. Beyond this is a farre larger Bay, which they call Longus, from the River Long that falleth into it. This is the bound betweene Levinia and Covalia. Covalia it selfe, Called also Argile, and Ar­gadia. Argathel or rather Ergathel and Cnapdale, are divided into many parts by many straight Bayes made by the estuarie of Glotta, or Dun-Brittan Fryth. There is one famous Lake amongst the rest; they call it Finis from the River Fin, which it receiveth, it is 60 miles long. There is in Knapdale the Lake Avus, in which there is a small Island with a fortified Castle. From hence the River Avus runneth forth, which alone in these Countries emptieth it selfe into the Deucalidon Sea. Beyond Knapdale towards the West Cantiera or Cantyre runneth out, that is, the head of the Country, over against Ireland, from which it is parted by a small narrow Sea, being longer than broad, and joyned so straightly, and in such a narrow manner to Cnapdale, that it is scarce a mile over, and even that is nothing else but sand. On Cantyre Lauria toucheth, lying neare to Argathel, and reaching neare to Abry: it is a plaine Country, and not unfruitfull. In that place where the Mountaine Grampius is some­what lower, and more passable, the Country is called Braid Albin, that is to say, the highest part of Scotland, and where it is highest it is called Drum Albin, that is the backe of Scotland; and not without reason. For out of the backe Rivers doe runne into either Sea, some into the North, some into the South: out of the Lake Iernus, it sendeth forth the River Ierna into the East, which having runne three miles falls into Taus be­neath Perth. From this River Strathierna or Stathierna, extended to either banke thereof, tooke its name. For the Scots are wont to call a Countrie which lyeth on a River, Stat.

THE THIRD TABLE OF SCOTLAND.

THe Mountains of Ocellum do border upon Tachia, which for the most part, together with the Country at the foot there­of, are thought to bee in the Country of Iernia: but the rest of the Countrie even to the Forth ambition hath divided into many parts, as Clacman, Colrosse, and Kinrosse. From these and the Mountaines of Ocellum, all the Countrie which is bounded by the Forth and Tay, groweth straight in the forme of a wedge East­ward, toward the Sea. And by one name is called Fife, having sufficien­cie of all things necessarie to life: it is broadest where the Lake Levinus cutteth it, and thence gathereth it selfe into a narrow forme, even to the Towne Caralia. It sendeth forth one notable River, to wit Levinus, whose bankes are beautified with many Townes, of which the most renowned for the studie of good Arts, [...] is Fanum Andraeae, or Andrews Chappell, which the ancient Scots did call Fanum Reguli, and the Picts Rig­mud. In the middle of the Countrie is Cuprum or Cuper, whither those of Fife do come to have their causes tryed: on that side where it toucheth Iernia, there stands Abreneth the ancient Pallace of the Picts. Here Ierna runneth into Taus. But Taus runneth foure and twentie miles, having broken out of the Lake Taus which is in Braid Albin, and is the greatest River in Scotland. This River bending toward the mountaine Grampius, doth touch Atholia a fertile Region placed in the wooddie Countrie of Grampius. Beneath Atholia Caledon is seated on the right-hand bank of the River Taus an old Towne which onely retaineth a name, common-called Duncaldene, that is, Hasell-trees. For the Hasell trees spreading themselves all over, and covering the fields thereabout with their shadie boughs, gave occasion of that name both to the Towne and people. These Caledones or people of Caledon, being once reckoned among the chief Brittaines, did make up one part of the Kingdome of the Picts. For Ammianus Marcellinus divideth them into the Caledones and Vecturiones, but of their names there is scarce any memorie left at this day. Twelve miles beneath Caledon lyes the Countrie of Perth on the same right-hand banke. On the left-hand banke beneath Atholia is Gour, looking toward the East, renowned for corne-fields: and beneath this againe is Angusia stretched out betweene Taus and Eske: this the ancient Scots did call Aeneia. Some suppose it to be called Horestia, or according to the English speech Forrest. In it is the Citie Cuprum which Boethius, to gratifie his Country, ambitiously calleth This is also called Alle­ctum Dei Donum, the gift of God: but I suppose the ancient name was Taodunum, from Dunus, that is, an Hill situate by Taus, at the foot whereof there is a Towne. Beyond Taus the next foure­teene miles off, on the same banke is Abreneth, otherwise called Obrinca. After this Countrie is the Red Promontorie, very conspicuous. The Ri­ver Eske called the Southerne, cutting through the midst thereof, the o­ther Northerne Eske divideth it from Mernia. It is for the most part a [Page 79]

THE THIRD TABLE. OF SCOTLAND.
SCOTIAE tabula .III.

[Page 80] plaine field countrie, untill Grampius meeting with it beneath Fordune, and Dunotrum the Earle Marshalls castle, it somewhat remitteth its height, and soe bendeth downe into the Sea. Beyond it towards the North is the mouth of the River Deva commonly called Dea or Dee, and about a mile distant from it the River Don; by the one is Aberdon, famous for the Salmon-fishing, by the other another [...] mouth of the River Don. this Town is called by [...] De­ [...], for De­ [...], because a [...] River Don [...] Aberdon, which hath a Bishops Seat, and Publike Schooles flourishing by the studies of all Li­berall Arts. I finde in ancient monuments that the Hithermost was cal­led Aberdea, but now these Townes are called the old and new Aberdon. From this strait Foreland betweene these two Rivers beginneth Marria, which by little and little enlarging it selfe runneth 60. miles in length even to Badenacke or Badgenoth. This Countrie extends it selfe in one continued [...]dge▪ and doth send forth divers great Rivers into either Sea. [...]bria doth border on Badenacke, being somewhat enclined toward the Deucalidon Sea, and is as plentifull as any Countrie in Scotland with all Sea and Land-commoditie. For it hath good corne and pasturage, and is pleasant as well in regard of the shadie woods as coole streames, and fountaines. It hath so great plentie of fish, that it is not inferiour to any part of the whole Kingdome. For beside the plentie of river fish, the Sea storeth it, for breaking in upon the plaine ground, and there being kept in with high bankes it spreads it selfe abroad, in manner of a great Lake: whence it is called in their countrie speech Abria, [...] that is a standing water. They give also the same name to the neighbour Countrie. Northward next to Marria is Buchania or Buguhan divided from it by the river Don. This of all the Countries of Scotland doth stretch it selfe farthest into the Germane Sea. It is happie in pasturage and the increase of sheepe, and is sufficiently furnished with all things necessarie for mans life. [...] The rivers thereof do abound with Salmons. Yet that kinde of fish is not found in the river Raira. There is on the bankes of this river a Cave, the nature whereof is not to be omitted, which is, that water di­stilling drop by drop out of the hollow arch thereof these drops are straightway turned into little Pyramides of stone, and if it should not be clensed by the industrie of men, it would quickly fill up the cave even to the top. Beyond Buchania towards the North, are two small Coun­tries, Boina and Ainia, which lye by the river Spaea or Spey that separateth them from Moravia. Spaea riseth on the back-side of Badenach aforesaid, and a good way distant from its fountaine is that Lake whence Iutea breaketh forth, and [...]owleth it selfe into the Westerne Sea. They report that at the mouth thereof there was a famous Towne, named from the river Emmorluteum: the truth is, whether you consider the nature of the Countrie round about it, or the conveniencie of Navigation and trans­portation, it is a place very fit to be a Towne of traffique. And the ancient Kings induced thereunto by the opportunitie of the seat, for many ages dwelt in the Castle [...] called [...]unstphage Evon, which now many are falsly persuaded was Stephanodunum. For the ruines of that Castle are yet seene in Lorna. Moravia followes from beyond Spaea even to Nessus, heretofore it is thought it was called Varar. Betweene those two rivers the German Oce­an, as it were driving backe the Land into the West, floweth in by a great Bay, and straightneth the largenesse of it. The whole Countrie [Page 81] round about doth abound with Corne and Hay, and is one of the chiefe of the whole Kingdome both for pleasantnesse and encrease of fruits. It hath two memorable Townes▪ F [...]gina neare the River L [...]x, which yet retaineth its ancient name, and Nessus neare the River Ne [...]us. This River floweth foure and twentie miles in length from the Lake Nessus. The water is almost alwaies warme, it is never so cold that it [...]ee [...]eth. And in the extremitie of winter, pieces of ice carried into it are quickly dissolved by the warmth of the water. Beyond the Lake Nessus toward the West, the Continent is stretched forth but eight miles in length, [...]o that the Seas are readie to meete, and to make an Island of the remainder of Scotland. That part of Scotland which lyeth beyond Nessus, and this strait of Land North and West is wont to be divided into foure Provinces. First beyond the mouth of Nessus, where it drowneth it selfe in the German Ocean, is the Countrie Rossia, [...] running out with high Pro­montories into the Sea: which the name it selfe sheweth. For Ro [...] signifies in the Scottish speech a Promontorie. It is longer then broad. For it is extended from the German Sea to the Pe [...]alidon, where it becommeth mountanous and rugged, but the fields of it, are not inferiour to any part of Scotland in fertilitie and fruitfulnesse. It hath pleasant vallies watered with Rivers full of fish, and many Lakes that have fish in abundance, but the greatest of them all is [...]abrus. From the Deucalidon Sea, the Shoare by degrees bendeth in, and inclineth toward the East. From the other Shoare the German Sea, making a way for it selfe between the rocks, and flowing into a great Bay, maketh a safe & sure Haven against all tempest. Secondly, next to the farthest part of Rosse toward the North,Navernia is Naver­nia, so called from the River Navernus: and this Countrie commonly (following their Countrie speech) they call Strathnaverne. Rosse bounds it on the South, on the West and North the Deucaledon Sea washeth it, on the East it toucheth Cathanesia. [...] In the third place Sutherland is neare unto all these, and toucheth them on one side or another: for on the West it hath Strathnaverme, on the South and East Rosse, and on the North Cathanesia. The Inhabitants of this Countrie by reason of the condition of the soile are rather given to pasturage than tillage. There is nothing that I know singular in it,Mountaines▪ but that it hath Mountaines of white marble, (a [...] a [...]e miracle in cold Countries) which is not gotten for any use, because wantonnesse hath not yet invaded those parts. Lastly, Cathanesia or Cathanes is the farthest Countrie of Scotland toward the North, where Navernia meetes it, and these two Countries of Scotland do contract the bredth of it into a strait and narrow front. In this front of Land three Promontories do raise themselves. The highest was Navernia, which Ptolemie calleth Orcas, Tavedrum and Tarvisium: the two other being nothing so high are in Cathanesia, namely Vervedrum, now Hoya, and Betubium, called (though not rightly) by Hector Boethius Dame:Cathanesia. now it is commonly called Dunis Bey, others call it Duncans Bey. Out of this name by taking away some letters the word Dunis Bey seemeth to be derived. In this Countrie Ptolemie placeth the Cornavis, of whose name there do still remaine some tokens. As they commonly call the Castles of the Earles of Cathanesia, Gernico or Kernico: and those who seeme to Ptolemie and others to be the Cornavii, the Brittaines thinke to be the [Page 82] Kernes. For sith not onely in this Countrie, but in a divers part of this Island they place the Cornavii, namely in Cornewall, they call those who do still retaine the ancient Brittish speech, Kernes. Now it remaines that wee should speake somewhat of the Islands. The later Writers have made three sorts of all the Islands, which do as it were crowne Scotland, the Westerne, the Orcades, and the Zealand Islands. Those are called the Westerne Islands which are stretched from Ireland almost to the Orcades in the Deucalidon Sea on the Westerne side. These some call the Hebri­des, others the So called frō Eb. rid. which signifies in the Bruttish tongue [...], without [...], as Camden thin [...]th pag. 6 [...]. Aebudae, others the Mevaniae, others the Beteoricae. The Orcades, now called Orkney, are partly in the Deucalidon Sea, and partly in the German, and are scattered toward the Notherne part of Scotland. Concerning their names Ancient and Moderne Writers do agree, but it doth not appeare who first possessed them. Some say they had their originall from the Germans: But out of what Countrie these Germans came it is not delivered. If wee may conjecture by their speech, they used formerly, as at this day, the ancient Gothicke tongue. Some suppose them to have beene the Picts, enduced thereunto chiefly, because the narrow Sea dividing them from Cathanesia, is called from the Picts Fre­tum Picticum. And they thinke that the Picts themselves were of the Saxon race, which they conjecture by a verse of Claudians:

—Maduerunt Saxone fuso
Orcades, incaluit Pictorum sanguine Thule:
Scotorum tumulos flevit glacialis Ierne.
The Orcades with blood of men grew wet,
When as the Saxon did the worser get:
Thule even with the blood of Picts grew hot,
Ierne wail'd the death of many a Scot.

But seeing we have intreated of these things formerly in the Descripti­on of the Brittish Isles, thus much shall suffice concerning Scotland.

ENGLANG.

THE Southerne and greatest part of the Isle of Albion, is called in Latine Anglia: from Angria, a Countrie of Westphalia, commonly called Engern, as some would have it. Some suppose it was so called from angulus a corner,The name by who [...] it was given because it is a corner of the World. Others from Angloen a Towne of Pomerania. Goropius deriveth the word Angli, or English­men, from the word Angle, that is from a fishing-hooke, because, as he saith, they hooked all things to themselves, and were, as wee say in England, good Anglers: but this conjecture rather deserveth laughter than beleefe. Some suppose, it was so called from Anglia, a little Country of the Cimbrick Chersonesus, which was named Engelond, that is, the Land of English-men, by Egbert King of the West Saxons: or else as it were Engistland, that is, the Land of Engist, who was Captaine o­ver the Saxons. But hee that shall note the Etymologie of the words, Engelbert, Engelhard, and the like German names, may easily see, that thereby is denoted the English-men. These are people of Germany that possessed Brittaine; and, as Camden sheweth, were one Nation, which now by a common name are called English Saxons. This part of the Isle of Albion is diversly called by the Inhabitants; for they divide it into two Countries. That part which looketh to the East, and the German Sea, the natives of England, being people of Saxonie, call in their Lan­guage Because it [...] of an [...]ngular forme, for Eng in the Saxon tongue, signifieth a corner, or nooke. England. And the Westerne part, which is divided from the other by the Rivers Sabrine or Severne, and Dee, Wales. The Northerne bounds of it toward Scotland, are the Rivers Tweede and Solway: on the South lies France, and the Brittish Ocean; on the West Ireland, and the Irish Ocean; on the East the German Ocean. It is 302 English miles long, and 300 broad, that is, from the Cape of Cornwall to the Promontorie of Kent. The Ayre here at any time of the yeare is temperate and milde, for the skie is thick, in which cloudes, showres, and windes are easily generated, by reason wereof it hath lesse cold and heate. It hath a fer­tile and fruitfull Soyle, and so furnished with all kinde of fruits, that Orpheus saith, it was the seate of Ceres. With whom agreeth Mamerti­nus, who speaking a Panegyrick Oration to Constantine, said, that in this Countrie was such great plenty, as that it was sufficiently furnished with the gifts both of Ceres and Bacchus. It hath fields not onely aboun­ding with ranke and flourishing Corne, but it produceth all kinde of commodities. Heere groweth the Maple and the Beech-tree in abun­dance: and as for Laurels or Bay trees it surpasseth Thessalie it selfe. Here is such plenty of Rosemary, that in some places they make hedges with it. Here is Gold, Silver, Copresse, though but little store of it, yet here is great store of Iron. Heere is digged abundance of the best black Lead, and white Lead or Tinne, and so transported to other Nations. Heere are many Hils, on which flocks of sheep doe graze, which are esteemed, not onely for their flesh, which is very sweete and pleasant, but also for the finenesse of their wooll; and these flocks of sheepe doe prosper and [Page 84] increase through the wholsomnesse of the Ayre, and goodnesse of the Soyle, as also by reason of the scarcitie of trees on the Hils, and the freenesse of the whole Countrie from Wolves. This Countrie aboun­deth with all kinde of Cattell & living Creatures, except Asses, Mules, Camels, Elephants, and a few other. There are no where better or fier­cer Mastiffes, no where greater store of Crowes, or greater plenty of Kites, that prey upon young Chickens than here. The Romans did com­mand the better part of Brittaine, almost five hundred yeares, namely from the time of Fiftie yeares before the birth of Christ. Caius Iulius Caesar to the time of Which was An. Dom. 446. according to Bede. Theodosius the youn­ger: when the Legions and Garrisons of Rome, being called to defend France, they left the Isle of Brittaine, whereby it came to passe, that the Southerne parts thereof were invaded by the Picts and Scots, whose vio­lence, when the Brittaines could no longer sustaine, they called the Sa­xones out of Germanie, men accustomed to warre, for their Ayde. These Saxons assisted them in the beginning, but afterward being allured with the temperature of the Ayre, or perswaded by the friendship and fami­liarity of the Picts, or stirred up by their owne treacherous mindes, they made a league with the Picts against the Brittaines, and having driven out their Hosts, they themselves possessed their places. England con­taineth many Cities,The Citie and faire Townes, among which the chiefe are London, Yorke, Canterbury, Bristoll, Glocester, Shrewsbury, Winchester, Bathe, Cambridge, Oxford, Norwich, Sandwich, with many other which wee will delineate in our particular Descriptions. The chiefe Rivers are Thames, Humber, The Rivers Trent, Ouse, and Severne, of which in their places. The Ocean which washeth this Isle,The Sea. doth abound with plenty of all kindes of Fish, among which is the Pike, which with the Inhabitants is in great esteem, so that some times they take him out of moorish Lakes, into fish-ponds, where after hee hath scoured himselfe, being fed with Eeles and little fishes, hee growes wonderfull fat. Moreover there are no where more delicate Oysters, or greater plenty of them than heere. The especiall Havens of England are these:Ports, first Davernas commonly called Dover, which is the farthest part of the Countie of Kent, it is fortified with a Castle seated on a Hill, and well furnished with all kinde of Armour: secondly Muntsbay of a great breadth in Cornewall, where there is a safe harbour for ships. There is also Volemouth, or Falemouth, Torbay, South­hampton, and many others. The King of England hath supreame power, and acknowledgeth no superiour but God: his Subjects are either the Laiety or the Clergie:The manner of Govern­ment. the Laiety are either Nobles or Commons. The Nobles are either of the greater ranke, as Dukes, Marquesses, Earles, Vicounts, Barons, and Bannerets, who have these Titles by inheritance, or else are conferr'd upon them by the King for their vertues. The les­ser Nobles are Baronets, Knights, Esquires, and those which common­ly are called Gentlemen: the Gentlemen are those who are honoured by their birth, or those whose vertue or fortune doe lift them up, and distinguish them from the meaner sort of men. The Citizens or Bur­gesses are those, who in their severall Cities doe beare publick Offices, and have their places in the Parliaments of England. The Yeomen are those, whom the Law calleth legall men, and doe receive out of the Lands which they hold, at the least forty shillings yearely. The Trades­men [Page 85]

ENGLAND.
ANGLIA

[Page 86] are those, who worke for wages or hire. All England is divided into nine and thirty Shires were first made by King Alfred, for the better administration of Justice. Shires; and these Shires are divided into Hundreds and Tithings: In each of these Counties is one man placed, called the Kings Praefect or Lievtenant, whose office is to take care for the security of the Common-wealth in times of danger: and every yeare there is one chosen, whom they call the Sheriffe, that is, the Provost of the Shire, who may bee rightly called the Questor of the Countie or Pro­vince. For it is his office to collect publick money, to distraine for tre­spasses, and to bring the money into the Exchequer, to assist the Judges, & to execute their commands: to empannell the Jurie, who are to en­quire concerning matters of fact, & bring in their verdict to the Judges (for the Judges in England are Judges of the Right, not of the Fact) to bring the condemned to execution, & to decide of thēselves small con­troversies. But in great matters those Judges do administer right, whom they call Itinerarie Judges, & Judges of Assise, who twice every year do visite most of these Shires, to determine and end matters of difference, and also to give judgement upon Prisoners. For asmuch as concernes Ecclesiasticall Jurisdiction, England hath now two Provinces, and also two Archbishops: the Archb. of Canterbury Primate of all England, and the Archb. of Yorke: Under these are seven and twenty Bishops, two & twenty under Canterbury, and the other five under Yorke. The Tribunals or Courts of Justice in England are of three sorts, for some are Spirituall some Temporall, and one mixt, which they call the Parliament, consi­sting of the three Orders of England, and it representeth the body of the whole Kingdome. This Parliament the King cals and appoints accor­ding to his pleasure: Hee hath the chiefe authority in making, confir­ming, abrogating, and interpreting of Lawes, and in all things that be­long to the good of the Common-wealth. The temporall Courts are two-fold, namely of Law, and of equity. The Courts of Law are the Kings Bench, the Starre-Chamber, the Common Pleas, the Exche­quer, the Court of Wards and Liveries, the Court of the Admiraltie, and Assises; wee omit others which are obscure. The Kings Bench is so called, because the King is wont to sit in it, and it handleth Pleas of the Crowne. The Starre-Chamber, or rather the Court of the Kings Counsell is that, in which criminall matters are handled, as perjuries, impostures, deceits, and the like. The Common Pleas is so called, be­cause common pleas are tried there betweene the Subjects, by the Law of England, which they call the Common Law. The Exchequer de­riveth its name from a foure square Table, covered with a Chequer-Cloth, at which the Barons sit; in it all causes are heard, which belong to the Exchequer. The Court of Wards hath his name from Wards, whose causes it handleth. The Admirals Court handleth Sea-matters. Those which wee call the Assises, are held twice in a yeare in most Shires; in which two Judges of Assise appointed for it, with the Justices of peace doe enquire and determine of civill and criminall matters. The Courts of Equity are the Chancerie, the Court of Requests, and the Councell in the Marshes of Wales. The Chancerie draweth its name from the Chancellour, who sitteth there. This Court gives judgement according to equitie, and the extreame rigour of the Law is thereby [Page 87] tempered. The Court of Requests heareth the causes of the poore, and of the Kings Servants. The chiefe spirituall Courts are the Corporati­tion of the Clergie, the Courts which belong to the Archbishop him­selfe, and the Chancellours Courts, kept in every Diocesse. There are two famous Universities in this Kingdome Oxford and Cambridge. Eng­land doth produce happy and good wits, and hath many learned men, skilfull in all Faculties and Sciences. The people are of a large stature, faire complexion'd, and for the most part, gray-eyed, and as their Lan­guage soundeth like the Italians, so they differ not from them in the ha­bite and disposition of their body. Their foode consisteth, for the most part, of Flesh. They make Drinke of Barley, being a very savorie and pleasant drinke. It is transported often into forraine countries. They use a habite not much different from the French. And thus much shall suffice concerning England in generall, wee will declare the rest in the particular Tables following.

THE SECOND TABLE OF ENGLAND. CONTAINING, The Counties of Northumberland, Cumberland, and the Bishoprick of Durham.

WEE have finished that which wee intended to speake con­cerning England in generall: Our Method doth require that wee should goe through the parts thereof in particu­lar. The Romans diversly divided the hither part of Brit­taine, being reduced into a Province. But the Saxons instead of the Pentarchie of the Romans, made an Heptarchie of it, in which are Kent, Sussex, Eastanglia, Westsex, Northumberland, Essex, and Mercia. At this day it is divided into Counties, which the English by a proper word call Shires. And first, in the yeare of Christ 1016, in the Reigne of Ethelred there were onely two and thirty. Afterward under William the Conquerour there were 36. And lastly, these being augmented by three more, came to be 39 Counties. To which are added 13 Shires in Wales; six whereof were in the time of Edward the first, the other Henry the eigth ordained by Parliamentarie Authoritie. These Counties or parts of England, with some Islands, our Mercator doth lively expresse in six Tables. Of all which Tables, wee will make a briefe Description or Delineation, in that order as our Author propoundeth them. In the first place Northumberland offereth it self,Northumber­land. commonly called Northumber­lant, The Situation. lying, in a manner, in the forme of a triangle, but not equilaterall. The Southerne side thereof Derwent flowing into Tine, and Tine it selfe doe enclose where it looketh toward the Bishoprick of Durham. The East side is beaten with the German Sea. But the Westerne side is drawn out in length from the North to the South, first by a continued ridge of Mountaines, and afterward by the River Tweede; and being opposite to Scotland, The quality of the Soyle. it is the bound of that Countrie. The Soyle it selfe, for the most part, is barren and unfit for tillage. Toward the Sea and the Tine, if tillage be used, the Husband-man receiveth sufficient increase, but in other places it is more unfruitfull, and rugged. In many places great store of Sea-cole (as the English call them) are digg'd forth. There is in Northumberland the Citie of New Castle, The Cities. famous for the Haven, which the River Tine maketh, having so deepe a chanell, that it receiveth ships of great burthen, and desends them both from tempests and sands. The last Towne in England, and the strongest in all Brittaine is Berwick, which some doe derive from a certaine Captaine, called Berengarius, Leland from Aber, which in the Brittish Language signifies the mouth of a Ri­ver, as if it were, Aberwick, a Towne at the mouth of a River. But whence soever it hath its name, it stands farre in the Sea, so that it is [Page 89]

THE SECOND TABLE OF ENGLAND.
Northumbr. Cumberlādia Dunelm. Episcop.

[Page 90] compassed round about therewith, and the River Tweede. The Rivers here are the Southerne and Northerne Tines (which are so called,The Rivers. be­cause they are bound in with straight and narrow bankes, for so much Tine doth signifie in the Brittish speech, as some doe affirme:) the Sou­therne riseth out of Cumberland, neere Alstenmore, where there is an ancient Myne of Brasse; & having runne a good while toward the North, it turneth toward the East, and runneth straight forward with the Picts Wall. The Northerne Tine arising out of the bordering Mountaines, doth joyne it selfe with the River Reade, which being powred out at the Mountaine Redsquier, watereth Readsdale, that is, the Vale of Reade, which nourisheth the best Fowle. Both the Tines doe flow beneath Collerford, and growing bigger and bigger, doe hasten their journey to the Ocean in one channell. Tweede for a great way parteth England from Scotland, and is called the Easterne bound. This River breaking forth of the Mountaines of Scotland, runneth a great while in a winding course: but where it comes neere unto the Towne Carram, growing strong in wa­ters, it beginneth to distinguish the Limits of the two Kingdomes, and at last having received the River Till, it disburthens it selfe into the German Sea. There are also other Rivers, as Coquet, Alaunus, or Alne, Blithe, Wanspethel, which I omit, and so passe to the second part: and that is,Cumberland. Cumbria, commonly called Cumberland: this lieth before West­moreland on the West side; It is the farthest Shire in this part of Eng­land, The Situation. insomuch, that it toucheth Scotland it selfe on the North side, being beaten on the South and North with the Irish Ocean, but on the East side above Westmoreland it joyneth to Northumberland. It takes its name from the Inhabitants,The quality of the Soyle. who were the true and native Brittains, calling themselves in their Language Kumbri, & Kambri. Although the Coun­trey seemeth, in regard of the Northerne situation, to bee cold and ve­rie mountainous, yet it delights the beholder with much variety. For behinde the Cliffes and cluster of Mountaines, betweene which the Lakes doe lye, there are grassie Hils full of Flocks, under which againe there lye plaine and fruitfull Valleys.The Cities. There is in this Countrie an an­cient wel-seated Citie, called Carlile, being defended on the North with the deepe Channell of Ituna, or Eeden; on the East with Peterill, on the West with Cauda; and besides these fortifications of Nature, it is strengthened with strong Wals of square stone, with a Castle, and a Cittadell. There are other Townes, as Keswick, Wirkinton, Bulnesse, cal­led anciently Blatum-Bulgium, Penrith or Perith: that I may passe over Villages and Castles: This Shire hath 58 Parish-Churches. It hath also Lakes abounding with all kinde of flying Fowles:Lakes. and many Rivers, a­mong which is the little River Irton, Rivers. in which while the gaping shell-fish receive the dew, they become presently, as it were, great with childe, and bring forth pearles, which the Inhabitants when the water setleth doe seeke for. There are also the Derwent, Cokar, Olen or Elen, E­den and others, all abounding with Fish. Besides, this Ocean which beateth on the shore, doth bring forth great shoales of excellent fish, and doth seeme to reproach the Inhabitants with negligence, because they use fishing so lazily. Heere are many Mountaines close together, being full of mettall, among which there are the Mountaines called Derwent­fels, [Page 91] in which neere to Newland are found rich veines of Brasse not with­out Gold and Silver. Heere also is found that minerall-earth,The Moun­taines. or hard and shining stone, called by the English Black-lead, which the Painters use to draw their lines and proportions withall. That famous Wall, which was the limit or bound of the Roman Empire,The Wall of the Picts. being 122 miles in length, doth divide and cut through the higher part of this Country, it was built by Severus, who (as Orosius saith) tooke care that this part of the Island should be seperated by a trench from the other wilde and un­tamed people. Beda writeth, that it was eight foote broad and twelve foote high, standing in a right line from East to West, some ruines and pieces whereof standing for a good way together, but without Battle­ments, may be seene at this day, as Camden witnesseth.The Bishop­rick of Durham The Bishoprick ofThe Citie of Durham was called by the Saxons Dunholme▪ Dun signifieth a hill, and Holme a peece of land com­passed with a River like an Island in the Saxon tongue, and this name agreeth with the situation of the place. Durham, or Duresme bordereth upon Yorkeshire Northward, and ly­eth in a triangular or three cornered forme, the top whereof is made by the meeting of the Northerne bound, and the Fountaines of Teisis. On the Southerne part, almost where the River retreateth back againe, the Cathedrall Church is seene, being beautified with an high Steeple and many Pinnacles: on the top of a great Hill the Castle is seated, in the middle of two Bridges, made of stone, by which the two streames of the River Vedra, the one on the East side, the other on the West side are joyned together. On the North side from the Castle lyes the Market place, and S. Nicholas Church. Here are also these Market Townes Standrove or Stanthorpe, Derlington, Hartlepole or Heorteu, Binchester or Binovium, and Chester upon the streete, which the Saxons called Concester, with many Villages and Castles. In this Shire and Northumberland there are an hundred and eighteene Parishes, besides many Chappels.The Cities or Townes. Heere are many Rivers, of which the chiefe is Tees, called in Latine Tesis and Teisa; Polidorus cals it Athesis, & Camden thinkes it was called by Ptolemie Tuesis, though this name be not found in him, by reason of the carelesnesse of the Transcribers of his Booke. This River breaking out of the Quarri-pit of Stanemore, and having gathered into it selfe ma­ny torrents, running by the Marble Rocks neere Egleston, and afterward washing many places, at last by a great inlet, it casts it selfe into the O­cean, whence the basis of the Triangle beginneth. There is also the Ri­vers Vedra or Weare, Gaunlesse, Derwent, &c.

THE THIRD TABLE OF ENGLAND. CONTAING THESE FOLLOWING Shires, Westmorland, Lancashire, Cheshire, Caernarvan­shire, Denbigh-shire, Flint-shire, Merionedh-shire, Montgomerie-shire, and Shropshire, with the Islands of Mann, and Anglesey.

Westmoreland The situation. I Come unto the third Table, wherein Westmorland first of­fers it selfe, being bounded on the West, and North with Cumberland, The qualitie of the Soyle. and on the East with Yorke-shire and Durham. It is so called, because for the most part it is unfit for til­lage: for such places as cannot be till'd, the English call Moores, so that Westmoreland signifies in English nothing but a Morish, and, for the most part, untillable Country towards the West. The Sou­therne part being narrowly inclosed betweene the River Lone and Wi­nander Mere, is fruitfull enough in the Valleyes, (although it hath ma­ny ruffe and bare cliffes) and is called the Baronie of So called, be­cause the River Kan runneth through it. Kendale or Kandale. Afterward, above the spring heads of Lone, the Country groweth larger, and the Mountaines runne out with many crooked win­dings: In some places there are deepe Vales betweene them, which by reason of the steepnes of the Hills on both sides seeme like Caves. The chiefe Towne here is Aballaba, The Townes now called Apelby. The antiquity and situation whereof is onely worth regard: for it is so farre from elegant and neate building or structure, that if the antiquity thereof did not give it the prioritie to be the chiefe Towne of the Country, and the Assises held in the Castle, it would not differ much from a Village. There is also a Towne of great resort called Kendale, famous for Cloath-making: and in this Shire there are sixe and twenty Parishes. The Rivers are Lone, The Rivers. Ituna or Eden, and Eimot. Lancastria is commonly called Lanca­shire, Lancashire. The Situation. and the County Palatine of Lancaster, because it is a County ador­ned with the title of a Palatine. It lyeth Westward, under the Moun­taines which doe runne through the middle of England, and is so enclo­sed betweene Yorke shire on the East, and the Irish Sea on the West, that on the Southerne side where it looketh toward Cheshire (from which it is divided by the River Mersey) it is broader, and so by degrees as it goeth Northward, there where it boundeth on Westmoreland it groweth straighter and narrower; and there it is broken off with a Bay of the Sea, yet so, as a great part of it is beyond the Bay, and joyneth to Cumberland. Where it hath a levell of field ground, it hath sufficient store of Barley and Wheate,The fertilitie of the Soyle. but at the foote of the Mountaines it beareth most Oates: The Soyle is tolerable, unlesse it be in some moorish and unwholesome [Page 93]

THE THIRD TABLE OF ENGLAND.
WEST:MORLAND, CASTRIA, CESTRIA etc.

[Page 94] places, which yet doe requite these inconveniences with greater com­modities. For the upper grasse being pared off, they afford Turfes for fuell, in digging of which trees are often found, which have laid a long time buried in the earth: & digging a little lower, they furnish thēselves with Marle, or Marmure to dung their fields. In this Country the Oxen excell all other, both for the largenesse of their hornes, and fairenesse of their bodies.The ancient government. I passe now to the Cities, among which wee meete first with the ancient Towne of Manchester, which Antoninus calleth Man­cunium, & Mannucia, this doth exceed the neighbour Towns for beautie, populousnes, the trade of Cloathing, and for the Market-place, Church, and Colledge. There is also Ormeskirke, a Towne of traffique, famous by being the burying place of the Stanleyes Earles of Derby. There is also Lancaster the chiefe Towne of the Country, which the Inhabitants doe more truly call Loncaster, & the Scots Loncastle, because it took that name from the River Lone, vulgarly called Lune. Camden supposeth this Citie to be that which the Romans did call Alona insteed of Arlone, which sig­nifies in the Brittish language, at or upon Lone. In this Shire are but 36. Parishes,The Lakes. but those very populous. Here are many Lakes and Moores, among which is the Moore Merton, and the greatest Lake of all England called Winander Mere, which hath abundance of one sort of Fish pecu­liar unto it self & Huls, Rivers. which the Inhabitants call Charre. The Rivers are Mersey, Idwell, Duglesse, Ribell, Wyre, Lack, and Lone, which flowing out of the Mountaines of Westmoreland, toward the South with narrow bankes, and an unequall channell enricheth the Inhabitants in the Summer sea­son with Salmon-fish.The Moun­taines. Here are many Mountaines, and those very high, among which is that which is called Ingleborrow Hill, which (as Camden saith) we have admired rising by degrees with a great ridge toward the West, and the farthest part of it being hightned with another Hill, as it were set upon it. The next is Penigent, so called perhaps from the white and snowie head, which is raised to a great height. Lastly Pendle Hill, which is raised with a high toppe, in manner of a race marke, famous for the dammage which it doth to the neighbour grounds under it by sending downe great streames of water, and by the certaine foreshew­ing of raine, as often as the toppe of it is hidden with clouds. Cestria followes commonly called Cheshire, Cheshire. and the Countie Palatine of Chester, because the Earles of it have the rights and priviledges of a Palatine. It is bounded on the South with Shropshire, The Situation. on the East with Staffordshire, & Derbyshire, on the North with Lancashire, and on the West with Denbigh­shire, and Flint-shire; neare Chester it runneth farre out into the Sea with a Chersonesus, which being included betweene two Bayes, doth ad­mit the Ocean to breake in on either side, and into these Bayes all the Ri­vers of this Country doe runne. The Country is barren of Corne, and especially Wheate,The qualitie of the Soyle. but abounding with cattle, and fish. Here is a faire Citie which Ptolemie calleth Deunana, Antoninus calleth it Deva, from the River Dee, The Cities. on which it standeth, the English call it Chester, and West­chester. This Citie standeth foure square, having walls two miles in compasse; toward the Northwest is seated a Castle built neare the Ri­ver by the Earles of Cheshire, where the Courts for the Palatinate are held twice every yeare. The houses are very faire, and there are as it were [Page 95] cloysters to goe in on both sides of the chiefe streetes. There are also the Townes of Finborrow, and Condate, now the Congleton: and this Shire hath about 68. Parishes. The Rivers which water this Citie,The Rivers. are Deuca, in English Dee; having great store of Salmons, and riseth out of two Fountaines in Wales: Whence it is denominated in the Brittish tongue, Dyffyr Dwy, i. the Water of Dwy, which word Dwy signifies two: Besides, there are the Rivers Wever, Mersey, and Dane. Caernarvan­shire. Th [...] S [...] The [...] of the Soyle Caernar­vanshire called, before Wales was divided into Shires, Snodon Forrest, in Latine Histories, Snaudonia and Arvonia, hath the Sea on the North and West side; Merioneth-shire boundeth the South side, and Denbigh-shire the East side, the River Conovius gliding betweene. Toward the Sea the Soyle is fertile enough, and full of little Townes:The Townes. among which is the Towne of Bangor, the Seat of a Bishop, which hath 90. Parishes under it, and is situated neare the jawes of the narrow Sea. There is also the River Conovius, commonly called Conway, which bounds this Country on the East, and bringeth forth shell-fishes, which filling themselves with the dew of Heaven, doe bring forth Pearles. The Inland Parts of this Country are Mountainous, rugged, and cliffie.The Moun­taines. Camden saith that you may worthily call these Mountaines the Brittish Alpes. Denbigh-shire is more inward from the Sea,Denbigh-shire. The Si [...]uation. The qualitie of the Soyle and runneth out toward the East, even to the River Deva. On the North side, the Sea for a while doth encompasse it, and afterward Flint-shire: on the West Merioneth and Montgomery-shire, on the East Cheshire and Shropshire, are the bounds of it. The Westerne part is barren, the middle part, where it lyeth in a Vale, is the most fruitfull, a little beyond the Vale Eastward Nature is more sparing in her benefits, but neare Deva much more libe­rall. In this Country is the Vale of Cluide, very happie in pleasant­nesse, fertilitie of Soyle, and wholesomnesse of Aire,The Townes. of which Ruthun or Ruthin, is the greatest Market Towne. After this is the Territorie, cal­led in Welch Mailor Gimraig, in English Bromfield, very fruitfull and full of Lead. The chiefe Towne in this Country is Denbigia, commonly called Denbigh, and anciently by the Brittaines, Clad Frynyn. Beyond Denbigh-shire more Northward is Flint-shire:Flint-shire. The Situation. The qualitie of the Soyle It is beaten with the Irish Sea, and the Bay of Deva, on the North; on the East it is bounded with Cheshire, and in other parts with Denbigh-shire. This shire is not Moun­tanous, but somewhat rising with swelling Hills, which are gently le­vel'd into pleasant fields, especially those toward the Sea, which every first yeare in some places doe beare Barley, in other places Wheate, which being reaped; doth yeeld a twenty fold encrease: and afterward they beare Oates foure or five yeares together. There is a Towne here which the English call S. Asaph, and the Brittaines Llanelwy, (because it stands upon the River Elwy,) where there is a Bishops Seat, under which are many Parishes: and Ruthlan, a Towne beautified with an excellent Castle. Here is also the River Alen, neare which in a hill at a place cal­led Kilken is a Fountaine, which in emulation of the Sea at set times doth ebbe and slow. Merioneth-shire, in Latine called Mervinia, Merionethshire. and in the Brittish language Sir Verioneth, doth reach from the Towne Montgo­mery, even to the Irish Ocean, with which it is so beaten on the West,The Situation. that some part thereof is supposed to have beene washt away with the [Page 96] violence of the waves. Toward the South it is bounded with the River Dee, toward the North it joyneth to Caernarvan and Denbigh-shire. By reason of the frequencie of the Mountaines, it is the ruggedst and hard­est Country of all the Shires in Wales. The Townes Townes of any note here are ve­ry scarce, yet here is the Towne of Harlech well fortified with a Castle, being the chiefe in the whole Country. And here are two famous Bayes, Traith-Maur, and Traith-Bochum: that is, the greater and the lesser Bay. It hath very high Mountaines,The Moun­taines. narrow and sharpe pointed like Towers, and so many of them joyned together by equalitie of distance, that (as Giraldus reporteth) sheepheards either conferring or brawling one with another on the toppes thereof, if they both intended to fight, yet could they hardly meet together, though they should endeavour so to doe by going from morning till evening. Great flocks of sheepe doe wander on these Mountaines, which feed not in danger of Wolves. Montgomery-shire is circumscribed on the South with Cardigan-shire and Radnor-shire, Mongomery-shire. The Site. The fruitfulnes of the Soyle. on the East with Shropshire, on the North with Denbigh-shire, and on the West with Merioneth-shire: and although it be raised with ma­ny Mountaines, yet it is happie in the fruitfulnesse of the Valleyes, Fields, and Pastures, and in times past famous for breeding of an excel­lent sort of Horses, which (as Giraldus saith) were as it were Pictures of Natures workemanship, and were commended both for their excellent shape, and incomparable speed. The chiefe Towne in this Country is Mongomery, situate upon an easie ascent of a Hill, and built by one Bald­wine President of the Marshes of Wales, The Townes. in the time of William the Con­querour, whence the Brittaines call it Trefaldwin at this day: & secondly Lanuethlin, a market Towne. Salopia, commonly called Shropshire, as it is a Countie, no lesse pleasant & fruitfull then the rest, so it is much big­ger. It is enclosed on the East with Stafford-shire, on the West with Montgomery-shire, on the South with Yorke-shire, and on the North with Cheshire. It is a Country fortified with many Castles and Townes, as bordering upon the Welch, who a long time rebelled against the English, and therefore the Saxons called it the Marches. It is divided into two parts by the River Severne: The chiefe Townes thereof are Shrewsbury (anciently called Sloppesbury, and by the Brittaines Pengwerne) Ludlow, (called by the Brittish Dinan) Bridgmorse, or Bridgnorth, Vriconium, or Viriconium, called by Nennius Caer Vrvach, but commonly by the En­glish Wreckceter or Wroxceter, Draiton, and Bewdley. The cheife Rivers that water this shire, are Sabrine or Severne, Temdus, called by the Welch Tefidianc, Colunwy or Clun, Corve, and Terne: and there are in it 170 Parish Churches for Gods sacred and divine service.The Isle of Man. The Isle of Man Caesar calleth Mona, Ptolemie Monaeda, as it were Moneitha i. the farther Mona to difference it from another Mona, Plinie calls it Mo­nabia, The names. Orosius and Beda Menavia, Gilda calls it Eubonia, the Brittaines Menaw, the Inhabitants Maning, and the English the Isle of Man. It lyeth in the middle betweene the Northerne parts of Ireland and Brittaine, and is from the North toward the South about thirty Italian miles long,The Situation. but the bredth thereof where it is broadest is scarce 15. miles, and where it is narrowest it is but 8. This Island bringeth forth Flaxe and Hempe in great abundance, it hath very faire meddowes and plowed [Page 97]

PARTICVLAR DESCRIPTION OF VVALES·
CAMBRIA seu WALLIA

[Page 98] fields, it is fruitfull in bringing forth Barley and Wheat, but especially Oates, whence the Inhabitants doe for the most part live upon Oaten Bread. Here are great store of cattle, and great flocks of sheep, but both sheepe and cattle are of a lesser stature then those that are in England. The Inhabitants here wanting wood, use a pitchie kinde of Turfe for fireing; which, while they digge up, they doe sometimes finde trees hid in the earth, and these they convert to the same use. It is evident that the Brit­taines did possesse this Island as they did Brittaine, but when the North­erne People like a furious storme fell upon the Southerne parts, it came into the hands of the Scots. The Townes. The chiefe Towne of this Island is thought to be Russin, situated on the Southerne side thereof, which from the Ca­stle and Garrison kept therein, is commonly called Castletowne: but the most populous is Duglasse, because it hath an excellent Haven, and easie to come into, by reason of which the Frenchmen and other Forrainers come with Salt and other commodities to traffique with the Islanders for hides, raw wooll, barrell'd beefe, &c. On the West side of the Island stands Balacuri, where the Bishop liveth, who is subject to the Archbi­shop of Yorke; and the Pyle, being a forte placed on a small Island, in which there are many Garrison Souldiers. Over against the Southerne Promontorie of the Isle, there lyeth a small Island called the Calfe of Man, which is full of those Sea-foule which they call Puffins, & of those Geese that are generated of putrified wood, which the English call Bar­nacles, and the Scots doe call Clakes and Soland Geese. Toward the middle Mannia swells into Mountaines,The Moun­taines. the highest whereof is Sceafell, from whence on a cleare day both Scotland, England, and Ireland, may be dis­cerned.The manner of government. The Judges, being called Deemsters, which the Inhabitants of this Isle have amongst them, doe decide all controversies without wri­tings or other charges. For any complaint being made, the Magistrate taketh a stone, and having marked it, delivers it to the plaintiffe, by which he summons his adversary, and witnesses: And if the matter in controversie be doubtfull, and of great consequence; it is referred to twelve men whom they call the Keyes of the Island. Here also Coro­ners supply the office of Undersheriffes. The Ecclesiasticall Judge, when he cites a man to make appearance at a definite time, if hee obey not the summons within eight dayes,The manners of the people. hee is cast into prison; but neither Plaintiffe nor Defendant pay a penny either to him or his officers. The Inhabitants doe hate both lying and stealing, they are wondrous Reli­gious, and all conformable to the English Church. They hate the Civill and Ecclesiasticall disorder of their neighbours, and whereas the I­land is divided into the Southerne and Northerne part: the former speaketh like the Scots, the latter like the Irish. Now remaines the Isle of Anglesey, of which we will entreat in the fourth Table of England.

THE FOVRTH TABLE OF ENGLAND. IN WHICH ARE THESE SHIRES, CORNE­wall, Devon-shire, Sommerset-shire, Dorcet-shire, VVilt-shire Glocester-shire, Monmouth-shire, Glamorgan-shire, Caermarden-shire, Penbrock-shire, Brecnock-shire, and Hereford-shire.

CORNWALL,Cornewall. which is also called Cornubia and in the Brittish language Kernaw, is enclosed on the South with the Brittish Ocean, on the North with the Irish, The Situation. on the West with Penwith, called by Ptolemie Bolerium, and the French Ocean, and on the East it is parted from Devonshire with the River Tamar. It is a Countrie having a fruitfull soile,The qualitie of the Soile. and a­bounding with mettall-Mines. It hath also store of fruits, which yet will not grow without the industrie of the husbandman. This Countrie is full of Towns, & especially the Sea Coasts, as namely Heuston, The Townes. called by the natives Hellas, a towne famous for the priviledge of sealing of Tinne, as also Peryn a faire market Towne, together with Arwenak, Truro, which the Cornish call Truscu, Granpound, Fowy by the, Brittaines called Foath, Lestuthiell, called by Ptolemie Vzella, Leskerd, Bodman, S. Iies, S. Colombs, Padstow, anciently called Loderick and Laffenac, Stow, Stratton, Tamerton, or Tamerworth, Lanstuphadon, vulgarly called Leuston and anciently Dune­vet, and Saltash anciently called Esse. And there are in this Countrie 161 Parishes. The Rivers are Vale, Fawey, Loo, Liver, Haile, Alan, or Camel, and Tamar. Havens. One of the famousest Havens in the Countrie is Volemouth or Falemouth, which Ptolemie calls the Bay of Cenio, being equall to Brundu­sium in Italie, as being capable of as many ships, and as safe an harbour. Devonia, commonly called Denshire, and by the natives Deunan, Devonshire. follow­eth. The bounds hereof are on the West the River Tamar, on the South the Ocean, on the East Dorcet-shire, and Somerset-shire, The Situation. and on the North the Bay of Severne. This Countrie as it is stretched out broader on both sides than Cornewall, so it is encompassed with more commodious Ha­vens, and is no lesse rich in Mines of Tinne, besides it is diapred with more pleasant meadowes, and cloathed with more frequent woods yet the soile in some places is very barren. The chiefe Citie here the English at this day do call Excester, The Latines Exonia, Ptolemie calls it Isca, An­toninus Isa of the Damnonians, and the Brittaines call it Caeruth and Pencaer, that is, the chiefe citie. There are also many other Townes as Plimmouth, anciently called Sutton, which of late daies from a little fisher-towne is become a faire Towne,The Cities and Townes. and for populousnesse it may compare with some Cities. Here was borne Sr Francis Drake [Page 100] Knight, who for matters of Navigation was the most excellent of late times.The Rivers Here are also the Townes of Lidston or Lidford, Plimpton, Modbery or Champernouns, Dartmoth, Exminster and many other. This Countie containeth 394. Parishes. The Rivers here are Lid, Teave, Plim, Dert, Totnes, Teigne, Isca, Creden, Columb, Otterey, Ax, Towridge, Somersetshire. The Situation. The temper of the A [...]e. The f [...]rtilitie of the Soyle. Taw, O [...]k, and North Ewe. Somerset-shire followes, the bounds whereof on the East are Wiltshire, on the South Dorcetshire, on the West Devonshire, on the North the Bay of Severne, and Glocester-shire. This is a verie rich soile, being in every place exceedingly fertile in fruits and Pasturage & in some places affording many Diamonds, which do exceed those of India for beautie though they are not so hard. The chiefe Citie of this shire is Bristoll, The Cities and Townes. (called anciently by the Brittaines Caer Brito, and by the Saxons Britstow) a pleasant place, which is beautified with many faire houses, a double River and wall, a faire Haven, much traffique, and the populousnesse of Citizens. It hath also the towne of Theodo­rudunum now called Welles, from the many wells or springs that there breake forth; and Bathonia, stiled anciently by the Brittaines Caer Ba­don, by Stephanus Badiza, but commonly called Bathe. And in this coun­trie are 385. Parishes. The Rivers are Ivell, Erome, Pedred, Thon, Avon, Somer, The Rivers. Brui and Welwe. In the next place Dorcetshire, which is bound­ed on the East with Hampshire, on the VVest with Devonshire, on the South with the Brittish Ocean, and on the North with VViltshire and So­mersetshire. Dorcetshire. It is of a fertile soile, and the North part full of many woods and forrests, from whence even to the Sea coast it descendeth with ma­ny grassie hills, on which feed innumerable flocks of sheepe. Durnovaria, which Ptolemie according to divers copies calls Durnium and Duneum, & now is called Dorchester, is the chiefe towne of this Shire, yet it is nei­ther very great nor faire, her walls being ruined long since by the fury of the Danes. There are also other towns, as Birt-port, or Burt-port. Lime, Weymouth, The Townes. Poole, Warham, so called because it stands by the River Varia, Shirburne, Sturminster, & Winburne, called by Antoninus Vindogladia from the Brittish word Windugledy because it stands betweene two Rivers. Here are in this Shire 248. Parishes. The Rivers are Lim, Trent, now called Piddle, The Rivers. Carr, Ivell, Wey, Sturn, Alen, Varia, so called by the Latines, but Fraw or Frome in the Saxon tongue. Wiltonia so called by the Latines from Wilton once its chiefe Towne,VViltshire. but commonly called VVilshire, is an inland Countrie, having Oxfordshire, and South-hamptonshire to bound it on the East,The Situation. on the West Somersetshire, on the North Glocestershire, and on the South Dorcetshire, The qualitie of the Soyle. and South-hamptonshire. The Countrie is every where full of pasturage and fruits. The Townes are first VVilton, anci­ently called Ellandunum, Townes. which was heretofore the head Towne of the Shire. Secondly, Sarisbury or new Sarum, now the chiefe citie, and fa­mous for its Cathedrall Church, and for that a streame of water runneth through every street thereof. Here are also the Townes of Malmesburie, Chippenham, Trubridge, Calne, Marleburrow, &c. And this Shire contain­eth 304. Parishes. The rivers are Isis, Avon, VVilleybourne, Adderburne, Ellan and Kennet. Glocestria commonly called Glocestershire, hath on the West VVales, Glocester. on the North VVorcestershire, on the East Oxfordshire, on [Page 101]

THE FOVRTH TABLE OF ENGLAND.
Cornub. Devonia. Somerset etc.

[Page 102] the South VViltshire, it is a pleasant and fertile Countrie, lying East and West;The Townes. and hath in it many other mines. The chiefe Citie of this Coun­tie is Glocester, which Antoninus calleth Cleve, and Gleve, the Latines Glovernia, and some Claudiocestria: it is an ancient Citie built by the Ro­mans, and is seated by the River Severne, having a strong wall in those places where the River doth not wash it. There are also other Townes, as Teukesburie, Rivers anciently called Theocsburie, Deohirst, Campden or Cam­den, VVincelscombe, Cirencester or Circester, Tetburie, Barkley, &c. and 280. Parishes contained in this Countie. The Rivers which water it are Se­verne, Avon and Isis, commonly called Ouse, which afterward by the marriage of Thame unto it is called by a compounded name Thamisis or Thames. Monmouth­shire. The Countie of Monmouth, called anciently VVentset and VVentsland, The Situation. and by the Brittaines Guent, is enclosed on the North with the River Munow, which doth part it from Herefordshire, on the East with the river Vaga or VVye, which divides it from Glocestershire, on the West with Remney which disjoynes it from Glamorganshire, and on the South it is bounded with the Severne Bay, into which those former Rivers to­gether with the River Isc, which runneth through the middle of the Countrie, do rowle themselves. It hath not onely sufficient provision of things necessary for life for it,The qualitie of the Soyle. but also furnishes other Coun­tries. The chiefe Towne thereof is Monmouth, called by the Inha­bitants Mongwy: towards the North where the River doth not fence it, it was encompassed with a wall and a ditch; In the middle neare the Market-place is a Castle.The Townes. There are also the Townes of Chepstow, called Castlewent, Abergevenny, or contractly Abergenny, which Antoninus calls Gobanneum, New-port or Brunepegie, and the Citie which Antoninus called Ifa, where the second Legion named Augusta lay, now stiled by the Brittaines Caerleon, and Caer Leonar Vsk. Here the Saxon Heptarchie, obeyed the Welch Mountainers, who notwitstanding, as we may discerne by the auncient Lawes,The Govern­ment. were under the government of the West Saxons. But at the comming in of the Normans, the Captaines of the Marches did grievously afflict them, especially Hamelin Balun, Hugh Lacy, Gual­ter and Gilbert de Clare called Earles of Strigulia, and Brian of Wallingford, to whom when the King had granted whatsoever they could get in that Countrie by conquering the Welchmen, some of them reduced the Higher part of the Countrie into their power: and others the Lower part which they called Netherwent. Glamorganshire lyeth wholy by the Sea side,Glamorgan­shire. it is longer than broad, and is beaten on the South side with the Bay of Severne. But on the East side it hath Monmouthshire, on the Norrh Brecnock-shire, The Situation. and on the West Caermardenshire. The Northerne part swelleth with mountaines which descending toward the South,The quality of the Soyle. remit somewhat of their height, and at the foot of them the Countrie lyeth plaine toward the South.The Cities and Townes. In this countrie is the litle Citie of Landaffe, that is the Chappell at Taff; under which there are 156. Pa­rishes. Also Caerdiffe, or as the Britons call it Caerdid, Cowbridge, called by the Brittaines Poratuan from the stonebridge which is there, Neath, Sweinsey, and Loghor, which Antoninus calleth Leucarum. The Rivers that wash it are Ramney, The Rivers. Taff, Nide, and Loghor. The Earles of this Pro­vince [Page 103] from the first vanquishing were the Earles of Glocester descen­ding in a right line from the Fitz-hamons, the Clares, the Spencers, and after them the Beauchamps, and the two Nevils, and by a daughter of a Nevill, Richard the third King of England, who being killed, Henry the seventh enlarged the inheritance of this Countrie, and gave it to Gaspar his Unkle and Earle of Bedford, but hee dying without issue, the King tooke it againe into his owne hands. Caermardenshire is bounded on the East with Glamorganshire, and Brecknock-shire, Caermarden­shire on the West with Penbrockshire, on the North with the River Tay separating it from Car­diganshire, on the South with the Ocean. It is sufficiently fruitfull, aboun­ding with flocks of cattle and in some places with pit-coales.The Townes. The chiefe towne of the Shire is Caermarden, which Ptolemie calls Maridu­num, Antoninus Muridunum, having pleasant Meadows and woods a­bout it, it is very ancient, and as Giraldus saith, it was encompassed with a stone wall, part whereof yet standeth. There is also the aunci­ent towne of Kidwilly, which now is almost ruinated, for the Inhabi­tants passing over the River Vendraeth Vehan did build a new Kidwilly, being drawne thither with the conveniencie of the Haven, which yet is of no note. The Rivers are Vendraeth Vehan, Towy or Tobius, and Taff. Penbrokshire is on every side encompassed with the Sea,Pembrokeshire. except on the East, where part of Caermardenshire, The Situation. and on the North where part of Flintshire lyeth against it. The countrie beeing neare Ireland hath a temperate, and wholesome aire, and is plentifull in all kinde of graine.The tempera­ture of the Aire. The chiefe towne hereof is Penbro now called Penbroke, The Townes. and seated on a craggie long rocke. The other Townes of note in this Countrie are Tenby, Hulphord now called HarfordWest, and Menevia or Tuy Dewi, which the English at this day do call S. Davids. I finde but two Ri­vers in this Shire: but here is a Port called Milford-Haven, The Govern­ment. which is the fairest and safest in all Europe. Gilbert Strongbow was the first Earle of this Countie, on whom King Stephen did first conferre the title of Earle of Penbroke, and hee left it to his sonne Richard Strongbow, who subdued Ireland, from whom with his daughter Isabel, William Lord of Hempsted and Marshall of England, a man flourishing both in times of peace and warre, received it as her dowry. Concerning the other Earles read Camden. Brecnockshire is called so from the Prince Brechanius, Brecnock-shire. as the Welchmen suppose. This is bounded on the East with Hereford, The Situation. on the South with Monmouthshire and Glamorganshire, on the West with Caer­mardenshire, on the North with Radnorshire. The countrie is very full of Mountaines, yet it hath every where fruitfull vallies.The fruitful­nesse of the Soyle. The Townes. The Rivers. The chiefe towne in it is Brecnock, stiled in the Brittish tongue Aber-hodney, and placed in the midst thereof. There are also the townes of Blueth or Bealt, & Hay or Trekethle. The River Vaga called by the Brittaines Gowy, and by the Eng­lish Wye, watereth the Northerne part of the countrie: and Vsk runneth through the middle thereof. Herefordshire, Hereford-shire. called in the Brittish tongue Ereinuc, is as it were of a circular forme, it is environed on the East with Glocester-shire, on the South with Monmouthshire, The Situation. on the West with Rad­nor and Brecnock shire, and on the North with Shropshire. It is a pleasant countrie, full of fruit and cattle. Hereford or Hareford is the chiefe citie [Page 104] of this countrie, having round about it faire medowes, and fruitfull fields; it is encompassed with Rivers almost round about, on the North & West with a namelesse river: on the South with Vaga, which hasteneth its course hither out of Wales. There are also the townes of Lemster (called anciently Leonis monasterium, and by the Brittaines Lhanlieni) Webley, Ledburie, and Rosse: and there are in it 157 Parishes. The chiefe Rivers here are Vaga, The Rivers. Lug, Munow, and Dor.

THE FIFTH TABLE OF ENGLAND. Containing these Shires, Yorkeshire, Lincoln­shire, Darbyshire, Staffordshire, Nottinghamshire, Leicestershire, Rutlandshire, and Northfolke.

THE fifth Table of England comes to be unfolded, in the which, the first that wee meete withall is Yorkeshire, Yorkeshire. the greatest Shire in all England, and called by the Saxons E­bona-y [...]yne. The Situation On the East it is bounded with the German O­cean, on the West with Lancashire, and Westmoreland, on the North with the Bishoprick of Durham, and on the South with Che­shire, Darbyshire, Nottinghamshire, and Lincolneshire. It is held to be tem­perate and fruitfull. If in one place it bee sandie, stony, and barren,The qualitie of the Soyle. in an other place it hath fruitfull fields, if heere it be voide of woods, there it is shadowed with thick trees, Nature being so provident, that the Countrie is more pleasant by this variety. Here is Eboracum called by Nennius Caer Ebrauc, and by the Brittaines Caer Effroc, The Townes. but commonly stiled Yorke. It is the second Citie of all England, and the fairest in all this Country, which is a great strength and ornament to all the North parts. It is pleasant, large, strong, beautified both with private and publick Buildings, and full of wealthy Citizens. The River Ouse doth, as it were, part it and divide it into two Cities, which are joyned toge­ther by a great stone Bridge. There are also the Townes of Kingston upon Hull, Dancaster, called by the Scots Doncastle, and by Antoninus Da­num, Halifax, anciently Horton, Pontfreit, Shirborne, Wetherby, Kingston, Patrington, called anciently Praetorium, and many others; for there are in this Shire 39 great Townes, and 459 Parishes, besides many private Chappels of ease, which great Parishes are faine to provide in regard of the multitude of the Inhabitants. The chiefest Rivers are Don or Dune, The Rivers. Calder, Arc, Wherfe, Nid, and Ouse, which arising out of the Mountaines, doe runne through the fruitfullest parts of the Country. There are also other Rivers, as Cokar, Fosse, Derwent, Foulnesse, Hull, Teyse, Dow, Rhie, Recal, and Wisck. Lincolneshire is a great Country,Lincolnshire. being almost three score miles long, and in some places more than thirty miles broad. On the East it is beaten with the German Ocean, on the North it toucheth the Aestuarie of Abus or Humber, in the West it looketh toward Not­tinghamshire, and on the South it is parted from Northamptonshire with the River Welland. It is a Country that produceth much fruit,The qualitie of the Soyle. and brea­deth up abundance of cattell. The chiefe Citie of this Shire is Lincolne, which Ptolemie and Antoninus call Lindum. The Townes. The Citie it selfe is large and faire, being seated on the side of a Hill, where the River Witham [Page 106] bendeth toward the East. There are also the Townes of Stanford, Gran­tham, Ancaster, anciently called Crococalana, Crowland, Spalding, Boston, rightly called Botolps towne, and others. And there are in this Shire a­bout 630 Parishes.T [...] Rivers. This Countrie is watered with many Rivers, as Wi­tham, which is full of Pikes, Lud, Trent, Welland, Idle, Pan, &c. The next Countrie that followeth is Darbyshire, Darbyshire which on the South is enclosed with Leicestershire, on the West with Staffordshire, on the North with Yorkeshire, on the East with Nottinghamshire. It is of a triangular forme, but not equilaterall,The Situation. or having equall sides. It is divided into two parts by the River Derwent. The Easterne and Southerne parts are tillable, and fruitfull, the Westerne part is all rockie, and full of craggie barren Mountaines,The Townes though they be rich in Mynes of Lead, and are commo­dious for to feede sheepe. The head Towne of the Shire is Darbie, fa­mous for the best Ale in England which is brewed there. There are al­so the Townes of Saint Diacre, Workesworth, so called from the Lead-workes there, and Bakewel. And this Shire doth containe an hundred and sixe Parishes.The Riv [...]rs. The Rivers that water it are Trent, Dove, and Der­went. The Westerne part of this Shire, which is mountainous, is called the Peake, and is very full of Lead: for in these Mountaines Lead-stones (as the Mettallists call them) are daily digged forth, which when the winde is Westward, they dissolve with a wood fire, and (having made trenches for the mettall to runne in) melt into pieces, which they call Sowes. Moreover, not onely Lead, but also veines of Antimonie, which the Grecian women were wont to use in dying, are found in these Hils. Heere also Mill-stones are cut forth, as also whet-stones, and somtimes a white substance is found in the Mynes, like to Chrystall. But of this enough:Stafford shire I passe to Stafford-shire, which is encompassed on the East side with Warwick-shire and Darby-shire, on the South with Glocester-shire, on the West with Shropshire, The Site. and on the North with Cheshire. It beareth the shape of a Rhombus, running from South to North, and being broa­dest in the middle, and narrowest toward the two ends. The Northern part is mountainous and lesse pleasant,T [...]e [...]il [...]ty of the Soy [...]e. the middle part is more delight­full, as being watered with the River Trent, cloathed with green woods, and diversified with variety of fields and meddowes. The Southerne part is rich in Pit-coales, and veines of Iron. The head Towne hereof is Stafford or Stratford, The Townes. anciently called Betheney, and is much graced by the Castle called Stafford adjoyning to it, which the Barons of Stafford built for their owne dwelling. Heere are also the Townes of Lichfield or Licidfield, Burton, Vtcester, anciently called Etocetum, Stone, Drayton Bas­set, Tameworth, Wolverhampton, or Vulfrunshampton, Theotenhall or Tetnall, and Weadesbrig or Wedsborow. And in this Shire are reckoned 130 Pa­rishes. The chiefe Rivers which glide through this Countrie are Dove, Hanse, The Rivers. Churnet, Tayn, Blith, and Trent, which arising from two spring­heads, is the third chiefe River of Brittaine. There are also Sous, Tam, and Penke. The Northerne part is somewhat mountainous, and full of hils,The Moun­taines. which beginning heere, doe runne, like the Apennine Hils of Italie, with a continued ridge through the middle of England, even to Scotland, yet often changing their name. In the midst of this Shire is Needwood a spatious wood,The Woods. in which the Nobilitie and Gentrie of the Countrie doe [Page 107]

THE FIFTH TABLE OF ENGLAND.
EBORACUM Lincolnia Derbia. Stafford, etc

[Page 108] daily recreate themselves with hunting.Nottingham­shire▪ Nottinghamshire is bounded on the East with Lincolnshire, on the North with Yorkeshire, on the West with Darbyshire, The Situation and on the South with Leicestershire. The Southerne & Easterne part of the Countie is fructified by the famous River of Trent, and other Rivulets that flow into it.The quality of the Soyle. The Forrest of Shirwood taketh up the whole Westerne side: this (because it is sandie) the Inhabitants call the Sand: the other (by reason the soyle consisteth of Clay) they call the Clay; and they divide their Countrie into these two parts. The chiefe Towne which gives a denomination to the Shire, is Nottingham, being pleasantly seated;The Townes for on one side faire Meddowes lye along the River side, and on an other little Hils doe raise themselves, to adde a grace thereunto: It is a Towne abounding with all things necessary to life. For besides other conveniences, it hath Shirewood, which doth furnish it with store of fuell, and the River Trent doth yeeld it plenty of Fish. The Streetes are large, having faire buildings, and two great Churches, with a spacious Market-place, and a strong Castle. Besides, heere are other great Townes, namely Suthwel, Newarke, Mansfield, Blith, Scroby, and Workensop. The R [...]s. And in this Shire there are 168 Parishes. The Rivers are Trent, Leicester [...]shire. Lin, Snite, and Idle. Leicester-shire, anciently called Ledecester-shire, The Situation. bordereth upon the South with Northampton-shire, on the East with Rutland shire and Lincoln-shire, on the North with Nottingham shire and Darby-shire, The [...]ful­nesse of the So [...] and on the West with Warwick-shire. It is all field-ground, and very fruitfull, but for the most part it wanteth wood. The chiefe Citie is Leicester, called heretofore Legecestria, Leogara, and Legeocester, more ancient than beautifull.The Townes There are also the Townes of Longburrow, Lutterworth, Hinckly and Bosworth, neere which Richard the third was slaine; and in this Shire there are 200 Parish Churches. The River Soar, running toward Trent, waters the middle of it, and the little River Wrek, which at last mingleth his waters with Soar, doth gently winde about through the Easterne part.Rutland-shire. Rutland-shire, which was anciently called Rudland and Roteland, that is, red land, is, as it were, emcompassed with Leicestershire, The Situation. except on the South side, where it lyeth by the River Wel­land, and on the East where it joyneth to Lincolne-shire: It is the least Shire in England; for it lyeth in a round circular forme, so that a man may ride quite round about it in one day.The [...] of the S [...]l [...]. This Countrie is no lesse pleasant and fruitfull than others, although it bee not so spacious. The chiefe Towne in it is Vppingham, so called, because it stands on the a­scent of an hill;The Towne [...] it hath a faire free Schoole in it, which was built for the nurture and bringing up of children to learning, by R. Iohnson, Minister of Gods word, who also built an other at the towne of Okeham, so cal­led, because it is situated in a vale, which once was very woody and full of Oakes. This Shire can reckon 47 Parish Churches. The little Ri­ver Wash or Gwash, gliding through the middle of it from East to West, doth divide it into two parts.Northfolke. Northfolke remaines yet to be described, that is to say, the Northerne people. The bounds thereof on the South are Suffolke, The Situation on the East and North the German Ocean, and on the West the River Ouse. The quality of the Soyle. The Countrie is large, & for the most part field-ground, unlesse it bee where there are some smaller hils; it is very rich, full of flocks of sheepe, and especially of Cunnies: it is watered with pleasant [Page 109] Rivers, and is sufficiently stored with wood. The soyle differs accor­ding to the diversitie of places, for in some parts it is fat and rich, in o­ther parts light and sandie, and in other clayie and chalkie. Amongst the chiefe townes in this Shire, old Thetford is the first,The Townes. which Antoni­nus calleth Sitomagus, that is, a towne situate by the river Sit. It hath now but few dwelling-houses, though heretofore it were faire and very po­pulous. There is also in this Shire the famous Citie of Norwich, called by the Saxons North, that is, the North Castle, and This Towne the Saxons cal­led Garmouth, because it is situated ad Ga­r [...] os [...]um [...]s, the mouth of Gerne. Yarmouth or Gar­mouth, a faire Haven Towne, fortified by its situation, and mans indu­strie; for it is almost entrenched with water; on the West with the Ri­ver, over which there is a draw Bridge; on other sides with the Ocean, except it be on the North side, toward the Land, and there it is encom­passed with strong wals, which with the River doe lye in a long square-sided-figure. There are also these Townes, Ashelwel-thorp, Dis or Disce, Shelton, Skulton or Burdos, Attleburgh, Wauburne, Lynne, Swaff ham, North Elmeham, Dereham, Windham, Icborow, and others. For this Coun­trie hath 27 Market Townes, and 525 Villages, and about 660 Parish Churches. The rivers that doe water it are Ouse, Thet, The Rivers. anciently called Sit, Wauency, Gerne or Yere, and Wents anciently Wentfare. There is not in the world any towne which getteth so much by taking and catching of Herrings, as the towne of Yarmouth in this Shire.The commo­dities of the Sea. For it is incredi­ble to thinke, what great Faires and Markets they have here at Michael­tide, and what a number of Herrings and other fish are carried from hence into other parts. Besides, from hence (as Varro adviseth) thou maist collect the goodnesse of the shire, the Inhabitants being well co­loured, craftie witted, and sharpely insighted into the Lawes of England. The manners of the Inhabi­tants. But of these Counties wee have entreated largely enough, I passe now to the sixth Table.

THE SIXT TABLE OF ENGLAND. IN WHICH ARE THESE Shires, Warwick-shire, Northampton-shire, Huntingdon, Cambridge, Suffolke, Oxford-shire, Buckingam, Bedford, Hartford, Essex, Bark-shire, Middlesex, Hampshire, Surrey, Kent and Sussex.

Warwick shire IN the Sixt Table of England is first Warwick shire, being bounded on the East with Leicester [...]shire, and Watling-street way, on the South with Oxford shire and Glocester-shire, The Situation. on the West with Wiltshire, and on the North with Stafford-shire. This Country is divided into two parts, Feldon and Woodland, The qualitie of the So [...] The Townes. heretofore called Arden, that is, into the Field and Wood-Country. The chiefe Towne hereof is Warwicke, called by the Brittaines [...]aer-Leon; besides the Townes of Leamington, called so from the River Leame by which it standeth, V [...]hindon, now called Long Ich­ingdon, Harbury, Mancester, called anciently Manduessedum; Coventry, called heretofore Conventria, Stratford upon Avon, and others; and there are in this County 158 Parish Churches. The Rivers are Avon, Leam, Arrow and Allen, commonly called Aln [...]. The next that followes is Northampton-shire, Northampton-shire which from the East, where it is broadest, lesseneth by degrees, and is extended Eastward. The County is bounded on the East with Redford-shire and Huntingdon-shire, The Situation on the South with Buckin­g [...]am shire, Th [...] [...] of the S [...]l [...]. and Oxford shire, on the West with Warwick-shire, and on the North with Leicester-shire, Rutland-shire, and La [...]colne-shire, which are parted from it by the River Welland. It is a field Country, of a very rich soyle,The C [...]ties [...] Towne [...] both in upland grounds and meddowes. The shire Towne hereof is Northampton, the other Townes are Frakley, Torcester, ancient­ly called Tripontium, Grafton, Daventr [...], W [...]d [...]n, Higham, Oundale, rightly Avondale, Peterborow, called anciently Pe [...]urg [...], Welledone, &c. A [...] to this Shire there appertaines 326 Parishes:The Rivers Huntingdon shire▪ the Rivers are Ouse, Avon, and Welland. In the third place is Huntingdon-shire, being so situated, that on the South it looketh toward Bedford shire, on the West toward Northampton-shire, on the North where it is parted with the River Avon, The Situation. The fertilitie o [...] the Soyle. and on the East, toward Cambridge-shire. It is a Country fit for tillage, and feeding of cattle, and toward the East where it is low ground it is very fruitfull, having every where pleasant hills and shadie woods. The chiefe Towne of this Country is Huntingdon, called heretofore Huntesdune, to which it gives the name of Huntingdon-shire. Here are [Page 111]

THE SIXTH TABLE OF ENGLAND.
Warwicum. Northampton. Huntingdon Cantabr etc.

[Page 112] also the Townes of S. Ives, which the Saxons anciently called Slepe, Saint Needes, or Saint Neotifanum, and Cunnington; here are 78. Parishes. The two Rivers Ouse, The Rivers. and Avon doe water the Country. In the fourth place is Cambridge-shire, Cambridg-shire. The Situation. The qualitie of the Soile. which lying toward the East, doth butte upon North-folke and Suffolke, on the South on Essex and Harford-shire, on the West on Huntingdon-shire, and on the North on Lincolne-shire, and the River Ouse, which running through it from East to West, doth divide it into two parts.The Townes. The Lower and Southerne part is more tilled and plan­ted then the rest, and therefore more pleasant; it lyeth in the manner of a bending plaine, being a Champion Country, and yeelding excellent Barley, except where it beareth Saffron: the farther and Northerne part flourishes more with greene Meddowes. The chiefe Towne in this Shire is Cambridge, anciently called Camboritum, and by the Saxons Grantcester, The Universi­tie. this is one of the Universities of England, yea the Sunne and Eye thereof, and a famous Nurserie of good learning and pietie, it is seated upon the River Cam. Besides, here are these Townes, Roiston, Rech, Burwell, Ely, and here are 163 Parishes in this Countie, and the Rivers are Cam and Stour. Suffolke followes in the next place, having on the West Cambridge-shire, Suffolke. and on the South the River Stour, which di­vides it from Essex, The Situation. on the East the Germane Ocean, and on the North the two little Rivulets,The fertilitie of the Soyle. Ouse the lesse, and Waveney, which arising as it were from one spring head, and running a diverse course, doe part it from North-folke. The Country is large, and of a fat soyle, except it be toward the East, for it is compounded of clay and marle, so that the fields doe flourish every where; here is fruitfull pasturage for fatting of cattle,The Townes. and great store of cheese made. The Townes in this County are Sudbury, that is the South-Towne. Ixning, Saint Edmunds-bury, called anciently Villa Faustini, Bretenham, Hadley, Ipswich, called anciently Gipp­wic, Debenham, Oreford, and many others. The Rivers are Stour, Breton, Gipping, Rivers. Oxford-shire. Deben, Ore, Ouse, Waveney, and Gerne or Yere. Oxford-shire, which commeth next to be spoken of, on the West is joyned to Gloce­ster-shire, and on the South it is parted from Barke-shire by the River Isis or Ouse, on the East it is bounded with Buckingham-shire, and on the North with Northampton-shire and Warwick-shire. The Situation. The fertilitie of the Soyle. It is a fertile and rich Country, the plaines thereof being adorned with faire fields and med­dowes, and the hills crowned with many woods, filled with fruits, and all sorts of cattle which graze thereon. In this Shire the Citie of Oxford, anciently called Ousford from the River Ouse, lifteth up her head, being the other Universitie of England, The Univer­sity. the other Sunne, Eye, and Soule there­of, and a most famous Nurserie of Learning and Wisedome, from whence Religion, Humanitie, and Learning are plentifully diffused and dispersed into other parts of the Kingdome.The Townes. Here are also the Townes of Bablac, Burford, which the Saxons called Beorford, Minster Lovell, Whitney, Woodstocke, Banbury, Burcester, or Burencester, Tame, Dorchester, called by Bede Civitas Dorcinia, and by Lelandus Hydropolis, Watlington, and 280. Parishes in it: the rivers here are Isis, Cherwell, Windrush, and Evenlode. Buckingham-shire. Buckingham-shire so called, because it is full of Beech-trees, commeth to be viewed in the seaventh place, which being but narrow, doth runne length-wayes from Thamisis Northward. On the South it [Page 113] looketh towards Berk-shire, being parted from it by Thamisis, The Situation▪ on the West toward Oxford-shire, on the North toward Northampton-shire, The fertilitie of the Soyle. and on the East it looketh first toward Bedford-shire, afterward toward Hart­ford-shire; and last of all toward Middlesex. It hath a plentifull soyle, and the fruitfull meddowes thereof doe feed innumerable flockes of sheepe. The head Towne is Buckingham, The Townes. besides which it hath also the Townes of Marlow, Colbroke, Amersham, Crendon or Credendon, so called from the Chalke or Marle, by which the Inhabitants thereof manure their Land, High-Wickam, Stony-Stratford, Oulney, Newport-Pannell, &c. and in this Shire are reckoned 185 Parishes: the Rivers are Thame, Colne and Ouse. Bedford-shire followes,Bedford shire The Situation The quality of the Soyle. being joyned on the East to Cambridg-shire, on the South to Hartford-shire, on the West to Buckingham-shire, and on the North to Northampton-shire, and Huntingdon-shire; it is divi­ded into two parts by the River Ouse. That part which is Northward is more fruitfull and woody, the other part toward the South which is larger, is of a meaner soyle, but yet not barren: for it hath great store of very excellent Barley. In the middle of it there are thicke Woods, but Eastward it is more bare and naked of trees The chiefe Towne is Lacto­dorum, now called Bedford, which communicates its name to the Shire. It hath also other Townes, as Odill, Bletnesho or Bletso, Eaton, Dunstable, The Townes built by Henry the first for suppressing of the robberies of the rebell Dun and his companions: it containeth 116 Parishes, and is watered with the River Ouse. Hertford-shire Next to Bedford-shire on the South side lyeth Hartford-shire, the West side thereof is enclosed with Buckingham-shire, the Northerne side with Middlesex, and the East side with Essex, The Situation. and partly with Cambridge-shire. It is very rich in corne-fields, pastures, med­dowes, and woods. The chiefe Towne in the Country is Herudford, The fertilitie of the Soyle. now called Hertford, which doth impart its name to the whole Shire. There are also the Townes of Watling-street, Fane, S. Albane, or Verula­mium, Roiston, called anciently Crux Roisiae, Ashwell, Bishops-Stortford, and many others: and this Shire hath an 120. Parishes. The Rivers are Lea or Ley, Stort, Mimer and Benefice. Now come we to Essex, The Townes Essex. which the River Stour on the North divideth from South-folke, on the East the Ocean beateth it,The Situation on the South the River Thames now growne very wide, doth part it from Kent, on the West the River Lea divideth it from Middlesex, and the little River Stour or Stort, from Hertford-shire. The fertilitie of the Soyle. It is a large Country, fruitfull, abounding with Saffron, being full of woods, and very rich: here is Camalodunum, now called Maldon. The Townes Also Colchester, which the Brittaines call Caer Colin, Leyton, Bemflot, Leegh. Rochford, Angre, Ralegh, anciently called Raganeia, Dunmow, Plaissy or Plessy, called anciently Estre, Chelmesford, now called Chensford, Ithance­ster, Earles Colne, Barlow, Walden, called likewise Saffron▪ Walden, &c. the Parishes are 415. the Rivers are Ley, Thames, Chelmer, Froshwell, an­ciently called Pante and Colne. In the next place followes Berroc-shire, Berk-shire. now called Berk-shire, the Northerne part whereof Isis, which is after­ward called Tamisis, doth compasse with a winding pleasant streame,The Situation. and doth divide it from Oxford-shire and Buckingham-shire: the South­erne part the River Kennet doth seperate from Hampshire, the Westerne part is held in by Wiltshire and Glocester-shire, and the Easterne part is [Page 114] confined with Surrey. This County on the West side where it is broad­est, and in the middle thereof is very rich, and full of corne, especially in the Vale of White Horse, and on the Easterne side which is lesse fruit­full,The Townes. there are many long and spacious woods. The Townes are Faren­don, Abington, called anciently Abandune, and by the Saxons Sheoverham, Wantage, Wallingford, Hungerford, Widehay, anciently called Gallena, New­bery, Reading, Bistleham, or Bisham, Southealington, now called Maidenhead, and Windsore, called by the Saxons Windlesora. This Country hath 140 Parishes: the Rivers which water it are Isis, Thames, Ocke, Cunetio or Ke­net, Middlesex. and Lambo [...]. Middlesex is divided on the West side from Buckin­gham-shire with the River Colne, on the North side from Hertford-shire, with the knowne bounds,The Situation. on the East side from Essex with the River Lea, and on the South side from Surrey and Kent with the River Thames. It is every where very pleasant by reason of the temperatenesse of the Ayre,The tempera­ture of the Aire. The Townes. and goodnesse of the Soyle, besides the faire Townes and buildings. The Townes here are Vxbridge, Draiton, Stanes, Radclisse, and others: but above all London, called also Londinium, Longidinium, Augusta, and by Stephanus Lindonion, which is an Epitomy of all Brittaine. It is seated by the River of Thames, having a fertile Soyle and temperate Ayre: it is distant from the Sea threescore miles, it hath a stone Bridge over the River, being three hundred and thirty paces long, adorned on both sides with magnificent and faire buildings. It hath also a strong Tower, which is the chiefe Armory of England, and in this the Mint is kept. Neare to London is Westminster, anciently called Thorney, famous for the Abby, the Courts of Justice, and the Kings Pallace. The Abbey is most renowned by reason of the Coronation, and buriall of the Kings of Eng­land, The Rivers. and in this Countie are 73 Parishes, besides those in the Citie. The Rivers that water it are Lea, Ham [...]shire. The Situation. Colne, and Thames. Hampshire or Hant­shire toucheth on the West Dorsetshire and Wiltshire, on the South the Ocean, on the East Sussex and Surrey, and on the North Berk-shire. It is fruitfull, having pleasant thicke woods and flourishing pastures: it hath two Cities, the one Southampton, so called, because it stands on the Ri­ver Test, The Townes anciently called Ant or Hant: the other Winchester, called here­tofore Venta Belgarum. There are also these Townes, Regnwood or Ring­wood, Christ-church, Whorwell, Andover, Rumsey, Portsmouth, Kings-cleare, Odiam, Silcester, called anciently by the Brittaines Caer Segente, and o­thers,Surrey. and it hath 253 Parishes: the Rivers are Avon, Stour, Test and Hamble. Surrey, called by Bede Suthriona, joyneth on the West partly to Berk-shire, The qualitie of the Soyle. and partly to Southampton-shire, on the South to Sussex, on the East to Kent, and on the North it is watered by the River Thames, and divided by it from Middlesex. It is a Countrie not very large, yet very rich:The Townes. The Townes are Godelminge, Aclea, or Ockley, Effingham, Kingstone, Merton, Cradiden, or Croydon, Beddington, Wimbandune, or Wimbledon, Wandlesworth, The Rivers. and the Borrough of Southworke, called by the Saxons South werke, and this Country hath 140 Parishes: The rivers are VVey, Mole, (so called, because for a certaine space it runneth under ground like a Mole) Wandale, and Thames aforesaid. Now followeth Cantium or Kent, a Country so called from the situation,Kent. for it looketh toward France with a great corner,The Situation. which the word Canton in the French signifies, [Page 115] environed round about with the mouth of Thames and the Sea, unlesse on the West side where it joyneth to Surrey, The qualitie of the Soile. and on the South side to part of Sussex. It is unlevell, yet plainest toward the West, and shaded with woods, on the East it is raised with high hills. The chiefe Citie is Durovernum, which Ptolemie calls Darvernum, and in English is called Canterbury. There are also the Townes of Dover, The Townes. anciently called Dur­bis, and by the Saxons Dufra, Hith or Hide, Rumney, anciently called Ru­menal, Sandwich or Sondwic, Gravesend, &c. The Rivers are Thames, Rivers. Da­rent, Medway, anciently called Medwege, Stoure, called by Bede Wantsome, &c. Sussex toward the South bordereth upon the Brittish Ocean,Sussex The Situation. and that part of the Country which is toward the Sea is full of high white hills, which because they consist of a fat kinde of Chalke are very fruit­full: the middle of it hath goodly meddowes, pastures, fields, and many pleasant groves. The hither part hath many woods, and it hath many veines of Iron. The Townes here are Chichester, or rightly Cissanceaster, The Townes. so called from one Cissa a Saxon that built it: Arundal, so called, because it stands upon the River Arun, and other. It hath many Rivers, and 312 Parishes.

THE SEVENTH TABLE OF ENGLAND. CONTAINETH THESE FOVRE ILANDS which belong to England, Anglesey, Wight, Ger­sey, and Garnsey.

THe seventh and last Table of England containeth these foure Islands which belong to England: the former two whereof namely Anglesey and Wight, The Isle of An­glesey. do lye neare the English shoare, the latter Garsey neare the French shoare. The first is Anglesey, The names. which the Brittaines call Mon, Tirmon, and Ynis Dowyl, (that is) the darke Island, the Saxons call it Moneza, be­ing divided by a slender Bay from the Brittish Continent. It is a brave Island, and the ancient seat of the Druides, the length whereof 22 English miles,The Situation the breadth 17, and the whole compasse of it 60 miles. This Island, although Giraldus saith, it was in his time, drie, stonie, unpleasant, and deformed, yet now it is delectable, and being tilled yeeldeth so much wheat,The fruitful­nesse of the Soyle. that it is commonly called the Mother of Wales. It hath milstones, and in some places aluminous earth, out of which they have lately begun to make Alum. It is also rich in cattell. It was first subje­cted to the Romane Empire by Paulinus Suetonius, and Iulius Agricola as Camden out of Tacitus a learned Writer. Many yeares after being con­quered by the English, it came to be called Anglesey, as it were, the English Island, Camden addeth, that when the Romane Empire in Brit­taine began to decrease, the Scots crept out of Ireland into this Island. For besides the hills which are entrenched round, and called the Irish cotta­ges:The Govern­ment. there is a place which the Irish call Y [...] Hericy Guidil, where being lead by their Captain Sirigi, they gave the Brittaines a great overthrow, as it is mentioned in the booke of Triads. Neither hath this Island beene invaded by the English, but likewise by the Norwegians. For in the yeare 1000. The navie of Aethelred sailing about it did wast it in hostile man­ner. Afterward two Norman Hughs, one Earle of Cheshire, the other of Shropshire did most grievously afflict it and built the Castle Aber-Lienioc to restraine the Inhabitants, but Magnus a Norwegian arriving at this Island kild Hugh Earle of Cheshire with an arrow, and having tooke boo­tie on the Island departed. Afterward also the English often attempted it, untill Edward the first reduced it into his power. Heretofore it had 363 Villages, and at this day it is full of Inhabitants, but the chiefe Towne is Bellus Mariscus, The Townes. commonly called Beaumarish, which Edward the first built in the East part of that Island in a moorish place; and in re­gard of the Situation, he gave it this name, and fortified it with a Castle. The second Towne to this is Newburge, in Welch Ressur, because it was [Page 117]

THE SEVENTH TABLE OF ENGLAND.
ANGLESEY. INS.
WIGHT ol. Vectis
INS. GARNESEY
INS. IARSEY

[Page 118] much troubled with the sands which were continually cast upon it. Here is also Aberfraw heretofore the chiefe Citie of Wales. Also the holy Promontorie which the English call Holyhead: the Inhabitants call it Caer Guby from Kibius a holy man who was Scholler to Hilarius Pictaven­sis. The Inhabitants are very rich and strong, and they use the Brittish language having no skill in English, albeit they, together with the rest of Wales, have beene subject to the Kings of England these three hundred yeares.The Isle of Wight. Now followeth Vecta or Vectis, the Isle of Wight, which the Brit­tains call Guith. The names. It is broken off frō the Continent of Brittaine by so small an Euripus running betweene, called heretofore Solent, that it seemeth to cleave unto it, and hence that Brittish name Guith, which signifies a sepa­ration, seemes to be derived: even as Sicilie being divided from Italie, tooke his name, (as learned Iulius Scaliger pleaseth to derive it,) à secando, that is, from cutting. From this vicinitie of situation, and affinitie of the name, wee may conjecture that this Vecta was that Icta, which when the Sea Flow'd did seeme an Island, but when it Ebd againe, the shoare be­ing almost drie, the ancient Brittaines were wont to carrie Tinne thither in Carts to be transported thence into France. I suppose it cannot be that Mictis of Pliny, which joyneth close to Vecta, because out of that there came white lead, and in this (saith Camden) there is no mettall veine so farre as I know.The Situation. This Island betweene East and West lyeth twentie miles in length in an ovall figure, the breadth thereof in the middle where it is broadest is twelve miles over, the one side lyeth toward the North, the other toward the South. It hath a fruitfull soyle, and very profitable to the husbandman,The fruitful­nesse of the Soyle. so that it exporteth and sendeth forth divers commodities, it is every where full of Cunnies, Hares, Partridges and Pheasants, it hath also a Forrest and two Parkes full of Deere for hunting.The varietie of the living Cre­atures. Through the middle of this Island there runneth a long ridge of hils, on which flockes of sheepe securely graze, whose fleeces are held to be the best wooll, except that of Lemster and Cotteswold, and therefore being chiefly bought up by Clothiers, the Inhabitants do make a great gaine and commoditie thereby. The Northerne part hath greene me­dowes, fields, and woods: the Southerne part is all corne-fields, en­closed every where with ditches and hedges.The Sea At either end the Sea on the North side doth so penetrate and winde into it, that it maketh al­most two Islands, and the Inhabitants do call them Islands, namely that which looketh toward the West the Fresh-water Isle, that which lyeth toward the East Binbrydge Isle. Vespasian serving under the Empe­rour Claudius did first reduce this Island to the obedience of the Romans, as [...]n Vespasian [...] [...]ap. 4. Suetonius writeth in the life of Vespasian. The first Saxon that made it his owne was Cerdicius which gave it to Stuffa, and Whitgarus, who carri­ed away the Brittish Inhabitants to Caresbrok, and put them to death; af­terward Wolpherus being of the Mercians, brought Vecta or Wight under his power,The ancient government. and gave it to Edelwalch King of the South Saxons. After that Caedwalla King of the West-Saxons, (the aforesaid Edwalch being slaine, and Arnaldus Governour of the Island being made away) adjoyned it to his territories. But see more concerning these things in Camden. The In­habitants by nature are warlike,The nature of the Inhabi­tants. bold, and forward, and the Souldiers very stout. In Bedes time there were thought to be in this Island a thou­sand [Page 119] and two hundred families, but now it hath sixe and thirtie Townes besides Villages and Castles. The chiefest Townes are New-port, the chiefe Market-towne of the Island, heretofore called Medena, and Novus Burgus de Meden, from whence the whole Countrie is divided into East-Meden, and West-Meden, according as it lyeth East or West. Also Brading, The Townes. Newton, & Yarmouth which have their Majors, and do send up their Bur­gesses to the Parliaments of England. This Yarmouth and another also called Sharpnore have Castles, which together with the Fort Worsteys doe defend the coast on the West side. Over against which scarce two miles off standeth the Fort Hurst on a little tongue of ground in Hampshire. Here is also the Towne Quarre where a litle Monasterie was built in the yeare 1132 for vailed Virgins or close Nunnes, and Gods Hill where I. Worseley founded a Schoole for the nurture of children. Here is situate Westcow and Eastcow, now ruinated, which Henry the eight built in the very jawes and entrance of New-port. And on the East is Sandham a Ca­stle fortified with great Ordinance, as the rest are, beside the fortifica­tions of nature, for it is encompassed about with ragged cliffes, un­derneath which are hidden rocks. As these two Islands lye neare to the English shoare, somewhat more toward the West, some Islands do ap­peare in the Sea neare to France, and yet belong to England, among which are Gerzey and Garnzey, and first Gerzey, called Caesarea by Anto­ninus, lyeth neare to Normandie, or the shoare of Lexobii, whom our Brit­taines do call Lettaw, that is, dwellers on the shoare, or coasters: this word Caesarea the Frenchmen have contracted into Gersey, Gersey. even as Caesaris Bur­gus, a towne in Normandie is by them contractly called Cherburgh and Caesar Augusta a Towne in Spaine is by the Spaniards called Saraggosa. The names. Into this Island condemned men were heretofore banished,The Situation. for the Bi­shop of Lyons was banished hither. Papirius Massonius calleth it the Isle of Constantine shoare, because it lyeth over against the ancient citie of Constantia, which Ammianus thinketh was heretofore called Castra Con­stantia, and in former times Muritonium. This Island is about 20 miles in compasse, being defended by rockes and such sands as are dange­rous to sea-men. The earth is sufficiently fertile, abounding with divers fruits and with flockes of cattell; it hath many sheepe, and most of them such as have foure hornes, is beautified with so many greene Or­chards and Gardens, and those so fruitfull that the Inhabitants make a kinde of drinke of apples, which they call Sisera and the English Side [...], therewith; but in regard they have little fuell, instead of wood they use Sea weeds (by them called Vraic) which seemes to be that sea-grasse which Pliny mentions, and they grow so plentifully on these rocks,The fertilitie of the Soyle. that they seeme a farre of to be thicke woods. These being dryed in the Sun and after burnt for fuell, they make use of the ashes for manuring their fields, and making them fruitfull. This Island is likewise full of Villages, having twelve Parishes. It is fortified with a strong Castle seated on the hill Montorguel, and hee that governes it for the English is also gover­nour of the whole Island. Twentie miles hence towards the West is another Island, which Antoninus named Sarnia, the English at this day call it Garnsey, lying from East to West in the forme of a harpe,Garnsey. it is not to be compared either for largenesse or populusnesse with the afore­said [Page 120] Gersey, for it hath onely tenne Parishes. Yet in this it is to be pre­ferred before it, because it hath no venemous thing in it: beside it is more fortified by nature, as being encompassed on every side with bro­ken cliffes among which the Smyris an hard and rough stone is found, which the English call an Emrall, with which Jewellers do cut their stones,The qualitie of the Soyle. and Glaziers do cut their glasse. This Island also, as the former, hath greene Gardens and Orchards planted with divers trees, whence for the most part, the Inhabitants use the drinke made of apples called Cider, as the Gersey people doe, in regard of the convenience of an Ha­ven,The Haven. and the traffique of Merchants it is more famous than Gersey. For on the farthest part toward the East, on the Southerne side, it hath a Haven like an halfe Moone, neare which is seated the Towne of Saint Peter, being one long narrow streete,S. Peters Town. full of warlike provision, and frequented much with Merchants when warres begin in other places. The entrance into the Haven is fortified on either side with Castles, on the left hand is an anciēt Castle, & on the right hand another which they call Cornet, sea­ted on a high rock, & environed with the Sea. The Inhabitants of either Isle are originally either Normans or Brittaines, and do speake French. ▪ In both Islands they use that which they call Vraic instead of fuell, or pit­coales digged in England, & both of them have great store of fish. These Islands with other adjacent and lying neare unto them did heretofore belong to Normandie, but when Henry the first had overthrowne his bro­ther Robert in the yeare of Christ 1108, he adjoyned Normandie & these Islands to the Kingdome of England, The ancient Government. since which time they have conti­nued in faithfull obedience to England, although the French (banishing King Iohn) possessed Normandie and Henry the third sold his right in Nor­mandie, and yeelded up the possession of Aquitaine in consideration of a certaine summe of money. 'Tis true that the French in the raigne of Hen­ry the fourth, did hold Garnsey, but by the industrie of Richard Harleston, Valectus de Carona (as they then called him) they were driven out, in re­ward whereof the King did conferre and bestow upon him the govern­ment of the Island and Castle. And let so much suffice to have beene spoken concerning these foure Islands, and also concerning England, both in generall and particular.

NORWEY, AND SVVETH-LAND. The first and second Kingdome of the North part of the World.

BRITTAINE being described as faithfully as wee could, that Northerne part of the world now followeth in our method, which the Ancients did call Scandia and Scandi­navia, Pliny calleth it the Nurser of Nations, and the recepta­cle of people of a great stature. That part which is neerest to the farthest Northerne shore of Germanie, is distinguished at this time into the three Kingdomes of Norwey, Swethland, and Denmarke. Norwey Norwey or Norwegia commeth in the first place to be viewed.Whence so called. The Etymologie whereof is easie to be knowne; for it is so called from Nord which sig­nifieth the North, and Weg which signifies a way, as if wee should say, the Northway, or Northerne Countrey. It hath on the South Denmarke, on the West the Sea, on the East Sweth-land, and it is bounded on the North with Lapland, from which it is parted with high and rugged Mountaines, covered over with continuall snow. All the Countrie to­ward the West is unpassable by reason of rocks and sharpe cliffes, and it is also stony toward the South, especially in that part which lyeth a­gainst the Cimbrick Chersonesus, from whence it is 250 miles distant. But all the Countrie both toward the West and South hath a gentle Ayre, for the Sea is not frozen, neither doe the Snowes lye long.The qualitie of the Soyle. And though the Countrie it selfe bee not so fertile, that it is able to furnish the Inha­bitants with foode: yet it aboundeth with cattell and wilde beasts, as white Beares of an unusuall bignesse, Beavers and innumerable other.The variety of Creatures. Norwey was somtime a very flourishing, Kingdome, under the jurisdicti­on whereof were Denmarke and the Isles of the Sea, untill it came to be govern'd by hereditarie succession. Afterward in the Interregnum it was agreed upon by the consent of the Nobles, that the Kings should bee chosen by election. From Suthdager the second to Christierne the last, there were 45 Kings. Now it is under the command of Denmarke. There are at this time in it five royall Castles, and so many speciall Pro­vinces, whereof the first and farthest toward the South is Bahusia, or Bay. The Townes subject unto it are Marstand, The Cities and Townes. seated on a rocky Penin­sula, and famous for herring-fishing; and the Townes of lesser note, are Koengeef or Congel, neere Bahus and Oddewold, otherwise called Odwad. The second Castle is Aggerhusia, out of the Province whereof high Masts of ships, oaken and maple plankes and wood fit for building houses, is yearely carried into Spaine and other Countries. The Townes subject unto it are Astoia, the Seat of a Bishop, to which strangers doe [Page 122] chiefly resort, because there is held the Court whither causes are brought for triall out of all parts of Norwey. Also Tonsberg or Konnings­berg, Fridrichstad, Saltzburgh, and Schin or Schon, where there are Mynes of Coppresse and Iron, also Hammaria the Greater and the Lesser, hereto­fore being Bishopricks, but now committed to the care of the Asloian Bishop, and divided by the Bay of Mosian, gliding betweene them. The third is the Castle Bergerhusia, under which are the Cities of Bergen, or Berga, and Staffanger. But Berga is the most famous Citie of all Norwey for traffique, and as it were the Barne thereof: heere resideth the Kings Lievtenant, and a Bishop; and heere that delicate fish is sold, which being taken neere the shore of Norwey, is called the fish of Bergen, being transported from hence by Merchants into divers Countries. Heere lye the Factors of the Vandals & the Sea Townes, who continuing heere all the yeare, for traffique sake, doe take up one part of the Citie, which the Inhabitants call the Bridge. Heere is also an excellent and safe Ha­ven. The Citie Staffanger, although it have the same Governour with Bergen, yet it hath a Bishop peculiar to it selfe, and living therein. The fourth Castle is Nidrosia, called so from the River Nideros & Rosa, which is the name of a Temple, commonly called Trundtheim, and heretofore Trondon; it is the Metropolis of all Norwey, and now reduced into the forme of a Towne. It was the chiefe seat heretofore of the Archbishop, and of the whole Kingdome. It hath a large Jurisdiction, in which much fish and pretious skins are gotten, and afterward carried to Bergen to be sold. And heere is at this day a Cathedrall Church, and such a one as there is scarce an other like it in the Christian world, both for the largenesse of the stones, and for the carved worke. The Border and ground-worke about the Altar in this Church was burnt with fire, in the yeare 1530, and the losse redounding thereby was valued at seven thousand Crownes. The fifth and last Towre toward the North of Norwey is Wardbuise, standing on the little Island Ward; it is now very small, and almost decayed, having neither castle nor munition, yet hath it a little Towne adjoyning unto it, which consists all of fisher-mens houses. In this Towre or rather Cottage, the Kings Praefect liveth in Summer, and governeth this cold Northerne part of Norwey, even to the borders of Russia. Moreover the Westerne shore of Norwey (because it is of an unsearchable depth) in the Spring time is much troubled with Whales,The Sea to prevent whose violence, the ship-men use a kinde of Oyle made of Beavers stone, which is a present remedie, for assoone as it is cast into the Sea, and mingled with the water, straight-way that great Sea-monster maketh away and hideth himselfe in the deepe. Heere is good fishing in the neighbouring seas,The Commo­dities. & especially of Stock-fish, which being dried and hardened in the cold and hung up upon poles, they send into other Kingdomes of Europe. The Merchan­dise. The best taking of them is in the Moneth of Ianuary: for as then in regard of the cold, they are more ea­sily dried, so the sea doth yeeld more plenty of them and fatter. The commodities of this countrie in generall, are pretious Skins, Tallow, Butter, Hides, the fat of Whales, Tarre, Oake timber, Masts, and Planks and Boards of all sort, to the great commoditie of those who sell them. The Inhabitants are honest,The manners of the people. loving and hospitable to strangers, neither [Page 123]

NORWEY AND SWETHLAND.
SVECIA, ET Norwegia etc

[Page 124] have they robbers, theeves or Pirates among them.

[...]The Kingdome of Swethland is an ancient Kingdome, as Pliny witnes­seth. [...] It hath on the West Norwey, on the North Lapland and Botnia, on the East [...]land, seperated from it by the Botnian Bay, or Finnish Sea, & L [...]onia [...] L [...]sland, [...] disjoyned from it by the Baltick Sea, called by Ta [...] ­ [...]us Mar [...] p [...]grum, [...] by the Suc [...]ians Mare Su [...]vicum, and on the South Go­thia It is a com [...] the most fruitfull of all the North parts: it hath a plentifull soyle▪ and seas, lakes, and rivers abounding with fish of divers [...]ndes it hath also Mettals, as Lead, Iron, Brasse, and Silver, which is digged up in very p [...]e oa [...]e neere Sl [...]burg: and likewise woods full of wilde beasts and honey. It is thought that it doth doubly exceede Nor­wey, both in largenesse, fruitfulnesse, and goodnesse of soyle, yet in some places it is [...]ugged and moorish. This Countrie being for some ages valiantly and happily defended & enlarged by the native Kings there­of, afterward came to the Kings of Denmarke: and having beene subject to them more than an hundred yeares, at last did shake them off, under colour, that the Lawes wh\ich they were sworne unto at their Corona­tion, were not observ'd, and hence it stood a while in a very uncer­taine condition. But now it is returned againe to the natives, out of which it chooseth it selfe a King. There are divers Provinces of this [...]ingdome, some belonging to the Gothes, as Ostgothia, whereof Lincop is the Metropolis: [...] Westgothia seperated with an ancient Lake from Ost­gothia, whereof Scara is the Bishops seate: Also Southerne Gothia or S [...]alandia, [...]u [...]s [...]ia, Verendia, in which Vexio or Wexo is the chiefe Town. Also Meringia, and the Isle of O [...]land, fortified with the Castle Borgholm. Other Provinces there are that belong to Swethland, specially so called, as Oplandia, in which is Vpsal in the very centre of Swethland; heere are an Archbishops seat, publick Schooles, and many sepulchres of the Kings of Swethland, magnificently and fairely built. Also Stocholm, a fai [...]e Mart Towne, and one of the Kings places of residence, being for­tified both by Nature and Art. It is seated in a marshie fenny place like Venice, and is named, as aforesaid, because it is built upon stakes. There is a passage to it out of the Easterne Sea, by a deepe channell through the jawes of M [...]lerus; and it doth let the sea flow so farre into it, that ships of great but then may easily come with full sayles into the Haven. But the towre Waxholme on the one side, and Digna on the other side doe so straighten the entrance, that no ships can come in or goe forth a­gainst the Governours will, who keepe watch there. On the Southerne banke of M [...]le [...] lyeth Sudermannia, whose townes are Tolgo, Strengenes the seate of a Bishop, and the Castle Gripsholme. In the third place is N [...]ct [...] in which is the castle Orebo, & toward the West the countrie of Westmannia, and the cities Arosia, neere to which there is such excel­lent silver, that Artificers can extract out of fifteene pounds of silver one pound of gold and Arboga doe lye neere unto a Lake. From thence toward the West doe lye Westerne Dalia, the Easterne and Sol [...]es Dalia, so called from the Lake Sol [...]on; which three Provinces together with the greater part of the mountainous Provinces, are under the Bishop of Sa­ [...]s [...]. Heere are minerall veines, which stretch themselves Eastward to the Baltick Sea, and to the Bay of Helsing [...]a, and toward the West they [Page 125] runne almost without interruption through Wermeland to the Westerne Ocean, so that in every part there is digged up some kinde of mettall, as Silver, Coppresse, Lead, Iron, Steele, or Sulphure. Toward the North neere unto Opland are these Countries, first Gestricia, then Helsing, after that Midelpadia, and beyond that the Northerne and Southerne Anger­mannia. Then is there North-Botnia, divided into West-Botnia and East-Botnia, both of them being large Provinces: and after these towards the North lye So called from the sli­ding & leaping gate of the F [...]nn [...] which are the Inha­bitants thereof. Scricfinnia, So called from the bloc­kishnesse of the Inhabitants, [...]o [...] L [...]p [...]n sig­nifieth F [...]olish. Lapland, and Biarmia. These or most of these ancient Provinces of the Kingdome of Swethland, the Botnick Bay stret­ched forth from the Balthick straight Northward to Toronia, & beyond the Artick Circle, doth divide from Finland a large Peninsula: at the Southward point whereof are the Islands of Alandia or Alant, and Abo a Bishops Seate, and on the North point Withurgeum. Finland is divided into the Northerne & Southerne Finland, to which the higher and lower Natagundia, Savolosia, Tavastia, all very large countries are adjoyned. From thence beyond the Finnick Bay is Which with Biarmia afore­said, belongeth to the Duke of Rus [...]a. Corelia, the Metro­polis whereof is Hexholme or Kexholme: and toward the West Woticho­nia, in which is the mouth of the River Lovat, that glideth by Novogar­dia, which the Inhabitants call Ny: above Copora is Ingria, in which standeth the Forts Iamagrod and Solonseia, wherein standeth Ivanogrod, over against Nerva or Narva; confining upon these toward the South are the provinces of Lieflandia or Civonia, extended even from Nerva to Revalia or Revel, and Prenovia or Parniew, as first Allantacia wherein Nerva is a Bishops See; then Wiria, whereof Wesemberg is a Bishops See: besides Wichia, wherein Habsay is a Bishops seate, and the Isle Dagen or Dachlen, most of which Countries beyond the Finnick Bay were added to the Kingdome of Swethland, in the yeare 1581; by the valour and good successe of King Iohn the third, after that Revalia had willingly yeelded it selfe to Ericus the fourteenth King of Swedes, Anno 1561. Swethland hath many fishing-waters,The Rivers. and many rivers gliding through it. The Countrey it selfe is rugged, being full of mountaines and woods.Mountaines. Woods. The subjects are partly Church-men, partly Lay-men;The Senators. the Lay-men are either Nobles or Commons. The chiefe title of Nobility is Knight­hood, which is solemnly conferr'd by the King as a reward of vertue.The Manners. The provinces are governed by the natives. If the Inhabitants be com­par'd with the Germans, they have lesse civilitie, but are more industri­ous and witty, so that every countrey-fellow with them hath skill al­most in all trades, and all mechanick Arts.

THE STATE POLITICK OF THE KINGDOME OF DENMARKE.

DENMARKE is a large and populous Kingdome, commonly called Danemarch, as it were the Countrie of the Danes. But whence the originall of the Danes came, they them­selves doe not know: Some doe fetch it from Danus, their first King, and some from the Dahi, a people of Asia. Dudo de S. Quintino, an ancient Writer (as Camden reporteth) doth af­firme, that they came out of Scandia into the ancient seats of the Cimbri­ans. But they seeme to be so called from the waters, because AHA with them signifies a River, and they doe call themselves Daneman (that is) as it were, River-men, or Water-men. All Denmarke is a Peninsula, as the Description sheweth, and is divided into 184 Prefectships or Pro­vinces, which they call Horret, and they are governed by so many Pre­fects skilfull in the Danish Lawes. It hath a King rather by election of the Nobles, than by succession of birth: the ancient manner of chusing him was, that when they gave their voyce, they stood in the open field upon stones, devoting by the firme stabilitie of the stones under them, the constancy of their election. The Kings are crowned at Hafnia in the Church of the blessed Virgine Mary before the Altar, and are led into the aforesaid Church by the Senatours of the Kingdome, the ensignes of regality being carried before them, as the Sword, Globe, and Crown. Neither are these things attributed to speciall Families, as it is in most Countries, but as every one excelleth in vertue and dignitie, so is hee chosen to that place. First the King is compelled to sweare that he will observe certaine written Articles, and that hee will strictly defend the Christian Religion, and the Lawes and Customes of the Kingdome. Afterward hee is anoynted by the Bishop of Roeschild, and first the Crowne is set upon his head by all the Senatours, who then take their oath to his Majestie, if they have not done it before the Coronation, and then the King maketh out of the Gentry some Knights by the light stroke of a sword, for some service done either in peace or warre. Thus the ancient Danes did establish an excellent Politicall State and Monar­chie, neither hath any Nation ever brought them into subjection, or tooke away their Country Rites and Priviledges. But on the contrary the Northerne people, as the Danes, Swedens, Norwegians, have wasted almost Europe, and in some places have established Kingdomes. For the expedition of the Cimbrians against Italie is knowne unto all Historio­graphers, [Page 127] as also the Gothes subjecting of Spaine, the Longobards establish­ing of a Kingdome in Italie, the Normans seating themselves in France, the erecting of the Kingdome of Naples and Sicilie, and the attempt of Godfride upon Freseland against Charles the Great. To these may bee added the late King of Swedens prospe­rous victories in Germany. Canutus the Great, his holding five Kingdomes a long time. For he was King of Denmarke, Swethland, Norwey, England, and Normandy, and sonne in law to Henry the third Emperour, of whom these verses are yet extant.

Desine mirari quos garrula laudibus effert
Graecia, quos jactat Roma superba duces. &c.
Cease thou to wonder at those Captaines bold,
Of which both Greece and Rome did boast of old.
For now the Danish Land hath brought forth one.
That is in vertue second unto none.
By my atchievements I much fame attain'd,
Five Kingdomes subject were to my command▪
And me he chose his sonne in Law to be,
Who was third Emperour of Germanie.
My Iustice famous was, I shew'd the way,
How powerfull Kings should their owne Lawes obey.

By which it appeares, as also by the following warres, which divers Kings of the Familie of the Oldenburgs happily waged, that it is a war­like Nation, and fortunate in vanquishing their enemies both by Land and Sea. The Noble men and Senatours of the Kingdome have a free power to elect the Kings, but for the most part they chuse the Kings el­dest sonne, unlesse there be some sufficient cause for the contrary. How­ever, they alwayes chuse one of the Royall bloud, and they doe not suffer the Kingdome to be divided, unlesse they be compelled thereunto by civill warres. They send the younger sonnes or brothers into other Countries, seeing they cannot participate in the government of the Kingdome: and hence it is that so many expeditions are undertaken by them. Moreover, seeing all the Nobles and Common-people can­not live conveniently in their owne Countrie, therefore they seeke out to get themselves a more fit seate. For the Northerne people have a­bundance of children, in regard of their abundance of bloud and heate; they are quarrellers and fighters, they drinke and eate much, (for the cold Ayre excites their appetite) and yet digest it well, whence it is that they live long; they are faire complexioned, of great stature, crafty and faithfull. And an argument, that they are long liv'd, is that their Kings have raigned very long, many of them thirty yeares, some forty, and some longer.

The Politicall government.

THere are five States or Orders in the Common-wealth of Den­marke ▪ The first is of the Kings Familie, the second of the Nobles,The Situation. among which there are neither Earles nor Barons, yet all of them can shew how their Nobilitie descended to them by a long pedigree of An­cestours. They carry Bucklers, which they will not change nor alter, [Page 128] because they anciently used them. There are some Families yet living, whose Ancestors were present at the Parley between Charles the Great, & Hemmingus King of Denmarke, upon the River Egidora or Eider, as the Familie of Vren and others. These hold their goods and lands in Capite, and they have free liberty to hawke and hunt in their owne lands, as the Counts have in Germany. Their goods are not feudatory, but hereditary. All the Castles, lands, and goods, as well moveable as immoveable, left them by their parents, are equally divided among the brethren: and the sisters by a speciall priviledge have a share also, yet so, that the brother hath two parts with the Castles and places of strength, and the sister but one. By this meanes the eldest sonnes have not much lands, yet some of them comming of a good Familie, and being endued with vertue, through the Kings favour, doe advance themselves to great possessi­ons by marriage. Out of this order the Senatours of the Kingdome are chosen, who are seldome more then 28. These Senatours have a certain allowance from the King and Kingdome, for they have Castles so long as they bee Senatours, for which they pay no rent to the King, but are charged to keepe certaine horses both in peace and warre, and whenso­ever the King calls them, they are to be ready at the proper charge of the Kingdome. If they be sent on any Embassage out of the Kingdome, they have allowance out of the Exchequer, that they may performe their journey in a Princely manner, as becommeth a Kings Embassadours. The other Nobles also have sufficient maintenance from the King, whe­ther they live at Court or not. For the King hath lands which in the Da­nish speech are called Verleghninge or Benefices, and out of these hee gi­veth maintenance, either for terme of life, or for yeares, to those who have done him or the Kingdome any service. And those who hold these Benefices of the King, are charged to keepe certaine horses, and to pay yearely a certaine summe of money into the Exchequer, yet so as they may gaine something in reward of their labour and service. There is also a good Law & Institution in the Kingdome of Denmarke, whereby the King is prohibited and restrained from buying any immoveable goods of the Nobles, least any dissention should arise betweene the King and them. For otherwise the King might by violence take into his hands those lands which the Nobles would not sell: yet the King may change any immoveable goods with the Nobles, though on the contra­ry the Nobles cannot buy any of them of the Kings Farmers, many of which have hereditarie, and (as it were) free lands.

Here followes the names of the speciall Families of the No­bility, in the Kingdome of DENMARKE.

THe Lords of Kaas, the L. Guldensteen, the Lords of Munc, of Rosen­crantz, of Grubbe, of VValkendorp, of Brahe, of Schram, of Pasberg, of Hardenberg, of Vlstant, of Bing, of Below, of VVepfert, of Goce, of Schefeldt, of Ranzow, of Schelen, of Frese, of Iul, of Bilde, of Dresselberg, of Green, of Brockenhusen, of Holke, of Trolle, of Knutzen, of Biorn, Schested, of Iensen, of Steuge, of Mattiesse, of Lunge, of Banner, of Luc, of Rastorp, of Krusen, of Fassi, of Lindeman, of Suvon, of Stantbeke, of Quitrowe, of Lange, of [Page 129] Gelschut, of Glambeke, of Krabbe, of Marizer, of Kragge, of Achsel, of Be [...], of Ruthede, of Negel, of VVirfelt, of Split, of Ofren, of Appelgard, of Iuenam, of Poldessen, of Reuter, of Podebussen, who were all in times past Barons in the Dukedome of Pomerania, and some of whose Familie are still remaining there. Also the Lords of Vren, who lived in the time of Charles the great: Also the Lords of Bli [...], of Galle, of VVogersen, of Bassi, of Solle, of Daac, of Bax, of Basclich, of VVensterman, of Hoken, of Lindow, of Bille, of Reutem, of Hundertmar [...], of Heiderstorper, of VVolde, of Papenhaimb, of Spar, of Falster, of Narbu, of VVorm, of Bilde, of Bo­cholt, of Budde, of Swaben, of Santbarch, of Gram, of Lutken, of Vhrup, of Spegel, of Bammelberg, of Rosenspart, of Duve, of Hube, of Schaungard, of Must, of Gris, of Falcke, of Brune, of Laxman, of Duram, of Baggen, of Norman, of Goss, of Matre, of Rosengard, of Tollen, of Ronnoun, of Krimpen. Out of this Nobilitie is chosen the Praefect or Master of the Court, which is such an office, as the Governour of the Kings House in France: Hee dwelleth, for the most part, at Haffnia, being, as it were, the Kings Substitute, and doth dispatch matters as hee is directed by the King. Next to him is the Marshall, which in the time of warre and peace doth provide those things which appertaine to expedition. In the third place is the Admirall, which doth build new ships, repaire the old, and every year order the sea [...]matters, for the securing of the coasts. He hath under him an other Admirall appointed, and in every ship a Captaine, who must bee borne a Gentleman. There is also the Chancellour of the Kingdome, to whom out of all the Provinces and Isles they appeale and make suite unto, and from whom appeale is also made to the King and the Senate of the Kingdome. All the Provinces are divided into Haeret, as they call them, or into Dioceses, under which are many Parishes, heere, if there be any controversies, matters are first tried. And from hence they appeale to the Judge of the Haeret. Afterward to the Chan­cellour, and last of all to the King and Senatours, where it hath a deter­minate and finall Judgement. They have a written Law, composed by Woldemare the first, together with the Bishops and Senators, which is very agreeable to the law of Nature, and not much differing from the Roman Lawes; and that causes and suites may sooner have an end, and judgement be given and put in execution, It is provided that Judges, if they doe any wrong or give false judgement, are condemned to lose halfe their goods; whereof the King hath the one part, and the injured partie the other. Woldemare the first (except I be deceiv'd) added the Bishops to the Senators, whom Christianus the third, for rebellion and certaine other causes did put out againe. The Kings Chancellour, who for the most part followeth the King in the Court, hath seven or eight Noble men adjoyned unto him as Assistants, besides Secretaries and Clerkes; and all businesses are dispatch'd by the King himselfe. But if it be some matter of consequence, as concerning peace or warre, entring into league with forraine Nations, or into consultation concerning the defending of their owne Territories, then the King calleth a Councell of Senators. Neither can the King impose any taxe upon the Kingdome or Countrie, without their consent, and the consent of the Nobles. There is also in this Kingdome a Master of the Exchequer, who colle­cteth [Page 130] and gathereth all the Revenues of the whole Kingdome, both of Castles, Farmes, and Customes, as well by Sea as by Land. Hee taketh account of them, enquireth into them, and giveth acquittances for the receit of them. Hee hath two Assistants of the Nobilitie, and many Clerkes under him; and for his office hath a yearely stipend or pension.

The third State is of the Clergie, in which there are seven Bishops, as the Bishop of Lunden, the Bishop of Ro [...]schild, the Bishop of Otthon, of Rip, of Wiburg, of Arhuse, and the Bishop of Sleswich, to whom the o­ther Canonicall persons have relation. These have the Tenths of the Kingdome; which in divers Countries are divided in a divers manner: for the Bishops have an halfe part of the Tenths, and the King an halfe part, the Canonists and Preachers have a part, and a part is contributed toward the building and repairing of Churches. And as concerning the Popes authoritie in this Kingdome, as also in France, the ordination of Prelates and Bishops have beene alwayes in the Kings power, as may appeare by the answer of Woldemare the first, King of Denmarke, which heere I have annexed. When the Pope required these and the like pri­viledges from the King, it is reported, that the King writ back unto him, Wee have our Kingdome from our Subjects, our life from our Parents, our Reli­ligion from the Romish Church, which if you will take from us, I send it you by these presents. And as the wise Decree of Charles the fifth is praised, pro­hibiting Ecclesiasticall persons from buying any immoveable thing without the consent of the King, so Christian the third as wisely did or­daine, that the Clergie should not sell any thing without the Kings ex­presse commandement. In other matters the Clergie-men through the whole kingdome are well provided for by Christian the third, of famous memorie, and many Schooles erected in many places, as also two in Iseland, where they have likewise a Printing-House. There is but one Universitie in the whole kingdome, called the Universitie of This Citie is called by the Germans Co­pe [...]hagen, that is, the Mer­chants Haven. Haffen or Hafnia, founded by Christerne the first, by permission of Pope Sixtus, in the yeare of Christ 1470: which Frederick the second, although hee were seven yeares incumbred with the Swethish warres, did so enrich, that the yearely revenues thereof are very much.

The fourth State is of the Citizens and Merchants, dwelling in Ci­ties and Townes. These have proper and peculiar priviledges which they enjoy, besides certaine fields and woods that belong to them; and these doe traffique both by Sea and Land in all parts of Europe. Out of these, as also out of the Countrey-people, the Bishops, the Cano­nists, the Preachers, and Senators of Cities, the Clerkes of Bands, the Lievtenants of Towres, and the Masters of Ships are chosen, and some of them are Masters of the Customes or Tributes; lastly, of these all lesser Councels of Justice doe consist, one of the Nobility, for the most part, sitting as President.

The fifth State is of the Rustick, or Countrey-people, and there are two sorts of them, the first they call Freibunden, that is, Free-holders. These doe hold Lands of Inheritance, yet paying for the same some little free-rent every yeare. These doe also use merchandise and fish­ing. They are not opprest with doing services, neither doe they pay any taxes, unlesse the Senators of the kingdome doe grant it as a subsi­die. [Page 131] The other sort is of those, who doe not possesse goods of inheri­tance, but doe farme them of the King, the Nobles or Ecclesiasticall persons, and are constrained to doe many services for their Lords, in such manner, as they shall covenant with their Land-lord. These are the chiefe things which I thought good to declare concerning the State politick of Denmarke; whereby it appeareth, that the Danish Monarchie was, for the most part, well framed: for the free election of the Kings being in the hands of the Nobilitie, and yet notwithstanding out of the royall Progenie, as wee said before: it followeth, that the Danes have no civill warres or dissentions, unlesse those which are betweene such as bee of the Blood Royall, which are quickly composed by the media­tion and helpe of the Nobles; but especially seeing the Kings younger Sonnes can have no part of the kingdome. Moreover, as they are all stiled but Nobles, and know not the titles and names of Barons, Earles, and Dukes, so there are none that have so much wealth and power, as that reposing trust therein, they dare oppose themselves against the Royall Familie; because the Fathers Inheritance is alwayes divided betweene the Sonnes and Daughters. Thus the Kings of Denmarke have a flourishing Common-wealth, which may easily bee defended from forraine enemies, whom their Subjects, living in unanimity and con­cord with them as their naturall Lords, are able to resist both by sea and land.

THE KINGDOME OF DENMARKE. BEING THE THIRD KING­DOME OF THE NORTH.

DENMARKE is joyned only in two places to the Con­tinent,The Situation. on the West the Ocean beateth on it, on the East the Balticke Sea, on the North lyeth Norwey and Sweth­land, and on the South Holsatia, Megalopolis, and Pomerama. It hath many severall Islands lying by it. The temper of the Climate,The tempera­ture of the Aire. together with the wholsomnesse of the Aire (that I may use Ioh. Coldingensis his words) doth make the Danes fresh complexion­ed. The fruitfulnesse of the Earth doth nourish them, the sweete har­mony of Birds doth recreate them; their Woods and Groves, in which great numbers of Hogges do feed,The fruitfulnes of the Soyle. and fat themselves with Akornes and Beech-maste, do refresh them; and the divers sorts of Cattle and flou­rishing Medowes do yeeld them much delight. The Sea doth afford them such plentie of provision, that the Danes thereby not onely furnish themselves,The varietie of living creatures. but also many other parts of Europe. In a word, they want nothing that is necessarie to life, so loving hath Nature shewed her selfe to this Countrie. Concerning the ancient Government thereof Mun­ster writeth, that one Danus many ages before Christ, was the first King of Denmarke, The Ancient Government. from whom the other Kings of Denmarke did descend in a faire and orderly succession; therefore concerning the names of his suc­cessours, and the other Kings of Denmarke, read Munster, largely dis­coursing. All the Countrie of Denmarke having many armes of the Sea reaching farre into the Land, doth consist of many parts, the chiefe whereof are these Iutia, Fionia, Zelandia and Scania, besides the Islands lying neare to severall parts thereof.

Iutia, which some would have called Got [...]a, being heretofore the Seat of the Cimbri, is called by Historians and Geographers the Cimbrian Chersonesus, and is divided into the Southerne and Northerne Iutia. The Description of this Northerne Iutia you may behold in the second Ta­ble of Denmarke. Southerne Iutia, heretofore called Nordalbingia, doth containe the famous Dukedome of Sleswick to which the Dukedome of Holsatia may now be added, whereof you shall finde a more ample de­claration in the third Table of Denmarke.

Also there followeth a more particular Description of Fionia, in the fourth Table of Denmarke.

Zeland, otherwise called Staland, and by some Authors Selandunia, is the greatest of all the Isles of Denmarke, which Olivarius and Ortelius thinke to be that Codanonia which Mela mentioneth. Others call it Ze­land as if it were Sealand, because it is on every side encompassed with the Sea. Some would have it so called as if one should say Seed-land, be­cause [Page 133]

THE KINGDOME OF DENMARKE.
DANIAE REGNŪ.

[Page 134] of its owne accord without any yearely manuring it is very fruit­full in bearing of corne. This Island is For it is 64 English miles in length, and 52. in breedth. two daies journey long, and al­most as much in bredth. It hath 15 Cities in it, & twelve royall Castles. But among the Cities the chiefe is Hafnia, which is the Metropolis or mother Citie of all Denmarke, and famous, not onely for the largenesse and wealth thereof, but for a convenient Haven, which the incredible depth thereof, and the lying of the Island Amaggor over against it doth make a safe Harbour to Sea-faring-men. This Citie, being an Universi­tie, affordeth a continuall supply of Doctors, learned Pastors, and Prea­chers for all the Churches of the Kingdome of Denmarke and Norwey. Above Hafnia is Helsingor called also Elseneur, and neare unto it the roy­all Castle of Croneburg of which we will speake hereafter: over-against this Castle on the other side of the Sea, there standeth another like unto it called Helsinborch or Hilsemburg with a Towne of the same name. Here Zeland and Scania do lye so neare together with their Promontories, as it were meeting one the other, that the Sea between them is scarce foure miles over, and is called De Sund, or the Sound. At this place all the ships that are bound toward the East, are compelled to come as to one com­mon Center, and pay Custome to the King. And there being a Castle on either Shoare, the King when necessitie requires it, having placed his ships in the middle of it, can so shut up the mouth thereof, that he can re­straine a great Navie either from entring in, or going forth; for some­time 200, and sometime 300 ships do arrive there together in one day out of divers parts of Europe. Here is also Roeschild heretofore the Seat of a Bishop, where are to be seene divers famous monuments of many Da­nish Kings and Dukes, now almost wasted and decayed. Beneath Zeland are the Islands following Amigria, Huena, Weem, Moenesland in which is the Citie Stegoa and many others. Zeland hath one Bishop, whose Seat the Prelate of Roeschild (as I said) did hold heretofore.Scania. Scania among all the Provinces of the Kingdome of Denmarke is famous for the largenes and wealth thereof. This some have called Scandinavia for Scondania, that is, the pleasant part of Denmarke, some Scania, and others Sconingia, commonly it is called Sconen. Pliny calleth it Scandia and Scandina­via, which hee falsly supposeth to be a very large Island. But Ortelius thinketh that this Scandia and Scandinavia which Pliny mentions was not Scania, but that Peninsula, which at this day doth containe three very large Kingdomes, Norwey, Swethland, and Gothland beside other Coun­tries.The Situation. This Scania is every where encompassed with the Sea, except it be where an arme of Land stretcheth out Northward, & from thence ben­ding backe Eastward is joyned to Swethland: yet the deepe vallies and high Rocks which lye betweene these two Countries, make it to be so difficult a journey out of Scania into Gothland and part of Swethland, that it is easier to adventure to goe by Sea, than to undergoe the trouble by land. This Countrie is inferior unto none in the temperature of the Cli­mate,The fruitful­nesse of the Soyle. the fruitfulnesse of the Earth, the conveniencie of the Havens, in Sea commodities, in fishing, in Lakes or Rivers, in hunting of wild beasts, in the inexhaustible veines of Gold, and Silver, Brasse, and Lead; in the frequencie of Townes, and in their Civile institutions. Whence, as Munster witnesseth,The qualitie of the Soile. it still retaineth the name of Scandia. It was here­tofore [Page 135] divided into two Dukedomes Halland and Bleking, now it contai­neth thre and twentie Prefectorships, & fifteene Cities. The Metropolis or chiefe Citie thereof is Londa or Londia, where the Archbishop of the Kingdome resideth. Here is also Malmogia, which is also called Ellebo­gen, being a famous Mart-towne, and the speciall Citie of the whole Countrie for Faires and continuall traffique, which the people of the Countrie do use there. In Halland is the Castle Warburg, built on the high tops of Mountaines. It was taken by the Swedens, and fortified with a Garrison of their owne in the yeare 1565, when Daniel Ranzovius by by the command of King Fredericke the second, did straitly besiege it, that at last it was enforced to yeeld it selfe up. This man famous for his vertues and valour was slaine in the yeare 1569. being shot through the head with a bullet sent from a brasse piece of Ordinance. Neare unto this Countrie are the Islands Landoe, Hannoe, and Bornholm, a famous Island divided into foure Prefectorships, and containing three Cities and one Castle. There is also Gotland, in which the ancient and once flourishing Mart-towne of Wisby is seated, but now the traffique being removed to other cities, it is decayed, both in Inhabitants, and wealth. Besides corne, with which this countrie aboundeth, it affordeth not on­ly plentie of cheese, butter and divers sorts of skins, but faire firre trees, of which there are great woods for the making of masts for ships, and also lime and stone for building. The Rivers of Denmarke are Egidora, commonly called Eyder, which Ptolomy calls Chalusus. This River di­vides the Frizians from the Ditmarsians, and so discharges it self into the Brittish Ocean. The fish-full and navigable River Stora, (which arising in the inner part of Holsatia, watereth and washeth some Townes, toge­ther with the noble house of Brandenberg belonging to the Ranzovian familie, and afterward powreth it selfe ito the River Albis) and divers others. The This Sea is called by some Mare Suevicū, by Pompo [...] ­us Mela, Sinus Colanus, and by Strabo, S [...] ­nus Venedicus Balticke Sea which wee have made to be the bound of Denmarke on the East, the Germans call it Oastzee, but the inhabitants doe now call it Belts from the Latine word Baltheus which signifieth a Belt or militarie girdle, because in manner of a girdle, it embraceth and en­compasseth either Chersonesus. Tacitus seemes to call it Mare pigrum, that is, the slow Sea, from the effect, as Ortelius thinketh, because it is not moved as other Seas, for the Tides thereof are scarcely discerned, as they do affirme that have often sailed on it, and it floweth in a perpe­tuall course from East to West. Helsingera at the Bay of the Sund, hath the royall Castle Cronburg, being the defence and strength of the farthest Island from the shoare of Zeland. This Castle Fredericke the second King of Denmarke, did build with great cost, and raised it from the bottome of the Sea by laying many stones under water between woodden planks for a foundation; it is so strong and firme, that it despiseth the huge waves of the Sea with stormie weather rowles against it. There is in the Citie Lundis a very curious Clocke wherein much Art is expressed, cal­led Saint Laurences clocke: and set up in the lower part of the Church, where it hath a Table of wood fastned to the wall distinguished with many circles of divers colours. In this clocke by certaine Indexes the present yeare, moneth, and weekes, also the particular day and houre of the day is represented to the eye, thereby are shewed the fixt and mo­vable [Page 136] feasts, the motion of the two great Luminaries, the Sunne and Moone, their places in the Zodiacke every day, and their positions and aspects one toward another. And as these things appeare outwardly, by reason of certaine engines, and wheeles framed within to that purpose, So is there added a covering so made by Art, that as often as the Clocke strikes, two little Images like two Champions do meete together, & do give one another so many blowes as the Clocke striketh strokes. But that which is more wonderfull is this, in the middle of this Table, as it were in a Throne, is placed the Image of the Virgin Mary, holding her Infant in her armes: on both sides of her there are, as it were, two Gates, and before her feet a Theater of a semicircular forme, with the arch thereof turned toward the spectators, within there is a devise with the Images of the three wisemen, having every one their servant. The whole engine being turned as he pleaseth that keepeth it, straightway the Ima­ges come forth. And before the rest there comes as it were a threatning Herald, who brandishing his sword knocks at the left doare, that being open'd hee goeth forward while two Images seeme to blow two trum­pets before him. He that is the first of the wisemen, walketh with a state­ly pace. But when hee commeth to the Virgin Maries Image hee reve­rently bends himselfe unto it, as if hee did adore her. And so also do the other two. The servants goe on without doing any obedience or ma­king any shew of reverence, the last of them shutteth the right gate, that the sound of the Clocke when that is shut may be heard more plainly. But of this enough.

THE SECOND TABLE OF DENMARKE. WHICH CONTEINETH PART OF THE NORTHERNE IVTIA.

THE Westerne and speciall part of Denmarke is Iutia, com­monly called Iutland, which Ptolemy calleth the Cimbrian Chersonesus, and Pliny Cartrin. The name This runneth forth North­ward in manner of a Peninsula, betweene the Brittish and Germane Seas, as Italy doth toward the South. The South­erne bound thereof is the River Eydera, The Situation and it lyeth many miles in length from the River Albis or Elve, toward the North: The greatest breadth of it is not much. This Country is divided into the Northerne and Southerne part, as we have already spoken. The Northerne Iutia, Iutia called the Northerne Cimbrica, which is described in this Table, exten­ding it selfe toward Norwey, doth over against Saga, a Towne famous in regard of the quick-sands and shallow Sea neare it,The Situation. end in a straite and narrow forme like a wedge. This Country is broadest about the Market Towne of Aleburg, where Lymford winding it selfe into it, and passing almost through all Iutia Westward, parteth the Country Wensus­sel from the rest, except it be for a very little space, and so maketh it as it were an Island. This River being carried in a great channell, maketh many famous Islands by encompassing them about, and having many Bayes as it were, and severall branches, it doth divide and give limits to divers Provinces, Northerne Iutia is fertile in producing and bea­ring Fruits, Corne, Barley, and the like: It hath also in some places very fruitfull pastures. It aboundeth with so many heards of Oxen, and bringeth up so many Cowes, that it sendeth an incredible number of cattle into forreine Countries, and especially into Germany, whither there are yearely brought almost 150 thousand Oxen, besides Cheese, Butter, Tallow, and Hides. It doth bring forth an excellent breede of Horses, of which a great number are transported to other places. Iutia heretofore was subject to the Saxons, but not the other Northerne Countries. Out of this Country the Cimbri 150 yeares before Christs birth, came and fell upon Italie like an impetuous storme, to the great terrour thereof. For they having joyned to themselves the Tentons, the Tigu­rines, and Ambrones, conspired utterly to extinguish the Roman Empire Syllanus could not resist the violence of their first approach, nor Mani­lius their second on-set, nor Caepio the third. All of them were put to slight and beaten out of their Tents, insomuch as Florus thinketh they had beene quite undone and overthrowne if Marius had not lived in that age. This Cimbrian warre continued eight yeares after the Consul­ship [Page 138] of Syllanus, even to the fift Consulship of Marius, who at the R [...]ver Athesis, called by the Germanes Ets [...]h, and by the Italians [...]adica, did quite cut off their Army consisting of Cimbrians, Teut [...]us, and and Am­brones. But because in this place wee have by chance made mention of the Cimbrians, whose name is famous in Histories, we will speake some­what more of them: and because Iunius a learned [...]an doth discourse most learnedly of them, I will not thinke it much to set downe his owne or other words to the same effect.

It appeares in Moses Bookes, saith he, that Iaphet had a sonne called Gomer, or by changing of a letter Go­mer, which word signifies with the Hebrewes one perfecting a circle. But the genuine sense of the word, (hitherto unknowne to Writers unskilfull in the Cimmerian language, because none hath declared the obscuritie) will bee as manifest and cleare as the Meridian Sunne, if you gently breake the word in pieces. For what other thing does Goom her, being disjoyned, signifie in that language, or if you pronounce it Gomer, than I goe about in a circle, or I finish a perfect course? Hence also is that orbicular order of Artes, which the Grecian Writers call Encyclopedia, and Fabius the circle of learning, (because it is endlesse as a ring) called Gomera. Rightly therefore that auspicious name hap­ned unto the offspring of Iaphet, which spread themselves over the World, and as the name doth signifie, did finish that course that was given and prescribed to them by lot, having travell'd over all Countries from the rising of the Sunne to the setting thereof. For no man is so rude and ignorant in the knowledge of Historie, that know­eth not that the Gothes and Vandales (who were the ofspring of the Cimmerians or Cimbri) did possesse both the Hesperiaes. Wherefore, since by the consent of all men the Cimmerians did descend from Gomer, who at first did possesse the inward part of Asia, and being expell'd by the Scythians, repairing Westward did passe into Scan­dia, and from thence unto the Cimbrian Chersonesus, I see no reason how a more convenient name can bee given to Gomer the Author of the Cimbrian Nation, and to the people retaining their fathers name, tha [...] from the desire of circuiting and wandring about. For I thinke no man hath read of any Nation that hath travelled a greater circuit of earth, as Iosephus, an accurate Writer of the Iewish antiquities, doth perspicuously and diligently explaine when he writeth that the poste­rity of Gomer comming out of Armenia, did runne out into the River Tanais, and from thence with their multitudes, did overspread all Countries of Europe, as farre as the utmost coasts of the Gades. Plutarch in the life of Marius hath clearely explained the desire that was in that Nation to propagate and finish this their course when hee reporteth thus of them. The Cimbrians, as often as they change their seates, doe attempt the neighbour Countries by warres, yet not with a daily or continuall violence, but every yeare when the season serveth they make some inroade, and seeing there are divers and severall names of people amongst them, they call their troupes by a common appel­lation Celtoscythians. Some do report that there was no great compa­ny of Cimbrians, who were anciently knowne to the Grecians, but that some banished men or seditious persons, cashiered by the Scythians, [Page 139]
THE SECOND TABLE OF DENMARKE.
IUTIA SEPTENTRIONALIS.
[Page 140] passed from Now called Ma [...]delle [...] Maeotis into other parts of Asia under the conduct of Lyg­damis: and that the greatest and most warlike part of the Nation did seate themselves on the outmost coasts of the O [...] Northerne Sea [...]alled now Mare Crani [...]m, [...] Mar [...] S. [...] Ocean, and did inha­bite a darke Country, which in regard of the high and thicke woods, reaching even to the Forrest of Hircynus, was to the Sunne-beames in­accessible. Hitherto I have for the most part rendred his owne words: but I understand not whence Plutarch from the Germane Etymologie, or Festus Pompetus from the French, can prove that the Cimbrians were called theeves & robbers, unlesse wee take hired Souldiers for theeves and robbers, or unlesse it seeme that Plutarch did referre it to the man­ner of warring peculiar to that Nation, who did set upon their neigh­bours with secret ambushment and assaults like theeves, for he relates that Italy was strooken with feare by their fierce inrodes, when they understood that a Nation of no name or setled habitation, was like a sudden cloud of raine ready to fall upon their heads.

Hitherto Iunius. This Iutia is divided into foure large Episcopall Seats,The Townes. into the Ripensian, which is kept at Ripen, the Arhusian which is at Arhusium, the Vandalican which is at Alburg, and the Wiburgian which is at Wiburg. The Ripensian Diocese hath 30 Prefectures, seven Cities, & ten royall Castles. Queen Dorothy the widdow of Christian the third erected and built a Schoole at Kolding, at her owne proper charge and cost. The Arhusian Diocese hath one and thirty Prefectures, seven Cities, and five Castles. Arhu­sium or Arhusen is a famous Mart-Towne, in regard of its Haven made by the great Promontorie of Hellen, which extendeth it selfe through the Country of Mols, from the royall Castle Kalloe, even to the high Moun­taine [...]llemansbergh, and by its owne situation, and some Islands lying neare unto it, maketh the Sea very placable and calme for Marriners. Under this Diocese there are the Islands Samsoe, Hielm, Tuen, Hiarnoe, sometimes called Gerno, Hilgenes, and many other. The Vandalican Di­ocese, called also the Diocese of Burglaw, hath thirteene Prefectures▪ and sixe Cities. The most speciall parts thereof are Wendsyssel, Hand­haret, Thyland, and Morsoe. Wendsyssil or Vensilia, that is the Land or Seat of the Vandalls hath sixe Prefectures, three Townes, and one Castle. Here is the Mountaine Alberg, in which are certaine Monuments of Gyants, the adjacent Isles are Grysholm, Hertsholm, Tydsholm and others. In Handhaeret is a Rocke of great height, called Skarringelint, and on the coast thereof those two quick-sands, which they call Sandores and Brac­ [...]. The Isles subject unto it are Oland and Oxeholm. Thyland hath foure Prefectures, one Towne called Thystad or Tystet, where Christian the third built a Schoole for the nurture of Youth, and one Castle called Orumna. Under it are the Islands Hansholm, Ostholm, Iegen, Cifland, Eg­holm, Bodum. Morsia hath three Prefectures, the Citie Nicoping, the Ca­stle Lunds [...]od or Lundgard, and an Island adjacent neare unto it, called Agero [...]. The Diocese of Wiburg doth containe sixteene Prefectures. three Cities, and as many Castles At Wiburg the generall Councell of the most Noble and wise Trium-vi [...], concerning enquiring into, and judging of civill matters, is continued almost all the yeare, unlesse some­times when they are wearied with that troublesome office, they refresh themselves, and recollect their strength in their owne Country houses. [Page 141] Hither are brought the causes of all the Cimbrian Chersonesus, as com­plaints of bounds, controversies concerning inheritance, and all capitall causes, as slaughters, adulteries, thefts, poysonings, &c. Neare to the Peninsula Wenslia, where ending in a Cone, it bendeth by degrees toward the East, is that corner of Iutia, so perilous and fearefull to Marriners: for a great ridge of rockes runne so farre into the Sea, that those who would bee free from danger, come not neare to the shoare by 8. miles. Such also is all the Westerne shoare of Iutia, so that those who purpose to sayle into Norwey, or out of the Ocean Eastward, are enforced to take a large compasse to avoyde it: and to this purpose there are foure Moun­taines on this shoare, which the Marriners observe as Sea-markes. The Inhabitants of this Country seeing they have no fit Haven for ships to ride in, draw them out of the deepe upon the shoare so farre, that the waves of the Sea by beating upon them cannot bruise them.The Sea. In this Sea there is plenty of fish, and especially of Herrings; and therefore the Inhabitants use fishing much. These things being declared,The commodi­ties. The manners of the people. I will adde something not impertinent to conclude this place withall, which is, that the people in these Northerne Countries have beene, and yet are cold and drie, of a large stature, faire complectioned, well coloured, merrie, jocund, suspitious, crafty, and provident in businesse, healthfull, proud, loving to their friends; they eate and drinke much, they digest well, and therefore live long, they abound with bloud, they are blunt in behavi­our, and in regard of much heate about their heart, they are quarrellous and contentious, they love dangers, hunting and travelling, they are obstinate in defending their owne opinions, and yet mindefull of Ju­stice, they are very docible and apt to attaine Languages, they are lo­vers of the Muses, and doe strictly performe their covenants and bar­gaines, they have many children, which the weomen with great diffi­culty bring forth; their woemen are also beautifull, and both wise and sparing in the government of their Familie: but they die for the most part of Catharres, the Kings evill, the Pleuricy, the Fistula, the Dropsie, or Ptisicke. Achilles Gassarus affirmeth that Guns were here first inven­ted by a Monke.

THE THIRD TABLE OF DENMARKE. Jn which are part of the Dukedome of SLESWICH and HOLSATIA.

The Duke­dome of Sles­wick. SO much concerning Northerne Iutia, the Southerne fol­loweth, which the Ancients did call Nordalbingia, because it is seperated and parted toward the North from the rest of Germanie, by the riverCalled by the Germans Elve, which signifi­eth in their tongue eleven because it hath so many foun­taines, whence so called. Albis. It containeth the two Dukedomes of Sleswick and Holsatia, of which wee will speake in order. The Dukedome of Sleswick taketh his name from the Metropolis and ancient Mart Towne of Sleswick. Heretofore this Coun­trie was called the Dukedome of Iutia, which Woldemare Nephew to Abel King of Denmark received to hold in fee of King Ericus, about the yeare 1280. But the Royall Line of the Kings and Dukes being extinct, and the Dukedome of Sleswick being thereby fallen to the Crowne,The ancient Government. Margaret Queen of three Kingdomes gave it to Gerard Earle of Holsatia, on this condition, that hee should acknowledge to hold it of the King of Denmarke. The Townes. The Cities which are subject to this Dukedome, because they have the same priviledge with other parts of Denmarke, therefore they have the same Lawes with them. The Subjects may appeale from the Sentence of the Magistrates of any place to the Princes and their Senators, and not farther, as it is provided by their priviledges. But the generall government of both these Dukedomes belongeth to the King of Denmarke, and the Duke of Holsatia by turnes. When it is devolved, and doth fall to the King, it is governed by his Substitute in his name. The chiefe Towne of this Dukedome is Slesvicum, commonly called Schleswick. It hath its name from a German word, in regard it is situated neere Slia, in the Bay of the Baltick Sea: for Wick signifies in the Saxon language both a Towne, and a crooked winding or Bay of the Sea, as Becanus hath observed in his Bookes of Gothish & Danish matters. Crant­zius and those who have writ the Saxon Histories, doe give it an other appellation besides Sleswick, which is still in use with the Danes & Frees­landers: for they call this Towne in their language Heidebui or Heideba, because, they say, it was first built by a certaine Queene of Denmarke, whose name was Heth. It hath a convenient situation for traffick, and a convenient Haven for commerce and trading. Not farre from this Towne is seated the Castle Gotorpi. Heere is a famous Custome or Toll, for it hath beene observed, that in plentifull yeares, fifty thousand Oxen being driven out of Denmarke into Germanie, have heere beene paid toll for. There is also in this Dukedome, Flensburg, a famous Towne, lying among the high Mountaines, neere the shore of the Easterne Sea. It [Page 143]

HOLSATIA
THE THIRD TABLE OF NORWEY.

[Page 144] hath a Haven so convenient, deepe, and safe, that many of the Citizens may loade and unloade ships even at their owne doores. And heere are the Townes Husenum or Hussum, and Haderslebia. This Dukedome hath onely one Bishoprick, two Chapters, three Monasteries, and divers Ca­stles belonging to the Prince and his Nobles. The order of Senators, whereof I have heretofore made mention,The Senators doth consist of the number of 24 persons of the Gentry, to whom is joyned a generall Chancel­lour, and two Doctors of the Law.

The Dukedome of HOLSATIA.

Holsatia whence so called.SOme doe suppose, that Holsatia was so called from the many Woods and Forrests which are in it, for the Cimbrians and Low Germans doe call a wood holt: and some doe derive the Etymologie of the word from a hollow stone, because the Dukes of Holsatia were formerly cal­led Dukes of the hollow Stone. It is bounded on the East with the River Bilena, The Situation on the West with Stora or Steur, on the South with Albis, and on the North with Eider. The qualitie of the Soyle. The Countrie it selfe is woody and full of Forrests, whence they have such store of fuell, that they are able to sup­plie Freesland with wood, when they themselves also doe keepe great fires. But although their woods are very spatious, so that they seeme to have no end, yet they seldome have any great Oakes in them, but are full of Beech-trees, with whose waste an innumerable sort of Hogges are fatted. The Land, for the most part, doth afford them every three yeares great store of fishing, and a very rich and plentifull harvest. For three yeares together it is tilled, sow'd, and mow'd, and three yeares afterward the Lakes are let in, to feede the fish and grasse, thereby a cer­taine fat and slimie matter is brought in,The varietie of living Crea­tures. which doth fertilize the fields. This place beares neither Vines nor Olives; but there is much hunting of wilde beasts. And this Countrie doth breede a great number of hor­ses. Holsatia is divided into foure parts, Dithmarsh, Holsatia, Stormaria, and Wagria. These were heretofore Counties, and afterward chang'd into a Dukedome, by Frederick the third Emperour, at the suite and re­quest of Christierne the first, who now is charged to maintaine 40 horse­men, and fourescore foot, for the use of the Roman Empire. Dithmarsh at the first enjoy'd freedome and libertie for some hundred yeares;The ancient government. and albeit it were granted by the Emperour Frederick to Christierne the first in fee, yet it was not at that time subjected. Afterward his Sonnes, King Iohn, and Duke Frederick did undertake to make an expedition against it, in the yeare of our Lord 1500, but the Dithmarsians having over­throwne their Armie, defended their owne libertie, untill they were conquer'd & overcome by the Nephews of Christierne the first, namely Duke Iohn, Adolphus, and Frederick the second King of Denmarke, in the yeare of our Lord 1559. In Holsatia are these Cities, first Segeberg, in Wagria, a Countrie of Holsatia, 16 miles from Lubeck. 2, Itzohoa, a faire Towne in regard of the nature and situation of the place, and the resort of ships unto it. 3, Stormaria is encompassed, and, as it were, em­braced in the armes of a fishie and navigable River, which arising in the inner parts of Holsatia, doth wash the wals of certaine Townes, and the [Page 145] noble Ranzovian House of Bredenberg, and afterward doth discharge it selfe into the River Albis. Heere is in this Countrie Chilonium, com­monly called Kile, which is an ancient Towne, and hath a large Haven, in which (to the great commoditie of the Holsatians) divers sorts of merchandize are brought out of Germanie, Livonia, Denmarke, and Sweth­land. Also Krempe, and Reinholdsburg or Rensburg, the former taketh his name from the River gliding by it, the later from the first builder. Here are moreover Meldorp, Heiningsted or Henste, and Tellingsted in Dithmars, and Hamburg the Metropolis of Stormaria, Th [...] Town was [...] C [...]stle [...]nd called H [...] ­b [...]rg. a renowned Mart-Towne neere the River Albis, which after many devastations and calamities suffered in the warres, was at last reedified, and in the time of Henry the fourth Emperour, it began to be encompassed with wals, and to be beau­tified with three Gates and twelve watch-towres. In this Citie Albertus Crantzius, an eloquent and true Historian lived and was buried. This Countrie is full of Lakes, and especially Dithmars, whose Inhabitants (trusting to the benefite of their Lakes) did refuse to acknowledge obe­dience to the Kings of Denmarke, though of late they have beene com­pell'd thereunto. The chiefest River of note which watereth this Countrey is Egidora or the Eidera, there are also some others, the most whereof may rather be called Brookes or Rivulets than Rivers: but the B [...]ltick Sea, in that part where it washeth the Dukedomes of Holsatia and Sleswick, hath safe and pleasant Bayes, which are safe harbours for Mer­chants, and weather-beaten ships. In some places also it affordeth great store of fish, and especially of Salmons. It is a plaine Countrey, sel­dome raised with any mountaines, yet one it hath betweene Lubeck and Hamburg, of a pleasant situation, and famous for the ornaments of peace and warre, with which Henry Rantzovius did adorne it. It hath an anci­ent Castle seated on it, famous for the antiquitie and first builder there­of, and at the foote of the hill a Towne adjoyning to it. Heere are ma­ny woods, with which the Countrey of Holsatia is beset & replenished, but especially Dithmars, as the woods of Borcholt, Burgholt,The Woods.Alver­dorpenholt, Resenwalde, and many others. The Holsatians had heretofore 48 men, who were Presidents and Governours of the whole Countrie;The Senators to these they made their appeale out of the severall Parishes, and they did judge all matters. But they being subdued, and the Countrie now divided into two parts, in each of them there are twelve speciall and principall men, together with a Prefect, who, for the most part, is a Do­ctor or Licentiate at Law. These have all yearely pensions from the Princes, and they have a Clerke joyned to them, as also an Overseer or President out of the Holsatian Nobilitie. The one of these Prefects, which is for the King, is called the Prefect of Steinburg, and the other being for the Duke, the Prefect of Gottorpe. Yet the Subjects have leave to appeale or make suite to the Princes and Senators of either Dukedome, as well of Sleswick as Holsatia, but not further. They had heretofore a written Law, which now by degrees is changed, and reformed according to the Common Law, compiled by Henry Rantzovius the Kings Substitute,The Lawes & Institutions. by Sigefrid Rantzovius, heretofore Lord of Nienhs, the Lord Adam Trazi­geriu, and the Lord Erasmus Kirslemius, according to which Law all causes are decided, and punishments pronounced against delinquents & offenders.

[Page 146] Holsatia hath foure Orders or degrees of people: The Nobles, the Clergie, the Citizens, and the Countrie-men, whereof there are two kindes, for some possesse goods of their owne being hereditarie and free; others hired goods or lands, for which they pay rent and doe cer­taine services. The Nobles have Castles and Lands, together with the royalty of hunting, fishing, and hawking, which, for the most part, are hereditarie unto them. The whole Countrie hath not above 24 Fa­milies,The Noble Families. whose names are mentioned in the Holsatian Chorographie, but divers Families there are that are descended from the same stock, as the Rantzovians doe at this time possesse an hundred and fiftie Castles, and divers other possessions. The Aleseldians and Powischians have almost as many. Holsatia hath one Bishoprick, namely Lubeck, for the Bishop­rick of Hamburg is subject to the Bishoprick of Breme. The contentions which happen among the Nobles are judged by a Senate of Dukes, the Princes, for the most part, sitting Presidents in judgement as it is provi­ded by their priviledges and Lawes. From the order of Senators any one putting in a sufficient caution may appeale to the Imperiall Cham­ber. The Citizens enjoy priviledges peculiar to themselves, and use the Roman Law, or else the Lubeck. The Subjects may appeale from the judgement of the Senate of their owne Citie, to the judgement of foure Cities, appointed to judge and determine of all speciall matters. From them againe they are permitted to appeale to the Princes and Senators of Holsatia, and also further even to the Imperiall Chamber, so that fit securitie be put in. Countri-mens cases or suites are pleaded by their Lawyers, even in the open fields, where are present the Noble-men thereabout, the Prefects, and two Assistants. There they come forth & doe make their appearance, who have any suit one against an other; the Defendant and Plaintiffe being both heard, the whole company or as­semblie of Countrie-men are bidden to goe forth; and then their cau­ses being diligently weigh'd on both sides, they returne againe, and the suiters being called in, they give sentence in their case according to Law and right.

THE FOVRTH TABLE OF DENMARKE. CONTAINING FIONIA WITH THE ISLANDS LYING ROUND ABOUT IT.

SO much according to our Method concerning the Duke­dome of Sleswicke and Holsatia: Fionia followes with the Isles lying round about it. Fionia, Fionia whence so called. commonly called Fuy­nen is the chiefe of all other Isles lying in the Bay of Codo­nus from Zeland. It taketh its name from the beautie there­of, both in regard of the forme and situation.The Situation. It is separated from the Continent of Denmarke, by so small and narrow a Sea flowing between them, called Middlesar, that it seemeth almost to cleave unto the Conti­nent. This Iland as it looketh on the West toward Iutia, so on the East toward Zeland. It is 48 miles in length, and 16 in breadth. The Land (that I may omit the Sea which is full of fish) is a fruitfull soyle,The fruitfulnes of the Soyle. and ve­ry profitable to the husbandman. For it aboundeth with such plentie of corne, that it sends store thereof yearly to other farre Countries, especi­ally Wheate and Barley. And the ground, albeit it be very fruitfull and endowed with the gifts of Ceres, yet it is never dunged. Whence the Cities and Townes thereof are annoyed with filthy smells of the dung of cattle, which is cast out, being thereof no use, as Munster writeth. This Countrie aboundeth with so many Droves of Oxen,The varietie of living creatures. and breedeth such a number of Cowes and Horses, that it sends yearly into Germany great Heards and Droves of them. And in regard of the many woods which are in the Island, there is great store of game for hunting, as Harts, Hares, and Foxes. In the middle of it is the Metropolis or mother Citie called Ottania, or Ottonium commonly called Ottensel being a Bishops Seat,The Cities. built as it appeares by many testimonies by Otto the first, about the time when he compeld King Herald to receive the Christian faith. This Citie is a famous Mart for the whole Island, in which about Epiphanie or Twelfetide there is a great meeting of the Islanders and especially the Nobles, as there is at Kile in Holsatia. Fionia is divided into five and twentie Prefectures, sixteene Cities, and six royall Castles. The other cities are in a manner equally distant from Ottonia, which is as it were the Center, and are so built of the Sea shoare, that in regard of the con­veniencie of the Havens, they traffique not onely in the Balticke Sea, but also exercise their negotiations throughout all Swethland, and Norwey, Russia, the Low-countries, and Germany: the chiefe amongst them are Niburch, Swynburch, Foborch, Assens, Bowens, Middlefart, or Milvart, and Kettemynde, or Cortemund. The chiefe royall castles are Newburg, Hagen­schow, Hinsgagel, Eschburg, and the Court of Rugard. Here are many Vil­lages, [Page 148] and not a few Noble-mens houses. For this Island in regard of the pleasantnesse of the Climate, and fertilitie of the soyle is much esteem­ed by the Nobles. The sea doth yeeld great plentie of fish, and every Bay is so full thereof, that ships or boats being over set with them can hardly saile or row against them, which yet they do not take with any fishing engines, but with their hands. Those who dwell by the Sea side, besides tillage and husbandrie, doe use fishing, both which do furnish thē with all things necessarie for house-keeping. There are some places in this Island famous for warlike atchievements done not many yeares past.The commodi­ties of the Sea. For there is a certaine mountaine called Ochenberg, not farre from the Castle Hagenschow, in which Iohn Rantzovius Knight and Generall of the field, for King Christian the third, in a great battle did overthrow Christopher Count of Oldenburg, in the yeare of Christ 1530, on the ele­venth day of June, in which conflict were slaine two Counts, the one be­ing the Count of Hage, the other of Tecklenburg, whose bodies being af­terward taken up out of the field were brought to Ottonia, and buried in Canutus his Church about the same time also on the Mountaine Fauch­burg, which is 4 mile distant from the Towne Ascens, some thousands of the Rebels were slaine and put to slight. This Countrie is adorned with many woods in which are great store of wild beasts. In the citie of Otto­nium there are two famous Temples or Churches, one consecrated to Canutus, The [...] buildings▪ the other to Saint Francis. In this latter Iohn King of Denmarke, and his sonne Christierne, when they had spent 37 yeares in banishment and captivitie, were buried in the yeare 1559: about the other is a large and spacious court-yard, in which the King of Denmarke did renew his ancient league of friendship, with the Dukes of Holsatia and Sleswicke, An. 1580, they report also that the mother of King Christian the second did place up a certaine Altar here belonging to the Minorite Friars, a wonderfull curious piece of worke carved in wood, the like whereof is not to be found in Europe. The Islands. Out of this Island from the Towne Ascen [...] it is eight miles into Iuitland or Iutia, and from Nyburge into Zeland is a passage of sixteene miles long through the Baltieke Sea, which is very dangerous, especially if the Sea be rough, for when the East Sea being increased by the receit of many rivers is thrust forward with a violent course, it often happens that contrarie windes do raise such mightie waves, & make the sea so unquiet, that Mariners are many times to great danger drawne in with these gulphlike windings of the waters & some­times swallowed up by them. And so much concerning Fionia: now let us passe to the other Islands. Under Fionia are contained ninety Islands situated toward the South, and the most of them habitable: the chiefe whereof are these:Langeland Langeland, Lawland. Falstre, Aria or Arr, Alsen, Tosing, and Aroe. Langeland is 28 miles in length. In it there is a Towne called Rudkeping, and Traneker a royall Castle, beside many villages, Parishes, and Noble-mens houses. Lawland is separated by the strait of Gronesand from Zeland, Lawland. The fertilitie of the Soyle. and by a small arme of the Sea from Falstre. It is so fruitfull in corne and filberd Nuts, that ship-loads are brought from thence into other Countries. It hath five townes which are these, Nistadt, Nasco, To­grop, The Townes. Roth, and Marib: besides royall Castles, Noble-mens houses, many Parishes and Villages.Falstre. Falstre is 16 miles long, and hath these two Ci­ties [Page 149]

THE FOVRTH TABLE OF DENMARKE.
FIONIA

[Page 150] Stubecopen, and Nicopen, which in regard of the pleasantlesse and beautie thereof is called the Naples of Denmarke Out of this Island neare a royall Pallace, there is a frequent passage into Germany, namely to Warnemund, which is 28 miles long. It furnishes neighbour countries every yeare with much corn. Arta being distant 6 miles frō Elysia, is cloa­thed with woods, and therefore assordeth much recreation for hunters, it hath three Parishes, and some Noble-mens houses, with the Towne & Castle of Coping. It belongs together with Elysia to the Dukedome of Sleswi [...]ke, and is under the government of the Duke thereof. Elisia or Al­sa, commonly called Alsen, is an Island of a reasonable bignesse, for it is 16 miles in length, and 8 in breadth, being not farre distant from the Dukedome of Sleswicke, and looking toward the Bay die Flensburger Wick, it is parted by it from the first seat of the English. The Rantzovian Musae­um tells us that the Romans did call these Islanders Elisians. As also those who inhabit the next Island, Arians: which appellation or name they still retaine to this day, Ptolomie relateth, that the English were the ancient in­habitants of the Northerne Countries, by the Sea side: to which Tacitus addeth the Elisit, Arit, and the Mommy, whose names also are still used in the Islands Alsen, Arr, and Moen. There is a Towne in Alsen or Elisia called Sunderburg and a Castle of the same name, with other Townes, as Norborch, Osternholm, Die Holle, and Gammelgard. It hath thirteene popu­lous Parishes, whence it can set forth many thousands of Souldiers. It is very wooddy, by reason whereof it affordeth Harts, and many kindes of wild beasts for hunting. It hath great store of Sea-fish and fresh-fish, and much wheat, and it is every where fit for feeding and pasturing of cattle. Tussing or Tosinga being the chiefe Isle among all the other Islands, lyeth neare unto a towne of Fionia called Swineburg, and is foure miles in length. In this Island besides Parishes, there is the Pallace of Kettrop, belonging to the Rosenkransians, and Rantzovians. Aroe is situated neare the Dukedome of Sleswicke where they passe to the Towne Alcens in Fionia by the Arsensian Bay, and hath foure Villages. There are also these Islands, Ramso, Endelo, Ebilo, Fenno, Boko, Brando, Toroe, Aggerins, Hellenis, Iordo, Birkholm, &c. Let so much suffice to have beene spoken concerning Fionia, and the Islands lying round about it. And now to conclude, I will here, rather then no where, adde unto the rest a Descrip­tion of Huena or Ween seated in the Sound, in which is the Castle of V­raniburg, filled with many accurate and elaborate Astronomicall instru­ments, The middle of this Island, where this Castle standeth, hath the Pole elevated about 56 Degrees and 55, and is situate from the West 55 Degrees. It is in compasse 8160 paces, every pace being 5 foote, so that the whole circuit of it is equall unto two common German, 18 English miles. This Island being placed in the most famous strait of the whole Kingdome through which many ships saile out of the Easterne into the Westerne Sea: and on the contrarie with a gooly prospect hath in view many chiefe Townes of this Kingdome, which stands as it were round about it; in Zeland Hasnia, 12 miles distant from it South South­west, also Helsinger, (where those ships that saile or passe by, do pay cu­stome or tribute) and the Castle Cronaburg both distant from it on the Northwest 8 miles, Helsingburg which lies on the shoare of Scania, is as [Page 151] farre distant from it toward the North, and on the same shoare is Land­skrone being foure miles from it: toward the East lyeth Lunda or Londen, which although it be not a Sea-towne, yet is but 16 miles distant from hence. And although the Island be not very great,The fruitful­nesse of the Soyle. yet no part of it is bar­ren or unfruitfull, but produceth great store of fruit, and aboundeth with cattell, it bringeth forth Does, Hares, Cunnies,The [...] living Crea­tures. and Partridges in great plentie, and is very convenient for fishing. It hath a wood of Hasell trees, which are never worme-eaten, but hath no Dormise. Heretofore it was remarkable for foure Castles, whose names do yet remaine, Syn­derburg, which was seated on the Southerne shoare, Norburg on the op­posite Northerne shoare. Karheside which stood toward the East side of the Island, and Hamer toward the West, the foundation of these foure Castles may be yet seene, but there are no ruines thereof remaining. This Island lyes very deepe in the Salt-sea, and yet it hath many fresh Rivers and Springs, among which there is one Spring that never free­zeth with the violence of the Winters cold, a strange thing in these Countries.

BORVSSIA, OR PRVSSIA.

The nam [...], and whence s [...] called. BORVSSIA being the farthest coast of Germany, taketh its name from the people called Borussians, as Erasmus Stel­la witnesseth. These, as Ptolemy affirmeth, placed them­selves by the Riphaean Rath [...] the Riphaean wo [...]ds which are a pa [...]t of Hy [...]ci­nia, for [...] The Situation Hills, where they runne out North­ward, not far from the head of Tanais arising out of them, and weary of their owne habitations, with a strong head and violent force, they seated themselves in these places, and called the whole Country from their owne name Borussia, which now by wiping out one letter, and pronouncing another more softly, is called Prussia. Borussia beginning from the River Vistula, which boundeth it on the West, and running to the Balticke Sea, which compasseth the Northerne side there­of,The [...] of th [...] So [...]le, and [...] hath the Alani or Lituanians, on the East, and on the South the Ha­maxobij, i. the Scythians inhabiting the European Sarmatia. It hath a plea­sant ayre, but somewhat cold All the Country is more fruitfull than the neighbour Provinces. The ground is very fertile in bearing of corne, and such as farre excells the corne of Poland and Lithuania. It hath as great store of Bees and Honey, as any of the other Northerne Coun­tries.The variety of living creatures There is also in it much cattle, and great store of game for hun­ting. The great and vast woods bring forth many kindes of wild beasts, as Beares & Boares, with which they abound, yeelding a sort of Beares very strong and swift, called Bubali. They bring forth Buffons being a wilde kinde of Oxen, and wilde Horses, whose flesh the Inhabitants do eate. They bring forth Alces, which they commonly call Elandes: and white Weesels or Ferrets. The Borussians for the most part were Idola­ters untill the time of the Emperour Fredericke the second, in whose raigne, and in the yeare 1215. some [...] of their [...] under the wills of Achen. Anno 1100. Knights of the Dutch order, or the order of the Crosse did overcome them, and taught them the Christian Religion. After the Provinces and Cities of Borussia, An. 1419. being mooved thereunto by the covetousnesse and cruelty of those of the or­der of the Crosse, did revolt to Casimirus King of Polonia. And 30 yeares after the first defection revolting againe, they sold Mariburg with other Castles and Cities to the King for 476000 A Floren is [...]cording to the [...]nglish va­l [...]tion, three s [...]ings. Florens. But the Marians refusing to yeeld obedience to the King, they a long while contended by a doubtfull and uncertaine warre, untill at last the whole Country came into the hands of Albert Marquesse of Brandenburg, the last Go­vernour of that Order, who afterward at Cacrovia was made a Duke, and a secular Prince by Sigismund King of Polonia. They report that Prince Venedusus did divide Borussia into twelve Dukedomes, whereof these are the names: [...] of [...]ties. Sudavia, Sambia, Natangia, Nadravia, Slavonia, Bartonia, Galinda, Warmia, Ho [...]kerlandia, Culmigeria, Pomesania, and Michlovia. [Page 153]

BORVSSIA, OR PRVSSIA.
PRUSSIA

[Page 154] Sudavia was so wasted by those of the order of the Crosse, that now of a Noble Dukedome at this day there are scarce seven Townes remain­ing, and those very meane. In Sambia are many Cities, as Lebenicht built in the yeare 1256: Kneyback built in the yeare 1380. Regimount, cal­led by the Germans Keningsberg, and built in the year 1260 by Duke Al­bert. Fischusen built in the yeare 1269: & lastly Lechstet, built in the yeare 1289. In Natangia there are these Cities, Valdonia, Girania, Zinten, Crentz­burg, Heiligenbeil, Fridland, Shippenbeil, & Brandenburg. In Nadravia there are a few Cottages onely remaining, but all the Townes of note wasted. In Slavonia are these Cities, Ragnet, Tilse, Renum, Liccow, Salaw, Labia, Tapia, Vintburg, Christaderder, Baytia, Cestia, Norbeitia, Vensdorfe, Anger­bury, and Dringford. In Bartonia are these Townes, Nordenburg, Iabans­burg, Iurgburg, Insterburg, Richtenerder, Barton, and Rhenum. In Galindia are these Towns, Ortleburg, Rastenburg, Neyburg, Passenhume, Dreschdow, and Luzenburg. In Warmia are Ressen, Seburg, Bitstein, Wartenburg, Al­lensteyn, Melsak, Heilsberg, Werinedit, and Gustat. In Hockerlandia are Brunsburg, Tolkemit, Munhuse, Scorpow, and Elbing the greatest of them all, being built on the Sea shoare, and famous for the wealth of the Citi­zens, and frequencie of Merchants. In Culmigeria are Turuma, or Thorn, a famous Marti Towne, built neare the River Vistula, or Weisel, in the yeare 1235. Also Culmina or Culine, Wentslaw, Althasis, Graudentz, Gilgehburg, Schonsee, Strasburg, Bretchen, Neumarckt, Pappaw, Fridech, Le­ippe, Lesen, Golb, Reden, Berglaw, and Lantenburg. In Pomerania is Mari­enburg, a large City, built in the yeare 1402. Also Newtich, Stum, Christ­burg, Preusmarck, Salfeld, Merine, Holand, Lichstad, Osterod, Rosenburg, Mariemweder, Garnesie, Lebmul, Hohenstein, Schonenberg, Culenburg, Neun­burg, and Salaw. In Michlovia all is wasted and destroyed, except Stra­burg, The Rivers. onely. Prussia is a Country, in regard of the navigable Rivers, Bayes, and Havens, fit for the importation or exportation of divers commodities and merchandises. The chiefe Rivers are Called at this day Dravaniz, and anciently Visula, Bisula, and [...]ridanus. The commodities of the Sea. Vistula, Neme­ni, Cronon, Nogent, Elbing, Vusera, Passerg, Alla, Pregel, Ossa, Vreibnitz, Lua, and Lavia. In which, as in the Lakes there are great store of fish, Moreover, on the shoares of Borussta neare the Balticke Sea, a certaine kinde of Amber is gathered, which the Inhabitants call Barstein from burning, and Augstein, because it is very good for the Eyes. The Greeks call it Electrum, because the Sunne is called Elector, having recourse as it were to the fable of Phaethon. Servius upon the eighth Aeneid saith, that there are three kindes of Amber, one of which commeth out of trees, another which is found in the earth: a third which is made of three parts gold, and one part silver. Plinie writeth that the Germanes called it Glessum or Glesse, because it is not unlike unto it, seeing both of them are perspicuous and transparent; and from thence the Romans did call this Country Glessaria. There are many kindes of it, the white hath the best smell, which was cheape at the first, the next are the yellow and waxe-colour: the yellow is the best of all, having a translucent shining colour like flames of fire. There is some which is as soft as boyled or decocted Honey, and therefore is called Honey-Amber: there is much used of this Amber in many things; being heated with rubbing, it draweth unto it chaffe and drie leaves, as the Load-stone doth Iron. Borussia [Page 155] hath also woods which were never cut,The Woods. whence great store of wood is carryed away for the building of shippes and houses: they have streight trees to make Mastes for Shippes, which are carried from thence into farre Countries, and lastly they have other riches of their owne, from which the Inhabitants receive great profit; as Bees and wilde Beasts of which wee spoke before. The Country is divided at this day into Russia Regis, and Russia Ducalis. The King of Poland doth imme­diatly possesse either banke of the River Vistula, even to the mouth ther­of. Also the Island which is enclosed with Vistula and Nogo, the Towns and Castles to the new Bay, as Elbing, Tolkenit, Frawenberg, and Bruns­berg, even to the mouth of Passaria, and the whole Diocese of Warmia, being large toward the South, and adorned with Townes and fields, hanging like a Bladder, in the middle part of Borussia. The manner of government But although Bo­russia be immediatly subject to the King, and is but one Kingdome with Poland, yet it hath a publike Councell, Lawes and Judgements, an Exchequer, and the management of warres peculiar to it selfe. There are two Bishops in it, one of Warmia, who hath his residence at Bruns­burg, and the other at Culmes. There are three Palatines, as the Palatine of Culmes, of Marienburg, and of Pomeran. Three Castles, as the Castle of Culmes, Elbing, and Gedane, commonly called Dantzick, and so many Under-chamberlaines. There are three chiefe and prime Cities, Turu­ma, Elbing, Dantzick. These assemble themselves together to deliberate and give Judgement in matters of controversie twice every yeare, in the moneth of May at Margenburg, and at Michaelmas at Graudents. There are eighteene Captaines or Prefects of the Kings Castles and revenues.The [...]. As in the Palatinate of Marienburg, the Captaine of Stuma, Gneva, Me­va, Stargardia. In Pomeran the Captaine of Slochovia above Tuchol, neare the River Bro, the Captaine of Sueza, Tuchol, Dernias, and Puske. In the Palatinate of Culmes the Captaines of Brodnicke, Graudents, Radine or Re­den, Colba, Rogosna, Rogenhausen, and three others. The Dukedome of Borussia belonged heretofore to the Germane Order, or the order of the Crosse, being converted into an hereditary Dukedome by Albert of Bran­denburg Master of the Order, and being rent away from the Germane Empire, it came into the protection and obedience of the King of Po­land, in the yeare 1525. The Prince thereof taking his place in all Coun­sells, meetings, and assemblies next to the King. If any contention arise betweene the King and the Duke, it is decided at Marienburg or Elbing by the Kings Counsell, who are sworne by a new oath to Judge rightly.The Lawes & Institutions. But the Nobles or others having an action against the Duke doe com­mence it before the Dukes Vassalls, being deputed and appointed by the Duke to give judgement, and from them an appeale is permitted to the Kings and the Dukes Counsell residing at Martenburg. Every one ought there to be called into judgement where his goods are, or where hee dwelleth, neither can he be compelled to stand to forraine tryalls, and so be kept from his right. The Judges are so placed in the Provinces, that out of three named by every Province, the Duke chuseth one, to judge according to the Law of Culmes, and the Institutions of the Pro­vince: But if the Duke doe any thing against then Priviledges, Lawes, or customes, and upon suite made doe not heare their grievances, it is in [Page 156] the choice of the chiefe men in the Province, without being thought to be rebellious and seditious, to flie unto the protection of the Kings Ma­jestie of Poland, and by the vertue of some covenants and agreements be­tweene the King and the Duke, may request him to defend their Privi­ledges. There are in the Dukedome of Borussia two Bishops, one of Sambia, The Moun­taines who hath his residence at Kings Mount, commonly called Kon­ningsperg: the other of Pomesania, whose seat is at Marienwender, and these have all Ecclesiasticall jurisdiction in their owne power. Concer­ning the Religion and Rites of the ancient Borussians, Meletius telleth wonderfull things in his tenth Epistle to Georgius Sabinus. They wor­shipped Divells (saith he) instead of Gods, and now also in many places doe secretly worship them. They Religiously worshipped severall un­cleane creatures, namely, Serpents and Snakes, as if they had beene the servants and messengers of the Gods; for these they kept within their houses, and sacrific'd unto them as unto their houshold Gods. They held that the Gods did dwell in Woods and Groves, and that they were to please them by sacrificing unto them in those places: and to pray unto them to send them raine or faire weather. They held that all wilde Beasts, especially the Alces living in these Woods, were to be reveren­ced as the servants of the Gods, and therefore they were to abstain from injuring of them. They beleeved that the Sunne and Moone were the chiefest of all the Gods. They did worship Thunder and Lightning ac­cording to the opinion of the Heathens, and were of opinion that they might by prayers raise or calme stormes and tempests. They used a Goate for their sacrifice, in regard of the generative and fruitfull nature of that creature. They said that the Gods did inhabite in excellent faire trees, as Oakes, and the like: wherefore they would not cut downe such trees, but did religiously worship them as the houses and seates of the Gods. In such account also was the Elder tree, and many others. They were heretofore barbarous & ignorant of Learning, so that they would have thought it an incredible thing, if any one should have told them that men could make knowne their mindes one to another by the sen­ding of letters. But of these things enough, hee that desireth to know more, let him have recourse to Erasmus Stella his antiquities of Borussia, in his second booke thereof.

LIVONIA OR LIEFLAND.

IN my method Livonia or Levonia, commonly called Lief­land, doth follow,The Countrie whence so cal­led. concerning the originall of whose name I dare affirme no certainty. But Althamerus writeth thus of it. It may be, saith hee, that the Livonians, the far­thest people of Germanie toward the So called, because the Vene [...] ancient­ly lived there. Venedick shore, dwel­ling under the Parallel of the Island Scandinavia, which is called Gothland, were derived from the Lemovians, but I had rather derive them from the Ef­flui, for that they are commonly called Eyslenders. Ptolemie also mentioneth the Levonians in his second Booke, cap. 11. And a litle after speaking of the Aestii, hee saith, that Beatus Rhenanus did correct the corrupt rea­ding of Tacitus, and did againe rightly set downe the Nation of the Ae­stii. In as much as Rhenanus saith, it did appeare, that it was in the first copie Aestui in stead of Aestii, the ancient Writers of Bookes putting U for I. And Althamerus saith, if it were in the ancient copie the Ef­flui, hee durst affirme, that the Eyslanders were so called from them, by a litle alteration of the word. These people also are called Sudini, and their Countrie Sudina, joyning to Prussia. Some doe place the Lectunni hereabouts, from whom it may be that their name was derived. Livonia is stretched toward the Balthick Sea, or the Venedick Bay, being 500 miles in length, and 160 in breadth. Borussia, Lithuania, and Russia doe encompasse most part of it, the rest the Livonian Bay doth hemme in.The Situation and fruitful­nesse of the Countrie. The Countrie is plaine and very fertile, it bringeth forth corne in such abundance, that in deare times and yeares of scarcity it supplieth the wants of other Countries. It aboundeth also with the best flaxe, and breedeth store of cattell. Besides, there are in the woods of this Coun­trie many Beares, Alces, Foxes, Leopards, Cats of the mountaines, and here are many Hares,The varietie of living Crea­tures. which according to the season of the yeare doe change their colour, in like manner as they doe in Helvetia upon the Alpes: in the Winter they are white, in Summer of an Ash colour. And heere is such plentifull hunting of wild beasts, that the Countrie people, though they be cruelly used by the Nobles, are not prohibited from it. In briefe, Livonia wanteth none of those things which are necessarie for the preservation and sustentation of mans life, except wine, oyle, and some other things, granted by the divine bountie to other Countries, as being under a more warme and gentle Climate, which yet are brought hither in great abundance. Livonia (being Anno 1200 by the industrie and labour of the Merchants of Bremes, and especially by the Knights of the Dutch order, brought and converted to the Christian Faith) when it had a long time suffered the miseries of forreine and civill warres, and had beene made, as it were, a prey to the neighbour Kings and Princes,The Govern­ment. at length in the yeare 1559, being under Gothardus Ke [...]lerus the last Go­vernour [Page 158] of the Dutch Oder, it was received into the protection and go­vernment of Sigismundus the King of Poland, as a member of his King­dome, and of the great Dukedome of Lithuania. But Gothardus resigning his Order on the fifth day of March Anno 1562, in the Castle of Riga, before Nicholas Radziwilus the King of Polands Commissarie, and Pala­tine of Vilna; as first the Crosse, afterward the Seale, then his Letters Patents, and all Charters which the Order had received from the Em­perours and Popes, besides the keyes of the Castle of Riga, and of the gates of the Citie, the office of Commendator, the priviledge and power of coyning money, the custome of fish, and all other rights belonging to him: hee was presently proclaimed by the aforesaid Palatine in the Kings Majesties name Duke of Curland and Semigallia, and straightway the Nobilitie of Curland and Semigallia did take their oath of allegeance before him, as to their lawfull and hereditary Lord. The next day the Duke of Curland, sitting in estate, was proclaimed in the Court of Riga Governour of Livonia, and received the keyes of the castle and the gates of the Citie; after which the Nobility and the Citizens had all their rights and priviledges restored and confirmed unto them. Livonia is divided into three parts, distinguished both by situation and language, namely into Estia, The Cities. Lettea, and Curlandia. The Provinces of Estia or East­land are Harria or Harland: the chiefe Citie whereof is Revalia or Revel, being situated toward the North, neere unto the Balthick Sea, and no­thing inferiour unto Riga; it was built by Voldemata, and hath a famous Haven. The Citizens use the Lubeck Law, and doe coyne foure-square money. Also the Province of Viria, Virland, or Wirland, in which are Weisenburg, Tolsberg, and Borcholm, the Seate of the Bishop of Revalia. In the third place is Allantika, where is the Towne Nerva or Nerve, by a River of the same name; over against which is the Castle called Iva­now Gorod, belonging to the Moscovites, for the river that runnes between these townes doth part Livonia from Moscovia: also Nyschlot or Neus­chlos. In the fourth place is Odenpoa, in which is Derpt or Topatum, an Episcopall Citie, Wernebes, Helmet, and Ringen. In the fifth place is Ier­via or Ierven, in which are We [...]ssenslein, Lais, Overpolen or Ober Paln, and Vellin or Fellin. In the sixth place is Wichia or Wicke, wherein is Abseel or Hapsel, Leal, Lode, and Pernaw. Neere to the Estians lye the Islands Osilia or Osel, Dageden or Dachden, Mona, Wormse or Worist, Wrangen, Kien, and many others, in which they use partly the Estian language, and partly the Swedish. The Cities of Lettea or Letten are Riga, Kokenhusen, Wenden, and Wolmar. Riga is the chiefe citie of Livonia, neere the River Duina, which doth discharge it selfe into the Venedick Bay. This citie is fortified with a strong Wall, with strong Towres, and pieces of Ord­nance against any assault, and is strengthned or fenced with double ditches and sharpe stakes round about it. It hath a Castle well provided, in which heretofore the Governour of Livonia (being of the Teutonick or Dutch Order) kept his residence; and this Castle, though Gothardus Ketlerus, aforesaid, did governe in the King of Polands right, yet hee did usurpe no authoritie over the Citie: for the Citizens being strong, and defenders of their libertie, cannot endure to have any Governour or Captaine over them. They doe onely pay tribute and yeeld obedience [Page 159]

LIVONIA. OR LIEFLAND.
LIVONIA

[Page 160] to the King of Poland, in other things they have Lawes peculiar to them­selves. Besides, heere is a Market of all Northerne commodities, as of Pitch, Hemp, Waxe, Timber, and such other things. The Townes and Castles of Curland are Goldingen, Candaw & Windaw, which the Polanders call Kies, and the Germans Wenden: this Towne was famous heretofore, for that the Master of the Teutonick Order did keepe his Court heere, & Parliaments were here wont to be held; now it is defended by a Garri­son of Polanders. There are also the Cities Durbin, Srunden, Grubin, Pil­ten, Amb [...]t [...]n, and Hase [...]ot. The Cities of Semigallia are Mitovia, com­monly called Mitaw, where the Duke of Curland kept his Court; also Seleburg▪ The Lakes. [...]a [...]burg, Doblin and Dalem. The River Duina doth divide Semi [...]allia and Curland from Lettea, and the rest of Livonia. In Livonia there are many Lakes, the chiefest is Beibus which is 45 miles long, and doth abound with divers kindes of fish. The Rivers are Duina, Winda, Beca, [...] and some others. Duina or Duna (which Ptolemie cals Turuntus, and Pe [...]cerus Rubo) running out of Russia, a great way through Lithuania and Livonia, at length eight miles below Regia powreth it selfe into the [...]avorick Bay and the Balthick Sea. Winda in like manner dischargeth it selfe into the Balthick Sea, which neere unto the mouth thereof is very deepe, and dangerous. The River Beca, which the Inhabitants call [...]k, is carried in one channell to the Ocean, and there rushing down headlong from the steepe Rocks, as Leunclavius saith, doth make those dease which dwell neere unto it, as they report the Water-fals of Nilus doth those who inhabite neere unto them. The Countrie hath no mountaines,The Woods. but is full of thick woods: for heere are the great armes of Hercynia, and other such. At the mouth of Duina neere to the Sea is Dunamunta or Dun [...]mund (an impregnable Castle, not farre from Riga) kept by a Polish Garrison, to which all ships doe pay a certaine tribute as they passe by. [...] There is also in the mid-way Blokaus, a royall fortresse, which commandeth ships as they sayle by it. There is moreover the castle and citie Felinum or Fellin, in the Dukedome of Estland, which the German hired Souldiers, together with the last Governour of La­vonia, William Furstenberg, by most detestable treachery did betray to the Duke of Moscovia. Ternestum (which others call Taurum) in this Country was heretofore a strong castle, but after it had beene taken by the Moscovites, the Lithuanians marching under the conduct of their Captaine Nicholas Radziwilus Palatine of Vilna, by undermining, and by planting powder under it, did quite demolish it in the yeare 1561. In Livonia many yet doe live in a heathenish manner, and wanting the true knowledge of God,The [...]. some adore the Sunne, some a Stone, and there are those who doe worship Serpents, and Bushes. When they are to interre and burie a dead body, they banquet freely round about the dead car­kasse, and doe drinke to the dead man, powring also upon him a great pot of drinke. Afterward they put him in a Sepulchre, and lay by him an hatchet, meate, drinke, and some money for his journey, and then they crie out, Get thee gone into an other world, to rule over the Germans, as they have heere ruled over thee and thine. They first received the Christian faith under the Emperour Frederick. They account it a fault to be labo­rious and painfull. The women borne in the countrie carrie a great state [Page 161] with them, & doe despise those women which come from other parts They will not bee called women, but Mistresses, and they never busie themselves with any womans worke, but doe vagarie and wander a­broad in the Winter time in Chariots, and in the Summer by Boate. The drinke of the countrie is Mede, Beere, and Wine (which the ri­cher sort onely use, being brought from forraine countries) especially Rhenish Wine.Their habit [...]. The women doe disgrace the beauty and comlinesse of their bodies, by the disguisednesse of their garments. The commodi­ties which are transported out of Livonia into Germanie & other Coun­tries, are Waxe, Honey, Ashes, Pitch and Tarre, Hemp,Their commodities▪ Skins of divers wilde beasts, and Hides. Also that kinde of corne which the Latines call Secale, and wee Rye, is yearely transported in great plenty from hence into Germanie and other bordering countries. Having explained and declared thus much concerning Livonia, I hope it will bee a matter acceptable to the Reader, if heere for conclusion I shall adde some thing concerning those Lycaons, or men transformed into wolves, who are reported to be very frequent and common in this place. There are Writers, who thinke themselves worthy to be beleeved (among which is Olaus Magnus) that doe affirme, that in this Countrie every yeare some men are turned into wolves. I will heere set downe his owne words, thereby to recreate the minde of the Reader with the relation of an unheard of noveltie: and thus hee writes in his 18 Booke cap. 45. Although in Prussia, Livonia, and Lithuania, all the Inhabitants all the yeare are much endammaged by ravening Wolves, because every where in the woods they teare in pieces, and devoure a great number of their cattell, if they stray never so little from the flock or heard; yet they esteeme not this losse so great, as that which they sustaine, by men changed and transformed into wolves. For in Christmas, in the night time, such a companie of men [...]wolves doe ga­ther themselves together, and shew such fierie cruelty both towards men and o­ther creatures, which are not wilde by nature, that the Inhabitants of this Countrie doe receive more detriment and losse from these than from true and naturall wolves. For as it is found out by experience, they doe besiege mens houses standing in the woods with much fiercenesse, and doe strive to breake open the doores, that so they may destroy and prey upon the men and other creatures that are within. But of these things wee have spoken enough, let us goe for­ward to Russia.

RUSSIA, OR MOSCOVIA.

The names RUSSIA which is called also Roxolonia, is twofold, the Blacke and the White: The former bordereth on Polonia, the latter is a part of Moscovia. Moscovie was without doubt so called from the River Moschus or Morava ▪ which giveth its name also to the chiefe Citie Mosco through which it floweth.The [...] The Territories thereof are extended farre and wide, and it is bounded on the North with the Icie Sea, on the East it hath the Tartarians, on the south the Turkes and Polonians, and on the West the Livonians and the Kingdome of Swethland. In all which spaces of ground many large countries are contained, and therefore the Duke of Moscovie doth thus enstile himselfe.M [...]s [...]i [...] The Great Lord, and by the grace of God Emperour and Governour of all Russia, also Great Duke of Volodi­miria. Moscovia, great Novogrodia, Pskovia, Smolonskia, Thweria, Iugaria, Permia, The Situation. Viathkia, Bulgaria, &c. Governour and Great Prince of Novogrodia the Lesse, of Czernigovia, Rezania, Wolochdia, Resovia, Bielloia, Rostovia, Ia­roslania, Poloskia, Biellozeria, Vdoria, Obdoria, and Condimia, &c. The tempe­rature of the Aire in Muscovia is immoderately cold and sharpe,The tempera­ture of the Aire. yet it is so wholsome, that beyond the head of Tanais toward the North and East, there is never any plague knowne, although they have a disease not much unlike unto it, which doth so lye in the head and inward parts, that they die in few daies of it. The Countrie in generall neither bringeth forth Vine nor Olive, nor any fruit-bearing tree except it be Mellons and Cherries, in regard that the more tender fruits are blasted with the cold North windes. [...] of the Soyle. The corne fields do beare Wheat, Millet, a graine which the Latines call Panicum, and all kinde of Pulse. But their most certaine harvest consists in waxe and honey. Here is the wood Hercynia being full of wild beasts. In that part which lyeth toward Prussia great and fierce Bugles or Buffes are found, which they call Bison. And also the beast called by the Latines Alces like an Hart save that hee hath a fleshie snout like an Elephant, long legges, and no bending of the hough, and this creature the Moscovites call Iozzi, The varietie of living crea­tures. and the Germans Hellene. Besides, there are Beares of an incredible bignesse, and great and terrible Wolves of a blacke colour. No Countrie hath better hunting and hawking than this. For they take all kinde of wild beasts with Dogges and Nets, and with Haukes which the Countrie of Pecerra doth plentifully yeeld, they kill not onely Pheasants, and Ducks with them but also Swannes and Cranes. The Countries of Russia or Moscovia are very large. All the Cities, Townes, Castles, Villages, Woods, fields, Lakes, and Ri­vers are under the command and government of one Prince,The Govern­ment▪ whom [Page 163]

RVSSIA, OR MVSCOVIA.
Russia cum Confinijs

[Page 164] the Inhabitants do call the great Czar, that is King or Emperour, and all the revenues that arise from them, are brought into the Princes exche­quer. There are no Dukes or Counts, which can possesse any thing by a Tenure of Freehold, or can passe the same unto their heires. Hee doth bestow some villages and Townes upon some, but yet hee useth the la­bour of the husbandman, and when he list taketh them away againe. So that hee hath absolute command over his Subjects, and againe his Sub­jects honour and reverence him as a God, and do shew obedience to him in all things, without any refusall. The chiefe Metropolis or mother Ci­tie of the whole Kingdome is Moscovia commonly called Moschwa, be­ing conveniently situated, as it is thought, in the middle of the Countrie. It is a famous Citie as for the many Rivers which meete there,The Cities. so for the largenesse, and number of the houses, and for the strength of the Castle. For it lyeth neere the River Moschus with a long row of houses. The houses are all of wood, and divided into Parlers, Kitchings, and Bed-chambers: all of them have private gardens both for profit, and for pleasure. The severall parts of the Citie have severall Churches. It hath two Castles one called Kataigorod, the other Bolsigorod, both which are washed with the Rivers Moschus, and Neglinna. Moreover in Russia there are many Countries, as first, the Dukedome of Volodimiria, which title the Great Duke doth assume to himselfe, it is named fom the chiefe citie Volodomire being seated on the bankes of the River Desma, which runneth into Volga. This Province is of so fruitfull a soile, that the in­crease of one bushell of wheat being sowne is oftentimes twentie bu­shells. Secondly, Novogrodia which though it be inferiour unto the a­forenamed Countrie in pasturage, yet not in the fruitfulnes of the soile. It hath a woodden citie, called by the same name with the whole Duke­dome Novogrod, being seated where the Rivers Volga and Occa do flow one into another. This citie had alwaies the chiefe preheminence in re­gard of the incredible number of houses, for the commoditie of a broad and fishie Lake, and in regard of an ancient Temple much reverenced by that Nation, which about five hundred yeares agoe was dedicated to S. [...] to this [...] was [...] the [...] betweene [...] Sophia. Here is a memorable Castle built of stone upon a rocke at the great Charge of the Duke Basilius. This Citie is distant from the Citie Moscovia an hundred Polish miles, and from Riga, the next haven towne, it is little lesse than five hundred. Thirdly Rhezan which is a Province be­tweene the River Occa and Tanais, having store of Corne, Honey, Fish, and Fowle: it hath these Cities built of wood, Rhezan seated on the banke of Occa, Corsira, Colluga, and Tulla, neare to which are the Spring-heads of the River Tanais. Fourthly the Dukedome of Worotinia, which hath a Citie and a Castle of the same name. Fifthly, Severia which is a great Dukedome abounding with all things, it hath great desart fields, and many Towns among which the chiefe are these, Starodub, Stewiark­ser, and Czernigow. The bees in the woods do yeeld them great store of honey. The Nation in regard of their continuall warres with the Tarta­rians is accustowed to armes, and ready of hands. Sixthly, the Duke­dome of Smolen [...]o, which being seated neare the River Borysthenes hath a Citie of the same name, watered on the one side with Borysthenes, and on the other side environed with deepe ditches, and rampiers armed [Page 165]

A MORE PARTICVLAR DESCRIPTION OF SOME PROVINCES OF MOSCOVIA.
MOSCO­VIA.

[Page 166] with sharpe stakes. There are also these Dukedomes and Provinces, Mo­sat [...]kia, B [...]elskia, Rescovia, Tweria, Pleskovia, Vodzka, Correllia, Biele [...]zioro, Wo­lochda, Vstiuga, Iaros [...]avia, Rostow, Dwina, Susdali, Wrathka, Permia, Sibior, Iugra, Petzora, and Novogrodia the Greater, which they call Novogrod Wi [...]lki in which is a very great Citie of the same name, bigger than Rome it selfe. Petzora taketh its name from the River which the moun­taines and rockes do hemme in on both sides. There are spacious countries which pay Tribute to the great Duke lying northward in a great space of Land; as Obdora, in which is the Idoll called Zolota Baba, that [...] Golden old woman, also Condora, Lucomoria, and Lappia. There are many great Lakes in Moscovia, [...] as Ilmen or Ilmer, also Ladoga, and the White Lake which the Inhabitants call Biele [...]ezioro. There are also many lane Rivers, [...] as first Bor [...]sthenes or Pripetus, commonly called Nioper and Nest [...]r, o [...] by the addition of a letter Dnieper & [...] Dnester. Secondly, Tu­ [...]t [...] which is that same with Ptolemie, which Herbersterntus calleth Ru­bo, but the Inhabitants Duina and Oby. Thirdly, the River Rha, which Ptolemie mentions, and is now called Volga and Edel. There is in this coun­trie the River [...] Ianais, which the Italians call Tana, the Inhabitants Don. Beside, the river Occa and the lesser Duina, called likewise Onega, &c. Here are the Moates Hyperboret or Riphaean mountaines, mentioned by Pliny in his 4 Booke Chap. 12. and by Mela in his 3 Booke, which are impassable, [...] because they are cover'd over with continuall snow and ice. The wood Hercyma which Isidorus calleth the Riphaean wood, taketh up a great part of Moscovia, it is inhabited, having some few scattering hou­ses in it, & now by long labour is made so thinne that it cannot, as most suppose, shew such thick woods, & impenetrable forrests as heretofore. Moscovia hath innumerable costly Temples or Churches, and very many Monasteries. The Duke lookes to matters of government, and administration of Justice by the helpe and assistance of twelve Counsellors who are daily present in the Court. [...] Among them, the Pre [...]ec [...]u [...]e ships of all the Castles and Cities are distributed: and they receive the letters and Petitions which are directed to the Prince, and do answer them in his name. For the Prince himselfe receiveth no letters, neither doth hee set his hand to any that are written to his Subjects, or any for­raine Prince. The Bishops are chosen out of the Friars as men of a san­ctimonious and holy life: There are many Monasteries of these Friars in the Kingdome of Moscovia, and yet all of the same habit and Order, of which they say that S. Basil was the first founder. There are in the whole Kingdome of Moscovia eleven Bishops which they call Wladdicks, that is, in their language Stewards or Dispensers. They call their Priests Poppes or A [...]hipoppes. [...] The Metropolitan Bishop liveth in Moscovia, who was here­tofore confirmed by the Patriarch of Constantinople, but now being cho­sen by the great Duke onely, he is consecrated by two or three Bishops, and is displaced at the Kings pleasure. Under this Metropolitan are two Archbishops, the one at N [...]vogarais the Greater neare the River Low [...]a, the other at Rodovia. There are no Universities or Colledges in all the Empire of M [...]otia. The Moscovi [...]es are of the Greek religion, which they received in the yeare of our Lord 987. They suppose that the Holy Spi­rit, being the third person in the Trinitie, doth proceed from the Father [Page 167] alone. They tooke the Sacrament of the Eucharist with leavened bread, and permit the people to use the Cuppe. They beleeve not that Priests Dirges, or the pietie or godlinesse of kindred or friends can be avaleable to the dead, and they beleeve that there is no Purgatorie. They read the Scripture in their owne language, and do not deny the people the use thereof. They have Saint Ambrose, Augustine, Hierome, and Gregorie translated into the Illyrian tongue, and out of these, as also out of Chryso­stome, Basil and Nazianzenus, the Priests do publikely read Homilies in­stead of Sermons; for they hold it not convenient (as Iovius saith) to ad­mit of those hooded Orators, who are wont to Preach too curiously & subtlely to the people concerning divine matters, because they thinke that the rude mindes of the ignorant may sooner attaine to holinesse and sanctitie of life by plaine Doctrine, than by deepe interpretations and disputations of things secret. They make matrimoniall contracts, and do permit Bigamie, but they scarcely suppose it to be lawfull mar­riage. They do not call it adulterie, unlesse one take and keepe another mans wife. They are a craftie and deceitfull Nation,Then Diet. and delighting more in servitude than libertie. For all do professe themselves to be the Dukes servants. The Moscovite line rather prodigally than bountifully, for their tables are furnished with all kinde of luxurious meats that can be desired, and yet not costly. For they sell a Cocke and a Duck often­times for one little single piece of silver. Their more delicate provision is gotten by hunting and hawking as with us.Then Traf­fique. They have no wine made in the Countrie, and therefore they drinke that which is brought thi­ther, and that onely at Feasts and Bankets. They have also a kinde of Beere, which they coole in Summer by casting in pieces of ice. And some delight in the juice prest out of sowre cherries, which hath as cleare and pure a colour, and as pleasant a tast as any wine. The Mosco­vites do send into all parts of Europe excellent Hempe and Flaxe for rope-making, many Oxe-hides, and great store of Waxe.

THE DVKEDOME OF LITHVANIA, Samogitia, Blacke-Russia, and Volhinia.

SOME would have Lithuania so called from the Latine word Lituus, (that is) a Hunters horne, because that Country doth use much hanting.The Country whence [...]l­led. Which opinion Ma­thias a Michou rejecteth, and delivers another concerning the Etymologie thereof: for he saith that certaine Italians, forsaking Italy in regard of the Roman dissentions, entred into Lithuania, calling the Country Italie, and the Nation Italians; and that the sheep­heards began first to call it Litalia, and the Nation Litalians, by prefix­ing one letter. But the Ruthenians or Russians, and the Polonians their neighbours changing the word more, at this day doe call the Country Lithuania, The Situation. and the people Lithuanians. It is a very large Country, and next to Moschovia: It hath on the East that part of Russia, which is sub­ject to the great Duke of Moscovy: on the West it hath Podlassia, Maso­via, Poland, and somewhat towards the North it bounds on Borussia; but full North it looketh toward Livonia and Samogitia: and on the South toward Podolia and Vol [...]nia. The quality of the Climate. The fertilitie of the Soile. The aire here is cold, and the winter sharpe. Here is much waxe and honey which the wilde Bees doe make in the Woods, and also much Pitch. This Country also affordeth a­bundance of corne, but the harvest seldome comes to maturity and ripe­nesse. It hath no wine but that which is brought hither from forraine Countries, nor salt, but such as they buy and fetch out of Brittaine. It bringeth forth living creatures of all kindes, but small of growth. In the Woods of this Country there are Beastes called by the Latines Vri, and others called Alces, besides Buffes, wilde Horses, wilde Asses, Hartes, Does, [...] Goates, Boares, Beares, and a great number of such other. Here is great plenty of Birds, and especially of Linnets Besides in this Coun­try and Moscovia there is a ravenous devouring beast called Rossemaka, of the bignesse of a Dogge, in face like a Cat, in the body and tayle resem­bling a Foxe, and being of a black colour. The Nation of the Lithuani­ans in former yeares was so unknowne and despised by the Russians, T [...] Ancient Government. that the Princes of Kiovia did require nothing from them but Corke-trees, and certaine garments as a signe of their subjection in regard of their poverty, and the barrennesse of their soyle, untill Vithenes Captaine of the Lithuanians growing strong, did not onely deny tribute, but having brought the Princes of Russia into subjection, compelled them to pay tribute. His successors did invade the neighbour Nations, and by ho­stile and suddaine incursions did spoyle them, untill the Teutonick order of the Crosse began to warre against them, and to oppresse them, which [Page 169]

THE DVKEDOME OF LITHVANIA.
LITHUANIA.

[Page 170] they did even to the dayes of Olgerdus and Keystutus Captains of the Li­thuanians. But at last [...]agello, who afterward was called Vla [...]slaus, was made great Duke of Lithuania. This man being oftentimes oppressed by those of the order of the Crosse, and by Christian Armies, did at last encline to the Polanders, and having Wh [...] [...]. embraced the Christian Religion, and married Hedingi [...] the Queene of Polonia, hee was made King of Polo­nia, committing the government of the Country of Lithuania to his Cozen German Skirgellon, as to the supreame Duke of Lithuania. The great Dukedome of Lithuania is now divided into ten speciall Palati­nates or Provinces,The Cities. the first whereof is the Palatinate of the Metropolis or chiefe Citie Vilna, which the Inhabitants call Vilenski, but the Ger­mans commonly Die Wilde: it was built at the confluence or meeting of Vilia and Vilna by Duke Gediminus, in the yeare 1305: and is the Seat of a Bishop, subject to the Archbishop of Leopolis, and also of the Metro­politan of Russia, who hath seven Bishops under him, that bee of the Greeke Religion, as the Bishop of Polocia, Volodomiria, Luca in Volhinia, Luckzo, Pinsca, neare to the River Pripetus, Kiovia, Praemislia, and Lepolus. Vilna or Wilna is a populous large and famous Citie, being encompassed with a wall and gates which are never shut. The Churches thereof for the most part are built of stone, and some of wood: there is in it a curi­ous Monasterie of the Bernardines, being a famous structure of squared stone: as also the Hall of the Ruthenians, in which they sell their com­modities which are brought out of Moscovia. The second Palatinate is the Procensian, the Townes whereof are Grodna by the River Cronus, where Stephen King of Poland dyed. And Lawna at the confluence of Cronus, and Villia or Willia, also Kowno, Iada, and Vpita. The third Pa­latinate is the Minscensian, wherein is the Citie Minsko, and the Ca­stle [...]lanaw, also Radoscowice, Borissow, Lawisko or Liwsko, Swislo [...]z, Bo­breisko, and Odruck The fourth Palatinate is the Novogrodian, in which is Novogrodeck, a large Citie, and built of wood: also Slonim, Wolkowi [...]z, and many other Townes. The fift Palatinate is the Briestian, so called from the Citie Briesti, being large, and built of wood, and here is the Ci­tie of Pinsko. The sixt is the Palatinate of Volhinia, in which is Luezko, the Seate of a Bishop: also Voladamire, and Kerzemenesia. The seventh Palatinate is Kiovia, in which there was heretofore a large and ancient Citie of the same name, seated by the River Boristhenes, as the ruines which lie sixe miles in length doe easily demonstrate. There are also the Townes Circasia or Kerkew, Kamova and Moser. The eighth is the Palatinate of Miceslow, neare to the Rivers Sosa and Borysthenes in the borders of Moscovie, wherein are the Townes of Miceslaw, Dubrowna, [...], and Sklow; beside Mohilow, By [...]how, [...]czycza, and Strissin with their Castles. The ninth Palatinate is the Witebscian, in which is the Citie Witebsk situated by the River Duna, and Orsa, neare Borysthenes. The tenth Palatinate is the Polocensian, which is so called from Poloteska, a Citie lying neare to the confluence of the River Polota and Duna, be­tweene Witsbek and Livonia: There are also the Townes, Disna, Drissa, and Dr [...]a, with their Castles. These things being explained, let us speake something of the Rivers of Lithuania. On the East side Lithu­ania is bounded with the Rivers Oscol, The R [...]e [...]s Ingra, and the lesser Tanais, all [Page 171] which with many others doe runne into great Tanais. There is also in Lithuania the River Borysthenes, which arising out of a plaine marish ground, and running through Russia, doth vent it selfe at last into the Euxine Sea: and the Rivers Wilia and Niemen, the latter whereof run­neth a great way with a very crooked winding streame, and at last dis­burthens it selfe into the Prutenick or Finnish Sea: also Duina and other Rivers, beside Lakes, and standing waters, of which the Country is full, and all these do afford great plenty of fish, which are very delectable & pleasant in taste. Moreover the Country is covered with very great and spacious woods. Sigismund that happie and auspicious King of Poland, The Woods. did unite the Palatines and Castellans of the Provinces of Lithuania into one body of a Common-wealth with the Polanders, and did designe a certaine place and order in the Senate of the Kingdome,The Senators. to all the No­ble men, Bishops, and Palatines of this Country, so that out of the King­dome of Poland, and the Provinces united unto it, there are in the Se­nate fifteene Bishops, one and thirty Palatines, thirty of the greater Ca­stellans or governours of Castles, and fiftie of the lesse, beside those who are called the Officials of the Kingdome; as the Marshalls, the Chancellours, the Vicechancellors, and the Treasurers, of which wee will speake more largely in the description of Poland. Their manners Marriages a­mongst the Lithuanians are easily dissolved by mutuall consent, and they marry againe and againe. The wives have openly men-concubines by their husbands permission, whom they call connubij adjutores, i. helpers in marriage; but on the contrary, for men to follow whores is counted a reproach. When any one is condemned to die, he is commanded to punish himselfe, and to hang himselfe with his owne hands, which if he refuse to doe, hee is threatned and beaten with stripes untill he kill him­selfe. Their flockes doe afford them great store of milke for their food. The common bread which they use is very blacke,The food. being made of Rye or Barley together with the branne: but the rich mens bread is very white, being baked and made of pure Wheat. They seldome use any wine, for the common people drinke water, and such as are of abilitie drinke Ale, which they brew of divers sorts of corne, as Wheat, Rye, Barley, Oates, and Millet, but such as is unsavory. They have abun­dance of thicke and thinne Mede boyled in divers manners, and with it they make themselves merrie, and oftentimes drunke. Lithuania seemeth almost to be inaccessible, as being almost all overflowne with waters: but in Winter there is more convenient trafficking with the In­habitants, and the wayes are made passable for Merchants, the Lakes and standing waters being frozen over with yee, and spread over with snow. Their chiefe wealth is the skins of beasts, as of Weesills, Foxes, and those which are more precious, as Martens, and Scythian Weesills.Their commo­dities. Of these they make a great profit, as also of their Waxe, Honey, Ashes, and Pitch. The best Wainscot is cut here and brought into Germany through the Balthick and Germane Sea, and out of this Country all woodden Architecture both publique and private through all Germa­ny, and the Low countries is made, as also for the most part such wood­den housholdstuffe as belongeth to houses: but enough of Luthuania, we will now adde something concerning the rest. There followes in our [Page 172] Title Samogitia (which in their language signifies the Lower land) the Russians call it Samotzekasemla, Samogitia The names it is a Northerne Country, and very large, being next to Lithuania, and environed with Woods and Rivers. On the North it hath Livonia, on the West it is washed with the Balthick or Germane Sea, which is properly called the Balthick Bay, and towards the Northwest Borussia joyneth unto it. It aboundeth with the best, whitest,The fertilitie of the Soyle. and purest Honey, which is found in every hollow tree. It hath no Towne nor Castle;Their manners the Nobles live in Lodges, the Country people in Cottages. The people of this Country are of a great and large sta­ture,Their food. rude in behaviour, living sparingly, drinking water, and seldome any drinke or Mede; they knew not untill of late the use of Gold, Brasse, Iron, or Wine. It was lawfull with them for one man to have many wives, and their father being dead to marrie their step-mother, or the brother being dead to marrie his wife. The Nation is much enclined to Fortune telling and Southsaying. The God which they chiefly a­dored in Samogitia was the fire, which they thought to be holy and ever­lasting, and therefore on the top of some high mountaine the Priest did continually cherish and keepe it in by putting wood unto it. In the third place is Russia, Russia by which name in this place wee understand the Southerne or Blacke-Russia, whose chiefe Country is Leopolis or Lemburg built by Leo a Moscovite: it is famous by reason of the Mart kept there, and the Bishops Seat.The Citie Leo­polis. Beside the Country of Leopolis there are three o­ther in this Russia, to wit, the Country of Halycz, Belz, and Praemislia. In the fourth place is Volhinia, Volhinia. which is situate betweene Lithuania, Podolia, and Russia;The Situation. The fertilitie of the Soyle. it aboundeth with fruits in regard of the fertility of the soile. The Inhabitants are strong and warlike, and doe use the Ruthenian lan­guage. This Country did pertaine once to the great Duke of Lithuania, but now it is joyned to the Kingdome of Polonia. It hath three divisions, the Lucensian, Wolodomiriensian, and Cremenecensian, and there are three Provinciall Cities,The Cities. Lucko, Wolodomiria, and Kerzemenec, which have ma­ny Townes and places of Defence under them.Lakes. Here are many Lakes and standing waters full of fish,Woods. and woods full of wilde beasts. There is also in this Table Podolia, Podolia. situated by the River Tyras. It is a most fer­tile Country,The fertilitie of the Soyle. being sowed once, and reaped thrice: the meddowes are so proud and ranke, that the Oxens hornes as they graze can scarce bee seene above the grasse.The Cities The chiefe Cities are Camienies, Bar, Medziboz, Brezania, and Braslaw. But let these things which have beene spoken hi­therto, suffice concerning this table, we passe now to Transylvania.

TRANSYLVANIA, OR SIEBENBVRGEN.

TRANSYLVANIA is the mediterranean part of anci­ent So called from the Daci, the first Inha­bitants, who afterward pas­sing into the Cimbrick Cher­sonesus were called Dani. Dacia, which the Romans called Dacia Ripensis, The names and it taketh its name from the woods and mountaines where­with it is encompassed, as the Hercynian woods, and the Carpathian hils. It is called commonly Because it hath on the Frontiers therof 7 Castles for its defence. The Situation Septem castra, by a name borrowed from the German word Siebenburgen, and the Hungarians call it Herdel. On the West it is bounded with Pannonia, on the North with Polonia, on the South with Walachia, and on the East with Molda­via. Transylvania is very fruitfull, & hath great plenty of corne through the whole Countrie, which (besides daily experience) that coyne of Trajans doth witnesse, in which Ceres stood, holding in her right hand the horne of the goate Amalthaea, which signifieth plenty; and in her left hand a Table, with this inscription or motto Abundantia Daciae. i. the abundance of Dacia. The fruitful­nesse of the Soyle. It bringeth forth excellent wine about Alba Iulia, Deva, Egmedine, Birthilbine, and Fenuscine, It hath also great store of fruite, among which (to omit the rest) it hath most excellent Da­maske Prunes, Quinces, sweet Cherries, which may be compar'd with those that grow in Italie, and Mellons. Heere are also excellent choyse hearbs, which grow in every place, as Rhubarbe, the greater Centory, Gentiana with a yellow and purple flowre, Sea-wormewood, the herbe called Libanotis, saffron, and many others. There are many famous Mynes of Mettall in this Country, as Mynes of Gold at Sculattin, which the Hungarians call Zalakna, and at Rimili Dominurdz, which signifies the River or Rivulet of Lords. In these places great wedges or pieces of gold are cut forth, which as soone as they are digged out they can presently make use of without any accurate refining. The Roman pieces of golden coyne which are oft digged up in these places, doe witnesse this plentie, for they have on the one side the image of a man with a broade hat, and with this inscription on it C. Cato, and on the other side, Dacia in the forme of a Goddesse, holding a Booke in her right hand with this inscription AVR: PVR. Moreover, there are silver Mynes at Offera and Radna Copper is digged out of the same Mountaines, out of which the gold and silver commeth. Steele is digged and found at Cyk, Iron at Thorosco, and Vaidahuntada: and lastly Sulphure and Antimo­nie are found in the Copper Mynes. There is such great store of salt­pits in Transylvania, that it sendeth abundance of salt to other Coun­tries. And there is such a great company of Oxen in it,The [...]arie [...] o [...] living Crea­tures. that the largest and fairest ones are often sold for a Floren. What shall I speake of the excellent metall'd horses which it breedeth, which amble and pace na­turally? What should I mention the divers kindes of Birdes? as Eagles, Faulcones, Pheasants, Partridges, Peacocks, Woodcocks, Snipes. And what should I reckon the water-fowle? as Swans, Bustards and Bit­ternes, [Page 174] &c. I passe from these to the wilde beasts: for this Countrie hath great Forrests, and spacious woods, in which are Beares, Buffes or wilde Oxen, Elkes, Harts of a large stature, Leopards, Martins, Does, and white Hares. Divers Nations heretofore inhabited this Countrie, of whom there is yet a remnant in Hungaria, as the [...]azyges, called by Pliny Metanastae, beside the Getes, Bastarnians, Sarmatians, Grecians, Ro­mans, Scythians, Saxons, and Hungarians. The Romans did conquer it, when the Emperour Trajan overcame Decebalus King of Dacia, and re­duced it into the forme of a Province, calling the Citie Zarmizegethusa after his owne name Vlpia Trajana;The ancient Government. but Galienus lost it two hundred yeares after, and from that time the Inhabitants having laid aside the Roman humanitie, speech, and eloquence, began to resume their former wildenesse and barbarisme, calling themselves Walachians. After the Romans, the Scythians under the conduct of their Captaine Artilas sea­ted themselves in this place, and built seven free Townes. The Saxons succeeded the Scythians in the time of Charles the great, who forsaking their Countrie, seated themselves likewise in these parts, & built them­selves seven free Cities, following the example of the Scythians. The Hungarians came last, who partly allured with the vicinity and neernesse of the place, mingled themselves with the Dacians: and afterward being provoked by injuries, they conquered the whole countrey, in the reigne of Stephen King of Pannonia, whom they stiled the holy. By them some Townes were also built. The mountainous part of Transylvania was lately subdued by Matthias Huniades, whose surname was Corvinus, and afterward by Stephen King of Hungary. This Matthias tooke alive one Dracula, a Vaivode or Prince of the mountainous Transylvania, a man of unheard of cruelty, and after ten yeares imprisonment, restored him to his former place. Transylvania is now divided into three Nations, differing both in manners and lawes, and inhabiting severall parts of the Countrie: namely into the Saxons, the Ciculi, and Hungarians: The Saxon Transylvanians, as all other German Nations, have a peculiar dialect or language unto themselves: they inhabite the strongest cities and castles, and doe excell the other Nations. They have seven Seates, namely Zarwaria, Zabesia, Millenbach, Rensmarke, Segesburg or S [...]hesburg, Ollezna, Schenkerstall, and Reps: all which have some villages under them. The Ciculi neere to Moldavia, being descended from the Scythi­ans, doe live after their owne lawes and customes, and doe distribute their offices by lot. They are divided into seven Regions, which they call Seates, the names whereof are, Sepsi, Orbai, Kysdi, Czyk, Gyrgio, Mar­cus Zeek, and Aranyas Zeek. The Hungarians and Transylvanian Nobles being mingled with the Saxons, and the Ciculi doe, for the most part, a­gree with them both in speech, habite, and armour. All Transylvania is able to set forth ninety thousand armed men and more. There are se­ven chief Cities in Transylvania, having a reasonable distance one from an other,The Cities. among which Cibinium is the Metropolis or Mother-citie, & is now called Hermanstat: It is seated on a plaine, not shut up with mountaines, but spread into a great breadth. It is not much lesse than Vienna in Austria, but it is farre stronger both by Art and Nature: for in regard of the many Fish-ponds and Lakes round about it, no Armie [Page 175]

TRANSYLVANIA OR SIEBENBVRGEN.
TRANS:SYLVANIA

[Page 176] can come unto it 2, [...] Brasso or Corona, which the Germans call Cronstat, and is somtimes called Stephanopolis, being seated amongst pleasant mountaines, and fortified with Wals, Ditches, and Rampiers. Heere is a famous Universitie and Librarie. 3, Bistricia or Noesenstat, which is sea­ted on the plaine of a large valley, and hath on either side hils full of Vines. 4, Segoswar o [...] S [...]hespurg, which is partly situated on a hill, and partly at the foote thereof. 5, [...] Pt [...]l [...]mie [...]. Megies or M [...]dwisch, which is situated in the midst of Transylvania, being fruitfull in wine, and stored with all commodities that are either gainefull or necessary for food. 6, [...] Millenb [...] Zabesi­um or Zaaz, which lyeth in a plaine and deepe valley, encompassed with waters full of fish. They say that this was the first seate of the Saxons 7, [...] Coloswar or Clausenburg, which is likewise sweetly seated in a plaine, and is beautified not onely with faire wals without, but with stately buildings within. Heere is also Alba Iulia or We [...]senberg, an ancient city, & a Bishops Seate, it is situated on a steep hill, which hath a large plaine spreading it selfe round about it. It hath on the East the River M [...], and on the other side the River called in the Hungarian language [...]ay, which descendeth from the Alpes. Heeretofore it was called T [...] ­ [...], and in Trajans time it was the Pallace of King Decebalus. As tou [...]ching the payments of taxes and tributes, there are in Transylvania eight principall circles or divisions of ground called Chapters, all which to­gether they call the Universitie, as first the Bist [...]ensian Chapter, which hath in it Bistricia with 23 royall Townes. 2, The Regne [...]sian Chapter, which hath more than 30 Townes. 3, The Bar [...]ensian Chapter, which hath the citie Corona, with thirteene royall Townes. 4, The Kisde [...]sian Chapter, which hath Segesburg, and eight and fortie townes. 5, The Chapter called the chapter of two Seates, which doth containe the city of M [...]ie [...] with sixe and thirtie townes. There are two Chapters of the Cibinian [...], one of which containeth Cibinium, and three and twenty townes, and the other which they call Surrogative, containe about 22 Villages. Last of all, the Zabesensian Chapter, which hath Zabesium with seventeene Villages. This Countrie hath many Lakes and standing waters, [...] which are full of excellent fish. There are in it three navigable Rivers, [...] Aluta, Morus, called also Marus and Marisus) and Samu [...]: the two former arising out of the Scythian Mountaines, the last of them falleth into Tibiscus, the other runneth straight forward into Danubius▪ Samus (which the Germans and Hungarians call Thimes) ariseth out of the Alpes called Colota, and likewise slideth into Tibiscus. There are also [...]ther Rivers, as Kockel the Greater and the Lesse, Sabesus, Chrysus, Chry­ [...]os, and Strygius, &c. the three last whereof have little graines or land of gold in them, and doe somtimes bring downe pieces of gold of halfe a pound weight. Divers kindes of excellent fish are found in them, and the aforesaid Rivers, as namely the greater and lesser Sturgeon, three kindes of Carpes, the Salmon, the River and Lake-Lamprey, the fish called Silurus, the Mullet, an other rare kind of Lamprey, the white and black Trout, the scaly Gudgeons, and those that have no scales, unknowne to other places: besides Pikes, Perches, Tenches, and the common Lamprey, all which are found there and of a great size. There are Mountaines neere unto Walachia Cisalpina and Moldavia, which [Page 177] doe produce Agarick and Turpentine Trees.The Wood [...] There are many woods in Transylvania, and amongst the rest Hercynia, in which besides the wilde beasts above-mentioned, there are wilde Oxen and Horses, whose manes doe reach even to the ground. [...] There are also in this Countrie many Castles well fortified: among which the chiefe is called the Red Castle, being a strong defence, and seated on the Alpes, neere to a running streame, where there is a straight passage betweene the Moun­taines into the Countrie, and it is, as it were, the fortresse thereof, so that no one can enter into it on that side, if the Governour of the castle barre up the way. There is also an other fortified castle beneath the Towne Millenbach neere unto the Towne Bros, where also neere unto the River, there is a way leading into Transylvania betweene the vales and snowie Alpes. Now it followeth that wee should adde somthing concerning their manners which are divers and various, because (as we said before) it was formerly possessed by divers Nations, and is still at this day. The people of Walachia are rude,Their manner [...] and ignorant of good Arts and Disciplines, they are of the Greeke Religion, but their manners and customes savour of Paganisme, in regard that they much esteeme of O­racles, sweare by Iupiter and Venus whom they call Holy, and in many other things come neere unto the customes of the Gentiles. They have no Townes, or brick-houses, but doe live in the woods and forrests, having no defence against the violence of the weather but a few reedes, or cottages of reedes. The other part of Transylvania in most places is of a more fruitfull soyle, and the people are more civiliz'd, and of a bet­ter behaviour. The Scythians speech in Transylvania differs little from the Hungarian speech at this day, though heretofore they differr'd much both in speech and writing, for they (like the Hebrewes) did begin to write from the right hand to the left. The Ciculi are a fierie and warlike kinde of people, among whom there are no Nobles or Rusticks, but all of them are of one ranke. The Hungarians have great power and autho­ritie above all the rest. And let so much suffice to have beene spoken briefly concerning Transylvania.

TAVRICA CHERSONESVS.

THis CHERSONESVS was so called by Ptolemie from the Tauri a certaine people of Scythia in Europe. Strabo calls it the Scythian Chersonesus. Pliny in his 2 Booke and 96 chap­ter calleth it,The names. after the Latines, the Peninsula of the Tauri­ans. Appianus calleth it the Pontick Chersonesus, and Pau­lus Diaconus calleth it Stephanus saith it hath beene called by others Tauna­is, Alope [...]ia, and Maotis. Chersenesa. At this day it is called Precopska, and Gesara by Antonius Pineti [...]. It is a large Peninsula, stretched out toward the East, betweene the Euxine Sea, and the Maeotick Lake, even to the Cimmerian Bosporus which divides Europe from Asia. It hath a gentle winter, and most temperate Aire. For at the end of December winter beginneth, and is at the sharpest or coldest in the middle of February, as having then most snow,The Situation. The temper of the Aire. which yet lyeth not above three daies vvhen the cold and frost is most constant. The Winter never lasteth longer than the beginning of March. All the whole Countrie is very fruitfull,The fertilitie of the S [...]le. and very fit for feeding flocks of cattell. Yet albeit the Inhabi­tants have a fertile soile: many of them do not till their fields nor Sow them. They have abundance of Horses, Camels, Oxen, Kine, and Sheep, on which they live.The varietie of living Crea­tures. There are also great store of daintie fowle, which oftentimes the Christians, and Turkes, and sometimes the Polanders, that come thither as strangers, are wont to take. There is much hunting of Harts, Goates, Boares and Hares, both in the Tartarian and Turkish Do­minions neare the Sea. This Chersonesus hath hard and rugged moun­taines, that running through the middle of it do divide it into the Nor­therne and Southerne part; as the Apennine Mountaine doth divide Italie. Mahomet in the yeare 1475 did possesse the Southerne part, and made it tributarie to himselfe. But in the Northerne part the Tartars wandering in the broad fields betweene Borysthenes and Tanais, and continually changing their places of feeding their cattell,The ancient Government. possessed the Towne cal­led Crim as a royall Seat, and from thence they were called Crim Tar­tars. Afterward having cut through the Isthmus of the Taurick Chersone­sus, when, neare unto the Ditch which they call Praecop, they built a Citie a royall Seat of the same name, they were from thence called Praecopen­ses. The King of these Tartars, when being joyned in league and socie­tie with the Turkes, hee had at their request banisht his owne brother, who made warre against him, and had besieged Capha, at last both him­selfe and his two yong sonnes were cut in pieces by his Counsellers, whom hee had with large gifts corrupted for the aforesaid purpose, and so gave an unhappie example of the Ottoman friendship. For hee being slaine, the Tartarians, who were hitherto free, untamed, and compani­ons and brethren to Ottoman were now made servants, and after the manner of the other Turkish Provinces were compelled to receive and acknowledge not a King but a Beglerbeg, that is a Vice-Roy to governe [Page 179]

TAVRICA CHERSONESVS.
Taurica Chersonesus

[Page 180] them. But the Turkish Empire may be easily known by the Descriptions of Wallachia, Greece and the Turkish Empire, and therefore for brevities sake wee referre the Reader thither. Besides Cazan and Astrachan which are Kingdomes belonging to the Tartarians, who do till fields, dwell in houses,The Cities and Townes and at this day are subject to the Moscovite, and besides the afore­said Praecopenses, there are other Field-Tartars, who live in the fields in great companies, obseruing no limits, and of these we will speake in their proper place, to wit, in the Tables of Asia. In the Southerne part of this Chersonesus is the Metropolis, Capha, heretofore called Theodosia, a famous Mart-towne, being the ancient Colonie of the Genois. It is situate neare the Sea. And hath a faire Haven. It seemes that in the time of the Genois it was very populous. But when the Turkes almost two hundred yeares since, in the time of Mahomet the Great tooke it from them, the Italians were reduced to such a strait, that there are few tokens remaining of their being there: for the Citie hath for the most part lost her former beautie. The Italian Churches are throwne downe, the houses decayed, and the walls and Towers on which the Genois colours and ensignes were placed, with Latine Inscriptions, are fallen to ruine. It is now inha­bited by Turkes, Armenians, Iewes, Italians, and a few Grecian Christians; It is famous for traffique as being the chiefe Haven of the Chersonesus, and hath an infinite companie of Vine-yards, Orchards, and Gardens. Besides this towne there is Perecopia called by the ancient Greekes Eupa­toria, Pompeiopolis, Sacer Lucus, Dromon Achillis, Graecida, Heraclium or Heraclia. ▪ Also Cos [...]ovia a famous Mart-towne, and I [...]germenum, having a stone Castle, beneath which is a Church, and many Caves, that with great labour and paines are cut and hewed out of a rocke, for this towne is seated on a great high Mountaine, and taketh its name from those Tur­kish Caves. It was heretofore a faire Towne and full of wealth and ri­ches. Here is Chersonesus Corsunum or Cherso, which is the ancientest citie of Taurica. This the Turkes called Saci Germenum, as it were, the Yellow Castle, for this Countrie hath a kinde of yellow soyle. The admirable and wondrous mines of this place do testifie that it was heretofore a proud, rich, delicate, and famous Colonie of the Grecians, and the most ancient citie of the whole Peninsula, being much frequented, magnifi­cent, and having a faire Haven. Here is the Castle and Towne of Iambo­li or Balachium, Ptolemie calls this Citie Ta­ph [...]os and Pliny Taphra. Mancopia or Mangutum (as the Turkes call it) and the Towne of Cercum with a Castle. Here is the citie and castle of Cremum, which the Tartars call Crim, having an ancient wall very strong & high, and in regard of its largenesse it is farre unlike the other cities of the Taurick Chersonesus. And in the utmost part of this Countrie is the citie Tanas neare the mouth of the River Tanais, the Russians call it Azac. It is a famous Mart-towne, unto which Merchants do come out of di­vers parts of the world, for that every one hath here free accesse, and free power to buy or sell. There are many great Rivers in this Countrie, running downe out of the Mountaines. The chiefest whereof is Borysthenes, commonly called Nieper a deepe and swift River which runneth from the North into the river Carcinites or Hypaciris, now called Desna, The Rivers. and so into the Euxine Sea neare the Towne Oczacow. Also Don or Tanais, Ariel, Samar that runneth into Don, with many others. [Page 181] The This Strait is called by Mar­tianus, O [...] Maeo­tid [...]; by Mar­cellinus, Pat [...] ­res Angustia; by the Italian [...], B [...]cadi S▪ Io­vanni, by Ca­staldu [...], S [...] [...]d [...] Cassa; and by the Tartars Vo [...]per [...]. Cimmerian Bosphorus, to which this Chersonesus (as we said before) is extended. It is a narrow Sea two miles broad, which divideth Europe from Asia, and by which the Maeoticke Lake doth [...]low into the Euxine Sea. It is called from the Cimmerians who dwell upon the coldest part thereof, or frō the towne Cimmerium as Volaterranus would have it. The This L [...]ke is called com­monly Mardelle S [...]b [...]he by the Italians Mard [...]lla Ta­na, and by the Arabians Ma [...]l Aza [...]h. The Se [...]. Maeotick Lake is neare the mouth of Phasis (commonly called Fasso, and by the Scythians Phazzeth) receiving Tanais into it. The Scythians call it Temerenda, that is, the mother of the Sea, as Dionysius witnesseth, because much water floweth from thence through the Cimmerian Bosphorus into it, as also much from other places, which doth so replenish and fill the Lake, that the bankes thereof can hardly containe it. This Lake in regard it receiveth many rivers, aboundeth with fish. There is also the This sea is called by some, mare Boreale, by Claudianu [...], Pōtus Amazonius; by Flaccus, [...]out [...] S [...]ythi­cu [...]by Fe [...]us Avienus, Pon­tus Ta [...]us: by Herodotu [...], and O [...]osius, Mare Cammeri­um: by Stra [...]o, Mare C [...]l hi­ [...]: by Apolo­nius, lib. 4 Ma­re Canchasium▪ by Ta [...]tus, Mare Pen [...] ­cum: by A [...] ­st [...]d [...]. Mare P [...]astan [...]by Ovid, M [...]re Sa [...]ati [...]um: by the G [...]th [...]s, Tanais: by the Italians, Mar [...] Ma [...]o [...]e: by the Greekes, Ma [...] ­roth [...]laffa: by Lucian, Pontu [...] Niger: and by the Turkes, Ca­rade [...]is. The moun­taines. The manner of government. The Senators. Euxine Sea, the upper part of whose water is sweete, and the nether part salt. This being heretofore called the Axine, and according to Sophocles the Apoxine Sea, because no Ships could arrive here, or in regard of the bar­barous Scythian borderers who killed strangers, they afterward called the Euxine, by the figure which they call Euphemismus. But they called it Pontus as if it were another Ocean, for they supposed that those who sailed on it did performe some great and memorable act. And therefore saith Strabo, they called it [...], Pontus, as they called Homer the Poet. There are many rugged and steepe mountaines in this Chersonesus, espe­cially those which runne through the middle thereof. The greatest and highest of them hath a great Lake on the toppe of it. But so much hither­to concerning these things. Now let us proceed to other matters. Justice is administred among the Tartarians by the Law of Mahomet in the Ci­ties and Townes of the Chan, and the other Sultanes. They have their Priests, their Judges in their Townes, and their Begi or Praefects, who do heare and decide private injuries. But the Chan himselfe with his Coun­sellers doth judge of capitall matters, as murder, and theft. In declaring whereof they need no Lawyer, neither do they use the subtiltie thereof, nor excuses, or prolonging matters by delay. For the meanest of the Tartarians or strangers do frely declare their owne wrongs and grievan­ces before the Judges, and the Chan himselfe, by whom they are quick­ly heard and dispatched. They instruct their sonnes when they are chil­dren in the Arabicke language, they do not keepe their daughters at home, but deliver them to some of their kindred to be brought up. When their sonnes come to ripenesse of yeares they serve the Chan or the Sultans, & when their daughters are marriageable, they marrie them to some of the chiefe Tartars or Turkes. The best of the Tartars in the Princes Court go civilly and decently in their apparell, not for ostenta­tion or pride, but according as necessitie and decencie requireth. When the Chan goeth abroad in publike, the poorest men may have accesse unto him, who when he sees them doth examine them what their wants & necessities are, & whence they did arise. The Tartarians are very obe­dient to the Laws: and they adore & reverence their Princes like Gods. Their Judges according to Mahomets Law are accounted spirituall men, and of undoubted equitie, integritie, and faithfulnesse. They are not gi­ven to Controversies, Law-suits, private discord, envie, hatred,Their manners. or to any wanton excesse either in diet or apparell. In the Princes Court, none [Page 182] weare Swords, Bowes, or other weapons, except it be Travellers, or strangers that are going on some journey, to whom they are very kinde and hospitable. The chiefe men eate bread and flesh, drinking also burnt Wine and Metheglin,Their food. but the Country people want bread, using instead thereof ground Millet tempered with milke and water, which they commonly call Cassa. They use cheese instead of meate, and their drinke is mares milke. They kill also for their food Camels, Horses and Oxen when they are ready to dye or are growne unserviceable, and they of­ten feed on the flesh of sheepe. Few of them do use Mechanicke Arts in the Cities and Townes, few do use Merchandizing, and those Artificers or Merchants that are found there,Their trading and traffique. are either slaves to the Christians, or else they are Turkes, Armenians, Iewes, Cercesians, Petigorians who are Christians, Philistines, or Cynganians, all men of the lowest ranke. But let this which hath been spoken suffice concerning the Taurick Chersonesus, and the Northerne Countries. Let us passe to the Description of Spaine, which we have placed next, and take a view thereof.

THE DESCRIPTION OF SPAINE.

SPAINE is a chiefe Country of Europe, and the first part of the Continent, it was so called, as Iustine noteth from King Hispanus. The names & whence so cal­led. Some would have it so called from His­palis a famous Citie, which is now called Sevill. But A­braham Ortelius, a man very painfull in the study of Geo­graphie, when hee had read (in the Author that treateth of Rivers and Mountaines, following the opinion of Sosthenes in his third Booke,) that Iberia now called Georgia, a Country of Asia, was heretofore called Pa­nia from Panus, whom Dionysius (having conquered the Country) made Governour over the Iberians, and that from thence Moderne Writers did call it Spaine: moreover when he had observed that almost all Writers did derive the first Inhabitants of Spaine from Iberia, he was induced to beleeve that the Country was so called rather from that Spaine, than from Hispanus or Hispalis. This opinion is the more probable for that Saint Paul doth call this Country Spania, in his Epistle to the Romans, The Situation. chap. 15. verse 28. as doth also Saint Ierome, and many others.So called frō the Cantabri, a people of Spain who inhabited upon the coasts thereof. But that which the Latine Writers call Hispania, and Ptolemie, Stephanus, and o­thers, doe call Ispania, leaving out the aspiration, Strabo, Pliny, and o­thers doe testifie that in ancient times it was called Iberia and Hesperia. It was called Iberia from Iberia a Country of Asia, The Atlan­ticke Ocean, though it bee sometimes ta­ken for the whole Ocean, yet it is taken properly for that Sea which washeth Eu­rope and Africa upon the West. It is called by Ptolemie Mare occiduum & exterius, by Florus Mare externum ▪ and the Arabians call it Magrib. from whence many doe derive the first inhabitants of Spaine, though some doe fetch the word Iberia from King Iberus, others from the River Iberus, and Avienus from Ibera a Towne in Baetica or Andaluzia. Some report that it was cal­led Hesperia from Hesperus the brother of Atlas, or as Horace thinketh from Hesperia the daughter of Hesperus, or rather from Hesperus the Eve­ning-starre, under which it was supposed to be situated, because it is the farthest Country Westward of the whole Continent of Europe. And seeing Italie might have the same name, Horace calleth this Hesperia ulti­ma. Appian reporteth that it was heretofore called Celtiberia, which yet is rather to be thought a part of Spaine heretofore called Celtica, as Var­ro witnesseth. Gulielmus Postellus, and Arias Montanus, in his commen­taries upon Obadiah, doe note that the Hebrewes did call it Sepharad: and so much concerning the name; the Quantitie and Qualitie followeth. The Quantitie doth consist in the bounds and circuit thereof,So called frō two Islands in the Mediterra­nian Sea, na­med Majorca and Minorca, but anciently both of them Bal [...]ares. and in the forme and figure which ariseth from thence. Concerning the bounds of Spaine, the Ocean doth wash two sides thereof, the North side the Cantabrian Ocean, and the West the Atlanticke. The Iberian or Balea­ricke Sea doth beat on the South side, where is the Bay of Hercules, and on the East it hath the Pyrenaean Mountains running along with one con­tinued ridge from the Ocean, (where stands Flaviobriga, at this day cal­led [Page 184] Funtarabia) even to the Mediterranean Sea. Hence it is that they make two famous Promontories, the one called Called by P­tolemy, Ocaso; by Mela, [...]asen, by Marti­anus. Iarse; by [...]a [...]o, Idanu [...]. Olarso, which shooteth out into the Ocean, the other which taking its name heretofore from the Temple of Venus, but now called Cape de Creus, doth jet out into the Me­diterranean Sea. The utmost length of Spaine is 200 Spanish miles: the breadth where it is broadest is 140 miles, and where it is narrowest it is 60. Iohannes Vasaeus in his Chronicle of Spaine doth report, that Spaine is so narrow at the Pyrenaean Hills, that when he travell'd over them, on the Mountaine of Saint Adrian, he saw the Sea on either side: namely, the Ocean which was next unto him, and a farre of as farre as hee could see, he discerned the white waves of the Mediterranean Sea. They sup­pose that the whole compasse thereof is 2480 miles. Ptolemy, Strabo and others doe compare Spaine to an Oxe-hide stretched out on the ground, the necke whereof is extended toward France, which cleaveth unto it. The necke I say, which reacheth in breadth as farre as the Py­renaean Mountaines, from the Mediterranean Sea, to the Brittish Ocean: the fore part of it is stretched from New Carthage even to the Cantabri­ans, and the hinder part from Hercules Bay, to Gallicia and the Brittish Sea▪ that which represents the tayle of the hide, is the This Pro­montorie some have called Sa­crum [...]ugam ▪ and others Ca­put Europ [...] [...] the head of Europe. Holy Promon­torie called at this day Saint Vincents Promontorie, which stretcheth it selfe out into the Atlanticke Ocean, farre beyond any other part of Spaine. Spaine is under the middle of the fourth, all the fift, and part of the sixt Climats, where there is an excellent temper for the producing of all things. For it is neither scortched with the violent heat of the Sun as Africke, nor troubled with daily windes as France; but lying between them both,The temper of the Aire. it hath a temperate Winter and Summer. Hence it is (as Iu­stine witnesseth) that Spaine hath a very wholesome aire, the equall tem­per thereof being never infected with Moorish fogges. Beside the coole blasts of winde which come from the Sea, and doe as it were search all parts of the Country, doe drive away all earthly vapours, and so make it very healthfull. Yet all parts of Spaine are not of one qualitie, for toward the North, as it is something cold and obnoxious to the Sea, so it want­eth fresh water, and therefore affordeth no convenient habitation: espe­cially, seeing the most parts of it are full of Rocks, Forrests, & woody places. Towards the South where it extendeth it selfe in a continued ridge of Mountaines,The fertilitie of the Soyle. it hath a happy & good soyle, being watered with many great Rivers, and refreshed with seasonable raine, so that it bring­eth forth fruits of all kindes. It is not onely a bountifull mother, but also a nourisher and breeder of living Creatures. It is very fruitfull not onely in producing those things which doe grow out of the earth, but also those things which are generated and hidden in the bowells there­of: who can reckon up the excellent living creatures, which are bred on the Land and in the Sea? There is great plenty of fruits through all Spaine, and most of the fields are so fertile, that they returne unto the husbandmen thirtie bushels for one that is sowed, and oftentimes forty. It produceth many hearbs as well unsowed as sowed, which have sove­raigne vertues in them, especially in mountanous places; where diffe­ring from the other parts, it bringeth forth Hempe, and hath more store of fruit, and fairer. There are two sorts of apples in this Country, which [Page 185]

THE DESCRIPTION OF SPAINE.
HISPANIA

[Page 186] are chiefe note, the wrinckled apple, and the King apple. Also there are foure speciall sorts of Peares, sweet both in tast and smell, the Apian and honey-peares; the peare called Muscatum, being the least of all kind of peares, the wine-peare, and the peare called by some Pintum, and by the Spaniards Sine Regula. What should I mention the Olives that are here? amongst which those are the best which come from Hispalis, and are farre bigger than any Wallnuts. What should I speake of other fruits? The Lemmons and Orenges that grow here are commended by all men: the Quince-peare which they commonly call Membrillos and Pomegranats that are good for medicine, are here in great abun­dance. What should I speake of the Wines of this Country, having an excellent taste and smell, and being made in all parts, yet in some places better than in other? Spaine was heretofore (as now also) rich in mines of Gold, Brasse, Iron, Leade, and other mettals: and it doth not onely boyle and make salt, but in some parts thereof it is digged out of the Earth. For as it is made in many places in Spaine of pit or Well-water, as at Seguntia and elsewhere, insomuch that the King setteth a great cu­stome thereon, so there are Mountaines (if we may beleeve Marineus Si­culus) which have native salt in them. Besides, Spaine is rich and plenti­full in all kinde of Cattle, so that the Woods, Mountaines, Meddowes, Fields, and Forrests doe resound with their bleating and lowing. It breedeth the best horses: Baetica breedeth more than other parts: Astu­ria breedeth the strongest, and Spanish Gennets are called Asturcones. In some parts of Spaine there are bred those that are of such swiftnesse and and agilitie, that antiquity did fabulously beleeve that they were be­gotten by the winde. It hath no Lyons, Camells, or Elephants, except those that be brought from other places, but there are great store of Does,The variety of living creatures Harts, Boares, Beares, Hares, and Cunnies, which do afford them much game and sport in hunting of them.

Haec sanè docet versiculus Catulli,
Cuniculesae Celtiberiae sili.
These things Catullus verse
Doth unto thee declare
O sonne of Celtiberia where
So many Cunnies are.

There are in Spaine (besides other birdes which invite them to fowling) Eagles, Hernes, Hawkes, and the bird called Atta, first brought out of Sicilie, also Cranes, Geese, Partridges, ring-Doves, wilde and tame Ducks, &c. But of these things enough: I come now to the Govern­ment, which is the next point to bee spoken of, according to the order of our method. I doe not purpose heere to weary the Reader by recko­ning up out of Iustine, Diodorus, Iosephus, Eusebius, Hierome, Berosus, and his Translatour Annius Viterbiensis, the ancient Kings of Spaine, & their atchievements both at home and abroad. Tubal never was in Spaine, nor in Europe, The Govern­ment. but liv'd in Asia. Neither are Iberus, Iubalda, Brygus, Tagus, Baetus, and others to be accounted as Kings therof, unlesse we will grant that Kings in ancient time, were borne of Rivers and other inanimate things. Againe, the Catalogue of the Kings succeeding them, is no bet­ter [Page 187] than fabulous, as also those things be which the Lydians, the Thra­cians, Rhodians, Phrygians, Cyprians, Phoenicians, Aegyptians, Milesians, Carians, Lesbians, and Chaldaeans are reported to have performed succes­sively in this countrey. But those things are more certaine, which Wri­ters have recorded were heretofore atchieved by the Carthaginians, Ro­man [...], Gothes, Vandals, Alani, Swethlanders, Huns, and their Kings, for that the Writers of them were either present at those actions, or else came to the knowledge of them by the faithfull relation of others. Of these things therefore I will speake briefly, and thus it was. When the Carthaginians did rule all Spaine, and had all things under their owne command, the Senate and people of Rome did send first of all the two Scipioes against them with an army of Souldiers, in the beginning of the second Punick warre▪ who were slaine in the seventh yeare of that war, Q. Fulvius Flaccus and Ap. Claudius Pulcher being Consuls. The next year P. Cornelius Scipio Africanus being sent next to his Father & Uncle, did performe many things very prosperously, and first of all made a Province of it, Q. Caecilius Metellus, and L. Veturius Philo being Con­suls. First, Asdrubal and Mago Carthaginian Captaines, being overthrown and put to flight in the battell, neere to the Citie Baetula (which is sup­posed to have been in that place where now Baeca and Vbeda are seated) and the Spanish Armies beaten out of Spaine, hee established a league of friendship with Syphax King of the Massilians, who is now called Bile­dulgerid; a litle after hee compelled the rebellious people of Spaine to yeeld themselves unto him, and having made a league with Massanissa King of the Masaesulians, and the Gaditanes, hee committed the govern­ment of the Province to L. Lentulus and L. Manlius Acidinus, and retur­ned to Rome. After Scipio, L. Cornelius Lentulus the Proconsul did go­verne Spaine, and after many prosperous acts and atchievements, entred the Citie in triumph. Three yeares after, C. Cornelius, Cethegus, and Minu­cius Rufus being Consuls, the two Spaines were first bounded, and two new Pretors sent into them, C. Sempronius Tuditanus into the hither Spaine, and M. Helvetius Blasio into the farther. Two yeares being scarce­ly past, so great a warre began in Spaine, that it was necessarie, that a Consul should be sent out with an Army: Marcus Portius Cato Consul being allotted to goe into the hither part, did so appease and quiet rebellion, that the Proconsul in regard thereof triumphed. This is that Cato, who, as Livie writeth and others, by a wonderfull stratagem, did throw downe the wals of many Spanish Cities in one day. After Cato's victorie, Spaine was diversly possessed, and many times lost and regained againe, so that there were above 30 triumphs for victories obtained heere. They did not begin to pay any taxe, before the time of Augustus Caesar, who having by long continuance of warres tamed all Spaine, and overthrowne the Cantabrians and Asturians that had longest of all made resistance, divided the whole Countrie into three Provinces, Baetica, so called from the River Batis, Lusitania, and Tarraconensis, so called from its citie Tarracon; and every one of these have their Diocesses or Circles of jurisdiction. In Baetica there are foure Diocesses Gaditana, Corduben­sis, Astigitana, and Hispalensis. Lusitania hath three Diocesses, Emeriten­sis, Pacensis, and Scalibitana. Lastly, Tarraconensis hath seven, Carthagi­nensis, [Page 188] Tarraconensis, Caesar Augustana, Cluniensis, Astura, Lucensis, and Bracarensis (See Pliny lib. 3. Strab. lib. 3. and others.) Thus things by degrees being changed, the chiefest Provinces were under the Romans command, even untill the Consulship of Honorius the third, and Theo­dosius the third. At which time the Vandals, Suevi, and Alani being cal­led into France by Stilico, when once (having passed the Rhene) they had set foote in France, being in a barbarous manner spoyled by the Gothes, and the Kings Adolphus and Vallia, whom the Emperour Hono­rius had sent to ayde and set France at libertie, they passed at last over the Pyrenaean Hils. Afterward the Gothes inhabiting France, for many yeares possessed Spaine, having taken it from the Romans; for being as­sailed by the Frankes, they againe made warre upon the Vandals. The Frankes drove the Gothes out of France, and the Gothes drove the Vandals and Alani out of Spaine. At which time the Vandals and Alani being called by Boniface into Africk, which hee governed for the Emperour, left Spaine to the possession of the Gothes. When the Gothes, having dri­ven out the Roman Garrisons, had made Spaine their owne, and had a long time Kings of their owne who ruled in it, at length they were o­verthrowne in a great battell by the A rose chiefe Captaine was o [...] [...]a [...]is, who overthrow Ro­ [...]ri [...] and his [...], consist­ing of [...]000 foot, & 35000 horse. Arabian Saracens, and King Who having sent Iulian on an embassage [...]o the Moores in Africa, in the meane time deflo [...]ed his Daughter Ca­na; to revenge which m [...]a [...]e [...]. Roderick being kill'd, they lost almost all Spaine. Those that survived after the battell, when they had fortified themselves in the Mountaines of the Astures, Cantabrians, and Galicians, by litle and litle they began to recover the Countries, Cities, and Castles which they had lost. At last the Saracens partie growing weake in Baetica Hispania, and the Gothes having recovered all Spaine, they againe were overcome by Ferdinand Catholick King of Aragon, and thrust out of Spaine, so that the whole Countrie returned and came againe into the hands of the ancient Lords thereof. But whereas in the times of the Moores, five Kings, namely of Castile, of Aragon, of Portugall, of Granada, & Navarre did possesse Spaine, at this day Philip the fourth, sonne unto Philip the third, who was Ne­phew unto the Emperour Charles the fifth is sole King thereof. It was heretofore diversly divided. The Romans first divided it into the Hither and Farther Spaine. They called that the Hither part which was neerest unto the chiefe Citie and the principall Countries of the Empire, being situated betweene the River Iberus and the Pyrenaean Mountaines: they called that the Farther part which lay more remote, being stretched out beyond Iberus even to the Ocean. In following times wee reade that Spaine was divided into sixe parts, Tarraconensis, Carthaginensis, Lu­sitania, Galicia, Baetica, and Tingitana beyond the narrow Sea in Africk. In the time of the Moores there were many Kingdomes in Spaine, which were afterward divided into five, as the Kingdome of Castile, of Aragon, of Portugall, of Granada, and Navarre. But now by a new distribution the whole Empire is divided into three Kingdomes, namely of Aragon, Castile, and Portugall. Under the Kingdome of Aragon is contained, be­sides Aragon, Catalonia, Valentia, Majorica. Under the Kingdome of Ca­stile are comprehended Biscay, Leon, Asturia, Galicia, Estremadura, An­dalusia, Granada, Murcia, and both the Castiles, with the Canarie-Ilands. Under the Kingdome of Portugall is comprehended, besides Portugall, Algarbia. The Cities which are in the whole Kingdome are almost in­numerable. [Page 189] The chiefe of them are Hispalis, Madrid, Tarraco, Lisbon, The names of the Cities. Granada, Pampilona, Valentia, Barcino, commonly called Barzelona. The seventh German Legion now called Leon, S. Lucar, Corduba, Nebrissa, Compostella, Toledo, Salamanca, Complutum, Pintia, Caesar-Augusta, now Saragossa, Asturica Augusta, and many others. Heere are admirable Lakes: neere the towne Beiara is a commodious and wonderfull Lake, which breedeth Turtles, being a black kinde of Fish, but excellent in taste; and, as Marineus Siculus witnesseth, prognosticating and foretel­ling of raine and stormes to come, by the great noyse which they make, so that the sound thereof is heard like the roaring of a Bull, eighteene miles thence.The Lakes. There is a certaine Lake on the very top of the Mountain Stella, as Vasaeus writeth, in which fragments and pieces of Ships are found, when notwithstanding it is more than 12 leagues distant from the Sea: and the same Author noteth, that the Inhabitants doe affirme, that it boyleth, and is tempestuous, as often as the Sea is rough or un­quiet. The most diligent Writer Suetonius saith, in his Description of the life of Galba, that thunder fell downe into the Lake of Cantabria, and that afterward twelve axes were found therein: There is also the pleasant Lake which Pliny mentioneth lib. 3. Natur. histor. cap. 3. not farre from Valentia, at this day it is called Albu [...]era. The Rivers follow. Spaine is watered every where with many Rivers, there are some who reckon an hundred and fiftie, and over them 700 Bridges, the chiefe whereof is the Bridge of Segovia and Alcantara. There is in this Kingdome the Ri­ver which Ptolemie cals Iberus, and now is called Ebro, it breaketh forth in Cantabria out of the Mountaine Idubeda, with two fountaines or spring-heads, that on the right hand in the Aucensian wood called Monte d'Oca, the other on the left hand neere a Towne which the Inhabitants call Fuentibre: and so increasing with the receit of great Rivers, being first entertained in the fields of Calaguris, it runneth unto and visiteth Iuliobriga and Tudella, two Townes of Navarre, and then it watereth Iulia, Bolsa, and Caesar-Augusta. Departing thence, it glideth South­ward, and by and by Northeastward, by the people of Laletania, now called Galetani, and the rich Citie Toriosa. At last being enlarged with many Rivers flowing into it, and having runne almost foure hundred miles forward in length, it entreth so violently with two mouthes into the Mediterranean Sea, that having thrust it selfe 50 pa­ces thereinto, yet the water is sweete and fresh. This River is called also Do­ria, Duria [...], Dorius, and commonly Dueto. Durius is the greatest River in Spaine, because so many Rivers do runne into it that it would be too tedious to reckon them up, it floweth out of the Mountaine Idubeda, where it is called Sierra de Cocolo, it divideth the Vectones from the Astu­rians, and the Portugalls from the ancient Gallicians. And having viewed the Towre Sullana, called Tordesillas, Salabris, Miranda, and other Towns fortie English miles beneath Lamego, neere to a Towne of Portugall which is called Porto, with a violent course, it doth mingle it selfe with the Westerne Ocean. The River which Ptolemie and others call Tagus, ariseth in the high cliffes of the Mountaine Orospeda, some fiftie furlongs from a little towne which is called Tragacet, not farre from the Citie Concia, now called Guensa. And gliding by the Which is a people which inhabite the Countrie of Toledo. Carpetan [...], it visiteth Toledo, the royall citie, and having a bridge there over it, it [Page 190] watereth the noted faire Cities of Talavera, Augustobroga, Alcantara, and others, and so cutting almost through the middle of Portugall, it dischargeth it selfe into the West Ocean beyond Lisbone, by a mouth or outlet (as some observe) which is seven miles and an halfe broad. The Inhabitants at this day call this River Tato. The Portugalls Tejo. The Ri­ver Tagus having sands mingled with gold, as Solinus in his Polyhistor, & Isiodorus Lib. 13. Etymolog. cap. 21. do witnesse, hath beene preferred before all the other Rivers of Spaine▪ Emanuel Henricus, a man worthy of beleefe, doth affirme in Ortelius, that it hath at this day golden sands, as also many other Rivers of Portugall. And Pomponius doth testifie, that it hath great store of Fish, Oysters, and Pearles in it. The river Anas well knowne to the Latine and Greeke Writers taketh its originall out of the great Lakes, in Laminitania, as Pliny writeth Lib. 3. Naturalis Histor. cap. 1. now called Campo de Montiel, and gliding by the A people of Tar [...]ace [...]ensi Hispania. Oretam, neare to a Town, which the Spaniards call Cagnamanus, & so to Metallina where Vitellius pitcht his Tent, as the ancient inscriptions of the place do shew, it hideth it selfe at last in the bowels of the Earth, though Georgius of Au­stria Provost of Harlebeck doth witnesse in Ortelius, that this is rather a common opinion, than true, and by and by after it hath runne some 15 miles, as if it rejoyced to have many new births, as Pliny saith, breaking forth neare Villaria, and having runne and glided by Meri [...]la (where it hath a long stone-bridge over it) and other Cities toward the South, it [...]owleth it selfe into the Sea neare the Castle of Marin. The Spaniards call it at this day Rio Guadiana, by borrowing a word from the Arabians, for with them Guad signifies a river. The river which Ptolemie calls B [...]tis doth arise neare Castaon out of the mountaine Orospeda, as Strabo and Stephanus do write, and out of that part thereof which is called Sierra [...] Alcaraz. This river running Westward from its fountaine, and gliding by Cor­duba and other townes, at last declineth Southward toward Sevill and with a large mouth (being one league over but full of slatts and sands) discargeth and emptieth it selfe into the Atlanticke Sea not farre from Caliz. Here is a faire river which the ancients called Auro, and Oli­vetis, Strabo and Pausamas call it Tartessus. Livy noteth that the Inhabi­tants did call it Circes, which name it retained for a long time, as Ma­rius Niger witnesseth, notwithstanding the Africans had gotten Spaine; and yet at length it was by them called Guadalquivir, or as others write Guadal [...]hebir, as it were to say, the great river. Here is also the river Minus in Hispania Tarraconensis, the head whereof beginneth eighteene miles above the Sextian Altars, which are now called Lugo, neare to a towne commonly called Castell Ferde. This river passing by the towne called Porto-ma [...]in, and sliding by the bridge Belsarius, and the Citie Orense, at last joyneth it selfe with the river Avia at Valentia, and having runne eighteene miles further it doth cast it selfe into the Ocean. There are o­ther rivers as Lethe, Turtus, Limaea, Sicores, Chalibs, Austra and others of lesser note, which I leave to be unfolded or described by others, lest I should be too tedious.The commo­dities of the Sea The Sea calleth on us nex to be entreated of, to­gether with the Bayes and Havens, which belong unto it. Spaine is enclo­sed on every side with the Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea, except that part which is joyned to the Pyrenaean mountaines and to Aquitania. [Page 191] In regard whereof it is very fit to traffique and merchandise with all parts of the old and new world. The Sea round about it doth afford a­bundance of all kindes of fish, as Whales, Congers, Tunies, Soales, Lam­preys, and the like: beside Oysters and other Shell-fish. There are three famous Bayes of Spaine, which lye all towards the Mediterranean Sea, the Sucronensian, Illicitane, and the Virgitane. The greatest of them all is the Sucronensian, receiving the Sea, as Mela saith, with a large mouth or inlet, which within groweth narrower and narrower. The Ill [...]tane is the mid­dlemost in bignesse, now called Puerto d'Alicante. The least is the Vir­gitane Bay, and is so called, as Mela writeth, from the towne Virgi, now stiled Vera or Bera: Ptolemie corruptly calls this towne Vr [...]e or Virge, Au­toninus as erroniously calleth it Vrei, and Pliny vvith no lesse error Vrgi. The Gaditane Bay vvas so called in Mela (lib. 3.) from Gades: now it is called Baia de Ca liz. The chiefe Havens in Spaine are first that vvhich the ancients called Magnus, betweene the Nerian and Scythian Provin­ces, which now is called Corunna. Secondly, Amibalus Portus, now called Alber, in the Kingdome of Algarbia. Thirdly, that which Pliny calls A­manum, now Fuentarabie, as Villonovanus, or Barnino as Moralis thinketh. Fourthly, Portus Tarra [...]onensis of which the Italian Poet Silius writeth thus, Lib. 15.

The stranger in the Haven then doth land
Of Tarraconia, while the shippes do stand
In the safe harbour, labour is laid by,
And feare of the deepe Sea, while here they lye.

And lastly, the Haven of Venus, so called by Mela, Mountain [...] which lyoth at the foote of the Pyrenaean hills. Now followe the mountaines, the chiefe whereof are the Pyrenaean mountaines dividing Spaine from France. Pto­lemie and others call them Pyrenea, and Stephanus calleth them Pyrena, Tibullus Pyrene, Livy and others call them Saltus Pyrenaeus, the Spaniards generally call thē Los Pirencos, for they have divers names in divers parts thereof. Some would have them so called from fire, or because they are often struck with thunder, or because all the woods thereof (as Diodorus writeth in his sixt Booke) were heretofore set on fire by sheep-heards, and so burnt downe. Silius the Italian Poet doth give them this deno­mination from a maide called Pyrena, the daughter of Bebryx, whom Hercules lay withall upon this mountaine, and being afterward torne to pieces by wild beasts, she was buried here. The Pyrenaean mountaines (as they do) stretching and extending themselves from the East unto the West even to the Celtick Promontorie, divide Spain into that part which lyeth on the hither side of the mountaines, and that which is on the further side thrusteth forth a mountaine neare the fountaine of Iberus towards the South through the breadth of Spaine. Strabo and Ptolemie do name it Idubeda. But it is commonly called Saltus Aucencis, and Monte d' Oca, from the ancient Citie Auca, some ruines whereof may be discer­ned at Villa Franca beyond Burgos. Also there is the mountaine which ariseth out of Idubeda, called by Strabo Orospeda, & by Ptolemie Otrospeda. Yet hath it not one certaine name for all the whole mountaine: for whereas Alvarius Gomecius calleth it Sierra Vermigia, Florianus Sierra Mollina, and Clusius Sierra Morena: these names are but names to part of [Page 192] it. Calpe is reckoned with Orospeda. For so this mountaine is called by Ptolemie and others. It is neare to the Bay of Hercules, which is common­ly called the Bay of Gibraltar. Part of Orospeda is high and [...]ockie, and reaching from the Citie of Hispalis to Granada, it doth lift up it selfe neare Archidona. It hath its name, and deserveth still to be famous, by reason of a memorable example of love, which was shewed thereon, for the Spaniards call it, La Penna de les Enamorades, or the Lovers Moun­taine. Paulinus calleth it Bimaris because it looketh on two Seas, the In­ward and the Outward. Strabo saith that the mountaine Calpe is not very large in compasse, but that it is so high, that to those who are farre off, it may seeme an Island, some do fabulously suspose it to be one of Hercules Pillars, and Abela over against it in Africke to be the other, both being the bounds of Hercules labours: they say that it was heretofore one mountaine, and that Hercules digged it through, and so altered the shape of it. Out of Alcarassum do arise the mountaines called by Pliny Montes Mariani, by Ptolemie in the singular number Marianus, and by Anto­ninus mons Mariorum. They are now called Sierra Morena. The noble river Baetis doth water the bottomes of their mountains on the left side. Neare to Barcinon or Barcilona there is a mountaine which the Inhabi­tants call Mon-Iui: some do translate it Iupiters mountaine, and some do better render it the Iewes mountaine, for that they were heretofore bu­ried in this place, where many of their Graves and Sepulchers do yet remaine. On the top thereof there is a Towne, from whence a watchman, by setting up a linnen flagge in the day time, and a fire in the night doth give notice to the Citie Barcinon of the approaching of any ships. Spaine is every where full of woods, and trees bearing singu­lar and excellent kindes of fruit, which it would be too long to recite in particular. There is a wood neare unto the Towne called Monte Majore, in which Nature alone hath planted Oakes, Chestnut-trees, Nuts, Fil­berds, Cherries, Prunes, Peares, Figges, wild Vines, and all kinde of fruit-trees, very high and fairely spred. Not farre from the Towne Beiar or Bigerra, is a most pleasant wood, where Lucius Marinaeus Siculus wri­teth, [...] publick in priva [...]e workes that hee hath measured Chesnut-trees, which have beene fortie foot about. It hath many woods also to fell and cut, which do afford the Spaniard wood enough for the building of ships. What shall I speake of the publike or private workes in this kingdome? here are many magnifi­cent Temples, many Abbeys, Friaries, Monasteries, Hospitals for stran­gers, and for the sicke. Here are many famous Kings Pallaces, many mag­nificent and faire houses belonging to Noble-men and Knights, and in­numerable other publike and private edifices. The King of Spaine is borne not chosen or elected to the Crowne, yet is hee inaugurated, and sworne to defend this people and their priviledges when hee taketh the oath of alleagiance of them. The Kings children are called Infantaes. A­mong whom the eldest sonne, who in his fathers life is declared King by the consent and oath of the Nobles the Cittizens, and people, is called Prince of Spaine. Although the King have supreme power over all per­sons and over all causes, yet hee seldome decreeth any thing, but with the consent,The manner of Government and by the counsell of twelve men, who being the chiefe of the whole Kingdome do make a royall Senate. By them matters of [Page 193] moment are discussed and determined, but matters of more secresie are consulted of by a Privie Counsell, which consisteth of the King,The Senators and their num­bers. the Dictator of Leon, the President, and the third part of the Kings Coun­sell. Those things which concerne the Indies and their government, are handled in the Senate, which they call the Indian Senate, by one Presi­dent, and twelve Counsellers. Matters of warre are handled in the mi­litarie and warlike Senate, which the 12 Royall Senators, the Dictators of Leon and Castile, with others doe make up. Besides these There are be­side these Coūsells the Coun­sell of the Low Countries, the Counsell of the order of S. Iohn, and the Counsell of the Inquisition. there are al­so in Spaine three Prefectureships of Right and Justice, which they call Places of hearing, or Chanceries, one being in Castile, the other in Grana­da, and the third in Gallicia: Every one hath a President and 12 Sena­tors, and if that Suiters receive no satisfaction or redresse of their gree­vances from them, their causes are brought before the Royall Senate. Lastly there is the Treasurer of Castile, having foure Questors under him, whose office is to receive the Kings Treasure, and to take and give accompt thereof. There is a great company of Dukes, Marquesses, and Earles in Spaine. Besides the Prince of Asturia and others, I finde that there are about 23 Dukes, as the Friensian Duke, the Duke of Medina-Ri­vi-Sicci, of Alua, of Alcala, of Albuquerqua, of Scalona, of Osuna, of Averi, of Bejar, of Gandia, of Sessa, of Infantasg, of Medina Caeli, of Medina Si­donia, of Maqueda, of Najar, of Feria, of Segorbia, of Sonna, of Villa-For­mosa, of Verragua, Pastrana, and Franca-Villa. And these have for their yearely revenues some fortie, some an hundred thousand Duckets.A Ducket is according to our English va­luation 6s▪ 8d The Dukes of Infantasg, and Medina-Sidonia have a farre greater revenue: for the latter hath 130000, and the former 120000 Duckets per annum. These are the Marquesses, the Marquesse of Villa Nova, of Astorga, of Aquilar, of Denia, of Mondejar, of Navares, of Savia, of Velleza, of Coma­res, of Aiomonte, of Altamir, of Veladra, of Vearina, of Carpio, of Camaras­sa, of Cortes, of Monte-Majore, of Guardia, of Monte-Clare, of Las Na­vas, of Poza, of Steppa, of Tanara, of Villa-Franca, of Drada, of Cavietis, of Falcis, of Fomesta, of Molina, of Ciralva, of Valesis, of Vallis, of Zaara, of Ardalis, of Tarifa, of Alcanisa, and For there are in all 45 Marque [...]s. others, the greater part having annu­all revenues from ten thousand to 40000 Duckets. There are also about an hundred Earles, whose yearely revenues are from ten thousand to 25 thousand Duckets, the chiefe of them are the Earles of Benaventum, of Albua, Miranda, and Oropoza. It would be too tedious to the Reader to reckon up, the Vicounts, which are ten in number, the Barons, the long roll and Catalogue of Vice Roys, Governours, Prefects of Provinces, and of the Sea: and lastly the long Catalogue of Gentlemen, and divers orders of Knights; as in Castle, Knights of the order of Saint Fo [...]nded by King R [...]y [...] of [...] Anno. 984. Iames, of A T [...] New-C [...]l where the or­der was instituted by Ferdi­nand of Leon, and confirmed by Pope Lucius Anno 1183. Alcantara, of A Towne which Ray­muna Abbot of Pisu [...]a, de­fended against the Saracem, and therefore instituted this order. Calatrava, and of the order of Saint Iohn: in Aragon and Catalonia, Knights of the order of Montesa: in Portugall Knights of the order of This order was instituted by Denis King of Portugall, and confirmed by Pope Iohn the 22th Aunt. 1321. Iesus Christ, (whereof the King is the Master) being very great, and having all the Provinces which are found out in Africke, A­sia, or America, annexed unto it. But it will not be amisse if we observe by the way that of all the Families in Spaine, the ancientest is the Pacie­cian Familie, for Hirtius in his Commentaries maketh mention of L. Iu­nius Paciecus, in that place where he entreateth of Corduba: as also Cicero in the 6th Booke of his familiar Epistles, to wit, in his Epistle to Lepta. [Page 194] These following Families are also very noble and Illustrious, to wit, the Meridonian, Toletane, Cerdean, Cardonean, Larensian, Velascean, Gusmane­an, Pimentellane, Stunican, Henritican, Oriosian, Cordubentian, Limensian, and the Mondragonian Families, to which wee desire others to adde others, and crave pardon if we mistake their places in ranking of them. We have spoken of the Politick State and government: the Ecclesiasti­call followes. The Church of Hispalis was in ancient time the Primate and chiefe of Spaine, and afterward the Church of Toledo, untill that great overthrow and devastation of the Kingdome. For Toledo com­ming into the Barbarians hands, the Bishopricke of Bacara had that dig­nitie: but when being recovered by the Christians, the Toletan Bishop­ricke sought its former dignitie, and the Baracensian to retaine what it had gotten, there arose a contention, as we may reade Lib. 1. Decretal. so that the matter is yet undetermin'd. Moreover Vasaeus in Chronico 1o cap. 20o. sheweth who were Presidents in Spaine from the time of the Romans and Gothes. But after Spaine was recovered againe out of the hands of the Barbarians, the Bishoprickes with their ancient Cities were restored, and some newly instituted. We reade that Spaine hath at this day seaven Archbishops, and 41 Suffragane Bishops subordinate to them. The first is the Archbishop of Toledo, Chancellour of Castile, who next unto the King and his Progenie is the greatest man in dignitie and wealth. The Bishops that doe obey him, are the Bishop of Burgos, whose Sea [...]e was heretofore at Aura, (whence it was called Auritanus Episcopatus ▪ and corruptly in some Councells and other publicke Acts, Auxitanus, but was after translated from thence to Burgos, the Metro­polis of Old Castile, by Alphonsus the sixt, who restored Toledo to the Christians by the authoritie of Pope Vrban the second, in the yeare 1097. Also the Bishop of Cuena, the Bishop of Osma, called commonly Episcopus Oxmensis, and corruptly in Councells Oxomensis ▪ the Bishop of Corduba, (whose Bishopricke is most ancient and famous by meanes of Osius once Bishop thereof) the Bishop of Iaenensia, Palentia, and Segovia. The second is the Archbishopricke of Hispalis, under which there were heretofore eleven Bishopricks, though there are now but three; namely of Malaga, Gades, and the Canarie Isles. The third is the Archbishoprick of Compostella. The Seate of this Bishop was heretofore Iria Flavia, a Sea-Towne of Gallicia, and commonly called Padron: but being after­ward translated to Compostella, it began to bee called the Bishopricke of Compostella, or of Saint Iames, under which are the Bishops of Coria, Pla­centia, Asturia, Gamora, Salmantica, Orense or Auria, Tude or Tyde, a Towne of Gallicia, seated by the River Minius, and commonly called Tuy. The Bishop of Badaios, (which is now called Episcopus Pacensis) and the Bishop of Mindonia, whose Seate was heretofore Ribadeum, commmonly called Mandonnedo. The fourth Archbishop is the Arch­bishop of Granada; under whom is the Bishop of Almeria, and the Bi­shop of Guadix, heretofore called Episcopus Accitanus, for that which heretofore was called Acce, is now called Guadix. The fift is the Arch­bishop of Valentia, under which are the Bishops of Carthage, Orignella, Segobrica, (whih is now called Segorbia) and Majorca. The sixt is the Archbishop of Tarraconia, under whom are the Bishops of Ilerda, (com­monly [Page 195] called Lerida) Tortosa, Herlua, Barcinon, Genida, Vrgella, and Vich. Lastly, the seventh is the Archbishop of Caesar. Augusta, who hath under him the Bishops of Pampilona, Calagurris, Osca, and Balbastro: the Bishops of Leo and Oviedo are subject to none. Portugall hath three Archbishops, namely of Bracara, Olisipona or Lisbon and Funchala; under whom are the Bishops of Ebora, Visca, Guarda, Conimbrica, Porta, Lamego, Silva, Cepta, and Leria. Concerning the other Bishops, you may consult with Vasaeus, L. Marinaeus Siculu [...], Damianus a Goes, and others, who doe curiously observe and note what are the revenues which belong to every Bishopricke, as al­so to Abbies and Monasteries. Those who belong to the Inquisition are of the Ecclesiasticall State: they were first instituted and ordained to ex­amine the Moores, Saracens, & Iewes; but afterward in processe of time they began to extend their power and authoritie over all that were not of the Roman Church and Religion. In the next place we will note the Acade­mies or Universities in Spaine, which are about two & twenty; the chiefe whereof are Salamanca, Compludo, Conimbrica, or Conimbra, Pincia, Sagan­ta, Osca, and Lerida. The Spaniards have happie wits, yet doe they learne or studie little, because they thinke themselves learned when they are not: they love the craft and subtlenes of Sophisters. In the Universities they speake Spanish more than Latine, mingling their speech with many words belonging to the Moores. They seldome leave any offspring or mo­nument of their wit to their owne posteritie, much lesse to strangers, in regard their language is defective. Yet there have beene, and are some learned men, who by their excellent learned workes and writings, have graced their Country, and made it famous unto other Nations.

If we seeke for Divines, there will come forth Vigilantius Priest of Bar­cinon, Aquilius Severus, Prudentius Bishop of Armentia, Osius of Corduba, Avitus a Priest, Marcianus Bishop of Barcelona, Paulus, Orosius, Pacianus, and his sonne Dexter, Audentius, Isidorus, the interpreter of the Apocalyps, Iustinianius, the President of the Church of Valentia, Leander Bishop of Hispalis, Martinius the President of Mandova, Fulgentius the Bishop of Carthage Eladius the Archbishop of Toledo, Isidorus Bishop of Hispalis, Iohn Bishop of Gerunda; Eutropius, Valentinus, and Franciscus Ximenes Cardi­nall and Archbishop of Toledo, and father of the Universitie of Compludo, who caused the Holy Bible to be printed in divers languages, which is cō ­monly called the Complutensian Bible. If we seeke for those which have beene skilfull in the Canon Law, wee shall finde Bernardus of Compostella, Raymundus de Pennya Forti, and Hugo Barcinonensis. If for other Lawyers, we shall finde Pope Calixtus the third, Gomezius, Didacus Covarruvias, and Antonius Augustinus Archbishop of Tarraconia, a man very learned and skilfull in the Roman antiquities. If wee enquire for Physicians, wee shall meete with Avicen, Averroes, Rasis, Almanca, and Messahallah. If for Historians, we shall finde Trogus Pompeius, Iustine, and others. If for Phi­losophers, we shall meete with L. Anneius Seneca and his sonnes Seneca, Nonatus and Mela, Lucius Iunius, Moderatus Columella, C. Iulius Hyginus, Sotion, and Iohannes Vives Valentinus. If wee search for Mathematicians, behold Pomponius Mela, Abrahamus Cacutius, Alphonsus King of Castile, Henricus the Infanta of Portugall, Henricus Marquesse of Villena, Arnoldus Villanovanus, and his Scholler Raimundus Lullius. If we enquire for Ora­tors, we shall finde beside Seneca, Portius Latro, and M. Fabius Quintilia­nus. [Page 196] Lastly if we would reckon up some Poets borne here, we may make account of Sextilius Hena: L. Annaeus Seneca, and Lucan who were Cosins: M. Valerius Martialis, Rufus Festus Avienus, Aurelius Prudentius, Pope Da­masus, Caelius Sedulius, and many others: I omit for brevities sake the la­ter moderne Poets. The Spaniards are by nature hot and drie, swarthe-co­loured, to helpe which the women use a kinde of painting: they are well limb'd and strong set. They are the most superstitious of all people, so that other people doe learne from them both ceremonies, complements, and large titles. They have a great dexteritie in concealing their thoughts both by silence and dissimulation. They have a kinde of an affected gra­vitie, which maketh them incurre the hatred of all other Nations, which, as Marianus sheweth, is an individuall concomitant or companion to great Kingdomes. The women are not very fruitfull in bearing children: they abstaine much from wine, and are seldome seene abroade, as imita­ting therein the Roman Matrons. They use strangers discurteously, and in forraine Countries they will reverence, prayse, and extoll one another. They are great observers of Justice, so that Justice is administred to all, even from the highest to the lowest: and so great is the painfull industrie of Magistrates, that there are few or no robberies committed. Beside, they keepe their hands free from bloud, and other wicked acts, and who­soever offendeth the Lawes, or doth trespasse against any one, though never so meane, is punished for it. They are still attempting some greate matter, for having supprest their enemies at home, and overthrowne the Saracens, they seeke for to discover and get for their King the most potent parts of the world. When two or three meete together, of what place or condition soever, they alwayes discourse of the Common-wealth and se­rious affaires, they seeke wayes how to weaken their enemies force, they devise stratagems, and invent a thousand engines, which they open and make knowne to the Captaines. In the field they can endure both hunger thirst and labour. In battle and matters of warre they are more politick than stout: they are of a light body, and being lightly armed, they not onely easily pursue their enemies, but when they are put to it, they can ea­sily save themselves by flight, (alwayes meditating on some militarie or warlike designe). In their feastes and banquets at home they are frugall, sober, and content with a little, but abroade they have more delicate fare. They use handsome convenient garments, well made & fashioned. Spaine doth affoord to the neighbour Countries, and also to remote Nations, Silke-wooll, Cloath of all kindes, Salt, Sugar, Honey, Orenges, Pome-Granats, Lemmons, pickled Olives, Capers, Grapes, Figges, Pruines, Almonds, Chesnuts, Anny-seed, Cumming-seed, Coriander-seed, Rice, Saffron, Oyle, Waxe, Alume, Vermilion, Purple, Saltfish, Bay-berries, preserv'd Fruits of all sorts, Alablaster, Corall, Gold, Silver, Iron, Steele, Tinne, Copper, Leade, Dying Oade, Quick-silver, Gotten, pretious stones, Aromatickes and sweet Spices, which are brought from the Indies and other places. And in exchange for these, the Europaeans, the Afri­cans, the Asiatians, and the Americans, doe give the Spaniards such commo­dities, as their owne Country doth not affoord.

PORTVGALL AND ALGARBIA.

HItherto wee have described Spaine in generall, now our Method requireth that wee should decipher it in particu­lar and by parts. Wee said in our generall Description,The names and whence so cal­led that it was diversly divided. But wee will make a faith­full Description of the parts of Spaine, in such order as it is delineated by Hondius. Hee describeth it in sixe Tables in this order. In the first Portugall is described: in the second Biscay, Guipuscoa, and Le­gio: in the third the New and Old Castiles: in the fourth Andalusia, in which is the Countrey of Hispalis and Gades: in the fifth is Valentia: and in the sixth is Aragon, and Catalonia. Portugall which offers it selfe in the first place, was anciently called Lusitania, and M. Varro and Plinte doe affirme, that it received this name from Lusus the Sonne of Liber, and Lysa who was drunke with him: for it was called Lusitania, as it were, the Countrey of Lusus. Marcianus thinketh, it was called Lusita­nia from a River which is now called Tagus. Some suppose it was cal­led Portugall à Portu Gallorum, which is as much to say, as the French­mens Haven. But Andraeas Resendius, The Situation whose opinion other learned men doe follow, doth observe, that the name of Portugall is derived â Portu Cale. This Countrie, if wee consider the breadth thereof from the South Northward, is greater than Old Lusitania, but if wee consider the length from the West Eastward, it is lesser. Portugall at this day runneth forth Northward, beyond the meeting of the two Rivers Minius and Avia even to the Towne Ribadania, seated on that banke of Avia which looketh toward Gallicia, and a straight line being drawne from thence Eastward, it reacheth even to Miranda, seated upon the River Durius, and from thence toward the South to the Mouth of the River Ana, on that side where it bordereth on Castile, Estremadura, and Andaluzia; on the Northwest it looketh toward the Atlantick Ocean, so that the whole compasse thereof is thought to bee 879 miles.The temper of the Ayre. This countrie hath an excellent sweete and temperate Ayre, and a cleere and fruitfull Climate. It aboundeth with Wine, Oyle, Oranges, Pome-citernes,The fertilitie of th [...] Soyle. Al­monds, Honey and Waxe. The fruite of this Countrie doth excell that which growes in others neere unto it. And though the Inhabitants have not out of their fields sufficient store of corne, to sustaine them with foode, yet there is much transported thither out of France and Germa­nie. This Countrie doth breede many living creatures, especially great store of Horses, and those so swift of foote, that they imagin'd them to bee begotten by the winde.The ancient Government. The Kingdome of Portugall began about the yeare 1100, for at that time it became a part of Spaine. Chronicles doe mention, that the first of the Line of the Kings of Portugall was Henry Duke of Lotharingia, Earle of Limburg, (a man of a great courage [Page 198] and ready of hand) who removing into Spaine, married Tyresia the Daughter of Alphonsus the sixth King of Castile and Legio, and tooke for a Dowrie that part of Gallicia and Lusitania which is now called Portugall, and which not long before, by his owne valour, hee recove­red and got from the Saracens and Moores. Hee dying about the yeare 1112, there succeeded him his Sonne Alphonsus, who calling him­selfe Dake of Portugall, was enstiled King thereof by his whole Armie, in the yeare 1139, having obtained a victory against Ismarius, and foure other Kings of the Siracens and Moores, leaving to posteritie five Scut­cheons for their Armes, in remembrance of that atchievement. There succeeded him almost in a right line, Sanctius, Alphonsus the 2, Sanctius the 3, Alphonsus the 3, Dionysius who first began to usurpe the title of the King of the A people of [...]usita [...] cal­led also Turde­cans. Algarbians, also Alphonsus the fourth, Peter, Ferdinand, Iohn, Edward, Alphonsus the fifth surnamed Africanus, Iohn the 2, Ema­nuel, Iohn the 3, Sebastian slaine in Africk, Henry the Cardinall, and An­tonius who because hee was a Bastard was expell'd, Philip the second King of Spaine, Nephew to Emanuel by Isabel his eldest Daughter, and Father to Philip the 3, whose Sonne Philip the 4 doth now reigne. The Metropolis of Portugall is Olisippo, as it is called in the ancient faithfull copies of M. Varro, Pliny, Antoninus, and Mela. For in vulgar writings it is written sometimes Olysippo, and sometimes So called, be­cause as some say, Vlysses in his ten yeares travels com­ming hither built it. Vlysippo, and divers o­ther wayes: now it is called Lisbone, or, as the Inhabitants doe pro­nounce it, Lisboa. It is a great Towne of traffique, abounding with ri­ches, and it is a famous store-house of forraine commodities, which are brought thither out of Asia, Africk, and America. It hath a pleasant and commodious situation almost at the mouth of the River Tagus: it is now very large, being built on five Hils, and as many Vales or descents, but heretofore it was lesse, being seated onely on one hill as some doe re­port. On that side which is toward the Sea it hath two and twentie Gates, and on that side which is toward the Continent it hath sixteene. It hath threescore and seventeene watch-Towres upon the wals. The Parish-churches are twenty five, besides many Chappels and Churches belonging to the Monkes, the Anachorets, and the Nunnes. The Cities beyond Tagus doe acknowledge Lisbone to be the Mother-citie, as Ebo­ra (called by Ptolemie Ebura, and now commonly Evora) Begia, com­monly called Bega or Beia, and heretofore Pax Iulia, by Antoninus and Ptolemie Setubal, heretofore named (as Clusius supposeth) Salacia: Also Alcasar de sal in the Countrie of Algarbia, and Almada, which Ptolemie cals Caetobrix, and Antoninus Caetobriga. Beyond Tagus not farre from Lisbone Northward the Towne of Cascala is seated: and as you come a litle neerer to the Citie you meete with a litle Towne called Bethleem. There are also Leria, Tomar, and Guarda, all Townes of note. Not farre from Tomar lyeth Ceice, which Antoninus calleth Celium: Also Alangue­ra by the River Tagus, which Damianus à Goes being his owne native Towne thinketh to be so called, quasi Alankerke, (that is) the Temple of the Alanes: It was heretofore called Ierabrica, but now Coimbra, and it was heretofore the head Citie of the Kingdome of Portugall. There is also the Towne Viseum, commonly called Viseo, Plinie calleth it Vacca, but now it is called Ponte Fouga. The third Councell of Toledo doth [Page 199]

PORTVGALL AND ALGARBIA.
PORTUGALLIA OLIM LUSITANIA.

[Page 200] mention Lameca commonly called Lamego. Lastly Braga which lyeth betweene the Rivers Durius and Minius, it is now so called, though Pto­lemie calleth it Bracar Augusta, Antoninus Braccara Augusta, and Plinie Augusta Bracarum. It is reported, that it was built by the Gaules, surna­med Braccati, in the yeare before Christs birth 290, and the Romans ha­ving conquered it, gave it the surname of Augusta. It was heretofore so famous, that here were the seven great Assemblies or Parliaments, which were kept and held in the hithermost Spaine, so that foure and twentie Cities, as Plinie reporteth, did bring their suits and causes hi­ther to have them tried.The Rivers. The Rivers of this Countrie are Anas and Guadiana, Tagus or Taio, Mondego or Monda, Durius or Duero, and Mi­nius or Mino: two of these being famous, to wit, Tagus and Durius.) Portugall on the West and South looketh toward the Atlantick Ocean, which,The commo­dities of the Sea. besides fish which it yeeldeth in great abundance, doth afford many other commodities. This Countrey is indebted unto, and recei­veth all her plenty from the Sea, which she acknowledgeth, in so much, that it may more worthily be called the golden Sea, than golden flow­ing Nilus, because by the helpe hereof they have commodities impor­ted and brought in from all parts of the earth, so that it standeth in need of nothing; and againe those commodities wherewith it aboundeth, it exporteth by shipping to traffique with forraine Countries. There is also (besides the Havens which wee mentioned before) the Haven of Setubal, The Havens. Dubal, or Tubal, which lieth Southward from Olisippo or Lis­bone. Heere are few Mountaines, and those not very great, as namely those which the Inhabitants call Sierra de Monchiquo: The Moun­taines. de Chaldecatao, de Sordedas, called heretofore the Mountaines of the Moone, &c. And these, for the most part, are full of woods and thickets. There are also very great and thick woods, in which the Princes of Spaine are wont to hunt.The publick & sacred workes. In the litle Towne of Bethleëm, there is a Temple dedicated to the holy Virgin Mary, and built very costly: also the Monument of E­manuel King of Portugall, whiche hee appointed to bee built in his owne life-time, yet was it afterward enriched and beautified by Iohn the third the Sonne of Emanuel. There are moreover in that part of Portugall which lyeth betweene Tagus & Durius (as Vasaeus writeth) besides the Metropolitan Church of Bracara, the Cathedrall Church in Portugall, and five other Collegiate Churches, more than an hundred and thirty Monasteries, the most of which have most large revenues, and about 1460 Parish-Churches. In that part which belongeth to the Church of Bracara there are reckoned eight hundred Parish-Curches, whereby you may easily collect and know the fertility of this Countrie. I doe not mention the Hospitals for strangers, for the diseased, and for Or­phanes,The Universi­ties. the Towre the faire houses, the pleasant gardens, and Univer­sities which are in this Kingdome, as namely Ebora and The Masters of this Vniver­sitie made the Commentarie upon most part of Aristotle, called Schoks Commbricensis. Coimbra or Co­nimbrica; the first was lately instituted by Henry Cardinall of Portu­gall, and President of the same Citie; the other also was lately instituted by Iohn the second King of Portugall. The Portugals are the strongest of all the Spaniards, the quickest, the most nimble, and light of body, so that they can easily pursue or retire from the enemie. Their disposition is to be proud and selfe-conceited of themselves,Their manners and their owne af­faires; [Page 201] and they say themselves, that they live by opinion and conceit, that is, they sustaine themselves more with that which they thinke themselves to be, than with that which they truly are.Their traffick. They are skil­full in sea-matters, and are famous for their Navigations to unkowne parts of the world, where they grow rich by trading and merchandi­zing.

Under Portugall at this time is the Kingdome of Algarbia. Algarbia whence so called. It taketh its name from the Arabick tongue, and doth signifie a happie and plenti­full Field or Medow, in which are all things necessarie for traffique. A straight line drawne from the River Anas betweene the Rivers which are commonly called Vataon, and Carei-vas to the litle Towne Odeseiza, The Situation that is, from the East Westward, doth separate from Portugall this Kingdome of Algarbia, which is the least and unnoted'st Kingdome of all Spaine. There are carried hither out of divers parts of Spaine, downe the River Anas all sorts of Wines, Sacks, Bastards, Roman Wine, and others of the like sorts, which being shipped, are transported into France, the Low-Countries, and other parts. It hath in it the Townes of Balsa, (so called by Ptolemie, Plinie, Antoninus, and Pomponius Mela, The Towne [...]. but now Tavila, as Coquus supposeth) and Ossonoba, so called by Plinie & Antoninus; it is called also by Pliny Lusturia, by Ptolemy Ossonaba, by Pinetus Gibraleon, by Clusius Exuba, by Varrerius Estombar, as also by Moralis, and it is thought to bee the same which is now called Silvis or Selves. There was also in the same place neere the Holy Promontory the Citie which Pomponius calleth Lacobriga, the ruines whereof are yet to be seene neere the Sea-Towne Lagos, at a Village which is called in the Portugall language Lagoa, as Vasaeus writeth. Algarbia at the first was given in dowry by Alphonsus the 10 King of Legio or Leon, (as ancient Annals doe report) unto Alphonsus the third King of Portugall, The ancient Government. when hee married his daughter Beatrice, which hee begate on a whore. Dionysius was derived from this marriage, who first of all began to usurpe the title of King of Algarbia. But thus much shall suffice concerning Portugall & Algarbia, I passe to the other parts of Spaine.

GALLICIA, LEON, AND ASTVRIA DE OVIEDO.

GALLICIA (which is also written Galecia or Gallaecia, and taketh its name from an ancient people called Calla [...]i) hath on the North and West the Ocean, on the South Portugall with the River Durius flowing betweene them, and on the East Asturia. This Countrie in regard it hath many rugged mountaines,The Situation. and wanteth water, is but thinly inhabited. It aboundeth so with Horses, that they are supposed to be begotten by the winde. Pliny noteth, that here are rich mines of Gold. Niger writeth that the rivers hereof do bring downe earth mingled with gold, silver, and tinne, and that the soyle it selfe is full of gold, brasse and lead, so that golden clods are oftentimes ploughed up. The mountaines afford great store of wood for building of ships. Gallicia doth exceedingly abound with fish:The [...] of the Soyle. especially with Salmons, Congers, a kinde of fish which they call Pescades, and many other daintie fishes, which being salted are car­ried into divers parts of Spaine. In the moneth of November and De­cember, a great number of those fish are taken, which they commonly call Vesugos, being two or three pound weight; they are carried fresh and sweete into Castile and are sold there, for the cold doth easily pre­serve them: they have an excellent taste, yet those are best tasted which are taken in the Ocean, and not in the Meditterranean Sea. For the coldnes of the Ocean doth fatten the fish, and therefore those which are taken most Northward are the best. The most part of the Inhabitants doe live in mountaines, on which they build convenient houses. Concerning the name and originall of the Callaicians, let the Reader have recourse to Iohannes Bishop of Gerunda, Lib. 2 Paralipomenorum Hispaniae, Roderieus To­letanus (Lib. 10. de rebus Hispanicis cap. 4.) and others. The Metropolis of Gallicia is Compostella, where is worshipped S. Iames the Apostle, who to­gether with the Universitie making the Citie famous giveth unto it the name of S. Iago, it was heretofore called Briantia, as Franciscus [...]arapha, Ambrosius Moralis, The Cities. and Villanovanus do thinke; Orosius calleth it Brigan­tia, who saith, that there is in it a very high watch-towre: Ptolemie calleth it Flavium Brigantum, Beuterus, C [...]q [...]us, and Iohannes Mariana do call it Betancos, Florianus and Gomectus call it Coruna, and Iohannes Bishop of Gerunda (Lib. 1.) calleth it Compostella, saying it was so called quasi Compos Stella, for so the evening starre was called which maketh these countries wholsome. There is extant at Salamantica in the Library of the Colledge of our Saviour the Historie of Compostella, the growth and increase of the Church of Compostella described in two volumes, written by the command of Didacus the first Archbishop thereof: concerning which you may also read Lucius Marineus Siculus, in his fift Booke, and in [Page 203]

GALLICIA, LEGIO,
GALLICIA

[Page 204] Chapter concerning religious houses in Spaine, and the wonderfull mi­racles done therein. The Lesser Townes are Orensium, a Citie neare the River Minius, and called by Ptolemie Thermae Calidae, as Gomecius thinketh in the life of Franciscus Zimenius, where hee addeth, that the Swedish people of Germany, who heretofore did subdue these parts, in their na­tive language did call it Warense; though Ortelius saith it should rather be written Warmsee, which signifies the Warme Lake. Also a Town cal­led in Latine Lucus, and by the Inhabitants Lugo, Pomponius calleth it Turris Augusti, Pliny, Aresti, and Arae Sextianae, and Ptolemie Promonto­num Arae Sestii, neare to the Cantabricke Ocean in Artabria. Also, Pons vetus, Ponte Vedra, and Ribalaeum, commonly called Ribadeo. Other towns Marinaeus Siculus mentions in the beginning of his third Booke. Gallicia got the title of a Kingdome a thousand and sixtie yeares after Christ: For that yeare Ferdinand (the sonne of Sanctius Major King of Navarre) being King of Castile, when hee had married Sanctia the daughter of Al­phonsus the fift, and so united the Kingdome of Castile and Legio: having three sonnes, hee made by his will Sanctius King of Castile; Alphonsus King of Legion and Asturia; and Garcia King of Gallicia (which hee en­joying in the right of his wife, was till then but an Earledome) and Por­tugall. Sanctius being not content with this division which his father made, thrust his brother Alphonsus out of his Kingdome, and slew Garcia his other brother. Now when Sanctius had ruled about sixe yeares, and was at last beheaded by Vellidus through trecherie, Alphonsus who lived as a banisht man with the King of the Moores at Toledo, did not onely recover the Kingdome of Legio, which his father gave him by Will, but also got the Kingdome of Castile, Gallicia, and Portugall. Alphonsus had three children lawfully begot on three wives, by Isabell Queen of France hee had Sanctia, who was married to the Earle Rodoricke, who brought new Colonies into the Citie which is commonly called Ciudad-Rodri­go; by Zaida a Moore, daughter to the King of Sevill, he had Sanctius, who was slaine in a battell against the Saracens; and lastly, by Constantia he had Vrraca, who out living Sanctius and Sanctia (who dyed without issue) af­ter shee had beene wife to Raimundus Berengarius Earle of Tolosa, marri­ed Alphonsus King of Aragon, and had an heire by him who was after­ward Alphonsus the seventh, the most powerfull King of all his predeces­sours, and one that deserved to be called Emperour of Spaine. From that time Gallicia, Castile, and Legio have alwaies but one King. Neare to Legio, Leon. The Situation. & bounding thereon on the North is Asturia, on the West Gallicia, and on the South and East old Castile. It taketh its name from the seventh German Legion, which was seated and placed here under the command of the Emperour Nerva, as some suppose. The Metropolis hereof is that famous Citie which taketh its name from the Countrie, and is called by Ptolemie Legio septima Germanica; Antoninus calleth it Legio Gemina; but it is now commonly called Leon, which name I cannot see why Franciscus Tarapha should rather derive from Leonigildus King of the Gothes, than from the Legion it selfe. Moralis doth deliver also that it was heretofore called Sublantia, and writeth that some evidences of that name are ex­tant in a place but a little distant from Legio, called Sollanco. L. Marinaeus Siculus writeth thus concerning the Church of Legio, in his third Booke [Page 205] of Spaine. Although the Church which the Citie of Hispalis hath built in our age, doth exceed all the rest for greatnesse, although the Church of Toledo surpasse the rest for treasure, ornaments, and glasse windowes, and the Church of Compostella for strong building, for the miracles of Saint Iames, & other things: yet the Church of Legio (in my judgement) is to be preferred before them all for admirable structure and building, which hath a Chappell joyning to it, in which lye buried seven and thirtie Kings, and one Emperour of Spaine. It is worthy of memorie that this Citie was the first from which about the yeare 716. the recoverie of Spaine, (which formerly the Moores and Saracens almost wholly pos­sessed) was begun. For (as also Rodericus Toletanus in his sixt Booke of Spanish matters for many Chapters together, and Roderick Sanctius in the first part of his Spanish Historie cap. 11. do relate) Pelagius the sonne of Fafila Duke of Cantabria, and descended of the royall blood of the Gothes, being made King by the remainder of the Christians who fled into the mountaines, made a great slaughter on the Moores; and being scarcely entred into his Kingdome tooke Legio from the enemies. This man afterwards making it the Seate of his Principalitie, built a new Ca­stle there as a Fort and defence against the violence of their incursions.Asturia. And laying aside the armes of the Kings of the Gothes, gave the Lion Rampant Gules, in a field, Argent; which the Kings of Legio do use at this day. Fafila the sonne of Pelagius succeeded him in the Kingdome, and (he dying issuelesse) there succeeded him Alphonsus Catholicus, the sonne of Peter Duke of Cantabria, being descended from the stocke of Ricaredus Catholick King of the Gothes, who married Ormisenda the onely sister and heire of Fafila. The government of Legion remained in the hands of Al­phonsus his familie, even to Veremundus the 24 King of Legio, who dying in the yeare 1020. without a Successour, his sister Sanctia married Fer­dinando of Navarre, King of Castile, and brought the Kingdome of Legio to be joyned and united to his kingdome. Asturia hath on the North the Ocean, on the East Biscay, on the South old Castile, and on the West Gal­licia. It produceth and bringeth forth gold, & divers sorts of colours, o­therwise it is but little tilled, and thinly inhabited, except it be in those places which are next to the Sea. Here was the Seat of the ancient Astu­res, who were so called (as Isidore writeth lib. 9. Etymolog. cap. 2.) from the River Asturia, (whereof Florus maketh mention in the fourth Book of his Roman Histories, and others) From whom Ptolemie calls the Coun­trie it selfe [...], and the Latines Asturia, as also Astyria, as is evident by what I have read in ancient marbles. At Rome in the pavement of the Chappell which is in the Temple of Saint Gregorie in the mountaine Caelius, there is a broken marble-table engraved with these words,

Acontit
L. Ranio. Optato. V. C. Cos
Curatori. Reip. Mediolanensium
Curat. Reip. Nolanorum. Procos. Provincia
Narbonensium. Legato. Aug. Et Iuridico
Astyriae. Et. Galaecia. Curatori. Viae
Salariae, &c.

Moreover I see it called Asturica in a marble-Table, which is at Rome [Page 206] beyond Tiber in a private Roman-citizens house. (I will set downe the words in the Description of Italie, where I shall speake of the Alpes joy­ning to the Sea) And it is called at this day Asturias. Pliny (lib. 3. cap. 3.) doth divide the Astures into the Augustini and Transmontani. The one being on the hither side of the mountaines toward the South, and the other beyond the mountaines Northward neare the Ocean. Concerning the Astures, Silius the Italian Poet writeth thus (lib. 1.)

—Astur avarus
Visceribus lacerae Telluris mergitur imis,
Et redit infelix effosso concolor Auro.
The covetous Asturian will goe
Into the bowels of the earth below,
Whence he returnes in colour like gold Oare
Which hee unhappily digg'd up before.

The Metropolis of the Province is This Citie is called by Mo­letius, Asturum Lucus, and by Tarapha, Br [...] ­gentium. Oviedo, of which Rodericus Toletanus writeth much (lib. 4. de rebus Hisp. cap. 14.) where among other things he giveth the reason, wherefore it was called the Bishops Citie. Here is al­so Astorga, called anciently Asturica Augusta, and some other small Townes.

BISCAY, GVIPVSCOA, NAVARRE, and Asturia de Santillana.

BISCAY (as Iohannes Bishop of Gerunda affirmeth) taketh its name from the Bastuli the ancient Inhabitants of Baeti­ca, The Countrie whence so cal­led. for they comming from Lybia into that part of Spaine which is called Baetica, and being beaten and expulsed thence by the Moores, they fled into the Mountaines of Galaecia, and so building themselves houses, the whole Countrie was called from that time Bastulia, which is now called Bis­cay. Some doe call Biscay Viscaia, which word hath some affinity with the name of the Vascones. Biscay is a Countrie of Spaine lying neere the Ocean, and very full of hils, out of which arise 150 Rivers.The Situation. It hath a more temperate Climate than other parts of Spaine. For being envi­ron'd with great Mountaines, it is not troubled with too much cold, nor burnt with too much heate. The Countrie is full of trees fit for the buil­ding of Ships: which not onely Spaine doth acknowledge,The temper of the Aire. but other Countries, whither whole ship-loades are often transported.The fruitfulnes of the Soyle. Heere are abundance of Chesse-Nuts, Hasel-Nuts, Oranges, Raizins, and all kind of Mettals, (especially Iron and Black-lead) besides other commodi­ties. Where they want wine, they have a kinde of drinke made of prest Apples, which hath an excellent taste. Heere are also store of beasts,The varietie of living creatures. fish, fowle, and all things which are convenient and necessarie for the sustaining of mans life. The Whence the Country was called Canta­bria. Cantabrians did heretofore inhabite that Countrie which wee now call Biscay, but it was larger than Biscay is now, and contained Guipuscoa and Navarre. These Cantabrians were a famous people, and much celebrated by many Writers. They thought that was no life which was without warres: and when all the people of Spaine were subjected, and reduced to the obedience of Rome, they alone with the Asturians, and some others who joyned with them,The ancient Government. could not be overcome; untill at last C. Caesar Octavianus Augustus did subdue this stout Nation, being broken & wearied by a warre of almost five yeares continuance, (hee himselfe going against them, and the rest that were not obedient to the Romans) by the industrie and valour of Vispanius A­grippa, and of the other Generals which hee brought with him.The Townes. There is in Biscay, besides other Townes, one speciall Towne of note called Bilbao, which is, as some doe suppose, by changing of the letters (which is frequent with the Spaniards) as much to say as Beluao, that is, Bellum vadum, Didacus Lopeus de Hazo, Prince of the Cantabrians built it, in the yeare of Christ 1300, or thereabouts. This Towne is especially com­mended [Page 208] for three things, the convenient Situation, the plenty of Corne, and the wonderfull great traffique and merchandizing which is heere, for whatsoever comes or is brought from England, France, or the Low-Countries, is transported and carried through this Towne into other parts of Spaine, and whatsoever Spaine doth communicate by way of traffique unto other Countries, it is exported and carried through it. Heere are Citizens, who at their owne proper charge doe yearly build three or foure ships. On the side of the Citie there is a litle towne on the Sea-coast, commonly called Portugallete, from whence a certaine River, or rather a great arme of the Sea doth flow into it, even unto the houses of the Inhabitants. By reason of which, divers kindes of wares are daily for a small matter imported and exported. There are also faire Havens in Biscay. There is no kinde of fish but you may have it heere, and that good and new. The Sea-shell-fish here have pearles in them, but of a meane sort. The people of the Countrie are curteous, merry, and eloquent. It is a custome and fashion that the Virgins in Biscay, as long as they are unmarried, doe never let their haire grow, neither doe they cover themselves with any veile; but presently when they are married, they cover their heads with a Quoife, made like a Helmet, of linnen cloth of a golden colour, which they wrap up in such a manner that it standeth forth a pretty way like an horne upon their foreheads. The Spaniards heere have great store of trading with the French, the Germans, The traffick. the English, and other people. It especially affordeth wooll, so that all Market-places are full of buyers and sellers.

GVIPVSCOA was heretofore the Countrie of the Cantabrians, some doe call it Lipuscoa and Lipuisca, The Countrie. The names. yet corruptly, as Stephanus Gary­bayus an inhabitant thereof noteth. But whence it hath this appellation I cannot easily determine, unlesse perhaps it taketh it from the ancient Citie Opuscua. The Situation. It is enclosed and bounded on the East with the River Vidosone, (which is also called Vidorso, Alduida, Huria, and Beoyvia, being in the middle betweene France and Spaine) and the Pyrenaean Hils; on the South with the Kingdome of Navarre; on the West with Biscay, (of which I spake before) and on the North with the Cantabrick Sea. This Countrey is very temperate,The temper of the Ayre. neither feeling too much cold, nor too much heate of the Sunne. It hath a moist and variable Climate. It is very rugged and mountainous, and therefore it is not every where tilled, but yet those places which are tilled are very fruitfull. It hath but few Vineyards,The fertilitie of the Soyle. except it be on that side which is next to the Sea. But it hath every where great store of Iron and Steele, so that no Coun­trey hath better or greater abundance; for so much of it is digged here as is sufficient for many Countries. Moreover, not onely Vulcans shop, but Mars his Armory seeme to be placed heere by Nature: for there is here so great plenty and store not onely of Iron and Steele, but also of wrought Armour, that in some writings belonging to the Countrie it is deservedly called the Wall or defence of the Kingdomes of Castile and Legio. Navigierus writeth, that in this Countrey so much Iron & Steele is digged, that every yeare they make 80000 Duckats gaine thereof. Therefore not without cause doth Pliny write, lib. 34. cap. 45. that there is a whole mountaine there of Iron: There is, saith hee, a very high [Page 209]

BISCAIA AND GVIPVSCOA.
BISCAIA ET LEGIO.

[Page 210] mountaine of Cantabria on the Sea side (a thing incredible to be spoken) which is all of Iron. Ptolemie, Pomponius, and Plinie doe place here the Orogevio­nes, the Autrigones, and the Varduli. The Metropolis is This is also called Testosa­ges by Ptole­my, and by Martialis Pal­ladia. Tolosa, seated at the confluence and meeting of Araxis and Orta: There are also other Townes, as Placentia, where there is an incredible company of Iron­smiths; Motrico, or as others thinke it should be written, Monte de Trico, from the Rocke which hangeth over the Towne; Fuentarabia, which Ptolemie cals Phlasiobriga; the Fane or Temple of Saint Sebastian, heretofore called Hisuru, afterward Don Bastia, and now corruptly Do­nastien, signifying the same with Saint Sebastian, for Don signifieth that among the Cantabrians, which Sanctus doth with the Latines, and Sancto with the Castellanes; and many places in Cantabria have, for the most part, divers names, in regard of the difference of speech: the Cantabri­ans call them by one name, the other Spaniards by an other, and the French-men by an other name, and yet they commonly signifie one thing. This Towne is situated at the mouth of the River which is called by Pomponius Mela Menascus, by Ptolemie Menosca, but now is called Rio Gurumea, The River Chalybs. or Vramea. The River Chalybs doth rise up hereabout, the water whereof is very good to temper Iron withall, so that the Spaniards doe approve of no other Armour, but that which hath beene tempered therewith. Iustine lib. 44. saith, that the bordering people were called Chalybes from this River. The Fane of Saint Sebastian hath a very large Haven (not made by humane Art,The Havens. but by Natures providence) where ships doe ride securely and safely, being defended from the violence of winde or Seas. The entrance into it is betweene two Castles, the one whereof standing towards the East is built on a high Mountaine,The Moun­taines. higher than that which is on the West side, which is onely placed on a rock. The Inhabitants are like in manners to the Inhabitants of Biscay, and speake the same language. They are by nature ingenious, politick, well accomplished, neate, easie to be allured, but hard to be compelled, de­sirous of honour, stoute defenders of their owne priviledges, nimble, couragious, ready and quick in handling their Armes, and apt for war. The women also are very strong and of a warlike spirit, well bodied, well favoured, although they accustome and use themselves to labour, which is a cause why they are lesse proud. Those that dwell by the Sea side doe get much by fishing, and especially by taking those kinde of fish called Baccali.

The Kingdome of Navarre, which was also anciently called the Kingdome of Sobabre, in all parts is as fertile, and abounding with all things necessary for mans life, as any other Kingdome of Spaine. And though commonly it bee thought to be very small, yet it hath sixe and fiftie walled Cities. The Inhabitants of this Countrie were heretofore very stout and warlike, and such as oftentimes shooke off the yoake of the Roman subjection, yet at the last they were wholly subdued, and brought into obedience to the Romans. When Caius Iulius the Dictator being kill'd at Rome, Octavianus Augustus succeeded him. For Augustus sent foure Legions against them, who entring the Province did waste it with fire and sword. When therefore they saw that they were unable to resist the Roman forces, the most of them fled to the mountaines [Page 211] which were very steepe and inaccessible, and are now called Navaia, lying length-wayes betweene Mescua, and Eulates. Heere when they had dwelt a long time, they were called from those Mountains Navinii, and afterwards the Moores possessing Spaine did corruptly call them Na­varri. But being opprest by the Tyrannie of the Moores, and compelled to forsake their owne habitations, they betooke themselves to the Some sup­pose, that Na­varre had its name from a Towne among the Mountains called Navar­rin. Py­renaean Mountaines, where they chose themselves a King, and for many successions of Kings lived according to their owne Lawes, even till the yeare a thousand five hundred and thirteene, when Pope Iulius the se­cond did by the sentence of Excommunication deprive Iohannes Albre­tus King of Navarre of his Kingdome as a Schismatick adhering to Lewis the 12 King of France, and gave a faire pretext & occasion to Ferdinand the Catholick K. to invade Navarre, which hee long gaped for; he there­fore sending Duke Alban, did drive King Iohn out of his Kingdome, and left it to his Successours. The chiefe Citie of Navarre is now common­ly called Pampelona, some call it Pompeiopolis, as if it were built by Pom­peius Magnus. It is situated under the sixteenth Degree and eleven Mi­nutes of Longitude, and the 44 Degree, and 43 Minutes of Latitude. There are besides these chiefe Cities, Sanctus Iohannes, Pedis Portus, Mons Regalis, Amaya, Estella, Olyta, Taffala, and Tudela.

THE OLD AND NEW CASTILE.

The Country, whence so cal­led. CASTILIA or Castella, which taketh its name from the Ca­stle, that King Pelagius (having recovered Legion from the Moores) did build, was heretofore called Bardulia. The describers of Spaine doe make it twofold, the Old and the New. Asturia and Biscay doe compasse the Old Castile on the North: [...] on the West, Portugall; on the South, New Castile; (the Mountaines which runne through the length of Spaine, lying betweene them) and on the East Aragon and Navarre. The Country is very fertile, full of wine, and all kinde of Fruits, Saffron, and all kinde of li­ving Creatures: and this was the beginning of the Kingdome. Pelagius having taken againe Legio from the Moores, built a Castle as a defence against the violence of the Barbarians, the Governours wherof were cal­led Earles of Castile, The fertility of the [...]. and did acknowledge the King of Legio a long time as their Prince, even to Ordonius the second, the fourteenth King of A­sturia and Legio; who having called the Earles and Nobles of Castile un­to him under the colour of parley, beheaded them. This wicked act the Castilians stomacking,The [...] Government. and having cast off their obedience to the Kings of Legio, they choose two Judges out of themselves, Nunius Rasu­ra, and Lainus Calvus, (one to give Judgement, and the other to oversee matters of warre) whose children and posteritie were afterward called Earles of Castile, even to Sanctius Major King of Navarre, who (when by his warlike valour hee had taken Corduba and Toledo from the Sara­cens, and had thrust out all the Moores out of Navarre, Aragon, Castile, [...], Portugall, and other parts of Spaine) restored all Spaine to the Chri­stians; and having married Eluira the daughter of Sanctius, Earle of Ca­ [...], and sister to the last Earle of Garsia, writ himselfe in the right of her d [...]y, not Earle, but King of Castile, and left the Kingdome to his Son [...], who was enriched with the Kingdome of Legio by his wife [...] Sanctius the sonne did succeed Ferdinand, and after him his bro­ther [...]; whose daughter V [...]raca (for the heire male died) when after the decease of Ra [...]mundus Berengarius Earle of Tolosa (her former husband) shee had married Alphonsus King of Aragon; the Kingdomes of [...]ra [...]on, The C [...]es Castile, and Legio, came to be united. The Metropolis of [...] Castile is the Citie of Th [...] [...] is built [...] rather [...]part by Nugno B [...]li­d [...]a German. [...] contendeth with Toledo [...] the P [...] ­ma [...]ship of Spaine Burges, commonly called Burgos: Ptolemie thinketh it should bee called Bravum. It is an ancient Citie, famous for many things, and deserveth to be accounted one of the chiefe Cities of Spaine; for it hath an hundred and fiftie lesser Townes under it, every where beautified with great, faire, and convenient houses, adorned with market places, streetes, bridges, Temples, Friaries, and Rivers, and is very notable for the incredible diligence of the Inhabitants of whatsoever age, sexe, or condition. Round about the Metropolis di­vers Towns are pleasantly and commodiously seated, as Palentia situated [Page 213]

THE OLD AND NEW CASTILE.
CASTILIA VETUS et Nova

[Page 214] on the banke of Carion, Pliny calls it Palantia, as also Mela, Ptolemy, and Appianus: Strabo calls it Pallantia, and Antoninus corruptly Peralantia. Also the Towne Valdoletum, heretofore a Royall Seate, and one of the seven Ancient Universities of Spaine. It is the fairest and most delight­full place, not onely in Spaine, but also in all Europe, as being seated on the most pleasant banke of Pesuerga: neither is there any Citie which can be preferr'd before it, for the fertilenesse of the soyle round about it. It hath a faire and large market-place, the circuit wereof is seven hundred paces; and whereas this Towne is very famous for many re­spects, yet it is especially honoured by the birth of Philip the second King of Spaine. It is commonly called Valladolid, which some doe in­terpret the Vale of Oletus: Ptolemie calls it Pintia, and Antoninus Pin [...]a, as Cusius thinketh. Also Simanca, called by Antoninus Septimanca; and Ca­mora which Ptolemy calls Sarabris, as Clusius thinketh, but Antoninus corruptly Sabaria. Yet Florianus del Campo, and Gomer [...]us doe thinke that Sarabris was that Town, which is commonly called Tora, and in La­tine Taurus, neare to the River Durius. This is a fa­mous Univer­sitie, and insti­tuted by Ferdi­nand the se­cond of Castile. Anno 1240. Salmantica is not the last in ac­count which Pylaenus calls Salmatis, but is commonly called Salamanca. Not farre from hence, neare the River which is commonly called Gada, is the Citie of Count Rodoricke, called anciently Ciudad Rodrigo, which (as Vasaeus and Clusius thinke) Ptolemy would have to bee Myrobriga. From hence Southward is Coria, heretofore called Caurita, as Clusius writeth: Andraeas Schottus doth affirme that by the Moderne Latine Writers it was called Cauria. About nine leagues on the East from Cau­ria is Placentia, a faire Citie; whose Cittrons and other Fruites, as also their white bread, are chiefly commended and desired: it is commo [...] called Plazentia. Placentia hath many pleasant Townes und [...] juris­diction, among which is Xavahicium proud of her woods▪ and lying in a Valley like an Altar, (as Marinaeus noteth) in the innermost part of a Church. The Mountaines adjacent and lying neare to Placentia, are na­med from the Citie Verade Placentiae. Also Here Tostatus was Bishop. Avila, called by Ptolemie Olbula, as Clusius would have it. Not farre from the Fountaines of Are­va lyeth Segobia, which Pliny and Antoninus call Segovia, and Ptolemie Se­gubia: it is a Citie famous for Cloath-making, and wherein, as Vasaeus writeth, this is memorable, that no man is seene idle, neither are there any beggars, unlesse it be those who are impotent through age or sick­nesse: seeing none doe want meanes how to get a living or how to em­ploy themselves. That Citie which is now called Aranda neare the Ri­ver Durius, Ptolemie would have to be Rhanda of the Vaccaeans in Tarra­conia: Antoninus calleth it Rhanda by the correction of Hyeronimus Su­rita; for heretofore it was called Randachunia. That Towne which an uncertaine Writer calleth Exoma, Pliny calls Vxoma, who often addeth that this name is often used in other places; it is read Vxsama, with an S. in an ancient Marble: and now it is called Osma. But let so much suffice concerning the Cities and Townes: wee passe to New Castile. New Castile on the North cleaveth to the Old Castile, New Castile. on the other sides it is enclosed with Portugall, Extremadura, Andaluzia, Granada, and Valentia:The Situation It aboundeth with corne and other graine, being situated on either side of the River Tagus. The Metropolis of this Country is Tole­tum, [Page 215] as the Latines call it; Ptolemy calls it Toleton, now it is called Toledo: and Villanovanus in Ptolemy saith that it was once called Serezola: The fertilitie of the Soyle. it is the Center and Navell as it were of Spaine; it hath a very cliffie, rugged, and unlevell situation, and the ascents are so steepe, that it is very diffi­cult travelling through it.The Cities. The River Tagus doth wash the greater part of it, and doth fence it against enemies: it is fortified with 150 watch-Towers. There are a great number of Noblemen in this Citie: The Citizens are very industrious. It is beautified with many faire Edifices and buildings, as also with a rich and stately Church. There have beene 18 nationall Councells held here, when as so many have not been held in any other place. Madritum, commonly called Madrid, doth re­verence Toletum as her mother and Queene: it hath an wholesome aire and situation. It aboundeth with all things, and the Kings of Spaine have an house of residence in it. Not farre from hence is Villamanta, which (as Montanus and Villonovanus, and Tarapha would have it,) is that Town which Ptolemy calls Mantua in Tarraconia. That Town which by an Ara­bicke word the Spaniards do now call Alcala de Henares, Ptolemy beleeveth so certainly to be Complutum, that it is called so in Latine in all publique acts. It is seated on a plaine, neare the River which they call Henares, and aboundeth so with all things necessary for mans use, that it needes no supply from other places. Antoninus placeth Segontia betweene Com­plutum and Caesar-augusta: it is at this day called Siguensa. Now I returne to Hispalis, and from thence passing by the Pallace, the bridge of Alcan­tarilla, and the Townes Cabeca and Nebrissa, I come now to the Towne Fanum Luciferi, for so the Latines doe name it, and Strabo in his fourth Booke, where he addeth that it was heretofore called Lux Dubia, now they call it Saint Lucar de Barrameda. Not farre from hence almost foure leagues toward the Northeast, there is a Towne which hath a famous ancient Bridge, now called Talavera, and as Beuterus and Moralis do sup­pose, named by Livy Aebura. Here are also the Townes Cuenca, which Pliny calls Cacenses: Lebazuza, which Antoninus calls Libisosa; and Casto­la veja, which the same Antoninus calleth Castulo. The River Tagus doth water New Castile, together with other Rivers and Rivulets which run into it, and the Spring-head of the River Anas or Guadiana is in this Countrie. But enough of these things, I come now to the publique workes. Five leagues from Madrid toward the West, you may behold the magnificent and sumptuous Monasterie of Saint Laurence, who was of the order of Saint Ierome. It was the worke of Philip the second King of Spaine, and may compare with the Egyptian Pyramides, The publick seates. the Grae­cian and Roman Temples, Theaters, Amphitheaters, or other famous pla­ces for the structure: for there is scarce any thing equall or second to it.Quade repor­teth that it hath eleven severall Quadrangles, and every one incloystered. The Frontispice of it looking toward the West, hath three stately gates; the middlemost and chief wherof leadeth you into a Church, a Friery, and a Colledge: that on your right hand bringeth you into the Offices belonging to the Monasterie, & that on the left hand bringeth you into the Schooles. The foure corners are adorned with foure curious Tow­ers, which are exceeded by two other Towers placed one by another at the foot of the Church. Above the gates of the Church doe stand the Statues of the sixe Kings of Israel cut out in Marble, and being 17 [Page 216] foot high: on the North side there is a Pallace adjoyned to the Church, which is able to receive the King and all his traine. On the South side there are divers sumptuous Galleries, and on the East side a garden set with all kinde of hearbes and flowers, and enriched with many other ornaments. Also an Hospitall for the Sicke, a Roome for an Apotheca­rie, and other places. Lastly, every thing doth so amaze the beholder, that it is better for me to be silent with modestie, than to make a meane description of those things which remaine. There is also in this Coun­trie the famous Pallace of Toledo, (reedified by Charles the fifth) ador­ned with new buildings and Royall furniture: in which, besides many other singular things, there is a water-worke made by the wonderfull invention of an Italian, which by the helpe of a great wheele, draweth up water out of the River Tagus; and so imposing an artificiall violence upon nature, doth force it to ascend through Pipes into the highest part of the Castle, where it being received into one large Cisterne, is dis­persed againe by Pipes, and serveth for the use of the Castle and the whole Citie: for it doth water gardens, and serveth for Noble mens houses, Stewes, Fullers of cloath, and other necessary uses of the Citie. Here are two Universities, Complutum a famous Academie for all Arts, which was instituted by Francis Ximenius Cardinall, and Archbishop of Toledo. The Universi­ties. The other is the Academie or Universitie of Toledo, being a famous nurserie of Learning and Wisedome. All disciplines and Me­chanicke Arts are greatly esteemed in the Citie Toledo; and ten thousand men doe live thereby,The Trades & Mechanicke Arts. dressing Wooll and Silke.

ANDALVZIA. Jn which are the Countries of HISPALIS and GRANADA.

ANDALUZIA is a part of Hispania Baetica, it is supposed that it was heretofore called Vandalia from the Vandals, The name and whence de­rived. a people of Germany, who formerly came into these parts. Therefore some having searched more nearely into the name do thinke it was called Andaluzia, quasi Wendenhuys, that is, the house of the Vandals, yet Marius Aretius doth thinke it was called Andaluzia quasi ante Lusitania, the letters being somewhat chan­ged. On the East it hath Granada, on the North New Castile, on the West it is bounded with the Diocesses of Badaios and Silvis, & the River Anas; and on the South it looketh toward the Atlantick Sea. The chiefe part of it is the jurisdiction of Hispalis. This hath on the East Corduba, on the West Algarbia, on the North it cleaveth to that part of Portugall which is called Magistratus S. Iacobi. And the other part toward the South is enclosed with Gades, and the Mediterranean Sea. It is in a temperate and flourishing Climate, and is miraculously fertile in bringing forth Corne,The Situation, Wine, Oyle, and all kindes of fruits, with which it replenishes forraine Countries. Spaine in these parts that are encompassed with the Sea (as Pliny saith) may be compared with Italy: which commendations wee suppose may be chiefly understood of that part which looketh toward Hispalis, as being exposed to the Sea, and the gentle Westerne gales of winde. And indeed this Countrie so aboundeth with all kind of things,The temper of the aire, and fertilitie of the Soyle. & therein so farre excells all the Provinces of the World, that Pliny had worthily preferred it before Italie, but that he being an Italian would not disgrace his owne Countrie. Here is great store of all kindes of Cat­tell, and especially of Cunnies. Wee said before, that Andaluzia tooke that name from the Vandalls, because they being driven out by the Gothes seated themselves in this place: though afterward being thrust out from hence, they went into Africke. Thus it was: Rodericke the 25 King of the Gothes, The Ancient Government. in whom the line of the Kings of the Gothes was ex­tinguisht, did send one Iulianus an Earle to Mauritania Tingitana as Go­vernour thereof: and in his absence did violate his daughters chastitie, making a whore of her; which when her father heard, he called the Sa­racens out of Africke, thinking thereby to ease his just sorrow, by reven­ging it on the King who was the cause thereof. These Saracens comming in by the Straits of Hercules in the yeare of Christ 714. under the con­duct of their Captaine Muzamissus, in two yeares space got possession of all Spaine, except Asturia which was fortified by the naturall situation of the place. In this little time there were slaine on both sides 700000 men. The Saracens having gotten the Empire, and having rooted out the Christian Religion as much as they could, they divided the Kingdomes [Page 218] among themselves. The first Kingdome that they instituted was at Cor­duba, which they called Abenalibeticum. The other was at Hispalis, and the third at New Carthage. But at last being driven out of these parts by Ferdinand the third, they went unto Granada in the yeare 1216. and af­terward by Ferdinand the sixt were quite thrust out of Spaine in the yeare 1494. The Metropolis of this Countrie is that which Pliny calls Hispa­lis, Ptolemie Ispalis, Silius Hispal, Gratianus Spalis, and which now is called Sevill. Arius Montanus thinketh that Hispalis is a Carthaginian name, deri­ved from Spila or Spala, which signifies a plain or greene country. Some (among whom is F. Tarapha) do referre the name thereof to Hispalis the son of Lybian Hercules, but Isidorus, as in many other things, is ridiculous in this matter, for when he had noted that this Citie was built by Iulius Caesar, and so called from his name and the Citie of Rome Iulia Romula; he saith that it was so named Hispalis from Piles or Stakes upon which hee supposed either all or part of the Citie to be built, as being situate in a moorish place. It is a Citie neare Baetis pleasantly seated, It is [...] miles in compasse. great in com­passe, round in forme, beautifull, and adorned with Temples, and many houses. So many things may be declared concerning it, that there is an ancient Proverbe of it, Quien no ha Visto Sevilla, no ha visto Maravilla. It hath beene the mother and fosterer of many happie wits, among which was Here like­wise studied A­vicen, Pope Sil­vester the se­cond, and Le­ [...]nder. Benedictus Arias Montanus, a great Divine, and very skilfull in di­vers languages, as his workes set forth by him do witnesse. Having spo­ken something of the Metropolis, I will describe some of the other Ci­ties, not keeping any certaine order, yet so, as that which is nearest to the Metropolis shall be placed first. Five leagves from Hispalis is Palati­um, or Palantia, which is commonly called Palacios, from an ancient Castle that standeth on one side of it. It is seated in the way which lea­deth to S. Lucar, and the Gaditane Straits. Next unto this is Cabaca, a little Town seated in the entrance of the mountaines, which do extend them­selves Southward toward Malaga, and Cabecis, (three leagves off toward the North-East) commonly called Lebrixa, by Ptolemie Nebrissa, and by Pliny Veneria. The builder thereof is supposed to be Liber Pater. It is a pleasant and a prettie little Towne with an ancient Castle, encompassed round about with pleasant fields, and is famous by reason of Aelius An­tonius once a citizen thereof and an ornament and honour to all Spaine. Moreover the Towne which is commonly called Carmona, by Strabo Carmon, by Antoninus Carme, and by Ptolemie, Chermenia and Marchena, heretofore (as saith Onuphrius) called Martia; this Towne is seated on a little hill which hath a plaine on every side for its prospect. There are al­so these townes, Loja, on the right hand banke of Baetis: Axalita built of old stone (as Clusius witnesseth) and called Flavium Axalitanum, as ap­peareth by an ancient inscription: Moron, heretofore called by Clusius, Arucci; Ossuna called by Appianus, Orsona; by Strabo, Orson; by Pliny, Vrso; and Genua or Gemina Vrbanorum; by ancient Inscriptions, Vrsaon; and by Hirtius, V [...]sao. The towne Eceja, by the river Singulis, Xenil or Chenil, cal­led by Ptolemie, Astygis; and by Pliny, Augusta Firma, is a little Towne 13 leagues from Hispalis. Penastor (in the mid way betweene Hispalis and Corduba on the right hand banke of Baetis) which Ptolemie, thinketh to be Illipula magna, but Pliny, Ilpa Italica in the Iurisdiction of Hispalis; and not [Page 219]

ANDALVZIA.
ANDALUZIA

[Page 220] many miles hence on the banke of the same River, Corduba, commonly called From hence comes our Cor­do [...]an leather. Cordova. Pliny saith, it was named Colonia Patricia, and Moralis doth also prove the same by inscription on an ancient marble; Iohannes Gerundensis saith that it was called Corduba, quasi Cor Batis, that is, the heart of Baetis. It hath bred famous Souldiers, and great Here was borne Lucan the Poet, & the two Seneca's. Schollers. And it is happie in her fruitfull fields, pleasant gardens, and beside many o­ther gifts, in her wholesome waters; Silius the Italian Poët lib. 3. calleth the soile of Corduba a golden soile when he saith,

Nec decus auriferae cessavit Corduba terrae.
Corduba's soile is of so rich a mould
It will not yeeld to that which beareth gold.

Five leagues from Corduba, Southward, is Mons Major commonly called Monte Major, Ptolemie thinketh it to be Vlia a Citie in Hispania Baetica, and so doth Antoninus. Some few leagues from Corduba is Montoro, Antoni­nus supposeth it to be Epora. Ptolemie erroneously calleth it Ebura instead of Epora, (when notwithstanding the former is not a Towne of Baetica, but of Lusitania) but worst of all Pliny who nameth it Ripepora Foederato­rum. Not farre from Lucar is the Towne which the Spaniards call Xeres de la Frontera, as though it were the beginning and bound of Spaine on that side where it standeth. This towne Navagierus thinketh to be the same with that which Livie and others call Asta: Antoninus with an asperation calleth it Hasta, Moralis writeth that it doth still retaine the name of Asta, and thinketh it to be that place neare the river Guadalet, which is commonly called Masa de Asta. But Ortelius supposeth that it was drowned with the Island Tartessus in the mouth of Baetis. An hun­dred furlongs from the mouth of Baetis standeth the Towne Chipiona, which Strabo (lib. 3.) calleth Capionis Turris. At the mouth of the River Lethes, (which is now called Guadelet, or in the Arabian language Bedalac) there is a Towne which is called Portus S. Mariae, and commonly El pu­erto de S. Maria. Having passed over Lethes the next towne you shall meet withall is Whose Duke was Captain [...] Generall of the Invincible A [...] ­mad [...], A. 1 [...]8. Medina Sidonia, and somewhat more Southward toward the Sea-shoare is Conilium a famous towne of Spaine, sixe leagues distant from the Citie Gadiz, and subject to the Duke of S. Lucar, and Medina Si­donia. There is also Carteja, called commonly So called b [...] ­cause Tariffa the L [...]d [...] of the Mo [...] [...]nto Spaine, here landed. Tariffa; and not far from thence is the Towne Vegelium, commonly called Vegel It is indeed a litle Towne, but yet famous for the situation and beautie of it, for it is seated on a hill which is environed round about with a large plaine, so that it hath a faire prospect, as farre as the eye can reach, not onely upon the plaines and greene medowes, toward the East, as also the Mountaines of Africke, and the Southerne coast, but likewise upon the great & trouble­some Ocean toward the North and West. Lastly, from hence toward the Northwest lyeth the towne Hard by this Towne was fought the notable battle be­tweene Caesar and the sonnes of Pompey. Munda, for so Pliny nameth this towne which now is called Monda, though some do thinke that to be old Mun­da which now is called Ronda veja. There are in the Diocese of Hispalis, an innumerable company of Monasteries and Nunneries. It would be a tedious thing to reckon up the Hospitalls for strangers that are in this country, seing there are in Hispalis it selfe an hundred and twenty, which are richly endowed some of them having eight thousand Crownes, and some fifteene thousand Crownes yearely revenue. Hispalis is the most [Page 221] beautifull of all the Cities of Spaine, in regard of the Religious houses and Churches which are therein: among many Churches, the chiefest is the Church dedicated to Saint Mary, than which the Christian world cannot shew a better, if you consider either the greatnesse and majestie of the worke, which carrieth with it an excellent beauty; or if you be­hold the heigth of the Towre, wrought with admirable workmanship, from whence there is a pleasant prospect over all the City, and the fields that lye round about it. What shall I describe the royall furniture of the Kings Castle in this Citie, than which the Kings of Spaine have none more fairely or curiously built? What should I mention the Pallaces here belonging to Dukes, Earles, and other Nobles? Or why should I speake of the Citizens houses, adorned with pleasant Fountaines and Gardens? I passe by the ancient Aquaeducts, by which water is convey'd into severall parts of the Citie, and those later which were brought with great cost and labour to the Pillars, commonly called Hercules Pillars, and dedicated to publick delight, besides many other ornaments of this Citie since, I feare lest I be tedious.

VALENTIA AND MVRCIA.

The Countrie whence so cal­led. VALENTIA taketh its name from the Metropolis there­of, being a faire Mart-Towne, and of great antiquitie: On the South it looketh toward Murcia: on the West to­ward both the Castiles: The Situation. on the North toward Aragon: and on the East the Sea beateth on it. It hath a more tem­perate Ayre,The temper of the Ayre. and a more pleasant Climate than any other part of Spaine: yea the Kingdome of Valentia hath such a gentle Climate, (the warme Westerne windes breathing upon it) that at any time, even at Christmas, and in the Moneth of Ianuarie the Inhabitants may carrie Posies of flowres in their hands, as they doe in other places in April and May. It is an excellent Country, having plenty of all things, as Sugar, Wine, Oyle, Corne, and divers other fruites. It hath Mynes of Silver in a place which they call Buriel, The fertility of the Soyle. betweene Valentia and Dertosa. And there are stones found which have, as it were, golden veines and lines running through them, in a place which is called Aioder. At the Promontorie Finistratum there are Iron Mynes, and neere to Segorbia there are some signes remaining of a Quarrie, out of which Marble was heretofore dig­ged and carried to Rome. In some places Alablaster is digged up, but Alume, Tinne, Marking-stone, and Chalke is found every where. The Moores by a long succession of Dukes held the Citie of Valentia for a long time, though it had beene often besieged by the Kings of Aragon, untill Iames the first, King of Aragon by a long siege obtained it, and enforced their Captaine Zaen Maure together with fiftie thousand Moores to depart the Citie,The ancient Government. and to flie unto Denia, carrying with them their Gold, Silver, Armour, and Houshold-stuffe. Valentia being thus forsaken, King Iames sent a Colonie to replenish it againe. The Colony consisted of Catalonians and Aragonians, their Captaine being Berengari­us Palatiol Bishop of Barcelona: Vidalus Cavelia Bishop of Ossa: Peter Fer­dinandes d' Acagra, and Simon de Vrrea Knights; they distributed the whole Citie among the new Inhabitants, which were 384 families, ac­cording to their severall dignities, and adorn'd the Common-wealth with new Lawes. This Countrie obtained the title of a Kingdome in the yeare of Christ 788, as Ortelius writeth out of Petrus Metinensis, & Petrus Antoninus Beuterus. The Historie hath it thus: Hisen King of Cor­duba being dead, there succeeded him in the yeare of Christ 788 his sonne Alca, whose uncle Aodala Lord of Valentia called to him his Brother (whose name was Culema, and had beene disinherited) out of Taviar; these two Brethren uniting their forces, came to Corduba, and endeavouring to expell their Nephew out of his Kingdome, were over­come in battell, so that Aodala fled for his safety, and returned to Valen­tia: [Page 223]

VALENTIA, AND MVRCIA.
REGNI VALENTIAE TYPUS

[Page 224] But the chiefe of the Moores interposing themselves betweene the Uncles and the Nephew, they brought them to that agreement, that Aodala should write himselfe King of Valentia, and that Culema should receive every moneth out of the revenues of Valentia a thousand of Mo­radines (which was a kinde of money) for the maintenance of his table, and five thousand Moradines more for the provision of other necessaries. To which agreement when Aodala had consented, hee first stiled him­selfe the King of Valentia. The ancient Inhabitants of Valentia were the Hedetani, which (as Ptolemie thinketh) were the same with the Sedenta­ni. Secondly the Biscargitani, whose Metropolis was Biscargis, whereof there is some mention made in the Inscription of Caesars coyne, as Hub. Goltzius witnesseth: and these seeme to have beene of the Heditanians, seeing Ptolemie names Biscargis to be amongst them. Thirdly the Leoni­censes, whose Metropolis Ptolemie cals Leonica, and placeth it also among the Heditanians. Fourthly the Co [...]stani, from whom Pliny nameth the Countrie of Contestania in Tarraconia. Their memory is preserved by the Towne Contayna, or, as some pronounce it, Contentaina, at the head of that River, at the mouth whereof the Town Oliva is seated over against the Pityusian Ilands. Fiftly, the Lusones, whom Appianus placeth by the River Iberus in Iberia, neere to the Numantines, but Strabo at the Foun­taines of Tagus. Sixthly, the Lobitani, whose Metropolis Ptolemie cals Lobetum, and which Beuterus writeth was first called Turia, afterward Avarazin, and last of all as at this day Albarazin. Seventhly, The Tor­boletae in Iberia, neere to the Saguntines, from whom Ptolemie calleth the Citie Turbula, now perhaps called Torres. Lastly the Celtiberi, so called by Plinie lib. 3. cap. 3. Pomponius Mela lib. 3. cap. 13. and other Latines, but by Ptolemie Celtiberes; for though some doe place them in Old Ca­stile, yet the most in Valentia. Among the Cities of this Kingdome Va­lentia (commonly called Valencia) is the Metropolis, and a Bishops Seate: It was built by King Romus, as Vasaeus and others write, and from him called Rome: And the Romans having afterward amplified and enlarged it, did call it Valentia, a name signifying the same which [...] in Greeke doth. But this seemes a fable to Resendius, who reporteth, that it was built and so named by the Portugals and other Souldiers. It is seated in the innermost part of the Bay of Sucronia, on the right-hand Banke of the River Turia. It is famous for its manners, institutions, and He [...]e [...]. Dominick Fa­ther of the Do­minican Friars studied. profes­sion of all Arts both Liberall and Mechanick. It is happie in great wits, and desirous to preserve peace and concord within it selfe. It hath ma­ny Gentle-men in it, and is very rich in Merchandize. Wee will not passe by that which L. Marinaeus Siculus noteth concerning the Valenti­ans: They have (saith hee) a custome every yeare on the Feast of Saint Matthew, that having made many supplications and prayers, they re­paire to the place of execution, and there they take up the bodies of those who have suffered death, whether they be hanged up, or lye on the ground, gathering also together their scattered bones, if any be; and by and by having laid all things on a Beere, they carrie them to the common burying-place of the Citie, and there with sacrifices and prayers doe bury them. Petrus Medinensis relates, that there are in this Citie ten thousand springs of water. Heretofore on the left-hand banke [Page 225] of Turia not farre from Valentia stood Saguntum, which Ptolemie affir­meth to be a Citie of the Heditani, Strabo and Plinie doe place it a mile off from the Sea; Strabo calleth it Saguntus, Stephanus Zacynthus, and An­toninus corruptly Secundum and Secunthum. The most doe thinke it now to be the same with Morvedere, being so called, as some suppose, from the ancient wals thereof. Appianus maketh it the Colonie of the Za­cynthi; some doe suppose, that Saguntis the Sonne of Hercules was the builder of it, and some would have it named from the Iberian Sagi. Silius the Italian Poet describeth the situation of it in his first Booke: Livie in his 30 Book saith, that the wals of Saguntum were cemented with Lime and dirt mingled together, which was an ancient kinde of building. It seemeth by Plinie, that the Saguntini did heretofore reverence Diana, being brought thither by the Zacynthians their Progenitors, two hun­dred yeares before the destruction of Troy. Pomponius Mela saith, that the Saguntians are faithfull in the midst of troubles and adversitie. Con­cerning the overthrow and devastation of this noble Citie, which through their admirable constancie and great fidelitie towards the Ro­mans happened in the yeare from the building of the Citie 535, (M. Lu­cius Salinator, and L. Aemilius Paulus being Consuls) you may reade and have recourse to Livie, lib. 21. Polybius, lib. 3. Orosius, lib. 4. cap. 14. Eutropius, lib. 3. Florus, lib. 2. cap. 6. Silius the Italian, lib. 1. Valerius Maximus, lib. 6. cap. 6. Augustine, lib. 3. de Civit. Dei, cap. 20. Aemi­lius Probus in Hannibal, Cicero in his Philippicks, and many others. There are also at this day these famous places in Valentia: First Segorbia, which Ptolemie and Strabo, as also Vasaeus, Clusius, Tarapha, Emanuel Henricus, and Augustus his coyne doe call Segobriga. Plinie also calleth the Inha­bitants Segobricenses, placing them in the chiefe part of Celtiberia. But Moralis thinketh, that Segobriga should be called Injesta, or Cabeca el Gri­ego: and Ioannes Mariana is of the same opinion. Hieronimus Surita pro­fesseth that hee knew not where this Segorbia was. Secondly, there is Denia, called by Cicero and Plinie (as Florianus, Morialis, and Clusius will have it) Dianium, and Dianium Stipendarium. Thirdly, Incibilis, so called by Livie, and by Frontinus Indibilis, where Scipio put Hanno Captaine of the Carthaginians to flight: It is thought by Florianus to bee Chelva. Fourthly, that Towne which Plinie cals Illici, Ptolemie Ilicias, Pomponius Illice, and in the Inscription of coyne Ilce Colonia; Ptolemie also cals it Illicitani (whence commeth the appellation of the Illicitane Bay) and now some call it Alicanta, and others Elche, which commeth somewhat neerer to truth. Fifthly Belgida, a Citie of Celtiberia which still keepeth its old name. Sixthly Leria, which Ptolemie cals Hedeta, (whence the Heditani have their name) Clusius and Moralis Oliete, and later Writers Liria. Seventhly the Towne which Florianus cals Orcelis, and Gomecius and Clusius Horivela and Oriola, but Nebrissensis Zamora. Eightly, the Towne which Livie and Ptolemie call Bigerra, Beuterus and Vasaus Bejar, and Clusius Villena. Ninthly the Towne which Strabo cals Setabis, Anci­ent Stones Satabis, (as Clusius witnesseth) and is now called according to Florianus his opinion Xativa. This Countrie hath many Rivers,The Rivers. and especially Turia, which Pomponius calleth Duria, and Ptolemie Dorium. The Inhabitants doe keepe the Arabick word, calling it Guetalabiar, [Page 226] which signifies pure Water. This River bringeth great commodities to those places by which it floweth. There is also the River Xucar (called of old Sucron and Surus) which riseth out of the Mountaines of Orespe­da. The Moun­taines. Valentia hath two Mountaines, which are called Mariola and Pen­nagolosa, which being full of divers sorts of rare hearbs and plants, doe cause a great number of Physicians and Herbalists to resort unto them out of divers parts of Spaine, in regard of the rarities which are found there. The Citie of Valentia being venerable for antiquity, hath many ancient Marbles which remaine to posteritie, engraven with Roman in­scriptions, some of which may be seene in Beuterus, Ambrosius Moralis, Hottomannus and others. In the Citie of Saguntum, now called Morvedre there was a Theater,The publick workes. a Scene, and many other Reliques of antiquitie, as the Sepulchres of the Sergii, of L. Galba, and Sergius Galba, and other Romans, with the stones whereof a Monasterie was built for the Friars of the Order of the Trinitie. Valentia hath a famous Universitie in the Citie so called, and also an other Universitie at Gandia, which was not long since erected and founded by the Duke of Gandia, that the Fathers of the Society of Iesus (of which Society hee became one himselfe) might studie there. The Citie of Valentia, in regard of its government of the Common-wealth, doth excell all the Cities in Spaine. The Coun­trey wherein this Citie is seated is inhabited, for the most part, by a Na­tion which are descended from the Moores, and therefore they doe yet retaine their Ancestours speech and manner of life. That is not to bee omitted which M. Tully doth speake in his last Oration against Verres, in the praise of Valentia: Valentinorum (saith hee) hominum honestissi­morum testimonio, that is, by the testimonie of the Valentians who are most honest men.The Trades. Much silke is made in this Kingdome. Valentia (as Olivarius Valentinus writeth) hath great store of traffique and trading: for divers sorts of wares are exported from thence, as silke-thread of all colours, and raw silke as it comes from the Silke-worme, the best cloth also is carried from thence into the Isles called Baleares, The traffick. and into Sicilie and Sardinia: Besides, there is exported from thence Rice, Wheate, Su­gar, Raizins, Figges, and preserv'd fruites into many Countries in Eu­rope.

ARAGON AND CATALONIA.

ARAGON tooke its name either from the Autrigoni­ans, a people of Spaine, as Laurentius Valla witnesseth;The Countrie whence so cal­led. or from Tarracone an ancient Citie, as it pleaseth Anto­nius Nebrissensis and Vasaeus. Some suppose it was so called from the River Aragon, which rising there, doth flow into Iberus. Some doe derive it from the the Al­tar of Hercules, called in Latine Ara, and his sports called Agonalia: which if it be true, it is a wonder that Ancient Writers are so silent con­cerning Aragon. The Situation. Navarre cleaveth to this Kingdome on the North­west, Calatrava toward the Southeast: On the Southwest it looketh to­wards Castile, and on the North it hath the Pyrenaean Mountaines. The Country is for the most part rugged & drie towards the Pyraenean hills,The qualitie of the Soyle. so that you shall not meete with a house for many dayes journeys: yet here are some fruitfull Valleyes abounding with the best corne, and o­ther fruits, and it is refreshed with sweet Rivers. All Writers do report that Ranimirus was the first King of this Kingdome.The Cities. He was made King of Aragon, in the yeare 1016. But concerning the Kingdome and the Kings of Aragon, as also Valentia and Catalonia how and from whom they had their beginnings, and of their union, you may reade Rodericus Sanctius in the first part of his Spanish Historie. cap. 13.The ancient Government. Also Lucius Ma­rinaeus Siculus de Regibus Hispaniae, lib. 8. and others. The Metropolis and head Citie of the Kingdome, Pliny and others doe call Caesar-Augusta, Ptolemy Caesarea-Augusta. It is now called Sarragosa, and is a famous Uni­versitie. They report that the builder thereof was Iuba, King of Mauri­tania, who called it Saldyba, that is, the house of Iuba: but afterward, the former name being left off, it was called Caesar-Augusta. It is seated on the banke of Iberus, in a plaine place, and hath a long stone bridge which serveth the Inhabitants to passe over the River, (as Strabo speakes in his third booke). The Citie lyeth in the forme and shape of a shoo-soale: It hath foure gates looking to the foure quarters of the world. It is en­compassed with strong walls, and well fortified with many Towres. In this Citie the Kings of Aragon were wont to be crowned by the Arch­bishop & Primate of the whole Kingdome. The other Cities are these; first that which Ptolemy and Plutarch doe call in Latine Osca, and is now called Huesca; but Velleius Paterculus fabulously calleth it Eteosca, where he writeth that Sertorius was slaine. Secondly the Citie Tyriassona neere the Mountaine Cacus, which some doe suppose was built by the Tyrians and Ausonians. Thirdly Iacca, lying in a valley, heretofore the Seate [Page 228] of the Iaccetani. Fourthly Calatajut, standing in a Plaine, and built out of the ruines of Bilbilis, which together with many other Monuments of Antiquitie, are to be seene a mile and an halfe from the Towne, on a Hill which is commonly called Bambola or Banbola. This Mountaine is enriched almost on every side with the River Salon or Xalon, where Va­lerius Martialis lib. 10. Epigram. 103. doth place Bilbilis, being borne a Citizen of it; Paulinus calleth it Bilbilis hanging on the rock: Ptolemie corruptly calleth it Bilbis, and Martiall calleth it Augusta Bilbilis, as also doe the Inscriptions of ancient coyne. Fifthly Barbastrum (famous for Iron Crosse-bowes) which Ptolemie cals Burtina, and Antoninus Bortina, as some thinke. Sixthly Monsonium, seated in the midle or navell of the Kingdome, not farre from the Banke of the River Cinga, neere which there is a hill, from whence the Towne taketh its name. It is a Towne that is famous by reason of the meeting and convention of the Kingdomes of Aragon and Valentia, and the Principality of Catalonia where it standeth. It is commonly called Moncon, and hath not onely a fruitfull Soyle, but a sweete and open Ayre. Seventhly Fraga, between Ilerda and Caesar-Augusta: Ptolemie cals it Gallica Flavia, and Antoninus Gallicum, as Varronius thinketh, though some doe place Gallicum there where now stands Zuera. Eigthly Gurrea, heretofore called Forum Gallorum, which Antoninus placeth betweene Caesar-Augusta and the Py­renaean Hils. Ninthly, Ajerbium, where it is thought that Ebellinum sometime stood, which Antoninus and others doe mention. 10ly Vrgella, which Aimonius calleth Orgellum, and Ptolemie Orgia. It is a Towne not farre from the Fountaines of Sicoris or Segre. There were also other Townes which are now so ruinated, that there remaines nothing of them; among which was the Towne Calagurris Nassica, being an other besides that in Navarre. The Citizens thereof are called Calagurritani by Caesar in his first Booke of Commentaries: and Suetonius noteth, that Augustus had a Guarde of them, (in the life of Augustus cap. 49.) Pliny nameth them Nassici. The Rivers heere are Iberus or Ebro, and Gallego or Gallicum with others.

The Countrie whence so cal­led. Catalonia commonly called Catalunna followeth. Volaterranus think­eth that it was so called by the Gothes and Alanes, and that it should be written Gothalania, Beatus Rhenanus (lib. 1. Rerum German.) supposeth that it was called Cattalania from the Catti and Alans, who joyning to­gether broke into this part of Spaine. Some thinke it was called so from the Castellans, the ancient people of Spaine, who seated themselves in these places; and there are others who thinke it was called Cathalonia from Othogerius Cathalon, The Situation. of whom Marinaeus Siculus lib. 9. De rebus Hi­spanicis: and L. Valla de Ferdinando Aragon: Rege lib. 1. have written much.The quality of the Soyle. It is bounded with the Pyrenaean Mountaines, the Mediterranean Sea, and the Rivers Iberus and Cinga. The Countrie it selfe is, for the most part, barren, and hath nothing but some wilde fruit in it. The Me­tropolis at this day is Barcelona, a faire Citie, which being situated on the shore of the Mediterranean Sea,The Cities. doth declare her antiquity, by the proofe and witnesse of many ancient buildings. The most of the Spani­ards doe report, that the builder thereof was Amilcar surnamed Barcha, the Sonne of Hannibal Captaine of the Carthaginians: who being over­come [Page 229]

ARAGON. AND CATALONIA.
Arragonia et Ca­talonia

[Page 230] at Sea, was hanged by the enemie) and the Father of Hannibal the great Emperour: it is called by Ptolemie Barcinon, by Paulinus Barcinus, by Iornandus Barcilona, and anciently Faventia (as Plinie witnesseth.) Ma­rinaeus Siculus lib. 13. de Rebus Hispanicis doth praise this Citie largely, and describeth the situation of it lib. 15. It was heretofore much lesse than it is now, being a furlong off from the Sea. It had foure Gates, which looked to the foure corners of the world, equally distant one from an other, and are yet to bee seene in the heart of the Citie, having Oxe heads carved upon them, in token of peace and quiet tillage, as some would have it. In processe of time it was encompassed with dou­ble strong Wals and Towres, and it grew to be so great, that it is wor­thily now thought to be the chiefe Citie of Catalonia. Concerning the Earles of Barcelona, and their originall, wee must have recourse to Rode­ricus Toletanus, lib. 6. de Rebus Hisp. cap. 3. and L. Marinaeus lib. 9. Next to this Citie followes the Citie Tarraco, which Ptolemie and Strabo call Tarracon, it is now called Tarragona: It was a Citie so famous hereto­fore, that the better part of Spaine was denominated from it. And Me­la in his 2d Booke calleth it the richest of all the Sea-Townes. Secondly Vigua, commonly called Vicque or Vich, and by Ptolemie Ausa. Thirdly the Citie Girona, which Plinie and Antoninus call Geronda, and Ptolemie Geroundes. Fourthly Tortosa, which Ptolemie cals Dertoosa, an ancient Stone Dertosa, Antoninus Derdosa, and Strabo Dertossa, Plinie mentio­neth a people called Dertosani. Fifthly Lerida, which Ptolemie, Stephanus and others call Ilerda, the situation whereof is thus described by Lucan, lib. 4. Belli Pharsalici:

Colle tumet modico, leni (que) excrevit in altum
Pingue solum tumulo, &c.
A litle hill, not steepe, of fertile lands
Swels up, on which the old Ilerda stands;
Before the Towne flowes Sicoris soft streame
Among Spaines Rivers of no small esteeme,
On which a Bridge of stone high-arched stood
T'endure the violence of a Winters flood.

Other matters are also entreated of concerning this Citie, as the victo­ries obtained there by M. Petreius, and L Afranius, Pompey his Gene­rals: concerning which Caesar hath fully written in his first Booke of the Civill Warre. Sixthly the Towne which Silius, lib. 3. Polybius lib. 3. and Ptolemie doe call Emporia; Stephanus Emporion, but is commonly cal­led Empurias or Ampurias. Seventhly Blanda, so called by Pomponius & Ptolemie, but commonly called Blanes, as Beuterus, Florianus, and Navi­gierus will have it. Eigthly. Manresa, which Florianus thinketh Livie doth call Athanagia. Ninthly Rosae, commonly called Roses, Livie cals it Rhoda, Stephanus Rhode, Strabo Rhodope, and Ptolemie Rhodipolis. 10ly Colibra, which Ptolemie and Plinie call Iliberis, Strabo Ilberris, and Pompo­nius Eliberri. It is a Village which was heretofore part of a great Citie; some would have Iliberis not to be Colibra, but an other Towne, Paldus would have it to be Salsulae, Olivarius Euna, and Mercator Illa. There where Catalonia is now, heretofore stood Iulia Lybica, of which some ruines onely remaine, not farre from the Towne Linca; also neere the Pyrenaean hils, a Towne which Antoninus calleth Cinniana, and the Town [Page 231] called by Ptolemie Deciana. Iohannes Gerundensis lib. 1. Paralipom. dis­puteth and proveth, that the Countrie of Ruscilion among the Pyrenaean Mountaines, belongeth to Catalonia, wherein was a Towne which Plinie cals Ruscino, Strabo Royskinoon, Ptolemie Roysinoon, and Avienus Ruscinus. Some parts of it doe remaine not farre from a Towne called Perpignan, neere to a Towre of the same name: for they call it the Towre of Ros­cilion. Catalonia hath a famous and ancient Universitie called Ilerda, which (it is thought) Horace did point out Lib. 1. Epist. ult. in these words.

Aut fugies Vticam, aut unctus mitteris Ilerdam:
From Utica thou either now shalt flee,
Or else sent to Ilerda thou shalt bee.

Heere Pope Calixtus the third taught publickly the knowledge of the Law, as Platina witnesseth.

These things may suffice which have beene spoken hitherto concer­ning Spaine. But yet I thinke it fit to adde, by way of conclusion, the ex­cellent testimonie of a French-man concerning this Kingdome, wherein whatsoever wee have hitherto said in praise and commendation there­of, is briefly and pithily repeated by way of recapitulation. This French-man whom I mentioned, was called in Latine Pacatus, who writ a most learned Panegyrick to Theodosius the Emperour being a Spaniard, in which hee speaketh to this purpose. ‘Now it will appeare, that hee is declared Prince, who ought to bee chosen of all men, and out of all men. For first, Spaine is thy Mother, a Land more happie than all o­ther Countries, (the great Fabricator and Maker of all things hath beene more favourable, in enriching and adorning this Countrie, than the Countries of others Nations) for it is neither obnoxious to the Summers heate, nor subject to the Northerne cold, but is seated in the temperate Climate, and by the witty diligence of Nature, it is, as it were, an other world, as being enclosed on one side with the Py­renaean Mountaines, heere with the Ocean, and there with the shores of the Tyrrhenian Sea. Besides, adde to this the many famous Cities which are therein, the whole Countries being either tilled, or full of fruites and flocks, the gold-bearing Rivers that water it, and the spar­kling pretious stones that enrich it; I know that Poets in their Fables which they have invented to please the eare, have attributed miracu­lous things to some Nations, which whether they are true or not, yet are very strange: neither doe I now seeke out the truth: Let Gargara (as it is written) yeeld a great increase of corne: let Menavia be pray­sed for her flocks, Campania for the Mountaine Gaurano, Lydia for the River Pactolus, Spaine hath every thing that is praise-worthy. It brin­geth forth hardie Souldies, expert Captaines, eloquent Oratours, and famous Poets. This Country is the Mother of Judges and Princes: this Countrie yeelded the Emperours Trajan and Adrian, and the Empire is beholding to this Countrie for thee. Let Crete, which boa­steth of Iupiters being nursed in it when hee was a childe, give place to this Countrie: let Delos, honoured by the birth of two Gods, and noble Thebes of Hercules who was brought up there, yeeld unto it. We [Page 232] know not whether you beleeve what you have heard, but Spaine hath lent us this God-like Emperour who is now present, & whom we see.’ Hee that desires to know more concerning Spaine, let him consult and have recourse to Iohannes Vasaeus, Marinaeus Siculus, Marius Aretius, Da­mianus â Goes, Franciscus Tarapha, the Bishop of Gerunda, Annius Viter­biensis, Florianus à Campo in Spanish, Ambrosius Moralis and others. A­mongst the Ancients also wee may consult and have recourse to Caesar, Strabo, and others, whom Damianus à Goes sheweth in his Booke entitu­led Hispania.

CATALONIA MORE PARTICV­LARLY DESCRIBED.

CATALONIA was heretofore called Marcha Hispanica, Comitatus Barcinonae, and Hispaniarum Marchionatus. The names. This Countrie of Spaine lyeth farthest Eastward of all the rest. It hath on the West the Valentinians & Aragonians neere unto it; from the former it is separated by the River Al­canar or Cenia, from the later in some places by the River Arnesius, in other parts by the Rivers Iberus, Sicoris, and Nogvera. On the South it stretcheth it selfe lengthward toward the Mediterranean Sea:The Situation. On the East, neere to the Lake Salsulae or Salsas, and a Castle of the same name built there by the Emperour Charles the fifth, over against the impreg­nable Castle of Leocata, which is upon the Frontiers or entrance into France, it toucheth Aquitania: Lastly on the North it is bounded with the Pyrenaean Hils. It is more than eight hundred Italian miles in com­passe. It is in length from the Lake Salsulae to Valentia two hundred and fiftie miles, and in breadth from the Vale of Caralis or Calaris to the shore of Barcinon ninety foure miles. In Summer it hath every where a good wholsome Ayre, and is temperate in Winter, especially toward the Sea shore, which lyeth Southward.The temper of the Aire. For that part which is North­ward is cold, and hath many snowes. The whole Countrie, unlesse it bee in some parts, is very mountainous, and yet it hath many greene Medowes, flourishing Pastures and very fruitfull Valleyes. The Coun­trie in generall hath such store of Corne and Pulse, but especially Ap­ples, Wine, and Oyle, that it is inferiour unto none.The fertilitie of the Soyle. Neither doth it want Mynes of Gold, Silver, and other mettals, which the River Sico­ris declareth by those fragments or sands of gold and silver which it casteth up when it overfloweth; as also some other Rivers of Catalonia. The best Iron is digged forth heere in great plenty, besides Brasse, Steele, and Lead. Of late there was found neere Signimont a fruitfull veine of shining pretious Stones, which are of a blew or Violet-colour, called Amethysts. There is also found neere unto the Towne of Tivica the Onix, which resembleth a mans nayle in whitenesse, having some veines which runne through it, which are in colour like the Sardonix or Iasper: Blood-stones also which have a great vertue to stay blood are found on the East side of Rubricatum or Lobregat. The Dertosians have many Quarries of Iasper, which shineth & is of many colours, as purple greene, pale, Rose-colour, white, and duskish. At Tarraconia and Benda divers kindes of Marble are digged up out of the bowels of the Earth: and in some places shining and translucent Alablaster is digged forth, of which they make windowes to let in the light, and to keepe out the winde; these are the stones with which Plinie confesseth that the higher Spaine doth abound. Many places in Catalonia doe yeeld Alume, and [Page 234] Coblers Inke or Blacking: also Hempe for Rope-making, which (as Plinie witnesseth) is as white and fine as any flaxe, by reason of the na­ture of the water wherein it is steeped. And seeing I am fallen into this matter, I cannot but in praise of the plenty of all things which Catalonia hath, make mention how that this Countrie doth build Ships of great burthen, even from the Keele to the highest Sayles, but especially Gal­leys;The varietie of living Crea­tures. and having furnished them with all warlike provision, they lanch them forth into the Sea neere to Barcinona: Besides, innumerable wilde Beasts doe wander through the Forrests of this Countrie, & great store of Cattell every where.The ancient Inhabitants. The Ancients did place divers sorts of people in this part of Spaine, as first the Castellani, whom Ptolemie cals [...], and Villanovanus and Verrerius doe call them Ducatus Cardone. 2 Those whom Avienus cals Indigeti: Ptolom. [...], and Stephanus [...]. 3 Those whom Livie and Ptolemie call Ilergetes, and Polybius lib. 3. [...]. Fourthly those whom Martial cals Laletani, Ptolemie [...], Strabo [...], and [...]. Fifthly those which Aimonius cals Cempsi, and Dionysius and Eusthathius [...]. Sixthly, those whom Plinte calleth Cer­retani, Iuliani, and Augustini, Ptolemie [...], Strabo [...], Silius Ce­retani, Avienus Ceretes, and Stephanus [...], of whom there appeares and are yet remaining some tokens in Cerveira, Puigcerda, and Condado de Cer­dania. Seventhly those whom Xilander calleth Vetteres an ancient peo­ple in Tarraconia, dwelling betweene the River Iberus and the Pyrenaean Hils, neere to the Sea, and called by Strabo [...], though Causabone would have them called Secerrae, whom Antoninus maketh mention of. Eigthly the Ligyes, whom Thucidides lib. 6. and Halicarnassus lib. 1. doe call [...], who dwelt neere to the River Sicanis, and are those perhaps whom Avienus cals Ligures. Ninthly those whom Livie and Pliny call Ansetani, and Ptolemie [...]. 10, Those whom Plinie cals Larnenses, neere to the River Larnus, at the rootes of the Pyrenaean Mountaines. And lastly, those whom Ptolemy cals [...], neere to the Citie Dorto­sa, Livie Ilercaonenses, and Caesar Ilurgavonenses.

Catalonia is famous both for strong and wise men, for wonderfull at­chievements, and for many victories gotten by divers Nations. For in Catalonia the Carthaginians heretofore contended against the Inhabi­tants,Their ancient v