1577.THE Firſte volu …

1577.

THE Firste volume of the Chronicles of England, Scot­lande, and Irelande.

CONTEYNING,

  • The description and Chronicles of England, from the first inhabiting vpon the conquest.
  • The description and Chronicles of Scotland, from the first origi [...] of [...] [...]tes [...], till the yeare of our Lorde 1571.
  • The descript [...] [...] [...]nicles of Yrelande, likewise from the fir [...] [...] of that Nation, vntill the yeare. 1547.

Faithfully gathered and set forth, by Raphaell Holinshed.

AT LONDON, Imprinted for Iohn Hunne.

God saue the Queene.

[blazon or coat of arms]

❧TO THE RIGHT Honorable and his singular good Lorde, Sir VVilliam Cecill, Baron of Burghleygh, Knight of the most noble order of the Garter, Lord high Treasou­rer of England, Maister of the Courtes of Wardes and Lyueries, and one of the Queenes Maiesties priuie Counsell.

COnsidering with my selfe, right Honorable and my sin­gular good Lorde, how ready (no doubt) many wil be to ac­cuse me of vayne presumptiō, for enterprising to deale in this so weighty a worke, and so farre aboue my reache to ac­complish: I haue thought good to aduertise your Honour, by what occasion I was first induced to vndertake the same, al­though the cause that moued mee thereto, hath (in parte) ere this, bene signified vnto your good Lordshippe.

Where as therfore, that worthie Citizen Reginald VVolfe late Printer to the Queenes Maiestie, a man well knowen and beholden to your Honour, meant in his life time to publish an v­niuersall Cosmographie of the whole worlde, and therewith also certaine perticular Histories of euery knowen nation, amongst other whome he purposed to vse for performance of his entent in that behalfe, he procured me to take in hande the collection of those Histories, and hauing proceeded so far in the same, as lit­tle wanted to the accomplishment of that long promised worke, it pleased God to call him to his mercie, after .xxv. yeares trauell spent therein, so that by his vntimely deceasse, no hope remayned to see that performed, whiche we had so long trauayled aboute: those yet whome be left in trust to dispose his things after his [Page] departure hence, wishing to the benefite of others, that some fruite might follow of that whereabout he had imployed so long time, willed me to continue mine endeuour for their furtherance in the same, whiche although I was ready to do, so farre as mine abilitie would reach, and the rather to answere that trust which the deceassed reposed in me, to see it brought to some perfection: yet when the volume grewe so great, as they that were to defray the charges for the Impression, were not willing to go through with the whole, they resolued first to publishe the Histories of Englande, Scotlande, and Irelande, with their descriptions, whiche descriptions, bycause they were not in such readinesse, as those of forreyn countreys,William Ha­rison, and Ri­chard Sta [...]y­burst. they were enforced to vse the helpe of other better able to do it than I.

Moreouer, the Chartes wherein Maister VVolfe spent a greate parte of his time, were not founde so complete as wee wished: and againe, vnderstanding of the great charges and notable enterprice of that worthie Gentleman maister Tho­mas Sackeforde in procuring the Chartes of the seuerall pro­uinces of this Realme to be sette forth, wee are in hope that in tyme he will deliniate this whole lande so perfectly, as shal be comparable or beyonde any deliniation heretofore made of any other region, and therefore leaue that to his well deserued prayse. If any well willer will imitate him in so prayse wor­thie a worke for the two other regions, we will be gladde to fur­ther his endeuour with all the helpes we may.

The Histories I haue gathered according to my skill, and conferred the greatest parte with Maister VVolfe in his life time, to his liking, who procured me so many helpes to the fur­therance thereof, that I was lothe to omit any thing that might encreace the Readers knowledge, whiche causeth the booke to grow so great. But receyuing them by partes, and at seuerall times (as I might get them) it may be, that hauing had more regard to the mater than to the apt penning, J haue not so or­derly disposed them, as otherwise I ought, choosing rather to [Page] want order, than to defraude the Reader of that whiche for his further vnderstanding might seeme to satisfie his expe­ctation. I therefore moste humbly beseeche your Honour to ac­cept these Chronicles of Englande vnder your protection, and according to your wisedome and accustomed benignitie to beare with my faultes, the rather bicause you were euer so especiall good Lord to Maister VVolfe, to whome I was singularly be­holden, and in whose name I humbly presente this rude worke vnto you, beseeching God, that as he hath made you an instru­ment to aduaunce his truth, so it may please him to increace his good giftes in you to his glorie, the furtheraunce of the Queenes Maiesties seruice, and comforte of all hir faithfull and louing subiectes.

Your honours most humble to commaunde, RAPHAEL HOLINSHED.

THE PREFACE to the Reader.

IT is dangerous (gētle Reader) to range in so large a fielde as I haue here vnderta­ken, vvhile so many sundry men in diuers things may be able to controll mee, and ma­ny excellent vvittes of our countrey (as vvell or better occupied I hope) are able herein to surpasse me: but se­ing the beste able do seeme to neglect it, let me (though least able) craue pardon to put thē in minde not to forget their natiue coūtreis praise (vvhich is theyr dutie) the encourage­ment of theyr vvorthie coun­trie men, by elders aduaunce­ments and the dauntyng of the vicious, by foure penall examples, to vvhiche ende I take Chronicles and Histo­ries ought chiefly to be vvritten. My labour may shevv mine vttermost good vvill, of the more learned I require their further enlargement, and of faultfinders dispensatiō till they be more fully enfourmed. It is too commō that the least able are readiest to finde fault in maters of least vveight, and therfore I esteeme the lesse of their carping, but humbly beseech the skilfull to supplie my vvant, and to haue care of their dutie: and eyther to amend that vvherin I haue fayled, or be content vvith this mine ende­uour. For it may please them to consider, that no one can be eye vvitnesse to all that is vvritten vvithin our time, much lesse to those things vvhiche happened in former times, and therefore must be content vvith reportes of others. Therein I haue bene so careful, that I haue spared no paynes or helpe of frendes to search out either vvrit­ten or printed auncient Authours, or to enquire of moderne eye vvitnesses, for the true setting dovvne of that vvhiche I haue here deliuered: but I finde such vvant in vvriters for the necessary knovvledge of things done in times past, and lacke of meane to obtayne sufficient instructions by reporters of the time present, and herevvith the vvorthie exploytes of our countrey men so many, that it greeueth me I coulde not leaue the same to posteritie (as I vvished) to their vvel deserued praise. But I haue here imperted vvhat I could learne, and craue that it may be takē in good part. My speech is playne, vvithout any Rethoricall shevve of Eloquence, hauing rather a regarde to simple truth, than to decking vvordes. I vvishe I had bene furnished vvith so perfect instructions, and so many good gifts, that I might haue pleased all kindes of men, but that same being so rare a thing in any one of the best, I beseech thee (gentle Rea­der) not to looke for it in me the meanest.

But novv for thy further instruction to vnderstand the course of these my labors. First cōcerning the Historie of Englād, as I haue collected the same out of many and sundry Authours, in vvhome vvhat contrarietie, negligence, and rashnesse, somtime is founde in their reportes, I leaue to the discretion of those that haue perused theyr [Page] vvorkes: for my parte, I haue in things doubtfull rather chosen to shevve the diuer­sitie of their vvritings, than by ouer ruling them, and vsing a peremptory censure, to frame them to agree to my liking: leauing it neuerthelesse to eche mans iudgement, to controlle thē as he seeth cause. If some vvhere I shevv my fancie vvhat I thinke, and that the same dislyke them, I craue pardon, specially if by probable reasons or playner matter to be produced, they can shevv mine errour, vpō knovvledge vvher­of I shalbe ready to reforme it accordingly. VVhere I do beginne the Historie from the first inhabitation of this Isle, I looke not to content eche mans opinion concer­ning the originall of them that first peopled it, and no maruell: for in matters so vn­certayne, if I can not sufficiently content my selfe (as in deede I cannot) I knovve not hovv I should satisfie others. That vvhiche seemeth to me most likely, I haue no­ted, beseeching the learned (as I trust they vvill) in such pointes of doubtfull antiqui­ties to beare vvith my skill. Sith for ought I knovv, the matter is not yet decided a­mong the learned, but still they are in controuersie about it: Et adhuc sub iudice lis est. VVell hovv soeuer it came first to be inhabited, likely it is that at the first the vvhole Isle vvas vnder one Prince and Gouernour, though aftervvardes, and long perad­uenture before the Romaines set any foote vvithin it, the Monarchie thereof vvas broken, euen vvhen the multitude of the inhabitants grevv to bee great, and ambi­tion entred amongst them, vvhich hath brought so many good policies and states to ruyne and decay.

The Romaines hauing ones got possession of the continent that faceth this Isle, coulde not rest (as it appeareth) till they had brought the same also vnder theyr sub­iection: and the sooner doubtlesse, by reason of the factions amongst the Princes of the lande, vvhiche the Romaynes (through their accustomed skill) coulde turne very vvell to their moste aduauntage. They possessed it almoste fiue hundreth yeares, and longer might haue done, if eyther their insufferable tiranny had not ta­ken avvay from them the loue of the people, asvvell here as elsvvhere, either that their ciuill discorde aboute the chopping and chaunging of their Emperours, had not so vveakened the forces of their Empire, that they vvere not able to defende the same against the impression of barbarous nations. But as vvee may coniecture by that vvhiche is founde in Histories, aboute that tyme, in vvhiche the Romaine Em­pire beganne to decline, this lande stoode in very vveake state: being spoyled of the more parte of all hir able menne, vvhiche vvere ledde avvay into forreine regions, to supplie the Romayne armies: and likevvise perhaps of all necessarie armour, vvea­pon, and treasure: vvhiche being perceyued of the Saxons, after they vvere recei­ued into the Ile to ayde the Britons against the Scottes and Pictes, then inuading the same, ministred to them occasion to attempt the seconde conquest, vvhiche at length they brought to passe, to the ouerthrovv not onely of the Brittish dominion, but also to the subuersion of the Christian religion, here in this lande: vvhiche chanced as appeareth by Gildas, for the vvicked sinnes and vnthankefulnesse of the inhabitants tovvardes God, the chiefe occasions and causes of the transmutations of kingdomes, Nam propter peccata, regna transmutantur à gente in gentem. The Saxons obteyning possession of the lande, gouerned the same being deuided into sundry kingdomes, and hauing once subdued the Brytons, or at the leastvvise remoued them out of the most parte of the Isle into odde corners and mountaynes, fell at diuision among themselues, and oftentimes vvith vvarre pursued eche other, so as no perfect order of gouernement could be framed, nor the Kings grovv to any great puissance, eyther to moue vvarres abroade, or sufficiently to defende themselues against forreyne forces at home: as ma­nifestly vvas perceyued, vvhen the Danes and other the Northeasterne people, being then of great puyssance by sea, beganne miserably to afflict this lande: at the first in­uading as it vvere but onely the coastes and countreys lying neare to the sea, but af­tervvardes vvith mayne armies, they entred into the middle partes of the lande: and although the Englishe people at length came vnder one King, and by that meanes [Page] vvere the better able to resist the enimies, yet at length those Danes subdued the vvhole, and had possessiō thereof for a time, although not long, but that the crovvne returned againe to those of the Saxon line: till shortly after by the insolent dealings of the gouernours, a deuision vvas made betvvixt the King and his people, through iuste punishmente decreed by the prouidence of the Almightie, determining for their sinnes and contempt of his lavves, to deliuer them into the handes of a stran­ger, and therevpon vvhen spite and enuie had brought the title in doubte, to vvhom the right in succession apperteyned, the Conquerour entred, and they remayned a pray to him and his: vvho plucked all the heades and chiefe in authoritie, so cleare­ly vp by the rootes, as fevve or none of them in the ende vvas lefte to stande vp a­gainst him. And herevvith altering the vvhole state, hee planted lavves and ordi­naunces as stoode moste for his auayle and suretie, vvhich being after qualified vvith more milde and gentle lavves, tooke suche effect, that the state hath euer sithence continued vvhole and vnbroken by vvise and politike gouernement, although dis­quieted, sometime by ciuill dissention, to the ruyne commonly of the firste mouers, as by the sequele of the historie ye may see.

For the Historie of Scotlande, I haue for the more parte follovved Hector Boete, Iohannes Maior, and Iouan, Ferreri Piemontese, so farre as they haue continued it, interlaced sometimes vvith other Authours, as Houeden, Fourdon and such like, al­though not often, bicause I meante rather to deliuer vvhat I founde in their ovvne Histories extant, than to correct them by others, leauing that enterprice to their ovvne countrey men: so that vvhat soeuer ye reade in the same, consider that a Scot­tishman vvritte it, and an English man hath but onely translated it into our language, referring the Reader to the English Historie, in all maters betvvixte vs and them, to be confronted therevvith as he seeth cause. For the continuation thereof I vsed the like order, in suche copies and notes as Maister VVolfe in his life time procured me, sauing that in these laste yeares I haue inserted some notes, as concerned matters of vvarre betvvixte vs and the Scottes, bicause I gotte them not till that parte of the En­glish Historie vvas paste the presse.

For Irelande I haue shevved in mine Epistle Dedicatorie in vvhat sorte, and by vvhat helpes I haue proceeded therein, onely this I forgotte, to signifie that Giraldus Cambrensis, and Flatsbury, I had not till that parte of the Booke vvas vnder the presse, and so being constreyned to make poste haste, coulde not exemplifie out of them all that I vvished, neither yet dispose it so orderly as had bene conuenient, nor penne it vvith so apte vvordes as might satisfie either my selfe, or those to vvhose vevve it is novv like to come. And by reason of the like haste made in the Impres­sion, vvhere I vvas determined to haue transposed the moste parte of that vvhiche in the Englishe Historie I had noted, concerning the Conqueste of Irelande by Henry the seconde out of Houeden and others, I had not time thereto, and so haue lefte it there remayning, vvhere I firste noted it, before I determined to make any particular collection of the Irishe Histories, bicause the same commeth there vvell inough in place, as to those that shall vouchsafe to turne the Booke it may appeare.

For the computation of the yeares of the vvorlde, I hadde by Maister VVoulfes aduise follovved Functius, but after his deceasse Maister VVilliam Harison made mee partaker of a Chronologie, vvhiche hee had gathered and compiled vvith moste exquisite diligence, follovvyng Gerardus Mercator, and other late Chronologers, and his ovvne obseruations, according to the vvhiche I haue reformed the same. As for the yeares of our Lorde, and the Kings, I haue sette them dovvne accordyng to suche Authours as seeme to bee of beste [Page] credite in that behalfe, as I doubte not but to the learned and skilfull in Histories, it shal appeare▪ Moreouer, this the Reader hath to consider, that I do beginne the yeare at the natiuitie of our Lorde, vvhiche is the surest order in my fantasie that can bee follovved.

For the names of persons, tovvnes and places, as I haue bene diligent to reforme the errours of other (vvhich are to be ascribed more to the imperfect copies thā to the Authours) so may it be that I haue somevvhere committed the like faultes, either by negligence or vvant of skill to restore them to their full integritie as I vvished, but vvhat I haue performed asvvell in that behalfe, as others, the skilful Reader shall ea­sily perceyue, and vvithal cōsider (I trust) vvhat trauel I haue bestovved to his behofe in these tvvo volumes, crauing onely, that in recompence thereof, he vvill iudge the best, and to make a frendly cōstruction of my meanings, vvhere ought may seeme to haue escaped, either my penne or the Printers presse, othervvise than vve could haue vvished for his better satisfaction. Many things being taken out as they lie in Au­thours may be thought to giue offence in time present, vvhiche referred to the time past vvhen the Authour vvritte, are not onely tollerable but also allovvable. There­fore good Reader I beseech thee to vvay the causes and circumstances of such faultes and imperfections, and consider that the like may creepe into a far lesse volume than this, and shevv me so much fauour as hath bene shevved to others in like causes: and sithēce I haue done my good vvil, accept the same, as I vvith a free and thākful minde do offer it thee, so shall I thinke my labour vvell bestovved. For the other Histories vvhiche are already collected, if it please God to giue abilitie, shall in time come to light, vvith some such briefe descriptions of the forreyn regions, vvhere­of they treate, as may the better suffise to the Readers contentation, and vnderstanding of the maters conteyned in the same Histories, reduced into abridgements out of their great volumes. And thus I ceasse further to trouble thy pacience, vvish­ing to thee (gentle Reader) so much profite, as by reading may be had, and as great cō ­fort as Goddes holy spirite may endue thee vvith.

FINIS.

¶The names of the Authours from whome this Historie of England is collected.

A.
  • AElius Spartianus.
  • Aelius Lampridius.
  • Asserius Meneuensis.
  • Alfridus Beuerlacensis.
  • Aeneas Siluius Senensis.
  • Auentinus.
  • Adam Merimowth, with additions.
  • Antoninus Archiepiscopus Florentinus.
  • Albertus Crantz.
  • Alexander Neuill.
  • Arnoldus Ferronius.
  • Annius Viterbiensis.
  • Amianus Marcellinus.
  • Alliances genealogiques des Roys & Princes de France.
  • Annales D Aquitaine per Iean Bouchet.
  • Annales de Bourgoigne per Guilaume Paradin.
  • Annales de France per Nicol Giles.
  • Annales rerum Flandricarū per Iacobum Meir.
  • Antonius Sabellicus.
  • Antonius Nebricensis.
  • Aurea Historia.
B.
  • BIblia Sacra.
  • Beda venerabilis.
  • Berosus.
  • Brian Tuke knight.
  • Blondus Forliuiensis.
  • Berdmondsey, a Regester booke belonging to that house.
C.
  • CAesars Commentaries.
  • Cornelius Tacitus.
  • Chronica Chronicarum.
  • Chronica de Dunstable, a booke of Annales belōg­ing to the Abbey there.
  • Chronicon Io. Tilij.
  • Chronica de Eyton, an historie belonging to that colledge, although compiled by some Northern­man, as some suppose named Otherborne.
  • Chronicles of S. Albon.
  • Chronica de Abingdon, a booke of Annales be­longyng to that house.
  • Chronica de Teukesbury.
  • Claudianus.
  • Chronicon Genebrard.
  • Chroniques de Normandie.
  • Chroniques de Britaine.
  • Chronique de Flandres, published by Denis Sa­uage.
  • Continuation de Historie & Chronique de Flan­dres, by the same Sauage.
  • Couper.
  • Cuspinianus.
  • Chronica Sancti Albani.
  • Caxtons Chronicles.
  • Carion with additions.
  • Crockesden a register booke belonging to a house of that name in Staffordshire.
D.
  • DIodorus Siculus.
  • Dion Cassius.
  • Dominicus Marius Niger.
E.
  • EDmerus.
  • Eusebius.
  • Eutropius.
  • Encomium Emmae, an old Pamphlet written to hir conteyning much good matter for the vnder­standing of the state of this realme in hir time, wherein hir prayse is not pretermitted, and so hath obteyned by reason thereof that title.
  • Enguerant de Monstrellet.
  • Eulogium.
  • Edmond Campion.
F.
  • FAbian.
  • Froissart.
  • Franciscus Tarapha.
  • Franciscus Petrarcha.
  • Flauius Vopiscus Siracusanus.
  • Floriacensis Vigorinensis.
G.
  • GViciardini Francisco. Guiciardini Ludouico.
  • Gildas Sapiens.
  • Galfridus Monemutensis, aliàs Geffrey of Mon­mouth.
  • Giraldus Cambrensis.
  • Guilielmus Malmesburiensis.
  • Galfridus Vinsauf.
  • Guilielmus Nouoburgensis.
  • Guilielmus Thorne.
  • Gualterus Hemmingford, aliàs Gisburnensis.
  • Geruasius Dorobernensis.
  • Geruasius Tilberiensis.
  • Guilielmus Gemeticensis de ducibus Normaniae.
  • Guilielmus Rishanger.
  • Guilielmus Lambert.
  • Georgius Lillie.
  • [Page]Guilamme Paradin.
H.
  • HIginus.
  • Henricus Huntingtonensis.
  • Humfrey Lhuyd.
  • Henricus Leicestrensis.
  • Hector Boece.
  • Historie Daniou.
  • Histoira Ecclesiastica Magdeburgensis.
  • Henricus Mutius.
  • Historia quadripartita seu quadrilogium.
  • Hardings Chronicle.
  • Halles Chronicles.
  • Henricus Bradshaw.
  • Henricus Marleburgensis.
  • Herodianus.
I.
  • IOhannes Bale.
  • Iohannes Leland.
  • Iacobus Philippus Bergomas.
  • Iulius Capitolinus.
  • Iulius Solinus.
  • Iohannes Pike with additions.
  • Iohannes Functius.
  • Iohn Price, knight.
  • Iohannes Textor.
  • Iohannes Bodinus.
  • Iohannes Sleidan.
  • Iohannes Euersden a Monke of Bury.
  • Iohannes or rather Giouan villani a Florentine.
  • Iohannes Baptista Egnatius.
  • Iohānes Capgraue.
  • Iohannes Fourden.
  • Iohannes Caius.
  • Iacob de Voragine Bishop of Nebio.
  • Iean de Bauge a Frenchman wrote a Pamphlet of the warres in Scotlande, during the time that Monsieur de Desse remayned there.
  • Iohn Foxe.
  • Iohannes Maior.
  • Iohn Stow, by whose diligent collected summarie, I haue ben not only ayded, but also by diuers rare monuments, ancient wryters, and necessarie re­gister Bookes of his, which he hath lente me out of his owne Librarie.
  • Iosephus.
L.
  • LIber constitutionum London.
  • Lucan.
  • Lelius Giraldus.
M.
  • MArianus Scotus.
  • Matheus Paris.
  • Matheus VVestmonaster aliàs Flores historiarum.
  • Martin du Bellay, aliàs Monsieur de Langey.
  • Mamertinus in Panagericis.
  • Memoires de la Marche.
N.
  • NIcepherus.
  • Nennius.
  • Nicholaus Treuet with additions.
O.
  • ORosius Dorobernensis.
  • Osbernus Dorobernensis.
  • Otho Phrisingensis.
P.
  • PAusanias.
  • Paulus Diaconus.
  • Paulus Aemilius.
  • Ponticus Virunnius.
  • Pomponius Laetus.
  • Philippe de Cumeins, aliàs Mōsieur de Argent [...]n.
  • Polidor Vergil.
  • Paulus Iouius.
  • Platina.
  • Philippe Melancton.
  • Peucerus.
  • Pomponius Mela.
R.
  • ROgerus Houeden.
  • Ranulfus Higeden, aliàs Cestrensis the author of Polichronicon.
  • Radulfus niger.
  • Radulfus Cogheshall.
  • Register of the Garter.
  • Recordes of Battell Abbey.
  • Richardus Southwell.
  • Robert Greene.
  • Radulfus de Diceto.
  • Robert Gaguin.
  • Rodericus Archiepiscopus Toletanus.
  • Recordes and rolles diuers.
S.
  • STrabo.
  • Suetonius.
  • Sigebertus Gemblacensis.
  • Sidon Apollinaris.
  • Simon Dunelmensis.
  • Sextus Aurelius Victor.
T.
  • TRebellius Pollio.
  • Thomas More knight.
  • Thomas Spotte.
  • Thomas VValsingham.
  • Titus Liuius Patauiensis.
  • Titus Liuius de Foroliuisijs de vita Henrici. 5.
  • Thomas Lanquet.
  • Thomas Couper.
  • Taxtor a Monke of Berry.
  • Theuet.
  • Thomas de la More.
  • Tripartita Historia.
V.
  • VVlcatius Gallicanus.
  • Volfgangus Lazius.
VV.
  • VVHethamsteed, a learned man, sometime Abbot of S. Albons, a Chronicler.
  • VVilliam Harrison.
  • VVilliā Patten of the expeditiō into Scotlād. 1574.
  • VVilliam Procter of VViattes rebellion.

Besides these diuers other Bookes and Treatises of Historicall mater I haue seene and perused, the names of the Authours beyng vtterly vnknowen.

FINIS.

❧AN HISTORICALL DE­scription of the Islande of Britayne, with a briefe re­hearsall of the nature and qualities of the people of Englande, and of all such com­modities as are to be founde in the same.

❧ In the first Booke of the Description of Britayne, these Chapters are contayned that ensue.
  • 1. Of the scituation and quantitie of the Isle of Britayne.
  • 2. Of the auncient names of this Islande.
  • 3. What sundry nations haue dwelled in this countrey.
  • 4. Whether it be likely that euer there were any Gyants inhabiting in this Islande.
  • 5. Of the generall language vsed sometime in Brytaine.
  • 6. Into howe many kingdomes at once this Isle hath bene deuided.
  • 7. Of the auncient religion vsed in Brytaine, from the first comming of Samothes, before the conuersion of the same vnto the faith of Christ.
  • 8. Of the number and names of such Salt Islandes as lye dispersed rounde about vpon the coast of Brytaine.
  • 9. Of the rysing and falles of such ryuers and streames as descende into the sea, without alteration of their names, & first of those that lye betweene the Thames and the Sauerne.
  • 10. Of the Sauerne streame, and such falles of ryuers as go into the Sea betweene it and the Humber.
  • 11. Of such riuers as fall into the sea, betwene Humber & the Thames.
  • 12. Of the fower high waies sometime made in Brytaine by the Prin­ces of this lande.
  • 13. Of the ayre and soyle of the country.
  • 14. Of the generall constitution of the bodies of the Brytons.
  • 15. How Brytaine grew at the first to be deuided into three porcions.
  • 16. That notwithstanding the former particion made by Brute, vnto his children, the souereinety of the whole Islande, remained styll to the Prince of Lhoegres and his posteritie after him.
  • 17. Of the Wall sometime builded for a particion betweene Englande and the Pictes.

❧To the Right Honorable, and his singular good Lord and maister, S. William Brooke Knight, Lord warden of the cinque Portes, and Baron of Cobham, all increase of the feare and knowledge of God, firme obedience towarde his Prince, infallible loue to the common wealth, and commen­dable renowne here in this wo [...]lde, and in the worlde to come, lyfe euerlasting.

HAVING had iust occasion, Right Honourable, to remayne in Lon­don, during the tyme of Midsomer terme last passed, and being earnest­lye required of diuers my friends, to set downe some briefe discourse of parcell of those thinges, which I had obserued in the reading of such ma­nifold antiquities as I had perused toward the furniture of a Chronolo­gie, which I had then in hande, I was at the first very loth to yeelde to their desires: first, for that I thought my selfe vnable for want of witte and iudgement, so sodainly and with such speede to take such a charge vppon me: secondly, by­cause the dealing therin might prooue an impechement vnto mine owne Treatize: and final­lye for that I had giuen ouer all study of hystories, as iudging the tyme spent about the same, to be an hinderaunce vnto my more necessarie dealings in that vocation & function whereun­to I am called in the mynistery. But when they were so importunate with me, that no reasona­ble excuse coulde serue to put by this trauaile, I condescended at the length vnto their yrke­some sute, promising that I woulde spende such voyde time as I had to spare, whylest I shoulde be inforced to tarie in the citie, vpon some thing or other that shoulde stande in lieu of a de­scription of my Country. For their partes also they assured me of such helpes as they coulde pur­chase, and thus with hope of good although no gaie successe, I went in hande withall, then al­most as one leaning altogither vnto memorie, sith my bookes and I were parted by fourtie myles in sonder. In this order also I spent a part of Michaelmas and Hillarie termes insuing, being inforced thereto I say by other businesses which compelled me to keepe in the citie, and absent my selfe from my charge, though in the meane season I had some repaire vnto my libra­rie, but not so great as the dignitie of the matter required, & yet farre greater then the Prin­ters haste woulde suffer. One helpe, and none of the smallest that I obtayned herein was by such commentaries as Leland had collected sometime of the state of Britaine, bookes vtterly man­gled, defaced with wet, and weather, and finally imperfite through want of sundrie volumes secondly, I gate some knowledge of things by letters and pamphlettes, from sundrie places and shires of Englande, but so discordaunt nowe and then amongest themselues, especially in the names and courses of riuers and scituation of townes, that I had oft greater trouble to recon­cile them, then to penne the whole discourse of such pointes as they contayned▪ the thirde ayde did grow by conference with diuers, eyther at the table or secretly alone, wherein I marked in what things the talkers did agree, and wherein they impugned eche other, choosing in the end the former, and reiecting the later, as one desirous to set forth the truth absolutely, or such things in deede as were most likely to be true. The last comfort arose by mine owne reading of such writers as haue heretofore made mention of the condition of our country, in speaking whereof, yf I shoulde make account of the successe, and extraordinary comming by sundrie treatizes not supposed to be extaunt, I shoulde but seeme to pronounce more then may well be sayde with modestie, and say farder of myselfe then this Treatize can beare witnesse of. How­beit, I referre not this successe wholly vnto my purpose in this Description, but rather giue no­tice thereof to come to passe in the penning of my Chronologie, whose cromes as it were fell out very well in the framing of this Pamphlete. In the processe therefore of this Booke, if your Ho­nour regarde the substaunce of that which is here declared, I must needes confesse that it is none of mine: but if your Lordshippe haue consideration of the barbarous composition shewed [Page] herein, that I may boldely clayme and chalenge for myne owne, sith there is no man of any so slender skill, that will defraude me of that reproche, which is due vnto me, for the meere negli­gence, disorder, and euill disposition of matter, comprehended in the same. Certes I protest be­fore God and your Honour, that I neuer made any choise of stile, or picked wordes, neither re­garded to handle this Treatize in such precise order and methode as many other woulde: thin­king it sufficient, truely & plainly to set forth such things as I minded to intreate of, rather then with vaine affectation of eloquence to paint out a rotten sepulchre, neither cōmendable in a writer nor profitable to the reader. How other affayres troubled me in the writing hereof many know, & peraduenture the slackenesse shewed herein can better testifie: but howsoeuer it be done, & whatsoeuer I haue done, I haue had an especiall eye vnto the truth of things, & for the reast, I hope that this foule frizeled Treatize of mine, will prooue a spurre to others, better learned in more skilfull maner to handle the selfe same argument. As for faultes escaped here­in as there are diuers, I must needes confesse, both in the penning and printing, so I haue to craue pardon of your Honour, & of all the learned readers. For such was my shortnesse of time allowed in the writing, & so great the speede made in the Printing, that I could seldome with any deliberation peruse, or almost with any iudgement deliberate exactly vpon such notes as were to be inserted. Sometimes in deede their leysure gaue me libertie, but that I applyed in following my vocation, many times their expedition abridged my perusall, and by this later it came to passe, that most of this booke was no sooner penned then printed, neither well concey­ued before it came to writing. But it is now to late to excuse the maner of doing. It is possible that your Honour will mistyke hereof, for that I haue not by myne owne trauaile and eyesight viewed such thinges, as I doe here intreate of. In deede I must needes confesse that except it were from the parish where I dwell, vnto your Honour in Kent, or out of London where I was borne, vnto Oxforde and Cambridge where I haue beene brought vp, I neuer trauailed 40 miles in all my lyfe, neuerthelesse in my report of these thinges, I vse their authorities, who haue performed in their persons whatsoeuer is wanting in mine. It may be in like sort that your Honour will take offence at my rashe and rechlesse behauiour vsed in the composition of this volume, and much more that being scambled vp after this maner, I dare presume to make ten­doure of the protection thereof vnto your Lordships handes. But when I consider the singular affectiō that your Ho. doth beare to those that in any wise will trauaile to set forth such things as lye hidden of their countries, without regarde of fine & eloquent handling, & therinto do weigh on mine owne behalfe my bounden duetie and gratefull minde to such a one as hath so many and sundrie wayes profited and preferred me, that otherwise can make no recompence, I can not but cut of all such occasion of doubt, and therevpon exhibite it such as it is, and so pen­ned as it is vnto your Lordships tuition, vnto whome if it may seeme in any wyse acceptable, I haue my whole desire. And as I am the first that (notwithstanding the great repugnauncie to be seene among our writers) hath taken vpon him so particularly to describe this Isle of Bri­taine, so I hope the learned and godly will beare withall and reforme with charity where I do treade amisse. As for the curious, & such as can rather euill fauouredly espy then skilfully cor­rect an errour, & sooner carpe at another mans doings then publish any thing of their owne, keping themselues close with an obscure admiration of learning & knowledge among the cō ­mon sort) I force not what they say hereof, for whether it doe please or dispease them, all is one to me, sith I referre my whole trauaile in the gratification of your Honour, & such as are of experience to consider of my trauaile, and the large scope of things purposed in this Treatize, of whome my seruice in this behalfe may be taken in good part, that I will repute for my full re­compence, & large guerdon of my labours. The Almighty God preserue your Lordship in cō ­tinuall health, wealth, and prosperitie, with my good Lady your wyfe, your Honours children, whome God hath indued with a singular towardnesse vnto all vertue & learning, and the rest of reformed familie vnto whome I wish farder increase of his holy spirit, vnderstanding of his worde, augmentation of honour, & finally an earnest zeale to follow his commaundements.

Your Lordships humble seruant, and houshold Chaplein. W. H.

The description of Britaine.
¶Of the scituation and quantitie of the Isle of Britayne. Cap. 1.

How Bri­taine lyeth from the [...]ayne. BRITANIA, or Britaine as we nowe terme it in our En­glishe tongue, is an Isle lying in the Ocean sea, directly a­gainst that part of Fraunce, which conteyneth Picardie, Normandie, and therto the greatest part of little Britaine, cal­led in time past Armorica of the scituation thereof vpon the sea coast, and before such time as a companie of Britons (eyther led o­uer by some of the Romayne Emperours, or flying thither from the tyrannie of such as op­pressed them here in this Islande) did settle themselues there, & called it Britaine, after the name of their owne country, from whence they aduentured thither. It hath Irelande vp­on the West side, on the North the mayne sea, euen vnto Thule and the Hyperboreans, and on the East side also the Germaine Ocean, by which we passe daily thorowe by the trade of merchandise, not only into ye low countries of Belgie, but also into Germanie, Frizelande, Denmarke, and Norway, carying from hence thither, and bringing from thence hither, all such necessarie commodities as the seuerall Countries doe yéelde: thorow which meanes, and besides common amitie cōserued, traffike is maintayned, and the necessitie of eche party abundantly relieued.

The lon­gitude and latitude of this Isle.It contayneth in longitude taken by the middest of the Region 19. degrées exactly: and in latitude 53. degrées, and 30. min. after the o­pinions of those that haue diligently obserued the same in our dayes, and the faithfull report of such writers as haue left notice therof vnto vs, in their learned treatises to be perpetually remembred. Howbeit wheras some in setting downe of these two lines, haue séemed to vary about the placing of the same, eche of them di­uersly remembring the names of sundrie Ci­ties and townes, wheerby they affirme thē to haue their seueral courses: for my part I haue thought good to procéede somewhat after ano­ther sort, that is, by deuiding the latest and best Cardes eche way into two equall partes, (so neare as I can possibly bring the same to passe) whereby for the middle of latitude, I product Caerloil and Newcastell vpon Tyne (whose lōgest day consisteth of 16. houres,Longest day. 48. minuts) & for the longitude, Newbery, War­wicke, Sheffeld, Skiptō, &c. which dealing in mine opinion, is most easie & indifferent, and lykeliest meane to come by the certayne stan­ding and scituation of our Islande.

Inlyke maner it hath in breadth from the Piere or poynt of Douer,The com­passe of Britaine. vnto the farthest part of Cornewall westwardes 320. myles: from thence agayne vnto the poynt of Cath­nesse by the Irishe sea, 800. Whereby Poli­dore and other doe gather that the circuite of the whole Islande of Britaine is 1720. myles, which is full 280. lesse than Caesar doth sette downe, except there be some difference be­twéene the Romaine and Britishe myles, whereof heafter I maye make some farther conference.

The forme and facion of this Isle is lyke vnto a Triangle, Bastarde sworde, Wedge,The forme or Partesant, being broadest in the South part, and gathering still narrower and nar­rower, till it come to the farthest poynt of Cathnesse Northwarde where it is narrowest of all, and there endeth in maner of a Promon­torie, which is not aboue 30. myles ouer, as dayly experience doth confirme.

The shortest & most vsuall [...]ut that we haue out of our Island to the maine,The di­stance frō the mayne. is from Douer (the farthest part of Kent eastward) vnto Ca­lice in Picardie, where the breath of the sea is not aboue 30. myles. Which course as it is now frequented and vsed for the most cōmon & safe passage of such as come into our coūtrie out of Fraunce and diuers other Realmes, so it hath not bene vnknowne of olde time vnto the Romaynes, who for the most part vsed these two hauens for their passage and repas­sage to and fro, although we finde that nowe and then, diuers of them came also from Bul­len and landed at Sandwiche, or some other places of the coast, as to anoyde the force of the wynde and weather, that often molested them in these narrowe seas, best liked for their safegardes. Betwéene the part of Hollande also, which lyeth nere the mouth of the Rhene, and this our Islande, are 900. furlonges, as Sosimus sayeth, beside diuers other writers,Lib. 4. which being conuerted into Englishe myles, doe yéelde one hundred and twelue, and foure odde furlongs, whereby the iust distaunce of Britayne from that part of the mayne also, doth certainly appeare to be much lesse than the common Mappes of our Countrie haue hitherto set downe.

Of the auncient names of this Islande. Cap. 2.

IN the diligent perusal of their treatises that haue written of the state of this our Islande, I finde that at the first it séemed to be a percel of the Celtike kingdome,Dis, Samo­thes. whereof Dis other­wyse called Samothes, one of the sonnes of Ia­phet [Page] was the Saturne or originall beginner, and of him thenceforth for a long time called Samothea. Afterwarde in processe of tyme when as desire of rule began to take holde in the myndes of men, & ech Prince endeuored to enlarge his owne dominiōs:Neptunus. Amphitrite Albion. Albion the sonne of Neptune surnamed Mareoticus (whose mo­ther also was called Amphitrite) hearing of the commodities of the Countrie, and plenti­fulnesse of soyle here, made a voyage ouer, & finding the thing not onely correspondent vn­to,The first conquest of Britaine. but also farre surmounting the report that went of this Islande, it was not long after ere he inuaded ye same by force of armes, brought it to his subiection, and finally chaunged the name therof into Albion, whereby the former denomination after Samothes did fall into vtter forgetfulnesse. And thus was this Island bereft at one time both of hir auncient name, and also of hir lawfull succession of Princes descended of the lyne of Iaphet,Britaine vnder the Celts 341. yeares. vnder whome it had continued by the space of 341. yeres and ix. Princes, as by the Historie folowing shall easily appeare.

To speake somewhat also of Neptune, (sith I haue made mention of him in this place) it shall not be impertinent. You shal vnderstand therefore that for his excellent knowledge in the Arte of Nauigation, he was reputed the most skilful Prince that liued in his time.Neptune God of the sea. And therefore, and likewyse for his courage and boldnesse in aduenturing to and fro, he was after his decease honoured as a god, and the protection of such as trauayled by sea commit­ted to his charge.The man­ner of dres­singe of shippes in olde time. So rude also was ye making of shippes wherewith to sayle in his tyme, that for lacke of better experience to calke and trimme the same after they were builded, they vsed to nayle them ouer with rawe hydes, and with such a kinde of Nauie: first Samothes, and then Albion arriued in this Islande.

But to procéede, when the sayde Albion had gouerned here in this Countrie by the space of vij. yeares, it came to passe that both he and his brother Bergion were killed by Hercules at the mouth of Rhodanus, as the sayd Hercu­les passed out of Spaine by the Celtes to go o­uer into Italy, and vpō this occasion (as I ga­ther amōg the writers) not vnworthy to be re­membred.Lestrigo. It happened in tyme of Lucus king of the Celtes, that Lestrigo and his issue (whō Osyris his grandfather had placed ouer the Ianigenes) dyd exercise great tyrannie, not onely ouer his owne kingdome, but also in mo­lestation of such Princes as inhabited rounde about him in most intollerable maner. Moreo­uer he was not a little incouraged in these his dooinges by Neptune his father,Neptune had xxxiij. sonnes. who trusted greatly to leaue his xxxiij. sonnes settled in the mightiest kingdomes of the worlde, as men of whom he had already conceyued this opinion, that if they had once gotten foote into any Re­gion whatsoeuer, it woulde not be long ere they did by some meanes or other,Ianige [...] the po [...] ­ty of [...] lying in Italy. not onelye establishe their seates, but also increase their limites to the better maintenance of themsel­ues and their posteritie for euermore. To be short therefore, after the Gyantes, and great Princes, or mightie men of the world had con­spired and slaine the aforesayd Osyris: Hercu­les his sonne, surnamed Libius, in the reuenge of his fathers death, proclaymed open warres agaynst them all, and going from place to place, he ceased not to spoyle their kingdomes, and therewithall to kill them that fell into his handes. Finally, hauing among other ouer­come the Lomnimi or Geriones in Spayne,Lomnimi Geriones and vnderstanding that Lestrigo & his sonnes did yet remayne in Italie, he directed his voy­age into those parts, and taking the kingdome of the Celtes in his waye, he remayned for a season with Lucus the king of that Countrie, where he also maried his daughter Galathea, Galathea. and beg at a sonne by hir, calling him after his moothers name Galates, Galates. of whome in my Chronologie I haue spoken more at large. In the meane time Albion vnderstanding howe Hercules intended to make warres agaynst his brother Lestrigo, he thought it good to stop him that tyde, and therefore sending for hys brother Bergion, Bergion. out of the Orchades (where he also reygned as supreme Lorde and gouer­nour) they ioyned their powers,Pomponi­us Laetus. & sayled ouer into Fraunce. Being arriued there, it was not long ere they met with Hercules and his ar­mie, neare vnto the mouth of the riuer called Rhodanus, where happened a cruell conflicte betwéene them, in which Hercules and hys men were lyke to haue lost the daye, for that they were in maner weryed with lōg warres, and their munition sore wasted in the last voi­age that he had made for Spaine. Herevppon Hercules perceyuing the courages of his soul­diours somewhat to abate, & séeing the want of munition likely to be the cause of his fatall day and present ouerthrowe at hande, it came sodenly into his mynde to will eche of them to defende himselfe by throwing of stones at hys enimie, wherof there lay great store then scat­tered in the place. The policie was no sooner published than put in execution, whereby they so preuayled in thende, that Hercules wan the fielde, their enemies were put to flight, and Albion and his brother both slayne,Albion slayne. and buried in that plot. Thus was Britaine ridde of a ty­rant, Lucus king of the Celtes deliuered frō an vsurper (that daily incroched vpon him also euen in his owne kingdome on that side) and [Page 2] Lestrigo greatly weakened by the slaughter of his brethren. Of this inuention of Hercu­les in lyke sort it commeth, that Iupiter fa­ther vnto Hercules (who in déede was none other but Osyris) is feygned to throw downe stones from heauen vpon Albion and Bergi­on,It rayned [...]ones. in the defence of Hercules his son: which came so thick vpon them as if great drops of raine or hayle should haue descended from aboue, no man well knowing which waye to turne him from their violence, they came so fast and with so great a strength.

But to go forwarde, albeit that Albion and his power were thus discomfited and slayne, yet the name that he gaue vnto thys Islande dyed not, but still remained vnto the time of Brute, who arriuing here in the 1127, before Christ, and 2840. after the creation, not onely chaunged it into Britayne (after it had bene called Albion, by the space of 595. yeares) but to declare his souereigntie ouer the reast of the Islandes also that are about the same, he called them all after the same maner, so that Albion was sayde in tyme to be Britanniarum insula maxima, that is, the greatest of those Isles that bare the name of Britayne.

It is altogither impertinent to discusse whether Hercules came into thys Islande after the death of Albion,Hercules [...]n Bri­tayne. or not, althoughe that by an auncient monument séene of late, and the Cape of Hartland in the West coun­trie,Promonto­rium Her­culis. called Promontorium Herculis in olde tyme, diuers of our Brytishe wryters doe gather great likelyhoode that he shoulde also be here. But syth hys presence or absence maketh nothing wyth the alteration of the name of this our Region and Countrie, I passe it ouer as not incident to my purpose. Neyther will I spend any time in the deter­mination, [...]o. Marius Niger, cō ­ment. de Britannia. Cap. 2. whether Brittayne hath bene sometyme a percell of the mayne, althoughe it shoulde well séeme so to haue bene, by­cause that before the generall floudde of Noah, we doe [...]t [...]eade of Islandes. As for the spéedie and timely inhabitation thereof, this is myne opinion, that it was inhabited shortly after the diuision of the earth: For I reade that when ech Captayne and his com­pany had their portions assigned vnto them by Noah in the partition that he made of the whole earth among hys posteritie,Theophi­lus Antio­thenus ad Antolicum. they neuer ceased to trauayle and search out the vtter most boundes of the same, vntill they founde out their parts allotted, and had séene and vewed the limites thereof, euen vnto the very pooles. It shall suffice therefore only to haue touched these things in this manner a farre of, and in returning to our purpose, to procéede with the reast concerning the deno­mination of our Island, which was knowen vnto most of the Gréekes for a long time, by none other name than Albion, and to say the truth, euen vnto Alexanders daies: notwith­standing that Brute, as I haue sayde, had chaunged the same into Britayne, manye hundred yeares before.

After Brutus I doe not find that any man attempted to chaunge it agayne, vntill the tyme that one Valentinus a rebell,Valentia. in the dayes of Valentinianus and Valens endeuo­red to reygne there,In supple­mento, Eusebij. lib 28. and therevppon as Ie­rome sayth, procured it to be called Valen­tia. The lyke also dyd Theodosius in the re­membraunce of the two aforesayde Empe­rours, as Marcellinus saith, but as neyther of these tooke anye holde among the common sort, so it retayned stil the name of Britaine, vntill the reygne of Echert, who about the 800. yeare of grace, gaue forth an especiall Edict, dated at Wynchester, that it shoulde be called Angles land, or Angellandt,Angellādt or Angles land. for which in our time we doe pronounce it Eng­land. And this is all, right Honourable, that I haue to say, touching the seuerall names of this Islande, vtterly mislyking in the meane season their deuises, which make Hengist the only parent of the later denomination, wher­as Echert, bicause his auncestours descended from the Angles (one of the seauen Nations that came wyth the Saxons into Britayne, for they were not all of one, but of diuers countries, as Angles, Saxons, Germaynes,Only Sa­xons arri­ued here at the first with Hen­gist. Switchers, Norwegiens, &c. and all com­prehended vnder ye name of Saxons, bicause of Hengist the Saxon & his cōpany that first aryued here before any of the other) and ther­to hauing now the monarchie & preheminēce in manner of this whole Islande, called the same after the name of his Countrie from whence his originall came, neyther Hengist, neyther any Quéene named Angla, neyther whatsoeuer deriuation ab angulo, as from a corner of the worlde bearing swaye, or ha­uing ought to doe at all in that behalfe.

What sundry Nations haue inhabited in this Islande. Cap. 3.

AS fewe or no Nations can iustly boaste themselues to haue continued sithence their countrie was first replenished;No Nati­on voide of myxture, more or lesse. wythout any myxture, more or lesse, wyth other peo­ple, no more can this our Islande, whose ma­nifolde commodities haue oft allured sundry Princes and famous captaynes of the world to conquere and subdue the same vnto theyr owne subiection. Many sorts of people there­fore [Page] haue comen hither and settled thēselues here in thys Isle, and first of all other a per­cell of the image and posteritie of Iapheth, brought in by Samothes in the 1910.Samothe­ans. after the creation of Adam. Howbeit in processe of tyme, and after they had indifferently reple­nyshed and furnyshed this Islande with peo­ple (which was done in the space of 335. yea­res) Albion the Gyaunt afore mencioned re­payred hither with a companye of his owne race procéeding from Cham, Chemmi­nites. and not onely subued the same to his owne dominion, but brought all such in lyke sort as he found here of the lyne of Iaphet, into miserable serui­tude and thraldome. After hym also, and wythin lesse than sixe hundred yeares came Brute with a great traine of the posteritie of the dispersed Troianes in 324.Britaines shyppes: who rendring the lyke curtesie vnto the Chemmi­nites as they had done before vnto the séede of Iaphet, brought them also wholye vnder his rule and gouernaunce, and diuided the whole lande among such Princes and Cap­taynes as he in his arriuall here had led out of Grecia with him.

Romaines.From henceforth I doe not finde any sound report of other natiō, whatsoeuer that shuld aduenture hither to dwell, vntill the Romane Emperours subdued it to their dominion, sa­uing of a fewe Galles; (and those peraduen­ture of Belgie) who first comming ouer to robbe and pilfer vpon the coastes, did after­warde plant themselues for altogither neare vnto the sea, and there buylded sundry cities and townes which they named after those of the maine, from whence they came vnto vs. But after the comming of the Romaynes, it is harde to say with how many sortes of peo­ple we were dayly pestered, almost in euery stéede. For as they planted their forworne Legions in the most fertile places of the Realme, and where they might best lye for the safegarde of their conquestes: so their ar­mies did commonly consist of many sorts of people, and were as I may call them, a con­fused mixture of all other coūtries. Howbeit, I thinke it best, bicause they did all beare the tytle of Romaynes, to retayne onely that name for them all, albeit they were wofull guestes to this our Islande: sith that wyth them came in all maner of vice and vicious liuing, all ryot and excesse of behauior, which their Legions brought hyther from eche cor­ner of their dominions, for there was no pro­uince vnder them from whence they had not seruitours.

Scottes Pictes.How and when the Scottes should arriue here out of Irelande, and from whence the Pictes shoulde come vnto vs, as yet it is vn­certaine. For although their histories doe ca­rie great countenance of their antiquitie and continuance in this Islande: yet (to say fréely what I thinke) I iudge them rather to haue stollē in hither, not much before the Saxons, than that they should haue bene so long here, as from the one hundreth yeare after Christ. Reynulph Higden is of the opinion that the Pictes did come into this Island in the days of Seuerus, and that Fulgentius their cap­tayne was brother to Martia, the mother of Bassianus. He addeth furthermore howe the Pictes forsooke Bassianus, Li. 4. ca. [...] and held with Carausius, who gaue thē a portion of Scot­lande to inhabite, and thus wryteth he. But if Herodian be well reade, you shal find that ye Pictes were settled in thys Isle, before the time of Seuerus, & yet not so soone as that Ta­cicus can make any mention of thē in the cō ­quest that Agricola his father in law made of ye North parts of this Island. Neyther doe I reade of the Scots or Pictes before the time of Antoninus Verus, in the begynning of whose thirde yere (which concurred with the xvij. of Lucius king of Britaine) they inuaded thys South part of the Isle, and were redu­ced to obedience by Trebellius the Legate. Certes the tyme of Samothes and Albion haue some likely limitation, and so we maye gather of the cōming in of Brute. The voy­age that Caesar made likewyse is certainely knowne to fall out in the 54. before the birth of Christ. In lyke sort that the Saxons arry­ued here in the 449. The Danes, and with them the Gothes, Vandales, Norwegians, &c. in the 791. Finally the Normans in 1066. And Flemminges in the tyme of Henry the first (although they came not in by conquest, but vppon their humble sute had a place in Wales assigned them to inhabite in, by king Henry then reigning, after the drowning of their countrie) it is easie to be prooued.

But when the Pictes and Scottes should enter, neither doe our hystories make any re­port, neyther their owne agrée among thē ­selues by manye hundreth yeares. Where­fore as the tyme of their arriuall here is not to be founde out, so it shall suffice to gyue notice that they are but strangers, and such as by obscure inuasion haue nestled in thys Islande.

The Saxons became first acquainted with thys Isle,Saxons by meanes of the pyracie which they daily practised vpon our coastes (after they had once begunne to aduenture themsel­ues also vpon the seas, thereby to séeke out more wealth then was nowe to begotten in these west partes of the mayne, which they & their neighbors had alreadie spoyled in most [Page 3] lamentable and barbarous maner) howbeit they neuer durst presume to inhabite in this Island, vntill they were sent for by Vortiger to serue him in his warres agaynst ye Pictes & Scottes, after that the Romaines had gi­uen vs ouer, & left vs wholy to our owne de­fence & regiment. Being therefore comen in thrée bottomes or kéeles, & in short time espi­ing the ydle & negligent behauiour of ye Bry­tons and fertilitie of our soyle, they were not a little inflamed to make a full conquest of such as they came to ayde and succour. Here­vpon also they fell by little and little to the winding in of greater nūbers of their coun­trymen with their wyues and children into this region, so that within a whyle they be­gan to molest the homelings (for so I finde ye word Indigena, to be englished in an old booke that I haue, wherin Aduena is translated al­so an homeling) and ceased not from time to time to cōtinue their purpose, vntill they had gotten possession of the whole, or at the least­wise the greatest part of our coūtry, the Bri­tons in the meane season being driuen eyther into Wales & Cornewall, [...]n altogither out of the Islande to séeke newe inhabitations.

Danes.In like maner the Danes (the next nation that succéeded) came at the first onely to pil­fer & robbe vpon the frontiers of our Island, till that in the end being let in by the Welch­men or Brytons to reuenge them vpon the Saxons, they no lesse plagued the one then the other, their friendes, then their aduersa­ries, séeking by all meanes possible, to esta­blish themselues in the sure possessiō of Bry­tayne. But such was their successe, that they prospered not long in their deuise, for so great was their lordlinesse, their crueltie, and insa­tiable desire of riches, beside their detestable abusing of chast matrones, & young virgines (whose husbandes and parentes were daily inforced to become their drudges and slaues whylest they sate at home and fed like Drone bées of the swéet of their trauayle & labours) that God I say would not suffer thē to con­tinue any while ouer vs, but when he saw his time he remooued their yoke, and gaue vs li­bertie, as it were to breath vs, thereby to sée whether this his sharpe scourge coulde haue mooued vs to repentaunce and amendement of our lewde and sinnefull liues, or not. But whē no signe therof appeared in our hearts, he called in an other nation to vexe vs [...] meane the Normans,The Nor­mans. a people of whom it is woorthily doubted, whether they were more harde and cruell to our countrymen then the Danes, or more heauye and intollerable to our Islande then the▪ Saxons or Romaynes, yet such was our lotte, in these dayes by the deuine appointed order, that we must néedes obey, such as the Lorde dyd set ouer vs, & so much the rather, for that all power to resiste was vtterly taken from vs, and our armes made so weake and féeble, that they were not now able to remooue the importable loade of the Normanes from our surburdened shoul­ders: And this onely I say agayne, bycause we refused grace offred in time and woulde not heare when God by his Preachers did call vs so fauourably vnto him.

Thus we sée howe from time to time this Islande hath not onely bene a praye, but as it were a common receptacle for straungers, the naturall homelinges being still cut shor­ter and shorter, as I sayde before, till in the ende they came not onely to be driuen into a corner of this region, but in tyme also verie like vtterly to haue ben extinguished. For had not king Edward surnamed the sainct in his time after grieuous warres, made vppon them (wherein Earle Harald, sonne to Good­wine & after king of Englande was his ge­nerall) permitted the remnaunt of their wo­men to ioyne in maryage with the English­men (when the most part of their husbandes & male children were slayne with the sworde) it coulde not haue bene otherwyse chosen, but their whole race must néedes haue sustayned the vttermost confusion, and thereby the me­morie of the Britons vtterly haue perished.

Whether it be likely that there were euer any Gyaunts inhabiting in this Isle or not. Cap. 4.

BEsides these aforesayde nations, which haue crept as you haue hearde into our Islande, we reade of sundry Gyaunts that shoulde inhabite here, which report as it is not altogither incredible, sith the posterities of diuers▪ princes were called by ye name: so vnto some mens eares it séemeth so straunge a rehearsall, that for the same onely they su­spect the credite of our whole hystorie and reiect it as a fable, vnwoorthy to be read. For this cause therefore I haue nowe taken vpon me to make thys briefe discourse insuing, therby to prooue, that the opiniō of Gyaunts is not altogether grounded vpon vayne & fa­bulous narrations, inuented only to delite the eates of the hearer [...] with the report of mar­veilous things. But that there haue bene such men in déede, as for their hugenesse of person haue resembled ratherEsay. 30. vers. 25. highe towers then [...]etall men, although their posterities are now consumed, and their monstruous races vtterly worne out of knowledge.

A doe not meane herin to dispute, whether [Page] this name was giuen vnto them, rather for their tyrannie and oppression of the people, then for their greatenesse of bodie, or whe­ther the worde Gygas dooeth onelye signifie Indigenas, or homelinges, borne in the lande or not, neyther whether all men were of like quantitie in stature and farre more greater in olde tyme then at this present they be, and yet absolutely I denie neyther of these, sith very probable reasons may be brought for eche of thē, but especially the last rehearsed, whose confirmation dependeth vpon the au­thorityes of sundrie auncient writers, who make diuers of Noble race, equall to the Gyauntes in strength, and manhoode, and yet doe not gyue the same name vnto them, by­cause their quarels were iust, and commonly taken in hande, for defence of the oppressed. Example hereof, also we may take of Hercu­les and Antheus, Antheus. whose wrestling declareth that they were equall in stature & stomacke, such also was the courage of Antheus, that being often ouercome, and as it were vtter­ly vanquished by the sayde Hercules, yet if he did eftsoones returne agayne into his king­dome, he furthwt recouered his force, retur­ned & helde Hercules tacke, till he gate at the last betwéene him & home, so cutting of the farder hope of the restoring of his army, and killing finally his aduersarie in the field. The like doe our histories report of Corineus and Gomagot, Corineus. Gomagot. who fought a combate hande to hande, till one of them was slayne, & yet for all this no man reputeth Corineus for a Gy­aunt. But sith I saye it is not my purpose to stande vppon these pointes, I passe ouer to speake any more of them, and where as also I might haue procéeded in such order, that I shoulde first set downe by many circumstan­ces, whether any Gyauntes were, then whe­ther they were of such huge & incredible sta­ture, as the authours doe remember, and fi­nally whether any of them haue béene in this our ylande or not, I protest playnly that my minde is not nowe bent to deale in any such maner, but rather generally to confirme and by sufficient authoritie that there haue bene mightye men of stature, and some of them also in Britaine, as by particular examples shalbe manifestly confirmed without ye obser­uation of any methode, or such diuisiō in the rehearsal hereof as sound order doth require.

Moses the Prophet of the Lord, writing of the state of things before the flood hath these wordes in his booke of generations.Cap. 6. ver. 4. In these daies saith he, there were Giaūts vpō ye erth, Berosus, Antidi. 1. also the Chalde, writeth that néere vnto Libanus there was a city called Denon (which I take to be Henoch, builded somtime by Cham) wherein Gyauntes dyd inhabit, who trusting to the strength and hugenesse of their bodies, dyd verye great oppression and mischiefe in the worlde. The Hebrues called them generally by the name of Enach per­aduenture of Henoch the sonne of Cain, frō whom that pestilēt race at the first descēded.

And of these mōsters also some families re­mained vnto the time of Moses, in compari­son of whom the children of Israell confessed themselues to be but Grashoppers,Nu. cap▪ vers. 3 [...] 34. which is one noble testimonie that the word Gygas or Enach is so well taken for a man of huge stature, as for an homeborne childe, wicked tyraunt, and oppressour of the people.

Furthermore, there is mention made also of Og, sometyme king of Basan,Deut. 3 [...] vers. [...] Og [...] Basa [...]. who was the last of the race of the Gyaunts, that was left in the lande of promise to be ouercome by the Israelites, whose bedde was afterwarde shewed for a woonder at Rabbath (a citie of the Ammonites) and conteyned 9. cubites in length and 4. in bredth, which cubites I take to be geometricall, that is, eache one sixe of the smaller▪ as dyd those also whereof the Arke was made, as our Diuines affirme.

In the first of Samuell you shall reade of Goliath a philistine,Cap. [...] ver. 4.5▪ Goliath▪ the weight of whose Ta­berde or iacke was of fiue hundreth sicles, or so many ounces, that is, 312. pounde after the rate of a sicle to an ounce, his speare was like a weauers beame, the onelye head whereof weighed 600. ounces of yron, or 37. pounde and a halfe english, his height also was mea­sured at 6. cubites and an hande bredth, all which do importe that he was a notable Gy­aunt, and a man of great strength to weare such an armour & beweld so heauy a launce.

In the second of Samuell,Cap. 21. ver. 16.17. &c. I finde report of 4. Gyaunts borne in Geth, of which the third was like vnto Goliath, & the fourth had 24. fingers and toes, whereby it is euident, that the generation of Gyaunts were not extin­guished in Palestine, vntill the tyme of Da­uid, which was 2890. after the floude, nor vt­terly consumed in Og, as some of our exposi­tours woulde haue it.

Now to come vnto our christen writers, for although the authorities already alleged out of the worde, are sufficient to confirme my purpose at the full, yet will I not let to set downe such other notes as experience hath reuealed, onelye to the ende that the reader shall not thinke the name of Gyaunts, with their quantities, and other circumstaunces, mentioned in the scriptures, rather to haue some misticall interpretation, depending vp­pon them, then that the sence of the text in this behalfe is to be taken simple as it lyeth [Page 4] S. Augustine noteth how he saw the tooth of a man, [...]e ciuitate [...]i lib. 15. p. 9. wherof he tooke good aduisement & pro­nounced in the ende that it would haue made 100. of his owne, or any other mans that ly­ued in his tyme. The like hereof also doeth Iohn Bocase set downe, [...]hannes [...]ccatius. in the 48. Chapter of his fift booke, saying that in ye caue of a moū ­tayne, not farre from Drepanum, (a towne of Sicilia) the body of an excéeding high Gyaunt was discouered, thrée of whose téeth did weigh 100. ounces, which being conuerted into En­glish poise, doth yéelde 8. pounde and 4. oun­ces, after twelue ounces to the pounde.

[...]at. West­on.The bodye of Pallas was founde in Italy, in the yeare of grace. 1038. and being mea­sured it conteined 20. foote in lēgth, this Pallas was cōpanion with Aeneas. There was a car­case also laid bare in England vpō the shore, [...]hannes [...]land. [...]asseus. [...]. (where the beating of the sea had washed a­way ye yearth from the stone wherein it lay) & when it was taken vp, it conteined, 50. foote in measure, as our histories doe reporte. The lyke was séene in Wales, in the yeare. 1087. of 14. foote. I [...] Perth moreouer a village in Scotlande another was taken vp, which to this day they shewe in a Church, vnder the name of little Iohn, being also 14. foote in length as diuers doe affirme which haue be­holden the same. In the yeare of grace. 1475. the bodye of Tulliola daughter vnto Cicero, was taken vp and found higher by not a fewe féete then the common sorte of women liuing in those dayes. Geruasius Tilberiensis, hedde Marshall to the King of Arles writeth,Geruasius Tilberien­sis. in his Chronicle dedicated to Otho. 4. howe that at Isoretum, in the suburbes of Paris, he sawe the bodye of a man that was twentye foote long, beside the heade and necke, which was missing and not founde, the owner ha­uing peraduenture bene beheadded for some notable trespasse committed in times past.

Thomas [...]liot.A carkasse was taken vp at Iuye Church nere Salisburye but of late to speake of, al­most 14 foote long.

[...]eland.In Gillesland in Come Whitton paroche not far from the chappell of the Moore, sixe miles by East from Carleill, a coffin of stone was founde, and therein the bones of a man, of more then incredible greatnes.

Richarde Grafton, in his Manuell telleth of one whose shinne bone conteined sixe foote,Richard Grafton. &. his scul so great that it was able to receiue 5. pe [...]kes of wheate, wherefore by coniecturall symmetrye of these partes, his bodye must néedes be of 28. foote, or rather more, if it were diligently discussed.

[...]iluester [...]yraldus.The body of king Arthur being found in the yere 1189. was two foote higher than any man that came to behold ye same, finally the carcas of William conquerour was séene not many yeares since, in the Citie of Cane,Constans fama Ga­lorum. twelue yn­ches longer, by ye iudgment of such as saw it, thā any man which dwelled in the countrey, all which testimonies I note togither bicause they procéede from Christian writers, from whome nothing shoulde bée farther or more distant, then of set purpose to lie, & féede the world with Fables. Nowe it resteth further­more yt I set downe, what I haue read therof in Pagane writers, who had alwayes great regarde of their credit, and so ought all men that dedicate any thing vnto posteritie, least in going about otherwise to reape renowme and praise, they doe procure vnto themselues in the ende nothing else but méere contempt and infamy: for my part I will touch rare thinges, and such as to my selfe doe séeme almost incredible: howbeitas I find them, so I note them, requiring your Honour in rea­ding hereof, to let euerye Author beare hys owne burden, and euery Oxe his bundle.

Plutarche telleth howe Sertorius being in Libia, néere vnto the stréetes of Maroco, In vita Ser­torij de Antheo. cau­sed the Sepulchre of Antheus, afore remem­bred to be opened, for heareing by cōmon re­port that the saide Gyaunt lay buryed there, whose corps was 50. cubits long at the least, he was so far of frō crediting the same, that he would not beleue it, vntil he saw the coffin o­pen wherein the bones of the aforesaid prince did rest. To be short therefore, he caused his souldiers to cast downe the hil made somtime ouer the tombe, and finding the bodie in the bottome, after the measure thereof taken, he sawe it manifestly, to be 60. cubits in length, which were ten more then the people made accompt of.

Philostrate in Heroices sayth,Philostrate how he sawe the body of a Gyant 30. cubits in length, also the carkasse of another of 22. and the thirde, of 12.

Plinie telleth of an Earthquake at Creta, Lib. 7. which discouered the body of a Gyant, which was 46. cubits in length after the Romaine standerde, and by dyuers supposed to be the bodye of Orion or Aetion.

Trallianus writeth howe the Athenienses digging on a time in the grounde to laye the foundatiō of their new walles in the dayes of an Emperour, Trallianus. did finde the bones of Macro­syris in a coffin of harde stone, of 10. cubites in length after the accompt of the Romaine cubite, which was then a foote and an halfe & not much diffrence from halfe a yarde of our measure nowe in Englande. In the time of Hadriane themperour the body of a Gyaunt was take vp at Messana conteining 20. foote in length, & hauing a double row of téeth, yet [Page] standing whole in his chaps, In Dalmatia, manye graues were shaken open with an earthquake, in one of which aboue the rest, a carcasse was found whose ribbe conteined 16. elles, after the Romaine measure, whereby ye whole body was iudged to be 64. sith ye lōgest rib is cōmonly about ye fourth part of a man, as some Simmetriciēs affirme, Arrhianꝰ saith that in the time of Alexander the bodies of ye Asianes were generally of huge stature, and commonly of 5. cubits, such was the height of Porus of Inde, whome Alexander vanqui­shed and ouerthrew in battaile. Sudas spea­keth in like maner of Ganges, killed likewise by the sayd prince, who farre excéeded Porus for he was 10. cubits lōg. But of al these this one example shall passe, which I doe reade also in Trallianus & he setteth downe in forme and manner following.

I mouth of 16. foote wide.In the daies of Tiberius themperor saith he a corps was left bare or layde open after an erthquake of which eche tooth cōteined 12. yn­ches ouer at ye lest, now forasmuch as in such as bée full mouthed eche chap hath 16. teeth at the least, which is 32. in ye whole, néedes must the wydenesse of this mannes chappes be sixetéene foote, and the opening of his lippes 10. A large mouth in mine opinion and not to féede with Ladies of my time, besides that if occasion serued, it was able to receiue the whole bodye of a man, I meane of such as flourish in our daies. Whē this careasse was thus founde, euery man marueyled at it and good cause why, a messenger also was sente vnto Tiberius themperour to know his plea­sure,A coūter­feete made of a mon­strous car­casse by one tooth taken out of ye head. whether he wold haue the same brought euer vnto Rome or not, but he forbade them, willing his Legate not to remooue the deade out of his resting place, but rather to sende him a tooth out of his head, which being done, he gaue the same to a cunning workeman, commanding him to shape a carcasse of light matter, after the proporcion of the tooth, that at the least by such meanes he might satisfie his curious minde, and the fantasies of such as are delited with newes.

This man was more fauorable to this mō ­ster then our pa­pists were to the bo­dies of the dead who tare them in péeces to make mo­ney of thē.To be short whē the ymage was once made and set vp an end, it appeared rather an huge collossy then the true representation of the carcasse of a man, and when it had stande in Rome vntill the people were wearye of it and thorowly satisfied with the sight thereof, he caused it to bée broken all to péeces, and the tooth sent againe to the carcasse from whence it came, willing them moreouer to couer it diligently, & in any wise not to dismē ­ber the corps, nor from thencefoorth to bée so hardie as to open the sepulchre any more. I could rehearse many mo examples of the bo­dies of such men, out of Solinus, Sabellicus Cooper, and other, but these here shall suffise to prooue my purpose with all. I might tell you in like sorts of the stone which Turnus threwe at Aeneas, which was such as that 12. chosen and picked men ‘(Qualia nunc hominum producit corpora tellus. Vis vnit [...] fortior est eadem di [...] persa.)’ were not able to sturre and remooue out of the place, but I passe it ouer, & diuers of the like, concluding that these huge blockes were ordeined and created by God: first for a testi­monie vnto vs, of his power and myght, se­condly for a confirmation that hugenesse of bodye is not to be accompted, of as a part of our felicitie, sith they which possessed ye same, were not onely tyrauntes, doltysh, and euyll men, but also oftentimes ouercome euen by the weake and féeble. Finally they were such in déede as in whome the Lorde delited not, according to the saying of the Prophet Ba­ruch.

Ibi fuerunt gigantes nominati, illi qui ab ini­tio fuerunt statura magna, scientes bellum,Cap. 3. [...]hos non elegit dominus, neque illis viam disciplinae dedit, propterea perierunt, & quoniam nō ha­buerunt sapientiam, interierunt propter suam insipientiam. &c.

There were the Gyants, famous from the beginning, that were of so great stature & so expert in warre. Those did not the Lorde choose neither gaue he the way of knowledge vnto them. But they were destroied, because they had no wisedome, and perished through their owne foolishnesse.

Of the generall Language vsed from time to time in Britaine. Chap. 5.

WHat language came first wyth Sa­mothes & afterwarde with Albion,Bryttish. & the Gyants of his cōpanie,Small difference betwene brittish & Celtike languag [...] it is hearde for me to determine, sith nothing of sound credit re­mayneth in writing which maye resolus vs in the truth hereof, yet of so much are we cer­teine, that the speach of ye auncient Britons, and of the Celtes had great affinitie one with another, so that they were either all one, or at the leastwyse such as eyther nation wyth smal helpe of interpreters might vnderstand other, and readily discerne what the speaker did meane.

The Brittish tongue doth yet remayne in that part of the Islande,Brittish corrupted by the Latine and Saxon speaches. which is nowe cal­led Wales, whether the Britons were driuē after the Saxons had made a full conquest of the other, which we nowe call Englande, al­though the pristinate integritie therof be not [Page 5] a little diminished by mixture of the Latine & Saxon speaches, howbeit, many poesies and writings, (in making whereof that nation hath euermore excelled) are yet extant in my time, whereby some difference betwéene the aunciēt & present language, may easily be dis­cerned, notwithstanding that amōg all these there is nothing to be founde, which can set downe any sounde testimonie of their owne originall, in remembraunce whereof, their Bardes & cunning men haue bene most slacke and negligent. It is a speache in mine opiniō much sauouring of that, which was some­time vsed in Grecia, and learned by the re­liques of the Troyanes, whylest they were captiue there, but how soeuer the matter standeth, after it came once ouer into this I­slande, sure it is, that it could neuer be extin­guished for all the attēpts that the Romains, Saxons, Normans, and Englishmen coulde make against that nation, in any maner of wyse.

The Bri­ [...]ons deli­ [...]ent in pe­ [...]grées.Petigrées & genealogies also the Welche Brytons haue plentie in their owne tongue, insomuch that many of them can readily de­riue the same, eyther from Brute or some of his bande, euen vnto Aeneas and other of the Troyanes, and so forth vnto Noah without any maner of stoppe, but as I know not what credite is to be giuen vnto them in this be­halfe, so I dare not absolutely impugne their assertions, sith that in times past all nations (learning it no dout of the Hebrues) did very solemnely preserue the Cataloges of their discent, thereby eyther to shew themselues of auncient and noble race, or else to be discen­ded from some one of the goddes.

[...]atine.Next vnto the Brittishe speache, the latine tongue was brought in by the Romaines, whereof I will not say much, bycause there are few which be not skilfull in ye same. How­beit as the speache it selfe is easie and delecta­ble, so hath it peruerted the names of the auncient ryuers, regions, and cities of Bri­tayne in such wyse, that in these our dayes their olde Brittish denominations are quite growen out of memorie, and those of the new latine, left as most incertayne. This remay­neth also vnto my tyme, borowed from the Romaynes that all our déedes, euidences, charters, and writinges of recorde, are set downe in the latine tongue, and therevnto the copies and courtrolles, and processes of courtes and leetes registred in the same.

The Sa­ [...]on tong.The thirde language apparauntly knowen is the Scythian or highe Dutche, brought in at the first by the Saxons, an hard and rough kinde of speach god wotte, when our nation was brought first into acquaintance withall, but now chaunged with vs into a farre more fine and easie kind of vtteraunce, and so poli­shed and helped with new and milder wordes that it is to be aduouched howe there is no one speache vnder the sonne spoken in our time, that hath or can haue more varietie of words, copie of phrases, or figures or floures of eloquence, thē hath our Englishe tongue, although some haue affirmed vs rather to barke as dogs, then talke like men, because the most of our wordes (as they doe in déede) incline vnto one syllable.

After the Saxon tongue came the Normā or Frenche language,The Frē ­che tong. ouer into our countrey and therein were our lawes written for a lōg tyme, our children also were by an especiall decrée taught first to speake the same, and all to exile the Englishe and Brittishe speaches out of the coūtry, but in vaine, for in the time of king Edwarde the first, and towarde the latter ende of his reigne, the Frenche it selfe ceased to be spoken generally, and then be­ganne the Englishe to recouer and growe in more estimation then before, notwithstāding that amōg our artificers, ye most part of their implements & tooles reteine stil their French denominatiōs to these our daies, as the lan­guage it self, is vsed likewise in sūdry courts, bookes and matters of law, wherof here is no place to make any farder rehearsall. After­ward also, by the diligent trauelle of Geffray Chauser, and Iohn Gowre in the time of Ri­chard the second, & after thē of Iohn Scogā, & Iohn Lydgate monke of Berry, our tong was brought to an excellent passe, notwith­standing that it neuer came, vnto the typpe of perfection, vntill the time of Quéene Eliza­beth, wherein many excellent writers haue fully accomplished the ornature of the same, to their great prayse and immortall commē ­dation. But as this excellencie of the English tongue is founde in one, and the south part of this Islande, so in Wales the greatest nō ­ber as I sayde retayne still their owne aun­cient language, that of the North part of the sayd countrey, being lesse corrupted then the other, and therefore reputed for the better in their owne estimation and iudgement.

The Cornish and Deuonshire men,The Cor­nish tōgue. haue a speach in like sorte of their owne, and such as hath in déede more affinity with the Armori­cane tongue, then I can well discusse of, yet in mine opiniō they are both but a corrupted kinde of Brittish, albeit so farre degenera­ting in these dayes, that if eyther of them do méete wyth a Welch man, they are not able at the first to vnderstand one another, except here and therein some odde wordes, without the helpe of interpretours. And no marueile [Page] in mine opinion that the Brittish of Corne­wall is thus corrupted, sith the Welch tong that is spoken in the north and south part of Wales, doth differ so much in it selfe as the English vsed in Scotlande, doth from that which is spoken among vs here in this side of the Islande, as I haue saide already.

Scottishe english.The Scottish englishe is much broader and lesse pleasaunt in vtterance, then ours, because that nation hath not hitherto inde­uoured to bring the same to any perfit order, and yet it is such in maner, as Englishmen themselues doe speake, for the most part be­yonde the Trent, whether the aforesayde a­mendement of our language, hath not as yet very much extended it selfe.

Thus we sée how that vnder the domini­on of the kinge of Englande, and in the south partes of the realme, we haue thrée seuerall tongues, that is to say, English, Bryttish, & Cornish, and euen so many are in Scotland, if you accompt the Englishe speach for one: notwithstanding that for bredth and quanti­tie of the Region, it be somewhat lesse to sée to then the other. For in the North part of the Region,The wilde Scottes. where the wilde Scottes, other­wyse called the Redshankes, or Rough footed Scottes (bycause they go bare footed & clad in mantels ouer their saffron shirtes after the Irishe maner) doe inhabite,Redshāks. Rough foo­ted Scots. they speake good Irishe,Irish spe­che. whereby they shew their origi­nall to haue in times past bene fetched out of Irelande.

In the Isles of the Orcades, or Orkeney, as they now call them, and such coastes of Bri­taine as doe abutte vpon the same, the Got­tish or Dainsh speach is altogither in vse, by reason as I take it, that the princes of Nor­way helde those Islandes so long vnder their subiection, albeit they were otherwyse re­puted, rather to belong vnto Irelande, by­cause that the very soyle of them is enemie to poyson, as some write, although for my part I had neuer experience of the truth her­of. And thus much haue I thought good to speake of these fiue languages nowe vsually spoken within the limites of our Islande.

Into how many kingdomes the Isle of Bri­taine hath bene deuided at once in olde time. Cap. 6.

Britaine at the first one entier kingdome.IT is not to be doubted, but that at the first the whole Islande was ruled by one onely prince, and so continued from time to time, vntill ciuile discorde, grounded vpon ambi­tions desire to reigne, caused the same to be gouerned by diuers. And this I meane so wel of the time before the comming of Brute, as after the extinction of his whole race and po­sterity. Howbeit as it is incerteine, into how many regions it was seuered after the first particion, so it is most sure that this latter disturbed estate of regiment, continued in the same, not onely vntill the time of Caesar, but also in maner vnto the dayes of Lucius, with whome the whole race of the Britons had an ende, and the Romaynes full possessiō of this Islande, who gouerned it by Legates after the maner of a prouince. It should seme also yt within a whyle after the time of Dun­wallon (who rather brought those 4. Prin­ces that vsurped in his tyme to obedience, then extinguished their titles, and such parti­tion as they had made of the Islande among thēselues) eche great citie had hir fréedome and seuerall kinde of regiment, proper vnto hir selfe, beside a large circuite of the country appertinent vnto the same, wherin were sun­drye other cities also of lesse name, which ought homage & all subiection vnto the grea­ter sorte. And to say truth hereof, it came to passe, that eache region, whereinto this I­slande was than deuided, tooke his name of some one of these as many appeare by that of the Trinobantes, which was so called of Trinobantum the chiefe citie of that portion, whose Territories, contayned all Essex, Middlesex, and part of Hertforde shire, euen as the iurisdictiō of the Bishop of London is now extēded, for the ouersight of such things as belong vnto the Church. Eche of the go­uernours also of these regions, called them­selues kings, and therevnto eyther of them dayly made warre vpon other, for the inlar­ging of their limites. But forasmuch as I am not able to saye howe many dyd chalenge this authoritie at once, and howe long they reigned ouer their seuerall portions, I will passe ouer these auncient times, and come néerer vnto our owne, I meane the 600. yere of Christ, wherof we haue more certayne no­tice, & at which season there is euident proofe, that there were 12. or 13. kinges reigning in this Islande.

We finde therefore for the first,Wales d [...] uided [...] thrée kingdomes. howe that Wales had hir thrée seuerall kingdomes, al­though that portion of the Islande extended in those dayes no farder thē about 200. miles in length, & one hundred in bredth, and was cut from Lhoegres by the riuers Sauerne & Dée, of which two streames this doth fall in­to the Irish sea at Chester, the other into the mayne Oceane, betwixt Somersetshire and Southwales, as their seuerall courses doe witnesse more at large.

In the beginning it was deuided into two kingdomes onely, that is to say, Venedotia, [Page 6] Gwinhed, Gwinhed. and Demetia, for which we now vse most commonlye the names of South and North Wales, but in processe of tyme a thirde sprange vp in the verye middest be­twéene them both, which from thenceforth was called Powysy, as shalbe shewed here­after.

The first of these thrée, being called as I sayd Northwales or Venedotia (or as Paulus, Venedotia. Iouius saith Malfabrene, for he deuideth wales also into thrée regions, of whiche he calleth ye first Dumbera, the seconde Berfrona, & the third Malfabrene) lyeth directly ouer against ye Isle of Anglesey.Anglesey. It containeth 4. regions, of which the sayde Island is the first, & wher­of in the chapter insuing I wil intreate more at large.Arfon. The seconde is called Arfon, and si­tuate betwéene two ryuers, the Segwy & the Conwy:Merio­neth. The thirde is Merioneth, & as it is seuered from Arfon by the Conwy, so is it se­parated from Tegenia, (otherwyse called Stradcluyd & Igenia the fourth regiō) by the riuer Cluda.Strad­cluyd or Tegenia. Finally the limits also of thys latter: are extended also, euen vnto the Dée it selfe, and of these 4. Regions, consisteth the kingdome of Venedotia, wherof in times past the region of the Canges was not the smal­lest portion.

Powisy.The kingdome of Powisy, last of all erec­ted, as I sayde, hath on the north side Gwin­hed on the East (from Chester to Hereforde, or rather the Deane forest) Englande: on the south and west the ryuer Wy, and very highe hilles, whereby it is notablye seuered from Southwales, the chiefe citie thereof being Shropshyre, that nowe is inhabited with méere English, and where, in olde time the kinges of Powysy dyd dwell and holde their pallaces. Vpon the limits of this king­dome, and not farre from Holt castell, vpon eache side of the riuer, as the chanell nowe runneth, stoode sometime the famous Mona­stery of Bāgor,Bangor. whylest the abated glory of the Britons, yet remayned vnextinguished, & herin were 2100. monkes, of which, the lear­ned sort dyd preache the Gospell, and the vn­learned laboured with their hands, therby to mainteyne themselues, and to sustaine their preachers. This Region was in lyke sort de­uided afterward in twaine, of which, the one was called Mailor or Mailrosse, the other re­tayned still hir olde denomination, & of these the first lay by south, and the latter by north of the Sauerne, whereof let this suffice, sith mine intent is not as nowe to make any pre­cise descriptiō, of the particulars of Wales, but onely to shewe, howe those regions laye, which sometime were knowen to be gouer­ned in that countrey.

The third kingdome is Demetia, Demetia. or South­wales, sometime knowen for the region of the Syllures, wherevnto I also am perswa­ded, that the Ordolukes lay in the East part thereof, and extended their region, euen vnto the Sauerne: but howsoeuer that matter fal­leth out, Demetia hath the Sauerne on hir south, the Irish sea on hir west partes, on the east the Sauerne only, and by North the land of Powysy, whereof I spake of late.

Of this region also Caermarden, which the olde writers call Maridunum, was the chiefe pallace, vntill at the last thorowe forren and ciuill inuasions of enimies, that the Princes thereof were constrayned to remooue theyr courts to Dinefar (which is in Cantermawr, and situate neuerthelesse vppon the same ry­uer Tewye whereon Cairmarden stand­eth) where it is farre better defended with high hilles, thicke wooddes, craggy rockes, and déepe marises. In this region also lyeth Pembroke shyre, whose fawcons haue bene in olde time very much regarded, and there in likewyse is Milforde hauen, whereof the Welch wyfards doe dreame straunge toyes, which they beléeue, shall one daye come to passe.

That Scotlande had in these dayes two Kingdomes,Pictland. Scotland. Pictes. Scottes. (besides that of the Orchades) wherof the one consisted of the Pictes, & was called Pightland or Pictlande, the other of the Scottish race, & named Scotland: I hope no wise man will readily denie. The whole regiō or portion of the Isle beyonde the Scot­tish sea also was so diuided that ye Pictes lay on the East side, and the Scots, on the West, eche of them being seuered from other, eyther by huge hilles or great lakes and riuers, that ran out of the South into the north betwéene them: Wherefore the case being so playne, I will say no more of these twoo but procéede in order wyth the rehearsall of the rest of the particular kingdoms of this our south part of ye Ile, limiting out ye same by shyres as they now lye, so nere as I cā, for otherwise it shal­be impossible for me to leaue certaine notice of the likeliest quantities of these their seue­rall portions.

The first of these kingdomes therfore was begonne in Kent by Henghist in the 456.Kēt Hen­ghist. of Christ, and thereof called the kingdome of Kent: and as the limites thereof extended it self no farther then the sayde countie (ye chiefe Citie whereof was Dorobernia or Canter­bury) so it endured well nere by the space of 400. yeares, before it was made an Earle­dome, and vnited by Inas vnto that of the West Saxons, Athelstane his sonne, being ye first Earle or heretoche of the same. Maister [Page] Lambert in his hystorie of Kent doth gather, by very probable coniectures, that this part of the Islande was first inhabited, by Samo­thes, and afterwarde by Albion: but howsoe­uer that case standeth, sure it is that it hath bene the onely doore, whereby the Romaines and Saxons made their entrie vnto the con­quest of the region. And as this cannot be denyed, so it was the onelye place by which the knowledge of Christ was first brought ouer vnto vs, whereby we became partakers of saluation, and from the darknesse of misty errour, true conuerts vnto the light, & bright beames of the shining truth, to our eternall benefit, and endlesse comforts hereafter.

Southsax. Ella.The second Kingdome conteined only Sus­sex & a part of Surrey, which Ella the Saxon first helde: who also erected his chiefe pallace at Chichester, whē he had destroied Andreds­walde in the 492. of Christ, and after it had continued by the space of 232. yeares, it ceased being the very beast Kingdome of all the rest, which were founded in this yle after the com­ming of the Saxons.

Estsax. Erken­w [...]jn.The third regiment was of the East Sax­ons, or Trinobātes. This kingdome began vn­der Erkenwijne, whose chiefe seate was in Londō (or Colchester) & cōteined whole Essex, & part of Herfordshyre. It indured also much about the pricke of 303. yeres, & was diuided frō that of the East angles onely by the riuer Stour, as Houeden & other doe report, & so it continueth seperated from Suffolke euen vnto our times, although the sayde riuer be growne very small, and not of such greatnes as it hath bene in times past, by reason that our Country men make small accompt of ri­uers, thinking carriage made by horse & cart to be the lesse chargeable waye. But herein how far they are deceyued, I will elsewhere make manifest declaration.

Westsax.The fourth kingdome was of ye West Sax­ons, and so called bycause it lay in the West part of the realme, as that of Essex did in the East, of Sussex and South. It began in the yeare of grace 549.Cerdijc. vnder Cerdijc, & indured vntil the comming of ye Normanes, including Willshyre, Barkeshyre, Dorset, Southamp­ton, Sūmersetshyre Glostershyre, some part of Deuonshyre (which the Brytons occupied not) Cornewal and the rest of Surrey, as the best authours do set downe. The chiefe Citie of this Kingdome also was Winchester, ex­cept my memory doe fayle me.

Br [...] ̄nicia, alias Nor­thumber­land, Ida.The fift Kingdome beganne vnder Ida, in the 548. of Christ being called now Northū ­berland because it laye by North of the riuer Humber, it conteined all that region which as it shoulde séeme, was in time past eyther wholly apperteining to ye Brigants, or where­of of the sayde Brigants, did possesse the greater part. The chiefe Citie of the same in like ma­ner was Yorke, as Leyland and other doe set downe, who adde thereto that it extended frō the humber vnto the Scottish sea.

Afterwarde in the yeare of grace 560.Deira, Ella. it was parted in twaine, vnder Adda, that yéel­ded vp all hys portion, which laye betwéene humber and the Line vnto his Brother Ella (according to their Fathers appointment) who called it Deira, or Southumberlande, but reteyning the rest stil vnto his owne vse, he diminished not his title, but wrote himself as before king of al Northumberland. How­beit after 91. yeres, it was reunited againe, & so continued vntill Alfrede vnited the whole to his kingdome, in the 331. after Ida, or 878. after the birth of Iesus Christ our Sauiour.

The 7. kingdome,Eastangle Offa, a [...] offelings. called of the Eastangles began at Norwitch in the 561. after Christ, vnder Offa, of whom they were lōg time af­ter called Offelings. This included all Nor­folke, Suffolke, Cābridgeshyre, & Ely, & cō ­tinuing 228. yeres it flourished only 35. yeres in perfite estate of Liberte, the reast being consumed vnder the trybute and vassallage of the merciās, who had ye souereigntye ther­of, & helde it with great honour. Some take this region to be all one with that of the Ice­nes, but as yet for my part I cannot yéelde to their assertions, I meane it of Lelande, him­selfe, whose helpe I vse altogither in these collections, albeit in this behalfe I am not re­solued, that he doth iudge aright.

The 8. and last was that of Mercia,Mertia. Creodda. which indured 291. yeares, and for greatnesse of cir­cuit, excéeded all the reast. It tooke the name eyther of Mearc the Saxon word, because the limits of most of the other kingdomes abut­ted vpō the same, or else for that the lawes of Mercia, were first vsed in that part of the I­lande. But as the later is but a méere coniec­ture of some, so it began vnder Creodda, in ye 585. and indured well nere 300. yeres, before it was vnited to that of the West Saxons by Alfrede, then reigning in the kingdome. Be­fore him the Danes had gotten holde thereof, and placed one Ceolulphe an Ideote in the same, but as he was sone reiected for his folly, so it was not long after ere the sayde Alfrede annexed it to his kingdome.

The limites of the Mertian dominiōs,Limits o [...] Mercia. con­teined Lincolne, Northamptō, Chester, Dar­by, Nottingham, Stafford, Huntington Rut­lande, Oxforde, Buckingham, Worcester, Bedforde shyres, and the greatest part of Shropshyre (which the Welch occupied not) Lancaster, Glocester, Hereford (alias Hurch­forde) [Page 7] Warwijc and Hertforde shyres, the rest of whose territories were holden by such princes of other kingdomes thorow force [...] bordered vpō the same. And thus much haue I thought good to leaue in memorye of the a­foresaid kingdomes, not omitting in ye meane time somewhat here to remember of the di­uision of the Island also into Prouinces, as the Romaines seuered it whiles they remay­ned in these parts. Which being done, I hope that I haue fullye discharged whatsoeuer is promised in the title of this Chapter.

The Romaines therefore hauing obteined the possession of this Island, deuided the same at ye last into fiue Prouinces. The first wher­of was named Britānia prima, [...]itannia [...]ma. & conteined the east part of England (as some doe gather) frō ye Trent vnto ye Twede. The second was cal­led Valentia, [...]lentia. & included the West side as they note it, frō Lirpole vnto Cokermouth. The thirde hight Britannia secunda, [...]itannia [...]cunda. and was that portion of the Ile which laye Southwardes, betwéene the Trent and the Thames. The fourth was surnamed Flauia Cesariensis: [...]auia Ce­ [...]iensis. and contayned all the countrey which remayned betwéene Douer & the Sauerne, I meane by south of the Thames, and wherevnto in lyke sort, Cornewall and Wales were orderly as­signed. The fift and last part was then named Maxima Cesariensis, [...]axima [...]esarien­ [...]. now Scotland. The most barren of all the reast, & yet not vnsought out of the Romaines, bicause of the great plentie of fishe and foule, fine Alabastar and harde Marble, that are ingendred and to be had in the same, for furniture of housholde and curious buylding, wherein they much deli­ted.

Of the auncient Religion vsed in this Island, from the comming of Samothes vnto the conuersion of the same vn­to the faith of Christ. Cap. 8.

IT is not to be doubted, but at the first and so long as the posteritie of Iaphet onelye, reigned in this Islande, that the true know­ledge and forme of religion brought in by Sa­mothes, [...]amothes. was exercised among the Britains. And although peraduenture in processe of time, either thorow curiositie, or negligence (ye onely corrupters of true pietie and godly­nesse) it might a little decay, yet when it was at the woorst, it farre excéeded the best of that which afterwarde came in with Albion, and his Chemminites, as maye be gathered by vewe of the supersticious rites, which Cham and hys successours dyd plant in other coun­tries, yet to be found in Authors.

What other learning Magus the sonne of Samothes taught after his fathers death whē he also came to the kingdome,Magus. beside thys which concerned the true honoring of God, I can not easily saye, but that it shoulde bée naturall Philosophie, and Astrology (wherby his disciples, gathered a kinde of foreknow­ledge of thinges to come) the verye vse of the worde Magus, among the Persians doth yéeld no incerteine testimony.

In lyke maner,Sarron. it shoulde séeme that Sar­ron sonne vnto the sayde Magus, diligentlye followed the steppes of hys father, & thereto opened Schooles of learning in sundrie pla­ces, both among the Celtes and Britaines, whereby such as were his Auditours, grewe to be called Sarronides, notwithstanding,Samothei. Semnothei. that aswell the Sarronides as the Magi, (otherwise called Magusei) & Druiydes, were generally called Samothei, or Semmothei, of Samo­thies stil among the Grecians, as Aristotle in his de magia, doth confesse, and calling them Galles, hée addeth thereunto that they first brought the knowledge of Letters, and good learning vnto the Gréekes.

Druiyus the sonne of Sarron (as a scholler of his fathers owne teaching) séemed to be exquisite in all thinges,Druiyus, that pertayned vnto the deuine or humaine knowledge: and ther­fore I may safely pronounce, that he excelled not onely in the skill of Philosophie: and the Quadriuialles, but also in the true Theolo­gie, whereby the right seruice of God was kept & preserued in puritie. He wrote more­ouer sundry precepts, and rules of religious doctrine, which among the Celtes were re­serued very religiously, and had in great esti­mation among such as sought vnto them.

Howe and in what order this Prince left the state of religiō,Corrup­ters of re­ligion. I meane for those publike orders in administration of particular rites and ceremonies, as yet I do not reade: how­beit this is most certayne that after he dyed, the purity of his doctrine began somewhat to decaye, for such is the nature of man that it wil not suffer any good thing long to remaine as it is left, but (either by additiō or substrac­tion of this or that, to or from the same) so to chop & chaunge withal frō time to time, that there is nothing of more difficulty, for such as doe come after thē, then to find out the pu­ritie of the originall and restore the same a­gaine vnto hir former perfection.

In the beginning this Druiyus did preach vnto his bearers,Caesar. that the soule of man is im­mortall, that God is omnipotent, mercyfull as a father in shewing fauor vnto the godly, and iust as an vpright Iudge, in punishing of the wicked. That the secrets of mans hart [Page] are not vnknowen, and only knowen to him, and that as the worlde and all that is there­in had their beginning by him, at his owne will, so shall all things likewise haue an end, when he shal sée his time. He taught them al­so howe to obserue the courses of ye heauens,Strabo. li. 4. Socton. lib. success. Cicero di­uinat. 1. and motions of the planetes, to finde out the true quantities of the celestiall bodyes, and thereto the compasse of the earth, and hid­den natures of thinges contayned in the same. But alas this integritie continued not long among his successours, for vnto the im­mortality of the soule, they added, that after death it went in to another bodye, the se­conde or succedent, being alwayes, eyther more noble, or more vile than the former, as the partie deserued by his merites, whylest he liued here on earth.Plinius. lib. 16. cap. vlti­mo. For said they (of whō Pythagoras also had, and taught this errour,) if the soule appertayned at ye first to a king, & he in this estate did not leade his lyfe woor­thie of this calling, it should after his decease be shut vp in ye bodie of a slaue, begger, cocke, Owle, Dogge, Ape, Horse, Asse, Worme, or Monster, there to remaine as in a place of purgation & punishmēt, for a certaine periode of time. Beside this, it should peraduēture su­staine often translation from one bodie vnto another, according to the quantitie and quali­tie of his dooinges here on earth, till it should finally be purified, and restored againe to all other humaine bodie, wherein if it behaued it selfe more orderly then at the first: after the next death, it shoulde be preferred, eyther to the bodie of a king, or other great estate. And thus they made a perpetuall circulation, or reuolution of our soules, much like vnto the continuall motion of the heauens, which ne­uer stande stil, nor long yeeld one representa­tiō and figure. They brought in also the woor­shipping of many goddes, and their seuerall sacrifices,Oke hono­red wher­on mistle did grow, & so doe our sorcerers e­uen to this day think­ing some spirits to deale a­bout the same for hidden tre­sure. they honoured likewyse the Oke, wheron the Mistle groweth, and daily deui­sed infinitie other toyes, (for errour is neuer assured of hir owne dooinges) wherof neyther Samothes, nor Sarron, Magus, nor Druiyus did leaue them any prescription.

These things are partly touched by Cicero, Strabo, Plinie, Sotion, Laertius, Theophrast, A­ristotle, and partly also by Caesar, and other authours of later time, who for the most part do cōfesse, yt the chiefe schoole of the Druiydes was holden here in Britaine, whether the Druiydes also themselues, that dwelt amōg the Galles, woulde often resorte to come by the more skill, and sure vnderstanding of the misteries of that doctrine.

Estimati­on of the Druiy [...] or Dr [...] priest [...]Furthermore, in Britaine, and among the Galles, and to saye the truth, generally in all places where the Druiysh religion was fre­quented, such was thestimatiō of the Priestes of this profession, that there was little or no­thing done without their skilfull aduise, no not in ciuill causes, pertayning to the regi­ment of the common wealth and countrey. They had the charge also of all sacrifices, pu­blicke and priuate, they interpreted Oracles, preached of religion, and were neuer without great numbers of yoong men, that hearde thē with great diligence, as they taught, frō time to time.

Touching their persons also,Immu [...] ty of the clergy [...] ter vnd [...] Idola [...] then vn­der the gospell. they were ex­empt from all temporal seruices, impositiōs, tributes, and exercise of the warres, which immunitie caused the greater companies of Schollers to flocke vnto thē, from all places & learne their trades. Of these likewise, some remayned with them seuen, eyght, tenne, or twelue yeares, still learning the secretes of those vnwritten mysteries by heart, which were to be had amongst them, and common­ly pronounced in verses. And this policie, as I take it, they vsed onely to preserue their religion from contempt, where into it might easye haue fallen, if any bookes thereof had happened into the hands of the commō sorte. It helped also not a little in ye exercise of their memories, where vnto bookes are vtter ene­mies, insomuch as he that was skillfull in the Druiysh religion, would not let readily to re­hearse many hundredes of verses, and not to fayle in one tytle, in the whole processe of this his laborious repetition. But as they dealt in this order for matters of their religiō, so in ciuill affaires, historical Treatises, & setting downe of lawes, they vsed like order and let­ters almost with the Grecians, wherby it is easy to be séene, that they retayned this kinde of writing frō Druiyus (the originall foun­der of their religion) and that this yland hath not béene voyde of letters and learned men, euen sith it was first inhabited.

After the death of Druiyus,Bardus. Bardus his sonne, and fift king of the Celtes succéeded not onely ouer the sayde kingdome, but also in his fathers vertues, whereby if is very likely, that the winding and wrapping vp of the sayde Religion, after the afore remem­bred sorte into Verse, was first deuysed by hym, for he was an excellent Poet, and no lesse indued with a singular skill in the prac­tise and speculatiō of Musicke, of which twoo many suppose him to be the very author and beginner, although vniustly, sith both Poetry & Song, was in vse before the floude,Gene. 4. vers. 21. as was also the Harpe and Pype, which Iubal in­uented and coulde neuer be performed with­out great skil in musicke. But to procéede, as [Page 8] the chiefe estimation of the Druiydes remai­ned in the ende among the Britons only, for their knowledge in religion, so dye the same of the Bardos for their excellēt skill in musike, and Heroicall kind of song, which at the first contayned only the high misteries of their re­ligion. There was little difference also be­twéene them and the Druiydes, [...]he Bar­ [...] dege­ [...]rate. till they so farre degenerated from their first institutiō, that they became to be minstrels at feastes, droncken meetings, and abhominable sacri­fices of the Idols: where they sang most com­monly no diuinitie as before, but the noble actes of valiaunt princes and fabulous nar­ratiōs, of the adulteries of the gods. Certes in my tyme this fonde vsage, and therto the very name of the Bardes, are not yet extin­guished amōg the Britons of Wales, where they call their Poetes & Musici [...]ns Barthes, as they doe also in Irelande. There is more­ouer an Islande appertinent to the region of Venedotia, wherinto the Bardes of old time vsed to resorte, as out of the waye into a soli­tarie place, there to write and learne their songes by hearte, and meditate vppon such matters, as belonged to their practises. And of these Lucane in his first booke writeth thus, among other the like sayinges well towarde the latter ende also saying.

[...]cane. [...]. 1.
Vos quo (que) qui fortes animas, bello (que) peremptat
Laudibus in longum vates dimittitis euum.
Plurima securi fudistis carmina Bardi.
Et vos barbaricos ritus, morem (que) sinistrum
Sacrorum Druiydae, positis re (que) pistis ab armis.
Solis nosse Deos, & coeli numina vobis,
Aut solis nescire datum: nemora alta remotis
Incolitis lucis. Vobis authoribus, vmbrae
Non tacit as erebi sedes, ditis (que) profundi
Pallida regna petunt, regit idem spiritus artus
Orbe alio. Longae, canitis si cognita, vitae
Mors media est certe populi, quos despicit arctos,
Foelices errore suo, quos ille timorum
Maximus haud vrget leti metus: inde ruendi
In ferrum mens prona viris, animae (que) capaces
Mortis & ignuum est redituirae parcere vitae.

Thus we see as in a glasse the state of re­ligion, for a tyme after the first inhabita­cion of this Islande, but howe long it conti­nued in such soundnesse, as the originall au­thors left it, in good sooth I cā not say, yet this is most certaine, that after a time when Al­bion arriued here, the religion earst imbra­ced, fell into great decaye, for wheras Iaphet and Samothes with their childrē taught no­thing else then such doctrine as they had lear­ned of Noah: so Cham the great grandfather of this our Albion, and his disciples vtterly renouncing to followe their steps, gaue their mindes wholly to seduce, and leade their hea­rers hedlong vnto all error. Wherby his po­steritie not only corrupted this our Islande, with most filthie trades and practises, but also all mankinde, generally where they be­came with vicious life, and most vngodly be­hauiour.

For from Cham and his successours, pro­céeded at the first all sorcery, witchcraft,what doc­trine Chā and his disciples taught. and the execution of vnlawfull lust, without re­spect of Sexe, age, consanguinitie, or kinde: as braunches from an odious & abhominable roote, or streames deriued from most filthye and stinking puddles. Howbeit, and notwith­standing all these his manifolde lewdnesses, such was the folly of his Egiptians (where he first reigned and taught) that whilest he ly­ned they alone had him in great estimation, (whereas other Nations contemned and ab­horred him for his wickednesse,Cheme­senua. Chemmyn. Chā made a god. calling hym Chemesenua, that is, the impudent, infamous and wicked Cham) and not onely builded a Citie vnto him which they called Chem Min, but also after his deth reputed him for a god, calling the highest of the seuen Planets after his name, as they dyd the next beneath it af­ter Osyris hys sonne, whome they likewise honored vnder the name of Iupiter.

Certes it was a custome in Egypt of olde time,Transla­tiō of mor­tall men, men into heauē how it began. & generally in vse, (whē any of their fa­mous worthy Princes dyed) to ascrybe some forme or other of the starres vnto his persō, to thend his name might neuer weare out of memory. And this they called their translati­on in heauen, so that he which had any starres or forme of starres, dedicated vnto him, was properlye sayde to haue place amonge the goddes. A toye much lyke to the Catalogue of Romishe saintes, (although the one was written in the celestiall orbes, the other in sheepe skinnes, and verye brickle paper) but yet so esteemed that euery Prince woulde oft hazard & attempt the vttermost aduentures, thereby to winne such fame in his life, that after his death, he myght by merit haue such place in heauen, among the shining starres.

Thus wée sée how Idolatry and honoring of the starres was bredde and hatched at the first, which in processe of tyme came also into Britaine, as dyd the names of Saturne, & Iupiter &c. as shall appeare hereafter. And here sith I haue already somewhat digressed from my matter. I will go a little furder, & shewe forth the originall vse of the worde Sa­turne, Iupiter, Hercules, &c. whereby your Ho­nor shall sée yet more into the errours of the Gentiles, and not onely that, but one poynt also, of the roote of all the confusion, that is to be found among the auncient histories.

[Page]It was generallye vsed for a fewe yeres after the particion of the yearth,Which were pro­perly cal­led, Satur­ni. Ioues, Iunones, and Her­cules. (which was made by Noah, in the 133. yere after floude,) that the beginners of such kingdomes as were then erected shoulde be called Saturni. Hereby then it came to passe that Nimbrote was the Saturne of Babylon: Cham of Ae­gypt: and so forth other of other places.

Their eldest Sonnes also that succéeded them, were called Ioues, & their nephewes or sonnes sonnes, that reigned in ye thirde place Hercules, by which meanes it followed that e­uery kingdome had a Saturne, Iupiter & Her­cules of hir owne, and not from anye other.

In lyke sort they had such another order a­mong their daughters, whom they marryed as yet commonlye vnto their brethren (God himselfe permitting the same vnto them for a time) as before the floude, to the ende the earth might be thorowly replenished, and the sooner furnished with inhabitantes, in euery part therof.Isis, Io and Iuno all one. The sister therefore & wife of e­uery Saturne was called Rhea, but of Iupiter, Iuno, Isis, or Io. Beyonde these also there was no latter Harolde that woulde indeuour to deriue the petigrée of any Prince, or Po­tentate, but supposed his duety to be suffici­ently perfourmed, when he had brought it orderly vnto some Saturne or other, whereat he might cease, and shut vp all his traueile. They had likewise this opinion grounded a­mongest them, that Heauen an Earth were onelye parentes vnto Saturne and Rhea, not knowing out of doubt, what they themselues did meane, sith these donominations, Heauen, Ogyges, Caelum. Ogyges. Sol. Paterdeo­rum. Tydea. Vesta. Terra. Luna. Aretia. Deorum mater. the Sunne, Pater Deorum, & such like, were onely ascribed vnto Noah: as Terra, (the Yearth) Vesta Aretia, the Moone, Mater deorum and other the lyke were vnto Tydea his wife, so that hereby we sée, how Saturne is reputed in euery Nation for theyr oldest god, or first Prince, Iupiter for the next, and Hercules for the thirde: & therefore sith these names were dispersed in the beginning ouer all, it is no marueyle that there is such confusion in aun­cient histories, and the dooings of one of them so mixed with another, that it is now impossi­ble to distinguish them in sunder. Thys haue I spoken, to the ende that all men maye sée what gods the Paganes honored, and there­by what religion the posterity of Cham, did bring euer into Britaine. For vntill their cō ­ming, it is not likely that any grosse Idola­try or supersticion, did enter in among vs, as deifying of mortall men, honoring of the Starres, and erectiō of huge Images, beside sorcery, witchcraft, and such lyke, whereof the Chemminites are worthilye called the Autors. Neyther were these errors any thing amended, by the cōming in of Brute,F [...] wh [...] Br [...] lear [...] relig [...] who no doubt added such deuises vnto ye same, as he and his company had learned before in Gre­cia, from whence also he brought, Helenus, the sonne of Priamus, a man of excéeding age, and made him his Priest and bishop, thorow­out the newe conquest, that he had achieued in Britaine.

After Brute, Idolatry and supersticiō still increased more & more among vs, insomuch that beside the Druiysh and Bardike ceremo­nies, and those also that came in with Albion and Brute: our countrymen eyther brought hither frō abroad, or daily inuented at home, new religion, and rites, whereby it came to passe that in the stead of the only & immortal God (of whome Samothes and his posteritie dyd preache in times past) now they honou­red the sayde Samothes himselfe vnder the name of Dis: likewise Saturne, Iupiter, Mars, Dis [...]moth [...] made [...] God. Minerua, Mercurie, Apollo, Diana, and diuers other. In lieu moreouer of shéepe and oxen, they offred mankind also vnto some of them, killing their offendours, prysoners, & oft such straungers as came from farre vnto them, by shutting vp great numbers of them togi­ther in huge Images, made of wicker, or o­ther matter: and then setting all on fire togi­ther, they not onely consumed the miserable creatures to ashes, but also reputed it to be the most acceptable sacrifice that coulde be made vnto their Idols. Huge tēples in like sorte were builded vnto them, so that in the time of Lucius, when the light of saluatiō be­gan strongly to shine in Britaine, thorowe the preaching of the Gospell,Ptol. l [...] censis. the christians discouered 25. Flamines or Idole churches, beside thrée Arche Flamines, whose Priests were then as our Archebishops are nowe, in that they had superiour charge of all the rest, who were reputed as inferiours, and sub­iect to their iurisdiction in cases of religion, and supersticious ceremonies.

Hitherto you haue heard of the time, wher­in Idolatrie reigned and blinded the heartes of such as dwelled in this Islande.Theod [...] Sophro [...] us. Nowe let vs sée the successe of the Gospell, after the death and passion of Iesus Christ our Sa­uiour. And euen here will I beginne with an Allegation of Theodorete, wherevpon some repose great assurance (conceyuing yet more hope therein by the wordes of Sophronius) that Paule the Apostle shoulde preache the worde of saluatiō here, after his deliuerie out of captiuitie, which fell as I doe reade in the 57. of Christ. But sith I cānot verifie ye same by the wordes of Theodorete, to be spoken more of Paule then Peter, or the reast, I will passe ouer this coniecture, and deale with o­ther [Page 9] things, wherof we haue more certeinty.

That one Iosephus preached here in En­glande, [...]ephus. in the time of the Apostles, his sepul­chre yet in Aualon, nowe called Glessenburg or Glastenbury, and Epitaphaffixed there­vnto is proofe sufficient. Howbeit sith these things are not of cōpetent force to perswade all men, I wil adde in few, what I haue read elsewere of his arriual here. First of al ther­fore you shall note that he came ouer into Britaine, about the 64. after Christ, when the persecution began vnder Nero, [...]illip. [...]eculphus [...]. 2. lib. 2. p. 4. [...]nnius. [...]cepho­ [...] lib. 2. p. 40. at which time Phillip and diuers of the godly being in Fraunce (whether he came with other chri­stians, after they had sowed the word of God in Scythia, by ye space of nyne yares) seuered themselues in sunder to make the better shift for their owne safegarde, and yet not other­wyse then that by their flight, the Gospell myght haue furtheraunce. Hereby then it came to passe, that the sayde Phillip vpō good deliberation dyd sende Iosephus ouer, & with him Simon Zelotes to preach vnto the Bri­tons, and minister the Sacramentes there according to the rites of the Churches of A­sia and Gréece, from whence they came not long before vnto the country of the Galles. And this is the effect in a litle rowme, of that which I haue reade at large in sundrye wri­ters, although it may well be gathered that diuers Britains were conuerted to the fayth before this sixetiefoure of Christ. Howbeit wheras some write that they lyued, & dwel­led in Britaine, it can not as yet take anye absolute holde in my iudgement, but rather that they were Baptized and remayned, ey­ther in Rome, or elsewhere. And of this sorte I suppose Claudia Ruffina the wyfe of Pu­dens to be one, [...]audia [...]ffina [...] [...]aye. who was a Brittish Lady in déede, and not only excellent in the Gréeke & Latine tongues, but also with hir husbande highly commended by S. Paule, as one hauing had conuersation and conference with them at Rome,Tim. 4. from whence he dyd write hys se­conde Epistle vnto Timothy. Of this Lady moreouer Martial speaketh in reioysing that his Poesies were read also in Britaine, and onely by hir meanes, who vsed to cull out the finest of his Epigrammes and sende them to hir friends for tokens, saying, after this ma­ner as himselfe doth set it downe.

Dicitur & nostros cantare Britannia versus.

Furthermore making mentiō of hir, and hir issue he addeth these wordes. [...] 11. Epig.

Claudia ceruleis cum sit Rufina Britannis
Edita, our Latiae pectora plaebis habet,
Quale decus formae: Romanam credere matres
Italides possunt, Atthides esse suam.
Dij bene, quod sancto peperit faecunda marito,
Quot sperat, generos, quot a puella Nurus
Sic place at superis, vt coniuge gaude at vno,
Et semper natis gaudeat illa tribus.

The names of hir thrée children were Pudon­tiana, Praxedes, and Nouatus, who after the deth of Pudons their father (which befell him in Cappadocia,) dwelled with their mother in Vmbria, where they ceased not from time to time to minister vnto the Saincts. But to leaue this impertinēt discourse, and procéede. with my purpse.

I find in the Chronicles of Burton (vnder the yeare of grace 141. and time of Hadriane themperour) that nine Schollers or Clarkes of Grantha or Granta, nowe Cambridge, were Baptized in Britaine, & became Prea­chers of the Gospell there, but whether Tau­rinus Bishop, or Elder ouer the congregatiō at Yorke (who as Vincentius sayth,Lib. 10. cap. 17. Taurinus. was exe­cuted about this time for his fayth) were one of thē or not, as yet I doe not certeinly finde. Diuers other also inbraced the religion of Christ very zealously. Howbeit all this not­withstanding, the glad tidings of the Gospel had neuer frée & open passage here, vntill the time of Lucius, in which the very enemies of the worde, became the apparant meanes (cō ­trarie to their owne mindes) to haue it set forth amongst vs. For when Antoninus the emperour had giuen out a decrée, that the Druiysh religion shoulde euery where he a­bolished,This is cō trarie to ye common talk of our Atheistes who say let vs liue here in welth, cre­dite & au­thoritie v­pon earth, & let Go take heauē and his re­ligion to himslfe to do withall what he listeth. Lucius the king (whose syrname is nowe perished) tooke aduise of his counsell what was best to be done, & wrought in this behalfe [...] And this dyd Lucius bycause he thought it impossible for man to lyue long without any religion at all. Finally finding his nobility and subiects vtter enemies to the Romaine deuotion (for yt they made so many gods as themselues listed & some to haue the regiment euen of their dyrt and dung) & ther­vnto being pricked forwards by such christi­ans, as were conuersant about him, to chuse the seruice of the true God, that liueth for e­uer, rather then the slauish seruitude of any pagane Idole: he fully resolued with himself in the ende, to receyue & imbrace the Gospel. He sent also two of his learned christians and greatest Philosophers to Rome, vnto Eleu­therus then Bishop there in the 177. of Christ not to promise any subiectiō to his sie,Lucius ope­neth his eares to good coun­sell, as one desirous to serue God & not pre­ferre the worlde. which then was not required, but to saie with such as were pricked in minde, Actes 2. vers. 37. Quid faciemus viri fratres, I meane that they were sent to be perfectly instructed, and with farder commission, to make earnest request vnto hym and the congregation there, that a competent number of Preachers might be sent ouer from thence, by whose diligent ad­uise [Page] and trauayle, the foundation of the Gos­pell might surely be layde ouer all his king­dome, according to his minde.

The pur­pose of Lu­cius opened vnto ye cō ­gregation at Rome by Eleu­therus.When Eleutherus vnderstoode these things, he reioyced not a litle, for the great goodnesse which the Lord had shewed vpō this our Isle & countrie. Afterwardes calling the brethren togither, they agréed to ordayne, euen those two for Byshoppes, whome Lucius as you haue heard, had directed ouer vnto them. Fi­nally making generall prayer vnto God and earnest supplication for the good successe of these men, they sent them home agayne, with no small charge, that they should be di­ligent in their function, and carefull ouer the flocke committed to their custody.

The first of these was called Eluanus a man borne in the Isle of Aualon, and brought vp there vnder those godly Pastours and their Disciples, whom Phillip sent ouer at the first for the conuersion of the Brytons. The other hight Medguinus, and was thereto surnamed Belga, bycause he was of ye towne of Welles, which then was called Belga. This man was trayned vp also in one schoole with Eluanus, both of them being ornaments to their hory ages, and men of such grauititie and godli­nesse, that Eleutherus supposed none more worthy to support this charge, then they: af­ter whose comming home also, it was not long ere Lucius and all his housholde with di­uers of the nobility were Baptized;A zealous prince ma­keth feruēt subiects. beside in­finity numbers of the common people, which daily resorted vnto them and voluntarily re­nounced all their Idolatry and Paganisme.

In the meane time Eleutherus hearing of the successe of these learned Doctours & sup­posing with himself that they two only could not suffice to supporte so great a burden as shoulde concerne the conuersion of the whole Islande.Faganus. Dinauus. Aaron. He directed ouer vnto them in the yeare insuing Faganus, Dinaw (or Dinauus,) Aaron and diuers other godly Preachers, as fellow labourers to trauayle wyth them in the Vineyarde of the Lord.Radulphus de la noir alias. Niger These men ther­fore after their comming hyther, consulted wyth the other, and forthwith they wholly consented to make a diuision of thys Islande amongst themselues,3. Chiefe Bishops in Britain appoynting what per­cel eche Preacher shold take, ye with the more profits and ease of the people, and somewhat lesse traueyle for themselues:Theonus. Theodosius the Doctrine of the Gospell might be preached and receaued In this distribution also, they ordayned that there should be one congregation at London, where they placed Theonus as chiefe Elder and Byshop,London. yorke. Caerlheon for that present time. Another at Yorke whether they appoynted Theodo­sius. And the thirde at Caerlheon vpon the ry­uer Vske, (which thrée cities had before time béene Archeflamines) to the end that the coū ­tries rounde about might haue indifferent accesse vnto those places, and therewith all vnderstande for certeintie, whether to resort for resolution, if after their conuersion they shoulde happen to doubt of any thing.

Thus became Britaine the first Prouince,Britain [...] first Pr [...] uince th [...] receyue [...] Gospell general [...] that generally receyued the faith, and where the Gospell was fréely preached without in­hibition of hir prince. Howbeit although that Lucius and hys princes and great numbers of his people imbraced the word with gréedi­nesse, yet was not ye successe therof, eyther so vniuersal, that all men beléeued at the first: ye security so great, as that no persecution was to be feared from the Romaine empyre after his decease: or the procéeding of the king so seuere, as yt he inforced any man by publicke authoritie to forsake and relinquish his Pa­ganisme: but only this fréedom was enioyed, that who so woulde become a christian in his time, might without feare of his lawes pro­fesse the Gospel, in whose testimonie, if néede had béene, I doubt not to affirme, but that he woulde haue shed also his bloude, as dyd his Nece Emerita, Emerita néece [...] Lucius. who beyng constant aboue the common sort of women, refused not after his decease by fire, to yéelde hir selfe to death as a swéete smelling sacrifice in the nostrels of the Lorde, beyonde the sea in Fraunce.

The fayth of Christ being thus planted in this Islande in the 177.Lucius [...] deth [...] to Rome after Christ and Fa­ganus and▪ Dinaw with the rest sent ouer frō Rome, in the 178. as you haue heard: it came to passe in the thirde yeare of the Gospell re­ceyued, that Lucius did sende agayne to Eleu­therus the Byshop, requiring that he might haue some briefe Epitome of the order of dis­cipline then vsed in the Churche. For he well considered that as it auayleth little to plant a costly Vineyarde, except it afterwarde be cherished, kept in good order, and such things as annoy, daily remooued from the same: so after Baptisme and entraunce into religion, it profiteth little to beare the name of chri­stians, except we doe walke continually in the spirite,Ro. 8. [...] & haue such things as offende ap­parantly, corrected by seuere discipline. For otherwise it will come to passe, yt the wéedes of vice, and vicious liuing, will so quickly abounde in vs that they will in the ende choke vp the good séede sowen in our mindes, & ey­ther inforce vs to returne vnto our former wickednesse with déeper security then before, or else to become méere Atheistes, which is a great deale woorse.

For this cause therefore dyd Lucius sende to Rome, the seconde tyme for a copie of such [Page 10] politicke orders as were then vsed there, in their regiment of the Church.The wise­dome of Eleutherus But Eleuthe­rus considering wt himselfe, how that al nati­ons are not of like condition, & therfore those constitutions that are beneficiall to one, may now and then be preiudiciall to another: and séeing also that beside the worde no rites and orders can long continue, or be so perfect in all points, but that as time serueth, they wil requyre alteration: He thought it best not to lay any more vpon the neckes of the newe conuerts of Britaine as yet, then christ & his Apostles had already set downe vnto al men. In returning therefore his messengers, he sent letters by them vnto Lucius and hys no­bilitie, dated in the Consulships of Commo­dus and Vespronius, wherein he tolde them that Christ had left sufficient order in ye scrip­tures for the gouernement of his Church al­ready in his worde, and not for that only, but also for the regimēt of his whole kingdome, if he woulde submit himselfe, to yéelde & fol­low that rule. The Epistle it selfe is partly extaunt, and partly perished, yet such as it is, and as I haue faithfullye translated it out of sundry copies, I doe deliuer it euen here, to the ende I will not defraude the reader of a­nye thing that may turne to his commoditie, in the hystorie of our nation.Epistle of Eleutherus vnto Lu­cius.

You requyre of vs the Romaine ordināces and therto the statutes of the Emperours to ‘be sent ouer vnto you, and which you desire to practise and put in vre within your realme and kingdome. The Romaine lawes & those of Emperours we may eftsoones reprooue, but those of God, can neuer be founde fault withall. You haue receyued of late thorowe Gods mercy in the realme of Britaine the law and fayth of Christ,’ you haue with you both volumes of the Scriptures: out of them therefore by Gods grace and the Counsel of your realme take you a law, and by that law thorowe Gods sufferaunce rule your king­dome, for you are Gods Vicar in your owne realme,Psal. 24. as the royall Prophete sayth. The earth is the Lords, and all that is therin, the cōpasse of the world, & they that dwell there­in. Agayne thou hast loued truth and hated iniquitie,Psal. 45. wherfore God, euen thy God hath anoynted thée with oyle of gladnesse aboue thy fellowes. And agayne, according to the saying of the same Prophete. Oh God giue thy iudgement vnto the king,Psal. 71. and [...] iustice vnto the kings sonne. The kings sonnes are the christian people and flocke of the realme, which are vnder your gouernance, and liue, & continue in peace within your kingdome. * The Gospell saith, as the Henne gathereth hir chickens vnder hir winges, so doth the king hys people. Such as dwell in the king­dome of Britaine are yours, whom if they be deuided you ought to gather vnto a p [...]e and peace, to call them to the fayth and lawe of Christ, and to hys sacred Church: to che [...] ­rish and mainteyne, to rule also and gouerne them, defending eache of them from such as woulde doe them wrong, and kéeping them from the malice of such as be their enemies. * Wo vnto the natiō whose king is a childe, & whose princes ryse vp earely to banket & féede, which is spoken not of a prince, that is within age, but of a prince that is become a childe, thorowe folly, sinne and vnstedfast­nesse, of whome the Prophete saith, the bloud­thyrsty and deceitful men shall not lyue forth halfe their dayes.Psal. 55. By feeding also I vnder­stande glouttonie, by glouttonie, lust, and by lust all wickednesse, and sinne, according to the saying of Salomon the king. Wysedome entreth not into a wicked mind, nor dwelleth wyth a man that is subiect vnto sinne. A king hath hys name of ruling, and not of the pos­session of his realme, you shalbe a king why­lest you rule well, but if you doe otherwyse, the name of a king shall not remayne wyth you, but you shal vtterly, forgo it, which God forbid. The Almyghty God graunt you so to rule the kingdome of Britaine, that you may reigne with hym for euer, whose Vicare (or Vicegerent) you are within your aforesayd kingdome. Who with the sonne and the holy Ghost. &c.

Hitherto out of the Epistle that Eleutherus, sent vnto Lucius, whereby many prety obser­uations are to be collected, if time and place, would serue to stande thereon.

After these dayes, also the number of such as were ordeined to saluation, increased day­ly more and more, wherby as in other places of the worlde, the worde of God had good successe in Brytaine, in time of peace, and in heate of persecutiō, there were no smal num­ber of Martyrs that suffered for the same, of which Albane, Amphibalus, Iulius and Aaron, Albane. Amphiba­lus. Iulius. Aaron. are reputed to be the chiefe, because of theyr Noble parentage.

There are which affirme our Lucius to re­nounce hys kingdome, and afterwarde be­come a Bishop and Preacher of the Gospell: but to thend these that holde his opinion may once vnderstande the botome of their er [...]ors. I wyll set downe the matter at large where­by they may sée (if they list to looke) how farre they haue bene deceiued.

I finde that Chlorus had by Helena thrée sonnes,Chlorus had thrée sonnes, and a daughter by Helena. (beside one daughter called Emerita) of which the name of the first is perished, the seconde was called Lucion, and the thyrde [Page] Constantine, that afterwarde was Emperour of Rome, by the election of the Soldiers. Now it happened that Lucion by meanes of a quar­rell, that grew betwéene him & his Elder bro­ther did kil his said brother, eyther by a fray, or by some other meanes, wherupon his fa­ther exiled him out of Briton, & apointed him from thencefoorth to remayne in Fraunce. Lucion (or as some cal him also Lucius) being thus brought into worldly sorrowe, had now good leisure to meditate vpō Heauen, who be fore in his prosperity peraduēture, had neuer regard of hell.Lucion be­commeth a christien. Finally he fel so far into ye cōsi­deratiō of his estate, yt at the last he renounced his Paganisme, and first became a christian, then an Elder, and last of all a Byshop in the Church of Christ.Lucion a Bishop. He erected also, a place of prayer wherin to serue the liuing God, which after sundrye alterations, came in processe of tyme, to be an Abbay, and is still called euen to our time after Lucion or Lucius: the first founder thereof, and the originall beginner of anye such house in those partes.

In this also he & diuers other of hys friends, continued their times, in great contemplati­on and prayer, and from hence were tran­slated as occasion serued, vnto sondrye eccle­siasticall promotiōs in the time of Constatine his brother, so that euen by this short narrati­on it is now easy to sée that Lucius the kyng and Lucion the sonne of Chlorus, were distinct persons.Hermānus. Schedeliꝰ. Herevnto Hermānus Schedeliꝰ. ad­deth also howe he went into Rhetia, and nere vnto the citie Augusta, cōuerted the Cu [...]ienses, vnto ye fayth of Christ, & there likewise lyeth buryed in the same towne, where his feast is holden vpon the thirde daye of December, as may redily be confirmed. That Schedelius erreth not herin also; the aunciēt monumēts of the saide Abbaye, whereof he was the ori­ginall beginner, as I sayde, doe yeelde suffi­cient testimonye,Festum Lu­cionis. beside an Himne made in his commendation, intituled Gaude lucio­nū &c. Iohn Bou­chet. But for more of this you may resort vnto Bouchet, in his first booke, & fift chapter of the Annales of Aquiteine, who maketh the king of Britaine Grandfather to this Luciō. The said Schedelius in like sort setteth down, that his Sister was Martyred in Trineca­stell, nere vnto the place where the sayde Lu­cion dwelled, wherby it appeareth in lyke sorte,Emerita martyred in Rhetia. that she was not sister to Lucius kyng of Briteine, of which prince Alexander Nec­cham in his most excellent treatise de sapien­cie Diuina setteth downe this Distichon.

Prima Britannorum fidei lux lucius esse
Fertur, qui rexit Moenia Brute tua.

But as eche Riuer the farder it runneth from the heade, the more it is increased, by small riuelettes, and corrupted with filthie puddles, and stinking gutters, that discend into the same: so the puritye of the Gospell, preached here in Briteine,Heresye, [...] Monastica [...] life brogh into B [...] taine at one tine by Pella­gius. Bangor. in processe of time became first of all to be corrupted with a new order of religion, and most excerable heresy, both of them being first brought in at once, by Pelagius, of Wales, who hauing trauailed thorow Fraunce, Italy, Egypt, Syria, and the Easterlye regyons of the worlde: was there at the last made an Elder or Bishop, by some of the Monkes, vnto whose profession he had not long before addicted himselfe. Final­ly returning home againe, he dyd not onely erect an house of his owne order, at Bangor in Wales, upon the riuer Dée, but also sow­ed the pestiferus séede of his hereticall pra­uities, ouer all this Island, whereby he sedu­ced great numbers of the Brytons, teaching them to preferre their owne merites, before ye frée mercy of God, in Iesus Christ his son.

Thus we sée how newe deuises or orders of religion, and heresie came in together. I coulde shew also what Cometes, and strange signes appeared in Brytayne, much about the same time, the like of which with dyuers other, haue béene perceiued also from time to time, sithence the death of Pelagius at the en­trance of any newe kinde of religion into this Ile of Brytaine. But I passe them ouer, on­ly for that I woulde not seeme in my tracta­tion of Antiquities, to trouble my reader with the rehearsall of any newe inconueniences.

To procéede therefore with my purpose af­ter these, there followed in lyke sort, sundrye other kindes of monasticall life,Anacho­rites. Heremites Ciryllines. Benedicti­nes. as Anacho­rites, (or Ancres) Heremites, Cyrillines & Be­nedictines, a [...]beit, that onely the heremiticall profession was allowed of in Bryteine, vntill the comming of Benedict Biscop, who erec­ted the first house of Benedictines, that euer was hearde of in this Ile. They also bare his name, and were so well liked of all men, yt there were few or no blacke monks in this Ile, but of his order.Monkes and Here­mites [...] allowed [...] in Britaine. The number of reli­gious ho [...] ses in En­gland [...] [...] their dis [...] lution. So fast also did these hu­maine deuises prosper after his time, that at their suppression in England & Wales only, there were founde 440. religious houses at the least, wherevnto if you adde of those few yt are yet standing in Scotland, you shal sone sée what nūbers of these dennes of spirituall robbers were mainteined here in Brytaine. As touching Pelagius the first Heretike that euer was bredde in this Isle (notably know­en) and parent of Monachisme, it is certaine, that before his corruption and fall, he was ta­ken for a man of singuler learning, déepe iudgement, and such a one, as vppon whome for his great gift in teaching and strictnesse [Page 11] of lyfe, no small parte of the hope & expectati­on of the people did depend But what in wis­dome of the flesh, without the feare and true knowledge of God, and what is learning ex­cept it be handemaide to verifye and sounde iudgement. Wherfore euen of this man, wée maye see it verify [...] that one Roger Bak [...] pronounced long after.Roger Bacon his [...]aying of ye preachers of his time who were ye best law­yers & the worst Di­uines. Of the corruption of his time, when all things were measured by witte and worldlye po [...]licye, rather then by the scriptures or Gu [...]dans of the spirit. Bet­ter it is saith hée, to heare a rude and simple I de [...]e preach the truth, without apparauns of skill & learned [...]loquen [...]e, then a profe [...] Clearke to set forth [...]or, with great shewe of learning, & boast of filed vtterance. These follies of Pelagius, were blased abroade about the 400. of Christ, & from thenceforth how his number of Monkes increased on the one side, & his doctrine on the other, there is al­most no reader that is vnskilfull & ignorant.

This also is certaine, that within the space of 200. yeres and odde, there were more then 2100.More thē [...]100 mon­ [...]es in the [...]olledge [...]r Abbay [...]f Bangor monkes gathered togither in his house, whose trades not withstanding the errors of founder, (who taught such an estimation of merite and bodily exercise, as Paule calleth it) as therby he sought not onely to impugne, but also preuent grace, which was in déede the originall occasion of the erection of hys house) were yet farre better and more godly; then all those religious orders, that were in­uented of later time, wherein the professours lyued to themselues, their wombes and the licencious fruition of those partes, that are beneath the belly. For these laboured cōtinu­allye for their owne liuings, at vacant times from praier, and for the better maintenance, of such as were their appoynted Preachers. Their liues also were correspondent to their doctrine, so that herein onelye they séemed in­tollerable, in that they had confidence in their deedes, & that they had no warrant out of the worde for their succor & defēce, but were such a plant, as the heauenly father had not plan­ted, and therefore no meruaile, though after­warde they were raysed by the rootes.

But as Pelagius and his adherentes, had a tyme to infecte the Church of Christ in the Britaine, so the lyuing GOD hath had a season to purge the same, though not by a full reformation of doctrine, sith Germanus, Lu­pus, Palladius, Patricius, Germanus, Lupus, Pal­ladius, Pa­tricius. and such like leaning vnto the monasticall trades, did not somuch cōdemne the generall errors of Pellagius, one way as maintayne the same, or as euill opi­niōs another. For as Patricke séemed to like well of ye honoring of the dead, so Germanus being in Britaine erected a chappel to S. Al­ha [...] ▪ the [...]ther in Lupus played as Palladius up­held the strickenesse of life,Seuerus Sulpitius in vita pa­tricij. [...]umonasticall pro­fession [...] he vttermost of his power. Wher­fore God purged his house, rather by taking away ye wicked, and [...] scholemaisters of errour, out of this lyfe: hoping that by such meanes, his people woulde haue giuen eare to the godly that remained. But when thys hy [...] pr [...]yse coulde take replace, & the shéepe of his pasture woulde rec [...]iue no wholesome nom [...]nition, it pleased his maiestie, to let thē runne on headlong from one iniquitie to ano­ther, insomuch that after the doctrine of Pela­gius, it receiued that o [...] Rome also, [...]ought i [...] by Augustine and his makes, wherby it was to be seene,Augustine ye Monke. how they fell from the truth into heresye, & from one heresy still into another, till at the last they were drawned altogither, in the pitte of error, digged vp by Antichrist, as welles that holde no water, which not­withstanding to their followers séemed to be most founde doctrine, and cisternes of liuing water to such as imbraced the same.

This Augustine after his arriuall,Augustine. conuer­ted the Saxons in déede from Paganisme, but as the Prouerb sayth; bringing them out of Goddes blessing into the warme sunne, he also imbued them wyth no lesse hurtfull su­persticion, then they did knowe before: for beside the only name of Christ, and externall contempt of their pristinate Idolatrye, be taught them nothing at all, but rather I say made an exchange, from grosse to subtill tre­cherie, from open to secret Idolatry, and frō the name of Paganes, to the bare title of christians, thinking this sufficient for theyr soules health, and the stablishment of hys monachisme, of which kynde of profession, the holye Scriptures of God can in no wyse allowe. But what ca [...]ed he sith he got the great fish for which he did cast his hooke, & so great was the fishe that he caught in the end, that within the space of 1000 & lesse it deuoured the fourth parte and more, of the best soyle of the Islande, which was whollye bestowed vpon his monkes, and other rely­gious brodes, yt were hatched since his time.

Whilest these things were thus in hande, in the south parte of Albion, the Meates, Pictes, and Caledoniens,Meates. Pictes, Caledonies which lye beyonde the Scottish sea, receiued also the preaching of such christian elders, as aduentured thither daily, and not without great successe, and in­crease of perfit godlynesse, in that parte of the Ile. Certes this prosperous attempt, pas­sed all mens expectatiō, for that these nations were in those dayes reputed wild sauage, and more vnfaithfull and craftye, then well minded people, (as the wilde Irish are in my [Page] time) and such were they to say the truth, in déede, as neyther the sugred curtesye, nor sharpe swordes of the Romaines, coulde re­streyne from their naturall fury or bring to any order. For this cause also in thend ye Ro­maine Emperours did vtterly cast them of as an vnprofitable, brutishe, and vntameable nation, & by an huge wall hereafter to be de­scribed, separated that rude companye from the milde and ciuill portion.

Scotlande conuerted to ye fayth of Christ.This conuersion of the north parts, fell out in the sixt yeare before the warres that Seuorus had in those quarters, and 170. after ye death of our Sauiour Iesus Christ. From thenceforth also the christian religion conty­nued still among them, by the diligent care of their Pastors and Byshops (after the vse of the churches of the south part of this Island) tyll the Romaine shepehearde sought them out, and founde the meanes to pull them vnto him in like sort with his long staffe as he had done our countryemen, whereby in in the ende he abolished the rites of the chur­ches of Asia there also, as Augustine had done already in England: and in stéede of the same did furnish it vp, with those of his ponti­ficall Sie, although there was great conten­tion, and no lesse bloudshed made amongst them, before it coulde be brought to passe, as by the Hystories, of both nations yet extaunt is casye to be séene.

Palladius.In the time of Coelestine Bishop of Rome, one Palladius, The first attempt of the Bish. of Rome to bring Scotlande vnder hys obedience. a Grecian borne, (to whome Cyrill wrote hys Dialogue, de adoratione in spiritu) & sometime disciple to Iohn the 24. Bishop of Ierusalem, came ouer from Rome into Brytaine, there to suppresse the Pellagi­en heresye, which not a little molested the Orthodoxes of that Iland. And hauing done much good in the extinguishing of the afore­sayd opiniō there, he went at the last also into Scotlande, supposing no lesse, but after he had trauailed somewhat in confutation of the Pelagiens in those partes, he shoulde ea­silye perswade that crooked nation to admit and receiue the rytes of the church of Rome, as he woulde faine haue done beforehande in the south.Fastidius Bishop of London. But as Fastidius Bishop of Londō, and his Suffragans resisted him here, so dyd the Scottish Prelates withstande him here also, in this behalfe: howbeit because of the authoritie of his commisson, grauitie of per­sonage, & the great gift which he had in the vayne of pleasaunt perswasion, (whereby he drewe the people after him, as Orpheus did the stones with his Harpe, and Hercules such as hearde him by his tongue,) they had hym in great admiration, & are nowe contented (& the rather also for that he came frō Rome,) to take him for their chiefe Apostle,Palladi [...]e accompt [...] for the A­postle of Scottes returning from hys comming vnto them, as from the fayth receiued, which was in the 431. yeare of Christ, as the truth of theyr History doth very well confirme.

Thus wée sée what religion hath from time to time béene receiued in this Islande, and howe and when the faith of Christ came first into our country. Howbeit as in processe of time it was ouershadowed, and corrupted with the dreames, and fantasticall imaginati­ons of man, so it daily waxed woorse & woorse, till that it pleased God to restore the preach­ing of his Gospell againe in our dayes, wher­by the man of sinne is nowe openly reuealed, and the puritye of the worde once agayne brought to light, to the vtter ouerthrowe of Sathan, and his Popish adherentes that ho­nour him day and night.

Of the number and names of such salt Islands, as lye dispersed rounde about vppon the coast of Brytaine. Cap. 8.

THere are néere vnto, or not verye farre from the coasts of Brytaine many faire Islandes, whereof Irelande with hir neigh­bors, (not here hādled) séeme to be the chiefe. But of ye reast, some are much larger or lesse then other, diuers in lyke sort enuironed con­tinually with the salt sea, (whereof I purpose onely to intreate, although not a few of them be Ilands but at the floude) & other finally be clipped partely by the fresh, and partly by the salt water, or by the freshe alone, whereof I may speake afterwarde.

Of these salt Islandes, (for so I call them that are enuyroned with the Ocean-waues) some are fruitefull in Wood, Corne, Wilde­foule, and pasture grounde for Cattel, albeit that manye of them be accounted barren be­cause they are only replenished with conies & those of sundry collors, (cherished of purpose by the owners, for their skinnes carcases, and prouysion of housholde,) wythout ey­ther man, or woman, otherwise inhabiting in them. Furthermore, the greatest number of these Islandes, haue Townes and parishe Churches, within theyr seuerall precinctes, some mo, some lesse: and beside all thys, are so inriched with commodities, that they haue pleasant hauens, freshe springes, great store of fishe, and plentye of Cattell, whereby the inhabitants doe reape no small aduantage. How many they are in nūber I cānot as yet determine, bycause myne informations are not so fully set down, as the promises of some on the side, & myne expectation on the other, [Page 12] did extēd vnto. Howbeit, ye first of al there are certeine which lie néere togither, as it were by heaps & clusters, I hope, [...] will rediliy deny.Nesiadae. Insule. Scylurum. Sileustrae. Syllanae. Sorlingae Sylley. Hebrides. Hebudes. Meuanie. Orchades. Of these also those called ye Nesiadae, In­sulae Scylurum, Sileustrae, Syllanae, nowe ye sor­lings, and Isles of Silley, lying beyond Corn­wall are one, and conteineth in number one hundred fourtye & seauen, (eche of them, bea­ring grasse) besides shelfers and shallowes. In like sort the company of the Hebrides are another which are sayd to be 43. situate vpon the west side of this Island, betwéene Ireland and Scotland, and of which there are some, that repute Anglesey, Mona Gaesaris, & other lying betwéene them to be percell, in theyr corrupted iudgement. The thirde cluster or bunche, consisteth of those, that are called the Orchades, and these lye vpon the North­west point of Scotlande being 31. in number, as for the reast they lye scattered here and there, and yet not to be vntouched as theyr courses shall come about.

There haue béene diuers that haue written of purpose, De insulis Britanniae, as Caesar doth confesse, the lyke also maye be séene by Plutarche who nameth one Demetrius, a Bry­taine that shoulde set foorth an exact treatise of eche of them in order, but sith those bookes are now peryshed, and the most of the sayde Islandes remaine vtterly vnknowne, euen to our owne selues. I meane God willyng to set downe so many of them with their com­modities, as I doe either knowe by Leland, or am otherwyse instructed of, by such as are of credite. Herein also I will touch at large such as are most famous, and brieflye passe ouer those that are obscure and vnknowen, making myne entraunce at the Thames mouth, and directing thys imagined course, (for I neuer sailed it), by ye south part of the Iland, into ye West. Frō thence in lyke sort, I will proceede into the North, & come about againe by the east side into ye fall of the afore­said streame, where I will strike sayle, & safe­ly be set a shoore, that haue often in this voy­age wanted water, but oftner béene set a grounde, especiallye on the Scottish side.

In beginning therfore, with such as lye in the mouth of the aforesayde Riuer, I must néedes passe by the Hoo,Hoo. whiche is not an Islande but (if I may giue such péeces a new name) a bylande, bycause we may passe thy­ther from the maine Isle, by an Isthums or strictlande, that is to say by lande, without a­nye vessell, at the full Sea, or any horse at the ebbe.Greane. It lyeth betwéene Clyffe and the mid­way, that goeth alōg by Rochester. Next vn­this we haue the Greane wherein is a towne of the same denomination, an Isle suppo­sed to be foure miles in length, and two in bredth.Shepey. Then come we to Shepey, which con­teineth seauen myles in length, and thrée in breadth, wherein is a castell called Quin­borowe, and a Parke, beside foure Townes, of which one is named Munster, another Eastchurch, the thyrde Warden, & the fourth Leyden: the whole s [...]yle being [...] thorowly [...]ad with sheepe, [...]erye well woodded, and as I here belonging to the Lord Cheyney, as par­cell of his [...] inheritaunce It lyeth thirtéene myles by water from Rochester, but the Castle is fiftéene, and by south thereof are two small Islandes, whereof the one is called Elmesy, and the more easterly Hertesy▪ Elmesey. Hertsey. In this also is a towne called Hertie, or Hartie, and all in the Hathe of Scraie, notwithstan­ding that Hartie lieth in the hundred of Fa­uersham, and Shepey retaineth one especyall Baily of hir owne.

From hence we passe by the Reculuers, (or territorie belonging in tyme past to one Raculphus, who erected an house of religion, or some such thing there,) vnto a litle Island, in the stoure mouth.Sturesey. Thanet. Herevpon also the Tha­net abutteth, which is rather a bylande then an yland. Beda noteth it in times past to haue contayned 600 families, which are all one with Hidelandes In Lin­colneshire the worde hyde or hidelande, was neuer in vse in olde time as in o­ther places but for hide they vsed the word Ca­tucate or cart­ware, or Teme, and these were of no lesse compasse then an hideland. Ex Hugo­ne le blanc Monacho petrobur­gensi. Plowghlandes, Carru­cates or Temewares. He addeth also ye it is deuided from our continent, by the riuer cal­led Wantsume, which is about thrée fur­longs brode, & to be passed ouer in two pla­ces onely.

But whereas Polidore sayeth, the Te­net is nyne myles in length & not much lesse in bredth, it is nowe reconed that it hath not much aboue seuē myles from Nordtmuth to Sandwiche, & foure in bredth, frō the Stoure to Margate, or from the South to the North, the circuit of ye whole being 17. or 18. as Ley­lād also noteth. This Ilād hath no wood gro­wing in it except it be forced, & yet otherwise it is very fruitfull, and beside that, it wanteth fewe other commodities, the finest chalke is sayde to be found there. Herin also dyd Augu­stine the Monke first arriue when he came to conuert the Saxons, & afterward in processe of tyme, sundry religious houses were erec­ted there, as in a soyle much bettered (as ye supersticiors supposed) by steps of that ho­ly man & such as came ouer with him. There are at this tyme 10. Parish churches at the least in ye Isle of Thanet, as S. Nicholas, Bir­chingtō S. Iohns, Wood, or Woodchurch, S. Pe­ters, S. Laurēs, Mowntō or Monketon, Minster, S. Gyles and all Saincts, wherof M. Lambert hath written at large in his description of Kent, & placed the same in lath the of S. Augu­stine [Page] and hundred of Ringeflow as may easi­ly be séene to him that will peruse it.

Rutupium,Sometyme Rutupium (or as Beda calleth it Reptacester) stoode also in this Islande, but now thorowe alteration of the chanell of the Dour, it is shut quite out and annexed to the maine. It is called in these daies Richeborow and as it shoulde seeme buylded vpon an in­different soyle, or highe grounde. The large brickes also yet to be séene there, in the rui­nous walles, declare eyther the Romayne or the old Brittish workemanship. But as time decayeth all things, so Rutupium is now be­come desolate, & out of the dust therof Sand­wiche producted, which standeth a full mile from the place, where Reptacester stoode. The olde writers affirme, how Ethelbert the first christian king of Kent, did holde his pal­lace in this towne, and yet none of his coyne hath hitherto béene founde there, as is dayly that of the Romaynes, whereof many péeces of siluer and gold, so wel as of brasse, copper, and other mettal haue often bene shewed vn­to me. It shoulde appeare in lyke sorte that of this place, all the whole coast of Kent ther­about, was called Littus Rutupinum, which some doe not a little confirme by these words of Lucane, to be red in his sixt booke, soone af­ter the beginning.

Aut vaga cum Tethis, Rutupina (que) littora feruent,
Vnda Calidonios fallit turbata Brittannos.

Or when the wādering Seas or Kentish coasts doe worke, The last verse of one copie and first of another. and Calidons of Brittishe bloude, the troubled waues beguyle. Meaning in like sorte by the latter the coaste néere Andredes­walde, which in time past was called Littus Calidonium of that wood or forrest, as Leland also confirmeth. But as it is not my minde to deale any thing curiously in these by mat­ters, so in returning againe to my purpose, & taking my iorney toward the Wight, I must néeds passe by Selesey,Selesey. which sometime as it should séeme hath ben a noble yland, but now a Bylād or Peninsula, wherin the chiefe Sie of the Byshop of Chichester was holden by the space of 329. yeres, & vnder 20. Bishops.

Thorne.Next vnto this, we come vnto those that lye betwéene the Wight and the mayne lande, of which the most easterly is called Thorne, & to say truth, ye very least of al that are to be founde in that knotte. Being past the Thorne we touched vpon the Haling, which is bigger then the Thorne, and wherein one towne is scituate of the same denominatiō beside ano­ther, whose name I remember not. By west also of the Haling lieth the Port (the greatest of the thrée already mencioned) & in this stan­deth Portsmouth and Ringstéed,Haling. whereof al­so our Lelande, sayeth thus. Port Isle is cut frō the shore by an arme of the maine hauen, which breaketh out about three myles aboue Portsmouth & goeth vp two myles or more by morishe grounde to a place called Port­bridge,Port. which is two myles frō Portsmouth. Thē breaketh there out another Créeke frō the maine sea, about Auant hauen, which gulleth vp almost to Portbridge, and thence is the ground disseuered, so that Portsmouth stādeth in a corner of this Isle, which Island is in length sixe myles, and thrée myles in bredth, very good for grasse & corne, not with­out some wood, and here and there inclosure. Beside this there is also another Islād north northwest of port yle, which is now so worne and washed awaye with the working of the sea, that at the spring tides it is wholly coue­red with water, and thereby made vnprofi­table. Finally being past all these, & in com­passing this goulfe, we come by an other, which lyeth North of Hirst castell, and south­east of Kaie hauen, whereof I finde nothing worthy to be noted, sauing that it wanteth wood as Ptolomie affirmeth in hys Geogra­phicall tables of all those Islands, which en­uironne our Albion.

The Wight it selfe is called in latine Ve­ctis, Wight. Guidh. but in the Bryttish speach Guidh, that is to say éefe or easie to be séene. It lieth distāt from the south shore of Britaine (where it is fardest of) by fiue myles & a halfe, but where it commeth néerest, not passing a thousande paces, and this at the cut ouer betwene Hirst castell and a place called Whetwell chine, as the inhabitauntes doe report. It contay­neth in length twentie myles, and in bredth tenne, it hath also the North poole eleuated by 50. degrées and 27. minutes, & is onely 18. degrées in distaunce, and 50. odde minutes, from the West point as experience hath con­firmed, contrarie to the description of Ptolo­mie, and such as followe his assertions in the same. In forme, it representeth almost an egge, and so well is it inhabited with méere English at this present, that there are thirtie sixe Townes, Villages and Castels to be founde therin, beside 27. Parish churches, of which 15. or 16. haue their Parsons, the reast eyther such poore Vicares or Curates, as the liuings left are able to sustayne. The names of the Parishes in the Wight are these.

  • 1. Newport, a chap.
  • 2. Cairsbrosie. v.
  • 3. Northwood.
  • 4. Arriun. v.
  • 5. Goddeshill. v.
  • 6. Whytwell.
  • 7. S. Laurence. p.
  • 8. Nighton. p.
  • 9. Brading. v.
    P. signifi­eth Par [...] ­nages, [...] Vicar [...]
  • 10. Newchurch. v.
  • 11. S. Helene. v.
  • 12. Yauerland. p.
  • 13. Calborne. p.
  • 14. Bonechurch. p.
  • [Page 13]15. Mottesson. p.
  • 16. Yarmouth. p.
  • 17. Thorley. v.
  • 18. Sha [...]e. v.
  • 19. Whippinghā. p.
  • 20. W [...]tton. p.
  • 21. Chale. p.
  • 22. Kingston. p.
  • 23. Shorwell. p.
  • 24. [...]a [...]mbe. p.
  • 25. Bro [...]ie.
  • 26. Bryxston. p.
  • 27. Be [...]isted. p.

It belongeth for temporall Iurisdiction to the countie of Hamshire, but in spirituall cases, it yéeldeth obediēce to the See of Chi­chester, whereof it is a De [...]erie. As for the soyle of the whole Island, it is very fruitful, for notwithstanding that the shore of it selfe be very full of rockes and [...]aggy cliffes, yet there wanteth no plentie of cattell, corne, pa­sture, medow grounde, wilde foule, fish, fresh riuers, and pleasant wooddes, wherby the in­habitants may lyue in ease and welfare. It was first ruled by a seuerall king, and after­warde wonne from the Britons by Vespa­sian the Legate, at such tyme as he made a voyage into the West country. In processe of tyme also it was gotten frō the Romaines by Ceadwall [...], who killed Aruald that reig­ned there, and reserued the souereingtie of that Isle to himselfe, and his successours. Af­ter Ceadwalla, Woolfride the Parricide was the first Saxon Prince, that aduentured into the Wight, whether he was driuen by Ken­walch of the West saxons, who made great warres vpon him, and in the ende compel­led hym to flye into this place for succours, as did also king Iohn, in the rebellious sturre of his Barons, practised by the clargie: the sayd Islād being as then in possessiō of the Fortes as some doe write that haue handled it of purpose. The first Earle of this Islande that I doe read of, was one Baldwijne de Betoun who maryed for his seconde wife, the daugh­ter of William le Grosse Earle of Awmarle, but he dying without issue by this Lady, she was maryed ye second time to Earle Mawn­deuile, and thirdlye to William de Fortes, who finyshed Skipton Castell, which hys wyues father had begunne about the time of king Richard ye first. Hereby it came to passe also, yt the fortes were Erles of Awmarle, Wight, and Deuonshyre a long time, till the Lady Elizabeth Fortes sole heire to all those possessions came to age, with whō king Ed­ward the thirde so preuayled thorow money and fayre wordes, that he gate the possession of the Wight wholly into his handes. After we be past the Wight, we go forwarde and come vnto Poole hauen, wherein is an Isle, called Brunt Keysi, in which was sometime a Parishe church, [...]unt [...]si. and yet a chappell at this present as I here. There are also two other Isles but I know not their names.

Wée haue after wée are passed by these another Isle,Portland. also vpō the co [...] named Port­land not farre from Waymouth a prety fer­tile péece through wtout woode, of 10. myles in circuite, now well inhabited, but much bet­ter heretofore, & yet are there about 80. hous­holdes in it. There is also but one stréete of houses therin, the reast are dispersed, how­beit they belong all to one Parishe Church, whereas in time past there were two within the compasse of the same. There is also a Ca­stell of the [...]ings, who is Lord of the Isle, al­though the bishop of Winchester be patrone of the Church, the personage whereof is the fairest house in al the péece. The people there are excellent [...]ingers of stones, which feate they vse for the defence of their Islande, and yet otherwise very couetous. And wheras in tyme past they lyued onely by fishing, now they fall to tillage, their fire bote is brought out of the wight, and other places, yet do they burne much cowdung, dryed in the sonne: for there is I say no wood in ye Isle, except a few elmes that be about the church. There would some growe there, no doubt if they were wil­ling to plant it, although the soyle lye very bleake & open. It is not long since this was vnited to the mayne, and likely ere long to be cut of againe. Being past thys we rayse ano­ther, also in the mouth of the Gowy, betwene Golsforde & Lime, of which for the smalnesse therof I make no great accompt. Wherfore giuing ouer to intreate anye farder of it I cast about to Gersey, and Gernesey,Gersey. Garnesey. which Isles with their appurtenaunces appertay­ned in tymes past to the Dukes of Norman­dye, but now they remayne to our Quéene, as percell of Hamshyre and belonging to hir Crowne, by meanes of a composition made, betwéene king Iohn of England, & the king of Fraunce, when the Dominions of the said Prince began so fast to decrease, as Thomas Sulmo sayth.

Of these two, Gersey is the greatest,Gersey. as an Islād hauing 30. miles in cōpas, as most men doe cōiecture. There are likewise in the same twelue Parish Churches, wyth a Colledge, which hath a Deane and Prebendes. It is di­staunt from Gernesey full 21. myles, or there­aboutes. In this latter also, there haue bene in times past, fiue religious houses and nyne Castelles,Gernesey. howbeit in these dayes there is but one Parish church left standing in the same. There are also certayne other small Islands, which Henry the second in his Donation cal­leth Insuletas (beside very many rocks) wher­of one called S. Helenes (wherein sometyme was a Monastery) is fast vpon Gersey,S. Hereli. ano­ther is named ye Cornet, Cornet. which hath a Castell [Page] not passing an arrow shoote frō Gersey. The Serke also is betwéene both, which is is sixe myles about,Serke. and hath another annexed to it by an Isthmus or Strictlande, wherein was a religious house, and therewith all great store of conyes.

Brehoc. Gytho. Herme.There is also the Brehoc, the Gytho, and the Herme, which latter is foure myles in compasse, and therein was sometyme a Chanonry, that afterwarde was conuer­ted into an house of Franciscanes. There are two other likewyse néere vnto that of S. Hele­rie of whose names I haue no notice. There is also the rockye,Burho als. the Isle of Rattes. Isle, of Burhoo, but nowe the Isle of Rattes (so called of the huge plen­tie of Rattes that are founde there, though otherwise it be replenished with infinite store of Conyes, betwéene whome and the Rattes, as I coniecture those which we call Turkie confes are oftentimes produced among those few houses that are to be séene in thys Iland. Beside this there is moreouer the Isle of Al­derney a very pretie Plot,Alderney. about seuen miles in compasse, wherein a Priest not long since did find a coffin of stone, in which lay ye body of and huge Gyaunt, whose fore téeth were so bygge as a mans fist, as Lelande doth re­port.

Certes this to me is no marueile at al, sith I haue read of greater, and mencioned them already in the beginning of thys booke. Such a one, also haue they in Spayne, whereunto they go in pilgrimage as vnto S. Christo­phers tooth, but it was one of his eye téeth, if Lodouicus Viues say true, who went hither to offer vnto ye same. S. August writeth in like sorte, of such another found vpō the cost of V­tica, and thereby not onely gathered that all men were not onely farre greater then they be now, but also the Giaunts farre excéeding the huge stature of the hyghest of them all. Homere complayneth that men in hys time were but Dwarfes in comparison of such as lyued in the warres of Troy. Sée his fift Iliade, where he speaketh of Diomedes & how he threw a stone at Aeneas, (which 14. men of his time were not able to sturre) & therewith did hit hym on the thighe & ouerthrowe him. Virgile also noteth no lesse, but Iuuenall brief­lye comprehendeth all thys in his 15. Satyra, where he sayth.

Saxa inclinatis per humum quaesita lacertis
Iliad 5. & 7.
Incipiunt torquere, domestica seditione
Tela, nec hunc lapidem, quali se Turnus, & Aiax,
Et quo Tytides percussit pondere coxam
Virgilius Aen. 12.
Aeneae: sed quem valeant emittere dextrae
Illis dissimiles, & nostro tempore natae.
Nam genus hoc viuo iam decrescebat Homero.
Terra malos homines nunq educat, [...]t a pusillos,
Ergo De [...]s qui [...] aspex [...]t, ri [...] [...]

But to returne agayne vnto the Isle of Al­derney frōwhence I haue digressed. Herein also is a pretie towne with a Parish church, great plentie of Corne, Cattell, Conyes, and wilde foule, whereby the inhabitauntes doe reape much gayne and commoditie, onelye wood is theyr want, which they otherwyse supply. The language also of such as dwel in these Isles, is Frenche, but the attire of those yt liued in Gernesey & Gersey, vntil the time of King Henry the eyght, was al after the I­rish guyse. The Isle of Gernesey also was sore spoyled by the Frenche 1371. & left so de­solate that onely one castell remained there­in vntouched.

Beyonde thys and néere vnto the coast of Englande (for these doe lye about the ve­rye middest of the Brittish sea) we haue one Islande called the Bruch or the Bruchsey,Bruchsey lying about two myles from Poole, whether men sayle from the Fromouth, & wherin is nought else, but an olde Chappell, without o­ther housing.

Next to this also are certaine rocks, which some take for Isles, as Illestō rocke nere vn­to Peritorie, Horestan Isle a myle from Pe­ritorie by South, Blacke rocke Isle, South­east from Perytorie toward Teygnemouth, and also Chester, otherwyse called Plegy­mudham: but howe (to saye truth) or where this latter lieth, I cānot make report, as yet, & sith Leland noteth them togither, I thinke it not my part to make separation of them.

From hence the next Isle is called Mount Island, otherwise Mowtland,Mount Islande. scituate ouer against Lough, about two myles from the shore, and well néere, thrée myles in com­passe. This Island hath no inhabitants, but onely the Warrenner & his dogge, who loo­keth vnto the Conies there: notwithstanding that vpō the coast therof in time of the yere, great store of Pylchardes is taken, and ca­ryed from thence into many places of our coūtrey. It hath also a fresh Well comming out of the rockes, which is woorthy to be no­ted in so small a cōpasse of ground. Moreouer in the mouth of the créeke that leadeth vnto Lough, or Loow, as some call it, there is an other little Islande of about eight Acres of grounde called S. Nicholas Isle,S. Nichol [...] Islande. and midwaye betwéene Falmouth, and Dudman, (a cer­tayne Promontorie) is such another named the Grefe,Greefe. Inis: Pr [...] wherein is great store of Gulles & sea foule. As for Inis Prynin, it lyeth within the Baye about thrée myles from Lizardes, & contayneth not aboue two Acres of groūd, [Page 14] from which Newltjn is not farre distaunt, & wherein is a poore fisher r [...]wne and a fayre We [...]spring, whereof as yet no writer hath made mention. After these (o [...]teing, p [...] ̄ndo­uant in ye point of Fulmouth hane) we came at last to saint Michaels profit,Mount. S. Mi­ [...]haeli. wherof I find this description readye to my handes in Le­lande. The compasse of the roote of the Moūt of saint Michael is not much more then halfe a myle, and of this the South part is pastu­rable and bréedeth Conyes; the residue high and rocky. In the North side thereof also is a Garden, with certayne houses and shoppes for fishermen. Furthermore, the way to the Mountaine lieth at the North side, and is fre­quented from halfe ebbe to halfe floud, the en­traunce beginning at the foote of the Hyll, & so assending by steps and greces westward, first, and then Eastward to the vtterward of the Church. Within the same ward also is a Court strongly walled, wherin on the south­side is a Chappell of S. Michaell, and in the Eastside another of our Lady. Many times a man maye come to the hill on foote. On the North Northwest side hereof also, is a Piere for botes and ships, and in the baye betwixt the Mount & Pensantz are séene at the lowe water marke, diuers rootes and stubbes of trées, beside hewen stone, sometimes of dores and windowes, which are perceyued in the inner part of the Bay, and import that there hath not onely béene buylding, but also firme ground there, whereas the Salt water doth now rule & beare the mastery. Beyond this is an other litle Isle,S. Cle­ments. called S. Clemēts Isle, of a Chappell there dedicated to that Saint. It hath a litle beyond it, Mowshole, which is not touched in any Card. As for Mowshole it self it is a towne of the maine, called in Cor­nish port Enis, that is, portus insule, & in tinne workes néere vnto the same, there hath bene founde of late, speare heddes, battaile axes, & swords of Copper, wrapped vp in linnen and scarsely hurt with rust or other hinderance. Certes the sea hath won very much in this corner of our Islande, but chiefly betwéene Mowshole Pensardes.

Hauing thus passed ouer very néere all such Isles, as lye vppon the south coast of Bry­taine, and nowe being come vnto the west part of our coūtry, a sodeyne Pirry catcheth holde of vs (as it did before, when we went to Gersy) and caryeth vs yet more westerlye a­mōg the flattes of Sylly. Such force doth the southeast winde often showe vpon poore tra­ueylers in those parties, as the south & south­west, doth vpon straungers against the Bry­tish coast, that are not skilfull of our rodes, and herborowes. Howbeit such was our suc­cesse in their voyage, that we feared no rockes,King A­thelstane hauing subdued the Syl­lane Isles, builded a Colledge of Priests at S. Bu­rien, in perfour­mance of his vowe, made whē he enter­prised this voyage, for his safe re­turne. (more then did king Athelstane, when he sub­dued thē) nor any tempest of weather in those partes, that [...]lde annoy the passage. Peru­sing therefore the periles whereinto we were pitifully plouged: we founde the Syllane I­lande [...] (places often robbed by the French­men and Spanyardes) to lye distaunt from the poynt of Cornewall, about thrée or foure houre [...] sayling, or twentie Englyshe miles, as some men doe account it. There are of these as I sayde, to the number of one hundreth forty seauen in sight, whereof eche one is greater or lesse then other, and most of them sometime inhabited, howbeit, there are twentie of them, which for their greatnesse & commodities, excéede all the reast. Therto (if you respect their position) they are scituate in manner of a circle, or ring, hauing an huge lake, or portion of the sea in the middest of them, which is not without perill, to such as with small aduisement enter into the same. Certes it passeth my cunning, either to name or to descrybe all these one hundreth fourtie seauen according to their estate, neither haue I had any information of them, more than I haue gathered by Leyland, or gotten out of a Mappe of their descriptiō, which I had, some­tyme of Reynolde Woolfe: wherefore omit­ting as it were all the raggos, and such as are not worthy to haue anytime spent about their particular descriptions, I will only touch the greatest and those that ly togither, (as I said) in maner of a roundell.

The first and greatest of these therefore, called S. Maries Isle, is about fiue miles ouer,S. Ma­ries Isle. or nyne myles in compasse. Therein also is a parishe Church, and a poore Towne belong­ing thereto, of thrée score housholdes, beside a castel, plētie of Corne, Co [...]es, wilde Swai­nes, Puffens, Gulles, Cranes & other kindes of Foule, in great abundāce. This fertile Is­lād being thus viewed, we sailed southwarde by the norman rocke; & S. Maries sounde vnto Agnus Isle, which is sixe myles ouer,Agnus Isle. & hath in lyke sorte one Towne or Parishe within the same of fiue or sixe housholdes, beside no small store of Hogs, & Con [...]es, of sundry cou­lours, very profitable to theyr owners. It is not long since this Isle was left desolate, for whē ye inhabitāts therof, returned frō a feast holden in S. Maries Isle, they were al drow­ned and not one person left aliue. There are also two other small Islandes, betwéene this & the Annot, Annot. wherof I finde nothing worthy relation, for as both of them ioyned together are not comparable, to the sayde Annot for greatnesse and circuite, so they want both Hogges and Connies, whereof Annot hath [Page] great plentie.Minwisand. Smithy sounde. Suartigan. Rousuian. Rousuiar. Cregwin. There is moreouer the Minwi­sand, from whence we passe by the Smithy sound, (leauing thrée little Islandes on the left hande, vnto the Suartigan Islande, then to Rousuian, Rousuiar, and the Cregwin, which seauen are for yu most part, replenished with Conies only, and wilde Earlike, but voyde of woode, and other commodities, sauyng of a short kinde of grasse, or here or there some firzes whereon their Conies doe féede.

Leauing therefore these desert péeces, wée incline a little towarde the northwest, where we stumble or runne vppon,Moncar­that. Inis Wel­seck. Suethiall. Rat Is­land. Anwall. Brier. Moncarthat, Inis Welseck, & Suethial. We came in like sort vn­to Ratte Islande (wherein are so many mon­strous Rattes, that if horses, or other beasts, happen to come thither, or be left there by negligence, they are sure to be deuoured and eaten vp, without all hope of recouerye) the Anwall and the Brier, Islandes in lyke sorte voyde of all good furniture, Conies only ex­cepted, & that; he Brier (wherein is a village, Castell, & parish Church) bringeth foorth no lesse store of Hogges, and wyldefoule, then Ratte Island doth of Rats, whereof I great­ly marueyle.

By north of the Brier, lyeth the Rusco, which hath a Labell or Bylande stretch­ing out toward the southwest, called Inis wid­don. Rusco. Inis widdō, This Rusco is verye néere so great as that of S. Maries. It hath moreouer an hold, & a Parish within it, beside great store of Conies and wildefoule, whereof they make much gayne in due tyme of the yeare. Next vnto thys wée come to the Rounde Island,Round. Islande. S. Lides. Notho. Auing. Tyan. then to S. Lides Island, (wherin is a Parish church, dedicated to that saint) the Notho, the Auing, (one of thē being situate by south of another) and the Tyan, which later is a great Islande, furnyshed with a Parish Church, & no small plenty of Conies as I here. After the Tyan we come to S. Martines Isle,S. Martines betwixt which & S. Maries, are tenne other, smaller, which reach out of the northeast into the southwest, as Knolworth Sniuilliuer, Knolworth. Sniuilliuer. Menwethā Vollis. 1. Surwihe. Volils. 2. Arthurs Ile Guiniliuer. Nenech. Gothrois. Menwetham, Vol­lis. 1. Surwihe, Vollis. 2. Arthurs Island, Guiui­liuer, Nenech and Gothrois, whose qualities are dyuers: howbeit as no one of these, is to be accounted great in comparison of the o­ther, so they al yéelde a short grasse, méete for shéepe and Conies, as doe also the reast. In the greater Isles likewise, (whose names are commonlye such as those of the Townes, or Churches standing in the same) there are as I here sundrye lakes, and those neuer without great plentye of wildefoule, so that the Isles of Sylly, are supposed to be no lesse beneficiall to their Lordes, then anye other whatsoeuer, within the compasse of our Isle, or néere vnto our coastes. In some of them also are wilde swine.Wilde swine in Sylley. And as those Isles are supposed to be a notable safegard to the coast of Corinewall, so in dyuers of them great store of tinne, is to be founde. There is in like maner such plenty of fishe taken among these same, that beside the féeding of their swine wyth all, a man shall haue more there for a peny, then in London for ten Grotes: How­beit their chiefe cōmodity is made by Reigh, which they dry and cutte in péeces, and cary­ing it ouer into litle Britayne, they exchange it there, for Salt, Canuas, readye Money, or other Marchaundise which they doe stande in neede of. A like trade haue some of them also, with Buckehorne or dryed Whityng, as I here: but sith the Authour of this report, did not flatly auouch it, I passe ouer that fishe as not in season at this time. Thus haue we viewed the richest and most wealthy Isles of Sylley, frō whence we must direct our course eastwardes, vnto the mouth of the Sauerne, & then go backe againe vnto the west poynt of Wales, cōtinuing still our voyage along vp­on the west coast of Brytaine, till we come to the Soluey where at the kingdomes part, and from which forth on we must touch such Is­landes, as lye vpon the west and northshoore, till we be come againe vnto the Scottish sea, and to our owne dominions.

From the poynt of Cornewall therefore, or Promōtory of Helenus, (so called, as some think,Helenus. Priamus. because Helenus the son of Priamꝰ lyeth buried there, except ye sea haue washed away his sepulchre) vntill we come vnto the mouth of Sauerne, we haue none Islandes at all that I do knowe or here of, but one lytle Byland, Cape or Peninsula, which is not to be reco­ned of in this place. And yet sith I haue made mention of it, you shall vnderstande, that it is called Pendinas, and beside yt the compasse thereof is not aboue a myle, this is to be re­membred farder how there stādeth a Pharos or light therein, for shippes which sayle by those coasts in the night. There is also at the very poynt of the sayde Pendinas, Pendinas. a chappell of S. Nicholas, beside the church of S. Ia, an I­rish woman Sainct. It belōged of late to the Lorde Brooke, but nowe as I gesse the Lorde Mountioy enioyeth it. There is also a Block­house, and a péere in the east side thereof, but the péere is sore choked with sande, as is the whole shore furthemore frō S. Ies vnto S. Car­antokes, insomuch that the greatest parte of thys Bylande is nowe couered with sandes, which the sea casteth vp, & this calamity hath indured little aboue fiftie yeares.

There are also two Rockes néere vnto Tredwy, and another not farre from Tinta­gell, [Page 15] all which many of the common sort doe repute and take for Isles: wherefore as one desirous to note all, I thinke it not best that these should be omitted, but to procéede. Whē we be come farder; I meane vnto ye Sauerne mouth, we méete the two Holmes, of which one is called Stepholine, and the other Flat­holme, of theyr formes.

It shoulde séeme by some that they are not worthy to be placed among Islands: yet other some are of the opinion, that they are not altogyther so base, as to bée reputed a­mongst flattes or rockes: but whatsoeuer they be, this is sure that they oft annoye such Passengers and Marchauntes as passe, and repasse vpon that riuer. Neyther doe I reade of any other Isles which lye by cast of these same onely the Barri and Dunwen: [...]rri. the first of which is so called of one Barroc, a religious man as Gyraldus saith. And here in is a rock, standing at the very entraunce of the clyffe, which hath a little rift or chine vpon the side, whervnto if a mā do lay his eare, he shal here a noyse, as if smithes did worke at the forge, sometimes blowing wyth theyr Bellowes, [...]rri, is a [...]ght thot [...]m the [...]re. & sometimes striking and clinking with Ham­mers, whereof many men haue great woon­der and marueyle. It is about a mile in com­passe, scituate ouer against Aberbarry, and hath a chappel in it.

[...]unwen. Dunwen, is so called of a Churche dedi­cated to a Welch woman saint, called Dun­wen, that standeth there. It lyeth more then two miles from Henrosser, ryght against Ne­uen, and hath within it two fayre mylles, and great store of conies, and if the sande in­crease so fast herafter as it hath done of late about it, it will be vnyted to the mayne, within a short season. Beyond these & toward the coast of Southwales, lye two other Is­landes, larger in quantitie, then the Holmes, of which the one is called Caldee or Inis Pyr. [...]aldee. It hath a Parishe Church wyth a spire stée­ple, and a prety towne belonging to the coun­ty of Pembroke, and iurisdiction of S. Dauid in Wales. Lelande supposeth the ruines that are founde there in, to haue beene of an olde priorye sometimes called Lille, which was a celle belonging to the Monasterye of S. Dog­maell, but of this I can saye nothing. The other hyght Londy, [...]ondy. wherein is also a village or towne, and of thys Islande the Parson of the sayde towne, is not onelye the captaine, but hath thereto weife, distresse, and all other commodities belonging to the same. It is little aboue sixtéene myles, from the coast of wales, and yet it serueth as I am informed Lord and king in Deuonshyre. Moreouer in thys Islande is great plentie of shéepe, but more of conies, and therewithall of very fine and short grasse, for their better foode and pastureage. And albeit that there be not scal­lie fourtie housholdes in the whole, yet the in­habitants there with huge stones (alreadye prouided) may kéepe of thousandes of theyr enemies, because it is not possible for any ad­uersaries to assayle them, but onelye at one place, and wyth a most daungerous entrance,Schalmey. Schoncold. Scalmey the greater and the lesse lye north­west of Milforde hauen a good way. They be­long both to the king; but are not inhabited, bicause they be so often spoiled with pirates, Schoncold Isle ioineth vnto great Scalmey, & is bygger then it, onely a passage for shippes parteth them wherby they are supposed to be one, Leland noteth thē to lie in Milford hauē.

Limen as Ptolomy calleth it,Limen or Ramsey. is scituate ouer against S. Dauides in wales, wherevnto we must nedes come, after we be past another litle one, which some men do call Gressholme, Gressholm In a late Mappe I finde this Limen to be cal­led in Englishe Ramsey: Lelande also confir­meth the same, and I cannot learne more thereof, then that it is much greater than any of the other last mencioned, (sithence I descri­bed the holmes) and for temporall iurisdicti­on, a member of Penbrookshire, as it is vnto S. Dauides, for matters concerning ye church. Lelande in his Commentaries of Englande Lib. 8. sayeth that it contayned thrée Islettes, where of the Bishop of S. Dauids is owner of the greatest, but ye Chanter of S. Dauids clay­meth the second, as the Archedeacon of Cair­maiden doth the thirde. And in these is very excellent pasture for shéepe, and horses, but not for other horned beasts, which lacke their vpper téeth, by nature (whose substaunce is cōuerted into the nourishmēt of their hornes) and therefore cannot byte so low. Next vnto this Isle we came to Mawr, Mawr. an Island in the mouth of Mawr, scant a bow shoote ouer, and enuironned at the low water with fresh, but at the high Salt, & here also is excellent cat­ching of Heringes.

After this procéeding on stil with our course; we fetched a compasse, going out of the north towarde the west, and then turning againe (as the coast of the country leadeth) vntill we sayled full south, leauing the shore still on our right hande, vntyll we came vnto a couple of yles, which lye vpō the mouth of the Soch, one of them being distaunt, as we gessed a myle from the other, and neyther of them of anye greatnesse, almost woorthy to remembred. The first that we came vnto is called Tudfal and therin is a Church,Tudfall. but without any Pa­rishioners, except they be shéepe and Conies. The quantitie therof also is not much aboue, [Page] sixe acres of grounde, measured by the pole. The next is Penthlin, Penthlin. or Myrach, scituate in maner betwixt Tudfall, or Tuidall and the shore, & herin is very good pasture for horses, whereof as I take it that name is giuen vnto it. Next vnto them, we come vnto Bardesey, an Islande lying ouer against the Southwest poynt or Promontorie of Northwales,Bardesey. and whether the reast of the Monkes of Bangor dyd flye to saue themselues, when their fello­lowes were slayne by the Saxon Princes in the quarell of Augustine the monke, and the Citie of Caerleon or Chester, raced to the grounde. Ptolomie calleth this Island, Lym­nos, the Britons Enlhi, and therein also is a parish church, as the report goeth. Frō hence wée cast about gathering still towarde the Northeast, till we came to Caer Ierienrhod a notable rocke situate ouer against ye mouth of the Leuenni, wherin standeth a strong hold or fortresse, or else some Towne or Village. Certes we could no well discerne whether of both it was, because the winde blew harde at Southwest, the morning was mistie and our mariners doubting some flats to be couched not farre from thence, hasted away vnto An­glesey, whether we went a pace, wyth a redy winde, euen at our owne desire.

Anglesey cut from Wales by working of the sea.This Islande (which Tacitus mistaketh, no doubt for Mona Cersaris) is scituate about two myles from the shore of Northwales. Paulus Iouius gesseth that it was in time past ioyned to the continent, or maine of our Isle, and only cut of by working of the Oceane, as Si­cilia peraduenture was frō Italy by the vio­lence of the Leuant: thereby also as he sayth the inhabitants were constrayned at the first to make a bridge ouer into the same, till the breach waxed so great, that no such passage could any longer be mainteyned, but as these things d [...]e eyther not touche my purpose at all, or make smally with the present descrip­tion of this Isle: so (in comming to my mat­ter) Anglesey is founde to be full so great as the Wight,Anglesey. & nothing inferiour, but rather surmounting it, as that also which Caesar calleth Mona in fruitefulnesse of soile by ma­nye an hundred folde. In olde time it was re­puted and taken for the common granerie to Wales, as Sicilia was to Italy for their pro­uision of Corne. In lyke maner the Welch­men themselues called it the mother of theyr country, for giuing their mindes wholly to pasturage, as the most easie and lesse charge­able trade, they vtterly neglected tyllage, as men that leaned wholly to the fertilitie of this Islande for their Corne, from whence they neuer fayled to receyue cōtinuall abun­daunce. It contayned moreouer so manye townes welnéere, as there be daies in a ye [...], which some conuerting into Cantredes haue accompted but for thrée, as Gyraldus sayeth. Howbeit as there haue béene I say 363. tow­nes in Anglesey, so now a great part of ye re­conning is vtterly shronke, & so farre gone to decay, yt the very ruines of theē are vnneth to be séene: and yet it seemeth to be méetely wel inhabited. Lelande noting the smalnesse of our hundredes in comparison to that they were in tyme past, addeth so farre as I re­member that there are sixe of them in An­glesey, as Menay, Maltraith, Liuon, Talbelliō, Torkalm, and Tindaither: herevnto Lhoid saith also how it belonged in olde time, vnto the kingdome of Guinhed or Northwales, & that therin at a towne called Aberfraw, being on the Southwest side of the Isle, the kinges of Gwinhed helde euermore their pallaces, whereby it came to passe, that the kinges of northwales, were for a lōg time, called kings of Aberfraw, as ye Welchmē named ye kings of England kinges of London, till better instruction dyd bring them farder knowledge.

There are in Anglesey many townes and villages, whose names as yet I can not or­derly attayne vnto: wherefore I will content my selfe with the rehearsall of so many as we viewed in sayling about the coastes, and otherwyse hearde report of by such as I haue talked with all. Beginning therefore at the mouth of the Ge [...]ni (which ryseth at North­east aboue Gefni or Geuen [...], 20. myles at ye least into the land) we passed first by Hund­wyn, then by Newborow, Port Hayton, Beau­marrais, Penmō, Eliā, Almwoch, Burric (wher­by runneth a rill into a creke) Cornew, Holy­hed, (standing in the promontorie) Gwifen, Aberfraw, and Cair Gadwaladar, of all which, the two latter stande, as it were in a nuke, be­twéene the Geuenni water, & the Fraw, wher­vpō Aberfraw is scituate. Within the Iland, we hard only of Gefni afore mētioned, of Gri­stial stāding vpō ye same water of Tefri, of La­nerchimedh, Lachtenfarwy & Bodedrin, but of all these the chiefe is nowe Beaumarais, which was buylded sometyme by king Edward the first, and therewithall a strong Castell about the yeare 1295. to kepe that lande in quiet. There are also as Leland sayth 31. Parishe churches beside 69. chappelles, that is 100. in all: but hereof I can say litle, for lacke of iust instruction. In tymes past, the people of this Isle vsed not to seuerall their groundes, but now they diggestony hillockes and with the stones thereof they make rude walles, much lyke to those of Deuonshyre, sith they want hedges, fire bote, and housebote, or to saye at one worde, timber & trées. As for wine, it [Page 16] is so plentifull & good cheape there most com­monly as in London, thorowe the great re­course of marchaunts frō France, Spaine, and Italy vnto the aforesayde Islande. The fleshe likewyse of such Cattell as is bredde there, is most delicate, by reason of their ex­cellent pasture, & so much was it estéemed by the Romaines in tyme past, ye Collumella did not onely commende & preferre them before those of Liguria, but the emperours thēselues also caused there prouision to be made for nete out of Anglesey to féede vppon at their owne tables as the most excellent béefe. It taketh the name of Angles & Eye, which is to meane the Isle of Englishmen, bycause they wan it in the conquerours tyme, vnder the leading of Hugh Earle of Chester, & Hugh of Shrewesbury. The Welchmē cal it Tire­mone, and herein likewyse is a Promontorie or Bylande, called Holly hed, (which hath in tyme past bene named Cair kyby, [...]y head, Cair [...]. of Kyby a monke, that dwelled in that place) frō whence the readyest passage is commonly had out of Northwales to get ouer into Irelande. The Britons named it Enylsnach, [...]lsnach, [...]y Isle. or holy Isle of the number of carkases of holy men, which they suppose to haue béene buryed there. But herein I marueyle not a little what women had offended, that they myght not come thi­ther, or at the least wyse returne from thence without some notable reproche. And nowe to conclude with the description of the whole Is­lande, this I will adde moreouer vnto hir cō ­modities, that as there are the best milstones of white, redde, blewe, and gréene gréetes, (especially in Tindaithin,) so there is great gaines to begotten by fishing, rounde about this Isle, if the people there coulde vse the trade: but they want both cunning and dili­gence to take that matter in hande. And as for temporall regimēt it apparteyneth to the countye of Cairnaruon, so in spirituall cases it belongeth to the Byshopricke of Bangor. This is finally to be noted moreouer of An­glesey, that sundry earthen pottes are often founde there of dead mens bones conuerted into ashes, set with the mouthes downeward contrarie to the vse of other nations, which turned the brimmes vpwardes, whereof let this suffice.

Hauing thus descrybed Anglesey, it rea­steth to report furthermore, how that in our circuite about the same, we mette with other little Islettes, of which one lyeth Northwest therof almost ouer against Butricke mouth, or the fall of the water, that passeth by Bu­tricke. The Britons called it Ynis Ader, that is to say, [...]r. [...]l. [...]maid. the Isle of Birdes in olde time, but now it hight Ynis Moil, or Ynis Rhomaid, that is ye Isle of Porpasses. It hath to name like­wise Ysterisd, and Adros. Being past this,Ysterisd. Adros. Lygod. we came to the second lying by North east, ouer against the Hillary point, called Ynis Ligod. that is to say, the Isle of Mise, and of these two this latter is the smallest, neyther of thē both beyng of anye greatnesse to speake of. Ynis Seriall or Prestholme, Seriall. Prestholne lieth ouer against Penmon, or the point called the hed of Mon, where I founde a towne (as I tolde you) of the same denominatiō. Ptolomy nameth not this Islande, whereof I marueyle. It is per­cell of Flintshyre, and of the iurisdiction of S. Apsah, and in fertilitie of soyle, and bréede of Cattell, nothing inferiour vnto Anglesey hir moother: although that for quantitie of groūd it come infinitely short thereof, & be nothing cōparable vnto it. The last Island vpon ye cost of Wales, hauing now left Anglesey, is called Credine, & although it lye not properly with­in the compasse of my description,Credine. yet I will not let to touch it by the waye, sith the causey thither from Denbighlande, is commonly ouerflowen. It is partly made an Island by the Conwey & partly by the sea. But to pro­céede, when we had viewed this place, we pas­sed forth without finding any mo Isles to my remembraunce, vntill we came to the Cape of Isle Brée, or Hilbery & poynt of Wyrale,Hilbery. which is an Islande at the full sea, a quarter of a myle from the lande, and foure fadame déepe, as shippes boyes haue oft sounded, but at a lowe water, a man may go ouer on the sande. The Ile of it self is very sandy a mile in compasse, & well stored with Conies, thi­ther also went a sort of supersticious fooles in tymes past, in pylgrimage, to our Ladye of Hilbery by whose offrings a Cell of Monkes there, which belonged to Chester, were che­rished and maintayned.

The next Island vppon the coast of Eng­land is man,Man is supposed to be the first, as His tha is the last, of the Hebrides, and Hector Boethus noteth a difference betwéene them of 300. miles. Eubonia. Meuania. which the Welchmen doe com­monly call Manaw. It lieth vnder 53. degrées of Latitude, and 30. minuts, and hath in lon­gitude 16. degrées and 40. minutes, abutting on the North side vpō S. Nimans in Scotland, Furnessels on the East, Prestholme & An­glesey on the South, and Vlsther in Ireland on the West. It is greater then Anglesey by a thirde part, and there are two riuers in the same, whose heddes doe ioyne so néere, that they doe seeme in maner to part the Isle in twaine. Some of our auncient writers call it Eubonia and other Meuania, howbeit after Beda and the Scottish histories, the Meuaniae are those Isles which we now call the Hebri­des or Hebudes (whereof William Massme­bery Lib. 1. de regibus, will haue Anglesey to be one) wherfore it séemeth that a number of [Page] our late writers ascrybing the sayde name vnto Mona, haue not béene a little deceaued. In this Islande were sometime 1300. fami­lies, of which 960. were in the West halfe, & the reast in the other. But nowe thorow ioy­ning house to house, and lande to land, (a cō ­mon plague & canker, which wil eate vp al, if prouision be not made in tyme to withstande this mischiefe) that number is halfe dimini­shed, and yet many of the riche inhabiters want roume & wote not howe & where to be­stow themselues, to their quiet contentatiōs. Certes this impedimēt groweth not be rea­son that men were greater in body, then they haue beene in tyme past, but onlye for yt their insatiable desire of inlarging their priuate possessions increaseth still vpon them, & will doe more, except they be restrayned: but to returne to our purpose. The kings of Scot­lande had this Islande vnder their dominiō, almost from their first arriual in this Island, and as Beda sayeth till Edwine king of the Northumbers wanne it from them and vni­ted it to his kingdome. Hereof also I coulde bring better testimonie, for we finde that the kings of Scotlande, did not only giue lawes to such as dwelled there, but also from tyme to tyme, appoint such Byshoppes as shoulde exercise Ecclesiastical Iurisdictiō in ye same. Fnally how,Cronica Tine­muthi. after sundry sales bargains and cōtracts of Matrimony for I reade yt Williā Scroupe the kings Vicechamberleyne, did buy this Isle and crowne therof of the Lord Wil. Montacute Earle of Sarum) it came vnto ye auncestours of the Earles of Darby, who haue béene cōmonly sayd to be kings of Man, the hystorie folowing as I suppose shal more at large declare. Gyraldus noteth how there was contention sometyme betwéene the kings of Englande, and Irelande, for the ryght of this Islande, but in the ende when by a cōprimise the tryall of the matter was referred to the liues or deathes of such vene­mous Wormes as shoulde be brought in­to the same, and it was founde, that they dyed not at all, as the lyke doe in Irelande, sentence passed with the kyng of Englande, and so he retayned the Islande. But howsoe­uer this matter standeth, & whether any such thing was done at all or not, sure it is that the people of the sayde Isle, were much giuen to Witchcraft, and Sorcerie (which they lear­ned of the Scottes a people greatly bent to that horrible practise) insomuch that theyr women, woulde oftentimes sell winde to the mariners inclosed vnder certayne knots of thréede, with this iniunction, that they which bought the same, shoulde for a great gale vn­doe manye, and for the lesse a smaller num­ber.Tal [...] in ma [...] The stature of the men & also fertilitie of this Islande are much commended & for the latter supposed verye néere to be equall with that of Anglesey, in all commodities.

There are also these townes therin, as they come now to my remēbrance, Rushen Dun­glasse, Holme towne S. Brids, Bala Cury (ye by­shops house) S. Mich. S. Andrew, kirk christ, kirk Louel. S. Machees, kirke Santā, Pala salla, kirk S. Mary, kirk Cōcane, kirk Malu, & Home. But of all these Rushen with ye castel is the strōgest. It is also in recompēce of the common want of woode, indued wyth sundry prety waters,Riuers as first of all the burne that rysseth in north­side of warehill botomes, & branching out by southwest of kirke Santan, it séemeth to cut of a great part of the eastside thereof, from the residue of that Island. From those hylles also (but of the south halfe) commeth the Home and Homey, by a towne of the same name, in the verry mouth whereof, lieth the Pile, afore mencioned. They haue also the Bala passing by Bala cury, on the westside, and the Rame on the north, whose fall is named Ramesey hauen as I doe reade in Chronicles.

There are moreouer sundry great hylles therein as that wherupō S. Mathees standeth,Hilles. in the northeast parte of the Isle, a parcell whereof commeth flat south, betwéene kirke Louell, and kirke Mary, yéelding out of their botomes the water Bala, whereof I spake be­fore. Beside these and well toward the south part of the Isle, I finde the warehilles, which are extended almost, from the west coast o­uertwhart vnto the burne streame. It hath also sundrye hauens, as Ramsey hauen,Hauens by north, Laxam hauen, by east, Port Iris, by southwest, Port Home, and Port Michell, by west. In lyke sort there are diuers Islettes annexed to the same, as the Calf of man on the south, the Pile on the west, and finallye S. Michelles Isle, in the Gulf called Ranoths way, in the east. Moreouer the shéepe of thys countrye are excéeding huge, wel woolled,Calf of [...] The pyl [...] S. Michel­les Isle. Sheépe. Hogges Barnacl [...] and their tayles of such greatnesse as is almost incredible. In lyke sorte theyr hogges are in maner monstruous. They haue furthermore great store of Barnacles, bréeding vpō their coasts, (but yet not so great store as in Ire­land) and those (as there also) of olde shippes. Ores, Mastes, and such putryfied pytched stufe, as by wrecke hath happened to corrupt vpon that shore. Howbeit neyther the inha­bytantes of thys Isle,Barnacl [...] neyther fishe, nor fleshe. nor yet of Ireland can redily saye whether they be fish or fleshe, for although the religious there vsed to eate thē as fishe, yet elsewhere, some haue béene trou­bled, for eating them in times prohibited, as Heretikes, and Lollardes.

[Page 17] [...]ishop of [...]an.There hath sometime béene, and yet is a Byshop of this Isle, who at the first was cal­led Episcopus Sodorensis, when ye iurisdiction of all ye Hebrides belōged vnto him. Wheras now he yt is Byshop there, is but a Bishops shadow, for albeit yt he beare ye name of By­shop of Man, yet haue ye Earles of Darby, as it is supposed, al ye profite of his Sie, (sauing that they allowe him a little somewhat for a flourish) notwithstāding that they be hys pa­trons and haue hys nomination to that Sie. [...]atrone Man. It is subiect to the Byshoppe of Yorke also, for spirituall Iurisdiction, & in time of Henry the seconde had a king, as Houeden saith, whose name was Cuthrede vnto whome Vinianus ye Cardinall came as Legate. 1177. but sith I can neyther come by the names, nor successions of those Princes that reigned there, I surcesse to speake any more of them, and also of the Isle it selfe, whereof this may suffice.

After we haue in thus wise described the Isle of Man, with hyr commodities, we re­turned eastwardes back againe vnto ye point of Ramshed, where we founde to the number of sixe Islettes of one sorte and other, whereof the first greatest and most easterly, is named the Wauay. [...]auay. It runneth out in length, as wée gessed about fiue myles from the south into ye north, and betwéene the same and the maine lande lie two little ones, whose names I find not in anye writer so farre, as I remember. The fourth is called ye Fouldra, and bring sci­tuate southeast of the first, it hath a prety pile or blockhouse therin, which the inhabitaunts name the Pile of Fouldray. [...]uldra. [...]la. [...]a. By east thereof in lyke sort lye the Fola and the Roa, plottes of no great compasse, and yet of al these sixe, the first and Fowldra are the fayrest and mos [...] fruitefull. From hence we went by Rauen­glasse point, where lieth an Island of the same denomination, [...]auen­ [...]asse. as Reginalde Wolfe hath noted in his great Carde, not yet finished, nor lykely to be published. He noteth also two o­ther Islettes, betwéene the same & the mayne lande, but Lelande speaketh nothing of them, (to my remembrance,) neyther anye other Carde, as yet set foorth of England: and thus much of the Islands that lie vpon our shoore.

Hauing so exactlye as to me is possible, set downe the names & positions of such Isles as are to be found vpō the coastes of ye Quéenes maiesties dominions. Nowe it resteth yt we procéede orderly wyth those yt are séene to lye vpō the cost of Scotland, that is to say, in the Irish, the Deucalidon & the Germaines seas: But before we come at these, there are di­uers other to be touched, which are scituate betwéene the nuke of Galloway, & the Frith of Solue, whose names I find not as yet fel downe by any writer, neyther is their num­ber greate. Wherefore sith I may not doe in this their descriptiō what I would, I must be contented to doe therein what I may, and to ridde my hands of the one, that I may the sooner come vnto, and be dealing with the o­ther. The first of these therefore, lyeth ouer a­gaynst Dundrenaw, somewhat towarde the mouth of the streame, that goeth vnto Glan­kaire. The second is scituate in ye Dée, wher­in Trief Castell standeth:Trief. S. Mary Isle. by west whereof ly­eth S. Mary Isle, which is ouer against Whi­therne, or as we nowe call it Witherne, of which in our Englishe hystories we haue oft mention vnder the name of Candida Casa, whereof the learned are not ignoraunt. Beyonde these are two other lying togither, as it were in the mouth of the lowest docke, & from thence we passed directly rounde about, the aforesayde nuke, vnto Dumbritton fyrth, where we finde also nine or tenne Islandes, of dyuers quantities, wherof Ailze, or Aliza, is the first, & wherein is great plentye of the Soland foule, Cinuary the second, Bure the thirde, Marnoch the fourth, Pladua the fift, Lanlach the sixt, Arren or Botha, the seauenth, Sauday the eyght, and Olr the ninth: but of all these, one or two are only accounted famous, that is Arren the greatest of all, wherin stan­deth a towne of the same name, and Bure the next, in which Rosa is scituate: the reast are eyther vtterly barren, or not very commo­dious, except for fowle to such as owe the same. By this time also are we come to the poynt of Cantyre, 15. Miles betwéene Cantyre & the coast of De [...]mond. which is not passing fiftene or sixtene myles, distaunt from the coast of Irelande, so that next vnto these afore remē ­bred (and when we haue fetched in the afore­said poynt) we come vnto the Hebrides, which are reconned to be thrée and fourtie, in num­ber, besides the flattes and shallowes as I haue earst affirmed in the beginning of thys chapter.

Of these aforesayd Islands, I finde dyuers to be 30. myles, some twelue other more or lesse quantity, but Sky Mula Iona, & Ila, are the greatest, as shall appeare hereafter. Certes it is impossible for me, being a méere Eng­lyshman voyde of helpe & of small reading, to discusse the controuersies that are mooued among the learned, touching the Meuainae & the Hebrides, wherefore sith I am not able to deale so déepely with that matter, I will first shewe what Islandes doe lye vpon the west coastes of Scotlande betwéene Cantyre and Andermouth heade, giuing out onelye the names of the least (sith I know nothing els of their commodities and greatnesse) and then [Page] procéeding with the reast as they doe lie in order. First of all therefore and ouer against Kiltan, (for I will go by the shore) we haue Karay, then Gegay, S. Machare, and hys neighbour, Langa, Suinnay, Dunqu, Corsey Leawing, Cewil, Nawell, Caerbery, Lis­more, & Muke, which lyeth at the very point, of Andermouth, ouer against Mere [...]ourtene in all. From hence going westwarde, wée come to the Terry and the Coll, and then en­tring in among the reast, by Earndeburge, Vlwaye, or Oronsay, Cola [...]say, & Iona minor we come at the last to Scarbo, Corebricken, Houell, al which thus mencioned, of the least are counted ye greatest, & yet there are sundry other, of whose names I haue no knowledge. In thys tracte also, there are yet thrée to in­treate of,Ila. as Ila, Iona & Mula, of which the first is one of the most, that hath not bene least ac­counted of. It is not much aboue 30 myles in length, & twenty in breadth, & yet it is an ex­céeding riche plot of grounde very plenteous of corne, but more ful of mettals, which were easie to be obteyned, if either the people were industrious, or the soyle yéeldable of woode to fine and trye out the same.

Iona. Iona was sometime called Columkill, In fame and estimation, nothing inferiour to any of the other, although in length it excéede little aboue twentie myles, and in breadth, 10. for by reason of a famous Abbie somtime buylded there by Fergus the seconde, it hath bene countenaunced out by the sepulchres of so many kings, as deceased in Scotlād, after the sayde Fergus, vntil the tyme of Malcoline Cammor, who by buylding another Abbey, at Dunfermeling, gaue occasion to hys suc­cessours to be interred there.

Mula. Mula is a ryght noble Isle, replenished wyth dyuers and sundry townes, and castels, as are also the other two, albeit their names at thys tyme be not at hand & ready. This yet is worth the noting in this Islande aboue all the rest, that it hath a pleasant spring, arising two myles in distaunce from the shore, wher­in are certayne lyttle egges founde, much like vnto indifferent Pearles, both for colour and bryghtnesse, and thereto full of thicke hu­mour, which egges being carried by violence of ye fresh water, vnto the salt, are there with­in the space of 12, houres conuerted into great shelles, which I take to be the mother pearle except I be deceyued. And thus much brief­lye of the seauen and twentye greatest Isles, lying within the aforesayde compasse, be­ing driuen of force to omitte the lesser onely, for that I neyther fynd theyr names, among the Scottishe writers, neyther to saye the truth directlye vnderstande howe manye be flattes, and howe manye be couered with grasse: To procéede therefore by north of An­dermouth we haue Egge, Ron, Cānay, Flad, Trantnesse, (where is a castell,) Trant, Al­tauecke, another Flad, Rona, and Scalpa, beside sundrye smaller, whose names I doe not knowe, & all these doe enuyron the grea­test of all, called Sky,Skye. in which are dyuers townes, as Aye, S. Iohns, Dunwegen, and S. Nicholas, beside other, and thereunto sun­dry lakes, and freshe streames, and those not withoute great abundaunce of Samon and sundry other fishe, whereby the inhabitaunts of those partes doe reape no small aduaun­tage. Furthermore & by west of these lye di­uers other percels also of this number, of which, if you looke to here an orderly reporte you shall vnderstande that I will beginne at the most southerly of them, and so procéede, with eche one in order, so well as my know­ledg doth serue me. First of al therfore, there are foure little Islandes, of which one called Erth, another Scail are ye greatest.Erth. Scaill. Bawa [...] S. Pete [...] Isle. Hirth [...] Eust. Next vn­to these and directly towarde the north lyeth Baway, then S. Peters Isle, in the east side, whereof are thrée small ones, whose names I haue not yet learned. Next of al is the Eust or Hirtha, which séemeth by certaine riuers, to be deuided into four partes, of which the the first hath a towne called S. Columbanes in ye north side thereof, ye second another dedi­cated to S. Mary, & the fourth (for I find no­thing of ye third) one named after S. Patricke, by west wherof, lyeth yet a lesse, not greatly frequēted of any. By north of this also are 3. other, of lyke quantity, and then followeth Lewis, scituate in the Deucalidon sea,Lewis▪ called Thule [...] Tacitus with [...] better [...] thoriti [...] then he named [...]tglesey [...]na. ouer a­gainst the Rosse, and called Thule, by Taci­tus, wherein are many lakes, and very pret­tye Villages, as lake Erwijn, lake Vnsal­sago: but of townes, S. Clements, Stoye, Noys, S. Colombane, Radmach &c. About thys are also diuers other Isles, of lesse quā ­titye found, as Scalpay, Ilen, Schent, Bar­ray the more, Barraye the lesse, S. Kylder, & other of smaller reputation, wherof the most parte are voyde of culture and inhabitantes, and therefore not worthye to be remembred here. This finallye is left to be sayd of these Isles, that albeit Leuissa, be the greatest of them, and conteyning thréescore myles, in length, and thirtie in breadth, yet Hirtha, or Hirth, is the most famous, for the shéepe which are there bredde, and is therefore cal­led Shepy of the wylde Iryshe. Certes, the stature of these shéepe is greater and higher, thē of any fallowe déere, their tailes hanging downe to the grounde, and their hornes lon­ger & thicker then those of any Bugle. Vnto [Page 18] thys Islande also in the Moneth of Iune; (when the seas be most calme) there com­meth a Priest out of Lewissa, & minystreth the sacramēt of Baptisme to all such childrē as haue béene borne there, and the Islandes about sith that moneth in the yeare passed. This being done, and his appointed num­ber of Masses saide, he receyueth the tythes of all theyr commodities, and then returneth home againe the same way he came.

[...]na. Rona the last of the Hebrides, is dystant, as I saide, about fouretie mile from the Or­chades, and one hundredth and thirtye, from the Promontorye of Dungisbe. The coast of thys Isle is dayly replenished with Seale, and Porpasse, which are eyther so tame, or so fierce, that they abash not at the sight of such as looke vpon them, neyther make they any haste to flye out of theyr presence. Aboue the Hirth also is another Islande, though not inhabited, wherin is a certeine kind of wilde beaste, not much different frō the figure of a shéepe, but so wilde that it will not easilye be tamed. For theyr gry [...]ning also they are re­puted to be a kynde of bastarde Tyger. As for theyr heaire it is betweene the wooll of a shéepe, and heaire of a goate, somewhat re­sembling eche, shacked, and yet absolutely like vnto neyther of both.

[...] Shot [...] IslesThere are also other Isles, an hundreth myles beyond the Orchades, towarde east northeast, and subiect to scotlande, wherin is neyther corne, nor anye vse of flesh, although they haue store of sundrye sortes of cattell a­mongst them. But in stead of bread, they drie a kinde of fishe, which they beate in morters to powder, and bake it in theyr Ouens, vntill it be hearde and drye. Theyr fewell also is of such bones as the fishe yéeldeth that is taken on theyr coastes, and yet they lyue as themselues suppose in much felicitie, think­ing it a great péece of theyr happynesse to bée so farre distaunt from the wicked aua rice, & cruell dealings of the world. As for theyr ry­ches and commodities, they al consist in the skinnes of bestes, as of Oxē, Shéepe, Gotes, Marternes, and such like, wherof they make great reconing. Herin also they are lyke vn­to ye Hirthiens; in yt at one time of the yeare, there commeth a priest vnto them, out of the Orchades (vnto which Iurisdiction they doe belong) who Baptiseth all such children, as haue bene borne among them, sith he last ar­riued: and hauing afterward remained there for a few dayes, he taketh his tythes of them (which they prouide & pay with great serupu­lositie in fishe, for of other commodities pay they none) and then returneth home againe, not without boast of his troublesome voyage, except he watch his time. In these Isles also is great plēty of fine Amber to be had, which is producted by the working of the sea, vpon th [...]se coastes: howbeit, after what name these Isles be called particulerly and how many there be of them in all, the Scottes themsel­ues are eyther ignoraunt, or not so diligent, as to make any constant mention.

The Orchades, lie partly in the Germaine,Orchades. and partly in the Calidon seas, ouer agaynst the poynt of Dunghisby, beyng in number, thirtie one of name, & belonging to ye crowne of Scotlande, as are the reast whereof here tofore I haue made report, since we crossed ouer the mouth of the Solueie streame, to come into this countrye. Certes the people of these Islands are of goodly stature, tall, ve­rye comelye, healthfull, of long lyfe, great strength, and most whyte coulour: and yet they féede most vpon fishe onely, sith the cold is so extréeme in those parts, that the ground bringeth forth but smal store of Wheate, & in maner very litle or no fewell at al, to warme them in the winter. Otes they haue verye plentifull, but greater store of Barly, wher­of they make a nappye kinde of drinke, and such in déede, as will verye readilye cause a strāger to forget himself. Howbeit this may be vnto vs, a in lieu of a myracle, yt although theyr drinke be neuer so strong, & they them­selues so immeasurable drinkers (as none are more) yet it shal not easily be séene, that there is any drunckarde among them, either fran­tike, or madde mā, dolt, or natural foole, méete to were a cockescomb. In like sort they want venemous beastes, chiefly such as doe delyte in hotter soile. Theyr Ewes also are so full of increase, that some doe vsuallye bring foorth two, thrée, or foure lambes at once, whereby they account our anclings (which are such as bring foorth but one at once) rather to be bar­ren then kept for any gaine. As for wyld and tame fowles, they haue such plentie of them, that the people there account them rather a burthen to theyr soyle, then a benefite to their tables. There is also a Bishop of the Orcha­des, who hath his Sie, in Pomonia the chiefe of al the Islands, wherin also are two strong castelles, and such hath béen the supersticion of the people here, that there is almost no one of them, that hath not one church at the least dedicated to the moother of Christ. Finallye there is little vse of Phisicke in these quar­ters, lesse store of Eles, and least of frogges. As for ye horses that are bred amongst them, they are commonlye not much greater then Asses, and yet to labour and trauaile, a man shall finde very fewe elsewhere, able to come néere, much lesse to matche with them, in [Page] holding out their labours.

From the Orchades vntill we come south­wardes to the Scarre, which lyeth in Buqu­hamnesse, I finde no mention of any Isle sci­tuate vpon that coast, neyther greatly from thence, vntill we come at the forth, that lea­deth vp to Sterling, wherein we passe by se­uen or eyght such as they be, of which the first called the May, the seconde Baas and Gar­wy, the third doe séeme to be inhabited. From these also holding on our course towarde En­gland, we passe by another yle, wherin Faux castell standeth, and this so farre as my skill serueth is the last Island of the Scottish side, in compassing whereof I am not able to dis­cerne, whether their flattes and shallowes, number of Islandes without name, confusion of scituation, lacke of true descriptiō, or mine owne ignoraunce hath troubled me most. No marueyle therefore that I haue béene so oft on ground, among them. But most ioyful am I yt am come home againe: & although not by ye Thames mouth into my natiue citie (whi­che taketh his name of Troye) yet into ye En­glishe dominion where good entertaynement is much more franke and copious, and better harborow, wherein to rest my wery bones, & easily refreshe my wetherbeaten carkase.

The first Island therfore, which commeth to our sight, after we passed Barwuc, is that which was sometime called Lindefarne,Lindes­farne or holy Iland but now Holly Islande, and contayneth 8. myles a place much honoured among our Monasti­call writers, bycause diuers monkes & Here­mites dyd spende theyr times therein. There was also the Byshoppes Sée of Lindefarne, for a long season, which afterwarde was trā ­slated to Dunelme or Durham. Next vnto this is the Isle of Farne,Farne. and herein is a place of defence so farre as I remember, & so great store of Egges layed there by diuers kindes of Wildfoule in time of the yere, that a man shall hardly runne for a wager on the plaine groūd without the breach of many be­fore his race be finished.Puffins. About Farne also lie certayne yles greater then Farne it self, but voyde of inhabitaunts & in these also is great store of Puffins, graie as Duckes, and with­out couloured fethers, sauing that they haue a white ring round about their neckes. There is moreouer another Birde, which the peo­ple call sainct Cuthbertes foules, a very tame and gentle creature,S. Cuth­bertes foules. and easie to be taken. Af­ter this we came to the Cocket Islād, so cal­led bycause it lyeth ouer agaynst the fall of cocke water. And here is a vayne of meane seacole, which the people digge out of the shore at the low water. And from thence vn­till we came vnto the cost of Norfolke I saw no mo Islands. Being therefore past S. Ed­monds point, we saw a litle Isle ouer against the fall of the water that commeth frō Holk­ham, and likewyse an other ouer against the Clay, before we came at Waburne hope: the thirde also in Yarmouth ryuer ouer agaynst Bradwell a towne in low or little England, wherof also I must néedes say somewhat, by­cause it is in maner an Island, and as I gesse eyther hath béene or may be one, for the bro­dest place of the Strict lande that leadeth to the same, it little aboue a quarter of a myle, which against the raging waues of the sea, can make but smal resistence.Litle [...] ­land. Litle England or low Englande therefore is about 8. miles in length and foure in bredth, very well re­plenished with townes, as Fristan, Burgh castel, Olton, Flixtō, Lestoft, Gu [...]tō, Blund­ston, Corton, Lownd, Asheby, Hoxton, Bel­ton, Bradwel, & Gorleston, and beside this it is very fruitfull and indued with all commo­dities. Going forwarde from hence, by the Estonnesse (almost an Islande,) I sawe a small percell cut from the maine in Orforde hauen, ye Langerstone in Orwell mouth, two péeces or Islettes at Cattywade Bridge, thē casting about vnto ye Colne, we beholde Mer­sey which is a pretie Islande, well furnished with wood. It was somtime a great recepta­cle for the Danes, when they inuaded En­glande, howbeit at this present it hath beside two decaied Blockhouses, two Parish chur­ches of wich one is called East Mersey, the other west Mersey & both vnder the Archdea­con of Colchester as percell of his iurisdictiō,Fowl [...] Fowlnesse is an Isle voyde of wood, & yet wel replenished with very good grasse for nette and shéepe, whereof the inhabitaunts haue great plentie: there is also a Parish church, and albeit that it stande somewhat distaunt from the shore, yet at a dead low water a man ryde thereto if he be skilfull of the Cawsie.

In Maldon water are in lyke sorte thrée Islands, enuironned with the salt streames,Ouscy. North [...] as S. Osithes, Northey and another (after a mershe) that beareth no name so far as I re­member. On the right hand also as we went toward the sea againe, we saw Ramsey Isle,Ramsey or rather a Peninsula or Bylande,Key. and like­wyse the Rey, in which is a Chappell of S. Peter. And then coasting vpō the mouth of ye Bourne, we saw ye Wallot Isle & his mates, wherof two lye by East of Wallot, and the forth is Foulnesse, excepte I be deceyued, for here my memorye fayleth me, on the one side and information on the other, I meane cōcerning ye placing of foulnesse. But to pro­céede, after this and being entered into the Thames mouth, I finde no Islande of anye [Page 19] name, except you [...] Rochford hundred for one, whereof I haue no [...], more then of C [...]wland, M [...]r [...]and, Ely, and the reast, th [...] are franted by the Ouze [...] Auon (two noble riuers herafter to be [...]) sith I touth only those that are [...] on­ned with the sea, or salt water, as wée maye sée in the Canway Isles, [...]anway. [...] s [...]me do [...]sken to an I poora s [...] b [...]g, some he [...] vice, [...], or wide [...], bycause they are very small at the [...]ast end, and large at west. The salte & [...]es also that crosse the same doe so seperate the one of that [...] the other, that they resemble the slope course of the [...] part of a s [...]rew or gimlet, in very parfite [...] ­ [...]er, if a man ode imagine [...] downe strain the [...] top of the [...] vppon them. Betwéene th [...]se, more [...] into the Leighe towne lyeth another little Isle, whose name is to me vnknowen. Cetes I woulde [...] gone to and [...] and viewed these per [...]elles as they lay, but forasmuch as a Pe [...]ry of wind [...] (scarse cōparable to the [...]a [...]erell gale wher­of Iohn A [...]c [...], one of the best sean̄ that [...]ng­land euer bredde, was [...] to talke) caught holde of our sayles, and caryed vs forth the right way toward London, I coulde not t [...]y to sée what thinges were [...] much therefore of our Islandes, and so much may well suffice.

Of the rysing and falles of such ryuers and streames, as descende into the sea with­out alteration of their names, and first of those that lye betweene the Thames and the Sa­uerne. Cap. 9.

HAuing as you haue séene attempted to set downe a full discourse of all the Is­landes, that are scituate vppon the coast of Britayne, and finding the successe not corres­pondent to myne intent, it hath caused mée somewhat to restrayne my purpose in thys description of our riuers. For whereas I en­tended at the first to haue written at large, of the number, scituation, names, quantities, Townes, Villages, Castles, Mountaynes, Fresh waters, Plashes, or Lakes, Salt wa­ters, and other commodities of the aforesayd Isles, myne expectation of information from all partes of Englande, was so deceyued in the ende, that I was fayne at last, onelye to leane to that which I knewe my selfe eyther by reading or such other helpe as I had al­ready purchased and gotten of the same. And euen so it happeneth also in this my tracta­tiō of waters, of whose heads, courses, lēgth, bredth, depth of Chanell (for burden) ebb [...], flow [...]ges, and falles, I had thought to haue made a perfect descriptiō. But now for want of instruction, which hath béene largelye pro­mised, and sl [...]ckly perfourmed, and other so­dayne and [...]rious denyall of helpe volun­tarily off [...]ed, wythout occasion gyuen [...] part, I [...] néedes content my self with such obseruations as I haue eyther obtayned by myne [...] experience, or gathered frō tyme to tyme out of other [...] writings: wherby the full discourse of the whole is vtterly cut of, and in stéede of the same a mangled re­hearsall of the residue, set downe and left in memori [...]. Wherefore I beséech your Honour to pardon this imperfect [...] and rudenesse of my labour, which notwithstanding is not al­togither in vayne, sith my errors may pr [...] a spurre [...] the better [...], eyther too cor­rect, or inlarge where [...], or at the least wi [...]e to take [...] a more absolute péece of wor [...]e as better direction shall enco­rage them thereto. The entraunce and be­ginning of euery thing is the hardest, and hée that beginneth well hath atchieued halfe hys purpose. The Ise my Lorde is broken, and from henceforth it wil be more easie for such as shall come after to wade through with the reast, sith facile est inuētis a [...]ere, and to con­tinue and [...]nishe, is not so great a [...] in [...] and laye the founda­tion or [...] of any noble péece of work­manshippe though it be but rudely handled. But to my purpose as I began at ye Thames in any description of Islandes,Thamesis. so will I now do the [...]ide with that of riuers: making m [...]e entrie at the sayde ryuer it selfe, which hath his heade or beginning out of the side of an hyll, standing in the playnes of Cotteswolde, about one mile from Tetbury néere vnto the Fosse (an hygh waye so called of olde) where it was sometyme named Isis or the Ouse, al­thoughe dyuers doe ignorauntlye call it the Thames, euen there, rather of a foolishe cu­stome then of anye skill, bycause they eyther neglect or vtterly are ignoraunt, how it was named at the first. From hence it runneth di­rectly toward the east, where it méeteth with the Cyrne or Churne, (a brooke called in latin Corinium) whereof Cyrnecester towne by which it commeth doth take the name.Corinium. From hence it hasteth to Créekelade (alias Crekan­ford) Lechlade, Radcotebridge, Newbridge, & Eusham (receiuing by the way an infinit sort of small streames, brookes, beckes, waters, & rundelles) & here on this side of the towne de­uiding it selfe into two courses, of which the one goeth strayght to Botley, and Hinksey, the other by God [...]ow, a village not farre of. This latter spreadeth it selfe also for a whyle [Page] into sundry smaller braunches, which runne not farre eare they be reunited, and then be­clipping sundry pleasaunt meadowes, it pas­seth at length by Oxeforde, where it méeteth with the Charwell,Charwell. and a little from whence the originall branches doe ioyne agayne and go togither by Abbandune (or Abington, as we call it,) although no part of it at the first came so néere the Towne as it doth n [...]w,Some write that the maine streame was brou­ght thither which ran before be­twene In­ [...]ersey and Culenham till a braunch thereof was led thyther from the mayne streame, through the industrie of the monkes as (beside the testimonie of olde re­cordes thereof yet extant to be séene) by the decay of Dorchester it self, somtime the com­mō thorowfare from Wales, and the West countrey to London, which insurd vpon this fac [...], is easie to bée séene. From hence it go­eth to Dorchester and so to Thame, where ioyning with a riuer of the same denomina­tion,If Oxford it selfe be not to bee called Duseford thereof. Pontium. it loseth the name of Isis or Ouse, wher­of Duseney at Oxeforde is producted) and frō thēceforth is called Thamesis. From Thame it goeth to Walling forde and so to Reading, which some of the number of Bridges there doe call Pontium, albeit that the Englishe name doe procéede rather from Rhe, or Rée the Saxon word for a water course or riuer which may be séene in Ouerée or Sutherey,S. Mary ouer Rhée. for ouer the Rée or South of the Rhe as the skilfull can coniecture. But howsoeuer that matter standeth after it hath passed by Rea­ding,Kenet. and there receyued the Kenet, which commeth from the hilles that lye West of Marleborough,Thetis. and then the Thetis, com­monly called the Tyde that commeth from the Thetisforde; it hyeth to Sudlington, or Maydenheade, and so to Wyndleshore (or Windsore) Eaton & then to Chertsey, where Erkenwalde Bishoppe of London, somtime buylded a religious House, as I doe reade. From Chertseye it hasteth dyrectlye vnto Stanes, and receyuing an other streame by the waye,Cole. called the Cole, (whereupon Col­brooke standeth) it goeth by Kingstone Shene Sion, and Brentforde, where it méeteth the Brane or the Brene, another Brooke discen­ding from Edgeworth whose name signifieth a Frogge, in the Brittish speache. Vppon thys also Sir Iohn Thinne, had sometyme a stately house wyth marueylous prouision to inclose and retayne such fishe as shoulde come about the same. From Brentfoorde it passeth by Mortlach,Brene. Putney, Fulham, Bat­tersey, Chelsey, Lambeth, and so to London. Finallye going from thence vnto the sea, it taketh the Lée wyth it by the waye vpon the Coast of Essex, and the Darnt vpō Kentside, which riseth néere to Tanrige, and commeth by Shoreham,Darwent. vnto Derntforde, whereunto the Cray falleth:Cray. And lest of all the mydway a notable ryuer, (in mine opinion) which wa­tereth all the South, and Southwest part of Kent, and whose description is not to be omit­ted in his place.

Thus we sée the whole tract and course of ye Thames by whose head and fall, it is euident that the length therof is at the least, one hun­dreth and eighty miles, if it be measured by ye iourneyes of the land. And as it is in course, the longest of the thrée famous riuers of thys Isle, so it is nothing inferiour vnto them, in abundance of all kinde of fishe, whereof it is harde to say, which of them haue eyther most plentie, or greatest varietie, if the circumstā ­ces be duely weighed. What should I speake of the fat and swéete Samons,Sa [...] dayly taken in this streame, & that in such plentye, as no ry­uer in Europa, is able to excéede it, but what store also of Barbelles, Troutes, Chenins, Pearches, Smelts, Breames, Roches,Roch [...] Shrimps & [...] Floūders the be [...]. Da­ces, Gudgins, Floūders, Shrimps, Eles &c. are commōly to be had therein, I referre me to them, that knowe the same by experience. And albeit it séemeth from time to time, to be as it were defrauded in sundrye wise, of these hir large commodities, by the insociable aua­rice of ye fishermen yet this famous ryuer cō ­playneth of no w [...]nte, but the more it looseth at one tyme, the more it yéeldeth at another. Onely in Carpes it séemeth to bée scant,Carpes fishe [...] brought into E [...] ­land, [...] later [...] the Th [...] mes. sith it is not long finde that kynde of fishe was brought ouer into Englande, and but of late to speake of, into this streame by the violent rage of sundry Landfloudes, that brake open the heades and dammes of dyuers Gentle­mens pondes, by which meanes it became pertaker also of this said commoditie, where­of [...]arst it had no portion that I coulde euer heare of.

Furthermore the sayde riuer floweth and [...]lleth all his channels twyse in the daye and night, that is in euery 12. houres once,South west, [...] north [...] make [...] sea at [...] full and chaung doth hyerst tyd [...] which [...] call [...] tides. The [...] dista [...] bet [...] one tyd [...] another. & thys ebbing and flowing, holdeth on for the space of seauentye miles, within the mayne lande: the streame or tyde, being alwayes hyghest at Londō, when the Moone doth exactly touch the northeast and south or west pointes, of the heauens, of which one is visible, the other vn­der the earth, and not subiect to our sight.

These tydes also differ in their tymes eche one comming latter then other, by so manye mynutes as passe ere the reuolucion and na­turall course of the heauens doe reduce, and bring about the sayde Plannet, vnto those hir former places: whereby the common dif­ference betwéene one tyde and another, is founde to consist of twentye foure mynutes, which wāteth but twelue of an whole houre; [Page 20] in 24 as experience doth confirme.

This order of flowing likewise is parpetu­all,The [...] came oft [...]ecked in [...] entrāce to the [...]nd. except rough winds doe happen to checke the streame in hir comming, or else some o­ther occasion, put by the ordinary course of the Northern seas, which fyll the sayde ryuer by their naturall returne and flowing. And that both these doe happen eft among, I re­ferre me to such as haue not sildome obserued it. For sometime the huge wind kepeth back a great part of the floudde, whereby the tyde is differred (though neuer altogyther put by) and sometyme there happen thrée or foure tydes in one naturall daye, whereof the vn­skilful do descant many things. I would here make mencion of sundry bridges placed ouer this noble streame,London [...]ridge. of which that of London is most chiefly to be cōmended, for it is man­ner a continuall Stréete, well replenished with large and statelye houses on both sides, & scituate vpon twentie Arches, whereof eche one is made of excellent frée squared stone, e­uery of theym being thréescore fote in height, and full twentie in distaunce one from ano­ther.

In lyke maner I coulde intreat of the infi­nite number of swannes dayly to be séene vp­pon thys riuer, [...]000. wher [...]es vpon [...]he thames [...]nd 3000. [...]ooremen maintained [...]y ye same whose [...]ams come [...] most plē ­ [...]ly in the [...]erme time the two thousand. Whirries and small bots, whereby thrée thousand poore watermen are maintained, through the cari­age and recariage, of such persons as passe, or repasse, from tyme to tyme vppon the same: beside those huge tyde botes, tiltbotes & barges, which eyther carry passengers, or bryng necessary prouision, from all quarters of Oxefordshyre, Barkeshyre, Bucking­hamshyre, Bedfordeshyre, Herfordeshyre, Mydellsex, Essex, Surry and Kent, vnto the Citie of London. But forsomuch as these thynges are to be repeated againe in the particuler discription of London, annexed to hys Carde. I sucesse at this tyme to speake any more of them as also of the ryuer it self, wherefore let thys suffyse.

Midway.Next vnto the Thames we haue the mid­way water, which falleth into the mayne sea at Shepey. It ariseth Warde forrest in Sus­sex, and when it is come so farre as Whethe­lin towne,Dunus. it méeteth a little by north thereof, with the Done, which descendeth from wa­terdon forrest, and from whence they go on togyther, as one by Ashehirst, where hauing receyued also the seconde brooke, it hasteth to Pēsherst, & there carrieth with all the Eden, that commeth from Lingfielde parke. After thys it goeth into the South east parte of Kent,Frethus. and taketh with it the Frith or Firth, on the north west syde, and an other lyttle streame that commeth from the hylles, be­twéene Peuenbury and Horsemon, on the south est.Thrise. From thence also & not farre from Yalling it receiueth the Theise (a pretye streame that riseth about Theise Hirst) and afterwarde the Gran or crane,Grane alias Cranus. which hauing hys heade not farre from Cranbrooke, and méeting with sundry other reuellettes by the way, whereof one braunche of Theise is the last, (for it parteth at the Twist, and inclu­deth a prety Islande) doth ioyne with the said Medway, a litle aboue Yalding, & then with the Lowse. Finally at Maidstone, it méeteth wyth another brooke, whose name I knowe not, and then passeth by Allington, Dutton, Newhide, Halling, Cuckestane, Rofchester, Chattham, Gillingham, Vpchurch, Kings­ferry, and falleth into the maine sea, betwene Shepey and the Grane.

Some saye that it is called mydway water because it falleth into the sea mydway, be­twéene the north foreland and London: yet some not hauing anye such consideration, doe name it the Medow streame, whereof I thought good also to leaue this short admoni­tion.

After the Midway whose discription I haue partely gathered out of the Leland, and part­ly out of Maister Lamberts perambulatō of Kēt,Sturus. we haue ye Stoure that riseth at Kinges­woode which is fourtéene or fiftéene myles, frō Canterbury. This riuer passeth by Ashe­forde, Wie, Nackington, Canterbury, For­dish, Standish, and Sturemouth,Nailburne water also as I heare about Cant warbiry, but I wote not wherabou [...]. where it receyueth another ryuer, which hath 3. bran­ches, wherof one called Bredge goeth by Bi­ships bourne, the other named Wyham, be­ginneth about Adham, and the thirde (name­lesse) rūneth by Staple to Wingham. After­warde our Stoure or Sture parteth it selfe in twaine, and in such wyse that one arme thereof goeth towarde the North, and is cal­led (when it commeth at the sea) the North­mouth of Stoure, the other runneth South­east warde vp to Rycheborow & so to Sand­wiche, from whence it goeth Northeast a­gayne & falleth into the sea. The issue of this latter tract is called the hauen of Sandwiche and peraduenture the streame that commeth downe thither, after the diuisiō of the Stoure,Wantsome. may be the same, which Beda calleth Want­some, but as I cānot vndo this knot at will, so this is certaine, that the Stoure on the one side, and peraduenture, the Wantsome on the other parteth & cutteth the Tenet from the maine lande of Kent, wherby it is left for an Island and so replenished with townes, as I haue notified before, in ye chapter that spea­keth of our Islandes.

There are other little Brookes, which fall [Page] into the Stoure of which Lelande speaketh, as Fishpoole becke, that aryseth in Stone­hirstwood and méeteth with it foure myles from Canterbury: an other beginneth at Chiselet, & goeth into the Stoure gut, which sometime inclosed Thanet, as Leylande saieth, the thirde issueth out of the grounde at Northburne (where Eadbert of Kent some time past held his pallace &) runneth to Sād­wich hauen, as the sayde Au [...]thor reporteth, & the fourth called Bridge water that ryseth by S. Marie Burne church, & méeteth with Canterbury water at Stourmouth: also Wyham that ryseth aboue Wyham, and falleth into Bredge water at▪ Dudmyll, or Wenderton: but sith they are eyther obscure or namelesse & there to not reseruing there names till they come at the sea, I passe them ouer as not to be touched here. From hence vnto Douer I finde no streame by reason of the Clyffes, that enuironne the sayde coast: howbeit vpon the South side of Douer there is a pretie fresh ryuer, whose head aryse [...]h at Erwell, not passing foure myles from the sea,Dour. and of some is called Dour, which in the Brittishe tongue is a common name for all waters. And thereof also it is lykely that the towne and Castell of Douer dyd sometyme take the name.Parenthesis From hence we go towarde the Camber, (omitting paraduenture here and there sundrye small Créekes, & Beckes, by the way) whereabouts the Rother, a noble riuer falleth into ye sea.Rother. This Rother hath his head in Sussex not far from Argas hill néere to Waterden forrest, and from thence direc­teth his course vnto Rotherfield. After this it goeth to Ethlingham or Hitchingham, and so forth by Newendon vnto Matthamferry, where it deuided it selfe in such wise, that one braunche thereof goeth to Appledour (where it méeteth wt the Bily that ryseth about Bil­sington) the other by Iden,Bily. so that it inclu­deth a fine percell of grounde called Oxney, which in times past was reputed as a percell of Sussex, but now vpon some occasion or o­ther, it is annexed vnto Kent. From hence also growing into some greatnesse, it run­neth to Rie, where it méeteth finally with the Becke,Becke. which commeth from Beckley, so that the plot wherein Rye standeth, is in ma­ner a Bylande or Peninsula, as experience doth confirme. Lelande and most men are of the opinion that this ryuer shoulde be called the Limene, Limenus. howbeit in our time it is knowen by none other name, then the Rother or Ap­pledour water, whereof let this suffice.

Being thus crossed ouer to the West side of Rye hauen, and in viewing the issues that fal into the same, I méete first of all with a wa­ter that groweth of two brookes, which come downe by one Chanell into the east side of the mouth of the sayde Port. The first therefore that falleth into it, descendeth from Beckley or thereabouts, as I take it, the next runneth along by Pesemarsh, and soone after ioyning withall, they holde on as one, till they fall into the same at the Westerly side of Rye. The third streame commeth from the North, and as it mounteth vp not farre from Munfield, so it runneth betwéene Sescamb and Wac­lington neere vnto Bread, taking another rill with all that ryseth as I heare not very farre from Westfield. There is likewyse a fourth that groweth of two heades, betwéene I [...]lingham and Pet, & going by Winchelsey it meeteth withall about Rye hauen, so that Winchelsey standeth enuironned on three partes with water, and the streames of these two that I haue last rehearsed.

The water that falleth into the Ocean, a myle by Southwest of Hastinges or thera­bouts, is called Aestus or Asten,Aestus. and rising not farre from Penhirst, it méeteth with the sea, as I heare by East of Hollington.Buluer­hithe. Buluer­hithe is but a créeke as I remember serued with no backewater, and so I heare of Cod­ding or olde hauen, wherfore I meane not to touche them.

Into Peuensey hauen diuers waters doe resort,Peuensey & of these that which entereth into the same on the East side ryseth out from two heades, whereof the most easterly is called Ashe, the next vnto it the Burne, and vniting themselues not farre from Asheburne,Ashe Burne. they continue their course vnder the name and title of Asheburne water as I reade. The se­conde that commeth thereinto ryseth also of two heades, wherof the one is so many miles from Boreham, the other not farre from the Parke east of Hellingstowne, and both of thē cōcurring Southwest of Hirstmowsen, they direct their course toward Peuēsey (beneath which they méete wyth an other rysing at Foyngton) and thence go in one chanell for a myle or more, tyll they fall togither into the Peuensey hauen.

The Cuckmer issueth out at seuerall pla­ces,Cucom [...] and hereof the more easterly braunch cō ­meth from Warbleton ward, the other from Bishoppes wood, and méeting beneath Hal­ling they runne in one bottome by Micham Arlington, Wellington, olde Frithstan and so into the sea.

Vnto the water that cōmeth out at New­hauen sundry Brookes & Riuerettes doe re­sorte,Isis nifa­lor. but the chiefe head ryseth towarde the West somewhat betwéene Etchinforde and Shepley as I here. The first water therfore [Page 21] that falleth into the same on the east side, is­sueth out of the grounde about Vertwood, & running from thence by Langhtō and Ripe, on the West side, it falleth into the aforesayd ryuer beneath Forle and Glyme, or thrée myles lower then Lewys, if the other buttal lyke you not. The next hervnto hath his head in Argas hill, the thirde descendeth frō Ashe­don forrest, and ioyning with the last mentio­ned, they crosse the maine ryuer a little be­neath Isefield. The fourth water commeth from Ashedon forrest by Horsted Caines (or Ousestate Caines) and falleth into the same, lykewyse East of Linfield. Certes I am de­ceyued if this ryuer be not called Isis, after it is past Isefield. [...]turewell. The fift ryseth about Stor­uelgate, and méeteth also wyth the maine streame aboue Linfield, & these are knowen to lye vpon the right hande as we rowed vp the ryuer. On the other side are onely two, whereof the first hath his originall néere vn­to Wenefield, and holding on his course to­warde the East, it méeteth with his maister betwéene Newicke and Isefield, or Ifield as some reade it. The last of all commeth from Plimodune or Plumpton, [...]imus. and hauing met in like sort with the maine riuer about Bar­cham, it runneth forth with it, and the rest in one chanell by Barcham, Hamsey, Malling, Lewys, Piddingburne, and so forth into the maine sea.

[...].The next ryuer that we came vnto West of Brighthemston is the Sore, which not­withstanding I finde to be called Brember water, in the auncient Mappe of Marton Colledge in Oxforde: but in such sorte (as I take it) as the Rother is called Appledour streame, bycause of the sayd towne that stan­deth therevpon. But to procéede, it is a plea­saunt water, and thereto if you consider the scituation of his armes, and braunches from the higher groundes, very much resembling a fower stringed whip. Wherabout the head of this riuer is, or which of these braunches may safely be called Sora, from the rising, in good sooth I can not say, for after we had pas­sed nyne or tenne myles thereon vp into the lande, sodainly the crosse waters stopped vs, so that we were inforced to turne either east or west, for directly forth ryght we had no way to go. The first arme on the ryght hand as we went, ryseth out of a Parke by South of Alborne, and going on for a certayne space toward the Northwest, it turneth southward betweene Shermonbury and Twinham, and soone after méeteth with ye Bymar, not much South from Shermonbury, [...]marus. whence they run togither almost two myles, till they fall into the Sore. That on the Westside descendeth from about Billingeshir [...]t, & going towarde the east, it crosseth wt the [...] (which ryseth a little by West of Thacam) east from Pul­borow, and so they run as one into the Sore, that after this cōfluence hasteth it self south­warde by Brember, Burleis, the Combes, and ere long into the Ocean.

The Aron (of which beside Arundel towne the Castell and the valey,Arunus. wherin it runneth is called Vallis Aruntina, or Arundale in En­glish) is a goodly water and thereto increa­sed with no small number of excellent & plea­saunt brookes. It springeth vp of two heades, whereof one descendeth from the North not farre from Gretham, & going by Lis, mée­teth with the next streame, as I gesse about Doursford house. The second riseth by West from the hilles that lye towarde the rysing of the sunne from Eastmaine and runneth by Peterfield. The thirde commeth from Beryton warde and ioyneth with the second betwéene Peterfield and Doursforde, after which cōfluence they go togither in one cha­nell still toward the East, (taking a rill with them that commeth betwéene Fernehirst and S. Lukes Chappell, southwest of Linche­mere & meting with it East of Loddesworth as I doe reade, and lykewyse sundrye o­ther in one Chanell beneath Sopham) to Waltham, Bury, Houghton, Stoke, Arun­dell, Tortington forde, Climping (all on the West side,) and so into the sea. Hauing thus described the west side of Arun, let vs doe the lyke with the other in such sorte as we best may. The first riuer that we come vnto ther­fore on the East side, and also the seconde rise at sundry places in S. Leonards forrest, and ioyning a lyttle aboue Horsham, they mete with the thirde, which commeth from Ifield Parke, not verye farre from Slinfeld. The fourth hath two heads, whereof one ryseth in Witley Parke, the other by west, néere vnto Heselméere chappell, and méeting by west of Doursfeld, they vnyte themselues with the chanell, growing by the confluence that I spake of beneath Slinfeld, a little aboue Bil­lingeshirst. The last water commeth from the hilles aboue Lincheméere, and runneth west and South, and passing betwene Bil­lingshirst and Stopham it commeth vnto the channell last mencioned, & so into the Arun, beneath Stopham, without anye farder in­crease, at the least that I doe here of.

Burne hath his issue in a Parke,Burne. néere Al­dingburne (or rather a litle aboue ye same to­ward the North, as I haue since béene infor­med,) and running by the bottomes toward the south, it falleth into the sea betwéene north Berflete and Flesham.

[Page] Eryn.Eryn riseth of sundry heddes, by east of Erynley and directing his course toward the sunne rysing, it pennisulateth Selesey, and falleth into the Ocean betwéene Selesey towne on the southwest & Pagham at north west.

Delus. Del springeth about Benderton, & thence running betwéene midle Lauaunt and East Lauaunt, it goeth by west of West Hamp­net, by east of Chichester, or West of Rum­balde soowne, and afterwarde by Fishburne, where it méeteth with a ril comming North west from Funtingdon (a little beneath the towne) and then running thus in one streame towarde the sea, it méeteth with another ril­let comming by Northe of Bosham and so into Auant gulf by East of Thorney Island.

Racunus.The Racon riseth by east of Racton or Ra­codunum and cōming by Chidham, it falleth into the sea, Northest of Thorney afore­sayde.

Emill. The Emill commeth first betwéene Racton and Stansted then downe to Emilsworth or Emmesworth, and so vnto the Ocean, sepa­rating Sussex from Hāpshyre almost from the very head.

Hauing in this maner passed along the coa­stes of Sussex. The next water that I remē ­ber, ryseth by east of the forrest of Estbyry, from whence it goeth by Southwijc, West Burhunt, Farham, and so into the gulfe al­most full South.

Badunus. forté.Then come we to Bedenham Créeke (so called of a village standing thereby,) the mouth whereof lyeth almost directly agaynst Porchester Castell, which is scituate about 3. miles by water from Portesmouth towne, as Lelande doth report. Then go we with­in halfe a myle farder to Forten Créeke,Forten. which eyther gyueth or taketh name of a vil­lage harde by.Osterpole. After this we come to Oster­poole Lake, a great Créeke, which goeth vp by west into the land, and lyeth not far from a rounde tower of stone, from whence also there goeth a chaine, to another Tower on the east side directly ouer against it, whereby the entraunce of great vessels into that part maye be at pleasure restrayned.

From hence wée goe further to Tiche­feld water, that riseth about Estmaine park, ten or twelue myles by northeast or there a­bout from Tichfeld.Tichefield. From Estmaine it go­eth (parting the forrestes of Waltham, and Eastbery by the waye) to Wicham or Wi­comb, a prety market towne and large tho­rowfare, where also the water seperateth it selfe into two armelettes, and goyng vnder two bridges of woode, commeth ere long a­gayne vnto one Chanell. From hence it go­eth thrée or foure myles farder, to a bridge of tymber by Maister Writhoseleyes house, (leauing Tichfelde towne on the right side) & a little beneath runneth vnder Ware bridg whether the sea floweth as hir natural course inforceth. Finally within a mile of this bridge it goeth into the water of Hampton hauen, wherunto diuers streames resort as you shal heare hereafter.

After this we come to Hamble hauen,Hamelr [...] or Hamelrish créeke, whose fall is betwéene S. Andrewes castell, and Hoke. It riseth about Shidford in waltham forrest, and when it is past Croke bridge, it méeteth with another brooke, which riseth not farre frō Bishoppes Waltham, out of sundry springes in the high way, to Winchester, from whence it passeth as I sayde by Bishoppes Waltham, then to Budeley or Botley, and so ioyning with the Hamble, they runne togither by Prowlings­worth, Vpton, Brusill, Hamble towne, and so into the sea.

Now come we to the hauē of south Hamp­ton,South­hampton which I will briefely describe so neare as I can possibly. The bredth or entry of the mouth herof, as I take it, is by estimatiō two miles from shore to shore. At the west poynt therof also is a strong castell lately builded which is rightly named Caldshore, but now Cawshot, I wote not by what occasion. On ye east side thereof also, is a place called Hoke (afore mētioned) or Hamell hoke, wherin are not aboue thrée or foure fishers houses, not worthy to be remembred. This hauen shoo­teth vp on the west side by the space of seauen miles, vntill it come to Hamptō towne, stan­ding on the other side, where it is by estima­tion a mile from lande to lande. Thence it goeth vp further about thrée myles to Red­bridge still ebbing and flowing thither, and one myle farther, so farre as my memorye doeth serue mée. Nowe it resteth that I de­scribe the Alresforde streame, which I will procéede withall in this order following.

The Alresforde beginneth of diuers faire springs, about a mile or more fro Alresford,Alresford or Alforde as it is now called, & soone after re­sorting to one bottome, they become a brode lake, which for the most part is called Alford pond. Afterwarde returning againe to a nar­rowe chanell, it goeth thorow a stone bridge at the ende of Alforde towne, (leauing the towne it selfe on the left hand) toward Hicth­ingstocke thrée myles of, but ere it commeth there, it receiueth two rylles in one bottome, wherof one commeth frō the Forrest in ma­ner at hande, and by northwest of olde Alres­forde, the other from Browne Candiuer, that goeth by Northenton, Swarewetton, Aber­stone. [Page 22] [...].

On the other side of Southampton, there res [...]teth into this hauen also, both the T [...]sts and the Stockebridge water in one bottome, [...]tocke. whereof I finde thys large description insu­ing.

The very head of the Stocke water, is sup­posed to bée somewhere about Bas [...]ngstoke, or Church Hackley, and going from the [...] betwene Ouerton & Steuenton, it commeth at last by Lauerstocke and Whitchurch, and soone after receyuing a brooke, by Northwest called the Bourne (discending from S. Mary Bourne, [...]ourne. southeast from Horseburne) it pro­céedeth by Long paroch, and the Woodde till it méete with the Cranburne, on the east side (a prety riueret rysing about Michelney and going by Fullington, Barton, and to Cram­burne) thence to Horwell in one bottome, be­neth which it méeteth with the Andeuer wa­ter, that is increased ere it come there by an­other brooke, whose name I doe not knowe. This Andeuer streame, ryseth in Culhāshire forrest, not far by north from Andeuer towne & going to vpper Clatford, are it touch there it receyueth the Rill of which I spake before, which rysing also néere vnto An [...]ort, goeth to Monketon, to Abbatesham, the Audeuer, and both as I said vnto the Test beneth Horwel, whereof I spake euen nowe. These streames being thus brought into one botom it runeth toward the South, vnder stockbridge, & soone after diuiding it selfe in twayne, one braunch thereof goeth by Houghton, & a litle beneath méeteth wyth a Ryll, that commeth from by West of S. Annes hyll, and goeth by East of vpper Wallop, West of nether Wallop, by Bucholt Forrest, Broughton, and called as [...].

The next riuer that runneth into this [...] springeth in the new Forrest, and commeth there into about Eling, not passing one mile,Eling. by west of the fall of Test. From hence cast­ing about againe into the maine sea, and lea­uing Calde shore Castle on the ryght hande, wée dyrected our course towarde the South­west, vnto B [...]aulieu hauen wherinto the Mi­n [...]y descepdeth.

The Miney ryseth not farre from Miney,Miney. stéede [...] Village in the north part of the newe Forrest, and going by Beaulie [...], it falleth in­to the sea, southwest, as I take it of Erbu [...]y, a Village standing vpon the shore.

Beyng past the Miney,Limen. wee crossed the Li­men, whose heade is in the very heart of the newe Forrest, and running South west of Lindhyrst and the Parke, it goeth [...] East of Brokenhirst West of Bulder, and finally into the Sea South and by East of Leming­ton.

The next fall that we passed by is name­lesse, except it be called Bure,Bure. & as it descen­deth from the newe Forrest, so the next vnto it [...]ight Mile, as I haue hearde in Englishe.Milis. Certes the head thereof, is also in the south­west part of the said Forrest, and the fall not far from Milforde bridge, beyonde the which I find a narrow going or stricktland leading from the poynte to Hirst Castle, which stan­deth into the Sea, as if it hung by a thred frō the mayne of the Islande, ready to be washed away, by the continuall and dayly beating of the waues.

The next riuer that we came vnto of any name is the Auon, which ryseth by northeast,Auon. and not far from Woolfe hall, in Wil [...]shire. The first notable bridge that it rūneth vnto▪ [Page] is at Vphauen, thence foure myles farder, it goeth to little Ambresbury, and there is ano­ther bridge, from thēce to Woodfo [...]d village, standing at the right hand [...]an [...], and Newtō v [...]age on the left. The Bishops of Saru [...] had a proper Manour place at Woodforde, which Bishoppe [...]harton pulled downe altogither, bicause it was somewhat in sinne. T [...] it goeth to Fisheeto [...]ridge, to Cranebridge [...] Salisbury, new Salisbury, & finally to Ha [...] ­ha [...], which is a [...]ately bridge of stone, of s [...]xe arches at the least. There is at the west ende of the sayde bridge, a little Island, that lyeth betwixt this and another bridge, of feare pre­ty arches, and vnder this latter runeth a good round streame, which as I take it, is a brāch of Auon, that breaketh out a little aboue, and soone after it reuniteth it selfe agayne: or else that Wilton water hath there his entry into the Auon, which I cannot yet determine. Frō Harneham bridge it goeth to Dounton, that is about foure miles, and so much in like sort from thence to Fording bridge, to Kingwood bridge fiue miles, to Christes church Twin­ham fiue myles, and strayght into the sea.

Poole.The next fall that we come vnto is Poole, from whose mouth vpon the shore, by South west in a bay of thrée miles of, is a poore fish­er towne, called Sandwiche, where we sawe a péere and a little fresh brooke. The very vt­ter part of saint Adelmes poynt, is fiue miles from Sandwich. In another bay lyeth west Lylleworth, where as I heare is some prost­table herborow for ships. The towne of Poole is from W [...]burne about foure miles, and it standeth almost as an Isle in the hauen. The hauen it selfe also if a man shoulde measure it by the circuite, wa [...]eth little of twenty mile, as I did guesse by the view.

way. Waiemouth, or as some doe call it Wyle­mouth, is coūted twenty meles from Poole, & ye head of this riuer riseth not full foure miles aboue the hauen, by northwest at Vp [...]l in the side of a great [...]ill. There is a little barre of sande at the hauen mouth, & a great arme of ye sea runneth vp by the right hand, and scant a mile aboue the hauen mouth on the shore, is a right goodly and warlike castle made, which hath one open barbicane. This arme rūneth vp also farder by a myle as in a baye, to a point of land wher a passage is into Portlād, by a little course of pibble sande. It goeth vp also from the sayd passage vnto Abbatesbiry about seuen miles of, where a little sreshe rō ­dell resorteth to the sea. And somwhat aboue this,Chesill. is the head or point of the Chesill lying northwest, which stretcheth vp from thēce a­bout seuē miles, as a maine narrow bank, by a right line vnto the southest, and there abut­ [...] [...] But to procéede wyth our pu [...]pose. Into the mouth of this riuer doe ships often [...] for succour, & being past the same, we meete with ye fal of a water néere to [...]. Catherin [...] chapple as we sailed by ye Shingle, which came down frō Litton by Chilcomb, and thence we went to Bruteport water that ariseth halfe a mile or more aboue Bemister, from whence it go­eth to Parnham, N [...]therbury, Welplash, & so to Bruteport, & afterwarde into ye sea, taking in sundry waters wt al by the way, wherof in my next treatise God willing I meane as of diuers other to make a particuler rehearsall. Leuing the Brudeport, we passed by Stant [...] Gabriell, & beholding Charemouth Bea [...]on a far of, we [...] our course toward ye same, but ere we came there, we behelde the fall of Chare, which is a pretye water. [...] It ryseth a­bout thrée miles aboue Charemouth by north in a parke of the kinges called Marshewood. Next vnto this is the Buddle,Buddle which cōmeth about thrée miles by north of Lyme from the hilles, fléeting vpon rocky soyle, and so falleth into the sea.

Beyond this is the Axe whose issue at thys present is harde vnder the rootes of Winter chifes,Axe. and the poyntes thereof beyng almost a myle in sunder, the most westerlye of them called Berewood, lyeth within halfe a mile of Seton, but the other toward the east, is called White [...]liffe, wherof I haue spoken already. This riuer riseth a mile northest frō Bemi­ster a market Towne, in Dorset shyre, at a place called Axe knoll, (longing to Sir Giles Strangwaies) in a moore hanging on the side of an hill. And from thence it runneth to the ruines of an old Abbay called Fordes, about foure or fiue miles from thence, (where it sée­meth to bée a particion betwéene Sommer­setshyre and Deuon) then vnto Axe Minster in Deuonshyre, and so thorowe the Towne it selfe, wherein a great slaughter was made [Page 23] of Danes in Athelstanes tyme, at Brunesdon fielde or rather Brunnedon as I read, and whereof I finde thys annotation, in an olde French Chronicle.

‘In the time of Athelstane, ye greatest Nauie that euer aduentured into thys Islande, arri­ued at Seton in Deuonshyre, beyng repleni­shed with Aliens that sought the conquest of this Island, but Athelstane mette & encoū ­tred with them in the fielde, where he ouer­threwe 6000. of his aforesayde enimyes. Not one of them also that remayned alyue, escaped from the battell wythout some dead­lye or very grieuous wound. In this conflicte moreouer were flaine fiue kings, which were enterred in the Church yard of Axe minster, and of the part of the king of Englande were kylled eyght Earles of the chiefe of hys no­bilitye, and they also buryed in the Church­yarde aforesayde. Hereunto it addeth howe the Byshop of Shyreburne was in like sort slaine in thys battell, that began at Brune­dune néere to Colyton, and indured euen to Axe minster, which then was called Brun­bery or Brunburg. The same day that this thyng happened the sunne lost hys light, and so continued without any bryghtnesse, vntyll the setting of that Planet, though otherwyse the season was cléere and nothing clowdye.’ But to procéede after our riuer hath passed thorow Axeminster towne, it goeth to ye bridg thereby (where sone after it receiueth the the Artey, [...]tey. sometyme a raging water) and fi­nally to Axe mouth Towne, frō whence after it hath as it were played it selfe, in the plea­sant botomes, by the space of a quarter of a myle, it goeth vnder White cliffe and so into the sea, where it is called Axebaye, and thus is that ryuer described.

As for the hauen which in times past as I haue hearde, [...]idde. hath béene at Sidmouth (so cal­led of Sidde a [...]yllet that runeth therto) and likewyse at Seton. I passe it ouer, sith nowe there is none at al. [...]eton. Yet hath there bene some­tyme a notable one, albeit that at this present betwene the two poyntes of the olde hauen, there lyeth a mightie barre of pibble stones, in the verye mouth of it, and the ryuer Axe is driuē to the very east point of ye hauē called White clyffe. Therat also a very little gull goeth into the sea, whether small fisherbotes doe oft resort for succour. The men of Seton beganne of late to stake and make a maine wall within the hauen to haue chaunged the course of the Axe, and (almost in the myd­dle of the old hauen) to haue trenched thorow the Chesill, therby to haue let out the Axe, & to haue taken in the maine sea, but I here of none effect that this attempt dyd come vnto.

From Seton westwarde lyeth Colyton,Coly. about two myles by west Northwest, where­of ryseth the ryuer Coly, which goyng [...] the aforesaide towne, passeth by Colecomb parke, and afterwarde falleth betwéene Axe brydge and Axe mouth towne into the Axe riuer.

Leauing the Coly we come soone after to Ottery hauen,Otterey. whose heade riseth at Ottery fiue myles aboue Mohuns Ottery or Ottery Flemming flat North. From hence it goeth to Vpoter, Mohuns Ottery, Hunitō, Veniton bridge, S. Mary Otterey, Newton bridge Ottermouth and so into the sea. On the west side of this hauen is Budeley almost directly against Otterton. It is easie to be seene also, that within lesse then. 100. yeares, ships did vse this hauē, but now it is barred vp. Some call it Budeley hauen of Budeley towne, o­ther Salterne port, of a little creke comming out of the mayne hauen vnto Salterne vil­lage, that hath in time past béene a towne of greater estimation.

From Otterey mouth we sailed vp to Ex­mouth so called of the riuer Exe,Ex. which moū ­teth in Exmore, at a place called Execrosse th [...]ée myles by Northeast, and from thence goeth by Exford where it is a rill or small water: then to Tiuerton twelue miles from the head, thence to Therberton Cowley,Simmīg [...] Bath. and next of al to Excester receauing in the meane time the Simōs bath water, which riseth by Northwest of Simons bath bridge (fower myles from Exford:) and is in Sommer time so shalowe that a man maye easily passe ouer it, but in winter it rageth oft, and is very déepe and daungerous.Kenton. As touching the hauen also I remember well that there lieth vpon the very West point of the same a barren sande and in the West North­west goeth a little creke a mile or thereabout into the land which some call Kentō creke. I haue herd that the Burgeses of Excester in­deuoured to make the hauen to come vp to Excester it selfe, but whether they brought it to passe or no as yet I doe not know, this is certaine that in times past the shippes came vp no nearer then Apsham, which is a prety townelet on the shore fower myles vpper in­to the hauen.

Beyonde Excester hauen mouth 4.Teigne. myles or there about I came to the Teigne mouth which ebbeth and floweth so farre as New­ton. The head of this riuer is 20. myles from the sea, and it riseth in Dartmore at a place by northwest called Teigne head. Frō hence also it goeth to Iagford bridge, Clifford bridg Bridford bridge, Chidley bridge,Leman. Teigne bridge, Newton bushelles, beneath which [...] it [Page] receaueth the Leman water, and also Aller brooke,Allet. which riseth thrée miles of, as Leland hath set down, who writeth moreouer of this hauen in sort as followeth. The very vtter west point of the land, at ye mouth of Teigne is called the Nesse, and is a very high redde cliffe. The east part of the hauen is named the poles, a lowe sandie grounde eyther cast vp by the spuing of the sand out of ye Teigne, or else throwen vp from the shore by the rage of winde and water. This sande occupyeth now a great quantitie of the ground betwene the hauen where the sand riseth, and Teigne mouth towne, which towne surnamed Regis, hath in time past béene sore defaced by the Danes, and of late time by the Frenche.

Tor. From Teigne mouth we came to Tor bay, wherof the west point is called Byry, and the east Perritory, betwene which is litle aboue foure miles. From Torre baie also to Dart­mouth is sixe myles where (sayth Leland) I marked diuers thinges. First of all vpon the east side of the hauen a great hilly point, cal­led Downesend & betwixt Downesende, and a pointlet named Wereford, is a litle baye. Were it selfe in like sorte is not full a myle from Downesend vpwarde into the hauen.Were. Kingeswere towne standeth out as another pointlet, and betwixt it & Wereford is the se­cond bay. Somwhat moreouer aboue Kinges­were towne goeth a litle Creke vp into the land from the maine streame of the hauen called water head,Water hed & this is a very fitte place for vessells to be made in. In like sort half a mile beyond this into ye land ward, goeth ano­ther longer creeke,Nesse creke. Gaunston & aboue that also a greater thē either of these called Gawnstō, whose hed is here not half a mile frō ye maine sea, by the compassing thereof as it runneth in Tor bay.

The riuer of Dart, commeth out of Dart­more fiftene miles aboue Totnesse,Dart or Darmour. in a very large plot, and such another wild morish and forrestye grounde as Exmore is. Of it selfe moreouer this water is very swift, & thorow occasion of Tinworkes whereby it passeth, it carieth much sand to Totnesse bridge, and so choketh the depth of the riuer downeward, that the hauen it selfe is almost spoiled by the same. The mariners of Dartmouth accompt this to be about a kenning frō Plimmouth. In the valley also betwéene Corneworthy & Ashepremptō,Humber­ton. runneth a brooke called Hum­berton or Herburne. This water commeth out of a Welspring, & so running about two myles, it passeth thorow a stone bridge called Rost, two myles from Totnesse. Frō thence moreouer, after it hath gone other two miles it commeth to Bow bridge, and there falleth into a saltwater créeke, which gathereth in­to the lande out of the hauen of Dartmouth. This créeke at the head breaketh for a little way into two armes, whereof the one goeth vp to Bow bridge, and receyueth Humber­ton water (as I saide) ye other toward Corne­worthy frō whence vnto Dartmouth, is a­bout foure myles. Finally about halfe a mile aboue Dartmouth towne,Olde [...] creke. there is another Créeke going out of the maine streame cal­led Olde mill créeke, so sarre as I can learne by the rumor of the countrey.

About seuen myles by west southwest frō Dartmouth lyeth Saltcomb hauen,Sal [...] some­what barred: & not much aboue the heade of it is Arme hauen, the backewater whereof commeth vnder Yuy & Armington bridges,Arme. and so vnto the sea at this place, which is full of flattes and rockes, so that no shippe com­meth thither in any tempest, except it be for­ced thereto, thorowe the vttermost extremitie and desperate hazarde of the fearefull mari­ners. King Phillip of Castile lost two shippes here in the dayes of king Henry the seuenth, when he was dryuen to lande in the West coūtrey by rage of weather. Vnto Armouth also commeth the Awne water,Awne. after it hath passed by East Brenton and Gare bridges, and not farre from the fall of this, lyeth the Yawlme mouth so called of a ryuer whych cōmeth thither frō Le bridg to Yalme bridg,Yalme. & falleth into the sea, about 4. miles by south east, frō the maine streame of Plimmouth.

Being come to the Plimmoth,Plim. I finde that the mouth of the goulfe wherin the ships of this towne doe ride, is walled on eche side and chained ouer in ye time of necessitie. On ye south side of the hauē also is a blockhouse vpō a rocky hill, & vpō the east side of this & Tha­mar hauen, lyeth the Mill baye creke,Milbaye creke. Stone house creke. Caine creke. Shilst [...] Budo [...] Tam [...] ­taue. Torrey Taue. ye stone creke, Caine Créeke, Shilstō créeke (which is two myles of length and wheron standeth a Mill) Buddocks créeke, and last of al, Ta­mertaue créeke, so called bycause of the con­course of the Taue & Tamar waters there. Torrey brooke falleth lykewyse into Plym, but wher aboutes as now, I haue forgotten. Finally vpon the west side of the hauen, is a notable créeke also entering into the lande a myle or more from the hauen, which being viewed, I went and behelde Thamar hauen on the west side wherof, I noted these crekes.

First of all about two myles aboue Ashe I sawe the principall arme of Thamar it selfe.Tham [...] Certes it riseth about thrée myles by North­east from Hartland, & goeth vp into the land about tenne myles from that place: thence it hasteth to Calstock bridge, whether it almost continually ebbeth and floweth, verye great vessels cōming likewyse within a mike ther­of [Page 24] vnto Morleham, which is not aboue thrée myles from Tauistocke as I reade. Betwixt Thamar streame, [...]. and Ashe: I marked farder more sayeth Lelande other thrée créekes also descending, which brake vp into the lande, whereof the first lyeth by Northwest, the se­conde west northwest, the thirde plaine west, entering into the country aboue half a mile, and scarsely a myle lower, I perused in like maner the Liuer créeke, [...]. that goeth vp to S. Germains ward. This créeke lyeth 3. myles from the maine streame of Thamar hauen, and rising in an hill aboue Launston, it goeth thorow the towne within the walles. In the botome also of the Suburbe, is an other na­med Aterey, [...]erey. which ryseth aleuen myles of by west towarde Bodmin, wherinto runneth a Rill comming thorow a wood before it ma­keth a confluens with the first, in descending towarde the hauen.Iohns S. An­ [...]ies Then breaketh in an o­ther créeke called S. Iohns, or S. Anthonies Rode, and at the very mouth about S. Ni­cholas Isle falleth in the last, which goeth vp to Milbrooke, two myles into the lande from the maine hauen. From hence we sayled far­der towarde the west (leauing salt Ashe and Seton rillets) and came to the mouth of a riuer called Low, [...] wherein Samons are of­ten founde, & yet is it drie commonly at halfe ebbe. On eche syde of the entrye thereof standeth also a towne, whereof the one is cal­led east Low the other west Low, and this is a pretie market towne. A bridge finally of twelue arches doth leade from the one to the other.

The next fall after we be past one little namelesse créeke, that lyeth by the waye, is Poulpyr water, [...]lpyr. whereinto commeth a little brooke. [...]. Then méete we with Fawey hauen, whose riuer ryseth at Fawy Moore (about two myles from Camilforde by South, and sixetene miles from Fawy towne) in a very quaue mire on the side of an Hill. Frō hence it goeth to Dramesbridge, to Clobhā bridge, Lergen bridge, New bridge, Resprin bridge, and Lostwithiell bridge, where it méeteth with a little brooke, and néere thereunto par­teth it selfe in twaine. Of these two armes therefore one goeth to a bridge of stone, the other to another of timber, & soone after ioy­ning againe, the maine riuer goeth to Saint Gwinnowes, from thēce also the point of S. Gwinnowes wood, which is about half a mile from thence, except my memorie doe fayle me. Here goeth in a Salt créeke halfe a mile on the east side of the hauen, and at the heade of it, [...]rinus. is a bridge called Lerine bridge. The créeke it self in like maner bearing the same denomination. From Lerine créeke, to S. Caracs pill, or créeke,In ye myd­dle of this creke was a cell of S. Cyret in an Islet longing sometime to Moun­tegew a priory. is about halfe a mile and Lower on the east side of the sayd hauen it goeth vp also not aboue a mile & an half [...] to the lande. From Caracs créeke to Poul­morland a myle, and this likewise goeth vp seant a quarter of a mile into the land, yet at the heade it parteth it selfe in twaine. From Poulmoreland to Bodnecke village halfe a mile where the passage and repassage is com­monly to Fawey. From Bodnecke to Pe­lene point (where a créeke goeth vp not fully 1000. paces into the lande) a mile, thence to Poulruan, a quarter of a mile, and at this Poulruan is a tower of force, marching a­gain ye tower on Fawey side, betwene which, as I doe here, a chaine hath some times bene stretched, & likely inough for the hauē there is hardly two bowshotte ouer. The very point of lande at the east side of the mouth of this Hauen, is called Pontus crosse, but nowe Panuche crosse. It shal not be amisse in this place somewhat to intreate of the towne of Fawy,Cōwhath. which is called in Cornish Cōwhath and being scituate on the Northside of the ha­uen, is set hanging on a maine rocky hill be­ing in length about one quarter of a mile, ex­cept my memory deceyue me.

The renowne of Fawy rose by ye wars vn­der King Edward ye first, Edward the third, & Henry the fifth, partly by feates of armes & partly by plaine pyracy. Finally ye townesmē féeling themselues somewhat at ease & strong in their purses, they fell to marchandize, and so they prospered in this their newe deuise, that as they traueiled into al places, so mar­chauntes from all countries made resort to them, whereby within a while they grew to be exceeding riche. The shippes of Fawy sat­ling on a time by Rhy and Winchelsey in ye time of king Edward the third, refused stout­ly to vale any bonet there, although warning was giuen them so to do by the Portgrenes or rules of those townes. Herevpon the Rie and Winchelsie men, made out vppon them with cut and long taile: but so hardly were they intertained by the Fawy Pyrates (I should saie aduenturers) that they were dri­uen home againe with no small losse and hin­deraunce. Such fauour found the Fawy men also immediately vpon this bickering, that in token of their victory ouer their winching ad­uersaries, and riding Ripiers, as they called them in mockery, they altered their armes and compounded for newe, wherein the scut­chion of Rie and Winchelsey is quartered, with theirs & beside this ye Foiens were cal­led the gallantes of Fawy,Gallantes of Fey or Fawy. whereof they not a litle reioyced, and more peraduenture then for some greater booty. And thus much of [Page] Fawy towne wherin we sée what great suc­cesse often commeth of wittelesse and rashe aduētures. But to returne againe to our purpose from whence we haue digressed and as hauing some desire to finishe vp this our voy­age, we wil leaue the Fawm [...]uth and go for­ward on our iourney. Being therefore paste this hauen, we come to Pennarth which is 2. myles by west therof, and scituate on the east side of Trewardith Baie, called by Leland Arctoum or Vrctoū Promontoriū except his writings do deceiue me. Frō hence we came to the blacke head, then to Pentoren a myle farder, and here issueth ont a pretye ryuer that commeth by Saint Austelles,Austell brooke. about two myles and an halfe from thence, which run­neth vnder Austell bridge & vnder the West side of the hill whereon the poore towne of S. Austelles stādeth. Thence we sailed to Chap­pell land, then to Dudman, to Pennare, and Sainct Antonies point, which is thrée myles from Pennar point, where we make our en­trance into the Falamouth hauen, whose de­scription I borowe of Leland and worde for worde will here insert the same.

Fala. The very point (saith he) of the hauē mouth (being an hill whereon the Kyng hath buyl­ded a castell) is called Pendinant. It is about a myle in compasse, almost enuironned with the sea, and where the sea couereth not, the ground is so low that it were a small mastry to make Pendinant an Iland. Furthermore there lieth a cape or foreland within the hauē a myle and an halfe, and betwixt this and M. Killigrewes house, one great arme of the hauen rūneth vp to Penrine towne, which is 3. miles from the very entry of Falemouth hauen, and two good myles from Penfusis. Moreouer there is Leuine Pris [...]lo betwixte S. Budocus and Pendinas,Leume. which were a good hauen but for the barre of sande, but to procéede. The first creke or arme that casteth on the Northwest side of Falemouth hauen goeth vp to Perin, and at thende it breaketh into two armes, whereof the lesse runneth to Glasenith 1. viridis indꝰ, ye grene nest, or wag­meer at Penrin: the other to saint Glunias the parishe Church of Penrine. In like sorte out of eche side of Penrine creke, breaketh an arme or euer it come to Penrine. This I vn­derstande also that stakes and foundations of stone haue béene set in the creke at Penrine a litle lower then the wharfe where it brea­keth into armes: but howsoeuer this standeth betwixte the point of Trefusis and the point of Restronget is Mil [...]r creke,Milor. which goeth vp a myle into the land and by the churche is a good rode for shippes. The nexte creke be­yonde the point of Restronget wood is called Restronget which goyng two myles vp into the maine breaketh into two armes.Restron­get. In lyke order betwixte Restronget and the creke of Trury be two crekes one called S. Feokes,S. [...] S. [...] Trury creke. the other Sainct Caie, nexte vnto which is Trury creke that goeth vp about two myles crekyng from the principall streame, & brea­keth within half a myle of Trury, casting in a braunche Westward euen harde by New­ham wood. This creke of Trury is deuided into two partes before the towne of Trury, and eche of them hauing a brooke comming downe and a bridge, the towne of Trury standeth betwixte them both. In like sorte Kenwen streate is seuered frō the said towne with this arme, and Clements stréete by east with the other. Out of the body also of Trury creke breaketh another eastwarde a myle from Trury, and goeth vp a myle and an halfe to Tresilian bridge of stone. At the very entry and mouth of this creke is a rode of shippes called Maples rode and here faught not long since. 18. shippes of Spanishe mar­chauntes with 4. shippes of warre of Depe, but the Spanierdes draue the Frenchemen all into this harborowe. A myle and an halfe aboue the mouth of Trury creke,Mor [...] is another named Lhan Moran of S. Morans church at hād. This creke goeth vp a quarter of a mile from the maine streame into the hauen, as the maine streame goeth vp two myles a­boue Moran creke ebbing and flowing: and a quarter of a myle higher is the towne of Tre­gowy where we found a bridge of stone vpon the Fala ryuer. Fala it selfe riseth a myle or more west of Roche hyll & goeth by Graund pount where I sawe a bridge of stone.

This Graund pount is four miles frō Roche hill and two litle myles from Tregowy, be­twixt which the Fala taketh his course. Frō Tregowy to passe downe by the body of the hauen of Falamouth to the mouth of Lany horne pill or creke, on the south side of the ha­uen is a myle, and as I remember it goeth vp halfe a myle from the principall streame of the hauen. From Lanyhorne pill also is a place or point of sande about a myle way of 40. acres or thereabout (as a Peninsula) cal­led Ardeue rauter. As for the water or creke that rūneth into the south southeast part, it is but a little thing of halfe a myle vp into the land, and the creke that hemmeth in this Pe­ninsula, of both doth séeme to be the greater. From the mouth of the West creke of this Peninsula, to S. Iustes creke is foure miles or more.S. [...] S. [...] In like maner from S. Iustes pill or creke (for both signifie one thing) to Sainct Mawes creke is a myle and a halfe, and the point betwéen them both is called Pendinas. [Page] [Page] [Page 25] The creke of Saint Mawes goeth vp a two myles by east northeast into the land, and be­sides that it eddeth and [...]oweth so far, there is a mylle driuen with a freshe creke that re­sorteth to the same. Halfe a mile from the head of this downewarde to the hauen, is a creke in manner of a poole, whereon is a myll also that grindeth with the tyde. And a myle beneath that on the south side entreth a creke (about halfe a myle into the countrey) which is barred from the maine sea by a small san­dye banke, and another myle yet lower, is a another litle crekelet: but howe soeuer these crekes doe runne, certaine it is that ye bankes of them that belong to Fala are marueilous­ly well woodded, and hitherto Leland, whose wordes I dare not alter for feare of corrup­tion and alteration of his iudgement. Being past Falmouth hauen, therfore (as it were a quarter of a myle beyonde Arwennach Ma­ster Killegrewes place which standeth on the brimme or shore within Falmouth) we came to a litle hauen which ranne vp betwéene two hilles, but it was barred, wherefore we could not learne whether it were serued with any backe freshe water or not. From hence we went by Polwitherall creke (parted into two armes) then to ye Polpenrith wherevnto a re­ueret falleth that riseth not farre from thēce, [...]withe­ [...] [...]pen­ [...] and so goeth to the maine streame of ye hauen at the last, whether the creke resorteth about thrée myles and more from the mouth of the hauen, [...]. [...]gun. [...]kestel. [...]o [...]s. [...]ylow. [...]ng. and into which the water that goeth vnder Gare and Mogun bridges, doe fall in one botome as Lelande hath reported. Vnto this hauen also repayreth the Penkestell, the Callous ye Cheilow, & the Gilling, although this latter lyeth against Saint Mawnons on the hether side hard without the hauen mouth if I haue done aright. For so motheatē, moul­dye, and rotten are those bookes of Leland which I haue, and beside that, his annotatiōs are such and so confounded as no man can in maner picke out any sence from them by a leafe together, wherfore I thinke that he dis­persed & made his notes intricate of set pur­pose, or else he was loth that any man should easily come by that knowledge by readyng, which he with his great charge and no lesse traueile attained vnto by experience.

[...]le. Lopole is two myles in length, and betwixt it and the maine Ocean is but a barre of sand that ones in thrée or foure yeares, what by weight of the freshe water and working of the Sea breaketh out, at which time it ma­keth a woonderfull noyse, but soone after the mouth of it is barred vp againe. At all other times the superfluity of the water of Lopole (which is full of Trout and Ele) draineth out thorow the sandy barre litle the open Sea: Certes if this barre coulde alwayes be kept open, it would make a goodly hauen, vp vnto Hayleston towne, where coynage of time is also vsed, as at Trucy and Lo [...]withlell, for the Quéenes aduauntage. From this place I doe not remember that I founde any more falles or hauens, tyll we passed rounde about the cape, and came vnto the Haile,Heile. which is a pretye riuer, rising from foure principall heds or brokes, wherof one springeth by south another by southwest, the thirde by southeast,Sper [...]. Crantock. Rialton. and the fourth by Northeast. Also we saw S. Perins créeke, Crantocke and Rialton, of Heyles Leland speaketh somewhat in his col­lections out of the life of S. Breaca, where he noteth that it is spoyled by sand comming from the Tinne workes. The next great fall of water & greatest of all that is to be founde on the North side of Corinwall, is at Padde­stow, whether ye Alaune resorte [...]th.Alaunus Dunmerus. Of some it is nowe called Dunmere, but in olde time it hight commonly Alaunus. Into this streame runne diuers other as the Carnesey (by east) thrée myles lower then Woodbridge:Carnesey. Laine. ye Laine (which riseth two myles aboue S. Esse by northeast, and falleth into Alaune likewise a­bout Woodbridge) the Bodmin water, beside another that commeth from southwest, and goeth in Alane two myles beneath this con­fluence on the same side aboue Woodbridge: and finallye the last which descendeth out of the hilles from southeast, and ioyneth with the said riuer two myles aboue Padstow, as I doe finde by reading. In one place Leland saith how he cannot well tell whereabout this riuer doth issue out of the grounde, but in an­other he sayth thus of it. The Alune is eui­dently séene to passe thorow Wood or Wad­bridge at lowe water, and the first bridge of name that it rūneth vnder is called Hesham, the next, Dunmere bridge, & the third Wad­bridge, which is foure myles lower, and the lowest in déede, that is to be founde on this streame. From Padstow also they sa [...]e full west vnto Waterford in Ireland.Locus. bufonis. There are likewise two Rockes which lye in the east side of the hauen, secretely hidden at full Sea, as two pads in the straw, whereof I thinke it taketh the name. Leland supposeth this ry­uer to be the same Camblan, where Arthur fought his last and fatall conflict: for to this daie men that doe eare the grounde there, doe oft plowe vp bones of a large size, and great store of armour, or els it may be (as I rather coniecture) that the Romanes had some field (or Castra) thereabout, for not long since and in the remembraunce of man, a brasse pot ful of Romane coyne was found there, as I haue [Page] oftē herde.Depe­hatch. Cunilus. Next vnto this is the Déepehatch & thē the Cunilus alias Portisser & Portguin waters, and vpon the Northside of this creke standeth Tintagell or Dundagiell castell, al­most enuironned in manner of an Island. Af­ter this and being past Tredwy, we come vnto the Taw mouth,Taw. whose heade riseth in Exmore southeast from Barstable, which is a towne fiue myles distaunt from the hauens mouth.Turrege. It receueth also ye water of Turrege, which riseth 3. miles by northeast frō Harte­land in a moore euen hard by ye principall hed of Thamar. This Thurege commeth first to Kissington bridge, thence to Pulford bridge, Wadforde bridge, Déepeforde bridge, the South and west bridges of Thorington, to Eudford bridge, (which hath 24. arches, and an olde chappel builded thereon vnto the vir­gin Mary, at the farder end) then two miles lower it falleth into the Thaue, and finallye into the Sauerne sea, by the hauen mouth. The entrie of the hauen of Thaw is barred wyth sande and very daungerous, and from the pointe of the hauen mouthe to cutte o­uer to Hartey point, is about sixe or seuen miles, a pretie brooke also falleth into the said hauen, from the hilles aboue Barstable, by East, & going by the Priory. But to procéede from hence we goe to the Minheued or Mine mouth,Mineus. whose backwater entreth into it, af­ter it be come from Minheued and Portloch. Then came we to Dour or Dournsteir fall,Durus. whether commeth a rill, next of all to Clyffe Chappell, where the people honoured an I­mage of our Ladye with much superstition, thence two myles to Orcharde, to Comb thrée myles,Iuel. and next of all vnto the Iuel, a famous ryuer, which descendeth by Brad­fielde then by Clyfton (within a quarter of a myle whereof the Shireburn & the Milbrooke waters doe méete, of which the first ryseth in Blackmoore,Shirburn Milbrooke. the other thrée myle from thence in Milbrooke parke) from Clyfton to Euill a proper market towne in Somerset­shyre, thre myles or thereabout from Shire­burn: from Euell to Ilchester by the bridge thrée myles (taking withall the Cokar,Cokar. that ryseth west of Cokar, and after thrée myles gate falleth into the Iuell) frō Ilchester to Michelborowe, leauing Athelney somewhat distaunt on the left side, then to Lamburne, to Bridge north, Bridge water, and after a time into the Sauerne mouth. Certes it is thought to ryse in Milbery parke, or some­where else not farre from Shireburne, but the chiefe heade thereof commeth from Cos­komb. When we are past this we come vnto the Axe,Axe. which runneth by Axe towne, and so continueth his course braunching in thende, and leauing a fayre Islande as it were in the very fal, partly enuironned wt the maine sea, & partly wyth this riuer. There is moreouer a towne east of this Island called in old time Cherin, but now Vphil. Next vnto this is the Stowey mouth serued with a backewater,Stow [...] called Stowey, which ryseth in the hylles not farre of, and after it hath touched at Stow, it falleth into the sea, which is seuē miles frō that place. There are two brookes further­more that fal into the sea, after they haue pas­sed betwéene Stow and S. Andrewes, & the thirde runneth not farre from Willington, rysing by South, but sithence they are onely tryfling rilles and namelesse, I thinke it not good to stande any longer about them. Thus are we come at last vnto the Auon,Auon▪ which not farre from his originall, doth enuironne and almost make an Island of the towne of Mal­meflyry, from thence it goeth vnder Male­forde and Casway bridges, to Choppenham, Bradford, Bath, Bristow (flowing two miles aboue that citie) and soone after into the Sa­uerne, from whence it neuer returneth with­out mixture of Salt water. In this sort haue I finished one part of my Description of the ryuers & streames falling into the sea, which should haue béene a far more perfite, and ex­act péece of worke, if I had béene so vpright­lye dealt withall in mine informations as I ment to deale precisely in setting downe the same, but sith the matter is so fallen out, that I cannot doe as I woulde herein, I must be contented to performe what I maye, hoping in time to peruse and polishe it againe that nowe is left rude and without any diligence shewed, or order vsed at all therein.

Of the Sauerne streame and such falles of ry­uers as go into the sea, betweene it and the Humber. Cap. 10.

THE Sauerne deuideth Englande or that part of the Island, [...] which sometime was called Lhoegres from Cambria, so cal­led of Camber, the second sonne of Brute, as our hystories doe report. But nowe it height Wales of the Germaine worde Walshe, wherby that nation doth vse to call all stran­gers without respect of countrie. It tooke the name of a certaine Lady, called Habren, base daughter of Locrinus begotten vpon Estrildes daughter to Humber king of Scythia, [...] per [...] truth Aber [...] called the [...] that sometime inuaded this Islande and was o­uerthrowne here, in the dayes of this Locri­nus as shall be shewed at hande. For after the death of Locrinus, it came to passe that Guendolena his wyfe ruled the kingdome in the noneage of hir sonne, and then getting [Page 26] [...]. Of the drowning of the sayde [...] I finde these verses insuing.

In fl [...]uium praecipit atur Abien,
Nomen Abien fl [...]uio de virgine [...] [...]
Nomino [...]r [...]pto deinde Sabrina lat [...].

But to returne to our Sauerne, it springeth from the high mountaines of south Wales, called in Welche Plim Limmon in latine Plimmon [...] in Englishe the Blacke moun­taines, & out of the same head with the Wye, where it hath in Latitude as some gesse 52. degrées and [...]9 minutes, and in longitude 15. and 5▪0. From he [...]e it [...]onneth to Catr Lew [...] (famous in nune, but in déede a poore throwfaire from Ma [...]encliffe) then to Lani [...] ­las, to Newton (or Trenewith) to Ar [...]istle, to Leueden, then within a myle of Mounte­gomery to the Welche poole, thence wythin half a mile of Pon [...]ibery Colledge to Shros­bury, and so to bridge North, receyuing sun­dry brookes and waters by the way, of which the Cerlon or Serlo séemeth to be the grea­test, [...]rlon. and whereby the chanell thereof is not a little increased. From Bridgenorth it encli­neth toward ye south vnto Worcester where [...] about it receyueth other streames, [...]s the Teme on the West halfe a myle beneath Worcester, [...]me. not farre from Powike Milles. And another in the East, comming frō Staf­forde, and so holding one towarde Glocester, [...]on. méeteth with the Auon not farre from Theo­kes [...]yry, and from whence they come both as one to Glocester, as mine informacion doth serue me. Here gathering agayne somewhat toward the west, [...] it passeth by west of Deane, where it meteth with the Wy, which is none of the least famous of all those that mixe thē ­selues wyth Sauerne. [...]uge. Being also great­lye enlarged with the Wylow or Wi [...]inghe (another great streate streame increased by the Geuenni, and another) it goeth vnto the Holmes, where after it hath mette in the meane season with sundry other brookes, it falleth into the maine sea, betwéene Wales and Cornewall, which is and shalbe called the Sauerne sea, so long as Sauerne ryuer doth hold and kéepe hir name. But as the said streame in length of course bounty of water and depth of chanell commeth farre behinde the Thames, so for other commodities as [...] vessels on the same.

The [...] Wy,Wy mouth [...] myles ouer (sayth Leland) or [...]lse my [...] doth faile me.

This ryuer Guy or Wy beginneth as I sayde before on the side of the hilles,Guy alias Wy. where the Sauerne doth arise, and passing thorowe We [...]elande, doeth fall into the Sauerne beneath Chepsto at the aforesayde place.

Lelande writing of this ryuer sayeth thus, the Wy goeth thorowe all Herefordshyre by Bradwerden Castell (belonging to Syr Ri­charde [...]) & so to Hereforde east,Vmber a fishe onely in the Wy. thence eyght myles to Rosse a market towne in Herefordshyre, and in this ryuer be Vmbers otherwyse called graylinged.

Next vnto this is the Aberwish, or Wyske whereon Caerleon strandeth sometime,Wiske. cal­led Chester. This riuer ryseth in the blacke mountaines, tenne myles aboue Brechnoch towarde Cairmardine, and runneth thorow the great and litle forrest of Brechnoch, then it goeth by Redwin bridge, to Breckenock, Penkithly, Cregh [...]ell, Aberg [...]ue [...]nt, Vske, Carleon, Newporte, and so vnto the sea, ta­king withall the Ebowith.Ebowith. This Ebowith is a riuelet rysing flat North, in a mountaine of high Wenslande, and going streight from thence into Diffrin Serowy vale, it falleth into the Vske or Wiske, a myle and a halfe beneath Newporte, from whence likewyse it is vnto the hauen mouth of Wiske about half a mile more. But to procede withour Wiske. Certes this riuer is famous and vpon some partes of the lower bankes especially about Carleon is much Romaine Coyne found, of all maner of sortes, as men eare and digge the grounde. Furthermore this streame is one of the greatest in Southwales and huge ships might well come to the towne of Car­leon, as they did in the time of the Romaines if Newport bridge were not a let vnto them. [Page] Neuerthelesse bigge bo [...]es come thereto. It is eyght Welche or tw [...]l [...]e Englishe myles from Chepstow or Strigull, and of some thought to be in Bace Wencelande, though other be of the contrarie opinion. But howso­euer the matter standeth, this ryuer is taken to be the bo [...]ds of Brechnockshyre, as Ren­ni is to midle Wenceland and Glamorgan­shyre.

Remenei, or Remni.The next riuer vnto Vske or Wiske is cal­led Remenei or Remni, whose heade is thrée or foure myles aboue Eggluis Tider Vap Hoell (otherwyse called Fanum Theodori, or the Church of Theodorus) whence come ma­nye springs, & taking one botome, the water is called Kayach. It is also augmented with the Risca brooke, comming vnto it out of a Paroche called Eggluis Ilan, and then al­togither named Risca.Risca. Thence running tho­rowe Bedwes Paroche, it is called Renmy or Remeny and so continueth vntill it come at the Sauerne. The fall therof also is not a­boue sixe myles from the ryuer Wiske. Al­though that for shippes it be nothing commo­dious. It is more ouer a limite betwéene the Silures and Glamorganshyre.

Taffe. From the mouth of Renni, to the mouth of Taffe are two myles. Thys ryuer is the greatest in all Glamorganshyre, and the ci­tie Taffe it selfe of good countenaunce, sith it is endued with the Cathedrall sea of a Bi­shop. The head of this water cōmeth downe from Wooddy hilles, and often bringeth such logges and bodyes of trées withal frō thence, that they frush the bridge in péeces, but for as­much as it is made of tymber, it is repayred with lesse cost, whereas if it were of harde stone all the countrie thereabouts would not be able to amende it. Into this streame also falleth Lhay,Lhay. which descendeth (but more ea­sterly) from the same hilles and it méeteth with all beneath Landaffe, that standeth al­most euen at the verye confluence, and thus sayeth Lhoyd, but Lelande noteth it other­wyse. In like sorte the Taffe receyueth the Rodney Vaur,Rodeney vaur, Rodeny vehan. and Rodeney Vehan, in one botome, which spring in the Lordship of Glin Rodeney within two miles togither. Of these also the Rodeney Vaur ryseth by Northwest in a great high rocke, called Drissiog. Rode­ney Vehan issueth a myle aboue castell Nose (by northwest also) but néerer towarde Mys­ken Lordship, so that the Rodney Vaur head and streame lieth more west vp into Wales. As for Castell Nose, it is but a highe stonye Cragge in the toppe of a hil: but to procéede. Rodeney Vaur runneth vnder a bridge of wood a myle from Penrise, then to Ponte Kemmeis two myles lower, and a little be­neath is the confluence. There be also two small bridges on Rodeney Vehan of w [...]d, whereof the first is agaynst P [...]r [...]se thrée quarters of a myle of, the other a little aboue the confluēce right against the bridg on Rod­ney Vaur. There is a bridg of wood also vpō the whole streame two myles beneath the sayde confluence, called Pont Newith, and a quarter of a mile from the place where it go­eth into Taffe.

From Taffe to Lay mouth or Ele ryuer a mile, from Lhay mouth (or rather Penarth,Lhay. that standeth on the West poynt of it) to the mouth of Thawan ryuer (from whence is a cōmon passage ouer vnto Mineheued in So­mersetshyre of seuentene myles) are about seuen Welche myles,Thawan▪ which are counted af­ter this maner. A myle and a halfe aboue Thawan is Scylley Hauenet,Scylley. (a pretie suc­cour for shippes) whose heade is in Wenno paroche two myles & a halfe from the shore. From Scilley mouth to Aber Barry a mile,Barry. and thither commeth a little ryll of fresh wa­ter into Sauerne, whose head is scant a myle of in playne grounde by Northeast,This I went 50. yeres [...] for 10. [...]. & right a­gainst the fall of this becke lyeth Barry Is­lande a flight shotte from the shore at the full sea. Halfe a myle aboue Aber Barry is the mouth of Come kydy,Com [...] which ryseth flat north frō the place where it goeth into ye Sauerne & serueth oft for herbor vnto sea farers. Thēce to the mouth of Thawan are 3. myles, wher­vnto shippes may come at will. Two myles aboue Thawan is Colhow,Colhow. whether a little rill resorteth from Lau Iltuit, thence to the mouth of Alen foure myles,Alen. that is a myle to S. Dynothes Castell, and thrée myles fur­der. The Alen riseth by northeast vp into the lande at a place, called Lhes Broimith, or Skyrpton, about foure myles aboue the plot where it commeth by it selfe into Sauerne. From thence to the mouth of Ogur alias Gur thrée miles.Ogur. Then come they in processe of tyme vnto the Kensike or Colbrooke ryuer which is no great thing,Kensike. sith it ryseth not a­boue 3. myles frō the shore. From Kensike to Aber Auon two myles,Auon. and herein doe ships molested with weather oftentimes séeke her­borow. It commeth of two armes, whereof that which lyeth Northeast is called Auon Vaur, the other that lyeth Northwest Auon Vehā. They méete togither at Lhanuoy Hē ­gle, about two myles aboue Aber Auon vil­lage, which is two myles also from the sea. From hence to the Neth is about two miles and a halfe,Neth. thereon come shiplettes al­most to the towne of Neth frō the Sauerne. From the mouth of Neth vnto the mouth of Crimline becke is two miles, and being pas­sed [Page 27] the same we come vnto the Tauy,Tauy. which descendeth from the aforesayd hilles and fal­leth into the Sea by East of Swansey. Be­yng past this wée come vnto the Lichwr, or Lochar mouth and then glyding by the Wormes head,Lochar. [...]andres. we passed to the Wandres­mouth, whereof I finde this description fol­lowing in Lelande.Vendraith [...]aur Vē ­ [...]raith Ve­ [...]a. Both Vendraith, Vaur & Vēdraith Vehan, ryse in a péece of Carmar­dineshyre, called Issekenen, that is to say, the lowe quarter about Kennen ryuer, and be­twixt the heades of these two hitles, is ano­ther hill, wherein be stones of a gréenish cou­lour, whereof the inhabitauntes make theyr Lime. The name of the hyll that Vendraith Vaur ryseth in, is called Mennith Vaur, and therein is a poole as in a morish ground, na­med Lhintegowen, where ye principall spring is, & thys hyll is eight or nyne myles frō Kid­welli. The hyll that Vendraith Vehan sprin­geth out of, is called Mennith Vehan, & thys water commeth by Kydwelly towne. But a­bout thrée or foure myles, eare it come thy­ther, it receyueth a brooke, called Tresgyrth the course wherof is little aboue a myle from the place where it goeth into Vendraith, and yet it hath foure or fiue turking milles and thrée Corne milles vppon it. At the heade of this brooke is an hole in the hilles side, where men often enter and walke in a large space. And as for the brooke it selfe, it is one of the most plentifull and commodious that is to be founde in Wales. All along the sides also of Vendraith Vaur, you shall finde great plen­tye of Seacoles. There is a great hole by heade of Vendraith Vehan, where men vse to enter into vaultes of great compasse, and it is sayde, that they may go one way vnder the grounde to Wormes head, and another waye to Cairkennen castell, which is thrée myles or more vnto the lande. But how true these things are it is not in me to determine, yet this is certaine, that there is very good Hawking at the Heron in Vendraith Vehā. There are dyuers printes of the passage of certaine Wormes also in the Caue, at the head of Vēdraith Vehan, as the inhabitants doe fable, but I neuer heard of any man that saw any Worme there, and yet it is beléeued that many Wormes are there.

Tow, or Towy.Being past this, we came to the Abertowy or mouth of the Towz. This riuer ryseth in the mountaines of Elinith foure myles by south from Lintiue in a morish grounde, 24. miles from Carmardyn and in a forrest cal­led Bishops forrest midway betwixt Land­wybreuy & Landanuery castell. For fish this is much better in mine opinion, thē the Taw or Taffe, whose head breadeth no fishe, but if any be cast into it, they turne vp their bellies and die out of hande. Into this riuer also fal­leth one called Guthrike,Guthrijc. not farre frō Lan­donuery towne, which is two and twentye myle frō the head of Towy. In like sort the Kenen ryuer falleth into the Towy about Landilouaur,Kenen. which is two m [...]es higher vpō Towy, the Dinefur castel & the whole course of this water is not aboue thrée myles.Brane. The Brane (another ryuer also) after it hath run from the head by the space of 12 myles doth come hard by the foote of Landonuery castel, and taking with it the Euery, they fall togi­ther into the Towz, a little beneath the Ca­stell.Euery. Thys Euery runneth through the mid­dest of Landanuery towne. Beneath Lādan­uery in like sorte another brooke called Mar­leis, falleth into the Towy, and foure myles beneath the same two other, of which the one is called Nonneis. Nonneis. Foure miles also from A­bermarleis or the place where Towy & Mar­leis doe méete (towarde Carmardine) run­neth the riuer Dulesse, which soone after fal­leth also into Towy. Furthermore 2. miles beneath the fall of Dulesse, there is another, and thrée or foure myles beyonde this, is the seconde Dulesse, & eache of them after other fall into the saide ryuer, but this latter about Drislan Castell, as Lelande hath descrybed thē. Procéeding yet further still toward Car­mardine, our sayde streame goeth by Landi­stupham Castell, and also into the sea, about thrée myles beyonde Drislan Castell. Also he confesseth moreouer, that he sawe the fall of Cothey, a fayre ryuer, into the sayd streame, & this was within foure myles of Carmar­dine, wherof I spake before.Cothey. The Cothey ri­seth thrée myles frō Landanbreui vnder the hulke of Blaine Icorne, which is a narrowe passage, and therein marueylous heapes of stones.

The next riuer we came vnto vpon the cost is called Taue,Taue. whose head runneth also from the blacke mountaines at a place thrée miles from Cardigan called Presselen, thence it goeth by Saint Clares, and as it hasteth to­ward the sea,Gowe. it taketh the ryuer Gowe with it, which riseth at Blaincowen two myles or more aboue the bridge.Duddery. Barth­kinni. Morlais. Then the Duddery ryuer, and Barthkinni streame, Venny & Morlais. Next of all come we to Milford ha­uen,Dugledu, wherunto two ryuers direct their course from the Northeast called Dugledu or the two swordes and betwéene them both is a [...] which they cal also Cultlell (that is to say) the knyfe,Cultlell. wereof riseth a merry tale of a welch­man that lying in this place abrode all night in the colde weather, he was demaunded of his hostesse (where he did breake his faste the [Page] next morrowe) at what Inne he laye in the night precedent, bycause he came so soone to hir house ere any of hir maydes were vp. Oh good hostesse (quod he) be contented I laye to night in a daungerous estate for I slepte be­twéene two swordes with a long knife at my hart, meaning in déede that he lay betwéene these two ryuers, and his breast towards the South néere to the heade of Cultlell. But to passe ouer these iestes, here Leland speaketh of a ryuer called Gwyly,Gwyly. but where it ryseth or falleth he maketh no certaine report: wher­fore it is requisite that I procéede according to my purpose. Beyng therfore passe this ha­uen and point of Demetia in casting aboute the coaste we come to Saint Dewies, or S. Dauyds land,S. Dewy or Dauid all one. which I reade to be seperated from the rest of the countrey much after this manner, although I graunt that there maye be an dare diuers other litle créekes, betwixt Newgale and Saint Dauys head, & betwixt S. Dauys and Fyschard, beside those that are here mencioned out of a Register of that house.

As we turne therefore from Milford, S. Dauys land beginneth at Newgall,Newgall. a créeke serued with a backe freshe water. Howbeit there is a Baye before this créeke betwixt it and Milford. From hence about foure miles is Saluache créeke,Saluach. otherwise called Saue­rach, whether some freshe water resorteth: ye mouth also thereof is a good rescue for Ba­lingers as it (I meane the register) sayth. Thence go we to Portclais 3. myles where is a litle portlet,Portclais. Alen. whether the Alen that com­meth thorowe Sainte Dewies close doth runne.

It lyeth a myle southwest frō S. Dewies, Saint Stinans Chappell also is betwéene Portclais,Portmaw Maw. and Portmaw. The next is Porte Maw, where I founde a great estuary into the lande.Pendwy. The Pendwy halfe a mile from ye: Land Vehan is 3. myles frō Pendwy,Lanuehā. where is a salt créeke,Tredine. then to Tredine thrée myles, where is another créeke to Langunda,Langūda. foure miles, and another créeke is there in like sort where fysher men catche Herring.Fischard. Here also the Gwerne riuer deuideth Penbidianc from Fischerdine Kemmeis land. Frō Langunda to Fischard at the Gwerne mouth 4. myles,Gwerne. & here is a portlet or hauenet also for shippes. and thus much of Saint Dauids lande. Be­sides this also Leland in a third booke talketh of Linnes and Pooles, but for as much as my purpose is not to speake of Lakes & Lhinnes, I passe them ouer as hasting to the Teify, in latine Tibius, which is the nexte ryuer that serueth for my purpose.

Teyfy.The Teyfy therfore is a right noble ryuer, as anye in Wales,Castor [...] [...] Englan [...] fraught with delicate Samons, and herein onely of all the ryuers in Englande is the Castor or Beuer to bée founde. It aryseth foure myles from Strat­fleur out of a Poole called Lhintiue, lying on the West side of the blacke mountaines (as the Sauerne doth spring out from by east of them) & holding on with the ordinary course,Fleure. it commeth at laste to Stradfleur, where it méeteth with a brooket called the Fleure or Flere. Frō hence it procéedeth on vnto Tre­garon, Bruy, Landfur, Glydois, Budhair, Emlin, Kilgarran, & so to Cardigon, which standeth on the farder side as we go towarde the foresaid ryuer from by south. Certes this ryuer which we nowe discribe, goeth in man­ner plaine West, till we come within syxe myles of Cairmardine, and then returneth toward the North, so goyng on till it come at Abertiwy, or Aberteify, as it is most cōmon­ly called. It deuideth Pembrooke from Car­digan or Cereticanshere, as Leland setteth it downe.

Beyng paste the Tewe or Teify we came to Aberayron,Ayron. so called of the ryuer Ayron which there falleth into the Maine, 3. myles beneath Lanclere. It ryseth also in a moun­taine, percel of the blacke hilles, by a chappel called Blaine Penial, belonging to Landwy Breui, but it is in Cardigon shire ouer Tiue and aboute three or foure myles from Tiue banckes.Arth. Next vnto this as I remember we passed by Aberarth where was a pretye streamelet & some slender harborow. And thē we came to another water which falleth into ye sea beneath Risthide (neither of them beingRis. of any great length from their heades) and so vnto A [...]erystwith which yssueth in a marsheYstwich. called Blaine Wythe (so farre as I remem­ber) and runneth about 13. or 14. myles tyll it come at last into the sea.Meleuen It taketh withal by the waye also first the Meleuen and then the Rhedhol,Redol. a ryuer nothing inferiour vnto Ystwith it selfe, with whome it maketh his confluence aboue Badarne, and in a large bo­tome goeth soone after into the sea.

Hence we went vnto the Wy whose heade commeth from the south part of Snowdony by Mowdheuy Mathan laith,Wy. and in this his course moreouer he séemeth to parte Northe Wales and South Wales in sunder. It is called in latine Deuus, in Welshe Dyfy, but how it came to be called Wy in good soothe it is not found. It receyueth also the Alen which cōmeth from the vpper part of Cormeryst­with in Cardigonshyre, out of the blaine, and taketh also with it the Clardwyn, a brooke ys­suing about a myle from Cragnawlin and as it holdeth on the course it receyueth the [Page 28] Clardwy which springeth vp halfe a myle from the Clardue head (another gullet like­wise falling from ye Rocky hilles into Clard­wy) and so goyng together foure miles far­der they fall into the Allen. Finally after all these haue as it were played together in one or moe bottomes among the pleasant Mea­dowes and lower groundes, by the space of sixe myles, vnder ye name of Alen, they beate at the last vpon the Wy and accompany him directly vnto the Ocean.

After this we passed by Aberho, so named of the Riuer Ho, that falleth therein to the sea and commeth thether from ye Alpes or hilles of Snowdony. From hence we sayled by Abermawr or mouth of Mawr,Mawr. which com­meth in like sorte from Snowdony, and ta­keth diuers Ryuers with him whose names I doe not know. [...]rtro. Then vnto ye Artro a brooke descending from those hilles also, and falling into the sea a myle aboue the Harleche. Next of al we behold the Glesse Linne that parteth Caernaruon from Merio [...]nneth shyre, and so came vnto Traith Vehan, betwixte which two, and Traith Mawr rūneth a litle brooke thorowe the wharfe of Traith Mawr at the low water as I read. These 2 Traiths are ye mouthes of two faire streames, wherof the most Southerly is called Mawy,Mawy. Ferles, the other Ferles, eche of them I saye deriuing his ori­ginall water from Snowdony, as diuers o­ther brookes haue done already before them. Of these also ye first passeth by diuers lakes, although I doe not well knowe the names of anye one of them. From Traith mawr to Chrychet are three myles,Crichet. where also is a lit­tle rill serued with sundrye waters. Then come we vnto the Erke,Erke. a pretye brooke dis­cending frō Madrijn hilles. Then casting a­bout toward the south (as the coast lyeth) we sawe the Abersoch or mouth of the Soch ry­uer vppon our right handes,Soch. in the mouthe whereof lye two Islandes, of which the more Northerly is called Tudfall and the other Penrijn as Leland did obserue. After this, goyng about by the point we come to Daron Ryuer,Daron. wherevppon standeth Aberdaron a quarter of a mile frō the shore betwixt Aber­darō and Vortigernes vale, where the com­passe of the sea gathereth in a heade and en­treth at both endes: [...]euenni. Thē come we to Venni brooke which runneth by Treuenni, and is about 12. myles of from Aberdaron. Then iij. miles of to Egluis Epistle, whether com­meth a little brooke or rill from Gwortheren Rocke, which some call Vortigernes Vale. From hence also 3. myles further, we come to Lhanhelerion and then foure myles to Cluniock, and finally to Clunio [...]k Vaur Ar­uon, where is a little rillet, & a myle or more farder is another that goeth to the mayne sea. Here in following Lelande as I doe for the most part in all this Treatize where he kéepeth any order at all (for his notes, are so dispersed in his Comētaries ye one of them is sometimes is 6.8. or 20. leaues from another, and many of them penned after a contrarye sort) I finde these wordes. There is a brooke beyonde Aberleuenni goyng by it selfe into the sea: there be also two brookes betwéene Gurnwy or Gwyrfay and Skeuerneck, as Golaid and Semare Poole:Golaide. Semer­poole. Sother. Menley. Sowther créeke also is the verye pointe of Abermenley, by which notes as I finde not what he saith, so the remembraunce of them may helpe better against the next publication of this booke: to procéede therefore in such order as I may.

Leuenni is a great brooke rysing 4. mile aboue the place, where it falleth into the sea,Leuen. Leuen brooke cōmeth into the sea two miles aboue Skeuernocke:Skeuer­nocke. Skeuernocke a little brooke sixe myles aboue Abersaint. Auō Gur­nay commeth thorowe pontnewith bridge, and after into Meney at South Crock, two myles of Cladwant brooke,Cladwant and rysing thrée myles from thence it commeth thorow the towne bridge of Carnaruon and goeth by it selfe into Meney arme, so that Carnaruon standeth betwéene two riuers. Botes also do come to Cadwan. The name of Abermeney is not passing a myle aboue Carnaruon, and yet some cal it Meney, til you come to Poul­tell. Then come we to Cair Arfon or Cair­naruon, Gwiniwith mirith (or horse brooke) two myles from Moylethon, and it ryseth at a well so called full a myle from thence. Moylethon is a bowe shotte from Aber­powle, frō whence ferry botes go to the Ter­mone or Anglesy. Aberpowle runneth three myles into the lande,Coute. and hath his head foure myles beyonde Bangor in Meney shore: and here is a little comming in for botes bending into the Meney.Gegyne. Aber Gegeyne commeth out of a mountaine a myle aboue,Torron­nen. Ogwine. and Bangar (thorow which a rillet called Torronnē hath his course) almost a myle aboue it. Aber Og­wine is two miles aboue yt. It ryseth at Tale linne Ogwine poole fiue myles aboue Ban­gor in the east side of Withow.Auon. Aber Auon is two myles aboue A [...]erogwene, and it ryseth in a Poole called Lin man Auon thrée myles of. Auon Lan var Vehan ryseth in a moun­taine thereby,Lanuar Vehan. Duege­uelth. and goeth into the sea 2. miles aboue Duegeuelth. Auon Duegeuelth is thre myles aboue Conwey, which rysing in the mountaines a myle of, goeth by it selfe into Meney salt arme. On the saide shore also ly­eth Penmaine, and this brooke doth runne [Page] betwixte Penmaine Maur, and Penmaine Vehan. It ryseth about 3. myles from Pen­ma [...]lon hilles which lye aboute 60. myles from Conwey abbaie nowe dissolued. On the Northe and West of this ryuer standeth the towne of Conwey, which taketh his name therof. This riuer receaueth ye Lhigwy a pre­ty streame that commeth from by west & ioi­neth with al a little aboue the Rist but on the West bancke.Lighwy. The Lighwy also taketh ano­ther with him that commeth from by south. After this we come to the Gele whereon A­bergele standeth,Gele. and it runneth thorowe the Canges: then vnto the Rose or Ros and next of all to the mouth of a great hauen, wherin­to the Clude which cōmeth from the south,Cluda. Elwy. and the Elwy that descendeth from ye West, doe emptie their chanelles, & betwixte which two the pontificall sea of Bangor is scituate verye pleasantly and not farre of from the point.Alode. Into Elwy runneth the Alode descen­ding from Lhin Alode eyght myles from Denbighe and goyng by Lhan Sannan, it falleth into the Elwy in Lhan Heueth parish which is sixe myles aboue Saint Asaph. Le­lād calleth it Aleth.Clue doch Into Clude also runneth Clue Doch foure miles lower by water then Ruthine towne: on the West side likewyse the Vstrate,Vstrate. that commeth within halfe a myle by south of Denbighe and goeth into Clude almost against Denbighe towne. Frō hence to my remembraunce, and before we come to Aber Dée or the mouth of the Dée I finde no Riuer of any countenaunce,Dea. where­fore I will hast forth to the description of that streame. It ryseth of sundy-heades southwest from Lintegy or Lin Tegnis, in the countie of Penthlin wherevnto within a while they resort and direct their courses, and there ioy­ning in one Channell, it commeth almost by Bala a poore market towne. Then going stil by the side of Yale it passeth to Berwin, where it méeteth with a rill, afterwardes to Corwen a little by Southwest wherof, it re­ceaueth the Alwijn a noble streame which commeth from the Northwest out of a Lyn lying on the other syde of ye same hilles wher­in the Alode riseth,Alwijn. and not onely taketh sun­dery ryuerets and rilles withall as it goeth, but also runneth with great swiftnesse tyll it be ioyned with the same. From Corwen it goeth to Gellon, and a fewe myles beneath Gellon it méeteth with the Kyriog, then the Wrerham rill,Kyriog. Alin. and finally the Alyn whose crinkeling streames discende from a Lin in the Stradlin hilles, and goyng first North east vnto Mold or Gwidgruc, thē southward vnto Cargurle, and finally againe into the Northeast, it stayeth not tyll it come at the Dée, where it méeteth about halfe a myle or more frō the Holit with the aforesaide riuer. Hauing therfore receiued this water it conti­nueth the course vnto Chester it selfe, and frō thence into the Irysh sea as experience hath cōfirmed. What other ryuers do fal into this streame it shal be shewed in the second booke. In ye meane time hauing a good gale of wind blowing from the South west, we came to Lyr poole whether the Wyuer on the southe about Frodsham & the Mersey on the north, doe fall, in thunburdening of their channels. Wiuer water runneth among the Wiches, and Marsey departeth Chester and Lanca­shyre in sunder.

From hence also we go by Wegam, or Dugeles: and nexte of all vnto the Ribell, which almost doth enuyronne Preston in Andernesse. It ryseth in Rybbes dale about Salley Aabbye, and from thence goeth to Salley and a lyttle beneath Salley it re­ceiueth the Calder that cōmeth by Whaley, and then the Oder. After thys, we come to the Wire, which ryseth eyght or tenne miles from Garston, out of the Hylles on the ryght hande, and commeth by gréene Hawghe a pretye Castell, belonging to the Earles of Darby, and more then halfe a myle of to Garston in Andernesse. It ebbeth and floweth also, thrée myles beneath Garstone, and at the Chappell of Alhallowes (tenne myles frō Garston) it goeth into the Sea. After thys we come to Coker that maketh no great course ere we come to the Sandes, by Cockerham Vyllage, where they make Salt out of the Sandes, by often wetting, and dreauing the water from thence into a Pyt, they séeth it, as at the Wiche. &c. Then to Cowder ryll, & so to the Lane or Lune, that giueth name to Lancaster, where much Romaine money is founde.

Of thys ryuer you shall reade more in the seconde Booke. Next vnto it also is the Kery, halfe a mile beyond Warton, where the rich Kitson was borne. It ryseth out of the hylles not farre of, and falleth into the salte water at Lunesandes. From thence we come to Bythe water, which ryseth not farre from Bytham Towne and Parke, in the Hilles whereabout are great numbers of goates. It is a prettye ryuer, and by all lykelyhoode resorteth vnto Ken sands. Ken ryseth at Ken more, in a Poole of a myle compasse, verye well stored wyth fyshe, the head whereof (as all the Barromy of Kendal) is in Westmer­lande. It is also eyght myles from Kendall, in the waye to Perith, and the course there­of is to Newbridge, Barley, Staueley hamlet, Bowstone, Burne syde bridges, [Page 29] to Kendall, Leuen bridge. &c. into the sea, re­ceiuing the Sprout ryuer into it, a myle a­boue Fremegate bridge. Next vnto this is ye Charte whether a freshe water commeth, as doth another to Conny heade sandes.

Then come wée to Dudden or Doden ha­uen, whether a freshe brooke also resorteth, & foure myles from hence was Furnesse Ab­bay vp into the mountaines. Then sayled we to the Eske, whereunto commeth a brooke from Crosmets, then to the Caldes serued also wyth a backe freshe water: then (going about by S. Bées) to the Wy or Ferne, to to Deruent, the Lug or Luy, and finallye to Soluey, which parteth England & Scotland.

Hauing thus gone thorowe the ryuers of Englande, nowe it resteth that wée procéede with those which are to bée founde vppon the Scettyshe shoore, in such order as we best maye, vntill we haue fetched a compasse about the same, and come vnto Barwijcke, whence afterwarde it shall be easye for vs to make repaire vnto the Thames, from which we did set forwarde in the beginning of oure voiage.

The fyrste ryuer that I mette wythall on the Scottish coast, [...]. is the Eske, after I came pa [...]t the Soluey which hath his heade in the Cheuiote Hylles runneth by Kirkinton, and falleth into the Sea at Borow on the sands. Thys Eske hauing receiued the Ewys fal­leth into the Soluey fyrst at Atterith. After thys I passed ouer [...] lyttle créeke from Kyr­thell, and so to Anand, whereof the valleye Anandale doth séeme to take ye name. There is also the Nyde, wheref commeth Nidsdale, the Ken, the Dée, the Craie, and the Blad­necke, and al these besides dyuers other smal rylles of lesse name doe lye vpon the south coast of Galloway. On the north side also we haue the Ruan, the Arde, the Eassile Dune, the Burwin, the Cluide, (whereupon some­tyme stoode the famous citie of Alcluyde, and whereinto runneth the Carath) the Hamell, the Dourglesse, and the Lame. From hence in lyke manner, wée came vnto the Leuind mouth, wherunto the Blake on the southwest and the Lomundelake, with his fleting Isles and fish without finnes, (yet very holesome) doth séeme to make hys issue. Thys lake of Lomund in calme wheather, ryseth some­times so high and swelleth with such terrible Billowes, that it causeth the best Marriners of Scotlande to abyde the leysure of this wa­ter, before they haue aduenture to hoyss vp sayles, on hie. The like is séene in windye weather, but much more perillous: There are certeine Isles also in the same, which mooue and remooue, oftentymes by force of the water, but one of them especiallye, which otherwyse is very fruitefull for pasturage of Cattel▪ Next [...] this is the Leue,Leue. Long. Goylee. Heke. Robinsey. Forlan. Tarbat. Lean. Abyr. Arke. Zese. Sell. Zord. Owyn. Newisse. Orne. Lang. Drun. Hew. Brun. Kile. Dowr, Faro. Nesse. Herre. Con. Glasse. Maur. Vrdàll. Fesse. Calder. Wifle. Browre. Clyn. Twine. Shin Syllan. Carew. Nesse. Narding. Spaie. Downe. Dée. Eske. the Rage the Longe, the Goyle, & the Heke, which for the excéeding greatnesse of theire heades are called lakes. Then haue we the Robinsey, the forelande, the Tarbat, the Lean, and the Abyr, wherevnto the Spansey, the Loyne, the Louth, the Arke, and the Zefe doe fall, there is also the Sell, the Zord the Owyn, the Newisse, the Orne, the Lang, the Drun, the Hew, the Brun, the Kell, the Dowr, the Faro, ye Nesse, the Herre, the Con, ye Glasse the Maur, the Vrdall, the Fe [...]s (that cōmeth out of the Caldell) the Fairso [...]e which two latter lye a lyttle by west of the Orchades, and are properly called ryuers, bicause they issue onely from springes, but most of the o­ther lakes, bicause they come from [...] innes, [...] and huge pooles, or such lowe bottomes, fed [...]e with springes, as séeme to haue no accesse, but onelye recesse of waters, wherof there be many in Scotlande. But to procéede hauyng once past Dungisby heade in Cathnesse, we shall ere long come to ye mor [...]th [...] the W [...]ste, a pretty streame, comming by south of the Mountaynes called the Maydens pappes. Thon to the Browre, the Clyn, the Twyn, (wherunto runneth thrée ryuers, the Shy [...], the Sillan, & Carew) the Nesse which beside the plenty of Samon founde therein is neuer frozen, nor suffereth yse to remaine there, that is cast into the poole. From thence wée come vnto the Narding, the Fynderne, the Spai [...], (which receiueth the Vine,) ye Fitch, the Buliche, the Arrian, the Leuin, and the Boghe, from whence we sayle, vntill we come about the Buquhan head, and so to the Downe, and Dée: which two streames bring forth the greatest Samons, that are to be had in Scotland, and most plentye of the same. Then to the North Eske where into the Es­mond runneth aboue Brech [...], the Southe Eske, then the Louen and the Tawe, which is the fynest Ryuer for water that is in all Scotland, and whereunto most Ryuers and lakes doe runne. As Farlake, Yrth, Goure, Loiche, Cannach, Lynell, [...]oyon, Irewer, Erne, and diuers other besides small rylleis which I did neuer loke vppon. Then is there the lake Londors vppon whose mouth Saint Androwes doth stande, the Lake Le­win vnto whole streame two other Lakes [...] recou [...] in Fi [...]land, and then the Fyrt [...] [...] Fortha, which some doe call the Scotish [...] sea, and with the Ryuer laste mencioned (I meane that commeth from Londors) inclu­deth all Fife, the saide Forthe beyng full of Oysters and all kindes of huge fyshe that vse [Page] to lye in the déepe. How many waters runne into the Fyrth, it is not in my power iustlye to declare, yet are there both Ryuers, Rilles, and Lakes that fall into the same,Clack. Alon. Dune. Kery. Cambell. Cumer. Tere. Man. Torkeson. Rosham. Mussell. Blene. Twede. as Clack, Alon, Dune, Kery, Cambell, Cumer, Tere, Man, Torkeson, Roshan, Mushell, Blene, and dyuers other which I call by these names, partly after information, and partly of such townes as are néere vnto their heds. Finally when we are paste the Hay then are we come vnto the Twede and soone after in­to England againe.

The Twede is a noble riuer and the limes or bounde betwéene England and Scotland, whereby those two kingdomes are nowe di­uided in sunder. It riseth about Drimlar in Eusdale (or rather out of a faire Wel as Le­land saith standing in the mosse of an hill cal­led Airstane, or Harestan in Twede dale 10. miles from Pibble) and so comming by Pib­ble, Lander, Drybiwgh, lelse, Warke, Nor­ham and Hagarstone, it falleth into the sea beneath Barwijc as I heare: Thus saith Le­land, but I not contented with this so shorte a discourse of so long a Ryuer and briefe de­scription of so faire a streame, wil adde some­what more of the same concerning his race on the Englishe side, and rehearsall of suche Ryuers as fall into the same. Cōming ther­fore to Ridam, it receyueth betwéene that & Carham a becke which descendeth from the hilles that lye by West of Windram. Go­ing also from Rydam by Longbridgeham (on the Scottishe side) and to Carham, it ha­steth immediately to Warke castell on the Englishe, and by Spylaw on the other side, then to Cornewall, Cal [...] streame, and Tille­mouth where it receiueth sundry waters in one botome which is called the Till, & whose description insueth here at hand.Tyll. Certes there is no head of any Ryuer that is named Till, but the yssue of the fardest water that com­meth hereinto, ryseth not farre from ye head of Vswaie in the Cheuiote hilles, where i [...] is called Bromis. From thence it goeth to Hartside Ingram Brantō, Crawley, Hedge­ley, Beuely, Bewijc, and Bewijc, beneath which it receiueth one water comming from Rodham by West and sone after a second de­scending from the Middletons, and so they go as one with the Bromishe,Bromis. by Chatton to Fowbrey (where they crosse the third water falling downe by North from Howborne by Hesel bridg) thence to Woller, there also ta­king in a rill that riseth about Middleton hal, & runneth by Hardley, Whereley, and ye rest afore remembred, wherby the water of Bro­mis is not a little increased, and after this latter conf [...]uence beneath Woller, no more called Bromis but the Till, vntill it come at the Twede. The Till passing therefore by Weteland and Dedington, méeteth son [...] af­ter with a fayre streame comming from by Southwest, which most men call the Bow­bent or Bobent.Bo [...] It riseth on the West side of the Cocklaw hill, and from thence hasteth to Hai [...]ons beneath the which it ioyneth from by southeast with the Hellerborne, and then goeth to Pudston, Downeham, Kilham, and a little by North of Newton Kyrke, and be­twéene it and West Newton, it taketh in an­other water cōming from the Cheuiote hils by Heth poole, and from thenceforth runneth on without any farder increase, by Copland Euart and so into the Till. The Till for his part in lyke sorte after this confluence goeth to Broneridge, Fodcastell, Eatall castell Heaton and North of Tilmouthe into the Twede, or by West of Wesell, excepte my memorie doe falle me. After this also [...]ur a­foresaid water of Twede descendeth to Gro­tehughe, the Newbiggins, Norham castell, Foord, Lungridge,Whit [...] and crossing the Whita­ker on the other side from Scotland beneath Cawmill, it runneth to Ordo, to Barwicke and to into the Ocean, leauing so much Eng­lishe ground on the Northwest ripe as lyeth in manner of a triangle betwéene Cawm [...]l­les, Barwi [...] and Lammeton, which is two myles and an halfe euery waye, or not much more excepte I be deceiued. Beyng past this noble streame, we came by a rill that descen­deth from Bowsden by Barington. Then by the second which ariseth betwéene Middleton and Detcham and runneth by Eskill and the Rosse. Next of all to Warnemouth of whose back water I read as foloweth.Warne. The Warne or Gwerne ryseth Southwest of Crokelaw, and goyng by Warneford, Bradford, Spin­dlestone, and Budill, it leaueth Newton on the right hand, and so falleth into the Ocean after it hath runne almost n [...]ne myles from the heade within the lande. From Warne­mouth, we sayled by Bamborow castell, and came at last to a fall betwéene Bedwell and Newton: The first water that serueth this issue, riseth aboue Carleton from the foote of an hill which séemeth to part the head of this & that of Warne in sunder. It runneth also by Carleton, Tonley, Dorford, Brunton and Tuggell, and finally into the sea as to his course appertaineth.Aile, or Alne. From this water we went by Dunstanbugh vnto the Aile or Alne mouth which is serued with a pretty riueret called Alne, the heade whereof riseth in the hilles west of Aluham towne. From thence also it runneth by Ryle, Kyle, Eslington, and Whittingham where it crosseth a rill com­ming [Page 30] from by south, and beneath the same, the second that descendeth from Eirchild at Brone, & likewyse the thirde that riseth at Newton and runneth by Edlingham castell and Lemmaton, (all on the Southeast side or right hande,) and so passeth on farder till it méete with the fourth comming from aboue Shipley from by North, after which conflu­ence it goeth to Alnewijc and then to Den­nijc, receyuing there a rillet from by South and a rill from by Northe, and thence goyng on to Bilton, betwéene Ailmouth towne and Wooddon, it swepeth into the Ocean.

[...]ket.The Cocket is a goodly ryuer, the head also thereof is in the rootes of Kemblespeth hils, from whence it goeth to Whiteside, [...]ie. & there méeting wyth the Vswaye (which descendeth from the North,) it goeth a little farder to Linbridge, & there receyueth the Ridley by south west. It ioineth also ere long with the Rydlande, which commeth in north, by Bil­stone, [...]ley. and then hyeth to Sharpeton, to Har­botle, where it crosseth the Yardop water, by south, [...]dop. then to Woodhouse, to Bickerton, to Tossons, Newton, and running a pace to­warde Whitton Towre, it taketh a Brooke with all that commeth in northwest of Alne­ham, néere Elihaw, and goeth by Skarne­wood, Ouer nether Trewhet, Snitter, and Throxton, and sone after vniteth it self with the Cocket, from whence they go together to Rethbury, or Whitton Towre, to Haly, to Brinkehorne, Welden, Elihaw, Felton, (re­ceiuing thereabout the Faresley brooke, that goeth by wintring by south east; & Sheldike water, that goeth by Hason, to Brainsaughe by north) & from thence to Morricke castell, and so into the Sea.

There is furthermore a litle fall, betwéene Hawkeslaw & Dunrith, which ryseth about Stokes wood, goeth by east Cheuington, and Whittington castell, & afterwarde into the Ocean. [...]ne. The Lune is a pretye brooke rysing west of Espley, frō whence it goeth to Trit­lington, Vgham, Linton, and ere long in the Sea.

[...]nsbeck.Wansbecke is farre greater then the Lu­ne. It issueth vp west and by north, of west Whelpington, thence it runneth to kyrke Whelpington, Wallington, Middleton, and Angerton. Here it méeteth with a water running frō about Farnelaw, by ye grange, and Hartborne on the north, and then goyng from Angerton, it runneth by Moseden to Mitforth, and there in lyke maner crosseth ye Font, [...]ont, alias [...]ont. which issuing out of the ground about new Biggin, goeth by Nonney kyrke, Wit­ton castel, Stanton, Nunriding, Newton, & so into ye Wansbecke, which runneth in lyke maner from Mitforde to M [...]r [...]heth castell, (within two myles whereof, it [...]beth & flow­eth) the newe Chappell, Bottle castel, Shep­washe, and so into the sea, thrée myles from the next hauen which is called Blithe.

Blithe water ryseth about kirke Heaton,Blithe. and goeth by Belse, Ogle, and receyuing the broket that cōmeth by the Dissingtons and Barwijc on the hill, it runneth by Harford, Bedlington, Cowpon, and at Blithes nuke, into the déepe Ocean.

Hartley.Hartley streamelet ryseth in Wéeteslade parioche, goeth by Halliwell, and at Hartley towne yéeldeth to the Sea.

The Tine ryseth of two heades,north. Tine whereof ye called north Tine, is the first that followeth to be described. It springeth vp aboue Bel­kirke in the hylles, and thence goeth to But­terhawghe, (where it receiueth the Shele) thence to Cragsheles, Leapelish, Shilburne,Shele. Yarro, Smalburne, Elis, Grenested Hesla­side, Billingham, and at Reasdmouth, taketh in the Reade,Reade. and in the meane time sundrye other rilles, comming from by north & south,Shillng­ton. whereof I haue no knowledge, neyther anye regarde to write, bycause they are obsure, smal, and without denominations.3. Burnes After this confluence it passeth to Léehall, to Carehouse (crossing Shillingtō rill by west) another al­so beneath thys on the same side, made by the confluence of Workes burne, and Myddle burne, at Roseburne, besyde ye thyrd aboue, & Symons burne beneath Sheperhase, then to S. Osmondes, to Wall, to Ackam, and so in­to south Tine, beneath Accam, & northwest as I doe wene of Herax.

The South Tine ariseth in the Chen [...]ote hilles,Tine. S. and eare it hath gone farre from the head it méeteth with Esgyll on the east,Esgyll. and another rill on the West, and so going by the houses toward Awsten moore, it ioyneth with Schud from by west, and soone after with the Vent from by East aboue Lowbiere.Vent▪ Gilders­becke. From Lowbier it goeth to Whitehalton, to Kyrke Haugh (crossing ye gilders Becke) to Thorn­hope, where it is inlarged wyth a water on eache side, to Williams Stone, and almost at Knaresdale, taketh in the Knare,Knare. and then runneth withall to Fetherstone angle. At Fetherstone angle lykewise it méeteth wyth harley water, by South west, another a lytle beneath from southeast, and thence when it commeth to Byllester castell, it caryeth ano­ther with all from by west, after which con­fluence it goeth to Harltwesell, Vnthanke, Wilmoteswijc, receiuing one ryl by ye way, and another there from the south, as it doth the thyrd from Bradly hall by north, and the Alon by the south, whereby his greatnesse [Page] is not a little augmented. From Willy­motswijc, it goeth to Lées, Haddonbridge, Woodhall, Owmers, Wherneby, Costely, and so by Warden (soone after receyuing the North Tine) thē to Hexham, & Dilstan, cros­sing two waters by the waye, whereof one commeth from by south, another lower then the same from Rising ouer against Burell. From Dilstā it goeth to Eltingham, Prud­do, Willam (and there it méeteth further­more with a beck that goeth betwéene Ben­well and Redhoughe) then to Repon, Blay­don,Derwent. and next of all with the Derwent, from by south which riseth also about Kneden of two heades, and goyng by Acton Aspersheles Berneford side, Ebchester, Blackehall, and Willington, finally falleth into the Tine be­neath Redhughe and before it come to New­castell, from whence also the Tine goeth by Fellin, Hedburne, Iello, Sheles and so into the sea.

Were. Burdop. Wallop. Kellop.The Were riseth of thrée heades, in Kel­loppeslaw hill, whereof the most southerly is called Burdop, the middlemost Wallop and the Northerliest Kellop, which vniting them selues about S. Iohns Chappell, or a little by West thereof, their confluence runneth tho­row Stanhope parke, by east Yare, and so to Frosterley. Here it receiueth thrée rilles frō the North in Weredale, whereof one com­meth in by Stanhop, another west of Wood­crost Hall, and the third at Frosterley afore mencioned, Howbeit a little beneath these, I finde yet a fourth on the southe side, which descendeth from southwest by Bolliop, By­shopsley, Milhouses, and Landew, as I haue béene informed. Beyng therefore vnited al wt the Were, this streame goeth on to Wal­singham there taking in the Wascropburne, beside another at Bradley,Wascrop. the thyrde at Harpley Hall, (and these on the Northside,) and the fourth betwéene Witton and Wit­tō castel called Bedburne cōming by Ham­sterley wherby this riuer doth now ware ve­ry great.Bedburne Going therefore frō hence, it hasteth to Byshops Akelande, Newfield, and Wil­lington. But néere vnto this place also and somewhat beneath Sunderland, the Were crosseth one brooke from southeast by Het & Cordale, and two other from by northwest in one botome, whereof the first commeth from Ashe by Langley, ye other from Beare parke, and so méeting beneath Relley with the other they fall both as one into the Were betwéene Sunderland, and Burnall. From hence our Ryuer goeth to Howghwell, Shirkeley, olde Duresme (and there taking in the Pidding brooke by Northeast) it goeth to Duresme,Pidding­brooke. Finkeley Harbarhouse, Lumley Castell, (where it méeteth with the Pilis,P [...] whose heds are vnited betwéene Pelton and Whitwell) and from thence to Lampton, the Bedwiks, Vfferton, Furd, and so into the sea betwéene Sunderland and Munkermouth.

Beyng thus passed the Tine, and ere we come at the mouth of the These almost by 2. myles, we méete with a prettye fall, which groweth by a Ryuer that is increased with two waters, whereof one riseth by northwest at Moretōs, and goeth by Stotfeld and Clax­ton, the other at Dawlton: goyng by Breer­ton, Owtham, and Grettam, finally ioyning within two miles of the sea, they make a pre­ty portlet but I know not of what security.

The These riseth in the blacke lowes,Th [...] a­boue two myles flat west of the southerlye head of Were called Burdop, and thēce run­neth thorow Tildale forrest: and taking in the Langdon water from northwest it run­neth to Durtpit chappell, to New Biggin, & so to Middleton. Here it receyueth by west of eche of these a Rill comming from by North,Hude (of which the last is called Hude) & likewise the Lune by southwest, that riseth at thrée se­uerall places, whereof the first is in the bor­ders of Westmerland and there called Arne­gyll becke, the second more southerly, named Lune becke, and the thirde by south,Lune▪ Ar [...] at Ban­dor Skath hill, and méeting all aboue Arne­gill house, they runne together in one bo­tome to Lathekyrke bridge, and then into the These. Hauing therefore mette with these,Skirkwith. it runneth to Mickelton (and there taking in the Skirkwith water) it goeth Rumbald kirke (crossing there also one Rill and the Bander brooke) and then goyng to Morewood hagge,Ba [...] & Morewood parke,Rere [...] til it come to Bernards ca­stle. Here also it receyueth a water cōmyng east of Rere crosse, frō the spittle in Stāmore by Crag almost southwest, and being vnited wt the These, it goth by Stratford, Eglesdon, Rokesby, Thorpe, Wickliffe, Ouington, and betwene Barfurth, & Gainfurth: meteth with another Rill, that commeth from Langley forest, betwene Raby castle and Standorpe. But to procéede, the These beyng past Ram­forth, it runneth betwene Persore & Cliffe, and in the way to Croftes bridge,Ske [...] taketh in ye Skerne a pretye water which riseth about Trimdon, and goeth by Fishburne, Bradbu­ry, Preston and Darlington: and finally mée­ting with the Cocke becke, it falleth into the These beneath Stapleton, before it come at Croftes bridge. From thence it runneth to Sockburne, nether Dunsley, Midleton row, Newsham, Yarne (crossing a broke frō Le­uen bridge) to Barwicke Preston, Thorne Abbaie and Arsham, which standeth on the [Page 31] Southeast side of the riuer bet [...]is the [...] of two waters: wherof one [...]sthen [...] [...] west H [...]ltds, the [...] from [...]ing­ton. From Ar [...]h [...] [...]lly goeth to [...]tla­zis Midleburgh, [...] into the sea.

Next of all [...] vnto the high Cliffe water, which rising [...] by Gisdoro [...], & there [...]eth another streame comming from by south east, and then conti­nuyng in his course, it is not long [...] it fal in­to the sea.

The next is the Scaling water, which de­scendeth from Scaling towne, from whence we come to the Molemouth, not farre from whose had standeth Molgraue castle: then to Sandford creke, & next of all to Es [...] mouth, which riseth aboue Danby wood, and so goeth to Castleton, there méeting by the way with another Rill comming from about Wester­dale by Danby, and so they goe on together by Armar and Thwatecastle (till they ioyne with another water aboue Glasdale chappel) thence to new Biggin, taking yet another brooke with them, running from Goodlande warde, (and likewise the Ibur) and so goe on without any further increase by Busworth, ere long into the sea.

There is also a creke on eche side of Robin Whoods bay, of whose names and courses, I haue no skil sauing that Fillingale the towne doth stand betwene them both.

There is another not farre from Scar­borow, on the North side called the Harwood brooke. It runneth thorow Harwoode Dale by Cloughton, Buniston, and soone after mée­ting with another Rill on the southwest, they runne as one into the Ocean sea.

From Scarborow to Bridlington by Flā ­borow hed, we met with no more falles. This water therfore that we saw at Bridlington, riseth at Duggleby, from whence it goeth to Kirby, Helperthorpe, Butterwijc, Boithorp, Foxhole, (where it falleth into the ground & riseth vp againe at Rudston) Thorpe, Ca­thorpe, Bridlington, and so into the Ocean.

Being come about ye Spurne hed, I méete ere long with a riuer that riseth short of Wi­thersey, and goeth by Fodringham, and Wi­sted: from thence, to another that commeth by Rosse, Halsham, Carmingham: then to the third, which riseth aboue Humbleton, and goeth to Esterwijc, Heddon, and so into the Humber. The 4. springeth short of Sprotte­ley, goeth by Wytton, and falleth into the water of Humber at Merflete, as I heare.

[...]ll.The next of all is the Hull water, which I will describe also here, and then crosse ouer vnto the southerly shore. The furdest head of Hull water riseth at Kilham, from whence it goeth to L [...]thorpe creke, and so to Fodrin [...] ­gha [...] [...] with [...], wherof [...] Northeast side, [...] about Lisset, the second in the [...] Na [...] ­fer [...]n: the [...] E [...]swell & Kirke­ [...], (Or it hath [...], which ioyne be­ [...] [...]) who the 4. which falleth into the [...]: so that these two latter runne vnto the [...] riuer [...] chanell, as ex­perience hath [...]. From hence then our Hull goeth to Ratt [...]sey to Goodalehouse, & the taking in a water from Hornesto Mere, it goeth on thorowe Be [...]erley medowes, by Warron, Sto [...]ferry, Hull, and finally into the Humber. Of the Rill that falleth into this water from Southnetherwijc by Skyrlow, and the two Rilles that come from Cocking­ham and Woluerton, I saye no more, sith it is inough to name them in their order.

¶Of such Riuers as fall into the Sea, betweene Humber to the Thames. Cap. xj.

THere is no ryuer called Humber from the heade,Humber. wherfore that which we now call Humber, hath the same denomination no hygher then the confluence of Trent with the Ouze, as beside Leland, sundry auncyent writers haue noted before vs both. Certes it is a noble arme of ye sea, & although it be pro­perly to be called Ouze, euen to the Nuke be­neth Ancolme, yet are we contented to cal it Humber, of Humbrus a King of ye Scithiens, who inuaded this Isle in ye time of Locrinus, thinking to make himselfe the Monarch of ye same. But as God hath frō time to time sin­gularly prouyded of the benefite of Briteine, so in this busines it came to passe that Hum­ber was put to flight, his men slaine, & fur­thermore whilest he attempted to saue hym­selfe by hasting to hys shippes, such was the presse of his nobilitye that followed him into his owne vessell, and the rage of weather, which hastened on his fatall daye, that both he & they were drowned in that arme: And thys is the onelye cause wherefore it hath béene called Humber, as our wryters saye, and whereof I finde these verses.

Dum fugit obstat ei flumen, submergitur illic,
Deque suo tribuit nomine nomen aquae.

Thys ryuer in olde time parted Lhoegres or England from Albania, which was ye por­tion of Albanactus, the yongest son of Brute. But sithence that time ye limits of Lhoegres haue bene so inlarged, first by ye prowesse of ye Romains, then by ye conquests of English, yt at thys present day ye Twede on the one side, [Page] and the Solue on the other, are taken for the principall boundes, betwéene vs and those of Scotlād. In describing therfore of the Hum­ber, I must néede describe the Ouze, & in lay­ing foor [...]h the course of the Ouze, I shal hard­escape the noting of those streames at large, that fall into the same: howbeit sith I haue of purpose appointed a chapter for these and the lyke, the next booke, I will here onely speake of the Ouze, and say thereof as followeth.

The Vre therefore ryseth in the fardest partes of all Richmondeshyre, among the Coterine hilles,Vr [...] alias Ouze, or Isis. in a moste, towarde the west fourtéene myles beyonde Mydleham. Being therefore issued out of the grounde, it goeth to Holbecke, Ha [...]draw, Hawshouse, Butter­side, Askebridge (which Lelād calleth the As­caran, and say [...]h therof & the Bainham, that they are but obscure bridges) thē to Askarth, thorowe Wanlesse Parke, Wenseley bridg, (made two hundred yeares since, by Alwyn, Parson of Winslaw) New parke, Spenni­thorne, Danby, Geruise Abbay, Clifton and Masham. When it is come to Masham, it re­ceyueth the Burne,Burne. by south west (as it dyd the wile,Wile. from very déepe scarry rockes, be­fore at Askaran) and dyuers other wild rilles not worthy to be remē [...]red. From Masham, it hasteth vnto Tanfielde (taking in by the waye, a ryll by Southwest) then to another Tanfielde, 'o Newton hall, and northbridge at the hither ende of Rippon, and so to Huic­kes bridge. But ere it come there it méeteth with ye Skel, which being incorporate with ye same,Skell. they run as one to Thorpe, then to Al­borow & sone after receyueth ye Swale. Here sayth Lelande,Swale. I am brought into no little streight, what to coniecture of the méeting of Isis & Vre, for some say yt the Isis & the Vre doe méete at Borowbridge, which to me doth seme to be very vnlikely, sith Isurium taketh his denominatiō of Isis & Vro, for it is often séene that the lesse ryuers doe mingle theyr names with ye greater, as in the Thamesis & other is [...]asie to be found. Neyther is there a­ny more menciō of the Vre after his passage vnder Borowbrige, but onelye of Isis & the Ouze in these dayes, although in olde tyme it helde vnto Yorke it selfe, which of the Vre is truely called Vrewijc, (or Yorke shorte) or else my perswasion doth fayle me. I haue red also Ewerwijc and Yorwijc. But to pro­céede, & leaue this superfluous discourse. Frō Borowbridge, ye Ouze goeth to Aldbrough (& receiuing ye Swale by ye way) to Aldworke, taking in Vsourne water, frō the southwest then to Linton vpon Ouze, to Newton vpō Ouze, & to Munketun, méeting wt the Nydde ere long, and so going withall to the Read­houses, to Popleton, Clifton, Yorke (where it crosseth the [...]) to Foulefoorth, Middle­thorp [...], [...] Acaster, [...], Bareleby, Selby, [...], Shur [...]all [...] ▪ Hokelathe. [...] Hoke, [...] ▪ White [...] A [...]et, Bla [...], Foe [...]lete, Brown [...]ete, & so into [...] ▪ And thus do [...] describe the Ouze. Nowe [...] Humber, streame, toward ye [...] againe, I [...] begin with the Aneolme, and so go along vp­on the coast of Lincolneshire tyll I come to Boston in such order as insueth.

Ancolme, a goodlye water ryseth East of Mercate Rasing, [...] & frō thence goeth by mid­dle Rasing. Then receiuing a short ryll from by south, it runneth [...]n vnder two bridges, by the waye, till it come to Wingall, northeast, where also it méeteth with another brooke frō ▪ Vsselby that commeth thither, by Vres [...]y, and south Kelsey. After this confluence also it goeth by Cadney (taking in the two rylles in one botome, that descende from Howsham, and north Le [...]sey,) and thence to Newsted, Glanford, Wardeley, Thorneham, Appleby, Horslow, north Ferr [...]by, and so into the sea.

Beyng past Ancolme, we go about the Nesse and so to the fall of the water, which commeth from Keleby, by Cotham Abbaye, Nersham Abbaie, Thorneton, & leaung Cor­hyll by west, it falleth into the Ocean. The next is the fall of another brooke comming from Fleting all along by Stallingburne. Thē crossed we Gryms [...]y gullet which issu­ing aboue Ereby cōmeth to Laseby, the two Cotes, and then into the sea. After thys wee passed by another Portelet, whose backwa­ter, descendeth from Balesby by Asheby, Briggesley, Wathe, and Towney, and final­ly to the next issue, before we came at Salt­flete which braunching at the last, leaueth a prety Islande wherein Comsholme Village standeth. This water ryseth short as I here of Tathewel, frō whence it goeth to Rathby, Hallington, Essington, Lowth, Kidirington Auingham, & then braunching aboue North Somerto [...], one arme méeteth with the sea, by Grauethorp, ye other by north of somercote.

Saltflet water hath but a short course for rising among the Cockeringtons,Salt [...] it cōmeth to the sea, at Saltflete hauen, howbeit the next vnto it is of a longer race, for it ryseth as I take it in Cawthorpe paroche, and de­scendeth by Legburne, the Carletons, the west myddle and east Saltfletes, and so into the Oceane. The water that ryseth aboue Ormesby & Dryby, goeth to Caus [...]by, Swa­by Abbaie, Clathorpe, Belew, T [...]ttle, Wi­therne, Stane, and north east of Thetilthorpe into the maine sea.

[Page 32] [...]ple­ [...]pe.Maplethorpe water ryseth at Tharesthorp and going by Markeley, Folethorpe, & Tru­thorpe, it is not long ere it méete wt the Ger­main Ocean, then come we to ye issue ye com­meth frō aboue Hotoft, & thence to Mumby chappel, whether ye water cōming frō Clar­by, Willowby, and Slouthby (and whereinto another ryll falleth) doth runne, as there to doe homage vnto their Lorde, & Souereigne. As for Ingolde mil créeke, I passe it ouer, and come streight to another water, descen­ding from Burge by Skegnes. From hence I go to the issue of a faire brooke, which as I heare, doth rise at Tetforde, and thence go­eth by Somerby, Bagenderby Ashwardby Sawsthorpe, Partney, Asheby, ye Stepings, Thorpe Croft, and so into the Sea. As for Wainflete water, it commeth from the east sea, and goeth betwéene S. Maries and Ahal­lowes by Wainflete town, and treading the pathe of his predecessors, empiteth hys cha­nell to the maintenaunce of the Sea.

Now come I to the course of the Wytham, a famous riuer, wherof goeth the bye word, frequented of old, and also of Ancolme, which I before described.

Ancolme ele,
[...]dis [...]ham [...].
and Wytham pike,
Search all England, and find not the like.

Lelande calleth it Lindis, diuers the Rhe, and I haue read all these names my selfe, ex­cept my memory do faile me. It riseth amōg the Wi [...]hams, in the edge of Lincolnshire, and as I take it in Southwickā paroche, frō whence it goeth to Colsterworth, Easton, Kirkestoke, Paunton, and Paunton, Hough­ton, and at Grantham taketh in a Rill from by southwest, as I here. From Grantham it runneth to Man; Thorpe, Bolton, & Barne­ston, where crossing a becke from North­east, it procedeth farther southwestwarde by M [...]reston, toward Foston, (there also taking in a brooke that riseth about Denton, and go­eth by Sydbrooke,) it hasteth to Dodington, Cl [...]pale, Barmeby, Beckingham, Staple­ford, Bassingham, Thursby, and beneth A [...] ­burgh, crosseth a water that commeth from St [...]gilthorpe by Somerton castle. After this confluence also, our Wytham goeth stil forth on his way, to the Hickhams, Bolthā, Brace­bridge, and Lincolne it selfe. But ere it come there, it maketh certain pooles (wherof one is called Swan poole) and soone after deuiding it selfe into armes, they runne both thorough the lower part of Lincolne, eche of them ha­uing a bridge of stone ouer it, thereby to passe through the principall strete: and as the big­ger arme is well able to beare their fisher botes, so the lesser is not without his seuerall commodities. At Lincolne also this noble ri­uer méeteth, with the Fosse dike,Fosse dike. whereby in great floudes, vesselles may come from the Trentes side to Lincoln. For betwene T [...]k­sey where it beginneth, & Lincoln citie where it endeth, are not aboue vij. miles, as Lelande hath remembred. Bishop Atwater began to clense this ditch, thinking to bring great ves­sels frō Trent to Lincoln in his time, but sith he died before it was performed, there hath no man bene since so well minded as to pro­secute his purpose. The course moreouer of this our streame followyng, from Lincoln to Bostō, is 50. miles by water, but if you mind to ferry, you shall haue but 24. For there are 4. common places where men are ferried o­uer, as Short ferry 5. miles from Lincolne: Tatersall fery, 8. miles frō Short fery: Dog­dike fery a mile, Langreth fery, 5. miles, and so many finally to Boston.

But to go forward with the course of Lin­dis, when it is pa [...]t Lincolne, it goeth by Shepewash, Wassingburg, Fiskerton, and soone after taketh in sondry riuers in one cha­nell, wherby his greatnesse is very much in­creased. Frō this confluence it goeth to Bar­dolfe, and there receiuing a Rill (descendyng from betwene Sotby and Randby, and go­yng by Harton) it slideth forth by Tupham to Tatersall castle, taking vp there in like sort thre small Rilles by the way, wherof I haue small notice as yet, and therfore I referre thē vnto the next Treatize, wherin God willing many things shal be more plainly set downe, that are here but obscurely touched, and some errors corrected, that for want of informatiō, in due tyme haue spedily passed my handes. Finally, being past Tatersall, and Dogdike fery, the Wytham goeth toward Boston, & thence into the sea. Thus haue I briefly dis­patched this noble riuer, now let vs sée what we may do with the Wiland, whose descripti­on shall be set downe euen as it was deliue­red me, with onely one note added out of Le­land, and another had of Christopher Sax­ton of Wakefield, by whose [...]endly helpe I haue filed many things in this that were erst but roughly handled, and more then rudely forged.

Being passed Boston Hauen, we came streight waye to the fall of Wyland.Wyland. Thys streame ryseth about Sibbertoft, and [...] betwéene Bosworth and H [...]wthorpe, [...] goeth to Féedingwoorth, Mers [...]n, [...], Trussell, Herborowe, ( [...] there the Bray, which cōmeth frō Braylbr [...] castle)▪ Bray. to Bowton, Weston, Wiland, [...], burne, Ro [...]ingham, and C [...]w [...]e, (where a riueret called lyttle Eye meeteth wyth [...]l, comming from east [...] by [...] [Page] Stocke, Faston, and dry stocke. From Caw­cot it goeth to Gritto, Harringworth, Seton, Wauerley, Duddington, Colly weston, E­ston, and there ioyneth with the thirde called Warke,Warke. not farre from Ketton, which com­meth from Lye by Preston, Wing, Lindon, Luffenham. &c. Thence it goeth on by Tin­well, to Stanforde (crossing the Brooke wa­ter,Brooke water. Whitnell. and Whitenelbecke, both in one bottom) and from Stanforde by Talington, Maxsey to Mercate Deping, Crowland (where it al­most méeteth with ye Auon) then to Spalding, Waplād, and so into the sea. Leland writing of this Wyland, addeth these words which I will not omitte, sith in mine opinion they are worthy to be noted, for better consideratiō to be had in the sayd water and his course. The Wyland sayth he, goyng by Crowlande, at Newdrene diuideth it selfe into two brāches,New­drene. of which one goeth vp to Spalding called Newdrene, and so into the sea at Fossedike Stowe:South. the other named ye South into Wis­beche. Thys latter also parteth it selfe to two myles from Crowlande, and sendeth a ryll called Writhlake by Thorney,Writhlake. where it méeteth wyth an arme of the Nene, that cō ­meth from Peter borow, and holdeth course with ye brode streame, till it be come to Mur­ho, sixe myles from Wysbech, where it fal­leth into the south. Out of the south in lyke sort falleth another arme called Shéepes eye,Shepes eye. and at Hopelode (which is fourtéene myles, from Linne) did fal into the sea. But now the course of that streame is ceased, wherupō the inhabitants sustaine many grieuous floudes, bycause the mouth is staunched, by which it had accesse before into the sea: hetherto Le­land. Of the course of this ryuer also from Stanford, I note thys furthermore out of another writing in my time. Beyng past Staunten (saith he) it goeth by Burghley Vffington, Tallingtō, Magey, Deping, east Déeping, and comming to Waldram hall, it brauncheth into two armes, wherof that which goeth to Singlesole, receyueth the the Nene out of Cambridge shyre, and then going by Dowesdale, Trekenhole, and wyn­ding at last to Wisbiche, it goeth by Liuer­ington S. Maries, and so into the sea. The o­ther arme hasteth to Crowland, Clowthouse Bretherhouse, Pikale, Cowbecke and Spal­ding. Here also it receiueth ye Bastō dreane, Longtoft dreane, Déeping dreane, & thence goeth by Wickham into the sea, taking with all on the right hand sondry other dreanes, and thus farre he.

Next of all when we are past these, we come to another fall of water into ye Wash, which descendeth directly from Whaplade dreane to Whaplade towne in Hollande: but because it is a water of small importāce, I passe from thence, as hasting to the Nene, of both, the more noble riuer. The next ther­fore to be described is the Auon, [...] otherwyse called Nene, which the author describeth after this maner. [...] The Nene beginneth 4. miles a­boue Northampton in Nene Mere, where it riseth out of two heades, which ioyne about Northampton. Of this riuer the city & coun­trie beareth the name, although we now pro­noūce Hāpton for Auondune, which error is cōmitted also in south Auondune, as we may easily sée. In another place Lelād describeth ye said riuer after this maner. The Auō riseth in Nene mere field, and goyng by Oundale and Peterborow, it deuideth it selfe into thre armes, wherof one goeth to Horney, another to Wisbich, the third to Ramsey: and after­ward beyng vnited againe, they fall into the sea not very farre from Linne. Finally, the discent of these waters, leaue here a great sort of Ilandes, wherof Ely, Crowland, and Mersland, are the chiefe: Hetherto Lelande. Howbeit, because neither of these descriptiōs touch the course of this riuer at the full. I wil set downe the third, which shal supply what­soeuer the other do want. The Auon there­fore arising in Nenemere field, is encreased with many Rilles before it come at North­hampton, and one aboue Kings thorpe, from whēce it goeth to Dallington, & so to North­hamptō, where it receiueth the Wedon, and here I will stay, till I haue described this ri­uer.Ved [...] The Wedon therfore riseth at Faulesse in maister Knightlies pooles and in Badby plashes also, are certaine springs that resort vnto this streame. Faulesse pooles, are a mile from Chareton, where the head of Chare ry­uer is ye rūneth to Banbery. There is but an hill called Albery hil betwene ye heds of these two riuers. From the said hill therefore, the Wedon directeth his course to Badby New­enham, Euerton, Wedon, betwixt which and Floretowne,Florus. it receiueth the Florus (a prety water rising of foure heds, wherof the one is at Dauentry, another at Watford, the third, at long Buck, the fourth aboue Whilton) and then passeth on to Heyford, Kislingbury, Vp­ton, and so to Northampton, where it falleth into the Auon, receiuing finally by the way,Bugi [...]. the Bugbrooke water at Heyford, Patshall water nere Kislingbery, and finally, Preston water beneath Vpton, which running from Prestō by Wootton, méeteth at the last with Milton Rill, and so fal into Auon. Now to re­sume the tractation of our Auon. Frō North­hampton therfore, it runneth by Houghton, great Billing, Whitstone, Dodington and [Page 33] Willingborow, where we must stay a while, for betwene Willingborow and Highā Fer­ries, it receiueth a prety water comming frō about Kilmarshe, [...]ilis. which goyng by Arding­worth, Daisborow, Rushet [...]n, Newtō, Gad­dington, Boughton, Warketon, Ketteryng, Berton, and Burton, méeteth there wyth Rothewel water, [...]other. which runneth west of Ket­tering to Hisham, the greater Harido [...], and then into the Auon. Beyng therfore past Burton, our maine streame goeth to Highā Ferris, Artleborow, Ringsted, Woodford, and (méeting therby with Tra [...]ford Rill) to Thrarston, [...]cley. north wherof it ioyneth also with the Ocley water, that commeth frō Sudbo­rowe and Lowicke, to olde Vmkles, Wa­den ho, Pilketon, Toke, where it taketh in the Liueden Becke) and so to Oundell Cot­terstocke, Tansoner, and betwene Tothe­ring and Warmington, receyueth the Cor­by water, which rising at Corby, goeth by Weldon,Corby. Denethap, Bulwich, Bletherwijc. Fineshed, Arethorpe, Newton, Tothering, & so into the Auon. After this, the said Auon go­eth to Elton, Massington, Yerwell, Sutton, Castor, Allertō, and so to Peterborow, where it deuideth it selfe into sondry armes, & those into seuerall braunches amōg the Fennes & medowes, not possible almost to benombred, before it méete with the sea on the one side of the countrey, & fal into the Ouze on the other.

The Ouze, which Leland calleth the third Isis,Isis. 3. falleth into the sea betwene Meriland and Downeham. The chief hed of this riuer ariseth nere vnto Stalies, from whence it cō ­meth to Brackley (sometyme a noble towne in Northampton shire, but now scarcely a good village) and there taking in on the left hande one water comming from the parke betwene Sysam and Astwell (which runneth by Whitfield and Tinweston) and another on the right frō Intley, it goeth on by West­byry,Sisa. Fulwell, Water stretford, Buckinghā and Berton, [...]melus. beneath which towne the Eryn falleth into it, whereof I finde this short dis­cription to be inserted here. The Eryn ri­seth not farre from Hardwijc in Northamp­tonshire,Erin. from hence it goeth by Heth, Erin­ford, Godderington, Twyford, Steple cladō, and ere it come at Padbiry,Garan. méeteth with the Garan brooke descending from Garanburg, and so they go together by Padbiry till they fall into the Ouze, which carieth them after the confluence, to Thorneton bridge (where they crosse another fall of water commyng from Whitlewood forest by Luffeld, Lecam­sted and Foscot) and so to Beachamptō, Cul­uerton, Stonystratford and Woluert [...] [...]ere the Ouze méeteth with a water (called as Lelande come [...]ureth, ye V [...]re or Were,) on the left hand as you go [...] that cō ­meth betwene [...] and Wexenham in Northamptonshire & goeth by Towcester, and Aldert [...], and not [...] from Woluertō and [...], into ye [...]resaid Ouze, which goeth also frō hence to Newp [...]te pa [...]nell,Verus. wherein like [...]or [...] I must stay a while [...] I haue described another water, named the Elée, by wh [...]se [...] the [...] streame is not a little increase [...].Cle alias Claius. The riuer r [...]seth in the very confine [...] betwene Buc [...]inghā and Bedford­shires, not far from Wh [...]ppesnade, and go­yng on toward the northwest, by Eaton and Layton, it commeth to Linchelade, where it entreth wholy into Buckinghamshire, and so goeth on by Hammond, Bric [...]le, Fen [...]y stratford, Simpson, Walton and Middletō,Saw. beneath which it receiueth the Saw from a­aboue Hal [...]ot, & so goeth on till it méete with ye Ouze néere vnto Newpore, as I haue said. Being vnited therefore we set forward from the sayde towne, and followe thys noble ry­uer, to Lathbirye, Thuringham, Filgrane, Lawndon, Newington, Bradfelde on the one side, and T [...]ruey on the other [...]till it come at length to Bedforde, after many windlesses, & then méeteth with another streame, which is increased with so manye waters, that I was inforced to staye here also, and vsewe theyr seuerall courses, from the highest [...]eple in Bedforde, whence (or peraduenture other­wyse) I noted the same as followeth. Cer [...]es [...]athe east side where I beganne thys specu­lation, I sawe one that came from P [...]t [...]on, and mette withal néede Becliswade: another that grewe of two waters, whereof one des­cended frō Bal [...]ocke, the other frō Hitchin, which ioyned beneath A [...]lesey, and thence went to Langforde and Edwoorth.These rise not far frō Michel­borow, and one of thē in Higham parke. The third which I behelde had in lyke sort two heades, whereof one is not farre from Woode ende, the other from Wooburne (or Howburne) & ioyning about Flitwijc, they go to Flytton, (where they receiue [...] Broke) and so by Chiphil, and Chicksande, they come to Shaf­forde, from whence taking the aforesayde Langford water with them, they go forth by Becliswade, Sandy, [...], & née [...]e vnto The misford are vnited wt the Ouze, & now to our purpose againe. After this ye Ouze, goeth by Berkeforde, to Winteringhā,Verus or ye Were, (méetyng there with the Waresley becke) and so run­neth to S. Neotes (or S. Nedes) to Paxston, Offordes, Godmanchester, Huntingdon,Stoueus. Wilton, S. Iues, Hollywell, and Erith, re­ceyuing in the meane tyme the Stow, nere vnto little Paxton, and likewise the Ellen,Helenus. Elmerus. & the Eminer, in one ch [...]ell a litle by west of [Page] Huntingdon. Finallye the maine streame speading abroade into the Fennes, I cannot tell into howe many braunches, neyther how manye Is [...]ettes, are inforced by the same, but thys is certeine, that after it hath thus deli­ted it selfe with raunging a while about the pleasant bottomes and lower groundes, it méeteth with the Granta, frō whence it goeth with a swift course, vnto Downehā. Betwen it also and the Auō, are large sundry Mores, or plashes by southwest of Peterborow wher­of Whittle [...]ey méere, and Ramsey méere, (whereinto the Riuell falleth,Riuelus. that commeth from aboue Broughton, Wyston, and great Riuelley) are sayde to be greatest. Of all the ryuers that runne into this streame, that cal­led Granta is the most noble and excellent,Granta. which I will describe euen in his place, not­withstanding that I had earst appoynted it vnto my seconde booke, but forasmuch as a description of Ouze and Granta, were dely­uered me togyther, I will for his sake that gaue them me, not seperate thē nowe in sun­der. The very fardest heade and originall of thys ryuer is in Henham, a large Parke be­longing to the Earle of Sussex, wherin as the Townesmen say, are foure springs that run foure sundry wayes into the maine Sea. Le­lande sought not the course of thys water, a­boue Newport ponde, & therefore in his Co­mentaries vpō the song of ye swan, he writeth thereof after this maner insuing. But here before I enter into his discourse, I must giue you warning, how D. Iohn Caius the learned Phisition, and some other are of the opiniō, that this ryuer comming from Newport, is properlye to bée called the Rhée, but I may not so easily discent frō Leland, whose iudge­ment in my mynde is by a great deale the more likely, harken therefore what he sayth.

The heade of Grantha or Granta, is in ye pend at Newport, a towne of the east Sax­ons, which going in a bottome beside ye same, receyueth a pretye ryll, which in the myd­dest thereof doeth driue a mil and descendeth from Wickin Bonhaunt, that standeth not far from thence. Being past Newport, it go­eth a long in the lower grounde vntil it come to Broke Waldē, west of Chipping Waldē, (now Saffron walden) harde by the Lorde Awdleis place, where of late the ryght hono­rable Lorde Phillip Earle of Surrey, with his housholde dyd soiourne, and some­tyme stoode an Abbaie, of Benedictine Mon­kes, before theyr generall suppression. From Awdley end it goeth to Littlebur [...]e, the lesse and greater Chesterfordes, Ycaldune, Hinc­stone, Seoston or Sawson, and néere vnto Shaleforde receyueth the Babren that com­meth by Linton, Abbington, Babrenham, and Stapleforde: and so going forwarde it com­meth at the last to Tromping [...]on, [...] which is a myle from Cambridge. But ere it come al­togyther to Trompington, it méeteth wyth the Barrington water, as Leland calleth it, but other ye Rhée,R [...]. (a cōmon name to all wa­ters in the Saxon speache,) whereof I finde thys description, to be touched by the waye. The Rhée ryseth short of Ashwell, in Hert­forde shyre, and passing vnder the brigde be­twéene Gylden Mordon and Downton, and leauing Tadlow on the west side (as I remē ­ber) it goeth toward Crawdē, Malton, Bar­rington, Haselingfeld, and so into Granta, taking sundry Rylles with him from south, & southwest, as Wendy water south west of Crawden, Whaddō brooke southwest of Or­wel, Mildred becke southwest of Malton, and finally yt which goeth by Fulmere & Foxton, & falleth into the same betwéene Barringtō, and Harleston, or Harson as they call it.

Nowe to procéede with our Granta, from [...]rompingtō on the one side, and Grantces­ter on the other, it hasteth to Cambridge warde, taking the Burne with it by the way, which descendeth from a castell of the same denomination, wherein the Picotes, & Peue­relles sometime did inhabite. Thence it go­eth by sundrye Colledges in Cambridge, as the Quéenes Colledge, the Kings Colledge, Clare Hall, Trinity Colledge, S. Iohns. &c. vnto the high bridge of Cābridge, & betwene the towne and the Castell to Chesterton, and receyuing by & by the Doure, or Sture, (at whose bridge,Stu [...] ye most famous Mart in Eng­lande is yearely holden & kept. Frō Chester­tō it goeth to Ditton, Miltō, & ere long mee­ting with two rylles (from Bott [...]sham and Wilberhā, in one bottome) it rūneth to Hor­ningsey and water Beche: and finallye here ioyning with the Bulbecke water, it goeth by Denny, and so forth into the Ouze, [...] fiftéene myles from Cambridge, as Leland hath set downe. And thus much of the thirde Isis or Ouze, out of the aforesayde Authour, where­vnto I haue not onelye added somewhat of mine owne Experience, but also of other mens notes, whose diligent obseruation of the course of thys ryuer, hath not a little hel­ped mée in the discription of the same. Nowe it resteth that we come nerer vnto the coast of Norfolke, and set forth such waters as we passe by vppon the same, wherin I will deale so preciselye as I maye, and so farre will I trauaile therein as I hope shall con­tent euen the curious reader, or if any fault be made, it shall not be so great, but that af­ter some trauayle in the finding, it shall with [Page 34] ease be corrected.

The first ryuer yt therfore we come vnto af­ter we be past the confluence of Granta, & the Ouze, and within the iurisdiction of Norfolke, is called the Burne.Burne. This streame ryseth not very farre from Burne Bradfeld aboue the greater Wheltham, and from thence it go­eth to Nawnton, Bury, Farneham Martin, Farneham Alhallowes, Farneham Geno­uefa, Hengraue, Flemton, Lackeforde, Ic­lingham, and to Mildenhall, a litle beneath which it méeteth with the Oale water, [...]ale. that springeth not farre from Catilege, and go­ing by Asheby, Moulton, (a benefice as the report goeth not very well prouided for) to Kenforde, Kenet, Bradingham, Frekenham, it falleth at the last not farre from Iselham into the Burne, from whence they go togi­ther as one into the Ouze. With ye Burne al­so there ioyneth a water comming from a­bout Lydgate, a little beneath Iselham, and not very farre from Mildenhall.

[...]unus.The Dune heade and rysing of Wauenhey are not much in sunder, for as it is supposed they are both not farre distaunt from the bridge betwéene Lopham and Ford, wherby ye one runneth east & the other west, as I haue béene enformed. The Dune goeth first of all by Feltham, then to Hopton, and to Kinets hall, where it méeteth with a water, cōming out of a lake shorte of Banham (goyng by Quiddenham, Herling, Gasthorpe) and so forth on both in one channell, they runne to Ewston. Here they méete in lyke sort, wyth another descending from two heads, wher­of the one is néere vnto Pakenham, the other to Tauestocke, as I here. Certes these heads ioyne aboue Ilesworth, not farre from Stow Langtoft, from whēce they go to Yxworth, Thorp, Berdwel, Hunnington, Fakenham, and so into the Dune at Ewston as I sayde. Frō hence also they haste vnto Downeham, which of this riuer doth séeme to borowe his name. South rée ryl, I passe ouer as not wor­thy the description, bicause it is so small.

[...]radunus [...]tè.Next vnto thys ryuer on the south side is the Braden, or Bradunus, which ryseth at Bradenham, and goeth by Ne [...]ton, north Peckenham, south Peckenham, Kirsingham Bedney, Langforde, Igbor, Munforde, north olde, Stockebridge, Ferdham, Helgy, and so into the Ouze.

[...]nus.The néerest vnto thys is another which ri­seth about Lukeham, and from thence com­meth to Lexham, Massingham, Newton, the castel acre, Acres, Nerboe, Pentney, Wrō ­gey, [...]ngimus. Rounghton, Westchurch, & so to Linne, as so doth also another by north of this which commeth from the east hylles by Cong [...]n­ham, Grymston, Bawsey, Gaywood, where­of let this suf [...]ise, and now giue eare to the reast sith I am past the Ouze.

Beyng past the mouth or fall of the Ouze, we méete next of al with the rising chase wa­ter which descendeth from two heds,Rising. & also ye Ingel that commeth from about Sne [...]sham;Ingell. From hence we go by the point of s. Edmōd, and so hold on our course, till we come vnto the Burne, which falleth into the sea by south from Waterden, and goyng betwéene the Crakes to Burneham thorp, and Burnham Norton, it striketh at the last into the sea, east of Burnham Norton, a mile at ye lest, except my coniecture doe faile me. The Glow or Glowy, riseth not farre from Baconstthorp,Glouius. in the hundred of Tunsted, and goyng by and by into Holt hūdred, it passeth by Hunworth; Thornage, Glawnsford, Blackney, Clare, and so in the sea receiuing there at hand also a Rill by east, which descendeth from the hils lying betwene Killing town and Way­burne.

The Wantsume riseth in Northfolke at Galesend in Holt hundred,Wantsume from whence it goeth to Tatersend, Downton, Skelthorpe, Farneham, Penstthorpe, Rieburg, Elling­ham, and Billingesford. And here it recey­ueth two waters in one bottom, of which the first goeth by Stanfeld and Beteley, the o­ther, by Wandling and Gressonhall, and so run on eche his owne way, till they méete at Houndlington, southwest of Billingesforde with the Wantsume. From hence they go altogether to Below, Iyng, Weston, and Moreton, but ere it come to Moreton, it mée­teth with the Yowke, which (issuyng about Yexham) goeth by Matteshall and Barrow.Yocus. After this the sayd Wantsume goeth on by Ringland, and so to Norwich the pontificall see of the Bishop, to whom that iurisdictiō ap­pertaineth. Beneath Norwich also it recey­ueth two waters in one chanell, which I wil seuerally describe according to their courses, noting their confluēce to be at Bireley, with­in two myles of Norwich, except myne an­notation deceiue me. The first of these hath two heds, wherof one moūteth vp south west of Whinborow, goeth by Gerneston,Hierus Gerne. & is the very Hiere or Yare that drowneth the name of Wantsume, so soone as he méeteth withal. The other hed riseth at Woode in Mitforde hundred, and (after confluence with the Hiere at Caston) gayng by Brandon, B [...]ton, Ber­ford, Erleham, Eringlefeld (not farre from Bixely as I sayd) doth méete with his com­panion, which is the second to be described as followeth. It hath two heads also that méete northwest of Therstane, and hereof the one [Page] commeth from Findon hal, by Wrenninghā from about Wotton; by Hemnal, Fretton, Stretton, and Tasborow, till they ioyne at Therston, as I gaue notice aforehand. From Therston therfore they go together in one to Newton, Shotesham, Dunston, Castor, Ar­minghale, Bixeley, Lakenham and Trowse, and then fall into the Wantsume beneath Norwich which hereafter is named Hiere. The Hiere Yare or Gare therfore proceding in his voiage, as it wer to salute his grādame the Oceane, goeth from thence by Paswijc, Surlingham, Claxton and Yardley: and here it méeteth agayne with another Riueret de­scending from about Shotesham, to Thir­stane, Shedgraue, Hockingham, and so into Gare or Yare, wherof Yardley the town re­ceyueth denomination. After this it goeth to Frethorpe, and aboue Burghe castle méeteth with the Wauen hey,Wauen. and so into the sea. In­to this riuer also falleth the Bure, which ri­sing at a towne of the same name, passeth by Milton, Buresdune, Corpestey, Marington, Blekeling, Bure, Alesham, Bramptō, Bux­tō, Horsted, Wrexhā bridge, Horning, Rane­worth (and beneath Bastewijc receyueth the Thurine which riseth aboue Rolesby) then to Oby Clypsby,Thurinus (there also receiuing another from Filby) Rimham, Castor, and by Yar­mouth into the Ocean.Wauen. The Wauenhey a­fore mencioned, riseth on the South side of Brisingham, and is a limite betwene North­folke and Suffolke, goyng therfore by Dis, Starton, not farre from Octe, it méeteth with the Eie whiche riseth nere Ockolde, or betwéene it and Braisworthe, and goeth on by Brome, Octe, and so into the Waue [...]y. From thēce also our Waueney, runneth by Sylam, Brodish, Nedam, Harleston, Red­nam, Alborow, Flixton, Bungey, Sheepe­medow, Barsham, Beckles, Alby, and at Whiteacre as I here it parteth in twaine, or else receyuing Milforde water, which is the most likely, it goeth along by Somerley, Hormingfléete, S. Olaues, (there receyuing the Fristan brooke,Fritha. out of low or little Eng­lande) Fristan and Burge castell, where it méeteth wyth the Hiere, and from thence­forth accompanieth it as I sayd vnto the sea.

Willingham water commeth by Hensted Einsted,Einus. or Enistate, and falleth into the sea by south of Kesland.

Cokelus.The Cokell ryseth south south west, of Cokeley Towne, in Blythe hundred, and néere vnto Hastelwoorth, it méeteth with the ryll, that commeth from Wisset, and so go­ing on togither by Wenhaston, and Blibo­towe, it falleth into the sea at an hauen, be­twéene Roydon, and Walderswicke. A little ryll runneth also thereinto from Eston, by Sowolde, and another from Dunwiche, by Walderswijke, and hereby it wanteth lyttle that Eston Nesse, is not cut of and made a prety Islande.

The Forde ryseth at Poxford,Forde and going by Forderley, and Theberton, it falleth at last into the Mysméere créeke.

Into the Oreforde hauen, falleth one wa­ter comming from Aldborowe warde,Or [...]. by a narrowe passage, frō the north into the south. By west whereof (when we are past a lyttle Isle) it receyueth the seconde, descending frō betwéene Talingston, and Framingham, [...] in Plomes hundred: which cōmming at last to Marleforde, méeteth wyth a ryll south west of Farneham called the Gleme,Gleme. (that com­meth by Rendelsham, the Gleinhams) and so passing forth, it taketh another wyth all at Snapesbridge, comming from Carleton, by Saxmundham, Sternefielde, and Snape.Iken, [...] Ike. Then going to Iken (where it méeteth wyth the thirde ryll at the west side) it fetcheth a compasse by Sudburne east of Orforde, and so into the hauen. Next vnto thys by west of Orforde, there runneth vp another créeke by Butley, whereinto the waters comming frō Cellesforde, and from the Ike, doe runne both in one botome, and thus much of Or­forde hauen.

The Deue ryseth in Debenham,Deue. in the hundred of Hertesméere, and from thence go­eth to Mickeforde, Winston, Cretingham, Lethringham, Wickham, hitherto still crée­ping towarde the south: but then going in maner full south, it runneth néere vnto Ashe, Rendlesham, Vfforde, Melton, and Woode­bridge, beneth which, it receiueth on the west side, a water cōming of two heades, whereof one is by north from Oteley, and the other by south from Henly, which ioyning west of Mertelsham, go vnto the sayde towne, and so into the Deue, east of Mertelsham, aboue­sayd. From thence the Deue goeth by Wal­dringfielde and Henley, and méeteing soone after with Brightwell brooke,Clarus [...] it hasteth in­to ye maine sea, leauing Badwsey on the east where the fall therof is called Bawdsey ha­uen.

Vre ryseth not farre from Bacton,Vr [...]s. in Hertesméere hundred, and thence descendeth into Stowe hundred by Gippyng Newe­ton, Dagworth, Stowe, (beneath whiche it méeteth with a water comming from Rat­tlesden, by one house,) and so goyng on to Nedeham, (thorowe Bosméere and Claydon hundredes) to Blakenham, Bramforde, Yps­wiche, (receyuing beneath Stoke, which ly­eth ouer against Ypswiche, the Chatsham [Page 35] water, that goeth by Belsted, & so into ye Vre, at the mouth wherof is a marueilous déepe & large pitte, whereof some Marryners saye that they coulde neuer fynde the bottome, and therefore calling it a Well, and ioyning the name of the ryuer withall, it commeth to passe that ye hauen there, is called Vrewel, for which in these daies we doe pronounce it Or­well. Into thys Hauen also the Sture or Stoure, hath ready passage, which remaineth in thys treatize next of all to be described.

[...]rus.The Sture or Stoure, parteth Essex from Suffolke, as Houeden saith, and experience cōfirmeth. It ariseth in Suffolk, out of a lake néere vnto a towne called Stourméere. For albeit there come two rylles vnto the same, whereof the one descendeth from Thyrl [...], the Wratinges and Ketton, the other from Horshed parke, by Hauerill &c. Yet in sōmer tyme they are often drye, so that they can­not be sayde to be parpetuall heads, vnto the aforesayde ryuer. The Stoure therefore ry­seth at Stoure mare, which is a poole contay­ning twentie acres of ground at the least, the one side whereof is full of Alders, the other of réede, wherein the great store of fishe there bredde, is not a little succoured. From thys méere, also it goeth to Bathorne brydge, to Stocke clare, Cawndish, Pentlo, Milforde, Foxerth, Buresley, Sudbury, Bures, Bor­sted, Stoke Naylande, Lanham, Dedham, Strotford, east Barforde, Brampton, and to Catwade bridge, where it falleth into the sea, receiuyng in the meane time sundry brookes and rylles not here omytted at all. For on Essex side, it hath one from Hemsted, which goeth by Bumsted, and Birdbrooke: another rysing shorte of Foxerth, that runneth by water Beauchamp, Brundon, and falleth in­to the same at Badlington, west of Sudbury: and the thirde that glydeth by Horkesley and méeteth withal west of Boxsted. On the north or vpon Suffolke side, it receyueth one de­scending frō Ca [...]ledge, by Bradley, Thur­low, W [...]atting, Kiddington, and at Hauerell falleth into this Sture. The seconde descen­deth from Posling field, & ioyneth therewith east of Clare. The thyrde aryseth of two heades, whereof one commeth from Wick­ham brooke, the other from Chedbar in Risoy hundred, and ioyning about Stanfield, it goeth by Hawton, Somerton, Boxsted, Stansted, and north of Foxerth, falleth into S [...]our. The fourth issueth from betwéene the Wallingfelds, and goeth by Edwardstone, Boxsted, Alington, Polsted, Stoke, and so at south Boxsted falleth into the same. The fift ryseth North West of Cockefielde, and go­eth to Cockefielde, Laneham, Brimsley, Midling,Kettle ba­ston. and receyuing Kettle Baston wa­ter southwest of Chelsworth (and likewise the Breton that commeth from Bretenham, by Hitcheham, & Bisseton streat on the south east of the s [...]me towne) it goeth in by Ned­ging, Aldham, Hadley, Lainham, Shelly, Higham, and so into the Sture. The sixt is a lyttle ryll descending southwest from Chap­pell The seuenth ryseth betwéene Chappel, & Bentley, and going betwéene Tatingston, and Whet [...]ede, Holbrooke, and Sutton, it falleth at length into Stoure, and frō thence is neuer harde of.

As for Ocley Drill, that ryseth betwéene Ocley, and Wikes Parkes,Ocley. and goeth vn­der Ramsey brydge, and so into the Stoure, on Essex side, west of Harwiche, and east of Rée Isle, I passe it ouer because it is but a ril and not of any greatnesse, although I séeke to remember manye tymes, euen the very smallest.

Next vnto this, wée come to another that runneth South of Beamont by Mosse,Mos [...]. and falleth into the Sea about the middest of the Bay, betwixt Harwich and the Naze.

Betwixt the Naze also and the mouth of Colue, is another Ryll which riseth at little Bentley, and thence goeth to Tendryng thorpe,Claco. thorow Clacten parke by great Hol­land, and east of little Holland, into the déepe sea.

The Colne hath thrée heds, whereof one is at Ouington that goeth by Tilbery, and east of Yeldam, falleth into the chiefe head,Colunus. which ryseth about Redgewell in Essex, frō whence it goeth to Yeldam Henningham. &c. The third falleth in South of Yeldam into Colne, and being once mette all in one chanell: the Colne goeth as I sayde, to Hedninghā Haw­sted, Erles Colne, Wakes Colne, Fordon, Bardfold, Colchester, and so into the sea at Bricklesey. At séemeth here, that when ye sea entreth betwéene the points of Bradwell and S. Anthonies, it deuydeth it selfe into twoo armes, wherof one goeth toward Colchester the other toward Maldon. Into the Colne or Colunus (whereof Lelande thinketh Colche­ster to take hys name, and not a Colonia Ro­manorum) doe run many salt créekes beneth Fingering ho, whose names sith I doe not knowe, nor whether they be serued with any backwaters or not, I gyue ouer to intreat a­ny farther of theyr positions. Into that of Malden runneth many faire waters, wherof I will say so much as I knowe to be true by experience.

There is a prety water that beginneth nere vnto Gwinbache or Wimbech church in Es­sex (the very limits of Dunmow Deanery) [Page] which runneth directly frō thence vnto Rad­winter, (a parcell of your Lorships possessy­ons in those parts) and within thrée quarters of a mile of the aforesaid church. By the way also it is increased with sundry prety springs wherof Pantwell is the chiefe, and to say the truth, hath manye a leasing fathered on the same: there is likewise another in a pasture belonging to the graunge, now belongyng to Henry Browne Esquier, soiournyng there­vpon. The third, commeth out of the yarde of one of your Lordships Manour there, called Radwinter hall. The fourth, frō Iohn Cock­swettes house, named the Rotherwell, which running vnder Rothers bridge, méeteth with ye Gwin, on the northwest ende of Ferraunts meade, southeast of Radwinter church, wher­of I haue the charge by your honors fauora­ble prefermēt.Froshwell. The next is named Froshwel, and of this Spring doth the whole Hundred beare the name, and also the Ryuer it selfe whereinto it falleth (from by north) so far as I remember. Certes, all these sauing ye first and second, are within your Lordships towne aforesayd. The streame therfore running frō hence (and now called Froshwell, of Froshe, which signifieth a frog) hasteth immediately vnto olde Sandford, then thorow new Sand­forde parke, and afterward with full streame to Shalford, Bocking, Stisted, Paswijc, and so to blackwater, where the name of Frosh­wel ceaseth, the water being from henceforth as I here, called Blackwater, vntyll it come to Maldon. From Blackwater therefore it goeth to Coxall, Easterforde, Braxsted and Wickham,Barus. where it méeteth wyth the Ba­rus, and so goyng togyther, descende to Hey­bridge, and finally into the saltwater afore­sayde. As for the Barus, it ryseth in a stately parke of Essex called Bardfeld, belonging to the crowne, from whence it goeth to olde Sa­lyng, Brainctrée (receyuing a ryllet by waye comming from Raine, blacke Notley, white Notley, Falkeburne, Wittham, and falleth into the blacke water beneath Braxsted, on the south.

Beside thys, the sayde ryuer receyueth also the Chelme or Chelmer,Chelmer. which aryseth in Wymbeche aforesayde, where it hath two heads: wherof the one is not farre from Bro­dockes (where Thomas Wiseman Esquier dwelleth) the other nigh vnto a farme called Highams, and ioyning ere long in one Cha­nell, they hye them toward Thaxsted, meting in the way also with a Ryll commyng from Boyton ende. Beyng past Thaxsted, it goeth by Tiltey, and soone after receyueth one Ril which ryseth on the north side of Lindsell,Lindis. and falleth into ye Chelmer by north east at Til­tey aforesayde, and another comming from southwest, and rysing southeast from Lindse [...] at moche Eiston. From thence then holding on styll wyth the course, it goeth to Moche Dunmowe, little Dunmow, Felsted, Lies, both Waltams, Springfield, & so to Chelme­resforde. Here vppon the south side I finde the issue of a water that riseth 5. miles or therea­boutes, south and by west of the sayde towne, from whence it goeth to Munasing Buttes­bury (there receiuyng a Rill from by west) to Ingat stone, Marget Inge, Wilforde bridge Writtle bridge, and so to Chelmeresforde, (crossing also ye second water that descendeth from Roxforde southwest of Writtle by the way) wherof let this suffice. [...] From hence the Chelmer goeth directly towarde Mauldon by Badow, Owting, Woodhamwater, Byly, and so to Blackwater northwest of Maldon, receyuing neuerthelesse ere it come fullye thither a becke also that goeth frō Lée parke, to little Lées, great Lées, Hatfield, Peueryll,Lée. Owting, and so into Blackwater (whereof I spake before) as Maldon waters, doth a ryll from by south ouer against S. Osithes, and also another by Bradwell.

The Burne, ryseth somewhere about Ron­well, and thence goeth to Hull bridge, [...] south Fambridge, Kirkeshot fery, and so to Foul­nesse: & as this is the short course of that ry­uer, so it brauncheth, and the south arme ther­of receiueth a water comming from Hauke­well, to great Stanbridge, and beneth Pake­sham, doth méete by South, wyth the sayde arme, and so finishe vp his course, as we doe our voyage also about the coast of Englande.

Thus haue I finished the description of such ryuers and streames as fall into the Ocean according to my purpose, although not in so precise an order and maner of handling, as I might, if information promysed had bene ac­cordingly performed: howbeit, thys wyll I say of that which is already done, that from the hauen of Southampton, by south vnto the Twede, that parteth England and scotland, by north (if you go backward contrary to the course of my description) you shall finde it so exacte, as beside a fewe bye ryuers to be tou­ched hereafter, you shall not néede to vse any further aduise for the finding and falles of ye aforesayd streames. For such hath béene my helpe and conference wyth other men about these, that I dare pronounce them to be per­fite and exact. In the reast I followed Leland in maner worde for worde, what he hath sayd therefore of them, that haue I examplyfied & published herein. Such was his dealing [...] ­so in hys bookes, that he sought not to be c [...]ri­ous and precise in those descriptions that hée [Page 36] made, but thought (it sufficient to say some­what, and more of thinges then any mā had done before hym, In the next booke therfore, I will in thrée chapiters run ouer these mat­ters agayne, and as I haue already borowed somewhat of the same, in settyng downe such braunches as f [...]l into the mayne streames at large, so will I there agayne remember such great riuers as I haue here eyther omitted, or not so orderly handled as their dignities do require. In reading therefore of the one, refuse not I beséeche your honor withall, to haue conference with the other, for what this wanteth, that other shall supply, and yt which is briefly touched in this, shal there be opened at large, the onely occasion of this deuision growyng vpon hope of instruction to come in tyme, whereof when I had most néede, and the lefe vnder the presse, I was left destitute and without hope of all reliefe. It is possible, that some curious head may finde carpyng worke inough in ye courses of these streames, but if such a one wyll enterprise the lyke, and try what one man can doe by reading onely, (for I sayled about my country within the compasse of my study) & therunto remember how many wais, through many mens iudge mentes, and what number of occasions may serue here and there, to inforce the writer to mistake his Pamphlets, quarters, townes, entraunces, &c. I doe not doubt but it woulde trouble his brayn, although now peraduēture in table talke, he can find many things, as he doth that sitteth at home among Ladies and Gentlewomen, and will talke and take order for matters abroad that are to be done in the field, where he neuer shewed his face. Vnto the learned therfore, I yeld correctiō of mine errors onely, and as I confesse that some vn­knowne vnto me, may and haue escaped my handes, so by their gentle and brotherly ad­monition, they shall be the sooner amended. Furthermore, this I haue also to remember that in the courses of our streames, I regard not so much to name ye very town or church, as the limites of the paroche, and therefore if I say it goeth by such a towne, I thinke my duety discharged, if I hitte vpon any part or parcel of the paroche. This also hath not a lit­tle troubled me, I meane the euill writing of the names of many townes and villages, of which I haue noted some one man in the de­scription of a riuer to write it two or three maner of wayes, whereby I was inforced to chuse one (at aduenture most commonly) that séemed the likeliest in myne opinion & iudge­ment: but inough of this and these things for this present.

❧Of the foure hyghe wayes sometyme made in Brytaine, by the Princes of thys Lande. Chap. 12.

THere are, which indeuoring to bring all things to their Saxon Originall, doe affirme that this diuisiō of waies whereof we now intreate, should ap­parteine to such Princes of that Nation, as reigned here, sith the Romaines gaue vs o­uer. But how weake their coniectures are in this behalfe, the antiquity of these stréetes it selfe shal easily declare, whereof some per­celles after a sorte are also set downe by An­toninus, and those that haue written of the se­uerall iourneyes from hence to Rome, al­though peraduenture not in so directe an or­der, as they were at the first established. For my parte if it were not that I desire to be short in this behalfe, I could with such notes as I haue already collected for that purpose, make a large confutation of diuers of theyr opinions cōcerning these passages, but sith I haue spent more time in ye tractatiō of the ri­uers, then was allotted vnto me, I will omit at this time to discourse of these things as I would, and say what I may for the better knowledg of their courses, procéeding there­in as followeth.

First of all, I finde that Dunwallon King of Britayne, about 483. yeares before ye birth of our sauior Iesus Christ, seing the subiects of his Realme, to be in sundry wyse oppressed by theeues and robbers, as they traueiled too and fro, and being willing (so much as in him laye) to redresse these inconueniences, caused his whole kingdome to be surueyed, and then commaunding foure principall wayes to be made, which shoulde leade such as traueyled into all partes thereof, from sea to sea, he gaue sundry large priuileges vnto the same, whereby they became safe, and verye much frequented. And as he had regarde herein, to the securitie of hys Subiectes, so he made sharp lawes, grounded vpō Iustice, for ye sup­pression of such wicked mēbers as did offer violence to any trauayler that should be met wyth al or found within the limites of those passages. How by what partes of this Island these wayes were conueighed at the first, it is not so wholy left in memory▪ but that some question is mooued among the learned, con­cerning theyr auncient courses, howbeit such is the shadowe remaining hitherto of theyr extensions, that if not at this present perfect­ly yet hereafter it is not impossible but that they maye be founde out, and left certaine vnto posteritye. It séemeth by Galfride, [Page] that the sayd Dunwallon did limite out those wayes by dooles and markes, which beyng in short tyme altered by the auarice of such irreligious persons as dwelt nere and incro­ched vpon the same (a fault yet iustly to bée found almost in euery place) and questiō moo­ued for their boundes before Bellinus hys sonne, he to auoyde all further controuersie that might from thenceforth insue, caused the same to be paued with hard stone, of 18. foote in bredth, and 10. foote in depth, and in the bo­tome thereof huge flint stones also to be pit­ched, lest the earth in tyme should swalow vp his workmanship, & the higher ground ouer­grow their rising crests. He indued thē also wt larger priuiledges thē before, protesting that if any man whosoeuer shoulde presume to in­fringe his peace, & violate the lawes of hys kingdome in anye maner of wise néere vnto or vpon those wayes, he should suffer such pu­nishmēt without all hope to escape (by frend­ship or mercy (as by ye statutes of his realme lately prouided in those cases, are due vnto ye offenders: The names of these foure wayes are the Fosse, the Gwethelin, or Watling, the Ermyng, and the Ychenild.

Fosse.The Fosse goeth not directly, but slopewise ouer the greatest part of this Island, begyn­nyng at Dotnesse or Totnesse in Deuōshire, where Brute sometymes landed (or as Ra­nulphus sayeth) which is more likely at the point of Cornwall though the eldest writers do séeme to note the contrary. From hence it goeth thorow the middle of Deuonshire and Somersetshire, and commeth to Bristow, from whence it runneth manifestly to Sud­bery market, Tetbury, and so forth holdeth on as you go almost to ye midde way betwene Gloucester and Cirnecester (where the wood faileth, and the Champeigne country appea­reth toward Cotteswald) streight as a lyne vntill you come to Cirnecester it self. Some hold opinion that the way which lyeth from Cirnecester to Bathe, shoulde be the very Fosse, and that betwixt Cirnecester & Glou­cester, to be another of the 4. wayes made by the Britons: but auncient report grounded vpon great likelyhoode, and confirmed also by some experience, iudgeth that most of the wayes crossed eche other in this part of the realme, and of this mynd is Leland also, who learned it of an Abbote of Cirnecester that shewed great likelyhoode in some recordes therof: but to procéede. From Cirnecester, it goeth by Chepingnorton to Couentrey, Leircester, Newarke, and so to Lincolne o­uerthwart the Watling streate, where by generall consent of all the writers (except Alfrede of Beuerley, who extendeth it vnto Cathenesse in Scotland) it is sayde to haue an ende.

The Watling stréete beginneth at Douer in Kent, [...] and so stretcheth thorow the middest of Kent vnto London, and so forth (peraduen­ture by the midst of ye city) vnto Verolamium or Verlamcester, now S. Albons, where in ye yeare of grace 1531 the c [...]urse thereof was found by a mā that digged for grauel where­with to mende the highway. It was in this place 18. foote brōde, and about 10. foote déepe, and stoned in the botome as afore, and perad­uenture also on the toppe, but these are gone, and the rest remayneth equall in most places with the fields. The yelow grauell also that was brought thether in cartes 2000. yeares passed, remayned there so fresh and so strōg, as if it had bene digged out of ye natural place where it grew not many yeares before. Frō hence it goeth hard by Margate, leauyng it on the west side, and a little by south of this place, where the Priory stoode, is a long tho­row fare vpon the sayd stréete, méetely well builded (for low housing) on both sides. After this, it not onely becommeth a bound vnto Leicestershire toward Lugby, but also pas­seth from Castleford to Stamforde, and so forth by the west of Marton, which is a myle from Torkesey.

Here by the waye I must touche the opi­nion of a traueyler of my tyme, who noteth the sayde streate to go another waye, inso­much that he would haue it to crosse the third Auon, betwixt Newton and Dowbridge, & so go on to Binforde bridge, Wibto [...], the highe crosse, and thence to Atherston vpon An­cre. Certes it maye be, that the Fosse had his course by the countrye in such sort as hée describeth, but that ye Watling streat should passe by Atherstō, I can not as yet be persua­ded. Neuerthelesse his coniecture is not to be misliked, sith it is not vnlikelye that thrée se­uerall wayes myght méete at Alderwaye (a towne vpon Tame, beneath Salters bridge) for I do not doubt that the sayd towne, dyd take his name of all three wayes, as Alder­mary churche in London, did of all thrée Ma­ryes vnto whome it hath béene dedicated, but that the Watling streate shoulde be one of them, the compasse of his passage will in no wise permit. And thus much haue I thought good to note by the waye, nowe to returne a­gayne to Leland, and other mens collections. The next tydings that we here of the Wat­lyng streate is, that it goeth thorowe the Parke at Pomfret, as the common voyce of the country confirmeth: thēce it passeth hasti­ly ouer Castelford bridg, to Aberford, (which is fiue myles from thence, & where are most [Page 37] manifest tokens of thys waye and his broad crest) to Yorke, to Witherby, & then to Bo­rowbrig, where on the left hand therof stood certain monumentes, or Pyramides of stone, sometyme placed there by the Romaines. These stones (sayth Leland) stande 8 myles west from Bowis, & almost west from Rich­monde a little thorowe fare called may­den castel scituate vpon the side of this streat, and here is one of those Pyramides or great rounde heapes, which is thrée score foote cō ­passe in the bottome. There are other also of lesse quantities, and on the very top of eche of them are sharp stones of a yard in length, but the greatest of all is eightéene foote hyghe at the least, from the grounde to the verye head. He addeth moreouer howe they stande on an hyll: in the edge of Stanes moore, and are as boundes betwéene Richmonde shyre, and Westmerland. But to procéed this streat lying a myle from Gilling, and two myles from Richmonde commeth on from Borow­brigge, to Catericke eightéene myles, that is twelue to Leuing, and sixe to Catericke, then eleuen myles to Gretey, or Gritto, fyue myles to Bottles, eight myles to Burghe on Stanes moore, foure myles from Appleby, & fiue to Browham, where the sayde streate commeth thorowe Winfoll parke, and ouer the bridge, on Eymouth and Loder, and lea­uing Perith, a quarter of a myle or more, on the west side of it, goeth to Carleil seuentéene myles from Browham, which hath béene some notable thing. Hetherto it appeareth e­uidently, but going from hence into Scot­lande, I heare no more of it, vntill I come to Cathnesse, which is two hundred and thirtye myles or thereabouts, out of Englande.

[...]rming stréte.The Erming streate, which some call the Lelme, stretcheth out of the east, as they saye into the southeast, yt is, from Meneuia or S. Dauids in Wales vnto Southāpton, wher­by it is somewhat lykely in déede that these two wayes, I meane the Fosse, and the Er­ning, shoulde méete about Cirnecester, as it commeth from Glocester, according to the opinion conceyued of them in that countrye. Of thys way I finde no more written, and therefore I can saye no more of it, except I shoulde indeuour to dryue awaye the tyme, in alleadging what other men saye thereof, whose mindes doe so farre disagrée one from another, as they doe all from a truth, and therefore I gyue them ouer, as not delight­ing in such dealing.

The Ikenild or Rikenild, begā some where in the south, [...]enilde. and so held on toward Cirnece­ster, then to Worcester, Wicom [...], Brimmi­cham, Lichfield, Darby, Chesterfield, and [...]ssing the Watlingstréete: some where in Yorkeshire, stretched forth in the [...]e vnto ye mouth ye of Tine, where it ended at ye maine sea, as most men doe confesse. I take it to be called the Ikenild, because it passed thorow the kingdome of the Icenes: for albeit that Lelande and other followyng him doe seme to place the Icenes in Norfolke & Suffolke, yet in myne opinion that cannot wel be done, sith it is manifest by Tacitus; that they laye nere vnto the Sylures, and as I gesse, ey­ther in Stafford and Worcester, or in both, except my coniecture do fayl me. The author of the booke entituled Eulogi [...] historianum, doth call this stréete the Lel [...] [...]e: but as herein he is deceyued, so haue I delt withal so fayth­fully as I may among such diuersitie of opi­nions, yet not deniyng but that there is much confusion in the names and courses of these two latter, the discussing whereof, I must leaue to other men yt be better lerned then I.

Of the ayre and soyle of Britaine. Chap. 13.

THe ayre for the most part thorowout the Island is such, as by reason in maner of continuall cloudes, is reputed to be grosse & nothing so pleasant as that is of the mayne. Howbeit as they which affirme these things, haue onely respect to the impediment or hin­deraunce of the sunne beames, by the interpo­sitiō of the cloudes & oft ingrossed ayre: so ex­perience teacheth vs that it is no lesse pure, holsome, and commodious, then is that of o­ther countries, and as Caesar hymselfe hereto addeth, much more temperate in sommer, then that of the Galles, from whome he ad­uentured hither. Neyther is theyr any thing found in the ayre of our Regiō, that is not v­sually séene amongst other nations lying be­yond the seas. Wherfore, we must nedes cō ­fesse, that the scituation of our Island for be­nefite of the heauens is nothing inferiour to that of any country of the maine, where so e­uer it lie vnder the open firmament.

The soyle of Brytaine is such, as by the testimonies and reportes, both of the olde & newe writers, and experience also of such as nowe inhabite the same, is verye fruitefull, but yet more inclined to the féeding & gra­sing of the cattell, then profitable for tyllage, & bearing of corn, by reason wherof the coun­try is woonderfully replenished wyth Neat, & al kind of cattell: and such store is there also of the same in euery place, that ye fourth part of the land is scarcely manured for the proui­sion and maintenāce of grayne. Certes, this fruitfulnes was not vnknown vnto the Bri­tens [Page] long before Caesars time, which was the cause wherefore our predecessors liuyng in those dayes in maner neglected Tillage, and lyued by féedyng and grasing onely. The grasiers themselues also then dwelled in mo­ueable villages by companies, whose custom was to deuide the ground amongst them, and eche one not to depart from the place where his lōt lay, till by eating vp of the country a­bout him, he was inforced to remoue fur­ther and seke for better pasture, and this was the brittish custome at the first. It hath bene cōmonly reported that the ground of Wales is neyther so fruitful as that of England, nei­ther the soyle of Scotland so bountifull as that of Wales, which is true if it be taken for the most part: otherwise, there is so good grounde in some partes of Wales, as is in England, albeit ye best of Scotland be scarce­ly comparable to the best of eyther of both. Howbeit as the bounty of the Scottish doth fayle in some respect, so doeth it surmount in other,Plenty of riuers. God and nature hauyng not appointed all countries to yeld forth lyke commodities. There are also in this Island great plenty of fresh riuers & streames, as you haue heard already, and these thorowly fraught wyth all kyndes of delicate fish, accustomed to be foūd in riuers.Hilles. The whole Isle likewyse, is very full of hilles, of which some, though not very many, are of excedyng heigth, and diuers ex­tendyng themselues very farre from the be­ginnyng as wée may sée by Shooters hill, which rising east of London, & not very far from the Thames runneth along the south side of the Island westward, vntill it come to Corinwall. Lyke vnto these also are the crowdō hils, which from the peke do run into the borders of Scotlande. What shoulde I speake of the cheuiot hils which run xx. miles in length: of the blacke mountains in Wales which go from [...] to [...] miles at the lest in length, of the Grames in Scot­lande, and of our Chiltren, which are 18. myles at the lest, from one end of them to the other, of all which, some are very well reple­nished with wood, notwithstandyng that the most part yelde a swéete short grasse, profita­ble for shéep, wherin albeit that they of Scot­land doe somewhat come behind vs, yet their outward defect is inwardly recompēsed not onely with plenty of quarries, (and those of sondry kindes of marble hard stone, and fine alabaster) but also rich mines of mettal, as shalbe shewed hereafter.Windes. In this Islande likewyse the wyndes are commonly more stronge and fierce, then in anye other pla­ces of the maine, and that is often séene vp­pon the naked hilles, which are not garded with trées to beare it of. That grieuous in­cōuenience also inforceth our, Nobility, gen­try, and comminaltie,B [...] to build their houses in the valeis, leauing the high groundes vnto their corne and cattell, least the cold and stor­my blastes of winter should bréede thē grea­ter anoyance, wheras in other Regions eche one desireth to set his house aloft on the hyll, not onely to be sene a farre of, and cast forth their beames of stately & curious workemā ­ship into euery quarter of the country, but al­so (in whote habitations) for coldensse sake of the ayre, sith the heate is neuer so vehement on the hill top as in the valey, because the re­uerberation of the sunne beame, eyther rea­cheth not so farre as the highest, or else becō ­meth not so strong, when it is reflected to the lower mountayne.

But to leaue our Buyldinges,Hus [...] ame [...] vnto the purposed place (which notwithstanding haue verye muche increased, I meane for curio­sitye and coste, in Englande, Wales, and Scotland, within these fewe yeares) and to returne to the soyle againe. Certainelye it is euen now in these our dayes growne to bée muche more fruitefull, then it hath bene in times past. The cause is for that our countrei­men are growne to be more paynefull, skilful and carefull thorowe recompence of gayne, then heretofore they haue béene, insomuch that my Synchroni or time felowes, can reap at thys present great commoditye in a lyttle roume, whereas of late yeares, a great com­passe hath yéelded but small profite, and thys onely thorowe the ydle and negligent occupa­tiō of such, as mannured and had the same in occupying. I myght sette downe examples out of all the partes of thys Islande, that is to say, manye out of Englande, moe out of Scotlande, but most of all out of Wales, in which two last rehearsed, verye little other foode and lyuelyhoode was woont to be loo­ked for beside fleshe more then the soyle of it selfe, and the cow gaue, the people in ye meane tyme lyuing idelly, dissolutely & by picking and stealing one frō another, all which vices are nowe for the most part relinquished, so that ech nation manureth hir owne with tri­ple commoditie, to that it was before tyme.

The pasture of thys Islande is accordyng to the nature & scituation of the soyle, [...] where­by in most places it is plentifull, verye fine batable, and such as eyther fatteth our cattel with spéede, or yéeldeth great abundaunce of mylke and creame, whereof the yellowest butter, and finest chéese are made. But where the blewe claye aboundeth (which hardelye drinketh vppe the winters water in long season) there the grasse is speary, rough, and [Page 38] very apte for bushes, by which occasion, it be­commeth nothing so profitable to the owner. The best pasture ground of all Englande, is in Wales, and of all the pasture in Wales, that of Cardigan is the chiefe. I speake of that which is to be founde in the mountaines there, where the hundreth part of the grasse growing is not eaten, but suffered to rotte on the grounde, whereby the soyle becommeth matted, and dyuers Bogges and quicke moores made wyth all in long continuance, bycause all the cattle in the countrey are not able to eate it downe.

[...]dowesOur medowes are either bottomes (wher­of we haue great store, and those very large bycause our soyle is hilly) or else lande mea­des. The first of them, are yearely and often ouerflowen by the rysing of such streames as passe thorowe the same, or violent falles of lande waters, that dyscende from the hylles about them. The other are seldome or neuer ouerflowen, & that is the cause where­fore their grasse is shorter than that of the bottomes, and yet is it farre more fine, whol­some, and batable, sith the haye of our [...]we meddowes is not onely full of sandy cinder, which bréedeth sundry diseases in our cattell, but also more ro [...]y, foggy, & full of flagges, and therefore not so profitable, for [...]ouer and forrage as ye higher meades be. The differēce furthermore in theyr commodities is great, for whereas in our lande meddowes we haue not often aboue one good loade of haye in an acre of ground, in lowe meaddowes, we haue sometimes thrée, but commonly aboue twoo, as experience hath oft confirmed.

[...].The yéelde of our corne grounde, is also much after thys rate following, thorowe out the lande (if you please to make an estimate thereof by the acre) in common and in dyffe­rent yeares, wherin eche acre of Whete well tilled and dressed will yéeld commonly twen­tie bushelles, an acre of Barlie 32. bushels, of Otes and such lyke, fiue quarters, which proportion is notwythstanding oft abated, towarde the north, as it is often surmounted in the south. Of mixed corne, as peason, and beanes, sowē togither, Tares & Otes (which they call bu [...]mong,) Rie and Wheate, here is no place to speake, yet theyr yéelde is neuer­thelesse much after this proportiō, as I haue often marked.

[...]tell.The cattel which we bréede are commonly such as for greatnesse of bone, swéetenesse of flesh, & other benefits to be reaped by ye same, giue place vnto none other, as may appeare first by our Oxen, whose largenesse, height weight, tallow, hides, and hornes are such as none of any other nation, do cōmonly or may easily excéede the [...]. Our shéepe likewise for good taste of fleshe, quantitie of lymmes, [...] ­nesse of fléece, & abundance of increase, (for in many places they bring foorth two or thrée at an eaning) giue no place vnto any, more then do our Goates, who in like sort do follow the same order, and our Deare come not behind. As for our Conies, I haue séene thē so fat in some f [...]es, especially about Meal & Disnege that the grea [...]e of one being weighed,Meal and disnege. hath prysed very neare sixe or 7. ounces, all which benefites we first referre to the grace & good­nesse of God, and next of all vnto the bountye of our soyle, which he hath so plentifullye in­dued with so ample & large cōmodities. But as I meane to intreate of these thinges more largly hereafter, so will I touch in this place one benefite which our country wanteth, and that is wyne, the fault whereof is not in our soyle,Wine. but the negligence of our country men (especially of the south parts) who doe not in­ure the same to this commoditie, which by reason of long discontinuance, is nowe be­come vnapt to beare any Grapes, eyther in the fielde or feuer all vineyardes: Yet of late time soone haue assayed to deale for wine, but sithe that lyquor when it commeth to the b [...]ing hath béene founde more harde then that which is brought from beyond [...] the sea, and the cost of planting and kéeping thereof [...] their gea [...], that they maye h [...]e it farre better cheape from other Countries: they haue gyuen ouer theyr enterpryses, wyth­oute any consideration, that [...] in all other thinges, so neither the grounde it selfe in the begynninge, nor successe of their trauaile can answere their [...] at the first, vntyll such time as the soyle be brought as it were [...] in time with this commoditie, and [...], for the more [...] of charge, to be employed vpon the [...] that where waine doth last [...], there it will grow no woorse, I [...] wherefore the planting of [...] in England. That this [...] might haue growne in this Island heretofore: [...], to vs, the Galles and [...] sufficient [...]y. And [...] dyd [...] here, the olde [...] of ty­thes for [...], that yet remaine in the ac­compt [...] in [...] sutes, [...] ecclesiasticall courtes, [...] [...]y: also the inclosed p [...]elles [...] euery Abbaye, yet called [...] a notable proofe [...] soyle is not to be blamed, as [...] were so excéeding short, [Page] that the moone which is Lady of moysture, & chiefe riper of this liquor, cannot in any wise shine long ynough vpō the same, a very mer­ry toy,Wad and Madder sometime in Eng­lande. Rape oyle. & fable worthy to be suppressed. The time hath béene that Wad and Madder, haue béene (next vnto our Tin & Woolles) the chief commodities & Marchaundize of this realm: I fynde also that Rape oyle hath béene made within this lande, but nowe our soyle wyll beare neither of these, not for that the ground is not able so to doe, but that we are necly­gent and carelesse of our owne profit, as men rather willing to buye the same of others thē take any paine to plant thē here at home. The like I may say of flaxe,Flaxe. which by lawe ought to be sowen in euery country towne in Eng­lande, more or lesse, but I see no successe of ye good & wholsome estatute, sith it is rather con­tempteously reiected then otherwise dutifully kept. Some say that our great numbers of lawes,Number. Alteratiō. Dispensa­tion. Example of superi­ours. whereby it is impossible for any man to auoyde theyr transgression, is one great cause of our negligence in this behalfe. O­ther affirme that the often alteration of our ordinaunces do bréed this general cōtempt of al good [...]was, which after Aristotle doth seme to carye some reason withall. But very ma­ny let not to saye, that facility in dispensatiō with them, and manifest breche of the same in the Superiours, are ye greatest causes why the inferiours regarde no good order, beyng alwayes ready to offende without any such facultie one way, as they are to presume vp­on the example of the higher powers ano­ther. But as in these thinges I haue no f [...]yl, so some wishe that fewer licences for the pri­uate commoditie, but of a fewe, were graun­ted: & this they say, not that they denie ye exe­cution of the prerogatiue royall, but woulde wyth all theyr hearts that it might be made a grieuous offence, for any man by f [...]ced fryndeship or otherwise, to procure oughte [...] of the Prince, (who is not acquainted wyth the botome of the estate of common things) that may bée preiudiciall to the wa [...]le pub­like of his country.Erthes. If it were requisite that I should speake of the sundry kinde of mowlde, as ye cledgy or clay, whereof are sundry sorts, red, blew, [...] & white: also the red or white sandy, the lomye, roselly, grauelly, chal [...]y or blacke: I could say that there are so many di­uers vaines in Brytaine, as else where in a­ny quarter of lyke quantitie in ye world. How­beit this I must néedes cōfesse that the sandy and cledgy doe beare the greatest sway, but ye clay most of all, as hath béene, and yet is al­waies séene and fel [...] thorowe plenty & dearth of corne. For if this latter doe yéelde h [...] full increase, then is there generall plenty, wher­as if it fayle then haue we scarcity, according to the olde rude verse, set downe of england, but to be vnderstanded of the whole Islande, as experience doth confirme.

When the sande doth serue the clay,
Then may we sing well away,
But when the clay doth serue the sand
Then is it mery with England.

I might here intreate also of the famous vales in Englande, [...] of which one is called the Vale of white horse, another of Eouesham, noted to be twelue or thirtéene miles in com­passe, the third of Aslesbyry ye goeth by Tame the roote of Ehilterne hils, & so to Donstable, Newport panell, stony Stratford, Bucking­ham, Birstane parke, &c. And likewise of the fourth of Whithart, or Blackemore, in Dor­setshire, and also the Marshwood vale, but for­asmuch as I knowe not well their seuerall li­mites, I giue ouer to go any farder in their description at this time. In like sort it should not be amysse to speake of our fennes & other pleasant bottomes, [...] which are not onely indu­ed with excellent ryuers & great store of fine fodder, for neat and horses in time of ye yere, (whereby they are excéeding benificiall vnto their owners) but also of no small compasse & quantity in ground. For some of our Fennes are well knowen to be eyther 10.12.16.20. or 30. miles in length, that of the Gyrwis yet passing al the reast, which is ful 60. as I haue often read. [...] Finally I might discourse in like order of the large commons, laide out hereto­fore by the Lordes of the soyles for ye benefite of such poore, as inhabite within ye compasses of their manours, but as the tractatiō of them belongeth rather to the seconde booke, so I meane not at thys present to deale wythall, reseruing the same wholly vnto the due place whilest I go forwarde with the reast.

Of the generall constitution of the bodyes of the Brytaines. Cap. 14.

THose that are bredde in this Islande are men for the most part of a good complet­ion, tall of stature, strong in body, white of coulour, and thereto of great boldenesse and courage in ye warres. For such hath béene the estimation of english souldiers from time to time, since our Isle hath béene knowne vnto the Romaines, that wheresoeuer they haue serued in forrein countries, the chiefe brunts [...] seruice haue béene reserued for them. Of their con [...]uestes and bloudy battailes wo [...]ne in Fraunce, Germany, and Scotlande, our histories are full: and where they haue béene ouercome, the victors themselues confessed their victories to haue ben so dearely bought, that they woulde not gladly couete to ouer­come [Page 39] often, after such difficult maner. In martiall prowesse, there is little or no diffe­rence betwene Englishmen and Scottes, for albeit that the Scottes haue béene often and very grieuously ouercome by the force of our nation, it hath not béene for want of manhood on their partes, but through ye mercy of God shewed on vs, and his iustice vpon them, sith they alwaies haue begun the quarels and of­fred vs méere iniurie with great despite and crueltie. Leland noting somewhat of the cō ­stitution of our bodies, sayeth these wordes, the Britaines are whyte in coulour, & strong of body, as people inhabiting néere the north, and farre from the Equinoctiall line, where contrariewyse such as dwell towarde the course of the sunne, are lesse of stature, wea­ker of body, more fearfull by nature, blacker in coulour, and some so blacke in déede as a­nye Crow or Rauen, thus sayeth he. Howbe­it, as these men doe come behinde vs in con­stitution of bodie, so in Pregnancie of witte, nimblenesse of lymmes, and pollitike inuen­tions, they generally excéede vs: notwithstā ­ding that otherwise these giftes of theirs doe often degenerate, into méere subtiltie, insta­bilitie, [...]rmis [...]genio [...]tur vnfaithfulnesse and crueltie. We ther­fore dwelling néere the North, are common­ly taken by forrein Hystoriographers and o­thers, to be men of great strength and little policie, much courage and small shift: & thus doth Comineus burden vs after a sort in hys history. But thanked be God, that all the wit of his countrymen coulde neuer compasse to doe so much in Britaine, as the strength and courage of our Englishmen, (not without great wisedome, and forecast) haue brought to passe in Fraunce. Certes in accusing our wisedome in this sorte, he doth in mine opi­nion increase our commendation, for if it be a vertue to deale vprightly with singlenesse of minde: sincerely and plainly, without any suspicious fetches in all our dealinges, then are our countreymen to be accompted ver­tuous. But if it be a vice to coulour crafti­nesse, subtile practises, doublenesse and hollow behauiour, with a cloke of pollicie, amitie and wisedome, then are Comineus and his com­panie to be reputed vicious. How these latter pointes take holde in Italy, I meane not to discusse, how they are daily practized in many places of the maine, and he accompted most wyse and pollitike, that can most of all dis­semble, here is no place iustly to determine, (neyther woulde I wishe my countrymen to learne any such wisedome) but that a king of Fraunce, coulde say, Qui nescit dissimulare, nescit regnare, their owne hystories are testi­monies sufficient. But to procéede with our purpose. With vs [...] doe liue an hundred yeares, very many [...]oure sower score: as for thrée score; it is taken but for our enteraunce into age, so that in Britain, no man is sayde to were old til he draw vnto thre score. These two are also noted in vs (as thinges appar­tayning to the firme constitutions of our bo­dies) that there hath not béene séene in any Region so many cartasses of the dead to re­maine from time to time without corruption as in Britain: and that after death by slaugh­ter or otherwyse such as remayne vnburied by foure or fiue dayes togither are easte to be knowen and discerned by their friendes and kinred, wheras Tacitus and other complaine of sundry nations, saying, that their bodies are tam fluidae substantiae, that within cer­taine houres the wife shall hardely knowe hir husbande, the mother hir sonne, or one friende another, after their liues be ended. I might here adde somewhat also of the meane stature generally of our women, [...] beau­tie commonly excéedeth the faire [...] those of the maine, their comlynes of person and good proportion of limmes, most of theirs ye come ouer vnto vs from beyonde the sea. I coulde make report likewyse of the naturall vices & vertues of all those yt are borne within thys Islande, but as the tractation thereof craueth a better head then mine to set it forth, so I will giue place to other men, that list to take the same in hand. Thus much therfore of the constitutions of our bodies, and so much may suffice.

How Britayne grew at the first to be deuided into three portions. Chap. 1.

AFter the commyng of Brutus into this Island (which was as you haue red in the aforesayd treatize, about the yere of ye world, 2840 or 1127 before ye incarnation of Christ) he made a general suruey of the whole Islād from side to side, by such meanes to view and search out not onely the limites and boundes of his dominions, but also what commodities this new atchieued conquest might yeld vnto hys people. Furthermore, findyng out at the last also a couenable place wherein to erect a citie, he began there euen ye very same, which at this day is called London, namyng it Tre­nouanton, in remembraunce of olde Troye, from whence hys auncesters procéeded, & for which the Romaines pronounced afterward Trinobantum, although the Welchmen doe call it still Trenewith. This city was builded as some write, much about the tenth yeare of his raigne, so yt he lyued not aboue 15. yeares [Page] after he had finished ye same. But of ye rest of hys other actes attempted and done, before or after the erection of this city, I finde no cer­tayne report, more then that when he had raigned in this Island after his arriuall by the space of 24. yeares, he finished his dayes at Trenouanton aforesayde, beyng in hys young and florishyng age, where at his car­case was honorably interred. As for the ma­ner of hys death, I finde as yet no mention therof among such writers as are extant. I meane whether it grew vnto him by defect of nature, or force of grieuous woundes recey­ued in hys warres agaynst such as withstood him from tyme to tyme in this Islande, and therefore I can say nothing of that matter. Herein onely all agrée, that duryng the tyme of his languishing paynes, he made a disposi­tion of his whole kyngdome, deuiding it into thrée partes or portions, according to the nū ­ber of his sonnes then liuing, whereof the ol­dest excéeded not 28. yeres of age, as my con­iecture gaueth me.Locrine. To the eldest therefore, whose name was Locrine, he gaue the grea­test and best Region of all the rest,Loegria. whiche of hym to this day is called Lhoegres among the Britons, but in our language Englande, of such English Saxons as made conquest of the same. This portiō also is included on the south with the Brittish sea, on the east wyth the Germaine Ocean, on the north wyth the Humber, and on the west with the Irish sea, and the riuers Dée and Sauerne, wherof in the general description of this Island, I haue spoken more at large. To Camber his secōd sonne,Camber. Cambria. he assigned all that lyeth beyonde the Sauerne and Dée towarde the west, (whiche parcel in these dayes conteineth Southwales and Northwales) with sondry Islandes ad­iacent to the same, the whole beyng in maner cut of and seperated from England or Loe­gria by the said streames, wherby it séemeth almost Pemusula, or a bye land, if you respect the small hilly portion of ground that lyeth indifferently betwene their maine courses or such branches at the least as run and fall in­to them. The Welchmen or Brytons call it by the auncient name still vnto this day, but we Englishmen terme it Wales, which de­nomination we haue from the Saxons, who in time past did vse the word Walshe in such sort as we do straunge: for as we cal all those straungers that are not of our nation, so dyd they name them Walshe which were not of their countrey. The third and last part of the Island he allotted vnto Albanacte hys youn­gest sonne (for he had but thrée in all,Albanact. as I haue sayd before) whose portion séemed for circuite to be more large, then that of Cam­ber, and in maner equall in greatnesse wyth the dominions of Locrinus: But if you haue regard to the seuerall commodities that are to be reaped by eche, you shal find them to be not much discrepaunt or differing one from another: for what so euer the first and second haue in plenty of corne, fine grasse, and large cattell. This latter wanteth not in excéedyng store of fishe, rich mettall, quarries of stone, and aboundaunce of wylde foule: so that in myne opinion, there coulde not be a more e­quall particion then this made by Brute, and after the aforesayd maner. This later parcel at the first, toke the name of Albanactus, who called it Albania. But now a small portion onely of the Region (beyng vnder the regi­ment of a Duke) reteyneth the sayd denomi­nation, the reast beyng called Scotlande, of certayne Scottes that came ouer from Ire­land to inhabite in those quarters. It is deui­ded from Loegres also by the Humber, [...] so that Albania as Brute left it, conteyned all the north part of the Island that is to be foūd beyond the aforesayd streame, vnto the point of Cathenesse. To conclude, Brute hauyng deuided hys kingdome after this maner, and therin conteniyng himselfe as it were wyth the general title of the whole, it was not lōg after ere he ended his life, and being solemn­ly interred at his new city by his thrée chil­dren, they parted eche from other, and tooke possession of their prouinces. But Scotland after two yeres fell agayn into the handes of Locrinus as to the chiefe Lord, by the death of his brother Albanact,Locri [...] king [...] of Sc [...] land. who was slayne by Humber kyng of the Seithiēs, and left none issue behynde hym to succéede hym in that kyngdome.

That notwithstanding the former diuision made by Brute vnto his children, the soue­reigntie of the whole Islande remained still to the prince of Lhoegres and his posteritie after him. Chap. xvj.

IT is possible that some of the Scottish na­tion reading the former chapter will take offence with me for meaning yt the principa­litie of the North partes of this Isle, hath al­wayes belonged to the kinges of Lhoegres.The Scot [...] alway [...] desinr [...] to [...] the [...] subi [...] haue o [...] ­ten [...] cruell [...] odious tempta [...] to be, [...] in [...] For whose more ample satisfaction in this behalfe, I will here set downe therfore a dis­course therof at large, written by diuers, and nowe finally brought into one Treatise, suf­ficient as I thinke to satisfie the reasonable, although not halfe ynough peraduenture to content a wrangling minde, sith there is or at the least wyse hath béene nothing more o­dious amōg some, then to heare that the king [Page 40] of England hath oughtes to doe in Scotland. How their Historiographers haue attempted to shape a couloured excuse to auoyde so ma­nifest a tytle, all men maye sée that reade their bookes indifferently, whereunto I doe referre them. For my part there is little or nothing of myne herein, more then onely the collection of a number of fragmentes to­gither, wherein chiefly I haue vsed the helpe of Nicholas Adams, who wrate thereof of set purpose to king Edward the sixt, as Leland dyd the lyke to king Henry the eyght, Iohn Harding vnto Edwarde the fourth, beside thrée other, whereof the first dedicated hys Treatise to Henry the fourth, the seconde to Edwarde the thirde, and the thirde to Ed­warde the first, as their writinges yet extant doe abund [...]ntly beare witnesse. The tytle also that Lelande giueth his booke, which I haue had written with his owne hands, beginneth in this maner. ‘These remembraunces follo­wing are found in Chronicles authorized re­maining in diuers nonasteries both in Eng­lande and Scotlande, by which it is euident­ly knowen & shewed, that the kinges of En­gland haue had, and nowe ought to haue the souereignetie ouer Scotlande, wyth the ho­mage and fealtie of the kings their reigning from time to time. Herevnto you haue heard already what diuisiō Brute made of this Is­lande not long before his death, wherof eche of his childrē so sone as he was enterred toke seisure and possession.’ Howbeit after two yeres it happened that Albanact was slayne, wherevpon Locrinus and Camber raysed their powers reuenged his death, and finally the sayde Loctinus, made an entraunce vpō Albania, seyzed it into his owne handes (as ex­cheated wholly vnto himselfe) without yéel­ding any part therof vnto his brother Cam­ber, who made no clayme nor title vnto any portion of the same. Herby then sayth Adams it euidently appeareth that the entier seignio­rie ouer Albania consisted in Locrinus, accor­ding to which example lykeland among bre­thren euer since hath continued, in preferring the eldest brother to the onely benefite of the collaterall assencion from the youngest, as­swell in Scotlande as in England vnto this daye.

Ebranke the lineall heire from the bodie of this Locrine, that is to say the sonne of Mem­pris; sonne of Madan, sonne of the same Lo­crine, buylded in Albania the castle of May­dens nowe called Edenbrough: and the Ca­stle of Alcluith or Alclude, now called Dun­briton; as the Scottish Hector Boethius con­fesseth: wherby it most euidently appeareth that our Ebranke was then thereof seased.

This Ebranke reigned in the [...] ouer thē a long time, after whose death Alba­nia as annexed to the empire of the Britaine, descended to the onely king of Britons, vntill the discent to the two sisters sonnes, M [...]gan and Conedage, lineall heires from the sayde Ebranke, who brotherly vpō the first exam­ple deuided ye realme. Morgā had Lhoegr [...], and Conedage ha [...] Alban [...]: but shortly af­ter Morgan the elder brother ponde [...]g in hys hed, the loue to his brother with the loue to a kingdome, excluded nature & gaue place to ambition, and therupō denouncing warre, death miserably ended hys life (as the re­warde of his vntruth) wherby Conedage ob­tayned the whole Empire of all Britaine, in which state he remayned during his naturall lyfe.

From him the same lineally descended to the onelye king of Britons, vntill after the reigne of Gorbodian, who had issue two sons, Ferres, and Porres: This Porres requy­ring lyke diuision of the lande, affirming the for [...]er particions to be rather of lawe then fauour, was by the handes of his elder bro­ther, both of his lyfe and hoped kingdome be­reued at once: whereupon their vnnaturall mother vsing hir natural malice, for the deth of hir one sonne, without regard of the lossing of both, miserably slew the other.

Cloten by all writers aswell Scottishe as other, was the next inheritour to the whole Empire, but lacking power (the only meane in those dayes to obtayne right) he was con­tented to deuide the same among thrée of his kinsmen, so that Scater had Albania. But af­ter the death this Cloten his sonne Dunnal­lo Mulmutius made war [...]e vpon these thrée Kinges, and at last ouercame them, and so re­couered the whole dominion, in token of which victorie, he caused himselfe to be crow­ned with a crowne of gold, the very first that was worne among the kinges of this nation. This Dunuallo erected temples, wherein the people shoulde assemble for Prayer, to which temples he gaue benefite of Sanctuarie: he made the [...] for wager of battaile, in cases of murder and [...]lonte, whereby a théefe that lyued and made his art of [...]ighting, shoulde for his purgation fight wyth the true man, which he had robbed: but he beléeued that the Goddes (for then they supposed many) would by myracle assigne victorie to the innocent partie. The priuileges of which first sawe & benefite of the latter, aswell in Scotlande as in Englande, be midyed to this day few cau­ses by late positiue lawes among vs excep­ted, wherein the benefite of wager of bat­ta [...]le is expelled [...] by which obedience to hys [Page] lawes, it doth manifestly appeare, that thys Dunuallo was then seased of Albania nowe called Scotland: This Dunuallo reigned in thys estate ouer them many yeares. Beline & Brenne the sonnes of this Dunuallo, dyd af­ter theyr fathers death, fauourably deuide the land betwéene them: so that Beline had Lo­gres, and Brenne had Albania: but for that this Brenne (a subiect) without the consent of his elder brother and Lord, aduentured to marry with the daughter of the king of Den­marke: Beline seased Albania into his owne handes, and thereuppon caused the notable wayes priuileged by Dunuallons Lawes to be newly wrought by mens handes, which for the length was from the furder part of Cornewall, vnto the the sea by North Cath­nes in Scotland: & for religion in those daies, he cōstituted ministers called Archeflamines in their functions most like the aucthoritie of Bishoppes at this daye, the one of which re­mained at Ebranke now called Yorke, and whose power extēded to ye vttermost bondes of Albany, wherby lykewyse appeareth that it was then within his dominion. After his death the whole Isle was enioyed by the on­lye kings of Britaine, vntill the tyme of Vi­genius and Perydurus lineall heires from the sayde Belyne who fauourably made par­ticion, so that Vigenius had all the land from Humber south, and Perydurus from thence North all Albania. This Vigenius died, and Perydurus suruiued, and thereby obtayned the whole, from whome the same quietly dis­cended, and was by his posteritie according­ly enioyed, vnto the reigne of king Coell, of that name the first. In hys tyme an obscure nation by most writers supposed Scithians, passed by seas from Irelande, and arriued in that part of Britaine called Albania: against, whome this Coell assembled his power, and being entred Albania to expell thē, one Fer­gus in the night disguised, entered the tent of this Coell, and in his bed traiterously slew him. This Fergus was therefore in reward of such vertue made there King, whereupon they sat downe in that part, with their wiues and children, and called it Scotlande, and themselues Scottes: from the beginning of the worlde,After the Scottishe accompt. foure thousande and sixe hundred and seuentéene yeares, which by iust compu­tacion and confession of all their owne wry­ters, is sixe hundred yeares lacking tenne, after that Brutus had reigned ouer ye whole Island, the same land being enioyed by him and his posteritie before their comming, du­ring two and fiftie discentes of the kinges of Britaine. Certes this intrusion into a land so many hundred yeares before inhabited, and by so many discēts of kings quietly enioyed, is the best tytle that all their owne writers alledge for them. This Fergus hereupō im­mediately did deuyde Albania also amōg his Capitaines and their people: whereby it most euidently appeareth that there were no people of that nation inhabiting there before, in proofe wherof, the same particion shall fol­lowe.

The landes of Cathnes lying against Ork­nay, [...] betwéene Dummesbey and the Water of Thane, was giuen vnto one Cornath, a ca­pitaine and his people. The landes betwéene the Water of Thane and Nes, nowe called Rosse, lying in bredth from Cromart to the mouth of the water of Lochte, were giuen to Lutorke, another Capitaine and his people. The landes betwéene Spay and Nes, from the Almaine seas to the Ireland Seas, now called Murray land, were giuē to one War­roche and his people. ‘The lande of Thalia now called Boyn Aynze, Bogewall, Gariot, Formartine, and Bowguhan, were giuen to one Thalis and his people. The landes of Marr Badezenoche, & Lochquhaber, were giuen to Marrache and his people. The lands of Lorne and Kintier, with the hilles & moun­taynes thereof, lying from Mar to the Ire­lande seas, were giuen to Capitaine No­naunce and his people. The landes of Athole were giuen to Atholus, another capitaine & his people.’ The landes of Strabraun, and Brawdawane lying West from Dunkell, were giuen to Creones and Epidithes two Capitaynes. The landes of Argile, were gi­uen to Argathelus a Capitaine. The landes of Linnor & Clidisdale, were allotted to Lol­gona a captaine. The landes of Silu [...]ia now called Kile, Carrike and Cunyngham, were giuen to Silurche another Capitaine. The landes of Brigance nowe called Gallowaie, were giuen to the compaignie called Bri­gandes, which as their best menne, were ap­pointed to dwell next the Britons, who after­warde expulsed the Britons from Aunan­dale in Albany, whereby it is confessed to be before inhabited by Britons. The residue of the lande now called Scotland, that is to say: Meirnis, Angas, Steremōde, Gowry, Stra­hern, Pirth, Fiffe, Striucling, Callendes, Calderwoode, Lougthian, Mers, Teuedale, with other the rement Dales, and the She­rifdome, of Berwicke were then enioyed by a nacion mingeled in marriage wyth Bri­tons, and in their obedience whose capitaine called Berynger, buylded the castle & towne of Berwicke vpon Twede, and these people were called Pictes, vppon whome by the death of this Coell, these Scottes had opor­tunitie [Page 41] to vse warre, wherof they ceased not, vntill such time as it pleased God to appoint an other Coli king of Britōs, agaynst whose name, albeit they hoped for a like victory to ye first, yet he preuayled and ceased not his [...]ar, vntill these Scot [...]es were vtterly expulsed out of all the boundes of Britayne, in which they neuer dared to reenter, vntill the trou­blesome raigne of Scicill kyng of Britones, which was the xij. king after this Coll. Du­ryng all which tyme the countrey was reen­habited by the Britons. But then the Scots turning the ciuill discord of this realme, be­twene this Sycill and his brother Blede to their best auauntage, arriued agayne in Al­bania, & there made one Reuther theyr king.

Vpon this their new arriuall, new warre was made vpon them by this Sicill kyng of Britons, in which warre Reuther their new kyng dyed, and There as succéeded agaynst whom the warre of Britones cea [...]ed not, vn­till he fréely submitted himselfe vnto the said Sicill king of Britones at Ebranke, that is Yorke, where shortly after the tenth yeare of his raigne he dyed. Fynnane brother of Io­sine succeded by their election to the kingdom of Scottes, who shortly after compelled by the warres of the same Sicill, declared hym­selfe subiect, and for the better assuraunce of his fayth and obessaunce to the kyng of Bri­tons, deliuered his sonne Durstus into the handes of this Sicill: who fantes [...]yng ye child and hopyng by his owne succession to alter their subtiltle (I will not say duplicitie) ma­ried hym in the ende to Agasia hys owne daughter.

This Durstus was their next kyng, but for that he had maried a Britton woman, (thoughe she was a kynges daughter) the scots hated hym for the same cause, for which they ought rather to haue liked hym [...]he bet­ter, and therfore not onely traiterously slewe hym: but further to declare the ende of theyr malice, dishenheri [...] as much as in them was, the [...]hes of the same Durstus and A­gasia. Hherupon new warre sprong betwene them and vs, which [...] not vntill they were contented to receyue Edeir to theyr kyng, the [...] in bloud [...] then liuyng, discen­ded from Durstus and Agasia, and thereby the bloud of Britons of the part [...] of the mo­ther, was restored to the crowne of Albania, so that nature whose law is immutable, cau­sed this hand of loue to hold. For shortly af­ter this Edeir attended vpon Castibelane king of Britons, for the repulse of Iulius Cae­sar, as their owne author Boctius confesseth. Who cōmaūded the same as his subiect, but Iulius Caesar after his third arriual by tre [...]son of [...], preuayled against the [...] and thereupon [...] this Eder into scotland, and as [...] mentalies, subdued all the Isle of [...] which, thoughe the liuyng Scottes [...] their head writers confesse that he cause be­yond Callender woode, and call downe Ca­melon, the principall city of Pic [...]tes, and in token of this victory not [...]ere from [...], builded a round Temple [...], which re­mayned in some perfection vnto the raign of our king Edwarde called the first after the Conquest, by whome it was [...], but the monumēt therof remayneth to thys [...].

Marius the son of Ar [...]ragus, being king of all Britaine, in his tyme one Rodericke a Scythian, with a great [...]rable of needy souldi­ours, came to the water of Frithe in Scot­land, which is an arme of the sea, deuidyng Pentland from Fiffe, against whome thys Marius assembled a power, by whiche he slew this Rodericke, and discomfited his peo­ple in Westmerland: but to those that remai­ned in lyfe, he gaue the countrey of Cathenes in Scotlande, which prooueth it to be within hys owne dominion.

Coill the sonne of this Marius, had [...] Lucius, counted the first christiā king of this nacion▪ he conue [...]ed the thrée [...] of this land into Bishoprikes, and ordeyned bishops vnto eche of them: the first remained at London, and his power extended from the farthest part of Cornewall, to Humber wa­ter, the second remayned at Yorke, and hys power stretched from Humber to ye farthest part of all Scotland. The third remayned at Caerles vpō the riuer of Wiske in Glamor­gan in Wales, and his power extended frō Seuerne thorough all Wales. Some write that he made but two, & turned their names to Archbishops, the one to remayne at Can­terbury, the other at Yorke: yet they confesse that [...] of Yorke had iurisdiction through all Scotland, eyther of which is sufficient to proue scotlād to be then vnder his dominion.

Seuerus by birth & Romaine, but in bloud a Briton, and the lineall heire of the body of Androgius, son of Lu [...], and Nephwe of Cas­sibelaine, was shortly after Emperour and king of Britons, in whose tyme the people to whom his auncester Marius gaue the land of Cathenes in Scotland, conspired wyth the Scottes and receyued them from the Isles into Scotland. But hereupon this Seuerus came into Scotland, and méetyng with their fayth and false hartes together, droue them all out of the mayne lande into Isles, the vt­termost bondes of all great Britayne. But notwithstanding this glorious victory, the [Page] Britons considering their seruitude to the Romaines, imposed by treason of Androge­us, auncester to this Seuerus began to hate hym, whome yet they had no tyme to loue, & who in their defence and suretie, had slayne of the Scottes and their confederates in one battaile xxx. thousandes: but such was the cō ­sideration of the common sort in those dayes, whose malice no tyme could deminishe, nor iust desert appease.

Antoninus Bassianus born of a Britō womā, and Geta borne by a Romayn woman, were the sonnes of this Seuerus, who after the death of their father, by the contrary voyces of their people, contended for the crown. Few Britones helde with Bassianus, fewer Ro­maynes with Geta: but the greater number with neither of both. In the ende Geta was slayne, and Bassianus remayned Emperor, against whom Carausius rebelled, who gaue vnto the Scottes, Pichtes, and Scithians, the countrey of Cathenes in Scotland, which they after inhabited, wherby appeareth hys seison thereof.

Coill discended of the bloude of auncient kinges of this land, was shortly after kyng of the Britons, whose onely daughter & heire called Helene, was maried vnto Constanti­us a Romaine, who daunted the rebellion of all partes of great Britayne, and after the death of this Coil, was in ye right of his wife kyng thereof, and raigned in his state ouer them 13. or 14. yeares.

Constantine the sonne of thys Constance, and Helen, was next King of Britons by the ryght of hys mother, who passing to Rome, to receyue the Empyre thereof, deputed one Octauius king of Wales & Duke of the Gwis­ses, (which some expounde to be afterwarde called west Saxons) to haue the gouernemēt of thys dominion. But abusing the kinges innocent goodnesse, thys Octauius defrau­ded thys truste, and tooke vppon himselfe the Crowne, for which traytorys albeit he was once vanquished by Leonine Traheron, vncle to Constantine: yet after the death of thys Traheron, he preuayled agayne and reigned ouer all Briteygne. Constantine beyng nowe Emperour, sent to Maximius his kinseman hether to destroy the same Oc­tauius, whom in singular battail discomfited Octauius, whereupon thys Maximius, aswel by the consent of great Constātine, as by the election of all the Brytons, for that he was a Bryton in bloude, was made King of Bryteigne. This Maximius made war vpon the Scottes and Scythians wythin al Bry­teygne, and cea [...]ed not vntill he had slayne Eugenius theyr King, & expulsed and dryuen them out of the whole bounds of Briteygne. Finally he inhabited al Scotland with Bri­tons, no man, woman nor child of the Scot­tish natiō, suffred to remain within [...]t, which as theyr Hector Boetius saith, was for theyr rebellion, & rebelliō properly could it not be; except they had béene subiectes. He suffered the Pichtes also to remaine his subiects, who made solemne othes to hym after, neuer to erect any peculiar King of theyr owne natiō, but to remaine vnder the olde Empyre, of the onely kyng of Brytons.

About xlv. yeres after this (beyng long time after the death of this Maximius) wyth the helpe of Gonnan or Gonan and Melga, the Scottes newly arriued in Albania, and there created one Fergus the second of that name to be their kyng. But because they were be­fore banished the continent land, they crow­ned him kyng of their auenture in Argile, in the fatall chaire of Marble, the yeare of our Lord, CCCC.xxij. as they write.

Maximian sonne of Leonine Traheron, brother to kyng Coil, and vncle to Helene, was by line all succession next kyng of Bri­tons. But to appease ye malice of Dionothus king of Wales, who also claimed ye kingdō, he maried Othilia eldest daughter of Diono­thus, and afterward assembled a great pow­er of Britons, and entered Albania, inuading Galloway, Mers, Annandale, Pentlande, Carrike, Kyll, and Cuningham, and in bat­taile slew both this Fergus then kyng of Scottes, and Dursius the king of Pichtes, & exiled all their people, out of the continent land: wherupon the few number of Scottes then remainyng on her, went to Argila, and made Eugenius their kyng.

When this Maximian had thus obteyned quietnes in Britain, he departed wt hys cosin Conā Meridocke into Armerica, where they subdued the kyng [...] and depopulated the countrey, which he gaue to Conan his cosin, to be afterward inh [...]bited by Britons by the name of Britayne the lesse: and hereof this realme tooke name of Britayne the greate, which name by consent of forreine writers, in kepeth vnto this day.

After the death of Maximian, dissenti­on beyng betwene the nobles of great Bri­tayne, the Scottes swarmed together again, and came to the wall of Adrian, where thys realme being deuided in many factions, they ouercame one. And hereupon their Hector Boetius, (as an henne that for laying of one egge, will make a great cakelyng) solemnly triumphing of a conquest before the victory, alleageth that herebye the Britons were made tributaries to the Scottes, and yet he [Page 42] confesseth that they wonne no more land, by that supposed conquest, but the same porcion betwene them and Humber, which in the old partitions before, was annexed to Albania. It is hard to be beleued, that such a broken nacion as the Scottes at that tyme were re­turning from banishment within foure yeres before, and since in battaile losing both theyr kinges, and the great number of theyr best men, to be thus able to make a conquest of great Britayne, & very vnlikely if they had cōquered it, they woulde haue left the whote sunne of the East partes, to dwell in the cold snow of Scotlād. Incredible it is, that if they had cōquered it, they would not haue deputed officers in it, as in cases of conquest behoo­ueth. And it is beyonde all beliefe, that great Britayne or any other countrey, shoulde be woon without the comming of any enimy in­to it, as they did not, but taried at the same wall of Adrian. But what néede I speake of these defences, when the same Boetius scant­ly trusteth his owne beliefe in this tale. For he sayeth that Galfride and sundry other au­tentike writers, diuerslye vary frō this part of his story, wherein his owne thought accu­seth his conscience of vntruth: Herein also, he further forgetting how it behooueth a lyer to be myndefull of his assertion in the fourth chapiter next followyng, wholly bewrayeth hymselfe, saying that the confederate kinges of Scottes and Pictes, vpon ciuill warres betwene the Britons which then was folow­yng, hoped shortly to enioy all the lande of great Britayne, from beyond Humber vnto the fresh sea, which hope had bene vayne, and not lesse then voyde, if it had bene their owne by any conquest before.

Constantine of little Britayne, descended from Conan king thereof, cosine of Brutes bloud to thys Maximian, & his nerest heyre was next king of Britayne, he immediately pursued the Scots with warres, & shortly in battaile slue their kyng Dongard, in the first yeare of his raygne, whereby he recouered Scotlande out of their handes, and tooke all the holdes thereof into hys owne custody.

Vortiger shortly after obteined the crowne of Britayne, against whome the Scottes newly rebelled: for ye repressing wherof (mis­trusting the Britons, to hate hym for sundry causes, as one that to auoyd the smoke, doth oft fall into ye fire) receyued Hengest a Saxō, and a greate number of his coūtrimen, with whom & a few Britons, he entered scotland and ouercame them, whereupon they tooke the Isles, which are theyr common refuge. He gaue also much of Scotlande, as Gallo­way, Pentland, Mers and Annandale, with sundry other landes to thys Hengest and his people to inhabite, which they did according­lye. But when thys Hengest in processe of tyme, thirsted after the whole Kingdome, he was banished, and yet afterwarde beyng re­stored, he conspired with the scottes against Aurilambrose the sonne of Constantine, the iust inheritour of this whole dominion. But his vntruth and theirs both were recompen­sed togither, for hée was taken prisoner by Eldulph de Samor a noble man of Bry­teyne, and his heade for his traitory,Some thinke the Seymors to come from this man by li­neal discēt. striken of at the cōmandement of Aurilambros. In the fielde the scottes were vanquished: but Octa the sonne of Hengest was receiued to mercye, to whome and his people this Auril­ambrose gaue the countrye of Galloway in scotlande, for which they became his Sub­iectes: And hereby appeareth that Scotland was then againe in his handes.

Vter called also Pendragon, brother to Aurilambros was next king of ye Britons, a­gaynst whome, these sworne Saxons newe foresworne subiectes (confederate wyth the Scottes) newely rebelled: but by his power assembled against thē in Galloway in Scot­lande, they were discomfited, and Albania a­gaine recouered into his handes.

Arthur the sonne of this Vter begotten be­fore the marriage, but lawfully borne, in ma­trimony succéeded next to ye crowne of great Britayne, whose noble actes, though manye vulgare fables haue rather steigned, then commended: yet al the scottish writers con­fesse, that he subdued great Britayne, & made it tributary to him, & ouercame the Saxons then scattered as farre as Cathenes in scot­land: and in all these warres against them, he had the seruice and obeysance of scottes and Pictes. But at the last settyng their féete in the guilfull paths of their predecessours, they rebelled, & besieged the city of Yorke, Howel king of the lesse Britayne, cosin to king Ar­thur, being therin. But he with an hoste came thither and dyscomfited the Scottes, cha­sed them into a marshe, and besieged them there so lōg, that they were almost famished: vntyll the bishoppes, Abbotes, and men of religion (for as much as they were christened people) besought hym to take thē to his mer­cy and grace, and to graunt them a portion of the same countrey to dwell in vnder euer­lasting subiection. Vppon this he tooke them to hys grace, homage and fealtle: and when they were sworne hys subiectes and liegemē: he ordeyned his kinsmā Anguisan to be their king & gouernor, Vrian king of Islād, & Mu­refrēce king of Orkney. He made an Archbi­shoppe of Yorke also, whose authoritie exten­ded [Page] through all Scotland.

Finally, the said kyng Arthur holding his royall feast at Cairleon, had there all ye kings that were subiectes vnto hym, among the which, Angusian the sayd king of Scots did his due seruice for the realme of Scotlande, and bare kyng Arthurs sworde afore hym.

Malgo shortly after succéeded in the whole kingdō of great Britaine, who vpon new re­sistaunce, newly subdued Ireland, Islande, the Orchads, Norway & Denmarke, & made Ethelfrede a Saxon king of Bernicia, that is, Northumberland, Louthian, and much o­ther land of Scotland, which Ethelfrede by the sword obteyned at the handes of the wil­full inhabitantes, and continued true subiect to this Malgo.

Cadwan succéeded in the kingdom of great Britayne, who in defence of his subiectes the scottes, made warre vppon this Ethelfrede, but at the last they agréed, and Cadwan vpō their rebellion gaue all Scotland vnto this Ethelfrede, which he therupon subdued and enioyed: but afterward in the raigne of Cad­wallo that next succéeded in great Britaine, he rebelled, whereupon the same Cadwallo came into Scotland, and vpon his treason reseized the country into his owne handes, and hauyng with hym all the Viceroyes of Saxōs which then inhabited here as hys sub­iectes, in singuler battaile slew the same E­thelfrede.

Oswald was shortly after by Cadwallōs gift made kyng of Bernicia, and he as sub­iect to Cadwallo, and by his commaundemēt discomfited the Scottes and Pictes, and sub­dued all Scotland. Oswy the brother of thys Oswald, was by the lyke gift of Cadwallo, made next kyng of Bernicia, and he by lyke commaundement newely subdued the scots and Pictes, and held them in that obeysaunce to this Cadwallo, during xxviij. yeres. Thus Cadwallo reigned in the whole monarchy of great Britayne, hauing all the vij. kynges therof, as well Saxōs as others his subiects: for albeit the number of Saxons from tyme to tyme greatly increased, yet were they al­wayes either at the first expelled, or els made tributary to the onely kinges of Britons for the tyme being, as all their owne writers confesse.

Cadwallader was next kyng of the whole great Britayne, he raigned xij. yeres ouer al the kinges thereof, in great peace and tran­quillitie: & then vpon the lamentable death of hys subiectes, which dyed of sundry diseases innumerably, he departed into litle Britaine. His sonne and cosin Iuor and Iue, being ex­pulsed out of england also by the Saxones, went into Wales, where among the Britōs they and their posteritie remayned Princes. Vpon this great alteracion, & warres being through the whole dominion betwene Bri­tons and Saxons; the Scottes thought tyme to slip the coller of obedience, and thereupon entred in league with Charles then kyng of Fraunce establishing it, in this wyse.

1. The iniury of Englishmen done to any of these people, shall be perpetually holden common to both.

2. When Frenchmen be inuaded by En­glishmen, the Scottes shall send their army in defence of Fraunce, so that they be sup­ported with mony and victuals of Fraunce.

3. When Scottes be inuaded by English­men, the Frenchmen shall come vpon theyr owne expences, to their support.

4. None of these people shall take peace or truce with Englishmen, without the aduise of other. &c.

Many disputable opinions may be had of warre, without the praysing of it,Nic [...] Ada [...] as onely admittible by inforced necessitie, and to bée vsed for peace sake onely, where here ye Scots sought warre for the loue of warre only. For their league giueth no benefite to thēselues, either in frée trafique of their owne commo­dities, or benefite of the French, or other pri­uiledge to the people of both: what discōmo­ditie riseth by loosing the entercourse and ex­chāge of our cōmodities (being in necessaries more aboundant then Fraunce,) ye scots féele and we perfectly know. What ruine of theyr townes, destruction of countries, slaughter of both peoples, haue by reason of this bloudy league chaunced, the histories be lamenta­ble to reade, & horrible among christian men to be remembred: but God gaue the increase accordyng to their séede, for as they did here­by sowe dissention, so did they shortly after reape a bloudy slaughter. For Alpine theyr kyng possessing a light mynde that would be lost with a little wynde, hoped by this league shortly to subdue all great Britayne, and to that ende not onely rebelled in his own king­dome, but also vsurped vpon the kingdome of Pictes, wherupon Edwine king of england, made one Brudeus king of Pictes, whom he sent into Scotlād with a great power, where in battail he tooke this Alpine king of Scots prisoner, and discomfited his people: and this Alpine beyng their king found subiect and re­bell, his hed was strikē of at a place in Scot­land, which thereof is to this day called Pa­salpine, that is to say, the hed of Alpine. And this was the first effecte of theyr Frenche league.

Osbright king of england, with Ella hys [Page 43] subiect, and a great number of Britons and Saxons shortly after, for that the Scots ha [...] of thēselues elected a new king, entred Scot­land, and ceassed not his warre against them, vntil their king and people fled into the Iles, with whom at the last vpon their submission, peace was made in this wyse.

‘The water of Frith shalbe March betwene Scots and englishmē in the east partes, and shalbe named the scottish sea.’

‘The water of Cluide to Dunbriton, shal be March in the west partes betwene the Scots and Britones. This castle was before called Alcluide and now Dunbriton, that is to say, the castle of Britons.’ So the Britons had all the landes frō Sterlyng to the Ireland seas, and from the water of Frithe and Cluide, to Cumber, with all ye strengthes and commo­dities therof, and the englishmen had ye lands betwéene Sterlyng and Northumberlande. Thus was Cluide March, betwene scots and Britones on the one side, and the water of Frithe named the Scottish sea, Marche be­twene them and englishmē on the other side, and Sterlyng common March to thrée peo­ple, Britons, Englishmen, and Scottes, and king Osbright had the Castle of Sterlyng, where first he caused to be coyned Sterlyng mony. The English mē also builded a bridge of stone, for passage ouer the water of Frith, in the middes wherof they made a crosse, vn­der which were written these verses.

I am free March, as passengers may ken,
To Scottes, to Britons, and to Englishmen.

Not many yeres after this, Hinguar & Hub­ba, two Danes, with a great number of peo­ple, arriued in Scotland, and slew Constan­tine, whom Osbright had before made kyng [...] whereupon Edulfe or Ethelwulfe then kyng of englād, assembled his power against Hin­guar and Hubba, & in one battaile slue them both, but such of their people as woulde re­mayne and become christians, he suffered to tary, the rest he banished or put to death. &c.

[...]ome.This Ethelwulf graunted the Peter pē [...], of which albeit Peter and Paule had lit [...] néede and lesse right: yet the payment therof continued in this realm euer after vntil now of late yeres, but the Scottes euer since vnto this day, haue, and yet do pay it, by reason of that graunt, which proueth them to be then vnder his obeysaunce.

Alurede or Alfrede succéeded in the kyng­dome of England, and reigned nobly ouer the whole monarchie of great Britayne: He made lawes, that persons excommunicated should be disabled to sue or clayme any pro­pertie, which law Gregour whom this Alu­rede had made king of Scottes obeyed, and the same law as well in Scotland as in En­gland is holden to this day, which also pro­ueth hym to be high lord of Scotland.

Thys Alurede constreyned Gregour king of Scots also, to breake the league with Fraunce, for generally he concluded wyth hym, and serued hym in all his warres, as well agaynst Danes as others, not reseruing or making any exceptiō of the former league with Fraunce.

The sayd Alurede, after the death of Gre­gour, had the lyke seruice and obeysaunce of Donald king of Scottes wyth fiue thousand horsemen, against one Gurmonde a Dane that then infested the realme, and this Do­nald dyed in this faith and obeisaunce wyth Alurede.

Edward the first of that name called Chifod sonne of this Alurede succéeded next kyng of englād, against whom Sithrijc a Dane & the Scottes conspired: but they were subdued, and Constantine their kyng brought to obei­sance. He held the realme of scotland also of kyng Edwarde, and thys doth Marian their owne country man a Scotte confesse: beside Roger Houeden, & Williā of Malmesbury.

In the yere of our Lord 923. the same king Edward was President and gouernor of all the people of England, Cumberland, Scots, Danes and Britones.

King Athelstane in like sort cōquered scot­land, and as he lay in his tentes beside Yorke whylest the warres lasted, the king of Scots fayned hymselfe to be a minstrel, and har­ped before him onely to espy his ordinaunce & his people. But beyng as their writers con­fesse, corrupted with money, he sold his fayth & false hart together to the Danes, and ay­ded them against king Athelstane at sondry times. Howbeit he met wtall their vntruthes at Bre [...]gfield in the west countrey, as is mentioned in the 9. chapter of the first booke of thys description, where hée discomfited the Danes, and slew Malcolme deputie in that behalfe to the king of Scottes: in which battaile, the Scottes confesse themselues to haue lost more people then were remembred in any age before. Then Athelstane folowing hys good lucke, went throughout all scotland and wholy subdued it, and being in possession therof, gaue land there lying in Annādale by his déede, the copy wherof doth followe.

I kyng Athelstane, giues vnto Paulan, Od­dam and Roddam, als good and als faire, as e­uer they mine were, and therto witnes Mauld my wyfe.

By which course wordes, not onely appea­reth ye plaine simplicitie of mens doinges in those dayes: but also a ful proofe that he was [Page] then seized of Scotlande.

At the last also he receyued homage of Mal­colme king of Scottes, but for that he coulde not be restored to his whole kingdome, he en­tered into Religion, and there shortely after dyed.

Then Athelstane for his better assuraunce of that countrey there after, thought it best to haue two stringes to the bowe of their obe­dience, and therefore not onelye constituted one Malcolme to be their king, but also ap­pointed one Indulph, sonne of Constantine the thirde, to be called prince of Scotlande, to whome he gaue much of Scotlande: and for this, Malcolme did homage to Athelstane.

Edmund brother of Athelstane succéeded next king of Englande to whome this In­dulph then kyng of Scottes not only dyd ho­mage, but also serued him wyth ten thousand Scottes, for the expulsion of the Danes out of the realme of Englande.

Edred or Eldred, brother to thys Edmund succéeded next king of Englande,Some re­ferre this to an Ed­ward. he not one­lye receyued the homage of Irise then kyng of Scottes, but also the homage of all the Barons of Scotlande.

Edgar the sonne of Edmund, brother of A­thelstane being nowe of full age, was next kyng of England the reigned onely ouer the whole Monarchie of great Britaine, and re­ceyued homage of Keneth king of Scots for the kingdome of Scotlande, and made Mal­colme prince thereof.

Thys Edgar gaue vnto the same Keneth the countrey of Louthian in Scotland, which was before seized into the hands of Osbright king of England for their rebellion, as is be­fore declared. He enioined this Keneth their king also once in euery yere at certaine prin­cipall feastes (whereat the king dyd vse to weare his crowne) to repaire vnto him into Englande for the making of lawes, which in those daies was done by ye noble mē or peres according to the order of France at this day, To thich end he allowed also sundry lodgings in England, to him & his successours, wher­at to lye & refreshe themselues in their tour­neyes, and finally a péece of ground lying be­side the newe palace of Westminster, vppon which this Keneth buylded a house, that by him and his posteritie was enioyed vntill the reigne of King Henry the seconde, in whose tyme vpon the rebelliō of William thē king of Scottes, it was resumed into the king of Englands handes. The house is decayed, but the grounde where it stoode is called Scot­lande to this day.

Moreouer Edgar made this lawe, that no man shoulde succéede to his patrimonie or in­heritaunce holden by knightes seruice, vntill he accomplished the age of one and twentie yeares, bycause by intendement vnder that age, he shoulde not be able in person to serue hys king and countrey according to the te­nour of his déede and the cōdition of his pur­chase. ‘This lawe was receyued by the same Keneth in Scotlande, and aswell there as in Englande is obserued to this day, which proo­ueth also that Scotlande was then vnder hys obeysaunce.’

‘In the yeare of our Lorde 1974. Kinalde king of Scottes, & Malcolin king of Cum­breland, Macon king of Man, and the Isles, Duuenall bing of southwales, Siferth and Howell kings of the rest of wales, Iacob or Iames of Galloway, and Iukill of westmer­lande, did homage to king Edgar at Chester.’ And on the morow going by water to ye mo­nastery of s. Iohns to seruice and returning home againe, ye said Edgar sitting in a barge & stiering the same vpon the water of Dée, made the sayd kings to rowe ye barge, saying that his successors might well be ioyefull to haue the prerogatiue of so great honour, and the superiority of so many mightie princes to be subiect vnto their monarchie.

Edward the sonne of this Edgar was next king of Englande, in whose tyme this Ke­neth kyng of Scots caused Malcolme prince of Scotlande to be poysoned, wherupon king Edwarde made warre agaynst him, which ceassed not vntill this Keneth submitted him­selfe, and offered to receyue him for prince of Scotlande whome king Edward woulde ap­point: herevpon Edwarde proclaymed one Malcolme to be prince of Scotlande, who immediately came into Englande and there dyd homage vnto the same King Edwarde.

Etheldred brother of thys Edwarde suc­céeded next ouer Englande, against whome Swayn kyng of Denmarke conspired with this last Malcolme then king of Scots: But shortly after this Malcolme sorowfully sub­mitted himself into the defence of Etheldred, who considering how that which coulde [...] be amended must only be repented, benigne­lye receyued him, by helpe of whose seruice at last Etheldred recouered hys realme a­gaine out of the handes of Swayn, and reig­ned ouer the whole Monarchy eyght & thirtie yeares.

Edmund surnamed Ironside sonne of this Etheldred was next king England, in whose tyme Canutus a Dane inuaded the realme with much crueltie, but at last he marryed wt Emme sometime wyfe vnto Etheldred and mother of this Edmund: which Emme as arbitratrix betwéene hir naturall loue to the [Page 44] one and [...] procured such [...] them in the ende, that [...] the realme with Canutus, & kéeping to him­selfe all [...] all the r [...] [...] Humber with the seig­norie of Scotlande to this Canutus▪ wher­vpon Malcolme then king of Scottes after a little customable resist [...]nce & dyd homage to the same Canutus for kingdome of Scotlād, and thus the sayde. Canutus helde the same ouer of this Edmond king of Englande by the lyke seruices.

This Canutus in memorie of his victorie and glorie of his seignorie ouer the Scottes, commaunded this. Malcolme their king, to buylde a Church in B [...]h [...]ha [...] in Scotland (where a fielde betwéene him and them wa [...] fought) to be dedicate to Ol [...]u [...] patrone of Norway and Denmark, which Church was by the same Malcolme accordingly perfour­med.

Edwarde called the confessour sonne of Etheldred and brother to Edmond Ironside was afterward king of england. He toke frō Malcolme king of Scottes his lyfe and hys kingdome, and made Malcolme sonne to the king of Cumbrelande and Northumbreland [...] king of Scottes, who dyd him h [...]age; and fealtie.

Thys Edwarde perused the olde lawes of the realme, and somewhat added to some of them, as to the lawe of Edgar for the ward­shippe of the landes vntyll the heirs shoulde accomplishe the age of one & twentie yeares, he added that the marryage of such heire, shoulde also belong to the Lorde of whom the same lande was holden.

Also that euery woman marrying a frée man, shoulde notwithstanding she had no children by that husbande, enioye the thirde part of his inheritaunce during hir lyfe, with many other lawes which the same Malcolme king of Scottes obeyed. And which aswel by them in Scotlande as by vs in Englande be obserued to this day, and directly prooueth the whole to be then vnder his obeysaunce.

By reason of this law Malcolme the sonne of Duncane next inheritour to the crowne of Scotlande being within age, was by the nobles of Scotlande deliuered as warde to the custome of this king Edwarde, during whose minoritie one Makebeth a Scot tray­terously vsurped the crowne of Scotland, a­gainst whom this king Edward made warre in which the said Makebeth was ouercome and slayne, whervpon ye said Malcolme was crowned king of Scottes at Stone, in the viij. yere of the reigne of this king Edward.

Thys Malcolme by [...] of the sayde n [...] [...] of wardship was marryed vnto Margar [...] the daughter of Edward, sonne of Edmond. Ironside and Agatha, by the dispo­sition of the same king Edward, and at his ful age dyd homage to this king Edward for this kingdome of Scotland.

Moreouer Edwarde of Englande; hauing [...] of his body, and mistrusting that Ma­relde the sonne of [...] of the daughter of Harolde H [...]efoote [...] worlde [...] the ra [...]ne, if he should [...] it to his cosin Edgar Ed [...]g (being thē with­in age) and [...] by the peticion of his [...] [...]ctes, [...] [...]ho before had [...]rne neuer to re­ceiue [...] writing as all [...] clergy writers affirme, [...] the crowd of great Britaine vnto William their duke of Normandie and to his heires, constituting h [...] his heire testamentarie. Also there was proximite [...] in bloude betwéene thē for Emme daughter of Richarde duke of Normandye was wife vnto Etheldred, [...] whom he begat A [...]red and able Edward [...] and this William was sonne of Robert, sonne of Richarde, bro­ther of the whole bloud to in the same E [...]e: whereby appeareth that this William was Heire by tytle and not by [...], albeit that partly to extinguish the mistrust of other ty­tles and partely for the glory of hys [...], he chalenged in the ende; the name of a [...] & hath bene so written euer fith [...]s his a [...]ri [...]ll.

This king William called the conquerour supposed not his conquest perfite, tyll he had lykewyse subdued ye Scots, wherfore to bring the Scottes to iust obeysaunce after hys Co­ronation as heire testamentary to Edward the Co [...]fessour, he entred Scotland, where after a litle resistance made by the Scottes, the sayde Malcolme then their king did ho­mage to hym at Abir [...]ethy in Scotlande for the kingdome of Scotlande, as to hys supe­riour also by means of conquest.

Willyam surnamed Wi [...]us sonne of thys William called the conquerour, succéeded next to the crowne of England, to whom the sayde Malcolme king of Scottes dyd like ho­mage for the kingdom of Scotland. But af­terwarde he rebelled and was by this Wil­liam Rufus slayne in the fielde, where vpon the Scottishmen dyd chose one Donald or Dunwal to be theyr kyng. But this Williā Rufus deposed hym and created Dunkane sonne of Malcolme to be theyr king, who dyd like homage to him: finally this Duncā was slayne by the Scottes & Dunwall restored, who once agayne by this Wylliam Rufus [Page] was deposed, and Edgar sonne of Malcolme & brother to the last Malcolme, was by him made theyr king, who dyd lyke homage for Scotlande to this William Rufus.

Henry called Beauclerke the son of Wil­liam, called the conquerour, after the death of his brother William Rufus, succéeded to the crowne of England, to whome the same Edgar kyng of Scottes dyd homage for Scotland. This Henry Beauclerke married Mawde the daughter of Malcolme king of Scottes, and by hir had issue Mawde after­warde empresse. Alexandre the sonne of Mal­colme brother to this Mawde, was next king of Scottes, he dyd lyke homage for the king­dome of Scotlande to this Henry the first.

Mawde called the empresse daughter and heire to this Henry Beauclerke and Mawde hys wyfe, receiued homage of Dauid bro­ther to hir and to this Alexandre next king of Scottes, before all the temporall men of En­glande for the kyngdome of Scotlande.

Thys Mawde the empresse gaue vnto Dauid in the marriage, Mawd the daughter and heire of Voldosius earle of Huntingdon & Northumberlande. And herein their euasion appeareth, by which they allege that their kinges homages were made for the earle­dome of Huntingdon: for this Dauid was ye first that of their kinges was Earle of Hun­tingdon, which was since all the homages of their kinges before recited, and at the time of thys marryage, and long after the sayde A­lexander his brother was king of Scots: do­ing the homage aforesayde to Henry Bew­clerke.

In the yeare of our Lorde 1136. and firste yeare of the reigne of king Stephen, the said Dauid king of Scottes, being required to doe his homage refused it, for as much as he had done homage to Mawde the empresse be­fore tyme, notwithstanding the sonne of the sayde Dauid dyd homage to king Stephane.

Henry called Fitz emprice, the son of Mawd the emprice daughter of Mawde, daughter of Malcolme king of Scottes, was next king of England. He receyued homage for Scotland of Malcolme, sonne of Henry, sonne of the sayd Dauyd their last king, which Malcolme after thys homage, attended vpon the same kyng Henry in his warres agaynst Lewys then king of Fraunce: whereby appeareth that their Frenche league was neuer renued after the last diuisiō of their countrey by Os­bright king of Englande. But after these warres finished with the Frenche king, this Malcolme being againe in Scotlande rebel­led: wherevppon, king Henry immediate­lye seized Huntingdon, and Northumber­land into hys owne h [...]es by [...] made warres vpon him in Scotland, [...] which the same Malcolme dyed without [...] of hys bodie.

William brother of thys Malcolme [...] next kyng of Scottes, he wyth all the nobled of Scotland, (which could not be now for [...] earledome) did homage to the sonne of thys king Henry the second, wyth a reseruat [...] of the duetie to king Henry the seconde, hys father: also the earledome of Huntingd [...] was as ye haue hearde before thys, forfaited by Malcolme his brother, and neuer after r [...] stored to the crowne of Scotlande.

Thys William king of Scottes, did afterwarde attend vpon the same king Henry the seconde in his warres in Normandie again [...] the Frenche kyng, notwithstanding theyr Frenche league, and then dyd him homage for Scotlande, and thereupon was licensed to depart home in Scotlande, where imme­diately he mooued cruell warre in Northum­berlande against the same king Henry being yet in Normandy. But God tooke the defence of king Henries parte, and deliuered the same William kyng of Scottes into the handes of a fewe Englishmen, who brought him prisoner to kyng Henry into Norman­die, in the tenth yeare of hys reigne. But at the last at the suite of Dauid his brother, Ri­charde Bishop of s. Andrewes and other Bi­shoppes and Lordes, he was put to this fine for the amendement of his trespasse, to paye tenne thousande pounde sterling, and to sur­render all hys lytle of the earledome of Hun­tingdō, Cumberland, and Northumberland, into the handes of thys kyng Henry: which he did in all thinges accordingly, sealing hys charters therof with the great seale of Scot­lande and signettes of hys nobilitie, where in it was also comprised that hée and his suc­cessours, should hold the realme of Scotland of the king of Englande and his successours for euer. And herevpon he once again dyd ho­mage to the same king Henry, which nowe coulde not be for the earledome of Hunting­don, the ryght wherof was alrealdie by hym surrēdred. And for the better assurāce of this faith also, the strengthes of Berwick, Eden­brough, Roxbrough and Striueling were de­liuered into the handes of our king Henry of Englande which their owne writers con­fesse: but Hector Boetius saieth that this tres­passe was amended by fine of twentie thou­sande poundes sterling, & that the earledome of Huntingdon, Cumberland, and Northum­berlande were deliuered as Morgage into the handes of king Henry vntill other tenne thousande poundes sterling shoulde be to him [Page 45] payd, but though the [...], yet [...] he not she that money [...] payde, not the lande otherwise redéemed, or euer [...] to any Scottishe kinges handes. A [...] [...] appeareth that the earledome of Hunting [...] was neuer occasion of the homages of the Scottishe kinges to the kinges of Englande eyther before this tyme or after.

This was done 1175. Moreouer I red this note hereof gathered out of Robertus Mon­tanus that liued in these, and was as I take it cōfessor to king Henry. The king of Scots doth homage to king Henry for ye kingdome of Scotlande and is sent home againe, hys Bishops also did promise to doe the lyke, to the Archebishoppe of Yorke, and to acknow­ledge themselues to be of his prouince & iuris­dictiō. By vertue also of this composition the sayde Robert sayth, that Rex Angliae dabat honores, Episcopatus, Abbatias & alias digni­tates in Scotia, vel saltem eius consilio daban­tur, that is, the king of England gaue, Ho­nors, Bishopricks, Abbateships, & other dig­nities in Scotland, or at the leastwyse they were not giuen without his aduise and coun­sell.

At this tyme Alexander bishop of Rome (supposed to haue general iurisdiction eccle­siasticall thorough Christendome) conferred the whole clergy of Scotland, accordyng to the olde lawes, vnder the iurisdiction of the Archbishop of Yorke.

In the yeare of our Lord 1185. in the month of August at Cairleil. Roulande Talnante lord of Galway, did homage and fealty to the said king Henry with all that held of hym.

In the 22. yeare of the raigne of king Hen­ry the 2. Gilbert sonne of Ferguse prince of Galway, did homage and fealtie to the sayd king Henry, and left Dunecan his sonne in hostage for conseruation of peace.

Richard surnamed Coeur de Lyon, sonne of this Henry was next king of england, to whō the same William king of Scottes dyd ho­mage at Caunterbury for the kyngdome of Scotland.

This king Richard was taken prisoner by the Duke of Ostrich, for whose redemptiō the whole realme was taxed at great summes of money, vnto the which this William king of Scots (as a subiect) was contributory, and payed two M. markes sterlyng.

In the yere of our Lord 1199. Iohn kyng of england, sent to William king of Scottes to come & do his homage, which William came to Lincolne in the moneth of December the same yeare, and did his homage there vpon an hill in the presence of Hubert, Archbishop of Caunterbury, and of all the people there assemble [...], and there was sworne vpon the crosse of the said Hubert: Also he gr [...]ted by his charter con [...]ed, that he should haue the mariage of Alexander hys [...], as hys liegeman, alwayes to hold of the king of eng­land: promising more [...]er that he the sayde king William & his so [...]e Alexander should kepe and hold faith and allegeance to Henry [...] of the sayd king Iohn, as to their chiefe Lord against all maner of men.

Also where as William king of Scots had put Iohn Bishoppe of s. Andrewe out of his Bishopricke, Pope Clemente wrote to Hen­ry kyng of englande, that he shoulde [...] and indure the same William, and if néede were requyre by hys Royall power com­pell hym to leaue his rancour agaynst ye sayd Bishop and suffer him to haue, and occupye his sayde Bishopricke againe.

In the yeare of our Lorde 1216. and fiue and twenty of ye reign of king Henry, sonne to king Iohn, the same king Henry and the Quéene were at Yorke at ye feast of Christ­masse for the solemnization of a marryage made in the feast of s. Stephane the Martir the same yeare, betwéene Alexander king of Scottes, & Margarete the kings daughter, and there the sayde Alexander dyd homage to Henry king of Englande.

In Buls of diuers Popes were admoniti­ons geuē to the kings of Scottes, that they should obserue & truly kéepe all such appoint­ments, as had ben made betwéene the kings of england and Scotland. And that the kings of Scotland should holde the realme of Scot­lande of the kings of englande vpon payne of curse and interditing.

After the deathe of Alexander kyng of Scottes, Alexander his sonne beyng nyne yeres of age, was by the lawes of Edgar, inwarde to king Henry the 3. and by the nobles of Scotland brought to Yorke, and there de­liuered to him. During whose minoritie king Henry gouerned Scotland, and to subdue a commocion in this realme, vsed the ayde of v.M. Scottishmen, but king Henry dyed du­ring the nonage of this Alexander, whereby he receiued not his homage, which by reason and law was respited vntil his full age of xxj. yeares.

Edward the first after the conquest, sonne of this Henry, was next king of england, im­mediately after whose coronation, Alexāder king of Scottes, being then of ful age did ho­mage to hym for Scotlande at Westmin­ster, swearyng as all the reast did after this maner.

I.D.N. king of Scottes shalbe true and faith­full vnto you Lorde E. by the grace of God [Page] king of England, the noble and superior lord of the kingdome of Scotland, and vnto you I make my fidelitie for the same kingdome, the which I hold and claime to hold of you. And I shall beare you my faith and fidelitie of lyfe and limme, and worldly honour against all mē faithfully I shall knowledge and shall doe you seruice due vnto you of the kingdom of Scot­land aforesayde, as God me so helpe and these holy Euangelies.

This Alexander king of Scottes died, lea­uing one only daughter called Margaret for his heire, who before had maried Hanygo, sonne to Magnus king of Norway, which daughter also shortly after died, leauyng one onely daughter her heire, of the age of two yeares, whose custody and mariage by the lawes of king Edgar, and Edward the con­fessour, belonged to Edward the first: wher­vpon the nobles of Scotland were commaū ­ded by our king Edward to send into Nor­way, to conuey this yong Quéene into Eng­land to him, whom he entended to haue mari­ed to his sōne Edward: and so to haue made a perfite vnion betwéene bothe Realmes. Hereuppon their nobles at that tyme con­sidering the same tranquillitie, that many of them haue sithens refused, stoode not vpon shiftes and delayes of minoritie nor contēpt, but most gladly consented, and therupon sent two noble men of Scotlande into Norway, for hir to be brought to this king Edwarde, but she died before their comming thither, & therefore they required nothing but to enioye the lawful liberties that they had quietly pos­sessed in the last king Alexander his tyme.

After the death of this Margaret, the Scots were destitute of any heire to the crown from this Alexander their last king, at which time this Edwarde discended from the bodye of Mawde daughter of Malcolme sometyme king of Scottes, beyng then in the greatest broile of his warres with Fraunce, mynded not to take the possession of that kingdome in his own right, but was contented to establish Balioll to be king therof, the weake title be­twene him, Bruse, & Hastings, being by the humble peticion of all the realme of Scot­land committed to the determination of this king Edward, wherin by autentique writing they confessed the superioritie of the realme, to remaine in king Edward, sealed with the seales of iiij. Bishops vij. earles, and xij. ba­rons of Scotland, & which shortly after was by the whole assent of ye thrée estates of Scot­land, in their solemne Parliament confessed and enacted accordingly, as most euidently doth appeare.

The Balioll in this wise made kyng of Scotlād did immediately make hys homage and fealty at Newcastle vpon saint Fre [...] day (as [...] likewise all the Lordes of Scot­land,) [...]he one setting his hand to the compo­ [...]ion in writing to king Edward of Eng­land for the kingdom of Scotland: but short­ly after defrauding the benigne goodnesse [...] this king Edward; he rebelled, and did [...] much hurt in englande: Hereupon king Ed­ward inuaded Scotland, sea [...]d into his hād [...] the greater part of the countrey, and tooke all the strengthes thereof, whereuppon Baliol king of Scottes came vnto king Edwarde at Mauntrosse in Scotland with a white [...] in his hand, and there resigned the crown [...] of Scotland, with all his right, title, and inte­rest to the same, into the handes of this kyng Edward, and therfore made his Charter in writyng, dated and sealed the fourth yeare of his raigne. All the nobles and gentlemen of Scotlande also repayred to Barwike, and did homage & fealtie to king Edwarde, there becōmyng his subiectes. For the better assu­rance of whose othes also, king Edward kept all the strengths & holdes of Scotland in his owne handes, and hereupon all their lawes, processe; all iudgement, all giftes of a [...]ices and others, passed vnder the name and auto­ritie of king Edwarde. Lelande touchyng the same rehearsall, writeth thereof in this maner.

In the yere of our lord 1295. the same Iohn king of Scottes, contrary to his faith and al­leageaunce, rebelled against king Edward, and came into england, and burnt and slew without all modesty and mercy. Whereupon king Edwarde with a great hoste went to Newcastle vppon Tine, passed the water of Twéede, and besieged Barwike, and gote it. Also he wan the castell of Dunbar, & there were slaine at this brunt 15700. Scots. Then he procéeded further, and gate the Castle of Rokesborow, and the castle of Edēborough, Striuelin and Gedworth, and his people her­ried all the lande.

In the meane season, ye sayd king Iohn of Scots considering yt he was not of power to wtstand ye said king Edward sent his letters and besought him of treatie and peace, which king Edward benignly graunted, and sent to him againe that he should come to the towne of Brethin, and bring thither the great lords of Scotland wt him. The king of england sēt thither Antony Beke, bishop of Durhā, with his royall power to conclude the saide trea­tice: and there it was agréed that ye said Iohn and all the Scottes should vtterly submitte thēselues to the kings will, & to the end ye said submissiō should be performed accordingly, ye [Page 46] king of Scottes laid his sonne in hostage and pledge. There also he made his letters sealed with the common seale of Scotland, by the which he knowledging his simplenes & great offence done to his lord king Edward of eng­lande, by his full power & frée will, yelded vp all the lande of Scotland, with all the people & homage of the same. Then ye said king Ed­ward went forth to sée the mountaines, and vnderstandyng that all was in quyete and peace, he turned to ye Abbey of Stone of Cha­nons regular, where he tooke the stone called the Regall of Scotland, vpō which the kings of Scotland were wont to sitte, at the time of their coronations for a throne, and sent it to the Abbey of Westminster, commaundyng to make a chaire thereof for the priestes that should sing masse at the high altare: which chaire was made, and standeth yet there at this day.

In the yere of our Lord 1296. the king held his Parliament at Barwike: and there he tooke homage singularly of all the lordes and nobles of Scotland. And for a perpetuall me­mory of the same, they made their letters pa­tentes sealed with their seales, & thē the king of england made William Warreine earle of Surrey and Southsaxe, Lord Warden of Scotland, Hugh of Cressingham treasorer, and William Ormesby iustice of Scotland, and foorthwith sent king Iohn to the tower of London, and Iohn Comyn, and the earle Badenauth, the erle of Bohan & other lordes into england to diuers places on this syde of the Trent.

And after that in the yere of our lord, 1297 at the feast of Christmas, the kyng called be­fore him the sayd Iohn king of Scottes, al­though he had committed hym to warde: and saide that he would burne or destroy their ca­stels, townes & landes, if he were not recom­penced for hys costes & damages sustained in the warres, but king Iohn & the other that were inwarde, aunswered that they had no­thing, sith their liues, their deathes, and goods were in his handes. The king vpon that aun­swer mooued with pity, graunted them theyr lyues, so that they would doe their homage & make their othe solemnly at the high altar (in the church of the Abbey of Westminster) vp­pon the Eucharist, that they and euery of thē should holde and kepe true fayth, obedience, and allegiaunce to the said king Edward and his heires kinges of englande for euer. And where the said king of Scots saw the kinges banner of england displayed, he and all hys should draw there vnto. And that neyther he nor any of his from thenceforth should beare armes against the king of england or any of his bloud. Finally, the king rewarding wyth great giftes the sayd king Iohn & his lordes, suffered them to departe. But they went into Scotland alway imagining (notwithstāding this their submissiō) how they might oppresse king Edward and disturbe his realme. The Scottes sent also to the king of Fraunce for succour and helpe, who sent them shippes to Barwike furnished with men of armes, the king of england then beyng in Flaunders.

In the yeare of our lord 1298. the king wēt into Scotland with a great host, and ye Scots also assembled in great number, but the king faught with them at Fawkirke on S. Mary Magdalenes daye, where were slayne lx. M. Scots, and William Walleys that was their captayne fled, who beyng taken after­ward, was hanged, drawen, and quartered at London.

After this the Scottes rebelled agayne, and all ye lordes of Scotland chose Robert Bruis to be king, except only Iohn Cōmyn earle of Carrike, who would not consent thereto be­cause of his othe made to ye king of england. Wherefore Robert Bruis This was done, vpon the 29. of Ian. 1306. slewe hym at Dumfrise, and the same Robert Bruis was crowned at Schone Abbay. Hereupon the king of england assembled a great hoste, and rode thorough all Scotland, and discomfited Robert Bruis, and slue viij. M. Scottes, and tooke the most part of all the lordes of Scot­lande, putting the temporall lordes to death because they were foresworne.

Edward borne at Carnaruan sonne of this Edward, was next king of England, who frō the beginning of his reigne enioyed Scotlād peaceably, dooing in all thinges as is aboue sayde of king Edwarde his father, vntill to­warde the latter ende of his reigne, about which time thys Robert Bruse conspired a­gainst him & with the helpe of a few forsworn Scottes, forswore himselfe king of Scottes. Hereupon this Edward with Thomas earle of Lancaster and many other Lords made warre vpō him about the feast of Mary mag­dalene, the sayde Bruse and hys partakers being already accursed by the Pope for brea­king the truce that he had established betwixt thē ▪ But being infortunate in his first warres against him, he suffered Edwarde the sonne Baliol to proclaime himself king of Scottes, and neuerthelesse héelde forth his warres a­gaynst Bruse, before the ending of which he dyed, as I reade.

Edwarde borne at Windsore sonne of Ed­ward ye second was next king of england at ye age of fiftéene yeares, in whose minoritie the Scots practised with Isabell mother to this Edwarde and wyth Roger Mortymer earle [Page] of the March to haue their homages released, whose good will therin they obtayned, so that for the same release they shoulde pay to thys king Edward thirtie thousand poundes ster­ling in thrée yeares next following, that is to say, tenne thousand pounde sterling yearely. But bicause the nobilitie & commons of this realme woulde not by parliament consent vnto it their king being within age, the same release procéeded not, albeit the Scottes cea­sed not their practises with thys Quéene and Earle. But before those three yeres in which their money (if ye bargaine had taken place) shoulde haue béene payed were exspired, our king Edwarde inuaded Scotlande and cea­sed not the warre vntill Dauid the sonne of Robert le Bruse then by their election king of scotlande absolutelye submytted hymselfe vnto hym. But for that the sayde Dauid Bruse had before by practise of the Quéene and the Earle of Marche, marryed Iane the sister of this king Edward: he mooued by na­turall zeale to his sister, was contented to giue the realme of scotlande to this Dauid Bruse, & to the heires that shoulde be degot­ten of the body of the sayde Iane (sauing the reuersion and meane homages to this king Edwarde and to his owne children) where­with the same Dauid Bruse was right well contented, and therevpon immediately made his homage for scotlande vnto him.

Howbeit shortly after causelesse contey­ning cause of displeasure, this Dauid procu­red to disolue this same estate ta [...]ly, and ther­vpon not onely rebelled in scotlande, but al­so inuaded englande, whylest king Edwarde was occupyed about hys warres in France. But this Dauid was not onely expelled eng­lād in thend, but also thinking no place a suffi­cient defence to his vntrueth, of his owne ac­corde fled out of scotlād: wherby the coūtreis of Annandale, Gallaway, Mars, Teuydale, Twedale, and Ethrike were seased into the king of englandes handes, and new Marches set betwéene englande and scotland at Cock­burnes pathe and Sowtry hedge, which whē this Dauid wēt about to recouer againe, his power was discomfited, and himself by a few englishmen taken and brought into englande where he remayned prysoner eleuen yeres.

Duryng thys tyme, kyng Edwarde en­ioyed Scotlande peaceably, and then at the contemplacion and wery suite of his sorow­full sister wyfe of this Dauid, he was conten­ted once againe to restore him to the king­dome of Scotlande, wherevpon it was con­cluded, that for this rebellion Dauid shoulde paye to king Edward the somme of one hun­dred thousande markes sterling, and thereto destroy all his holdes and fortresses standing agaynst the english borders, & further assure the crowne of scotland to the children of th [...] kyng Edward for lacke of heire of his ow [...] bodye, all which thinges he dyd accordingly. And for the better assurance of his obeisance also, he afterward deliuered into the hāds of king Edward sundry noble men of scotlād in this behalf as his pledges. And this is the ef­fect of the history of Dauid, touching his d [...] ­lings: now let vs sée what was done by Ed­warde Bailioll, whereof our Chronicles doe make report as followeth.

In ye yere of our lord 1326. Edward ye third king of england was crowned at Westmin­ster, and in the 5. yere of his reigne Edward Bailiol right heire to ye kingdome of scotlād came in & claymed it as due to him. Sundry lordes and gentlemen also, which had title to diuers landes there, either by themselues, or by their wiues did ye like, wherupō the sayde Bailiol & they went into scotland by sea, and landing at Kinghorne with 3000. English­men, discomfited 10000. Scottes, and slewe 1200. and thē went forth to Dunfermeline, where the scots assembled against them with 40000. men, and in the feast of s. Laurence, at a place called Gastmore (or otherwyse Gladmore) were slaine v. Erles, xiij. Barōs, a hundred and thrée score knightes, two M. men of armes, and many other, in all xl.M. and there were slaine on the english part but xiij. persons only.

In the eight yere of the raign of kyng Ed­ward, he assembled a great hoste and came to Barwike vpon Twéede, & laid siege thereto To him also came Edward Bailiol king of scots, wt a great power to strength & aide him against the scottes who came out of scotland in foure battailes well armed and arayed.

Edwarde kyng of england, and Edwarde king of scottes, apparelled their people either of them in foure battailes: and vppon H [...] ­lidon hyll, beside Barwike, met these two hostes, and there were discomfited of ye scots, xxv.M. and vij.C. whereof were slayne viij. erles, a thousand and thrée hundred knightes and gentlemen. This victory done, the kyng returned to Barwike, and the towne wyth the castell were yelded vp vnto him.

In the eyght yeare of the reigne of king Edward of englande, Edward Bailiol kyng of scottes came to Newcastell vpon tine and dyd homage.

In the yeare of our Lorde 1346. Dauid Bruys by exhortacion of the king of France rebelled, and came into england with a great hoste vnto Neuilles crosse: But the Archbi­shoppe of Yorke with diuers temporall men, [Page 47] fought wt him and the said king of scots was takē, and William earle Duglas & Morrise earle of Strathorne were brought to Londō, & many other Lords slayne, which wyth Da­uid dyd homage to Edward king of england.

And in the thirtie yere of the kings reigne, and the yeare of our Lorde 1355. the scottes wanne the towne of Barwicke, but not the Castell. Hereupon the king came thither wt a great hoste, and anone the towne was yéel­den without any resistance.

Edwarde Bailiol, considering that God dyd so many marueylous & gracious thinges for kyng Edwarde, at his owne will gaue vp the crowne and the realme of scotland to king Edwarde of england at Rokesborough, by his letters patents.

And anon after the king of england, in pre­sence of all his Lordes spirituall and tempo­rall, let crowne himselfe kyng there of the realme of scotlande, and ordayned all thinges to hys intent, and so came ouer in englande.

Richarde the sonne of Edward, called the blacke prince, sonne of this kyng Edward, was next king of Englande, who for that the sayde Iane, the wyfe of the sayde king Da­uyd of Scotland was d [...]ed without issue, and being enformed how [...] Scottes deuised to their vttermost power to breake the limi­tacion of this inheritance touching ye crowne of scotland, made forthwith war against thē, wherin he brent Edēbrough, spoyled all their countrey, tooke all their holdes, and maintai­ned continually warre against them vnto his death, which was Anno domi. M.CCC.xcix.

Henry the fourth of that name was next kyng of englande, he continued these warres begun against them by king Richard, & ceas­sed not vntyll Robert king of scots (the third of ye name) resigned hys crowne by appoint­ment of this kyng Henry, and deliuered hys sonne Iames beyng then of the age of nyne yeares, into his handes to remayne at his cu­stodie, wardship and disposition, as of his su­periour Lord, according to the olde lawes of king Edwarde the confessour. All this was done Anno dom. M.CCCC.iiij. which was within fiue yeares after the death of kyng Richarde: This Henry the fourth reigned in this state ouer them fouretéene years.

Henry the fift of that name sonne to thys king Henry the fourth was next king of eng­land. He made warres against ye french king, in all which this Iames then king of scottes attended vpon him as vpon his superior lord, with a conuenient number of scots, notwith­standing their league with fraunce. But this Henry reigned but nine yeares, whereby the homage of this Iames their king (hauing not fully accomplished the age of one and twen­tye yeares) was by reason and lawe respited. Finallye the sayd Iames wyth dyuers other lordes attended vpon the corpes of the sayde saide Henry vnto Westminster, as to his du­tie appertayned.

Henry the sixt, the sonne of this Henry the fift, was next king of englande to whome the seignorie of scotlande and custodye of thys Iames by right lawe and reason discended, marryed the same Iames king of scottes to Iane daughter of Iohn earle of Sommerset, at s. Mary [...]er Ise in south [...]arke, and tooke for the value of thys marryage, the summe of one hundreth thousand markes sterling.

This Iames king of scottes at his full age, did homage to the same king Henry the sixt, fo [...] the kingdome of scotland at Wynd­sore, in the moneth of Ianuary.

Since which tyme vnto the dayes of king Henry the seauenth, graundfather to our so­uereigne lord that now is, albeit this realme hath béene molested with diuersitie of titles, in which vnméete tyme neither lawe nor rea­son admit prescription to the preiudice of any ryght: yet did king Edwarde the fourth next king of englande by preparation of war [...]e a­gainst the scottes in the latter ende of hys reigne, sufficiently by al lawes indure to the continua [...]e of his claime to the same supe­rioritie ouer them.

After whose death, vnto the beginning of the reigne of our souereigne lorde king Hen­ry the eight, excéeded not the number of xxvij yeares, about which tyme the impediment of our clayme of the scottes part, chaunced by the nonage of Iames their last king, which so cont [...]d the space of one & twentie yeres. And like as his minoritie was by all law and reason an impediment to himself to make ho­mage, so was the same by like reasō an impe­diment to ye king of this realme to demaunde any, so that the whole time of intermission of our claime in the time of the sayde king Hen­ry the eyght, is [...] vnto the number of thirtéene yeres, & thus much for this matter.

Of the wall sometime buylded for a parti­cion betweene Englande and the Pictes. Cap. 17.

HAuing hitherto discoursed vpon the title of the kings of england, vnto the scottish kingdome. I haue nowe thought good to adde hereunto the description of the wall that was in times past, a limite vnto both the sayde re­gions, & therefore to be touched in this first booke as generallye apperteinent vnto the e­state, [Page] of the whole Islande.

The first beginner of the Picts walThe first author and beginner therefore of this wall was Hadriane the emperour, who as Aelius Spartianus sayth, erected the same of foure score miles in length, to deuide the bar­barous Brytons from the more ciuile sort, which thē were generally called by the name of Romaines.

The fini­sher of the wall.After hys tyme Seuerus the emperour cō ­ming againe into this Isle, (where he had ser­ued before in repression of the tumultes here begun, after ye death of Lucius) amongst other thinges he finished the wall that Hadriane had begunne and extended it euen vnto the the west sea, that earst went no farder then foure score myles, from the east part of the Ocean, as I haue noted already. It is wor­thy ye noting how that in thys voyage he lost 50000. men in the scottish side, by one occa­sion and other, which hinderaunce so incen­sed him, that he determined vtterlye to extin­guish theyr memory from vnder heauen, and had so done in déede, if his life had indured but vntill another yeare. Sextus Aurelius wri­ting of Seuerus, addeth howe that the percell of the wall,The wall goeth not streight by a line but in and out in many places. which was left by Hadriane, and finished by this prince, conteyned two & thir­tye miles, whereby the bredth of this Island there, and length of the wall conteyneth on­lye 112. miles, as maye be gathered by hys wordes, but chiefly for the length of the wall Spartianus who touchting by it among o­ther thinges saieth of Seuerus as followeth, ‘Brittaniam (quod maximum eius imperij de­cus est) muro per transuersam insulam ducto, vtrin (que) ad finē Oceani muniuit,’ that is, he for­tified Brytaine (which is one of the chiefe acts recorded of his time) with a wall made ouer­thwart the Isle, that reached on both sides e­uen to the very Ocean.

The stuffe of the walThat this wal of stone also, the ruines ther­of which haue ministred much matter to such as dwell nere therunto in their buildinges is triall sufficient. Hereby in lyke sorte it com­meth to passe, that where the soile about it is least inhabited, there is most mention of the sayde wall, which was wroughte of squared stone, as vnto this day may euidently be con­firmed. Howbeit this Wall was not the one­lye partition betwene these two kingdomes, sith Iulius Capitolinus in vita Antonini Pij doth write of another that Lollius Vrbicus did make beyond the same, of Turffe, which ne­uerthelesse was often throwen downe by the scottes,Two o­ther wals. and eftsoones repayred againe vntill it was geuen ouer and relinquished altoge­ther. The like mudde wal hath bene séene al­so within the wall about an arrow shot from that of stone, but how farre it went, as yet I cannot finde, this onely remayneth certaine, that the wall made by Hadrian and Seuerus was ditched with a notable ditch, [...] and a ram­pire made theron in such wise, that the scot­tish aduersary had much adoe to enter & scale the same in his assaults. Betwixt Thirlewal, and the Northe Tine, are also in the waste groundes, manye parcelles of that walle yet standing, wherof the common people doe babble many thinges. Beginning therefore with the course thereof, from the west sea, [...] I finde that it runneth frō Bolnesse to Burgh, about foure miles, and likewise from thence within halfe a mile of Caerleil, and lesse on the north side, and beneath the confluence of the Peder and the Eden. From hence it go­eth to Terreby a village about a myle from Caerleil, then thorow the Barrony of Lin­stocke, and Gillesland, on the north side of the riuer Irding or Arding, & a quarter of a mile from the Abbey of Leuercost. Then 3. myles aboue Leuercost, and aboue the confluence of Arding, and the Pultrose becke (which deui­deth Gillesland in Cumberlande, from south Tindale in Northūberland) it goeth to Thirl­wall castle, thē to the Wall towne, next of all ouer the riuer to Swensheld, Carraw (per­aduenture Cair [...]ren) tower, to Walwijc, and so ouer south Tine, to Cockely tower, Portgate, Halton sheles, Winchester, Rut­chester, Heddon, Walhottle, Denton, and to Newcastle, where it is thought that s. Nicho­las churche standeth on the same. Howbeit, Leland sayth, that it goeth within a myle of Newcastle, and thē crooketh vp toward Tin­mouth vnto Wallesende, so called because the aforesaid wall did ende at the same place. And thus much I read of the Pictish wal. As for the Romaine coyne that is often found in the course thereof, the curious brickes about the same nere vnto Carleil, beside the excel­lent Cornellines and other costlye stones al­ready entailled for Seales oftentymes takē vp in those quarters, I passe thē ouer as not incidēt to my purpose. In like maner I wold gladly also haue set downe the course of Of­faes ditch: but forasmuch as ye tractatiō ther­of is not to be referred to this place, because it is not a thing generall to ye whole Island, I omitte to speake of that also. Yet thus much will I note here by the reporte of one (who saith how he did tread it out) that he followed it from the Dée to Kyrnaburgh hill thorow Treuelach forrest, by east af Crekith, Cauch hil, Mountgomery castle, the new castle and Discoid, & hauing brought it hitherto, either lost it, or sought after it no further, & so much of such thinges as concerne the generall e­state of the whole Island.

The second Booke[?] and the hystoricall de­scription of Britaine [...]

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Of ryuers and waters that lose their before they come at the sea. Cap. 1.

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The Colne is a fayre riuer [...] [Page] once past Seuingham, crosseth a brooke from southeast that mounteth about Ashebyry and receyuing a ryll from by west, (that com­meth from Hinton) beneath Shrineham, it afterward so deuideth it selfe, that the armes therof include Inglesham, and by reason that it falleth into the Isis at two seuerall places, there is a pleasant Islande producted, wher­of let thys suffise.

Lenis.Beyng past Lechelade a mile, it runneth to S. Iohns bridge, & thereabout méeteth wyth ye Leche, on the left hande. This brooke wher­of Lechlade taketh the name (a towne wher­vnto one péece of an olde Vniuersity is ascri­bed, which it dyd neuer possesse, more then Crekelade did the other) ryseth east of Hāp­net, frō whence it goeth to Northlech, Estē ­ton, Anlesworth, east Leche, south Thorpe, Farendon and so into the Isis. From hence thys famous water goeth by Kēskot toward Radcote bridge, (taking in the rill that riseth in an odde péece of Barkeshyre, and runneth by Langford) & being past ye said bridge, (now notable thorowe a conspiracye, made there sometimes by sundrye Barons against the estate) it is not long eare it crosse two other waters, both of thē descending from another adde parcell of the saide countie, whereof I haue this note gyuen me for my further in­formation. There are two falles of water in­to Isis, beneath Radcote bridge, whereof the one commeth from Shilton, in Barkeshire by Arescote, blacke Burton and Clarrefield. The other also riseth in the same piece and runneth by Brisenorton vnto Bampton, and there receyuyng an armelet from the first that break of at Blackeburton, it is not long ore they fall into Isis, and leaue a pretye I­land. After these confluences, the main course of the streame,winrush. hasteth by Shifford to New­bridge, where it ioyneth with the Winrush.

The Winrush ryseth aboue Shyeburne, in Glocestershyre, frō whence it goeth to Win­rush, and comming by Barringtō, Burford, Widbroke, Swinbeck castel, Witney, Duc­kington, Cockthorpe, Stanlake, it méeteth wyth the Isis west by south of Northmore. From hence it goeth beneath Stantō, Har­tingcourt and Ensham, betwéene which and Cassenton,Briwerue it receyueth as Lelande calleth it the Bruerne water.

It ryseth aboue Limington, and going to Norton in the Marshe, and thorowe a patche of Worcester shire vnto Euenlode, betwene [...] and the foure shyre stones,Comus. it taketh in a rill called Come, comming by the Long and the little Comptons. After this also it goeth by Bradwell, Odington, and so to Bleddenton, aboue which towne, it taketh in the Rolriche water, that issueth at two heades, in ye hilles that lie by west of little Rolriche, and ioyne aboue Kenkeham, and Church hill. [...] From thēce also it goeth vnto Bruerne, Shiptō vn­derwood, Ascot, Short hamton, Chorlebury, Cornebury parke, Stonfielde, Longcombe, and south east of Woodstocke parke, taketh in the Enis, that riseth aboue Emstone, [...] and go­eth to Cyddington, Glymton, Wotton (wher it is increased wyth a rill (that runneth the­ther frō Steple Barton, by the Béechia trée) Woodstocke, Blaydon, so that after this con­fluence, the sayde Enys runneth to Cassentō and so into the Isis, which goeth frō hence to Oxforde, and there receiueth the Charwell, now presently to be described. [...]

The heade of Charwell is in northampton shyre, where it ryseth out of a little poole, by Charleton village, seauen miles aboue Ban­berye northeast, and there it issueth so fast at the verye surge, that it groweth into a pretye streame, in maner out of hand. Sone after al­so it taketh in taketh in a rillet called ye Bure, [...] which falleth into it, about Ormere side, but forasmuch as it ryseth by Bincester, ye whole course thereof is aboue foure myles, and therefore cannot be great. A friende of myne prosecuiting the reast of this description re­porteth thereof as followeth.

Before the Charwell commeth into Oxforde shyre, it receiueth the Culen, which falleth in­to the same, a lyttle aboue Edgecote, & so dys­cēding toward Wardington, it méeteth with another comming from by northwest, be­twéene Wardington & Cropredy. At Ban­burye also it méeteth wyth the Come (which falleth from Fenny Cōton by Farneboro, [...] and afterwards going by Kings Sutton, not farre from Ayne, it receiueth the discharge of dyuers ryllettes, in one bottome before it come at Clifton. The sayde water therefore ingendred of so many brookelettes, consisteth chiefly of two, whereof the most southerly cal­led Oke, commeth from Oke Norton, [...] by Witchington or Wiggington, and the Ber­fords, and carying a few blind rilles withal, doth méete with the other that falleth from by northwest into the same, within a myle of Charwell. That other as I con [...]ture, is in­creased of thrée waters, [...] whereof eache one hath his seuerall name, the first of them ther­fore, height Cudo, which comming betwéene Epwell and the Lée by Toddington, ioyneth about Broughton with the seconde that run­neth from Hornetō, named Ornus, as I gesse. [...] The last falleth into the Tude or Tudelake, beneath Broughton and for that it riseth not far from Sotteswel in Warwijcshyre, [...] some are of the opinion, that it is to be called Sot­broke, [Page 49] [...] [Page] beneath receyueth the Kenet that commeth therinto from Readyng.

Cenethus.The Kenet ryseth aboue Ouerton, v. or vj. myles west of Marleborow, or Marlingsbo­row as some call it, and then goyng by Fy­feld, Clatford, Maulon, and Preshute, vnto Marlebury, it holdeth on in lyke order to Ramsbury, and northwest of little Cote, ta­keth in a water by north descending from ye hils aboue Alburne chase, west of Alburne town. Thence it rūneth to little cote, Charn­ham stréete, and beneth Charnham stréete, it crosseth the Bedwin, which (taking ye Chalk­burn ril withal) cōmeth frō great Bedwijne, & at Hūgerford also,Bedwijne. Chalkes burne. two other in one botom somewhat beneth the towne. From hence it goeth to Auington, Kinbury, Hamsted mar­shall, Euburne, Newbery, and beneath thys towne,Lamburne taketh in the Lamburne water that cōmeth by Isbiry, Egerston, the Sheffords, Westford, Boxford, Donington Castle, and Shaw. From Newbery it goeth to Thatchā, Wolhampton, Aldermaston, a little aboue which village, it receyueth the Alburne, an other broke increased wt sundry rilles,Alburnus. & thus goyng on to Padworth, Oston, and Michael, it commeth at last to Readyng, where as I sayd it ioyneth with the Thames, and so they go forward as one by Sonning to Shiplake, and there on the east side receyue the Lod­don that commeth downe thither from the south, as by his course appeareth.

Lodunus.The Loddon ryseth in Hamshire betwéene west Shirburne, and Wootton, towarde the southwest, afterwarde directyng his course toward the northwest, thorowe the vine, it passeth at the last by Bramley, and thorow a piece of Wiltshire to Stradfield, Swallow­field, Arberfield, Loddon bridge, leauyng a patch of Wiltshire on the right hande, as I haue bene informed. This Loddon not farre from Turges towne, receyueth two waters in one botome, whereof the westerly called Basingwater, commeth from Basingstoke, and thorow a parke vnto the aforesaid place. The other descendeth of two heds, from Ma­pledour well, and goeth by Skewes Newen­ham, Rotherwijc, and ere it come at Hartly, ioyneth with the Basing water, from whēce they goe togyther to Turges, where they méete with the Loddon, as I haue sayd alre­dy.Diris va­dum. The next streame toward the south is cal­led Ditford brooke. It ryseth not farre from Vpton, goeth by Gruell and beneath Wha­rnborow castle,Ikelus. receyueth the Ikell (cōmyng from a parke of the same denomination) frō whence they go togither by Maddingley vn­to Swalowfield, [...]luci [...]. and so into the Loddon. In this voyage also, the Loddon méeteth with the Elwy or Eluey that commeth from [...] der share, not farre by west of [...] and about Eluctham, likewyse with another cō ­ming from Dogmansfield, named ye De [...]ke, [...] and also the third not suferior to the rest, [...]ō ­nyng from Er [...], whose head is in Surrey; [...] and goyng by Ashe, becommeth a [...], first betwene Surrey & Hamshire, then betwene Hamshire and Barkeshire, and passyng by Ashe, Erynley, blackewater, Yer [...]y, & Fin­ [...]amsted, it ioyneth at last with the Ditford, before it come at Swalowfield. [...] therfore with our Loddon, ha [...]ng receiued all these waters, and after the last [...] with thē now beyng come to Loddon bridge, it passeth on by a part of Wiltshire to T [...] ­forde, then to Wargraue, and so into the Thames that now is merueilously intre [...] ­sed and grown vnto triple greatnesse to that it was at Oxford Being therfore past Ship­lake and Wargraue, it runneth by Horse­penden or Hardyng, then to Henley vpon Thames, where sometyme a great will voy­deth it selfe in the same. Then to Remēham; Greneland (goyng all this way from Ship­lake iust north, and now turnyng eastwards agayne) by Medenham, Hurley, Bysham, Marlow the greater, Marlow the lesse,Vse it mée­teth with a brooke soone after that consisteth of the water of two rilles, whereof the [...] called the Vse, ryseth about west Wickham out of one of the Chiltern hils, and goeth frō thence to east Wickham or high Wickham, a prety market towne. The other named Higden,Hig [...] descendeth also from those moun­taynes, but a myle beneath west Wickham; and ioyning both in one at ye last in the west ende of east wickham town, they go togyther to Wooburn, Hedsor, and so into ye Thames. Some call it the Tide and that word do I vse in my former treatise, but to procéede. After this confluence, our Thames goeth on by Cowkham, Topley, Maydenhead (aliâs Sud­lington) Bray, Dorney, Clure, new Wind­sore, (takyng in neuerthelesse, at Eaton by ye way, the Burne which riseth out of a Moore, and commeth thither by Burneham) olde Windsor, Wrayborow, and a little by east therof, doth crosse the Cole, whereof I finde this short description ensuyng.

The Cole riseth néere vnto Flamsted, frō whence it goeth to Redburn, S. Mighels,Col [...], Ve [...] Vert [...] S. Albons, Aldēham, Watford, and so by More to Richemansworth, where there is a conflu­ence of thrée waters, of which this Cole is the first.Gadus. The second called Gadus riseth not farre from Asheridge, an house or pallace be­longyng to the prince. From whence it run­neth to great Gaddesden, Hemsted, betwene [Page 50] [...] [Page] called Brane, that is in the Britissh tong (as Leland saith) a frogge. It riseth about Edge­worth, and commeth from thence by Kinges­biry, Twiford, Peri [...]ll, Hanwell, and Au­sterley. Thence we followed our riuer to old Brētford, Mortlach, Cheswijc, Barnelmes, Fulham and Putney, beneth which townes it crossed a becke from Wandlesworth, that ryseth at Woodmans turne, and goyng by Easthalton, méeteth another comming from Croydon by Bedington, and so goyng on to Mitcham, Marton Abbey & Wandlesworth, it is not long ere it fall into the Thames. Next vnto this is the Maryburne rill on the other side,Mariburn which commeth in by Saynt Iames, so that by this tyme we haue eyther brought the Thames, or the Thames con­ueighed vs to London, where we rested for a season to take viewe of the seuerall tydes there, of which ech one differeth frō other, by 24. minuts, that is 48. in an whole day, as I haue noted afore, except the wether alter thē. Beyng past London, and in the way toward the sea: the first water that it méeteth with al, is on Kent side, west of Grenewich, whose hed is in Bromley parish, and goyng from thence to Lewsham, it taketh in a water frō by east, & so directeth hys course foorth right vnto the Thames.

Lée.The next water that it méeteth withall, is on Essex side, almost agaynst Woolwiche, and that is the Lée, whose hed rileth shorte of Kempton in Hertfordshire, 4. myles south east of Luton, and goyng thorowe a péece of Brokehall park (leauing Woodhall park, on the north, and Hatfield on the south, with an other park adioyning) it goeth toward Hart­ford towne. But ere it come ther, it receiueth a water (peraduenture the Marran) rising at northwest in Brodewater hundred frō a­boue Welwin,Marran. northeast of Digeswell, & go­ing to Hartingfeld bury, wher the said cōflu­ence is within one mile of the towne. Beneth Hatfield also it receyueth the Beane (as I gesse) commyng from Boxwood by Bening­ton,Beane. Aston, Watton, and Stapleford, and a little lower, the third arme of increase from aboue Ware, which descēdeth frō two heds: whereof the greatest commeth from Barke­way in Edwinster hundred, the other from Sandon in Oddesey hundred, and after they be met beneth little Hornemeade, they goe togither by Pulcherchurche, or Puckriche, Stonden, Thunderydge, Wadesmill, Ben­ghoo and so into the Lée, which from hence runneth on tyll it come at Ware, and so to Amwell, where on the north side it receiueth the water that commeth from little Hadhā, thorow a péece of Singleshall parke, then by great Hadham, and so from Midford to the aforesayde towne. From hence also they go as one to olde Stanstede called le veil, draunchyng in such wyse ere it come there, that it runneth thorow the towne in sundry places. Thence it goeth forth to Abbots St [...]sted, beneath which it méeteth wyth the Stoure, west as I remember, of Roydon. This Sture riseth at Wenden lootes, [...] from whence it goeth to Langley, Claueryng, Berden Manh [...]en, & Byrcheanger (where it receyueth a ryll commyng from Elsing [...] & Stansted Mount [...]tcher.) Thence it hy [...] on to bishoppes Stourford, Sakrichworth, and beneath this town, crosseth with another frō the east side of Elsingham, that goeth to Hatfield Brodock, Shityng, Harlo, and [...] into the Stoure, and from whence they goe togither to Estwyc, Parmedon, and next in­to the Lée. These thinges beyng thus perfor­med, the Lée runneth on beneth Hoddesdon, Broxburne, Wormley, where a water brea­keth out by west of the maine streame, a [...] lower then Wormely it selfe, but yet within the paroche, and is called Wormeley locke. It runneth also by Cheston Nunry, and out of this a little beneath the sayde house, brea­keth an arme called the Shirelake, bicause it deuideth East [...] and Hartford shires [...] sunder, and in the length of one medow cal­led Frithey, this lake rūneth not but at great [...], and méeteth againe with a succor of ditchwater, at a place called Hockesdich, half a myle from his first breakyng out, and half myle lower at Mar [...]h point, wyneth agayne with the streame from whence it came be­fore. Thence commeth the first arme to [...] Mauly bridge (the first bridge westward vp [...] that ryuer) vppon Waltham causey, and halfe a myle lower then Mauly bridge at the corner of Ramney meade, it méeteth with the kinges streame, and principal course of Luy or Lée, as it is commonly called. The second principall arme breaketh out of the kynges streame at Hallyfielde halfe a myle lower then Cheston Nunnery, and so to the fullyng mill and two bridges by west of the kynges streame, where into it falleth about a stones cast lower at a place called Malkins shelf, [...] ­cept I was wrong informed. Cheston and Harfordshire men say, do say that the kings streame at Waltham, doth part Hartford­shire and Essex, but the Essex men by forrest charter do plead their liberties to holde vnto S. Maulies bridge. On the east side also of ye kinges streame breaketh out but one princi­pall arme at Halifield, thrée quarters of a myle aboue Waltham, and so goeth to the corne myll in Waltham, and then to ye kings [Page 51] streame agayne, a little beneath the kynges bridge. From hence the Lée runneth on till it come to Stretforde Langthorne, where it brauncheth partly of it selfe, and partly by mans industry for mils. Howbeit herein the dealyng of Alfrede sometyme king of Eng­land, [...]de. was not of smallest force, who vnder­standyng the Danes to be gotten vp wyth their ships into the countrey, there to kil and slay, by the conduct of this ryuer: he in the meane tyme before they could returne, dyd so mightely weaken the mayne chanell by drawyng great numbers of trenches from the same, that when they purposed to come back, there was nothyng so much water left as the ships dyd draw, wherfore being set on ground, they were soone fired, and the aduer­saries ouercome. Finally beyng past West­ham, it is not long ere it fal into ye Thames. One thyng I read more of this riuer before the conquest, that is, how Edward the first, & sonne of Alfrede, builded Hartford towne v­pon it, in the yeare of grace 912. at which tyme also he had Wittham a town in Essex in hande as hys sister called Aelflede repay­red Oxford and London, and all this 4. yeres before the buildyng of Maldon. But concer­nyng our ryuer it is noted, that he buylded Hertford or Herudford betwene 3. waters▪ that is, the Lée, the Benefuth, and Me [...] ­ran, but how these waters are distinguished in these dayes, as yet I cannot tell. It is pos­sible, that the Bene may be the same which commeth by Beningtō and Bengh [...], which if it be so, then must the Memmarran be the same that descendeth from Whit wel, for not farre from thence is Branfield, which might in tyme post right well be called Marran­field, for of lyke inuersion of names I coulde shew many examples.

[...]on or [...]mus.Beyng past the Lée (whose chanell is be­gun to be purged 1576. with further hope to bring the same to the northside of London▪ we come vnto the Rodon, vpon Essex side in lyke maner, and not very farre (for [...] is the most) from the fall of the Lée. This water ryseth at little Canfielde, from [...]ence it goeth to great Canfield, high R [...] dyng▪ Eythorpe Roding, Ledon Rodyng, White Rodyng, Beauchampe Roding, [...] feld, [...]er. Shelley, high Ongar, and Cheyyng Ongar, where the Lauer falleth into it, that ariseth betwixt Matchyng and high Lauer, and takyng another rill withall commyng from aboue Northweld at Cheping Ongar, they ioyne I say with the Rhodō, after which confluēce, Leland coniectureth that ye streame is called Iuel: [...]us. for my part, I wote not what to say of it, but hereof I am sure that ye whole course beyng past Ongar; it goeth to Stan­sted riuers, The [...] [...], Heybridge, Chigwell, W [...]dford bridge, Ilforde bridge, Backyng and so into the Thames.

The Darwent mée [...]eth with our sayde Thames vpon Ken [...]s side,Darwent. two [...]yles and more beneth Erith. It riseth at Tanridge, or the [...]bantes, as I haue bene informed by Christofer Saxtons Card late made of the same and all the seuerall shyres of England at the infinite charges of six Thames Sack­forde might, and maister of the requestes, whose [...] vnto his countrey herein & can­not but remember, and so much the rather­forth that he meaneth to imi [...]te Ortelius, and somewhat beside this hath holpen me. In the names of the townes, by which these ryuers doe run. Mould to God hys plats were ones finished. [...] to procéede. The Darwent I say, rising at [...]ridge, goeth on by Tit [...]y toward Br [...]ted, and receiuyng on eche side of that towne (and seueral bankes) a riuer or rill, it goeth on to Nockhold, Shorehā, Kent­ford, Horton, Darnehith,Craye. Dartford or Der­wentford, and there takyng in the Cray on the left hand that commeth from Orpington by [...]ary Cray, Powles Cray, North Cray, and Cray [...]e, it is not long ere it fall into the Thames.

The next water that falleth into the Thames, in west of the [...] Isles, a [...]ill of no great [...], neyther long course, for ri­sing about Coringham, it runneth not many miles east & by south, ere it fall into ye mouth of this riuer, which I doe now describe.

The chiefe hed of this streame, ryseth in Wood forrest, southwest of East grenested,Medeuius. This ri­uer is de­scribed al­redy, but here with more dili­gence, bet­ter helpe, and after their opi­nion that accompt it not to fall into the sea but in­to ye Tha­mes. & goyng by Hartfield and Whetelin, it recei­ueth a rill from the second hed, that commeth in from south east, and eyther from the north side of Argas hill, or at the lest wise out of the south part of Waterdon forrest, as Saxton hath set it downe. After this confluence it is not long ere it take in another by west from [...]owden warde, and the third aboue Pen­sher [...], growing frō two heds, wherof one is in Kingfield parke, the other west of Craw­herste [...] ioyning aboue Edinbridge, it doth fall into the Midway beneth He [...]er towne, & Chid [...] [...]. From Penhirst our [...] stream [...]steth to Kigh, Eunbridge, & Twid­ley, and beneth the towne, it crosseth a water from North, whereof one hed is at the Mote, another at Wroteham, the thirde at west Peckham, and likewyse an other from south east, that runneth east of Capell. Next after this it receiueth the These, whose forked hed is at Tisehirst, which descendyng downe to­ward the north, taketh in not frō Scowy [Page] a brooke out of the northside of Waterdē fo­rest, whose name I find not except it be the Dour. After this confuence our ryuer goeth to Goldhirst, and commyng to the Twist, it brauncheth in such wyse that one parte of it runneth into Midwaye, another into the Ga­ran or rather Cranebrooke, if my coniecture be any thyng.Garunus. Cranus. The Garan as Leland calleth it, or the Crane as I do take it, rise [...]h nere to Cranebrooke, and goyng by Sissinghirst, it receyueth ere long one water that commeth by Fretingdon, and another that runneth from great Charde by Sinerdon & Hedcorn, crossing two rils by the way from by north, Hedcorne it selfe standing betwene thē both. Finally, the Garan or Crane méetyng with the Midway south of Yallyng, they on ye one side, and the These on the other, leaue a pre­ty Island in the midst, of foure miles in lēgth and two miles in bredth, wherin is some hil­ly soyle, but neyther towne nor village, so far as I remember. From Yalling forward, the Midway goeth to west Farlegh, east Far­legh, and ere it come at Maidstone, it enter­tayneth a rill that riseth short of Ienham, & goeth by Ledes and Otterinden. Being past Maidstone, the Midway runneth by Alling­ton, Snodland, Hallyng, Cuckstane, Roche­ster, Chatham, Gillingham, Vpchurch, and sone after braunching, it embraceth ye Grene at hys fall, as his two heds do Ashdon forest, that lyeth betwene them both. I would haue spoken of one creke that cōmeth in at Cliffe, and another that runneth downe from Halt­sto by S. Maries, but sithe I vnderstand not with what backewaters they be serued, I let them passe as not skilfull of their courses. And thus much of the riuers that fal into the Thames, wherin I haue done what I may, but not what I would for myne owne satisfa­ction, till I came from the hed to Lechelade.

Auon 2.Being passed the Thames and hauing as I thinke sufficiently in my former treatise de­scribed all such waters as are to be found be­twéene the Stoure in Kent, & Auon in Wilt­shire, it resteth that I procéede with this ry­uer, and here supply many thinges that I be­fore omitted, although not by mine owne o­uersight so much as by the abuse of such as shoulde haue better preserued the pamphlets to be inserted. Certes this Auon is a goodly riuer rysing as I sayde before néere vnto Wolfe hall, although he that will séeke more scrupulouslye for the head in déede, must looke for the same about the borders of the forrest of Sauernake (that is Soure oke) which lieth as if it wer embraced betwene ye first armes therof, as I haue bene enformed. These heds also do make a confluence by east of Martin­shall hill, and west of Wootton. From whēre it goeth to Milton, Powsey, Manningfield Abbey, Manningfielde crosse, & beneth New­ington taketh in one rill west from Rudbo­row, and another a little lower that riseth al­so west of Alcanninges, and runneth into the same by Patney, Merden, Wilford, Charle­ton, and Rustisal. Beyng therfore past New­ington, it goeth to Vphauen (wherof Leland speaketh) to Chest [...]bury, Cumpton, Abling­ton, little Almsbury, Darntford, Woodford, olde Salisbury, and so to newe Salisburye, where it receiueth one notable riuer from by northwest, and another frō north east, which two I wyll first describe, leauyng the Auon at Salisbury. [...] The first of these is called the Wilugh, and riseth among the Deuerels, and runnyng thence by hill Deuerell, & De­uerell long bridge, it goeth toward byshops straw, taking in one rill by west, and another from Vpton by Werminster at northwest. From bishops straw it goeth to Nortō, Vp­ton, Badhampton, Stepiyngford, and Sta­pleford, where it méeteth with the Winter­bury water from by north, descending from Maddenton by Winterburne. From Sta­pleford it hasteth to Wishford, Newtō, Chil­hampton, Wilton, and thither cōmeth a wa­ter vnto it from southwest, which ryseth of two heds aboue Ouerdonet. After this it go­eth by Wordcastle, to Tisbury, and there re­ceiueth a water on eche side, whereof one cō ­meth from Funthill, the other from two is­sues (of which one riseth at Aus [...]y, the other at Swalodise) and so kepyng on still with his course, our Wilugh runneth next next of all by Sutton. Thence it goeth to Fo [...]ant, Bo­berstocke, Southburcombe, Wilton, [...] (where it taketh in the Fomington or Naddet wa­ter) Westharnam Salisbury and Easthar­nam, and this is the race of Wilugh. The o­ther is a naked arme or streame without a­ny braunches. It riseth aboue Collingburne Kingston in the hils, and thence goeth to Co­lingburne, the Tidworthes (wherof ye more southerly is in Wiltshire) Shipton, Chol [...]e [...] ­ton, Newton, Toney, Idmerson, Porton, the Winterburnes, Lauerstock, and so into [...] east of Sar [...]sbury. And thus is the confl [...] made of the aforesayd waters, with thys [...] second Auon, whereinto another water fal­leth (called Becquithes brooke) a myle beneth Harneham bridge, [...] whose head is fiue miles from Sarum, and thrée myles aboue Bec­quithes bridge, as Lelande doth remember, who noteth the Chalkeburne water to haue hys due recourse also, [...] at thys place into the aforesayde riuer. Certes it is a pretye brooke, and riseth sixe miles from Shaftes­bury, [Page 52] [...] in the way toward [...] botom on the right hand, when [...] it [...] by Knight [...] ̄ and Fennystratford to [...], that is about 12. myles from the [...] about two miles and an halfe from Ho [...]ing­ton baneth Odstocke, goeth into the [...] mile lower then Harnham bridge, except [...]e forget himselfe. This Harneham whereof A now entrea [...], was sometime a prety village before the erection of new Salisbury, & had a church of S. Martine belonging vnto it. [...] now in steade of this church there is onely a barne standyng in a very low mead [...] [...]n the northside of S. Mighel [...] [...] The cause of the relinquishyng of it was the moistnesse of the soile, [...] oft, ouerflowen. And where­as the kinges high way lay sometyme tho­rough Wilton, licence was obteyned of the kyng & bishop of Salisbury, to remoue that passage vnto new Salisbury also, & vpō this occasion was the maine bridge made o [...]er A­uon at Har [...]eham. [...] [...]nes [...]yed by [...]nging [...]e [...]. By this exchaunge of the way also olde Salisbury fel into vtter decay, and Wilton which was before the had [...] of the shire, and furnished with 12. paro [...] churches, grew to be [...] villeg [...] and of small reputation. Howbeit, this was [...] the onelye cause of the ruine of olde Salis­bury, sith I read of two other wherof the first was a sa [...]ue vnto the latter, as I take it. And where as it was giuen out that the townes­men wanted water in olde Salisbury, [...] flat otherwise, sithe that hill is very ple [...]t [...] ­fully serued with springes and wels of very swéete water. The truth of ye matter therfore is this. In the tyme of ciuill war [...]es, the soul­diors of the castle and Chanons of olde Sa­rum fell at oddes, in so much that after [...] brawles, [...] holy [...]flict. they fell at last to sad blowes [...] happened therfore in a R [...]gation wéeke that the clergy goyng in solmne procession, a cō ­trouersie fell betwene them about certayne walkes and limites, which the one side clay­med and the other denied. Such also was the whote entertainement on eche part, that a [...] the last the Castellanes espying their tyme, gate betwene the clergy and the towne, and so coyled them as they returned homeward, yt they feared any more to gange about [...] [...]unds for ye yere. Here [...]pon the people [...] ­sing their [...]elly chere (for they were wont [...] haue bāketting at euery statiō, a thing prac­tised by the religious in old tyme where with to linke in the cōmons vnto them) they con­ceyued forthwith a deadly hatred against the Castellanes, but not beyng able to c [...]pe with them by force of armes, they consul [...]ed with their bishop, and he with them so e [...]ally, that it was not long ere they, [...] the Chanone began a church vpō a place of their [...] preten [...]ng to serue God, there in better safetie,New Sa­lisbury be­gunne. and with farre more quiet­nesse thou they could do before. The people also seyng the diligence of the chanone, and reputyng their harmes for their owne incon­uenien [...]e, were as earnest on the other side to be [...]ore vnto these prelates, and therfōre eue­ry man brought his house vnto that place & thus became old Sarum in few yeres vtter­ly desolate, and new Salisbury raysed vp in stede therof, to the great decay also of Harn­ham and [...] whereof I spake of late. Nowe to returne agayne from whence I thus digressed. Our Auon therefore depar­tyng from Sarisbury, goeth by Buriforde, Longford, and taking in the waters afore mencioned by the way, it goeth by Stanley, Dunketon, Craiforde, [...]urgate, Fordyng bridge, Ringwood, Auon, Christes church and finally into the sea. But ere it come all there, and a [...] beneth Christs church, it crosseth the Stou [...]e, M Stur [...], [...] very faine stream,Sturus. whose [...] is such as may not be lefte, vn­touched. It riseth of sixe heds, wherof thre lie on the north side of the Parks at [...]irton within the [...] the other ryse without the park [...], and of this riuer the [...] Ba­rony of [...] hath take his name [...] g [...]sse, [...] to much [...] the land Stuart [...] of the same water [...] armes but to praie do. After these braunches are conioyned in [...] [...] to long [...] will, [...], and beneth Gillingham receyueth & water than descendeth somewhere. Thence ye Sture goeth to Bugley, [...], Westmen bridge, [...]; and [...] long taketh in the Cale water,Cale. from [...] that commeth dawne by [...] and [...] so do [...], v [...] miles [...] [...], passing in the [...] by Wine [...] the [...]. After this cō ­fluence, its commeth a Hint [...], Mari [...],Lidden. Deuilis. & [...] after crosseth the [...] all proue [...]ell, wherof shall [...] ryseth in Blackman [...] [...] the second in [...] his [...]s;outh of Pulha [...] and [...] to Li [...]linch the [...] water [...] [...]sberton, and goyng by Fise­hed to Lidlington, and there [...]etyng, wyth the Lidden they receiue the blackewater a [...] B [...]burne; and so go into the Stour.Iber. Black-water After this the [...]toure nameth into Stoure­ [...] [...] Ha [...]mond (and soone after [...] water that commeth, frō [...] Orcharde, and a seconde frō [...] out is Chele, A [...]keford, Ha [...]ford, Drunkeston, Knightē, [...], [Page] Blandford, Carleton, and cro [...]ing [...]e long a rist that riseth about Tarrent, and goeth to Launston, Munketon, Caunston, Tarrant, it procéedeth forth by Shepwijc, and by and by receyuing an other brooke on the right hand (that riseth about Strickeland, and go­eth by Quarleston, Whitchurch, Anderstō & Winterburne) it hasteth forward to Stour­minster, Berforde lake, Alen bridge, Win­burne, aliâs Twinburne minster, whether commeth a water called Alen (from Knoltō, Wikechāpton, Estumbridge, Hinton, Barn­sley) which hath two heds, wherof one ryseth short of Woodcotes, and east of Farneham, named Terig,This stoure a­boundeth with pike, perche, roche, dace, Gudgeon and eles. the other at Munketon aboue S. Giles Winburne, and goyng thence to s. Gyles Asheley, it taketh in the Horton beck, as the Horton doth the Cranburne. Finally, méetyng with the Terig aboue Knoltō, they run on vnder the name of Alen to the Stour, which goeth to the Canfordes, Preston, Kingston, Perley, and Yolnest. But ere it come at Yolnest, if taketh in two brookes in one bottom, wherof one commeth frō Wood­land parke by Holt parke and Holt, another from aboue vpper Winburne, by Ed [...]i [...]nde­sham, Vertwood, and Manning [...], & ioyning about S. Leonardes, they go to Hornbridge, and so into Stoure. After which confluence, the sayd Stoure runneth by I [...]r bridge, and so into Auon, leauyng Christes church aboue the méetyng of the sayde waters, as I haue sayd before.

Hauyng in this manner passed Chri [...]es church hed,Burne. we come to the fall of the Burn, which is a little brooke runnyng frō Stou [...]e­field heath, without braunches, and not tou­ched in my former voiage for want of know­ledge, and information therof in tyme.

When we had left the Burne behynde vs, we entred Pole hauen, now far better known vnto me then it was at the first. Goyng ther­fore into the same, betwene the north and the south pointes, to sée what waters wer there, we left Brunke sey Island and the castle on the left hand within the said pointes, and pas­sing about by Pole, and leauing that Creke, because it hath no fresh, we came by Holton and Kesworth, where we beheld two falles, of which one was called the north, the other the south waters. The north streame [...]ight Piddle as I heare.Piddle. It riseth about Alton, and goeth from thē [...]e to Piddle trentch hed Pid­dle hinton, Walterstow, and ere it come at Birstā, receiueth Deuils brooke that cōmeth thither from Brugham, and Melcombe by Deuilish town.Deuils. Thence it goeth to Tow pid­dle, Ashe piddle, Turners piddle (takyng in ere it come there, a water that runneth from Holton by [...], Milburne and [...] then to Hide, and so into Pole hauen, an [...] this water Mariani [...]s Scotus speaketh, except I be deceyued. The south water is properly called Frome for Frame. It riseth were vn­to Euershot, [...] and going down by Fromeq [...] ­tain, Thelmington, and Cats [...]ke, it recey­ueth there a rill from beside Rowsham, and Wraxehall. After this it goeth on to Ch [...] ­frome, and thence to Maden Newtō, where it méeteth with the Owke, [...] that riseth eyther two miles aboue H [...]keparke at Kenforde, or in the great [...]ine within [...]oke par [...], and goyng by the [...]olla [...]des, falleth into the Frome about M [...]en Newton, and so go as one from thēce to Fromevanchirch, Cro [...] ­wey, Frampton, and Muckilford, and recei­ueth nere vnto the same a rill frō aboue Vp­s [...]lyng by S. Nicholas Sidlyng, and Grim­ston. From hence it goeth on by Stratton & Bradford Peuerell, [...] and beneath this Brad­ford, it crosseth the Silley, aliâs Mintern and Cherne brookes both in one chanell: [...] whereof the first riseth in vpper Cherne parish, the o­ther at Minterne, and méeting aboue middle Cherne, they go by [...]her Cherne, Forston, Godmanst [...]n, and aboue Charneminster in­to Frome. In ye meane time also our Frome br [...]cheth and leaueth an Islande aboue Charneminster, and ioyning agayne néere Dorchester, it goeth by Dorchester, & For­thington, but ere it come at Beckington, [...] ma [...]eth with an other Becke that runneth thereinto from Winterburne, St [...]pleton, Martinstow, Heringstow, Caine and Staf­ford, and from thence goeth without any fur­ther increase as yet to Beckington, Kingh­ton, Tinkleton, Morton, Wooll, Bindon, [...] Stoke, and beneath Stoke, receiueth ye issue of the Luckeforde lake, from whence also it passeth by Eastholme, Warham, and so into the Bay. From this fall, we went about the arme point by Slepe, where we saw a little creke, then by Owre, where we behelde an o­ther, and then commyng againe toward the entraunce by S. Helens, and Furley castell, we went abroade into the maine, and sounde our selues at liberty.

When we were past Pole hauen, we left the handfast point, the Peuerell point, S. A­delmes chappell, and came at last to Lugh­port hauen, wherby and also the Lucheford [...] lake, all this portion of ground last remem­bred, is left in maner of a byland or peninsu­la, and called the Isle of Burbecke, wherin is good store of alam. In lyke sort goyng still westerly, we came to Sutton pointes, where is a créeke. Then vnto Way or W [...]lemouth, by kinges Welcombe, whereinto when we [Page 53] were entred, we saw thrée falles, whereof thē first and greatest commeth from Vpwey by Bradwey, and [...]adypoll, receiuyng after­ward the [...] that ran from east Che [...]e­rell, and likewise the third that maketh the grounde betwene Weymouth and Smal­mouth passage almost an Islande. Goyng by Portland and the point therof, called ye Rase, we sayled along by the Shingle, till we came by S. Katherines chappel, where we saw the fal of a water that came downe from Black­den Beaconward, by Portesham and Ab­botesbury. Thence we went to another that fell into the sea, mete Byrton, and descended from Litton by Chilcombe, then vnto the Bride or Brute porte, [...]. a prety hauen and the ryuer it selfe serued with sundry waters. It riseth as I sayd before, halfe a myle or more aboue Bemister, and so goeth from Bemi­ster to Netherbury by Parneham, then to Melplashe, and to Briteport, where it taketh in two waters from by east in one chanel, of which one ryseth east of Nettlecourt, and go­eth by Porestoke, and Milton, the other at Askerwell, & runneth by Longlether. From hence also ou [...] Bride goyng toward the sea, taketh the Simen on the west that commeth by Simensburge into the same, the [...] streame soone after fallyng into the sea, and leauyng a prety hauenet.

The next porte is the Chare, serued wyth two rilles in one confluence, beneath Chare­mouth. The chiefe hed of this riuer is as Le­land sayth in Marshewoode parke, and com­meth downe by Whitchurch: the other run­neth by west of Wootton, and mée [...]yng be­neth Charemouth towne, as I said, doth fall into the sea.

Then came we to the Cobbe, and beheld the Lime water, which the townesmen call the Buddle, [...]. and is alredy described vnder ye same denomination. Certes, there is no hauē here that I coulde sée, but a quarter of a mile by west southwest of ye towne, is a great and costly Iutty in the sea for succour of shippes. The towne is distaunt from Colyton, about 5. miles, and here we ended our voyage from the Auon, which conteyneth the whole cost of Dorcester, or Dorcetshire, so that next we must enter into Somerset Countie, and sée what waters are there.

The first water that we méete with all in Somersetshire is ye Axe, which riseth as you haue heard, not far from Bemister, and to say it more precisely nere vnto Cheddington in Dorsetshire, from whence it runneth to Mosterne, Feborow, Claxton, Weyforde bridge, Winsham fourde, and receiuing one rill from the east by Hawkechurch, and soone [...] another comming from northwest by Churchstone, from Waindroke,Yate aliâs Artey. it goeth to Axem [...]ister, beneath which it crosseth the Yare, that commeth from about Buckland, by Whit [...]unton, Yareco [...], Long bridge, Stockeland, Killington bridge (where it re­ceiueth a brooke from by south, that runneth by Dalw [...]) and so into the Axe. From hence our Axe goth to Drake, Musbury, Cullyford, but ere it come altogither at Callishop, it ma­teth wt a water yt riseth aboue Ca [...]e [...], & goeth frō thēce by Widworthy, Culli [...], & there re­ceuiing a rill also procéedeth on after ye [...] aboue C [...]ford bridge into the Axe, & frō thence hold on together into ye maine sea.

By west of Be [...]eworth point [...]eth a creke serued so farre as I remembe [...], with a freshe water that commeth from the hils south of S [...]ley to Bransc [...]mbe.

Sidmouth hauen is the next,Sid. and thither cō ­meth a freshwater by S. Martes from the sayd hils that goeth from S. Mar [...]es afore­said, to S [...]bury, and betwene Saltcombe & Sidmouth into the maine sea.

By west of A [...]certon point also lyeth ano­ther hauen, and thither commeth a prety ri­ [...]et,Autri aliâs Otterey. whose hed is in the H [...]pendon his, and commeth [...] first by Vp [...]ter, then by a parke [...], Munket [...], H [...]tod, Buckwell, and north of Autry receiueth a [...] called Tale,Tale. that riseth northwest of [...] in a [...], and from whence it [...]nneth by Pehembury, Vi [...]ith, and making a [...] with the other, they go as one betwene Ca [...] and Autry, to Herford, L [...]on, Collaton, [...], Bude­ley and so into the sea. This riuer is afore de­scribed vnder the name of Otterey, as Le­land left it [...] me▪ now will I cast about the Start point that I may come to Exe.Exe.

The Exe riseth in [...]xe [...]ore in Somerset shire (as I said before out of Leland) and go­eth from thence to Exeford, Winsforde, and Exton where it receiueth a [...] comming from Cutcombe by north. A [...]et this conflu­ence it goeth on toward the south, til it méete with a prety brook, rising northeast of Whet­tel (goyng by Brunton regis) increased at the left with thrée r [...]les which come all from by north. These beyng once met, this water rū ­neth on by west of the beacon that beareth ye name of Haddon, and some after taketh [...] the Barle that receiueth in like sort ye Do [...]e at Hawkebridge,Barley. and from hence goeth by Daue [...]n, and Combe,Doue aliâs Doue stroke. and then doth méte with the Exe, almost in the very confines be­twene Dorset and Somersetshires. Beyng past this coniunction our Exe, passeth be­twene Brushford and Murba [...]h and then to [Page] Ere bridge, where it taketh in as I heare a water by Weast, from East Austye, and after thys likewyse another on eche side, whereof one commeth from Di [...]forde and Baunton,Woodburn. the other called Woodburne, somewhat by cast of Okeforde. From these méetinges it goeth to Caue & thorough ye for­rest and wooddes to Hatherland and Wash­fields vntill it come to Tiuerton, and here it receiueth the Lomund water, that ryseth a­boue Athebrittle, and commeth downe by Hockworthy vpper Loman, and so to Tiuer­ton that standeth almost euen in the very cō ­fluēce. Some cal this Lomūd the Simming brooke or Sunninges bathe.Lomund or Sim­ming. After this our Exe, goeth to Bickley, Theuerten (takyng in a rill by west) nether Exe, Bramford, be­neath which it ioyneth with the Columbe,Columb. that riseth of one heade, northeast of Clary Hayden, and of another south of Shildō, and méeting beneath Columbe stocke, goeth by Columbe and Bradfeld, and there crossing a rill that commeth by Ashforde [...] runneth south to Woode, More haies, Columbton, Brandnicke, Beare, Columbe Iohn, Hor­ham, and ioyning as I sayde wyth the Exe at Bradford it passeth vnder but one bridge, ere it méete wyth another water by west,Cride. Forten. growyng of the Forten and Cryde wa­ters, except it [...]ée so that I doe iudge amisse. The Cride riseth aboue Wollesworthy, and néere vnto Vpton, after it is past Dewrish, crosseth a rill from betéewne Puggill and Stockley by Stocke english, &c. From hence it goeth to Fulford where it méeteth with the Forten, whereof one braunche commeth by Caldbrook, the other from S. Mary Ted­burne, and ioyning aboue Crediton, the cha­nell goeth on to the Cride (which ere long al­so receiueth another from by north, cōming by Stockley & Combe) then betwene Haine and Newton Sires to Pines and so into the Exe which stayeth not vntill it come to Ex­cester. From Excester it runneth to Were there takyng in a rill from by west, and ano­ther lower by Exeminster, next of all vnto Toppesham,Cliuus. beneath which towne the Cliue entereth therinto, which rising about Plym­trée, goeth by Clift Haydon, Clift Laurence, Brode Clift, Honiton, Soutō, bishops Clift, S. Mary Clyft, Clyft S. George, & then in­to the Exe, that runneth forward by Notwel Court, Limstō and Ponderham castle. Here as I here,Ken. it taketh in the Ken (or Kenton brooke, as Leland calleth it) commyng from Holcombe Parke, by Dunsdike, Shilling­ford, Kenford, Ken, Kenton, and so into Exe hauen, at whose mouth lye certaine rockes, which they call the chekestones, except I be deceiued.

The next fal, wherof Leland sayth nothing at all, commeth by Ashecombe and Dul [...] and hath hys hed in the hils therby.

The Teigne mouth is the next fall that we came vnto, [...] and it is a goodly port. The hed of this water is alredy touched in my first [...] to be in Dartmore among the Gidley hilles▪ From whence it goeth to Gydley towne Teignton drue, [...] where it receyueth the Cro­kerne commyng from by north, and ljkewise another west of Fulford parke. Thē it goeth to Dufford, Bridforde, Kirslow, Chidley, Knighton, and beneath the bridge there re­ceyueth the Bo [...]y whose course is to north Bouy, Lilley, and Bouytracy. [...] Thence i [...] runneth to kinges Teingneton, taking in Eidis a brooke beneath Preston that cōmeth from Edeford by the way, [...] and whē it is past this confluence, at Kings Teigneton, it cros­seth the Leman which commeth from Sad­dleton rocke by Beckington, [...] and Newton Bushels, [...] and sone after the Aller that riseth betwene Danbury and War [...]g well, after­ward fallyng into the sea by bishops Teign­ton, south of Teignemouth towne.

From hence we goe still southwardes (as we haue done long alredy by southwest) by Worthstone, and finding thrée or foure smal crekes betwene Worthstone rocke and the Biry point, we go furder to Mewstone rock, and so into Dartmouth hauen, where into sundry waters haue their direct courses.

The riuer of Darnt commeth out of Da­rntmore, xv. myles aboue Tomesse (as I said before) from whence it goeth to Bucklande Hole, and soone after taking in the Ashebur [...] water on the one side that runneth frō Sad­dleton rocke by north, [...] and the Buckfastlich that commeth from north west, [...] it runneth to Staunton, Darington, Hemston, and there also crossing a rill on eche side, passeth forth to Totnesse, Bowden, and aboue Gabriell Stoke, [...] méeteth with the Hartburne that rū ­neth vnder Rost bridge, two miles aboue Totnesse, or as an other sayeth, by Ratter, Harberton, Painesford, and Asprempton in­to Darnt, which ere long also commeth to Cornworthy, Greneway, Ditsham, Darnt­mouth, betwene the Castels, and so into the sea.

From hence we went by Stokeflēming to another water, which commeth from blacke Auton, then to the second that falleth in ea [...] of Slapton, and so coasting out of this bay by the Start point, we saile almost directly west, till we come to Saltcombe hauē. Cer­tes this port hath very little fresh water cō ­myng vnto it, yet the hed of such as it is, ry­seth [Page 54] nere Buckland, and goeth to Do [...]ook, which standeth betwene two créekes. Thēce it hieth to Charelton, where it taketh in a ril whose hed commeth from south and north of Shereford. Finally, it hath another créeke that runneth vp by Ilton, and the last of all that falleth in north of Portlemouth, whose hed is so nere the bay last afore remembred, that it maketh it a sory peninsula, as I haue heard it sayd.

Then come we to the Awne, whose hed is in the hils farre aboue Brent towne, from whence it goeth to Dixford wood, Loddewel, Hache, Aunton, Thorleston, and so into the sea ouer against a rocke called insul borow.

Arme riseth aboue Harford, thence to St [...] ­ford, Iuy bridge, Armington bridge, Fléete, Orchardton and Ownewell.

Yalme goeth by Cornewood, Slade, Strat­ley, Yalmeton, Collaton, and Newton ferry.

Being past these Portlets, then next of all we come to Pli [...]mouth hauen, a very busie péece to describe, because of the [...] waters that resort vnto it, & small helpe that I haue for the knowledge of their [...], yet will I doe what I may [...] this, [...] the rest, and so much I hope by God [...] [...] performe, as shall iustice my purpose in [...] behalfe.

The Plinme or Plym, [...] the very [...] water that gyueth [...] vnto Plimpton towne. It ryseth in the [...] west of Cor [...] ­wood, and commeth [...] a short course of thrée miles to Newenh [...] [...] it b [...] out of the ground. From [...] them al [...] rūneth to Plimpton, and soone after into the Stour, [...]re [...] Cat­ [...]. which Stour aryseth northwest of Shopistour, and goeth from [...]hence to M [...] ­church, Hele, Shane Bic [...]ley, & so to Efor [...]e where taking in the Plym, it runneth downe as one vnder the name of Plyn [...]me, vntill it go past Plymmouth and fall into the ha [...]en South est of Plymmouth aforesayde. Plym­mouth it self standeth betwéene two créekes, not serued wyth anye backewater, therefore passing ouer these two, wée enter into the Thamar that dischargeth it selfe into the a­foresaid hauē, going therfore vp that [...] which for the most part parteth Deuonshire from Cornewall, [...]e or [...]y. the first [...] that I [...] withall on the est side is called Tauy, the heb wherof is amōg the mountaines foure m [...]es aboue Péeters Tauy, beneath which it m [...] ­teth with another water from by west, [...]o that these two waters include Marye Tauye, be­twéene them though nothing néere the con­fluence. From hence the Taue or Tauy run­neth to Tauistocke, aboue which it taketh in a rill [...], and another aboue [...] Bucklande whiche head is [...] Dart [...]re, and commeth the [...] and Hard row bridge. From hence it goeth into Tha­ [...], [...] Buckland, [...] Buckland, Beare, and [...]ametton Folly. Hauing th [...] dispatched the Tauy. The next that fulleth [...] on the est the [...] is the Lidde,Lidde. which ry [...]g in [...] aboue Lidforde, runneth [...] by [...], and so [...], aboue which [...] Trushell dr [...]ke,Tru [...]hell. which rising north east of [...], goeth by [...] I [...]ame, where it [...] & rill that commeth by [...]rad [...] from [...] and, after the [...], and [...] thence into the [...]. The next aboue this is the Cor [...]wa [...],Core. this riseth [...] or Helwell, and goyng by [...] ru [...] by the [...] without any [...] [...] to Tham [...]. Next of [...] in two brookes not much [...], wherof the one commte [...]h he by [...], the other [...], and both east of [...], which standeth the further banke, and other side of the Thamar, & west northwest of [...] the quarter de­ [...].

[...], the Thamar it selfe riseth in Sa­ [...],Thamar. [...] northeast of [...] offeth [...] whiche west country [...], shut [...] learned Corshewall, a buyle [...]ded or [...] therfore [...] the he [...], by a [...] of vj. my Us, it [...] to Denbo­row, [...] well, Bridge [...], Tan [...] ­ton, [...], Lu [...]ne [...]ce, Boyton, & Wir­rington,Artey. where it méeteth wyth [...] water on the west [...] called Artey, shal [...] short of [...] miles in like sort from this confluence, we met with the Kensey,Kensey. whose [...] is short of Warpeston, by south [...], frō whence it goeth by Tren [...], Tremone, Tresmore, Tr [...], [...], and so into the Th [...]mer that runneth frō hence by Low­whitton vnto Bradston, and goyng on to­ward Du [...]erton, taketh and tell from south [...], and by Leland Beneath Dun­terton also it crosseth the [...] ryuer riseth at Dauidston,Enian. and [...] his race by S. Clethi [...], Lania [...], [...] first, and then vnder sundry bridges, vntill it méete wt th [...] Thama [...]. From hence also the Thamar goeth by Siddenham to Ca [...]ocke bridge, Calstocke towne, Clifton, Cargreue (there aboutes takyng in a [...]réeke aboue Lan [...]ilip) and runnyng on from thence, hasteth toward S [...]ltashe, where it receiueth the Liuer wa­ter.Liuer. The head of Liuer is about Broomwelly [Page] hills from whence it goeth out to No [...]th hill, Lekenhorne, South hill, [...] king in a rill by east (from aboue Kellington) it runneth on to Newton, P [...]l [...]aton▪ Westō, [...]l [...]ss com­myng, S. Erne, and beneth this village cros­seth a rillet that runneth thither from Bicton by Quithiocke, S. Germaines and Sheui­ocke. But to procéede after the confluence, it goeth betwéene Erly & [...]ro Martine castle, and soone after takyng in a ril from by north, that passeth west of s. Steuens, it is not long [...]re it fall into the Thamar, which after this (receiuyng the Milbrooke crée [...]e) goeth on by Edgecomb, and betwene s. Mighels Isle and Ridden pointe into the maine sea. And thus haue I finished the descriptiō of Plimmouth water, and all such falles as are betwéene Mewston rocke on the east side, & the Rōme hed on the other.

Sutton.After this we procéeded on with one iour­ney toward the west, and passing by Long­stone, we came soone after to Sothan baie, where we crossed the Seton water, whose hed is about Liscard, and his course by My [...] ­henie [...], Chafrench, Tregowike, Sutton, and so into the sea.

Then came we to Lowe, and goyng in be­twéene it and Mount Isle,Low. we finde that it had a braunched course, and there to the con­fluence aboue Lowe▪ The chiefe heads ryseth in ye hils, as it were two miles aboue Gaine, and goyng by that towne, it ceaseth [...]t vs continue his course, cast of Dulce, til it calme a little aboue Low, where it crosseth and ioy­neth with the Brodoke water that runneth frō Brodokes by Trewargo▪ & fo [...] into ye sea. Nexte vnto these are two other rils before we come at Faw, or Fawy, whereof in my former treatise, I made some small intreaty. Foy or Fawy riuer riseth in Fawy more, on side of an hill,Fawy. from whence it runneth by cer­tayne bridges, till it méete with the Glin wa­ter west of Glyn towne,Glyn. which rising aboue Temple, and meting with a rill that cōmeth in from S. Ne [...]tes, doth fall into Fawy a mile and more aboue Resprin from by [...]st. After this confluēce then, it goeth to Resprin bridge, Lestermē castle, Lost withiel bridge, Pill, s. Kingtons, s. Winnow, and Golant, and here also receiueth the Lerine water out of a parke,Lerinus. that taketh his way into the main streame by Byconke, T [...]the, and the fi [...]ing house. Beyng thus vnited, it procéedeth vnto Fawy towne, taking in a rill or créeke from aboue it on the one side, and another beneath it south of Halling on the other, of which two this latter is the longest of course, sith it run­neth thrée good myles before it come at the Foy, and thus much had I to adde vnto the description of the sayd Fawy conteined [...] my former treatise. I might haue touched▪ the créeke that lyeth betwéene Knaueland [...] blackbottle pointes ere I came at Foye [...] Fawy, but sith it is serued only with the [...] I make small account to speake of it. [...] procéede, entering finally into the baie com­monly called Trewardith baie, which lyeth into the land betwene the Cannasse and the blacke head pointe, we sawe the fall of two small brookes, not one very far distant from another. The first of them entring west▪ o [...] Trewardith, the other east of s. Blayes and both directly agaynst Cur [...]arder rocke, ex­cept I mistake my compasse. Neyther of thē are of any great course, and the longest not full thrée miles and an halfe, wherefore sith they are neither braunched nor of any great quantity, what should I make long haruest of a little corne, and spende more tyme then may well be spared about them.

When we wer past the blackhed, [...] we came to Austell broke, which is increased with a water that commeth from aboue Mewan, & within a [...]le after the confluence they fall into the sea at Pentoren, from whence we went by the black cocke, and about the D [...] man pointe, till we came to Chare ha [...], where falleth in a prety water, [...] whose hed is two miles aboue s. Tues. Thēce we went by here & there in méere s [...]lt créeke, til we passed ye gray rocke, in Gwindraith baie, & s. Anth [...] ­nies point, where Leland maketh his accōpt to enter into Falam [...]th hauē, to the former description wherof I wil adde another here wherby the first shal be more plain and easie.

The Fala riseth a little by north of P [...] ­nenton towne, and goyng westwarde [...] come downwardes toward [...] Dionise, [...] it go­eth frō thence to Melader, s. Steuens Gr [...] ­pont, Goldon, Crede, Cornely, Tregne, [...] ­ran, Tregūnan, it falleth into the hauen with a good indifferent force, and this is the course of Fala But lest I should soone to omit those créekes that are betwene this and S. Anto­nies point, I will go a little backe again▪ and fetch in so many of them as come now to my remēbraunce▪ Entring therefore into ye [...] we haue a créeke that runneth vp by s. Anto­nies toward s. Gerens, then another that [...] ­eth into the lande by east of s. Maries castle, with a forked hed passing in the meane time by a great rocke, that lieth in the very midst of the hauen, in maner of the thirde poynte of a Triangle [...] betwéene S. Maryes castle and pendinant. Thence we cast about by the sayde castle, and came by another créeke, that falleth in by east, then the second aboue s. Iustus, the third at Ardenor [...], the fourth at [Page 55] Rilan, and [...] as it [...] these in order, we come backe againe about by Tregomitan, and then goyng vpward be­twene it and Taluerne, til we come to Fen­tangolan, we founde the con [...]uence of two great créekes beneath S. Cl [...]tes, wher­of one hath a fresh water comming down by s. Merther, ye other another frō Cruro, inces­sed wt sundry braūches, though [...] one of thē of any greatnesse, and therfore vnworthy to be handled. Pol [...] whole standeth vpon the had almost of the most easterly of them. S. Ken­ [...]en and Cruro stand aboue the confluence of other two. The fourth falleth [...] by west, frō certaine hils: as for the [...] and [...]t, as they be little créekes and no scosh, to haue I lesse language and talke to spend about them. Of s. Caie, [...]e. [...]ks. and s. Fe [...]kes créekes, I spake inough before, the towne of s. Fooke standyng be­twen thē both. That also called after ye saint, rising aboue Perānarwo [...]hill, and comming thence by Ryrklo, falleth into Falamouth, northeast of Milor, which standeth vpon the point betwene it & Milor créeke. Milor créek (for Lelād did kepe no order in their descrip­tion) is next Restronguet. Some cal it Milor poole, from whence we went by [...] point, and there found an other great call frō Perin, which beyng braunched in the t [...]ppe hath Perin towne almost in the very con [...] ­ence. Thus leauyng Fala hauen, as more troublesome for me to describe, then pro [...]ta­ble for seafaring men without good aduise to enter into, we left the rocke on our left hand, and came streight southwest to H [...]lford [...] ha­uen, whose water commeth downe from Wréeke (where is a confluence of two small rilles whereof that ryll consisteth) by M [...] ­gan and Trelawarren, [...]le. and then it receyueth a rill on the north ripe from Constantine, after whose confluence, it goeth a maine vn­till it come to the Oceane. Beneath thys also is another rill commyng from s. P [...]ti [...]s by whose course, and another ouer against it on the west side that falleth into ye sea by [...] ­niton, all Pen [...]ge is left almost in [...] of an Island. From hence we go south to ye [...] ­nacle point, then southwest to Lysar [...], and to north and by west to Preb [...]nke p [...], beyonde which we m [...]te [...] the fall [...]he said water, that riseth in the edge of [...] and goeth into ye sea by M [...]l [...] o [...] the n [...]th, and Winniton on the south. By north al [...] of Winniton, is the Cury water that ry [...]th short of Magan, and tou [...]he [...] with the [...] ­an south of Pengwe [...]an point.

From hence we fayled [...] the [...] which some call L [...]pole, [...] [...]is [...] ­er at the fall into the sea, [...] [Page] yet is it well watred with sundry rilles that come from those hils vnto the same.

Haile.The Haile riseth in such maner, and from so many heds, as I haue before described out of Leland. Howbeit, I will adde somewhat more vnto it for the benefite of my readers. Certes, the chiefe hed of Haile riseth by west of Goodalfin hils, and goyng downe toward s. Erthes, it receyueth the second and best of the other thrée rilles from Godal [...]n towne: Finally, commyng to s. Erthes, and so vnto the maine bay,Clowart. it taketh in the Clowart wa­ter from Guymer, south of Phelacke which hath two heds, the sayd village standyng di­rectly betwixt them both.

Caine.The Caine ryseth southeast of Caineburn towne, a myle and more, from whence it go­eth without encrease by west of Gwethian, and so into the sea west of Mara Darway. From hence we coasted about the point,Luggam. and left the bay till we came to a water that ry­seth of two heds from those hils that lye by south of the same: one of them also runneth by s. Vni, another by Redreuth, and méetyng within a myle they fall into the Oceane, be­neath Luggam or Tuggan. A myle and a halfe from this fall we come vnto an other small rill, and likewyse two other créekes betwixt which the towne of s. Agnes stādeth, and likewyse the fourth halfe a mile beyond the most easterly of these, whose head is al­most thrée myles within the land, in a town called s. Alyn.S. Pirās créeke. Thēre going by the Manrock, and west of s. Piran in the Sande, we finde a course of thrée myles and more from the hed, and hauyng a forcked braunch, the partes do méete at west aboue s. Kybbard, and so go in­to the sea. I take this to be s. Piranes créeke, for the next is Carantocke pill or créeke,Crantock. whose hed is at Guswarth, from whence it goeth to Trerise, and soone after takyng in a rill, from by west it runneth into the sea east of s. Carantakes. Beyonde this is an other créeke that ryseth aboue little s. Colan, and goeth by lesse s. Columb, and east & by north hereof, commeth down one more, whose hed is almost south of the nine stones, and goyng from thence to great s. Columbes, it passeth by Lanherne, and so into the sea. S. Merons créeke is but a little one, rysing west of Pad­stow,Padstowe. and fallyng in almost ouer against the G [...]ll rocke. Then turning betwene the point and the blacke rock, we entred into Padstow hauen, whose waters remayne next of all to be described.

Alen.The Alane ryseth flat cast from the [...] mouth of Padstow, well néere eight or nyne myles, about Dauidston, néere vnto which the Enyam also issueth,Enyam. that runneth into the Tham [...]: Goyng therfore for [...]hence [...] passeth to Camelford, s. Aduen, s. Bernard [...], (both Cornish saintes) and soone after recei­ueth a rill at northeast descending frō Row­ters hil. Thence, it goeth to Bliseland, & H [...]l­ham, the first bridge of name that standeth v­pon Alyn. E [...]e long also it taketh in one ryll by south from Bodman, another from s. Lau­rence, the third by west of this, and the fourth that commeth by We [...]hiell, no one of the [...] excedyng the course of thrée miles, and all by south. From hence it goeth towarde I [...]h [...] sale warde▪ and there receyueth a water [...] the east side, which cōmeth about two miles from aboue s. Tenth, by Michelston, s. T [...] ­choe, s. Ma [...]en (m [...] Cornish patrones) and fi­nally south of Iglesall, méeteth with the A­len that goeth from thence by s. Breaca to Woodbridge. [...] Here about I finde that vnto our Aleyn or Alen, there should fall two ri­uerets, wherof the one is called Carnsey, [...] the other Layne, and commyng in the end to the [...]ll notice of the matter, I sée them to issue on seuerall sides beneth Woodbridge almost directly the one against ye other. That which descendeth from northwest, and riseth about s. Kew, is named Carnesey as I heare, the o­ther that commeth in on the southwest banke hight Laine, and noted by Leland to rise two miles aboue s. Esse, but how so euer this mat­ter standeth, there are two other créekes on eche side also beneth these as Pethrike créek, [...] and Minner créeke, so called of two Cor [...]sh saintes (for that soyle bred many) wherewith I finish the description of Alen, or as some call it Dunmere, and other Padstow water. [...]

Beyng past Padstow hauen, and after we had gone thrée myles, we came to Pert [...]w [...] a poore fisher towne, where I finde a brooke and a péere. Then I came to Portissee two myles further, and founde there a brooke a péere, and some succour for fisher hotes. Next of all vnto a brooke that ran from south east, directly north into the Sauern sea, and with­in halfe a myle of the same lay a great black rocke lyke an Islande. From this water to [...]r [...]uenni is about a myle, where the paroch [...]hurch is dedicated to s. Symphorian, and in which paroch also Tintag [...]l castle standeth, which is a thyng inexpugnable for the situa­tion, and would be made with little repara­tions one of the strongest things in England. For it standeth on a great high terrible, [...]rag enuironned with the sea▪ There is a chappell [...]standyng in the dungeon thereof, dedica­ted to s. Vlet, Tintag [...]ll towne and Trepe [...] ­ [...]i▪ are not a myle in sunder. The next créeke is called Bo [...]ni which is a myle frō Tin­tag [...]ll, [...] and to the same Tredwy water resor­teth, [Page 56] [...] goe to the sea betwe [...]e with [...] hils, wherof that on the one fall lyeth [...] an [...], and [...] an hauenet or péere, whether shi [...]le is [...] tyme doe [...] for succour. [...] F [...]es [...] of [...]ate dayes to [...]e [...] hauen at [...] place, but in vayne. There [...] also two blac [...] rocks as [...], at the [...] northwest point, or side of this créeke, the one [...] little gu [...] doth part them) [...] with the other, [...] by [...] great [...] of gul [...]es. I cannot [...] whether this be the water that [...]eth by [...] or not, [...] be not, th [...] haue I this [...] ­p [...]ion of the [...].

[...]caf [...]le. [...]Boseas [...]le créeke that lyeth east of Tintag [...] ­el, is but a small thyng [...] at the most not aboue two myles into the land, yet it pas­seth by fo [...]re towned, wherof the first is cal­led Le [...]th▪ these callde s. [...]set, the third, Minster, and the fourth [...] or Bush­castle as some men doe pro [...]dence it.

[...].In Bode [...]ay, [...] the B [...]dewater, whose chiefe hed is not farre from Norton. Thence runnyng to S [...]tatton, [...]ncels. it receiueth the L [...]n­cels cal before it come at [...] here also it crosseth another whose hed is [...]a [...] of s. Mary w [...]e, from whence it runneth by Wolston and Whalesborow, and thence in­to the sea betwene [...] and Plough hyll. And thus much of ye waters that [...]e betwene the poynt of Cornwall, and the Hartland hed vpon the northside of Cornwall. Now [...] or do the lyke with those that remayne of De­uonshire, wherof the said Hartland is the ve­ry first point in this our poeticall voiage. Ha­uing therfore brought Hartland point on our backs, we come next of all to Barstable [...]ar, and so into the Hauen, wherinto two princi­pall streames do perpetually vnburden their chanels.

The first and more westerly of these is cal­led Deus, [...]. whose hed is not farre west of the hed of Darnt, & both in Darntmore. Rising therefore in the aforesayd place, it runneth northwest to Snorton, and so to Okeha [...]p­ton, beneath which towne it méeteth with an other water commyng from southeast, and riseth not much west from the hed of Tawe. From hence it goeth to Stowe Exborne, Munke Okington, and Iddesley, where it taketh in the Tanrige a very prety streame­let, [...]anridge. whose issue is not full a mile by east from the hed of Thamar. Commyng therfore by west and east Putforde, Bulworthy, Boc­kington, Newton, and Shebbor, it receiueth a forked rill that runneth from eche side of Bradworthy by Sutcombe, Treborow, Mil­ton, and so to Thornebiry, where méetyng with another [...]orked water▪ wherof one he a [...] commyng from Dunsland, ioyneth with the other north of Cockebiry) it goeth with speds into the T [...]ige water. After this confluēce it runneth on to [...]héepe wash (by west wher­of falleth in the Bucklād water frō by north) thence to high Hai [...]ton, and so▪ Haytherlay,Buckland. north wherof [...]t taketh in a rill frō by south, and endeth his race at Iddesley, by ioynyng with the [...]ke. Hence then the Deus hasteth to Dowland, and betwene it and D [...]ulton, receiueth [...] rill from by [...]ast, as it doth an­other betwene Doulton and Marton frō by west, and for procéeding on with his course, it commeth east of Torrington the lesse, and taking in a water at east, that runneth from thrée he [...]b [...] Wolly parke) betwene which Combe and Roughborow are situate, it des­cendeth to Torrington the more, and meting with the Langtrée water on the one side,Langtrée. and the Wa [...]e breake on the other, it procéedeth to Bediford,Were or Ware. crossing a rill by the way that commeth vnto it betwene Annary and Lit­th [...]. From Bediford bridge it goeth with­out any [...]crease to Westley, Norham, Ap­pl [...]ur, and so into the hauen.

The Taw of hath is the more noble water,Taw. and hath most rils descendyng into hys cha­ [...] ▪ Howbeit by these two is all the hart of Deuonshire well watered on the northside of ye Moores. The Tawy riseth directly at south, west of Throwley, and north of the head of Da [...]t. From thence also it runneth to Sele, South Toneton, Cockatre, Bathe, North­taueton, Asheridge, Colridge, and soone after receiueth the Bowmill créeke,Bowmill. whereof one hed riseth at Bow, the other at Mill, and me­ting beneth bishops Morchard, they fall into the Taue, north of Nimeth Rowland, as I haue bene informed. From hence then it run­neth by Edgeforth, to Chimligh, by south wherof, it méeteth with a ril comming down of two heds from about Rakenford, by We­theridge and Chawley. Thence it goeth to Burrington, and Chiltenholtwood, and there taketh in the Moul [...]bray water consisting of two in one chanell,Moule­bray. wherof the Mol doth ryse aboue north Moulton, and cōmyng to Moul­ton, receiueth another rill running frō Mol­land, and soone after the second that growing by two brookes ye hed of one beyng at Knaw­ston, and of the other west of Crokeham, and both vniting themselues beneath Mariston) doth fal into the same ere long also,Bray. and so go togyther till it crosse the Bray, which (beyng the second of the two that maketh the Moul­bray) riseth at Bray, commeth by Buckland and south of Holtwood doth make his conflu­ence with Taw. Beyng past the woode, it go­eth [Page] on to Brightley hall, Taueton, Taue [...] si [...]e [...]e, and Berstable, sometyme a pret [...]e walled towne with foure ga [...]es, but nowe l [...] little thyng and such in déede, [...] that the [...] burbes thereof, are greater [...] I suppose that the name of this towne in the Br [...]h speache, was Abertaw, because it stoode toward the mouth of Taw, and [...]er [...]a [...] pronounced short as I gesse, for [...]ber­nesse. As for Staple it is an addi [...]ion for [...] market, and therfore hath nothyng to doe in the proper name of the towne. King Athe [...] ­stane is taken here for the chiefe pr [...]l [...]g [...] of the towne, this is also worthy to be [...] hereof, that the houses there are of stone, and most are in all the good townes there about.

But to procéede with our purchase Be­neath this Towne there falleth in a water that hath one head nere about Cha [...]acombe, and another at cast Downe, whereof this descendyng by S [...]ol [...]e ry [...]er, and the other by S [...]erwell, they vnite themselues within thrée myles of Bernacle. Soone after a sort taketh in another that descende the [...]. B [...] ­tenden by Asheford, and the last of all [...]ast of S. Anthonies Chappell, named the Done­ham,Doneham. because one hed is at well Done, and the other at [...], both of them [...]yng west of Ashe. And thus is Daue [...] is no great water nor quick streames, a [...] may appeare in Low water mark at Berstable yet is it a pre [...]y ri [...]eret. This also is worthy to be noted therof, that it [...] brookes from by west, whereof I would somewhat mer [...]ake, if Dau [...]ge were not at hand.

Beyng past the Lane, Cride bay and Bug­point alias Bagpoint, we go by More daye, More [...]one, alias Mortstone, and then toward the northeast, till we come by a créekelet to I [...]fare combe, & so to Combe marton, where af (I meane eche of them) are sundry créekes: of saltwater,Paradine. but not serued with any fresh, that I as yet do heere of. Marry there is be­twene Martinbowe and Tre [...]sowe, a créeke that hath a backewater, which defo [...]deth frō Parracombe (so farre as I call to mynd na­med Parradine beck) but the gretest of all is betwene Linton and Connisbery called Ore, which riseth in Somersotshire in Exmore,Orus. ( [...]ast of Hore oke, more then a myle) and go­yng by Owre, falleth into the sea betwéene Linton & Connisbery, so that the whole race therof, amoūteth in & out to an 8. miles as I haue heard reported. Thus haue I finished ye discourse of the waters of Deuōshire, whose bredth in this place from hence ouerthwart to the checkest ones in the mouth of Exe,The bre [...] ­th o [...] De­uonshire [...] Cornewal. on the south side of the Isic, is 38. miles or vn­der 40. and so much likewyse is it frō Plim­mo [...] than [...] there or [...] 6. [...] where as the [...] part of C [...]enewell doth want [...]

[...]

Grant hears we go by Bottesall pointe, to Stert pointe, where two noble riuers doe make their con [...]nce; which I will seueral­l [...] describe as to my purpose appertayneth.

The first of these is called the Iuell.Iu [...] It ry­seth [...] [...]ne Oburne,.al [...] and at Shirbur [...]e recey­ueth a water wherof Lelād saith thus. There are [...]uen springes in an hill called the seu [...] sisters; northest frō Shireburn,The [...] si [...] which gather into [...] botom, & come into ye M [...]r [...]. Another brooke likewise cōmeth by [...]eydō frō Puscā [...]ell, thrée myles from thence by flat east, be­twix [...] the parke and the Merefull so great a [...] the [...]reame of the Mere, and ioyning at the low [...] mill of Shireburne, with the Mere water, it is not long ere it fall into the Euill. Thence our Euill goeth on toward Glasen, B [...]dford, and ere it come there taketh in a forked rill from by south, descending from a­bout west Chelbury and Chetnall in Dorset­shire, beneth which towne ye other hed falleth into the same, so that they run forth by Bear­haggard & Thornford (til they méet with the Iue [...]) & so to Clifton, Euil, Trent, Mutforde, Ashinton, and east of Limminton it méeteth with the Cade that runneth from Yarling­ton, by north Cadbiry,Cade. and soone after cros­sing a rill also from by east, that cōmeth frō Blackeford by Compto [...], it hasteth to south Cadbiry, Sparhford, Quéenes Camel, west Camell, & so into Iuell, which runneth on to Kimmington, Ilchester, Ilbridge; long Sut­ton, and ere it come at Langport, [...] taketh in two famous waters in one chanell next of all to be remembred before I go any further. The first of all these riseth southeast betwene the Parets (where it is called Parret water) and goeth to Crokehorne,Parret. and at Meri [...]t ta­keth in a brooke from the east, which cōsisteth [Page 57] of two courses vnited at Bowbridge, wherof the one descendeth from Pen by Hasilbury, the other from aboue the thrée Chenocks, as I doe vnderstand. From hence also they goe as one with the Parret water, toward south Pederton (takyng in at east a becke cōming from Hamden hil) thence to Pederton, Lam­brooke, Thorney bridge, & Muchelney where it méeteth with the seconde called Il or Ilus, whose hed is aboue Chellington, & comming down frō thēce by Cadworth, before it come at Dunniet, it taketh in a ril that runneth by Chafcomb and Knoll. Thence leauing Ilmi­ster on the east side, it méeteth with another from by East, descendyng from aboute Whitlakington. Then it goeth to Poking­ton (where it crosseth ye Ilton water by west) next to Ilbruers, [...]on. and there it ioyneth with a rillet that riseth by west at Staple, and run­neth by Bicknell and Abbots Ily, and after this confluence goeth on toward Langport. And here after some mens opinion, the Iuell looseth hys name, and is called Parret, but this coniecture cannot holde, sithe in the olde writers it is called Iuell, till it fall into the sea. Neuerthelesse, how so euer this matter standeth, beyng past Langport, it goeth by Awber toward s. Antonies, where it méeteth with the Tone next of all to be described. The Tone issueth at Clatworthy, [...]ne. and goeth by west of Wiuelscombe, to Stawley, Ritford, Runton, Wellington and Bradford, beneath which it taketh in a faire water commyng from Sanford Combe, Elworthy, Brunte Rafe, Miluerton, Oke and Hilfarens. After this confluence also it runneth to Helebridge and there below meteth with one water that runneth by Hawse, Hethforde and Norton, then another frō Crokeham by bishops Sle­diard, and the third and fourth at Tawnton, that descendeth from Kingston by north, and another by south that ryseth about Pidmi­ster, and thus is the Tone increased, which goeth from Taunton to Riston, Creche, Northcurry, Ling, and so by Anthony into ye Iuell, that after this confluence méeteth ere long with the Chare, [...]are or [...]re. a prety riuer that com­meth by east from Northborow, by Carletō, Badcare, Litecare, Somerton, Higham Au­dry more, Audry, and Michelsborow. From whence goyng on betwene Quéenes moore and North moore, it receyueth one brooke cal­led Peder from by southwest, that runneth thorough Pederton parke and Northmoore, [...]der. and likewyse another that passeth by Dur­ley, ere it doe come at Bridgewater. From Bridgewater it goeth by Chilton directly northwest, and then turnyng flat west, it go­eth northwardes towards the sea, takyng in two waters by the way, wherof one runneth by Coripole and Cannington, and beareth ye name of Cannington,Cāmingtō Brier. the other by Sidding­ton and Comage, and then receyuyng the Brier before it come at Start point, they fol as [...]ne into the Ocean, wherof let this suffice for the description of the Iuel, whose streame doth water al the west part of Somersetshire and leaue it very fruitfull.

The Brier, Bruer, or Bréer,Brier. ryseth of two waters, wherof one is in Selwood forest, and commeth downe by Bruecombe, Bruham,Lelād wryteth ye first Brieuelus & the seconde Mellodun [...] or ye Mil­ton water. and Bruton. The other which Lelād nameth Mellos, is northeast of Staffordell towne, & goyng by the same, it runneth by Redlinche, to Wike where it meteth with the other hed, and thence go on as one to Awnsford, Alford (where it taketh in a water called Dulis frō by north that ryseth nere Dolting,Dulis. and com­meth by Euerchurch parke) then to the Lid­fordes, Basborow wood, the Tor hil,Soway. Pont perilous bridg (wherinto they fable that Ar­thur beyng wounded to death did throw Ca­lybur hys sword) by Glassenbury and so into the Méere. Beside this riuer there are two o­ther also that fall into the said Méere, wherof the one called Soway commeth from Crée­church parke, & Pulton by Hartlack bridge, the other named Cos or the Coscombe wa­ter, from aboue Shepton,Cos. Mallet (which east of Wyke taketh in a water commyng from Welles) by Wyke, Gedney, and so into the Méere. Finally, returning all into one cha­nell it runneth to Burtlehouse, and soone af­ter diuiding it selfe, one arme goeth by Ba­stian aliâs Brent bridge, to High bridge, lea­uyng Huntespill a market towne by South west, the other by Marke to Rokes bridge, Hebbes passage, and so into the sea, leauing a faire Island wherin beside Brentmarsh are 7. or 8. townes, wherof Vphill is none, which is contrary to my former assertion, and here in therfore not onely the same, but also an o­ther errour in the name of this riuer is wor­thy to be redressed, beside a third touching the course of the said Axe, which brauncheth not so low, but rather runneth into the braunche of Brier that lyeth most easterly, as experi­ence by the eie of him that of set purpose hath of late ridden to view it, doth manifestly con­firme. Now as touching the water that com­meth from Wels, which falleth as I said in­to ye Coscomb water on the right hand of the Cawsey. You shall vnderstand that as many springs are in Wels, so the chiefe of them is named Andres well, which ryseth in a me­dow plat not farre from the east ende of the cathedrall church, and afterward goeth into the Coscomb, in such place as I haue noted. [Page] Leland speaketh of the Milton and Golafer waters,Milton. Golafer. which should fall likewyse into the Brier, but whether those be they wherof the one ryseth aboue Staffordell, and in the dis­cent runneth by Shipton, Pitcomb, and so to Awnsford on the one side, as the other doth rise betwene Batcomb and Vpton noble on the other halfe: or vnto whether of them ey­ther of these names are seuerally to be attri­buted, as yet I do not read.

Axe. 2. The Che­der brooke, driueth .12. milles within a quarter of a myle of his heade.The second Axe issueth out of Owky hole, from whence it goeth by Owky towne, af­terward meeting with the Chederbrook that commeth from the Cheder rocks, it runneth by Were, Ratcliffe, and after a little com­passe into the northeast braunch of the afore­sayde riuer last described, betwene Rokes bridge and Hebbes passage, as I haue bene informed.

Bane.From the fall of Axe we come to an other called Bane, northest of Woodspring, whose hed is about Banwel parke, or els in Smal­don wood. Then to another, and to the third, called Artro,Artro. which riseth about Litton, and goyng by the Artroes, Vbbey, Perrybridge (receiuyng a rill ere it come the [...]her from by south) beneth Cungesbiry, or as I learne be­twene Kingston and Laurens Wike it mée­teth with the sea.

Sottes­pill.Sottespill water ryseth betwene Cheue­ley and Nailesey, howbeit it hath no en­crease before it come into the sea at Sotte­spill, more then the next vnto it, which is na­med Cleueden water, of a certaine towne néere to the fall therof. It ryseth southeast of Barrow,Cleueden goeth by Burton Nailesey, and so vnto Cleuedon.

Auon. 3.The Auon commonly called the third Auon is a goodly water, and growen to be very fa­mous by sondry occasions, to be particularly touched in our descriptiō of Bristowe. It ry­seth in the very edge of Tetbury, and goeth by long Newtō to Brokenton, Whitchurch, and Malmsbury, where it receiueth two wa­ters, that is to say, one from by west cōming by Foxeley, and Bromleham, which rūneth so néere to the Auon in the west suburbe of Malmesbury, that the towne thereby is al­most made an Island. Another from Okesey parke by Hankerton, Charleton, and Gares­den. After this confluence it hasteth to Cole parke, then goeth it toward the southeast, till it méete with a water comming from south west (betwene Hullauington and Bradfield) by Aston: and soone after with another at the northside from Bynall by Wootton Basset (thorow the parke to Gretenham, and Ido­uer bridges) and after ye confluēce to Daunt­sey, Segar, Sutton, Christmalford, Auon, Calwaies house, & then to west Tetherton. Beneth this towne also it taketh in a water increased by two brokes, wherof one cōming from Cleue by Hilmarton, Whitley house and Bramble, (and there receiuyng another that commeth by Calne) passeth on by Stan­ley into the Auon, which from thēceforth go­eth to Chippenham, Rowdon, Lekham, and then receiuing Cosham water, [...] goeth to La­cocke, Melsham, and ere it come at Whad­don, crosseth two other in one chanell, wher­of one riseth about Brumham house, and go­eth to Sene, the other about the Diuizes, and frō thence runneth to Potterne wood, Creke­wood, Worton, Maston, Bucklington, and ioyning with the other aboue Litleton, they run by Semmington, and north of Whad­don aforesayd into the maine streame, wher­of I now intreat. From hence our Auon run­neth to Stauerton, and south west of that towne méeteth with the Were that cōmeth from Vpton by Dilton, Brooke parke (there crossing a ril from Westbiry vnder ye plane) then to north Bradley, Trubridge, [...] and so in­to Auon that goeth from thence to Bradford, and within a myle or there about, before it come at Freshford, it meteth with ye Frome, whose description doth insue.

The Frome ryseth in the east part of Mē ­dip hils, and from thence rūneth by Astwijc, [...] ye Cole pits, Lye vnder Mendippe, Whate­ley, Elmesbridge, and soone after taketh in the Nonney water, [...] comming from Nonney castle, thēce to Walles & Orcharley bridge, where it receiueth a prety brooke descending from Frome Selwoode west of Brackley, increased with sundry rils, wherof two come out of Selwood forrest (and one of them from the Fratry) another out of Long lead parke, from Horningsham, and the fourth from Cosley. Hence our Frome goeth to Lulling­ton, Beckington, Farley castle, Borde and Fresh foord, [...] and taking in the Silling brooke falleth into the Auon beneath Bradford, and east of Freshford. From thence goyng be­neath Stoke, it receyueth on the left hande a water commyng from southwest, increased by sundry brookes, whereof one commeth frō Camelet by Litleton, and Dankerton, the o­ther from Stone Eston, Midsommer Nor­ton, by Welston, Rodstocke, Wrigleton, Foscot, and Wellow (and there takyng in a rill from Phillips Norton, it goeth) by Cla­uerton to Hampton, & there it méeteth wyth another water commyng from Barthforde, whose hed is at Littleton, from whence it rū ­neth by west Kineton to Castle comb (where it ioyneth with a rill rising by north from Litleton drue) and thence commeth south to [Page 58] Slaughtenford, Haselbury, Box, Baithford, and so into the Auon, which turnyng playne west hasteth to Baithw [...]jc, and (méeting wt another in his passage from Coldaston) to Bathe the Tiuertons and Coston. Here also it taketh in a rill by the way from Markes­biry by Wilmerton and Newton, and then goyng on to Sawford, it méeteth with one rill soone after west of Northstocke, called Swinford, [...]ford and another by Bittō, from Dur­hain by Wike, and so procéedeth stil holding on his way to Cainsham, [...]ford [...]h [...]erset [...]oce­ [...] yres [...]er. where it crosseth the Chute, which issueth at Winford, and go­eth by bishops Chue to Penford, and there receiueth the Clue commyng from Cluton, and from thence to Chute, and so into Auon. The Auon likewyse after all these confluen­ces goeth to Briselton, and so to Bristow, be­neath which it receyueth a rill on eche side, (whereof one commeth from aboute Stoke lodge in Gloucester shire, beyng a faire wa­ter and running by Acton, Framptō, Ham­broch, Stapleton, and thorow Bristow, the other by south from Dundrey hill & towne, by Bisport and Bedminster) and so discen­ding yet lower, goeth to Rawneham passage & Clyfton, then by S. Vincentes rocke and Laie, next of all to Crocampill, and finally into the sea, whether all waters by nature do resort.

Beside this water, Leland maketh menti­on of Alderley brook, which in some auncient recordes is also called Auon, and runneth by Barkeley. In like maner he talketh of Dou­resley becke, [...]rley [...]esley. whose principal h [...]d is in Dou­resley towne, howbeit he saith no thing of it more, then that it serueth sundry t [...]cking l [...]o­king milles, [...]orth & goeth by Tortworth or foure miles further, before it come at the Sauern. Finally, making mention of an excellent quarrey of hard stone about Douresley, he telleth of the Tortworth becke that runneth within a flight shot of Barkeley towne, and faileth on the left hande into Sauerne mar­ches, taking with all the Alderley or Auon, except I mistake his meanyng, which may soone be done among his confused notes.

Of the Sauerne, and such riuers as fall into the same, as also of other, whereby the rest afore mencioned, are increased be­fore we come to the Humber. Chap. 2.

THe Sa [...]r [...]e springeth from the hyghe mountaines of southwales, as I haue before remembred, and run [...]yng frō the side, the first water that it re [...]eiueth of any name, is called Dulas, [...]. which commeth therinto o [...] the south side, & south west of Lan Idlos. It riseth as it should séeme of diuers heds in the edge of Radnorshire, and taking in sundry small rils,Brueham. it méeteth at the last with ye Brue­ham brooke, and so they go togither till they fal into the Sauerne. Beneth lan Idlos like­wise it taketh in the Clewdoghe from north west,Clewdogh producted by the influence of foure prety brookes, wherof one is called Bacho,Bacho. another Dungum (commyng out of lin Glaslin) the third Lhoid rising in lin Begilin,Dungum. Lhoid. Bigga. & the most southerly Bigga. After which confluēce our Sauerne procéedeth on by Berhlaid toward Landyman, taking in by the way on the east side the Couine, thence to Cairfuse castle,Couine. Carnon. Taran. where it méeteth with the Carnon and the Taran both in one chanell, and going not far from the aforesaid fortresse. After this it cros­seth the Hawes,Hawes. Dulesse. 2. on the north halfe beneth A­berhawes, next of all the Dulesse, that riseth in the edge of Radnorshire, and meteth with it before it come at Newton, otherwise cal­led Trenewith, as I finde in Brittishe lan­guage. Being past Newton, it runneth forth by Land [...]louarne, and so forth on till it come to the fall of the Mule,Mule. whose hed is in ye edge of Radnor also, and therto his passage by Ke­ry and Lamnereyw [...]g.Kenlet. Camalet. Tate. After this also it pro­céedeth further till it méete with the Kenlet or the Camalet (which taketh in also ye Tate or Tadbrookewater, rysing out of the hilles a myle from Bishops towne) the whole course therof beyng about seuen miles from the hed as I haue often heard. Of this also I find two descriptions, wherof one I borrow out of Le­land, who saith that it is a prety brooke run­nyng in the vale by Mountgomery, and com­myng within halfe a myle of the place where Chirbiry priory stood, it falleth into ye sauern, about a [...] from thence. Of the rils saith he that run from the hils thorow Mountgome­ry, which are a myle from the Sauern shore,Laindlos. & likewise of the Lan Idlos brooke that me­teth with all within foure miles of the hed, I speake not but thinke it sufficient to touche those of some estimation, onely leauing ye rest so such as may hereafter deale with thinges more particulerly, as time and trauaile may reueale the truth vnto them, and hitherto Lelande whole wordes I dare not alter. But another noteth this Camalet or Ken­let to ran by More, Lidd [...]om, Sned, Church­stocke, Chirbury, Walcote and Winsbiry, and so into the Sauerne. From hence then, and after this confidence it goeth on by For­don, Leighton and Landbrouy toward Mel­uerley, & there it méeteth with sundry waters in one chanell,Tauet. wherof the one called the Ta­uet, is a very prety water (wherinto the Pe­uerey [Page] or Murnewy doth fall,Peuery or Murnewy Auerney. which descēdeth from the hils by west of Matrafall not farre from Lhan Filin) the other Auerny, and ioy­ning beneath Abertannoth or aboue Lanna­monach nere vnto the ditch of Offa, it is not long ere they méete with the Mordant brook,Mordaunt and there loose their names so soone as they ioyne and mixe their waters with it. The hed of ye Mordant issueth out of Lanuerdan hils, where diuers say that the paroche church of crosse Oswald or Oswester sometimes stood. Certes, Oswester is 13. miles northwest frō Shrewsbury, and conteyneth a myle within the walles. It hath in like sort foure suburbs or great stréetes, of whiche one is called Stratlan, another Wulliho, the third Bete­rich (wherin are 140. barnes standyng on a row belonging to the citizens or burgesses) and the fourth named the black gate stréete, in which are 30. barnes mainteyned for corn and hay. There is also a brooke running tho­rough the towne by the crosse, comming frō Simons well,Simons beeke. a bowe shot without the wall, and goyng vnder ye same betwene Thorow­gate and Newgate, it runneth also vnder the blacke gate. There is an other in lyke sorte ouer whose course the Baderikes or Bete­rich gate standeth, and therfore called Bede­rich brooke.Bederiche. The third passeth by the Willi­gate or Newgate, and these fall altogether with the crosse brooke, a myle lower by south into the Mordant that runneth (as I sayd) by Oswester. From hence also it goeth to Mor­dant towne, and betwéene Landbreuy & Mel­uerley doth fall into the Sauerne. After this our principall streame goeth to Sheauerdon castle, Mountford, and Bicton chappell, and here it receiueth a water on the left hande, that riseth of two heds, whereof one is aboue Merton, the other at Ellismere, and ioynyng betwéene Woodhouses and Bagley, the con­fluence runneth on by Radnall, Haltō, Ted­desmer, Roiton, Baschurch, Walford, Graf­ton, Mitton, and so into the Sauerne. From hence it runneth to Fitz, Eton, or Leyton, Barwijc, Vpper Rossall, Shelton, and so to Shrewsbury, where it crosseth the Mele wa­ter, whose head as I heare, is sayd to bée in Weston.

Mele.The Mele therfore rising at Weston, go­eth by Brocton, Worthen, Aston Pigot, Westley, Asterley, and at Lea it méeteth with the Haberley water,Haberley. that cōmeth down by Pontesford and Aunston. After this con­fluence also it runneth to Newenham, and Crokemels (there taking in a ril on ye other side that descendeth by Westbury & Stret­ton) & thence goyng on to Hanwood, Noball, Pulley, Bracemele and Shrewsbury, it fal­leth as I sayd, into the open Sauerne. From hence our Sauerne hasteth to Vffington, Preston, and betwéene Chilton and Bram­pton taketh in the Terne a faire stream and worthy to be well handled if it lay in me to performe it. This riuer riseth in a Mere be­side Welbridge park, néere vnto Tern Mere village in Staffordshire. Frō whence it run­neth by the parkes side to Knighton, Norton, Betton, [...] and at Draiton Hales crosseth with a water commyng from aboute Adbaston, (where M. Brodocke dwelleth) and runneth by Chippenham and Amming: so that the Terne on the one side, [...] and this brooke on the other, do inclose a great part of Blore h [...]th, where a noble battaile was sōetime purpo­sed betwéene king Henry the vj. and ye Duke of Yorke, but it wanted execution. But to procéede after this confluence, it runneth to Draiton Hales, Ternehill bridge, & ere long takyng in a ril from Sandford by Blechley, it goeth to Stoke Allerton, Peplaw, and Ea­ton, where it crosseth with a brooke that ry­seth about Brinton, and goyng by Higham▪ Morton, the great Mere, Forton, Pilson, Pickstocke, Keinton, Tibberton and Bola [...], it ioyneth with the said Terne not far from Water Vpton. Thence passing to Crogen­ton, it meteth with another brooke, that com­meth from Chaltwen Aston, by Newport [...], Longford, Aldney, and so thorow the Wilde moore to Kinesley and Sléepe, and finally in­to the Terne, which hasteth from thence to Eston bridge, and nere vnto Walcote taketh in the Roden. [...] This water riseth at Halton in Cumber méere lake, and commyng to A­uerley crosseth a rill from: Cowlemere by Leniall. Thence it goeth to Horton, [...] and (ioy­ning with another rill beneth N [...]melay that commeth from Midle) runneth on to Wen, Aston (there crossing a rill beneth Lacon hall from Préesward) and so to [...]ée, Befford [...], Stanton, Morton, Shabrée, Paynton, Rodē, Rodington, and then into Terne that run­neth from thence by Charlton, Vpton, N [...] ­ton, Ba [...]wijc, Accham, & so into ye Sauerne two miles beneath Shrewsbery as I wéene. Thus haue I described the Terne in suche wyse as my simple skill is able to performe. Now it resteth that I procéede on as I may, with the Sauerne streame with which after this former confluence it goth vnto Roxater, Brampton, Eaton vpon Sauerne, [...] Drai­ton (where it ioyneth-with the Euerne that rūneth from Frodesleyward, by Withi [...]ll & Pitchford) Cressedge, Garneston Leighton, and betwéene the two Bilda [...]es crosseth the [...]he or W [...]ul [...]ke water, [...] and so goeth vnto Browsley and Hoord parke, where it vniteth [Page 59] it selfe with another brooke to be described in this place whilest the Sauerne rest, and re­create it selfe here among the pleasaunt bot­tomes.

This water ryseth aboue Tongcastle, and ere it haue run any great distaunce from the hed, it méeteth with a rill commyng by Shi­riffe Hales, and Staunton. Thence it goeth on to Hatton, Royton, & there crossing ano­ther from Woodhouses, [...]beck cōmyng by Haugh­ton and Euelin, it procéedeth to Bechebiry and Higford, and not omitting here to crosse ye Worse that runneth vnto it out of Snow­don pole, it passeth forth to Badger, Acleton, Ringleford, and so into Sauerne, somewhat aboue Bridgenorth except myne informati­on deceiue me. [...]brok. From Bridgenorth our Sa­uerne descendeth to Woodbury, Quatford, and there taking in the Marbrooke beneath Eaton (that riseth aboue Collaton, and goeth by Moruil and Vndertō) it runneth by Did­manston, Hempton, Aueley, and beneath in the way to Bargate, crosseth with a brooke commyng from Vpton parke, by Chetton, Billingsley, and Highley, which beyng ad­mitted, it holdeth on to Areley, Cyarnewood parke, Hawbache, and Dowlesse. Here also it méeteth with the Dowlesse water, [...]sse. a pretye brooke issuyng out of Cle hils in Shropshire, which are 3. myles from Ludlow, and run­ning thorow Clehiry park in Wire forrest, and takyng with all the Lempe, [...]e. doth fall in­to the Sauerne not very far from Bewdley. But to procéede. From Bewdley our Sa­uerne hasteth directly to Ribford, Areley and Redston, and here it méeteth with a water called Stoure, [...]re. descending from Eley, or out of the pondes of Hales owen in Worcester shire, where it receyueth one rill from ye left hand, and an other from the right, and then goeth on to Sturbridge (taking in there the third water ere long running from Sturton castle) then to Kniuer Whittenton, Ouerley and Kydormister, aboue which it crosseth one brookelet that commeth thyther by churche hill, and another beneath it that runneth by Belborow, betwixt which two waters lyeth and odde péece of Staffordshire included, and also the Cle hill. From hence the aforesayde Sauerne hasteth by Redston to Shrawley, and aboue this towne receiueth the Asteley water, [...]y. as beneath the same it doth an other. From Witley thē it goeth on to Holt castle, and so to Grimley, taking in therabout with the Dour, [...]r. [...]waye. and Sulway waters, whereof this riseth at Chadswijc, and runneth by Stoke priory, & Droitwiche, the other aboue Chad­desley, and commeth by Dourdale. After this it goeth forth vnto Worcester, in olde tyme called Cair Brangon, or Cair [...]rangon, where it méeteth with the Tiber,Tiber. or Tibertō water on the right hand aboue that city, and beneath it néere vnto Powijc with ye Temde, whose description shall be set downe before I procéede or goe any further wyth the Sa­uerne.

The Temde or as some name it ye Tame,Temde. riseth vp in Radnorshire out of the Melēnith hils, and soone after hys issue, méeting with a water from Withal, it runneth to Begeldy, Lanuerwaterden, and so to Knighton, which is v. or vj. miles as I heare from hys origi­nall. From Knighton it goeth ouer the ditch of Offa vnto Standish, and crossyng a rill that commeth from betwene the parkes, na­med Clude (and is a bound of Radnorshire) it goeth to Buckton, Walford, and Lanuarde,Clude. where it méeteth with the Bardwell or Ber­field, and the Clun both in one chanell, of which I find these descriptions here follow­yng worde for worde in Lelande. The Bar­dwell or Barfield riseth aboue new chappel,Berfielde. Clun. in the honour of Clun, hard by the ditche of Offa, and goeth by Bucknell. The Clun issu­eth out of the ground betwéene Lhan Vehan and Maiston, and going on by Bucton, Clun­castle, Clundon, Purslaw, and Clunbiry, it crosseth with a brooke that runneth along by Kempton and Brampton. Thence goyng forth by Clunbury, Brome, Abcot and Mar­low, it méeteth with the Bardwell, and so in-the Temde, not very farre from Temder­ton. I suppose that Lelād calleth the Barde­well by the name of Owke,Owke. but I will not a­bide by it because I am not sure of it. After these confluences therfore our Temde, goeth by Trippleton, Dounton, Burrington, and Broomefield,Oney. where it méeteth with the O­ney, which is an indifferent streame, and in­creased with sundry waters, wherof I say as followeth. The first of all is called the Bow.Bow. It riseth as I learne in the hilles betwéene Hissington and Shelue, and from thence cō ­meth down by Lindley and Hardwijc, where it crosseth the Warren that issueth out of the ground about Rotly chappell,Warren. and runneth by Adston and Wentnor. After the confluence also goyng on by Choulton and Cheynies, it taketh in the Queney and Strabroke both in one chanell,Queney & Strabrok. wherof the first riseth at Le­botwood, and commeth downe by the Stret­tons till it passe by Fellanton. The seconde mounteth about Longuill, & goeth by Rushe­bury, Newhall, Harton, and Alcaster, from whence it is not long ere it fal into the Que­ny, and so by Stratford into the Oney, which hath borne that name sithens the confluence of the Bow and Warrē at Hardwijc, wher­of [Page] I spa [...]te before. Finally, the Oney which some call the Somergill beyng thus increa­sed,Somergil. it runneth on to Hawford chappel, New­tō, Oneybury, Bromefield, & so into Temde, and next of all to Ludlow. The Temde be­yng thus brought to Ludlow, méeteth with ye Corue which commeth thorowe Coruedale frō aboue Brocton by Morehouses,Corue. Shipton, Hungerford, and a little beneath takyng in a ril that commeth by Tugford, and Brancost castle, goeth on to Corsham castle, and there crossing another from s. Margarets Clée, it hyeth to Stanton Lacy, and so likewyse to Ludlow. From Ludlow in lyke sort it goeth to Ludford, the Ashefordes, little Hereford, Burrington and at Burfford vniteth it selfe with the Ladwich that commeth beneth Mil­burne stoke,Ladwiche. from betwéene Browne, Clée­hill, and Stitlertons hill, to Middelton, Hen­ley, Ladwich, Conam, and so into Temde, which beneth Temdbury receyueth another rill on the other side, and the second on ye left hand called Rhe,Rhe. that commeth from aboue Ricton, Staterton, Hounde, Nene, Clebiry, Knighton, and then into the Temde. From hence the Temd goeth by Astha, Lingridge, Shelley Welch, Clifton, Whitburne (and crossing a water that commeth from ye Sa­pies) to Knightwijc and Bradwaies. Here about againe it intertaineth a rill that des­cendeth from aboute Kidbury on the right hand, and goeth by Collomathern, Credeley, Aufrike, and so into Temd, and then procee­dyng forwarde the said streame, renneth to Braunforde, & ere long (taking in the Lang­herne that ryseth about Martley,Lang­herne. and passeth by Kengewijc) it goeth to Powijc, and so in­to the Sauerne before it come at Wickece­ster. Thus haue I brought all such streames before me that fall into the Sauerne, from the hed, vntill I come to Powijc, wherof as you may easily perceiue the Temde, is the most excellent. Now it resteth that I procéed with the rest of the discourse intended con­cernyng this our riuer. Certes, frō Powijc mils which are about halfe a myle beneath Worcester, ye Sauerne runneth on to Kemp­sey and Cleueld, whence after it hath crossed a brooke commyng from Eowley, it hasteth first to Stoke, and so to Vpton, but ere it come there, it drouneth another fall descen­dyng from Maluerne hilles by Blackemore parke, and soone after the third growyng by two braunches, whereof one commeth also from Maluerne hils by little Maluerne and Welland, the other from Elderford by Pen­dock and Longdon. After these confluences in lyke sort, it runneth to Bushelley, & Tew­kesbiry, where it receiueth the Auon, that fo­loweth next of all in order to be described, before I procéed any further in my discourse of Sauerne.

The Auon riseth at Nauesby in the bor­ders of Northampton shire,A [...] a [...]ittle side hād of Gilleshnrow, and foote of the hils whereon Nauebey standeth, and euē out of the churchyard of the sayde village. From hence it go­eth to Welford, Stamforde, Lilburne, Clif­ton, and Rugby, by north wherof it crosseth a water called Swift, which commeth from aboue Kymcote, to Lutterworth, [...] Browne o­uer and Colsford. From thence also it goeth to Newbold, Wolston, Ruington, & betwene the Stonlies taketh in the Sow.So [...] This Sowe is a prety water cōming from aboue Calen­don to Whitley, & soone after méeting with a riueret from Couentry, which some doe call Shirburne water, it goeth thence to Bag­ginton where it taketh in a rill called Kynel, as I haue red from Kenelsworth,Ky [...] frō whence it runneth to Stonley, and so into the Auon. After this confluence the Auon procedeth on to Stonley Abbey, Ashehow, Miluerton, Ed­monds cote, and a pace to Warwijc. But ere it come there, it méeteth from south east with two waters in one chanell, wherof the least commeth to Marton from bishops Itching­ton, by Herburbiry and Thorpe, where it crosseth a rill from Southam. The other is called Leame,Le [...] or Lime that descendeth from about Helladon, or néere vnto Catosby in Northampton shire, and goyng by Ouēcote, Braunston, Lemington and Merton, it ioy­neth with the other, and then go from thence together vnder the name of Leame, to Hun­nington, Cobbington, and so into the Auon as I gaue notice before. At Warwycke also the Auon taketh in a water runnyng north­west from Groue parke. Thence it goeth on to Bereford, and there crossing another from Shirburne, it passeth forth to bishops Ham­pton, meting finally with the third, frō Kine­ton that runneth by Walton and Charlcot [...]. After this last rehersed confluence, it hasteth to Stretford vpon Auon, and thē to Ludding­ton ward, where it taketh in the Stoure that riseth aboue Cherington,St [...] and whose course from thence is such, as that beyng once past the head, it goeth by Weston, and ere long crossing a water from Campden, hangyng Aston, and Todnam, it runneth to Barche­ston, Aldermaston, Clifford, and so into the Auon. From hence then the sayd Auon goeth to Luddington, Burton, Bitford, and Cleue, and beyng parted from the said towne, ere it come at Sawford, it receiueth the Arrow or Aur,Arr [...] which rising in the blacke hils in Wor­cester shire, commeth by Alchurche, Beley [Page 60] parke, Ypsley, Studley, & thē taking in ano­ther ril called Alne, [...]lne. out of Fecknam forest, & going by Cowghtō park, it hasteth to Alces­ter, Arrow, Ragley, Wheteley, Bouington, Stādford, & so into Auō, which after this cō ­iunctiō goeth to Vffentō, & thē to Eouesholm: But ere it come there it receyueth twoo waters in one Chanell, whereof the first ry­seth about Willersey, ye other néere to Buck­land, and ioyning beneath Badsey, they fall into Auon, [...]ludor. vnder the name of Pludor brooke before it come to Eouesholme. Beyng past Eouesholme it crosseth ye Vincell, which ry­sing out of the hilles somewhere about Sud­ley, [...]ncêlus. runneth twoo myles farther to Win­chelcome, and Gretton, and taking in a ryll by the waye from Hayles, procéedeth on (go­ing within one quarter of a myle of Hayles Abbaie) to Tuddington, or Doddington, be­neath which when it hath crossed another rill that commeth from Stanwaie, it goeth to Warmington, Sedgeborow, and receyuing there the last on the ryght hande also (as all aboue rehearsed) it falleth into the Auon whē it is come by Hinton, vnto a towne called Hamptō, or as some do write it Ampton. Af­ter this confluence the Auon goeth to Charl­ton, to Crapthorne (and there taking in a rill on the left hand) to Fladbyry wike, & almost at Persore bridge, méeteth with a braunched water that commeth by Piddle, whereof one heade is at Alberton, [...]idle. an other at Pidle. Frō Persore it goeth to Birlingham, and soone after carrying a brooke withall discending from Fakenham, by Bradley, Himbleton, Huddenton, Crowley, Churchehill, Pibletō, Besseforde and Desseforde, it fléeteth to Ec­kington, Bredon, Twining, Mitton, & Tew­kesbiry, where it ioyneth with the Sauerne.

Now to resume the course of the Sauerne, you shall vnderstande that from Tewekes­biry it goeth to Derehirst, [...]hilus. thē how passage, and soone after receyuing the Chiltenham water that commeth thither by Bodenton, Sawton, & Nortō, it runneth to Ashelworth, Sainthirst, & here it parteth it self till it come to Glocester, where it vniteth it self againe. But in the meane time ye easterly braūch re­ceyueth a forked chanell, wherof one heade is not farre from Leke hāpton, the other about Witcōb, frō whēce it goeth to Brockworth. The other braunche or arme, taketh in the Leaden that cōmeth down by Prestō, Dim mock, Pantley vper Leadon, Leadon court and there taking in one rill that commeth from Linton by Axeknoll, [...]den. and another be­neath it frō Tainton by Rudforde, it falleth into the sayde braunche on the right side, be­fore it come at Glocester. The Sauerne therefore being past Glocester, it méeteth wyth a little ryll on the ryght hande, and thence holdyng on his course by Elmore, Minsterwoorth Longuey to Framilode, it re­ceyueth ere it come at this latter the Strowd brooke, which rising not farre from Syde,Strowd. goeth by Massade, Edgeworth Frampton Strowde, and receyuing there a water that commeth from Panneswijc Lodge, by Pit­tescombe on the one side, and another from Radbridge on the other, it prosequteth hys voyage to Stone house, Eflington, whyte Mysen, and so toward Framilode where the sayde Strowde doth fall into the Sauerne. After the fall of Strowde, the Sauerne go­eth from thence to Newenham, and Arling­ham, and soone after receyuing a water on eche side, whereof one commeth from Vley by Cham and Chambridge, the other by Blackney and Catcombe, it goeth forth tyll it méete with another water, on eche syde, whereof that on thenglishe halfe is forked, so that one heade thereof is to be founde about Boxwell, the other at Horton, and méeting a­boue Tortworthy, they runne by Stone and Barkeley Castell, and so into the Sauerne. That on ye welch halfe is named Newarne,Newarne. which commeth from the forrest of Deane, and so into the Sauerne.

The next ryuer that falleth into the sayde streame is the Wie, or Guy,Wy or Guy. whose descrip­tion I haue not so exactly as I would wish, & therfore I must be contented to set it down as I may, the like also must I doe wt the rest of those of wales, because mine information faileth me, without all hope of redresse.

The Guy therefore ryseth out of ye blacke mountaines of wales, in Radnor shire & cō ­ming by Lhāgerik, & Riadargoy it receiueth one ryll from northeast by s. Harmon, & ano­ther from the west called Darnoll.Darnol. Thence it goeth to Lhanuthel, and in the way betwixte Riadar and Lanuthell,Elland. it ioyneth wyth the Elland (whose heade is néere to Comeryst­with) & taketh likewise into him the Clard­wen that deuideth for a season Radnor shire from Brecknoch.Clardwē. From Lhanuthel it goeth west of Dissart, where it receyueth ye Ithan,Ithan. a riuer rising aboue Lhanibister, and from whence it runneth to Landwy, and Lanba­derne vawr. Beneath this also it crosseth a water on eche side, wherof that on the ryght hand consisteth of the Dulesse,Dulesse. Cluedoch. Lomaron. Hawy. and the Clue­doch, after their confluence, other the hight Lomaron whose heade is aboue Lanihan­gle. After these confluences, it runneth on crinkeling in straunge maner, till it come to Dissart, (taking in the Hawy on the left side ere it come there) and then into ye Wy, which [Page] directeth his course to Bealt, aliâs Lhanuear where it receyueth the Yrwon,Yrwon. a notable streame, and inlarged by sondry faire wa­ters,Weuery. Dulesse. Comarch. Dulesse. Dehon. as the Weuerey, the Dulas, and the Comarch on the one side, and likewise an o­ther Dulesse, beside sondry small rils on the other. After this our Irwon goeth to Lhan­nareth where it crosseth the Dehon on the one side, then to Aberedwy,Edwy. and there recey­ueth the Edwy on the other, and after that the Machawey that runneth by Castle pain,Machauy. and so going on méeteth in processe of tyme with the Leuēni,Leuenni, wherof Leland in his com­mentaryes, doth write as here insueth.

Euer. Euery.The Leuenni, otherwise called the Euer or Euery, is a faire streame rising in Welche Talgarth hard by Blain Leuenni, among the Atterill hilles, from whence it goeth to Brecknock Mere, which is two miles long, and a myle brode, and where mē fish in Vni­ligneis or botes of one péece, as they doe in Lhin Seuathan, which is foure myles from Brechnoch. Finally bringing great store of Red sande withall,Brennich. and there with the Bren­nich water (that hath his originall issue at Mennith gader, and is encreased with the Truffrin) it falleth into ye Wie aboue Gles­sebyry thrée miles from Haie,Trufrin. at a place that of the onelye fall of this brooke is named A­berleuenni. Being come to Haie (a pretye towne where much Romaine coine is found, which the people call Iewes money) it mée­teth with the Dulesse that cōmeth also from the Atterell by Kersop,Dulesse. and from thence go­eth to Clifford castel, the Whitneies, Win­ferton, Letton, Bradwarden, Brobery, Mo­nington, Byforde, Bridgesalers, Eaton, Brynton and Hereforde, where it méeteth with a water rysing shorte of Wormesley, and goeth by Maunsell, Lacy, Brinsop, Cre­dn [...]ll, Stretton and Huntington, and soone after into the Wye, beside a little ryll that runneth betwene them both euen into Here­forde towne. From hence in lyke sorte the Wye hasteth to Rotheras church, Hamptō, and Mordeford, where it taketh in sundrye waters in one chanell,Lug. of which the Lug or Luy is the principall, and next of all to be de­scribed before I go any furder with ye course of the Wye, whereinto it dischargeth the chanell. It ryseth as I reade, harde by Me­leninth neare to a chappell of our Ladye of Pylale, from whence it goeth to Kineton, Titley, Stanbach, Staunton, Pembridge, Arestande, Storbach, Euington, Bryarley, beneath which it crosseth the Wadele,Wadel. com­ming from new Radnor, Harton, olde Rad­nor, Nash, and hereabout méeting with an other running by Weston hall, to Monacht, Fulbrooke, Preston (a market towne) and so to Byton, where ioyning with ye Wadel, they run on as one to ouer Lée, Aliminster, Kingeslande, Elton, and Leon Minster (or Lemister) taking in the Oney by the waye,On [...] before we come at the towne. At Lemister it selfe in like sort thrée waters doe méete, and almost enuironne the towne, that is to say, the Lug,Pin [...] the Pinfulley or Pinsell (a ryue­ret rysing at Kingeslande two myles from Lemister) and the Kenbrooke, which com­meth out of the blacke mountaines.Ken [...] From Lemister the Lug or Luy goeth on to Eton, and there taketh in a rill beneath Hampton, whereof one heade is betwéene Hatfield and Buckleton, an other neare vnto Marston, & méeting both at Humber. From Hampton it goeth to Wellington, Morton, Sutton, Shelwijc, Lugwardine, & Longward, where it crosseth the Fromey or frome a pretie wa­ter, and woorthy to be remembred.Fro [...] It ryseth aboue Wolferelaw, from whence it com­meth downe to Bromeyarde, Auenbary, Frome castell, Stretton vpon Frome,Actō [...] Lod [...] and there taking in a water (called Acton, or Lo­den as I take it) comming from aboue By­shoppes Grendon, by Pencomb, Cowarne, Stoke Lacy, Cowarne, and Engleton, it (I meane Frome) goeth on to Yarkeley, Dor­nington, and Longwarde, and so into the Lug, which runneth furthwith to Mordford or Morthford, & so into the Wye, vnto whose description I nowe returne agayne. Being come therefore vnto Mordforde, it goeth to Hamlacy, Ballinghā, Capull regis (where it receyueth a water called Treske,Tres [...] from Berche by Treske) Fawley, Brokanton, Howe capull, Inkeston, Foy, Bramp­ton, Bridstowe, Wilton Castell, the Rosse (and there a rill from Bishoppes Opton by Budhall,) Wereferde, Ham, Glewston, Godderiche, (here in lyke sort méeting with another that commeth from Ecleswall, by Peniard Castell and Coughton) to Welche Bicknor, Englishe Bicknor, Huntesham & Whitchurch, where it taketh in Gaynar wa­ter that cōmeth from Birche, by Lanwarne,Gay [...] Michaell church, and at Langarran crossing the Garran brooke,Gar [...] that ryseth in Gregwood sixe myles from Monemouth by Norwest, these two doe runne as one, to Marston, Whitchurch and so into the Wye, which go­eth from thence to Dixton and Monemouth, where I will stay a whyle till I haue descri­bed the Mone, next of all to be remembred here.

The Mona ryseth in the forrest of Hene,Mon [...] twentie myles from Monemouth by west in Eirislande, and going by Creswell, or Cras­wall, [Page 69] after it hath runne a good distaunce frō the head, [...]on. it receyueth the Elkon on the one side, [...]ill. and the Oskill or Hesgill on the other: but first of all this last remembred that com­meth thither by Lanihengle, Eskill and the olde Court. As for the other it commeth frō aboue Knedoch by Landuehans churche, and this is all that I can say of these two. Af­ter these confluences therfore, the Mona go­eth to Cluedoch, [...]ney. & taking in the Hodiry that rūneth by [...]ne Capell, Lantony abbay, Stā ­ton, Michaell churche, it hasteth on to Wal­derston, Landsillo, and then ioyneth wyth the Dour, [...]r. that ryseth a little aboue Dour­ston, which is sixe miles aboue Dour abbay, so that it runneth thorow the Gilden dale, by Peterchurch, Fowchurche, Norhampton, Newcourt, [...]esse. Dour, and beneath Dour taketh in the Dulesse, from Lanueihengle, by Har­leswas castell on the one side, and eare long the Wormesbecke from aboue Keuernal by Didley, [...]mes­ [...]e. Deuerox, Workebridge and Ken­derchurch on the other, and so running all in one chanell vnto Mona, that riuer goeth on to Kinech churche, Grismonde, Cardway, Skenfrith, Warnethall, Perthire and so to Monemouth, where it méeteth wyth the Wye.

The Guy or Wye therfore being increa­sed with thus many brookes and waters, pas­seth on from hence, [...]olly. and going toward Lan­dogo, it méeteth with ye Trolly becke, whose head is aboue Lannam ferry and goeth from thence by Lhantellio, Lanihangell, Grace­dieu, Diggestow, Wonastow, Troy and so into Wye, that runneth also by Wies wood chase, [...]wy. taking in there the Elwy that cōmeth from aboue Landelwy by Langowen, Lan­nissen, Penclase, Trilegh, and Langogo, where méeting with the aforesayde streame, the Wye directeth his course from thence by Tinterne abbay, Chepstowe and so into the sea, leauing the Treacle (a Chappell stan­ding on a rocke) on the left hande betwéene it and Sauerne, ouer against the point that lyeth south of Bettesly. Next vnto the Wye, I finde a rill of no great course, comming downe from Mounton chappell, by a place of the bishops of Landaffe. Thence passing by Charston rocke, and the point whereon Trinitie chappell standeth, I come vnto the fall of Trogy, which rysch short of Trogy castell, [...]ogy. & runneth towarde the sea, by Land­uair, Dewston, Calycot and so into the O­cean.

[...]nny I­ [...]de in ye [...]ddest of [...] Sa­ [...]ne.The next fall is of a water that commeth from aboue Penho by Sainct Brides, north and by west of Denny Islande, which lieth midway betwene that Fall & Porshot point, and before I touche at Goldcleffe point, I crosse another fall of a freshe brooke, whose heade is aboue Landueigo, and course by Lhanbed, Langston, Lhanwarne, & thorowe the more to Witston.

The [...]ske or Wiske,Vske. in latin Osca riseth in such sort as I haue already described, & run­ning in processe of tyme, by Trecastell, it ta­keth in the Craie brooke,Craie. on the right hande before it come to Ridburne chappell. Going also frō thence toward Deuinock, it crosseth the Senney on the same side, (which riseth a­boue capel Senney) next of all the Camblas,Senny. Camblas. Brane. and at Abbraine the Brane, or the Bremich whose head is thrée miles from Brecknock, and running by Lanihengle, it méeteth I say with the Vske, about Mayster Awbries Ma­ner. Beneath Aber Yster, it receyueth the Y­ster, which riseth aboue Martir Kinoch and commeth by Battell chappell,Yster. and goyng from thence by Lanspythed, and Newton, it runneth in the ende to Brecknocke, where it taketh in the Hodney, on the one side, whose head is in Blaine Hodney,Hodney. and commyng downe from thence by Defrune chappell, Lamhāgle, & Landiuilog it méeteth with the Vske at Breknocke townes ende, which of the fall of this water, was sometime called Aberhodni, as I haue béene informed: on the other halfe likewise it receyueth ye Ter­tarith that ryseth among the Bane hylles,Tertarith. fyue myles from Brecknoch and commeth likewise into the very subburbes of ye towne beneath Trenewith, or newe Troy wherby it taketh the course.

After these confluēces, the Vske procéedeth on towarde Aberkinurike,Kynuricke or the fall of a wa­ter whose heade is in the rootes of Menuch­denny hil, and passage by Cantreffe. Thence it goeth by Lanhamlaghe, Penkethley ca­stell, Lansanfreid Landetty, Langonider, & soone after receyuing the Riangall (which ri­seth about the hill whereon Dynas Castell standeth,Riangall. and runneth by Lanyhangle and Tretoure) it passeth betwéene Laugattocke and Cerigkhowell, to Langroyny, and there crosseth the Groyny brooke,Groyni. that discendeth from Monegather Arthur hill, by Peter Church, as I finde. When the Vske is past this brooke, it taketh in thrée other short rils, from by south with in a little distance, wher­of the first hight Cledoch Vaur,Cledoch­vaur. Fidan. Cledoch­vehan. Geuenni. the seconde Fydan, & the thirde Cledochvehan. Of these also the last falleth in néere to Lanwenarth. From hence the Vske runneth to Aberge­uenni towne, where it méeteth with the Ge­uenni water from by north (that riseth short of Bettus Chappell) & so goeth on to Hard­wijc, beneath which it crosseth thrée nameles [Page] rilles on the right hande before it come at Lamhangle vpon Vske,Geuenni. of whose courses I know not any more then that they are not of any length nor the chanel of sufficient great­nes seuerally to entreate of. Betwéene Kem­meys and Trostrey it méeteth with [...]uch an other rill that commeth downe by Bettus Newith.Birthin. Cairuske standeth on one side of Vse, and Carliō on the other, but Cair vske by di­uers miles farder into the land. Thence it goeth to Cair Vske or Brenbigei, but eare it come there, it recey­ueth the Birthin on the right hande, which is a pretie water descending from two heades, wherof the first is north west of Manyhylot, as the other is of Lanyhangle & Pentmorell. Next vnto this it ioyneth with the Elwy a­boue Lanbadocke, whose heade is East of Penclase, and running westwardes by Pen­clase, Lannislen, Langowen (and beneath Landewy taking in a broket from Ragland castell, that commeth downe thither by Ra­glande parke) it bendeth southwest vntill it come at the Vske, which crinckling toward the South méeteth with thrée rilles before it come to Marthey chappell, wherof the first lyeth on the right hande, and the other on the left. Frō Marthelly it hasteth to Kemmeys, and care it come at Carleon, taketh in two waters on the ryght hande, of which the first commeth downe betwéene Landgwy & Landgweth, & by Lhan Henoch, without any farder increase: but the other is a more beau­tifull streame, called Auon, and thus descri­bed as I finde it among my pamphlettes.

Auon.The Auon ryseth in the hilles that séeme to part Monemouth and Breckenock shires in sunder, and running downe from thence by Capell Newith and Triuethin, it recey­ueth a water from by south almost of equall course, & from that quarter of the countrie and in processe of time, another little one frō the same side, eare it come to Lanyhangle, from whence it goeth to Gwennocke & Pen­rose, and so in Vse before it go by Carleon. Being past Carlion it runneth to Cryndy, where M. Harbert dwelleth, and there cary­ing another brooke withall, that descendeth by Henlis and Bettus chappell, it runneth furth to Newport (in Welch castel Newith) and from thence into the sea taking the Ebo­with water withall,Ebowith. whose race I described in my first booke, but hauing nowe more in­telligence of his course, I will ones againe deale with it in this manner as I reade it. The Ebowith riseth in ye very edge of Mone­mouth shyre, aboue Blainegwent, and com­ming downe by Lanheleth and Tumberlow hyll (crossing a ryll, from North east by the way) it taketh in therabout ye Serowy, that runneth by Trestrent, and is of lesse race hi­therto,Serowy. then the Ebowith, and frō that same quarter. After this confluence it goeth to Ri­sley, Rocheston castell, next of all thorowe a parke, and so to Grenefeld castell, and is not long ere it fall into the sea, being the last issue that I doe finde in the county, which beareth the name of Monemouth, & was in olde time a part of the region of the Silures.

The Remeney or as some corruptly call it the Nonney is a goodly water, [...] and from the head a march betwéene Monemouth & Gla­morgan shires. It receyueth no water on the east side, but on the west diuers smal beckes, whereof thrée are betwéene the rising & Bra­thetere chappell, the fourth commeth in by Capel Gledis, the fift from betwéene the Faldray and Lanvabor, the sixt and seuenth before it come to Bedwas, and the eyght o­uer against Bedwas it selfe, from chappell Martin: after which confluences it runneth on by Maghan, Keuen, Mabley and Rome­ney, and ere long crossing a becke at North east, that commeth by Lanyssen, and Rathe it falleth soone after into the Sauerne, Sea, but sée more of this in my former Treatize.

The Taffe riseth among the woddy hilles, [...] that lye west, and by north of Menuchdeny hill, and going downe to Capell Nanty, it taketh in a ryllet from by west, & afterward another from by east,Taffe [...]han. comming by Morlais castell, called Taffe vehan (as the former is named Taffe vaur) so that Menuch hill doth lye betwéene these two heades, and therto is an hill of no smal height and greatnesse. Be­ing ioyned they go on to Martyr Tiduill as one, & so procéede til they méete with Cunnō, [...] (or rather Kenon, tenne myles from Clauth constable, a faire Brooke running to Aber­dare, and after that with the Rodney, [...] before described) whereinto the Cledungh falleth, a myle from Retgowghe & an halfe, [...] on ye west side, after which confluence it hasteth to the sea without any farder increase, by Castell Coche, Whitchurche, Landaffe, and Car­diffe, as I gesse.

The Lay ryseth in the hylles aboue Lan­trissent (for all the regyon is very hillye.Lay.) From whence comming by Lantrissent, it runneth by Coit Marchan parke, Lambed­der s. Brides, Lhannihangel, Leckwith, Lā ­dowgh, Cogampyll, and so into the sea, with­out anye manner increase by anye rylles at all sauing the Dunelais, [...] which ryseth foure myles from his fall, east northeast, & méeteth withall a little more then a quarter of a myle from Pont Velim Vaur, and like­wise by west, the Methcoide that commeth from Glinne Rodeney, and wherein to the Pedware dischargeth that small water ga­thered in his chanell.

[Page 62]Leauing the Laie which some call Elaye, and passing the Pennarth baie, that lyeth betwéene the Pennarth and the Lauerocke pointes, we le [...] Scilley Islet (which lyeth in the mouth of Scilley hauen before described) and came vnto the Barry whose heade is a­boue wrinston castell, [...] and from whence hée runneth by Deinspowis, Cadoxton, Barry and so into the sea.

[...]Thawan is the next streame (sauing Come Kidy touched afore) nowe to be described. It ryseth of two headlettes aboue Lansan­tian, and thence goeth to Cowbridge, Lan­blethian, Landoghe, Beanpéere, Flymston, Gy [...]ton, and betwéene the east and the west Aberthawan into the Sauerne Sea. But ere it come all there it receyueth a brooke cal­led Kensan, or Karnsan, or Kensec, on the Eastsyde, whose heade is east of Bol­ston, and commyng by Charnethoyde, Lhancaruan, and Lhancadle, it falleth in­to the former aboue eyther of the Thawans, Lelande sayth, [...] that Kensan hath two heades whereof the more Northerly called. Brane, lieth in Luenlithan, & runneth seauen myles before it méete wyth the other. Leauyng this water we sayled on, casting about the nashe point, omytting two or thrée waters whereof I haue made mencion in my former treatise by the way, because I haue nothing more to adde vnto their descriptions, except it be that the Colhow taketh in a rill frō Lan Iltruit, of whose course (to saye the truth) I haue no manner knowledge.

[...]The Ogur or Gur, which some falsely call Ogmur, is a welfaire streame, (as we were wont to saye in our olde englishe) whose head is in the same hilles, where the Rodeneis are to be founde, but much more westerlye, and running a long course ere it come to any vil­lage, it goeth at the length beneth Langume­uere, to S. Brides vpon Ogur, then to newe castell, [...] and Marthermaure, beneath which it méeteth the Wenny, halfe a mile from Ogor castell on the east banke. It ryseth fiue or sixe miles from this place, among the hilles, and comming downe at last by Lanharne, it crosseth a ryll ere long from northeast, and the confluence passeth forth by Coitchurch, Ogor castell, and so into the Ogor. Lelande wryting of the waters that fall into thys Ogor sayth thus. [...]rrow, Into the Ogur also resor­teth the Garrow two myles aboue Lansan­fride bridge, [...]enne, descending from Blaingarow. It taketh furthermore sayeth hée ano­ther called Leuenny rysing in the Paroch of Glin Corug, [...]rug at Northwest, and then run­ning two myles lower, vniteth it selfe with the Corug brooke, a little short thing & wor­thie no longer speach. From this confluence the Leuenni goeth seuen myles farder eare it méete with the Ogor on the west side, at Lansanforde, two myles aboue Penbowt, and so farre Lelande. Next vnto the Ogur, is the Kensig water, that commeth downe by the Pyle and Kensige castell,Kensig. and being past the same we crosse the Margan rill,Margan. Auon. where Sir Edwarde Manxell dwelt, and so vnto A­uon, which hauing two heades as is said, the more easterly of them commeth downe by Hanudaport chappell, the other by Glin Co­rug, Michaell church, Aber Auon, and so into the sea. From hence we went along by the Cole pittes to the mouth of the Neth.Neth.

The Neth is a faire water, rysing of fine heades,Nethuehā. whereof the more easterlye named Nethvehan riseth not farre from the head of the Kennon,Neth Vaur. Trau­garth. Meltay. Hepsay. and comming downe to Aber­pirgwin, it recieueth Nethvaur, a litle aboue the towne, which rising not farre southeast of the head of Tauy, receiueth ye Trangarth, the Meltay and the Hepsay (all which are ac­compted, as members of his heade) in one chanell about a myle or more before it ioyne with Nethvehan. After those confluences, the maine streame runneth in and out by sundry myles till it mette with the Dulesse,Dulesse. whose head is aboue Chappel Krenaunt. Thence it goeth to Cadox towne, or betwéene it and Lamultyde, then to Nethtowne, and beneath the same receiuing the Cledoch,Cledoch. that rūneth by Kelebebisch, and also Neth abbay where M. Crumwell dwelleth, it goeth on by Coit­franke forrest, Nethwood, Bryton ferry and so into the sea.Tauy.

The Tauy (for I passe ouer the Crimline becke, bicause I want his description) riseth in the thickest of the blacke mountaines, and comming downe west of Calw [...]n chappell, it receyueth on the east banke a ryll,Coilus. named Coiell, that runneth thither by Coielburne chappell, and beyng thus vnited the chanell passeth forth by Istragnules,Torche. and then mée­ting with the Turche, or Torche water that commeth from the foote of the blacke moun­taine, it runneth to Langoge, Lansamled, S. Iohns, Swansey, and so into the Baie. Being past this we come by another litle fal, whose water runneth thrée or foure myles, ere it come into Swansey Baie, but without name. Thence going about by Oystermont castell & Mumbles point, we go forth toward the southwest, by Pennarth point,Ilston. tyll wée come to Ilston water, whose head is not far within the lande, and yet a rill or two doth fall into the same. Then castyng about by Oxwiche point, wée go onwarde there by and sayling flat north by the Holme, and S. [Page] Kennettes chappell and then North east by Whitforde point, we went at length to the Lochar,Lochar. or Loghor, or as Lhoyd nameth it the Lychwr. It ryseth aboue Gwenwy chap­pell, from whence it goeth to Landbea, and aboue Bettus receiueth a rill named Amone that entereth thereinto frō northeast.Amone. Being past Bettus it passeth by Laneddy, Arthelas bridge, and ouer against Landilo Talabout, it crosseth from by west the Combwily and afterwarde the Morlais aboue Langnarche on the same side.Comwilly. Morlais. Then comming to Loghor castell,Lhu. it taketh in on the east side, the Lhu whose course is not aboue fiue myles, and thence losing the name of Lochar, it is called Burray as I gesse vntill it come to the sea.Burray. From this water we passed by Bachannis Isle,Lheddy. to the Aberlheddy water, whose heade being aboue Prenacrois, it passeth by Lha­nelthey & thence into the sea. Then went we to the Dulesse,Dulesse. thence by the Pembray and Calicolt pointes, till we came about to the Wandres or Vendraith mouth,Wandres. whose de­scription is sufficiently set downe in the for­mer Treatize, and therfore but in vaine to be repeated here, except I might adde some­what therevnto therby to make it more per­fite.

Towy.The Towy rysing in such sorte and place as I haue sayde, parteth Brecknocke from Cardigon shyre, for a certaine season, till it come by the water of Trausnant (that fal­leth thereinto from by east,Trausnāt) vnto Pylin Ca­pell, and so to Istrodefine where it méeteth with the Tothée that commeth thether from Lhinuerwin where it ryseth and so thorowe Rescoth forrest,Tothe. till it vnite it selfe with the Pescotter,Pescotter. which moūting out of the ground in thedge of Cardigan shyre, runneth along as a limite and marche vnto the same, till it ioyne with the Tothée, & both come togither beneath Istrodefine into Towy. After this confluence it cōmeth to Lhanuair Awbrey, Lonyhowell and Landonuery, and here it receyueth two waters in one chanell, where­of the first is called Brane,Brane. Gutherijc. the other Guthe­rijc (which lyeth more southerly of the two) & fall as I sayd into Towy beneath Landon­verey,Dulesse. which rūneth on till it méete with the first Dulesse that goeth by Lanurdy, then with the Marlais,Morlais. & these on the Northwest. But a litle lower it taketh in many waters in one chanell beneath Langadocke, called Modewy from by east, whereof I haue thys aduertisement.Modwy. The Modewy or as some pro­nounce it Motheuy, ryseth of two heades, which ioyning aboue Lanyhangle, ye streame runneth on till it mette with the Cledoch on the left hande,Cledoch. procéeding also farder toward Langadocke, it receiueth not far from thence the Sawthey whose two heades descende frō the blacke mountaines or east edge of Car­mardiueshyre, [...] as mine information leadeth me. [...] After this confluence the seconde Du­lesse doth méete with the Towy (whose head is in the hilles aboue Talthogay abbay) then comming downe by Landilouaur, Dinefar castell, and Golden groue, it receyueth the thirde Dulesse, [...] from by north that commeth in by Drislan castell and after that the Co­they, whose race is somewhat long and ther­fore his description not vtterly to be passed ouer. Not farre from the head (whose place is alreadie set downe) and somewhat beneath Lanapinsent chappell, [...] it taketh in the Tur­chebecke, that runneth thither from Lana­croyes. Thence it goeth to Lansawell, Aber­gorlech, Breghuangothy, Lannigood and so into Towy, which hasting forwarde by chap­pell Dewy, receyueth the Rauelthy, [...] from by north, then the Gwily frō northwest, whose head is aboue Lany Pinsent, & race by Can­well, Eluert, Comewyly, and Merling hill, as I haue often heard, After this confluence with the Gwyly, the Towy goeth to Caer­mardine, then to Lanygang, then to Lanste­phan, s. Ismaeles and so into the sea.

Next vnto the Towy is the Taue, [...] whose head is in the blacke mountaines as is afore­sayde, at the rootes of Wrenni vaur hill in Pembrokeshyre, from whence it runneth by Lanunrieach, Langludien, Lanualteg, and taking in the Duddery from southwest, [...] out of the same countie by Lanbederuelfray, it goeth to Eglesware chappell, beneath which it crosseth the Marlais by North that run­neth by Lanbedy & Whitlande. [...] Thence mée­ting with one rill (called Venni as I take it) [...] that commeth thorow Cardith forrest on the one side,Ca [...] & the Cayre on the other that run­neth into it west of Landowrox, it hasteth to S. Clares where it taketh in the Karthkyn­ny, or Barthkinni, as Leland calleth it, [...] & the Gow both in one chanell, of which the first ryseth aboue Capell Bettus, from whence it runneth by Talacouthe, Kilsant and Lan­gynnyn, the other issueth out of the grounde aboue Trologh Bettus, by Mydrun, & ioy­ning with the former a little aboue s. Clares they runne into the Taue, and from thence to Lanyhangle, and betwéene it and Aber­cowen, admitteth finally the Gowē streame, [...] which comming likewyse from the blacke mountaines goeth by Ebbernant, and so in­to the Taue, who directeth his course, by La­charne castell and then into the sea.

The next water that we come to is the Gwair, [...] which is but a small thing rysing a­boue [Page 63] Crugwair, and going into the sea, at Argwaire. Then passed we by another com­ming out of Rath forrest called Coit Rathe, the water it selfe rising short of Templeton. Thence leauing the Monkeston rocke, we came to Tenby or Dy [...]bechy Piscood, and passing into the Port betwéene the castell and s. Catherines rocke, we founde it serued with two little backewaters, of so smal os­tenaunce, that they are not worthye of any farder talke to be spent in their descriptions. After this we passed betwéene Lo [...]dy and an other Islet or rock lying by northwest of the same,Lon­ [...] Cal­ [...]rtie [...]s. to Ludsop point, and so to Abertrewēt where I founde a silly freshe water, that ry­seth a myle or there about within the lande. [...]ent. Frō thence we went southwards by Brode hauen, til we came to S. Gowans point. Ehē gathering west & by North before we came at Shepe Islande, we founde another freshe water, that riseth short of Kyriog Maharen, and running south of Vggarston, Windmill hill, or betwéene it and Castell Norton and Gupton, it holdeth on flat west all the way, till it come at the Oceane. [...]pe I­ [...] The Shepe Isle not afore described is but a little plot, lying at the very point of the Bay before we came at ye Blockhouse, which standeth north of the same at the very entrie into Milfordtha [...] vpon the east side. By north of Shepe Isle & betwéene it and the Stacke rocke (which ly­eth in the very middest of the hauen) at ano­ther point is Rat Isle, yet smaller than the former. [...] Isle. Being therfore passed these, we c [...]st about towarde the northwest, by the P [...]pi [...] and Pennar, [...]nar. till wée come to the Pen [...]r mouth, out of which the Salt water [...] that in maner enuironmeth Pembrook Frō this (omitting sundry salt créekes on both sides of the hauen) we came to the fall of two waters in one chanel aboue whose cōfluence, Williamston parke standeth, & whereof [...] (a méere salt course,) incloseth thrée partes of Carew castell. The other rysing neare to Coit Rath forrest is a freshe, and going by Geffraiston, Creswel and Lawrenny, it lea­ueth the Sparek on the south side, and [...]eth into the hauen after confluence with the for­mer.

Nowe come I to the two swordes, afore­mencioned whose courses I finde described▪ in this order, [...]hey. The Cloth [...] ryseth at the foote of Wrenny vaur hill and comming downe to Monachlodge, Langelman, Lannabeden, and Egremond, it receyueth a ryll from by northwest before it come at La [...]haddon ca­stell. Eare long also it taketh in another on the east side from Narbarth castell, by R [...] ­beston, then going by Gsaston, Sle [...] Pict [...] castell, at Rise castell poynt west of Coit [...]eales (as I haue béene informed) it méeteth with the other sworde,Dugledy. named Du­gledy wherof I reade as followeth. The hed of the Dugledy, is somewhere at northwest, betwéene S. Laurences and S. Dugwel [...], from whence it rūneth to Trauegarne, Red­baxton, and taking in a rill by the waye from Camens [...] at the west, it goeth to Ha [...]rford west, and there vniteth it selfe with a water, which peraduenture, is the same that Lelād called Gwyly Certes it riseth about [...],Gwyly. and comming by S. K [...] [...] chappel and P [...]de [...]g oft it falleth, I say into the Du [...]l [...] ­dy, ouer against the towne of Hauer forde, or Herforde we [...]k, but i [...] Wea [...] Hu [...]forde [...] Lhoied dothe set it [...] it taketh [...] other to [...] from southwest, whose head is short of S. Margarattes chap­pell, and [...] betwéen Hart aldstone and Herforde, which Harraldstone, [...] the name of Harrald [...] the successour of Edwarde the [...] him, who was a grieuous [...]all vnto the [...] Britons that con [...]ned in the time of sayde Ed­wards [...] I haue no [...] alreadie.Cult [...]. Thē Cult­ [...] cōmeth into the Duwle [...] beneath Bo [...] ­shoff, with [...] course from by North, of thereof foure myles, after whose vniti [...] [...]ith the aforesayde watyer they ruine on as one till they mette with Elothy casting out by the waye sundry salt créekes as the ruine [...] doth from thenceforth vntill it passe the S [...]dy haue the Wale ro [...]e which ther a silly fresh [...] of small value and become about agayne [...] the large [...] a [...]e. Hauing thus shew the courses of those [...]fresh waters that come to Milford doeth we [...]ast about by the blackehouse [...] S. A [...]es chappell to Gatehole Isle,Gateholme Isle. Stocke­holme Isle than [...] and the Wil [...] ke [...] point; [...] against Stockeholme Island that is scituate farde [...] of worthy [...] towarde the [...] full [...] great as the [...] ye I before [...] further

Betwéene the Will [...] [...] still great as the Gre [...]holme.

The Gresholme lyeth [...] Midlande Isle. Gresholme whence if you sayle thyther on the south sside [...] past by the new [...] the [...]aith of Scalme [...], you must league the Yarlande Foxe on your lefthead. Whervnto [...] well therfor [...] eftsoones Islande already name [...], any conferre them with the [...] and S. Da­uids land, you shall finde them [...] it were [...], includyng the Bred [...], wherein (notwithstanding the [Page] greatnesse) are 1000. perilles, and no freshe Brookes for me to deale withall. Thus ha­uing doubled the Willocke point, we entred yet into the Baie, to sée what Isles were there against the nexte publication of thys booke, if it maye please God to graunt mée lyfe to sée it printed once againe, eyther by it selfe or otherwise.

S. Brides Islande.First of all therefore I sawe S. Brides I­slande, a very little patche of grounde, néere the lande, before I came at Galtroy rode. From thence we went aboute by the little hauen, Dolnach Hauen, Caruay Hauen, Shirelace rocke, Carnbuddy, and Carnay Bayes, Port [...]ai [...], and so into the sounde betwéene Ramsey and the point. In thys sound lykewise is a litle Isle, almost annex­ed to the maine, but in the middest thereof is a rocke called the horse (a myle and more by north of Ribby rocke, that lyeth south east of Ramsey) and more infortunate then tenne of Seianes coltes, but thanked be God I neuer came on his back. Thēce passing by S Ste­phens baie,A sorte of dangerous rockes ly­ing on a row vpon the west ende of southwals called the bishop and his clarkes and Whitesande baie, we saluted the Bishop and his Clarkes, as they went in Procession on oure left syde (beyng lothe to take any salted holy water at their hands) and came at last to the point called S. Da­uids head. From whence we coasted along toward the southeast, till wée came ouer a­gainst S. Catherins, where goyng north­wardes by the br [...]ade hauen, and the Strom­bles heade, we sayled thence northeast, and by north, to Langlas head, then [...]at south by the Cow and calfe (two cruell rockes) which we left on the [...] hande, and so costed ouer as Abergwin or Fiscarde, where we founde a freshe water named Gwin,Gwerne. or Gwernel, whose course is in manner directly out of the east into the West, vntill it come within a myle of the aforesayde Towne. It ryseth flat north of the peri [...]y hill, from whence it go­eth by Pont vain, Lauerellidoch, Lanchar, La [...]ilouair, and so to Abergwine, or Aber­gwerne, for I doe read both. Frō Abergwin, we cast about by Dyuas heade, till we come to the fall of Neuerne,Neuerne. where Newport stan­deth. The head of thys ryuer is aboue Capell Nauigwyn, from whence it runneth by Whitchurch, but care it come at Kylgwin, it taketh in a little water that ryseth short of Wreny vaur, & thence go foorth as one vntill they come to Newport. Cardigan hauen is the next fall that I dyd stumble on, wherein lyeth a little Islande ouer against the north point.Teify or Tiue. Hereinto also commeth the Teify, whereof I haue spoken somewhat in my for­mer treatise, but sith it sufficeth not for the for the full knowledge of the course of thys streame, I wyll supply the want euen here in such order as insueth.

The Teify or Tiue ryseth in Lintiue as is aforesayde, and after it hath runne from thence a little space, it receyueth a brooke frō southeast that commeth out of Lin Legnant and then after the confluence runneth on to Stradfleur Abbaie, beneath which it méeteth with the Myricke water (that ryseth aboue Stradmyrich) and soone after with the Lan­durch, [...] (both from the northwest) and finally the Bromis aboue Tregaron, that com­meth in by the east as Leland hath set down. [...] Néere to Landwybreuy also it crosseth the Brennige by east, & then goeth to Landuair, [...] Cledoghe, Kellan, & soone after taking in the Matherne from by East that parteth Car­digan partely from Carmardine shire, [...] and likewise ye Dulas aboue Lanbedder, [...] (which ryseth aboue Langybby, and goeth thence to Bettus) on the northwest, it goeth next of all to Lanbedder towne, then to La [...]ydair, be­neath which it crosseth the Grauelth, thence to Pēcarocke, Lanibether, Lanlloyny,Gra [...] La­nyhangle, and Landissel, and there it vniteth it selfe with the Clethor, which cōmeth down thither by Lantisilued chappell, Lanframe,deth [...] and finaly Landissell from by north as I doe here. After this confluence it procéedeth on to La [...]d [...]y, Alloyne, Bangor, Langeler, Lan­deureog and Newcastell, ere long taking in the Kery from by north,Kery. whose heade is not farre from that of Clethor, and whose course is somewhat inlarged by such rilles as dis­cend into the same. For west of Capel Kenō, two becks in one chanell doe fall into it, al­though they be namelesse, and but of a lyttle length Beneth Tredwair, also crosseth ano­ther from by west, that runneth along by Britus, Euan, and finally méeting wyth the Teify, they runne as one by Kennarth (still parting Cardigon shire, from Carmardin, as it hath done sith it met wyth ye Matherne) and so forth on till they ioyne with the Che­ach which rysing aboue Chapple Euan,Che [...] doth part Carmardine and Brecknecke shire in [...], till it come vnto the Teify. Frō this confluence, and being still a [...]nil [...]e [...] vnto Cardigon shire, it goeth by Marierdiue, and so to Cardigan, taking in one rill from by north and two on the south west side, but af­terwarde none at all, before it come to the sea.

Ayron rysyng as is aforesayde aboue Blain Pental,Ayr [...] runneth on by Lamber wod­dy Langy [...], Treg [...]garon hill, Treuilian, and soone after taking in a ryll from by south it rūneth by Istrade, Kylkēnen, Lanicharin, and finally into the Sea, crossyng by the way [Page 64] the Bidder brooke, which comming from Dehewide, doth fall into the same, betwéene Lanychayrin, and Henvenney.

The Arth is no great thing, neyther of any any long course, yet it ryseth thrée or foure myles or more within the lande slopewise, & cōming by Lambadern, & Treueglois, it fal­leth into the sea, northeast of Aberarth. The Ris or rather the Werey, ryseth of two hea­des, [...]ias aboue whose cōfluence standeth a town, named Lanyhangle, Redrod, & from whence it goeth by Lanygruthen to Laristed, and so into the Ocean.

[...]The Ystwith ryseth in the blacke moun­teynes, aboue Comerstwith from whence it runneth certeine myles, vntill it come vnto Yspitty, Istwith, Lanauon, Lanyler, Lan Nachairne, and so into the sea taking withal the Ridall or Redholl not far from the shore, whereof I haue this discription. [...] The Ridall ryseth in the toppe of Plimlymmon hyll out of a lake named Lin Ridal, from whence go­ing towarde Spitty Kinwen, it crosseth one water on the north, and another benoath it on the southeast, and so goth on by Lanbeder vaur, till it come to Aberistwith, the Istwith and so into the Ocean.

[...]The Salique brooke descendeth in like sorte from the blackmounteines, and going Vm­maboue, toward Gogarth, or Gogyrthar, it receyueth the Massalique, and from thence goeth into the sea. [...]ali­ [...]

The Lery ryseth toward the lower ground of the blacke hylles, and going by Lanihan­gle castell Gwalter, it runneth from thence northeast into the Ocean. Thus haue I brought me selfe out of Cardigon shire, vnto the Wy, that séemeth for a certeine space to be marche betwéene the same and Merion­neth, & here wt also I ende with the descripti­on of southwales, and likewise of all that re­gion remayning, [...]esse whereof I haue no farder knowledge, [...]esse [...] [...]nny [...]euen­ [...] [...]. [...]uer. [...]our. more then is alreadye set downe in my first booke, sith those yt promised helpe herein haue vtterlye deceyued me. Yet thus much will I note of such waters as fall into the sayde riuer on the south side, that aboue Mathanlaith it crosseth the Dowlasse Dée and Dowlasse Ruen both in a chanell, whose heades lye by west of ye Ruoluadian hill. Be­neath the sayde towne likewise I fynde the Leuennaunt, [...]og [...]hanell [...] by ye [...]uence [...] and [...]lais, [...]mite [...]éene [...]cke & which hauing two heades, the more southerly of them is Limes betwéene Radnor shire & Mōemoth. After these it cros­seth the Eynon, the Kinuer, and the Cledour, and thus farre for wales I saie againe, sith for the rest I yéelde vnto a non plus, vntill I come to ye Dée, of whose course I haue some informatiō, (after it hath receyued ye Kyriog & the Morlais, both in one bottome,) on the south side of Chirke castell, but not from the very head for want of information. Hauing therfore, mette with the aforesayde water, the De procéedeth to Bestocke, Orton Ma­docke, Orton bridge and Bangor, where the slaughter of monkes was made, or not far of from thence, and of which Monasterie I find this note insuing. Their abbaye of Bangor stoode sometime in Englishe Maylor,The scitu­ation of the mona­stery of Bangor. by hy­ther and south of the riuer Dée. It is nowe ploughed ground where that house stoode, by the space of a Welch myle (which reacheth vnto a myle and an halfe Englishe) and to thys daye the rillers of the soyle there, doe plowe vp bones as they saye of those monks that were slaine in the quarell of Augustine, and wythin the memorie of man, some of them were taken vp in their rotten wéedes, which were much lyke vnto those of our late monkes, as Lelād doth set it down, yet Eras­mus is of the opinion, that the apparel of the Benedictine monkes, was such as most men did were at their first institutiō. But to pro­céede, thys Abbaye stoode in a fayre valley, and in those tymes the ryuer ranne harde by it. The compasse thereof lykewise, was as ye ciruite of a walled Towne, and to this daye two of the the gates may easily be discerned, of which the one is named Port Hogan ly­ing by north, the other Port Clais, scituate vpō the south. But ye Dée hauing now chan­ged his chanell, runneth thorow ye very mid­dest of the house betwixt those two gates, the one of them being at the lest a full halfe myle frō the other. As for the squared stone that is founde hereabout, and the Romaine coine, there is no such necessity, of the rehearsell thereof, but that I maye passe it ouer with­out any farther mencion.

The Dée therefore beyng past Bangor, goeth to Wrothenbury, and there recey­ueth sundry waters into one chanell, wherof the chiefe ryseth néere to Blackmere (a ma­ner pertayning to the Earle of Shrewesbu­ry) from whence it goeth to Whitechurch, Ousacre hall, and soone after taketh in a ryll that discendeth from Coisley, after which cō ­fluence, it runneth on by nether Durtwiche, to Olde castell, Tallarne, and ere long cros­seth two other waters in one channell also, whereof one runneth by Penly chapell, ano­ther from Hawmere, and ioyning at Em­berhall, they go from thence to Worthenbu­ry, and so into the Dée, which by and by vni­teth it selfe with another at Shockebridge that commeth in from Ridding. Thence it runneth betwéene Holt castell, and Farue, and ere it come to Alford two waters com­myng [Page] out of Wales doe ioyne withal, wher­of the one is named Alin and descendeth by Grafforde,Alen. Marfforde, Cragwilly and Alen towne, the other goeth by Pewford & Pot­ton. Beneath Alford towne end likewise the Dée receyueth the Gowy,Gowy. whose heade is at Pecforten at two seuerall places, and after the confluence goeth by Beston castell, & Be­ston towne: thence to Tréerton and Hakesly where it deuideth it selfe, so that one arme runneth by Totnall, Gowburne (where M. Venables lyeth) Lée hall and beneath Alford againe into the other braunche of the ryuer Dée, which goeth in the meane time by Sta­pleforde, Hocknell plat, Plemstow, & a litle aboue Thorneton crosseth a water that com­meth from Chester, and goeth to Thornetō by the Baites, Charletō, Blackford, Crow­ton, and Stoke, whereby Wyrall is cut frō the maine of Englande and left as a very I­slande. Finally our Dée goeth from Alforde to Eaton hall, Eccleston, Huntungdon hall, Boughton and so by Chester towne into the hauen adioyning, and thus much of the Dée, which receyueth in like sort the Alen mencio­ned euen now wherof I gaue some notice in the former Treatize,Alen. and I haue found more sithens that time in Leland which I will not here omitte, to set downe worde for word as I reade it in his Commentaries. One of the greatest riuers, saith he, that falleth into this streame, (meaning Dée) is named Alen. It ryseth in a pole called Lin Alen, and goeth from thence by Lanteglan, Lan Armon, Lanueris, Molesdale, and at Hispalin rūneth into the grounde for a certaine space, about a quarter of a mile in length, and there after it is rysen againe with a great vehemencie, becommeth a marche betwéene Molesdale (a Lordship full of very fine riuerets, called in Welche Stradalyn) and Flint, for a fiue miles grounde. From thence going thorow Hoxedale, Bromefielde aliâs Maylor & Cam­ridge, halfe a myle beneath Holt, it falleth into the Dée, which hath the best Trowtes in England.Best Trowtes in Dée Rue De­doch. Beside this it receyueth also the Rue Dedoch, which commeth downe within a quarter of a myle of Wrexam, & méeteth wythall a myle aboue Holt, a verye pretie streame, and such a one in déede as bréedeth the same Trowt, for which the Dée is com­mended.Abon. The Abon falleth into ye Dée, with­in a myle of Ruabon churche. I had almost forgotten (saith the sayde Authour) to speake of the Terig otherwise named Auon Terig,Terig. which being almost so great as the Alen, cō ­meth thorow a péece of Yale Lordship into Molesdale,Howne. and so into Alin. I ouer passe also the Howne that commeth by the south ende of Molesdale towne, and soone after into this water. Also the Brone, [...] descending frō Regi­nalds tower, & after thre quarters of a myle lykewyse into the Alen.Wyr [...] Finally the Wyral which ryseth within lesse then a quarter of a myle of Chester, & falleth into Dée at Floc­kers brooke, without the north gate, wherein is a Docke called Port pole for great ships to ride at a spring tyde. Hitherto Lelande, whose sayings herein shal not perish, because they may be profitably vsed in the next publi­cation of this booke, yf it euer happen to be liked and come thereto.

Being past the Dée we come next of all vn­to the Wiuer,Wiuer. then the which I reade of no riuer in England that fetcheth more or halfe so many windlesses and crincklinges, before it come at the sea. It ryseth in Buckle hilles, which lye betwene Ridley & Buckle towns, and soone after making a lake of a myle and more in length called Ridley pole, it rūneth by Ridley to Chalmōdly. Thence it goeth to Wrenbury where it taketh in a water out of a moore that commeth from Marbury: [...] and beneath Sanford bridge the Combrus from Combermer or Comber lake: and finallye the thirde that commeth from about Mone­ton, and runneth by Langerflaw, then be­twéene Shenton and Atherly parkes, and so into the Wiuer, which watereth all the west part of England, and is no lesse notable then the fift Auon or thirde Ouze, whereof I haue spoken already. After these confluences it ha­steth also to Audlem, Hawklow, and at Bar­derton crosseth the Betley water,Bet [...] that run­neth by Duddington, Widdenbery and so by Barderton into the aforesayde streame. Thence it goeth to Nantwiche, but eare it come at Marchforde bridge, [...] it meeteth with a rill called Salopbrooke, as I gesse cōming from Caluerley warde, [...] and likewise beneth the sayde bridge, with the Lée and the Wul­uarne both in one chanell, wherof the first ri­seth at Weston, the other goeth by Copnall. From thence the Wiuer rūneth on to Min­chion and Cardeswijc, and the next water that falleth into it is the Ashe,Ashe (which passeth by Darnall Graunge,) and afterwarde go­ing to Warke, the vale Royall, and Eaton, it commeth finally to Northwiche where it receyueth the Dane,Dane▪ to be described as fol­loweth. The Dane riseth in the very edges of Chester, Darbyshyre, and Staffordshyre, and comming by Wharneforde, Switham­ley and Bosley, is a limite betwéene Staf­forde and Darby shyres, almost euen from the very head, which is in Maxwell forrest. It is not long also ere it met with the Bidle water, that commeth by Congerton,Bidle▪ and af­ter [Page 65] the cōfluence goeth to Swetham, the He­remitage, Cotton and Croxton, there taking in two great waters whereof the one is cal­led Whelocke, [...]elocke. which comming frō the edge of the countie by Morton to Sa [...]dbach cros­seth another that descendeth from Churche Cawlton, and after the confluence goeth to Warmingham (ioyning also beneath Mid­lewish with the Croco or Croxtō, the second great water, [...]roco. whose head commeth out of a lake aboue Bruerton as I heare) and thence both the Whelocke and the Croco go as one to the Dane, at Croxston, as the Dane doth from thence to Bostocke, Dauenham, She­bruch, Shurlach and at Northwiche into the aforesayd Wyuer. After this confluence the Wyuer runneth on to Barneton, and there in like sort receiueth two brookes in one cha­nell, wherof one commeth from aboue Allo­stocke, by Holme and Lastocke, the other from beyonde Birtles mill, by Chelforde (where it taketh in a [...], called Piuerey) thence to ouer Peuer, [...]iuerey. Holforde & there cros­sing the Waterlesse brooke [...]cowing of two beckes and ioyning at nether Tabley) it go­eth forth to Winshambridge, [...]terlesse and then mée­ting with the other, after this confluēce they procéede till they come almost at Barneton, where the saide chanell ioyneth with a pretie water running thorow two Lakes, whereof the greatest lyeth betwéene Cumberbach, Rudworth, & Marbury. But to go forwarde with the course of the maine riuer. After these cōfluences our Wiuer goeth to War­ham, Actonbridge, and Dutton, ouer against which towne, on ye other side it méeteth with a rill, comming from Cuddington, also the second going by Norley, and Gritton, final­lye the thirde soone after from Kimsley, and then procéedeth on in his passage, by Asheton chappell, Frodesham, Rockesauage, and so into the sea: and this is all that I doe finde of the Wyuer, whose influences might haue béene more largely set downe, yf mine in­sunctions had béene more amplye deliuered, yet this I hope maye suffice for his descrip­tion, and knowledge of his course.

[...]ersey.The Mersey riseth among the Peke hils, and from thence going downe to the Wood­house, and taking sundrie rilles withal by the waye, it becommeth the confines betwéene Chester and Darbyshyres. Going also to­ward Goitehal, it méeteth with a faire brooke increased by sundrye waters, [...]it. called Goyte, whereof I finde this short and briefe descrip­tion. The Goyte riseth not far frō the Shire méere hill (wherein the Doue and the Dane haue their original) that parteth Darbyshire and Chesteshyres in sunder, and thence com­meth downe to Goyte howses, D [...]rth, Ta [...] ­hall, Shawcrosse, and at Weybridge taketh in the Frith,Frith. Set. and beneath Berdhall the Set that riseth aboue Thersethall and rūneth by Ouersette. After this confluence also the Mersey goeth to Goyte hall, and at Storford towne méeteth with the Tame,Tame. which deui­deth Chestershire and Lancastershyres in sunder, and whose heade is in the very edge of Yorkeshyre, from whence it goeth South­warde to S [...]leworth Firth, then to Mu [...]el­hirst, S [...]aly hal, Ashdon Vnderline, Dunke­field, Denton, Reddish, and so at Stockeford or Stopford into the Mersey streame, which passeth forth in like sort to Doddesbyry, re­ceyuing a brooke by the waye that commeth from Litt [...] parke, by Br [...]thall parke and Chedley. From Doddesbury it procéedeth to Northen, Ashton, A [...]ston, Flixston, where it receiueth the Irwell a notable water,Irwell. and therefore his description is not to be omitted before I doe go forward any farder with the Mersey. It riseth aboue Bacop, and goeth thence to Rosendale, and in the waye to Ay­tenfielde it taketh in a water from Haselden. After this confluence it goeth to Newhall, Brandlesham, Brury, and aboue Ratcliffe ioyneth with ye Rache water,Raeus, or Rache. a faire streame and to be described when I haue finished the Irwell, as also the next vnto it beneath Rad­cliffe, bycause I woulde not haue so manye endes at once in hande wherewith to trouble my readers.

Beyng therfore past these two, our Irwel goeth on to Clifton, Holl [...]nde, Edgecroft,Lelande speaketh of of the Corue water a­boute Manches­ter, but I knowe no­thing of his course. Yrke. Medlocke. Strang wayes, and to Manchester, where it vniteth it selfe with the Yrke, that runneth thereinto by Royton Midleton, Heaton h [...]ll, and Blackeley. Beneath Manchester also it méeteth with the Medlocke that cōmeth thy­ther frō the north east side of Oldham, & be­twéene Clayton and Garret Halles, and so betwéene two parkes, falling into it about Holne. Thence our Irwel going forward to Woodsall, Whicleswijc, Erles, Barton, & Deuelhom, it falleth néere vnto Flixton, in­to the water of Mersey, where I will staye a while withall, till I haue brought the other vnto some passe, of which I spake before.

The Rache consisteth of sundrye waters,Rache. whereof eche one in a maner hath a proper name, but the greatest of all is Rache it self, which ryseth among the blacke stony hilles, from whence it goeth to Littlebrough, and beyng past Clegge, receyueth the Beyle,Beile. that commeth thither by Myluernaw chap­pell. After thys confluence also, it méeteth with a rill néere vnto Rachedale, and soone after with the Sprotton water,Sprotton. and then the [Page] Sudley brooke,Sudley. whereby his chanell is not a litle increased, which goeth from thence to Grisehirst and so into the Irwell, before it come at Ratcliffe.

Bradsha.The second streame is called Bradsha. It ryseth of two heades, aboue Turetō church, whence it runneth to Bradsha, and ere long taking in the Walmesley becke,Walmesley. they go in one chanell till they come beneath Bolton in the More. From hence (receyuing a water that commeth from the rootes of Rauenpike, hill by the way) it goeth by Deane and Bol­ton in the more, and so into Bradsha water, which taketh his way to Leuermore, Farn­worth, Leuerlesse, and finally into the Ir­well which I before described, and whereof I finde these two verses to be added at the last.

Yrke, Irwell, Medlocke, and Tame,
When they meete with the Mersey, do lose their name.

Nowe therefore to resume our Mersey you shall vnderstande that after his conflu­ence with the Irwel, he runneth to Parting­ton, and not farre from thence interteineth ye Gles,Gles. or Glesbrooke water, increased wyth sundrye armes whereof one commeth from Lodward, an other from aboue Houghton, the thyrde from Hulton Parcke, and the fourth from Shakerley: and beyng all vni­ted néere vnto Leighe, the confluence goeth to Holcroft,Bollein broke. and aboue Holling gréene into ye swift Mersey. After this increase the saide streame in lyke sort runneth to Rigston, & there admytteth the Bollein brooke water into his societie, which rising néere ye Cham­ber in Maxwell Forest goeth to Ridge, Sut­ton, Maxfield, Bollington, Prestbyry, and Newton, where it taketh in a water cōming frō about Pot Chappell, which runneth frō thence by Adlington, Woodforde, Wymsley Ryngey, and Ashley, there receyuing the Byrkin brooke that commeth from betwene Allerton and Marchall,Birkin. by Mawberly, and soone after the Marus or Mar,Mar. that cōmeth thereinto from Mar towne, by Rawstorne, and after these confluences goeth on to Downham, and ouer against Rixton beneth Crosforde bridge into the Mersey water, which procéeding on, admitteth not another that méeteth with all néere Lym before it go to Thelwall. Thence also it goeth by Bruche and so to Warrington, a little beneath cros­sing a brooke that commeth from Par by Browsey, Bradley and Saukey on the one side, and another on the other that commeth thither from Gropenhall, and with these it rūneth on to nether Walton, Acton grange, and so to Penkith, where it interteineth the Bolde, and soone after the Grundiche water on the otherside, that passeth by Preston, [...] and Daresbyry. Finallye our Mersey goyng by Moulton, it falleth into Lirepoole Hauen, when it is past R [...]ncorne. And thus much of the Mersey, comparable to the Wyuer, and of no lesse fame then most ryuers of thys I­slande.

Beyng past these two we come next of all to the Tarbocke water that falleth into the sea at Harbocke, [...] without finding any [...] tyll we be past all Wyrall, out of Leirpoole hauen, and from the blacke rockes, that lye vpon the north point of the aforesayd Island. Then come we to the Altmouth,Alt. whose fresh rysing not farre into the lande, commeth to Feston, and soone after receiuing another on the ryght hand, that passeth into it by Augh­ton, it is increased no more before it come at the sea. Neyther finde I any other falles till I méete with the mouth of the Yarrow and Duglesse, which haue their recourse to the sea in one Chanell as I take it.

The Duglesse commeth from by west of Rauenspike hill▪ [...] and ere long runneth by Andertonford to Worthington, & so (takyng in two or thrée rylles by the waye) to Wige, where it receyueth two waters in on chanel, of which one commeth in south from Bryn Parke, the other from northeast. Being past thys it receyueth one on the north side from Standishe, and another by south from Hol­lond, & then goeth on towarde Rufford chap­pell taking the Taude with all, that discen­deth from aboue Skelmersdale towne, [...] and goeth thorow Lathan Parke, belonging as I here vnto the Earle of Daxby. It méeteth also on the same side, [...] with Merton méere water, in which méere is an Islande called Netholme, and when it is past the hanging bridge, it is not long ere it fall into the Yar­rowe.

The Yarowe ryseth of two heades,Yar [...] Bag [...] wherof the second is called Bagen brooke, & making a confluence beneath Helby woode, it goeth on to Burghe, Egleston, Crofton, and then ioyneth next of all with the Dugglesse, after which confluence, the maine streame goeth forth to Bankehall, Charleton, How, Hes­ket, and so into the sea. Lelande wryting of ye Yarow, saith thus of the same, so farre as I now remember. Into the Duglesse also run­neth the Yarrow, which commeth wythin a myle or thereabout, of Chorleton towne, that parteth Leland shire, frō Darby shire, vnder the foote of Chorle also I finde a ryll, named Ceorle, and about a myle and an half frō thence a notable quarrey of stones wher­of the inhatants doe make a great bost and [Page 66] price, and hetherto Leland.

[...]ll.The Rybell as concerning his heade is sufficiētly touched already in my first booke. Beyng therefore come to Gisborne, it goeth to Sawley or Salley, Chatburne, Clithe­row castell, & beneath Mitton, méeteth with the Odder, [...]e. which ryseth not farre from the crosse of grete, and going thence to Shil­burne, Newton, Radholme parke, & Stony hirst, it falleth ere long into the Ribble wa­ter. From hence the Ribble hath not gone farre, [...]der. but it méeteth with the Calder. Thys brooke ryseth aboue Holme church, goeth by Towley and Burneley, (where it receiueth a trifeling rill) thence to Higham, and ere long crossing one water that commeth from Wicoler, by Colne, and another by and by named Pidle brooke that runneth by Newe church, [...]le. in the Piddle: it méeteth with ye Cal­der, which passeth forth to Paniam, & thence (receyuing a becke on the other side) it run­neth on to Altham, and so to Martholme, where the Henburne brooke, doth ioyne with all, [...]burne that goeth by Akingtō chappell, Church, Dunkinhalghe, Rishton, and so into ye Chal­der as I haue sayde before. The Chalder therefore being thus inlarged, runneth forth to Reade (where M. Nowell dwelleth) to Whalley, and soone after into Ribell, that goeth from this confluence to Salisbury hal, Ribchester, Osbaston, Sambury, Keuerden, Law, Ribles bridge, and then taketh in the Darwent, [...]rwent. before it goeth by Pontwarth in­to the sea.

The Darwent deuideth Lelande shire from Andernesse, and it ryseth by east aboue Darwent chappel, [...]cke­ [...]ne. [...]les­ [...]th. [...]nnocke and soone after vniting it selfe with the Blackeburne, & Rodlesworth water, it goeth thorowe Howghton Parke, by Howghton towne, to Walton hall, and so into the Ribell. As for the Sannocke brooke, it ryseth somewhat aboue Longridge chap­pell, goeth to Broughton towne, Cotham, Lée hall, and so into Ribell: and here is all that I haue to say of this ryuer.

[...]re.The Wire ryseth eight or ten miles from Garstan, out of an hill in Wiresdale, from whence it runneth by Shireshed chappell, & then going by Wadland, Garstan, & Kyrke­lande hall, [...]lder .2. it first receyueth the seconde Cal­der, that commeth down by Edmersey chap­pell, then another chanel increased with sun­drie waters, which I will here describe be­fore I procéede with the Wire. I suppose that the first water is called Plympton brooke. [...]mpton. It riseth south of Gosner, and cōmeth by Cawforde hall, [...]rton. and eare long receyuing the Barton becke, [...]ooke. it procéedeth forward till it ioyneth with the Brooke rill, that cōmeth by Claughton hall where M. Broke hales doth lie, and so thorow Mersco forrest. After this confluēce the Plime or Plimton water méeteth with the Calder, and then with the Wire which passeth forth to Mighel church, and the Raw cliffes,Skipton. and aboue Thorneton crosseth the Skipton, that goeth by Potton, then into the Wire rode, and finally into the sea, according to his nature.

Beyng past the fall of the Wire, wée coa­sted vppe by the salt cotes to Coker mouth,Cokar. whose shortnesse of course deserueth no dis­criptiō. The next is Cowdar,Cowdar. which cōming out of Wire dale (as I take it) is not increa­sed with any other waters, more then Co­ker, and therefore I wyll rydde my handes thereof so much the sooner. But beyng past these twoo, I came to a notable ryuer called the Lune,Lune. whose course doth reast to be de­scribed as followeth, & whereof I haue two descriptions, the first being set down by Le­land as M. More, of Catherine hall in Cam­bridge, deliuered it vnto him: the next I ex­habite as it was giuen vnto me, by one that hath taken paynes as he sayth to searche out and view the same, but very lately to speake of. The Lune saith M. More riseth at Crosse­hoe, in Dentdale, in the edge of Richmonde shire out of thrée heades. North also from Dentdale, is Garsdale, and thereby runneth a water, which afterward commeth to Seb­bar vale, where likewise is a brooke méeting with Garsdale water, so that a little lower they go as one into Dentdale becke, which is the ryuer that afterwarde is called Lune, or Lane, as I haue verye often noted it. Beside these waters also before mencioned, it receyueth at the foote of Sebbar vale, a great brooke which cōmeth out of ye Worth, betwéene Westmerlande and Richmonde shires, which taking with him the aforesaide chanelles, doth runne seauen myles ere it come to Dentdale foote. From hence it ente­reth into Lansdale, corruptlye so called per­aduenture for Lunesdale, and runneth therin eyght or nyne myles southwarde, and in this dale is Kyrby. Hetherto M. More (as Leland hath exemplified that percell of his letters) but mine other note wryteth hereof in thys maner. Burbecke water ryseth at Wustall heade, by west,Burbecke and going by Wustall foote to Skaleg,Breder. it admitteth the Breder that des­cendeth thither from Breder dale. From hence our Burbecke goeth to Breder dale foote, and so to Tybary, where it méeteth with foure rylles in one bottome, of which one commeth from besides Orton, another from betwéene Rasebecke and Sunbiggin: the thirde and fourth from eche side of Lang­dale, [Page] and after the generall confluēce made, goeth towarde Roundswathe aboue which it vniteth it selfe with the Barow.Barrow. Thence it runneth to Howgill, Delaker, Firrebanke, and Killingtō, beneth which it méeteth with a water comming from the Moruill hilles, and afterwarde crossing the Dent brooke (that runneth thither from Dent towne) be­neath Sebbor,Dent. they continue their course as one into the Burbecke, from whence it is called Lune. From hence it goeth to Bur­borne chappell, where it taketh in an other rill comming from by east, then to Kyrby Lansdale, and aboue Whittenton, crosseth a brooke comming from the Countie stone, by Burros, and soone after beneath Tunstal the Gretey,Gretey. which descēding from about In­gelborow hill passeth by Twyselton, Ingle­ton, Thorneton, Burton, Wratton & neare Thurlande castell toucheth finally with the Lune, which brauncheth and soone after vni­teth it selfe againe. After this also it goeth on towarde New parke, & receyueth the Wen­ny,Wenny. Hinburne. and the Hinburne both in one chanell, of which this riseth north of the crosse of Grete, and going by Benthams and Robertes hill, aboue Wray taketh in the Rheburne that ri­seth north of Wulfcragge.Rheburne After thys con­fluence also aboue New parke, it maketh his gate by Aughton, Laughton, Skirton, Lan­caster, Excliffe, Awcliffe, Sodday, Orton, and so into the sea. Thus haue you both the descriptions of Lune, make your conference or election at your pleasure for I am sworne to neyther of them both.

Docker. Kery.The next fall is called Docker, and perad­uenture the same that Lelande doth call the Kery, it ryseth north of Docker towne, and going by Barwijc hall, it is not increased be­fore it come at the sea.

Being past this we finde a forked arme of the sea called Kensandes: into the first of which diuers waters doe runne in one cha­nell, as it were from foure principal heades, one of them comming from Grarrig hall, another from by west of Whinfielde, & ioy­ning with ye first on the east side of Skelmere parke.Sprota. The third called Sprot or Sprota ry­seth at Sloddale, and commeth downe by west of Skelmer parke, so that these two brookes haue the aforesayde parke betwéene them, and fall into the fourth east of Barne­side, not very farre in sunder. The fourth or last called Ken,Ken. cōmeth frō Kentmeres side, and going to Stauelop it taketh in a rill frō Chappleton Inges. Then leauing Colnehed parke by east, it passeth by Barneside, to Kendall, Helston, Sigathe, Siggeswijc, Le­uenbridge, Milnethorpe, and so into the sea. Certes this Ken is a pretie déepe riuer, & yet not safely to be aduentured vpō with Botes and Balingers by reason of rolling stones, and other huge substaunces that oft annoy & trouble the middest of the chanell there. The other péece of ye forked arme,Win [...] is called Win­star, ye head wherof is aboue Winstar chap­pell, and going downe almost by Carpma­unsell, and Netherslake, it is not long eare it fall into the sea.

The Winander water ryseth about Dum­balrase stenes,Win [...] from whence it goeth to Lan­gridge, where it maketh a méere: thē to Am­bleside, and taking in eare it come there, two rilles on the left hande, and one on the right that commeth by Clapergate, it maketh as I take it the greatest méere, or freshe water in Englande, for as I reade it is well neare ten myles in length. Therinto also doe thrée or foure waters come, whereby the quantity thereof is not a little increased: finally com­ming to one smal chanell aboue Newbridge, it is not long eare it fall into the sea.

On the west side of the point also commeth another thorow Furnesse felles,Spa [...] and frō the hilles by north thereof, which eare long ma­king another Lake not farre from Hollin­how, and going by Bridge ende, in a narrow chanell, passeth forth by Cowlton & Sparke bridge, and so into the sea. There is in like sorte a water called the Fosse,Fosse that ryseth neare vnto Arneside, and Tillerthwates, & goeth forth by Grisdale, Saterthwate, Rus­lande, Powbridge, Bowth, & so falleth with the Winander water into the maine sea.

Hauing passed the Leuen or Conysandes or Winander fall (for all is one) I come to the Lew which riseth at Lewike chappell,Leu [...] & falleth into the sea beside Plumpton. The Rawther descending out of lowe Furnesse hath two heades,Raw [...] whereof one commeth frō Pennyton, the other by Vlmerstone abbay, and ioyning both in one chanell, they hasten into the sea whither all waters dir [...]ct theyr voyage. Then come we to another rill south west of Aldingham, descending by Glaiston castell, and likewyse the fourth that ryseth neare Lyndell, and running by Dawltō ca­stell and Furnesse abbay, not farre from the Barrow heade, it falleth into the sea ouer a­gainst Wauey and Wauey chappell, except myne aduertisementes misleade me.

The Dodon cōmeth frō the Shire stone hill bottome, & going by Blackhil,Dodon Southwake s. Iohns, Vffay parke, and Broughton, it fal­leth into the saltwater, betwéene Kyrby and Mallum castell, and thus are we now come vnto the Rauenglasse point.

Comming to Rauenglasse, I finde harde [Page 67] by the towne a water comming from two heades, and both of them in Lakes or Poles, wherof one issueth out of Denock méere, & is called Denock water, [...]enocke. the other named Eske from Eske pole, [...]ske. which runneth by Eskedale, Dalegarth, and soone after méeting with the Denocke, betwéene Mawburthwate, & Ra­uēglasse falleth into the sea. On the other side of Rauenglasse also cōmeth the Mite brooke, from Myterdale as I reade: [...]ite.

Then finde we another which commeth from the hylles, and at the fyrst is forked, but soone after making a Lake, they gather againe into a smaller chanell: finally méeting with the Brenge, [...]renge. they fall into the sea at Carleton southeast, as I wéene of Drig.

[...]ander.The Cander or as Lelande nameth it the Calder, commeth out of Copeland Forrest, by Cander, Sellefielde and so into the sea. Then come we to Euer water descending out of a pole aboue Coswaldhow, and thence going by Euerdale, it crosseth a water from Arladon, and afterward procéedeth to Egre­mond, S. Iohns, and taking in another ryll from Hide, it is not long ere it méeteth with the sea. The next fall is at Moresby, wherof I haue no skill. Frō thence therefore we cast about by s. Bées to Derwentset hauē, whose water is truely written Dargwent, or Der­uent.Dargwent It riseth in the hilles about Borrodale, from whence it goeth to the Graunge, thēce into a Lake, in which are certaine Islandes, and so to Keswijc where it falleth into the Bursemere, or the Burthmere pole. In like sort the Burthmere water,Burth­ [...]éere. rising among the hils goeth to Tegburthesworth, Forneside, S. Iohns and Threlcote: and there méeting with a water from Grisdale, by Waketh­wate,Grise. called Grise, it runneth to Burnesse, Keswijck and there receiueth the Darwent. From Keswijc in like sorte it goeth to Thor­neswate (& there making a plash) to Arman­swate, Isel, Huthwate and Cokermouth, & here it receyueth the Cokar,Cokar. which rising a­mong the hilles, commeth by Lowsewater, Brakenthwate, Lorton and so to Cokar­mouth towne, frō whēce it hasteth to Bridge­ham, and receiuing a rill called the Wire on the south side that rūneth by Dein, it leaueth Samburne and Wirketon behinde it, & en­treth in the sea.Wire. Leland sayth that the Wire is a creeke, where shippes lie oft at rode, and that Wirketon or Wirkington towne doth take hys name thereof. But to procéede, the Elme riseth in the mines aboue Amau­trée,Elmus. and from Amautre goeth to Yeresby Harby, Brow, and there taking in a rill on the left hande comming by Torpenny it go­eth to Hatton castell, Alwarby, Byrthy, De­reham & so into the sea. Thence we go about by the chappell at the point, and come to a baie serued with two fresh waters, whereof one rising westward goeth by Warton, Ra­by, Cotes, & so into the maine, taking in a ril withall from by south,Croco. called Croco that cō ­meth from Crochdale, by Bromefield.Vamus. The second is named Wampole brooke, and this riseth of two heades, whereof one is about Cardew, thence in lyke sorte, it goeth to Thuresby, Croston, Owton, Gamlesby, Wampall, the Larth, and betwéene White­ridge and Kyrby into the saltwater. From hence we double the Bowlnesse, and come to an Estuary, whether thrée notable ryuers doe resorte, (and this is named the Soluey mouth) but of all, the first excéedeth which is called Eden, and whose description doth fol­lowe here at hande.

The Eden descendeth as I heare from the hilles in Athelstane moore at the foote of Hus­siat Moruell hill where Swale also riseth and southeast of Mallerstang forrest.Eden. Frō thence in like maner it goeth to Mallerstāg towne, Pendragon castell, Wharton hall, Netby, Hartley castell, Kyrkeby Stephen, and eare it come at great Musgraue it receiueth thrée waters, whereof one is called Helbecke,Helbecke. Bellow. by­cause it commeth from the derne and elinge mountaines by a towne of the same denomi­nation, the other is named Bellow and des­cendeth frō the east mountaines by Sowars­by, and these two on the northeast: the thirde falleth from Rauenstandale, by Newbyg­gin, Smardale, Soulby, Blaterne and so in­to Eden,Orne. that goeth from thence by War­cop and taking in the Orne about Burelles on the one side, and the Moreton becke on the other, it hasteth to Appleby,Moreton. thence to Cowlby where it crosseth the Driebecke,Dribecke. Trowt becke. thence to Bolton, and Kyrby, and there mée­ting with the Trowt becke and beneath the same with the Liuenet,Liuenet. (whereinto falleth an other water frō Thurenly méeting wyth all beneath Clebron) it runneth finally into Eden. After the confluences also the Eden passeth to Temple, and soone after méeting with the Milburne and Blincorne waters,Milburne Blincorne in one chanell, it runneth to Winderwarth and Horneby where we will staie till I haue described ye water that méeteth withall néere the aforesayde place, called the Vlse.Vlse.

This water commeth out of a Lake, which is fedde with sixe rilles wherof one is called the Marke,Marke. and neare the fall therof into the plash is a towne of the same name: the se­conde hight Hartesop,Hartsop. & runneth frō Harte­shop hall by Depedale: the thirde is Pater­dale rill: the fourth Glent Roden,Paterdale. Roden. the fift [Page] Glenkwent,Glenk­guin. but the sixth runneth into the sayde lake, south of Dowthwate. Afterward when this lake cōmeth toward Pole towne, it runneth into a small chanell, and going by Barton, Dalamaine, it taketh in a rill by the waye from Daker castell. Thence it go­eth to Stockebridge, Yoneworth, and soone after méeteth wyth a prety brooke, called Lo­der,Loder. comming from Thornethwate by Bau­ton, and here a ril, then by Helton, and there another, thence to Askham, Clifton, and so ioining with the other called Vlse, they go to Brougham castel, Nine churches, Horneby, and so into Eden, taking in a ryll as it goeth that commeth downe from Pencath. Beyng past Hornby our Eden runneth to Langun­by and soone after receiuing a ryll that com­meth from two heades, and ioyning beneath Wingsel, it hasteth to Lasenby, then to kirke Oswalde, (on eche side whereof commeth in a ril from by east) thence to Nonney, & there a ryl, Anstable, Cotehyll, Corby castel. We­therall, Neweby, where I wyll staye till I haue described the Irding, and such waters as fall into the same before I go to Carleill.

Irding.The Irding ryseth in a Moore in the bor­ders of Tindale, néere vnto horse hed Crag, where it is called Terne becke vntil it come to Spycrag hill,Terne. that deuideth northumber­land and Gillesland in sunder, from whence it is named Irding. Beyng therefore come to Ouerhal, it receiueth the Pultrose becke, by east,Pultrose. and thence goeth on to Ouerdenton, Netherdenton, Leuercost, and Castelsteade, where it taketh in the Cambocke, that run­neth by Kyrke Cambocke,Cambocke Askerton castel, Walton, and so into Irding, which goeth from thence to Irdington, Newby, and so into Eden. But a litle before it come there, it crosseth with the Gilly that commeth by Tankin,Gilly. and soone after falleth into it. Af­ter these confluences, our Eden goeth to Lin­stocke castell, (and here it enterteyneth a brooke, comming from Cote hill warde by Aglionby) thē vnto Carleill, which is almost enuironed wyth foure waters. For beside ye Eden it receyueth the Peder,Pedar ali­as, Logus. which Leland calleth Logus from south east. This Peder ryseth in the hiles southwest of Penruddock, from whence it goeth to Penruddocke, then to Grastocke castell, Cateley and Ken­dersidehall, and then taking in a water from Vnthanke, it goeth to Cathwade, Pettrell way, Newbiggin, Carleton, & so into Eden, northeast of Caerleill. But on the north side the Bruferth brooke doth swiftely make hys entraunce running by Leuerdale,Bruferth. Scalby castell, and Housedon as I am informed. The thirde is named Candan, (if not De­ua after Lelande) which rysing about the Skidlow hilles, runneth to Mosedale, Cald­becke Warnell, Saberham, Rose Castell, Dawston, Brounston, Harrington, and west of Cairleill falleth into Eden, which goyng from thence by Grimsdale, Kyrke Andros, Beaumont, falleth into the sea beneath the Rowcliffe castell. And thus much of the E­den, which Lelande neuerthelesse describeth, after another sort, whose wordes I will not let to set downe here in this place, as I finde them in his commentaries.

The Eden after it hath runne a prety space from his head,Vlse after [...] méeteth in time with the Vlse water, which is a great brooke in Westmer­lande, and rysing aboue Maredale, a myle west of Loder;Loder. it commeth by the late dissol­ued house of Shappe Priory, thrée myles frō Shappe, and by Brampton village into Lo­der or Lodon. Certes thys streame within halfe a myle of the head, becommeth a great lake for two myles course, and afterwarde waxing narrow againe, it runneth forth in a meane and indifferent botome. The sayde Eden in lyke sort receyueth the Aymote a­bout thrée myles beneath Brougham castell and into the same Aymote,A [...]mot [...] falleth the Dacor becke (already touched) which riseth by north west in Materdale hilles, foure myles aboue Dacor castell,Dacor. and then goyng thorowe Da­cor Parke, it runneth by east a good myle lower into Eymote, a lyttle beneath Dela­maine, which standeth on the left side of Da­cor. In one of his bookes also he sayeth, how Carleill standeth betwéene two streames,Deua. that is to saye the Deua, which cōmeth the­ther from by southwest, and also the Logus that discendeth frō the south east. He addeth moreouer howe the Deua, in times past was named Vala or Bala,Vala. and that of the names of these two, Lugibalia for Caerleill hath béene deriued. &c▪ And thus much out of Le­lande, but where it had the cause of this hys coniecture as yet I haue not reade. Of thys am I certeine that I vse the names of most ryuers here and else where described, accor­cordingly as they are called in my time, al­though I omitte not to speake here and there of such as are more auncient, where iust oc­casion mooueth me to remember them, for ye better vnderstāding of our histories, as they doe come to hande.

Blacke Leuen and white Leuen waters,Leuen. fall into the sea in one chanel, and with them the Lamforde and the Eske,Lamforde Eske. the last conflu­ence beyng not a full myle from the mayne sea. The white & black Leuen, ioyning there­fore aboue Bucknesse, the confluence goeth to Bracken hill, Kirkleuenton,Tomunt. & at Tomunt [Page 68] water méeteth with the Eske. In lyke sorte the Kyrsop ioyning with the Lydde out of Scotland at Kyrsop foote, [...]irsop. [...]ydde. running by Stan­gerdike side, Harlow, Hath water, & takyng in the Eske aboue the Mote, it looseth the for­mer name, and is called Eske, vntill it come to the sea.

Hauing in this maner finished the descrip­tion of the courses of most of the ryuers ly­ing vpon the west coast of our country: now it resteth that wée cut ouer vnto the west side of the same, and as it were call backe vnto mynde, the most notable of such as wée erst omitted, vntill we come at the Humber, and from thence vnto the Thames.

[...]wede.First of all therfore as touching ye Twede, this I haue to note, that the olde and aunci­ent name of the Till that falleth into ye same is not Bromis,Till. from the heade as some doe nowe call it, [...]romis. (and I following their asserti­ons haue set downe) but rather Brenniche, [...]renniche & beside that Lelande is of the same opinion. I finde howe the kingdome of Brenicia, tooke denomination of thys water, and that only therof it was called Brenicia, or Bren­nich, and vpon none other occasion.

In my tractatiō also of ye Tine, I reserued the courses of one or two waters vnto this booke of purpose, but sithens the impressiō of the same, I haue found the names & courses of sundrye other, which I will also deliuer in this place, after I haue touched the Alen or Alon, and one or two more which I appoin­ted hether, because that at the first I vnder­stoode but little of them.

[...]st Alen.The Alen or Alon, hath two heades wher­of one is called east Alen, ye other west Alen. The first of them riseth south east of Sibton Sheles, and going by Simdorp, it taketh in a rill withall from by east: After which con­fluence it runneth to Newshele, Allington, Caddon, Olde towne, and in hys waye to Stauertpele, méeteth with the west Alen. The West Alen ryseth in the hilles aboue Wheteley shéeles, [...]est Alen from whence it goeth to Spartwell, Hawcopole, Owston, & taking in a rill thereaboutes, it procéedeth on to Permandby, and crossing there another ril in lyke maner from by West, it goeth to Whitefielde, and ioyning soone after with ye east Alen, they run as one to Stauert poole, Plankforde, and so into the Tine.

[...]dde.Into the north Tine likewise falleth the Ridde, at Riddesmouth. It riseth within thrée myles of the Scottishe marshe, as Lelande saith & commeth thorowe Riddesdale where­vnto it giueth the name. Another writeth howe it ryseth in the rootes of the Carter, & Redsquire hylles, [...]elhop. and ere it hath gone farre from the heade,Cheslop. it taketh in the Spelhop frō the north and the Cheslop on the south, beside sundrye other w [...]ld rylles namelesse and ob­scure, and therfore not worthy to be remem­bred here. After it hath passed Otterburne, it goeth to the medow Howgh, Woodburne, Risingham, Leame, and so into the Tine, a little lower, then Belindgeham, which stan­deth somewhat aloofe from north Tine, and is as I take it ten myles at the least aboue the towne of Hexham. Beneath ye confluence in like sort of both the Tines, standeth Cor­bridge, a towne sometime inhabited by the Romaines,Corue. and about twelue myles from Newcastell, and hereby doth the Corue run, that méeteth ere long with the Tine. Not far of also is a place called Colchester, wher­by Lelande gesseth that the name of ye brooke should rather be Cole then Corue, and in my iudgement his coniecture is very lykely, for in the lyfe of S. Oswijn (otherwise a féeble authoritie) the worde Colbridge is alwaies vsed for Corbridg, wherof I thought good to leaue this short aduertisement, and hether­to of part of my former reseruatiōs. Now it resteth that I touch ye names of a few riuers & beckes togither as Lelande hath left them, whose order and courses may peraduenture hereafter be better knowne then they are to me at this present, for lacke of sound instruc­tion. The Deuilles brooke,Dill. he supposeth to be called Dill, of a town not far of that is com­monly called Dilstan,Darwent. wherby ye Tine doth runne. As the Darwent also doth fall into ye Tine, beneth Blaidon, so doe sundry brookes into the Darwent in two chanels,Blacke­burne. Horslop. as Black­burne, which goeth into Horslop burne, as Horslop doth into Darwent, on the east side, and on the other banke the Hawkesburne,Roueslop. that rūneth into Roueslop, as Roueslop doth finally into Darwent, which is sayde to ryse of two heades, whereof one is néere Knedon, the other at Kidlamhope, and after the con­fluence, going to Hunsterworth,alias Rid­lamhope. Blaunche­lande, Acton, Aspersheles, Blackehedley, Pansheales, Newlande, Darwent cote (by by north east whereof commeth in a ryll on the other side) Spen, Gibside, Hollinside, Swalwel, and so into the Tine.Hedley. In like sorte Lelande speaketh of a water called Hedley, that should fall into the Tine, whose heade is at Skildrawe, from whence it runneth to Vptthelde, Lamsley, Rauensworth towne,Wickham. Rauensworth castell, Redhughe, and so into Tine, Southwest of Newcastel, but he omit­teth wickham brooke (he sayth) because it ry­seth short of the towne, and is but a little rill. Finally ye Themis doth fal into Tine a mile or therabout aboue Getishead,Themis. & not very far [Page] beneth Rauensworth castell, rising ten miles by south into the land, as Lelande hath like­wise set downe.

Were. Ptolomy wryting of the Were, calleth it Vedra, a ryuer well knowne vnto Beda the famous Priest, who was brought vp in a monastery yt stood vpon his bankes. It recei­ueth saith Lelande the Dernesse,Dernesse. Brome. whereinto the Brome also doth emptie his chanell, that ryseth aboue Repare parke, as I haue béene informed. In lyke sorte I fynde howe it ad­mitteth lykewyse the Coue, that commeth from Lanchester,Coue. which is sixe myles high­er then Chester in the Streate, and then go­eth to Chester it selfe, whereabout it méeteth with the Hedley.Hedley. Gaund­lesse. Finally the Gawndelesse, that ryseth sixe myles by west of Akelande castell, and running by the south side thereof passeth by west Akeland S. Helenes Ake­lande, s. Andrewes Akeland, Bishops Ake­land and eare long into the Were, and thus much of waters omitted in ye Tine & Were.

These.Lelande writing of the These, repeateth the names of sundry riuerets, whereof in the former Treatize I haue made no mencion at all, notwithstanding ye some of their cour­ses may perhaps be touched in the same, as the Thurisgill whose heade is not farre frō the Spittle that I do reade of in Stanmoore.Thuresgil The Grettey commeth by Barningham & Mortham and falleth into the These aboue Croftes bridge.Gretty. The Dare or Dere runneth by Darlington,Dare. & likewise into the These a­boue the aforesayd bridge.Wiske. As for the Wiske it commeth thereinto from by south vnder Wiske bridge, Danby, Northalberton, and eare long also into a greater streame, which going a little lower vnder an other bridge doth runne by one chanell into the aforesayd ryuer before it come at the These. And these are the brookes that I haue obserued sith the impression of my first booke in Leland, those that followe I referred hither of purpose.

Thorpe. alias Le­uend.The Thorpe, riseth of sundry heads, wher­of one is aboue Pinching Thorpe, from whence it goeth to Nonnethorpe, and so to Stokesley. The seconde hath two braunches, and so placed that Kildale standeth betwéene them both: finally méeting beneath Easby they go by Eaton and likewise vnto Stokes­ley. The last hath also two braunches, wher­of one commeth from Inglesby, and méeteth with the seconde beneath Broughton, & go­ing from thēce to Stokesley they mete with the Thorpe aboue the towne, as the other fal into it somewhat beneath the same. From hence it goeth to Ridley and there taketh in another rill comming from Potto, thence to Crawthorne brooke,Craw­thorne. Leuanton, Miltō, Hil­ton, Inglesby & so into the These, betwéene Yarne and Barwijc, whereof I made men­tion before although I neither named it, nor shewed ye descriptiō. Some cal it not Thorpe but the Leuend brooke, or Leuen water, and thus much of some of the waters eyther o­mitted or not fullye touched in the former Treatize.

Of such streames as fall into the maine ri­uers betweene Humber and the Thames. Cap. 3.

THe course of the Ouze is alreadie set forth in the first booke of this description & so exactely as I hope that I shall not néede to adde any more thereunto at this time.Ouze. Wherefore I will deale onely with such as fall into the same, ymagining a voyage frō the Rauenspurne, vntill I come néere to the heade of These, and so southwardes about a­gaine by the bottome of the hilly soyle vntill I get to Buxston, Sheffelde, Scroby, and the very south point of Humber mouth, wherby I shall crosse them all that are to be found in this walke, and leaue I doubt not some espe­ciall notice of their seuerall heads & courses.

The course of the Hul is already described,Hul [...] yet here I will not let to insert Lelandes de­scription of the same, and that more for those odde notes which he hath set down in the pro­cesse of his matter, then that I thincke his dealing herein to be more exacte then myne, if so much may be sayde without all cause of offence. The Hulne (saieth he) riseth of thrée seuerall heads, whereof the greatest is not farre from Dryfielde, nowe a small village sixtéene myles frō Hull. Certes it hath béene a goodly towne, and therein was the pallace of Egbright king of the Northumbers, and place of Sepulture of a noble Saxon king, whose name I now remember not although his Tōbe remaine for ought that I do know to the contrarie, with an inscription vpon the same written in Latine letters. Neare vnto this towne also is the Danefielde, wherein great numbers of Danes were slaine, and buried in those hils, which yet remaine there to be séene ouer their bones and carkasses. The second head saith he is at Estburne, and the thirde at Emmeswell, and méeting alto­gither not farre from Dryfielde, the water there beginneth to be called Hulne, as I haue sayde alreadie. From hence also it goeth thorowe Beuerley medowes, and comming at the last not farre from an arme led from the Hulne by mans hande (and able to beare great vessels) almost to Beuerley towne,Cott [...] ham. & méeting thereabout also with the Cottinghā [Page 69] becke comming frō Westwood by the way, it hasteth to Kingston vpon Hulne, and so in­to the Humber without any maner impeche­ment.

[...]wlney.The Fowlney riseth about Godmanham, from whence it goeth by Wighton, Hares­well, Seton, Williams bridge, and soone af­ter spreading it selfe, one arme called Skel­flete, [...]elflete. goeth by Cane Cawsey to Browneflete and so into the Ouze. The other passeth by Sandholme, Gilbertes dike, Scalby chap­pell, Blacketoft and so into the aforesayde Ouze, leauing a very pretie Islande, which is a percel as I here of Walding fen more, though otherwyse obscure to vs that dwell here in the south.

[...]rwent.The Darwent ryseth in the hilles that lye west of Robin Whodes baie, or two myles aboue Ayton bridge, west of Scarborow as Lelande sayth: and eare it hath runne farre from the head, it receyueth two rilles in one bottome from by west, which ioyne withall about Langdale ende. Thence they go togy­ther to Broxey and at Hacknesse take in an other water comming from about Silsey. Afterwarde it commeth to Ayton, then to Haybridge, [...]nford. and there crosseth the Kenforde that descendeth from Roberteston. After this also it goeth on to Pottersbrumton where it taketh in one rill, as it doth another beneath running from Shirburne, and the thirde yet lower, on the fader bancke, that descendeth from Brumpton. From these confluences, it runneth to Fowlbridge, Axbridge, Yel­dingham bridge, and so to Cotehouse, recey­uing by the way many waters. Lelande re­coning vp the names of the seuerall brookes, numbreth them confusedly after his accusto­med order. The Darwent saith he receyueth diuers streames as the Shyrihutton. [...]hirihut­ [...]n. [...]rambeck The se­conde is the Crambecke, descending from Hunderskell castell, [...]rambeck (so called tanquā a cen­tum fontibus, or multitude of Springes that ryse about the same) and goeth to Rie, which comming out of the Blacke moores, passeth by Riuers abbay, taking in the Ricoll on the left hande, [...]. [...]coll. [...]euen. [...]ostey. [...]ckering then the Seuen, the Costey and Pickering brooke. The Seuen also sayeth he riseth in the side of Blackmoore, and thence goeth by Sinnington foure myles frō Pic­kering, and about a myle aboue a certayne bridge ouer Rie goeth into ye Streame. The Costey in like sorte springeth in ye very edge of Pickering towne, at a place called Keld head, and goeth into the Rie two myles be­neath Pickering, about Kyrby minster. Fi­nally Pickering water ariseth in Blacke­more, and halfe a myle beneath Pickering falleth into Costey, meting by the way with the Pocklington becke,Pockling­ton. and an other small rill or two of whose names I haue no know­ledge. Hitherto Lelande, but in mine opiniō it had béene far better to haue described them thus. Of those waters that fal into the Dar­went beneath Cotehouse, the first commeth from Swenton, the seconde from Ebberstō, the thirde from Ollerston, the fourth from Thornetō, and Pickering, and the fift on the other side that commeth thither from Win­tringham, for so shoulde he haue dealt in bet­ter order, & rid his hands of them with more expeditiō, referring the reast also vnto their proper places. But to procéede after myne owne maner. Being past Cotehouse, & eare the Darwent come at Wickham, it crosseth the Rie, which riseth of two heades,Rie. and ioy­ning west of Locton they run thorow Glans­by parke.Costey. Finally receyuing the Costey it méeteth at the last with an other streame in­creased by the falles of sixe waters & more, eare it come into ye Darwent. The most ea­sterly of these is called Seuen,Seuen. & ryseth as is aforesayde in Blackemore, from whence it goeth by Sinnington, Murton, Normanby, Newsounde, How & so into the Rie.Doue or Doue. The se­conde named Dou hath his original likewise in Blackemore, and descēding by Rasmore, Keldon and Edston, (where it receyueth the Hodge becke, that commeth by Bernesdale,Hodge­becke. Ricoll. Kirkedale, and Welburne) it goeth to Sawl­ton, and there taketh in first the Ricoll, that goeth by Careton, & whereof Ridall as some think (but falsly) doth séeme to take the name. Then Fesse, which ryseth aboue.Fesse. Bilisdale chappell, & méeteth with the Rie at the Sha­king bridge, from whence they go togyther vnder the Rie bridge, to Riuis abbaye, and thence (after it hath crossed a becke from the west) thorowe a parke of the Earle of Rut­landes to Newton, Muniton, and so to Saw­ton, or Sawlton, as I doe finde it written: Here also it taketh in the Holbecke brooke,Holbecke. that commeth thither from by west by Gyl­ling castell, and Stangraue, from whence it goeth on to Braby, next into the Seuen, then into the Rie, and so into the Darwent, which from thēce doth run to Wickhā. Being past Wickhā, it meteth with a water that cōmeth thereinto from Grynston to Setterington at southeast, and thence it goeth on to Malton & Malton, Sutton, Wellam, Furby, & Kirk­ham, receyuing by ye way one rill on the one side and another on the other, whereof this commeth from Burdfall, that other frō Co­nisthorpe. From Kyrkeham it goeth to Crā ­burne and Owsham bridge, (crossing by the way an other brooke comming from S. Ed­wardes gore, by Faston) then to Aldby, But­tercram, [Page] (alias Butterham) bridg, Stamford bridg, Kexby bridg, Sutton, Ellerton, Augh­ton, Bubwith, Wresill, Babthorpe & so into ye Ouze, wherwith I finishe the description of the Derwent, sauing that I haue to let you vnderstand how Leland heard that an arme ran sometime from the hed of Darwent also to Scarborow till such time as two hils be­twixt which it ran, did shalder & so choke vp his course.

Fosse.The Fosse (a slow stream yet able to beare a good vessell) ryseth in Nemore Calaterio, or among the wooddy hilles now called Gal­ters forrest, and in his descent frō the higher ground, he leaueth Crake castel, on his west side: thence he goeth by Marton abbay, Mar­ton, Stillington, Farlington, Towthorpe, Erswijc, Huntingdon, and at Yorke into the Ouze.

Kile.The Kile ryseth flat north at Newborow, from whence it goeth by Thorneton on the hyll, Ruskell parke, Awne, Tollerton, and so into the Ouze about Newton vpon Ouze.

Swale.The Swale is a ryght noble ryuer. It ri­seth in the hilles aboue Kyrkedale, and from this towne it goeth to Kelde chappell, Car­ret house, Crackepot, Whiteside, and néere vnto Yalen,Barney. taketh in the Barney water, which commeth from the north east. Thence it goeth by Harcaside to Reth (where it mée­teth with the Arcley) and so to Flemington,Arcley. Holgate. Grinton, Marrike (taking in the Holgate that commeth from by south: & in the way to Thorpe,Mariske becke. the Mariske becke, or peraduēture Applegarth water, as Leland calleth it, that discendeth from the north) then to Thorpe, Applegarth, Richmonde, Easby and Brun­ton. Here by North it entertayneth two or thrée waters in one chanell, called Rauen­swathe water, whereof the twoo fardest doe ioyne not far from the Dawltons, & so go by Rauenswath,Rauens­wathe. Hartforth, Gilling, & at Ske­by méete wyth the thirde, comming from Richmonde Beaconwarde. By west also of Brunton,Rhe. the Swale méeteth with the Rhe, runnyng from Resdale, and beyng past Brunton, it goeth to Caterijc bridge beneath Brunton, then to Ellerton, Kyrkeby, Lang­ton parua, Thirtoft, Anderby Steple, and before it come vnto Gatenby, it méeteth wt ye Bedall brooke,Bedall alias Le­ming. alias Leminges becke, that cōmeth west of Kellirby, by Cūstable, Bur­ton, Langthorpe, Bedall, and Leming chap­pell. From Gattenby lykewise it goeth to Mawby, and at Brakenbyry, receiueth the Wiske,Wiske. which is a great water, rysing be­twéene two parkes aboue Swanby in one place, and southeast of Mountgrace Abbaie in another, and after the confluence which is about Siddlebridge, goeth on betwéene the Rughtons to Appleton, the Smetons, Byrt­by, Huttō Coniers, Danby, Wijc, Yafford, Warlaby, and taking in there a ryll from Brunton, by Aluerton, it procéedeth to Ot­teringtō, Newley, Kyrby Wiske, Newson, and Blackenbury, there méeting as I sayde with the Swale, that runneth from thence by Skipton bridge, Catton, Topcliffe, and Ranyton, and aboue Eldmyre, méeteth with sundrye other rylles in one botome, whereof the northwesterley is called Cawdebec: [...] the south Easterly Kebecke, which ioyne east of Thornton moore, and so go to Thorneton in the streate, Kiluington, Thruske, Sowerby, Grastwijc, and soone after crossing another growing of the myxture of the Willow, and likewyse of the Cuckwolde beckes,Cuckwol [...] becke. which ioyne aboue Bridforth, and running on till it come almost at Dalton, it maketh confluence with the Swale, and go thence as one by Thornton bridge, Mitton vpon Swale, and so into the Ouze.

The Skell ryseth out of the west two my­les from Fountaines Abbay,Skell and commeth as Lelande sayth with a fayre course by the one side of Rippon, as the Vre doth on the o­ther. And on the bankes hereof stoode the fa­mous Abbaie called Fountaines, somuch re­noumed for the lusty monkes that dwelled in the same. It receiueth also the Lauer water,Lauer. (which ryseth thrée myles from Kyrby, and méeteth withall néere vnto Rippon) and fi­nally falleth into the Vre, a quarter of a mile beneath Rippon Towne, and almost midde waye betwéene the North and Huicke brid­ges.

The Nidde ryseth among those hilles that lye by west northwest of Gnarresborowe,Nidde. fyue myles aboue Pakeley bridge, & going in short processe of time by West houses, Lodg houses, Woodhall, Newehouses, Midles­more, Raunsgill, Cowthouse, Gowthwall, Bureley, Brymham, Hampeswale, & soone after méeting with the Killingale becke,Killing [...] it goeth after the confluence, by Bylton parke, Gnaresbridge, Washforde, Cathall, Willes­thorp, Munketon, or Nonniocke, and so into the Ouze, fouretéene miles beneath Gnares­borow, beyng increased by the waye wyth very fewe or no waters of any countenance. Lelande hauing said thus much of ye Nidde, addeth herevnto the names of two other wa­ters, that is to say, the Couer & the Burne,Couer. Burne. which doe fal likewise into the Vre or Ouze, but as he sayth little of the same, so among all my Pampheletes, I can gather no more of them, then that the first ryseth sixe myles aboue Couerham by west, and falleth into ye [Page 70] Vre, a little beneath Middleham bridge, which is two myles beneath the towne of Couerham. As for the Burne, it ryseth at More hylles, and falleth into the sayde ryuer a lyttle beneth Massham bridge, and so much of these two.

[...]harfe [...]ias [...]werfe.The Wharffe or Gwerfe, ryseth aboue Vghtershaw, from whence it runneth to Beggermons, Rasemill, Hubberham, Backden, Starbotton, Kettlewell, Cunnistō in Kettlewell, and here it méeteth with a rill comming from Haltongill chappel, bp Arne­cliffe, & ioyning withal north east of Kilnesey crag, it passeth ouer by the lower groundes to Gyrsington, and receyuing a ryll there al­so from Tresfelde parke, it procéedeth on to Brunsall brydge. Furthermore at Appletre­wijc, it méeteth wyth a ryll from by north, & thence goeth to Barden Towre, Bolton, Beth and Misley hall, where it crosseth a rill comming frō by west. Thence to Addinghā, taking in there also a another from by west, and so to Ikeley, and receyuing ere long a­nother by north from Denton hall, it hasteth to Weston Vauasour, Oteley, and Letheley where it taketh in the Padside, & the Wash­burne, [...]adside. [...]ashburn. both in one streame from Lyndley ward, and thence to Casley chappell, & there it crosseth one from by north, & another ere long from by south, and so to Yardwoode ca­stell, Kereby, Woodhall, Collingham, Lin­ton, Wetherby, Thorpatche, Newton, Tad­caster, and when it hath receyued the Cocke­becke from southwest, [...]ocke­ [...]cke. that goth by Barwy, Aberforth, Leadhall, and Grymston, it run­neth to Exton, Kyrby Wharf, Vskel, Rither Nunapleton, and so into the Ouze, beneath Cawood, a castell belonging to the Arche bi­shop of Yorke, where he vseth oft to lye when he refresheth himselfe, with chaunge of ayre & shift of habitation, for the auoiding of such infection as maye otherwise engender by his long abode in one place, for want of due pur­gation, and aiering of his house.

[...]ir.The Air ryseth out of a Lake, South of Darnbrooke, wherin as I here is none other fish but red Trowt, & Perche. Leland saith it riseth néere vnto Ortō in Crauen, wherfore the oddes is but litle. It goeth therfore from thence to Mawlam, Hamlithe, Kyrby Mol­dale, Calton hall, Areton, and so forth tyll it come almost to Gargraue, there crossing the Otterburne water on the west, [...]tter­ [...]rne. [...]inter­ [...]rne. & the Win­terburne on the north, which at Flasby, re­ceiueth a ryll from Helton as I here. Being past Gargraue, our Air goeth on to Eshton, Elswoode, and so forth on, first receyuig a brooke from southwest, (wherof one braunch commeth by Marton, the other by Thornet, which méete about Broughton) then another from northeast, that runneth by Skipton ca­stell. After this confluence it hasteth to Newebiggin, Bradley, and Kildwijc, by south east whereof, it méeteth with one wa­ter from Mawsis, and Glusburne or Glu­kesburne, called Glyke,Glyke. another lykewyse a lytle beneath from Seton, beside two rylles from by north, after which confluence it run­neth by Reddlesdē, & ouer against this towne the Lacocke and the Worth doe méete with­all in one chanell,Lacocke. Woorth. Moreton. as the Moreton water doth on the north, although it be somewhat lower. Thence it goeth to Risheforth hall, & so to Bungley, where it taketh a ryll from Denholme parke to Shipeley, & there cros­sing another from Thorneton, Leuenthorpe, and Bradley, it goeth to Caluerley, to Chri­stall, and so to Léedes, where one water run­neth thereinto, by north from Wettlewoode, and two other from by south in one chanell, whereof the first hath two armes, of which the one commeth from Pudsey chappell, the other from Adwalton, their confluence being made aboue Farnesley hall. The other lyke­wise hath two heades, whereof one is aboue Morley, the other cōmeth from Domingley, and méeting with the first not far south west of Léedes, they fall both into the Aire, and so runne with the same to Swillington, & there taking in ye Rodwel becke south of the bridg, it procéedeth to Ollerton, Castelforde,Redwell. Went. Bro­therton and Ferribridge there receiuing the Went, a becke from Pontifract which ry­seth of diuers heads, wherof one is among ye cole pits. Thēce to Beall, Berkin, Kelling­tō, middle Hodlesey, Tēplehirst, Gowldall, Snath [...], Rawcliffe, Newlande, Army, and so into the Ouze wyth an indifferent course. Of all the ryuers in the North, Lelande (in so many ot hys bookes as I haue séene) sayth least of this. Mine annotations also are very slender in the particular waters whereby it is increased: wherfore I was compelled of necessity to conclude euen thus with the de­scription of the same, & had so left it in déede if I had not receyued one other note more to adde vnto it (euen when the leafe was at the Presse) which saith as followeth in maner worde for worde.

There is a noble water that falleth into Aire, whose heade as I take it is about Stā ­forde. From whence it goeth to Creston cha­pell, to Lingfield, and there about receyuing one ryll, néere Elfrabright bridge,Hebden. and also the Hebden by northwest, it goeth to Brear­ley hall, and so taking in the thirde by north it procéedeth on eastwarde by Sorsby bridge chappell, (and there a ryll from southwest) [Page] and so to Coppeley hall. Beneath this place I finde also that it receyueth one ryll from Hallyfaxe, which ryseth of two heades, & two other from southwest, of which one commeth by Bareslande, and Stanelande in one cha­nell, as I reade, so that after this confluence the aforesayd water goeth on toward Cow­forde bridge, and as it taketh in two rilles a­boue the same on the North side, so beneath that bridge, there falleth into it a prety arme increased by sundry waters comming from by south, as from Marsheden chappell, from Holmesworth chappell, and Kyrke Heton, eche one growyng of sundrie heades, wherof I woulde say more, if I had more intelligēce of their seuerall gates and passages. But to procéede from Cowford bridge it runneth to Munfeld, & receiuing ere long one ryll from Leuersage hall, and another from Burshall by Dewesburye, it goeth on North east of Thornehul, south of Horbyry thornes, & ther­about crossyng one ryll from by south from Woller by newe Milner Damme, and soone after another from northwest,Chalde. called Chald, rysing in the Peke hilles, whereon Wake­fielde standeth, and likewise the thirde from south east, and Waterton hall, it goeth by Warmefield, Newelande, Altoftes, and fy­nally into the Aire, west of Castelworth, as I learne. What ye name of this ryuer should be as yet I here not, and therefore no mer­ueile that I doe not set it downe, yet is it po­sible such as dwell thereabout are not igno­raunt thereof, but what is that to me, if I be not pertaker of their knowledge. It shal suf­fise therefore thus farre to haue shewed the course thereof, and as for the name I passe it ouer vntill another time.

Trent.The Trent is one of the most excellent ry­uers in the lande, and increased wyth so ma­ny waters, as for that onely cause it may bée compared either with the Ouze or Sauerne, I meane the seconde Ouze, whose course I haue lately described. It ryseth of two heads which ioyne beneath Norton in the moore, & from thence goeth to Hiltō Abbay, Bucknel church, and aboue Stoke, receyueth in the foule brooke water,Foulbrook which commeth thyther from Tunstall, by Shelton, and finally ma­king a confluence they go to Hanflete, where they méete wyth another on the same side, that discendeth frō Newcastell vnder Line, which Lelande taketh to bée the very Trent it selfe, saying, that it ryseth in the hylles a­boue Newcastell, as maye be séene by hys commentaryes. But to procéede. At Trent­ham or not farre from thence, it crosseth a riueret from northeast, whose name I know not, & thence goyng to Stone Aston, Stoke Burston, the Sandons and Weston, a little aboue Shubburne and Hawood, it receyueth the Sowe, a great chanell increased wyth sundry waters, which I will here describe, leauyng the Trent at Shubburne, tyll I come backe agayne.Sow [...]. The Sowe discendeth from the hylles, aboue Whytemoore cha­pell, and goeth by Charleton, and Stawne, and beneath Shalforde ioyneth wyth ano­ther by northeast that commeth from By­shoppes Offeley, Egleshal, Chesby, Rauntō. After thys confluence also, it runneth by Bridgeforde, Tillington, and Stafforde, be­neath which Towne, it crosseth the Penke becke, that ryseth aboue Nigleton,Penke. & Bere­wood, and aboue Penke bridge, vniteth it self with another comming frō Knightley ward, by Gnashall church, Eaton, and so goyng forth as one, it is not long ere they fall into Sow, after they haue passed Draiton, Dun­stan, Acton, and Banswiche, where loosing their names, they with the Sow & the Sow with them, doe ioyne wyth the Trent, at Shubburne, vpon the southerly bank. From Shubburne ye Trent goeth on, to lytle Har­woode, (méeting by the way one ryll at Ous­ley bridge, and another south of Riddlesley) thence by Hawkshery, Mauestane, Ridware and so towarde Yoxhall, where I must staye a whyle to consider of other waters, where­with I mete in this voiage. Of these therfore the lesser commeth in by south frō Farwall, the other from by west, a fayre streame, and increased with two brookes, whereof the first ryseth in Nedewoode forrest, northeast of Haggarsley parke, wherinto falleth another west of Hamsted Ridware, called Blythe,Blithe. which ryseth among the hylles in Whate­ley moore, aboue Weston Cony and thence goyng to the same Towne, it commeth to Careswel Druicote, alias Dracote, Painsley Gratwitch, Grymley, Aldmaston, Hamsted Ridware, and finally into the Trent, direct­ly west of Yoxhall, which runneth also from thence, and leauing kinges Bromley, in a parke (as I take it) on the left hand, and the Blacke water comming from Southton, and Lichefielde on the ryght, goeth streight waye to Catton, where it méeteth wyth the Tame, whose course I describe as follow­eth.Tame. It riseth in Staffordshyre (as I remē ­ber) not farre from Petteshall, & goeth foorth by Hamsted, towarde Pyrihall and Brimi­chams Aston, taking in by the way a rill on eache side, whereof the first groweth through a confluence of two waters, the one of them comming from Typton, the other from Ald­bury, and so rūning as one by Wedbury till they fall into the same. The latter commeth [Page 71] from Wolfhall and ioyneth with it on the left hande. After this and when it is past the aforesayd places, it crosseth in like sort a rill frō Smethikewarde: thence it goeth to Yar­neton hall, beneath which it méeteth with the Rhe, [...] and thence thorow the parke, at Parke hal by Watercote crossing finally the Cole, whose heade is in the forrest by Kingesnortō wood, and hath this course, whereof I nowe giue notice. It riseth as I sayde in the for­rest by Kingesnorton wood, & going by Yare­ley and Kingeshirst, it méeteth betweene that & the parke, with a water running betwéene Helmedon and Sheldon. Thence it passeth on to Coleshull, by east whereof it ioyneth with a brooke, mounting southwest of Soly­hull called Blithe, which going by Henwood and Barston, [...]lithe. crosseth on eche side of temple Balshall a rill, whereof one cōmeth thorow the Quéenes parke or chase that lyeth by West of Kenelworth, and the other by Kenelworth castell it selfe, from about Hase­ly parke. After which confluences it procée­deth in like maner to Hampton in Arden, & the Packingtons and so to Coleshull, where it méeteth with the Cole, [...]urne. that going a little farder vniteth it self with the Burne, on the one side, (whereinto runneth a water com­ming frō Ansley on the east) & soone after on ye other doth fal into ye Tame. That which some call the Rhée, Leland nameth the Brimichā water, [...]hée. whose head as I heare is aboue Norf­field, so that his course shoulde be by Kinges­nortō, Bremicham, Budston hall, till