THE PRINCIPAL NAVIGA …

THE PRINCIPAL NAVI­GATIONS, VOYAGES, TRAFFIQVES AND DISCOVE­ries of the English Nation, made by Sea or ouer­land, to the remote and farthest distant quarters of the Earth, at any time within the compasse of these 1600 yeres: Diuided into three seuerall Volumes, according to the positions of the Regions, whereunto they were directed.

The first Volume containeth the worthy Discoueries, &c. of the English toward the North and Northeast by Sea, as of Lapland, Scrikfinia, Corelia, the Baie of S. Nicolas, the Isles of Colgoieue, Vaigatz, and Nona Zembla, toward the great Riuer Ob, with the mighty Empire of Russia, the Caspian Sea, Georgia, Armenia, Media, Persia, Boghar in Bactria, and diuers kingdomes of Tartaria:

Together with many notable monuments and testimonies of the ancient forren trades, and of the warrelike and other shipping of this Realme of England in former ages.

VVhereunto is annexed a briefe Commentary of the true state of Island, and of the Northren Seas and lands situate that way: As also the memorable defeat of the Spanish huge Armada, Anno 1588.

¶ The second Volume comprehendeth the principall Nauigations, Voyages, Traffiques, and discoueries of the English Nation made by Sea or ouer-land, to the South and South-east parts of the World, as well within as without the Streight of Gibraltar, at any time within the compasse of these 1600. yeres: Diuided into two seueral parts, &c.

¶ By RICHARD HAKLVYT Preacher, and sometime Stu­dent of Christ-Church in Oxford.

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Imprinted at London by George Bishop, Ralph Newberie, and Robert Barker. ANNO 1599.

TO THE RIGHT HONORABLE MY SINGV­LAR GOOD LORD, THE LORD CHARLES HOVVARD, Erle of Notingham, Baron of Effingham, Knight of the noble Order of the Garter, Lord high Admirall of England, Ireland, and Wales, &c. one of her Maiesties most honourable priuie Counsell.

RIght Honourable and my very good Lord, after I had long since published in Print many Nauigations and Discoueries of Stran­gers in diuers languages, as well here at Lon­don, as in the citie of Paris, during my fiue yeeres abode in France, with the woorthie Knight Sir Edward Stafford your brother in lawe, her Maiesties most prudent and carefull Ambassador ligier with the French King: and had waded on still farther and farther in the sweet studie of the historie of Cosmographie, I began at length to conceiue, that with dili­gent obseruation, some thing might be gathered which might commend our na­tion for their high courage and singular actiuitie in the Search and Discouerie of the most vnknowen quarters of the world. Howbeit, seeing no man to step forth to vndertake the recording of so many memorable actions, but euery man to fo­low his priuate affaires: the ardent loue of my countrey deuoured all difficul­ties, and as it were with a sharpe goad prouoked me and thrust me forward into this most troublesome and painfull action. And after great charges and infinite cares, after many watchings, toiles, and trauels, and wearying out of my weake body; at length I haue collected three seuerall Volumes of the English Nauiga­tions, Traffiques, and Discoueries, to strange, remote, and farre distant coun­treys. Which worke of mine I haue not included within the compasse of things onely done in these latter dayes, as though litle or nothing woorthie of memorie had bene performed in former ages; but mounting aloft by the space of many hundred yeeres, haue brought to light many very rare and worthy mo­numents, which long haue lien miserably scattered in mustie corners, & retch­lesly hidden in mistie darkenesse, and were very like for the greatest part to haue bene buried in perpetuall obliuion. The first Volume of this worke I haue thus for the present brought to light, reseruing the other two vntill the next Spring, when by Gods grace they shall come to the Presse. In the meane season bethinking my selfe of some munificent and bountifull Patrone, I called to mind your honorable Lordship, who both in regard of my particular obliga­tion, and also in respect of the subiect and matter, might iustly chalenge the Pa­tronage thereof. For first I remembred how much I was bound, and how deep­ly indebted for my yongest brother Edmund Hackluyt, to whom for the space of foure whole yeeres your Lordship committed the gouernment and instruction of that honorable yong noble man, your sonne & heire apparant, the lord Wil­liam [Page] Howard, of whose high spirit and wonderful towardlinesse full many a time hath he boasted vnto me. Secondly, the bounden duetie which I owe to your most deare sister the lady Sheffield, my singular good lady & honorable mistresse, admonished me to be mindfull of the renoumed familie of the Howards. Thirdly, when I found in the first Patent graunted by Queene Marie to the Moscouie companie, that my lord your [...]ather being then lord high Admirall of England, was one of the first fauourers and furtherers, with his purse and countenance, of the strange and wonderfull Discouerie of Russia, the chiefe contents of this pre­sent Volume, then I remēbred the sage saying of sweet Isocrates, That sonnes ought not onely to be inheriters of their fathers substance, but also of their commendable vertues and honours. But what speake I of your ancestors honors (which to say the trueth, are very great, and such as our Chronicles haue notably blazoned) when as your owne Heroicall actions from time to time haue shewed themselues so admira­ble, as no antiquitie hath affoorded greater, and the future times will not in haste (I thinke) performe the like. To come to some particulars, when the Emperors sister, the spouse of Spaine, with a Fleete of an 130. sailes, stoutly and proudly passed the narow Seas, your Lordship accompanied with ten ships onely of her Maiesties Nauie Roiall, enuironed their Fleet in most strange and warrelike sort, enforced them to stoope gallant, and to vaile their bonets for the Queene of England, and made them perfectly to vnderstand that olde speach of the prince of Poets;

Non illi imperium pelagi saeuúm (que) tridentem,
sed tibi sorte datum.

Yet after they had acknowledged their dutie, your lordship on her Maiesties be­halfe conducted her safely through our English chanell, and performed all good offices of honor and humanitie to that forren Princesse. At that time all England beholding your most honorable cariage of your selfe in that so weightie seruice, began to cast an extraordinarie eie vpon your lordship, and deeply to conceiue that singular hope which since by your most worthie & wonderfull seruice, your L hath more then fully sati [...]fied. I meane (among others) that glorious, trium­phant, and thrise-happy victory atchieued against that huge and haultie Spanish Armada (which is notably described in the ende of this volume) wherein being chiefe and sole Commander vnder her sacred and roiall Maiestie, your noble go­uernment and worthy behauior, your high wisedom, discretion and happinesse, accompanied with the heauenly blessing of the Almightie, are shewed most eui­dently to haue bene such, as all posteritie and succeeding ages shall neuer cease to sing and resound your infinite prayse and eternall commendations. As for the late renoumed expedition and honorable voyage vnto Cadiz, the vanquishing of part of the king of Spaines Armada, the destruction of the rich West Indian Fleete, the chasing of so many braue and gallant Gallies, the miraculous win­ning, sacking, and burning of that almost impregnable citie of Cadiz, the surpri­sing of the towne of Faraon vpon the coast of Portugal, and other rare appen­dances of that enterprise, because they be hereafter so iudicially set downe, by a very graue and learned Gentleman, which was an eye witnesse in all that action, I referre your good L. to his faithfull report, wherein I trust (as much as in him lay) he hath wittingly depriued no man of his right. Vpon these and other the like considerations, I thought it fit and very conuenient to commend with all humilitie and reuerence this first part of our English Voiages & Discoueries vn­to your Honors fauourable censure and patronage.

And here by the way most humbly crauing pardon, and alwayes submitting my poore opinion to your Lordships most deep and percing insight, especially [Page] in this matter, as being the father and principall fauourer of the English Nauiga­tion, I trust it shall not be impertinent in passing by, to point at the meanes of breeding vp of skilfull Sea-men and Mariners in this Realme. Sithence your Lordship is not ignorant, that ships are to litle purpose without skilfull Sea-men; and since Sea-men are not bred vp to perfection of skill in much lesse time (as it is said) then in the time of two prentiships; and since no kinde of men of any pro­fession in the common wealth passe their yeres in so great and continuall hazard of life; and since of so many, so few grow to gray heires: how needfull it is, that by way of Lectures and such like instructions, these ought to haue a better educati­on, then hitherto they haue had; all wise men may easily iudge. When I call to minde, how many noble ships haue bene lost, how many worthy persons haue bene drenched in the sea, and how greatly this Realme hath bene impouerished by losse of great Ordinance and other rich commodities through the ignorance of our Sea-men, I haue greatly wished there were a Lecture of Nauigation read in this Citie, for the banishing of our former grosse ignorance in Marine causes, and for the increase and generall multiplying of the sea-knowledge in this age, wherein God hath raised so generall a desire in the youth of this Realme to disco­uer all parts of the face of the earth, to this Realme in former ages not knowen. And, that it may appeare that this is no vaine fancie nor deuise of mine, it may please your Lordship to vnderstand, that the late Emperour Charles the fift, con­sidering the rawnesse of his Sea-men, and the manifolde shipwracks which they susteyned in passing and repassing betweene Spaine and the West Indies, with an high reach and great foresight, established not onely a Pilote Maior, for the exa­mination of such as sought to take charge of ships in that voyage, but also foun­ded a notable Lecture of the Art of Nauigation, which is read to this day in the Contractation house at Siuil. The readers of which Lecture haue not only care­fully taught and instructed the Spanish Mariners by word of mouth, but also haue published sundry exact and worthy treatises concerning Marine causes, for the direction and incouragement of posteritie. The learned works of three of which readers, namely of Alonso de Chauez, of Hieronymo de Chauez, and of Roderigo Za­morano came long ago very happily to my hands, together with the straight and seuere examining of all such Masters as desire to take charge for the West Indies. Which when I first read and duely considered, it seemed to mee so excellent and so exact a course, as I greatly wished, that I might be so happy as to see the like order established here with vs. This matter, as it seemeth, tooke no light impres­sion in the royall brest of that most renowmed and victorious prince King Henry the eight of famous memory; who for the increase of knowledge in his Sea-men, with princely liberalitie erected three seuerall Guilds or brotherhoods, the one at Deptford here vpon the Thames, the other at Kingston vpon Hull, and the third at Newcastle vpon Tine: which last was established in the 28. yeere of his reigne. The chiefe motiues which induced his princely wisedome hereunto, him selfe ex­presseth in maner following. Vt magistri, marinarij, gubernatores, & alij officiarij nauium, iuuentutem suam in exercitatione gubernationis nauium transigentes, muti­lati, aut aliquo alio casu in paupertatem collapsi, aliquod rele [...]amen ad eorum sustentatio­nem habeant, quo non solùm illi reficiantur, verùmetiam alij iuuenes moueantur & in­stigentur ad candem artem exercendam, ratione cuius, doctiores & aptiores fiant naui­bus & alijs vasis nostris & aliorum quorumcúnque in Mare gubernandis & manutenen­dis, tam pacis, quàm belli tempore, cum opus postulet, &c. To descend a litle lower, king Edward the sixt that prince of peerelesse hope, with the aduise of his sage and prudent Counsaile, before he entred into the Northeasterne discouery, aduanced the worthy and excellent Sebastian Cabota to be grand Pilot of England, allowing [Page] him a most bountifull pension of 166.li.vj.s.viij.d. by the yeere during his life, as appeareth in his Letters Patents which are to be seene in the third part of my worke. And if God had granted him longer life, I doubt not but as he delt most royally in establishing that office of Pilote Maior (which not long after to the great hinderance of this Common wealth was miserably turned to other priuate vses) so his princely Maiestie would haue shewed himselfe no nigard in erecting, in imitation of Spaine, the like profitable Lecture of the Art of Nauigation. And surely when I considered of late the memorable bountie of sir Thomas Gresham, who being but a Merchant hath founded so many chargeable Lectures, and some of them also which are Mathematicall, tending to the aduancement of Marine causes; I nothing doubted of your Lordships forwardnes in settling and esta­blishing of this Lecture; but rather when your Lordship shall see the noble and rare effects thereof, you will be heartily sory that all this while it hath not bene erected. As therefore our skill in Nauigation hath hitherto bene very much bet­tered and increased vnder the Admiraltie of your Lordship; so if this one thing be added thereunto, together with seuere and straight discipline, I doubt not but with Gods good blessing it will shortly grow to the hiest pitch and top of all per­fection: which whensoeuer it shall come to passe, I assure my selfe it will turne to the infinite wealth and honour of our Countrey, to the prosperous and speedy discouery of many rich lands and territories of heathens and gentiles as yet vn­knowen, to the honest employment of many thousands of our idle people, to the great comfort and reioycing of our friends, to the terror, daunting and confusion of our foes. To ende this matter, let mee now I beseech you speake vnto your Lordship, as in times past the elder Scipio spake to Cornelius Scipio Africanus: Quò sis, Africane, alacrior ad tutandam Rempublicam, sic habeto: Omnibus, qui patriam con­seruauerint, adiuuerint, auxerint, certum esse in coelo, ac definitum locum, vbi beati aeuo sempiterno fruantur. It remaineth therefore, that as your Lordship from time to time vnder her most gracious and excellent Maiestie, haue shewed your selfe a valiant protectour, a carefull conseruer, and an happy enlarger of the honour and reputation of your Countrey; so at length you may enioy those celestial bles­sings, which are prepared to such as tread your steps, and seeke to aspire to such diuine and heroical vertues. And euen here I surcease, wishing all temporal and spirituall blessings of the life present and that which is to come to be powred out in most ample measure, not onely vpon your honourable Lordship, the noble and vertuous Lady your bedfellow, and those two rare iewels, your generous off-springs, but also vpon all the rest wheresoeuer of that your noble and renow­med family.

Your honours most humble alwayes to be commanded: Richard Hakluyt Preacher.

¶ A preface to the Reader as touching the principall Voyages and discourses in this first part.

HAuing for the benefit and honour of my Coun­trey zealously bestowed so many yeres, so much traueile and cost, to bring Antiquities smothered and buried in darke silence, to light, and to preserue certaine memorable exploits of late yeeres by our English nation atchieued, from the greedy and deuouring iawes of obliuion: to gather likewise, and as it were to incorpo­rate into one body the torne and scattered limmes of our ancient and late Nauigations by Sea, our voyages by land, and traffiques of merchandise by both: and hauing (so much as in me lieth) restored ech particular mem­ber, being before displaced, to their true ioynts and ligaments; I meane, by the helpe of Geo­graphie and Chronologie (which I may call the Sunne and the Moone, the right eye and the left of all history) referred ech particular relation to the due time and place: I do this second time (friendly Reader, if not to satisfie, yet at least for the present to allay and hold in su­spense thine expectation) presume to offer vnto thy view this first part of my threefold dis­course. For the bringing of which into this homely and rough-hewen shape, which here thou seest; what restlesse nights, what painefull dayes, what heat, what cold I haue indured; how many long & chargeable iourneys I haue traueiled; how many famous libraries I haue sear­ched into; what varietie of ancient and moderne writers I haue perused; what a number of old records, patents, priuileges, letters, &c. I haue redeemed from obscuritie and perishing; into how manifold acquaintance I haue entred; what expenses I haue not spared; and yet what faire opportunities of priuate gaine, preferment, and ease I haue neglected; albeit thy selfe canst hardly imagine, yet I by daily experience do finde & feele, and some of my entier friends can sufficiently testifie. Howbeit (as I told thee at the first) the honour and benefit of this Common weale wherein I liue and breathe, hath made all difficulties seeme easie, all paines and industrie pleasant, and all expenses of light value and moment vnto me.

For (to conteine my selfe onely within the bounds of this present discourse, and in the midst thereof to begin) wil it not in all posteritie be as great a renowme vnto our English nation, to haue bene the first discouerers of a Sea beyond the North cape (neuer certainly knowen before) and of a conuenient passage into the huge Empire of Russia by the bay of S. Nicolas and the riuer of Duina; as for the Portugales to haue found a Sea beyond the Cape of Buona Esperanza, and so consequently a passage by Sea into the East Indies; or for the Italians and Spaniards to haue discouered vnknowen landes so many hundred leagues Westward and Southwestward of the streits of Gibraltar, & of the pillers of Her­cules? Be it granted that the renowmed Portugale Vasquez de Gama trauersed the maine Ocean Southward of Africke: Did not Richard Chanceler and his mates per­forme the like Northward of Europe? Suppose that Columbus that noble and high-spirited Genuois escried vnknowen landes to the Westward of Europe and Africke: Did not the valiant English knight sir Hugh Willoughby; did not the famous Pilots Stephen Burrough, Arthur Pet, and Charles Iackman accoast Noua Zembla, Col­goieue, and Vaigatz to the North of Europe and Asia? Howbeit you will say perhaps, not with the like golden successe, not with such deductions of Colonies, nor attaining of conquests. True it is, that our successe hath not bene correspondent vnto theirs: yet in this our attempt the vncertaintie of finding was farre greater, and the difficultie and danger of searching was no whit lesse. For hath not Herodotus (a man for his time, most skilfull and iudicial in Cosmographie, who writ aboue 2000. yeeres ago) in his 4. booke called Mel­pomene, [Page] signified vnto the Portugales in plaine termes; that Africa, except the small Isthmus between the Arabian gulfe and the Mediterran sea, was on all sides enuironed with the Ocean? And for the further confirmation thereof, doth he not make mention of one Neco an AEgyptian King, who (for trials sake) sent a Fleet of Phoenicians downe the Red sea; who setting forth in Autumne and sailing Southward [...] till they had the Sunne at noonetide vpon their sterbourd (that is to say, hauing crossed the AEquinoctial and the Southerne tropique) after a long Nauigation, directed their course to the North, and in the space of 3. yeeres enuironed all Africk, passing home through the Gaditan streites, and arriuing in AEgypt? And doth not Lib [...] nat. hist. cap. 67. Plinie tel them, that noble Hanno, in the flou­rishing time and estate of Carthage, sailed from Gades in Spaine to the coast of Arabia foelix, and put downe his whole iournall in writing? Doth he not make mention, that in the time of Augustus Cesar, the wracke of certaine Spanish ships was found [...]loating in the Arabian gulfe? And, not to be ouer-tedious in alleaging of testimonies, doth not Strabo in the 2. booke of his Geography, together with Cornelius Nepos and Plinie in the place before named, agree all in one, that one Eudoxus fleeing [...]rom king Lathyrus, and valing downe the Arabian bay, sailed along, doubled the Southern point of Africk, and at length arriued at Gades? And what should I speake of the Spaniards? Was not diuine In Tim. 10. Plato (who liued so many ages ago, and plainely described their West Indies vnder the name of Atlantis) was not he (I say) in stead of a Cosmographer vnto them? Were not those Car­thaginians mentioned by Aristotle lib. [...]. de admirabil. auscult. their forerunners? And had they not Columbus to stirre them vp, and pricke them forward vnto their Westerne discoueries; yea, to be their chiefe loads-man and Pilot? Sithens therefore these two worthy Nations had those bright lampes of learning (I meane the most ancient and best Philosophers, Historiographers and Geographers) to shewe them light; and the load­s [...]arre of experience (to wit those great exploits and voyages layed vp in store and recor­ded) whereby to shape their course: what great attempt might they not presume to vn­dertake? But alas our English nation, at the first setting foorth for their Northeasterne discouery, were either altogether destitute of such cleare lights and inducements, or if they had any inkling at all, it was as misty as they found the Northren seas, and so obscure and ambiguous, that it was meet rather to deterre them, then to giue them encouragement.

But besides the foresaid vncertaintie, into what dangers and difficulties they plunged themselues, Animus meminisse horret, I tremble to recount. For first they were to ex­pose themselues vnto the rigour of the sterne and vnco [...]th Northren seas, and to make triall of the swelling waues and boistrous winds which there commonly do surge and blow: then were they to saile by the ragged and perilous coast of Norway, to frequent the vn­haunted shoares of Finmark, to double the dreadfull and misty North cape, to beare with Willoughbies land, to r [...]n along within kenning of the Countreys of Lapland and Co­relia, and as it were to open and vnlocke the seuen-fold mouth of Duina. Moreouer, in their Northeasterly Nauigations, vpon the seas and by the coasts of Condora, Colgoi­eue, Petzora, Ioughoria, Samoedia, Noua Zembla, &c. and their passing and re­turne through the streits of Vaigatz, vnto what drifts of snow and mountaines of yee euen in Iune, Iuly, and August, vnto what hideous ouerfals, vncertaine currents, darke mistes and fogs, and diuers other fearefull inconueniences they were subiect and in danger of, I wish you rather to learne out of the voyages of sir Hugh Willoughbie, Stephen Bur­rough, Arthur Pet and the rest, then to expect in this place an endlesse cataloque thereof. And here by the way I cannot but highly commend the great industry and magnanimity of the Hollanders, who within these few yeeres haue discouered to 78. yea (as themselues affirme) to [...]1. degrees of Northerly latitude: yet with this prouiso; that our English na­tion led them the dance, brake the yee before them, and gaue them good leaue to light their candle at our [...]orch. But nowe it is high time for vs to weigh our ancre, to hoise vp our sailes, to get cleare of these boistrous, frosty, and misty seas, and with all speede to direct our [Page] course for the milde, lightsome, temperate, and warme Atlantick Ocean, ouer which the Spaniards and Portugales haue made so many pleasant prosperous and golden voyages. And albeit I cannot deny, that both of them in their East and West Indian Nauigations haue indured many tempests, dangers and shipwracks: yet this dare I boldly affirme; first that a great number of them haue satisfied their fame-thirsty and gold-thirsty mindes with that reputation and wealth, which made all perils and misaduentures seeme tole­rable vnto them; and secondly, that their first attempts (which in this comparison I doe onely stand vpon) were no whit more difficult and dangerous, then ours to the Northeast. For admit that the way was much longer, yet was it neuer barred with yee, mi [...], or dark­nes, but was at all seasons of the yeere open and Nauigable; yea and that for the most part with fortunate and fit gales of winde. Moreouer they had no forren prince to intercept or molest them, but their owne Townes, Islands, and maine lands to succour them. The Spa­niards had the Canary Isles: and so had the Portugales the Isles of the Açores, of Por­to santo, of Madera, of Cape ve [...]d, the castle of Mina, the fruitfull and profitable Isle of S. Thomas, being all of them conueniently situated, and well fraught with commodities. And had they not continuall and yerely trade in some one part or other of Africa, for get­ting of slaues, for sugar, for Elephants teeth, graines, siluer, gold, and other precious wares, which serued as allurements to draw them on by little and litle, and as proppes to stay them from giuing ouer their attempts? But nowe let vs leaue them and returne home vnto our selues.

In this first Volume (friendly Reader) besides our Northeasterne Discoueries by sea, and the memorable voyage of M. Christopher Hodson, and M. William Burrough, An­no 1570. to the Narue, wherein with merchants ships onely, they tooke fiue strong and warrelike ships of the Freebooters, which lay within the sound of Denmark of purpose to intercept our English Fleete: besides all these (I say) thou maiest find here recorded, to the lasting honor of our nation, all their long and dangerous voyages for the aduauncing of traffique by riuer and by land to all parts of the huge and wide Empire of Russia: as name­ly Richard Chanceler his first fortunate arriuall at Newnox, his passing vp the riuer of Dwina to the citie of Vologda for the space of 1100. versts, and from thence to Ya­ruslaue, Rostoue, Peraslaue, and so to the famous citie of Mosco, being 1500. versts trauell in all. Moreouer, here thou hast his voiage penned by himselfe (which I hold to be very authentical, & for the which I do acknowledge my selfe beholding vnto the excellent Librarie of the right honorable my lord Lumley) wherein he describeth in part the state of Russia, the maners of the people and their religion, the magnificence of the Court, the maiestie, power, and riches of the Emperour, and the gracious entertainment of himselfe. But if he being the first man, and not hauing so perfect intelligence as they that came af­ter him, doeth not fullie satisfie your expectation in describing the foresayd countrey and people; I then referre you to Clement Adams his relation next following, to M. Ien­kinsons discourse as touching that argument, to the smooth verses of M. George Tur­beruile, and to a learned and excellent discourse set downe, pag. 475. of this volume, and the pages following. Vnto all which (if you please) you may adde Richard Iohnsons strange report of the Samoeds, pag. 283. But to returne to our voyages performed with­in the bounds of Russia, I suppose (among the rest) that difficult iourney of Southam and Sparke, from Colmogro and S. Nicholas Baie, vp the great riuer of Onega, and so by other riuers and lakes to the citie of Nouogrod velica vpon the West frontier of Russia, to be right woorthy of obseruation; as likewise that of Thomas Alcock from Mosco to Smolensko, and thence to Tirwill in Polonia, pag. 304. & that also of M. Hierome Horsey from Mosco to Vobsko, and so through Liefland to Riga, thence by the chiefe townes of Prussia and Pomerland to Rostok, and so to Hamburg, Breme, Emden, &c. Neither hath our nation bene contented onely throughly to search into all parts of the In­land, and to view the Northren, Southerne, and Westerne frontiers, but also by the riuers [Page] of Moscua, Occa and Volga, to visite Cazan and Astracan, the farthest Easterne and Southeasterne bounds of that huge Empire. And yet not containing themselues within all that maine circumference, they haue aduentured their persons, shippes, and goods, home­wards and outwards, foureteene times ouer the vnknowen and dangerous Caspian sea; that valiant, wise, and personable gentleman M. Anthonie Ienkinson being their first ring-leader: who in Anno 1558. sailing from Astracan towards the East shore of the Caspian sea, and there arriuing at the port of Mangusla, trauelled thence by Vrgence and Shelisur, and by the riuers of Oxus and Ardok, 40. dayes iourney ouer desert and wast countreys, to Boghar a principall citie of Bactria, being there & by the way friend­ly entertained, dismissed, and safely conducted by certaine Tartarian kings and Murses. Then haue you a second Nauigation of his performance to the South shore of the foresayd Caspian sea, together with his landing at Derbent, his arriuall at Shabran, his procee­ding vnto Shamaky, the great curtesie vouchsafed on him by Obdolowcan king of Hir­can, his iourney after of 30. dayes Southward, by Yauate, Ardouil, and other town [...]s and cities to Casben, being as then the seate imperiall of Shaugh Thamas the great Sophy of Persia, with diuers other notable accidents in his going foorth, in his abode there, and in his returne home. Immediately after you haue set downe in fiue seuerall voiages the suc­cesse of M. Ienkinsons laudable and well-begun enterprise, vnder the foresayd Shaugh Thamas, vnder Shally Murzey the new king of Hircan, and lastly our traffique with Osman Basha the great Turkes lieutenant at Derbent. Moreouer, as in M. Ienkinsons trauel to Boghar the Tartars, with their territories, habitations, maner of liuing, appa­rell, food, armour, &c. are most liuely represented vnto you: so likewise in the sixe Persian Iournals you may here and there obserue the state of that countrey, of the great Shaugh and of his subiects, together with their religion, lawes, customes, & maner of gouernment, their coines, weights and measures, the distances of places, the temperature of the climate and region, and the natural commodities and discommodities of the same.

Furthermore in this first Volume, all the Ambassages and Negotiations from her Ma­iestie to the Russian Emperor, or from him vnto her Maiestie, seemed by good right to cha­lenge their due places of Record. As namely, first that of M. Randolph, 1568. then the emploiment of M. Ienkinson 1571. thirdly, Sir Ierome Bowes his honorable com­mission and ambassage 1582. and last of all the Ambassage of M. Doct. Fletcher 1588. Neither do we forget the Emperours first Ambassador Osep Napea, his arriuall in Scot­land, his most honourable entertainment and abode in England, and his dismission into Russeland. In the second place we doe make mention of Stephen Tuerdico, and Pheo­data Pogo [...]ella; thirdly, of Andrea Sauin; and lastly, of Pheodor Andrewich Phi­semski. And to be briefe, I haue not omitted the Commissions, Letters, Priuileges, Instru­ctions, Obseruations, or any other Particulars which might serue both in this age, and with all posteritie, either for presidents in such like princely and weightie actions to bee imita­ted, or as woorthy monuments in no wise to bee buried in silence. Finally, that nothing should be wanting which might adde any grace or shew of perfection vnto this discourse of Russia; I haue prefixed before the beginning thereof, the petigree and genealogie of the Russian Emperors and Dukes, gathered out of their owne Chronicles by a Polonian, con­taining in briefe many notable antiquities and much knowledge of those partes: as like­wise about the conclusion, I haue signified in the branch of a letter, the last Emperour Pheodor Iuanowich his death, and the inauguration of Boris Pheodorowich vnto the Empire.

But that no man should imagine that our forren trades of merchandise haue bene com­prised within some few yeeres, or at least wise haue not bene of any long continuance; let vs now withdraw our selues from our affaires in Russia, and ascending somewhat higher, let vs take a sleight suruey of our traffiques and negotiations in former ages. First there­fore the Reader may haue recourse vnto the 124 page of this Volume, & there with great [Page] delight and admiration, consider out of the iudicial Historiographer Cornelius Taci­tus, that the Citie of London fifteene hundred yeeres agoe in the time of Nero the Em­perour, was most famous for multitude of merchants and concourse of people. In the pages folowing he may learne out of Venerable Beda, that almost 900. yeeres past, in the time of the Saxons, the said citie of London was multorum emporium populorum, a Mart-towne for many nations. There he may behold, out of William of Malmesburie, a league concluded betweene the most renoumed and victorious Germane Emperour Carolus Magnus, and the Saxon king Offa, together with the sayd Charles his patronage and protection granted vnto all English merchants which in those dayes frequented his domi­nions. There may bee plainly see in an auncient testimonie translated out of the Saxon tongue, how our merchants were often woont for traffiques sake, so many hundred yeeres since, to crosse the wide Seas, and how their industry in so doing was recompensed. Yea, there mayest thou obserue (friendly Reader) what priuileges the Danish king Canutus obtained at Rome of Pope Iohn, of Conradus the Emperour, and of king Rudolphus for our English merchants Aduenturers of those times. Then if you shall thinke good to descend vnto the times and ages succeeding the conquest, there may you partly see what our state of merchandise was in the time of king Stephen and of his predecessor, and how the Citie of Bristol (which may seeme somewhat strange) was then greatly resorted vnto with ships from Norway and from Ireland. There may you see the friendly league betweene king Henry the second, and the famous Germane Emperour Friderick Barbarossa, and the gracious authorizing of both their merchāts to traffique in either of their dominions. And what need I to put you in mind of king Iohn his fauourable safe-conduct, whereby all for­ren merchants were to haue the same priuileges here in England, which our English merchants enioied abroad in their seuerall countreys. Or what should I signifie vnto you the entercourse of league and of other curtesies betweene king Henry the third, and Ha­quinus king of Norway; and likewise of the free trade of merchandise between their subiects: or tell you what fauours the citizens of Colen, of Lubek, and of all the Hanse-townes obtained of king Edward the first; or to what high endes and purposes the gene­rall, large, and stately Charter concerning all outlandish merchants whatsoeuer was by the same prince most graciously published? You are of your owne industry sufficiently able to conceiue of the letters & negotiatiōs which passed between K. Edward the 2. & Haqui­nus the Noruagian king; of our English merchants and their goods detained vpon arrest at Bergen in Norway; and also of the first ordination of a Staple, or of one onely setled Mart-towne for the vttering of English woolls & woollen fells, instituted by the sayd K. Edward last before named. All which (Reader) being throughly considered, I referre you then to the Ambassages, Letters, Traffiques, and prohibition of Traffiques, concluding and repealing of leagues, damages, reprisals, arrests, complaints, supplications, compositions and restitutions which happened in the time o [...] king Richard the 2. and king Henry the 4. between the said kings and their subiects on the one partie; and Conradus de Zolner, Conradus de Iungingen, and Vlricus de Iungingen, three of the great masters of Prussia, and their subiects, with the common societie of the Hans-townes on the other partie. In all which discourse you may note very many memorable things; as namely first the wise, discreet, and ca [...]telous dealing of the Ambassadors and Commissioners of both parts, then the wealth of the foresaid nations, and their manifold and most vsuall kinds of wares vttered in those dayes, as likewise the qualitie, burthen, and strength of their ship­ping, the number of their Mariners, the maner of their combates at sea, the number and names of the English townes which traded that way, with the particular places as well vpon the coast of Norway, as euery where within the sound of Denmark which they frequented; together with the in [...]eterate malice and craftie crueltie of the Hanse. And because the name, office, and dignitie of the masters generall, or great Masters of Prussia would otherwise haue bene vtterly darke and vnknowen to the [Page] greater part of Readers, I haue set downe immediatly before the first Prussian ambassage, pagina 144 a briefe and orderly Catalogue of them all, contayning the first originall and institution of themselues and of their whole knightly order and brotherhood, with the in­crease of reuenues and wealth which befell them afterward in Italy and Germany and the great conquests which they atchieued vpon the infidels of Prussia, Samogitia, Cur­land, Liefland, Lituania, &c. also their decay and finall ouerthrow, partly by the reuolt of di [...]ers Townes and Castles vnder their iurisdiction, and partly by the meanes of their next mightie neighbour the King of Poland.

After all these, out of 2. branches of 2. ancient statutes, is partly shewed our trade and the successe thereof with diuers forren Nations in the time of K. Henry the sixt.

Then followeth the true processe of English policie, I meane that excellent and pithy treatise de politia conseruatiua maris: which I cannot to any thing more fitly compare, then to the Emperour of Russia his palace called the golden Castle, and described by Ri­chard Chanceller pag. 238. of this volume: whereof albeit the outward apparance was but homely and no whit correspondent to the name, yet was it within so beautified and ad­orned with the Emperour his maiesticall presence, with the honourable and great assembly of his rich-attired Peers and Senatours, with an inualuable and huge masse of gold and sil­uer plate, & with other princely magnificence; that well might the eyes of the beholders be dazeled, and their cogitations astonished thereat. For indeed the exteriour habit of this our English politician, to wit, the harsh and vnaffected stile of his substantiall verses and the olde dialect of his worde [...] is such; as the first may seeme to haue bene whistled of Pans oaten pipe, and the second to haue proceeded from the mother of Euander: but take you off his vtmost weed, and beholde the comelinesse, beautie, and riches which lie hid within his inward sense and sentence; and you shall finde (I wisse) so much true and sound policy, so much delightfull and pertinent history, so many liuely descriptions of the shipping and wares in his time of all the nations almost in Christendome, and such a subtile discouery of outlandish merchants fraud, and of the sophistication of their wares; that needes you must acknowledge, that more matter and substance could in no wise be comprised in so little a roome. And notwithstanding (as I said) his stile be vnpolished, and his phrases some­what out of vse; yet, so neere as the written copies would giue me leaue, I haue most reli­giously without alteration obserued the same: thinking it farre more conuenient that himselfe should speake, then that I should bee his spokesman; and that the Readers should enioy his true verses, then mine or any other mans fained prose.

Next after the conclusion of the last mentioned discourse, the Reader may in some sort take a vieu of our state of merchandise vnder K. Edward the fourth, as likewise of the establishing of an English company in the Netherlands, and of all the discreet prouisoes, iust ordinations, & gratious priuileges conteined in the large Charter which was granted for the same purpose.

Now besides our voyages and trades of late yeeres to the North and Northeast regions of the world, and our ancient traffique also to those parts; I haue not bene vnmindefull (so farre as the histories of England and of other Countreys would giue me direction) to place in the fore-front of this booke those forren conquests, exploits, and trauels of our English nation, which haue bene atchieued of old. Where in the first place (as I am credibly infor­med out of Galfridus Monumetensis, and out of M. Lambert his [...]) I haue pub­lished vnto the world the noble actes of Arthur and Malgo two British Kings. Then fol­loweth in the Saxons time K. Edwin his conquest of Man and Anglesey, and the expe­dition of Bertus into Ireland. Next succeedeth Octher making relation of his doings, and describing the North Countreys, vnto his soueraigne Lord K. Ecfrid. After whom Wolstans Nauigation within the Sound of Denmark is mentioned, the voyage of the yong Princes Edmund and Edward into Sweden and Hungarie is recorded, as like­wise the mariage of Harald his daughter vnto the Russian duke Ieruslaus. Neither is [Page] that Englishman forgotten, who was forced to traueile with the cruel Tartars into their Countrey, and from thence to beare them company into Hungary and Poland. And be­cause those Northeasterne Regions beyond Volga, by reason of the huge deserts, the colde climate, and the barbarous inciuilitie of the people there inhabiting, were neuer yet throughly traueiled by any of our Nation, nor sufficiently knowen vnto vs; I haue here annexed vnto the said Englishmans traueile, the rare & memorable iournals of 2. Fri­ers, who were some of the first Christians that trauailed farthest that way, and brought home most particular intelligence & knowledge of all things which they had seene. These Friers were sent as Ambassadours vnto the s [...]uage Tartars (who had as then wasted and ouerrunne a great part of Asia and had pierced farre into Europe with fire and sword) to mitigate their fury, and to offer the glad tidings of the Gospel vnto them. The former, namely Iohannes de Plano [...]arpini (whose iourney, because he road sixe moneths poste directly beyond Boristhenes, did, I thinke, both for length and difficultie farre surpasse that of Alexander the great, vnto the riuer of Indus) was in the yeere 1246. sent with the authoritie and commission of a Legate from Pope Innocentius the fourth: who passed through more garisons of the Tartars, and wandered ouer more vast, barren, and cold deserts, then (I suppose) an army of an hundred thousand good souldiers could haue done. The other, to wit, William de Rubricis, was 1253 by the way of Constantinople, of the Euxin sea, and of Taurica Chersonesus imployed in an ambassage from Lewis the French King (waging warre as then against the Saracens in the Holy land) vnto one Sartach a great duke of the Tartars, which Sartach sent him forthwith vnto his father Baatu, and from Baatu he was conducted ouer many large territories vnto the Court of Mangu-Can their Emperour. Both of them haue so well played their parts, in declaring what befell them before they came at the Tartars, what a terrible and vnmanerly wel­comming they had at their first arriuall, what cold intertainment they felt in traueiling towards the great Can, and what slender cheere they found at his Court; that they seeme no lesse worthy of praise then of pitie. But in describing of the Tartars Countrey, and of the Regions adiacent, in setting downe the base and sillie beginnings of that huge and ouer­spreading Empire, in registring their manifolde warres and bloody conquests, in making relation of their hords and mooueable Townes, as likewise of their food, apparell and ar­mour, and in setting downe their vnmercifull lawes, their fond superstitions, their bestiall liues, their vicious maners, their slauish subiection to their owne superiours, and their dis­dainfull and brutish inhumanitie vnto strangers, they deserue most exceeding and high commendation. Howbeit if any man shall obiect that they haue certaine incredible rela­tions: I answere, first, that many true things may to the ignorant seeme incredible. But suppose there be some particulars which hardly will be credited; yet thus much I will boldly say for the Friers, that those particulars are but few, and that they doe not auouch them vnder their owne names, but from the report of others. Yet farther imagine that they did auouch them, were they not to be pardoned as well as Herodotus, Strabo, Plutarch, Plinie, Solinus, yea & a great many of our new principall writers, whose names you may see about the end of this Preface; euery one of which hath reported more strange things then the Friers between thē both? Nay, there is not any history in the world (the most Holy writ excepted) whereof we are precisely bound to beleeue ech word and syllable. Moreouer sithens these two iournals are so rare, that Mercator and Ortelius (as their letters vnto me do testifie) were many yeeres very inquisitiue, and could not for all that attaine vnto them; and sithens they haue bene of so great accompt with those two famous Cosmogra­phers, that according to some fragments of them they haue described in their Mappes a great part of those Northeastern Regions; sith also that these two relations containe in some respect more exact history of those vnknowen parts, then all the ancient and newe writers that euer I could set mine eyes on: I thought it good, if the translation should chance to swerue in ought from the originals (both for the preseruation of the originals [Page] themselues, and the satisfying of the Reader) to put them downe word for word in that homely stile wherein they were first penned. And for these two rare iewels, as likewise for many other extraordinary courtesies, I must here acknowledge my selfe most deepely bounden vnto the right reuerend, graue, and learned Prelate, my very good lord the Bishop of Chichester, and L. high Almner vnto her Maiestie; by whose friendship and meanes I had free accesse vnto the right honor [...] my L. Lumley his stately library, and was permitted to copy out of ancient manuscripts, these two iournals and some others also.

After these Friers (though not in the next place) foloweth a testimonie of Gera [...] ­dus Mercator, and another of M. Dee, concerning one Nicholas de Linna an English Franciscan Frier.

Then succeedeth the long iourney of Henry Earle of Derbie, and afterward king of England into Prussia & Lithuania, with a briefe remembrance of his valiant exploits against the Infidels there; as namely, that with the help of certaine his Associates, he van­quished the king of Letto his armie, put the sayd king to flight, tooke and slew diuers of his captains, aduanced his English colours vpon the wall of Vilna, & made the citie it selfe to yeeld. Then mention is made also of Tho. of Woodstock his trauel into Pruis, and of his returne home. And lastly, our old English father Ennius, I meane, the learned, wittie, and profound Geffrey Chaucer, vnder the person of his knight, doeth full iudicially and like a cunning Cosmographer, make report of the long voiages and woorthy exploits of our English Nobles, Knights, & Gentlemen, to the Northren, and to other partes of the world in his dayes.

Neither haue we comprehended in this Volume, onely our Trades and Voiages both new and old; but also haue scattered here and there (as the circumstance of times would giue vs leaue) certaine fragments concerning the beginnings, antiquities, and grouth of the clas­sical and warrelike shipping of this Island: as namely, first of the great nauie of that vi­ctorious Saxon prince king Edgar, mentioned by Florentius Wigorniensis, Roger Houeden, Rainulph of Chester, Matthew of Westminster, Flores historiarum, & in the libel of English policie, pag. 202. and 203. of this present volume. Of which Au­thors some affirme the sayd Fleet to haue consisted of 4800. others of 4000. some others of 3600. ships: howbeit (if I may presume to gloze vpon the text) I verily thinke that they were not comparable, either for burthen, strength, building, or nimble stirrage vnto the ships of later times, and specially of this age. But howsoeuer it be, they all agree in this, that by meanes of the sayd huge Fleet he was a most puissant prince; yea, and some of them af­firme together with William of Malmesbury, that he was not onely soueraigne lord of all the British seas, and of the whole Isle of Britaine it selfe, but also that he brought vnder his yoke of subiection, most of the Isles and some of the maine lands adiacent. And for that most of our Nauigators at this time bee (for want of trade and practise that way) either vtterly ignorant, or but meanely skilfull, in the true state of the Seas, Shoulds, and Islands, lying between the North part of Ireland and of Scotland; I haue for their better encou­ragement (if any weightie action shall hereafter chance to drawe them into those quar­ters) translated into English a briefe treatise called, A Chronicle of the Kings of Man. Wherein they may behold as well the tragical and dolefull historie of those parts, for the space almost of 300. yeeres, as also the most ordinarie and accustomed nauigations, through those very seas, and amidst those Northwesterne Isles called the Hebrides, so many hun­dred yeeres agoe. For they shall there read, that euen then (when men were but rude in sea-causes in regard of the great knowledge which we now haue) first Godredus Cro­uan with a whole Fleet of ships, throughly haunted some places in that sea: secondly, that one Ingemundus setting saile out of Norway, arriued vpon the Isle of Lewis: then, that Magnus the king of Norway came into the same seas with 160. sailes, and hauing subdued the Orkney Isles in his way, passed on in like conquering maner, directing his course (as it should seeme) euen through the very midst, and on all sides of the Hebrides, [Page] who sailing thence to Man, conquered it also, proceeding afterward as farre as Angle­sey; and lastly crossing ouer from the Isle of Man to the East part of Ireland. Yea, there they shall read of Godredus the sonne of Olauus his voiage to the king of Norway, of his expedition with 80. ships against Sumerledus, of Sumerled his expedition with 53. ships against him; of Godred his flight and second iourney into Norway; of Sumerled his second arriual with 160. shippes at Rhinfrin vpon the coast of Man, and of many other such combates, assaults, & voyages which were performed onely vpon those seas & Islands. And for the bringing of this woorthy monument to light, we doe owe great thanks vnto the iudiciall and famous Antiquarie M. Camden. But sithens we are entred into a dis­course of the ancient warrelike shipping of this land, the Reader shall giue me leaue to bo­row one principall note out of this litle historie, before I quite take my leaue thereof: and that is in few words, that K. Iohn passed into Ireland with a Fleet of 500. sailes; so great were our sea-forces euen in his time. Neither did our shipping for the warres first begin to flourish with king Iohn, but long before his dayes in the reign of K. Edward the Con­fessor, of William the Conqueror, of William Rufus and the rest, there were diuers men of warre which did valiant seruice at sea, and for their paines were roially rewarded. All this and more then this you may see recorded, pag. 17. out of the learned Gentleman M. Lambert his Perambulation of Kent; namely, the antiquitie of the Kenti [...]h Cinque ports, which of the sea-townes they were, how they were infranchised, what gracious pri­uileges and high prerogatiues were by diuers kings vouchsafed vpon them, and what ser­uices they were tied vnto in regard thereof; to wit, how many ships, how many souldiers, mariners, Garsons, and for how many dayes each of them, and all of them were to fur­nish for the kings vse; and lastly, what great exploits they performed vnder the conduct of Hubert of Burrough, as likewise against the Wels [...]men, vpon 200. French ships, and vnder the commaund of captaine Henry Pay. Then haue you, pag. 117. the franke and bountifull Charter granted by king Edward the first, vpon the foresayd Cinque portes: & next thereunto a Roll of the mightie fleet of seuen hundred ships which K. Edward the third had with him vnto the siege of Caleis: out of which Roll (before I proceed any fur­ther) let me giue you a double obseruation. First, that these ships, according to the number of the mariners which were in all 14151. persons, seeme to haue bene of great burthen; and secondly, that Yarmouth an hauen towne in Northfolke (which I much wonder at) set foorth almost twise as many ships and mariners, as either the king did at his owne costs and charges, or as any one citie or towne in England besides. Howbeit Tho. Walsing­ham maketh plaine and euident mention of a farre greater Fleete of the same king; name­ly, of 1100. shippes lying before Sandwich, being all of them sufficiently well furnished. Moreouer, the Reader may behold, pag. 186. a notable testimonie of the mightie ships of that valiant prince king Henry the 5. who (when after his great victory at Agincourt the Frenchmen to recouer Harflew had hired certaine Spanish and Italian ships and forces, & had vnited their owne strength vnto them) sent his brother Iohn duke of Bed­ford to encounter them, who bidding them battell, got the victory, taking some of their ships, and sinking others, and putting the residue to dishonorable flight. Likewise comming the next yeere with stronger powers, and being then also ouercome, they were glad to con­clude a perpetuall league with K. Henry; & propter eorum naues (saieth mine Author) that is, for the resistance of their ships, the sayd king caused such huge ships to be built, qua­les non erant in mundo, as the like were not to be found in the whole world besides.

But to leaue our ancient shipping, and descend vnto later times; I thinke that neuer was any nation blessed of IEHOVAH, with a more glorious and wonderfull victory vpon the Seas, then our vanquishing of the dreadfull Spanish Armada, 1588. But why should I presume to call it our vanquishing; when as the greatest part of them escaped vs, and were onely by Gods out-stretched arme ouerwhelmed in the Seas, dashed in pieces a­gainst the Rockes, and made fearefull spectacles and examples of his iudgements vnto all [Page] Christendome. An excellent discourse whereof, as likewise of the honourable expedition vnder two of the most noble and valiant peeres of this Realme, I meane, the renoumed Erle of Essex, and the right honorable the lord Charles Howard, lord high Admirall of Eng­land, made 1596. vnto the strong citie of Cadiz, I haue set downe as a double epipho­nema to conclude this my first volume withall. Both of which, albeit they ought of right to haue bene placed among the Southerne voyages of our nation: yet partly to satisfie the importunitie of some of my special friends, and partly, not longer to depriue the diligent Reader of two such woorthy and long-expected discourses; I haue made bold to straine a li­tle curtesie with that methode which I first propounded vnto my selfe.

And here had I almost forgotten to put the Reader in mind of that learned and Philoso­phical treatise of the true state of Iseland, and so consequently of the Northren Seas & re­gions lying that way: wherein a great number of none of the meanest Historiographers and Cosmographers of later times, as namely, Munster, Gemma Frisius, Zieglerus, Krantzius, Saxo Grammaticus, Olaus Magnus, Peucerus and others, are by euident arguments conuinced of manifold errors: that is to say, as touching the true situation and Northerly latitude of that Island, and of the distance thereof from other places; touching the length of dayes in Sommer and of nights in Winter, of the temperature of the land and sea, of the time and maner of the congealing, continuance, and thawing of the Ice in those Seas, of the first Discouerie and inhabiting of that Is [...]nd, of the first planting of Christianitie there, as likewise of the continuall flaming of mountains, strange qualities of fountains, of hel-mouth, and of purgatorie which those authors haue fondly written and imagined to be there. All which treatise ought to bee the more acceptable; first in that it hath brought sound trueth with it; and secondly, in that it commeth from that farre Nor­thren climate which most men would suppose could not affoord any one so learned a Pa­trone for it selfe.

And thus (friendly Reader) thou seest the briefe summe and scope of all my labours for the common-wealths sake, and thy sake, bestowed vpon this first Volume: which if thou shalt as thankefully accept, as I haue willingly and freely imparted with thee, I shall bee the better encouraged speedily to acquaint thee with those rare, delightfull and profitable histories, which I purpose (God wil­ling) to publish concerning the Southerne and We­sterne partes of the World.

¶ Postscriptum.

Not knowing any other place so conuenient, I am here to aduertise the friendly Reader of certaine faultes escaped in the printing of this booke, and to request him that in the Page 54. and in the last line saue two, hee would in stead of Kine, read Swine, and he shall thereby auoid a great contradiction: likewise pag. 187. that hee would vnto the ende of the second verse of the Prologue to the English Policy, make supply of the word Rest, which is there wanting: also pag. 221. lin. 29. for woorthinesse read woorthies, &c. Other faults (if there bee any) are (I doubt not) easily corrigible.

ΕἸΣ ᾈΠΟΔΗΜΙΑΣ ΒΡΕΤΤΑΝΩΝ
ΠΌΝΗΜΑ ΡΙΧΡΑΡΔΟΥ ΤΟΥ ᾍΚΔΥΙΥΟΥ.
[...]

[...]
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[...],
[...].
[...],
[...].
[...],
[...].
[...]
[...].
In nauales RICHARDI HAKLVYTI Commentarios.
ANglia magnarum foecunda puerpera rerum,
siue solum spectes nobile, siue salum;
Quae quantum sumptis se nobilitauerit armis,
siue domi gessit praelia, siue foris;
Multorum celebrant matura volumina: tantae
Insula materiem paruula landis alit.
At se in quot qualés (que), & quando effuderit or [...]s,
qua fidit ignotum peruia classis iter,
Solius Hakluyti decus est, praediuite penna
ostendisse suis ciuibus ausa mari.
Quaecunque idcirco celeri gens Anglica naui,
Oceani tristes spernere doctaminas,
A prima generis (que) & gentis origine gessit,
qua via per fluctus vlla patere potest,
Siue decus, laudém (que) secuta, vt & hostibus alas
demeret, atque suis laeta pararet opes:
Hoc opus Hakluyti; cui debet patria multum,
cui multum, patriae quisquis amicus erit.
Qua re námque magis se nostra Britannia iactat,
quàm quòd sit praeter caetera classe potens?
Quam prius obsessam tenebris sic libera [...], vt nunc
quisque sciat, quàm sit nobile classis opus.
Qua [...] si Daedalicè vtemur, surgemus in altum,
sin autem [...]earicè, quod voret, aequor habet.
Eiusdem in eundem.
QVi graui primus cecinit camoena
Aureum vellus procerésque Graecos,
quos sibi adiunxit comites Iāson
Vectus in Argo
Naue, quam primùm secuisse fluctus
praedicant salsos, sibi comparauit
[Page]Inde non vnquam moritura magnae
praemia famae.
Tanta si merces calamum secuta
Vnicae nauis referentis acta,
Quanta Richardum manet Hakluytum
gloria? cuius
Penna descripsit freta mille, mille
Insulae nostrae celeres carinas,
Quae per immensi loca peruolarunt
omnia mundi.
Senties gratam patriam, tuae (que)
Laudis aeternùm memorem, & laboris:
Quae tua cura, calamóque totum
ibit in orbem:
Quam doces omni studio fouere
Na [...]ticum robur, validám (que) classem.
Hac luet quisquis violentus Anglos
vsserit hostis.
In eximium opus R. HAKLVYTI de Anglorum ad disiunctissimas regiones nauigationibus GVLIELMI CAMD [...]NI Hexastichon.
ANglia quae penitùs toto discluditur orbe,
Angulus orbis erat, paruus & orbis erat.
Nunc cùm sepositos alios detexerit orbes,
Maximus orbis honos, Orbis & orbis erit.
At quid Haklute tibi monstranti haec debeat orbis?
Laus tua, crede mihi, non erit orbe minor.
DI MARC' ANTONIO PIGA­feta Gentilhuomo Vicentino.
IGnota mi starei, con poto honore
Sepolta nell' oscure, antiche carte,
S'alcun de figli mieicon spesa & arte
Non hauesse hor scoperto il mio splendore.
Ramusio pria pieno d'ardente amore
Manifesto le mie piu riche parte,
Che son lá doue il Maragnon diparte,
E doue il Negro allaga, e'l Gange scorre.
Hakluyto poi senza verunrisguardo
Di fatica o di danno accolt' hà insieme,
Ciò c'hà potuto hauer d [...] typhi Inglesi.
Onde ve [...]rassie doue bella sguardo,
E la Dwina agghiaccia, el'Obi freme,
Et altri membri mici non ben palesi.

¶ A Catalogue of the Voyages of this first volume, made to the North and Northeast quarters.

1 THe voyage of Arthur K. of Britaine to Island and the most Northea [...]tern parts of Europe, Anno 517.
pag. 1.
2 The voyage of Malgo king of Britaine to Island, Gotland, Orkney, Den­mark and Norway, Anno 580.
pag. 3.
3 The conquest of the Isles of Anglesey and Man by Edwin the Saxon king of Northumberland, Anno 624.
3.
4 The voyage of Bertus into Ireland, Anno 684.
4.
5 The voyage of Octher to the North parts beyond Norway about the yeere 890.
4.
6 The second voyage of Octher into the Sound of Denmarke.
5.
7 Wolstans Nauigation into the East sea, or the Sound of Denmarke.
6.
8 The voyage of King Edgar with 4000. shippes round about his large Monarchie, Anno 973.
6.
9 The voyage of Edmund and Edward the sonnes of King Edmund Ironside, into Hungary, Anno 1017.
9.
10 The mariage of the daughter of Harald vnto Ieruslaus duke of Russia in his owne Countrey, Anno 1067.
16.
11 The voyage of a certaine Englishman into Tartaria, and from thence into Poland and Hungary, Anno 1243.
[...]0.
12 The long and wonderfull voyage of Frier Iohn de Plano Carpini, Anno 1246.
21,37,53.
13 The iournall of Frier William de Rubricis, Anno 1253.
71,93.
14 The voyage of Nicolaus de Linna a Franciscan Frier, and an excellent Mathematician of Oxford to all the Regions situate vnder the North-pole, Anno 1360.
121.
15 The voyage of Henry Earle of Derby, afterward King of England, into Prussia and Letto, Anno 1390.
122.
16 The voyage of Thomas of Woodstock duke of Glocester into Prussia, Anno 1391.
123.
17 The voyage of sir Hugh Willoughby knight, wherein he vnfortunately perished at Arzi­na Reca in Lapland, Anno 1553.
232.
18 The voyage of Richard Chanceller Pilote maior, the first discouerer by sea of the kingdome of Moscouia, Anno 1553.
237,243.
19 The voyage of Stephen Burrough toward the Riuer of Ob, intending the discouery of the Northeast passage, Anno 1556.
274.
20 The landing of Richard Iohnson among the Samoeds, Anno 1556.
283.
21 The voyage of the aforesaide Stephen Burrough from Colmogro in Russia to Wardhouse, in search of certaine English ships not heard-of the yeere before, Anno 1557.
290.
22 The voyage of M. Anthony Ienkinson into Russia, wherein Osep Napea, first Ambassadour from the Emperour of Moscouia to Queene Mary, was transported into his Countrey, Anno 1557.
310,314.
23 The voyage of M. Anthony Ienkinson from the Citie of Mosco in Russia to Boghar in Ba­ctria, Anno 1558.
324.
24 The voyage of M. Anthony Ienkinson through Russia, and ouer the Caspian sea into Persia, Anno 1561.
343.
25 The voyage of Thomas Alcock, George Wrenne, and Richard Cheyney, seruants vnto the Company of Moscouy Merchants in London, into Persia, Anno 1563.
353.
26 The voyage of Richard Iohnson, Alexander Kitchin, and Arthur Edwards seruants to the foresaid company into Persia, Anno 1565.
354.
27 The voyage of Thomas Southam and Iohn Sparke by land and riuer from Colmogro to Nouo­grod in Russia, Anno 1566.
365.
28 The voyage of M. Anthony Ienkinson into Russia the third time, Anno 1566.
372.
[Page]29 The voyage of Arthur Edwards Agent for the Moscouy company, Iohn Sparke, Laurence Chapman, Christopher Faucet, and Richard Pingle, seruants, into Persia, An. 1568.
389.
30 The voyage of Thomas Banister and Geffrey Ducket, Agents for the Moscouy Company, in­to Persia the fift time, Anno 1569.
394.
31 The voyage of William Burrough Captaine of 13. English ships to the Narue in Liefland, Anno 1570.
401.
32 The voyage of M. Anthony Ienkinson into Russia the fourth time, Anno 1571.
402.
33 The voyage of Christopher Burrough into Persia the sixt time, Anno 1579.
419.
34 The voyage of Arthur Pet and Charles Iackman, sent to discouer the Northeast seas be­yond the Iland of Vaigats, Anno 1580.
445.
35 The voyage of Master Ierome Horsey ouer land from Mosco in Russia to England, Anno 1584.
469,470.
36 A voyage to the Northeast, performed by certaine Russes, and translated out of Sigismun­dus ab Herberstein.
492.
37 A voyage to Sibier and the Riuer of Ob, by land, declared in a letter written to Gerardus Mercator.
510,511, & 512.
38 The vanquishing of the Spanish Armada, Anno 1588.
591.
39 The honourable voyage to Cadiz, Anno 1596.
607.
¶ The Ambassages, Treatises, Priuiledges, Letters, and other obseruations, depending vpon the Voyages of this first Volume.
1 TWo testimonies of Galfridus Monumetensis in his history of the Kings of Brittaine, concerning the conquests of King Arthur.
pagina. 1.
2 A testimony of M. Lambard in his [...], touching the right and appendances of the Crowne of the kingdome of Britaine.
pag. 2.
3 A Chronicle of the Kings of Man, taken out of M. Camdens Chorographie.
10.
4 The ancient state of the shipping of the Cinque Ports.
17.
5 Libellus historicus Iohannis de Plano Carpini.
21.
6 Part of the great Charter graunted by King Edward the first, to the Barons of the Cinque Ports.
117.
7 The rolle of the huge Fleete of Edward the thirde before Caleis.
118.
8 The summe of expences layde out in the siege of Caleis.
121.
9 A note of Thomas Walsingham touching King Edward the thirde his huge Fleete of 1100. ships, wherewith he passed ouer vnto Caleis, Anno 1359.
121.
10 Certaine verses of Geffrey Chaucer, concerning the long Voyages, and valiant exploits of the English knights in his dayes.
124.
11 A testimonie out of Cornelius Tacitus, prouing London to haue bene a famous Mart-towne in the raigne of Nero the Emperour.
124.
12 A testimony out of venerable Beda, proouing London to haue bene a Citie of great traffique in his time.
125.
13 The league betweene Carolus Magnus and Offa King of Mercia, concerning the safe trade of English Merchants.
125.
14 An ancient testimony translated out of the olde Saxon Lawes, conteyning the aduancement of Merchants, for their thrice crossing the wide seas.
120.
15 A testimony of certaine Priuileges obteined for the English and Danish Merchants by Canu­tus the King of England.
126.
16 The flour [...]shing state of Merchandise in the City of London in the dayes of Wilhelmus Mal­mesburiensis.
227.
17 A testimony of the said Wil. of Malmesbury concerning traffique to Bristow in his time.
127.
18 The league betweene Henry the second, and Frederick Barbarossa Emperour of Germany, part­ly touching trade of Merchandise.
128.
19 A generall safe conduct granted by King Iohn to all forreine Merchants.
129.
20 The letters of King Henry the third [...] vnto Haquinus king of Norwey.
129,130.
21 A mandate for the king of Norway his ship called, The Cog.
130.
[Page]22 A Charter granted for the behalfe of the Merchants of Colen, in the 20. yeere of Henry the thirde.
131.
23 The Charter of Lubeck granted for seuen yeeres in the time of Henry the third.
131,132.
24 A Charter of the Merchants of Almaine, or the Stilyard-merchants.
132.
25 A mandate of King Edward the first concerning outlandish Merchants.
133.
26 King Edw. the first his great Charter granted to forreine Merchants, Anno Dom. 1303.
133.
27 The letters of Edward the second vnto Haquinus King of Norway, concerning certain English Merchants arrested in Norway.
138.
28 Another letter of Edw. the second vnto the said Haquinus for the merchants aforesaid.
139.
29 A third letter of King Edward the second to the said Haquinus in the behalfe of our English merchants.
140.
30 An Ordinance for the Staple to be holden at one certaine place.
142,143.
31 A Catalogue of the great Masters of Prussia.
144.
32 The Oration or speach of the Ambassadours sent from Conradus de Zolner, Master generall of the land of Prussia, vnto Richard the second, king of England.
148.
33 An agreement made by the Ambassadours of England and Prussia, confirmed by king Richard the second.
150.
34 The letters of Conradus de Iungingen, Master generall of Prussia, vnto Rich. the second.
153.
35 A briefe relation of William Esturmy and Iohn Kington, concerning their Ambassages into Prussia and to the Hans-townes.
154.
36 Certaine Articles of complaint exhibited by the Liuonians.
156.
37 Other complaints exhibited by the Cities of the Hans.
156.
38 Compositions and Ordinances concluded betweene the Ambassadours of Prussia, and the Chan­celler and Treasurer of England, Anno 1403.
157.
39 The letters of the Chanceller and Treasurer of England vnto Conradus de Iungingen, master generall of Prussia.
158.
40 The letters of king Henry the fourth vnto Conradus de Iungingen, the master generall of Prussia for entercourse of traffique.
159.
41 The letters of Conradus de Iungingen vnto king Henry the fourth.
160.
42 An agreement made betweene king Henry the fourth, and Conradus de Iungingen.
161.
43 An agreement betweene king Henry the fourth, and the Hans-townes.
164.
44 A testimonie out of Albertus Krantzius concerning the surprise of Bergen in Norway, where­in 21. houses of the English merchants were burnt.
169.
45 The grieuances and offences whereat the merchants of the Hans found themselues agrieued.
171.
46 A letter of Henry the fourth king of England vnto Conradus de Iungingen, Master generall of Prussia.
175.
47 A letter of Werneherus de Tettingen commander in Elbing vnto sir William Sturmy Am­bassadour vnto king Henry the fourth: Together with an other letter of king Henry the fourth, vnto Vlricus de Iungingen, master of Prussia.
176.
48 The letters of Vlricus de Iungingen master generall of Prussia, signifying vnto king Henry the 4. that he was contented with certeine agreements concluded by his messengers at Hage.
178.
49 The letters of king Henry the fourth vnto Vlricus de Iungingen, wherein he doth absolutely ap­proue the foresaid conference holden at Hage.
179.
50 A new concord betweene king Henry the fourth, and Vlricus de Iungingen.
180.
51 A Charter of king Henry the fourth, graunted in the fifth yeere of his raigne vnto the English merchants resident in the parts of Prussia.
185.
52 A note touching the mighty ships of king Henry the fift, taken out of a Chronicle in the Trinitie Church of Winchester.
185.
53 A branch of a Statute made in the eight yeere of Henry the 6. for the trade to Norway, Sweue­land, Denmarke and Finmarke.
186.
54 Another branch of a Statute made in the 10. yeere of king Henry the sixt concerning the state of English merchants in the dominions of the king of Denmarke.
186.
55 Libellus de politia conseruatiua Maris. Or, The pollicy of keeping the Sea.
187.
56 A large Charter granted by king Edward the fourth, in the second yere of his raigne, to the Eng­lish merchants residing in the Netherland.
208.
57 A perswasion of Robert Thorne merchant of Bristol, and dwelling long in Siuil in Spaine, to king Henry the eight of noble memory, to set out and further Discoueries toward the North.
212.
58 The discourse of the foresaid Robert Thorne, written to Doctour Leigh the Kings Ambassa­dour in Spaine touching that matter.
214.
[Page]59 A briefe treatise of the Emperour of Moscouia his genealogie.
221.
60 The excellent orders and instructions of Sebastian Cabot giuen to sir Hugh Willoughby and his Fleete in their voyage intended for Cathay.
226.
61 The names of the twelue Counsellers appointed in sir Hugh Willoughbies voyage.
230.
62 The letters of king Edward the sixt, written at that time to all the Kings, Princes, and other Po­tentates of the Northeast.
230.
63 The names of the Ships, Captains, Mariners, and other officers of that first worthy enterprise.
232.
64 The othe ministred to the Captaine of the Fleete.
233.
65 The othe ministred to the Masters of the ships.
234.
66 A testimonie of Richard Eden, concerning Clement Adams his discourse of Richard Chan­cellers voyage.
242.
67 The letters of the Emperour of Russia sent to king Edward the sixt, by Richard Chanceller.
255.
68 The coynes, waights and measures vsed in Russia.
256.
69 The letters of King Philip and Queene Mary to Iuan Vasiliuich the Emperor of Russia.
258.
70 The Commission giuen to the merchants Agents resiant in Russia.
259.
71 The othe ministred to the seruants of the Moscouie company.
262.
72 The letter of George Killingworth the fi [...]st Agent in Russia, written to the Company.
263.
73 The first Priuileges graunted by the Emperour of Russia, to the English merchants.
265.
74 The Charter of the merchants of the Moscouie company granted by Queene Mary.
267.
75 Instructions giuen to the Pursers of the Moscouie voyage.
273.
76 The strange discourse of Richard Iohnson concerning the Samoeds.
283.
77 A discourse of the honourable receiuing into England of the first Ambassadour frō the Emperour of Russia.
285.
78 Instructions giuen to the Masters and Mariners of the ships of the Moscouie Company, sayling towards the Bay of S. Nicolas, Anno 1557.
295.
79 A letter of the Company of the Moscouie merchants vnto their Agents, George Killing­worth, Richard Gray, and Henry Lane in Russia.
297.
80 A letter of M. Thomas Hawtree to the Moscouie Companies Agent M. Henry Lane at Col­mogro.
302.
81 A letter of M. Richard Gray, one of the first Agents of the Moscouie Company, to M. Hen [...]y Lane at Mosco.
303.
82 A letter of Thomas Alcock to M. Richard Gray and Henry Lane, Agents in Moscouia from Tirwill in Poland.
303.
83 A letter of M. Anthony Ienkinson vpon his returne from Boghat to M. Henry Lane resident in Vologda.
305.
84 A letter of the Moscouie Company to their Agents in Russia, M. Henry Lane, Christopher Hudson, and Thomas Glouer, sent in their seuenth voyage to S. Nicolas.
305.
85 Another letter to the aforesaid parties.
308.
86 The maner of Iustice by lotts in Russia written by M. Henry Lane.
309.
87 The description of Russia, with the customes and maners of the inhabitants.
315.
88 Notes and obseruations gathered by Richard Iohnson of the seuerall wayes from Russia to Ca­thay ouer-land.
335.
89 A letter of Sigismund king of Polonia 1559. vnto the Queenes most excellent Maiestie.
337.
90 The letters of the Queenes Maiestie written to the Emperour of Russia, requesting licence and safe-conduct for Anthonie Ienkinson, to passe through his dominions into Persia.
338.
91 The Queenes Maiesties letters to the great Sophie of Persia, sent by M. Anth. Ienkinson.
340.
92 Instructions giuen by the Gouernours and Assistants of the Moscouie Company, vnto M. Antho­nie Ienkin [...]on.
341.
93 The priuileges giuen by Obdoloucan K. of Hircania to the Company of English merchants tra­ding in Russia, obteined by M. Anthony Ienkinson.
352.
94 Certaine letters of Arthur Edwards written out of Russia, Media, and Persia, to the Company of the Moscouie merchants in London.
354,355,358,361.
95 The distance of diuers places in Russia.
363.
96 The way and distances from S. Nicolas in Russia to the Caspian sea.
364.
97 An Acte for the corporation of merchants Aduen [...]urers for the discouering of newe trades [...] made in the eighth yeere of the Queenes Maiestie.
369.
98 The priuileges granted by the Emperour of Russia to the English merchants, obteined by M. An­thony Ienkinson.
373.
99 A letter of M. Henry Lane to M. Richard Hakluyt concerning the first Ambassage from the [Page] Ru [...]sian Emperour to our most gracious Queene Elizabeth.
374.
100 A letter of her Maiestie, sent by Stephen Twerdico and Pheodata Pogorella, Messengers of the Emperour of Russia, vnto their master.
375.
101 The Ambassage of M. Thomas Randolfe Esquier, from the Queenes Maiestie to the Empe­rour of Russia.
376.
102 The priuileges graunted to the English merchants, at M. Randolfe his sute.
378.
103 A Commission granted by M. Randolfe for a discouery to the Northeast by sea.
382.
104 Instructions giuen to the discouerers for that action.
383.
105 Certaine letters in verse, written out of Moscouia, by M. George Turberuile, Secretary to M. Randolfe, touching the state of the Countrey, and maners of the people.
384.
106 Notes concerning the fourth English voyage into Persia.
392.
107 Obseruations of the Sophy of Persia, and of the Religion of the Persians.
397.
108 A letter of Richard Vscombe to M. Henry Lane touching the burning of the Citie of Mosco by the Crimme Tartar.
402.
109 The Ambassage of M. Anthony Ienkinson from the Queenes Maiestie to the Emperour of Russia, Anno 1571.
402.
110 A briefe rehearsall of all the trauailes of M. Anthony Ienkinson.
411.
111 A letter of Iames Alday to M. Michael Locke Agent in London for the Moscouie Company touching a trade to be established in Lappia.
412.
112 A note of all the necessary instruments and appurtenances belonging to the killing of the Whale.
413.
113 The deposition of William Burrough to certeine Interrogatories mooued vnto him concerning the Narue and Kegor.
414.
114 The reasons of M. William Burrough to disswade the vse of a trade to the Narue by the way through Sweden.
416.
115 A remembrance of aduise giuen to the Moscouie merchants, touching a voyage for Cola a­bouesaid.
416.
116 An Epistle dedicatorie vnto the Queenes most excellent Maiestie, written by M. William Bur­rough.
417.
117 The Queenes Maiesties letters to Shaugh Thamas the great Sophy of Persia.
418.
118 The Latitudes and Meridian Altitudes of diuers places in Russia, from the North to the South.
431.
119 Directions giuen by M. Richard Hakluyt Esquire, to Morgan Hubblethorne Dier, sent into Persia.
432.
120 A Commission giuen by sir Rowland Heyward knight, and George Barne Aldermen, and gouernours of the Moscouie Company [...] to Arthur Pet and Charles Iackman, for the discouery by Sea towards Cathay.
433.
121 Rules and orders giuen to be obserued by them in that Discouery.
435.
122 Briefe aduises giuen by M. Iohn Dee to that purpose.
437.
123 Instructions giuen them by Richard Hakluyt Esquire to that purpose also.
437,438.
124 The letter of Gerard. Mercator to Richard Hakluyt of Oxford touching that discouery.
443.
125 Instructions giuen by the Moscouie Company vnto Richard Gibbs, William Biggat, Iohn Backhouse [...] &c. Masters of their ships.
453.
126 The opinion of M. William Burrough, sent to a friend requiring his iudgement for the fittest time of the departure of our ships toward S. Nicolas in Russia.
455.
127 The Queenes Maiesties Commission giuen to sir Ierome Bowes, authorizing him her high­nesse Ambassadour with the Emperour of Moscouie.
455.
128 The Queenes Maiesties letters written to the Emperour by sir Ierome Bowes in his commen­dation.
457.
129 The discourse of the Ambassage of sir Ierome Bowes to the aforesaid Emperour.
458.
130 The maner of preferring suites in Russia.
463.
131 A letter of M. Henry Lane to M. William Sanderson merchant of London, conteyning a briefe discourse of all things passed in our Northren discoueries for the space of 33. yeeres.
464.
132 The most solemne and magnificent Coronation of Pheodor Iuanowich Emperour of Russia, set downe by M. Ierome Horsey.
466.
133 The Priuileges graunted by the newe Emperour, to the English merchants, and obteined by the foresaid Ierom Horsey.
470.
134 The Ambassage of M. Giles Fletcher, Doctor of the Ciuil lawe, from her Maiestie, to the Emperour of Russia.
473.
[Page]135 A notable description of Ru [...]ia.
475, &c.
136 A speciall note gathered by the excellent Venetian Cosmographer M. Iohn Baptista Ramu­sius, concerning the Northeast passage.
495.
137 The Lord Boris Pheodorowich his letter to the right honourable William Burghley Lord high Treasurer of England.
498.
138 The Queenes Maiesties letter to Pheodor Iuanowich, Emperour of Russia.
499.
139 The Queenes Maiesties letters to the Lord Boris Pheodorowich.
501.
140 The L. Treasurer sir William Cecil his letter to the Lord Boris Pheodorowich.
502.
141 A letter of Pheodor Iuanowich to the Queenes Maiestie.
502.
142 An other letter to the Queenes most excellent Maiestie from the Lord Boris Pheodoro­wich.
503.
143 A second letter from the Lord Boris Pheodorowich to the L. William Burghley.
504.
144 A most gracious letter of Priuileges giuen to the English merchants by Pheodor Iuano­wich.
505.
145 The contents of M. Garlands Commission vnto Thomas Simkinson for the bringing of M. Iohn Dee to the Emperour of Russia his Court.
508.
146 A letter to the right worsh. M. Iohn Dee Esquier, conteyning the summe and effect of M. Gar­land his message.
508.
147 A branch of a letter from Iohn Merick touching the death of Pheodor Iuanowich.
509.
148 A learned Epistle written vnto the famous Cosmographer M. Gerardus Mercator, concerning the Countreys, Riuers and Seas, towards the Northeast.
510.
149 The honourable testimonies of diuers strangers touching the notable discoueries of the English, made in the North-east parts.
513.
150 A briefe Commentarie of the true state of Island.
515. & 550.
151 A letter written by the graue and learned Gudbrandus Thorlacius, Bishop of Holen in Island, concerning the ancient state of Island and Gronland.
590.
[figure]

THE FIRST VOLVME OF THE principall Nauigations, Voyages, Traffiques, and Discoueries of the English nation, made to the North and Northeast quarters of the World, with the directions, letters, priuiledges, discourses, and obseruations incident to the same.

Certeine testimonies concerning K. Arthur and his conquests of the North regions, taken out of the historie of the Kings of Britaine, written by Galfridus Monumetensis, and newly printed at Heidelberge, Anno 1587.

Lib. 9. cap. 10.

ANno Christi, 517. Arthurus, secundo regni sui an­no, subiugatis totius Hyberniae partibus, claslem suam dire­xit in Islandiam, eámque debellato populo subiugauit. Exin diuulgato per caeteras insulas rumore, quod e [...] nulla Prouin­cia resistere poterat, Doldauius rex Gotlandiae, & Gunfacius r [...]x Orcadum vltrò venerunt, promissoque vectigali subiecti­onem feceiunt. Emensa deinde hyeme, reuersus est in Bri­tanniam, statúmque regni in firmam pacem renouans, mo­ram duodecim annis ibidem fecit.

The same in English.

IN the yere of Christ, 517. king Arthur in the second yeere of his reigne, hauing subdued all parts of Ireland, sailed with his fleet into Island, and brought it and the people thereof vnder his subiection. The rumour af­terwards being spread thorowout all the other Islands, that no countrey was able to withstand him, Doldauius the king of Gotland, and Gunfacius the king of Orkney, came voluntarily vnto him, and yeelded him their obedience, promising to pay him tribute. The Winter being spent, he returned into Britaine, and establishing his kingdome in perfect peace, he continued there for the space of twelue yeres.

Lib. 9 cap. 12.

MIssis deinde in diuersa regna Legatis, inuitantur tam ex Gallijs, quàm ex collatetalibus Insulis Oceani, qui ad curiam venire deberent, &c. Et paulò post: Ex collateralibus au­tem Insulis, Guillaumurius rex Hyberniae, Maluasius rex Islandiae, Doldauius rex Gotlandiae, Gunnasius rex Orchadum, Lot rex Noruegiae, Aschilius rex Danorum.

The same in English.

AFter that king Arthur sending his messengers into diuers kingdomes, he summoned such as were to come to his Court, aswell out of France, as out of the adiacent Islands of the sea, &c. and a little after: From those adiacent Islands came Guillaumurius king of Ireland, Maluasius king of Island, Doldauius king of Gotland, Gunnasius king of Orkney, Lot the king of Nor­way, and Aschilius the king of Denmarke.

Lib. 9 cap. 19.

AT reges caeterarum Insularum, quoniam non duxerant in morem equites habere, pedi­tes quot quisque debebat, promittunt, ita vt ex sex Insulis, videlicet, Hyberniae, Islandiae, Gotlandiae, Orcadum, Noruegiae, atque Daciae, sexies viginti millia essent annumerata.

[Page 2] The same in English.

BUt the kings of the other Islands, because it was not their custome to breed vp horses, promi­sed the king as many footmen, as euery man was bound to send: so that out of the six Islands, namely, of Ireland, Island, Gotland, Orkney, Norway, and Denmarke, the king had sixe score thousand souldiers s [...]nt him.

A testimonie of the right and appendances of the crowne of the kingdome of Britaine, taken out of M. Lambard his [...]. fol. 137. pag. 2.

ARthurus qui fuit quondam inclytissimus Rex Britonum, vir magnus suit & animosus, & miles illustris. Parum fuit ei regnum istud, non fuit animus eius contentus regno Britan­niae. Subiugauit igitur sibi strenuè Scantiam totam, quae modo Norweia vocatur, & omnes in­sulas vltra Scantiam, s [...]z. Islandiam, & Grenlandiam, quae sunt de appendicijs Norweiae, & Suechordam, & Hyberniam, & [...]u [...]landiam, & Daciam, Semelandiam, Winlandiam, Cur­landiam, Roe, Femelandiam, Wirelandiam, Flandriam, Cherelam, Lappam, & omnes alias terras & insulas Orientalis Oceani vsque Russiam (in Lappa scilicet posuit Orientalem metam regni Britanniae) & multas insulas vltra Scantiam, vsque dum [...]ub Septentrione, quae sunt de ap­pendicibus Scantiae, quae modo Norweia vocatur. Fuerunt autem ibi Christiani occultè. Ar­thurus autem Christianus optimus fuit, & fecit eos baptizari, & vnum Deum per totam Nor­weiam venerari, & vnam fidem Chri [...]ti semper inuiolatam custodire, & suscipere. Ceperunt vniuersi proceres Norweiae vxores suas de nobili gente Britonum tempore illo, vnde Norwe­gienses dicunt se exijsse de gente & sanguine regni huius. Impetrauit enim temporibus illis Arthurus rex à domino Papa, & à Curia Romana, quod confirmata sit Norweia, in perpetuum coronae Britanniae in augmentum regni huius, vocauítque illam dictus Arthurus Cameram Bri­tannie. Hac verò de causa dicunt Norwegienses, se debere in regno isto cohabitare & dicunt se esse de corpore regni huius, scilicet de corona Britannie. Maluerunt enim manere in regno isto, quàm in terra eorum propria. Terra enim eorum arida est, & montuosa, & sterilis, & non sunt ibi segetes nisi per loca. Ista verò opulenta est, & fertilis, & crescunt hic segetes, & caetera vniuer­sa. Qua ex causa saepius per vices gesta sunt bella atrocissima inter Anglos & Norwegienses, & interfecti sunt innumer [...]biles. Occupauerunt verò Norwegienses terras multas & insulas regni huius, quas adhuc detinent occupatas, nec potuerunt vnquam postea penitus euelli. Tan­dem modò confederati sunt nobis fide, & sacramento, & per vxores suas, quas postea cepe­runt de sanguine nostro, & per affinitates, & coniugia. Ita demum constituit, & eis concessic bonus rex Edouardus propinquus noster (qui fuit optimus filius pacis) per commune confili­um totius regni. Qua de causa possent, & debent predicti de caetero nobiscum cohabitare, & remanere in regno, sicut coniurati fratres nostri.

The same in English.

ARthur which was sometimes the most renowmed king of the Britains, was a mightie, and valiant man, and a famous warriour. This kingdome was too litle for him, & his minde was not conteated with it. He therefore valiantly subdued all Scantia, which is now called Norway, and all the Islands beyond Norway, to wit, Island and Greenland, which are apperteining vnto Norway, Sweueland, Ireland, Gotland, Denmarke, Semeland, Windland, Curland, Roe, Fe­meland, Wireland, Flanders, Cherilland, Lapland, and all the other lands & Islands of the East sea, euen vnto Russia (in which Lapland he placed the Easterly bounds of his Brittish Empire) and many other Islands beyond Norway, euen vnder the North pole, which are appendances of Scantia, now called Norway. These people were wild and sauage, and had not in them the loue of God nor of their neighbors, because all euill commeth from the North, yet there were among them certeine Christians liuing in secret. But king Arthur was an exceeding good Christian, and cau­sed them to be baptized, and thorowout all Norway to worship one God, and to receiue and keepe inuiolably for euer, faith in Christ onely. At that time all the noble men of Norway tooke wiues of the noble nation of the Britaines, whereupon the Norses say, that they are descended of the race and blood of this kingdome. The aforesayd king Arthur obteined also in those dayes of the Pope & court of Rome, that Norway should be for euer annexed to the crowne of Britaine for the inlarge­ment of this kingdome, and he called it the chamber of Britaine. For this cause the Norses say, that they ought to dwell with vs in this kingdome, to wit, that they belong to the crowne of Bri­taine: for they had rather dwell here then in their owne natiue countrey, which is drie and full of [Page 3] mountaines, and barren, and no graine growing there, but in certeine places. But this countrey of Britaine is fruitfull, wherein corne and all other good things do grow and increase: for which cause many cruell battels haue bene oftentimes fought betwixt the Englishmen and the people of Norway, and infinite numbers of people haue bene slaine, & the Norses haue possessed many lands and Islands of this Empire, which vnto this day they doe possesse, neither could they euer after­wards be fully expelled. But now at length they are incorporated with vs by the receiuing of our religion and sacraments, and by taking wiues of our nation, and by affinitie, and mariages. For so the good king Edward (who was a notable mainteiner of peace) ordeined and granted vnto them by the generall consent of the whole kingdome, so that the people may, and ought from hencefoorth dwell and remaine in this kingdome with vs as our louing sworne brethren.

A testimonie out of the foresayd Galfridus Monumetensis, concer­ning the conquests of Malgo, king of England. Lib. 11. cap. 7.

VOrtiporio successit Malgo, omnium ferè Britanniae pulcherrimus, multorum tyran­norum depulsor, robustus armis, largior caeteris, & vltra modum probitate praecla­rus. Hic etiam totam Insulam obtinuit, & sex conprouinciales Oceani Iusulas: Hyberniam videlicet, atque Islandiam, Gotlandiam, Orcades, Noruegiam, Daciam, adiecit dirissimis praelijs potestati suae.

The same in English.

MAlgo succeeded Vortiporius which was the goodliest man in person of all Britaine, a prince that expulsed many tyrants. He was strong and valiant in warre, taller then most men that then liued, and exceeding famous for his vertues. This king also obteined the gouernment of the whole Island of Britaine, and by most sharpe battailes he recouered to his Empire the sixe Islands of the Ocean sea, which before had bene made tributaries by king Arthur, namely Ireland, Island, Gotland, Orkney, Norway, and Denmarke.

The conquest of the Isles of Anglesey and Man by Edwin the Saxon king of Northumberland written in the second Booke and fift Chapter of Beda his Ecclesiasticall historie of the English nation.

EDuinus Nordanhumbrorum gentis, id est, eius quae ad borealem Humbri fluminis plagam inhabitat, maiore potentia cunctis qui Britanniam incolunt, Anglorum pariter & Britonum populis praefuit, praeter Cantuarios tantùm, necnòn & Mena­uias Britonum insulas, quae inter Hiberniam & Britanniam sitae sunt, Anglorum subiecit potestati.

The same in English.

EDwin king of the people of Northumberland, that is to say, of them which inhabit to the North of the riuer Humber, being of greater authoritie then any other potentate in the whole Isle of Britaine, bare rule aswell ouer the English as the British nation, except onely the people of Kent: who also brought in subiection vnder the English, the Isles of Man and Anglesey, and the other Northwesterne Isles of the Britons, which are situate betweene Britaine and Ireland.

Another testimonie alledged by Beda to the same purpose. Lib. 2. cap. 9.

ANno ab incarnatione Domini sexcente simo vicesimo quarto, gens Nordanhumbrorum, hoc est, ea natio Anglorum quae ad aquilonarem Humbri fluminis plagam habitat, cum rege suo Eduino, verbum fidei (praedicante Paulino, cuius supra meminimus) suscepit: cui vi­delicèt regi in auspicium suscipiendae fidei, & regni coelestis potestas, & terreni creuerat impe­rij: ita vt (quod nemo Anglorum ante eum fecit) omnes Britanniae fines, qua velipsorum vel Britonum Prouinciae habitabantur, sub ditione acceperit. Quin & Menauias insulas (sicut & supra docuimus) imperio subiugauit Anglorum. Quarum prior quae ad austrum est, & situ am­plior, & frugum prouentu atque vbertate foelicior, nongentarum sexaginta familiarum men­suram, iuxta aestimationem Anglorum, secunda trecentarum & vltrà spatium tenet.

[Page 4] The same in English.

IN the yeere from the incarnation of our Lord, sixe hundreth twentie and foure, the people of Northumberland, to wit, those English people which inhabit on the North side of the riuer of Humber, together with their king Edwin, at the Christian preaching and perswasion of Paulinus aboue mentioned, embraced the Gospel. Under which king, after he had once accepted of the Chri­stian faith, the power both of the heauenly & of his earthly kingdome was inlarged; insomuch, that he (which no English king had done before him) brought vnder his subiection all the prouinces of Britaine, which were inhabited either by the English men themselues, or by the Britons. Moreo­uer, he subdued vnto the crowne of England (as we haue aboue signified) the Hebrides, common­ly called the Westerne Islands. The principall wherof being more commodiously and pleasantly seated towards the South, and more abounding with corne then the rest, conteineth according to the estimation of the English, roome enough for 960. families, and [...]he second for 300. and aboue.

The voyage of Bertus, generall of an armie sent into Ireland by Ecfridus king of Northumberland, in the yere of our Lord 684, out of the 4. Booke and 26. Chapter of Beda his Ecclesiasticall Hystorie.

ANno Dominicae incarnationis sexcentesimo octogesimo quarto, Ecfridus rex Nordanhumbrorum, misso Hiberniam cum excercitu duce Berto, vastauit mi­serè gentem innoxiam, & nationi Anglorum semper amicissimam, ita vt nec ecclesijs quidem aut monasterijs manus parceret hostilis. At insulani & quan­tum valuere armis arma repellebant, & inuocantes diuinae auxilium pietatis coelitus [...]e vindicari continuis diù imprecationibus postulabant. Et quamuis maledici regnum Dei possidere non possint, creditum tamen est, quòd hi qui merito impieta­tis suae maledicebantur, ocyùs Domino vindice, poenas sui reatus luerent.

The same in English.

IN the yeere of our Lord 684, Ecfrid the king of Northumberland sent captaine Bert into Ire­land with an armie, which Bert miserably wasted that innocent nation being alwayes most friendly vnto the people of England, insomuch that the fury of the enemy spared neither churches nor monasteries. Howbeit the Islanders to their power repelled armes with armes, and crauing Gods aid from heauen with continuall imprecations and curses, they pleaded for reuenge. And al­beit cursed speakers can by no meanes inherit the kingdome of God, it was thought notwithstan­ding, that they which were accursed for their impiety did not long escape the vengeance of God imminent for their offences.

The voyage of Octher made to the Northeast parts beyond Norway, reported by himselfe vnto Alfred the famous king of England, about the yere 890.

OCther said, that the countrey wherein he dwelt was called Helgoland. Octher tolde his lord king Alfred that he dwelt furthest North of any other Norman. He sayd that he dwelt towards the North part of the land toward the West coast: and affirmed that the land, notwithstanding it stretcheth marueilous farre towards the North, yet it is all desert and not inhabited, vnlesse it be very few places, here and there, where certeine Finnes dwell vpon the coast, who liue by hunting all the Winter, and by fishing in Summer.Fynnes li [...]e by hunting & fishing. He said that vpon a certeine time he fell into a fantasie and desire to prooue and know how far [...]e that land stretched Northward, and whether there were any habitation of men North beyond the desert. Whereupon he tooke his voyage di­rectly North along the coast, hauing vpon his s [...]eereboord alwayes the desert land, and vpon the leereboord the maine Ocean: and continued his course for the space of 3. dayes. In which space he was come as far towards the North, as commonly the whale hunters vse to trauell.The place whi­ther the whale hunters [...]ra­ueile. Whence he proceeded in his course still towards the North so farre as he was able to saile in other 3. dayes. At the end whereof he perceiued that the coast turned towards the East, or els the sea opened with a maine gulfe into the land, he knew not how farre. Well he wist and remembred, that he was faine to stay till he had a Westerne winde, and somewhat Northerly: and thence he sailed plaine East along the coast still so far as he was able in the space of 4. dayes. At the end of which time he [Page 5] was compelled againe to stay till he had a full Northerly winde, [...]orsomuch as the coast bowed thence directly towards the South, or at least wise the sea opened into the land he could not tell how farre: so that he sailed thence along the coast continually full South, so farre as he could tra­uaile in 5. dayes; and at the fifth dayes end he discouered a mightie riuer which opened very farre into the land.The riuer of Duina or like­lihood. At the entrie of which riuer he stayed his course, and in conclusion turne [...] backe a­gaine, for he durst not enter thereinto for feare of the inhabitants of the land: perceiuing that on the other side of the riuer the countrey was thorowly inhabited: which was the first peopled land that he had found since his departure from his owne dwelling: whereas continually thorowout all his voyage, he had euermore on his steereboord, a wildernesse and desert countrey,A Desert coun­trey. except that in some places, he saw a few fishers, fowlers, and hunters, which were all Fynnes:Fynnes. and all the way vpon his leereboord was the maine ocean. The Biarmes had inhabited and tilled their countrey indifferent well,Biarmia. notwithstanding he was afrayed to go vpon shore. But the countrey of the Ter­fynnes lay all waste,Terfynnes. and not inhabited, except it were, as we haue sayd, whereas dwelled certeine hunters, fowlers, and fishers. The Biarmes tolde him a number of stories both of their owne countrey, and of the countreyes adioyning. Howbeit, he knew not, nor could affirme any thing for certeine trueth: forsomuch as he was not vpon land, nor saw any himselfe. This onely he iudged, that the Fynnes and Biarmes speake but one language.The Fynnes and Biarmes speake one lan­guage. The principall purpose of his traueile this way, was to encrease the knowledge and discouerie of these coasts and countreyes, for the more commoditie of fishing of Or, morsses, their teeth cō ­mended. horsewhales, which haue in their teeth bones of great price and excellencie: whereof he brought some at his returne vnto the king. Their skinnes are also very good to make cables for shippes, and so vsed.Vse of ye Mors­ses skinn [...] for cables. This kinde of whale is much lesse in quantitie then other kindes, hauing not in length aboue seuen elles. And as for the common kind of whales, the place of most and best hunting of them is in his owne countrey: whereof some be 48. elles of length, and some 50. of which sort he affirmed that he himselfe was one of the sixe, which in the space of 3. dayes killed threescore. He was a man of exceeding wealth in such riches, wherein the wealth of that countrey doth consist. At the same time that he came to the king, he had of his owne breed 600. tame Deere,Sixe hundreth tame Deere. of that kinde which they call Rane Deere: of the which number 6. were stall Rane Deere, a beast of great value, and marueilously esteemed among the Fynnes, for that with them they catch the wilde Rane Deere. He was among the chiefe men of his countre [...] one: and yet he had but 20. kine, and 20. swine, and that little which he tilled, he tilled it all with hor­ses. Their principall wealth consisteth in the tribute which the Fynnes pay them,The Fynnes tribute. which is all in skinnes of wilde beasts, feathers of birds, whale bones, and cables, and tacklings for shippes made of Whales or Seales skinnes. Euery man payeth according to his abilitie.Note. The richest pay or­dina [...]ily 15. cases of Marterns, 5. Rane Deere skinnes, and one Beare, ten bushels of feathers,Cables of Whales and Seales skins. a coat of a Beares skinne, two cables threescore elles long a piece, the one made of Whales skin, the other of Seales.

He sayd, that the countrey of Norway was very long and small.A description of Norway. So much of it as either bea­reth any good pasture, or may be tilled, lieth vpon the Sea coast, which notwithstanding in some places is very rockie and stonie: and all Eastward, all along against the inhabited land, lie wilde and huge hilles and mountaines, which are in some places inhabited by the Fynnes. The inhabi­ted land is broadest toward the South, & the further it stretcheth towards the North, it groweth euermore smaller and smaller. Towards the South it is peraduenture threescore miles in bredth or broader in some places: about the middest, 30. miles or aboue, and towards the North where it is smallest, he affirmeth that it proueth not three miles from the Sea to the mountaines.The bredth of the moūtaines of Norway. The mountaines be in breadth of such quantitie, as a man is able to traueile ouer in a fortnight, and in some places no more then may be traueiled in sixe dayes. Right ouer against this land, in the other side of the mountaines, somewhat towards the South, lieth Swethland, Swethland. and against the same to­wards the North, lieth Queeneland. Queeneland. The Queenes sometimes passing the mountaines, inuade and spoile the Normans: and on the contrary part, the Normans likewise sometimes spoile their countrey. Among the mountaines be many and great lakes in sundry places of fresh water, into the which the Queenes vse to carie their boats vpon their backs ouer land,Boats caried on mēs backs. and thereby inuade and spoile the countrey of the Normans. These boats of theirs be very little and very light.

The voyage of Octher out of his countrey of Halgoland into the sound of Denmarke vnto a port called Hetha, which seemeth to be Wismer or Rostorke.

OCther sayd that the countrey wherein he dwelled, was called Halgoland: and affirmed that there was no man dwelling towards the North from him. From this countrey towards the [Page 6] South, there is a certeine Or, streight. It seemeth to be about Elsen­borg. port called Scirings hall, whither, he sayth, that a man was not able to saile in a moneths space, if he lay still by night, although he had euery day a full winde. And he shall saile all the way along the coast, hauing on his steereboord, first Iutland and the Islands which lie betwixt this countrey & Iutland, still along the coast of this countrey, till he come to Scirings hall, hauing it on his larboord. At Scirings hall there entreth into the land a maine gulfe of the Sea,The descripti­on of the sound of Denmarke. which is so broad, that a man cannot see ouer it: and on the other side against the same, is Gotland, Gotland. and then Silland. This sea stretcheth many hundreth miles vp into the land. From Scirings hall he sayd that he sailed in 5. dayes to the port which is called Hetha, which lieth betwixt the coun­tries of Vandals. Wendels, Saxons, and Angles, whereunto it is subiect. And as he sailed thitherward from Scirings hall, he had vpon his steereboord Denmarke, and on his leereboord the maine sea, for the space of 3. dayes: and 2. dayes before, he arriued in Hetha, Hetha but two dayes sayling from Seland. It seemeth to be Wismer or Rostocke. he had Gotland on leerboord, and Silland, with diuers other Islands. In that countrey dwelt English men, before they came into this land. And these 2. dayes he had vpon his leerboord the Islands that are subiect to Denmarke.

VVolstans nauigation in the Within the sound of Den­marke. East sea, from Hetha to Trusco, which is about Dantzig.

WOlstan sayd, that he departed from Hetha, and arriued at Trusco, in the space of 7. dayes, and 7. nights: during which time, his shippe kept her course continu­ally vnder saile. All this voyage Wenedland was still vpon his steerboord, and on his leerboord was Langland, Layland, Falster, and Sco [...]ie: all which coun­treyes are subiect to Denmarke. Upon his leerboord also, was Bargenland, Bargenland, or Bornholme. which hath a priuate king, vnto whom it is subiect. Hauing left Bargenland, he passed by Blekingie, Meere, Eland and Gotland, hauing them on his leerboord: all which coun­treys are subiect to Sweden: and Wenedland was all the way vpon his steerboord, vntil he came to Wixel mouth. Wixel is a very great riuer which runneth along betwixt Witland and We­nedland. Wixel is the ri­uer that falleth into the sea by Dantzig. Witland is apperteining to the Easterlings: and the riuer of Wixel runneth out of Or, Prussia. Wenedland into Eastmeere, which Eastmeere is at the least 15. miles in breadth. There run­neth also another riuer called Ilsing from the East, and falleth into Eastmeere, out of another lake vpon the banke, whereupon is situated Fruso. Fruso. So that Ilsing comming out ofOr, Lituania. Eastland, and Wi­xel out of Wenedland, fall both together into Eastmeere, and there Wixel depriueth Ilsing of his name, and runneth thence West & North into the sea; whereof the place is called Wixelmouth.

The descripti­on of Eastland. Eastland is a very large land, and there be many cities and townes within it, and in euery one of them is a king: whereby there is continually among them great strife and contention. There is great plentie of hony and fish.

Mares milke a chiefe drinke.The wealthiest men drinke commonly Mares milke, and the poore people and slaues meade. There is no ale brewed among the Easterlings, but of mead there is plentie.

The nauigation of King Edgar, taken out of Florentius Wigorniensis, Houeden, and M. Dee his discourse of the Brittish Monarchie, pag. 54,55, &c.

I Haue often times (sayd he) and many wayes looked into the state of earthly king­domes, generally the whole world ouer (as farre as it may be yet knowen to Chri­stian men commonly) being a studie of no great difficultie, but rather a purpose somewhat answerable to a perfect Cosmographer, to finde himselfe Cosmopoli­ [...]es, a citizen and member of the whole and onely one mysticall citie vniuersall, and so consequently to meditate of the Cosmopoliticall gouernment thereof, vnder the King almigh­tie, passing on very swiftly toward the most dreadfull and most comfortable terme prefixed.

And I finde (sayd he) that if this Brittish Monarchie would heretofore haue followed the ad­uantages which they haue had onward, they might very well, yer this, haue surpassed by iustice, and godly sort, any particular Monarchie els, that euer was on earth since mans creation: and that to all such purposes as to God are most acceptable, and to all perfect common wealths, most hono­rable, profitable, and comfortable.

But yet (sayd he) there is a little locke of Lady Occasion flickering in the aire, by our hands to catch hold on, wherby we may yet once more (before all be vtterly past, and for euer) discreetly and valiantly recouer and enioy, if not all our ancient & due appurtenances to this Imperiall Brittish monarchie, yet at the least some such notable portion thereof, as (al circumstances duely and iustly [Page 7] appertaining to peace & amitie with [...]orrein princes being offred & vsed) this may become the most peaceable, most rich, most puissant, & most florishing monarchie of al els (this day) in christendome. Peaceable, I say, euen with the most part of the selfe same respects that good king Edgar had (be­ing but a Saxon) and by sundry such meanes, as he chiefly in this Empire did put in proofe and vre triumphantly, whereupon his sirname was Pacificus, most aptly and iustly. This peaceable king Edgar had in his minde about six hundred yeeres past, the representation of a great part of the selfe same Idaea, which from aboue onely, & by no mans deuise hath streamed downe into my imaginati­on, being as it becommeth a subiect carefull for the godly prosperitie of this British Empire vn­der our most peaceable Queene Elizabeth.

For, AEdgarus pacificus, Regni sui prospiciens vt [...]lit [...]ti, pariter & quieti, Flores Histori [...] ­rum. quatuor millia octin­gentas sibi robustas cōgregauit naues è quibus mille ducentas, in plaga Angliae Orientali, mille ducentas in Occidentali, mille ducentas in Australi, mille ducentas in Septentrionali pelago cōstituit, vt ad defensionem regni sui, contra exteras nationes, bellorū discrimina sustinerent.

O wisedome imperiall, most diligently to be imitated, videlicet, prospicere, to foresee. O chari­table kingly parent, that was touched with arde [...]t zeale, for procuring the publike profite of his kingdome, yea and also the peaceable enioying therof. O, of an incredible masse of treasure, a king­ly portion, yet, in his coffers remayning: if then he had, (or late before) any warres [...] seeing no nota­ble taxe, or contribution publike is historically mentioned to haue bene for the charges leuied: if in peace he himselfe flourished so wealthily: O marueilous politicall, & princely pruden [...]ie, in time of peace to foresee, and preuent, (a [...]d that most puissantly, and inuincibly) all possible malice, fraude, force, and mischiefe forrain. O most discreet liberalitie to such excellent vses, powring out his trea­sure so abundantly. O faithfull English people (then,) and worthy subiects, of such an Imperiall and godly Gouernour. O your true, and willing hearts, and blessed ready hands (then,) so to im­part such abundance of victuals for those huge Nauies maintenance: so (I say) as neither dearth of famine, seemed (fondly) to be feared of you, for any intolerable want likely to ensue thereby, nor prices of victuals complained of to be vnreasonable enhaunsed by you, finding for their great sales so good, and rare opportunitie.

This peaceable king Edgar, was one of the perfect Imperiall Monarches of this British Em­pire, and therefore thus his fame remaineth (for euer) recorded.

Anglici orbis Basileus, flos, & Decus AEdgarus, non minus memorabilis Anglis,
Charta Regis, Henrici secundi.
quàm Cy­rus Persis, Romulus Romanis, Alexander Macedonibus, Arsaces Parthis, Carolus Francis, Anno vitae 37. Regni sui cum fratre, & post 21. Idibus Iulij obijt, & apud Glascon sepelitur.

O Glastonbury, Glastonbury, the treasurie of the carcases of so famous, and so many persons (Quae olim mater sanctorum dicta es, & ab alijs, tumulus sanctorum, quam ab ipsis disci­pulis Domini, aedificatam fuisse venerabilis habet Antiquorum authoritas) how lamentable is thy case nowe? howe hath hypocrisie and pride wrought thy desolation? though I omit here the names of very many other, both excellent holy men, and mighty princes, whose carcases are com­mitted to thy custody, yet that Apostolike Ioseph, that triumphant British Arthur, and nowe this peaceable and prouident Saxon king Edgar, doe force me with a certaine sorowful reuerence, here to celebrate thy memorie.

This peaceable king Edgar (as by ancient Recordes may appeare) his Sommer progresses, and yerely chiefe pastimes were, the sailing round about this whole Isle of Albion, garded with his grand nauie of 4000. saile at the least, parted into 4. equall parts of petie Nauies, eche one be­ing of 1000. ships, for so it is anciently recorded.

Idem quoque AEdgarus, 4000. naues congregauit, ex quibus omni anno, post festum Pas­chale,
Ranulphus Ce­strens [...].
1000. naues ad quamlibet Angliae partem statuit, sic, aestate Insulam circum­nauigauit: hyeme verò, iudicia in Prouincia exercuit: & haec omnia ad sui exercitium, & ad hostium fecit terrorem.

COuld, and would that peaceable & wise king Edgar, before need, as being in peace and quiet with all nations about him, and notwithstanding mistrusting his possible enemies, make his pastimes so roially, politically, and triumphantly, with so many thousand ships, and at the least with ten times so many men as ships, and that yerely? and shall we being not assured of such neighbors friendship, as may become to vs as cruel and tyrannicall enemies as neuer king Edgar needed to dread the like, and they as many and mighty princes, as neuer king Edgar coped with the like, shall we (said he) not iudge it some part of wisdome, to imitate carefully in some litle proportion (though not with so many thousands) the prosperous pastimes of peaceable king Edgar, that Saxonicall Alexander? yea, prosperous pastimes these may bee iustly counted, by which he also made euident to the whole world, that as he wisely knew the ancient bounds and limits of this British Empire, [Page 8] so that he could and would royally, iustly, and triumphantly enioy the same, spite of the deuil, and maugre the force of any forreine potentate. And al that, so highly and faithfully to the glory of God finally intended and brought to passe, as the wisest and godliest Prelates and counsellors of those dayes (so counted of and recorded) coulde best aduise and direct him, or perchance, but sincerely commend and duetifully incourage him in, he being of himselfe so bent, as purposing first inuinci­bly to fortifie the chiefe and vttermost walles of his Islandish Monarchie, against all forreine en­combrance possible. And in that fortification furthering and assuring to trust best his owne ouer­sight and iudgement, in yeerely viewing the same in euery quarter thereof, and that as it were for his pastime Imperiall, also in Sommer time, to the ende that afterward in all securitie, hee might in Winter time (vacare) be at conuenient leisure on land, chiefly to set foorth Gods due honour, and secondly to vnderstand, and diligently to listen to the causes and complaints of his commons. For as Matthaeus Westmonasteriensis of him to his Imperiall commendation hath left vs a re­membrance.

Habebat autem praeterea consuetudinem, per omnes Regni prouincias transire, vt intelli­geret quomodo legum iura, & suorum statuta decretorum, à principibus obseruarentur, & nepauperes à potentibus praeiudicium passi, opprimerentur, diligenter inuestigare [...]o­lebat: in vno forti [...]udini, in altero Iustitiae studens, & Reipub. regníque vtilitati consu­lens in vtroque [...] Hinc hostibus circumquá que timor, & amor omnium erga [...]um excre­uerat subditorum.

Thus we see how in opportunitie, this peaceable Edgar procured to this Empire such prospe­rous securitie, that his true and faithfull subiects, all maner of wayes (that is at home and also at sea, both outward and inward) might peaceably, safely and securely employ their wits and trauels for the marueilous enriching of this kingdome, and pleasuring very many other, carying forth the naturall commodities of this land, abounding here aboue our necessary vses (and due store reser­ued) and likewise againe furnishing the same with all necessary and not superfluous forreine com­modities, [...]et from farre or forrein countreys. This was in deed (as before is recorded) a kingly pro­uidence, Reipub. Regní (que) vtilitati consulens, &c. besides with great vtilitie and profite publique foreseene, and by his meanes enioyed, he himselfe vsed most gladly the aduantage of that securitie, in ministring of iustice, or causing the same to be executed all his kingdome ouer, not squemishly [...] frowningly or skornefully shunning the ragged and tattered sleeue of any suppliant, holding vp to him a simple soiled bill of complaint or petition, and that homely contriued, or afrayde at, and time­rously hasting from the sickly pale face or feeble limmed suter, extreemely constrained so to speake for himselfe, nor parcially smoothering his owne conscience, to fauour or mainteine the foule fault and trespasse vnlawfull of any his subiects, how mightie or necessary soeuer, they (els) were, but di­ligently made search, least Pauperes à potentibus preiudicium passi, opprimerentur.

Thus did publique securitie frō forrein fo [...] abroad, and true loue of his owne subiects, garding him at home, and the heauenly spirit directing all his good purposes, cause iustice and equitie in all quarters of this Albion to flourish. For which his peaceable and prosperous benefits at the eter­nall king his hand obteined, hee became not insolent or declined to tyrannicall regiment (as some princes in other countreis haue made their liues Comicotragical) but with all his foresaide inuin­cible Seaforce, aboundant wealth, triumphant peace, with securitie and Iustice ouer all his Mo­narchie preuailing, his heart was continually, and most zealously bent to set foorth the glory, laude and honour of the Almightie Creator, the heauenly and euerlasting king, by such principall and princely meanes, as (then) were deemed to God most acceptable, as many monuments yet to our dayes remaining, do of him vndoubtedly testifie: As this, for one.

Ex charta fun­dationis Ecclesiae Cathedralis Wi­gorniae.
Altitonantis Dei largiflua clementia, qui est rex Regum, Ego AEdgarus Anglorum Basileus omniú (que) Regum, Insularum, Oceaní (que) Britanniam circumiacentis, cunctarúm (que) natio­num que infra eam includuntur, Imperator, & Dominus, gratias ago ipsi Deo omnipo­tenti, Regi meo, qui meum Imperium sic ampliauit, & exaltauit super regnum patrū meo­rum: qui licet Monarchiam totius Angliae adepti sunt à tempore Athelstani (qui primus regnum Anglorum, & omnes Nationes, que Britanniam in colunt, sibi Armis subegit) nul­lus tamen eorū vltra eius fines imperium suum dilatare aggressus est. Mihi autem conces­sit propitia Diuinitas, cum Anglorum Imperio, omnia regna Insularum Oceani, cum suis ferocissimis Regibus, vs (que) Noruegiam, maximám (que) partem Hyberniae, cum sua nobilissi­ma Ciuitate Dublinia, Anglorum regno subiugare: Quos etiam omnes, meis Imperijs co [...] ­la subdere (Dei fauente gratia) coegi. Quapropter & ego Christi gloriam, & laudem exal­tare, & eius seruitium amplificare deuotus disposui, & per meos fideles Fautores, Dunsta­num viz. Archiepiscopum, Athelwoldum, & Oswaldum episcopos (quos mihi patres spi­rituales, & Consiliatores elegi) magna ex parte, secundum quod disposui, effeci, &c.

And againe this in another Monument.

OMnipotentis Dei, Fundatio Eccle­siae Cathedralis Elic [...]sis [...] &c. Ipsius nutu & gratia suffultus, Ego AEdgarus Basileus dilectae Insu­le Albionis, subditis nobis sceptris Scotorum, Cumbrorum, ac Brytonum, & omnium cir­cumcirca Regionum, quieta pace per [...]ruens, studiosus sollicitè de laudibus creatoris omnium occupor addendis: Ne nunc inertia, nostrés (que) diebus (plus equo) seruitus eiua tepescere videa­tur, &c. 18. mei terreni Imperij anno, &c. Anno Incarnationis Dominicae [...]973.

Ego AEdgarus totius Albionis Basileus hoc priuilegium (tanta roboratum authoritate) crucis Thaumate confirmaui.

So that by all these rehearsed Records, it is most euident that the peaceable king Edgar, was one of those Monarchs, in whose handes (if life had suffised) the incredible value and priuiledge granted by God and nature vnto this British monarchie, might haue bene peaceably purchased in such sort, as the very blessing and fauour of the diuine Trinitie hath laid meanes for our industrie to attaine to, and enioye the same by.

And though sundry other valiant princes and kings of this land I could recite, which in times past haue either by intent gone about, or by wise and valiant exploit, haue meetely well prospered towards this Islandish appropriate supremacie attaining, yet neuer any other reasonable meanes was vsed, or by humane wit, or industrie can be contriued, to al purposes sufficient, but only by our seaforces preuailing, and so by our inuincible enioying al within the sea limites of our British roy­altie contained.

To which incredible political mysterie attaining, no easier, readier, or perfecter plat and intro­duction, is (as yet) come to my imagination, then is the present and continuall seruice of threescore good and tall warlike ships, with twentie smaller barkes, and those 80. ships (great and smal) with 6660. apt men furnished, and all singularly well appointed for seruice both on sea and land, faith­fully and diligently to be done in such circumspect and discreet order, as partly I haue in other pla­ces declared, and further (vpon good occasion offered) may declare.

This grand nauie of peaceable king Edgar, of so many thousand ships, and they furnished with an hundred thousand men at the least, with all the finall intents of those sea forces, so inuincible, continually mainteined, the order of the execution of their seruice, the godly and Imperial successe thereof, are in a maner kingly lessons and prophetical incouragements to vs left, euen now to bee as prouident for publique securitie as he was, to be as skilful of our sea right and royal limits, and wisely to finde our selues as able to recouer and enioy the same as he was, who could not chuse, but with the passing and yeerely sayling about this Brittish Albion, with all the lesser Isles next adiacent round about it, he could not chuse I say, but by such ful and peaceable possession, find him­selfe (according to right, and his hearts desire) the true and soueraigne Monarch of all the British Ocean, enuironing any way his empire of Albion and Ireland, with the lesser Islands next adia­cent: with memorial whereof, as with one very precious iewel Imperial, hee adorned the title and crowne of his regalitie, as with the testimonie annexed of the states and nobles of his Empire, to commit to perpetuall memorie, the stile of his chiefe worldly dignitie, in this very tenor of words before also remembred.

Ego AEdgarus Anglorum Basileus, omniúmque Regum,
Note the Queenes Ma­iesties royaltie ouer the Bri­tish Ocean sea, round about the British Empire.
Insularum, Oceanique Britan­niam circumiacentis, cunctarúm (que) nationum, quae infra eam includuntur, Imperator, & Domi [...]us.

The voyage of Edmund and Edward the sonnes of King Ed­mund Ironside into Hungarie, Anno D. 1017. Recorded by Florentius Wig [...]rniensis pag. 391.

DEdit consilium Edricus Canuto regi, An. Dom. 1 [...]1 [...]. vt clitunculos Eadwardum & Eadmun­dum regis Eadmundifilios necaret. Sed quia magnum dedecus sibi videba­tur, vtin Anglia perimerentur, paruo elapso tempore, ad regem Suauorum occidendos misit. Qui, licèt foedus esset inter cos, precibus illius nullatenùs voluit acquiescere, sedillos ad regem Hungarorum Salomonem nomine mi­sit nutriendos vitae que reseruandos. Quorum vnus scilicet Eadmundus pro­cessu temporis ibidem vitam finiuit. Eadwardus verò Agatham filiam Germani Imperatoris Henriciin matrimonium accepit, ex qua Margaretam Scotorum reginam, & Christinam San­ctimonialem, & Clitonem Eadgarum suscepit.

[Page 10] The same in English.

EDric counselled king Kanutus to murther the yong princes Edward and Edmund the sonnes of King Edmund. But because it seemed a thing very dishonourable vnto him to haue them put to death in England, hee sent them, after a short space, vnto the king of Sweden to be slaine. Who, albeit there was a league betweene them, would in no case condescend vnto Canutus his bloody request, but sent them vnto Salomon the king of Hungarie to be nourished and preserued aliue. The one whereof namely Edmund in processe of time there deceased. But Edward recei­ued to wife Agatha daughter vnto the Germane Emperour Henry, of whom he begot Margaret the Queene of the Scots, and Christina a Nunne, and Clito Edgar.

A Chronicle of the Kings of Man, taken out of M. Camdens Chorographie.

IN the yeere of our Lord 1066. Edward King of England, of famous me­mory deceased, whom Harald sonne of Godwin succeeded in his kingdome; against which Harald the king of Norwaie called Harald Harfager fought a battel at Stainford bridge, where the English winning the fielde put all the Noruegians to flight: out of which flight one Godredus sirnamed Crouan (the sonne of Harald the blacke, who had before time fled out of Island) repai­red vnto Godred sonne of Syrric, who then reigned in Man, and was right friendly and honourably enterteined by him.

In the very same yeere William the Conquerour subdued England, and Godred the sonne of Syrric, king of Man, deceased, after whom succeeded his sonne Fingal. Fingal.

In the yeere 1066. Godredus Crouan gathered a fleete of ships, and sailed vnto Man, and gi­uing battell vnto the people of the countrey, was vanquished and put to flight. The second time also hauing gathered his armie and ships together, hee came vnto Man, fought with the inhabi­tants, lost the victorie, and was chaced away. Yea, the third time he assembled a great multitude, and comming by night vnto the port which is called Ramsa, hid 300. of his men in a wood stan­ding vpon the side of the hill called Scacasel. The Sunne was no sooner vp, but the Mannians arranged themselues and with great furie set vpon Godred. And in the midst of the skirmish, the foresaid 300. men rising out of their ambush, and comming vpon the backes of the Mannians, mo­lested them so sore, that they were enforced to flie. But when they saw yt they were ouercome and had no place of refuge to retire vnto (for the tide of the sea had filled the chanel of the riuer of Ram­sa) and seeing the enemie so fiercely pursuing them on the other side, they which remained, with la­mentable outcries beseeched Godred to spare their liues. Then hee being mooued with compas­sion, and pitying their extreme calamitie, because hee had bene of late sustained and nourished a­mong them, sounded a retreat and for [...]ad his souldiers to make any longer pursuit. The day fol­lowing Godred put his souldiers to their choice, whether they would diuide Man among them­selues and inhabite it, or whether they would take the wealth of the countrey, and so returne vnto their owne home. Howbeit, it pleased them better to waste the whole Island and to enrich them­selues with the commodities thereof, and so to returne from whence they came. Nowe Godred himselfe with a fewe Islanders which had remained with him, tooke possession of the South part of the Island, and vnto the remnant of the Man [...]ians he granted the North part thereof, vpon con­dition, that none of them should at any time afterward dare once to chalenge any parcell of the said ground by title of inheritance. Whereupon it commeth to passe, that vnto this day the whole Island is the kings owne Fee-simple, and that all the reuenues thereof pertaine vnto him. Also Godredus subdued Dublin vnto himselfe & a great part of Lainestir. And he so tamed the Scots, that none of them durst build a ship or a boate,Boats hauing not past three yron nailes in them. with aboue three yron nailes in it. Hee reigned 16. yeeres and died in the Island called Yle. He left behinde him three sonnes, Lagman, Harald, and Olauus. Lagman being the eldest chalenged the kingdome and reigned seuen yeeres. Howbeit Harald his brother rebelled against him a long time, but being at length taken by Lagman, hee was gelt and had his eyes put out. Afterward Lagman repenting him that he had put out the eyes of his brother, did of his owne accord relinquish his kingdome, and taking vpon him the badge of the crosse, he went on pilgrimage to Ierusalem, in which iourney also he died.

In the yeere 1075. all the principall men of the Islands hauing intelligence of the death of Lagman, sent messengers vnto Murecardus O-Brien King of Irland, requesting him that hee would send some wel-disposed person of his owne kinred and blood royall, vntill Olauus sonne of [Page 11] Godred were come to full age. The king most willingly condescended vnto their request, and sent vnto them one Dopnald the sonne of Tade, charging and commaunding him that with all meekenesse and modestie, hee should gouerne that kingdome, which of right belonged not vnto him. Howbeit he, after he had once attained vnto the kingdome, neglecting the commaundement of his lord, vsurped the gouernment with great tyrannie, committing many heinous crimes, and so he reigned very disorderly for the space of three yeeres. Then all the princes of the Islands ma­king a generall conspiracie, banded themselues against him, and expelled him out of their domini­ons. And he flying into Irland returned no more vnto them.

In the yeere 1077. one Ingemundus was sent from the king of Norway, to take possession of the kingdome of the Islands. And being come vnto the Island of Leodus, Lewis. hee sent messengers vn­to all the princes of the Islands to come vnto him, commaunding them to assemble themselues, and to appoint him to be their King. In the meane season he and his companions spent their time in robbing and rioting, rauished women and virgines, and addicted themselues to filthy pleasures and to the lustes of the flesh. And when these things were reported vnto the princes of the Islands, who had assembled themselues to chuse him king, being mightely incensed thereat, they made haste towards him, and comming vpon him in the night, they burnt the house wherein hee was, and slue both him and the rest of his company, partly with sword, and partly with fire.

In the yeere 1098. the abbey of S. Maries at Cistertium was founded. In the same yeere also Antiochia was taken by the Christians, and a Comet appeared.

Moreouer, the same yeere there was a battel fought betweene the inhabitants of Man [...] at Sant­wat, and they of the North obtained the victory. In which battell were slaine Earle Othor and Mac-Maras, chieftaines of both parts.

The same yeere Magnus king of Norway, sonne of Olauus, sonne of Harald Harfagre, being desirous to view the corps of S. Olauus king and Martyr, gaue commaundement that his monu­ment should be opened. But the Bishop and the Clergie withstanding this his attempt, the king went very boldly and by his kingly authoritie, caused the cophin to be opened. And when hee had seene with his eyes, and handled with his hands the incorrupt body of the foresaid King and Mar­tyr, a sudden feare came vpon him, and he departed with great haste. The night following Olauus king and Martyr appeared vnto him in a vision, saying: Chuse (I say) vnto your selfe one of these two, either within 30. dayes to lose your life with your kingdome, or else to depart from Norway and neuer to see it againe. The King so soone as he was awaked out of sleepe, called his Princes and Senatours, and expounded the foresaide vision vnto them. And they also being astonished thereat gaue him this counsell, that with all speed he should depart out of Norway. Then he with­out any further delay caused a Nauie of 160. ships to be prouided, and so sailed vnto the Islands of Orkney, which hee presently subdued, and passing along through all the Islands and conquering them, at length he came vnto the Isle of Man, where he was no sooner arriued, but hee went vnto the Isle of S. Patric to see the place of battell, where the inhabitants of Man had of late fought, be­cause many of the dead bodies were as yet vnburied. And seeing that it was a most beautifull Island, it pleased him exceeding well, and therefore hee made choice to inhabite therein his owne selfe, and built forts there which are at this day called by his owne name. He had the people of Gal­way in such awe, that he constrained them to cut downe their owne timber, and to bring it vnto his shore for the building of his fortes. Hee sailed on further vnto the Isle of Anglesey neere vnto Wales, and finding two Earles therein (either of them being called by the name of Hugo) he slue the one, and the other hee put to flight, and so subdued the Island. But the Welshmen presented many gifts vnto him, and so bidding them farewell he returned vnto Man. Unto Murecard king of Irland he sent his shooes, commaunding him that he should cary them on his shoulders, vpon the birth-day of our Lord through the midst of his Palace, in the sight of his Embassadours, that there­by it might appeare vnto them, that he was subiect vnto king Magnus. Which when the Irish­men heard, they tooke it grieuously and disdeined much thereat. But the King being better ad­uised, I had rather (said he) not only beare his shooes, but eate his shooes, then that king Magnus should destroy any one prouince in Irland. Wherefore he fulfilled his commaundement, and ho­nourably enterteined his Embassadours. Many gifts also he sent vnto king Magnus by them, and concluded a league. But the messengers returning vnto their lord, tolde him of the situation of Irland, of the beautie thereof, of the fruitfulnesse of the soile, and of the holesonmesse of the aire. Magnus hearing these things was fully resolued to conquer all Irland vnto himselfe. And for the same purpose he commaunded that a Fleet should be made ready. But he taking his voyage with sixteene ships, & being desirous to view the land, when he had vndiscreetly departed from his Na­uie, he was suddenly inuironed by the Irish, and was himselfe slaine, together with all that were with him almost. Hee was interred neere vnto the Church of S. Patric in Armagh. Hee reigned [Page 12] sixe yeeres. After his death the Princes of the Islands sent for Olauus the sonne of Godredus Crouan, who liued in the Court of Henry King of England son vnto William the Conquerour.

In the yeere 1102. Olauus sonne of Godredus Crouan beganne his reigne and reigned four­tie yeeres: he was a peaceable man being in league with all the Kings of Scotland and Irland in his time. He tooke to wife Affrica the daughter of Fergusius of Galway, of whom he begat God­redus. Of his concubines he begat Regnaldus, Lagmannus, and Haraldus, and many daughters, whereof one married vnto Sumerledus king of Argile. Herergaidel, which afterward occasioned the o­uerthrow of the whole kingdome of the Islands. He begat foure sonnes by her, namely Dulgal­lus, Raignaldus, Engus, and Olauus.

In the yeere 1134. Olauus gaue vnto Yuo the Abbat of Furnes a portion of his owne ground in Man to build an Abbey in the place which is called Russ [...]n. Also hee inriched with reuenues and indued with priuiledges al places of religion within his Islands.

In the yere 1142. Godredus ye son of Olauus sailed vnto the K. of Norway called Hinge, and doing his homage vnto him he remained with him, & was by him honorably enterteined. The same yere the 3. sonnes of Harald brother vnto Olauus, who were brought vp at the citie of Dublin, ga­thering together a great multitude of people, and all the fugitiues and vagabonds of the kingdome resorted vnto Man, and demaunded of the said king the one halfe of al the kingdome of the Islands. Which thing when the king heard, being desirous to pacifie them, he an [...]wered that he would con­sult about that matter. And a day and place being appointed, where the consultation should bee kept, in the meane time those miscreants cōspired together, about the murthering of the King. And when the day appointed was come, both companies assembled themselues vnto the hauen towne called Ramsa, and they sate in order, the king with his nobilitie on the one side, and they with their confederates on the other side. Howbeit Regnaldus who had an intention to slay the king, stoode a-side in the midst of the house talking with one of the Princes of the lande. And being called to come vnto the king he turned himselfe about as if hee would haue saluted him, and lifting vp his glittering axe, he chopt the kings head quite off at a blow. Nowe hauing committed this outragi­ous vilanie,1143. within a short space they diuided the Island betweene themselues, and gathering an ar­mie together sailed vnto Galway, intending to subdue that also; howbeit the people of Galway assembled themselues, and with great furie encountred with them. Then they immediately tur­ning their backs with great confusion fled vnto Man. And as touching all the Galwedians which inhabited in the said Island, some of them they slue, and the residue they vanished.

In the yeere 1143. Godredus sonne of Olauus returning out of Norway was created king of Man; who in reuenge of his fathers death, put out the eyes of two of Haralds sonnes and slue the thirde.

In the yeere 1144. Godredus began his reigne, and hee reigned thirtie yeeres. In the thirde yeere of his reigne the citizens of Dublin sent for him and treated him king of Dublin, against whom Mureca [...]dos king of Irland made warre, and encamping himselfe at the citie called Cori­delis, he sent his brother Osibel with 3000. horsemen vnto Dublin, who was slaine by Godred and the Dubliners, the rest of his company being put to flight. These things being thus finished, Godredus returned vnto Man, and began to exercise tyrannie, disinheriting certaine of his nobles, of whom one called Thorfinus the sonne of Oter, being mightier then the rest, went vnto Sumer­ledus, and named Dubgal the sonne of Sumerledus, king of the Islands, and subdued many of the said Islands on his behalfe. Whereof when Godred had intelligence by one Paulus, prouiding a Nauie, hee went to meete Sumerledus comming against him with 80. ships: and in the yeere 1156.1156. vpon the night of the feast of Epiphanie, there was a Sea-battell fought, and many being slaine on both parts, the day folowing they were pacified, and diuided the kingdome of the Islands among themselues, and it continued two kingdomes from that day vnto this present time. And this was the cause of the ruine of the monarchie of the Islands, from which time the sonnes of Su­merled inioyed the one halfe thereof.

In the yeere 1158. Sumerled came vnto Man with 53. ships, putting Godred to flight and wa­sting the Island: and Godred sailed vnto Norway to seeke for aide against Sumerled. In the yere 1164. Sumerled gathered a fleete of 160. ships together; and arriued at Rhinfrin, intending to subdue all Scotland vnto himselfe: howbeit, by Gods iust iudgement being ouercome by a few, to­gether with his sonne, and an innumerable multitude of people, he was slaine. The very same yere there was a battel fought a [...] Ramsa, betweene Reginald the brother of Godred, and the inhabi­tants of Man, but by the stratageme of a certaine Earle the Mannians were put to flight. Then began Reginald to vsurpe the kingly authoritie. Howbeit his brother Godred within foure dayes after, comming out of Norway with a great power of armed men, apprehended his brother Regi­nald, gelt him, and put out his eyes. The same yeere deceased Malcolme the king of Scots, and [Page 13] his brother William succeeded in the kingdome.

In the yeere 1166. two Comets appeared in the moneth of August, before the rising of the Sunne, one to the South and another to the North.

In the yeere 1171. Richard earle of Penbroke sailed into Irland, and subdued Dublin with a great part of Irland.

In the yere 1176. Iohn Curcy conquered Vlster vnto himselfe. And at the same time also Vi­uianus legate frō the sea of Rome came into Man, & caused king Godred to bee lawfully wedded vnto his wife Phingola, daughter of Maclotlen son of Murkartac king of Irlād, mother of Olauus, who was then 3. yeeres old. Siluanus the abbat married them, vnto whom the very same day, king Godred gaue a portion of ground in Mirescoge, where he built a Monastery: howbeit, in processe of time, the said land with the monkes, was granted vnto the abbey of Russin.

In the yere 1172. Reginaldus the son of Eacmarcat (a man descended of the blood royal) com­ming into Man with a great multitude of people, in the absence of the king, at the first conflict hee put to flight certaine watchmen which kept the shoare, & slue about 30. persons. Whereupon the very same day the Mannians arranging themselues put him, & almost al his folowers to the sword.

In the yere 1183. O. Fogolt was vicount of Man.

In the yere 1185. the Sunne was ecclipsed vpon the feast of S. Philip and Iacob.

In the yere 1187. deceased Godred king of the Islands, vpō the 4. of the Ides of Nouember, and the next sommer his body was translated vnto the island of Hy. He left 3. sonnes behinde him, Reginaldus, Olauus, and Yuarus. In his life time he ordeined his sonne Olauus to be his heire ap­parant, because he onely was borne legitimate. But the Mannians, when Olauus was scarce ten yeeres olde, sent vnto the islands for Reginald and created him king.

In the yeere 1187. began Reginald the sonne of Godred to reigne ouer the islands: and Mur­chardus a man of great power throughout all the kingdome of the islands was put to death.

In the yere 1192. there was a battel fought betweene Reginald and Engus the two sonnes of Sumerled: but Engus obtained the victory. The same yere was the abbey of Russin remooued vn­to Dufglus, howbeit within foure yeeres after the monkes returned vnto Russin.

In the yere 1203. Michael bishop of the islands deceased at Fontanas, and Nicho [...]as succeeded in his roome.

In the yere 1204. Hugo de Lacy inuaded Vlster with an armie and encountered with Iohn de Curcy, tooke him prisoner & subdued Vlster vnto himselfe. Afterward he permitted the said Iohn to goe at libertie, who comming vnto king Reginald was honourably enterteined by him, because he was his sonne in lawe, for Iohn de Curcy had taken to wife Affrica the daughter of Godredus, which founded the abbey of S. Mary de iugo domini, and was there buried.

In the yeere 1205. Iohn de Curcy & Reginald king of the islands inuading Vlster with a hun­dreth ships at the port which is called Stranfeord did negligently besiege the castle of Rath: but Walter de Lacy cōming vpō them with his armie, put them to flight, & from that time Curcy ne­uer recouered his land. In the yere 1210. E [...]gus the son of Sumerled & his 3. sonnes were slaine.

At the same time Iohn king of England conducted a fleet of 500. ships into Irland, King Iohn passed into Ir­land with 500, sailes. and subdued it vnto himselfe: and sending a certaine earle named Fulco, vnto the isle of Man, his souldiers al­most vtterly wasted it in the space of 15. dayes, and hauing taken pledges they returned home into their owne countrey. King Reginald and his nobles were at this time absent from Man.

In the yere 1217. deceased Nicolas bishop of the islands, and was buried in Vlster, in the house of Benchor, whom Reginald succeeded.

I thinke it not amisse to report somewhat more concerning the two foresaid brethren Reginaldus and Olauus.

REginald gaue vnto his brother Olauus, the island called Lodhus or Lewes, which is saide to be larger then the rest of the islands, but almost destitute of inhabitants, because it is so ful of mountaines & quarreis, being almost no where fit for tillage. Howbeit the inhabitants thereof do liue for the most part vpon hunting and fishing. Olauus therefore went to take possession of this Island, and dwelt therein leading a poore life: and when he saw that it would by no meanes suffice for the sustentation of himselfe & his folowers, hee went boldly vnto his brother Reginald, who as then remained in the islands, & spake on this wise vnto him. My brother (said he) and my lord and king, you know that the kingdom of the islands pertained vnto me by right of inheritance, howbeit because the Lord had chosen you to beare the scepter, I doe not enuie that honour vnto you, neither doeth it any whit grieue mee that you are exalted vnto this royall dignitie. Nowe therefore I beseech you to prouide mee some portion of land in the islands, whereby I may honestly liue. [Page 14] For the Island of Lewis which you gaue me is not sufficient for my maintenance. Which his bro­ther Reginald hearing said that he would consult about the premisses. And on the morow, when O­lauus was sent for to parle, Reginald cōmanded him to be attached, and to be caried vnto William king of Scotland, and with him to remaine prisoner: and Olauus remained in prison almost for the space of 7. yeres. But at the 7. yeres end William king of Scots deceased, and Alexander his sonne reigned in his stead. The foresaid William, before his death, commanded that all prisoners should be set at libertie. Olauus therefore being at libertie came vnto Man, and immediatly with a great company of nobles tooke his iourney vnto S. Iames: and his brother Reginald caused the said O­lauus to take vnto wife, the daughter of a certaine noble man of Kentyre, cousine german vnto his owne wife, & by name being called Lauon, and he granted vnto him the possession of Lewis. After a few dayes Reginald the bishop of the Islands hauing gathered a Synod, separated Olauus and Godred his sonne, and Lauon his wife, namely because shee was cousin german vnto his former wife. Afterward Olauus maried Scristina daughter vnto Ferkarus earle of Rosse.

Hereupon the wife of Reginald Queene of the Islands being incensed, sent letters vnto the Island of Sky in K. Reginald his name to her sonne Godred willing him to take Olauus. Which cōmandement Godred putting in practise, & entring the isle of Lewis for ye same purpose, Olauus fled in a litle skiffe vnto his father in law the earle of Rosse, & in the meane time Godred wasted the isle of Lewis. At the very same time Pol the son of Boke vicount of Sky, being a man of power in al the Islands, because he would not consent vnto Godred, fled, & dwelt together with Olauus in the dominions of the earle of Rosse, & making a league with Olauus, they went both in a ship vnto Sky. To be short, sending certaine spies, they were informed that Godred remained secure with a smal company in a certaine Isle called ye isle of S. Columba. And vniting vnto themselues their friends and acquaintance, & others that would goe voluntarily with them, in the dead of the night, hauing lanched 5. ships from the next sea-shore, which was distant about the space of 2. furlongs from the foresaid Island, they enuironed the said Island on all sides. Now Godred and his company rising early in the morning, and seeing themselues beset with their enemies on all sides, they were vtter­ly astonied. Howbeit arming themselues they began stoutly to make resistance, but altogether in vaine. For about 9. of the clocke in the morning, Olauus and the foresaid vicount Pol, with al their souldiers, entred the Island, and hauing slaine all whom they found without the precincts of the Church, they apprehended Godred, gelding him, and putting out his eyes. Unto which action O­lauus gaue not his cōsent, neither could he withstand it, by reason of the forenamed vicount the son of Boke. This was done in the yere of Christ 1223. The next sommer folowing Olauus hauing receiued pledges from all the chiefe men of the Islands, with a fleet of 32. ships sailed vnto Man, and arriued at Rognolfwaht. At the same time Reginald and Olauus diuided the kingdome of the Islands betweene themselues, Man being granted vnto Reginald, & besides his portion the name of a king also. Olauus hauing receiued certaine victuals of the people of Man, returned, together with his company,The Isle of Man aduaun­ced to a king­dome. vnto his owne portion of Islands. The yeere folowing Reginald taking vnto him Alanus lord of Galway, together with his subiects of Man, sailed vnto the Islands, that hee might take away that portion of ground from his brother Olauus, which he had granted vnto him, and subdue it vnto himselfe. Howbeit, by reason that the people of Man had no list to fight against Olauus or the Islanders, because they bare good will towards them, Reginald and Alanus lord of Galway being defeated of their purpose, returned home vnto their owne. Within a short space af­ter Reginald, vnder pretense of going vnto the Court of his lord the king of England, receiued an 100. markes of the people of Man, and tooke his iourney vnto Alanus lord of Galway. Which the people of Man hearing tooke great indignation thereat, insomuch that they sent for Olauus, and appointed him to be their king.

In the yeere 1226. Olauus recouered his inheritance, that is to say the kingdome of Man and of the Islands, which Reginald his brother had gouerned for the space of 38. yeeres, and he reigned two yeeres in safetie.

In the yeere 1228. Olauus with all his nobles of Man, and the stronger part of his people, sai­led vnto the Islands. A short space after Alanus lord of Galway, Thomas earle of Athol, & king Reginald came vnto Man with a mightie army, and wasted all the South part of Man, spoiled the Churches, and slue all the men whom they coulde take, insomuch, that the Southpart of the saide Island was brought almost into desolation. And then Alanus returned with his army into his owne land, leauing behind him bailiffes and substitutes in Man, which should gather vp and render vnto him the tribute of the countrey. Howbeit king Olauus came suddenly vpon them, chaced them away and recouered his kingdome. And the Mannians which of late were dispersed and scattered abroad, began to vnite themselues, and to inhabite without feare. The same yeere, in the time of Winter, vpon the sudden, and in the very dead of the night came king Reginald out of Galway [Page 15] with fiue ships, and burnt all the ships of his brother Olauus, and of the nobles of Man, at the Isle of S. Patric, & concluding a peace with his brother, remained at the port of Ragnolwath 40. dayes: in the meane while hee allured vnto himselfe all the Islanders vpon the South part of Man, who sware, that they would aduenture their liues, vntill hee had gotten the one halfe of his kingdome: contrarywise Olauus ioyned vnto himselfe them of the North part, & vpon the 14. of February in the place called Tingualla, a field was fought betweene the two brothers, wherein Olauus got the victory, and Reginald the king was by certaine souldiers slaine without the knowledge of his bro­ther. Also certaine pirates comming to the south part of Man, wasted & spoiled it. The monkes of Russin conueyed the body of K. Reginald, vnto the abbey of S. Mary of Fournes, & there he was in­terred in the place, which his owne selfe had chosen for the purpose. After these things Olauus tra­ueiled vnto the king of Norway, but before he was arriued there, Haco king of Norway appoin­ted a certaine noble man named Husbac the son of Owmund, to be king of the Islands of the He­brides & called his name Haco. Then came the said Haco with Olauus & Godred Don the son of Reginald, and a multitude of Noruegians, vnto the islands: and while they were giuing an assault vnto a castle in the island of Both, Haco being hit with a stone died, and was buried in Iona.

In the yere 1230. came Olauus, with Godredus Don, & certeine Noruegians vnto Man, and they parted the kingdome among themselues, Olauus stil receiuing Man. Godred as he was going vnto the islands, was slaine in the isle of Lewis, & Olauus inioyed the kingdome of the islands also.

In the yere 1237. vpon the 12. of the Kalends of Iune, Olauus sonne of Godred king of Man deceased in the isle of S. Patric, and was interred in the abbey of Russin. He reigned 11. yeres, two while his brother was aliue, and nine after his death.

Haraldus his sonne being of the age of 14. yeres, succeeded, and he reigned 12. yeeres. The first yere of his reigne taking his iourney vnto the islands, he appointed one Loglen his kinsman to be his deputie in Man. The Autumne folowing Haraldus sent the three sonnes of Nel, namely Duf­galdus, Torquellus, & Molmore, and his friend Ioseph vnto Man, that they might enter into cōsul­tation together. Wherfore the 25. day they assembled themselues at Tingualla: and malice grow­ing betweene the sonnes of Nel, and Loglen, they fel to blowes and skirmished sore on both parts, Molmore, Dufgald, and the foresaid Ioseph being all slaine in the fray. The Spring folowing, king Harald came into the isle of Man, and Loglen fleeing into Wales, was himselfe, together with Godred the sonne of Olauus his pupil, and 40. others, drowned by shipwracke.

In the yere 1238. Gospatricius and Gillescrist sonne of Mac-Kerthac came from the king of Norway vnto Man, expelling Harald out of the said island, and taking tribute on the behalfe of the Noruegian king, because the said Harald refused to come vnto his Court.

In the yere 1240. Gospa [...]ricius deceased and was buried in the abbey of Russin.

In the yere 1239. Haraldus went vnto the king of Norway, who within two yeres con [...]irmed vnto him, his heires and successors, vnder seale, all the islands which his predecessors enioyed.

In the yeere 1242. Haraldus returned out of Norway vnto Man, and being honourably recei­ued by the inhabitants, he liued in peace with the kings of England and Scotland.

In the yeere 1247. Haraldus (like as his father also before him) was knighted by the king of England, and so being rewarded with many gifts, he returned home. The same yere he was sent for by the king of Norway, and he maried his daughter. And in the yere 1249. as he was returning home with his wife, with Laurence the elect of Man, and with many other nobles, neere vnto the confines of Radland, he was drowned in a tempest.

In the yere 1249. Reginald the sonne of Olauus, and brother vnto Harald began to reigne the day next before the Nones of May: and vpon the 30, day of the same moneth he was slaine by Y­uarus a souldier, and other of his complices, in the South part of a certaine medow, neere vnto the Church of the holy Trinitie, and he was buried at the Church of S. Marie at Russin.

The same yere Alexander king of Scots prouided a great nauie of ships, that he might conquere the islands vnto himselfe: howbeit falling into an ague at the isle of Kerwary, he dece [...]sed.

Then Haraldus the sonne of Godred Don vsurped the name of a king ouer the islands, hee ba­nished also all the princes of Harald the sonne of Olauus, and ordeined his fugitiues to bee princes and nobles in their stead.

In the yere 1250. Haraldus the son of Godred Don being summoned by letters went vnto the king of Norway, who deteined him in prison because he had vniustly possessed the kingdome. The same yeere Magnus the sonne of Olauus, and Iohn the sonne of Dugalt arriued at Roghalwaht, which Iohn named himselfe king; but the Mannians taking it grieuously, that Magnus was not nominated, draue them from their shoare, and many of the company perished by shipwracke.

In the yeere 1252. came Magnus the sonne of Olauus vnto Man, and was ordeined king. The yere folowing he tooke his iourney vnto the king of Norway, & there he remained one whole yere.

[Page 16]In the yeere 1254. Haco king of Norway ordeined Magnus the sonne of Olauus king of the Islands, confirming them to him and to his heires, and by name vnto Harald his brother.

In the yere 1256. Magnus tooke his iourney into England, and was by the king of England created knight.

In ye yere 1257. the Church of S. Maries of Russin was dedicated by Richard bishop of Soder.

In the yeere 1260. Haco king of Norway came into the parts of Scotland, and without at­chieuing ought, turning his course towards the Orcades he there deceased at Kirwas, and was bu­ried at Bergen.

In the yeere 1265. Magnus the sonne of Olauus king of Man and of the Islands died at the castle of Russin, and was buried at the Church of S. Mary at Russin.

In the yere 1266. the kingdome of the Islands was translated vnto Alexander king of Scots.

That which followeth was written in a new character or letter, and of a diuers kinde from the former.

IN the yeere 1270. vpon the seuenth day of October the Fleete of Alexander king of Scots ar­riued at Roghalwath, and the next day before the Sunne rising there was a battell fought be­tweene the Mannians and the Scots, in the which conflict there were slaine 535. Mannians: whereupon a certaine versifier writeth to this effect:

Fiue hundreth fourtie men are slaine:
against ill haps,
Yee Mannians arme your selues, for feare
of afterclaps.

In the yeere 1313. Robert king of Scots besieged the castle of Russin, which Dingawy Do­wil held against him, howbeit at the last the king tooke the castle.

In the yeere 1316. vpon the feast of Ascension, Richard le Mandeuile and his brethren, with diuers great personages of Irland arriued at Ramaldwath, demaunding to haue victuals and mo­ney ministred vnto them, because they had bene spoyled by their enemies, which made continuall warre vpon them. But when the whole company of the Mannians answered that they would giue nothing, they proceeded against them in warlike maner with two bands, till they were come vnder the side of the hill called Warthsel, in the fielde where Iohn Mandeuile remained, and there hauing fought a battell, the Irish ouercame the people of Man, and spoiled the Island and the Abbey of Russin also: and when they had reueled a whole moneth in the Island, lading their ships they returned home.

The mariage of the daughter of Harald, slaine by VVilliam the Conquerour, vnto Ieruslaus duke of Russia, taken out of the 9. Booke of the Danish historie written by Saxo Grammaticus. An.D. 1067.

1067.HAraldo caefo, filij eius duo confestim in Daniam cum sorore migrarunt. Quos Sweno, paterni illorum meriti oblitus consanguineae pietatis more accepit, puellamque Ruthenorum regi Waldemaro, (qui & ipse Iarislaus a suis est appellatus) nuptum dedit. Eidem postmodùm nostri temporis dux, v [...] san­guinis, ita & nominis haeres, ex filia nepos obuenit. Itaque hinc Britannicus, indè Eous sanguis in salutarem nostri principis ortum confluens commu­nem stirpem duarum gentium ornamentum effecit.

The same in English.

HArald being slaine his two sonnes with their sister sped themselues immediatly into Den­marke. Whom Sweno forgetting their fathers deserts receiued in most kinde and friendly maner, and bestowed the yong damosell in mariag [...] vpon Waldemarus king of Russia who was al­so called by his subiects Iarislaus. Afterward the said Waldemarus had by his daughter a nephew being duke at this present, who succeeded his predecessour both in line al descent and in name also. Wherefore the English blood on the one side and the Russian on the other side concurring to the ioyfull birth of our prince, caused that mutual kinred to be an ornament vnto both nations.

The state of the shipping of the Cinque ports from Edward the Confessour and William the Conquerour, and so downe to Ed­ward the first, faithfully gathered by the learned Gentleman M. William Lambert in his Perambulation of Kent, out of the most ancient Records of England.

I Finde in the booke of the generall suruey of the Realme,The antiquitie of the Ports. which William the Conquerour caused to bee made in the fourth yeere of his reigne, and to be called Domesday, 1070. because (as Matthew Parise saith) it spared no man but iudged all men indifferently, as the Lord in that great day wil do, that Douer, Sandwich, and Rumney, were in the time of K. Edward the Confessour, dis­charged almost of all maner of impositions and burdens (which other townes did beare) in consideration of such seruice to bee done by them vpon the Sea, as in their special titles shall hereafter appeare.

Whereupon, although I might ground reasonable coniecture, that the immunitie of the hauen Townes (which we nowe call by a certaine number, the Cinque Ports) might take their begin­ning from the same Edward: yet for as much as I read in the Chartre of K. Edward the first after the conquest (which is reported in our booke of Entries) A recitall of the graunts of sundry kings to the Fiue Ports, the same reaching no higher then to William the Conquerour, I will leaue my coniecture, and leane to his Chartre: contenting my selfe to yeelde to the Conquerour, the thankes of other mens benefits, seeing those which were benefited, were wisely contented (as the case then stood) to like better of his confirmation (or second gift) then of K. Edwards first graunt, and en­dowment.

And to the ende that I may proceed in some maner of array, I will first shewe, which Townes were at the beginning taken for the Fiue Ports, and what others be now reputed in the same num­ber: secondly, what seruice they ought, and did in times passed: and lastly, what priuiledges they haue therefore, and by what persons they haue bene gouerned.

If I should iudge by the common, and rude verse,
Which be the Fiue Ports.
Douer, Sandwicus, Ry, Rum, Frigmare ventus,

I must say, that Douer, Sandwich, Rie, Rumney, and Winchelsey, (for that is, Frigmare ven­tus) be the Fiue Ports: Againe, if I should be ruled by the Rolle which reciteth the Ports that send Barons to the Parliament, I must then adde to these, Hastings and Hyde, for they also haue their Barons as well as the other: and so should I not onely, not shew which were the first Fiue, but also (by addition of two others) increase both the number, and doubtfulnesse. Leauing the verse there­fore, for ignorance of the authour and suspition of his authoritie, and forsaking the Rolle (as not assured of the antiquitie) I will flee to Henry Bracton, a man both ancient, learned, and credible,1250. which liued vnder K. Henry the thirde, and wrote (aboue three hundreth yeeres since) learnedly of the lawes of this Realme.

He (I say) in the third booke of his worke, and treatise of the Crowne, taking in hand to shewe the articles inquirable before the Iustice in Eire, (or Itinerent, as we called them, because they vsed to ride from place to place throughout the Realme, for administration of iustice) setteth forth a spe­cial fourme of writs, to be directed seuerally to the Bailifes of Hastings, Hithe, Rumney, Douer, and Sandwich, commanding them, that they should cause twentie & foure of their Barons (for so their Burgesses,Citizens were called Barons in old time. or townesmen, and the citizens of London likewise, were wont to be termed) to appeare before the Kings Iustices at Shipwey in Kent (as they accustomed to do) there to enquire of such points, as should be giuen incharge. Which done, hee addeth moreouer, that forsomuch as there was oftentimes cōtention betweene them of the Fiue Ports, Contention betweene Yar­mouth, and the Fiue Ports. & the inhabitants of Yarmouth in Norfolke and Donwich in Suffolke, there should be seuerall writs directed to them also, retur­nable before the same Iustices at the same day and place, reciting, that where the King had by his former writs sommoned the Pleas of the Fiue Ports to bee holden at Shipwey, 1250. if any of the same townes had cause to complaine of any (being within the liberties of the said Ports) he should be at Shipwey to propound against him,Antiquitie of Yarmouth fish­ing. and there to receiue according to law and Iustice.

Thus much I recite out of Bracton, partly to shew that Shipwey was before K. Edward the firsts time, the place of assembly for the Plees of the Fiue Ports: partly to notifie the difference, and controuersie that long time since was betweene these Ports, and those other townes: But pur­posely, and chiefly, to proue, that Hastings, and Hithe, Douer, Rumney, and Sandwich, were in Bractons time accompted the Fiue principall hauens or Ports, which were endowed with priui­ledge, and had the same ratified by the great Chartre of England.

Neither yet will I deny, but that soone after,1268. Winchelsey and Rie might be added to the num­ber. [Page 18] For I [...]ind in an old recorde, that king Henry the third tooke into his owne hands (for the bet­ter defence of the Realme) the townes of Winchelsey, and Rie, which belonged before to the Mo­nasterie of Fescampe in Normandie, and gaue therefore in exchange, the Manor of Chiltham in Gloucestershire, & diuers other lands in Lincolneshire. This he did, partly to conceale from the Priors Aliens the intelligence of the secret affaires of his Realme, and partly because of a great dis­obedience & excesse, that was committed by the inhabitants of Wincelsey, against Prince Edward his eldest sonne. And therefore, although I can easily be led to thinke, that he submitted them for their correction to the order, and gouernance of the Fiue ports, yet I stand doubtfull whether hee made them partners of their priuiledges, or no, for that had bene a preferment, and no punishment vnto them: but I suspect rather, that his sonne king Edward the first, (by whose encouragement and aide, olde Winchelsey was afterward abandoned,Winchelsey first builded. and the newe towne builded) was the first that apparelled them with that preeminence.

1277.By this therefore let it appeare, that Hastings, Douer, Hithe, Rumney, and Sandwich, were the first Ports of priuiledge: which (because they were 5. in number) both at the first gaue, and yet continue, to all the residue, the name of Cinque Ports, although not onely Winchelsey and Rie, be (since that time) incorporated with them as principals, but diuers other places also (for the ease of their charge) be crept in, as partes, lims, and members of the same.

Now therefore, somewhat shalbe said, as touching the seruices that these Ports of duetie owe, and in deed haue done, to the Princes: whereof the one (I meane with what number of vessels, in what maner of furniture, and for how long season, they ought to wait on the king at the Sea, vpon their owne charges) shall partly appeare by that which we shall presently say, and partly by that which shall followe in Sandwich, and Rumney: The other shall bee made manifest by examples, drawne out of good histories: and they both shall be testified by the words of king Edward the first in his owne Chartre.

The booke of Domesday before remembred, chargeth Douer with twentie vessels at the sea, whereof eche to be furnished with one and twentie men for fifteene dayes together: and saith fur­ther, that Rumney and Sandwich answered the like seruice. But now whether this (like) ought to be vnderstoode of the like altogether, both in respect of the number and seruice, or of the (like) in respect of seruice, according to the proportion of their abilitie onely, I may not hereby take vpon me to determine. For on the one side, if Rumney, Sandwich, and the residue, should likewise finde twentie vessels a piece, then (as you shall anone see) the fiue Ports were subiect to a greater charge at that time, then King Edward the first layd vpon them: And on the other side, if they were onely chargeable after their proportion, then know I not how farre to burthen them, seeing the Record of Domesday it selfe, bindeth them to no certeintie. And therefore leauing this as I find it, I must elsewhere make inquisition for more lightsome proofe. And first I will haue recourse to king Ed­ward the first his Chartre in which I read, that At ech time that the King passeth ouer the sea, the Ports ought to rigge vp fiftie and seuen ships, (whereof euery one to haue twentie armed souldiers) and to mainteine them at their owne costes, by the space of fifteene dayes together.

1278.And thus it stoode with the Ports for their generall charge, in the sixt yeere of his reigne, for then was this Chartre sealed. But as touching the particular burthen of ech one, I haue seene two diuers testimonies, of which the first is a note in French (bearing the coun [...]enance of a Record) and is intituled, to haue bene renued in the two and twentie yeere of the Reigne of the same king [...] by Stephan Penchester, then Constable of Douer Castle, in which the particular charge is set downe in this maner.

  • The Port of Hastings ought to finde three ships.
  • The lowie of Peuensey, one
  • Buluerhithe and Petit Iahn, one.
  • Bekesborne in Kent, seuen.
  • Grenche at Gillingham in Kent, two men and armour, with the ships of Hastings.
  • The towne of Rie, fiue.
  • To it was Tenterdene annexed, in the time of King Henrie the sixt.
  • The towne of Winchelsey, tenne.
  • The Port of Rumney, foure.
  • Lydde, seuen.
  • The Port of Hythe, fiue.
  • The Port of Douer, nineteene.
  • The towne of Folkestone, seuen.
  • The towne of Fe [...]ersham, seuen.
  • The Port of Sandwich, with Stonor, Fordwich, Dale, &c. fiue.

[Page 19]These ships they ought to finde vpon fortie dayes summons, armed and arrayed at their owne charge, and in ech of them twentie men, besides the Master of the Mariners: all which they shall likewise mainteine fiue dayes together at their owne costs, giuing to the Maister sixe pence by the day, to the Constable sixe pence, and to ech other Mariner three pence. And after those fiue dayes ended, the King shall defray the charges.

The other is a Latine Custumall of the towne of Hyde, the which although it pretend not so great antiquity as the first, yet seemeth it to me to import as much or more likelihood and credit: It standeth thus.

These be the Fiue Ports of our soueraigne Lord the King hauing liberties, which other Ports haue not: Hasting, Romenal, Heth, Douer, Sandwich, the chiefe Townes.

The seruices due by the same.

Hasting shall finde 21. ships, in euery ship 21. men, and a Garcion, or Boy, which is called a Gromet. To it perteine (as the members of one towne) the Seashore in Seford, Peuenshey, Hodeney, Winchelsey, Rie, Ihame, Bekesbourne, Grenge, Northie, Bulwerheth.

Romenal 5. ships, in euery ship 21. men, and a Garcion: To it perteine, as members there­of, Promhell, Lede, Eastwestone, Dengemareys, olde Rumney.

Hethe 5. ships, as Romenal before. To it perteineth the Westhethe.

Douer 21. ships, as Hasting before. To it perteine, Folkstane, Feuersham, and S. Marga­rets, not concerning the land, but for the goods and cattels.

Sandwich 5. ships, as Romenal, and Hethe. To it perteine Fordwich, Reculuer, Serre, and Dele, not for the soile, but for the goods.

  • Summe of ships 57.
  • Summe of the men 1187. and 57. Garcions.

This seruice, the Barons of the Fiue Ports doe acknowledge to owe to the King, vpon sum­mons yerely (if it happen) by the space of 15. dayes together, at their owne costs and charges, ac­counting that for the first day of the 15. in which they shall spread their sailes to goe towards those parts that the King intendeth: and to serue so long after 15. dayes, as the King will, at his owne pay and wages.

Thus much out of these ancient notes, whereby your selfe may easily discerne the difference: but whether the one or the other, or (by reason of some latter dispensation) neither of these, haue place at this day, I must referre it to them that be priuie, and of counsell with the Ports: and so leauing this also vndecided, holde on the way, wherein I am entred.

This duetie of attendance therefore (being deuised for the honourable transportation, and safe conduct of the Kings owne person or his armie ouer the narrow Seas) the Ports haue not onely most diligently euer since that time performed, but furthermore also valiantly behaued themselues against the enemie from time to time, in sundrie exploits by water, as occasion hath bene profered, or the necessitie of the Realme required.

And amongst other feats not vnwoorthy perpetuall remembrance,The good ser­uice of the fiue Ports. after such time as Lewes (the eldest sonne of the French King) had entred the Realme to aide Stephan Langton the Arch­bishop, and the Nobilitie, in the life of King Iohn, and had sent into France for new supply of soul­diers after his death,1217. Hubert of Borough (then captaine of Douer) following the opinion of The­mistocles in the exposition of the oracle of the woodden walles, by the aide of the Port townes, armed fortie [...]all ships, and meeting with eightie saile of French men vpon the high seas, gaue them a most couragious encounter, in which he tooke some, sunke others, and discomfited the rest.

King Henrie the third also, after that he came to riper age, had great benefit by the seruice of the Cinque Ports: And king Edward the first in his Chartre, maketh their continuall faithfull ser­uice (and especially their good endeuour,1278. then lately shewed against the Welshmen) the principall cause, and motiue of that his liberall grant.

Furthermore, about the midst of the reigne of the same king, an hundreth saile of the Nauie of the Ports fought at the Sea with a fleet of 200. French men,1293. all which (notwithstanding the great oddes of the number) they tooke, and slew, and sunke so many of the Mariners, that France was thereby (for a long season after) in maner destitute, both of Seamen, and shipping.

Finally, and to conclude this part, in the dayes of king Henrie the fourth,1406. the nauie of the Fiue Ports, vnder the conduct of one Henrie Paye, surprised one hundreth and twentie French ships, all laden with Salt, Iron, Oile, and no woorse merchandize.

The priuiledges of these Ports, being first granted by Edward the Confessour,The priuiled­ges of the fiue Ports. and William the Conquerour, and then confirmed and increased by William Rufus, Henrie the second, Richard [Page 20] the first, Henrie the third, and king Edward the first, be very great, considering either the honour and ease, or the freedome and exemption, that the inhabitants haue by reason of the same.

Part of an Epistle written by one Yuo of Narbona vnto the Arch­bishop of Burdeaux, conteining the confession of an Englishman as touch­ing the barbarous demeanour of the Tartars, which had liued long among them, and was drawen along perforce with them in their expedition against Hungarie: Recorded by Mathew Pa [...]i [...] in the yere of our Lord 1243.

THe Lord therefore being prouoked to indignation, by reason of this and other sinnes com­mitted among vs Christians, is become, as it were, a destroying enemie, and a dreadfull auen­ger. This I may iustly affirme to be true, because an huge nation, and a barbarous and inhumane people, whose law is lawlesse, whose wrath is furious, euen the rod of Gods anger, ouerrunneth, and vtterly wasteth infinite countreyes, cruelly abolishing all things where they come, with fire and sword. And this present Summer, the foresayd nation, being called Tartars, departing out of Hungarie, which they had surprised by treason, layd siege vnto the very same Neustar. towne, wherein I my selfe abode, with many thousands of souldiers: neither were there in the sayd towne on our part aboue 50. men of warre, whom, together with 20. crosbowes, the captaine had left in garri­son. All these, out of certeine high places, beholding the enemies [...]aste armie, and abhorring the beastly crueltie of Antichrist his complices, signified foorthwith vnto their gouernour, the hideous lamentations of his Christian subiects, who suddenly being surprised in all the prouince adioyn­ing, without any difference or respect of condition, fortune, lexe, or age, were by manifolde cruel­ties, all of them destroyed: with whose carkeises, the Tartarian chieftains, and their brutish and sauage followers, glutting themselues, as with delicious cates, left nothing for vultures but the bare bones. And a strange thing it is to consider, that the greedie and rauenous vultures disdeined to praye vpon any of the reliques, which remained. Olde, and deformed women they gaue, as it were, for dayly sustenance, vnto their Canibals: the beautifull deuoured they not, but smothered them lamenting and scri [...]ching, with forced and vnnaturall rauishments. Like barbarous miscre­ant [...], they quelled virgins vnto death, and cutting off their tender paps to present for deinties vnto their magistrates, they engorged themselues with their bodies.

Howbeit, their spials in the meane time discrying from the top of an high mountaine the Duke of Austria, the King of Bohemia, the Patriarch of Aquileia, the Duke of Carinthia, and (as some report) the Earle of Baden, with a mightie power, and in battell aray, approching towards them, that accursed crew immediatly vanished, and all those Tartarian vagabonds retired themselues into the distressed and vanquished land of Hungarie; who as they came suddenly, so they departed also on the sudden: which their celeritie caused all men to stand in horrour and astonishment of them. But of the sayd fugitiues, the prince of Dalmatia tooke eight: one of which number the Duke of Austria knew to be an English man, who was perpetually banished out of the Realme of England, in regard of certaine notorious crimes by him committed. This fellow, on the be­halfe of the most tyrannicall king of the Tartars, had bene twise, as a messenger and interpreter, with the king of Hungarie, menacing and plainely foretelling those mischiefes which afterward happened, vnlesse he would submit himselfe and his kingdome vnto the Tartars yoke. Well, be­ing allured by our Princes to confesse the trueth, he made such oathes and protestations, as (I thinke) the deuill himselfe would haue beene trusted for. First therefore he reported of himselfe, that presently after the time o [...] his banishment, namely about the 30. yere of his age, hauing lost all that he had in the citie of Acon at dice, euen in the midst of Winter, being compelled by ignominious hu [...]ger, wearing nothing about him but a shirt of sacke, a paire of shooes, and a haire cappe onely, being shauen like a foole, and vttering an vnco [...]h noise as if he had bene dumbe, he tooke his iourney, and so traueiling many countreyes, and finding in diuers places friendly enterteinment, he prolonged his life in this maner for a season, albeit [...]uery day by rashnesse of speech, and inconstancie of heart, he endangered himselfe to the deuil. At length, by reason of extreame trauaile, and continuall change of aire and of mea [...]s in Caldea, he fell into a grieuous sickenesse, insomuch that he was wearie of his life. Not being able therefore to go forward or backeward, and staying there a while to refresh himselfe, he began (being somewhat learned) to commend to writing those wordes which hee heard spoken, and within a short space, so aptly to pronounce, and to vtter them himselfe, that he was [...]epu­ted for a natiue member of that countrey: and by the same dexteritie he attained to manie languages. This man the Tartars hauing intelligence of by their spies, drew him perforce in­to their societie: and being admonished by an oracle or vision, to challenge dominion ouer [Page 21] the whole earth, th [...]y allured him [...]y many rewards to their faith [...]ull seruice, by r [...]ason that they wanted Interpreters. But concerning their maners and superstitions, of the disposition and stature of their bodies, of their countrey and maner of figh [...]ing &c, he protested the parti­culars following to be true: namely, that they were aboue all men, couetous, hasty, deceitfull, and mercilesse: notwithstanding, by reason of the rigour and extremitie of punishments to be inflicted vpon them by their superiours, they are restreined from brawlings, and from mutuall strife and contention. The ancient founders and fathers of their tribes, they call by the name of gods, and at certaine set times they doe celebrate solemne feasts vnto them, many of them being particular, & but foure onely generall. They thinke that all things are created for them­selues alone. They esteeme it none offence to exercise cruelty against rebels. They be hardie and strong in the breast, leane and pale-fated, rough and huf-shouldred, hauing flatte and short noses, long and sharpe chinnes, their vpper iawes are low and declining, their teeth long and thinne, their eye-browes extending from their fore-heads downe to their noses, their eies inconstant and blacke, their countenances writhen and terrible, their ex [...]reame ioynts strong with bones and sinewes, hauing thicke and great thighes, and short legs [...] and yet being equall vnto vs in stature: for that length which is wanting in their legs, is supplied in the vpper parts of their bodies. Their countrey in olde time was a land vtterly desert and waste, situated fa [...] beyond Chaldea, from whence they haue expelled Lions, Beares, & such like vn [...]amed beasts, with their bowes, and o [...]her engines. Of the hides of beasts being tanned, they vse to shape for themselues light, but yet impenetrable armour. They ride fast bound vnto their horses, which are not very great in stature, but exceedingly strong, and mainteined with little pro­uender. They vse to fight constantly and valiantly with iauelins, maces, battle-axes, and swords. But specially they are excellent archers, and cunning warri [...]rs with their bowes. Their backs are slightly armed, that they may not flee. They withdraw not themselues from the combate, till they see the chiefe Standerd of their Generall giue backe. Vanqu [...]shed, they aske no fauour, and vanquishing, they shew no compassion. They all persist in their purpose of subduing the whole world vnder their owne subiection, as if they were but one man, and yet they are moe then millions in number. They haue 60000. Courriers, who being sent before vpon light horses to prepare a place for the armie to incampe in, will in the space of one night gallop three dayes iourney. And suddenly diffusing themselues ouer an whole prouince, and surprising all the people thereof vnarmed, vnprouided, dispersed, [...]hey make such horrible slaughters, that the king or prince of the land inuaded, cannot finde people sufficient to wage battell against them, and to withstand them. They delude all people and princes of regions in time of peace, pretending that for a cause [...] which indeed is no cause. Sometimes they say, that they will make a voyage to Colen, to fetch home the three wise kings into their owne countrey; sometimes to punish the auarice and pride of the Romans, who oppressed them in times past; sometimes to conquere barbarous and Northren nations; sometimes to mode­rate the furie of the Germans with their owne meeke mildnesse; sometimes to learne warlike feats and stratagems of the French; sometimes [...]or the finding out of fertile ground to suffice their huge multitudes; sometimes againe in derision they say, that they intend to goe on pil­grimage to S. Iames of Gal [...]cia. In regard of which sleights and collusions certaine vndiscreet gouernors concluding a league with them, haue granted them f [...]ee passage thorow their ter­ritories, which leagues notwithstanding being violated, were an occasion of ruine and destru­ction vnto the foresayd gouernours &c.

Libellus historicus Ioannis de Plano Carpini, qui missus est Legatus ad Tartaros anno Domini 1246. ab Innocentio quarto Pontifice maximo.

Incipit Prologus in librum Tartarorum.

OMnibus Christi fidelibus ad quos praesens scriptum peruenerit, frater Ioannes de Plano Carpini ordinis fra [...]um minorum, Apostolicae [...]edis Legatus, nun­cius ad Tartaros & nationes alias Orientis, D [...]i gratiam in praesenti, & glori­am in futuro, & de inimicis suis gloriam triumphalem. Cum ex mandato se­dis Apostolice iremus ad Tartaros & nationes alias Orientis, & sci [...]emus Do­mini Papae & venerabilium Cardinalium voluntatem, elegimus pri [...]s ad Tar­taros proficisci. Timebamus enim ne per cos in proximo ecclesiae Dei periculum imminerer. Et quamuis a Tartaris & alijs nationibus timeremus occidi, vel perpetuo captiuari, vel fame, siti, [Page 22] algore, aestu, contumelia, & laboribus ni [...]ijs, & quasi vltra vires affl [...]g [...] (quae omnia multo plu [...] ­quam prius credidimus, excepta morte vel captiuitate perpetua nobis mul [...]ipliciter euene­runt) non tamen pepercimus nobis ipsis, vt voluntatem Dei s [...]cundum Domini papae manda­tum adimplere possemus, & vt proficeremus in aliquo Christianis, vt saltem scita veraciter vo­luntate & intentione ipsorum, possemus illam patefacere Christianis, ne forte subito irruentes inuenirent eos imparatos, sicut peccatis hominum exigentibus alia vice contigit: & fecerunt magnam [...]tragem in populo Christiano. Vnde quaecunque pro vestra vtilitate vobis seribi­mus ad cau [...]elam, tanto securius credere debetis, quanto nos cuncta velipsi vidimus oculis no­stris,Annus & 4. men­ [...] & amplius. qui per annum & quatuor menses & amplius ambulauimus per ipsos & cum ipsis, ac fui­mus inter eos, vel audiuimus a Christianis qui sunt inter eos captiui, & vt credimus fide dignis. Mandatum etiam a supremo pontifice habebamus,Frater Benedictus Polonus comes Ioannis de Plano Carpini. vt cuncta per [...]crutaremur & videremus omnia diligenter. Quod tam nos quàm frater Benedictus eiusdem ordinis qui nostrae tribula­tionis fuit socius & interpres fecimus studiose.

De terra Tartarorum, situ, qualitate & dispositione aeris in eadem. Cap. 1.

VOlentes igitur facta scribere Tartarorum, vt lectores facilius valeant inuenire, ho [...] modo per capitula describemus. Primo quidem dicemus de terr [...]. Secundo de homi­nibus. Tertio deritu. Quarto de moribus. Quinto de ipsorum imperio. Sexto de bellis. Septimo d [...] terris quas eorum dominio subiugauerunt. Octauo quomodo Bello occurratur eisdem. De te [...]ra possumus hoc modo tractare. In principio quidem dice­mus de situ ipsius: secundo de qualitate: tertio de dispositione aeris in eadem. Terra vero prae­dicta est in ea posita parte Orientis in qua oriens sicut credimus coniungitur Aquiloni. Ab O­riente autem est terra posita Ky [...]aiorum & etiam Al. S [...]langorum. Solangorū: a metidie sunt terrae Sa [...]a ceno­rum: inter Occidentem & Meridiem Huyrorum. Ab Occidente prouincia Naymanorum; ab Aquilone mari oceano circundatur.Oceanus ab A­quilone. Haec vero in parte aliqua est nimium montuosa, & in ali­qua est campestris, sed fere tota admixta glarea, raro argillosa plurimum est arenosa. In aliqua parte terrae sunt aliquae modicae syluae: alia vero est sine lignis omnino. Cibaria autem sua de­coquunt & sedent tam imperator quàm principes & alij ad ignem factum de boum stercori­bus & equorum. Terra autem praedicta non est in parte centesima fructuosa: nec etiam po­test fructum portare nisi aquis fluuialibus irrigetur. Sed aqua & riui ibidem sunt pauci: flu­mina vero rarissima vnde ibidem villae sunt paucae; nec aliquae ciuitates excepta vna, quae es­se dicitur satis bona [...] nos autem non vidimus illam, sed fuimus prope ad dimidium diem, cum apud Syram ordam essemus,Syra orda, curi [...] maior imperato­ris. quae curia est maior imperatoris eorum. Et licet aliàs infructuosa sit, quamuis non multum, tamen competenter est alendis pecoribus apta. Aer in ipsa est mi­rabiliter inordinatus. In media etiam esta [...]e quando in alijs partibus solet calor maximus abun­dare; ibi sunt toni [...]ua magna & [...]ulgura, ex quibus homines quàm plurimi occidun [...]r. Ca­dunt etiam ibi eodem tempore maximae niues. Ibi sunt etiam frigidissimorum ventorum tam maximae tempestates,Maximae niues in aestate in Ta [...]ta­ [...]ia. quod cum labore vix possunt homines aliquando equitare. Vnde cum essemus apud ordam (sic enim stationes imperatoris apud eos & principum appellantur) iace­bamus in terra prae magnitudine venti prostrati, & propter pulueris multitudinem videre mi­nime poteramus. In ea etiam in hyeme nusquam pluit, sed in estate: & tam modicum, quod vix potest aliquando puluerem & radices graminum madidare. Grando etiam ibi [...]aepe maxi­ma cadit.Grando maxima. Vnde eo tempore quando fuit electus, & in sede regni poni debuit imperator, no­bis in curia existentibus, tanta cecidit grando, quod ex subita resolutione, sicut plen [...]s [...] intel­leximus,Max [...]ma inunda­tio ex subi [...]a gran­dinis resolutione. plusquam centum & quadraginta homines in eadem curia fuerunt submersi. Res au­tem & habitacula plura deducta fuerunt. Ibi est etiam in estate [...]ubito magnus calor, & re­pente maximum frigus. In hyeme vero in aliqua parte cadunt maximae niues, in alia autem paruae. Et vt breuiter de terra concludam, magna est, sed aliter, sicut vidimus oculis nostris, (quia per ipsam circuendam quinque mensibus & dimidium ambulauimus) multo vilior est,Iter quin (que) men­ [...]m & dimidij. quàm dicere valeamus.

De formis Tartarorum, de coniugio, vestibus & habitaculis eorum. Cap. 2.

DIcto de terra, de hominibus est dicendum. Primò quidem formas describemus persona­rum. Secundò de ipsorum coniugio supponemus. Tertio de vestibus. Quarto dehabi­taculis. Quinto de [...]ebus eorum. Forma personarum ab hominibus alijs estremota. Inter ocu­los [Page 23] enim & genas plusquam alij homines sunt lati. Genae etiam satis prominent a maxillis. Graciles sunt generaliter in cingulo exceptis quibusdam paucis. Pene omnes sunt mediocris stat [...]ae. Barba fere omnibus minime crescit. Aliqui tamen in inferiori labio & in barba modi­cos habent crines, quos minime tondent. Super verticem capitis in modum clerico [...]um habent coronas, & ab aure vna vsque ad aliam, ad latitudinem trium digitorum similiter o [...]es radunt. Quae rasure coronae predictae iunguntur. Super frontem etiam ad latitudinem duorum digito­rum similiter omnes radunt. Illos autem capillos qui sunt inter coronam & praetaxatam ra [...]u­ram crescere vsque ad supercilia sinunt. Et ex vtraque parte frontis tondendo plusquam in medio crines faciunt longos: reliquos vero crines permittunt crescere vt mulieres. De quibus faciunt duas cordas, & ligant vnamquamque post autem. Pedes etiam modicos habent. Vxo­ [...]es vero habet vnusquisque quot potest tenere. Aliquis centum, aliquis quinquaginta, ali­quis decem, aliquis plures vel pauciores: & omnibus parentibus generaliter iunguntur, ex­ce [...]ta matre, filia, vel sorore ex eadem matre, sororibus etiam ex patre: tamen & vxores patris post mortem ducere possunt. Vxorem etiam [...]ratris al [...]er frater iunior post mortem vel alius de parentela iunior ducere tenetur. Reliquas mulieres omnes sine vlla different a ducunt in vx­ores, & emunt eas valde pretiosè a parentibus suis. Post mortem maritorum de facili ad se­cunda coniugia non migrant, nisi quis velit suam nouercam ducere in vxorem. Vestes autem tam virorum quàm mulierum sunt vno modo formatae.Vestes. Pallijs, cappis vel capputijs vel pelli­bus non vtuntur. Tunicas vero portant de Bukeramo, purpura, vel Baldaquino in hunc mo­dum formatas. A supremo vsque deorsum sunt scissae, quia ante pectus duplicantur. A latere vero sinistro vna, & in dextris tribus ligaturis nectuntur, & in late [...]e & in sinistro vsque ad bra­chiale sunt stissae. Pellicia cuiuscunque sunt generis in eundem modum formantur: superius tamen pellicium exterius habet pilum, sed a posterioribus est apertum. Habet autem caudu­lam vnam vsque ad genua retro. Mulieres vero quae sunt maritatae habent tunicam valde am­plam & vs (que) ad terram ante scissam. Super caput vero habent vnum quid rotundum de vimini­bus vel de cortice factum, quod in longū protenditur ad vnam vlnam, & in summitate desinit in quadrum: & ab imo vsque ad summum in amplitudine semper crescit, & in suminitate ha­bet virgulam vnam longam & gracilem de auro vel de argento seu de ligno, vel etiam pennam: & est as [...]utum super vnum pileolum, quod protenditur vsque ad humeros. Instrumentum pre­dictum est tectum de buccaramo, siue purpura vel baldaquino: sine quo instrumento coram hominibus nunquam vadunt, & per hoc ab alijs mulieribus cognoscuntur. Virgines autem & iuuenes mulieres cum magna difficultate a viris suis possunt discerni: quum per omnia vesti­untur ut viri. Pileola habent alia quàm aliae nationes, quorum formam intelligibiliter descri­bere non valemus. Stationes rotundas habent in modum tentorij praeparatas,Tabernacula. de virgis & ba­culis subtiliter factas. Supra vero in medio rotundam liabent fenestrā vnde [...]umen ingreditur, & vt possit fumus exi [...]o: quia semper in medio ignem faciun [...]. Parletes autem & recta filtro sunt cooperta. Ostia etiam de filtro sunt facta. Quaedam stationes sunt magnae, quaedam par­uae, secundum dignitatem & hominum paruitatem. Quaedam soluuntur subito & reparan­tur, & super somarios deferuntur. Quaedam dissolui non possunt, sed in curribus deferuntur. Minoribus autem in curru ad deferendum vnus bos; maioribus tres vel quatuor, vel et [...]am plu­res, vel quod est magis, sufficiunt ad portandum. Quocunque vadunt siue ad bellum, siue ali­às, semper illas deferunt secum. In animalibus sunt diuites valde: in camelis, bobus, ouibus,Opes in peco [...]. capris, & equis. Iumentorum tantam habent multitudinem, quantam non credimus habere totum mundum. Porcos & alias bestias minime habent.

De cultu & de hijs quae credunt esse peccata, & de diuinatio­nibus & ritu funeris eorum, & de purgationibus suorum peccatorum. Cap. 3.

DIcto de hominibu [...], dicendum est de ritu: de quo tractabimus in hunc modum. Primo de cultu: secundo de hijs quae credunt esse peccata: tertio de diuinationibus, & purgati­onibus peccatorum: quarto de ritu funeris. Vnum Deum credunt, quem credunt esse facto­rem omnium visibilium & inuisibilium. Et credunt eum tam bonorum in hoc mundo quàm poenarum esse factorem: non tamen orationibus vel laudibus, aut ritu aliquo ipsum colunt. Nihilominus habentidola quaedam de filtro ad imaginem hominis facta; & illa ponunt ex v­traque parte ostij stationis, & subtus illa ponunt quiddam de filtro in modum vberis factum, & illa credunt esse pecorum custodes, & eis beneficium lactis & pullorum praestare. Alia vero faciunt de pannis sericis, & illa multum honorant. Quidam ponunt illa in pulchro currutecto ante ostium stationis: & quicun (que) aliquid de illo curru furatur, sine vlla miseratione occiditur. [...] [Page 26] pudicitia earum inter eas aliquid auditur. Ve [...]ba tamen quaedam ex eis in ioco satis habent tur­pia & impudica. Seditiones verò inter easrarò vel nunquam audiuntur. Et quamuis multum in­ebrientur, in ebrietate sua tamen v [...]rbis vel facto nunquam contendunt.Insolentia a [...] ­ue [...]sus exteros. Nuncde malis mori­bus eorum est supponendum. Superbissimi alijs hominibus sunt, & despiciunt omnes: ideò qua­si pro nihilo reputant, siue nobiles sint, siue ignobiles. Vidimus enim in curia Imperato [...]is no­bilem virum Ieroslaum, magnum Ducem Russiae, filium etiam Regis & Reginae Georgiae, & Soldanos multos, duces etiam Soldanorum nullum honorem debitum recipere inter eos. Sed Tartari qui erant eis assignati, quantumcun (que) erant viles, antecedebant eos, & semper primum locum & summum tenebant: immò saepè oportebat eos post eorum posteriora sedere. Iracun­di multum & indignantis naturae sunt:Iracundia. & etiam alijs hominibus plus sunt mendaces,Mendacitas. & ferè nul­la veritas inuenitur in eis. In principio quidem sunt blandi, sed in fine pungunt vt scorpio. Sub­dolt sunt & fraudulenti, Fraudulentia. Sordes. & si possunt astutia circumueniunt omnes. Homines sunt immundi, su­mendo cibum & potum, & alijs factis suis. Qui cum volunt aliquid mali facere alijs hominibus, miro modo occultant, vt praeuidere non possint, vel contra eorum astutias remedium inuenire. Ebr [...]etas honorabilis est apud eos:Temulentia. & quum multum quis bibit, ibidem reijcit, nec propter hoc dimittit quin iterum bibat. Valdè sunt cupidi & auari, exactores maximi ad petendum: tenacis­simi retentores,Extortio. Crudelitas. & parcissimi donatores. Aliorum hominum occisio pro nihilo est apud illos. Et, vt breuiter dicam, omnes mali mores eorum propter prolixitatē in scripto rediginon possunt. Cibi eorum sunt omnia quae mandi possunt.Cibi. Come dunt canes, lupos, vulpes, & equos; & in ne­cessit [...]te carnes humana [...]. Vnde quando pugnauerunt contra quandam ciuitatem Kytaorum, v­bi morabatur imperator ipsorum; eam obsederunt tam din, quod defecerunt ipsis Tartaris om­ninò expensae. Et quia non habebant quòd manducarent omninò, tunc accipiebatur de decem hominibus vnus ad manducandum. Abluuiones etiam quae egrediuntur de iumentis cum pullis manducant. Imò vidimus etiam eos pediculos manducare: vidimus [...]tiam [...]os comedere mures. Mensalibus & manutergijs non vtuntur [...]panē non habent, nec olera, nec legumina, nec aliquid ali [...]d nisi carnes: & tam paucas habent, quòd aliae nationes vix inde viuere possent. Cum pin­guedine carnium multum polluunt manus: quando verò comederunt, tunc manus ad ocreas suas, vel ad gramina, vel ad aliquid talium tergunt. Solent etiā honestiores habere aliquos pan­niculos paruos, cum quibus vltimo tergunt manus, quando carnes manducarunt. Cibum vnus eorum incidit, & altus accipit cum puncto c [...]ltelli morsellos, & vnicui (que) prebet, quibusdā plus, quibusdam minus, secundum quod plus vel minus volunt eos honorare. Scutellas non lauant, & si aliquando cum brodio lauant carmum, iterum cum carnibus in olla reponunt. Ollas etiā vel caldaria, vel alia vasa ad hoc deputata si abluunt, simili modo lauant. Apud eos est magnum pec­catum, si de cibo vel potu perire permittatur aliquid. Vnde ossa, nisi priùs extrahatur medulla, dari canibus non permittunt. Vestes etiam non lauant, neclauari permittunt, & maximè quo to­nittua ab illa hora incipiunt donec desinant. Lac iumentinum bibunt in maxima quantitate si habent: bibunt etiam ouinum, caprinum, vaccinum, & camelorum. Vinum, ceruisiam, & me­donem non habent, nisi ab alijs nationibus mittatur, vel donetur eisdem. In hyeme, nisi diuites sint, lac iumentinum non habent. Milliū cum aqua decoquunt, quod tā tenue faciunt, quòd non comedere sed bibere possunt. Et vnusquis (que) ex eis bibit cyphum vnum vel duos in mane, & ni [...] plus in die māducant. In [...]ero vnicui (que) parum de carnibus datur, & brodium de carnibus bibunt. In aestate autem, quia tunc habent satis de lacte iumentino carnes rarò māducant, nisi fortè do­nentur eis, Poena adulterij. aut venatione aliquam bestiam ceperint, siue auem [...] Legem etiam siue consuetudinē habent occidendi virum & mulierem quos in adulterio inuenerint manifestè. Similiter & virgi­nem si fornicata fuerit,Funi. mulierē occidunt & virum. Si aliquis inuenitur in praeda vel in furto ma­nifesto in terra potestatis eorū sine vlla miseratione occiditur.Arcani euulgati. Item si aliquis eorum deundat cō ­silium, maximè quando volunt ire ad bellum, centū plage dantur super posteriora, quanto ma­iores dare cum baculo magno vnus rusticus potest. Item quando aliqui de minoribus offendunt in aliquo à suis maioribus non parcitur eis, sed verberibus grauiter affliguntur. Item inter filium concubinae & vxoris nulla est differentia, sed dat pater vnicui (que) eorum quod vult, et si est de ge­nere ducum, ita est dux filius concubinae, sicut filius legitimus. Et cum vnus Tartarus habet mul­tas vxores, [...]. vnaquae (que) per se suam stationem, & familiam habet: & cum vna comedit, & bibit, & dormit vna die, & altera die cum alia. Vna tamen exipsis maior est inter alias, & srequentius cum illa quam cum alijs commoratur. Ex cum tam multae sint inter se tamen de facili non contendunt. Viri nihil operantur omninò exceptis sagittis: & etiam de gregibus aliquan­tulam habent curam, sed venantur, & exercent se ad sagittandum: Omnes enim à paruo vs­que ad magnum sagittarij sunt & boni. Et statim pueri eorum, cum sunt duorum annorum vel trium, incipiunt equitare. Equos eorum regunt & currunt in eis: & dantur eis arcus se­cundùm suam aetatem, & instruunt ad sagittandum. A giles enim sunt & audaces valdè. Vir­gines [Page 27] & mulieres equitant, & agiliter in equi [...] currunt vt viri. Vidimus enim eas arcus & pharetras portare. Et tam viri quàm mulieres diu in equitando possunt durare. Breuissimas ha­bent strepas: equos valdè custodiunt: imo rerum omnium sunt magni conseruarores. Mulie­res eorum omnia operantur. Pellicia, vestes, calceos, ocreas, & omnia opera quae de corio fi­unt. Currus etiam ducunt & reparant, camelos onerant, & velocissimae sunt & strenuae in om­nibus operibus suis: foemoralibus omnes vtuntur: aliquae, sicut viri, sagittant.Foeminae Mere incognitae eodem, modo vestiuntur

De ipsorum Imperio. Cap. 5.

DIcto de eorum consuetudinibus, dicendum est de eorum imperio. Et primò de ipsius principio. Secundò de principibus eius. Tertio de dominio Imperatoris & princi­pum. Terra quaedam est in partibus Orientis, de qua dictum est suprà, quae Mongol no­minatur. Haec terra quondam quatuor populos habuit. Et vnus Yeka-Mongol, id est, magni Mongali vecabatur. Secundus Sumongol, id est Aquatici Mongali. Ipsi autem se­ipsos Tartaros appellabant, à quodam fluuio, qui currit per terram eorum, qui Tartar no­minatur.Tartariae populi [...] Alius appellatur Merkat, quartus Metrit. Hij populi omnes vnam formam per­sonarum,Tartar f [...]uiu [...]. & vnam linguam habebant: quamuis inter se per principes & prouincias eslent di­uisi. In terra Yeka-Mongol fuit qui vocabatur Cyngis.Cyngis ortus & res geste. Iste incepit es [...]e robustus venator co­ram Domino, Didicit enim homines furari, rapere, praedari. Ibat autem ad alias terras, & quos­cunque potuit capere, & sibi associare non demittebat: homines verò suae gentis ad se inclina­bat, qui tanquam ducem ipsum sequebantur ad omnia male facta. Hic autem incepit pugna­re cum Sumongal, siue Tartaris, postquam homines aggregauerat sibi, & interfecit ducem eo­rum, & multo bello omnes Tartaros sibi subiugauit & in suam seruitutem redegit. Post haec cum omnibus his pugnauit, cum Merkat, qui erant positi iuxta terram Tartarorum, quos eti­ [...]m bello sibi subiecit: Inde procedens pugnauit contra Metritas, & etiam illos deuicit. Audien­tes itaque Naymani,Naymani. quod Cyngis erat taliter eleuatus, indignati fuerunt. Ipsi enim habuerunt Imperatorem, qui fuerat strenuus valdè, cui dabant tributum omnes nationes praedictae. Qui debitum vniuersae carnis exsoluens, filij eius successerunt loco eius; sed iuuenes erant & stulti, & populum nesciebant tenere: sed inuicem diuisi erant & scissi:Frartes discor­dantes oppressi. vnde medio tempore Cyngis erat taliter exaltatus, nihilominus insultum faciebant in terras superius annotatas, viros & mulieres, & pueros occidebant, & capiebant praedam eorum. Cyngis hoe audiens, omnes sibi fubiectos homines aggregauit. Naymani & Kara Kitai,Kara Kitai. id est, nigri Kitai, exaduerso in quan­dam vallem strictam inter montes duos, per quam nos euntes ad imperatorem eorum transiui­mus, similiter conueniunt: & commissum est praelium, in quo Naymani & Kara Kitai a Mongallis sunt deuicti, & maior pars eorum occisa: & alij qui euadere non potuerunt in serui­tutem redacti sunt. In terra autem praedictorum Kara Kytaorum Occaday can filius Cyngis can,Occoday can. post quam positus fuit imperator, quandam ciuitatem aedificauit, quamVel Chanyl. Omyl appellauir. Propè quam ad meridiem est quoddam desertum magnum, in quo syluestres homines pro certo habitare dicuntur,Homines sylue­stres. qui nullo modo loquuntur, nec in cruribus habent iuncturas: & si quando cadunt, per se surgere sine adiutorio aliorum minimè possunt, aliquantam tamen ha­bent discretionem. Mongali autem in terram eorum reuertentes se contra Kytaos in praelium praeparauerunt, qui castra mouentes terram eorum intrauerunt. Imperator autem Kytaorum hoc audiens venit contra eos cum exercitu suo;De mutua victo­ria Mongalorum & Kytaorum. & commissum est praelium durum; in quo prae­lio Mongali fuerunt deuicti:Tartarorum Ky­taina clades. & omnes nobiles Mongallorum qui erant in praedicto exercitu fuerunt occisi vsque ad septem. Cyngis verò & alij qui remanserunt in terram suam fugerun [...]. Et quum aliquantulum quieuisset Cyngis, praeparauit se rursus ad praelium & contra terram Huyrorum processit ad bellum. Isti homines Christiani de secta Nestorianorum erant, quos etiam bello deuicit, & eorum literas acceperunt. Nam prius scripturam aliquam non habe­bant.Nouae victoriae litere. Nunc autem eandem literam Mongallorum appellant. Inde processit contra ter­ram Saruiuorum,Vel Saruiur. & contra terram Karauitarum,Vel Karanitarum [...] & contra terram Voyrat,Vel Hudirat. & contra terram Comana, quas terras omnes deuicit. Inde est in terram suam reuersus. Et cum aliquantulum quieuisset, conuocatis omnibus gentibus supradictis, contra Kytaos ad bellum processit, & cum diu contra eos pugnasset magnam partem terrae Kytaorum vicerunt: Imperatorem autem eo­rum concluserunt in sua ciuitate maiori: quam cum tam diu obsiderunt, quod exercitui defe­cerunt expensae, & cum non haberent quod manducarent, praecepit illis Cyngis can, quod de decem hominibus vnum darent ad manducandum. Illi autem de ciuitate pugnabant viriliter contra illos sagittis & machinis: Et cum deficerent lapides, pro lapidib [...]s proiecerunt argentum,Argentum loco lapidum in ho­stem proiectum. & maximè liquesactum. Ciuitas enim haec multis diuitijs erat plena. Et cum diu pugnassent, & eam bello vincere minimè possent, fecerunt vnam magnam viam sub terra ab exercitu vsque ad mediam ciuitatem, & aperientes subitò ter­ram, [Page 28] eis nescientibus pro [...]lierunt in medio ciuitatis, & pugnabant cum hominibus ciuita­tis, & illi qui erant extra simili modo pugnabant, & concidentes portas intrauerunt ciuita­tem:Kytai victi. & occidentes Imperatorem & homines plures, ciuitatem possidebant: & aurum & ar­gentum, & omnes diuitias abstulerunt. Et cum terrae predictae Kytaorum suos homines praefecissent, in terram propriam sunt reuersi. Et tunc Imperatore Kytaorum deuicto sactus est Imperator.Cyngis solutatur Imperator. Quandam autem partem terrae Kytaorum, quae posi [...]a est in mari,Kythaie pars in mari posiu. Kytaorum liters, & religio. vsque in hodiernum diem nullatenus deuicerunt. Kytai autem, de quibus superiùs diximus, homi­nes sunt Pagani, qui habent literam specialem: & habent nouum & verus Testamentum; & habent vitas patrum, & Eremitas & domos quasi Ecclesias sactas, in quibus orant tempo­ribus suis: Et dicunt se quosdam sanctos habere. Vnum Deum colunt: Dominum nostrum Iesum Christum honorant, & credunt vitam aeternam, sed minimè baptizantur. Scripturam nostram honorant & reuerentur: Christianos diligunt, & Ecclesias faciunt plures. Homines benigni & humani satis videntur: barbam non habent, & in dispositione faciei latis concor­dant cum Mongalis,Opifi [...]lo [...]um laus. non tamen sunt in facie ita lati. Linguam propriam habent: meliores artifices non inueniuntur in toto mundo in omnibus operibus, in quibus solent homines ex­ercitari. Terra eorum est opulenta valdè in frumento, vino, auro, argento, & serico, & omni­bus rebus in quibus solet sustentari humana natura. Et cum aliquantulum quieuissent, suos exercitus diuiserunt. Vnum de filijs Tossuch nomine,Thossuch can Cyngis filius Co­manos deuicit. quem etiam Can appellabant, id est Imperatorem, misit cum exercitu contra Comanos, quos multo bello deuicit: & postquam vicerat eos in terram suam reuertebatur. Alium etiam filium misit cum exercitu contra In­dos; qui minorem Indiam deuicerunt.India minor de­bellata. Hij autem nigri sunt Suraceni, qui AEthiopes nuncu­pantur. Hic autem exercitus contra Christianos, qui sint in India maiori in pugnam proces­sir. Quod audiens rex terrae illius, qui vulgò Praesbyter Iohannes appellatur,Presbyter Ioan­nes: eiusdem [...]t [...]a [...]agema. venit contra e­os exercitu congregato. Et faciens imagines cupreas hominum in sella posuit super equos, ponens ignem interius, & posuit hominem cum folle post imaginem cupream super equum: & cum multis imaginibus, & equis taliter praeparatis venerunt contra praedictos ad pugnan­dum. Et cum ad locum praelij peruenissent, istos equos vnum iuxta vnum premiserunt. Viri autem, qui erantretro, posuerunt nescio quid super ignem qui erat in praedicta imagine, & cum follibus fortiter sufflauerunt. Vnde factum est, quod de fumo illo aer est denigratus. Et tunc super Tartaros iecerunt sagittas, ex quibus multi interfecti & vulnerati suerunt. Et sic cum confusione eos de finibus suis eiecerunt: Et nunquam audiuimus, quod vltra ad eos re­dierunt.Victoria de Tar­tar [...]. Cum autem per deserta reditent, in quandam terram venerunt in qua quaedam mon­stra foemineas imagines habentia reperierunt. Et cum interrogassent eas per multos interpre­tes vbi essent viri terrae illius, responderunt quod in illa terra quecunque soeminae nasceban­tur,De monstrosis mulieribus & canibus mon­strosa narratio. habebant formam humanam: Masculi verò formam caninam. Et dum moram protra­herent in terra praedicta, Canes in alia parte conuenerunt in vnum: Et dum esset hyems asper­rima, se omnes proiecerunt in aquam: & post haec incontinenti in puluerem mouebantur, & ita puluis admixtus aquae super eos congelauit:Glacies. & dum saepè hoc fecissent, glacies densa facta est super eos: Vnde cum magno impetu cum Tartaris conuenerunt ad pugnam. At illi quum sagittas super eos iactabant, acsi super lapides sagitassent, retro sagittae redibant: Alia etiam arma eorum in nullo eos laedere potuerunt. Canes verò insulrum facientes in eos morsibus vulnerauerunt, multos etiam occiderunt, & ita eiecerunt eos de finibus suis. Et dum reuerte­retur exercitus ille, venit ad terram Burutabeth,Burutabeth re­gio. quos bello vicerunt: qui sunt Pagani. Qui consuetudinem mirabilem imo potius miserabilem habent. Quia cum aliquis patrum suorum humanae naturae debitum exsoluit, omnem congregant parentelam, & comedunt eum. Isti pilos in barba non habent:Incolarum mo­res. immo quoddam ferrum in manibus portant, cum quo barbam semper depilant, si fortè aliquis crinis crescit in ipsa: & multum etiam deformes sunt. Inde ex­ercitus ille reuertebatur in terram suam. Cyngis can etiam eo tempore quo diuisit exercitus illos, misit in expeditione contra Orientem per terram Kergis,Terra Kergis Orientalis. quos bello non vicit: & vsque ad Caspios montes peruenit, montes autem illi sunt de lapide adamantino. Vnde eorum sa­gittas & arma ferrea ad se traxerunt. Homines inter Caspios montes conclusos viderunt, qui iam montem sregerunt: sed nubes quaedam erat posita ante ipsos, ad quam accedere non po­terant vllo modo, quia statim moriebantur, cum perueniebant ad illam. Sed antequam per­uenirent ad praedictum montem plusquam per mensem vastam solitudinem transierunt. Inde procedentes adhuc contra Orientem plusquam per mensem per magnum desertum iuerunt.Nota icer duo­rum [...] mensium versus Orientem. Et peruenerunt ad quandam terram, vbi viderunt vias tritas, sed nullum hominem poterant inuenire. Sed tantum quaesiuerunt per terram, quod inuenerunt hominem cum vxore sua; quos ante Cyngis can adduxerunt. Et cum interrogasset, vbi essent homines terrae illius, re­sponderunt quod in terra sub montibus habitarent.Troglodytae. At Cyngis can retenta vxore misit virum [Page 29] illum cum nuncijs suis mandans hominibus illis vt venirent ad mandatum ipsius. Illi vero [...]un­tes ad eos, narrauerunt omnia quae Cyngis can mandauerat. Qui responderunt quod tali die venirent ad mandatum suum faciendum. Medio vero tempore congregauerunt se per vias occultas sub terra, & venerunt contra istos ad pugnandum: & irruentes subitò super eos plu­rimos occiderunt. At illi, Cyngis can videlicet & sui fugam ineuntes, terram exierunt praedi­ctam. Illos tamen homines, virum scilicet & mulierem secum duxerunt, qui vsque ad mortem in terra Tartarorum fuerunt. Interrogati verò quare sub terra habitarent, dixerunt quod vno temporeanni quum sol oritur, tantus sonitus est, quod homines nulla ratione possunt sustine­re.Videtur hic soni­tus sieri. & fra­gore glaciei, & niuium de mon­tibus. Immo etiam tunc percuriebant in organis & tympanis, & alijs instrumentis, vt illum sonitum non audirent. Et dum Cyngis de terra illa reuerteretur, defecerunt ei victualia, & habebant maximam famem. Et tunc recentia interiora vnius bestiae eos contigit inuenire: quae accipien­tes, depositistamen stercoribus decoxerunt; & coram Cyngis can portantes [...]um suis illa co­medit.Cyngis le [...]. Et ex hoc statutum fuit ab eo, vt nec san guis, nec interiora, nec aliquid de bestia quod manducari potest, exceptis stercoribus, proijciatur. Et deinde in terram propriam est reuersus: & ibidem leges & statuta multiplicia fecit, quae Tartari non violabiliter obser­uant. Ex quibus tantum duo dicemus. Vnum est, quod quicunque in superbia erectus, propria authoritate sine electione principum esse voluerit imperator, sine vlla miseratione debet occi­di. Vnde ante electionem ipsius Cuynch propter hoc vnus de principibus, nepos ipsius Cyn­gis can fuit occisus. Volebat enim sine electione regnare. Aliud statutum est, quod sibi debent subiugare omnem terram: nec cum aliqua gente debent pacem habere, nisi prius eis subdatur, quo vsque veniat tempus occisionis eorum. Debent enim occidi, vt prophetatum est eis: Et il­li qui euadere poterunt, vt dicunt, debent illam legem tenere quam tenent alij, qui eos bello de­uincunt. Statuit etiam quod per millenarios, & centenarios & Decanos debeat eorum exerci­tus ordinari. Post hoc ab ictu tonitrui est occisus, peractis suis ordinationibus & statutis.Interitus. Liberi. Hic autem habuit quatuor filios: Vnus vocabatur Occoday, secundus Tossuch can, tertius Thaa­day: & nomen quarti ignoramus. Isti quatuor filij cum alijs maioribus qui tunc erant, primum filium videlicet Occoday elegerunt imperatorem, filij autem istius Occoday Cuyne,Nepotes. qui nunc est imperator, Cocthen & Cyrenen. Et si plures habuerit filios ignoramus, Filij autem Tos­such can Bati: iste est ditior & potentior post imperatorem: Ordu, iste est senior omnium du­cum: Syban, Bora, Bercuthanth: aliorum siliorum Tossuch can nomina ignoramus. Filij Thaa­day sunt Burin & Chadan, nomina aliorum filiorum nescimus. Alterius autem filij Cyngis can, cuius nomen nescimus, filiorum nomina sunt haec. Vnus vocatur Mengu, cuius mater est Se­roctan. Ista domina inter omnes Tartaros, excepta matre imperatoris, est magis nominata: & potentior est omnibus excepto Bati. Alius vocatur Becas. Alios filios habuit plures, sed eorum nomina ignor [...]mus. Haec sunt ducum nomina. Ordu: iste fuit in Polonia & in Hungaria: Bati,Duces. Cathan, Syban, Bureth. Omnes isti fuerunt in Hungaria, Cyrpodan, iste est adhuc vltra mare contra Soldanum Damasci. Isti remanserunt in terra: Mangu, Cuthen, Syrennen, Hybilay, Se­remum, Synocur, Thuatamur, Cyragay, Sybedey, senex quidam miles inter eos, Bora, Berca, Mauci, Choranca: sed iste inter alios est minimus. Alij verò ducessunt plures, sed eorum no­mina ignoramus.

Imperator auté Tartarorum habet mirabile dominium super omnes.Imperatoris Tartarorum ser­uile in omnes imperium. Nullus audet in aliqua parte morari, nisi ipse assignet ei. Ipse autem assignat vbi maneant duces: millenarij centenarijs, Centenarij decanis. In super quicquid precipitur in quocun (que) tempore, quocun (que) loco, siue ad bellum, siue ad mortem, siue ad vitam, sine vlla contradictione obediunt. Etiam si petit filiam virginem vel sororem, sine contradictione dant ei. Aut singulis annis, autintermissis aliquibus annis virgines colligit ex omnibus finibus Tartarorum. Si ipse vult sibi retinere aliquas retinet: alias dat suis hominibus, sicut videtur ei expedire. Nuncios quoscun (que), quotcun (que) & vbicun (que) transmittit, oportet quod dent ei sine mora equos subdititios & expensas. Vndecun (que) venerint ei tributa vel nuncij, oportet quod equi, currus, & expense similiter dentur eis. Nuncij qui veni­unt aliunde in magna miseria sunt in victu pariter & vestitu: qula expense viles sunt & paucae: & maximè cum veniunt ad principes, & ibi debent morā contrabere.Inhumanitas er­ga Legatos. Tuncita parum datur decem hominibus, quod inde vix possint viuete duo. Necetiam in curijs principum, nec in via datur eis comedere, nisi semel in die, & satis parum. Insuper si aliquae iniuriae sibi fiunt, conqueri de facili minimè posssunt. Vnde eos oportet illa patienter portare. Insuper multa tā à principibus, quam ab alijs nationibus & minoribus abeis exiguntur: & sinon daretur, vili pendunt eos, immò qua­si pro nihilo habent eos. Et sià magnis viris mittuntur, nolunt ab eis modicum munus ha­bere: sed dicunt: A magno homine venistis, & cur modicum datis? & accipere dedignan­tur. Et si nuncij benè volunt facere facta sua, oportet eos dare maiora. Idcirco magnam par­tem rerum, quae nobis à fidelibus erant datae, oportuit nos de necessitate muneribus dare. Et [Page 30] sciendum, quod ita omnia sunt in manu Imperatoris praedicti, quod nemo audet dicere, hoc est meum vel illius; sed omnia sunt Imperatoris, res, iumenta, & homines. Et super hoc etiam nuper emanauit Imperatoris statutum. Idem dominium per omnia habent duces super ho­mines suos. Diuisi enim sunt homines Tartari, videlicet etiam alij inter duces. Nuncij etiam ducum, quocunque eos transmittunt, & homines tam Imperatoris quàm alij omnes equos subdititios & expensas, & qui equos custodiant, & etiam nuncijs seruiant fine contradictio­ne dare tenentur. Imperatori autem iumenta vt habeat ex eis lac ad annum vel ad duos, vel ad tres, sicut placuerit ei, tam duces quàm alij proredditu dare tenentur. Et homines du­cum idem facere tenentur dominis suis. Inter eos enim nullus est liber. Et vt breuiter dicam, Quicquid Imperator & Duces volunt, & quantū volunt de rebus suis accipiunt. De personis etiam eorum disponunt per omnia, sicut volunt. Mortuo Imperatore, sicut superius dictum est, conuenerunt Duces & elegerunt Occoday filium Cyngis can praedicti Imperatorem.Occoday secun­dus Imperator Tartarorum. Qui habito consilio principum diuisit exercitus. Bati, qui in secundo gradu attinebat ei, mi­sit contra Altisoldanum, & contra terram Biserminorum. Hij erant Saraceni, & Coma­nicum loquebantur. Et cum intrasset terram illorum pugnauit contra eos, & bello eos sibi subiecit. Quaedam autem ciuitas quae Barthra ciuitas vel Barchin. Barthra dicitur, diurestitit ei, fecerant enim foue­as multas in circuitu ciuitatis & operuerant illas; & quando illi veniebant cadebant in foue­as. Vnde non potuerunt capere ciuitatem, donec illas foueas replessent. Homines autem de quadam ciuitate quae vocatur Vel Sarguir. Iakint haec audien [...]es exierunt obuiam cis, se sponte in ma­nus eorum tradentes: vnde ciuitas eorum non erat destructa, sed plures eorum occide­runt, & alios transtulerunt. Et accepto spolio ciuitatis, ipsam alijs hominibus repleue­runt. Et venerunt contra ciuitatem quae vocatur Orna.Orna super Don fluuium. Ista ciuitas erat nimium populosa: Christiani ibi erant plures; Gazari videlicet, Rutheni, & Alani, & alij: nec non & Saraceni. Saracenorum enim erat dominium ciuitatis. Haec au [...]em ciuitas erat diuitijs multum plena. Est enim posita super fluuium qui vocatur Don, qui intrat in mare. Vnde est quasi portus: & forum maximum habebant de illa ciuitate alij Saraceni. Et cum non possent aliter deuin­cere, praeciderunt fluuium, qui currebat per ciuitatem, & illam cum rebus omnibus submer­serunt. Quo facto: postea intrauerunt terram Tortorum, qui similiter sunt Pagani: quam de­uincentes, iuerunt contra Russiam, & fecerunt magnam stragem in terra Russiae, ciuitates & castra destruxerunt, & homines occiderunt: etiam Kiouiam quae erat Metropolis Rus­siae obsederunt:Kiouia ciuitas. & cum diu obsedissent, illam ceperunt, & occiderunt homines ciuitatis. In­de procedentes pugnando destruxerunt totam Russiam. De Russia autem & Comania pro­cesserunt duces praedicti, & pugnauerunt contra Hungaros & Polonos. Ex quibus Tartaris in Polonia & in Hungaria plures interfecti suerunt. Et si non fugissent, sed viriliter restitissent Hungari exiuissent Tartari de finibus suis: quia tunc habuetunt timorem, quod omnes fugere attentabant. Sed Bati vaginato gladio in faciem eis restitit, dicens: Nolite fugere: quia si fugitis nullus euadet: Et si debemus mori, moriamur omnes: quia futurum est, vt Cyngis can praedixie, quod interfici debeamus: Et si nunc est tempus, sustineamus. Et sic anima­ti sunt & remanserunt, & Hungariam destruxerunt. Inde reuertentes iuerunt in terram Mor­duanorum,Morduanorum [...]. qui sunt Pagani, & bello deuicerunt. Inde procedentes contra Bileros, id est, Bulgariam magnam,Bulgaria magna. & ipsam destruzerunt omnino. Inde procedentes ad Aquilonem ad­huc contra Bascarr, id est, Hungariam magnam,Hungaria magna. & eos etiam deuicerunt. Inde egredientes iuerunt ad Aquilonem, & venerunt ad Parossitas qui habent paruos stomachos & os paruu­lum,Parossitae. nec manducant, sed decoquunt carnes: quibus decoctis ponunt se inter fumum & ol­lam, & recipiunt fumum, & de hoc solo reficiuntur: Sed etiamsi aliquid manducant, hoc valdè modicum est. Inde procedentes venerunt ad Samogedos.Samogedi. Hij autem homines tantùm de venationibus viuunt: tabernacula & vestes habent tantummodo de bestiarum pellibus. Inde vltra procedentes venerunt ad quandam terram super Oceanum,Oceanus Sep­tentrionalis. Similes [...]robisheri hominibus. vbi inuenerunt quaedam monstra quae per omnia formam humanam habebant, sed pedes desinebant in pedes bouinos, & faciem per omnia habebant vt canis: duo verba loqueban [...]ur more hu­mano & tertio latrabant vt canis: & sic per interualla temporum latratum interponebant: tum ad naturam suam redibant: & sic intelligi poterat quod dicebant: Inde redierunt in Comaniam, & vs (que) nunc quidam ex eis morantur ibidem. Cyrpodan vero eodem tempo­re misit Occoday can cum exercitu ad meridiem contra Kergis,Expeditio Cyr­podanis. quos etiam bello deuicit. Hij autem homines sunt pagani, qui pilos in barba non habent. Quorum consuetudo est talis. Cum pater moritur alicuius, prae dolore quasi vnam corrigiam in signum lamenti ab aure vs (que) ad aurem de facie sua leuant. Quibus deuictis, ad meridiem iuit contra Armenos.Armeni. Sed cum per deserta transiret, etiam quaedam monstra effigiem humanam habentia inuenerunt: sed non nisi vnum brachium cum manu in medio pectoris,Hij videntur sa­gittesse balisti [...]. & vnum pedem habebant: & duo sagit­tarunt [Page 31] cum vno arcu, & isti ita [...]or [...]ter curre [...]ant, quod equi eos inuestigare non pote [...]ant. Currebant enim saltando super illum vnum pedem, & cum essent [...]essi taliter eundo, ibant su­per manum & pedem, remouendo se quasi rota; & sic cum essent fessi iterum currebant secun­dum modum priorem: aliquos tamen occidebant ex eis. Inde procedentes venerunt in Ar­meniam, quam bello vicerunt, & partem Georgiae:Georgia. & alia pars venit ad mandatum eorum; & quadraginta millia y perperorum singulis annis dederunt, & adhuc faciunt idem. Inde proce­dentes ad terram Soldani Deurum,Terra Soldani Deurum. qui erat satis magnus & potens, cum eo pugnauerunt & deuicerunt. Inde procedentes vltra debellando & vincendo vs (que) ad terram Soldani Ha­lapiae & nunc terram illam impugnant:Terra Soldani Halapiae. nec postea vsque in hodiernum diem in terram suam fuerunt reuersi. Alius exercitus iuit contra terrā Calif de Baldach, quam sibi etiā subdiderunt: Et quadraginta bisantia exceptis Baldachinis & alijs muneribus omni die dant pro tributo: Et omni anno pro Calif, vt ad eos veniat, nuncios mittunt: qui cum tributo munera magna mittit, rogans vt eū supportent. Ipse vero imperator munera accipit, & nihilominus vt veniat mittit pro eo.

Qualiter Tartari se habent in prelijs. Cap. 6.

DIcto de imperio, dicendum est hoc modo de bello. Primo de ordinatione acierum. Secun­do de armis. Tertio de astu [...]ijs in congressione, quarto de crudelitate quam faciunt in captiuos. Quinto de oppugnatione castrorum & ciuitatum. Sexto de perfidia quam exercent cum hijs qui se reddunt eisdem. De ordinatione acierum dicemus hoc modo. Cyngis can or­dinauit, vt decem hominibus praeponeretur vnus: & ille secundum nos appellatur Decanus, Decem autem Decanis preponeretur vnus, qui centenarius nuncupatur: Decem vero Cente­narijs praeponeretur vnus qui millenarius nuncupatur: decem millenarijs praeponeretur vnus, & ille numerus vocatur tenebre apud eos. Cuncto vero expercitui praeponuntur duo duces vel tres, ita tamen quod habeant respectum ad vnum. Cum autem omnes sunt in bello si de de­cem hominibus fugit vnus vel duo, vel tres, vel etiam plures, omnes occiduntur. Et vt breui­ter dicam, nisi communiter cedant, omnes qui fugiunt occiduntur. Item si vnus vel duo aut plures audacter ad pugnam accedunt, & decem alij non sequuntur, etiam occidun­tur. Item si vnus de decem vel plures capiuntur, & alij socij sui non liberant eos, etiam occiduntur. Duo arcus vel tres, vel vnum bonum ad minus, & tres pharetras magnas plenas de sagittis & vnam securim, & sunes ad machinas trahendas habere debet vnus­quisque. Diuites autem habent gladios acutos in fine, ex vna tantum parte incidentes, & aliquantulum curuos: & habent equum armatum, crura etiam tecta. Galeas & loricas qui­dam habent de corio in hunc modum formatas. Habent quasdam corrigias de boue ad latitu­dinem vnius manus, & bituminant tres vel quatuor simul, & ligant illas corrigiolis vel cordis. In corrigia superiori ponunt cordulas in fine; in inferiori ponunt in medio, & sic faciunt vsque ad finem. Vnde quum se inclinant in inferiores, corrigiae superiores ascendunt & sic duplican­tur super corpus, vel triplicantur. De coopertura equi faciunt quinque partes: ex vna parte faciunt vnam, exalia parte faciunt aliam, quam partem ducunt à cauda vs (que) ad caput: quae li­gantur ad sellam, & post sellam in dorso & etiam in collo, super renes etiam partē aliam po­nunt, vbi duae partium ligaturae iunguntur: In qua pecia faciunt vnum soramen, per quod cau­das exponunt: & ante pectus ponunt etiam vnam: quae omnes protenduntur vsque ad cru­rium iuncturas. Et ante frontem laminam ferream ponunt, quae ex vtraque parte colli parti­bus praedictis ligatur. Lorica vero etiam quatuor partes habet, vna pars protenditur à foemo­re vsqne ad collum; sed est facta secundum dispositionem humani corporis: quia ante pectus est stricta: in rotundum obuoluitur circa corpus à brachijs inferius: Supe [...] humeros autem retro ad renes habent aliam peciam, quae protenditur a coslo vsque ad aliam peciam, quae reuolui­tur circa corpus: Super humeros autem istae duae peciae anterior videlicet & posterio [...], ad duas laminas ferreas quae sunt in vtroque humero fibulis connectuntur. Et in vtroque brachio v­nam habent peciam, quae ab humero protenduntur vsque ad manus, quae etiam inferius sunt apte. Et in vtroque crure vnam habent peciam: quae peciae omnes fibulis coniunguntur. G [...] ­lea autem superius est ferrea. Sed illud quod protegit in circuitu collum & gulam de corio si [...]. Et omnes istae peciae de corio sunt formatae secundum modum superius annotatum. Quidam autem omnia quae superius diximus habent de ferro in hunc modum formata. Vnam lami­nam tenuem ad latitudinem vnius [...] digiti faciunt, & ad longitudinem palmae vnius. Et in hunc modum faciunt laminas multas: & in vnaquaque lamina octo foramina paruula faciunt, & interius tres corrigias strictas & fortes ponunt, & laminas vnam super aliam ponūt, quasi as­cendendo per gradus: & ligant laminas predictas ad corrigias tenuibus corrigiolis, quas mit­tunt [Page 32] per foramina superius annotata: Et in superiori parte consuunt corrigio [...]am vnam, vtlami­nae praedictae bene & firmiter cohaereant sibi. Et faciuot ex laminis quasi corrigiam vnam, & postea ligant per pecias per omnia, sicut superius dictum est. Et ista faciunt tam ad equorum quam ad hominum armaturas. Et faciunt illa ita lucere, quod potest homo in eis faciem suam videre. Aliqui eorū lanceas habent: & in fine ferri lancee vnum habent vncū, cum quo trahunt hominem de sella si possunt. Longitudo sagittarum est duorum pedum & vnius palmae, & du­orum digitorum. Et quia diue [...]si sunt pedes, mensurā pedum geometricā ponimus. Duodecem grana hordei pollicis transuersio est. Sexdecem pollices transuersi faciunt vnum geometricum pedem. Ferramenta sagittarum sunt acutissima, & ex vtra (que) parte incidentia quasi gladius bi­ceps, & semper portant limas iuxta pharetram ad acuendum sagittas. Ferramenta praedicta cau­dam habent acutam ad longitudinem vnius digiti, quam imponunt in lignum. Scutum ha­bent de viminibus vel de virgulis factum. Sagittas habent alias ad sagittandum aues bestias & homines inermes ad trium digitorum latitudinem. Sagittas alias habent diuersimodas ad aues & bestias sagittandas. Quum ad bellum procedere volunt praecursores praemittunt, qui nihil secum portant praeter filtra sua, equos & arma. Isti nihil rapiunt, domos non combu­runt, bestias non occidunt: Sed tamen homines vulnerant & mortificant, & si non possunt ali­ud, mittunt in fugam; multo libentius tamen occidunt, quam fugant, post istos sequitur exer­citus, qui cuncta que inuenit accipit, & homines etiam, si inueniri possunt, accipiunt & occidunt. Quum autem ad flumina perueniunt,Mos tranandī flumina. hoc modo transeuntilla etiam si sunt magna. Maiores vnum rotundum & leue corium habent, in quo in summitate per circuitum crebras faciunt an­sas, in quibus funem imponunt, & stringuntita quod in circuitu faciunt quendam ventrem, quem replent vestibus, & alijs rebus, & fortissime comprimunt ad inuicem: post hoc in medio ponunt sellas & alias res duriores: homines autem in medio sedent: & ligant ad caudam equi nauem hanc taliter praeparatam, & vnum hominum qui equum regat faciunt pariter cum equo ante natare: vel habent aliquando duos remos, & cum illis remigant vltra aquam, & sic trans­eunt fluuium. Equos vero pellunt in aqua, & vnus homo iuxta vnum equum, quē regit, natat: & alij equi illum sequuntur. Et sic transeunt aquas & flumina magna. Alij vero pauperiores vnam bursam de corio bene consutam vnusquis (que) tenetur habere: in qua bursa vel in quo sacco ve­stes & omnes res suas imponunt; & in summitate saccū fortissime ligant, & suspendunt ad cau­dam equi, & transeunt, vt supradictum est. Sciendum est, quod cum vident hostes tunc vadunt ad eos, & vnusquis (que) iacit tres sagittas vel quatuor contra aduersatios: Et si vident quod eos superare non possunt, retro gradiuntur ad suos: Et hoc faciunt in fraudem, vt aduersarij eos se­quantur ad loca vbi insidias parauerunt: Et si inimici eorum sequuntur ad praedictas insidias, circundant eos & sic vulnerant & occidunt. Item si vident quod magnus exercitus est contra eos, aliquando diuertunt ab eo per vnam dietam vel duas, & aliā partem terrae inuadunt & spo­liant: & interficiunt homines, & terrā destruunt & deuastant. Et si vident quod hoc etiā facere non possunt, cedunt retro ad decem vel duodecem dietas: aliquando etiā morantur in loco tu­to, quous (que) aduersariorū exetcitus separetur, & tunc furtim veniunt, & depopulantur totā ter­ram. In bellis etiam astutissimi sunt: quia iam per quadraginta annos & amplius cum alijs gen­tibus dimicarunt. Cum autem volunt ad pugnam accedere [...] omnes acies ordinant sicut deberēt pugnare. Duces siue principes exercitus bellū non intrant, sed stant à longe cōtra inimicorū ex­ercitum, & iuxta se habent pueros in equis & mulieres & equos. Et faciunt aliquando imagines hominum, & ponunt super equos. Hocideo faciunt, vt multitudo magna bellantium esse cre­dantur. Contra faciem equorum vnam aciem captiuorum & aliarum gentium quae sunt inter eos transmittunt: & for [...]itan aliqui Tartari vadunt cum eis. Alias acies fortiorum ho­minum longe mittunt à dextris & à sinistris, vt non videantur ab aduersarij suis: & sic circun­dant aduersarios & colligunt in medium, & pugnare incipiunt ex omni parte. Et cum sunt a­liquando pauci, putantur ab aduersarijs qui circundati sunt, esse multi. Et maxime cum vi­deant illos, qui sunt cum duce vel principe exercitus pueros & mulieres & equos, & homines fictos, vt dictum est supra: quos credunt esse pugnatores: & per hoc terrentur & confun­duntur. Et si forte aduersarij bene pugnant, faciunt eis viam vt fugiant: & statim cum fu­gere incipiunt, ab inuicem separati insequuntur eos, & plures tunc occidunt fuga, quàm morti­ficare possent in bello. Sciendum tamen est, quod si aliud possunt, non libēter cōgrediuntur, sed homines & equos sagittis vulnerant & occidunt. Munitiones in hunc modum expugnant. Si est talis munitio ipsam circundant, immo aliquando ita sepiunt, vt nullus ingredi vel exire possit.Qualiter muni­ [...]ones obsident. Expugnant fortissime machinis & sagittis: & nec die nec nocte cessant a praelio, vt illi qui sunt in munitionibus non quiescant. Ipsi Tartari quiescunt: quia acies diuidunt & vna succedit alte­ri in pugnā vt non nimiū fatigentur. Et si eam taliter habere non possunt graecū proijciunt ig­nem. Imo solent aliquando accipere aruinā hominum quos occidunt, & liquefactum proijciunt [Page 33] super domos: Et vbicunque venit ignis super pinguedinem illam, quasi inextinguibiliter ar­det. Et si ita non praeualent, & si ciuitas illa vel castrum habeat flumen, obstruunt illud, vel faciunt alium alueum & submergunt illam munitionem si possunt. Si autem non possunt suffodiunt illam, & sub terra armati in ipsam ingrediuntur. Et cum iam intrauerunt, vna pars ignem imponit vt comburatur: & alia pars cum illius munitionis hominibus pugnat. Si autem nec sic illam vincere possunt, castrum vel munitionem suam faciunt contra illam, vt ab inimicorum iaculis non grauentur, & contra illam multo tempore iacent: nisi forte exterius adiutorium exe [...]citus qui pugnat cum eis adhibeat, & vi remoueant ipsos. Sed cum iacent ante munitionem blan de eis loquuntur, & multa promittunt, ad hoc vt se in eorum manus tra­dant:P [...]nica fides. Et si illi se eis tradiderint, dicunt: Exite, vt secundum morem nostrum vos muneremus. Et cum illi ad [...]os exeunt, quaerunt qui sunt artifices inter eos, & illos reseruant: alios autem, exceptis illis quos volunt habere pro seruis cum securi occidunt. Et si aliquibus alijs parcunt, vt dictum est, nobilibus & honestis nun quam parcunt. Et si fortè aliquo casu contingente re­seruant aliquos nobiles; nec prece nec precio vltra de captiuitate possunt exire. In bellis au­tem quoscunque capiunt occidunt, nisi forte velint aliquos reseruare vt habeant eos pro seruis. Occidendos autem diuidunt per centenarios, vt cum bipenni interficiantur ab eis. Ipsi vero post hoc diuidunt captiuos, & vnicuique seruo ad interficiendum dant decem aut plures vel pauciores, secundum quòd maioribus placer.

De terris quas eorum dominio subiugarunt. Cap. 7.

SCripto quomodo pugnant, dicendum est de terris, quas eorum dominio subiugarunt. De quo isto modo scribemus. Primo dicemus quomodo faciunt cum hominibus pacem. Se­cundo de ter [...]arum nominibus quas sibi subdiderunt. Tertio de tyrannide quam exercent in eis. Quarto de terris quae viriliter restiterunt. Sciendum est quod cum nullis hominibus fa­ciunt pacem, nisi subdentur eis: quia, vt dictum est supra, Cyngis can habent mandatum, vt cnnctas si possunt sibi subijciant nationes. Et haec sunt illa quae petunt ab eis, vt vadant cum eis in exercitu contra omnem hominem quando placet, & vt dent decimam de omnibus tam de hominibus, quàm de rebus. Computant enim decem, & vnum accipiunt. De puellis fa­ciunt illud idem, quos in terram eorum deducunt & tenent eos pro seruis: reliquos nu­merant & ordinant secundum morem. Sed quando plene habent dominium super eos, si ali­quid promiserunt eis nihil obseruant: sed quascunque possunt congrue occasiones inueniunt contra eos. Nam cum essemus in Russia, missus fuit Saracenorum ex parte Cuyn [...]hcan vt dice­batur & Bati: & praefectus ille a quolibet homine qui habebat tres pueros vnum accipiebat: & quicunque viri non habebant vxores, illos deducebant, & faciebant de mulieribus etiam illud idem que viros legitimos non habebant. Pauperes etiam qui mendicando suum victum quaerebant similiter deportabunt. Reliquos autem secundum eorum consuetudinem nume­rauit, praecipiens vt vnusquis (que) tam paruus quam magnus, & infans vnius diei, siue pauper siue diues esset, tale tributū praeberet: vt scilicet daret vnū pellem albi vrsi,Vrsi alb [...]. & vnum nigrum castorē, & vnum Zabulum, & vnam nigram pellem cuiusdam animalis quod in terra latibulum habet, cuius nomen nescio in latinum transferre, sed Tentonice dieitur Vel illi [...]. illit: Poloni autem & Ruthe­ni appellant illam Dochon:Dochon. & vnam nigram pellem vulpinam. Et quicunque ista non dat, in­ter Tartaros debet duci, & in eorum redigi seruitutem. Mitunt etiam pro principibus terrarum, vt ad eos veniant sine mora: & cum venerint, debitum honorem nullum recipiunt, sed haben­tur vt aliae viles personae: & oportet vt eis munera magna praesentent, tam ducibus quàm vxo­ribus eorum, & officialibus, millenarijs & centenarijs. Imo omnes generaliter, & ipsi etiam ser­ui ab eis cum magna importunitate munera quaerunt: Et non solum ab ipsis, sed etiam à nun­ [...]ijs eorum cum mittuntur. Aliquibus etiam inueniunt occasiones vt eos occidant. Sicut de Michaele & alijs actum est. Aliquos ve [...]o alliciunt, quos permittunt redire. Aliquos ettam potionibus per [...]munt vel veneno. Eorum enim intentio est, vt ipsi soli dominētur in terra. Idcir­co quaerunt occasiones contra nobiles, vt eos occidant. Ab illis vero quos redire permittunt petunt eorum fili [...]s aut fratres, quos vlterius nunquam dimittunt. Sicut factum est de filio Ieroslai, & de quodam duce Alanorum, & alijs plurimis. Et si moritur pater vel frater siue hae­res, filium vel fratrem nunquam dimittunt: immo illius principatum totaliter accipiunt sibi. Sicut de quodam Solangorum vidimus esse factum.Solangi. Basch [...], vox Ta [...] ­ta [...]ca, qua v [...]uri­tur Tu [...]i. Baschathos suos ponunt in terris eorum quos redire permittunt, quibus oportet vt ad nutum tam duces quàm alij debeant obedire. Et si homines alicuius ciuitatis vel terrae non faciunt quod volunt, isti Baschathi imponunt eis, quod sunt Tartaris infideles: & sic ciuitatem illam vel terr [...]m destruunt, & homines qui sun [...] in ea occidunt, permanum validam Tartarorum, qui ex mandato principis illius cui obedit ter­ra illa veniunt eis nescientibus, & subito irruunt super eos: sicut nuper contigit cum in terra [Page 34] Ta [...]tarorum e [...]emus de quadam ciuitate. Quod ipsumme [...] de Ruthenis fecerunt in terra Co­manorum. Et non solum princeps Tartarorum quiterram vsurpauit, sed praefectus ipsius, & quicu [...]que Tartarus per ciuitatem illam siueterram transit quasi dominatur eidem, & maxime qui maior est apudeos. Insuper aurum & argentū, & alia quae volunt & quando libet ad impe­ratorē vadant Tartarorum ad placitandum. Sicut nuper contigit de duobus filijs regis Geor­giae. Vnus enim erat legitimus, & alter de adulterio natus, qui vocabatur Dauid: legitimus autem Melic vocabatur. Filio adulterae terrae partem relinquebat pater. Alius vero, qui iunior erat, veniebat cum matre ad Tarta [...]orum imperatorem, pro eo quod Dauid praedictus ad ip­sum iter arripuerat veniendi. Mater alterius scilicet Melic regina Georgiae, per quam maritus tenebat regnum, quia perfoeminas illud regnum tenebatur, mor [...]ua fuit in via. Illi autem cum venerunt dederunt maxima munera: & maxime legitimus filius, qui repeteba [...] terram quam reliquerat pater filio suo Dauid, cum non deberet habere, quia adulterae filius erat. Ille vero respondit: Licet sim filius concubinae, peto tamen vt fiat mihi iustitia secundum legem Ta [...]taro­rum, qui nullam differentiam faciunt inter filios legitimae & ancillae: vnde fuit data sententia contra filium legitimum, vt ille Dauidi qui maior erat subesset [...] & terram haberet quiete & paci­fice, quam dederat ei pater: & sic donaria quae dederat, & causam quam contra frat [...]em suum Dauid habuerat, amisit. Ab illis etiam nationibus quae longe suntab eis, & coniunctae sunt alijs nationibus quas aliquo modo timent, quae non sunt eis subiectae, tributū accipiunt & quasi misericorditer agunt cum eis, vt non adducant exercitum super eos, vel etiam vt alij non terre­antur, se tradere eis. Sicut factum est de Obesis siue Georgianis, a quibus quinquaginta vel qua­dragin [...]a millia, vt dictum est, yperperorum siue Bysantiorū accipiunt pro tributo: aliâs ad hoc in pace esse permittunt. Tamen, secundum quod intelleximus ab eis, rebellare proponunt.

Tertarum nomina quas vicerunt sunt haec. Kytai, Naymani, Solangi, Kara Kytai, si [...]e ni­gri Kytai, Comania, Tumat, Voyrat, Caranai, Huyur, Soboal, Merkiti, Meniti, Baryhryur, Gosmit, Saraceni, Bisermini, Tu [...]comani, Byleri, magna Bulgaria, Baschare, magna H [...]nga­ria, Kergis, Colona, Thorati, Buritabeth, Parossiti, Sassi, I [...]cobiti, Alani, siue Assi, Obesi siue Georgiani, Nestoriani, Armeni, Cangiti, Comani Brutachi, qui sunt Iudaei, Mordui, Torci, Gazari, Samogedi, Perses, Thoas, India minor siue AEthiopia, Yrchasi, Ruthe [...]i, Baldach, Sarthi:Samogedi aqui­lona [...]es. Aliae terrae sunt plures, sed earum nomina ignoramus. Vidimus etiam viro, & mulie­resfere de omnibus terris supra nominatis. Haec autem sunt nomina Terra [...]um quae eis vinli­ter restiterunt, nec sunt adhuc subditae eis, India magna, Mangia;Mangia. Quaedam pars Alano [...]um: Quaedam pars Kytaorum, Sayi. Quandam enim ciu [...]atem Sayotum praedictorum obsede­derunt & debellare tentaue [...]unt. At ipsi fecerunt machinas contra machinas eorum, & Tarta­rorum machinas omnes fregerunt, nec ciuitati appropinquare poterant ad pugnam contra machinas & balistas. Tandem vnā viam sub terra fecerunt, & prosiluerūt in ciuitatē, & alij tenta­bant incendere ciuitatē, alij pugnabant. Homines autem ciuitatis vnam partem populi ad extin­guendū ignem posuerunt, & alia pars fortiter pugnabat cum hijs qui intrauerunt ciuitatem, & multos occiderunt ex eis, & alios vulnerauerunt, cōpellen [...]es eos ad suos redire. At ipsi videntes quod nihil possent facere, & multi homines morerentur, recesserunt ab eis. In terra Saracenorū & alio [...]ū vbi sunt quasi inter eos domini, accipiūt omnes artifices meliores, & in omnibus ope­ribus suis ponunt. Alij autē artifices dant eis de opere suo tribu [...]um. Segetes omnes condunt in horreis dominorum: & vnicuique vnum pondus satis modicum dant in die: nihil aliud nisiter in septimana modicum quid de carnibus eis prebent. Et illi hoc tantum artificibus faciunt qui in ciuitatibus commorantur. Item quando dominis placet iuuenes omnes accipiunt, & post se cum omnibus famulis suis ire cogunt: qui de caetero certo sunt numero Tartarorū; immo potius de numero captiuorū: quia etsi inter ipsos sunt numerati, non tamen habentur in reuerentia si­cut Tartari; sed habentur pro seruis, & ad omnia pericula vt alij captiui mittuntur. Ipsi enim in bello sunt primi: Etiam si debet palus vel aqua periculosa transiri, eos oporter primo vadum tentare. Ipsos est etiam necesse operari omnia quae sunt facienda. Ipsi etiam si in aliquo of­fendunt, vel si non obediunt ad nutum, vt asini verberantur. Et v [...] breuiter dicam, modicum quid manducant, & etiam modicum bibunt, & pessime induuntur; nisi forte aliquid possunt lucrari, nisi sunt aurifabri & alij artifices boni. Sed aliqui tam malos dominos habent, quod nihil eis dimittunt, nec habent tempus prae m [...]ltitudine operum dominorum, vt sibi aliquid o­perentur, nisi furentur sibi tempus, quando forsitan debent quiescere vel dormire. Et hoc si vx­ores vel propriam stationem permittuntur habere. Alij autem qui tenentur in domo pro serui [...] omni miseria sunt repleti. Vidi enim eos ire in bracis sae pissime, & toto corpore nudos in maxi­mo solis ardore. Et in hyeme patiuntur maximum frigus. Vidimus etiam aliquos pedicas & digitos manuum de magno frigore perdidisse. Audiuimus etiam alios es [...]e mortuos, vel eti­am de magno algore quasi in omnibus membris inutiles esse factos.

Quomodo bello occurratur Tartaris. Cap. 8.

DIcto de terris, quae obediunt eis, supponendum est quomodo bello occurratur eisdem. Quod videtur nobis hoc modo dicēdum. Primo scr [...]bendum est quid intendunt. Secundo de armis & ordinatione acierū. Tertio quomodo occurratur astutijs eorum in congressione. Quarto de munitione castrorum & ciuitatū. Quinto quid faciendum sit de captiuis eorum. In­tentio Tartarorum est subijcere sibi totum mundum si possunt. Et de hoc Cyngischan habent mandatum, sicut superius dictum est. Idcirco eorum imperator sic in literis suis sc [...]ibit. Dei tor­titudo, Omnium Imperator. Et in superscriptione sigilli sui hoc habet.

Dominus in coelo, & Cuynch Chan super terram. Dei fortitudo, omnium hominum impe­ratoris sigillum. Et ideo cum nullis hominib [...]s faciunt pacem, vt dictum est, nisi forte se in eo­rum manibus tradunt. Et quia excepta Christianitate nulla est terra in orbe quam timent, id­circo se ad pugnam praepararunt contra nos. Vnde nouerint vniuersi quod nobis existentibus in terra eorum in solenni curia, quae iam ex pluribus annis indicta erat, fuimus, vbi elegerunt Cuynch imperatorem in praesentia nostra, qui in lingua eorum dicitur Chan. Qui Cuynch Chan praedictus erexit cum omnibus principibus vexillum contra ecclesiam dei & Romanum imperium, & contra omnia regna Christianorum & populos occidentis, nisi forsan facerent ea, quae mandat Domino Papae, & potentibus ac omnibus Christianorū populis Occidentis: quod nulla ratione faciendum est: [...]um propter nimiam seruitutem & intolerabilem [...] quae est hacte­nus inaudita, quam vidimus oculis nostris, in quam redigunt omnes gentes sibi subiectas: tum propterea quod nulla in eis est fides: nec potest aliqua gens confidere in verbis eorum: quia quic quid promittunt non obseruant, quando vident sibi tempora fauere: & subdoli sunt in om­nibus factis & promissis eorū. Intendunt etiam delere omnes principes, omnes nobiles, omnes milites de terra, vt superius dictum est: sed hoc faciunt subdole & artificiose in subditos suos: Tum etiam quia indignum est quod Christiani subdantur eisdem, propter abominationes eo­rum, & quia in nihilum redigitur cultus dei, & animae pereunt, & corpora vltra quā credi possit multitudine affliguntur. In primo quidem sunt blandi, sed postea vt scorpio cruciant & affli­gunt. Tum quia pauciores sunt numero, & corpore debiliores quā populi Christiani. In praedi­cta autem curia sunt bellatores & principes & exercitus assignati. De decē hominibus mittuo­tur tres cum familijs eorū, de omni terra potestatis eorū. Vnus exercitus debet intrare per Hun­gariam: secundus per Poloniam. Veniunt autem pugnaturi continue octodecem annis. Tēpus est etiam eis assignatum, In Martio An. Dom. 1247. si de terra sua mouebunt. Venient autem in tribus vel in quatuor Forte mensibu [...] annis vs (que) ad Comaniā. De Comania autē insultum facient in terras su­perius annotatas. Haec omnia firma sunt & vera, nisi Dominus aliquod impedimentū pro sua gratia faciat eis. Sicut fecit quando venerunt in Hungariā & Poloniā. Debebāt enim procedere tunc pro certo triginta annis. Sed interfectus fuit tunc imperator eorū veneno: & propter hoc quieuerunt à prelijs vs (que) nunc. Sed modo, quia positus est imperator de nouo, iterum se de no­uo ad pugnam incipiunt praeparare. Adhoc sciendum est, quod imperator dixit ore suo, quod velle [...] mittere exercitum in Liuoniam & Prussiam.Tar [...] [...] propo­nunt inuade [...]e Liuoniam & Prussiam. Et quoniam omnem terram volunt delere vel in seruitutem redigere, quae seruitus est intolerabilis nostrae genti, vt superius dictum est: Occurrendum est igitur eis in bello. Sed si vna prouincia non vult alteri opem ferre, terra illa delebitur contra quam pugnant, & cum illis hominibus quos capiunt pugnabunt contra ali­am terram; & in acie erunt primi. Si male pugnant occidentur ab eis: Si autem bene, ipsos cum promissis adulationibus tenent: & etiam vt ab ipsis non fugiant promittunt [...]is quod faci­ent eos dominos magnos: & post hoc quando securi esse possunt de ipsis, vt non redeant, faci­unt eos infoelicissimos seruos. Ac de mulieribus quas volunt in concubinas tenere pro serui­tijs faciunt illud idem. Et ita cum hominibus deuictae prouinciae destruunt aliam terram. Nec est aliqua prouincia quae per se possit resistere eis: quia de omni terra potestatis eorum, vt di­ctum est, homines congregant ad bellum. Vnde si Christiani seipsos & suā terram, & Christia­nitatem volunt seruare, oportet quod in vnum conueniant reges, principes & barones, & terra­rum rectores, & mittant de cōmuni consilio homines contra eos ad pugnā, antequam ipsi inci­piant in terras diffundi. Quoniam postquam incipiunt spargi per terras, vndi (que) homines quae­runt, & nullus congrue auxilium alteri potest praebere: quoniam ipsi cateruatim vndi (que) quae­runt homines & occidunt. Et si claudunt se in castris, ponunttria millia vel quatuor millia ho­minum contra castrum vel ciuitatem, qui obsideant eam; & ipsi nihilominus diffunduntur per terras homines occidentes. Quicun (que) autem volunt pugnare cum eis, haec arma debent habere. Arcus bonos & fortes, & balistas, quas multū timent, & sagittas sufficientes: & bonum dolabrū de bono ferro, & scutū cū longo manubrio. Ferramenta sagittarū arcu vel de balista debent, [Page 36] vt [...]a [...]tari,Temperamen [...]um fe [...] quando sunt calida, temperari in aqua cum [...]ale mixta, vt tortia si [...]t ad penetra [...]dum arma eorum. Gladios & etiam lanceas cum vnco, qui valeant ad trahendum eos de sellis: quia de eis facillime cadunt: ac cultellos ac loricas, duplicatas; quia illos eorum sagittae non penetrant: & galeā & arma alia ad protegendum corpus & equum ab armis & sagittis eorum [...] Et si aliqui non sunt ita bene armati, vt dixi; debent [...]c post alios vt faciunt Tartari: & tra­here contra eos de armis & sagittis. Nec debent parcere pecuniae, quoniam comparent ar­ma, vt possint animas & corpora, libertatem & res alias conseruare. Acies debent ordinari, vt ipsi, per millenarios, centenarios, & decanos & duces exercitus: qui duces nequaquam de­bent praelium intrare, sicut nec duces eorum, sed debent exercitus videre & ordinare: legem­què debent ponere vt simul incedant ad bellum, siue aliâs, sicut sunt ordina [...]i. Et quicunque re­linquit alium siue ad bellum procedentem, siue pugnantem, vel quicunque fugerit, nisi omnes cōmuniter cedant, grauissime puniatur: quia tunc pars bellantium lequitur fugientes & sagittis eorum occidunt, & pars cum hijs qui [...]emanēt pugnant, & sic confundūtur & occiduntur rema­nentes & fugientes. Similiter quicun (que) conuersus fuerit ad praedam tollendam, antequam om­nino sit exercitus contrariorū deuictus, maxima poena mulctetur. Talis enim apud Tartaros sine vlla miseratione occidi [...]ur. Locus ad praeliandum est eligendus, si fieri potest vt campus si [...] pla­nus, & possint vndique videre: & si possunt habeant syluam magnam a tergo vel a latere [...] ita tamen quod non possunt intrare inter ipsos & [...]y [...]uam: nec debent simul omnes conuenire in vnum, [...]ed facere acies multas, & diue [...]sas ab inuicem, nec tamen multum distantes. Et con­tra illos qui post veniunt debent vnam aciem mittere qui eis occurrat. Et si Tar [...]ari simulant fugam, non multum vadant post eos, nisi forte quantum possunt videre, ne forte ipsos ad pa­ratas insidias trahan [...], sicut facere solent: Et alia sit parata ad inuandum aci [...]m illam, si fuerit opportunum. Insuper habeant speculatores ex omni parte,Sp [...]ulato [...]es. vt videant quando veniant aliae a­cies Tartarorum retro, à dextris & à sinistris: & semper debent mittere aciem contra aciem quae eis occurrat. Ipsi enim semper nituntur concludere aduersarios eorum in medio, vnde magnam cautelā debent habere ne hoc facere possint, quia sic exercitus facillime debellatur. Omnes acies hoc debent cauere, ne diu currant post eos, propter insidias quas solent praepa­rate: plus enim fraudulentia quàm fortitudine pugnant. Duces exercitus semper debent esse parati ad mittendum adiutorium, si necesse est, illis qui sunt in pugna, & propter hoc etiam de­bent vitare nimium cursum post cos: ne force fatigentur equi eorum; quoniam nostri multitu­dinem equorum non habent. Sed Tartari illum quem equitant vna die, illum non ascendunt in tribus vel in quatuor diebus post hoc. Vnde non curant si fatigentur equi eorū propter mul­titudinem quam habent. Et si Tar [...]ari cedunt, non tamen nostri debent recedere, vel ab inuicem separari: quia simulando hoc faciunt, vt exe [...]citus diuidatur, & post hoc terram libere ingredi­antur & eam destruant. Debent etiam cauere vt non faciant nimias expensas, vt solent; ne prop­ter penuriam redire compellantur, & dent Tartaris viam, vt ipsos & alios occidant, & dest [...]uant omnem terram; & propter eorum superfluitatem nomen Domini blasphemetur. Et hoc debent facere diligenter: vt si contingat aliquos pugnatores recedere, quod alij loco eorum succedant. Duces etiam nostri debent die noctéque facere exercitum custodiri, ne repente & subito irru­ant super ipsos: quia Tartari vt daemones, multas excogitant iniquitates & artes nocendi: Im­mo tam de die quam de nocte semper debent esse parati: sed necspoliati debent iacere nec de­liciose ad mensam sedere, ne imparati inueniantur, quia Tartari semper vigilant, vt pos­sint nocere. Homines vero terrae qui Tartaros expectant, vel super se timent venire, occul­tas fou [...]as debent habere, in quibus sagittas, & alia debent reponere, propter duo: vt videli­cet Tartari non possint ea habere; & si propitius fuerit eis Deus, valeant ea postea inuenire; Eis fugientibus de terra, debent foenum & stramina combure [...]e, vt equi Tartarorum ad comeden­dum minus inueniant. Ciuitates autem & castra si volunt munire, videant prius qualia sint in situ. Situs enim talis debet esse in castris, quod machinis & sagittis expugnari nō possit; & aquā habeant sufficientem & lignū, & si fieri potest, quod introitus & exitus eis tolli non possit: & quod habeant homines sufficientes qui possint vicissim pugnare. Et debent vigilare diligen­ter ne aliqua astu [...]ia possint castrum furari. Expensas ad multos annos debent habere suffici­entes: custodiant tamen diligenter illas, & in mensura manducent, quia nesciunt quanto tem­pore eos in castris oportet esse inclusos. Quum enim incipiunt, tunc multis annis obsident v­num castrum.Obsidio 12. an­norum. Sic fit hodierna die in ter [...]a Alanorum de quodam monte, quem, vt credo, iam obsederunt per duodecem annos; qui viriliter restiterunt, & multos Tartaros & nobiles occide­runt. Alia autem castra & ciuitates, quae talem si [...]um non habent debent fortiter vallari fouei [...] profundis munitis, & muris bene praeparatis; & arcus & sagittas sufficientes: & lapides ac fundas debent habere. Et debent diligenter cauere, quod non permittant Tartaros ponere machinas suas; & suis machinis debent eos repellere. Et si forte aliquo ingenio vel arte e [...]igunt [Page 37] Tartari machinas suas, debent eas destruere machinis su [...]s si pos [...]unt. Balistis etiam, fundis & machinis debentre sistere ne ciuitati appropinquent. Aliàs etiam debent esse parati, vt superius dictum est. De castris & ciuitatibus, quae sunt in fluminibus positae, diligenter debent videre ne possint submergi [...] Sed ad hoc sciendū est, quod Tartari plus diligunt, quod homines claudant se in ciuitatibus, quàm quod pugnent cū eis in campo. Dicunt enim eos esse suos por­cellos in hara concluso [...]. Vnde ponunt eis custodes, vt supradictū est. Si autē aliqui Tartari de equis suis in bello proijciuntur, statim sunt capiendi: quia cum sunt in terra fortiter sagittant, & equos & homines vulnerant & occidunt. Et si seruantur tales, potest esse, quod habeatur pro eis pax perpetua, aut pecunia magna redimantur: quoniā [...]e adinuicem satis diligunt. Sed quo­modo Tartari cognoscantur, superius dictum est vbi forma eorum fuit expressa. Tamen quan­do capiuntur, si debent seruari, ne fugiant diligens est custodia adhibenda. Sunt etiā aliae mul [...]e gentes cū eis, quae per formā superius annotatā possunt ab ipsis cognosci. Est etiam hoc scien­dum, quod multi in exercitu eorum sunt, qui si viderent tempus, & haberēt fiduciam, quod no­stri non occiderent eos, ex omni parte exercitus, sicut ipsimet nobis dixerunt, pugnarent cū eis, & plura mala facerent ipsis, quàm alij, qui sunt eorum aduersarij manifesti.

THe long and wonderful voyage of Frier Iohn de Plano Carpini, sent ambassadour by Pope Innocentius the iiii. An. Do. 1246. to the great CAN of Tartaria; wherin he passed through Bohemia, Polonia, Russia, and so to the citie of Kiow vpon Boristhenes, and from thence rode continually post for the space of si [...]e moneths through Comania, ouer the mighty and famous riuers of Tanais, Volga, and Iaic, & through the countries of the people called Kan­gittae, Bisermini, Kara-Kitay, Naimani, & so to the natiue countrie of the Mongals or Tar­tars, situate in the extreme Northeasterne partes of all Asia: and thence backe againe the same way to Russia, and Polonia, and so to Rome; spending in the whole voyage among the sayd Tartars one whole yeere & aboue foure moneths: Taken out of the 32. booke of Vin­centius Beluacensis his Speculum historiale.

LIBRI XXXII.

De prima missione Fratrum Praedicatorum & Mi­norum ad Tartaros. Cap. 2.

HOc etiam tēpore misit Innocentius IIII. Papa Fr. Ascelinū de ordine Praedi­catorū cū tribus alijs Fratribus,As [...]elinu [...]. ¶ Vide Mecho­uiū lib. 1. cap. 5. auctoritate, qua fungebantur, de diuersis or­dinis sui conuentibus sibi associatis, cum literis Apostolicis ad exercitū Tarta­rorū, in quibus hortabatur eos, vt ab hominū strage desisterent, & fidei veri­tatē reciperent. Et ego quidē ab vno Fratrum Praedicatorū, videlicet à Fr. Si­mone de S. Quintino,Simon Sanquin­tinianus. iam ab illo itinere regresso, gesta Tartarorū accepi, illa duntaxat, quae superius per diuersa loca iuxta congruentiā temporū huic ope [...]i inserui. Siquidē & eo tempore quidā Frater ordinis Minorū, videlicet Fr. Iohannes de Plano carpini,Ioannes de Plano Ca [...]pini. cum qui­busdam alijs missus fuit ad Tartaros, qui etiam, vt ipse testatur, per annum & quatuor menses & amplius cum eis mansit, & inter eos ambulauit. A summo nam (que) Pontifice mandatū, vt omnia, quae apud eos erant, diligenter scrutaretur, acceperat, tam ipse, quàm Fr. Benedictus Polonus e­iusdem ordinis,Benedictus Po­lonus. qui suae tribulationis particeps & socius erat. Et hic ergo Fr. Ioannes de [...]is, quae apud Tartaros vel oculis proprijs vidit, vel à Christianis fide dignis, qui inter illos captiui erant, audiuit, libellum historialem conscripsit, qui & ipse ad manus nostras peruenit.Libellus histori­alis Ioannis de Plano Ca [...]p [...]ni. De quo etiam hîc quasi per epilogum inserere libet aliqua, videlicet ad supplementum eorum, quae de sunt in praedicta Fr. Simonis historia.

De situ & qualitate terrae Tartarorum. Cap. 3. Iohannes de Plano Carpini.

ESt in partibus Orientis terra, quae Mongal siue Tartaria dicitur,Tar [...]ar [...]ae de­scriptio. in ea scilicet parte sita, in qua Oriens Aquiloni coniungi creditur. Ab Oriente quidem habet terram Kythaorum & eti­am Solangorum, à meridie verò terrā Sarracenorum. InterVel Occidentem Orientē & meridiem terram Huy­norum, & ab Occidente prouinciam Naymanorum, ab Aquilone verò circundatur Oceano. In parte aliqua nimium est montuosa, & in aliqua campestris, sed tota ferè admixta glarea pluri­mum arenosa, nec est in centesima parte fructuosa. Nec enim potest fructum po [...]tare, nisi aquis fluuialibus irrigetur, que ibi sunt ra [...]issime. Vnde nec ville nec alique ciuitates ibidē [...]eperiuntur, [Page 38] excepta vna, quae Cracu [...]m appellatur, & satis bona esse dicitur. Nos quidem illam non vidi­mus, sed ad dimidiam dietam prope fuimus, cùm apud Syram ordam,Syra orda. quae curia maior Impera­toris eorum est, essemus. Licet autem aliâs infructifera sit illa terra, tamen alendis pe [...]ori­bus est apta. In aliqua eius parte sunt alique syluae modicae, alia verò sine lignis est omni­nò. Itaque tam Imperator quàm Principes, & omnes alij sedent, & cibaria sua decoquunt ad focum,A [...]ri [...] intemperies de boum & equorum stercoribus factum. Ipse quo (que) aer inordinatus est ebidem mi­rabiliter. In media siquidem aestate ibi tonitrua magna & fulgura fiunt, ex quibus plurimi occi­duntur homines, & eodem quo (que) tempore cadunt ibidem maxime niues. Sunt & ibi ventorum frigidissimorum tam maxime tempestates, quòd aliquando vix pos [...]un [...] equitare homines.Orda quid. Vn­de cùm ante ordam essemus (sic enim apud eos stationes Imperatoris & Principum appellan­tur) prae ventimagnitudine interra prostrati iacebamus, & videre propter pulueris magnitudinē minimè poteramus. Nunquam ibi pluit in hyeme, sed frequenter in aestate, & tam modicum, vt vix posset aliquando puluerem & radicem graminum madefacere. Ibi quo (que) maxima grando cadit saepè. Vnde cùm Imperator electus in sede regni debuit poni, nobis in curia tunc existen­tibus, tanta cecidit grando, quod ex subita resolutione plusquam CLX. homines in eadem curia fuerunt submersi. Res etiam & habitacula plura fuerunt deducta. Ibi etiam est in aestate subitò calor magnus, & repentè maximum frigus.

De forma & habitu & victu eorum. Cap. 4.

Tartarorum spe­cies.MOngalorum autem siue Tartarorum forma ab omnibus alijs hominibus est remota. Inter oculos enim, & inter genas, [...]ati sunt plus caeteris, genae quo (que) satis prominent à maxillis. Nasum habent planum & modicum, oculos etiam paruos, & palpebras vs (que) ad supercilia ele­uatas, ac super verticem in modum Clericorum coronas. Ex vtra (que) parte frontis tondendo, plus­quam in raedio crines longos faciunt,Tonsura. reliquos autem sicut mulieres crescere permittunt. De quibus duas cordas faciunt, & vnamquam (que) post aurem ligant. Pedes quo (que) modicos habent.Habitus. Vestes tam virorum quàm mulierum vno modo formatae sunt. Pallijs vel cappis vel caputijs non vtuntur. Tunicas verò miro modo formatas portant de buc caramo, vel purpurato, vel bal­daquino.Vestes retro cauda [...]ae. Pellicium habet pilos exterius, sed apertum est à posterioribus. Habet tamen çaudu­lam vnam vs (que) ad genua retrò. Vestes suas non lauant, nec lauari permittunt, & maximè à tem­pore, quo tonitrua incipiunt, vsquequo desinat illud tempus. Stationes habent rotundas in modum tentorij de virgulis & baculis subtilibus praeparatas.Tabernacula. Supra verò in medio rotundam habent fenestram, vnde ingrediatur lumen, & fumus exire possit: quia semper in medio faciunt ignem: parietes autem & tecta filtro sunt operta. Ostia quo (que) de filtro sunt facta. Harum que­dam subitò soluuntur, & reparantur, & super summarios deferuntur: quaedam verò dissolui non possunt sed in curribus portantur. Et quocun (que) siue ad bellum siue aliâs vadunt, semper illas secum deferunt. In animalibus valde diuites sunt, vt in Camelis & bobus, capris & ouibus. Iumenta & equos habent in tanta multitudine,Opes in pecore. quantam non credimus totum mundi residuum habere. Porcos autē & alias bestias non habent. Imperator ac Duces ar (que) alij magnates in auro & argento ac serico & gemmis abundant. Cibi eorū sunt omnia, quae mandi possunt. Vidimus eos etiā manducare pediculos.Victus. Lac bibūt animaliū, & in maxima quantitate, si habent, iumen­tinū. Porro in hyeme, quia nisi diuites sint, lac iumentinū non habent, millium cum aqua deco­quunt, quod tam tenue faciunt, vt illud bibere valeant. Vnde quilibet eorū scyphum bibit vnū vel duos in mane, & quando (que) nihil amplius manducant in die. In sero autem vnicui (que) datur de carnibus modicū, & bibunt ex eis brodium. Porro in aestate quando satis habent de lacte iu­mentino, carnes comedunt rarò, nisi fortè donētur eisdē, aut venatione bestiā aliquam ceperint velauem.

De moribus eorum bonis & malis. Cap. 5.

[...].HAbent autem mores quosdam quidem commendabiles, & quosdam detestabiles. Magis quippe sunt obedientes Dominis suis, quàm aliqui qui in mundo sint homines, siue reli­giosi siue seculares. Nam eos maximè reuerentur, nec illis de facili mentiuntur verbis factisue: rarò vel nun quam ad inuicem contendunt, bellá (que) velrixae, vulnera vel homicidia nunquam in­ter eos contingunt. Predones etiam ac fures rerum magnarū [...]bi nequaquā inneniuntur, ideo (que) stationes & cu [...]rus eorū,Abs [...]inentia. vbi the sauros habent, seris aut vectibus non firmantur. Si aliqua bestiae perdita fuerit, quicun (que) inuenit eam vel dimittit, vel ad illos, qui ad hoc posuisunt, [...]am ducit. Apud quos ille,Comita [...]. cuius est bestia, illam requitir, & abs (que) vlla difficultate recipit. Vnus alium satis honorar, & familiaritatē ac cibaria, quamuis apud eos sint pauca, libe [...]aliter satis communicat.Temperan [...]ia. Satis etiā sunt sufferentes, nec cùm iciunauerint vno die, vel duobus, omnino sine cibo, videntur [Page 39] impatientes, [...]ed cantant & ludunt, ac [...] bene comedil [...]ent. In equitando multum lu [...]tment tri­gus, calorem quo (que) nimium patiuntur. In [...]er eos quasi nulla placita sunt, & quamuis multum inebrientur, tamen in ebrietate sua nun quam contendunt. Nullus alium spernit, sed i [...]uat & promouet, quantum congruè potest. Castae sunt eorum mulicres,C [...]sti [...]as. nec aliquid inter eos auditur de ipsarum impudicitia. Quaedam tamen ex ijs verba turpia satis habent & impudica. Porrò erga caeteros homines ijdem Tartari superbissimi sunt, omnes (que) nobiles & ignobiles quasi pro nihilo reputantes despiciunt. Vnde vidimus in curia Impera [...]oris magnum Russie ducem,Insolentia ad [...]e [...] ­sus ex [...]e [...]o [...]. & fi­lium regis Georgianorum, ac Soldanos multos & magnos nullum honorem debitum recipere apud eos. Quinetiam Tartari eisdem assignati, quantumcun (que) viles essent illos antecedebant, semper (que) primum locum & summum tenebant, imò etiam s [...]pè oportebat illos post eorū po­steriora sedere. Praeterea ira cundisunt, & indignantis naturae multum erga caeteros homines,Iracundi [...]. & vltra modum erga eosdem mendaces. In principio quidē blandi sunt, sed postmodum vt Scor­piones pungunt. Subdoli enim & fraudulenti sunt,Fraudulentia. & omnes homines sipossunt asturia circum­ueniunt. Quicquid mali volunt eis facere, miro modo occultant, vt sibi non possint prouidere, vel contra eorum astutias remedium inuenire. Immundi quo (que) sunt in cibo & potu sumendis,Sordes Temulentia. & in caeteris factis suis. Ebrietas apud illos est honorabilis: cum (que) multum aliquis biberit, ibi­dem (que) reijcit, non ideo cessat, quin iterum bibat. Ad petendum maximi sunt exactores, tenacis­simi re [...]entores, parcissimi donato [...]es. Aliorum hominum occisio apud illos est pro nihilo. [...].

De legibus & consuetudinibus eorum. Cap. 6.

HOc autem habent in lege siue consuetudine, vt occidant viros & mulieres,Poena adulterij. si quando in­ueniantur in adulterio manifestè. Similiter etiam virg [...]em, si [...]ornica [...]a fue [...]it cum ali­quo, occidunt eam cum eo. Praeterea si aliquis in praeda vel furto manifesto inueni [...]ur,Purti. sine vl­la miseratione occiditur. Item si quis denudauit consilia, maximè quando volunt ad bellum procedere, dantur eisuper posteriora centum plagae, quanto maiores vnus rusticus cum magno baculo potest date.Ar [...]ani [...]u [...]lga [...]. Similiter cùm aliqui de minoribus offendunt in aliquo, non eis à maioribus suis parcitur, sed verberibus grauiter affligun [...]ur. Matrimonio autem generaliter coniungun­tur omnibus,Leges matrimo­nio [...]um. etiam propinquis carne, excepta matre & filia & so [...]ore ex eadem matre. Nam sororem tantùm ex patre, & vxorem quo (que) patris, post eius mor [...]em solent ducere. Vxorē eti­am fratris alius frater iunior, post eius mortem, vel alius de parentel [...], tenetur ducere. Vnde dum adhuc essemus in terra, Dux quidam Russiae [...] Andreas nomine, apud Baty,Andreas Du [...] Russie. ¶Vtde Herber­steinium de rebus Moschoui. p [...]g. [...]. b. quòd equos Tartaro­rum de terra educeret, & alijs venderet, accusatus est: quod licet non esset probatum, occisus est. Hoc audiens iunior frater, & vxor occis [...], pariter venerunt ad praesatum Ducem, supplicare volentes, ne terra auferretur eisdem. At ille paruo praecepit, vt fratris defuncti duceret vxorem, mulieri quo (que) vt illum in virum duceret, secundum Tartarorum consuetudinē. Quae respon­dit, se potius occidi velle, quàm sie contra legem facere. At ille nihilominus eam illi tradidit quamuis ambo renuerent, quantum possen [...]. Ita (que) ducen [...]es eos in lectum, clamantem pue­rum & plorantē super illam posuerunt, ipsos (que) commisceri pariter coëgerunt. Deni (que) post mor­tem ma [...]itorum, vxores Tartarorum non de facili solent ad secunda coniugi [...] transire, nisi fortè quis velit sororiam aut nouercam suam ducere. Nulla verò differentia est apud eos inter filiū vxoris & concubinae, sed dat pa [...]er q [...]od vult vnicui (que). Ita (que) si sunt etiam ex Ducum genere, ita fit Dux filius concubinae, sicut filius vxoris legitimae. Vnde cùm rex Georgiae duos filios nu­per,Melich & Dauid fratres Georgia [...] vnum scilicet nomine Melich legitimum, alterum verò Dauid ex adul [...]erio n [...]tum haberet, moriens (que) terrae partem adulterae filio reliquisset, Melich, cui etiam ex parte matris regnum ob­uenerat, quia per foeminas tenebatur, perrexit ad Imperatorem Tartarorum, eo quòd & Dauid iter arripuerat ad illum. Ambobus igitur ad curiam venientibus, datis (que) maximis muneribus, petebat adulterae filius, vt fieret ei iustitia secundum morem Tartarorum. Data (que) est sententia contra Melich, vt Dauid, qui major erat natu, subesset, ac terrā à patre sibi concessam quietè ac pacificè possideret. Cum (que) Tartarorum vnus habet vxorum multi [...]udinem, [...]. vnaquae (que) per se suam habet familiam & stationem. Et vna die Tartarus comedit & bibit & dormit cum vna, al­tera die cum alia. Vna tamen inter caetera [...] maior habetur, cum qua frequentius quā cum alijs commoratur. Et licet, vt dictum est, sint multae, nun quam tamen de facili contendunt interse.

De superstitiosis traditionibus ipsorum. Cap. 7.

QVibusdam verò traditionibus indifferentia quedā esse peccata dicunt, [...], quas velipsi vel an­tecessores eorum confinxerunt. Vnum est, culteslum in ignem figere, vel quocun (que) modo ignem cultello tangere, vel etiam de caldaria cum cultello carnes extrahere, vel cum securi [Page 40] [...]uxta ignem incidere. Credunt enim, quòd sic au [...]erri debeat capu [...]gn [...]. Aliud e [...] appodiare so ad flagellum, quo percutitur equus: ipsi enim non vtuntur calcaribus. Item [...]agello sagit­tas tangere, iunenes aues capere vel occidere, cum freno equum percutere, os cum osse alio frangcre. Item (que) lac, vel aliquem potum aut cibum super terram effundere, in statione mingere. Quod si voluntariè facit, occiditur, si autem aliter, oportet quòd pecuniam multā incanta [...]ori [...]oluat, à quo purificetur. Qui etiam faciat, vt statio cum omnibus, quae in ipsa sunt, inter duos ignes transeat. Ante quam sic purificetur, nullus auder intrare, nec aliquid de illa exportare. Praet [...]rea si alicui morsellus imponitur, quem deglutire non possit, & illum de ore suo eijcit, fo­ramen sub statione fit, per quod extrahitur, at sine vlla miseratione occiditur. Iterum si quis calca [...] super limen stationis Ducis alicuius, interfici [...]ur. Multa etiam habent his similia, quae re­putant peccata. [...]. At homines occidere, aliorum terras inuadere, acres illorum di [...]ipere, & contra Dei praecepta vel prohibitiones facere, nullum apud eos est peccatum. De vita aeterna & dam­natione perpetua nihil sciun [...]. Credunt tamen, quòd post mortem in alio seculo viuant, gre­gésque multiplicent, comedant & bibant, & caetera faciant, quae hîc à viuentibus fiunt. In prin­cipio lunationis vel in plenilunio incipiunt,Cultu [...] lun [...]. quic quid noui agere volunt, ipsam (que) Lunam Impe­ratorem magnum appellant, eam (que) deprecantes genua flectunt. Omnes, qui moranturin sta­tionibus suis,Lustrationis ritus oportet per ignem purificari. Quae scilicet purificatio fit hoc modo. Duos qui­dem ignes faciunt, & duas hastas iuxta eos, vnam (que) cordam in summitate hastarum ponunt. Ligant (que) super cordam illam quasdam de Bucaramo scissiones, sub qua scilicet corda & li­gaturis inter illos ignes transeunt homines, ac bestiae ac stationes. Sunt etiam duae mulieres, v­na hinc, & alia inde aquam proijcientes, ac quaedam carmina recitantes. Caeterum si aliquis à fulgure occiditur, oportet praedicto modo per ignes transire omnes illos, qui in illis stationibus morantur. Statio siquidem ac lectus & currus, filtra & vestes, & quicquid talium habent, à nul­lo tanguntur, sed ab hominibus tanquam immundarespuuntur. Et vt breuiter dicam, omnia purificari credunt perignem.Ignis supe [...]stitios [...] effi [...]a [...]tas. Vnde quando veniunt ad eos nuncij, vel Principes, aut quales­cun (que) personae, oportet ipsos & munera sua per duos ignes, vt purificentur, transire, ne fortè ve­neficia fecerint, aut venenum seu aliquid mali attulerint.

De initio imperij siue Principatus eorum. Cap. 8.

Tartariae populi.TErra quidem illa Orientalis, de qua dictum est suprà, quae Mongal nominatur, quatuor quondam habuisse populos memoratur. Vnus eorum Yeka Mongal, id est, magni Mon­gali vocabantur. Secundus Sumongal, id est, aquatici Mongali, qui seipsos appellabant Tar­taros, à quodam fluuio per eorum terram currente, qui Tartar nominatur. Tertius appellaba­tur Merkat. Quartus verò Metrit. Omnes vnam personarum formam & vnam linguam ha­bebant hi populi, quamuis inter se per Principes ac prouincias essent diuisi. In terra Yeka Mon­gal quidam fuit, qui vocabatur Chingis.Chingis ortus & [...]e [...] ge [...]tae. Iste coepit robustus venator esse: didicit enim homi­nes, [...]urari, & praedam capere. Ad alias ter [...]as ibat, & quoscunque poterat, captiuabat, sibi (que) associabat. Homines quoque suae gentis inclinauit ad se, qui tanquam Ducem sequebantur ipsum ad malè agendum. Coepit autem pugnare cum Sumongal, siue cum Tartaris, & Ducem eorum interfecit, multo (que) bello sibi Tartaros omnes subiecit, & in seruitutem redegit. Post hec cum istis omnibus contra Merkatas, iuxta terram positos Tartarorum pugnauit, quos etiam bello sibi subiecit. Inde procedens contra Metritas pugnā exercuit, & illos etiam obtinuit. Au­dientes Naymani,Nayma [...] [...]l [...]ra cap. 25. quòd Chingis taliter eleuatus eslet, indignati sunt. Ipsi enim habuerant Im­p [...]tatorem strenuum valdè, cui dabant tributum cuncte nationes praedictae. Qui [...]ùm esset mor­tuus,Fra [...]es discor­dantes oppressi. filij eius successerunt loco ipsius. Sed quia inuenes ac stultierant, populum tenere nescie­bant, sed ad inuicem diuisi ac scissi erant. Vnde Chingi praedicto modoiam exaltato, nihil omi­nus in terras praedictas faciebant insultum, & habitatores occidebant, ac di [...]ipiebant praedam eorum. Quod audiens Chingis, omnes sibi subiectos congregauit. Naymani & Karaky [...]ay ex aduerso similiter in quandam vallem strictam conuenerunt, & commissum est praelium, in quo Naymani & Karakytay à Mongalis deuictisunt. Qui etiam pro maiori parte occisi fuerunt, & alij, qui euadere non potuerunt, in seruitutem redacti sunt. In terra praedictorū Karakytaorum Occoday Cham,Occoday Cham. filius Chingischam, postquā imperator fuit positus, quandā ciuitatem aedifi­cauit, quā Chanyl appellauit. Prope quam ad Meridiem est quoddā desertum magnū, in quo pro certo syluestres homines habitare dicuntur,Homines sylue­stres. qui nullatenus loquuntur, neoluncturas in cru­ribus habent, & si quando cadunt, per se surgere non valent. Sed tamen discretionem tantam habent, quòd filtra de lana Camelorum, quibus vestiuntur, faciunt & contra ventum ponunt. Et si quando Tartari per gentes ad eos vulnerant eos sagittis, gram [...]na in vulneribus ponunt, & fortiter ante ipsos fugiunt.

De mutua victoria ipsorum & Kythaorum. Cap. 9.

MOngali autem in terram suam reuertentes, se contra Hay [...]on [...] [...] [...]aulo Ve [...]e [...] sunt Cathay. Kythaos ad praelium parauerunt, & castra mouentes, eorum terram intrauerunt. Quod audiens eorum Impera [...]or, venit cum exercitu suo contra illos, & commissum est prelium durū, in quo Mongali sunt deuicti,Tartar [...]um Ca­thayna clades [...] omnes (que) nobiles eorum, qui erant in exercitu, praeter septem occisi sunt. Vnde c [...]m illis volentibus ali­quam impugnare regionē, minatur aliquis stragem [...] adhuc respondent: Olim etiam occisi non nisi septem remansimus, & tamen modò cremmus in multitudinem magnam, ideo (que) non terre­mur de [...]alibus. Chingis autem & alij, qui remanserunt, in terram suam fugerunt. Cum (que) quie­ [...]s [...]et aliquantulum, praeparauit se rursus ad praelium, & processit contra terram Huyrorum. Isti sunt homines Christiani de secta Nestorianorum. Et hos etiam Mongali deuicerunt,Nouae victorie. eorum (que) literam acceperunt; prius enim scripturam non habebant,Literae. nunc autem eandem Mongalorum literam appellant. Inde contra terram Saruyur, & con [...]ra terram Karanitarum, & contra terram Hudirat processit, quos omnes bello deuicit. Inde in terram suam redijt, & aliquantulum quie­uit. Deinde conuocatis omnibus hominibus suis, contra Kythaos pariter processerunt, diu (que) contra illos pugn [...]ntes, magnam partem terrae illorum vicerunt, eorum (que) Imperatorem in ci­uitatem suam maiorem concluserunt. Quam & tam longo tempore ob [...]ederunt, quod exerci­tus expensae omninò defecerunt. Cum (que) iam quod manducarent [...] penitus non haberent, preci­pit Chingischam suis, vt de decē hominibus vnū ad manducandum darent. Illi verò de ciuitate machinis & sagittis viriliter contra istos pugnabāt, & cùm deficerent lapides,Argentum loco lapidum in ho­stem pro [...]ectum. argentū & maxi­mè liq [...]e [...]actum proijciebant. Ciuitas siquidē illa multis erat diuitijs plena. Cum (que) diu Mon­gali pugnassent, & eam bello vincere non possent, vnam magnā sub terra viam ab exercitu vs (que) ad mediū ciuitatis fecerunt, & prosiliens [...]es in mediū eius, contra ciues pugnaucrunt. Illi quoque, qui extra remanserant, eodem modo contra illos pugnabant. Deni (que) conciden [...]es por [...]as ciui­tatis intrauerunt, & imperatorem cum pluribus occidentes vrbem possederunt, aurum (que) & ar­gentum, & omnes eius diuitias abstulerunt. Et cùm illi terre [...]uos homines praefecissent, in terrar̄ propriam reuersi sunt. Tun [...] primum Imperatore Kythaorum deuicto, factus est Chingischam imperator.Chingis salutatur Imperator. Quandam tamen partē illius terrae, quia posita erat in mari, nullatenus deuicerunt vs (que) hodie. Sunt autem Kytai homines pagani, habentes literam specialem, & etiam, vt dicitur,Cathaynorum [...]l­terae & religio. veteris & noui Testamenti scripturam. Habent etiam vitas patrū & eremitas & domos, in qui­bus orant temporibus suis, ad modum Ecclesiarum factas. Quosdam etiam sanctos habere se dicunt, & vnum Deum colunt. Chris [...]um IESVM Dominum venerantur, & credunt vitā a ter­nam, sed non baptizant [...]r. Scripturam nostram honorant ac reuerentur. Christianos diligunt, & eleemosynas plures faciunt, homines benigni satis & humani videntur. Barbam non habent, & in dispositione faci [...]i cum Mongalis in parte concordant.Opificiorum [...]. Meliores a trifices in mundo non inueniuntur in omnibus operibus, in quibus homines exercentur. Terra eorum est opulenta nimis in f [...]umento & vino, au [...]o & serico acrebus caete [...]is.

De pugna ipsorum contra Indiam minorem & maiorem. Cap. 10.

CVm autem Mongali cum Imperatore suo Chingischam post prefatam victoriā aliquan­tulum quieuissent, exercitus suos diuiserunt. Imperator siquidem vnum de filijs suis no­mine Thosur, quem etiam Can, [...]d est, Imperatorē appellabant, cum exercitu contra Comanos misit,Thossut Can, Chingis F. quos ille multo bello deuicit, & postmodum in terram suam redijt. Alium verò filiū cum exercitu contra Indos misit, qui & minorem Indiam subiecit. Hi sunt nigri Sarraceni,India minor debella [...]. qui AEthi­pes sunt vocati. Hic autem exercitus ad pugnam contra Christianos qui sunt in India maiori,Regi [...] maioris In­diae stratagema. processit. Quod audiens Rex illius terrae, qui vulgò Vide scolion in lib. 1. cap. 51. N [...] Pauli Ven [...]i. Presbyter Iohannes appellatur, contra illos venit exe [...]citu cong [...]egato. Et faciens imagines cupreas hominum, vnamquan (que) posuit in sella super equum. Posuit & interius ignem, & hominem cum folle super equum post imagi­nem. Ita (que) cum multis equis & imaginibus, taliter praeparatis, ad pugnam contra Mongalos seu Tartaros processerunt. Et cùm ad locum praelij peruenissent, equos istos vnum iuxta alium premiserunt. Viri autem, qui erant retrò, nescio quid superignem, qui erat intra imagines, po­suerunt, & cum follibus fortiter sufflauerunt. Vnde factum est, vt ex Graeco igne homines & equi comburerentur, & etiam aë [...] ex fumo denigraretur. Túmque super Tartaros sagittas iece­runt Indi, ex quibus multi vulnera [...]i fuerunt & interfecti.Victoria. Sic (que) eiecerunt illos cum magna con­fusione de suis finibus, nec vnquam, quod ad ipsos vltra redierint audiuimus.

Qualiter ab hominibus caninis repulsi, Buri­thabethinos vicerunt. Cap. 11.

CVm autem per deserta redirent, in quandam terram venerunt, in qua, sicut nobis apud Imperatoris curiam per clericos Ruthenos, & alios, qui diu fuerant inter ipsos, firmiter as­serendo referebatur,De monstrosis mulier [...]bus & ca­nibus monstro [...]a narra [...]io. monstra quaedam, imaginem foemineam habentia, repererunt. Quas cùm per multos interpretes interrogassent, vbi viri terrae illius essent, responderunt, quòd in illa terra quaecun (que) foemine nascebātur, habebant formā humanam, masculi vero speciē caninam. Dum­ (que) moram in terra illa protraherent, Canesin alia fluuij parte conuenerunt. Et cùm esset hyems asperrima omnes se in aquam proiecerunt. Post haec incontinenti sponte in puluerē volueban­tur,¶ Forsan autem videri allegorica allusio possit ad Canibal [...]s de qui­bu [...] Pe [...]us Mar­tyr Mediolan [...] de rebus Oceanicis. sic (que) puluis admixtus aque super eos congelabatur, & vt ita pluries secerunt, glacie super eos depressa [...]a, cum impetu magno contra Tartaros ad pugnam conuenerunt. At verò cum illi sagittas super eos iaciebant, ac si super lapides sagittassent, retrò sagittae redibant. Alia quo (que) arma eorū in nullo eos laedere poterant. Ipsi verò Canes insultum in Tartaros facientes, mor­sibus vulnerauerunt multos, & occiderunt, sic (que) illos de suis finibus eiecerunt. Vnde adhuc in­ter illos est prouerbium de hoc facto, quod dicunt ad inuicem ridendo: Pater meus vel frater meus à Canibus fuit occisus. Mulieres autem illorū, quas ceperant, ad terrā suā duxerunt, & vs (que) ad diē mortis eorū ibidē fuerunt. Cùm autē exercitus ille Mongalorum rediret, venit ad terram Burithabeth,Bu [...]ithabeth reg [...]o. cuius habitatores pagani sunt, & hos Tartari bello vicerunt. Hi consuetudinem habent mirabilem, imò potius miserabilem. Cùm enim alicuius pater humanae naturae soluit debitum,In colarum mores congregant omnē parentelam, & come dunt eum. Hi pilos in barba non habent, imò ferrum quoddam in manibus, sicut vidimus, portant, cum quo semper barbam, si forte crinis ali­quis in ea crescit, depilant. Multum etiam deformes sunt. Inde verò ille Tartarorum exercitus in terram suam estreuersus.

Qualiter à montibus Caspijs, & ab hominibus sub­terraneis repulsi sunt. Cap. 12.

Alia Chingis ex­peditio.CHingischam etiā illo tēpore, quo dimisit alios exercitus contra Orientē, per terram Kergis cum expeditione perrexit, quos tamen tunc bello non vicit, & vt nobis dicebatur, ibidē vs (que) ad montes Caspios peruenit. At illi montes in ea parte, ad quam applicauerunt, de lapide Ada­mantino sunt: ideó (que) sagittas & arma fer [...]rea illorū ad se traxerunt. Homines autē inter Caspios montes conclusi clamorem exercitus, vt creditur, audientes, montem frangere coeperunt, & cùm alio tempore post decem annos redirent Tartari, montem confractum inuenerunt. Cum­ (que) ad illos accedere attentassent, minimè potuerunt: quia nubes quedam erat posita ante ipsos, vltra quam ire nullatenus poterant. Omninò quippe visum amittebant, statim vt ad illam per­ueniebant.¶ Vide an Ham­sem regionem dca [...]: de qua Hay [...]honus cap. 10. Illi antem ex aduerso credentes, quòd Tartari ad illos accedere formidarent, insul­tum contra eos fecerunt, sed statim vt peruenerunt ad nubem propter causam praedictam, procedere non potuerunt. Ac verò antequam ad montes praedictos peruenirent Tartari, plus­quam per mensem per vastam solitudinem transierunt, & inde procedentes adhuc contra Ori­entem, plusquàm per mensem per magnum desertum perrexerunt. Ita (que) peruenerunt ad quan­dam terram, in qua vias quidem [...]ritas videbant, sed neminem inuenire poterant. Tandem que­rentes, vnū hominem cum vxore sua repererunt, quos in presentiam Chingischam adduxerunt. Qui cùm interrogasset illos, vbi homines illius terrae essent, responderunt, quòd in terra sub montibus habitatent.Troglodytae. Tunc Chingischam retenta vxore, misit ad eos virum illum, mandans illis, vt venirent ad ipsius mandatum. Qui pergens ad illos, omnia narrauit, quae Chingis­cham eis mandauit. Illi verò respondentes dixerunt, quod die talivenirent ad ipsum, vt face­rent eius mandatum. Acipsi medio tempore per vias occultas sub terra se congregantes, ad pugnam contra illos venerunt, & subitò super eos irruentes, plurimos occiderunt. Solis quo­que sonitus in ortu suo sustinere non poterant,Fabulosus Solis orientis sonitus. imò tempore, quo oriebatur, oportebat eos vnam aurem ad terram ponere, & superiorem fortiter ob [...]urare, ne sonum illum terribilem au­dirent. Nec sic tamen cauere poterant, quin hac de causa plurimi ex eis interirent. Videns ergo Chingischam & sui, quòd nihil proficerent, sed potius homines suos perderent, fuge­runt, ac terra illa exierunt. Illum tamen virum cum vxore sua secum deduxerunt, qui etiam vsque ad mortem in terra eorum fuerunt. Interrogati verò, cur in regione sua sub terra so­leant habitare, dixerunt, quòd ibi quodam tempore anni, cúm oritur Sol, tantus fit sonitus, vt homines nulla ratione valeant sustinere. Quin etiam tunc in organis & tympanis caeterisque musicis instrumentis percutere solent, vt sonitum illum non audiant.

De statutis Chingischam, et morte ipsius, et filijs ac Ducibus. Cap. 13.

CVm autem de terra illa reuerteretur Chingischam, defecerunt eis victualia, famem (que) pa­tiebantur maximam. Tunc interiora vnius bestiae recentia casu inuenerunt: quae acci­pientes, depositis tantum stercoribus, decoxerunt, & coram Chingischam deportata pariter comederunt. Ideo (que) statuit Chingischam, vt nec [...]anguis, nec interiora, nec aliquid de bestia,Chingis l [...]. quae manducari potest, proijciatur, exceptis stercoribus. Inde ergò in terram propriam reuer­sus est, ibi (que) leges & statuta edidit, quae Tartari inuiolabiliter obseruant, de quibus scilicet [...]am aliàs superiùs dictum est. Post hoc ab ictu tonitrui occisus est. Habuit autem quatuor filios:Interit [...] Liberi. Occoday vocabatur primus, Thossut Can secundus, Thiaday tertius, quarti nomen ignora­mus.Nepotes. Ab his iiij. descenderunt omnes Duces Mongalorum. Primus filiorum Occoday est Cuyne, qui nunc est Imperator. Huius fratres Cocten & Chyrenen. Ex filijs autem Thossut Can sunt Bathy, Ordu, Siba, Bora. Bathy post Imperatorem omnibus ditior est ac potentior. Ordu verò omnium Ducum senior. Filij Thiaday, sunt Hu [...]in & Cadan. Filij autem alterius fi­lij Chingischam, cuius ignoramus nomen, sunt, Mengu & Bithat & alij plures. Huius Mengu mater Seroctan est, Domina magna inter Tartaros, excepta Imperatoris matre plus nomina­ [...]a, omnibus (que) potentior, excepto Bathy. Haec autem sunt nomina Ducum: Ordu,Duces. qui [...]uit in Polonia, & Hungaria, Bathy quo (que) & Huryn & Cadan & Syban & Ouygat, qui omnes fue­runt in Hungaria. Sed & Cyrpodan, qui adhuc est vltra mare contra quosdam Soldanos Sar­racenorum, & alios habitatores terrae transmarinae, Alij verò remanserunt in terra, scilicet Men­gu, Chyrenen, Hubilai, Sinocur, Cara, Gay, Sybedey, Bora, Berca, Corrensa. Alij quo (que) Du­ces eorum plures sunt, quorum nomina nobis ignota sunt.

De potestate Imperatoris & Ducum eius. Cap. 14.

POrrò Imperator eorum, scilicet Tartarorum, super omnes habet mirabile dominium.Imperatoris Ta [...] ­tarorum seruile in omnes imperium. Nul­lus enim audet in aliqua morari parte, nisi vbi assignauerit ipse. Et ipse quidem assignat Du [...]ibus vbi maneant. Duces autem loca Millenarijs assignant, Millenarij verò Centenarijs, & Centenarij Decanis. Quicquid autem eis praecipitur, quocun (que) tempore, quocun (que) loco, si­ue ad bellum, siue ad mortem, vel vbicunque, sine vlla obediunt contradictione. Nam etsi pe­tit alicuius filiam virginem, vel sorerem, mox ei sine contradictione exponunt eam, imò fre­quenter colligit virgines ex omnibus Tartarorum finibus, & si vult aliquas retinere, sibi re [...]i­net, alias verò dat suis hominibus. Nuncios etiam quoscun (que) & vbicun (que) transmittat, oportet quòd dent ei sine mora equos & expensas. Similiter vndecunque veniant ei tributa vel nun­cij, oportet equos & currus & expensas tribui. Ac verò nuncij, qui aliunde veniunt,Inhumanitas er­ga Legatos. in magna miseria, & victus & vestitus penuria sunt. Maxime (que) quando veniunt ad Principes, & ibi de­bent moram contrahere. Tunc adeò parum datur decem hominibus, quòd vix inde possent duo viuere. Insuper & si aliquae illis iniuriae fiunt, minimè conqueri facile possunt. Multa quoque munera tam à principibus quàm à caeteris ab illis petuntur: quae si non dederint, vilipendun­tur, & quasi pro nihilo reputantur. Hinc & nos magnam partem rerum, quae nobis pro expen­sis à fidelibus erant datae, de necessitate oportuit in muneribus dare. Denique sic omnia sunt in manu Imperatoris, quod nemo audet dicere, Hoc meum est velillius, sed omnia, scilicet res & iumenta ac homines, sunt ipsius. Super hoc etiam nuperemanauit statutum eiusdem. Idem quo (que) per omnia dominium habent Duces super sibi subditos homines.

De electione Imperatoris Occoday, & legatione Ducis Bathy. Cap. 15.

MOrtuo, vt suprà dictum est, Cyngischam, conuenerunt Duces, & elegerunt Occoday,Occoday surroga­tur patri. Bathy [...]i [...]s (que) ex­peditio. fi­lium eius Imperatorem. Qui habito consilio Principum, diuisit exercitus. Misit (que) Bathy, qui in secundo gradu attingebat eum, contra terram Altissodan & contra terram Bisminorum, qui Sarraceni erant, sed loquebantur Comanicum. Qui terram illorum ingressus, cum eis pug­nauit, eos (que) sibi bello subiecit. Quedam autem ciuitas, nomine Barchin,Barchin ciuitas. diu restitit eis. Ciues enim in circuitu ciuitatis foueas multas fecerant, propter quas non poterant à Tartaris capi, donee illas repleuissent. Ciues autem vrbis Sarguit hoc audientes,Sarguit ciuitas. exierunt obuiam eis, spontè in manus eorum se tradentes. Vnde ciuitas eorum destructa non fuit, sed plures eorum occi­derunt, & alios transtulerunt, acceptis (que) spolijs, vrbem alijs hominibus repleuerunt, & contra ciuitatem Orna perrexerunt, Haec erat nimium populosa & diuitijs copiosa.Orna ciuitas. Erant enim ibi [Page 44] plu [...]es Christiani, videlicet Ga [...]ari & Rutheni, & Alani, & alij nec non & Sarraceni. Erat (que) Sar­racenorum ciuitatis dominium. Est etiam posi [...]a super quendam magnum fluuium, & est qua­si portus, habens forum maximum. Cum (que) Tartari non possent eos aliter vincere, fluuium, qui per vrbem currebat, praeciderunt, & illam cum rebus & hominibus submerserunt. Qou fa­cto, contra Russiam perrexerunt, & magnam stragem in ea fecerunt, ciuitates & castra destru­xerunt, & homines occiderunt, Kiouiam, Russiae metropolin, diu obsederunt, & tandem ceperunt, ac ciues interfecerunt.¶ Vide Mecho­uium, lib. 1. ca. 3. Vnde quando per illam terram ibamus, innumerabilia capi­ta & ossa hominum mortuorum, iacentia super campum, inueniebamus. Fuerat enim vibs val­dè magna & populosa, nunc quasi ad nihilum est redacta: vix enim domus ibi remanserunt ducente, quarum etiam habitatores tenentur in maxima seruitute. Porrò de Russia & de Co­mania Tartari contra Hungaros & Polonos proces [...]erunt, ibi (que) plures ex ipsis interfecti fue­runt, & vt iam superius dictum est, si Hungari viriliter restitissent, Tartari ab eis confusi reces­sissent. Inde reuertentes in terram Morduanorum,Morduani. qui sunt Pagani, venerunt, eos (que) bello vi­cerunt. Inde contra Byleros,Bulgaria magna. id est, contra Bulgariam magnam profecti sunt, & ipsam omninò destruxerunt.Hungar [...]a magna. Hinc ad Aquilonem adhuc contra Bastarcos, id est Hungariam magnam proces­serunt,Parossite. & illos etiam deuicerunt. Hinc ampliùs ad Aquilonem pergentes, ad Parossitas vene­runt, qui paruos habentes stomachos & os paruum, non manducant, sed carnes decoquunt, quibus decoctis, se super ollam ponunt, & fumum recipiunt, & de hoc [...]olo reficiuntur, vel si a­liquid manducant, hoc valdè mod [...] cum est. Hinc & ad Samogeras venerunt,Samogere. qui tantùm de venation [...]bus [...]iuunt, & tabernacula vestes (que) tantum habent de pellibus bestiarum. Inde ad quandam terram super Oceanum peruenerunt,Monstra aquilo­na [...]a. vbi monstra quaedam inuenerunt, quae per omnia formam humanam habebant, sed pedes bouinos, & caput quidem humanum, sed faci­em vt canis. Duo verba loquebantur vt homines, terriò latrabant vt can [...]s. Hinc redierunt in Comaniam, & vs (que) nunc ibi morantur ex eis quidam.

† De his regionibus Herbersteinius pag. 8. b & 91. b. Paret enim bodie vtra (que) Moschorum Principi, item de Bulgaria Gu [...]guinus pag. 106. b.

De legatione Cyrpodan Ducis. Cap. 16.

Ex [...]editio Cyr­podanis.EO tempore misit Occoday Can Cyrpodan Ducem cum exercitu ad meridiem contra Xer­gis, qui & illos bello superauit. Hi homines sunt Pagani, qui pilos in barba non habent. Quorum consuetudo talis est, vt cùm alicuius pater moritur, prae dolore quasi vnam corrigiam in signum lamenti ab aure vs (que) autem de facie sua leuet. His autem deuictis, Dux Cyrpodan contra Armenios iuit ad meridiem cum suis. Qui cùm transirent per deserta quaedam, mon­stra inuenerunt, effigiem humanam habentia, quae non nisi vnum brachium cum manu in me­dio pectoris, & vnum pedem habebant, & duo cum vno arcu sagittabant, adeo (que) fortiter cur­rebant, quòd equi eos inuestigate non poterant. Currebant autem super vnum pedem [...]ll [...]m saltando, & cùm essent fatigati, taliter cundo [...]bant super manum & pedem, se tanquam in cir­culo reuoluendo. Cum (que) sic etiam fessi essent, iterum secundùm priorem modum currebant. Hos Isidorus Cyclopedes appellat.Cyclopedes. Et ex eis Tartari non nullos occiderunt. Et sicut nobis à Ruthenis Clericis in curia dicebatur, qui morantur cum Imperatore praedicto, plures ex eis nun­cij venerunt in legatione ad curiam Imperatoris,Armenia & Ge­orgia subacta. superiùs annotati, vt possent habere pacem cum il [...]o. Inde procedentes venerunt in Armeniam, quam bello deuicerunt, & etiam Georgiae partem. Alia verò pars venit ad mandatum eorum, & singulis annis dederunt, & adhuc dant ei pro tributo xx.millia Y perperarum. Hinc ad terram Soldani Deurum, potentis & magni, processerunt, cum quo etiam pugnantes, ipsum deuicerunt. Denique processerunt vlterius de­bellando ac vincendo vsque ad terram Soldani Halapiae,Soldanus Hala­pie. & nunc etiam terram obtinent, alias quoque terras vltra illas proponentes impugnare: nec postea reuersi sunt in terram suam vs (que) hodie.Calipha [...]alda­c [...]sis. Idem (que) exercitus contra terram Caliphi Baldach perrexit, quam etiam sibi subdidit, & vt CCCC. Byzantios, exceptis Baldekinis caeteris (que) muneribus, ei qoutidiè pro tributo daret, obtinuit. Sed & quolibet anno mittuot nuncios ad Caliphum, vt ad eos veniar. Qui cum tri­buto munera magna trasmittens, vt eum supportent, rogat. Ipse autem Imperator Tartaro­rum munera quidem accipit, & nihilominus vt veniat, pro eo mittit.

Qualiter Tartari se habent in praelijs. Cap. 17.

Tartarorum m [...]li­ta [...]is disciplina.ORdinauit Chingischam Tartaros per Decanos & centenarios & millenarios. Decem quo­que millenarijs praeponunt vnum, cuncto (que) nihilominus exercitui duos aut tres Duces, ita tamen vt ad vnum habeant respectum. Cum (que) in bello contra aliquos congrediuntur, nisi [Page 45] communiter cedant, omnes qui fugiunt, occiduntur. Et si vnus aut duo, vel plures ex decem audacter accedunt ad pugnam, alij verò ex illo Denario non sequuntur, simili [...]er occiduntur. Sed etiam si vnus ex decem vel plures capiuntur, socij eorum si non eos liberant, ipsi etiam oc­ciduntur. Porrò arma debent habere talia. Duos arcus vel vnum bonum ad minus.Armatu [...]. Tres (que) pha­retras sagittis plenas, & vnam securim & funes ad machinas trahendas. Diuites autem habent gladios in fine acutos, ex vna parte tan [...]m incidentes, & aliquantulum curuos. Habent & e­quos armatos, crura etiam tecta, galeas & loritas. Verùm loricas & equorum cooperturas qui­dam habent de corio, super corpus artificiosè duplicato vel etiam triplicato. Galea verò supe­rius est de chalybe, vel de ferro: sed illud, quod in circuitu protegit collum & gulam, est de co­rio. Quidam autem de ferro habent omnia supradicta, in hunc modum formata. Laminas multas tenues ad vnius digiti latitudinem & palmae longitudinē faciunt, & in qualibet octo fo­ramina paruula facientes, interius tres corrigias strictas & fortes ponunt. Sic (que) laminas, vnam alij [...] quasi per gradus ascendendo, supponunt. Ita (que) laminas ad corrigias, tenuibus corrigio­lis per foramina praedicta immissis, ligant, & in superiori parte corrigiolam vnam ex vtra que parte duplicatam cum alia corrigiola consuunt, vt laminae simul benè firmiter (que) cohaereant. Haec faciunt tam ad cooperturas equorum, quàm adarmaturas hominum. Adeo (que) faciunt illa lucere, quod in eis potest homo faciem suam videre. Aliqui veròin collo ferri lanceae vncum habent, cum quo de sella, si possunt, hominem detrahant. Sagittarum eorum ferramenta sunt acutissima, ex vtraque parte quasi gladius biceps incidentia, semper (que) iuxta pharetram porrant limas ad acuendum sagittas. Habent verò scuta de viminibus, aut de virgulis facta. Sed non credimus, quòd ea soleant portare, nisi ad castra & ad custodiam Imperatoris ac principum, & hoc tantùm de nocte. In bellis astutissimi sunt:V [...]us bell [...]rum [...] quia per annos xlij. cum caeteris gentibus dimi­cârunt. Cùm autem ad flumina peruenerunt, maiores habent rotundum ac leue corium,Mos [...]anand [...] fl [...]i [...]a. in cuius summitate per circuitum ansas crebras facientes, funem imponunt a [...] stringunt, ita quod in circuitu quasi ventrem efficiunt, quem vestibus ac rebus caeteris replent, fortissime (que) ad in­uicem comprimunt. In medio autem ponunt sellas & alias res doriores: ibi quoque sedent ho­mines. Huiusmodi nauim ad equi caudam ligant, & hominem, qui equum regat, pariter nata­re faciunt; vel habent aliquando duos remos, cum quibus remigant. Equo igitut in aquam impulso, omnes alij equi sequuntur illum, & sic transeunt fluuium. Pauperior autem quilibet vnam bursam vel saccum de corio be [...]è consutum habet, in quo res suas omnes imponit, & in summitate fortiter ligatum, ad equi caudam suspendit, sic (que) modo predicto transit.

Qualiter resistendum sit eis. Cap. 18.

NVllam aestimo prouinciam esse, quae per se possit eis resistere: quia de omni terra pote­statis suae solent homines ad bellum congregare. Et siquidem vicina prouincia non vult eis opem ferre, quam impugnant, delentes illam, cum hominibus, quos ex illa capiunt, contra aliam pugnant. Et illos quidem in acie primos ponunt, & si malè pugnant, ipsos occidunt. [...] de bello contra Tar­taros gerendo. Ita (que) si Christiani eis resistere volunt, oportet quòd Principes ac rectores te [...]rarum in vnum conue­niant, ac de communi consilio cis resistant. Habeani (que) pugnatores arcus sortes & balistas, quas multùm timent, sagittas (que) sufficientes, dolabrum quo (que) de bono ferio, vel securim cum ma­nubrio longo. Ferramenta verò sagittarum more Tartarorum, quando sunt calida,Ferri tempera­mentum. temperare debent in aqua, cum sale mixta, vt fortia sint ad penetrandum illorum arma. Gladios etiam & lanceas cum vncis habeant, qui volunt, ad detrahendū illos de sella, de qua facillimè cadunt. Habeant & galeas & arma caetera, ad protegendum corpus & equum ab armis & sagittis eo­rum, & si qui non ita sunt armati, debent more illorum post alios ire, & contra ipsos arcubus vel balistis traijcere. Et sicut dictum est suprà de Tartaris, debent acies suas ordinare, ac legem pugnantibus imponere. Quicun (que) conuersus fuerit ad praedamante victoriam, maximam de­bet poenam subire: talis enim apud illos occiditur abs (que) miseratione. Locus ad praelium, si [...]ie­ripotest, eligendus est planus, vt vndi (que) possint videre, nec omnes debent in vnum conuenire, sed acies multas & diuisas, nectamen nimis distantes ab inuicem, facere. Contra illos, qui pri­mò veniunt, debent vnam aciem mittere, & alia parata sit ad iuuandum illam opportuno tem­pore. Habeant & speculatores ex omni parte, qui videant, quando veniunt acies ceterae. Nam ideò semper debent aciem contra aciem, vt ei occurrant, mittere, quoniam illi semper nituntur aduersarios in medio concludere. Hoc autem acies caueant, nesi etiam illi fugere videantur, diu post illos currant, ne fortè, sicut facere solent, ipsos ad paratas insidias trahant: quia plus fraudulentia quàm fortitudine pugnant. Et iterum ne fatigentur equi eorum: quia nostri mul­titudinem non habent equorum. Tartari verò quos equitant die vna, non ascendunt tribus di­ebus, vel quatuor postea, Praeterea si cedunt Tartari, non ideò debent nostri recedere, vel ab in­uicem [Page 46] separari: quoniam hoc simulando faciunt, vt exercitus diuidatus, & sic ad ter [...]ae destru­ctionem liberè ingrediantur. Caeterùm Duces nostri die noctúque facere debent exercitum custo diri: nec iacere spoliati, sed semper ad pugnam parati: quia Tartari qua si Daemones sem­per vigilant, excogitantes artem nocendi. Porrò si aliqui Tartarorum in bello de suis equis pro­ijciuntur, statim capiendi sunt, quia quando sunt in terra fortiter sagittant, & equos homines­ (que) vulnerant.

De itinere Fratris Iohannis de Plano carpini vsque ad primam custodiam Tartarorum. Cap. 19.

NOs igitur ex mandato sedis Apostolicae cùm itemus ad Orientis nationes, elegimus pri­us ad Tartaros proficisci: quia timebamus, ne perillos in proximo Ecclesiae Dei pericu­lum immineret.Itinerarium Io­ann. & sociorum legatorum. Ita (que) pergétes, ad regem Boëmorū peruenimus: qui cum esset nobis familiaris, consuluit, vt pet Poloniam & Russiam iter ageremus. Habebat enim consanguineos in Polo­nia, quorum auxilio Russiam intrare possemus. Datis (que) literis & bono conductu, secit & ex­pensas nobis dari per curias & ciuitates eius,Bolesi [...]s Dux S [...]lesiae. quo vsque ad Ducem Slesiae Bolezlaum, nepo­tem eius, veniremus, qui etiam erat nobis familia [...]is & notus. Hinc & ipse nobis similiter secit, donec veniremus ad Conradum, Ducem Nazi [...]ia. Lautifciae, ad quem tunc, Dei gratia nobisfauente, venerat Dominus Wasilico, Dux Russiae, à quo etiam plenius de facto audiuimus Tartaro­rum: quia nuncios illuc miserat, qui iam redierant ad ipsum. Audito autem, quòd oporteret nos illis munera dare, quasdam pelles castorum & aliorum animalium fecimus emi, de hoc, quod datum nobis fuerat in eleemosynam ad subsidiū viae. Quod agnoscentes Dux Conradus & Grimis [...]u [...], [...] Math: [...] lib. 1. cap. 9. Ducissa Cracouiae, & Episcopus & quidam milites, plures etiam nobis dederunt huiusmo­di pelles. Denique Dux Wasilico à Duce Cracouiae, & Episcopo atque Baronibus pro nobis attentè rogatus, secum nos in terram suam duxit, & vt aliquantulum quiesceremus, aliquot di­ebus nos in expensis suis detinuit. Et cùm rogatus à nobis, feciffet Episcopos suos venire, legi­mus eis literas Domini Papae,Litere Pape ad [...]us [...]o [...]. monentis [...]cos, ad sanctae matris Ecclesie vnitatem redire. Ad idem quoque nos ipsi monuimus eos, & induximus, quantum potuimus, tam Ducem quàm Episco­pos & alios.Daniel, frater Basilij. Sed quia Dux Daniel, frater Wasiliconis praedicti, praesens non erat, quoniam ad Baty profectus erat, non potuerunt eo tempore finaliter respondere. Post haec Dux Wasilico transmisit nos vsque in Kiouiam metropolin Russiae, cum seruiente vno. Ibamus ramen in pe­riculo capitis semper propter Lituanos,Lituani. qui saepè faciebant insultum super terram Russiae, & in illis maximè locis, per quos debebamus transire. At per praedictum seruientem eramus securi à Ruthenis, quorum etiam maxima pars occisa vel captiuata erat à Tartaris. Porrò in Danilone vsque ad mortem tunc infirmati fuimus. Nihilominus tamen in vehiculo per niuem & frigus magnum trahi nos fecimus. Cùm ergò Kiouiam peruenimus, habuimus de via nostra consili­um cum millenario ac caeteris ibidem nobilibus. Qui responderunt nobis, quòd si duceremus equos illos,Pabulum equo­r [...]m Tartaric. quos tunc habebamus, ad Tartaros, cùm essent magnae niues, morerentur omnes: quia nescirent herbam fodere sub niue, sicut equi faciunt Tartarorum, nec inueniri posset ali­quod pro eis ad manducandum, cùm Tartari nec stramina nec foenum habeant, nec pabulum. Itaque decreuimus eos illic dimittere cum duobus pueris, deputatis eorum cu [...]todiae. Ideo (que) nos oportuit millenario dare munera, vt ipsum haberemus propitium, ad dandum nobis equos subductitios & conductum. Secundo igitur die post festum Purificationis cepto itinere, veni­mus ad villam Canouae, que sub Tartaris erat immediatè. Cuius praesectus nobis dedit equos & conductum vsque ad aliam, in qua reperimus praefectum Micheam,Michea [...] [...]. omni malitia plenum. Qui tamen acceptis à nobis muneribus secundum velle suum, duxit nos vs (que) ad primam custo­diam Tartarorum.

Qualiter primô cum socijs suis receptus est à Tar­taris. Cap. 20.

CVm ergo in prima sexta seria post diem cinerum, Sole ad occasum tendente, hospitare­mur, Tartari super nos armati horribiliter irruerunt, quaerentes cuiusmodi homines esse­mus: cum (que) respondissemus, quòd Domini Papae nuncij essemus, quibusdam cibarijs à nobis ac­ceptis, continuó discesserunt. Porrò mane facto, cùm surgentes aliquantulum processissemus, maiores illorum, qui erant in custodia, nobis occurrerunt, interrogantes, cur ad eos veniremus? & quid negotij haberemus?Papae Christiano­rum pater & Do­minus. Quibus respondimus, Domini Papae nuncij sumus, qui Christia­norum pater est ac Dominus. Hic nos id circò tam ad Regem quàm ad Principes, omnes (que) Tartaros, mittit, quia placet ei, quòd omnes Christiani Tartarorū sint amici, & pacem habeant [Page 47] cum ipsis. Desiderat insuper, vt apud Deum in coelo sint magni,Legationis man­data. & idcircò monet eos tam per nos quàm per literas suas, vt efficiantur Christiam, fidem (que) recipiant Domini nostri Iesu Chri­sti, quia non possunt aliter saluari. Mandat praetereà, quòd miratur de tanta occisione hominū, & maximè Christianorum, ac potissimè Hungarorum, Montanorum, & Polonorum, qui sunt ei subiecti, facta per Tartaros, cùm in nullo lesissent, aut lae dere attentassent eos. Et quia Domi­nus Deus grauiter est super hoc offensus, monet eos, vt à talibus de caetero caueant, & de com­missis poe [...]itentiam agant. Super his etiam [...]ogar, vt ei rescribant, quid facere velint de caete­tero, & quae sit eorum intentio. Quibus auditis, & intellectis, dixe [...]unt Tartari,Cor [...]ensa. se velle equos nobis subductitios vs (que) ad Corrensam & ducatum praebere. Statim (que) munera petierunt, & à nobis acceperunt. Equis igitur acceptis, de quibus descenderant ipsi, cum eorum ducatu ad Corrensam arripuimus iter eundi. Ipsi tamen velociter equitantes, nuncium vnum praemise­runt ad praefatum Ducem cum his verbis, que dixeramus eisdem.D [...]x limitis occi­dentalis. Est autem Dux iste Dominus omnium, qui positi sunt in custodia contra omnes Occidentis populos, ne fortè subitò & im­prouisò irruant aliqui super illos. Et iste dicitur habere sexaginta millia hominum armatorum sub se.

Qualiter recepti sunt apud Corrensam. Cap. 21.

CVm ergò peruenissemus ad eius curiam, fecit nobis longè à se poni stationem,Mos salut [...]ndi Tartari [...]os [...]ro­ceres. & misit ad nos procuratores suos, vt quaererent à nobis, cum quo ei vellemus inclinare, id est, quae ei munera inclinando vellemus offerre. Quibus respondimus, quòd Dominus Papa non mittebat aliqua munera; quia non erat certus, quòd ad illos peruenire postemus, & insuper veneramus per loca valdè periculosa. Veruntamen in quantum de his, quae habeban [...]us ex gratia Dei & Domini Papae ad victum nostrum, sicut poterimus, honorabimus ipsum. Acceptis (que) muneribus duxerunt nos ad ordam siue tentorium ipsius, & instructi fuimus, vt ante ostium stationis ter cum sinistro genu inclinaremus, & caueremus attentè, ne pedem super limē ostij pone [...]emus. Et postquam intrauimus, oportuit nos coram Duce omnibus (que) maioribus, qui ad hoc erant voca­ti, dicere slexis genibus ea, quae dixeramus superiùs. Literas etiam Dom. Pape obtulimus: sed in­terpres, quem de Kyouia, dato pretio, duxeramus, non erat sufficiens ad interpretandū, nec ali­quis alius habebatur idoneus. Hinc equi nobis dati sunt, & tres Tartari, qui nos ducerent festi­nanter ad ducem Bathy.Ba [...]h [...] el [...]sque pote [...]ia. Ipse est apud eos potentior excepto Imperatore, cui tenentur pre cun­ctis principibus obedire. Ita (que) iter ar [...]ipuimus secunda feria post primā dominicam Quadregesimae. xl. & equi­tando, quantum equi trotare poterant, quoniam habebamus equos recentes serè ter aut qua­ter omni die, properabamus de mane vs (que) ad noctem, imò etiam de nocte saepissimè, nec tamen ante quartam feriam maioris hebdomadae potuimus ad ipsum peruenire. Ibamus autem per terram Comanorum,Comania. quae tota est plana, & flumina quatuor habet magna. Primum appellatur Veteribus [...] ­rysthenes. Neper, iuxta quod ex parte Russiae ambulabat Correnza & Montij, qui maior est illo ex alte­ra parte per campestria. Secundum appellatur Ta [...]u. Don, super quod ambulat quidam Princeps, habens in coniugio sororem Baty, qui vocatur Ti [...]bon. Tertium dicitur Rha. Volga, quod est mag­num valdè, super quod incedit Bathy. Quartum nominatur Rhymnus. Iacc, super quod duo millenarij vadunt, vnus ex parte fluminis vna, & alte [...] ex altera. Hi omnes in hyeme ad mare descendunt, & in aestate super ripam eo [...]undem fluminum ad montes ascendunt. Hoc est mare magnum,Pontus Euxinus. de quo brachium sancti Georgij exit, quod in Constantinopolin vadit. Haec autem flumina sunt piscibus valdè plena, maximè Volga, intrant (que) mare Graeciae, quod dicitur Magnum mare.Volga non in­trat. Su­per Nepre autem multis diebus iuimus per glaciem. Super littora quo (que) maris Graeciae satis pe­riculosè per glaciem iuimus in pluribus locis multis diebus. Congelantur enim circa littora vn­dae ad tres leucas inseriùs. Prius autem quàm ad Bathy perueniremus, duo ex nostris Tartaris praecesserunt, ad indicandum ei omnia verba, quae apud Corrensam dixeramus.

Qualiter recepti sunt apud Bathy magnum Principem. Cap. 22.

POrrò cùm in finibus terrae Comanorum ad Bathy perueniremus, benèpositi fuimus per v­nam leucam à stationibus eius. Cum (que) duci debuimus ad curiam ipsius, dictum fuit nobis,Ceremonia per [...]uos [...] transcundi. quòd inter duos ignes transire deberemus. Nos autem hoc nulla ratione facere voleba­mus. At illi dixerunt nobis: Ite securè, quia pro nulla causa volumus hoc facere, nisi tantùm, vt si vos aliquid malum cogitatis Domino nostro, vel portatis venenum, ignis auferat omne malum. Quibus respondimus: quod propter hoc, ne de tali re suspectos redderemus nos, transiremus. Cùm igitur ad Ordam peruenissemus, interrogatiá pocuratore ipsius Eldegay,Eldegay. cum quo inclinare vellemus? idem quod prius apud Corrensam respondimus, datis (que) muneribus & [Page 48] acceptis, audius euam itineris cau [...]s, introduxerunt nos in stationem Principis, prius facta inclinatione, & audita de limine non calcando, sicut prius, admonitione.Bathy audit le­ga [...]o [...]. Ingressi autem flexis genibus, verba nostra proposuimus, deinde literas obtulimus, & vt nobis darentur interpre­tes ad transferendum eas, rogauimus. Qui etiam in die Paras [...]eue dati fuerunt nobis, & eas in litera Ruthenica, Sar [...]acenica & in Tartarica diligenter cum ipsis transtulimus. Haec interpre­tatio Bathy praesentata [...]uit: quam & legit, & artentè notauit. Tandem ad nostram stationem reducti fuimus, sed nulla cibaria nobis dederunt, nisi semel aliquantulum millij in vna scutel­la, scilicet in prima nocte quando venimus. Is [...]e Bathy magnificè se gerit,Gerit se regi [...]ic [...]. habens ostiarios & omnes officiales ad modum Imperatoris, & sedet in eminenti loco velut in th [...]ono cum vna de vxoribus suis. Alij verò tam fratres sui & filij, quàm alij maiores inferiùs sedent in medio super bancum, & homines caeteri post eos in terra deorsum, sed viri à dextris, & foeminae à si­nistris. Tentoria quoque de panno lineo habet pulchra & magna satis, quae fuerunt Hungariae regis. Nec aliquis ad eius tentorium audet accedere praeter familiam, nisi vocatus, quantum­cunque sit potens & magnus, nisi fortè sciatur, quòd sit voluntas ipsius. Nos etiam dicta causa sedimus à sinistris: Sic etenim & omnes nuncij faciunt in eundo: sed in redeundo ab Impera­tore, semper ponebamur à dextris. In medio ponitur mensa [...]ius prope ostium stationis, super quam apponi [...]ur potus in aureis & argenteis vasis.Eiusdem bibendi ad Symphoniae cantum mos. Nec vnquam bibit Bathy, vel aliquis Tar­tarorum Princeps, maximè quando in publico sunt, nisi cantetur civel cytharizetur. Et cùm e­quitat, semper portatur solinum, vel tentoriolum super caput eius in hasta. Sic (que) faciunt cuncti maiores Principes Tartarorum,Authoritas. & etiam vxo [...]es eorum. Idem verò Bathy satis est hominibus suis benignus, valdè tamen ab eis timetur, & in pugna est crudelissimus, sagax est multum & a­stutissimus in bello: quia iam pugnauit tempore longo.

Qualiter recedentes à Bathy per terram Comanorum & Kangittarum transierunt. Cap. 23.

Legati iubentur ad Cuyne Impe­rat. pe [...]ge [...]e.IN die porrò Sabbathi sancti ad stationem fuimus vocati, & exiuit ad nos procurator Bathy praedictus, dic [...]ns ex parte ipsius, quòd ad Imperatorem Cuyne in terram ipsorum iremus, retentis quibusdam ex nostris sub hac specie, quòd vellent eos remittere ad Dominum Papam, quibus & literas dedimus de omnibus factis nostris, quas deferrent eidem. Sed cùm red [...]issent vs (que) ad Montij Ducem supradictum, ibi retenti fuerunt vsque ad reditum nostrum. Nos autem in die Pasche officio dicto, & facta comestione qualicun (que) cum duobus Tartaris, qui nobis apud Corrensam fuerant assignati, cum raultis lacrymis recessimus, nescientes vtrum ad mortem vel vitam pergeremus. Eramus tamen [...]ta infirmi corpore, quòd vix poteramus equitare. In tota si­quidem illa quadragesima fuerat cibus noster millium cum aqua & sale tantùm, & in alijs simi­liter diebus ieiuniorum. Nec habebamus aliquid ad bibendum preter niuem in caldario lique­factam. Ibamus autem per Comaniam equitando fortissimè, quoniam habebamus equos re­centes quinquies aut pluries in die, nisi quando per deserta ibamus, & tunc equos meliores at­que fortiores, qui possent continuum sustinere laborem, accipiebamus. Et hoc ab ineunte qua­dragesima vsque ad octo dies post Pascha.Comaniae de­scriptio. Haec terra Comania ab Aquilone immediatè post Russiam habet Morduynos, Byleros, id est, magnam Bulgariam, Bastarcos, id est, magnam Hungariam, post Bastarcos, Parositas & Samogetas. Post Samogetas, illos, qui dicuntur habe­re faciem caninam in Oceani lictoribus desertis.Oceanus septen­ [...]ionalis. A meridie habet Alanos, Circassos, Gazaros, Graeciam & Constantinopolin, ac terram [...]berorum, Cathos, Brutachios, qui dicuntur esse Iu­daei, caput radentes per to [...]ùm, terram quo (que) Cithorum atque Georgianorum & Armeniorum & Turcorum. Ab occidente autem Hungariam habet atque Russiam. Et est Comania terra maxima & longa. Cuius populos, scilicet Comanos, Tartari occiderunt, quidam tamen à fa­cie eorum fugerunt, & quidam in eorum seruitutem redacti sunt. Plurimi autem ex eis, qui fu­gerunt, ad ipsos redierunt.Te [...]a Kangitta­rum. Post haec intrauimus terram Kangittarum, quae magnam habet in plutimis locis penuriam aquarum, in qua etiam homines pauci morantur propter aquae defe­ctum. Vnde homines Ieroslai, Ducis Russiae,Ieroslaus, Dux Russiae. cùm ad ipsum in terram Tartarorum per rexerunt, plures eorum in illo deserto prae siti mortui sunt. In hac etiam terra & in Comania multa inue­nimus capita & ossa mortuorum hominum, super terram iacentia tanquam sterquilinium. Per hanc ita (que) terram iuimus ab octo d [...]ebus post Pascha ferè vsque ad Ascensionem Dominicam. Huius (que) habitatores Pagani erant, & [...]am ipsi quàm Comani non laborabant, sed tantùm de animalibus viuebant, ne [...] domos aedificabant, sed in tabernaculis habitabant. Istos etiam Tartari deleuerunt, & habitabant in terris eorum, illi (que) quiremanserunt, redacti sunt in ser­uitutem ipsorum.

Qualiter ad primam Imperatoris futuri curiam deuenerunt. Cap. 24.

POrrò de terra Kangittarum intrauimus terram Biserminorum,Terra Bisermino­rum. qui loquuntur lingua Co­manica, sed legem tenent Sarracenorum. In hac etiam terra inuenimus vrbes innumeras cum castris dirutas, villas (que)multas desertas. Huius Dominus dicebatur Altisoldanus,Altisoldanus. qui cum tota sua progenie à Tartaris est destructus. Habet autem haec terra montes maximos.Montes maxim [...]. Et à me­ridie quidem habet Hierusalem & Baldach, totam (que) Sarracenorum terram. Atque in finibus illis propinquis morantur duo fratres carnales, Tartarorum Duces, scilicet Burin & Cadan,Burin. Cadan. filij Thiaday, qui fuit filius Chingischam. Ab Aquilone verò terram habet nigrorum Ky­thaorum & Oceanum.Oceanus ab Aqu [...]lone. In illa verò moratur Syban, frater Bathy.Syban, frater Bathy. Per hanc iuimus à festo Ascensionis dominicae ferè vsque ad viij. dies ante festum sanct. Iohan. Baptistae. Deindein ingressi sumus terram nigrotum Kythaorum,Nigr [...] Cathayni. in qua Imperator aedificauit domum, vbi e [...]iam vocati fuimus ad bibendum. Et ille, qui erat ibidem ex parte imperatoris, fecit maiores ciuitatis, & eti­am duos filios eius, plaudere coram nobis. Hinc exeuntes, quoddam ma [...]e paruum inuenimus,Marè paruum. in cuius littore quidam existit mons paruus. In quo scilicet monte quoddam foramen esse dici­tur, vnde in hyeme tam maxime tempestates ventorum exeunt, quòd homines inde vix & cum magno periculo transire possunt. In aestate verò semper quidem ibi ventorum sonitus auditur, sed de foramine te [...]u [...]ter egreditur. Per huius maris littora plurimis diebus perreximus,Plurimis diebus. quod quidem licet non multum sit magnum, plures insulas habet,Plures insule. & illud in sinistris dimisi­mus. In terra verò illa habitat Ordu,Ordu. cap. 13. quem omnium Ducum Tartarorum antiquiorem dixi­mus, & est orda, siue curia patris ipsius, quam inhabitat, & regis vna de vxoribus eius. Consu­etudo enim est apud Tartaros, quòd principum & maiorum curiae non delentur, sed semper ordinantur aliquae mulieres, quae illas regant, eísque donariorum partes, sicut Dominis ea­rum dari solebant, dantur. Sic tandem ad primam Imperatoris curiam venimus,Prima curia Im­peratoris. in qua erat v­na de vxoribus ipsius.

Qualiter ad ipsum Cuyne, Imperatorem futurum peruenerunt. Cap [...] 25.

AT verò quia nondum Imperatorem videramus, noluerunt vocare nos, nec intromittere ad Ordam ipsius, sed nobis in tentorio nostro secundum morem Tartar orum valdè benè serui [...]i fecerunt, & vt quiesceremus, nos ibidem per vnam diem tenuerunt. Inde procedentes in vigilia sanctorum Petri & Pauli, terram Naymanorum intrauimus,Terra Nayma­norum. qui sunt Pagani. In ipsa ve­rò die Apostolorum ibidem cecidit magna nix, & habuimus magnum frigus. Haec quidem ter­ra mon [...]uosa & frigida est supra modum, ibi (que) de planicie reperitur modicum. Istae quoque duae nationes praedictae non laborabant, sed sicut & Tartari in tentorijs habitabant, quas & ipsi deleuerant. per hanc etiam multis diebus perreximus. Deinde terram Mongalorum intra­uimus, quos Tartaros appellamus.Tartaria. Per has itaque terras, vt credimus, tribus septimanis equi­tando fortiter iuimus, & in die Beatae Mariae Magdalenae ad Cuyne Imperatorem electum per­uenimus.Iulij 22. Ideò autem per omnem viam istam valdè festinauimus, quia praeceptum erat Tar­taris nostris,Acceleratum l [...] ­gatorum iter. vt citò nos deducerent ad curiam solennem, iam ex annis pluribus indictam, prop­teripsius Imperatoris electionem. Ideircò de mane surgentes, ibamus vsque ad noctem sine comestione, & saepius tam tardè veniebamus, quòd non comedebamus in sero, sed quod manducare debebamus in vespere, dabatur nobis in mane. Mutatis (que) frequentius equis, nullatenus parcebatur eis, sed equitabamus velociter ac sine intermissione, quantum pote­rant equi trotare.

Qualiter Cuyne Fratres Minores suscepit. Cap. 26.

CVm autem peruenimus ad Cuyne,Cuyne in legatos benignitas. fecit nobis dari tentorium & expensas, quales Tarta­ris dare solent, nobis tamen melius quàm alijs nuncijs faciebant. Ad ipsum autem vocati non fuimus, eo quòd nondum electus erat, nec adhuc de imperio se intromittebat. Interpre­tatio tamen literarum Domini Papae, ac verba etiam à nobis dicta, à praedicto Baty erant ei mandata. Cùm ergo stetissemus ibi per quinque vel sex dies, ad matrem suam nos transmisit, v­bi adunabatur curia solennis. Et cùm venissemus illuc, tam extensum erat tentorium magnum,Tentorium regium. de alba purpura praeparatum, erat (que) tam grande nostro iudicio, quòd plusquam duo millia ho­minum poterant esse sub illo. Et in circuitu factum erat ligneum tabulatum varijs imaginibus depictum. Illuc ergò perreximus cum Tartaris, nobis ad custodiam assignatis, ibi (que) conue [...]erant [Page 50] omnes duces, & vnusquis (que) cum hominibus suis equitabat in circuitu per planiciem & colles.Comitia. In prima die vestiti sunt omnes purpuris albis, in secunda verò rubeis. Et tunc venit Cuyne ad tentorium illud. Porrò tertia die fuerunt omnes in blaueis purpuris, & quarta in optimis Bal­dakinis. In illo autem tabulato iuxta tentorium erant duae maiores portae, per quarum vnam so­lus Imperator debebat intrare, & ad illam nulla erat custodia, quamuis esset aperta, quia pe­illam nullus aude bat ingredi vel exire: per aliam omnes, qui admittebantur, intrabant, & ad il­lam custodes cum gladijs & arcubus & sagittis erant. Ita (que) si quis tentorio propinquabat vltra terminos, qui positi erant, si capiebatur, verberabatur, si sugiebat, sagitta siue ferro sagittaba­tur. Multi (que) ibi erant, qui in fraenis, pectoralibus, sellis & huiusmodi, iudicio nostro, auri circi­ter viginti marcas habebant. Sic Duce sinfra tentorium colloquebantur, & de Imperatoris ele­ctione tractabant, vt à nobis creditur. Alius autem vniuersus populus longè extra tabulatum collocabatur, & ita ferè vsque ad meridiem morabantur. Tunc incipicbant lac iumentinum bi­bere, & vsque ad vesperas tantum bibebant, quod erat visu mirabile.Symposium procerum. Nos autem vocauerunt interius, & dederunt nobis cereuisiam: quia iumentinū lac non bib [...]bamus. Et hoc quidem no­bis pro magno fecerunt honore: sed tamen nos compellebant ad bibendum, quod nullatenus poteramus propter consuetudinem sustinere. Vnde ostendimus eis, hoc esse nobis graue, ideo­ (que) nos cessauerunt compellere. Foris autem erat Dux Ieroslaus de Susdal Russiae,Ieroslaus Dux Russiae. Legati diue [...] sa­rum nationum. plures (que) Du­ces Kythaorum & Solangorum. Duo quo (que) filij regis Georgiae, nuncius etiam Caliphi de Bal­dach, qui erat Soldanus, & plus quam decem alij Soldani Sarracenorum, vt credimus. Et sicut nobis à procuratoribus dicebatur, erant ibi nunciorum plus quàm quatuor millia, inter illos, qui tributa portabant, & illos, qui deferebant munera, & Soldanos ac Duces alios, qui ad traden­dum seipsos veniebant, & illos, pro quibus ipsi miserant, illos (que), qui terrarum praesecti e­rant. Hi omnes simul extra tabulatum ponebantur, eis (que) simul bibere praebebatur. Nobis autem & Duci Ierozlao ferè semper ab eis dabatur superior locus, quando cum eis eramus exterius.

Qualiter in imperium sublimatus fuit. Cap. 27.

Imperij Cuynae primitiae.ET quidem, si benè meminimus, ibidem per septimanas circiter quatuor [...]uimus. Credi­mus (que) quòd ibi fuit electio celebrata, non tamen ibidem fuit publicata. Propter hoc autem id maximè credebatur, quia semper, quando Cuyne tentorio exibat, eidem cantabatur, & cum virgis speciosis, in summitate lanam coccincam habentibus, inclinabatur, quod alteri Ducum nulli fiebat, quous (que) exterius morabatur. Hec autem statio siue Curia nominatur ab eis Syra orda.Syra orda. Hinc exeuntes, vnanimiter omnes equitauimus per tres aut quatuor leucas ad alium lo­cum, vbi erat in quadā pulchra planicie iuxta riuum inter montes aliud tentorium, quod apud ipsos appellatur Orda aurea,Aurea orda. praeparatū. Ibi enim Cuyne debeba [...] poni in sede in die Assumpti­onis Dominae nostrae. Sed propter grandinem nimiam, quae tunc, vt suprà dictum est, cecidit, res dilata fuit.Augus [...]i 15. Erat (que) tentorium in columnis positum, quae laminis aureis erant tectae, & clauis aureis cum alijs lignis sixae. Porrò de Balda kino erat tectum superius, sed alij erant panni exte­rius. Fuimus autem ibi vs (que) ad festum Beati Bartholomaei, in quo maxima multitudo conue­nit,Peeces solennes. & contra meridiem versis vultibus stetit. Et quidam adiactum lapidis longè à caeteris erant, semper (que) orationes faciendo, ac genua flectendo, contra meridiem longius, & longius proce­debant. Nos autem vtrum incantationes facerent, aut genua Deo vel alteri flecterent, nesci­entes, nolebamus facere genu flexiones. Cum (que) diu ita fecissent, ad tentorium reuersi sunt, & Cuyne in sede imperiali posuerunt, Duces (que) coram eo genua flexerunt. Post hoc idem fecit v­niuersus populus, exceptis nobis, qui eis subditi non eramus.

De aetate ac moribus ac sigillo ipsius. Cap. 28.

Cuynae aetas & morer.HIc autem Imperator quando sublimatus est in regnum, videbatur esse circiter xl. vel xlv. annorum. Mediocris erat statutae, prudens valde, nimis astutus multum (que) seriolus, & gra­uis in moribus. Nec vnquam videbat eum homo de facili ridere, vel aliquam leuitatem face­re, sicut dicebant Christiani, qui cum ipso morabantur continuè. Dicebant etiam nobis asse­rendo firmiter Christiani, qui erant de familia eius, quòd deberet fieri Christianus. Cuius signum erat, quod ipse Clericos Christianos tenebat,Studium Christi­anismi. & expensas eis dabat. Habebat etiam sem­per capellam Christianorum ante maius tentorium suum, vbi cantant Clerici publicè & apertè, ac pulsant ad horas, vt ceteri Christiani secundùm mores Grecorum, quantacun (que) sit ibi multi­tudo Tartarorum, veletiam aliorum hominum. Hoc tamen non faciunt alij Duces ipsorum. Est aūtem mos Imperatorisipsius,Maiestas. vt nunquam ore proprio loquatur cum extraneo, quan­tumcun (que) [Page 51] magnus sit, sed audit & respondet perinterpositam personam, & quandocun (que) ne­gotium proponunt, vel Imperatoris responsionem audiunt illi, qui sub eo sunt, quantum cun­ (que) sint magni, slexis genibus vs (que) ad finem verborum persistunt. Nec alicui de consuetudine super aliquo negotio loqui licitum est, postquam ab Imperatore definitum est. Habet autem Impera [...]or praedictus procuratorem & protonotarios, at (que) scriptores, omnes (que) officiales in ne­gotijs tam publicis quàm priuatis, exceptis Aduocatis.Potestas exlex †. Nam sine litium vel iudiciorum strepitu secundum arbitrium Imperatoris omnia fiunt. Alij quoqu [...] Principes Tartarorum de his, quae ad illos pertinent, idem faciunt. Hoc autem nouerint vniuersi, quia nobis tunc existentibus in solenni curia, iam ex pluribus annis indicta, idem Cuyne Imperator, de nouo electus, cum omnibus suis Principibus erexit vexillum contra Ecclesiam Dei, ac Romanum Imperium,Bellum in Chri­stianós cogita­tum. & contra omnia regna Christianorum & populos Occidentis, nisi fortasse, quod absit, facerent ea, quae mandabat Domino Papae, atque potentibus, & omnibus Christianorum populis, vide­licet vt ipsi subdantur eis. Nam excepta Christianitate, nulla est terra in orbe, quam timeant, & idcirco contra nos ad pugnam se praeparant. Huius siquidem Imperatoris pater, scilicet Oc­coday, necatus fuerat veneno, & ob hoc à bellis quieuerant tempore pauco. Intencio autem eorum, vt dictum est suprà, est, sibi totum subijcere mundum, sicut à Chingischam habent mandatum. Vnde & ipse Imperator in literis suisita scribis: Dei fortitudo, omnium h [...]minum Imperator. In superscriptione quoque sigilli eius est hoc: Deus in coelo, & Cuyne Cham su­per terram, Dei fortitudo: omnium hominum Imperatoris sigillum.

† Contrà Xenophon: [...]. Et praeclarè Aristoteles Politic. lib. 3. cap. 12. in hanc senten­tiam: Qui legem praesse vult, is velle videtur Deū ac leges imperare: qui autem vult hominem, is etiam belluam adiungit, cùm praesertim tale quid sit cupiditas & iracundia: & magistratus & optimus quis (que) à recta vsa detorqueantur &c. Adde quae è Chrysipppo adducuntur ff. li. 1. tit. 3. l. 2.

De admissione Fratrum & nunciorum ad Impera­torem. Cap. 29.

INloco illo, vbi positus est Imperator in throno, vocati fuimus coram ipso.Cuyne audit le­garon. Cum (que) Chin­gay protonotarius eius nomina nostra scripsisset, illorū (que) à quibus missi eramus, & Ducis So­langorum & aliorum, clamauit alta voce, recitans illa coram Imperatore ac Ducum vniuersi­tate. Quo facto, flexit vnusquis (que) nostrum quater genu sinistrum, & monuerunt, ne tangere­mus limen deorsum. Cum (que) pro cultellis nos diligentissimè scrutati fuissent, & nullatenus in­uenissent, intrauimus ostium ab Orientali parte: quia nullus ab Occidente, nisi solus imperator, audet intrare. Similiter & Dux ab illa parte ingreditur solus, siest tentorium eius. Minores au­tem non multum curant de talibus. Tunc ergò primum in eius prae [...]entia suam intrauimus sta­tionem, videlicet postquam factus est Imperator ibidem. Omnes quoque nuncij tunc ab eo re­cepti sunt, sed paucissimi tentorium eius intrauerunt. Ibi verò tanta donaria ab ipsis nuncijs fu­erunt ei praesentata,Munera eidem oblata. quòd quasi videbantur infinita, videlicet in samitis ac purpureis & balda­kinis ac cingul [...]s sericis cum auro praeparatis, pellibus etiam nobilibus, ceteris (que) muneribus. Quoddam etiam Solinum, siue tentoriolum, quod super caput Imperatoris portatur, fuit eidem praesentatum, quod totum erat cum gemmis praeparatum. Quidam verò praefectus vnius pro­uinciae adduxit ei Camelos multos cum Baldakinis tectos. Similiter sellae positae cum instru­mentis quibusdam erant, in quibus homines interius sedere valebant. Equos etiam multos & mulos adducebant eidem phaleratos & armatos, quosdam quidem de corio, & quosdam de [...]erro. Nos etiam requisiti fuimus, an ei munera dare vellemus: sed iam facultas non erat, quo­niam omnia ferè nostra consumpseramus.Currus [...]. Ibidem longè à stationibus super montem erant positi curtus plusquam quingenti, qui omnes auro & argento ac sericis vestibus erant pleni. Cuncti (que) inter imperatorem & Duces diuisi fuerunt, singuli (que) Duces inter homines suos par­tes suas, vt eis placuit, diuiserunt.

De loco diuisionis Imperatoris & matris suae, & morte Ieroslai, Ducis Russiae.

INde recedentes, venimus ad alium locum, vbi tentorium mirabile, totum de purpura rufa,Tentorium pu [...] ­pureum. quod Kitay dederant, erat positum. Illic interius introducti suimus, & semper cùm intraba­mus nobis dabatur ad bibendum cereuisia vel vinum, & etiam carnes coctae, si volebamus, ad edendum. Erátque solariolum vuum, de tabulis altè praeparatum,Solivm ebur­num. vbi thronus Imperato­ris erat positus, exebore mirabiliter sculptus, in quo etiam erat aurum, & lapides preciosi, si benè meminimus, & illuc ascendebatur per gradus. Erátque rotundum superius. Banci [Page 52] vero erant positi in circuitu sedis, vbi dominae sedebant à parte sinistra in scamnis, à dextris au­tem nemo sedebat superius, sed Duces sedebant in Bancis inferius, & hoc in medio. Alij verò [...]edebant post cos, & quolibet die veniebat dominarum maxima multitudo. Ista verò tria ten­toria, de quibus suprà diximus, erant valdè magna, alia (que) habebant vxores eius de filtro albo satis magna & pulchra. Ibidem Imperator diuisus est à matre fua, quae iuit in vnam terrae par­tem, & Imperator in aliam ad iudicia facienda. Capta siquidem erat amica Imperatoris istius, quae veneno interfecerat patrem eius, eo tempore, quo exercitus eorum in Hungaria fuit. Prop­ter quod etiam exercitus eorum,Nex Occoday vin [...]icata. Ieroslaus D [...]x [...]u [...]i [...]. qui erat in partibus illis, recessir. De qua cum alijs pluribus factum fuit iudicium, & occisi fuerunt. Eodem tempore mortuus fuit Ierozlaus. Dux magnus Soldal, quae est quaedam Russiae pars. Vocatus enim ad matrem Imperatoris quasi pro honore, vt manducaret ac biberet de manu ipsius, in continenti ad hospitium est reuersus, infirmatus (que) mortuus est post septem dies, totúm que corpus eius miro modo glaucum effectum est, di­cebatur (que) ab omnibus, quod ibidem, vt terram eius liberè ac plenariè possiderent, fuisset impotionatus.

Qualiter tandem Fratres ad Imperatorem accedentes, literas dederunt & acceperunt. Cap. 31.

Cuvne cum lega­tis dissimulanter agit.DEni (que) Tartari nostri nos ad Imperatorem duxerunt: qui cùm audisset per illos, nos ad e­um venisse, iussit nos ad matrem redire. Volebat enim secundo die, sicut superi [...]s dictum est, contra totam Occidentis terram vexillum erigere, quod nos volebat ignorare. Itaque reuer­ [...]i stetimus paucis diebus, & iterum ad ipsum reuersi sumus. Cum quo benè per mensem fui­mus in tanta fame ac si [...]i, quòd vix viuere poteramus. Nam expensae, quae nobis pro diebus qua­tuor dabantur, vix vni sufficiebant. Nec inuenire poteramus aliquid ad emendum, quia fo­rum erat nimis remotum.Cofmas Russus. Sed Dominus nobis quendam Ruthenum, nomine Cosmam, auri­fabrum praeparauit, qui satis dilectus Imperatori, nos in aliquo sustentauit. Et hic nobis o­stendit thronum Imperatoris, quem ipse fecerat, antequam poneretur in sede, & sigillum eius­dem,Chingay inter­nuncius. quod etiam fabricauerat ipse. Post hoc Imperator pro nobis misit, nobis (que) per Chingay protonotarium suum dici fecit, vt verba nostra & negotia scriberemus, ei (que) porrigeremus. Quod & fecimus. Post plures dies nos iterum vocari fecit, & vtrum essent apud Dominum Pa­pam, qui Ruthenorum vel Sarracenorum, aut etiam Tartarorum literam intelligerent, inter­roganit. Cui respondimus, quòd nullam istarum literarum habebamus. Sarraceni tamen erant in terra, sed remoti erant à Domino Papa. Diximus tamen, quia nobis expedire videbatur,Prudens de lite­ [...]is consilium. quòd in Tartarico scriberent, & nobis interpretarentur, nos autem in litera nostra diligenter scriberemus, & tam literam quàm interpretationem ad Dominum Papam de ferremus. Tunc à nobis recesserunt, & ad Imperatorem iuerunt. Porrò à die Beati Martini fuimus vocati. Tunc Kadae, totius imperij procurator, & Chingay & Bala, plures (que) scriptores ad nos venerunt, no­bis (que) literam de verbo ad verbum interpretati fuerunt. Et cùm in Latina litera scripsissemus, faciebant sibi per singulas orationes interpretari, volentes scire, si nos in aliquo verbo errare­mus. Cùm igitur ambae literae fuissent scriptae, fecerunt nos semel ac secundo legere, ne fortè minus aliquid haberemus. Dixerunt enim nobis, videte, quòd omnia benè intelligatis, quia non expediret, quòd non omnia benè intelligeretis. Literas etiam in Sarracenico scripserunt, vt aliquis in partibus nostris inueniri posset, qui eas, si opus esset, legere [...].

Qualiter licentiati fuerunt. Cap. 32.

VT autem nobis Tartari nostri dixerunt, proposuit Imperator nuncios suos nobiscum mit­tere. Volebat tamen, vt credimus, quod nos id ab eo peteremus. Sed cùm vnus de Tarta­ris nostris, qui senior erat, nos ad hoc petendum hortaretur, nobis quidem, vt venirent, nequa­quam bonum videbatur. Ideo (que) respondimus ei, quòd non erat nostrum petere,Legati abhorrent a Tartarorum ad Christianos lega­tione. sed si sponte ipse Imperator mitteret eos, libenter eos securè conduceremus, Domino adiuuante. Nobis au­tem ob plures causas vt venirent, non videbatur expedire. Prima quidem fuit, quia timuimus, ne visis dissentionibus aut guerris, quae fiunt inter nos, magis animarentur ad veniendum con­tra nos. Secunda fuit, timebamus eos exploratores terrae fieri. Tertia verò, quia timebamus e­os interfici. Gentes enim nostrae arrogantes sunt & superbae. Vnde quando seruientes, qui ftant nobiscum, ex rogatu Cardinalis, legati scilicet Alemanniae, in habitu Tartarico ibant ad ip­sum, in via ferè lapidati sunt à Teutonicis, & coacti sunt deponere habitum illum. Consuetu­do autem est Tartarorum, vt cum illis, qui nuncios eorum occiderint, nunquam faciant pacem, nisi sumant de ipsis vltionem. Quarta etiā causa fuit, quia timebamus ne nobis aufen entur vi. [Page 53] Quinta verò causa erat, quia de aduentu eorum nulla foret vtilitas, cum nullum haberent aliud mandatum vel potestatem, nisi quòd literas Imperatoris ad Dominum Papam & ad Principes deferrent, quas videlicet literas ipsi nos habebamus, & malum ex eorum aduen [...]u posse con­tingere credebamus. Ita (que) tertia die post hoc, scilicet in festo beati Briccij nobis dederunt li­centiam & literam,Nouemb. 13. Honorantur cō ­meatu & lauti [...]. Imperatoris sigillo munitam, mittentes nos ad ipsius Imperatoris matrem, que vnicui (que) nostrum de dit pelliceum vnum de pellibus vulpinis, quod habebat pilos de fo­ris, & purpuram vnam. De quibus Tartari nostri furati sunt ex vnaqua (que) vnum passum. De illa quo (que) quae dabatur seruienti, meliorem medietatem sunt furati. Quod nos quidem non igno­rauimus, sed inde verba mouere noluimus.

Qualiter ab illo itinere redierunt. Cap. 33.

TVnc iter ad reuertendum arripuimus, ac per totam hyemem venimus, iacentes in deser­tis saepiùs in niue, nisi quantum poteramus nobis cum pede locum facere.Difficilis legato­rum reditus. Ibi quippe non erantarbores, sed planus campus. Et saepe manè nos inueniebamus totos niue, quam ventus pellebat, coopertos. Sic venientes vs (que) ad Ascensionem Domini peruenimus ad Bathy.Bathy. A quo cùm inquireremus, quid responderet Domino Papae, dixit se nolle aliud, nisi quod Imperator diligenter scripserat, demandare. Datis (que) nobis de conductu literis, ab eo recessimus, & sabba­tho infra octauas Pentecoste vs (que) ad Montij peruenimus, vbi erant socij nostri, ac seruientes, qui fuerant retenti, quos ad nos fecimus reduci. Hinc vs (que) Corrensam peruenimus,Corrensa. cui iterum à nobis donaria petenti non dedimus, quia non habebamus. Dedit (que) nobis duos Comanos, qui erant ex Tartarorum plebe, vsque ad Kiouiam Russiae. Tartarus tamen noster non dimisit nos, donec exi [...]emus vltimam Tartarorum custodiam. Isti verò alij, qui nobis à Corrensa dati sunt, in sex diebus ab vltima custodia vsabque; ad Kiouiam nos duxerunt. Venimus autem illuc an­te festum Beati Iohannis Baptiste xv. diebus. Porrò Kiouienses aduentum nostrum percipien­tes,Iunij [...]. Gratulationes re­ducibus factae. Basilius & D [...]ni [...]l Principes. occurrerunt nobis omnes laetanter. Congratulabantur enim nobis, tanquam à morte sus­citatis. Sic fecerunt nobis per totam Russiam, Poloniam & Bohemiam. Daniel & Wasilico tra­ter eius festum nobis magnum fecerunt, & nos contra voluntatem nostram bene per octo dies tenucrunt. Medio (que) tempore inter se & cum Episcopis, caeteris (que) probis viris, super his, quaelo­cuti sueramus eisdem, in processu nostro ad Tartaros consilium habentes, responderunt nobis communiter, dicentes: quòd Dominum Papam habere vellent in specialem Dominum,Russi agnoscent primatum Papae. & in patrem, sanctam quo (que) Romanam Ecclesiam in dominam & magistram, confirmantes etiam omnia, quae priùs de hac materia per Abbatem suum transmiserant. Et super hoc etiam nobis­cum ad Dominum Papam nuncios suos & literas transmiserunt.

The voyage of Iohannes de Plano Carpini vnto the Northeast parts of the world, in the yeere of our Lord, 1246.

Of the first sending of certaine Friers Predicants and Minorites vnto the Tartars, taken out of the 32. Booke of Vincentius Belaucensis his Speculum Historiale: beginning at the second Chapter.

ABout this time also. Pope Innocentius the fourth sent Frier Ascelline be­ing o [...]e of the order of the Praedicants, Ascellinu [...]. together with three other Friers (of the same authoritie whereunto they were called) consorted with him out of diuers Couens of their order, with letters Apostolicall vnto the Tartars campe: wherein hee exhorted them to giue ouer their bloudie slaughter of mankinde, and to receiue the Christian faith. And I, in verie deede, re­ceiued the relations concerning the deedes of the Tartars onelie, (which, according to the congruence of times, I have aboue inserted into this my woorke) from a Fri­er Minorite, called Simon de Sanct. Quintin, who lately returned from the same voyage.Simon Quinct­nianus. Iohn de plano Carpini. And at that verie time also, there was a certaine other Frier Minorite, namely Frier Iohn de Plano Carpini, sent with certaine associates vnto the Tartars, who likewise (as himselfe witnes­seth) abode and conuersed with them a yeere and three moneths at the least. For both he & one Frier Benedict a Polonian being of the same order,Benedictus Polonian. and a partaker of all his miserie and tribulation, re­ceiued straight commaundement from the Pope, that both of them shoulde diligently searche out all things that concerned the state of the Tartars. And therefore this Frier Iohn hath writ­ten a little Historie (which is come to our hands) such things, as with his owne eyes hee sawe [Page 54] among the Tartars, or which he heard from diuers Christians worthy of credit, remaining there in captiuitie. Out of which historie I thought good by way of conclusion, to insert somewhat for the supply of those things which are wanting in the said Frier Simon.

Of the situation and qualitie of the Tartars land, By Iohannes de Plano Carpini. Chap. 3.

A description of Tartaria.THere is towards the East a land which is called Mongal or Tartaria, lying in that part of the worlde which is thought to be most North Easterly. On the East part it hath the countrey of Kythay and of the people called Solangi: on the South part the countrey of the Saracens: on the South east the land of the Huini: and on the West the prouince of Na [...]mani: but on the North side it is inuironed with the Ocean Sea.The North Ocean. In some part thereof it is full of mountaines, and in o­ther places plaine and smoothe grounde, but euerie where sandie and barren, neither is the hundreth part thereof fruitefull. For it cannot beare fruite vnlesse it be moistened with riuer wa­ters, which bee verie rare in that countrey. Wherevpon they haue neither villages, nor cities a­mong them, except one which is called Cracurim, and is said to be a proper towne. We our selues sawe not this towne, but were almost within halfe a dayes iourney thereof, when we remained at Syra Orda, Syra Orda. which is the great court of their Emperour. And albeit the foresaid lande is otherwise vnfruitfull, yet is it very commodious for the bringing vp of cattell. In certaine places thereof are some small store of trees growing, but otherwise it is altogether destitute of woods. Therefore the Emperour, and his noble men and all other warme themselues, and dresse their meate with fires made of the doung of oxen, and horses. The ayre also in that countrey is verie intempe­rate.The intempe­rature of the aire. For in the midst of Sommer there be great thunders and lightnings, by the which many men are slaine, and at the same time there falleth great abundance of snowe. There bee also such mightie tempestes of colde wi [...]des, that sometimes men are not able to sitte on the horse­backe. Whereupon, being neere vnto the Orda (for by this name they call the habitatious of their Emperours and noble men)What Orda sig­nifieth. in regarde of the great winde we were constrained to lye greue­ling on the earth, and could not see by reason of the dust. There is neuer any raine in Winter, but onely in Sommer, albeit in so little quantitie, that sometimes it scarcely sufficeth to allay the dust, or to moysten the rootes of the grasse. There is often times great store of haile also. Insomuch that when the Emperour elect was to be placed in his Emperiall throne (myselfe being then pre­sent) there fell such abundance of haile, that, vpon the sudden melting thereof, more then 160. persons were drowned in the same place: there were manie tentes and other thinges also caried away. Likewise, in the Sommer season there is on the sudden extreame heate, and suddenly againe intollerable colde.

Of their forme, habite, and maner of liuing. Chap. 4.

The shape of the Tartars.THe Mongals or Tartars, in outward shape, are vnlike to all other people. For they are broa­der betweene the eyes, and the balles of their cheekes, then men of other nations bee. They haue flat and small noses, litle eyes, and eye liddes standing streight vpright, they are sha­uen on the crownes like priests. They weare their haire somewhat longer about their eares, then vpon their foreheads: but behinde they let it growe long like womans haire, whereof they braide two lockes binding eche of them behind either eare. They haue short feet also. The garments,Their habite. as well of their men, as of their women are all of one fashion. They vse neither cloakes, hattes, nor cappes. But they weare Iackets framed after a strange manner, of buckeram, skarlet, or Baldakines. Their shoubes or gownes are hayrie on the outside, and open behinde,Like vnto Frobishers men. with tailes hanging downe to their hammes. They vse not to washe their garments, neither will in any wise suffer them to bee washed, especially in the time of thunder. Their habitations bee rounde and cunningly made with wickers and staues in manner of a tent.Their taber­nacles. But in the middest of the toppes thereof, they haue a window open to conuey the light in and the smoake out. For their fire is alwayes in the middest. Their walles bee couered with felt. Their doores are made of felte also. Some of these Tabernacles may quickely be taken asunder, and set together againe, and are caried vpon beastes backes. Other some cannot be taken infunder, but are stowed vpon carts. And whithersoeuer they goe, be it either to warre, or to any other place, they transport their tabernacles with them. They are very rich in cattel, as in camels, oxen, sheep, and goats.Their cattell. And I thinke they haue more horses and mares then all the world besides. But they haue no kine nor o­ther beasts. Their Emperors, Dukes, & other of their nobles doe abound with silk, gold, siluer, and precious stones. Their victuals are al things that may be eaten: for we saw some of them eat lice.Their victuals. [Page 55] They drinke milke in great quantitie, but especially mares milke, if they haue it: They seeth Mill also in water, making it so thinne, that they may drinke thereof. Euery one of them drinkes off a cupfull or two in a morning, and sometime they eate nought else all the day long. But in the euening each man hath a little flesh giuen him to eate, and they drinke the broath thereof. Howbeit in summer time, when they haue mares milke enough, they seldome eate flesh, vnles perhaps it be giuen them, or they take some beast or bird in hunting.

Of their manners both good and bad. Chap. 5.

THeir manners are partly prayse-worthie, and partly detestable: For they are more obedient vnto their lords and masters,Their obediēce then any other either clergie or laie-people in the whole world. For they doe highly reuerence them, and will deceiue them, neither in wordes nor deedes. They seldome or neuer fall out among themselues, and, as for fightings or brawlings, wounds or man­slaughters, they neuer happen among them. There are neither theeues nor robbers of great ri­ches to be found,Their absti­nence. and therefore the tabernacles and cartes of them that haue any treasures are not strengthened with lockes or barres. If any beast goe astray, the finder thereof either lets it goe, or driueth it to them that are put in office for the same purpose, at whose handes the owner of the said beast demaundeth it, and without any difficultie receiueth it againe. One of them honoureth another exceedingly,Their courte­sie. and bestoweth banquets very familiarly and liberallly, notwithstanding that good victuals are daintie and scarce among them. They are also very hardie, and when they haue fasted a day or two without any maner of sustenance, they sing and are merry as if they had eaten their bellies full. In riding, they endure much cold and and extreme heat. There be, in a maner, no contentions among them, and although they vse commonly to be drunken, yet doe they not qua­rell in their drunkennes. Noe one of them despiseth another but helpeth and furthereth him, as much as conueniently he can. Their women are chaste,Their chastity. neither is there so much as a word vttered concerning their dishonestie. Some of them will notwithstanding speake filthy and immodest words. But towards other people, the said Tartars be most insolent,Their insoleri­tie against strangers. and they scorne and set nought by all other noble and and ignoble persons whatsoeuer. For we saw in the Emperours court the great duke of Russia, the kings sonne of Georgia, and many great Soldanes receiuing no due ho­nour and estimation among them. So that euen the very Tartars assigned to giue attendance vn­to them, were they neuer so base, would alwaies goe before them, and take the vpper hand of them, yea, and sometimes would constraine them to sit behinde their backes. Moreouer they are angrie and of a disdainefull nature vnto other people, and beyond all measure deceitfull, and treacherous towards them. They speake fayre in the beginning, but in conclusion, they sting like scorpions. For craftie they are, and full of falshood, circumuenting all men whom they are able, by their sleights. Whatsoeuer mischiefe they entend to practise against a man, they keepe it wonderfully secrete, so that he may by no meanes prouide for himselfe, nor find a remedie against their conspira­cies. They are vnmanerly also and vncleanly in taking their meat and their drinke, and in other actions. Drunkennes is honourable among them, and when any of them hath taken more drinke then his stomacke can well beare, hee casteth it vp and falles to drinking againe. They are most intollerable exacters, most couetous possessours, and most nigardly giuers. The slaughter of other people is accompted a matter of nothing with them.

Of their lawes and customes. Chap 6.

MOreouer, they haue this law or custome, that whatsoeuer man or woman be manifestly ta­ken in adultery,Punishments of adultery. they are punished with death. A virgine likewise that hath committed forni­cation, they stay together with her mate. Whosoeuer be taken in robberie or theft,Of theft. is put to death without all pitie. Also, if any man disclose their secrets, especially in time of warre,Of secretes disclosed. he receiueth an hundreth blowes on the backe with a bastinado, layd on by a tall fellow. In like sort when any inferiours offend inought, they finde no fauour at their superiours handes, but are punished with grieuous stripes. They are ioyned in matrimony to all in generall, yea,Lawes of ma­trimonie. euen to their neare kins­folkes except their mother, daughter and sister by the mothers side. For they vse to marrie their sister by the fathers side onely, and also the wife of their father after his decease. The yonger bro­ther also, or some other of his kindred, is bound to marry the wife of his elder brother deceased.Andreas duke of Russia. For, at the time of our aboad in the countrey, a certaine duke of Russia named Andreas, was accu­sed before duke Baty for conueying the Tartars horses out of the land, and for selling them to o­thers: and although it could not be prooued, yet was he put to death. His yonger brother and the wife of the party deceased hearing this, came & made their supplication vnto the forenamed duke, [Page 56] that the dukedome of Russia might not be taken from them. But he commanded the youth to mar­rie his deceased brothers wife, and the woman also to take him vnto her husband, according to the custome of the Tartars. She answered, that she had rather die, then so haynously transgresse the law. Howbeit, hee deliuered her vnto him, although they both refused as much as they could. Wherefore carying them to bed, they constrained the youth, lamenting and weeping, to lie downe and commit incest with his brothers wife. To be short, after the death of their husbands, the Tar­tars wiues vse very seldome to marrie the second time, vnlesse perhaps some man takes his bro­thers wife or his stepmother in mariage. They make no difference betweene the sonne of their wife and of their concubine, but the father giues what he pleaseth vnto each one: For of late the king of Georgia hauing two sonnes, one lawfully begotten called Melich; but the other Dauid, Melich & Dauid two brothers. borne in adulterie, at his death left part of his lande vnto his base sonne. Hereupon Melich (vn­to whome the kingdome fell by right of his mother, because it was gouerned before time by wo­men) went vnto the Emperour of the Tartars, Dauid also hauing taken his iourney vnto him. Nowe both of them comming to the court and proffering large giftes, the sonne of the harlot made suite, that he might haue iustice, according to the custome of the Tartars. Well, sentence passed a­gainst Melich, that Dauid being his elder brother, should haue superioritie ouer him, and should quietly and peaceably possesse the portion of land granted vnto him by his father. Whensoeuer a Tartar hath many wiues, each one of them hath her family and dwelling place by her selfe. And sometime the Tartar eateth, drinketh and lieth with one, and sometime with another. One is accompted chiefe among the rest, with whom hee is oftener conuersant, then with the other. And notwithstanding (as it hath bin said) they are many, yet do they seldome fal out among themselues.

Of their superstitious traditions. Chap. 7.

Ridiculous traditions.BUt by reason of certain traditions, which either they or their predecessors haue deuised, they ac­compt some things indifferent to be faults. One is to thrust a knife into the fire, or any way to touch the fire with a knife, or with their knife to take flesh out of the cauldrō, or to hewe with an hat­chet neare vnto the fire. For they think by that means to take away the head or force from the fire. Another is to leane vpon the whip, wherewith they beate their horses: for they ride not with spurs. Also, to touch arrowes with a whip, to take or kill yong birds, to strike an horse with ye raine of their bridle, and to breake one bone against another. Also, to powre out milke, meate, or any kinde of drinke vpon the ground, or to make water within their tabernacle: which whosoeuer doth willing­ly, he is slaine, but otherwise he must pay a great summe of money to the inchanter to be purified. Who likewise must cause the tabernacle with all things therein, to passe betweene two fiers. Be­fore it be on this wise purified, no man dare once enter into it, nor conueigh any thing thereout. Be­sides, if any man hath a morsell giuen him, which he is not able to swallow, and for that cause ca­steth it out of his mouth, there is an hole made vnder his tabernacle, by which hee is drawen forth and slaine without all compassion. Likewise, whosoeuer [...]reads vpon the threshold of any of their dukes tabernacles, he is put to death. Many other things there be, like vnto these, which they take for heinous offences. But to slay men, to inuade the dominions of other people, and to rifle thei [...] goods, to transgresse the commaundements and prohibitions of God, are with them no offences at all. They know nothing concerning eternall life, and euerlasting damnation, and yet they thinke, that after death they shall liue in another world, that they shall multiply their cattell, that they shal eate and drinke and doe other things which liuing men performe here vpon earth. At a new moone, or a full moone, they begin all enterprises that they take in hand, and they call the moone the Great Emperour, The Tartars worship the moone. and worship it vpon their knees. All men that abide in their tabernacles must be pu­rified with fire: Which purification is on this wise, They kindle two fires, and pitch two Iaue­lines into the ground neere vnto the said fires, binding a corde to the tops of the Iauelines. And a­bout the corde they tye certaine iagges of buckram,Their custome of purifying. vnder which corde, and betweene which fires, men, beastes, and tabernacles do passe, There stand two women also, one on the right side, and an­other on the left casting water, and repeating certaine charmes. If any man be slaine by lightning, all that dwell in the same tabernacle with him must passe by fire in maner aforesaid. For their ta­bernacles, beds, and cartes, their feltes and garments, and whatsoeuer such things they haue, are touched by no man, yea, and are abandoned by all men as things vncleane. And to bee short, they thinke that all things are to be purged by fire. Therefore, when any ambassadours, princes, or o­ther personages whatsoeuer come vnto them, they and their giftes must passe betweene two fires to be purified, lest peraduenture they haue practised some witchcraft, or haue brought some poyson or other mischiefe with them.

Of the beginning of their empire or gouern­ment. Chap. 7.

THe East countrie, whereof wee haue entreated, which is called Mongal, is rep [...]rted to haue had of olde time foure sortes of people.The p [...]ople of Tartar [...]. One of their companions was called Yeka Mongal, that is the great Mongals. The second company was called Sumongal, that is, the Water-Mon­gals, who called themselues Tartars of a certaine riuer running through their countrey named Tartar. The third was called Merkat, and the fourth Metrit. All these people has one and the same person, attire of body and language, albeit they were diuided by princes and prouinces. In the prouince of Yeka Mongal, there was a certaine man called Chingis. The original & the e [...]ploi [...]s of Chingis. This man became a mighty hunter. For he learned to steale men, & to take them for a pray. He ranged into other coun­tries taking as many captiues as he could, and ioining them vnto himselfe. Also hee allured the men of his owne countrey vnto him, who followed him as their captaine and ringleader to doe mischiefe. Then began he to make warre vpon the Sumongals or Tartars, and slewe their cap­taine, and after many conflicts, subdued them vnto himselfe, and brought them all into bondage. Afterward he vsed their helpe to fight against the Merkats, dwelling by the Tartars, whom also hee vanquished in battell. Proceeding from thence, he fought against the Metrites, and conquered them also. The Naimani hearing that Chingis was thus exalted,The Naimani. greatly disdeined thereat. For they had a mighty & puissant Emperour, vnto whom all the foresaid nations payed tribute. Whose sonnes, when he was dead, succeeded him in his Empire. Howbeit, being young and foolish, they knew not howe to gouerne the people, but were diuided, and fell at variance among themselues. Now Chingis is being exalted, as is aforesaid, they neuerthelesse inuaded the forenamed countries,The discord of brethren. put the inhabitants to the sword, and carried away their goods for a pray. Which Chingis ha­uing intelligence of, gathered all his subiects together. The Naimani also, and the people called Karakitay assembled and banded themselues at a certaine straight valley, where, after a battell foughten they were vanquished by the Mongals. And being thus vanquished, they were, the grea­ter part of them, slaine; and others, which could not escape, were carried into captiuitie. In the land of the foresayd Karakytayans, Occoday Cham, the sonne of Chingis Cham, Occoday Cham. after he was created Emperour, built a certaine citie, which he called Chanyl. Neare vnto which citie, on the South side, there is an huge desert, wherein wilde men are certainely reported to inhabite, which cannot speake at all, and are destitute of ioynts in their legges, so that if they fall, they cannot rise alone by themselues. Howbeit, they are of discretion to make feltes of Camels haire, wherewith they clothe themselues, and which they holde against the winde. And if at any time, the Tartars pursuing them, chance to wound them with their arrowes, they put herbes into their wounds, and flye strongly before them.

Of the mutuall victories betweene them, and the people of Kythay. Chap. 9.

BUt the Mongals returning home into their owne countrey, prepared themselues to battell a­gainst the Havthon & Pau­lus V [...]netus call them [...] Cathay­ans. Kythayans: Which their Emperour hearing, set forward against them with his armie, and they fought a cruell battell, wherein the Mongals were ouercome, and all their nobles in the armie, except seuen, were slaine. And for this cause, when they, purposing to inuade anie region, are threatned by the inhabitants thereof to be slaine, they doe, to this day, answere: in old time also our whole number besides being slaine, we remayned but seuen of vs aliue, and yet not­withstanding we are now growen vnto a great multitude, thinke not therefore to daunt vs with such brags. But Chingis and the residue that remained aliue, fled home into their countrey: And hauing breathed him a little, he prepared himselfe to warre, and went forth against the people cal­led Huyri: New victories These men were Christians of the sect of Nestorius. And these also the Mongals ouercame, and receiued letters or learning from them:Letters. for before that time they had not the arte of writing, and nowe they call it the hand or letters of the Mongals. Immediately after, hee mar­ched against the countrey of Saruyur, and of the Karanites, and against the land of Hudirat; all which he vanquished. Then returned he home into his owne countrey, and breathed himselfe. Afterward, assembling his warlike troupes, they marched with one accord against the Kythayans, and waging warre with them a long time, they conquered a great part of their land, and shut vp their Emperour into his greatest citie: which citie they had so long time besieged, that they began to want necessary prouision for their armie. And when they had no victuals to feede vpon, Chin­gis Cham commaunded his souldiers, that they should eate euery tenth man of the companie. [Page 58] But th [...]y of the citie tought manfully against them, with engines, dartes, and arrowes, and when stones wanted they threw siluer, and especially melted siluer:Siluer cast at the enemie instead of stones. for the same citie abounded with great riches. Also, when the Mongals had fought a long time and could not preuayle by warre, they made a great trench vnderneath the ground from the armie vnto the middest of the citie, and there issuing foorth they fought against the citizens, and the remnant also without the walles fought in like manner. At last, breaking open the gates of the citie, they entred, and putting the Emperour, with many other to the sworde, they tooke possession thereof and con­ueighed away the golde, siluer, a [...]d all the riches therein. And hauing appointed certaine depu­ties ouer the countrey, they returned home into their owne lande. This is the first time, when the Emperour of the Kythayans being vanquished, Chingis Cham obtayned the Empire.Chingis Cham proclaimed Emperour. But some parte of the countrey, because it lyeth within the sea, they could by no meanes con­quere vnto this day. The men of Kytay are Pagans, hauing a speciall kinde of writing by themselues,Part of Ca­thay in the sea. and (as it is reported) the Scriptures of the olde and newe Testament. They haue also recorded in hystories the liues of their forefathers: and they haue Eremites,The letters, & the religion of the Cathayans. and certaine houses made after the manner of our Churches, which in those dayes they greatly re­sorted vnto. They say that they haue diuers Saints also, and they worship one God. They a­dore and reuerence CHRIST IESVS our Lorde, and beleeue the article of eternall life, but are not baptized. They doe also honourably esteeme and reuerence our Sciptures. They loue Christians, and bestowe much almes, and are a very courteous and gentle people. They haue no beardes, and they agree partly with the Mongals in the disposition of their countenance. In all occupations which men practise, there are not better artificers in the whole worlde.Their excellent workmanship. Their countrey is exceeding rich, in corne, wine, golde, silke, and other commodities.

Of their warre against India maior and minor. Chap. 10.

ANd when the Mongals with their emperour Chingis Cham had a while rested themselues after the foresayd victorie, they diuided their armies. For the Emperour sent one of his sonnes named Thossut (whom also they called Can, Thossut Can son of Chingis. that is to say, Emperour) with an armie a­gainst the people of Comania, whom he vanquished with much warre, and afterward returned into his owne country. But he sent his other sonne with an armie against the Indians, who also subdued India minor. These Indians are the blacke Saracens, which are also called AEthiopians. But here the armie marched forward to fight against Christians dwelling in India maior. India minor sub­dued. Which the King of that countrey hearing (who is commonly called Presbiter Iohn) gathered his souldiers together, and came foorth against them. And making mens images of copper, he set each of them vpon a saddle on horsebacke, and put fire within them, and placed a man with a paire of bellowes on the horse backe behinde euery image.The stratagem of the king of India. And so with many horses and images in such sorte fur­nished, they marched on to fight against the Mongals or Tartars. And comming neare vnto the place of the battell, they first of all sent those horses in order one after another. But the men that sate behind laide I wote not what vpon the fire within the images, and blew strongly with their bellowes. Whereupon it came to passe, that the men and the horses were burnt with wilde fire, and the ayre was darkened with smoake. Then the Indians cast dartes vpon the Tartars, of whom many were wounded and slain. And so they expelled them out of their dominions with great con­fusion, neither did we heare, that euer they returned thither againe.

How being repelled by monstrous men shapen like dogs, they ouercame the people of Burithabeth. Chap. 11.

BUt returning through the deserts, they came into a certaine countrey, wherin (as it was repor­ted vnto vs in the Emperours court, by certaine clergie men of Russia, and others, who were long time among them, and that by strong and stedfast affirmation) they found certaine monsters resembling women:A strange re­port of certain mōstrous wo­men and dogs. who being asked by many interpreters, where the men of that land were, they answered, that whatsoeuer women were borne there, were indued with the shape of mankinde, but the males were like vnto dogges. And delaying the time, in that countrey they met with the said dogges on the other side of the riuer. And in the midst of sharpe winter, they cast them­selues into the water: Afterward they wallowed in the dust vpon the maine land, and so the dust being mingled with water, was frozen to their backes, and hauing often times so done, the ice be­ing strongly frozen vpon them, with great fury they came to fight against the Tartars. And when the Tartars threwe their dartes, or shot their arrowes among them, they rebounded backe againe. [Page 59] as if they had [...]ighted vpon stones. And the rest o [...] their weapons coulde by no meanes hurt them. Howbeit, the Dogges made an assault vpon the Tartars, and wounding some of them with their teeth, and slaying others, at length they draue them out of their countries. And thereupon they haue a Prouerbe of the same matter, as yet rife among them, which they speake in iesting sorte one to another; My father or my brother was slaine of Dogges. The women which they tooke, they brought into their owne countrey, who remayned there till their dying day. And in traueiling homewardes, the sayd armie of the Mongals came vn­to the lande of Burithabeth (the inhabitants whereof are Pagans) and conquered the people in battell.The region of Bu [...]ithabeth. These people haue a strange or rather a miserable kinde of custome. For when anie mans father deceaseth, he assembleth all his kindred, and they eate him.The manners of the people. These men haue no beards at all, for we saw them carie a certaine iron instrument in their hands, wherewith, if any haires growe vpon their chinne, they presently plucke them out. They are also very deformed. From thence the Tartars armie returned to their owne home.

How they had the repulse at the Caspian moun­taynes, and were driuen backe by men dwelling in caues. Chap. 12.

MOreouer Chingis Cham, at the same time when he sent other armies against the East,Another expe­ditiō of Chingis, hee himselfe marched with a power into the lande of Kergis, which notwithstanding, he con­quered not in that expeditio [...], and as it was reported vnto vs, he went on forward euen to the Cas­p [...]an mountaines. But the mountaines on that part where they encamped themselues, were of adamant, and therefore they drew vnto them their arrowes, and weapons of iron. And certaine men contained within those Caspian mountaynes, hearing, as it was thought, the noyse of the armie, made a breath through, so that when the Tartars returned vnto the same place tenne yeeres after, they found the mountaine broken. And attempting to goe vnto them, they could not: for there stood a cloud before them, beyond which they were not able to passe, being depriued of their sight so soone as they approched thereunto. But they on the contrary side thinking that the Tartars durst not come nigh them, gaue the assault, & when they came at the cloud, they could not proceed for the cause aforesaid. Also the Tartars, before they came vnto the said mountaines, passed for the space of a moneth and more, through a vast wildernes, & departing thence towards the East, they were aboue a moneth traueiling through another huge desert. At length, they came vnto a land wherin they saw beaten waies, but could not find any people. Howbeit, at the last, diligently seeking, they found a man & his wife, whom they presented before Chingis Cham: and demanding of them where the people of that countrey were, they answered, that the people inhabited vnder the ground in mountains. Then Chingis Cham keeping still the woman, sent her husband vnto thē, giuing thē charge to come at his command. And going vnto them, he declared all things that Chingis Cham had commanded them. But they answered, that they would vpon such a day visite him, to satisfie his desire. And in the meane season, by blinde & hidden passages vnder the earth, assembling them­selues, they came against the Tartars in warlike manner, and suddenly issuing forth, they slewe a great number of them. This people were not able to endure the terrible noise, which in that place the Sunne made at his vprising:A fabulous narration of the sun rising, for at the time of the Sunne rising, they were inforced to lay one eate vpon the ground, and to stoppe the other close, least they should heare that dreadfull sound. Neither could they so escape, for by this meanes many of them were destroyed. Chingis Cham therefore and his company, seeing that they preuailed not, but continually lost some of their num­ber, fled and departed out of that land. But the man and his wife aforesaid they caried along with them, who all their life time continued in the Tartars countrey. Being demaunded why the men of their countrey doe inhabite vnder the ground, they sayd, that at a certeine time of the yeare, when the sunne riseth, there is such an huge noyse, that the people cannot endure it. Moreouer, they vse to play vpon cymbals, drums, and other musicall instruments, to the ende they may not heare that sounde.

Of the statutes of Chingis Cham, of his death, of his sonnes, and of his dukes. Chap. 13.

BUt as Chingis Cham returned out of that countrey, his people wanted victuals, & suffered ex­treme famin. Then by chance they found ye fresh intrails of a beast: which they tooke, & casting away the dung therof, caused it to be sodden, brought it before Chingis Cham, & did eat therof.The law [...] of Chingis. And hereupon Chingis Cham enacted; that neither the blood, nor the intrails, nor any other part of a [Page 60] beast which might be eaten, should be cast away, saue onely the dunge. Wherefore he returned thence into his owne land, and there he ordayned lawes and statutes,The death of Chingis. which the Tartars doe most strictly and inuiolably obserue, of the which we haue before spoken. He was afterward slaine by a thunder clap. He had foure sonnes:His sonnes. the first was called Occoday, the second Thossut Can, the third Thiaday: the name of the fourth is vnknowen. From these foure descended all the dukes of the Mongals. His graund­children. The first sonne of Occoday is Cuyne, who is now Emperour: his brothers be Cocten and Chyrinen. The sonnes of Thossut Can are Bathy, Ordu, Siba, and Bora. Bathy, next vnto the Emperour, is richer and mightier then all the rest. But Ordu is the seignior of all the dukes. The sonnes of Thiaday be Hurin and Cadan. The sonnes of Chingis Cham his other sonne, whose name is vnknowen, are Mengu, Bithar, and certaine others. The mother of Mengu was named Seroctan, and of all others most honoured among the Tartars, The Tartarian dukes. except the Emperors mother, and mightier then any subiect except Bathy. These be the names of the dukes: Ordu, who was in Poland and in Hungarie: Bathy also & Hurin & Cadan, and Siban, and Ouygat, all which were in Hungarie. In like maner Cyrpodan, who is as yet beyond the sea, making war against certaine Soldans of the Saracens, and other inhabitants of farre countries. Others remained in the land, as namely Mengu, Chyrinen, Hubilai, Sinocur, Cara, Gay, Sybedey, Bora, Berca, Cor­rensa. There be many other of their dukes, whose names are vnknowen vnto vs.

Of the authoritie of the Emperour, and of his dukes. Chap. 14.

The absolute and lordly do­minion of the Tartarian Em­perour ouer his subiects.MOreouer, the Emperour of the Tartars hath a wonderfull dominion ouer all his subiects. For no man dare abide in any place, vnles he hath assigned him to be there. Also he himselfe appointeth to his dukes where they should inhabite. Likewise the dukes assigne places vnto eue­ry Millenarie, or conducter of a thousand souldiers, the Millenaries vnto each captaine of an 100. the captaines vnto euery corporall of ten. Whatsoeuer is giuen them in charge, whensoeuer, or wheresoeuer, be it to fight or to lose their liues, or howsoeuer it be, they obey without any gainsay­ing. For if he demandeth any mans daughter, or sister being a virgine, they presently deliuer her vnto him without all contradiction: yea, oftentimes he makes a collection of virgines throughout all the Tartars dominions, and those whom he meanes to keepe, he retaineth vnto himselfe, others he bestoweth vpon his men. Also, whatsoeuer messenger he sendeth, or whithersoeuer, his subiects must without delay finde them horses and other necessaries. In like sorte, from what countrey soeuer tribute payers, or ambassadours come vnto him, they must haue horses, carriages, and ex­penses allowed them. Notwithstanding ambassadours comming from other places do suffer great misery, and are in much wante both of victuals, and of apparel: especially when they come to any of the dukes, and there they are constrayned to make some lingering abode. Then ten men are al­lowed so little sustenance, that scarcely two could liue thereof.Their barba­rous inhuma­nitie towards ambassadours Likewise, if any iniuries be offe­red them, they cannot without danger make complaint. Many gifts also are demaunded of them, both by dukes and others, which if they doe not bestow, they are basely esteemed, and set at nought. And hereupon, wee were of necessitie enforced to bestowe in giftes a great part of those things which were giuen vs by well disposed people, to defray our charges. To be short, all things are so in the power and possession of the Emperour, that no man dare say, This is mine, or, this is my neighbours; but all, both goods, cattell and men are his owne. Concerning this matter also he published a statute of late. The very same authority and iurisdiction, doe the dukes in like sorte exercise vpon their subiects.

Of the election of Emperour Occoday, and of the expedition of duke Bathy. Chap. 15.

Occoday succee­deth his father.AFter the death of Chingis Cham aforesayd, the dukes assembled themselues and those Oc­coday his sonne to be their Emperour. And he, entering into consultation with his nobles, diuided his armies, and sent duke Bathy his nephew against the countrie of Altisoldan, The expeditiō of Bathy. and against the people called Bisermini, who were Saracens, but spake the language of Comania. The Tartars inuading their countrey, fought with them and subdued them in battel.The citie of Barchin. But a certeine citie called Barchin resisted them a long time. For the citizens had cast vp many ditches and trenches about their citie, in regard whereof the Tartars could not take it, till they had fil­led the said ditches. But the citizens of Sarguit hearing this, came foorth to meete them, yeel­ding themselues vnto them of their owne accord. Whereupon their citie was not destroyed, but they slue manie of them and others they carried away captiue, and taking spoyles, they filled [Page 61] the citie with other inhabitants, and so marched foorth against the citie of Orna. Orna. This towne was very populous and exceeding rich. For there were many Christians therein, as namely Ga­sarians, Russians, and Alanians, with others, and Saracens also. The gouernment of the citie was in the Saracens hande. It standeth vpon a mighty riuer, and is a kinde of porte towne, ha­uing a great marte exercised therein. And when the Tartars could not otherwise ouercome it, they turned the said riuer, running through the citie, out of his chanell, and so drowned the ci­tie with the inhabitantes and their goods. Which being done, they set forward against Russia, and made foule hauocke there, destroying cities and castles and murthering the people. They layd siege a long while vnto Kiow the chiefe citie of Russia, and at length they tooke it and slue the citizens. Whereupon, traueiling through that countrey, wee found an innumerable multi­tude of dead mens skulles and bones lying vpon the earth. For it was a very large and a popu­lous citie, but it is nowe in a maner brought to nothing: for there doe scarce remaine 200. hou­ses, the inhabitants whereof are kept in extreame bondage. Moreouer, out of Russia and Co­mania, they proceeded forward against the Hungarians, and the Polonians, and there manie of them were slaine, as is aforesaid: and had the Hungarians manfully withstood them, the Tartars had beene confounded and driuen backe. Returning from thence, they inuaded the countrey of the Morduans being pagans, and conquered them in battell.The Morduans. Then they marched against the peo­ple called Byleri, or Bulgaria magna [...], Bulgaria magna. & vtterly wasted the countrey. From hence they proceeded towards the North against the people called Bastarci or Hungaria magna, Hungaria magna and conquered them also. And so going on further North, they came vnto the Parossitae, Parossi [...]. who hauing little stomacks and small mouthes, eate not any thing at all, but seething flesh they stand or sitte ouer the potte, and receiuing the steame or smoke thereof, are therewith onely nourished, and if they eate anie thing it is very little. From hence they came to the Samogete, Samogete. who liue onely vpon hunting, and vse to dwell in tabernacles onely, and to weare garments made of beastes skinnes. From thence they proceeded vnto a countrey lying vpon the Ocean sea,The North ocean. where they found ce [...]taine monsters, who in all things resembled the shape of men, sauing that their feete were like the feete of an oxe, and they had in deede mens heads but dogges faces.Northerne monsters. They spake, as it were, two words like men, but at the third they barked like dogges. From h [...]nce they retired into Comania, and there some of them remaine vnto this day.

Of the expedition of duke Cyrpodan. Chap. 16.

AT the same time Occoday Can sent duke Cyrpodan with an armie against Kergis, Kergis. who al­so subdued them in battell. These men are Pagans, hauing no beardes at all. They haue a custome when any of their fathers die, for griefe and in token of lamentation to drawe as it were, a leather thong ouerthwart their faces, from one eare to the other. This nation being conquered, duke Cyrpodan marched with his forces Southward against the Armenians. And trauailing through certain desert places, they found monsters in the shape of men, which had each of them but one arme & one hand growing out of the midst of their breast, and but one foote. Two of them vsed to shoote in one bowe, and they ran so swiftly, that horses could not ouertake them. They ran also vpon that one foote by hopping and leaping, and being weary of such walking, they went vpon their hand and their foote, turning themselues round, as it were in a circle. And being wearie of so doing, they ran againe according to their wonted manner. Isidore calleth them Cyclopedes. Cyclopedes. And as it was told vs in court, by the clergie men of Russia, who remaine with the foresayd Em­perour, many ambassadours were sent from them vnto the Emperours court, to obtaine peace. From thence they proceeded forth into Armenia, which they conquered in battell, and part also of Georgia. Armenia & Geo [...] ­gia conquered. And the other part is vnder their iurisdiction, paying as yet euery yeare vnto them for tribute, 20000. pieces of coyne called Yperpera. From thence they marched into the dominions of the puissant and mighty Soldan called Deurum, whom also they vanquished in fight. And to be short, they went on farther sacking and conquering, euen vnto the Soldan of Aleppo his domi­nions,The Soldan of Aleppo his land and now they haue subdued that land also, determining to inuade other countries beyond it: neither returned they afterward into their owne land vnto this day. Likewise the same armie marched forward against the Caliph of Baldach his countrey,The Caliph of Baldach. which they subdued also, & exacted at his handes the daylie tribute 400. Byzantines, besides Baldakines and other giftes. Also e­uery yeare they send messengers vnto the Caliph mouing him to come vnto them. Who sending back great gifts together with his tribute beseecheth thē to be fauourable vnto him. Howbeit the Tartarian Emperour receiueth al his gifts, & yet still neuertheles sends for him, to haue him come.

How the Tartars behaue themselues in warre. Chap. 17.

The military di [...]cipline of the Ta [...]ta [...]s. CHingis Cham diuided his Tartars by captaines of ten, captaines of an 100. and captaines of a 1000. And ouer ten Millenaries or captains of a 1000, he placed, as it were, one Colonel, and yet notwithstanding ouer one whole armie he authorised two or three dukes, but yet so that all should haue especiall regard vnto one of the said dukes. And when they ioine battel against any o­ther nation, vnles they do all with one consent giue backe, euery man that flies is put to death. And if one or two, or more of ten proceed manfully to the battel, but the residue of those ten draw backe & follow not the company, they are in like maner slaine. Also, if one among ten or more bee taken [...] their fellowes, if they rescue thē not, are punished with death. Moreouer they are enioined to haue these weapons following.Their weapōs Two long bowes or one good one at the least, three quiuers full of ar­rowes, & one axe, and ropes to draw engines withal. But the richer sort haue single edged swords, with sharpe points, and somewhat crooked. They haue also armed horses with their shoulders and breasts defenced, they haue helmets and brigandines. Some of them haue iackes, and caparisons for their horses made of leather artificially doubled or trebled vpon their bodies. The vpper part of their helmet is of iron or steele, but that part which compasseth about the necke and the throate is of leather. Howbeit some of them haue all their foresaide furniture of iron framed in maner fol­lowing. They beate out many thinne plates a finger broad, and a handful long, and making in eue­ry one of them eight little holes, they put thereunto three strong and streight leather thongs. So they ioine the plates one to another, as it were, ascending by degrees. Then they tie the plates vn­to the said thongs, with other small and slender thongs, drawen through the holes aforesayd, and in the vpper part, on each side therof, they fasten one small doubled thong vnto another, that the plates may firmely be knit together. These they make, as well for their horses caparisons, as for the ar­mour of their men: And they skowr [...] them so bright that a man may behold his face in them. Some of them vpon the necke of their launce haue an hooke, wherewithall they attempt to pull men out of their saddles. The heads of their arrowes are exceedingly sharpe cutting both wayes like a two edged sworde, and they alwaies carie a file in their quiuers to whet their arrowheads. They haue targets made of wickers, or of small roddes. Howbeit they doe not (as we suppose) accu­stome to carrie them,Their experi­ence & cunning in warr [...]. but onely about the tents, or in the Emperours or dukes guardes, & that only in the night season. They are most politique in warres, hauing bene exercised therein with other nations for the space of these 42. yeres. When they come at any riuers, the chiefe men of the com­pany haue a round and light piece of leather,Their maner of passing ouer ri [...]ers. about the borders whereof making many loopes, they put a rope into them to drawe it together like a purse, and so bring it into the rounde forme of a ball, which leather they fill with th [...]ir garments and other necessaries, trussing it vp most strong­ly. But vpon the midst of the vpper parte thereof, they lay their saddles and other hard things, there also doe the men themselues sit. This their boate they tye vnto an horse tayle, causing a man to swimme before, & to guide ouer the horse, or sometime they haue two oares to row them­selues ouer. The first horse therefore being driuen into the water, all the other horses of the com­pany followe him, and so they passe through the riuer. But the poorer sort of common souldiers haue euery man his leather bag or sachell well sowen together, wherin he packs vp all his trinkets, and strongly trussing it vp hangs it at his horses tayle, and so passeth ouer, in maner aforesaid.

Howe they may be resisted. Chap. 18.

I Deeme not any one kingdome or prouince able to resist them: because they vse to take vp souldiers out of euery countrey of their dominions. And if so be the neighbour prouince which they inuade, wil not aide them, vtterly wasting it, with the inhabitants therof, whom they take from thence with them, they proceed on to fight against another countrey. And placing their captiues in the forefront of the battell, if they fight not couragiously, they put them to the sworde.Counsel how to wage warre against the Tartars. Where­fore, if Christians would withstande them, it is expedient, that the prouinces and gouernours of countreies should agree in one, and so by common counsell, should giue them resistance. Their souldiers also must be furnished with strong hand-bowes & cros-bowes, which they greatly dread, & with sufficiēt arrowes, with maces also of good iron, or an axe with a long handle or staffe. When they make their arrow heads,A notable tem­per of iron o [...] [...]eele. they must (according to ye Tartars custome) dip thē red-hot into water mingled with salte, that they may be strong to pierce the enemies armour. They that wil may haue swords also & lances with hooks at the ends, to pull thē from their saddles, out of which they are ea­silie remoued. They must haue helmets likewise & other armour to defend thēselues & their horses frō the Tartars weapons & arrowes, & they that are vnarmed, must (according to ye Tartars custome) [Page 63] match behinde their fellowes, and discharge at the enemie with long bowes and cros-bowes. And (as it is aboue said of the Tartars) they must orderly dispose their bandes and troupes, and ord [...]ine lawes for their souldiers. Whosoeuer runneth to the pray or spoyle, before the victorie be atchie­ued, must vndergoe a most seuere punishment. For such a fellow is put to death among the Tartars without all pitie or mercie. The place of battel must be chosen, if it be possible, in a plaine fielde, where they may see round about, neither must all be in one company, but in manie and seuerall bandes, not very farre distant one from another. They which giue the first en [...]ounter must sende one band before, and must haue another in a readynesse to relieue and second the former in time conuenient. They must haue spies also on euery side to giue them notice when the rest of the ene­mies bandes approch. For therefore ought they alwayes to s [...]nd forth band against band & troupe against troupe, because the Tartar euer practiseth to gette his enemie in the midst and so to enuiron him. Let our bands take this caueat also, if the enemie retire, not to make any long pursuit after him, lest peraduenture (according to his custome) he might draw them into some secret ambush: for the Tartar [...]ights more by policie then by maine force. And againe, lest our horses bee tired: for we are not so well stor [...]d with horses as they. Those horses which the Tartars vse one day, th [...]y ride not vpon three or foure dayes after. Moreouer, if the Tartars draw homeward, our men must not therefore depart and casseir their bandes, or separate themselues asunder: because they doe this vpon policie, namely to haue our armie diuided, that they may more securely inuade and waste the countrey. And in very deede, our captaines ought both day and night to keepe their armie in a readines: and not to lie out of their armour, but at all assayes, to bee prouided for battell. For the Tartars like diuels are alwaies watching and deuising howe to practise mischiefe. Further­more, if in battell any of the Tartars be cast off their horse backes, they must presently bee layd holde on and taken, for being on foote they shoote strongly, wounding and killing both horses and men.

Of the iourney of frier Johannes de pla­no Carpini. Iohn vnto the first guard of the Tartars. Chap. 19.

VVE therefore by the commaundement of the sea apostolique setting foorth towards the na­tions of the East, chose first to trauel vnto the Tartars, because we feared that there might be great danger imminent vpon the Church of God next vnto them, by their inuasions.The iourney of frier Iohn & his fellow Le­gates. Procee­ding on therefore, we came to the king of Bohemia, who being of our familiar acquaintance, ad­uised vs to take our iourney through Polonia and Russia. For we had kinsfolkes in Polonia, by whose assistance, we might enter into Russia. Hauing giuen vs his letters, hee caused our charges also to be defrayed, in all his chiefe houses and cities, till we came vnto his nephew Boleslaus duke of Slesia, Boleslaus duke of Silesia. who also was familiar and well knowen vnto vs. The like fauour he shewed vs also, till wee came vuto Conradus duke of Mazo [...]a. Lautiscia, vnto whome then (by Gods especiall fauour to­wards vs) lord Wasilico duke of Russia was come, from whose mouth we heard more at large c [...] ̄ ­cerning the deedes of the Tartars: for he had sent ambassadours thither, who were returned backe vnto him. Wherefore, it being giuen vs to vnderstand, that we must bestow giftes vpon them, we caused certaine skinnes of beuers and other beastes to be bought with part of that money, which was giuen vpon almes to succour vs by the way. Which thing duke Conradus and the Grimslaua.duches of Cracow, and a bishop, and certaine souldiers being aduertised of, gaue vs likewise more of the same skins. And to be short, duke Wasilico being earnestly requested by the duke of Cracow, and by the bishop and barons, on our behalfe, conducted vs with him, vnto his owne land, and there for certaine daies, entertained vs at his owne charges, to the ende that we might refresh our selues a while. And when, being requested by vs, he had caused his bishops to resort vnto him, we reade be­fore them the Popes letters, admonishing them to returne vnto the vnitie of the Church. To the same purpose also, we our selues admonished them, and to our abilitie, induced as well the duke as the bishops and others thereunto. Howbeit because duke Daniel the brother of Wasilico aforesaid (hauing as then taken his iourney vnto Baty) was absent,Daniel brother vnto Wa [...]ilico. they could not at that time, make a finall answere. After these things duke Wasilico sent vs forward with one of his seruants as farre as Kiow the chiefe citie of Russia. Howbeit we went alwayes in danger of our liues by reason of the Lituanians, who did often inuade ye borders of Russia, euen in those verie places by which we were to passe. But in regard of the foresayd seruant, wee were out of the Russians daunger,The L [...]beanian [...] the greatest part of whome were either slaine, or caried into captiuitie by the Tartars. Moreouer, at Danilon wee were feeble euen vnto the death. (Notwithstanding wee caused our selues to bee carried in a waggon through the snowe and extreme colde) And being come vnto Kiow, wee consul­ted with the Millenary, & other noble men there concerning our iourney. They told vs, that if wee [Page 64] carried those horses, which wee then had, vnto the Tartars, great store of snowe lying vpon the ground, they would all dye: be cause they knew not howe to digge vp the grasse vnder the snow, as the Tartarian horses doe,The fedd [...]r of [...]he Ta [...]a [...]ian horses. neither could there bee ought found for them to eate, the Tartars ha­uing neither hay nor strawe, nor any other fodder. We determined therefore to leaue them behind at Kiow with two seruants appointed to keepe them. And wee were constrayned to bestow gifts vpon the Millenary, that we might obtaine his fauour to allowe vs poste horses and a guide. Wherefore beginning our iourney the second daye after the feast of the Purification, wee arri­ued at the towne of Canow, which was immediatly vnder the dominion of the Tartars. The gouernour whereof allowed vs horses and a guide vnto another towne, wherein wee found one Michaeas to be gouernour,Michaeas the malicious. a man full of all malice and despight. Who notwithstanding, hauing receiued giftes at our handes, according to his maner conducted vs to the first guarde of the Tartars.

How he and his company were at the first recei­ued of the Tartars. Chap. 20.

VVHerefore, the first saturday next after Ashwednesday, hauing about the Sunnes going downe, taken vp our place of rest, the armed Tartars came rushing vpon vs in vnciuil and horrible maner, being very inquisitiue of vs what maner of persons, or of what condition we were: & when we had answered them that we were the Popes Legates, receiuing some victuals at out handes, they immediatly departed. Moreouer in the morning rising and proceeding on our iourney, the chiefe of them which were in the guard met with vs, demaunding why, or for what intent and purpose we came thither? and what busines we had with them? Unto whom we answered, We are the legates of our lord the Pope, who is the father & lord of the Christians. He hath sent vs as well vnto your Emperour,The contents of the legacie. as to your princes, and all other Tartars for this purpose, because it is his pleasure, that all Christians should be in league with the Tartars, and should haue peace with them. It is his desire also that they should become great or in fauour with God in heauen, therfore he admonisheth them aswel by vs, as by his own letters, to become Christians, and to embrace the faith of our Lord Iesu Christ, because they could not otherwise be saued. Moreouer, he giues thē to vnderstand, that he much marueileth at their mōstrous slaughters & massacres of mankind, & espe­cially of Christians, but most of al of Hungariās, Mountaineirs, & Polonians, being al his subiects, hauing not iniuried them in ought, nor attempted to doe them iniurie. And because the Lord God is grieuously offended thereat, he aduiseth them from henceforth to beware of such dealing, & to re­pent them of that which they had done. He requesteth also, that they would write an answere vn­to him, what they purpose to doe hereafter, and what their intention is. All which things being heard and vnderstood, the Tartars sayd that they would appoint vs poste horses and a guide vnto Corrensa. Corrensa. And immediately demanding gifts at our hands, they obtained them. Then receiuing the same horses, from which they dismounted, together with a guide wee tooke our iourney vnto Corrensa. The duke of the Westerne marches. But they riding a swift pace, sent a messenger before vnto the sayd duke Corrensa, to signifie the message, which we had deliuered vnto them. This duke is gouernour of all them, which lie in guard against the natiōs of the West, least some enemy might on the sudden and at vnawares breake in vpon them. And hee is said to haue 60000. men vnder him.

How they were receiued at the court of Corrensa. Chap. 21.

The maner of saluting the Tarta [...]ian prin­ces.BEing come therefore vnto his court, hee caused our tent to bee placed farre from him, and sent his agents to demaund of vs with what we would incline vnto him, that is to say, what giftes we would offer, in doing our obeisance vnto him. Unto whome wee answered, that our lord the Pope had not sent any giftes at all, because he was not certaine that wee should euer bee able to come at them: for we passed through most dangerous places. Notwithstanding, to our abilitie, we will honour him with some part of those things, which haue bene, by the goodnes of God, & the fauour of the Pope, bestowed vpō vs for our sustenance. Hauing receiued our gifts, they conducted vs vnto the Orda or tent of the duke, & we were instructed to bow thrise with our left knee before the doore of the tente, and in any case to beware, lest wee set our foote vpon the threshold of the sayd doore. And that after we were entred, wee should rehearse before the duke and all his nobles, the same wordes, which wee had before sayde, kneeling vpon our knees. Then presented wee the letters of our lord the Pope: but our interpreter whome we had hired and brought with vs from Kiow was not sufficiently able to interpret them, neither was there any other esteemed to bee meete for the same purpose. Here certaine poste horses and three Tartars were appoynted for [Page 65] vs to conduct vs from hence with al speede vnto duke Bathy. This Bathy is the mightie [...] prince among them except the Emperour, & they are bound to obey him before all other princes.Duke Bathy & his power. We be­gan our iourney towards his court the first tuesday in Lent, and riding as fast as our horses could trot (for we had fresh horses almost thrise or foure times a day) we posted from morning till night, yea very often in the night season also, and yet could we not come at him before Maundie thursday. All this iourney we went through the land of Comania, which is al plaine ground, and hath foure mighty riuers running through it: The first is called Boristhenes. Neper, on the side whereof towards Russia, duke Corrensa & Montij marched vp and downe, which Montij on t [...]e other side vpon the plaines is greater then he. The second is called Tanai [...]. Don, vpon the banke whereof marcheth a certain prince hauing in mariage the sister of Baty, his name is Tirbon. The third is called Rha. Volga, which is an exceeding great riuer, vpon the bankes whereof duke Bathy marcheth. The fourth is called Rhymnus. Iaec, vpon which two Millenaries doe march, on each side of the riuer one. All these, in the winter time, descend down to the sea, & in summer ascend backe by the bankes of the said riuers vp to the moun­tains. The sea last named is thePontus Euxinus. He is deceiued, for albeit Neper & Don run into Mare maio [...]: yet Volga & Iaec flowe into the Caspian sea.Great sea, out of which the arme of S. George proceedeth, which runneth by Constantinople. These riuers do abound with plenty of fi [...]hes, but especially Volga, & they exonerate thēselues into the Grecian sea, which is called Mare maior. Ouer Neper we went many daies vpon the ice. Along the shore also of the Grecian sea we went very dangerously vpon the ice in sundry places, & that for many daies together. For about the shore the waters are frozen three leagues into the sea. But before we came vnto Bathy, two of our Tartars rode afore, to giue him intelligence of all the sayings which we had vttered in the presence of Corrensa.

How we were receiued at the court of the great prince Bathy. Chap. 22.

MOreouer, when we came vnto Bathy in the land of Comania, we were seated a good league distant from his tabernacles. And when we should be conducted vnto his court, it was tolde vs that we must passe between two fires. But we would by no means be induced thereunto.A ceremony of passing be­tweene two fiers. How­beit, they said vnto vs: you may passe through without al danger: for we would haue you to doe it for none other cause, but only that if you intend any mischiefe against our lord, or bring any poyson with you, fire may take away all euill. Unto whom we answered, that to the end we might cleare ourselues from all suspition of any such matter, we were contented to passe through. When there­fore we were come vnto the Orda, being demanded by his agent Eldegay with what present or gift we would do our obeisance?Eldegay. Wee gaue the same answere which we did at the court of Corrensa. The gifts being giuen and receiued, the causes of our iourney also being heard, they brought vs in­to the tabernacle of the prince, first bowing our selues at the doore, & being admonished, as before, not to tread vpon the threshold. And being entred, we spake vnto him kneeling vpon our knees,Bathy heareth the Legates. & deliuered him our letters, and requested him to haue interpreters to translate them. Who accor­dingly on good friday were sent vnto vs, and we together with them, diligently translated our sayd letters into the Russian, Tartarian, and Saracen languages. This interpretation was presented vn­to Bathy, which he read, & attentiuely noted. At length wee were conducted home againe vnto our owne lodging, howbeit no victuals were giuen vnto vs, except it were once a litle Millet in a dich, the first night of our comming. This Bathy caries himselfe very stately & magnificently,He behaues him [...]elfe like a king. hauing porters and all officers after the maner of the Emperour, and sittes in a lofty seate or throne together with one of his wiues. The rest, namely, as well his brethren and sonnes, as other great personages sit vnderneath him in the midst vpon a bench, and others sit downe vpon the ground, be­hinde him, but the men on the right hand and the women on the left. He hath very faire and large tentes of linnen cloth also, which were once the kings of Hungaria. Neither dare any man come into his tent (besides them of his owne family) vnles he be called, be he neuer so mighty and great, except perhaps it be knowen that it is his pleasure. Wee also, for the same cause, sate on the left hand; for so doe all ambassadors in going: but in returning from the Emperour, we were alwaies placed on the right hand. In the middest stands his table, neare vnto the doore of the tent, vpon the which there is drinke filled in golden and siluer vessels. Neither doth Bathy at any time drinke, nor any other of the Tartarian princes, especially being in a publique place,Their custome of drinking at the sound of musicke. but they haue singing and minstrilsie before them. And alwaies, when hee rides, there is a canopie or small tent caried ouer his head vpon the point of a iaueline. And so doe all the great princes of the Tartars, & their wiues also. The sayd Bathy is courteous euough vnto his owne men, and yet is hee had in great awe by them: he is most cruel in fight: he is exceedingly prudent and politique in warre, because he hath now continued a long time in martiall affaires.

How departing from Bathy, they passed through the land of Comania, and of the Kangittae. Chap. 23.

MOreouer, vpon Easter euen we were called vnto the tent, and there came forth to meete vs the foresaid agent of Bathy, saying on his masters behalfe, that we should go into their land, vnto the Emperor Cuyne, deteining certaine of our company with this pretence, that they would send them backe vnto the Pope, to whom we gaue letters of al our affaires to deliuer vnto him. But being come as farre as duke Montij aforesaid, there they were kept vntill our returne. Upon Easter day,They traueiled post from Ea­ster day to the 22. of Iuly Eastward of Volga. hauing said our praiers, and taken a slender breakfast, in the company of two Tartars, which were assigned vnto vs by Corensa we departed with many teares, not knowing whether we went to death or to life. And we were so feeble in bodie, that we were scarce able to ride. For all that Lent through, our meat was Millet onely with a little water and salte. And so likewise vpon other fasting dayes. Neither had we ought to drinke, but snowe melted in a skillet. And pas­sing through Comania we rode most earnestly, hauing change of horses fiue times or oftener in a day, except when we went through deserts, for then we were allowed better and stronger horses, which could vndergoe the whole labour. And thus farre had we trauailed from the beginning of Lent vntill eight dayes after Easter. The land of Comania on the North side immediately after Russia hath the people called Morduyni Byleri, A description of Comania. that is, Bulgaria magna, the Bastarci, that is, Hungaria magna, next vnto the Bastarci, the Parositae and the Samogetae. Next vnto the Samo­getae are those people which are sayd to haue dogges faces,The North Ocean. inhabiting vpon the desert shores of the Ocean. On the South side it hath the Alani, the Circassi, the Gazari, Greece and Constantinople; also the land of Iberia, the Cathes, the Brutaches who are said to be Iewes shauing their heads all ouer, the landes also of Scythia, of Georgia, of Armenia, of Turkie. On the West side it hath Hungaria, and Russia. Also Comania is a most large and long countrey. The inhabitantes whereof called Comani the Tartars slewe, some notwithstanding fled from them, and the rest were subdued vnder their bondage. But most of them that fled are returned againe. Afterward wee entred the lande of the Kangit [...]ae, The land of the Kangittae. which in many places hath great scarcetie of waters, wher­in there are but fewe inhabitants by reason of the foresayd defect of water. For this cause diuers of the seruants of Ieroslaus duke of Russia, Ieroslaus duke of Russia. as they were traueiling towards him into the land of Tartaria, died for thirst, in that desert. As before in Comania, so likewise in this countrey, wee found many skulles and bones of dead men lying vpon the earth like a dunghill. Through this countrey we were traueiling from the eight day after Easter vntill Ascension day. The inhabitants therof were Pagans, and neither they nor the Comanians vsed to till the ground, but liued onely vpon cattell, neither built they any houses but dwelled in tents. These men also haue the Tartars rooted out, and doe possesse and inhabite their countrey, howbeit, those that remai­ned are reduced into their bondage.

How they came vnto the first court of the new Emperour. Chap. 24.

MOreouer, out of the land of the Kangittae, we entered into the countrey of ye Bisermini, The land of the Bisermini. who speake the language of Comania, but obserue the law of the Saracens. In this countrey we found innumerable cities with castles ruined, & many towns left desolate. The lord of this country was called Soldan Alt [...], Alti Soldanus. Huge moun­taines. who with al his progenie, was destroyed by the Tartars. This country hath most huge mountains. On the South side it hath Ierusalem and Baldach, and all the whole coun­trey of the Saracens. In the next territories adioyning doe inhabite two carnall brothers dukes of the Tartars, namely, Burin and Cadan, Burin and Cadan the sonnes of Thyaday, who was the sonne of Chingis Can. On the North side thereof it hath the land of the blacke Kythayans, and the Ocean. In the same countrie Syban the brother of Bathy remaineth.The North ocean. Through this countrie we were traueiling from the feast of Ascension,Syban brother vnto Bathy. vntil eight daies before the feast of S. Iohn Baptist. And then we en­tred into the land of the blacke Kythayans, The blacke Kythayans. in which the Emperour built an house, where we were called in to drinke. Also the Emperours deputy in that place caused the chiefe men of the citie and his two sonnes to daunce before vs. Departing from hence, wee founde a certaine small sea, vpon the shore whereof stands a little mountaine.A small sea. In which mountaine is reported to be a hole, from whence, in winter time such vehement tempests of winds doe issue, that traueilers can scarcely, and with great danger passe by the same way. In summer time, the noise in deede of the winde is heard there, but it proceedeth gently out of the hole. Along the shores of the foresaid sea we trauailed for the space of many dayes,Many dayes. which although it bee not very great, yet hath it many islandes, and wee passed by leauing it on our left hande. In this lande dwelleth Ordu, Ordu cap. 13. whome wee sayde to bee auncient vnto all the Tartarian dukes. And it is the Orda or court of his faher which hee inhabiteth, and one of his wiues beareth rule there. [Page 67] For it is a custome among the Tartars, that the Courts o [...] Princes or o [...] noble men are not dissol­ued, but alwayes some women are appointed to keepe and gouerne them, vpon whom certain gifts are bestowed, in like sort as they are giuen vnto their Lords. And so at length we arriued at the first court of the Emperour,The first court of the Empe­rour. wherein one of his wiues dwelt.

Howe they came vnto Cuyne himselfe, who was forth­with to be chosen Emperour. Chap. 25.

BUt because we had not as yet seene the Emperour, they would not inuite vs nor admit vs into his Orda, but caused good attendance and entertainement, after the Tartars fashion, to be gi­uen vnto vs in our owne tent, and they caused vs to stay there, and to refresh our selues with them one day. Departing thence vpon the euen of Saint Peter and Saint Paul, wee entered into the land of the Naymani, The land of Naymani. who are Pagans. But vpon the very feast day of the saide Apostles, there fel a mightie snowe in that place, and wee had extreame colde weather. This lande is full of mountaines, and colde beyonde measure, and there is little plaine ground to bee seene. These two nations last mentioned vsed not to till their grounde, but, like vnto the Tartars, dwelt in cents, which the sayde Tartars had destroyed. Through this countrey wee were trauailing ma­nie dayes. Then entered wee into the lande of the Mongals, whome wee call Tartars. Through the Tartars lande wee continued our trauaile (as wee suppose) for the space of some three weekes, riding alwayes hastily and with speede,The 22. of Iuly. and vpon the day of Marie Magdalene we arriued at the court of Cuyne the Emperour elect. But therefore did we make great haste all this way, because our Tartarian guides were straightly commaunded to bring vs vnto the court Im­periall with all speede, which court hath beene these many yeeres, ordained for the election of the Emperour. Wherefore rising earely, wee trauailed vntill night without eating of any thing, and oftentimes wee came so late vnto our lodging, that we had no time to eate the same night, but that which we should haue eaten ouer night, was giuen vs in the morning. And often changing our horses, wee spared no Horse-fleshe, but rode swiftly and without intermission, as fast as our horses could trot.

How Cuyne enterteined the Minorite Friers. Chap. 26.

BUt when wee were come vnto the court of Cuyne, The curtes [...]e of Cuyne towards Ambassadors. hee caused (after the Tartars manner) a Tent and all expenses necessarie to bee prouided for vs. And his people entreated vs with more regarde and courtesie, then they did anie other Ambassadours. Howbeeit wee were not cal­led before his presence, because hee was not as yet elected, nor admitted vnto his empire. Not­withstanding, the interpretation of the Popes letters, and the message which we deliuered, were sent vnto him by the foresaid Bathy. And hauing stayed there fiue or sixe dayes, hee sent vs vnto his mother, vnder whome there was mainteyned a verie solemne and royall court.The tent roial. And being come thither, we saw an huge tent of fine white cloth pitched, which was, to our iudgement, of so great quantitie, that more then two thousand men might stand within it, and round about it there was a wall of planks set vp, painted with diuers images.A generall assemblie. Wee therefore with our Tartars assig­ned to attende vpon vs, tooke our iourney thither, and there were all the Dukes assembled, eche one of them riding vp and downe with his traine ouer the hilles and dales. The first day they were all clad in white, but the second in skarlet robes. Then came Cuyne vnto the saide tent. More­ouer, the third day they were all in blew robes, and the fourth in most rich robes of Baldakin cloth. In the wall of boardes, about the tent aforesaid, were two great gates, by one of the which gates, the Emperour only was to enter, and at that gate there was no gard of men appointed to stand, al­though it stood continually open, because none durst go in or come out the same way: all that were admitted, entred by another gate, at which there stood watchmen, with bowes, swords, & arrowes. And whosoeuer approched vnto the tent beyond the bounds and limit assigned, being caught, was beaten, but if he fled, he was shot at with arrowes or iron. There were many that to our iudgement, had vpon their bridles, trappers, saddles, and such like furniture, to the value of 20. markes in pure gold. The foresaid Dukes (as we thinke) communed together within the tent, and consulted about the election of their Emperor. But all the residue of the people were placed farre away without the walles of board, & in this maner they staied almost til noone. Then began they to drink mares milk,The banquet of the Nobles. & so continued drinking til euen tide, and that in so great quantity, as it was wonderfull. And they called vs in vnto them, and gaue vs of their ale, because we could not drink their mares milke. And this they did vnto vs in token of great honor. But they compelled vs to drink so much [...] that in regard of our customary diet, wee coulde by no means endure it. Whereupon, giuing them to vnderstand, [Page 68] that it was hurt [...]ul vnto vs, they ceassed to compel vs any more. Without the doore stoode Duke [...]eroslaus of Susdal, [...]oslaus Duke of Susdal. in Russia, and a great many Dukes of the Kythayans, and of the Solangi. The two sonnes also of the king of Georgia, the ligier of the Caliph of Baldach, who was a Sol­dan, Ambassadors of s [...]ndry na­tions. and (as we thinke) aboue ten Soldans of the Saracens beside. And, as it was tolde vs by the agents, there were more then 4000. ambassadors, partly of such as paide tributes, and such as pre­sented gifts, and other Soldans, and Dukes, which came to yeeld themselues, and such as the Tar­tars had sent for, and such as were gouernours of lands. All these were placed without the lists, and had drinke giuen vnto them. But almost continually they all of them gaue vs and Duke Ierosla­us the vpper hand, when we were abroad in their companie.

How he was exalted to his Empire. Chap. 27.

The begin­nings of Cuyne hi [...] empire.ANd to our remembrance, we remained there, about the space of foure weekes. The election was to our thinking there celebrated, but it was not published and proclaimed there. And it was greatly suspected so to be, because alwayes when Cuyne came forth out of the tent, he had a noyse of musicke, and was bowed vnto, or honoured with faire wands, hauing purple wooll vpon the tops of them, and that, so long as he remained abroad: which seruice was performed to none of the other Dukes. The foresaid tent or court is called by them Syra Orda. Syra Orda. Departing thence, wee all with one accord rode 3. or 4. leagues vnto another place, where, in a goodly plaine, by a riuers side, betweene certaine mountaines, there was another tent erected, which was called the golden Orda. The golden Orda. For there was Cuyne to be placed in the throne Emperiall, vpon the day of the Assumption of our Ladie.The 15. of August. Wo [...]l [...]n cloth. But, for the abundance of haile which fell at the same time, as is aboue said, the mat­ter was deferred. There was also a cent erected vpon pillars, which were couered with plates of golde, and were ioyn [...]d vnto other timber with golden nailes. It was couered aboue with Baldakin cloth, but there was other cloth spread ouer that, next vnto the ayre. Wee abode therevnto the feast of Saint Bartholomew, what time there was assembled an huge multitude standing with their faces towards the South. And a certaine number of them beeing a stones cast distant from the residue, making continuall prayers, and kneeling upon their knees, procee­ded farther and farther towards the South. Howbeit wee, not knowing whether they vsed in­chantments, or whether they bowed their knees to God or to some other, woulde not kneele vp­on the grounde with them. And hauing done so a long time, they returned to the tent, and placed Cuyne in his throne imperiall, and his Dukes bowed their knees before him. After­warde the whole multitude kneeled downe in like maner, except our selues, for wee were none of his subiects.

Of his age and demeanour, and of his seale. Chap. 28.

THis Emperour, when hee was exalted vnto his gouernment, seemed to bee about the age of fourty or fourty fiue yeeres, He was of a meane stature, very wise and politike, and passing se­rious and graue in all his demeanour. A rare thing it was, for a man to see him laugh or behaue himselfe lightly, as those Christians report, which abode continually with him. Certaine Christi­ans of his familie earnestly and strongly affirmed vnto vs, that he himselfe was about to become a Christian.His inclinati­on to Christia­nitie. A token and argument whereof was, that hee reteined diuers Cleargie men of the Christians. Hee had likewise at all times a Chappell of Christians, neere vnto his great Tent, where the Clearkes (like vnto other Christians, and according to the custome of the Graecians) doe sing publiquely and openly, and ring belles at certaine houres, bee there neuer so great a multitude of Tartars, or of other people in presence. And yet none of their Dukes doe the like.His maiestie. It is the manner of the Emperour neuer to talke his owne selfe with a stranger, though he be neuer so great, but heareth and answeareth by a speaker. And when any of his subiects (howe great soeuer they bee) are in propounding anie matter of importaunce vnto him, or in hearing his answeare, they continue kneeling vpon their knees vnto the ende of their conference. Neither is it lawfull for any man to speake of any affaires, after they haue beene determined of by the Emperour. The sayde Emperour, hath in his affaires both publike and priuate, an A­gent, and Secretary of estate, with Scribes and all other Officials, except aduocates. For, with­out the noyse of pleading,A lawlesse au­thoritie. or sentence giuing, all things are done according to the Emperours will and pleasure. Other Tartarian princes do the like in those things which belong vnto thē. But, be it known vnto al men, that whilest we remained at the said Emperors court, which hath bin ordained and kept for these many yeeres, the saide Cuyne being Emperor new elect, together with al his princes, erected a flag of defiance against the Church of God, & the Romane empire, and against al [Page 69] Christian kingdomes and nations of the West,Wa [...]re inten­ded against all Chri [...]ians. vnlesse peraduenture (which God forbid) they will condescend vnto those things, which he hath inoined vnto our lord the Pope, & to all potentates and people of the Christiās, namely, that they wil become obedient vnto him. For, except Christendom, there is no land vnder heauē, which they stand in feare of, and for that cause they prepare themselues to battel against vs. This Emperors father, namely Occoday was poisoned to death, which is the cause why they haue for a short space absteined from warre. But their intent and purpose is (as I haue aboue said) to subdue the whole world vnto themselues, as they were commanded by Chin­gis Can. Hence it is that the Emperor in his letters writeth after this maner: The power of God, & Emperour of all men. Also, vpon his seale, there is this posie ingrauen: God in heauen, and Cuyne Can vpon earth, the power of God: the seale of the Emperour of all men.

Of the admission of the Friers and Ambassadours vnto the Emperour. Chap. 29.

IN the same place where the Emperour was established into his throne,Cuyne heareth the Legates. we were summoned be­fore him. And Chingay his chiefe secretary hauing written downe our names, and the names of them that sent vs, with the name of the Duke of Solangi, & of others, cried out with a loude voice, rehearsing the said names before the Emperour, and the assembly of his Dukes. Which beeing done, ech one of vs bowed his left knee foure times, & they gaue vs warning not to touch the thre­shold. And after they had searched vs most diligently for kniues, and could not find any about vs, we entred in at the doore vpon the East side: because no man dare presume to enter at the West doore, but the Emperour onely. In like maner, euery Tartarian Duke entreth on the West side into his tent. Howbeit the inferiour sort doe not greatly regard such ceremonies. This therefore was the first time, when we entred into the Emperours tent in his presence, after he was created Em­perour. Likewise all other ambassadours were there receiued by him, but very fewe were admit­ted into his tent. And there were presented vnto him such abundance of gifts by the saide Ambas­sadours,Gifts presen­ted vnto him. that they seemed to be infinite, namely in Samites, robes of purple, and of Baldakin cloth, silke girdles wrought with golde, and costly skinnes, with other gifts also. Likewise there was a certaine Sun Canopie, or small tent (which was to bee caried ouer the Emperours head) presented vnto him, being set full of precious stones. And a gouernour of one Prouince brought vnto him a companie of camels couered with Baldakins. They had saddles also vpon their backs, with certaine other instruments, within the which were places for men to sitte vpon. Also they brought many horses & mules vnto him furnished wt trappers and caparisons, some being made of leather [...] and some of iron. And we were demanded whether we would bestow any gifts vpō him or no? But wee were not of abilitie so to doe, hauing in a maner spent all our prouision. There were also vpon an hill standing a good distance from the tents, more then 500. carts,500. Carts ful of treasure. which were all ful siluer and of gold, and silke garments. And they were all diuided betweene the Emperour and his Dukes, and euery Duke bestowed vpon his owne followers what pleased him.

Of the place where the Emperor and his mother tooke their leaues one of another, and of Ieroslaus Duke of Russia. Chap. 30.

DEparting thence, we came vnto another place, where a wonderfull braue tent,A tent of pur­ple. all of red pur­ple, giuen by the Kythayans, was pitched. Wee were admitted into that also, and alwaies when we entred, there was giuen vnto vs ale and wine to drinke, & sodden flesh (when we would) to eate. There was also a loftie stage built of boords, where the Emperours throne was placed, be­ing very curiously wrought out of iuorie,A throne of Iuorie. wherein also there was golde and precious stones, and (as we remember) there were certain degrees or staires to ascend vnto it. And it was round vpon the top. There were benches placed about the saide throne, whereon the ladies sate towarde the left hand of the Emperour vpon stooles, (but none sate aloft on the right hande) and the Dukes sate vpon benches below, the said throne being in the midst. Certaine others sate behinde the Dukes, and euery day there resorted great companie of Ladies thither. The three tents whereof we spake before, were very large, but the Emperour his wiues had other great and faire tentes made of white felt. This was the place where the Emperour parted companie with his mother: for she went into one part of the land, and the Emperour into another to execute iustice. For there was taken a certaine Concubine of this Emperour, which had poysoned his father to death, at the same time when the Tartars armie was in Hungarie, which, for the same cause returned home. Moreo­ouer,The death of Occoday re­uenged. vpon the foresaide Concubine, and many other of her confederats sentence of iudgement was pronounced, and they were put to death. At the same time Ieroslaus the great Duke of Soldal, Or, Susdal. [Page 70] which is a part of Russia, deceased. For being (as it were for honours sake) inuited to eate and drink with the Emperours mother, and immediatly after the banquet, returning vnto his lodging, he fel sicke, and within seuen dayes, died. And after his death, his body was of a strange blew colour, and it was commonly reported, that the said Duke was poisoned, to the ende that the Tartars might freely and totally possesse his Dukedome.

How the Friers comming at length vnto the Emperour, gaue, and receiued letters. Chap. 31.

Cuyne dissem­blet [...] with the Lega [...]s.TO be short, the Tartars brought vs vnto their Emperor, who when he had heard of them, that we were come vnto him, cōmanded that we should return, vnto his mother. For he was deter­mined the next day, (as it is abouesaid) to set vp a flag of defiāce against al y countreis of the West, which he would haue vs in no case to know. Wherefore returning, we staied some few dayes with his mother, and so returned ba [...]ke again vnto him. With whom we continued for the space of one whole moneth in such extreme hunger and thirst, that we could scarce hold life and soule together. For the prouision allowed vs for foure dayes, was scantly sufficient for one day. Neither could we buy vs any sustenance, because the market was too farre off. Howbeit the Lorde prouided for vs a Russian goldsmith, named Cosmas, Cosmas a Rus­sian. who being greatly in the Emperours fauour, procured vs some sustenance. This man shewed vnto vs the throne of the Emperour, which hee had made, be­fore it was set in the proper place, and his seale, which he also had framed. Afterward the Emperor sent for vs, giuing vs to vnderstand by Chingay his chief Secretary, that wee should write downe our messages & affaires,The message of Chingay. and should deliuer them vnto him. Which thing we performed according­ly. A [...]ter many daies he called for vs againe, demanding whether there were any with our Lord the Pope, which vnderstood the Russian, the Sarracen, or the Tartarian language? To whom we an­swered, that we had none of those letters or languages. Howbeit, that there were certaine Sara­cens in the land, but inhabiting a great distance from our Lord the Pope. And wee saide, that wee thought it most expedient, that when they had written their mindes in the Tartarian language, and had interpreted the meaning therof vnto vs, we should diligently translate it into our own tongue, and so deliuer both the letter and the translation thereof vnto our Lord the Pope. Then departed they from vs, and went vnto the Emperour. And after the day of S. Martine, we were called for a­gaine. Then Kadac principal agent for the whole empire, and Chingay, and Bala, with diuers o­ther Scribes, came vnto vs, and interpreted the letter word for word. And hauing written it in Latine, they caused vs to interprete vnto them eche sentence, to wit if we had erred in any word. And when both letters were written, they made vs to reade them ouer twise more, least we should haue mistaken ought. For they said vnto vs: Take heed that ye vnderstand all things throughly, for if you should not vnderstand the whole matter aright, it might breed some inconuenience. They wrote the said letters also in the Saracen tongue, that there might be some found in our dominions which could reade and interprete them, if need should require.

How they were licensed to depart. Chap. 32.

The Legates [...]re loath to haue any Am­bassadours sent from the Tartars to the Chris [...]ians.ANd (as our Tartars told vs) the Emperour was purposed to send his ambassadors with vs. Howbeit, he was desirous (as we thought) that we our selues should craue that fauour at his hands. And when one of our Tartars being an ancient man, exhorted vs to make the said petition, we thought it not good for vs, that the Emperor should send his ambassadours. Wherfore we gaue him answere, that it was not for vs to make any such petition, but if it pleased the Emperour of his owne accord to send them, we would diligently (by Gods assistance) see them conducted in safe­tie. Howbeit, we thought it expedient for vs, that they should not goe, and that for diuers cau­ses. First, because we feared, least they, seeing the dissentions and warres which are among vs, should be the more encouraged to make warre against vs. Secondly, we feared, that they would be insteade of spies and intelligencers in our dominions. Thirdly, we misdoubted that they would be slaine by the way. For our nations be arrogant and proud. For when as those seruants (which at the request of the Cardinall, attended vpon vs, namely the legates of Almaine) returned vnto him in the Tartars attire, they were almost stoned in the way, by the Dutch, and were compelled to put off those garments. And it is the Tartars custome, neuer to bee reconciled vnto such as haue slaine their Ambassadours, till they haue reuenged themselues. Fourthly, least they should bee taken from vs by mayne force. Fiftly, because there could come no good by their ambassade, for they were to haue none other commission, or authoritie, but onely to deliuer their Emperours letter vnto the Pope, and to the Princes of Christendome, which very same letters wee our [Page 71] selues had, and we knew right well, that much harme might ensue thereo [...]. Wherefore, the third day after this, namely, vpon the feast of Saint Brice, Nouember 13. they gaue vs our passe-port and a Letter sealed with the Emperours owne seale, sending vs vnto the Emperours mother, who gaue vnto eche of vs [...] gowne made of Foxe-skinnes, with the furre on the outside, and a piece of pur­ple.They are re­warded with gif [...]e. And our Tartars stole a yarde out of euery one of them. And out of that which was giuen vnto our seruant, they stole the better halfe. Which false dealing of theirs, we knew well inough, but would make no words thereof.

How they returned homewards. Chap. 33.

THen taking our iourney to returne,The sore [...]ou [...] ­neys of the Le­gates in retur­ning. we trauailed all Winter long, lying in the deserts of­tentimes vpon the snow, except with our feete wee made a piece of ground bare to lye vpon. For there were no trees, but the plaine champion field. And oftentimes in the morning, we found our selues all couered with snow driuen ouer vs by the winde. And so trauailing till the feast of our Lordes Ascension, we arriued at the court of Bathy. Bathy. Of whom when wee had enquired, what answere he would send vnto our Lord the Pope, he said that he had nothing to giue vs in charge, but onely that we should diligently deliuer that which the Emperour had written. And, hauing recei­ued letters for our safe conduct, the thirteenth day after Pentecost, being Saterday, wee were proceeded as farre as Montij, with whome our foresaide associates and seruants remained, which were withheld from vs, and we caused them to be deliuered vnto vs. From hence wee trauailed vnto Corrensa, Correns [...]. to whom, requiring gifts the second time at our hands, we gaue none, because we had not wherewithall. And hee appointed vs two Comanians, which liued among the common people of the Tartars, to be our guides vnto the citie of Kiow in Russia. Howbeit one of our Tartars parted not from vs, till we were past the vtmost gard of the Tartars. But the other guides, namely the Comanians, which were giuen vs by Corrensa, brought vs from the last garde vnto the citie of Kiow, in the space of sixe dayes. And there we arriued fifteene dayes before the feast of Saint Iohn Baptist. Iune 8. Moreouer, the Citizens of Kiow hauing intelligence of our approch, came foorth all of them to meete vs, with great ioy.How they were welcom­ed at their re­turne. For they reioyced ouer vs, as ouer men that had bene risen from death to life. So likewise they did vnto vs throughout all Russia, Polonia, and Bohemia. Daniel and his brother Wasilico made vs a royal [...] feast,Basilius and D [...] ­niel Princ [...]. and interteined vs with them against our willes for the space of eight dayes. In the meane time, they with their Bishops, and o­ther men of account, being in consultation together about those matters which we had propounded vnto them in our iourney towards the Tartars, answered vs with common consent, saying: that they would holde the Pope for their speciall Lord and Father, and the Church of Rome for their Lady & mistresse, confirming likewise al things which they had sent concerning this matter, before our comming, by their Abbate. And for the same purpose, they sent their Ambassadours and let­ters by vs also, vnto our Lord the Pope.

Itinerarium fratris Willielmi de Rubruquis de ordine fratrum Minorum, Galli, Anno gratie 1253. ad partes Orientales.

EXcellentissimo Domino & Christianissimo, Lodouico Dei gratia Regi Fran­corum illustri, frater Willielmus de Rubruqui [...] in ordine fratrum Minorum minimus salutem, & semper triumpha [...]e in Christo.Ecclus. 39. v [...]r. [...] Scriptum est in Eccle­siastico de sapiente, In terram alienarum gentium transibit, bona & mala in omnibus tentabit. Hoc opus, Domine mi Rex, feci: sed vtinam vt sapiens & non stultus. Multi enim faciunt quod facit sapiens, sed non sapienter, sed magis stultè: de quorum numero timeo me esse. Tamen quocunque modo fecerim; quia dixistis mihi quando recessi à vobis, vt omnia scriberem vobis, quaecunque viderem inter Tartaros, & etiam monuistis vt non timerem vobis scribere longas literas, facio quod iniun­xistis: Cum timore tamen & verecundia, quia verba congrua mihi non suppetunt, quae debe­am tantae scribere Maiestati. Nouerit ergò vestra sancta maiestas, quòd anno Domini milles­fimo ducentessimo, quinquagessimo tertio, nonas Maij ingressi [...]umus mare Ponti quod Bul­garici vocant, Maius Mare: & habet mille octo milliaria in longum, vt didici à mercatoribus, & distinguitur quasi in duas partes. Circa medium enim eius sunt duae prouinciae terrae, vna ad Aquilonem, & alia ad meridiem. Illa quae est ad meridiem dicitur Synopolis; & est cast [...]um & portus Soldani Turchiae, Quae verò ad Aquilonem est, est Prouincia quaedam, quae nunc [Page 72] dicitur à Latinis Gasaria, à Graecis verò qui inhabitant [...]am super littus maris dicitur Castaria, hoc e [...]t Caesaria. Et sunt promontori [...] quaedam extendentia se in mare, & contra meridien [...] versus Synopolim. Et sunt tre centa milliaria inter Synopolim & Cassariam. Ita quod sint sep­tingenta miliaria ab istis punctis versus Constantinopolim in longum & latum: & sepringen­ta versus Orientem: hoc est, Hiberiam, quae est prouincia Georgiae. Ad prouinciam Gasa­riae siue Casariae appli [...]uimus, quae est quasi triangularis, ad Occidentem habens ciuitatem, quae dicitur Kersoua, in qua fuit Sanctus Clemens marterizatus. Et nauigantes corā ea vidimus insulam in qua est templum illud quod dicitur Angelicis manibus praeparatum. In medio verò quasi in cuspide ad meridiem habet ciuitatem quae dicitur Soldaia,Soldaia. que ex transuerso respicit Sy­nopolim: Et illuc applicant omnes Mercatores venientes de Turchia volentes ire ad terras A­quilonares, & è contrario venientes de Rossia & terris Aquilonaribus, volentes transire in Turchiam. Illi portant varium & grisiam, & alias pelles pretiosas. Alij portant telas de cot­tone siue bombasio, & pannos sericos & species aromaticas. Ad Orientē verò illius prouinciae est ciuitas quae dicitur Matriga,Matriga ciu [...]tas. vbi ca dit fluuius Tanais in mare Pontiper orificiumhabens la­titudi [...]em duodecem milliar [...]um. Ille enim fluuius antequam ingrediatur mare Ponti, facit quoddam mare versus. Aquilonem, habens in latitudine & longitudine septinginta milliaria, nusquam habens profunditatem vltra sex passus, vnde magna vasa non ingredi [...]ntur illud. Sed mercatores de Constantinopoli applicantes ad praedictam ciuitatem Matertam, mit [...]unt barcas suas vsque ad flumen Tanaim, vtemant pisces sicca [...]os, sturiones, thosas, borbatas, & a­ [...]ios pisces infinitae multitudinis. Praedicta verò prouincia Cassaria cingitur mari in tribus lateri­bus: ad Occidentem scilicet, vbi est Kersoua ciuitas Clementis, ad meridiem vbi est ciuitas Sol­daia, ad quam applicuimus, quae est cuspis prouinciae, & ad Orientem Maricandis, vbi est ciuitas Materta, & orificium Tanais. Vltra illud orificium est Zikia,Zikia. quae non obedit Tartaris: Et Sueui & Hiberi ad Orientem, qui non obediunt Tartaris. Posteà versus meridiem est Trapesunda que habet proprium Dominum nomine Guidonem, qui est de genere imperatorum Constantino­politanorum, qui obedit Tartaris: posteà Synopolis quae est Soldani Turchiae qui similiter o­bedit: posteà terra Vastacij cuius filius dicitur Astar ab auo materno, qui non obedit. Ab orifi­cio Tanais versus Occidentem vsque ad Danubium totum est subditum. Etiam vltrà Danubi­um versus Constantinopolim, Valakia, quae est terra Assani, & minor Bulgaria vsque in Solo­nomam omnes sol [...]unt eis tributum. Et etiam vltra tributum condictum sumpserunt annis nuper transactis de qualibet domo securim vnam, & totum frumentum quod inuenerunt in massa. Applicuimus ergò Soldaie in 12. Kalendas Iunij: & praeuenerant nos quidam merca­tores de Constantinopoli, qui dixerunt venturos illuc nuncios de terra sancta volentes ire ad Sartach. Ego tamen predicaueram publicè in Ramis Palmarum apud Sanctam Sophiam, quod non estem nuncius, nec vester, nec alicui [...]s, sed ibam apud illos incredulos secundùm regulam nostram. Tunc cùm applicuissem, monebant me dicti mercatores vt cautè loquerer, quia dixe­runt me esse nuncium, & si non dicerem me esse nuncium, quod non praebe [...]etur mihi transi­tus. Tunc loquutus sum hoc modo ad capitaneos ciuitatis, imò ad vicarios capitaneorum, quia capitanei iuerant ad Baatu portantes tributum, & non fuerant adhuc reuersi. Nos audiuimus, dixi, de Domino vestro Sartach in Terra Sancta quod esset Christianus: & gauisi sunt inde ve­hementer Christiani, & praecipuè Dominus Rex Francorum Christianissimus, qui ibi peregri­natur, & pugnat contra Saracenos, vt eripiat loca sancta de manibus eorum: vnde volo ire ad Sartach, & portare ei literas Domini Regis, in quibus monet eum de vtilitate totius Christi­anitatis. Et ipsi recepe [...]unt nos gra [...]anter, & dederunt nobis hospitium in ecclesia Episcopali. Et Episcopus ipsius ecclesiae fuerat ad Sartach, qui multa bona dixit mihi de Sartach, quae ego pos [...]ea non inueni. Tunc de derunt nobis optionem vtrum vellemus habere bigas cum bobus ad portandum res nostras vel equos pro summarijs. Et mercatores Constantinopolitani consulue­runt mihi quod non acciperem bigas, imò quod emerem proprias bigas coopertas, in quibus apportant Ruteni pelles suas, & in illis includerem res nostras quas vellem quotidiè deponere, quia si acciperem equos, oporteret mein qualibet He [...]bergia deponere & reponere super alios, & praetereà equitarem lentiori gres [...]u iuxta boues. Et tunc acquieui consilio eorum malo, tum quia fui in itinere vs (que) Sarthach duobus mensibus, quod potuissem vno mense fecisse, si iuissem equis. Attuleram mecum de Constantinopoli fructus & vinum muscatum, & biscoctum delica­tum de consilio mercatorum ad presentandū capitaneis primis, vt [...]acilius pateret mihi transitus; quia nullus apud eos respicitur rectis oculis, qui venit vacua manu. Quae omnia posui in vna bi­ga, quando nō inueniibi capitaneos ciuitatis, quia dicebāt mihi, quod gratissima forēt Sarthach, si possem deferre ea vs (que) ad eū. Arripuimus ergo iter tunc circa Kalend. Iunij cum bigis nostris quatuor coopertis & cū alijs duabus quas accepimus ab eis, In quibus portabantur lectisternia ad dormiendū de nocte, & quinque equos dabant nobis ad equitandum. Eramus enim quin (que) [Page 87] personae. Ego & socius me [...]s frater Bartholomeus de Cremona, & Goset lator praesentium, & homo dei Turgemannus, & puer Nicolaus, quem emeram Constantinopoli de nostra elec­mosyna. Dede [...]unt etiam duos homines qui ducebant bigas & custodiebant boues & equos. Sunt autem alta promo [...]toria super Mare à Kersona vsque ad orificium Tanais: & sunt qua­draginta castella inter Kersouam & Soldaiam, quorum quodlibet fere habet proprium idioma: inter quos erant multi Goti, quorum idioma est Te [...]tonicum. Post illa montana versus A­quilonem est pulcherrima sylua in planicie, plena fontibus & ri [...]ulis: Et post illam syluam est planicies maxima, quae durat per quinque dietas vsque ad extremitatem illius prouinciae ad aquilonem, quae coa [...]ctatur habens Mare ad Orientem & Occidentem: Ita quod est vnum fossatum magnum ab vno Mari vsque ad aliud. In illa planicie solebant esse Comani ante­quam venirent Tartari, & cogebant ciuitates praedictas & castra vt darent eis tributum. Et cum venerunt Tartari, tanta multitudo Comanorū intrauit prouinciam illam, qui omnes fu­gerunt vsque ad ripam Maris, quod comedebant se mutuo viui morientes: secundum quod narrauit mihi quidam mercator, qui hoc vidit: Quod viui deuorabant & lacerabant denti­bus carnes crudas mortuorum, sicut canes cadauera. Versus extremitatem illius prouinciae sunt lacus multi & magni: in quorum ripis sunt fon [...]es salmastri, quorum aqua, quàm cito intrat lacum, efficit salem durum ad modum glaciei. Et de illis salinis habent Baatu & Sar­tach magnos reditus: quia de tota Russia veniunt illuc pro sale: & de qualibet biga onusta dant duas telas de cottone valentes dimidiam Ipperperam. Veniunt & per Mare multae naues pro sale, quae omnes dant tributum secundum sui quantitatem. Postquam ergo [...]e [...]ssimus de Soldaia, tertia die inuenimus Tartaros: inter quos cùm intraueram, visum fuit mihi recte quod ingrederer quoddam aliud saeculum. Quorum vitam & mores vobis describam prout possum.

De Tartaris & domibus eorum.

NVsquam habent manentem ciuitatem, sed futuram ignorant. Inter se diuiserunt Scy­thiam, quae durat à Danubio vsque ad ortum solis. Et quilibet Capitaneus, secundum quod habet plures vel pauciores homines sub se, scit terminos pascuorum suorum, & vbi de­bet pascere hyeme & aestate, vere & autumno. In hyeme enim des [...]endunt ad calidiores regiones versus meridiem. In aestate ascendunt ad frigidiores versus aquilonem. Loca pascuosa sine aquis pascunt in hyeme quando est ibi nix, quia niuem habent pro aqua. Domum in qua dormiunt fundant super rotam de virgis cancellatis, cuius tigna sunt de virgis, & con­veniunt in vnam par [...]ulam rotam superius, de qua ascendit collum sursum tanquam fumi­gatorium, quam cooperiunt filtro albo: & frequentius imbuunt etiam filtrum calce vel terra alba & puluere ossium, vt albens splendeat, & aliquando nig [...]o. Et filtrum illud circa collum superius decorant pulchra varietate picturae. Ante ostium similiter su [...]pendunt filtrum opere polimitario variatum. Consumunt enim filtrum coloratum in faciendo vites & a [...]bores, aues & bestias. Et faciunt tales domos ita magnas, quod habent triginta pedes in latitudine. Ego enim mensuraui semel latitudinem inter vestigia rotarum vnius bigae viginti ped [...]m: & quando domus erat super bigam excedebat extra rotas in vtroque latere quinque pe­dibus ad minus. Ego numeraui in vna biga viginti duos boues trahentes vnam do­mum: Vndecem in vno ordine secundum latitudinem bigae, & alios vndecem ante illos: Axis bigae erat magnus ad modum arboris nauis: Et vnus homo stabat in ostio domus super bigam minans boues. Insuper faciunt quadrangulos de virgulis fissis attenuatis ad quantitatem vnius arcae magnae: & postea de vna extremitate ad aliam eleuant testu­dinem de similibus virgis, & ostiolum faciunt in anteriori extremitate: & postea coope­riunt illam cistam siue domunculam filtro nigro imbuto seuo siue lacte o [...]ino, ne possit penetrari pluuia: quod similiter decorant opere polimitario vel plumario. Et in talibus arcis ponunt totam suppellectilem suam & thesaurum: quas ligant fortiter super bigas alteras quas trahunt cameli, vt possint transuadare flumina. Tales arcas nunquam deponunt de bigis. Quando deponunt domus suas mansionarias, semper ver [...]unt portam ad me­ridiem; & consequenter collocant bigas cum arcis hinc & inde prope domum ad dimidium iactum lapidis: ita quod domus stat inter duos ordines bigarum quasi inter duos muros. [Page 74] Matronae faciunt sibi pulcherrimas bigas, quas ne [...]cirem vobis describere nisi per picturam. Nota. Imo omnia depinxissem vobis si sciuissem pingere. Vnus diues Moal siue Tartar habet bene tales bigas cum arcis ducentas vel centum. Baatu habet sexdecem vxores: quaelibet habet vnam magnam domum, exceptis alijs paruis, quas collocant post magnam, quae sunt quasi camerae; in quibus habitant puellae. Ad quamlibet istarum domorum appendent ducentae bigae. Et quando deponunt domus, prima vxor deponit suam curiam in capite occidentali, & postea aliae secundum ordinem suum: ita quod vltima vxor erit in capite Orientali: & erit spacium inter curiam vnius dominae & alterius, iactus vnius lapidis. Vnde curia vnius di­uitis Moal apparebit quasi vna magna Villa: tunc paucissimi viri erunt in ea. Vna muliercula ducet 20. bigas vel 30. Terra enim plana est. Et ligant bigas cum bobus vel camelis vnam post aliam: & sedebit muliercula in anteriori minans bouem, & omnes aliae pari gressu se­quentur. Si contingat venire ad aliquem malum passum, soluunt eas & transducunt sigil­latim: Vadunt enim lento gressu, sicut agnus vel bos potest ambulare.

De lectis eorum & poculis.

POstquam deposuerint domus versa porta ad meridiem, collocant lectum domini ad par­tem aquilonarem. Locus mulierum est semper ad la [...]us Orientale hoc est ad sinistrum do­mini domus cum sedet in lecto suo versa facie ad meridiem: locus verò virorum ad latus oc­cidentale, hoc [...]st ad dextrum. Viri ingredientes domum nullo modo suspenderent pharetram ad partem mulierum. Et super caput Domini est semper vna imago quasi puppa & statuuncula de filtro, quam vocant fratrem domini: alia similis super caput dominae, quam vocant fratrem dominae, affixa parieti: & superius inter vtramque illarum est vna paruula, macilenta, quae est quasi custos to [...]ius domus. Domina domus ponit ad latus suum dextrum ad pe des lecti in emi­nenti loco pelliculam hoedinam impletam lana vel alia materia, & iuxta illam statuunculam paruulam respicientem famulas & mulieres. Iuxta ostium ad partem mulieris est iterum alia imago cum vbere vaccino, pro mulieribus quae mungunt vaccas. De officio faeminarum est mungere vaccas. Ad aliud latus ostij versus viros est alia statua cum vbere equae pro viris qui mungunt equas. Et cum conuenerint ad potandum p [...]imo spargunt de potu illi imagini, quae est super caput domini: postea alijs imaginibus per ordinem: postea exit minister domum cum cipho & potu, & spargit ter ad meridiem, qualibet vice flectendo genu; & hoc ad reue­rentiam ignis: postea ad Orientem ad reuerentiam aeris: postea ad Occidentem ad reueren­tiam aquae: ad aquilonem proijciunt pro mortuis. Quando tenet dominus ciphum in manu & debet bibere, tunc primo antequam bibat, infun [...]it terrae partem suam. Si bibit se­dens super equum, infundit antequam bibat, super collum vel crinem equi. Postquam vero minister sic sparserit ad quatuor latera mundi, reuertitur in domum & sunt parati duo famuli cum duobus ciphis & totidem patenis vt deferant potum domino & vxori sedenti iuxta cum sursum in lecto. Et cum habet plures vxores, illa cum qua dormit in nocte sedet iuxta eum in die: & oportet quod omnes aliae veniant ad domum illam illa die ad bibendum: & ibi tene­tur curia illa die: & xenia quae deferuntur, illa deponuntur in thesauris illius dominae. Ban­cus ibi est cum v [...]re lactis vel cum alio potu & cum ciphis.

De potibus eorum & qualiter prouocant alios ad bibendum.

FAciunt in hyeme optimum potum, de risio, de millio, de melle: claret sicut vinum. Et defer­tur eis vinum à remotis partibus. In aestate non curant nisi de Cosmos. Stat semper infra domum ad introitum portae, & iuxta illud stat citharista cum citherula sua. Citheras & vielas nostras non vidi ibi, sed multa alia instrumenta, quae apud nos non habentur. Et cum incipit bi­bere tunc vnus ministrorū exclamat alta voce, H A:Similiter in Florida. & citharista percutit cicharum. Et quando faciunt festum magnum, tunc omnes plaudunt manibus & saltant ad vocem citharae, viri coram Domino, & mulieres coram domina. Et postquam dominus biberit, tunc exclamat minister si­cut priùs, & tacet citharista: tunc bibunt omnes in circuitu viri & mulieres: & aliquando bibunt cer [...]atim valde turpiter & gulose. Et quando volunt aliquem prouocate ad potū arripiunt eum per aures & trahunt fortiter vt dilatent ei gulam, & plaudunt & saltant coram eo. Item cum ali­qui volunt facere magnum festum & gaudium, vnus accipit ciphum plenum, & alij duo sunt ei à dextris & sinistris: & sic illi tres veniunt cantantes vsque ad illum cui debent porrigere ciphum, & cantant & faltant coram eo: & cum por [...]igit manum ad recipiendum ciphum, ipsi [Page 75] subito re [...]iliunt, & iterum sicut prius reuertuntur, & sic illudunt ei ter vel quater retrahendo ciphum, donec fuerit bene exhileratus & bonum habeat appetitum, & tunc dant ei ciphum, & cantant & plaudunt manibus & terunt pedibus donec biberit [...]

De cibarijs eorum.

DE cibis & victualibus eorum noueritis, quod indifferenter comedunt omnia morticinia [...]ua. Et inter tot pecora & armenta non potest esse quin multa animalia moriantur. Tamen in aestate quamdiu durat eis cosmos, hoc est lac equinum, non curant de alio cibo. Vnde tunc si contingat eis mori bouem vel equum, siccant carnes scindendo per tenues pecias & suspendendo ad solem & ventum, quae statim sine sale siccantur absque aliquo faetore. De intestinis equorum faciunt andulges meliores quàm de porcis: quas comedunt recentes: reliquas carnes reseruant ad hyemem. De pellibus boum faciunt vtres magnos, quos mira­biliter siccant ad fumum. De posteriori parte pellis equi faciunt pulcherrimos soculares. De carne vnius arietis dant comedere quinquaginta hominibus vel centum. Scindunt enim mi­nutatim in scutella cum sale & aqua, aliam enim salsam non faciunt, & tunc cum puncto cul­telli vel furcinula, quas proprias faciunt ad hoc, cum qua solemus comedere pira & poma cocta in vino, porrigunt cuilibet circumstantium buccellam vnam vel duas, secundum mul­titudinem comedentium. Dominus antequam proponitur caro arie [...]is in primo ipse accipit quod placet ei: & e [...]iam si dat alicui partem specialem, oportet quod accipiens comedat eam solus, & nemini licet dare ei. Si non potest totum comedere, asportat secum, vel dat garcioni suo, si est presens, qui custodiat ei: sin aliter, recondit in saptargat suo, hoc est in bursa quadrata, quam portant ad recondendum omnia talia, in qua & ossa recondunt, quando non habent spacium bene rodendi ea, vt postea rodant, ne pereat aliquid de cibo.

Quomodo faciunt Cosmos.

IPsum Cosmos, hoc est lac iumentinum fit hoc modo. Extendunt cordam longam super ter­ram ad duos palos fixos in terra, & ad illam cordam ligant circiter horas tres, pullos equa­ [...]um quas volunt mungere. Tunc stant matres iuxta pullos suos & permittunt se pacifice mungi. Et si aliqua est nimis indomita, tunc accipit vnus homo pullum & supponit ei permit­tens parum sugere, tunc retrahit illum, & emunctor lactis succedit. Congregata ergo multi­tudine lactis, quod est i [...]a dulce sicut vaccinum, dum est recens, fundunt illud in magnum vtrem siue bucellam, & incipiunt illud concutere cum ligno ad hoc aptato, quod grossum est inferius sicut caput hominis & cauatum subtus: & quam cito concutiunt illud, incipit bullire sicut vinum nouū, & acescere siue fermentari, & excutiunt illud donec extrahant butirum. Tunc gustant illud; & quando est temperate pungitiuum bibunt: pungit enim super linguam sicut vinum raspei dum bibitur. Et postquam homo cessat bibere, relinquit [...]aporem super lin­guam lactis amygdalini, & multum reddit interiora hominis iucunda, & etiam inebriat de­bilia capita: multum etiam prouocat vrinam. Faciunt etiam Cara-cosmos, hoc est nigrum cosmos ad vsum magnorum dominorum, hoc modo. Lac equinum non coagulatur. Ratio enim est: quod nullius animalis lac nisi cuius fetet venter non inuenitur coagulum. In ventre pulli equi non inuenitur: vnde lac equae non coagulatur. Concutiunt ergo lac in tantum, quod omnino quod spissum est in eo vadat ad fundum rectà, sicut faeces vini, & quod purum est remanet superius, & est sicut serum, & sicut mustum album. Faeces sunt albae multum, & dantur seruis, & faciunt mul [...]um dormire. Illud clarum bibunt domini: & est pro certo valde suauis potus & bonae esficaciae. Baatu habet 30. casalia circa herbergiam suam ad vnam dietam, quorum vnum quod (que) qualibet die seruit ei de tali lacte centum equarum hoc est, qualibet die lac trium millium equarū, excepto alio lacte albo, quod deferunt alij. Sicut enim in Syria rustici dant tertiam partem fructuum, quam ipsi afferunt ad curias dominorum suorum, ita & isti lac [...] ­quarū tertiae diei. De lacte vaccino primò extrahunt butyrū & bulliunt illud vsque ad perfectā decoctioné, & postea recondunt illud in vtribus arietinis quos ad hoc reseruant. Et non ponunt sal in butiro: tamen propter magnam decoctionē non putrescit: & reseruant illud contra hye­mem. Re siduū lac quod remanet post butirum permittunt acescere quantum acrius fieri potest & bulliunt illud, & coagulatur bulliendo, & coagulum illud desiccant ad solem, & efficitur durum sicut scoria ferri. Quod recondunt in saccis contra hyemem: tempore hyemali quando [Page 76] [...]efi [...]it eis lac, ponunt illud acre coagulum, quod ipsi vocant gri-vt, in vtre, & super infundunt aquam calidam, & concutiunt fortiter donec illud resoluatur in aqua; quae ex illo efficitur tota acetosa, & illam aquam bibunt loco lactis. Summè cauent ne bibant aquam puram.

De bestijs quas comedunt, & de vestibus, ac de venatione eorum.

MAgni domini habent casalia versus meridiem, de quibus afferunt eis milium & farinam contra hyemem. pauperes procurant sibi pro arietibus & pellibus commutando. S [...]laui etiam implent ventrem suum aqua crassa, & hac contenti sunt. Mures cum longis caudis non comedunt & omne genus murium habens curtam cauda [...]. Sunt etiam ibi multae marmotes, quas ipsi vocant Sogur: quae conueniunt in vna fouea in hyeme 20. vel 30. pariter, & dor­miunt sex mensibus: quas capiunt in magna multitudine. Sunt etiam ibi, cuniculi habentes longam caudam sicut cati; & in summitate caudae habent pilos nigros & albos. Habent & multas alias bestiolas bonas ad comedendum: quas ipsi valde bene disce [...]nunt. Ceruos non vidi ibi. lepores paucos vidi, gaselos mul [...]os. Asinos syluestres vidi in magna multitudine, qui sunt quasi muli. Vidi & aliud genus animalis quod dicitur Artak, quod habet recte corpus arie­tis & cornua torta, sed tantae quantitatis, quod vix pot [...]ram vna manu leuare duo co [...]nua: & faciunt de cornibus illis ciphos magnos. Habent falcones, girfalcones, & herodios in magna multitudine: quos omnes portant super manum dexteram: & ponunt semper salconi vnam conigiam paruulam circa collum, quae pendet ei vsque ad medie [...]atem pectoris: per quam cum proij [...]i [...]nt [...]um ad predam, inclinant cum sinistra manu caput & pectus [...]alconis, ne verberetur à vento, vel ne feratur sur [...]um. Magnum ergo partem victus sui acquirunt ven [...]tione. De vestibus & habitu eorum noueri [...]is, quod de Cataya & alijs regionibus Orientis, & etiam de Perside & alijs regionibus au [...]ri veniunt eis panni serici & aurei,Maior Hungaria. & telae de bambasio, quibus induuntur in ae [...]ate. De Russia, de Moxel, & Maiore Bulga [...]ia & P [...]scatir, quae est maior Hungari [...], & Kers [...]s: (que omnes sunt regiones ad Aquilonem & plenae syluis:) & alijs multis regionibus ad latus a­quilonare, quae eis obediunt, adducuntur eis [...]eiles pr [...]cio [...]ae multi generis: quas nunquā vidi in partibus nostris: Quibus induuntur in hyeme. Et faciunt semper in hyeme duas pellice [...]s ad minus: vnam, cuius pilus est ad carnem: aliam cuius pilus est [...]xt [...]a contra v [...]n [...]um & niues, quae multoties sunt de pellibus lupinis vel vu [...]pibus vel papionibus. Et dum sedent in domo habent aliam delicatiorem. Pauperes faciunt illas extcricres de canibus & capris. Quum volunt venari feras, conueniunt magna multitudo & circundant r [...]gion [...]m in qua s [...]iu [...]t feras esse, & paulatim appropinquant sibi, donec concludani fe [...]ás inter [...] qu [...]si infia circulum, & tunc sagitant ad eas [...] faciunt etiam braccas de pellibus. Diuites etiam furrant vestes suas de stupa setae, quae est supra modum mollis, & leuis & calida. Pauperes surrant vestes de [...]ela de bambasio, de delicatio [...] lana quam possunt extrahere: de gr [...]ssiori f [...]ci [...]nt filtr [...]m ad coo­periendum demos suas & cistas, & ad lectisternia. De lana etiam & te [...]tia parte pilo [...]um [...]qui admixta, faciunt cordas suas. De filtro etiam faciunt pauellas sub [...]ellis, & [...]pas contra pluuiam. Vnde multum expendunt de lana. Habitum virorum vicis [...]s.Nota.

De rasura virorum & ornatu mulierum.

VIri radunt in summitate capitis quadrangulum, & ab anterio [...]ibus angulis ducunt rasu [...]am cristae capitis vsque ad tempora. Radunt etiam tempora & collum vsque ad s [...]mmum concauitatis ceruicis: & frontem anterius vsque ad frontinellam, super quam relinquunt manipulum pilorum descendentium vsque ad supercilia: In angulis occipitis relinquunt crines, quibus faciunt tricas, quas succingunt nodando vsque ad aures. Et habitus puell [...]rum non differt ab habitu virorum, nisi quod aliquantulum est longior. Sed in crast [...] no postquam est nupta radit caluariam suam à medieta [...]e capitis versus frontem, & habet [...]n [...]cam latam sicut cucullam monialis, & per omnia latiorem & longiorem, fissam ante, quam ligat sub dextro latere. In hoc enim differunt Tartari à Turcis: quod Turci ligant tunicas suas ad sinistram, Tartari semper ad dex [...]ram. Po [...]ea habent orn [...]mentum capit [...]s, quod vocant bot [...]a, quod fi [...] de cortice arboris vel alia materia, quam possunt in­nenire, l [...]ui [...]re: & est grossum & rotundum, quantum potest duabus manibus complecti; longum ve [...]o vnius cubiti & plus, quadrum supcrius, sicut capitellum vnius columnae. Istud botta cooper [...]unt panno serico precioso; & est concauum interius: & super capitellum in [Page 77] medio vel super quadraturā illam ponunt virgulam de calamis pennarum vel cannis gracilibus longitudinis scilicet vnius cubiti & plus: & illam sibi virgulam ornant superius de pennis pa­uonis, & per longum in circuitu pennulis caudae malardi, & etiam lapidibus praeciosis. Diuites dominae istud ornamentum ponunt in summitate capitis quod stringunt fortiter cum almucia, que foramen habet in summitate ad hoc aptatū, & in isto recondunt crines suos quos recolligūt à parte posteriori an summitatem capitis quasi in nodo vno & reponunt in illo botta, quod po­stea fortiter ligant sub gutture. Vnde quum equitant plures dominae simul & videntur à longe, apparent milites, habentes galeas in capitibus cum lanceis eleuatis. Illud enim botta apparet galea desuper lancea. Et sedent omnes mulieres super equos sicut viti diuersificantes coxas; & ligant cucullas suas panno serico aerij coloris super renes, & alia fascia stringunt ad mamillas: & ligant vnam peciam albam sub occulis, quae descendit vsque ad pectus. Et sunt mulieres mirae pinguedinis, & quae minus habet de naso pulchrior reputatur. Deturpant etiam turpiter pinguedine facies suas: nunquam cubant in lecto pro puerperio.

De officio mulierum, & operibus earum, ac de nuptijs earum.

OFicium foeminarum est ducere bigas, ponere domus super eas & deponere, mungere vaccas, facere butirum & griu [...], parare pelles, & consuere eas, quas consuunt filo de­neruis, diuidunt enim neruos in minuta fila, & postea illa contorquent in vnum longum fi­lum. Consuunt etiam soculares & soccos & alias vestes. Vestes vero nunquam lauant, quia dicunt quod Deus tunc irascitur, & quod fiant tonitrua si suspendantur ad siccandum: Imo lauantes verberant & eis auserunt. Tonitrua supra modum timent: tunc omnes extrancos a­mittunt de domibus suis; & inuoluunt se in filtris nigria, in quibus laritant, donec transierit. Nunquā etiā lauant scutellos, imo carne cocta alueū in quo debent ponere eam lauant brodio bulliente de caldaria, & postea refundunt in calda [...]iam [...] faciunt & filtrum & cooperiunt domos. Viri faciunt solum arcus & sagittas, sabricant strepas & sraena, & faciunt cellas, carpentant domos & bigas: custodiunt equos & mungunt equas, concutiunt ipsum cosmos & lac equi­num, faciunt vtres in quibus reconditur: custodiunt etiam camelos, & onerant [...]os. Oues & Capras custodiunt mixtim & mungunt aliquando viri, aliquando mulieres. De lacte ouium inspissato & salso parant pelles.Pellium parat [...] Cum volunt manus vel caput iauare implent os suum aqua & paulatim fundunt de ore suo super manus, & eadem humectant crines suos, & lauant caput suum. De nuptijs eorum noueritis, quod nemo habet ibi vxorem nisi emat eam: vnde aliquando sunt puellae multum advltae ante quam nubant: semper e­nim tenent eas parentes, donec vendant eas. Seruant etiam gradus consanguinitatis pri­mum & secundum: nullum autem seruant affinitatis. Habent enim simul vel successiue duas sorores. Nulla vidua nubit inter eos, hac ratione; quia credunt quod omnes qui seruiunt eis in hac vita seruient in futura. Vnde de vidua credunt, quod semper reuertitur post mortem ad primum maritum. Vnde accidit turpis consuetudo inter eos quod filius scilicet ducit aliquando omnes vxores patris sui, excepta matre. Curia enim patris & matris semper accidit iuniorifilio. Vnde oportet quod ipse prouideat omnibus vxoribus patris sui, quia adueniunt eae cum curia paterna. Et tunc si vult vtitur eis pro vxoribus, quia non reputat sibi iniuriam, si reuertatur ad patrem post mortem. Cum ergo aliquis fecerit pactum cum aliquo de filia accipienda, facit pater puellae conuiuium, & illa fugit ad consanguineos, vt ibi late [...]t: Tunc pater dicit, Ecce filia mea tua est, accipe eam vbicunque inueneris: Tunc ille quaerit cam cum amicis suis, donec inveniat eam, & oportet, quod vi capiat eam, & ducat eam quasi violenter ad domum.

De iusticijs eorum & iudicijs, et de morte ac sepultura eorum.

DE iusticijs eorum noueritis, quod quando duo homines pugnant, nemo audet se inter­mittere. Etiam pater non audet inuare filium. Sed qui peiorem partem habet, appellat ad curiam domini. Et si alius post appellationem tangat eum, interficitur. Sed oportet quod statim absque dilatione vadat: Et ille qui passus est iniuriam ducit eum quasi captiuum. Nemi­nem puniunt capitali sententia, nisi deprehensus fuerit in facto, vel confessus. Sed quum diffa­matus est à pluribus, bene torquent eum, vt confiteatur. Homicidiū puniunt capitali sententia, & etiam coitum cum non sua. Non suam dico vel vxorem vel famulam: Sua enim sclaua licet vti [Page 78] prou [...]libet. Item enorme furtum puniunt morte. Pro leui furto, sicut pro vno ariete, dummodo non fuerit saepe deprehensus in hoc, verberant crudeliter. Et si dant centum ictus oportet quod habeant centum baculos, de illis dico, qui verberantur sententia curiae. Item falsos nuncios, quia faciunt se nuncios & non sunt, inter [...]ciunt. Item sacrilegas, de quibus dicam vobis postea plenius, quia tales reputant veneficas. Quando aliquis moritur plangunt vehemēter vlulando: & tunc sunt liberi quod non dant vectigal vsque ad annum. Et si quis interest morti alicujus adulti, non ingreditur domum ipsius Mangucham vsque ad annum. Si paruulus est qui mori­tur, non ingreditur vsque post lunationem. Iuxta sepulturam defuncti semper relinqunt do­mum vnam. Si est de nobilibus, hoc est de genere Chingis, qui fuit primus pater & dominus eorum, illius qui moritur ignoratur sepultura: & semper circa loca illa vbi sepeliunt nobiles suos est vna herbergia hominum costodientium sepulturas. Non intellexi quod ipsi recon­dunt thesaurum cum mortuis. Comani faciunt magnum tumulum super defunctum & erigunt ei statuam versa facie ad orientem, tenentem ciphum in manu sua ante vmbelicum, fabricant & diuitibus pyramides, id est domunculas acutas: & alicubi vidi magnas turtes de tegulis coctis: alicubi lapideas domos, quamuis lapides non inueniantur ibi. Vidi quendam noui­ter defunctum, cui suspenderant pelles sexdecem equorum, ad quod libet làtus mundi qua­tuor inter perticas altas: & apposuerunt ei cosmos vt biberet, & carnes vt comederet: & tamen dicebant de illo quod fuerat baptizatus. Alias vidi sepulturas versus orientem. Areas scilicet magnas structas lapidibus, aliquas rotundas, aliquas quadratas, & postea quatuor lapi­des longos erectos ad quatuor regiones mundi circa aream. Et vbi aliquis infirmatur cubat in lecto & ponit signum super domum suam, quod ibi est infirmus, & quod nullus in­grediatur: vnde nullus visitat infirmum nisi seruiens eius. Quando etiam aliquis de magnis curijs infirmatur, ponunt custodes longe circa curiam, qui infra illos terminos neminem per­mittunt transire: timent enim ne mali spiritus vel ventus veniant cum ingredientibus. Ipsos di­uinatores vocant tanquam sacerdotes suos.

Qualiter ingressi sunt inter Tartaros, & de ingratitudine eorum.

QVando ergo ingressi sumus inter illos barbaros, visum fuit mihi, vt dixi superius, quod ingrederer aliud saeculum. Circumdederunt enim nos in equis post quam diu fecerant nos expectare sedentes in vmbra sub bigis nigris. Prima quaestio fuit, vtrum vnquam fuisse mus inter eos. habito quod non: inceperunt impudenter pe [...]ere de cibarijs nostris, & dedimus de pane biscocto & vino quod attuleramus nobiscum de villa: & potata vna lagena vini, petierunt aliam, dicentes, quod homo non ingreditur domum vno pede. non dedimus eis, exculantes nos quod parum haberemus. Tunc quaesiuerunt vnde veniremus, & quo vellemus ire. dixi eis supe­riora verba, quod audieramus de Sartach, quod esset Christianus, & quod vellem ire ad eum, quia habebam deferre ei literas vestras. Ipsi diligenter quaesiuerunt, vtrum irem de mea volun­tate, vel vtrum mitterer. Ego respondi quod nemo coegit me ad eundum, nec iuissem nisi vo­luislem: vnde de mea voluntate ibam, & etiam de voluntare superioris mei. Bene caui, quod nunquam dixi, me es [...]e nuncium vestrum. Tunc quaesiuerunt quid eslet in bigis, vtrum esset au­rum vel argentum, vel vestes preciosae, quas deferrem Sartach. Ego respondi, quod Sartach videret quid deferi emus ei, quando perueniremus ad eum; & quod non intererat eorum ista quaerere: sed facerent me deduci vsque ad capitaneum suum, & ipse si vellet mihi praebere du­catum vsque ad Sartach faceret: sin minus, reuerterer. Erat enim in illa prouincia vnus consan­guineus Baatu, nomine Scaca [...]ai, cui dominus imperator Constantinopolitanus mittebat lite­ras deprecatorias, quod me permitteret transire. Tunc ipsi acquieuerunt, praebentes nobis e­quos & boues & duos homines, qui deducerent nos. Et alij qui adduxerant nos sunt reuersi. Prius tamen antequam praedicta darent, fecerunt nos diu expectare petentes de pane nostro pro parvulis suis: Et omnia quae videbant super famulos nostros, cultellos, chirothecas, bursas, corrigias, omnia admirantes & volentes habere. Excusabam me, quia longa nobis restabat via, nec debebamus ita cito [...]poliare nos rebus necessarijs ad tantam viam perficiendam. Tunc dicebant quod essem batrator. Verum est quod nihil abstulerint vi: Sed valde importune & impudenter petunt quae vident. Et si dat homo eis perdit, quia sunt ingrati. Reputant se domi­nos mundi, & videtur eis, quod nihil debeat eis negari ab aliquo. Si non dat, & postea indigeat seruicio eorum, male ministrant ei. Dederunt nobis bibere de lacte suo vaccino, a quo contractum erat butirum, acetoso valde, quod ipsi vocant Apram: & sic recessimus ab eis. Et visum fuit mihi recte, quod euasissem de manibus daemonum. In crastino peruenimus ad ca­pitaneum. Ex quo recessimus a Soldaia vsque ad Sartach in duobus mensibus nunquam iacui­mus [Page 79] i [...] domo nec in tentorio, sed semper sub dio, vel sub bigis nostris, nec vidimus aliquam villam, vel vestigium alicujus aedificij vbi fuisset villa, nisi tumbas Comanorū in maxima mul­titudine. Illo sero dedit nobis garcio qui ducebat nos bibere cosmos; ad cuius haustum totus sudaui propter horrorem & nouitatem, quia nunquam biberam de eo. valde tamen sapidum videbatur mihi, sicut vere est.

De curia Scacatay, & quod Christiani non bibunt cosmos.

MAne ergo obviauimus bigis Scacatay onustis domibus. Et videbatur mihi quod obuiare [...] mihi ciuitas magna. Mirabar etiam super multitudine armentorum boum & equorum & gregum ouium: paucos vide bam homines qui ista gubernarent. vnde inquisiui quot ho­mines haberet sub se? & dictum fuit mihi, quod non plusquam quingentos, quorum medieta­tem transiueramus in alia herbergia. Tunc incepit mihi dicere garcio qui ducebat nos, quod ali­quid oporteret Scacatay dare: & ipse fecit nos stare, & praecessit nuncians aduentum nostrum. Iam erat hora plu [...]quam tertia, & deposuerunt domos suas iuxta quandam aquam. Et venit ad nos interpres ipsius, qui statim cognito, quod nunquam fucramus inter illos, poposcit de cibis nostris, & dedimus ei, poscebat etiam vestimentum aliquod, quia dicturus erat verbū nostrum ante dominum suum. Excusauimus nos. Quaesiuit quid portaremus domino suo? Accepimus vnum flasconem de vino, & impleuimus vnum veringal de biscocto & platellum vnum de po­mis & aliis fructibus. Sed non placebat ei, quia non ferebamus aliquem pannum pretiosum. Sic tamen ingressi sumus cum timore & verecundia. Sedebat ipse in lecto suo tenens citharu­lam in manu, & vxor sua iuxta eum: de qua credebā in veritate, quod amputasset sibi nasum in­ter oculos vt simior esset: nihil enim habebat ibi de naso, & vnxerat locum illum quodam vn­guento nigro, & etiam supercilia: quod erat turpissimum in oculis nostris. Tunc dixi ei verba supra dicta. Vbique enim oportebat nos dicere idem verbum. Super hoc enim eramus bene pre­moniti ab illis qui fuerant inter illos, quod nunquam mutaremus verba nostra.Nota diligente [...]. Rogaui etiam cum vt dignaretur accipere munusculum de manu nostra, excusans me, quia monachus eram, nec erat ordinis nostri possidere aurum, vel argentum, vel vestes preciosas. Vnde non habe­bam aliquid talium, quod possem ei dare: sed de cibis nostris acciperet pro benedictione. Tunc fecit recipi, & distribuit statim hominibus suis qui conuenerant ad potandum. Dedi etiam e [...] literas Imperatoris Constantinopolitani: (Hoc fuit in octauis ascensionis) Qui statim eas Soldaiam misit vt ibi interpretarentur: quia erant in Graeco, nec habebat secum qui sciret literas Graecas. Quae siuit etiam à nobis, si vellemus bibere cosmos, hoc est, lac iumentinum. Christiani enim Ruteni, Graeci, & Alani, qui sunt inter eos, qui volunt stricte custodire legem suam, non bibunt illud: Imo non reputant se Christianus postquam biberunt. Et sacerdotes eorum reconciliant eos, tanquam negassent fidem Christianam. Ego respondi, quod habeba­mus adhuc sufficienter ad bibendum: & cum ille potus deficeret nobis, oporteret nos bibere illud, quod daretur nobis. Quae siuit etiam quid contineretur in literis nostris, quas mittebatis Sartach. Dixi quod clausae erant bullae nostrae: & quod non erant in eis nisi bona verba & ami­cabilia. Quae siuit & quae verba diceremus Sartach? Respondi, Verba fidei Christiane. Quae siuit quae? Quia libenter vellet audire. Tunc exposui ei prout potui per interpretem meum, qui nul­lius erat in genij, nec alicuius eloquentiae, symbolū fidei. Quo audito, ipse tacuit & mouit caput. Tunc assignauit nobis duos homines, qui nos custodirent, & equos & boues: & fecit nos bi­gare se cum, donec reuerteretur nuncius, quem ipse miserat pro interpretatione literarum impe­ratoris; & iuimus cum eo vsque in crastinum Pentecostes.

Qualiter Alani venerunt ad eos in vigilia Pentecostes.

IN vigilia Pentecostes venerunt ad nos quidam Alani, qui ibi dicunturVel Akas. Acias, Christiani se­cundum ritum Graecorum; habentes literas Grecas & sacerdotes Graecos: tamen non sunt schismatici sicut Graeci; sed sine acceptione personarum venerantur omnem Christianum: & detulerunt nobis carnes coctas, rogantes vt comederemus de cibo eorum, & oraremus pro quodam defuncto eorum. Tunc dixi quod vigilia erat tantae solennitatis, quod illa die non comederemus carnes. Et exposui eis de solennitate, super quo fuerunt multum gauisi; quia omnia ignorabant quae spectant ad ritum Christianum, solo nomine Christi excepto. Quaesi­uerunt & ipsi & alij multi Christiani, Ruteni & Hungari, vttum possent saluari, quia oportebat eos bibere cosmos, & comedere morticinia & interfecta à Saracenis & alijs infidelibus: [Page 80] quae etiam ipsi Graeci & Ruteni sacerdotes reputant quasi morticinia vel idolis immolata: quia ignorabant tempora ieiunij: nec poterant custodire etiam si cognouissent. Tunc rectifi­cabar eos prout potui, docens & confortans in fide. Carnes quas detulerant reseruaui­mus vsque ad diem festum: nihil enim inueniebamus venale pro auro & argento, nisi pro telis & alijs No [...]a diligen­t [...]sime. pannis: & illos non habe bamus. Quum famuli nostri offerebant eis ipperpera, ipsi fri­cabant digitis, & ponebant ad nares, vt odore sentirent, vtrum essent cuprum. Nec dabant nobis cibum nisi lac vaccinum acre valde & foetidum. Vinumiam d [...]ficiebat nobis. Aqua ita turba­batur ab equis, quod non erat potabilis. Nisi fuisset biscoctum quod habebamus, & gratia dei, fortè fuissemus mortui.

De Saraceno qui dixit se velle baptizarj, et de homi­nibus qui apparent leprosi.

INdie pentecostes venit ad nos quidam Saracenus, qui cum loqueretur nobiscum, incepimus exponere fidem. Qui audiens beneficia dei exhibita humano generi in incarnatione Christi, & resurrectionem mortuorum, & iudicium futurum, & quod ablutio peccatorum es [...]et in bap­tismo: dixit se velle baptizari. Et cum pararemus nos ad baptizandum eum, ipse subito ascen­dit equum suum, dicens se iturum domum & habiturum consilium cum vxore sua. Qui in cra­stino loquens nobiscum, dixit quod nullo modo auderet accipere baptisma, quia tunc non bibe­ret cosmos. Christiani enim illius loci hoc dicebant, quod nullus verus Christianus deberet bi­bere: & sine potu illo non posset viuere in solitudine illa. A qua opinione nullo modo potui di­uertere illum. Vnde noueritis pro certo quod multū elongantur à fide propter illam opinionem quae iam viguit inter illos per Rutenos, quorum maxima multitudo est inter eos. Illa die dedit nobis ille capitaneus vnum hominem, qui nos deduceret vsque ad Sartach: & duos qui du­cerent nos vsque ad proximam herbergiam; quae inde distabat quinque dietas prout boues poterant ire. Dederunt etiam nobis vnam capram pro cibo & plures vtres lactis vaccini, & de cosmos parum: quia illud preciosum est inter illos. Et sic arripientes iter rectè in aquilonem, visum fuit mihi quod vnam portam inferni transissemus. Garciones qui ducebant nos, incipie­bant nobis audacter furari, quia videbant nos parum cautos. Tandem amissis pluribus vexatio dabat nobis intellectum. Peruenimus tandem ad extremitatem illius prouinciae, quae clauditur vno fossato ab vno marivsque ad aliud: extra quam erat herbergia eorum apud quos intrasse­mus: videbantur nobis leprosi omnes:Salinae quia erant viles homines ibi collocati, vt reciperent tribu [...]um ab accipientibus sal a [...]alinis superius dictis. Ab illo loco, vt dicebant, oportebat nos ambulare quinde cim diebus, quibus non inueniremus populum. Cum illis bibimus cosmos: & dedimus illis vnum veringal plenum fructibus & panem biscoctum. Qui dederunt nobis octo boues,Decem dietae. vnam capram pro tanto itinere, & nescio quot vtres plenos lacte vaccino. Sic mutatis bobus arripuinus iter, quod perfecimus decem diebus vsque ad aliam herberglam: nec inueni­mus a quam in illa via nisi in fossis in conuallibus factis, exceptis duobus paruis fluminibus. Et tende bamus rectè in orientem ex quo exiuimus praedictam prouinciam Gasariae, habentes mare ad meridiem & vastam solitudinem ad aquilonem: quae durat per viginti dietas alicubi in latitudine: In qua nulla est sylua, nullus nions, nullus lapis. Herba est optima. In hac so­lebant pascere Comani, qui dicuntur Capchat. A Tentonicis verò dicuntur Valani, & pro­uincia Valania. Ab Isidoro vero dicitur à flumine Tanai vsque ad paludes Meotidis & Danu­bium Alania. Et durat ista terra in longitudine a Danubio vsque Tanaim; qui est terminus Asiae & Europae,Comanie lon­gitudo. itinere duorum mensium velociter equitando prout equitant Tartari: Quae tota inhabitabatur à Comanis Capchat, & etiam vltra à Tanai vsque E [...]l [...]a quae & Volga flumen. Etiliam: Inter quae flumina sunt decem dietae magnae. Ad aquilonem verò istius prouincie [...]acet Russia,Russia. que vbique syluas habet, & protenditur à Polonia & Hungaria vsque Tanaim: quae tota vastata est à Tartaris, & adhuc quotidie vastatur. Praeponunt enim Rutenis, quia sunt Christiani, Saracenos: & cum non possunt amplius dare aurum vel argentum, ducunt eos & paruulos eorum tan­quam greges ad solitudinem vt custodiant animalia eorum. Vltra Russiiam ad aquilonem est Prussia,Prussia. quam nuper subi [...]gauerunt totam fratres Te [...]tonici. Et certe de facili acquierent Russiam, si apponerent manum. Si enim Tartari audirent, quod magnus sacerdos, hoc est, Papa faceret cruce signari contra eos, omnes fugerent ad solitudines suas.

De tedijs quae patiebantur, & de sepultura Comanorum.

IBbanus ergo versus orientem, nihil videntes nisi coelum & te [...]ram, & aliquando mare ad dex­tram, quod dicitur Mare Tanais, & etiam sepulturas Comanorum, quae apparebant nobis à [Page 81] duabus le [...]cis secundum quod solebant parentelae eorum [...]epe [...] [...]m [...]l, Quam [...] [...]r [...]mus in solitudine bene erat nobis: quòd tedium quod patiebar quum veni [...]ba [...]us ad mansiones eorum non possem exprimere verbis. Volebat enim dux noster, quod ad quo [...]l b [...]t capitan [...]os ing [...]e­derer cum xe [...]o: & ad hoc non sufficiebant expensae. Quotidie enim e [...]amus octo personae comed [...]ntes viaticum nostrū exceptis seruientibus, qui omnes volebant comedere nobiscum. Nos enim eramus quinque, & ipsi tres qui ducebant nos: duo ducentes bigas, & vnus iturus nobiscum vsque ad Sattach. Carnes quas dabant non sufficiebant; nec inueni [...] bamus aliquid venale pro moneta. Et cum sedebamus sub bigis nostris pro vmbra,Calor [...]aximu [...] ibiin aestate. quia calor erat ibi maximus illo tempore, ipsi ita importune ingerebant se nobis, quod conculcabant nos, volentes omnia nostra videre. Si arripiebat eos appetitus purgandi ventrem, non elongabant se a nobis, quam possit [...]aba iactari. Imo iuxta nos colloquentes mutuò faciebant immunditias suas: & multa alia faciebant quae erant supra modum tediosa. Super omnia grauabat me, quod cum volebam dicere eis aliquod verbum aedificationis, interpres meus dicebat, non facietis me praedicare; quia nescio talia verba dicere. Et verum dicebat. Ego enim perpendi postea, quum in [...]epi aliquan­tulum intelligere idioma, quod quum di [...]ebam vnum, ipse totum aliud dicebat, secundum quod ei occurrebat. Tunc videns periculum loquendi per ipsum, elegi magis tacere. Ambula­uimus ergo cum magno labore de mansione in mansionem: ita quod pancis diebus ante festum bea [...]ae Mariae Magdalenae veni ad fluuium magnum Tanais: qui diuidit Asiam ab Europa,Tanais fluuius, sicut Nilus fluuius AEgypti, Asiam ab Africa. In illo loco quo applicuimus fecerunt Baat [...] & Sartach fieri quoddam casale de Rutenis in ripa orientali, qui transferunt nuncios & mercatores cum nauiculis.Casale Ruteno­rum. Ipsi transtulerunt nos primo & postea bigas ponentes vnam rotam [...]n vna barea & aliam in alia, ligantes barcas ad inuicem; & sic remigantes transibant. Ibi egit dux noster valde stulte. Ipse enim credebat, quod illi de casali deberent nobis ministrare equos, & dimis [...] anima­lia quae adduxeramus in alia biga, vtredirent ad dominos suos. Et quam postulauimus ab eis animalia, ipsi respondebant quod habebant priuilegiū à Baatu, quod non tenerentur ad aliud, nisi transferre euntes & redeuntes: etiam à mercatoribus accipiebant magnum tributum. Stetimus ergo ibi in ripa sluminis tribus diebus. Prima die dederunt nobis mag [...]m borbatam recen [...]em: secunda die panem de siligine & parum de carnibus, quas acceperat procurator villae os [...]iatim per diuersas domos. Tertia die pisces siccos, quos habent ibi in magna multitu­dine. Fluuius ille erat ibi tantae [...]atitudinis, quantae est Sequana Parisijs.Latitudo Tanais. Et antequam perue­nissemus ad locum illum, transiuimus multas aquas pulcherrimas & piscosissimas: Sed Tartari nesciunt eos capere: nec curant de pisce nisi sit ita magnus, quod pos [...]unt comedere ca [...]nes eius, sicut carnes arietinas. Ille fluuius est terminus Orientalis Russiae; & oritur de paludibus quae pertingunt ad Oceanum ad aquilonem.Oceanus. Fluuius vero currit ad merid [...]em in quoddam magnum Mare septingentorum millium, antequam pertingat ad Mare Ponti: Et omnes aquae quas transiuimus vadunt ad illas partes. Habet etiam piedictum flumen magnam syluam in ripa Occidentali. Vlti a locum illum non ascendunt Tartari versus Aquilonem: quia tunc tem­poris Ad introi [...]um Augusti [...]deunt ad meridiem. circa introitum Augusti incipiunt redire versus meridiem. Vnde aliud est casale infe [...]ius vbi transeunt nuncij tempore hyemali. Eramus igitur ibi in magna angustia, quia nec equos nec boues inueniebamus pro pecunia. Tandem postquam ostendi eis, quod laboraui pro com­muni vtilitate omnium Christianorum, accōmodauerunt nobis boues & homines: nos autem oportebat ire pedibus. Tunc temporis metebant siliginem: tri [...]icum non proficiebat ibi bene. Milium habent in magna copia. Mulieres Rutenae ornant capita sicut nostrae. Supertunicalia sua exterius ornant vario vel grisio a pedibus vsque ad genua. Homines portant capas sicut Teutonici: sed in capite portant pileos de siltro acutos in summitate longo acumine. Ambu­lauimus ergo tribus diebus non inuenientes populum. Et cum essemus valde farigati & boues similiter, nec sciremus quorsum possemus Tartaros inuenire, accurretunt sebito duo equi, quos recepimus cum gaudio magno, & ascenderunt eos dux noster & interpres, vt specula­rentur quorsum possemus populum inuenire. Tandem quarta die inuentis hominibus gaulsi sumus tanquam naufragi venientes ad portum. Tunc acceptis equis & bobus i [...]imus de mansione ad mansionem donec peruenimus vsque ad herbergiam Sartach secundo Calendas Augusti.

De regione Sartach, & de gentibus illius.

REgio ista vltra Tanaim est pulcherrima, habens flumina & syluas ad aquilonem. Sunt syluae maximae, quas inhabitant duo genera hominum: Moxel scilicet, qui sunt sine lege, puripagani. Ciuitatem non habent sed casulas in syluis. Dominus eorum & magna [Page 82] pa [...]s eorum fuerunt interfecti in Alemania, Tartari enim duxerant eos ad introitum Alemaniae. Vnde ipsi multum commendant Alemanos, sperantes quod adhuc liberabuntur per eos à ser­uitute Tartarorum. Si mercator veniat ad eos, oportet quod ille apud quem primo descendit prouideat ei quamdiu vult esse inter eos. Si quis dormiat cum vxore alterius, ille non curat nisi videat proprijs oculis: vnde non sunt Zelotypi. Abundant apud eos porci, mel, & cera, pel­les preciosae, & falcones. Post illos sunt alij qui dicuntur Merdas, quos latini vocant Merduos, & [...]unt Saraceni.Merdui Saraceni. Post illos est vel Volga fluuius. Etilia, quae est maior fluuius, quam vnquam viderim: & venit ab Aquilone de maiori Bulgaria tendens ad meridiem: & cadit in quendam lacum habentem spacium quatuor mensium in circuitu, de quo postea dicam vobis. Ista ergo duo flumina Ta­nais & Etilia versus regiones Aquilonis per quas transiuimus non distant ab inuicem nisi de­cem dietis, sed ad meridiem multum diuiduntur ab inuicem. Tanais enim descendit in Mare Ponti: Etilia facit praedictum Mare siue lacum, cum alijs multis fluminibus, quae cadunt in illum de Perside. Habebamus autem ad meridiem montes maximos in quibus habitant in late­ribus versus solitudinem illam Cergis & Alani siue Kerkis. vel Aas. Acas, qui [...]unt Christiani & adhuc pug­nant contra Tartaros. Post istos prope Mare siue lacum Etiliae sunt quidam Saraceni qui di­cuntur Lesgi,Lesgi Saraceni. qui similiter obediunt. Post hos est Porta ferrea, quam secit Alexander ad ex­cluden das Barbaras gentes de Perside: de cuius situ dicam vobis postea, Re [...]i [...]us eius per Derbent. quia transiui per eam in reditu. Et inter ista duo flumina in illis terris per quas transiuimus habitabant Comam antequam Tartari occuparent eas.

De Curia Sartach & de gloria eius.

INuenimus ergo Sartach prope Etiliam per tres dietas: cuius curia valde magna videbatur nobis: quia habet sex vxores, & filius eius primogenitus iuxta eum duas vel tres: & quae­libet habet domum magnam & bigas forte ducentas. Accessit autem ductor noster ad quen­dam Nestorinum Coiat nomine,Coiat Nes [...]o­rinus. qui est vnus de maioribus Curiae suae. Ille fecit nos ire valde longe ad domini Iannam. Ita vocant illum qui habet [...]fficium recipiendi nuncios. In sero praecepit nobis dictus Coiat, vt veniremus ad eum. Tunc incepit quaerere ductor noster quid portaremus e [...], & coepit multum scandalizari, quum vidit quod nihil parabamus ad portan­dum. Stetimus coram eo, & ipse sedebat in gloria sua & faciebat sonare citharam & saltare coram se. Tunc dixi ei verba praedicta qualiter veniremus ad dominum eius, rogans eum vt i [...]uaret nos vt Dominus eius videret literas nostras. Excusaui etiam me quia monachus eram, non habens, nec recipiens, nec tractans aurum vel argentum vel aliquid preciosum, solis libris & capella in qua ser [...]iebamus deo exceptis: vnde nullum xenium afferebamus einec domino suo. Qui enim propria dimiseram, non poteram portator esse alienorum. Tunc respondit sa­tis mansuete, quod bene faciebam ex quo eram monachus: sic seruarem votum meum, & non indigebat rebus nostris; sed magis daret nobis de suis, si indigeremus: & fecit nos sedere & bibere de lacte suo. Et post pauca rogauit vt diceremus benedictionem pro eo, quod & fecimus. Quaesiuit & quis esset maior dominus inter Francos. Dixi, Imperator, si haberet terram suam in pace. Non, inquit, sed Rex Franciae. Audiuerat enim de vobis à domino Baldewyno de Hannonia. Inueni etiam ibi vnum de Socijs domus Dominicae, qui fuerat in Cypro, qui narra­uerat omnia quae viderat. Tunc reuersi sumus ad hospitium nostrum. In cras [...]ino misi ei vnum flasconem de vino Muscato, quod optime se custodierat in tam longa via; & cophinum ple­num biscocto quod fuit ei gratissimum, & retinuir illo sero famulos nostros secum. In crastino mandauit mihi quod venirem ad curiam; afferens literas regis & capellam & libros mecum, quia dominus suus vellet videre ea: quod & fecimus, onerantes vnam bigam libris & capella, & aliam pane & vino & fructibus. Tunc fecit omnes libros & vestes explica [...]i, & circumstabant nos in equis multi Tartari & Christiani & Saraceni: quibus inspectis, quaesiuit, si vellemista omnia dare domino suo, quo audito, expaui, & displicuit mihi verbum, dissimulans tamen re­spondi, domine rogamus, quatenus dominus noster dignetur recipere panem illum, vinum & fructus non pre xenio quia exiguum quid est, sed pro benedictione, ne vacua manu veni [...] mus coram eo. Ipse autem videbit literas domini regis, & per eas sciet, qua de causa venimus ad eum: & tunc stabimus mandato eius nos & omnes res nostrae. Vestes enim sanctae sunt, & non licet eas contingere nisi sacerdotibus. Tunc praecepit quod indueremus nos ituri coram do­mino suo: quod & fecimus. Ego autem indutus preciosioribus vestibus accepi in pectore puluinar, quod erat valde pulchrum, & biblium quod dederatis mihi, psalterium pulcherrimum, quod dederat mihi domina regina, in quo erant picturae pulc [...]rae. Socius meus accepit missale & crucem, clericus indutus supercilicio accepit thu [...]ibulum: sic accessimus ante dominum eius: [Page 83] fil [...]rum quod pendebat ante ostium vt nos posset videre. Tunc fecerunt flectere genua ter cle­rico & interpreti: à nobis non requisiuerunt. Tunc monuerunt nos valde diligenter, vt caue­remus ingrediendo & egrediendo ne tangeremus limen domus, & vt cantaremus aliquam be­nedictionem pro eo. Tunc ingressi sumus cantando, Salue regina. In introitu autem ostij sta­bat bancus cum cosmos & cum ciphis. Et conuenerant omnes vxores eius: & ipsi Moal. In­gredientes nobiscum comprimebant nos. Illic Coiac tulit ei thuribulum cum incenso, quod ipse respexit, tenens in manu diligenter: postea tulit ei psalterium quod valde respexi [...], & vxor eius sedens iuxta eum. Postea tulit biblium, & ipse quaesiuit, si euangelium esset ibi. Dixi, etiam tota Scriptura Sacra. Accepit etiam crucem in manu sua, & quaesiuit de imagine, vtrum esset imago Christi? Respondi quod sic. Ipsi Nestoriani & Armeni nunquam faciunt super cru­ces suas figuram Christi. Vnde videntur male sentire de passione, vel erubescunt eam. Postea fecit circumstantes nos retrahere se, vt plenius posset videre ornamenta nostra. Tunc obtuli ei literas vestras cum transcriptis in Arabico & Syriano. Feceram enim eas transferri in Acon in vtraque litera & lingua. Et ibi erant sacerdotes Armeni, quisciebant Turcicum & Ara­bicum, & Ille Socius domus Domini qui sciebat Syrianum, & Turcicum & Arabicum. Tunc exiuimus & deposuimus vestimenta nostra: & venerunt scriptores & ille Coiac, & fecerunt literas interpretari. Quibus auditis, fecit recipi panem & vinum & fructus: vestimentà & libros fecit nos reportare ad hospitium. Hoc actum est in festo Sancti Petri ad vincula.

Qualiter habuerunt in mandatis adire Baatu patrem Sartach.

IN crastino mane venit quidam sacerdos frater ipsius Coiac postulans vasculum cum chris­mate, quia Sartach volebat illud videre, vt dicebat, & dedimus ei. Hora vespertina vo­cauit nos Coiac, dicens nobis: Dominus rex scripsit bona verba Domino meo: Sed sunt in eis difficilia, de quibus nihil auderet facere, sine consilio patris sui. Vnde oportet vos ire ad patrem suum, & duas bigas quas adduxistis heri cum vestimentis & libris dimittetis mihi, quia Dominus meus vult res diligentius videre. Ego statim suspicatus sum malum de cupidi­tate eius, & dixi ei. Domine, non solum illas sed etiam duas quas adhuc habemus relinque­mus sub custodia vestra. Non inquit, illas relinguetis, de alijs facietis velle vestrum. Dixi quod hoc nullo modo posset fieri. Sed totam dimitteremus ei. Tunc quaesiuit si vellemus mo­rari in terra? Ego dixi, Si bene intellexistis literas domini regis, potestis scire, quod sic. Tunc dixit, quod oporteret nos esse patientes multum, & humiles. Sic discessimus ab eo illo sero. In crastino mane misit vnum sacerdotem Nestorinum pro bigis, & nos duximus omnes quatuor. Tunc occurrens nobis frater ipsius Coiacis, seperauit omnia nostra ab ipsis rebus quas tule­ramus pridie ad curiam, & illa accepit tanquam sua, scilicet libros & vestimenta: & Coiac praeceperat, quod ferremus nobiscum vestimenta quibus induti fueramus coram Sartach vt illis indueremur coram Baatu si expediret: quas ille sacerdos abstulit nobisvi, dicens: Tu at­tulisti eas ad Sartach, modo vis ferre Baatu? Et cum vellem ei reddere rationem, respondit mihi, Ne loquaris nimis, & vade viam tuam. Tunc necessaria fuit patientia, quia apud Sar­tach, non patebat nobis ingressus; nec aliquis erat, qui nobis exhiberet iusticiam. Time­bam etiam de interprete, ne ipse aliquid aliter dixisset, quam ego dixissem ei: quia ipse bene voluisser, quod de omnibus fecissemus xenium. Vnum erat mihi solacium, quia quum per­sensi cupidiratem eorum, ego subtraxi de lib [...]is Biblium & sententias, & alios libros quos magis diligebam. Psalterium dominae reginae non fui ausus subtrahere, quia illud fuerat ni­mis notatum propter aureas picturas quae erant in eo. Sic ergo reuersi sumus cum duobus resi­duis bigis ad hospitium nostrum. Tunc venit ille, qui debebat ducere nos ad Baatu, volens cum festinatione a [...]ripere i [...]er: cui dixi quod nulla ratione ducerem bigas [...] Quod ipse re [...]ulit ad Coiac. Tunc praecepit Coiac quod relinqueremus eas apud ipsum cum garcione nostro: quod & fecimus. Sic ergo euntes versus Baatu recta in Orientem, tertia die peruenimus ad E­tiliam:Perueniunt ad Eti [...]iam vel Volgam. cuius aquas cum vidi, mirabar vnde ab Aquilone descenderuat tantae aquae. Ante­quam recederemus à Sartach, dixit nobis supradictus Coiac cum alijs multis scriptoribus cu­riae, Nolite dicere quod dominus noster sit Christianus, sed MoalTartari voluns vocari Moal [...] Quia nomen Christianita­tis videtur eis nomen cuiusdam gentis. In tantam superbiam sunt erecti, quod quamuis ali­quid forte credant de Christo, tamen nolunt dici Christiani volentes nomen suum, hoc est, [Page 84] Moal exaltare super omne nomen. Nec volunt vocari Tartari: Tartari enim [...]uerunt alia gens de quibus sic didici.

Qualiter Sartach, & Mangucham & Kencham faciunt reuerentiam Christianis.

TEmpore quo Franci ceperunt Antiochiam tenebat monarchiam in illis lateribus A­quilonis quidam qui vocabatur Concan.Con [...]n. Con est proprium nomen: Can nomen dig­nitatis quod idem est qui diuinator. Omnes diuinatores vocant Can. Vnde principes di­cuntur Can, quia penes eos spectat regimen populi per diuinationem. Vnde legitur in hi­storia Antiochiae, quod Turci miserunt propter succursum contra Francos ad regnum Con can.Vnde venerunt [...]. De illis enim partibus venerunt omnes Turci. Iste Con erat Cara-Catay.Caracatay. Cara idem est quod nigrum. Catai nomen gentis. Vndè Cara-Catay idem est quod nigri Catay. Et hoc dicitur ad differentiam ipsorum Catay qui erant in Oriente super Oceanum de quibus postea dicam vobis.O [...]us. Isti Catay erant in quibusdam alpibus per quas transiui. Et in qua­dam planicie inter illas Alpes erat quidam Nestorinus pastor potens & dominus super populum, qui dicebatur Yayman,Vel Nayman. qui erant Christiani Nestorini. Mor [...]uo Con can ele­uauit se ille Nestorius in regem, & vocabant eum Nestoriani Regem Iohannem:Preb [...]ytes Io­hannes. & plus dicebant de ipso in decuplo quàm veritas esset. Ita enim laciunt Nestoriani venientes de partibus illis. De nihilo enim faciunt magnos rumores. Vnde disseminauerunt de Sar­tach quod esset Christianus, & de Mangu Can & Ken can: quia faciunt mai [...]rem reueren­tiam Christianis, quàm alijs populis, & tamen in veritate Christiani non sunt. Sic ergo exiuit magna fama de illo Rege Iohanne. Et quando ego transiui per pascua eius, nullus a­liquid sciebat de co nisi Nestoriani pauci. In pascuis eius habitat Kencam,Kencham vbi habita [...]t. apud cuius curiam fuit frater Andreas:Frater Andreas in Curia Ken­cham. & ego etiam transiui per eam in reditu. Huic Iohanni erat frater quidam potens, pastor similiter, nomine Vut:Vut can, vel Vnc. & ipse erat vltra Alpes ipsorum Caracatay, distans à fratre suospacium trium hebdomadarum & erat dominus cinusdam Villulae quae dicitur Ca­racarum,Caracarum V [...]l [...]ul [...]. populum habens sub se, qui dicebantur Crit, Merkit,C [...]it, & Merkit. qui erant Christiani Ne­storini. Sed ipse dominus eorum dimisso cultu Christi, sectabatur idola; habens sacerdotes idolorum, qui omnes sunt inuocatores daemonum & sortilegi. Vltra pascua istius ad decem vel quindecem dictas erant pascua Moal:Moal paupe [...]ri [...]i homines. qui erant pauperrimi homines sine capitaneo & sine lege,Ta [...]taro [...]um s [...]es. exceptis sortilegijs & diuinationibus, quibus omnes in partibus illis intendunt. Et iuxta Moal erant alij pauperes, qui dicebantur Tartari. Rex Iohannes mortuus fuit sine haerede, & ditatus est frater eius Vnc; & faciebat se vocari Can: & mittebantur a [...]menta greges eius vsque ad terminos Moal. Tunc temporis Chingis faber quidam erat in populo Moal: & furabatur de animalibus Vnc can quod poterat: In tantum quod conquesti sunt pastores Vut domino suo. Tunc congregauit exercitum & equitauit in terram Moal, quaerens ipsum Cyngis.Cyngis. Et ille fugit inter Tartaros & latuit ibi. Tunc ipse Vut accepta praedà Moal & à Tartaris reuersus est. Tunc ipse Cyngis allocutus est Tartaros & ipsos Moal dicens, Quia sine duce sumus opprimunt nos vicini nostri. Et fecerunt ipsum ducem & capitaneum Tartari & Moal. Tunc latenter congregato exercitu irruit super ipsum Vut, & vicit ipsum, & ipse fugit in Cathaiam. Ibi cap [...]a fuit filia eius, quam Cyngis dedit vni ex filijs in vxo­rem,Mangu-can. ex quo ipsa suscepit istum qui nunc regnat Mangu. Tunc ipse Cyngis pre [...]ittebat v­bique ipsos Tartaros: & inde exiuit nomen eorum, quia vbique clamabatur, E [...]ce Tartari veniunt. Sed per crebra bella modo omnes fere deleti sunt. Vnde isti Moal modo volunt ex­tinguere illud nomen, & suum eleuare. Terra illa in qua primo suerunt, & vbi est adhuc curia Cyngiscan, vocatur Mancherule.Mancherule. Sed quia Tartari est regio circa quam fuit acquisitio [...]orum, illam ciuitatem habent pro regali, & ibi prope eligunt suum Can.

De Rutenis & Hungaris, & Alanis, & de ma­ri Caspio.

DESartach autem vtrum credit in Christum vel non nescio. Hoc scio quod Christianus non vult dici. Immò magis videtur mihi deridere Christianos. Ipse enim est in itinere Christi­anorum, scilicet Rutenorum, Blacorum, Bulgarorum minoris Bulgariae, Soldainorum, Ker­kisorum, Alanorum: qui omnes transeunt per eum quum vadunt ad curiam patris sui defer­re cimunera, vnde magis amplectitur eos. Tamen si Saraceni veniant, & maius afferant, citiùs expediuntur. Habet etiam circa se Nestorinos sacerdotes, qui pulsant tabulam, & cantant of­ficium suum.

Est alius qui dicitur Berta super Baatu,Berta vel Berca. qui pascit versus Portam ferream, vbi est iret Saracenorum omnium qui veniunt de Perside & de Turchia, qui euntes ad Baatu, & trans­euntes per eum, deferunt ei munera. Et ille facit se Saracenum, & non permittit in terra sua comedi carnes porcinas. Baatu in reditu nostro praeceperatei, quod transferret se de illo loco vltra Etiliam ad Orientem, nolens nuncios Saracenorum transire per eum, quia videbatur sibi damnosum.

Quatuor autem diebus quibus fuimus in curia Sartach, nunquam prouisum fuit nobis de [...]bo, nisi semel de modico cosmos. In via verò inter ipsum & patrem suum habu [...]mus mag­num timorem. Ru [...]eni enim & Hungari, & Alani serui eorum, quorum est magna multitu­do inter eos, associant se viginti vel triginta simul, & fugiunt de nocte, habentes pharetras & arcus, & quemcunque inueniunt de nocte interficiunt, de die latitantes. Et quando sunt equi eorum fatigati veniunt de nocte ad multitudinem equorum in pascuis, & mutant equos, & v­num vel duos-ducunt secum, vt comedant quum indiguerint. Occursum ergo talium timebat multum Dux noster. In illa via fuissemus mortui fame, si non portauissemus nobiscum modi­cum de biscocto.

Venimus tandem ad Etiliam maximum flumen. Est enim in quadruplo maius quàm Se­quana, & profundissimum: Veniens de maiori Bulgaria, quae est ad Aquilonem,Exacta ma [...]is, Caspij descriptio. tendens in quendam lacum, siue quoddam mare, quod modò vocant mare Sircan, à quadam ci­uitate, quae est iuxta ripam eius in Perside. Sed Isidorus vocat illud mare Caspium. Habet enim montes Caspios, & Persidem à meridie: montes verò Musi [...]et, hoc est, Assassinorum ad Orientem, qui contiguantur cum montibus Caspijs: Ad Aquilonem verò habet illam solitudinem, in qua modò sunt Tartari. Prius verò erant ibi quidam qui dicebantur Can­glae:Canglae populi, vel Cangit [...]e. Et ex illo latere recipit Etiliam, qui crescit in aestate sicut Nilus AEgypti. Ad Occi­dentem verò habet montes Alanorum & Lesgi; & Portam feream, & montes Georgiano­rum. Habet igitur illud mare tria latera inter montes, Aquilonare verò habet ad planiciem. Frater Andreas ipse circumdedit duo latera eius,Frater Andreas. meridionale scilicet & Orientale. Ego ve­rò alia duo; Aquilonare scilicet in eundo à Baatu ad Mangu cham, Occidentale verò in re­uertendo de Baatu in Syriam. Quatuor mensibus potest circundari.Reprehenditur Isidori error de mari Caspio. Et non est verum quod dicit Isidorus, quòd sit sinus exiens ab Oceano: nusquam enim tangit Oceanum, sed vndi­que circundatur terra.

De curia Baatu, & qualiter recepti fuerunt ab eo.

TOta illa regio à latere Occidentali istius maris, vbi sunt Porta ferrea Alexandri, & mon­tes Alanorum, vs (que) ad Oceanum Aquilonarem & paludes Maeotidis vbi mergitur Tanais,Oceanus Aquilo­nari [...]. solebat dici Albania: de qua dicit Isidorus,Isidorus. quòd habet canes ita magnos, tantae que feritatis, vt tauros premant, leones perimant. Quod verū est, prout intellexi à narrantibus, quod ibi ver­sus Oceanum Aquilonarem faciunt canes trahere in bigis sicut boues propter magnitudinem & fortitudinem eorum.Oceanus Aqui­lonaris. In illo ergo loco vbi nos applicuimus super Etiliam est casale nouum, quod fecerunt Tartari de Rutenis mixtim, qui transponunt nuncios euntes, & redeuntes ad curiam Baatu: quia Baatu est in vlteriori ripa ve [...]sus Orientem: nec transit illum locum vbi nos applicuimus ascendendo in aestate, sed iam incipiebat descendere. De Ianuario enim vs­que ad Augustum ascendit ipse, & omnes alij versus frigidas regiones, & in Augusto incipiunt redire. Descendimus ergo in naui ab illo casali vsque ad curiam eius.Descendit naui per flumen Vol­ga. Et ab illo loco vsque ad villas maioris Bulgarie versus Aquilonem, sunt quinque dietae. Et miror quis Diabolus porta­uit illuc legem Machometi.Nota. A Porta enim ferrea,30 diete à Por­ta fer [...]ea. quae est exitus Persidis, sunt plusquam tri­ginta dietae per transuersum, solitudinem ascendendo iuxta Etiliam v [...]que in illam Bulgariam, vbi nulla est ciuitas,Astracan. nisi quaedam casalia propè vbi cadit Etilia in mare. Et illi Bulgari sunt pes­simi Saraceni, fortius tenentes legem Machometi, quàm aliqui alij. Quum ergo vidi curiam Baatu,Decscriptio cu­ [...]iae Baatu. expaui; quia videbantur propè domus eius, quasi quaedam magna ciuitas protensa in lō ­gum, & populus vndi (que) circumfusus, vs (que) ad tres vel quatuor leucas. Et sicut populus Israel sci­ebat vnusquis (que), ad quam regionem tabernaculi deberet figere tentoria: ita ipsi sciunt ad quod latus curiae debeant se collocate, quando ipsi deponunt domus. Vnde dicitur curia Orda lingua corum, quod sonat medium,Horda son [...]t me­dium. quia semper est in medio hominum suorum: hoc excepto, quod rectà ad meridiem nullus se collocat, quia ad partem illam aperiuntur portae Curiae: Sed à dex­tris & à sinistris extendunt se quantum volunt secundum exigentiam locorum: dummodo re­ctè ante curiam, vel ex opposito curiae non descendunt. Fuimus ergo ducti ad quendam Sara­cenum, qui non prouidebat nobis de aliquo cibo: sequenti die fuimus ad curiam, & fecerat ex­tendi magnum tentorium, quia domus non potuisset capere tot homines & mulieres, quot conuenerant. Monuit nos ductor noster vt non loqueremur, donec Baatu praeciperet: & tun [...] loqueremur breuiter. Quaesiuit etiam vtrum misissetis nuncios ad eos. Dixi qualiter miseratis ad Kencham, & quod nec ad ipsum misissetis nuncios,Misit rex Fran­ciae ad Kencham nuncios. nec ad Sartach literas, nisi credidissetis eos fuisse Christianos: quia non pro timore aliquo, sed ex congratulatione, quia audiueratis eos esse Christianos, misistis. Tunc duxit nos ad papilionem: & monebamur, ne [...]angeremus cor­das tentorij, quas ipsi reputant loco liminis domus. Stetimus ibi nudis pedibus in habitu no­stro discoopertis capitibus, & eramus spectaculum magnum in oculis eorum. Fuerat enim ibi frater Iohannes de Plano carpini,Iohannes de Plano carpini. sed ipse mutauerat habitum ne contemneretur; quia erat nun­cius Domini Papae. Tunc inducti fuimus vsque ad medium tentorij, nec requisiuerunt vt face­remus aliquam reuerentiam genua flectendo, sicut solent facere nuncij. Stetimus ergo co [...]am eo quantum possit dici, Miserere mei Deus: & omnes erant in summo silentio. Ipse verò super solium longum sedebat & latum sicut lectus, totum deauratum, ad quod ascendebatur tribus gradibus, & vna domina iuxta eum. Viri vero diffusi sedebant à dextris dominae & à sinistris: quod non implebant mulieres ex parte vna, quia erant ibi solae vxores Baatu, implebant vi­ri. Bancus verò cum cosmos & ciphis maximis aureis & argenteis, ornatis lapidibus praetiosis erat in introitu tentorij. Respexit ergo nos diligentius, & nos eum: & videbatur mihi simi­lis in statura Domino Iohanni de Bello monte cuius anima requiescit in pace. Erat et [...]am vultus eius tunc perfusus gu [...]ta rosea. Tandem praecepit vt loquerer. Tunc ductor noster precepit vt fle­cteremus genua, & loqueremur. Flexi vnum genu tanquam homini: tunc innuit quod ambo flecterem, quod & feci, nolens contendere super hoc. Tunc praecepit quod loquerer. Et ego co­gitans quod orarem Dominum, quia flexeram ambo genua, Incepi verba oratione, dicens: Do­mine, nos oramus Dominum, à quo bona cuncta procedunt, qui dedit vobis ista terrena, vt det vobis post hec coelestia: quia haec sine illis vana sunt. Et ipse diligenter auscultauit, & subiunxi: Noueritis pro certo quòd coelestia non habebitis, nisi fueritis Christianus. Dicit enim Deus, Qui crediderit & baptizatus fuerit, saluus erit: qui vero non crediderit, condemnabitur. Ad illud verbum ipse modestè subrisit, & alij Moal inceperunt plaudere manus deridendo nos. Et obstupuit interpres meus, quem oportuit me confortare ne timerem. Tunc facto si­lentio, dixi: Ego veni ad filium vestrum, quia audiuimus quòd esset Christianus, & at­ [...]uli ei literas ex parte Domini Regis Francorum:Li [...]erae Regis Francorum. ipse misit me huc ad vos. Vos debetis [Page 87] scire qua de causa. Tunc fecit me surgere. Et quae siuit nomen vestrum, & meum, & socij mei, & interpretis, & fecit omnia scribi. Quae siuit etiam, quia intellexerat quod exiera­tis terram vestram cum exercitu vt haberetis bellum. Respondi, Contra Saracenos vio­lantes domum Dei Hierusalem. Quae siuit etiam si vnquam misissetis nuncios ad e­um. Ad vos dixi nun quam. Tunc fecit nos sedere, & dari de lacte suo ad bibendum, quod ipsi valdè magnum reputant, quando aliquis bibit cosmos cum eo in domo sua. Et dum sedens respicerem terram, praecepit vt eleuarem vultum, volens a [...]huc nos am­plius respicere, vel fortè pro sortilegio: quia habent pro malo omine vel signo, vel pro mala Prognostica, quando aliquis sedet coram eis inclinata facie quasi tristis, maxi­mè quum appodiat maxillam, vel mentum super manum. Tunc exiuimus, & post pau­ca, venit Ductor noster ad nos, & ducens nos ad hospitium, dixit mihi, Dominus Rex rogat, quod retinearis in terra ista: & hoc non potest Baatu facere sine conscientia Man­gu cham. Vnde oportet quod tu & interpres tuus eatis ad Mangu cham. Socius verò tuus & alius homo reuertentur ad curiam Sartach ibi expectantes donec reuertatis. Tunc incepit homo DEI Interpres lugere reputans se perditum: Socius etiam meus conte­stari, quod citius amputarent ei caput, quam quod diuideretur à me. Et ego dixi, quod sine socio non possem ire: Et etiam quod benè indigebamus duobus famulis, quia si con­tingeret vnum infirmari, non possem solus remanere. Tunc ipse reuersus ad curiam dix­it verba Baatu. Tunc praecepit: vadant duo sacerdotes & interpres: & Clericus reuerta­tur ad Sartach. Ille reuersus dixit nobis summam. Et quando volebam loqui pro Cleri­co, quod iret nobiscum, dixit, Non loquamini amplius, quia Baatu definiuit, & eo am­plius non audeo redire ad curiam. De elcemosyna habebat Goset clericus viginti sex ipper­pera, & non plus: quorum decem retinuit sibi & puero: & sexdecem dedit homini Dei pro no­bis. Et sic diuisi sumus cum lachrimis ab inuicem: Illo redeunte ad curiam Sartach, & nobis ibi remanentibus.

De itinere fratrum versus curiam Mangu cham.

IN Vigilia Assumptionis peruenit ipse clericus ad Curiam Sartach: & in crastino fue­runt Sacerdotes Nestorini induti vestimentis nostris coram Sartach. Tunc ducti fui­mus ad alium hospitem, qui debebat nobis prouidere de domo & cibo & equis. Sed quia non habuimus quod daremus [...] ei, omnia malè faciebat. Et bigauimus cum Baatu descendendo iuxta Etiliam quinque septimanas.Quinque septi­manas iuxta Eti­liam descende­bant. Aliquando habuit socius meus tan­tam famem, quod dicebat mihi quasi lachrymando: videbatur mihi quod nunquam comederim. Forum sequitur semper Curiam Baatu. Sed illud erat tam longè à nobis, quod non poteramus ire. Oportebat enim nos ire pedibus pro defectu equorum. Tan­dem inuenerunt nos quidam Hungari,Quidam Hu [...] ­ga [...]i. qui fuerant Clericuli, quorum vnus sciebat ad­huc cantare multa corde, & habebatur ab alijs Hungaris quasi Sacerdos, & vocabatur ad exequias suorum defunctorum: Et alius fuerat competenter instructus in Grammatica: qui intelligebat quicquid dicebamus ei literaliter, sed nesciebat respondere: qui fecerunt nobis magnam consolationem, afterentes cosmos ad bibendum, & carnes aliquando ad comedendum: qui quum postulassent à nobis aliquos libros, & non haberem quos pos­sem dare, nullos enim habebam, nisi Biblium & breuiarium, dolui multum. Tunc dixi eis, afferte nobis chartas, & ego scribam vobis, quamdiu erimus hîc: quod & fecerunt. Et scripsi vtrasque horas Beatae Virginis & officium defunctorum. Quodam die iunxit se nobis quidam Comanus,Comanus. salutans nos verbis latinis, dicens, Saluete Domini. Ego mi­rans, ipso resalutato, quaesiui ab eo, quis eum docuerat illam salutationem. Et ipse dixit quod in Hungaria fuit baptizatus à fratribus nostris qui docuerant illum eam. Dixit etiam quod Baatu quaesiuerat ab eo multa de nobis, & quod ipse dixerat ei conditiones ordinis nostri. Ego vidi Baatu equitantem cum turba sua, & omnes patres familias equitantes cum eo, secundùm aestimationem meam non erant quingenti viri. Tandem circa finem exal­tationis sanctae crucis venit ad nos quidam diues Moal, cuius patererat millenarius, quod magnum est inter eos, dicens, Ego vos debeo ducere ad Mangu cham, & est iter quatuor mensium:Iter quatuor mensium à Vo [...] ­ga. & tantum frigus est ibi, quod findunturibi lapides & arbores pro frigore:Ingens frigu [...]. Videatis vtrum poteritis sustinere. Cui respondi: Spero in virtute Dei, quod nos sustinebimus, quod a­lij homines possunt sustinere. Tunc dixit: Si non poteritis sustinere, ego relinquam vos in via. Cui respondi, hoc non esset iustum: quia non iuimus pro nobis, nisi missi à Domino vestro: Vnde ex quo vobis committimur, non debetis nos dimittere. Tunc dixit, benè erit. Post [Page 88] hoc fecit nos ostendere sibi omnes vestes nostras, & quod sibi videbatur minus necessarium fecit deponere sub custodia hospitis nostri. In crastino attulerunt cuilibet nostrum vnam pelliceam villosam arietinam & braccas de eadem, & botas siue bucellos secundùm mo­rem eorum cum soccis de filtro;16. Septemb. & almucias de pellibus secundùm modum eorum. Et se­cunda die post exaltationem Sanctae crucis incepimus equitare nos tres habentes signarios: & equitauimus continuè versus Orientem vsque ad festum Omnium Sanctorum, per to­tam illam terram, & adhuc amplius habitabant Cangle,Cangle populi. quaedam parentèla Romanorum. Ad Aquilonem habebamus maiorem Bulgariam,Maior B [...]lgaria. & ad meridiem praedictum mare Caspium.

De flumine Iagag, & de diuersis regionibus siue nationibus.

Iagag flumen 12. die [...]is à Volga.POstquam iueramus duodecim diebus ab Etilia inuenimus magnum flumen, quod vocant Iagag: & venit ab Aquilone de terra Pascatir descendens in predictum mare. Idioma Pasca­tir & Hungarorum idem est: & sunt pastores sine ciuitate aliqua.Pascatir [...]erra, vel Bascinlo [...]um terra vel Zibier. Et contiguatur maiori Bul­gariae ab OccidenteAb illa terra versus Orientem in latere illo Aquilonari non est am­plius aliqua ciuitas. Vnde Bulgaria maior est vltima regio habens ciuitatem. De illa re­gione Pascatir exierunt Huni,Hungari à Pasca­tir [...]riundi. qui posteà dicti sunt Hungari. Vnde ipsa est maior Bulga­ria. Et dicit Isidorus, quòd pernicibus equis claustra Alexandri rupibus Caucasi feras gen­tes cohibentia transierunt: ita quod vsque in AEgyptum soluebatur eis tributum. Destru­xerunt etiam omnes terras vsque in Franciam. Vnde fuerunt maioris potentiae, quàm sunt adhuc Tartari. Cum illis occurrerunt Blaci & Bulgari & Vandali. De illa enim ma­iori Bulgaria venerunt illi Bulgari: Et qui sunt vltra Danubium propè Constantinopo­lin, & iuxta Pascatir sunt Ilac, quod idem est quod Blac: sed B. nesciunt Tartari sonare:Nota. à quibus venerunt illi qui sunt in te [...]ra Assani. Vtrosque enim vocant Ilac, & hos & il­los lingua Rutenorum & Polonorum, & Boëmorum. Sclauorum est idem idioma cum lin­gua Vandalorum, quorum omnium manus fuit cum Hunis: & nunc pro maiori parte est cum Tartaris quos Deus suscitauit à remotioribus partibus, populum multum, & gen­tem stultam,Deut. 32.21. secundùm quod dicit Dominus, Prouocabo eos, id est, non custodientes Legem suam, in eo qui non est populus, & in gente stulta irritabo eos. Hoc comple­tur ad literam super omnes nationes non custodientes Legem Dei. Hoc quod dixi de ter­ra Pascatir scio per fratres Praedicatores, Qui fuerunt isti fratres? qui iuerunt illuc ante aduentum Tartarorum. Et ex tunc erant ipsi subiugati à vicinis Bulgaris Saracenis, & plures eorum facti Sara­ceni. Alia possunt sciri per Chronica: quia constat quod illae prouinciae post Constan­tinopolim, quae modo dicuntur Bulgaria, Valachia, Sclauonia, fuerunt prouinciae Gre­corum. Hungaria fuit Pannonia. Equitauimus ergo per terram Cangle à festo Sanctae cru­cis vsque ad festum Omnium Sanctorum,Cangle planicies ingens. quolibet die ferè quantum est à Parisijs vsque Aurelianum, secundùm quod possum estimare, & plus aliquando: secundùm quod ha­bebamus copiam equorum. Aliquando enim mutabamus bis in die vel ter equos. Ali­quando ibamus duobus diebus vel tribus, quibus non inueniebamus populum, & oporte­bat leuius ire. De viginti vel triginta equis nos semper habebamus peiores, quia extranci e­ramus. Omnes enim accipiebant ante nos equos meliores. Mihi semper prouidebant de forti equo, quia eram ponderosus valdè: sed vtrum suauiter ambularet vel non, de hoc non auderem facere quaestionem. Nec etiam audebam conqueri, si durè portaret. Sed fortunam suam oportebat vnumquemque sustinere. Vnde oriebatur nobis difficillimus la­bor: quia multoties fatigabanturequi, ante quam possemus peruenire ad populum. Et tunc o­portebat nos percutere & flagellare equos, ponere etiam vestes super alios saginarios, mutare equos saginarios; aliquando nos duos ire in vno equo.

De fame & siti, & alijs miserijs quas sustinuerunt in itinere.

DE fame & fiti, frigore & fatigatione non est numerus. Non enim dant cibum nisi in sero. In mane dant aliquid bibere, vel sorbere milium. In sero dabant nobis car­nes, scapulam arietis cum costis & de brodio ad mensuram bibere. Quando habebamus de brodio carnium ad satietatem optimè reficiebamur. Et videbatur mihi suauiffimus potus & [Page 89] maximè nutriens. Feria sexta permanebam ieiunus vs (que) ad noctem, nihil hauriens. Tunc opor­tebat me in tristitia & dolore comedere carnes. Aliquando oportebat nos comedere carnes semic octas vel ferè crudas propter defectum materiae ignis,Defectus materie ignis. quando iace bamus in campis & de nocte descendebamus: quia tunc non po