Beeing the onely rare booke of Mylli­tarie profession: drawne out of all our late and for­raine seruices, by William Garrard Gentleman, who serued the King of Spayne in his warres fourteene yeeres, and died Anno. Domini. 1587.


Which may he called, the true steppes of warre, the perfect path of knowledge, and the playne plot of warlike exercises: as the Reader heereof shall plainly see expressed.


Corrected and finished by Captaine Hichcock. Anno. 1591.

AT LONDON, Printed for Roger Warde, dwelling at the signe of the Purse in the Olde-balie. Anno. M. D. XCI.

To the right Honourable Robert De­uorax, Earle of Essex, &c. Knight of the noble order of the Garter, & Maister of her Maiesties horse. Health, honour, and happines, both in this world, and the world to come, hartily wished for.

HAuing been requested (right Honourable) by a dy­ing Souldiour, to publish in his behalfe, the xiiij. yeeres fruites of his mercinarie tra­uaile, in the wars of the Low Countries: I haue thought fit for that the trauaile of well deseruing paines, shal not die together with the dead man, to publish his industrie, so worthy both of knowledge and prac­tise, to the worlds view, for the present and future benefit of our Nation (as his chiefest care was) that they might with ease, reach into the knowledge of that, the knowing whereof, had cost him time, toyle, blood, and studie. The worke is commen­ded by Captaine Robert Hichcock and others, such as experience hath made able to iudge in this ho­norable [Page] profession: so that for me to bestow more praises, vpon a thing so praised, were but to lessen what I wish increased, and to seeme to commend that which doth best commende it selfe. Onely thys ayde I couet, to adde for his greatest grace, that it would please your Lordship, vnder the pro­tection of your honourable acceptance, to deigne the patronage of his painfull endeuours, and then the worke may be assured of defence: as when a well deseruing seruant, is supported by an able de­fending Maister. Therefore onely by your Lord­shyppe I wish this worke may be pefected, whose humors and honours of minde, so well suteth with the honourable matter it treateth on, that as there cannot be (of worldly things) a more worthy sub­iect then this to write on, so can there not be found a more woorthie Patron, for a discourse of such worth, whose rase assured him a Souldiour whilst the flower was in the bud: and whose timely yeres since, haue witnessed that of his valoure, which neyther time nor yeeres can deface. I pray GOD rayse vp many such mindes, to make our Country of all Nations the most happy: and also that thys worke may stirre vppe the harts of all Noble men, Gentlemen, and all other her Maiesties subiects that minde to professe Armes, that by the exercise [Page] of the same they may be the better instructed with greater skill, and so with theyr manly and valiant mindes, to the defence of our most gracious soue­raigne Lady, Queene Elizabeth, and theyr natiue Countrey. And thus in all humilitie I cease, wish­ing your Lordshippe such fortunes and happines, as doe euer attend so honourable and vertuous de­serts.

Your Lordships deuoted poore freende: Thomas Garrard.

Faultes escaped.

  • IN the Epistle to the Reader, page 1. line 5. for foure, reade fewe.
  • Page 28. line 30. for espion, reade espiall.
  • Page 42. line 28. for lost, reade loose.
  • Page 49. line 12. for be by what, reade be punished.
  • Page 52. line 36. for them, read then.
  • Page 68. line 7. for reseruing, reade receiuing.
  • Page 130. line 12. for for, read but.
  • Page 131. line 35. for the standerd bearer, read the Ensigne.
  • Page 132. line 15. for where, read with.
  • Page 133. line 36. for it, reade is.
  • Page 143. line 1. for more bent, be more bent.
  • Page 157. line 6. for but in, reade as in.
  • Page 164. line 25. for reseruing, reade receiuing.
  • Page 184. line 23. for be rest, reade the rest.
  • Page 191. line 12. for from the, read from them the.
  • Page 191. line 30. for rendies, reade order.
  • Page 215. line 26. for commit, reade commit errour.
  • Page 234. line 28. for would, reade would haue.
  • Page 239. line 22. for must yet, read must yet haue.
  • Page 253. line 13. for 10500. read 10000.
  • Page 267. line 2. for out some, reade out of some.
  • Page 272. line 7. for of, reade at.
  • Page 272. line 15. for the word, read the wood.
  • Page 276. line 17. for where, reade vnto.
  • Page 304. line 7. for band, reade Proclamation.
  • Page 317. line 12. for Chausse traps, read gall traps.
  • Page 329. line 22. for Counscarpe, reade Counterscarpe.
  • Page 352. line 19. for gracious, reade glorious.
  • Page 352. line 2 [...], for iustice to, reade iustice is to.
  • Page 360. line 22. for seruice, read warres.
  • Page 363. line 22. for of this, reade after this.

Captaine Robert Hichcock, his com­mendations of this Booke: who wisheth to the worthy Reader, great grace, good fortune, and euerlasting felicitie.

THis Booke (courteous Reader) trea­teth of all kinds of traynings of Souldiours, mar­chings, encampings, orders & discipline of war, with all the Offices belonging to a Campe Roy­all, and leaues foure poynts of Martiall exercises vntouched in the highest degree of knowledge, and playnest discourse, wherein a number of rare and probable matters are sette downe, with great studie, diligence, and experi­ence: as well of forraine and familiar examples & proofes, drawn out from fatherly counsell and their graue admonition, as also en­larged by newe pollicies and practises of the greatest Souldiours in Christendome, in these our present dayes, and compounded with the long experience, toyling after the Cannon-wheele, and sharpe seruices, pennury, hunger, cold lying on the ground, and a hun­dred sorrowes, hazards, daungers, and hard aduentures, the which he himselfe hath sustained being the Authour heereof. Thys Booke shall shew and teach the order of the Fielde, the duety of Officers, the charge of Generals, the arte of Warre, & the whole discipline belonging to the exercises of Armes, and marshalling of a Campe and Armie, how great soeuer: and to make manifest the orders, directions, dignities, and princely powers that forraine Kings thys day hath deuised, ordained and sette downe, for the gouerning of theyr Campes, and leading of theyr people.

This Booke also, is so necessary for this time, and so excellent a peece of worke, as cannot be spared, nor red too often, nor too much praysed, and shall be such a myrrour to looke in, that euery vnlearned Souldiour, beholding the same with eyes of iudgment, shall at the first sight behold his owne ignoraunce, and become a leader of the ignoraunt multitude, the which before did it per­haps [Page] but with braue words, and bare speeches, that neuer bringes foorth any good knowledge.

Thys Booke shall not with sencelesse imitation leade men a­misse, but with sweete perswasions, and probable matter, shal con­fute the errors of wilfulnes, and confirme the auncient and olde rules for the substantiall order and gouernment of a Campe, and with deepe aduisement to discusse & descide all opinions of wars.

Thys Booke dooth likewise plainly expresse the mistery & hid cunning of fortifycation, and declare in ample and fine drawne plots. goodly plotformes, needfull inuentions, and noble works of great suretie and maiestie, worth the noting, and meete for men of warre to haue in euerlasting memory.

And now, to tell you how thys Booke came to my handes, it is to be vnderstood, that a Gentleman called William Garrard, ser­uing the King of Spayne fourteene yeeres in his warres, drew and made this same Booke, with great iudgement & good leysure, and comming into England, in short time after sickned, and before his death, sent the sayd Booke to Sir Thomas Garrard Knight, vnto whom he was a very neere kinseman. Sir Thomas hauing regarde to the seruice of her Maiestie and his Countrey, and seeing the time required the publishing of the same, conferred with mee a­bout the same: praying me, to correct the faultes of the Booke, the which I haue doone with good consideration. Confessing, though somewhat I haue seene and red, beside my experience in the warres, that neuer to thys day came such a Booke into myne hands: for goodnes, for plainenes, for perfectnes, & true demon­strations, hoping that no man of iudgement, but will yeelde due commendations to the dead deuiser of thys large and worthy vo­lume, and that the reading of the same shall so please, & content, all that shall behold it, that they shall giue their common consent, that the Booke is worthy the embrasing to be red, to be knowne, and the directions therein to be followed. The worke it selfe is sufficient to winne fauour, and perswade more good matter, then any Booke that euer I sawe touching the arte of warre, to the reach of myne vnderstanding, as knoweth Almighty GOD: who send you all happines. 1590.

Alwaies yours in most humble manner, Robert Hichcock.

THE FIRST BOOKE OF MILITARIE DIRECTIONS, In the vvhich is set out hovv a good Souldiour, Disnier, and Corporall, ought to behaue themselues in vvarres: Togither with the Martiall Lawes of the field, and other necessarie Notes and Offices,
And first what is to be required, and necessarie to be obserued in a priuate Souldier.

THE platforme of a Fortresse, by how much more it is planted vpon a sure foundation, by so much more it is perticipant of a firme and forceable perfection: which reason duelie considered it ought to lead euery man so to rule himselfe in all his affaires, as he may be both apt to receiue, and able to performe all vertuous & valerous actions. Therfore he that desires to become a Souldier of assured good quality, to the intent he may be able to perseuer in each enterprise, beare out euery brunt stoutly, and serue sufficiently, he ought to haue a strong body, sound, free from sicknesse, & of a good complexion: So shall hee bee able to resist the continuall to [...]le and trauaile, which of necessitie hee must dailie take, as continual and extreame cold in the win­ter, immoderate heate in the Sommer, in marching in the day, keeping sentinell in the night, and in his cold Cabben, in secret ambushes, and in Trenches, where perchance hee shall stand a number of houers in the water and myre vp to the knees: and besides vpon Bulwarkes, breaches in espials, i [...] Sentinels, perdues, and such like, when occasion requires [Page 2] and necessitie constraines: of all which exploits and discommodities he must perforce be partaker.

Wherefore that man which is not of such sufficiencie in bodie (to the end h [...]e spende not his time in vaine) it is verie requisite he resolue him­selfe to exercise some other profession, for although some do hold that few men be strong by nature, but many by exercise and industrie: yet that notwithstanding strength of bodie is first to bee required, in respect that a Souldier must be as well acquainted, and as [...]ble to beare continual trauail, as a Bird can endure to fl [...]e, yea and to put on a resolute minde to beare all the miserics and ha [...]ardes of warlike affaires. A Soldier is generally i [...] be chosen betwixt 18. and 4. 6. yeares.

Moreouer I suppose it most necessarie, that euerie man according to the nature of his bodie, and the inclined motion of his minde, make elec­tion of his Armes and weapons, as of pike, halberd, or [...]: ne­uerthelesse respect ought to be had to the p [...]oportion o [...] his person, and to take such Armes as doth best agree with the same: to a tall man a Pike, to a [...] stature a halberd, and to a litle nimble person a Pe [...]ce. But if he preferre his proper disposition before the qualitie of his per­son, it is verie necessarie hee exercise that weapon he makes choise of, to the intent he may attaine vnto a moste perfect practise of the same, for as no man at the first time when h [...]e takes any toole or inst [...]ument in his hand, growes immediatly at that instant to be a perfect artificer: euen so it is with a Sou [...]dier, [...] experience hath instructed h [...]m: touching wh [...]ch I meane to say somewhat.

Hee which seekes to attaine and attribute to himselfe the honoura­ble name of a Souldier, must first employ his time in practise of those Armes wherewith hee meanes to serue, and so appl [...]e his time, that when any enterprise shall cast him foorth to make proofe thereof, hee may be able to handle his Peece with due dex [...]eritie, and his pike with an assured [...]: since these be she weapons wherewith now Mars doth most cō [...] arm his warlike troupe, and trie each doubtfull fight of bloudy [...] for in this our age experiēce & practise makes apparant that Archers amongest forr [...]ine Nations be neuer vsed, and the Halberd but either amongst fewe or fewe in number. The Archer serues to small purpose, but when he is shadowed with some Trench or Bulwarke free from Hargabuse or Mushet shet: Or that lyning a band of Hargabu­siers, he doth second them in any [...] onset, and then a whole flight of [...], so that they be light and able to flie aboue twelue score, will meru [...]ilously gaule any maine battaile of footmen or Squadron of Hors­men, [Page 3] The Halberd likewise doth onely serue in the sacke of a Towne, in a b [...]rach, in a Sallie or Can [...]isado, to enter a house, or in the throng of a stroken battade to execute slaughter. Wherefore touching these two weapons, vnlesse necessitie constrame, and that Hargabusiers be wan­ting, Archers may well be spa [...]ed: and these great numbers of Halber­diers and Bill men, which are and haue bin in times past vsed in Eng­land, may well be left off, saue a sew to guard euery Ensigne, and to at­tend vppon the Colonell, or [...], which man Army will amount [...]d a [...] number to depresse [...] ouercome and flying enemy.

Therefore a Souldier must either [...] himselfe to beare a Peece or a Pyke: [...] hee bea [...]e a Peece, th [...]n must he first learne to hold the same, to [...] h [...]s [...] his two formost fingers and his th [...]mbe, and to plant the great [...] on h [...]s breast with a gallant sou [...]dierlike grace: and being ignorant, to the int [...]nt he may be more encouraged, let him [...] first with the firing of [...] in hys pa [...], and so by [...]egrees bo [...]h to [...] off, to bow and beare v [...] hys body, and so consiquently to attaine to the leuell and practise of an assured and serui [...]eable shot, readily cha [...]ge and with a [...] couch dis­charge, making cho [...]se at the [...]ame instant of his marke with a quicke and vigy [...]ant eye.

Hys Fiaske and Tutchbaxe must keepe hys Pouder, hys purse and mouth hys bullets: in skyrmysh hys left hand must hold hys match and Peece, and the right ha [...]d vse the office of chargyng and dischargyng.

Beyng agaynst he Enemy, why left with an [...] course he [...] doth trauerse hys p [...]layne ground, or else takes aduantage of his place and i [...] ­uasion, as vnder the safegard of a Trench, the backe of a Dytch, olde wall, tree, or such lyk: let hym euer fyrst loade hys Pe [...]ce wyth Pou­der out of hys Flaske, then with hyr Bullet, & last wyth amuring, and tutch Pouder, [...] euer that the [...] be el [...]ane, the couer [...], and the Tutch hole wyde, or else wei [...]: so that still obseruing mo­dest order t [...] h [...]s trauerse, neither euerflow, nor ouer speedy, to the [...] he become not each mans marke through his stuggish [...]es, nor run hi [...] ­selfe out of breath through his owne [...], for the most parte [...] hys side towards hys enemie: let him discharge going, bu [...] ▪ euer standyng: so shall he the better [...] the enemies shot and choose his assu [...]ed aduant [...]ge.

A Souldier ought to bee carefull that his furniture be good, sub­stantia [...]l, [...]nd [...] from raine, the charge of hys Flaske iust for his Peece, and the Spring quicke and sharpe: The P [...]pe of hys Tuch­boxe [Page 4] somewhat wyde, that the Pouder may haue free passage, which o­therwise would choake vp.

In time of marching and trauailyng by the way let hym keepe a pa­per in the pan and tutch hoale, and in wet waether haue a case for hys Peece somewhat portable, or else of necessitie hee must keepe the same from wette vnder hys Arme-hoale or Cassocke, or by some other inuen­tion free from domage of the weather, and hys match in hys pocket, on­ly that except which he burnes: and that likewise so close in the hollow of hys hand, or some artificiall pipe of Peuter hanging at his girdle, as the coale by wette or water goe not out.

It is moreouer requisite, that a Souldier keepe his Cocke with oyle free in falling, and hys Peece bright without rusting, neither must hee want hys necessary tooles, as a Scowrer, Tyrebale & worme, hauing euery one a vice to turne into the ende of the scouring sticke, so that if through wet wether or any other Accident, hys peece will not be dischar­ged, the carefull Souldier may with his Tyreball pull out hys bullet, with the worme, the Paper and wet Pouder, and with hys Scowrer make hys Peece cleane within: His Scowrer must be trimmed on the end with a Lynnen cloth of a sufficient substance, therewith to make cleane the cannon of hys Peece within. The one end of hys Skouring sticke ought to haue a round end of bone of iust bignes with the mouth of hys Peece, therewithall at hys pleasure to ramme in Pouder & Pa­per, or in stéed of paper, such soft hayre as they stuffe Saddles withal, the danger whereof is not lyke: but this the Souldier must vse when time permits. During the time of his seruice let him euer haue diligēt care to keepe hys Peece cleane and bright within, and once a fortnight, or at the least once a moneth take out the Bréech and throughly view and wash the Barrell within, to see whether it hath any flawes, brackes, cham­bers, frettinges, or ruptures, which would endanger the breaky [...]g thereof, especially if before hand the end of hys bare Scowrer haue gi­uen hym any cause to suspect such faultes, to the intent he may change the same for a new for feare of spoiling himselfe▪

He that loues the safety of hys owne person, and delightes in the good­nes and beauty of a Peece, let hym alwayes make choyse of one that is double breeched, and if it bee possible a Myllan Peece, for they bee of a cough and perfecte temper, light, square, bygge of Bréech, and very strong where the Pouder doth lye, and where the vyolent force of the fire doth consist, and notwithstandyng thynne at the ende.

Our English Peeces approach very neere vnto them in goodnes and [Page 5] beauty (their heauines onely excepted) so that they bee made of purpose, and not one of these common sale Peeces with round Barrels, where­vnto a beaten Souldier will haue great respect, and choose rather to pay double money for a good Peece, then to spare hys Purse and endanger hymselfe.

But to returne to my matter, let a Souldier haue hangyng euer at the strynges of hys Tutch boxe, or some other ready part of hys gar­ment, a couple of proyning pri [...]es at the least, that if by fortune the tutch hole of hys peece be stopped or furred vp, hee may therewith both make his pan cleane, and yeeld a ready passage that the fire may haue her course, by incorporating both the tutch Pouder without, and the corne Pouder within together. But a ready Souldier will alwayes foresee that the toutch-hole be so wide, as the Pouder without in the Pan may haue free concourse to that within the Peece, thereby to hasten more speedy discharge, considering a Souldier can not haue leasure and com­modity to proine his Peece at al times, but must of necessity vse a great dexterity.

But since I am fallen into the speech of a quicke charge, and nimble discharge, I will by the way declare the opinion of certaine Nations therein.

Experience of late daies hath taught vs, that those Nations which follow the warres, inuent euerie way how they may endomage the ene­mie in all their enterprises, but especially in Skirmish, which for the most part consistes in shot, and by such as can with the eye of his minde make an assured leuell, and with a nimble discharge, both choose out and kill his enemie.

And therefore those Souldiers which in our time haue bene for the most part leuied in the lowe Countries, especiallie those of Artoyes and Henault, called by the generall name of Wallownes, haue vsed to hange about their neckes, vppon a Baudricke or bor­der, or at their girdles certaine Pypes which they call Charges, of Copper and Tyn made with couers, which they thinke in skirmish to be the most readiest way. But the Spaniard dispising that order, doth altogether vse his flaske.

The French man, both charge and flaske. But some of our English nation, their pocket, which in respect of the danger of the sparkes of their Match, the vncertaine charge, the expence and spoile of Pouder, the dis­commodity of wette, I account more apt for the show of a triumph and wanton skirmish before Ladyes and Gentlewomen, then fit for the field, [Page 6] in a day of seruice in the face of the Enemye: and in like sort the charge which either doth shed and loose his Pouder whilest a Souldier doth tra­uerse hys ground, or else is so cloddered and rammed together, that he shall be forced sometimes to fayle of halfe his charge. Therefore I con­clude with the Spaniard, that a good Flaske is that which is most warlike and ready in seruice without the curious helpe of any extraordi­nary [...].

One of the greatest helpes consistes in Pouder & match: For a Soul­dyer must euer [...]uye hys Pouder sharpe in [...]ast, wel incorporate with salt [...]ceter, and not [...] of Coale dust. Let hym accustome to drye hys P [...]der if hee can in the Sunne, first sprinkled euer with Aqua vitae, o [...] strong [...]aret Wine &c. Let him make hys Tutch Pouder, beyng finely [...] and [...], with quicke paie, which is to be bought at the Pouder makers or [...], [...]: a [...]d let his match be so boyled in Ashes, Lye, and Pouder, that it will both burn well, carry a long Coale, and that wyll not breake off wyth the hard tutch of your finger. The prepa­rations wyst at the first tutch geue fire and procure a violent, [...]edy, and thundering d [...]charge. Some vse Brimstone finely powdered in their tutch Pouder, but that [...]urres and stoppes vp your breech and tutch­hoale.

The Bullet of a Souldiers peece must bee of a iust bignes with the mouth of the same, so that [...]ng in smoothly, it may dry [...]e downe, and close vp the mouth of the Pouder. Some contrary to the lawes of the field vse Chayne shot, and quarter shot, which is good in the defence of a breach, to keep a Fortresse, or vpon [...]pboard: but being dayly vsed, it wil ga [...]e a peece within, a [...]d put it in hazard to breake, specially in a long skirmish when the Barrell is hot.

Note that after hys peece is very heat, let the Souldyer if he can, geue somewhat a lesse charge for feare of bursting his peece, vnlesse hee haue good tryall thereof. If the stocke of hys Peece bee crooked, hee ought to place the ende iust before aboue hys left Pappe: if long and straight, as the Spanyardes vse them, then vpon the point of his ryght shoulder, vsing a stately vpright pace in dis­charge.

It is not in vayne to aduertise him, that in skirmish he must hold his Peece betwixt his Thombe and the ends of hys Fyngers, which I ac­count asure meane, betwyxt gryping of the Barrell, and laying the same onely vpon hys formost Fynger and Thombe, for the one is ou [...]r dangerous, and the other altogether vnsteedy.

[Page 7]I iudge it lykewyse most conuenyent for hym, to take hold of his Peece with hys left hand in that part of the wood (wherein the Barrell lyes) there as the Peece is of most equall balance. Althoughe some ac­custome themselues to hold it iust vnder the Cocke, by reason whereof he shall bee enforced to change hys hand if he charge out of a Flaske, into the myddest of the Peece, to bring downe the mouth to hys Flaske, which is a great delay and hynderance in skyrmysh. So to con [...]e, he that meanes to be accompted a forward and perfect good [...]hat, by conti­nuall exercyse must bee so ready, that in all particular poyntes touching hys Peece, Pouder, Match, Bullets, and the vse of them, that he nei­ther be to seeke, nor grow amased in the furyous rage of Bellmas fiery skyrmyshes, her sodayne surprises, and bloody staughter of dangerous assaultes of crueil battailes.

The Musket is to be vsed in all respectes lyke vnto the Hargabuse, saue that in respect hee carryes a double Bullet, & is much more weigh­ty. He vseth a staffe breast high, in the one end a Pyke to pytch in the ground, and in the other an Iron forke to rest hys peece vppon, and a hoale a litle beneath the same in the sta [...]e: whervnto he doth adde a string, which tyed & wrapped about hys wrest, yeelds hym commodity to tra [...] hys Forke or Staffe after hym whilest he in skyrmish doth charge hys Musket a fresh with Pouder and Bullet.

Now to speake somewhat of a Pykemans charge, a few woordes shall suffice, because I wyll not be ouer t [...]dyous. Let hym learne to tosse hys Pyke, [...]ouch and crosse the same, to receyue the vyolent charge of Horsemen, to front the su [...]us shocke of Footmen, and be able to furnysh out hys ryght both a farre off and neere hand: which notes with the lyke wyll bee sufficient, by reason that hee is for the most part put to stand in a mayn and square battayle. Both the Hargabusier and [...] must weare a short Ra [...]er and a small Poin [...]do: For if in the middest of Encounters and Skirmishes, they be driuen to vse them, their length is an occasion they cannot be drawen, vnlesse hee a­bandon his Peece or Pike, whereby hee shall either loose his Pike, or want his Rapier, which at the Se [...]a and Close is verie necessarie both for Defence and Offence: contrarie to the carelesse custome of some, whom I haue seene come into the Field without Rapier or Dagger, which was an assured argument, that their heeles should be their Tar­get, and their shamefull st [...]ght their saftie, when their Pouder was spent.

Now as these careles persons farre misse the marke with ouer great [Page 8] securitie, so some bring in a custome of too much curiositie in arming Hargabusiers, for besides a Peece, flask, Tutch boxe, Rapier and Dag­ger: they load them with a heauie Shirt of Male, and a Burganet: so that by that time they haue marched in the heat of the Sommer or deepe of the Winter ten or twelue English miles, they are more apt to rest, thē readie to fight, whereby it comes to passe that either the enterprise they go about, which requires celerity, shall become frustrate by reason of the staie they make in refreshing themselues, or else they are in daunger to be repulsed for want of lustines, breath, and agilitie.

Wherefore in mine [...]nion it is not necessarie, that this extraordina­rie arming of Shot should bee vsed, but in surprises of Townes, Escalades, and assaultes of breaches, to defende the Souldiers heades from stones, and such stuffe as they besieged haue prepared to driue them from their enterprise: Or else in some speciall set battaile against the cut and thrust of Weapons, which exploits, for that they bee not so ordinarie as is the Skirmish, so are these armes nothing so necessarie, but rather a burthen more beautifull then beneficiall, and of greater charge then cō ­moditie, specially a shirt of Male, which is very dangerous for shot, if a number of those small peeces should be driuen into a mans body by a bul­let.

The furniture due to a pikeman besides his pike, rapier and dagger, consisting of a common Corselet, hauing a Coller, Curiat, Tases, backpart, Poldrowes, Wambrases, and Burganets for the head, for that they be sufficiently knowne, because I will not be ouer prolixe vpon eue­ry particular point, I will onelie say thus much more touching the pike­man, that he ought to haue his Pyke at the point and middest trimmed with handsome tassels, and a handle, not so much for ornament as to de­fend the Souldiers bodie from water, which in raine doth runne downe alongst the wood.

Euerie Souldier ought to carrie his Hargabuse, Pike or Halberde, vppon that Shoulder and side, which is outward in rancke, for that side which is discouered inward is more defended by the general order that is kept, then any of the other. Which order of carying Armes, is not onely ready and commodious to vse at all occasions, but al­so doth make a gallant shew, and a generall forme of good pro­portion, and true prospect: a thing most necessarie for a man of valour to vse in all his doings.

Hee ought likewise euer to haue good regard to weare his weapon of like length the other Souldiers vse, which in mar­ching [Page 9] doth make the rancks to be of one iust line, and in shew of a seemely and streight proportion, causing the whole band to ca­rie a braue and singular grace.

A Souldier ought euer to retaine and keepe his Armes in safetie and foorth comming, for hée is more to be detested then a Coward, that will loose or play away any part thereof, or refuse it for his ease, or to auoid paynes: wherefore such a one is to be dismissed with punishment, or made some abiect Pyoner. Therefore during his seruice and after his returne home, let him still be wedded to his weapons and armour, that when hee is called vpon againe to serue his Prince, he be not enforced to furnish himselfe againe with new Armes, sometimes old, of lit­tle value, and lesse goodnes: as some Souldiers now a dayes to their great discommendation do vse. A custome altogether dif­ferent from the true exercise of Armes, and varying from the rule of other warlike Nations, which make true profession of Armes: amongst the which the Spaniards and Zuitzers at this day are to be commended, the one for obseruing an apt, sump­tuous, and warlike choise therein, and the other for that they beare all sortes of Armes with great aduantage, both in length & strength, the which vnto them becomes very familiar through the ability of body they possesse.

Those Souldiers which can not endure the toile and trauaile to beare Armes of defence, namely the Pikeman and Halber­dier are made subiect to receiue both blowes and death by the handes of their Enemies, or through their disaduantage to take a shamefull flight, or at the first encounter to remaine their pri­soners. Therefore it is very necessary for a Souldier to take paines in daily practise, and to acquaint himselfe throughly in the exercise and carryage of Armes, whereof hee ought to vse practise, specially of those that bee offensiue, and in those which ordinarily wée are accustomed to carrie, as the Rapier, and Dagger, Pyke, and Halberd, with such like, without making open and apparant profession of the practise thereof, but secret and seuerall from the wide sight of the world, that afterwardes hee may put the same in practise to his greater aduantage and commendation.

Finally the Halberdier, who is armed either with Brigan­dine or Corslet, ought of dutie to attend with his Halberd when [Page 10] his turne comes about his ensigne, in marching, & set Squares, in the Captaines Lodging and Tent for his guard, and at the entrance of a house &c. to bée the formost person to force the pas­sage.

But in a day of battaile the old Romaine Shield and a short sharpe pointed sword, to execute in a throng of men, excéedes the Halberd and browne Bill.

Besides the pikeman which is armed all ouer with a Cors­let, and is to performe his dutie in a maine Square, stand o [...] Battaile, to receiue the shocke of horse men, or charge of the e­nemies infanterie.

There bee yet another sort of light armed Pikes, which only haue the forepart of a Corslet and a Headpéece, as is the Al­maine Riuet, or a good light Iacke, or plate Coate: these some­times may be sent amongst the forlorne hoope of Hargabusiers, to defend them from the inuasions of Horsemen.

But touching shot, I would wish our Nation, being men of strong constitution of bodie, to beare a Peece betwixt the boare of a Caliuer and a Musket, the which with smal vse they would be able to wéeld very well at the armes end, which would cary a great aduantage in skirmish: the which like vnto the Harga­buse, they might (as I said before) exercise, and with a galant and assured raising vp the crooked end of the stocke to his breast, hauing before hand fitted the Coale of his match to giue quick & iust fire, wherof euer he must take ye certain measure, must then discharge amidst his modest trauerse, to his greatest aduantage, and to endomage his enemies: which done, he must first fold vp againe the [...]lne match in a ready and conuenient sort betwixt his fingers, hauing both the endes of his match light at once, that whilest the one is spent, and in kindling againe, the other may serue his turne.

Besides these foresaid weapons I would not thinke it incon­uenient, to haue in a band certaine Targets of proofe to march in ye front, which were very necessarie to defend a ranck of men in a streit lane, passage, breach, or other place from the enemies shot, they all closely and in a low order marching vnder the fa­uour and shade of them: as in askirmish I saw put in practise, when Cassimire did march with the States Armie vnder Lo­uaine▪ 1578.

[Page 11]The Captaine is to set downe by the Generals appoint­ment, the summe of all their paies, and the difference therein, according to euery mans weapon and qualitie. But to speake of other directions, and Militarie obseruations.

A Footman that is a Souldier, ought aboue all thinges to bee obedient to his Captaine, and Officers, and neuer abandon his Ensigne, nor bee absent from his companie without leaue or speciall let. In his march he ought to be modest, ready in his rancke, obserue a long distance in his Laumbande, and kéepe an equall stay in his Alta.

If wordes of aduertisement do passe ouer from rancke to rancke alongst the marching band, let him deliuer those words plainly and with diligence, which the Captaine giues ouer to be pronounced from mouth to mouth, as to Passe Parole apper­taines.

If the enemie cause sodaine Arme, let his Bale en [...]ouche, and his match in the Cocke shew his readie good will either to re­ceiue repulse, or giue charge.

If either for pleasure in a Muster, or in any other shew in sport or earnest, his company be commaunded to discharge cer­tain volies of shot, or a Salua, he must either hold his Péece side­long the ranckes, whilest he doth prepare the same, or with the end higher then their heads, and discharge ouer the toppes of the formost ranckes, for feare of hurting his companions: which rule they ought to obserue, and thereunto be constrained, vppon paine of seuere punishment.

If any enterprise be made in the night, let him not only keepe his match close from open shew, or falling sparkes, but be vigi­lant and keep silence, to the intent that through his negligence and noise their actions be not discouered.

If he keepe Sentinell, and haue the watch word, let him giue [...]are diligently to all rumours, noyses, and view warely all suspected places, to the intent if he heare any trampling, neying of Horses, or approching enemy (which hee may the more easily hear by making a hole in the ground, and laying his care to the same) or that he doth see the twinckling light of matches▪ or per­ceiue any other presumption of the enemie, hee may either by discharging his Péece, and crying S. George, Arme, Arme, giue warning to the next Corpes of guard, that the enemie doth ap­proch, [Page 12] or else if his suddeine inuasion require not present ad­uertisement, he may deferre the report thereof vntill the com­ming of the next Rounde, vnto whom he must from point to point declare what he hath séene and heard.

During the time of his Sentinel, hee ought to keepe him selfe very close, wakefull, secrete, and without noise or rumour, his match close and sure from seeing, and his péece readie charged, loaden with her Bullet, and proind with tutch pouder.

If the Round or any other Officer come to search the watch & Sentinels, when he doth first heare or sée them approch, let him so soone as he doth perceiue thē, demand with a lowd voice, Qui vala? Who goes there? to which whē answere is made, Friends, and that they draw néerer, then let him call to them and com­maund that all the whole troupe, but onely one with the watch­woord, to make present stay, vntill the woord be giuen. And if at the same instant another Round should come an other way, let him cause the one of them to pawse and abide still, vntil he haue receiued the woord of the other, that thereby he may avoyd the inuironing snares of forrayne or priuie enemies, which might by that meanes surprise him.

Therefore in this respect let him take great care, especially before a Towne besieged, or about the circuit of a Campe, and that he alwayes remember to receiue him that giues the word at the end of his Péece or Pike, and out of danger, hauing his match ready in his Cocke, ready to giue fire, thereby to reward him with a Bullet as an enemie, if hee giue a wrong word, or entertaine him as a friend if hée giue the right: for vnder co­lour of giuing the word, many Sentinels haue lost their liues, and suddaine surprises and Canuisados haue bin giuen.

If in the night Arme be giuen in the Campe, he must make repaire immediatly with his Peece and Furniture so his En­signe, where he shall be emploiedas occasion doth offer.

That he may be the more ready at any sodaine Arme, lying in a Towne in Garrison, and being furrierd and lodged in a house, hee ought to haue all the night burning in his Chamber by him a Candle or Lampe, or at the least his fire so well raked vp as hee may light a Candle at the Coales with a match of Brimstone, or otherwise: that thereby he may the more spéedily not only find his Armes (which of purpose he ought to lay readi­ly [Page 13] in an ordinarie place) but also be better able to prepare him­selfe, and kindle his match with all spéede.

Note that a Souldier in garrison being furrierd in a house, is allowed the best bed and chamber saue one, faire shéets, board clothes, plates, napkins, towels, dressing of his meate, ser­uice at the Table, oile, vineger, salt, mustard, candle light, fire, &c.

Whilest a Souldier is in the Campe, hee ought neuer to lye out of his clothes, his Peece ready charged must lye by his side, his furniture at his girdle, which is his Flaske, Match & Tutch­boxe, his Rapier very ready, and his Poynado likewise at his Girdle, which if they should be so monstrous Daggers, or such a Cutlers shop as our English Fēsers are accustomed to wear, they would be both combrous in cariage, and troublesome to his companions, and to himselfe, specially when they lye in their Cabbines.

A Souldier in Campe must make choise of two, or thrée, or more Camerades, such as for experience, fidelity, and conditions, do best agrée with his nature, that be tryed Souldiers and tru­stie friendes, to the intent that like louing brethren, they may support one another in all aduerse fortune, & supply each others wants. As for example, hauing marched all day, and comming at night to the place where they must encampe, one of them choo­seth out the dryest and warmest plot of ground he can get in the quarter, which is appointed to his band for lodging place, doth kéepe all their Clokes, Armes and Baggage, whilest another makes prouision with one of their boyes, in some adioyning Uillage (if time and safety from the Enemie doth permit) for long straw, both to couer their Cabbin, and make their bedd of: during the time that an other with a litle Hatchet, which with a Lether Bottel for drinke, a litle Kettle to séeth meat in, and a bagge of Salt, which are to be borne of the Boyes amongest o­ther Baggage, and are most necessarie things for encamping, doth cut downe forked Bowes and long Poales to frame and reare vp their Cabbin withall, and prouide timber or firewood, if it be in Winter, or when neede requires, whilst an other doth visite Viuandiers and Uictualers (if any follow the Campe) for bread, drinke, and other eates, if otherwise they be not prouided by forrage or Picorée, and makes a hole in the earth, wherein [Page 14] hauing made a fire, stroken two forked stakes at either side, and hanged his Kettle to seath vpon a cudgel of wood vpon the same▪ or that for rost meat he makes a spit, woodden Gawberds, &c. And whilst thus euery one is occupied about their necessarie occasions at one instant, they may in due time make prouision for all their wantes, and by meanes of this league of amitie a­mongst them, enioy a sufficient time to rest their wearied bo­dyes, which otherwise would be hard to be done.

Therefore I iudge it very requisite, that the whole number vnder the charge of a Desiner or chiefe of a chamber, should link themselues together in perfect friendship, and aswel in skirmish and fight aide one another, as in all other actions, by which in­uincible knot they should receaue wonderfull commoditie.

It importes much that a Souldier should bee tractable, for a man cannot imagine a thing either more ingenuqus or better, then due and conuenient ciuility. Therefore let him accustome himselfe rather to be of a Saturnine and seuere condition then a common skoffer, and an ordinarie make sport, that he may continue in friendship with his companions, and continually remaine in their amity.

Moreouer, he is much to be commended, which aptly with facilitie and great dexterity can bee conuersant with euery one: wherein if a man doe not with great iudgement very circumspectly gouerne himselfe, he shall for the most part in­curre the euill will of those in whose company he remaines. The which dealing is of great importance, aswell for the inte­rest of his life, and proper honor and credite, by which meanes the one and the other doth hang in Balance, as also for that he can not, being drawen away with debates, apply himselfe di­ligently to follow the warres and seruice of his Captaine: the which ought to bee his chiefest obiect and end. For discord a­mongst men of this Honorable profession, doth hasten, and occasion very much the destruction of their well doing, and altogether hinder whatsoeuer they take in hande, by rea­son of the suspicions, discordes, despite, and other respectes, which of necessity are commonly accustomed to growe and en­sue.

Besides, he must be so moderate in spending his wages, that [...]e be not constrained before the midst of his pay, either to folow [Page 15] the spoile, or borrow of others: whereof springeth a naughtie reputation and a great discredite: yet notwithstanding he must not suffer himselfe to be noted for a couetous person, or as some say, the enimie of himselfe: that is, by sparing nigardly, to finde a great want & extremitie in necessarie things appertaining to his apparell and victuals, whose expences ought chiefely to be in galant Armor and Furniture.

Note that the pay and wages which he receiues of his Cap­taine and Treasurer, must not be taken or thought to serue or supplie for any other vse, but to sustaine life with victuals, kéepe him apparelled, and maintaine his armes. Therefore ought it to be gouerned discréetly and orderly at all times, in what place so euer he shall remaine, either in the campe, ciuile cities, or in his proper house, as well to kéepe himselfe in health, as chiefely to make apparant to his Captain the noble motion of his mind: So that pricked forward by this spurre of honor, and not for any other extraordinarie and base occasion, a good souldier is conti­nually constrained to winne credite, despising all other dealing which ariseth for hope of commoditie and gréedy gaine, the way to make a man estéemed to carrie a base minde, and almost not disagréeing from brute beasts without reason. For these priuate souldiers which séeke by such meanes as be extraordinarie, to aduance themselues aboue their proper pay, without doubt giue an euill presage of themselues, and so euil, that it should be bet­ter for them to applie their time in some other sort, as about merchandise and other occupations, rather then follow the ho­norable exercise of Armes, which is altogither grounded vpon a noble mind, valiant courage, and extreame trauell of bodie.

He must dispose himselfe to be verie diligent in what exercise or enterprise soeuer he shall be put vnto, as to make Sentinel: wherein it is conuenient, as I haue touched before, that he be verie vigilant when it is his lot to be commanded thereunto, that in doing the contrarie, there succéede not a most rigorous chastisement by leauing his bodie dead behind him, as it may verie well fall out, and to whom it may be said, I left him as I found him, since sléepe is the image of death.

A good souldier ought continually to accompanie the Ensigne, and haue speciall regard, that the same fall not in danger of sur­prising by the enimie, and that he endeuour himselfe by all [Page 16] meanes without anie respect of danger to preserue and recouer the same: for the losse thereof is a perpetuall shame to the whole band. And therefore he ought at no time to abandon the same for anie occasion, but lodge himselfe so néere it as he can, to the intent that amongst ye rest, if it be possible, he may be one of the first at all rumours of armes, and sodaine alarums, aswel by day as night. And being armed with the weapon he caries, hauing conducted his ensigne to the place appointed, by the head offi­cers, he may in the sight of his captaine (shewing a moderate for­wardnesse and desire) bréed an opinion of his courage and valor: so that when occasion doth offer, his captaine amongst the rest may make speciall choyse of him.

He must for no occasion absent himselfe, or go to anie far di­stant place about anie enterprise or bootie of picorée, without the expresse licence of his captaine: for he that is once become a soul­dier is now no more his own man, but his vnder whose gouern­ment he is paid: who desiring to serue his turne when occasions be ministred in time of warres, not hauing his valiant and best souldiors present and readie about him, shal not onely be made frustrate of that he would performe, but sometimes also suffer and sustaine damage, and onely in respect of those which be ab­sent abroad at their owne pleasure, contrarie to the consent and knowledge of the captaine.

He ought sufficiently to eate, rest, and sléep, whilest time doth permit, to the end he be not called for vnprouided, and that he may the more readily performe all enterprises néedfull, without anie discommoditie or want of abilitie, which commonly do fall out vnlooked for, and vpon the sodaine, for in ordinarie and ac­customed enterprises, it is an easie thing to find euerie soul­dier prouided, but in sodaine surprises not. Besides, I thinke it appertains and is proper to a good souldior, to follow the wars so long as he possibly can, for the increase of his experience. But being constrained to returne into his countrie, or into any citie, fortresse or other place of defence, by reason of some truce, seconded by peace, or through anie other accident, which doth constraine him to abandon the warres: then it is necessarie he fall to exercise that art, wherein he chiefly hath bene brought vp, either in merchandise, handicraft, or husbandrie, or else whatsoeuer, thereby to supply his necessities, to exercise his [Page 17] bodie and to liue honestly: and by that meanes flie idlenesse, a thing most incident to youth: who being altogither igno­rant in treading the steppes of a stayed life (through the small experience he hath of the world, which by tract of time is obtai­ned, and by long practise, specially in the exercise of Armes) per­swades himselfe he shall win credite and commoditie through the meanes of insolent actions, which altogither ought to be ab­horred: through rash and prodigall brauerie, which oftentimes torments innocent families and poore parentes: and through galant garments and sumptuous attyre, whereby they grow banckrout: so that they are brought in time (being intangled in those swéete traps sauest with sharpe showers) to run headlong into a thousand & most miserable ruines. Therefore good souldi­ers ought specially to endeuour themselues by some commen­dable industrie, to gaine the good grace of valorous and valiant Captaines, and mightie Princes, the true possessors and fathers of warre, through whose authoritie and commendation they may be preferred: for the faith and assured credite of all war­like and worthy souldiers doth depend vpon men of valor, and not of the weake authoritie, small valor, and great abuse of the ignorant & common people, called the beast with many heads. Therefore let them euer obserue the honor of the good and ver­tuous: for since that in time of warres euerie souldier of good conditions doth sharpen his wit, & willingly aduēture his life, not respecting toyles or trauell, expences or danger, but doth imploy his industrie to preferre his princes profite, by great reason in time of peace he ought to be aduanced and maintai­ned by them: and much the more for himselfe, is to vse all his indeuour to compasse his owne commoditie, and thereby make manifest his proper vertue, the which doth not consist in out­ward appearance of valour and discretion: but in the true acti­on thereof, agréeable to his honorable profession.

A souldier must apparell himselfe in the warres with cloth of fresh coulour, profitable and commodious: amongst the rest, red, murrey, tauney, and scarlet makes a galant shew in the fielde, which he must weare to honour the Militarie profession, and for his most fit and apt wearing, and not to hinder the disposi­tion of his members, as doth our great bumbasted and bulstered[?] hoose, which not many yeares since hath béene vsed: but in stéede [Page 18] of them a straite brabantie and gascaine is to be we [...]ne, togi­ther with a close Cassocke, which may shield both his [...], tuch­boxe, his match and péece from raine if néede be, whereby he may be readie to execute any enterprise he is commanded to per­forme, and that of necessitie he ought to do: and so arme him­selfe in other respectes, that he may redily do any seruice he is assigned vnto.

He must be willing to put in proofe all things commanded, without making replie, or denying any one thing, or deferring [...] matter from one time to another, either for feare of spoiling or spotting his apparel in foule way, or foule weather, or yt he shal not be able to inioy commodious lodging, store of victuals, & such other respects, not to be estéemed of, but worthy great reprehen­sion. Therefore it is requisite he practise himselfe first of all to be a perfect priuate souldier, before he be drawne to the desire of bearing office, which were to set the cart before the horses, and worke by contraries: For first we must learne to guid, and then is it lawfull to gouerne. But it is no new thing, nor to be maruelled at, that some men are accustomed to obtaine charges by vnlawfull and indirect meanes, I will not say, that they vse them accordingly. Therefore to merite a charge, it is alwayes farre more excellent and more conuenient to winne them by de­sert, then to enter thereinto by intrusion: for those that doe not beg them do feele in themselues their proper sufficiencie: where contrariwise they are a heauie burthen to those that know them not, although with great instance they haue procured & sought for them. Which want and vnwarie dealing in this our age, peraduenture procéeds of the small néede the world séemes to haue of good souldiers at this day, and of the little experience most men in our time haue of the art of warre, or at least wise our superiours are blinded with the sweete baites of couetous­nesse, chiefe cause of such elections. Yet this notwithstanding we ought to retaine with al reuerence, the honour & credite due to an expert and good souldier, who with diligence being sought for & selected, as neere as is possible, ought to haue the most chosē charges, and expeditions giuen to their gouernmēt. To the end those affaires may fal out happily, to the honor of their nation & profite of their Prince, whilest he doth follow the wars, or is in Campe: let him carrie as little baggage with him as is possi­ble, [Page 19] that he may be the more nimble and light of bodie, spée­die in his iourney or marching, and the more apt for all enter­prises.

During the warres (or else not) he ought to weare in some conuenient place of his garments, that is most apparant to the view of ye band, a token, red crosse, or scarfe, whereby in skir­mishes and other attemps he is to be knowne of what part he is. The Emperials vse a red scarfe, Englishmen saint Georges crosse, the French the white crosse, [...]. or such a signe as the Ge­nerall of the fielde shall make choice of, which he ought to doe willingly, thereby to remoue suspition out of the mind of his Captaine and Chieftaines, that they néede not to stand in doubt of him: and for diuers other worthie respects, since that by these and like manifest meanes, the souldier shewes inward faith & loyaltie to the officers and Captaines which gouerne. But if otherwise they carrie the said token and marke loose at their necke, brest, armes, or any other place, it giues matter and oc­casion of doubt touching their sidelitie: specially being but new­ly entertained, since that not being made fast, they may easily cast away or hide the same in time of perill or doubtfull fight: which suspicion ought diligently to be remoued by him which carrieth an entire desire and full intent to deale truly & loyally.

He ought likewise to beware, vnder paine of great punish­ment, for running from one campe to another, for what occasion soeuer shal vrge him to it, but is bound to serue that partie with which he doth first place himselfe, euen vntill the ende of the warres.

I haue séene it likewise not lawfull, that a captaine should receiue into his seruice a souldier that is departed from another Captaine of the same faction, and this was obserued, to the end that souldiers should be kept obedient and stedfast vnder their Ensigne, where first they haue placed themselues. Prouided al­wayes, that their Captaines intreate them honestly and well, which is to be decided by the Marshall of the field. Neuertheles, so often as a souldier is forced of necessity to leaue the warres, he ought not to depart out of his seruice, but by the speciall ly­cence of his captain, accompanied with an autentike pasport of his good seruice, so shal he shun many cōfusions which are great occasions of scādals & infinite troubles, by means wherof he may [Page 20] fréely make relation of the good seruice he hath done, and boldly shew himselfe before any mans face.

He ought to take special care, that he be not the beginner and occasion of any discordes and mutinies, neither consent there­vnto, what reason soeuer should lead him thereunto, since that such peruerse proceeding doth not agrée with the worthie, noble, and famous art of war, which is a dangerous discredite to such malefactors, and for the most part without any recouerie doth procure the generall ruine of many valiant Captaines & migh­tie armies. And therfore ruffians and common hackers that liue idle in the stréetes at home, and follow the wars onely for spoile▪ are most vnfit to make souldiers, for experience makes manifest, that they are the onely cause of mutin [...]s, so that one such is able to corrupt and disorder a whole band. Wherefore a good souldier ought rather to applie himselfe to suffer things impossible, then commit so great an error, for by the one great honour and praise shall redound vnto him, and by the other vile act, he shall gaine manifest blame and assured death: for such notable errors, with­out any remission, or any pity (as in part I haue before touched, and her easter in the marshal Lawes shal set downe) are seuere­ly to be chastised.

When the companie doth disband, and euerie souldier is to go to his lodging or cabbin, it is verie requisite he stay vntill such time as he see the Ensigne lapt vp and lodged, to the intent, if he be of the gard about the same, that night he may attend to do his dutie, otherwise he may lawfully depart, & thereby shun the shamful name of a stubborne, licentious & disobedient persō.

He must learne to vnderstand the assured sound of the drum, thereby to know alwayes whereunto he is appointed, and what thing is to be done and obeyed, which of duetie is accustomed to be done, since that with this instrument souldiers are giuen to vnderstand, during the warres, what things be necessarie to be executed. One thing besides is most necessarie for a souldier, which is, that he learne perfitly to swim, both for that waters cānot alwayes be passed with wading, neither at al times boats & bridges can be conueyed with the campe, by reason of naughty passages, as also in diuers enterprises a man is both more safe and more bold, knowing what he can do: whereof young Shelley made a most famous proofe, who at ye victualing of Midleborow, [Page 21] when their nanie was assaulted by the Flushingers, hauing all his companie slaine, swam a shore with his armes, being the last man left aliue a shipbord: and as the Spaniards at the pas­sage of the arme of the sea, when they went to besiege Siricke seas. Besides the notable attempt made at the great riuer of Alba in Saxonie, the yeare 1547. where the Imperialists had so famous and glorious a victorie.

Now therefore let no man perswade himselfe, that the seue­rall and particular experience which belongs to a perfect good souldier, can be perfectly and duely obtained by anie other way, but by a continuall delight, exercise, and obseruation: for no man doth bring any worke to perfection, whereof he hath not the art: euerie art doth spring of experience and knowledge, and knowledge doth arise by meanes of studie and continuall practise. Militarie profession being then more perfect and aboue all other arts, consequently it is necessarie we vse in the same greater studie, and more continuall exercise then is to be vsed in any other art: for somuch as it is a most ancient and pru­dent sentence: All arts do consist in exercise: and therfore conti­nually at idle times it is verie fit and necessarie for a souldier, to practise and exercise himselfe amongst his companions in the campe, in running, leaping, throwing the barre, or such like, to make him actiue, and to auoid such idle pastimes as souldiers commonly now a daies vse, contrarie to all good order.

Besides which, as I haue partly touched before, euery priuate souldier ought not only to be well able to vse the weapon he ser­ueth withall, but also sodainly to vnderstand all cōmandements of his gouernors, whether it be by voice or sound of drum or o­therwise, and to know how to maintein himselfe in order with­out breaking aray, not onely marching, but also turning in a troupe or retyring. For that souldier which knoweth his dutie how to behaue himselfe in the campe, in watch, scout, &c. and likewise in marching, turning, retyring, and fighting or skir­mishing to obserue the order prescribed by his captaine, may be called a trained and old souldier: whereof if he be ignorant, al­though he haue bene twentie yeares in the warres, he is not to be estéemed a souldier. But in these exercises the sergeants and officers are daily & duely to instruct generally and priuately ech souldier, which officers ought of necessitie to haue knowledge [Page 22] in reading, that both what is written before, and shalbe written after in this booke, specially touching the marshal lawes of the field, they may euer read as a lecture to their souldiers, being in corpes de gard, or at other [...]it and conuenient times. For these be things so necessary to be known and obserued, that it doth both import very much that ech souldier should haue them by heart, & [...] were possible, sowed vpon their garments to be a perpetual glasse to looke into, whereby they might guide all their actions, that thereby they might sée what they ought to shun for feare of punishment, and what to imbrace to increase credite.

To knit vp this our first discourse, he that findes himselfe suf­ficient and well inclined to exercise this most excellent professi­sion, ought with all modest humilitie, & good intention, frame himselfe to a perfect obedience, aswel to obserue order, a thing so conuement and necessary in this exercise, as also to execute that which shalbe commanded him by his captaine.

Before a souldier bind himselfe to serue in a [...]and, he ought aduisedly to consider, and expresly to perswade himself, yt vnder an expert, valorous, and worthy captaine, seldome or neuer our trauaile in well doing is forgotten or lost: when as the contra­ry doth chance vnder those that be vain, vitious, and of small ex­perience, who through want of perfection and practise, dee not know the merit of the valiant and valorous acts of a good soul­dier: so that consequently they neglect all toyle & trauaile done in any honourable enterprise. Therefore it behoues a souldier to make a good choyse at the first, for after whatsoeuer hée be, he must still obey him: and likewise alwaies haue respect, and carrie a reuerence to the iustice of martiall lawe, and the mini­sters of the same, though they be of base condition, since both by the law of nature and nations, they ought to be obeyed and ob­serued, and particularly knowne, and had in memory of euerie priuate souldier: for thereby both horesmen and footemen are kept in perfect order.

But aboue all things a souldier ought not to forget his dutie and deuotion toward the goodnes of our Lord God, and towards the holy catholicke Church and our sacred christian religion, by which the true gift of vertue, valor and fortitude, and all good things beside, we most certainly receiue, and are assured to at­taine whilest our determinations be lawfull and honest. And [Page 23] for that a souldier being subiect to a thousand dayly dangers, it behoues him continually to liue as he dare die, and oftentimes to reconcile himselfe to God by confession, penance and satisfac­tion, and receiue the benefite of the other heauenly and moste blessed sacrament.

I haue bene somwhat more copious in this first discourse tou­ching a souldier, then perchance I meane to be in any of the rest, by reason this is the first step and degree a man ought to set his feete vpon, before he mount the throne of perfect gouern­ment in martiall affaires: for if a souldier can obtaine tried experience in this first point, he may with more ease ascend the other, since this is onely the ground-worke of all the rest.

The office which appertaines to a corporall, cape de squa­dre, disnier, or chiefe of chamber.

IT is not to be doubted, but that al notable errors depend only of idlenesse, and that all worthy and commendable acts spring of vigilant warinesse: Therefore a corporall, cape de squadre, disnier, or chiefe of chamber, or how you list to terme thē, ought to be no lesse prudent and carefull ouer the gouernment of his people, then a father in ruling of his family, and as euery pa­rent doth passe in age his children, euen so a corporall should be such, that he may exceede an [...] souldier, i [...] not by experience and yeares, at leastwise with diligence and sharpenesse of wit. Through which indeuour and exercise, ioyned with a feruent desire and delight, to attaine to the perfit tip of this honoura­ble profession, he shall euery day become more cap [...]able, and of greater experience: wherefore I would as neare as is possible, not only haue him expresly acquainted with the aduertisements and martiall lawes following, but also ind [...]ed with the best of th [...]se conditions which I haue set out in my former discourse of a priuate souldier, since yt [...]o mount vp to this second degrée, it is very necessary & requisite, that he haue made long abode in the practise and experience in ye first step of seruice appertaining to a priuate souldier. The captaine must select & choose sou [...]e of the most skilfull souldiers, which be honest, loyall, and perfect ca­tholicke Christians, out of euerie hundreth in his [...]and; whereof two are to haue charge of the shotte, the other two [Page 24] of the pikes, euerie one guiding 24. a péece, the which ought all of them to be lodged togither, and the corporall himselfe in the middest of his charge, whereby when anie secret seruice is to be done, they may call and assemble by the appointment of the superiour officers, their whole squadron, or what lesse number els, without the sound of anie drum.

Now then a corporall with his squadron of 25. or more, ac­cording to the discretion of the captaine, lodging togither with his companie, must prouide generally for all their reasonable wants of wages, match, powder, and other munition, and must instruct them how to handle their weapons. He must likewise remember perfectly howe euerie one is armed and furnished when he receiueth them in charge, and to see that no part therof be spoiled but preserued neat and trimme: and aboue all things to looke well to the behauiour of his companie, not suffering them to vse vnlawfull and prohibited gaming, neither to giue themselues to drinking and surfetting, but to spare of theyr pay to furnish themselues brauely and surely against the enemy, wherein he ought to vse his chiefe indeuour. And if it happen that any fault is committed, his part is not violently to punish the souldier himselfe, as heereafter is touched: but to make it knowne to his captaine, who must not neyther, as some rashly do, reuenge himselfe, but communicate the same with the Mar­shall or his prouost, who onely haue vnder the generall autho­ritie to punish: and this due course of iustice shal be more ter­rible to the souldier, and bréed lesse cuill will in them to ye cap­taine and officers: generally in these respects, the corporal must touching the foresayd causes or such like, or if any souldier be sicke, hurt or absent, by way of imprisonment or death, im­mediatly make report thereof, finding any thing worthy rela­tion, and spare no man, but deliuer ouer the trueth to the ser­geant, the sergeant from hym, or togither with the corporall to the lieutenant, & he or they all ioyntly to the captaine, who is to take order in the cause. Thus shall dignitie of officers be maintained, and officers and faultes redressed, to the great ex­ample of the euill, and comfort of the good. But somewhat more amply to set down the foresaid respects togither with certayne other aduertisements. A corporall must alwaies foresée and exa­mine, that the souldiers of his squadron kéep their armes in or­der, [Page 25] clean and intyre: and the Hargabusiers stored with match, bullets, and powder, and such like necessaries: a thing worthy to be noted and obserued in this profession: the which makes sh [...]w that the same is of a good souldier not onely vsed in time of war, but in all other times and places, being a knowne diffe­rence betwixt the legitimate, and lewd professors of armes. He ought of necessitie still to instruct & exhort them, yt they liue to­gither friendly, wtout discord: that they be modest and sparing in their victuals, profitable in their apparell, and yt generally they do shun swearing, and blaspheming vpō gréeuous punishment, by which act of blaspheming and swearing by the holie name of the sacred Trinity, they commit greater villany & offence before God, then if before the world they did commit most wicked acts, or infinit errors. Likewise let him prohibit al vnlawful games, for the performance wherof he ought to procéed wt as great dex­teritie and curtesie as he can, that alway in matters of impor­tance, he may haue that due obedience which is required, & not through crueltie gaine the hate and euill will of those persons, which in many other thinges beside are to obey him: for to cha­stise them, lies neither in hys power, neyther in the arbitriment of other officers, although they be of degrees higher then he, but doth iustly appertayn to ye office of the maister of the campe, and marshal of ye field. The which point is to be noted and obserued, to ye discredit of some captains, which at this day delight to im­brew their murthering hands in the bloud of souldiers, and men perchance of honest behauior, being moued thereunto through some hatred, toy, or beastly passion.

Therefore he must alwayes be mindfull to obserue this ho­nourable rule of diuers good and discréet officers, who somtimes do ouersee and winke at light faultes, and procéed with a certain modestie and lenitie, although in matters of greater insolency, with seueritie.

Notwithstanding these & such like authorities, the corporall ought to be no lesse obedient to euery least poynt of the marshal lawes: and in ranck and aray, or in other places where those of greater gouernment be, he must performe & obserue the part and dutie of a priuate souldier, and retain like order and obedience: for where our betters be, the lesse g [...]e place.

But when alone with his squadron he is conducted to ye [...]ace [Page 26] where he is to make watche and ward: then must he take vpon him his office, and make prouision of wood or coles, that he may alwaies haue fire burning in his corps of gard, aswel in the day as in the night, and aswel in the summer as in the winter: wtout which he ought neuer to kéep watch, because it is a most necessa­ry munition for the Hargubusiers, to light their match withall, [...] for other néedfull respects. Likewise he must prouide for oyle, for candles for the night time, for lanterns and such like at the sergeant maiors handes, or of some others, who haue charge to prouide for those things, & are accustomed to distribute the same. If he kéep his corps de gard in an open and plain place or other­wise: he must conform the company of his squadron, according to the order appointed by his betters: and with the most spéedy & artificial maner that he can, must arme and fortify with ditches, trenches, and Sentinels, the place where he must make his abode with this his small band and troup of souldiers, the better to re­sist ye enemies furie, or any surprise he might assault him with­all, considering that sometimes, yea and that very often, being set vpon, the Sentinels and corps de garde be repulsed and haue their throats cut, to the great disturbance & vniuersall domage of the whole campe. He must ordaine his watch in such a place, that in the same at all times he may remaine warie and vigi­lant, placing himselfe in the moste high and eminent seate of all the corps de gard, to the intent that he may know and discern in due time euery particular accident that shall happen or succéed: and thereof immediatly aduertise his captaine of all, that hee may prouide remedie with speede, according as the case re­quires. Warily and secretly, euē at the closing of the night, vn­till the bright spring of the Diana, and fayre day light, he must ordaine and place Sentinels, and often search and visite them, with the aid of two of the captaines gentlemen of his compa­nie, called of the Italians Lanzze Spezzate, or might be ter­med more aptly, extraordinary Lieutenants, that he may al­wayes remayne vigilant and assured, to the intent hee be not assailed vnprouided, to his great domage, and before he can giue warning of the enemie to the campe, which doth rest and lie in safetie in that quarter where he is, vnder his charge, care and diligence. In such cases he ought therefore to imploy the best men he hath, that he neuer rest deceiued in a matter of so great [Page 27] importance, since that of those which be but meane souldiers, or as I may well terme them, negligent persons, nothing else is to be looked for at their handes, but error, losse, and danger.

Moreouer, he must at the least cause the third part of his squa­dron to remayne & stand continually armed at all poynts, both night and day, consisting of greater or lesse quantitie of people, according as the suspition doth argue the neede of them to be small or great: the Hargabusiers hauing their flaskes and fur­niture tied to their girdles, and their peeces readie charged, that vpon a sodaine they may contend by skirmish, according to needfull occasion, and readily resist the enemy without slacking or any remission of time, vntill all the squadron be put in order.

He must be very circumspect, that the rest of the souldiers weapons, and principally his owne, be laid vp and placed in such order, one kinde being deuided from another, that in one instant they may be speedily and readily armed: the which hée must daily put in practise, and inure them withall, by fained alarmes, by speciall commandement and of set purpose, which be most necessarie to be practised before-hand for diuers hono­rable and important respectes, worthie to be had in good consi­deration.

Therefore let him haue and carie a continual care, that their armes neuer remaine in any confused order, the which if hée should suffer, he should find no doubt to be a great want: but the same may be preuented, and made easie, by accomodating the Hargabusies in ranck one by one, vpon a boord or banck: ye pikes and corslets, in order reared and hanged vpon some wall or o­ther apt place in the corps de gard, and vpō ech particular wea­pon and péece, euery souldier should haue a proper and speciall mark before-hand made whereby to know the same. He ought daily to instruct his squadron euerie one apart, howe to handle the weapon wherwith they serue: the Hargabusier to charge & discharge nimbly, ye pikeman to tosse his pike wt great dexterity.

Sentinels ought with great reason to be placed about the corps of gard, to the intent the same may be defended and kept wt more safety and securitie. He himselfe at the closing of the night, must place the first Sentinel, and so consequently the rest, instructing them orderly what maner they haue to obser [...]e, and howe they ought to gouern thēselues in such accidents as might insue: who [Page 28] are to remaine in Sentinel in winter and cold weather, but one houre, or two at the most: but in sommer, two or three houres before they be changed: for which respect, that euery one may be [...]ed with equitie, let him first make a iust diuision of his num­ber▪ according to the number of the houres in the night, and fol­lowing that proportiō, let him see the same performed, without fauoring or omitting any, the which he may the more certainly performe, if the names of his souldiers be written in a roll, and when ye houre-glasse hath run their time (which is necessary for him to haue in his corps de gard▪ then to pricke their names, and place newe in their roomes, so shall ech souldier be partaker of the trauaile, and rest marueilously wel satisfied. But for that in wars, Canuisados, Surprises, Sallies, such like casualties & ad­uertisementes be infinite, I will leaue the rest to his owne vi­gilant discretion, & suppose it néedlesse to aduertise him of euery particular point, more then that I haue and will touch in this my first booke of Militarie directions, as cases moste proper for priuate souldiers. I therefore at this present thinke it sufficient for a corporall to know, yt it is necessary he should so dispose the matter through his prouident prouision, that all his people may be reduced into order, and already haue taken their weapons in their hands, before the enemy giue charge vpon them. And ther­fore in time and place of suspition and danger, he must place lost Sentinels without the watchword, a good distance off, from the Corpes de garde, in places moste suspect. But in other places not néedfull so much to be suspected, and that be néerer him, he ought to set Sentinels with the watch-word, so farre one from an other, as it shal seeme vnto him reasonable or requisit, & that they may inu [...]ron the ground one within ye sight of another, or so yt the enemy cānot enter, or any espion issue without their knowledge. If great occasion so demand, let him place togither one hargabu­sier, & one armed pike, to the intent yt the one may kéep the ene­mie far off, and in a certain sort sustaine his fury at the point of his pike, whilst the Hargabusier with the discharge of his péece, giues arme to the corpes de garde and camp: which exployt may be the better performed, if a corporall shippe of pikemen be ioy­ned togither with another of shot. Somtimes without making any noyse or rumour, Arme is giuen to the campe, for one of the two Sentinels may retyre, and make relation to the cor­porall [Page 29] what hath appeared, bin séene, hard or happened, wherby he may speedily with great silence giue Arme to the gard, with­out leauing the place of the Sentinel disarmed, which they ought neuer to abandon, but at such times as the enimie is manifestly discouered. The occasion of the Alarme being certaine, at which time being retyred, they must vnite themselues togither with the souldiers of the gard, that they may all wholy in one com­panie execute that which shall fall out best for their purpose, which is, to retyre fighting or skirmishing to the Campe, accor­ding to ordinarie custome, notwithstanding by the order and appointment of those which haue authoritie to command them, as their Captaine, Sergeant Maior, &c. but neuer otherwise.

He ought moreouer to be circumspect, that in the body of the watch a solemne secrete silence be kept, without singing, braw­ling, or any rumour or noise, and specially in the night, both in respect of the enimie, to heare when the Alarme is giuen, and to the intent that those which rest & sléepe, and are not yet in Sen­tinel, may be the more apt to resist & apply themselues to these factions & exercises, which are required of them with vigilant watchfulnes, since a man cannot without great difficultie re­maine without sléepe or rest, any much longer time then our nature is accustomed by ordinarie course to beare, and therfore at the entrance of the corps de gard, he ought likewise to kéepe a proper Sentinel appertaining to the gard, that neither friend nor enimie comming out of the Campe or else where, shall be able to enter without yeelding the watchword: and in this sort must the Corporall proceed, euen vntill the Diana be sounded through all the Campe. For other respects, I finally refer him to my following discourse, which togither with that written before, it is requisite he haue in perfect memorie as well as the priuate souldier.

Sixe speciall points appertaining to souldiers of all sorts.

IT is written in the Historie of Pietro Bizari, touching the in­credible and maruellous obedience of the Turkish souldiers, that a certaine Gentleman at his returne from Constantino­ple did declare vnto the Earle of Salma, that he had seene foure myracles in the Turkish dominions: which was, first an infi­nite armie almost without number, consisting of more then [Page 30] foure hundred thousand men. Secondly, that amongst so many men, he saw not one woman. Thirdly, yt there was no mention made of wine. And last, at night when they had cryed with a hye voice Alla, which is God: there continued so great a silence through the whole campe, that euen in the Pauilions they did not speak but with a low soft voice, a thing worthie to be admi­red, to the great shame of the confusion of Christians: therefore if the infidels obserue such strict discipline, why should not we that be Christians indeuour our selues to surpasse them therin? and begin with the Spaniard, the Salue and Auemaria, which they vse thrise throughout their whole campe, recommending themselues and their affaires to God, with great reuerence and silence, which I would wish to be continued vntill the diana, when togither with the sound of the drummes, the same might be with a chéerefull crie renued. But togither with silence to set downe certaine other vertues, take them here as I finde them written.


In all places of seruice such silence must be vsed, that souldi­ers may heare friends, and not be heard of enimies, as well in watch, ward, ambush, canuisado, or any other exploit: in which point consisteth oftentimes the safetie or perdition of the whole Campe.


Such obedience must be vsed, that none regard the persons but the office to them appointed, diligently obseruing the same: any offending to the contrarie, runneth into the danger of the law, for longer then obedience is vsed and maintained, there is no hope of good successe.


Souldiers must be secrete, and haue regard that they disclose nothing, though sometimes they vnderstand the pretence of the hier powers. The disclosers of such, merite most cruell pu­nishment.


In Sobrietie consisteth great praise to the souldiers, who vsing the same are euer in state of preserment, such regard their [Page 31] duties, and reproue the rash busibodies. Drunkerds, &c. are euer in danger of punishment.


The Captaines and souldiers that be hardie of courage, be much auailable in seruice, specially such as will ponder what may be the end of their enterprise. Some in times past haue hardly giuen the onset, and after repented the same: but the praise of the aduised cannot be expressed.

Truth and Loyaltie.

The vertue of loyaltie and truth is farre excéeding my capa­citie to write, the practises of the contrarie, are not worthie of life, but to be soone adiudged. Subtile enimies approue to cor­rupt souldiers with giftes, and the diuell to entrap them with the swéete intising baites of lewd libertie. But since the reward of truth is euerlasting life, & the vntrue and dissembler looseth the same in continuall darkenesse, I trust none of our countri­men will learne the one for the other, will be false to his soue­raigne, or flée from the assured piller of the Catholike faith: from which God kéepe all good souldiers.

How a souldier may maintaine obedience, and keepe himselfe in the fauour and good grace of his Captaine and Generall.

A Good souldier ought to haue consideration, that since due or­ders and lawes are the assured foundation & stay of euerie state: and contrariwise, discord and disobedience the ruine of all Realmes: so that aboue all things a well gouerned Generall, and a carefull Captaine, ought prudently to foresée that their Campe and souldiers be paid and punished with equall execu­tion of iustice, not respecting person: yeelding to the offenders punishment, and reward to the vertuous: depressing vice, and exalting vertue: vsing commendation to the good, and correction to the euill, ioyned with admonishments of magnanimitie, the which if they preuaile not, to chastise them: and as the good hus­band doth plucke ye wéeds out of the good corne, to the intent that they by their wicked & pernicious example, do not infect the rest, & consequently doth prouide yt no fault passe vnpunished, nor no [Page 32] valorous act vnrewarded: by which meanes he becomes scared, fauoured, obeyed, and beloued of all the armie: euen so on the other side, the good natured souldier must euer haue respect to keepe the bondes of modestie towards his superiour, and yéeld many thankes to God, that he hath giuen him so iust and vertu­ous a Captaine and General, towards whom he must alwayes yeeld like obedience, that the sonne doth to the father, being bound so to do by the diuine law, without shewing himselfe op­posite to the order of generall iustice, nor ingratefull for his re­ceiued benefites, but continually by his good guiding in the one and the other, giue his Captaine iust cause to loue and like wel of him.

Souldiers be euer bound to obey the iustice and commande­ments of their superiours: and the superiours likewise to em­brace the obedience of their souldiers, whilest he doth sée him­selfe honoured and obeyed of them, either in déeds or words, in earnest or dissembling.

Although the general or captaine were a right Sardanapalus, so that his lawes be obeyed all things fall out well: wherefore a souldier ought with al his indeuour to be obedient to the law, with his whole heart loue his Captaine, and feare him with al his force.

Cyrus being cruell, couetous, miserable, and an cracter of taxes, through iustice was beloued and obeyed.

Cambyses, Marcus Cato, and Marcus Antonius, the two first being seuere and cruel, yet amongst the souldiers were maruel­lously fauoured: and the third, although he was drowned in the deepe and gaping gulfe of Lecherie, Gluttonie, and riotous ga­ming, yet was he so beloued of his armie, that his souldiers would haue suffered themselues to be crucified, to haue done a­nie thing gratefull vnto him, and that chiefly through his iu­stice: and therefore it behoues a souldier to kéepe inuiolate the [...]artiall lawes of the field. But to touch the chiefest meanes whereby a souldier maybe drawne to obey, to scare, and loue the Captaine, and altogither gaine his good liking and fauour, carie in mind what insueth.

First, a souldier must presume and perswade himselfe, that whatsoeuer he doth in secrete, that it shall come to the know­ledge of the Captaine, whether it be good or euill: which feare, [Page 33] if he be wise, wil restraine him from doing any thing pernici­ous, or against ye marshal law, or to the misliking of ye Captain, and so ought to rest in continuall doubt, lest his euill deeds come to light, and to the cares of the superiour officers, that with the sword of iustice, the rod of reuenge, and the scepter of rule, may and will chastice him. If he remember this, no doubt he will liue modestly, in obseruing those lawes which are commanded by the Captaine and Generall: for it behooues a souldier stil to liue in suspect, that spials and intelligencers be euer present at his elbow, which no doubt will accuse him for his euill beha­uiour: of which sort a Captaine and Generall haue great store to kéepe the Campe and souldiers in continuall suspicion and feare.

A souldier must euer show himselfe grateful to his Captaine in words and déeds, by remaining patient in his actions, and not to vse complaints in his spéeches, suffering with quiet con­tentation the penurie of victuals, if the Campe should want, ei­ther through fault of the Generall, barenesse of the countrie, or otherwise by his negligence, or through the malignitie of for­tune, that neither by water nor land corne and victuals can be brought to them in safetie: wherefore he must weare out this want patiently, & not with a melancholike countenance, make apparance of a wrathfull and furious person, by charging of the chiefetaine openly with those wants: for which procéeding, let him assure himselfe that he shalbe estéemed of euerie man an insolent, seditious, and impatient souldier.

Murmure not against thy Captaine with thy tongue, but ra­ther lament in thy heart thy euill fortune, resting content with that portion of victuals his sergeant shall giue thée for that day. Séeme ioyfull whilest thy Captaine is merrie, and sorrowfull when he is grieued, yéelding comfort and consolation, togither with faithfull counsell, as the cause requireth.

Shew not thy selfe full of wrath and malcontent, for want of thy wonted pay, although thou manifestly perceiue the same to procéede of the couetousnesse of thy Captaine: but dissemble and shew him so grateful a countenance, that he thereby may be mo­ued to pay the band, if not all, at the least part. If these delayes procéede not by his fault, and that therefore he laments [...]hy lin­gring want: make frée offer vnto him to suffer all lacke and dis­commoditie [Page 34] to pleasure him withal, whereby he shalbe maruel­lously moued, and much more bound to loue a curteous souldier.

Do not molest him with demanding more succour and prest money, then thou hast neede of, yea and that when needie force constraines.

Report not any thing but that which is profitable and bene­ficiall for the publike state: for otherwise thou shalt be accoun­ted a malicious detractour, insolent, and insupportable, making rehersall of euerie little trifle, whereby hatred is gained in ex­change of gaining fauor. Faile neuer in the diligent execution of thy duetie, and make shew of thy forwardnes, euen purposelie with the first, euen in those things that appertaine not to thy charge.

Disobey not the Captaines or Generals precepts, nor with­stand the martial lawes: neither affirme that any thing is euil wrought which is done, for it appertaines not to a souldier to reprehend: but to a counsellour to admonish.

Do not importune thy Captaine to reward thy trauell and seruice, but attend his liberalitie: for if thou become importu­nate, he will likewise become Marcus Crassus, who at the first vsing great liberality, being continually and ouermuch craued, became at the last extreame couetous.

Present him neuer with any thing, specially with any thing of valour: for thy Captaine which hath no néed of that which is thine, and perceiuing thée to present him that which is not cor­respondent to the merite of his worthinesse, will estéeme the same to be done in maner of merchandise, as procéeding of craft: but if thy Captaine demaund any thing vnder shew of praising and commending the same, or the beautie thereof, it is then re­quisite that the same be liberally bestowed vpon him, it being a curteous demaund, which he commonly will magnificently re­compence, as did Artaxerxes.

Accept neuer any thing of thy enimie souldier, neither re­ [...]eiue any letter, yea if it should be from thy father, without ly­cence of thy Captaine Generall, as a thing which onely apper­taines to counsellers and chieftaines: for thy Captaine would become ielous ouer thy fidelitie, suspecting that thou wert cor­rupted. There is another note, specially to aduertise all soul­diers of, that they doe not rashly, neither of purpose disdaine to [Page 35] be gouerned and commanded of a Captaine, which is perchance of no ancient house, as an infinite number of fond and pre­sumptuous fellowes do now adayes: who being rude and rusti­call clownes, disdaine to be guided by captaines, whose valour and vertue, and not whose ancient stocke, hath giuen them that degrée, being ascended to so hye honour by the steppes of ver­tue: for I haue seene some that but lately haue left their needles▪ their hammers, and their spades, hauing scarce séene a small skirmish, but that they presume themselues to be expert soul­diers, and will say, what is my captaines valour more then mine? Is not he of base degrée as well as I? Not considering that we be all sprung out of one stocke, but that our valour and vertue hath made vs noble, as hath béene verified in diuers Princes, kings and Emperours, as Caius Marius, Lucius Quintus Cincinatus, Attilius Collatinus, Valentinianus, Maxi­minianus, Francisco Carmognuolo, Iulian Romero, and Mon­dragon, besides diuers others moe, which at this day doe liue, being exalted by the degrees and way of vertue, to the tippe of such praise as is most conuenient to worthy Captaines: and therefore no souldier ought to disdaine to be gouerned by such, whose vertue hath made noble their minds.

And moreouer, if anie such a one that is become Captaine, either by meanes of fauour or vertue, be blotted with some vice or defect, yet we ought not to disobey him: for Caesar was ambitions, great Alexander a drunkard, Hanniball vnfaith­full, cruell, and without Religion, Fabius Maximus by linge­ring estéemed a coward, Marcellus rash and vnaduised. And therefore although thy Captaine be accounted most vicious, yet if he know how to gouerne and guide his charge, a soul­dier must obey him, and neither calumniously reprehend him, nor corruptly imitate and obserue his vices, but duely and directly fulfill his precepts: so that no souldier or Gentle­man, of what great house soeuer, ought to disdaine to be com­manded of such as haue risen by vertue, to the height of ho­nour, neither any man, how great of linage soeuer he h [...] ▪ to disdaine to accept lesse degrées then a Captaine: for these bée the steppes by the which hée must ascende vnto higher dignitie, as manie auncient and noble personages haue doone, who from inferiour degees by little and little haue [Page 36] come to superiour, whereof the great Emperour Caius Iulius Caesar may be example: who being borne of a noble house a­mongst the Romans, was first chosen Pretor in Spaine (a base office in respect of his worthy parentage) as being reputed vn­worthy of any greater office, he did beare the same with a ioy­full mind, accepting it as a meane and beginning to make him ascend to the highest of Fortunes whéele, vnto the which the valor of his worthy minde did aspire. These things considered, let no mā disdain, how great & illustrous so euer he be, ye lowest degrees of seruice, for by these steps he must ascend to the throne of stately gouernement. In sum, because I will not grow te­dious, I conclude, that if any souldier would be beloued of his Captaine, let him still obey and reuerence him, performe his duetie and office willingly, and neuer imagine to do any thing that is not gratefull to him, but feare & obey the law of armes, which he must imprint perfectly in his heart, and haue conti­nually in memorie, as here in order do presently insue.

Martiall and Militarie lawes, whereunto souldiers of all degrees must be sworne, to keepe and maintaine inuiolated at all times and in all places, whether they serue Emperor, King, or Prince.

1 FIrst, he yt contrary to the word of God (whom in al our acti­ons we must first haue respect vnto) doth maintaine, per­swade, & fauour any infidelitie, heresie, schisme, strange or new religion whatsoeuer, and doth not cleaue to the Christian faith, shall incurre the law appertaining.

2 Item that those which without the feare of God despise and deride his holy word, be punished accordingly.

3 Item that no man speake against the Christian catholike faith, neither write against the same.

4 Item that no souldier of what soeuer degrée or office he be, do breake, spoile, abuse, or prophane any church.

5 Item that no souldier emit or absent himselfe from diuine seruice, if his Princes vrgent affaires will admit him to be present.

6 Item that all souldiers obserue and kéepe the precepts of the church.

[Page 37]7 Item that contrariwise, no man be so hardy to outrage any zealous man, either in word, déede, or any other sinister meanes, but in liew thereof, carrie a reuerent respect to all and euerie of them.

8 Item that in like sort no man go about to defloure, com­mit adulterie or fornication, with virgins, wiues or widowes, neither by force, neither by other accident (vnlesse the partie were consenting, and the matter secrete, which neuerthelesse is not lawful before the face of God) vpon paine of death without mercie.

9 Item that no mā shal destroy, ruinate, endomage, or set on fire any sacred place, without licence of ye Captain or General.

10 Item togither with these foresaid religious cases, or any e­ther, whosoeuer shal blaspheme, reuie, & horribly sweare by the almightie name of God, by his diuine word and sacraments, let such a peruerse, impious, and blaspheming person be punished openly, and to the terrour of the rest let it be executed: for no doubt the plague of the highest will not depart from the tentes of blasphemers and despisers of religion: for how should we vse iustice indifferently vnto men, when we are content with si­lence to suffer such iniurie to be committed against God? Ther­fore first the offences done against God must be straightly pu­nished, and he then wil giue thée wisdome to decide the rest, and triumphant victorie.

11 Item all souldiers in generall, hauing taken their oath to serue God and aduance his word, they shal then next be sworne to be true, iust, and dutifull to their Lord & soueraigne, and his graund General, or chiefe captaine of the field, to be tractable & obedient vnto euery officer placed & appointed to rule ouer him, and to be readie both day & night to serue, whether it be by land or by water, as occasion of seruice shall fall out and require: and whosoeuer doth repine or sheweth disobedience herein, of what degreè or cōdition soeuer he be, he must be duly punished by the iudgement of the superiours, appointed for that purpose.

12 Item that whensoeuer any Chieftaine or Captaine of any band, shal vpon vrgent causes appoint in his absence any other whom he shall thinke good, to supply and execute his roome of captainship, euerie man ought to follow and obey the said depu­tie with no lesse care & diligence, then they would the captaine [Page 38] himselfe, vpon paine of such punishment as the Generall or his assignes shall appoint.

13 Item that al souldiers must content themselues with their places appointed, being ioyned togither in ban [...]s, or seuerall without resistance, whether it b [...] in marching, watching, in­camping, or bes [...]eging, being also commanded thereunto by the Captaine or other officers, vpon such paine as shalbe thought good by the Captaine.

14 Item that euerie souldier shall [...]or his honour sake, gladly fauour, & mercifully forbeare vnto the vttermost of his power, all women lying in childbed, or being with child, or lately deli­uered from child, to defend and succour them from the rage of the cruel and rude souldiers, or others which follow the campe for spoile. Also it behooueth, as I said before, that all souldiers defend all priestes of godly calling, and all spirituall persons: but now adaies they be ye first to whom abuse is offered, of what opinion or religion soeuer they be: but God no doubt wil iustly plague all such before they be aware, and when they least sus­pect it.

15 Item that euerie souldier shall serue, and is by the law of armes bound by long custome to serue thirtie dayes for eue­rie moneth, and after that rate he shall receiue his moneths wages.

16 Item, if that any souldier haue receiued his moneths wa­ges aforehand, or any part thereof, and departeth without leaue or pasport from his Captaine, and hath not serued for it, he or [...]hey apprehended, shall for the said offence be iudged to die.

17 Item, if there be any souldier or souldiers in marching, breake his or their aray without iust occasion enforcing them, then the pro [...]ost marshall, Lieutenant of the [...]and, or sergeant, shall compell him or them with violence to kéepe his or their rankes in order: and if so be that he or they so disordered, doe chance in this case to be sla [...]e, there shall no man be blamed by his or their deathes, by the law of the field, for by such disorde­red people the whole armie may be in danger of ruinating by the enimie.

18 Item, if that by the appointment of the chiefe rulers of the armie there be a battaile fought, and that by the mightie power o [...] God, the victorie be obtained on your side, the law of armes [Page 39] is such, that if any souldier hath receiued his monethes wages aforehand, he shall be discharged of the same, neither shall he serue any longer for the said wages, after the day of victorie, neither shal owe any thing for it, but he shal be set frée from the moneths seruice.

19 Item, if it chance that in time of skirmish, or in any other conflict with the enimie, some one do aduenture to [...]lie and run away from his fellowes, if in the flying his Cap [...]aine or any other souldier by shooting at him, or by striking at him do chance to kill him, they shall incurre no danger for so doing: and if such a flier chance to escape at that time, and afterwards be taken, let him according to the law of armes suffer death for the same: for one such a recreant may be the ouerthrow of a great multi­tude.

20 Item, it standeth with the law of armes, that ech common souldier shalbe sworne, that they will not haue amongst them­selues any priuate counsels, assemblies or conuenticles, vpon paine of the losse of their liues.

21 Item, there shall no souldier, neither in time of marching, nor during the time of their incamping, hold or keepe any whis­pering or talke, or secretly conuey any letters vnto their ad­uersaries, without lycence from the chiefe Captaine, vpon pain of the losse of his life.

22 Item, if there be any one, or a more number, that shal go about any treason, or any other conspiracie to be committed a­gainst the Campe or garrison, such a traitour or conspir [...]ur shalbe accused vnto the knight marshall, and he that bewrayeth and accuseth such an offender, shall haue for his reward a monethes wages or more, as the fact is hainous: so the re­ward is to bee increased vnto the partie that reue [...]leth the same, and the offender to receiue the reward of a false [...] ­tour.

23 Item that no souldier shall be suffered to be of a ruffi [...]n­like behauiour, either to prouoke or to giue any blow or thrust, or otherwise wilfully strike with his dagger, to iniurie any his fellow souldiers with any weapon, whereby [...] times ensue, vpon paine of the losse of his life.

24 Item, if any one beareth hatred or malice, or any euill will [...]or any occasion done vnto him, and so striketh him, hee [Page 40] looseth his hand, if otherwise he séeketh reuenge, then by law he looseth his life.

25 Item if any souldier be warned to watch and ward, and he do not come, he shall be punished at the discretion of the cap­taine: but if any souldier be sommoned to watch, and hée ap­peare, and after the watchword giuen, & the watch set, he depar­teth and leaueth the watch, such a one shall without mercie be punished with the losse of his life: neither shall any man set an other to watch in his place without the leaue of the Captaine, vpon paine of his life.

26 Item yt no souldier or souldiers draw his or their swords, or vse any other kind of weapon, with violence to do hurt with­in or without the Campe, during the time of the warres, vpon paine of death. It hath lately béene vsed with more fauor of life, as such an offender to loose his hand: but it is the discretion of the Lord chiefe Generall, in whose hands lyeth both the life and death of the offenders after their arrainment and iust condem­nation.

27 Item, the like law is against the officer & officers of any band in the campe, if he strike any souldier without such occasi­on, as is permitted him in the articles to do, otherwise he may defend himselfe.

28 Item that no person or persons presume to be mustered, or to take wages before he be sworne to bée faithfull, and true­ly to serue his Prince in those warres present, vpon paine of death.

29 Item that ye Harold at armes shal proclaime & publish al that the Generall shall giue him in charge, in the place & places where he is commanded, and not to adde or diminish any part or parcell thereof vpon paine of death.

30 Item, there shal no souldiers or other men, procure or stir vp any quarrell with any stranger, that is of any other nation and such as serue vnder one head and Lord with them, nei­ther in their gaming or otherwise, vpon paine of the losse of his life.

31 Item, there shall no souldier or other person, being in Campe or march, take away any thing from any man being their friend, by violence or deceipt, as their victuals or other ne­cessaries, vpon paine of the losse of his life.

[Page 41]32 Item when that there are any victuals caried or brought vnto the campe, no man shall run out to take any part of them before they be brought to the appointed place for the purpose: no though they offer for them more then they be worth, vpon pain of the losse of his life.

33 Item if that the prouost martiall haue at any time taken an offender, and according to his office, he carieth him to be pu­nished: and if that one or more souldiers seeke to rescew the said malefactor, and in this stirre the offender escape, he or they that are the occasion of this escape, shal be punished with the like pu­nishment as the malefactor should haue bene, whether it be by life or otherwise, according as the waight of the crime requi­reth.

34 Item if there be anie sound, that hath entered his name vnder two captaines, and hath taken wages, armour and wea­pons beforehand: such a person shalbe taken for a periured man, and by the law of armes, shall for the same lose his life.

35 Item if any man that hath a place appointed him by the harbinger or officers for his tent or lodging, hee must hold him­selfe content withall: neither shall hee molest any man lodging within his tent or cabbin, or other lodging at any time, for anie occasion vpon paine of the chiefe captaines displeasure, and such punishment as he shall thinke most fit for the offence.

36 Item that no man shall sound and make any alarme, er­ [...]ept it be néede, or vpon commandement from the higher offi­cers, vpon paine of the losse of his life.

37 Item when of necessitie the alarme is made, each man must be stirre him to be ready for battaile, vpon paine of the losse of his life.

38 Item at the first warning of the drum or secretly, all soul­diers must be in a readinesse, and resort to the place appointed, which commonly is the market place (being first of all vnited with his ensigne) and from thence in order of aray to the ene­mies, as they be cōmanded, vpon the pain of the losse of his life.

39 Item all souldiers, being horsemen or footmen, must dili­gently in order of aray by sound of drum or trumpet, accompany the ensig [...]e to watch, ward, or reliefe of the same, being there si­lently in a readinesse to withstand or discouer the enemies: & as occasion shall serue to brute the alarme, with the vsuall worde, [Page 42] arme, arme, or bowes, bowes, if [...]n [...] or anie bandes be in paie, vpon paine of losse of their liu [...]. 5.

40 Item all souldiers must keepe their armor and weapons faire, cleane and seruiceable to a readinesse at euerie sodaine, none intermedling but with his owne, euerie one to helpe other to arme, and diligently to resort to the place of seruice, at scrie, and larum vpon paine.

41 Item all souldiers must honestly intreate, and truely paie victuallers and artificers, allowed for the reliefe, being friends or enemies, and with curteous words encourage such to victual, and relieue the companies or campe vpon paine.

42 Item all souldiers, in watch, ward, march, or otherwise, shall haue special regard, that if there be man or woman desirous to speake with the superiors, or being thy enemies for feare doe forsake his owne power, and resort to thee: let such secretly be conueied to the Lord chiefe generall, regarding that they view no secrets, least they be double spies vpon paine of the losse of their liues.

43 Item captaines and officers, must oft frequent and resort vnto the souldiers lodgings to sée in what state their armor and inunitions be, and to giue great charge that their furniture be alwaies in a readinesse, their corslets with all peeces belon­ging to the same, and their caliuers to be made cleane and oiled, to haue match & powder drie, bullets fit for their peeces, stringes whipped for their bowes, their billes and halberdes to be kept sharpe. And often to view euery particular, vpon paine.

44 Item he that shall depart out of the place where he shalbe put, by his head or any officer whatsoeuer, for a lost Sentinel, spy, watchman, scout, or warder, aswell by day as by night, as it of­ten happeneth, to discouer some dealings of the enemy, without attending and staying for him, that placed him there, to take him away, except he should remoue in hast to aduertise his head of the successe of the enemies assaulting or doing anie outrage, shall be punished with death.

45 Item whosoeuer should rashly offend or hurt, either in word or deedes, any man belonging to the deputies or head offi­cers of iustice or captain, there being in pay for sergeants. And they being appointed to carrie no other weapon, with sicles[?] or staues, but billes or halberds, they may be knowne for men of [Page 43] iustice, and not for Souldiers.

46 Item whosoeuer standeth within or without the campe or barres, to watch or scout, and doth his dutie so euill, that tho­row his negligence, the enemy setteth vpon the campe at vna­wares, he shall die.

47 Item he that vnder colour of doing the duetie of a scout or spie, perceiuing the enemies haue assaulted the campe, and he with such faining lieth still, shall die for it.

48 Item he that shall forsake the defence, in generall or par­ticular, of the batterie of the trench of the passage of a bridge, or other like to him committed, but lightly, not forced goeth away, shalbe for so offending, punished with death.

49 Item whosoeuer entring into a Citie taken by force, fol­loweth not his ensigne whither soeuer it shall go, vntil the Ge­nerall make proclamation, that euerie man shall take booties: And if the general cause no such proclamation, to be made, & that souldiers make spoile, he shall incurre the paine of death, and if proclamation be made that they shall cease from taking praies and booties, and after licence giuen if they giue not ouer, they shall fall into the same punishment.

50 Item whosoeuer seeing the ensigne, vnder the which he warreth in fraies or fight, by chance be fallen in the hands of the enemies, if he be there present, and doe not his indeuour to re­couer it, and when it is cowardly lost, to punish the souldiers which haue suffered it to be cowardly lost, with death.

51 Item, he that shall flée from the battaile, being in the face and front of the enemies, or shall go slowly and slackly to ioyne, and a front with them, in case it be to fight a field battaile, or in anie skirmish what soeuer, shalbe punished with death.

52 Item he that shall faine himselfe sick, to auoid the fighting of the enemie, or because he would not goe to anie other enter­prise to vse his handes, but (I meane) there for to rob, for to such affaires they will be ready inough, shalbe cruelly punished.

53 Item whosoeuer seeing his generall, or his captaine, or o­ther coronell, and officer of the campe, in the hand of the ene­mies, and succoureth him not with all his power, and may doe [...]t, not respecting any danger, shall suffer death.

45 Item he that shall rob or spoile the people of the countri [...] or subiectes or vassels of the prince [...] s [...]rueth, shall die.

[Page 44]55 Item he that by theft should sceale or rob the armor, wea­pons, or horses, or other thing from anie other, seruing against the enemies, shall die.

56 Item hee that should ransome or taxe, or otherwise mis­vse the people of the countrie, except they should be enemies or rebels to the prince, shalbe greatly punished.

57 Item he that shall play at any game for his armor, wea­pons or horses, which are written vpon the roll, or through his negligence shall lose them, or lend, giue away, or lay them to pawne, let him die.

58 Item he that goeth further then two hundreth steppes or paces from his quarter, without licence of his captain, specially when the campe looketh or staieth to be assaulted by the ene­mies, except he should be sent for by his heades, shalbe punished with death.

59 Item he that shall goe longer then the houre appointed in the night abroad, in the campe wandring, except hee should be sent by his superiours for a matter of weight, from head captain to head captaine, by a counter-token, shall be cruelly punished.

60 Item he that shall lodge strangers, whether he be of the campe or not, without licence of the generall or of his captaine, either in his lodging or vnder a tent, except he be of his cham­ber or squadron, or by the captaine appointed for seruice forth of the campe, shall be punished. But euerie one ought to be in the night with their Camerads and chamber-fellowes, and not to be deuided from their lodgings, that occasion seruing, they may be ready with their weapons in their handes: neither ought they to lodge watch, or scouts, or of the search: for that the spies hauing no lodging, any excuse being found out, may the better be apprehended. Also if the scout-watch be taken from their quarter, faining to be a souldier of the campe when they are to spie in the night: they for so offending shalbe cruelly pu­nished with death.

61 Item whosoeuer shall make anie wordes, déedes, or que­stions in the ward, or in an ambush, or in other place, where re­spect and silence is néedfull, shalbe punished.

62 Item he that should be reuenged of anie iniurie receiued, either newly or before-time done, by an indirect way: that is, traiterously and not by way of reason, or by way of combate, bo­die [Page 45] to bodie, by the licence of his Generall, shall suffer death.

63 Item he that should dare be so bold as to play with false cardes and dice, or should vse in play anie priuy falshood, theft or deceit in any wise, shalbe punished.

64 Item he that of presumption should passe out of his place into another, either before the battell or in marching, should out of order make hast to go before, to be the first that should come to the lodging of the campe, or in marching should goe out of his rancke from one battaile to an other, or he that doth not obserue the order of marching, shall die.

65 Item he that shall taske or ransom vpon his host or lodger, or vpon any other that is not his lawfull prisoner by good order of warre, and that he is lawfully taken, the ransome excell not the articles of agréement, that there be a iust ransome set, vpon paine of punishment.

66 Item he that shall enter in, or goe forth by any other gate, stréete or way, then that which shalbe accustomed, into the citie, pales, or list or fort, where the campe is lodged, that is going o­uer the walles, or vnder some breach, and not by the ordinarie gate, let him fall into the paine of death.

67 Item whosoeuer doth not immediately retire, when hee shall heare the trumpet or drum, sound the retreat, either of a set battaile, or of a skirmishe or batterie, or of anie other fight, or should goe in or come forth of the citie, when the assault is giuen to the walles thereof, shall die.

68 Item he that speaketh, or calleth, or crieth aloud, amongst the ordinance, or in the battaile, or in anie place where silence néedeth, except he were a head, or other officer, or sergeant, com­manding some new order, shall die.

69 Item hee that shall commit anie thing whatsoeuer it be, whereby it may be coniectured, that it is against the prince, and domageable to the generall and the campe, shall die.

70 Item drums and fifes must oft sound and exercise their in­strumentes, warning as the mouth of man, to all pointes of ser­uice: so must souldiers diligently learne and obserue the mea­ning of the same, that none plead ignorance, and neglecting their dueties to seruice appertaining. Also sometimes they shall re­ceiue from the higher officers or captaines, secret commande­mentes by word of mouth, the which must withall diligence be [Page 46] obserued and truely executed vpon the losse of their liues.

71 Item no man in their marching through what place soeuer they shall passe, shall set any thing on fire, no not their cabbins and i [...]camped place at their departing, without commandement from the chief general, vpon the pasue of the losse of their liues.

72 Item i [...] at any time, any man shal in the time of his drun­kennesse quarrell and fight with his fellowe, and in so doing, chance to kill him, he shall in so doing receiue as great punish­ment by death, as if he had bene sober.

73 Item if any souldier doe drink himself drunke, or be found drunke, within the compasse of the day and night of his watch, and specially if he be vnable to stand in Sentinel, or do his due­tie, such a one must be most seuerely punished.

74 Item note that souldiers shall sweare at their first en­tring into seruice that they will faithfully and truely serue their captaine for sixe monethes togither, and when the sixe moneths are expired, they shall sweare to serue him sixe monethes more, if he reed them: And if the captaine needeth them not so long, but mindes to discharge his band, the captaine shall allow ech of them halfe a monethes wages at his departing, and so dis­charge them.

75 Item there shall no man make anie showt, or other stir­ring noise in anie corner or open place of Citie, Town, Castle, Fort, or Campe, whereby any danger or inconuenience may grow vnto the companie any maner of wayes, on paine of the losse of his life.

76 Item he that shall disclose the watch-word to enemie or friendes, except it be to such a one as hee shall be appointed by his gouernor: or shall be found a sléepe in the watche, scout, or ward, shalbe punished with death.

77 Item if any captaine for corruption sake, shal giue licence to his own souldier, or to any other souldier without the licence of the Generall to depart the campe, shall receiue the same pu­nishment that the souldier should receiue.

78 Item that no souldier should goe out of the campe in the night time without the watch-word, in danger of his life, for if he be slaine so by the watche, there is no blame to be laid vpon them that kill him.

79 Item there shall no souldier go out of the campe without [Page 47] his armor and other weapons, vpon the paine of the losse of his life.

80 Item euerie captaine shalbe sworne, that he shall charge euery corporall vpon his oth, that he shall denounce euery soul­dier that is vnder his charge, and that is not able and meete to serue.

81 Item in like case if the said corporall shall receiue an [...]e new or strange souldier into his band▪ his part and dutie is, that he giue vnto the higher captaine knowledge thereof.

82 Item no man of what condition soeuer he be, shall [...] so bold as to conuey away anie offender vpon the paine of the losse of his life.

83 Item that euerie souldier shall haue vpon his outermost garment some special signe or taken, wherby he may be known, such a one as the higher captaines shall agree vpon. As for ex­ample, he shall haue vpon his garment a red crosse, and vpon his armour, a red lace or such like, whereby he may the better be knowne of his fellowes: and if there be anie shall be sound without the said signes and tokens, he shal be vsed as an aduer­sarie, or enemy.

84 Item that all souldiers, entring into battaile, assault, skir­mish, or other faction of armes, shall haue for their common crie and word, S. George, S. George, forward or vpon them, S. George, wherby the souldier is much comforted, and the enemy dismaied, by calling to minde the ancient vale [...] of England, which with that name hath bin so often victorious, and therfore he that vpon any si [...]ster zeale, shall maliciously omit so fortu­nate a name, shalbe seuerely punished for his obs [...]ate erroni­ous heart, and peruerse mind.

85 Item if anie Captaine or other Officers shall procure sk [...]mishe, or [...]ight the battaile without commaundement from the higher Officers, for so offending, they shall [...] death.

86 Item if that anie number of Souldiers be commaun­ded, and placed by the head Captaines, to defend or keepe a­nie Citie. Tower, Castle or Fort, or anie other place, and they beeing sharpely assaulted by the enemie, once, [...], or thrice, or of [...]ner, in this case the lawe of [...]irmes is, that the Lord Generall shall allowe, and pa [...]e vnto such a num­ber [Page 48] of souldiers but ordinarie wages: neither is there by law of armes any thing more due vnto them: and if the said Castles, Towers, or fortresse, shall be solde or be betrayed by the said captaine, officers, or souldiers, or otherwise yéelded, with­out the commandement of the prince, or at the appointment of the generall: shall be as false traitors vsed.

87 Item if anie Captaine, Lieutenant, Sergeant, Corporal, or other officer, or souldiers, giue into the hands of the enemie, any citie, fortresse, tower, or place of defence, doth incurre, as I haue said, the danger of death, if hee by chance be not more then constrained to deliuer vp the same, or that it is like a man of valor would haue done so: and therefore they ought neuer to a­bandon the place, for words or letters of the enemie, neither at the sight of the inuironing campe: for it is not lawfull for the [...]astellane to leaue his Castle, if he haue victuals, men, and mu­nition, or doth hope for succors. Therefore respect is to be had, which must be holden as a maxime, that where the place may be defended by assault without batterie, that at least one assault is to be abidden, and mo to be aspected if it be possible: and if it can suffer batterie, they must abide at ye least a volee of Canons: and if the place be so weake that it cannot sustaine, neither the one nor the other, and that it be farre distant from succours: to [...]eeld doth merite neither punishment of the prince, nor of the enemie: but otherwise being of force, able to sustaine the ene­mies furie, and cowardly or traiterously to deliuer the same, merites death of the one and the other.

88 Item if there be anie Citie, Castle, or other fort, yeelded vp by the enemie, without expugnation: there shall no man be so bold to enter into the said place, to spoile or otherwise to kill or do any outrage, without leaue of the generall, vpon paine of the losse of his life.

89 Item there shal no man depart out from the precinct of the campe, with anie bootie or spoile, without leaue of the chiefest officers or head captaine, vpon the paine of the losse of his life.

90 Item if any man for feare forsaketh the place appointed him to fight in, and for feare throweth downe his weapon, the officers or souldiers may kill him without anie danger.

91 Item if any man saying that he hath done some worthie thing in fight [...] be proued contrarie, shuld be punished by death.

[Page 49]92 Item if a Regiment, or band, shall by mutinies or other­wise incurre the lawes of the field, it is requisite and necessary, for that all shall not be put to death, that euerie mans name be taken and put into a bagge, and that the tenth lot should be exe­cuted: The which although euerie man do not feele, yet neuer­thelesse he shall feare the euent.

93 Item at such times as the General or captain doth muster, traine, or faine any battaile, skirmish, assault, or other warlike encounter, if anie souldier doth either negligently or witting­ly, hurt, maime, or kill his companion with powder, bullet, or meanes so euer, such a one shall seuerely, and exemplarly be pu­by what nished accordingly.

94 Item that ech corporal, and other officer, shal haue either in written hand or print, these martiall lawes, and this booke, wherein a priuate souldier is instructed, bought and prouided at the charges of the whole squadron out of their paie, to the end that it being continually repeated to the souldiers, no man may plead ignorance, but receiue condigne punishment according to his offence.

95 Item that euery captain, lieutenant, ensigne-bearer, ser­geant or corporall, so often as their bands, squadrons, and soul­diers enter into ward, shall appoint the clarke of the band or some one that can read, once in the day or in ye night, to read vn­to the companie (that must attentiuely giue eare) not only these martiall lawes heere set downe, but also all the course of my di­rections belonging to a priuate souldier, Corporall, &c▪ contained in this booke, for their instructions, vnder paine of open punish­ment by the Generall, or Marshall.

96 Item that the foresaid officers after one twelue monethes seruice, wherein the souldier hath had sufficient experience, & is inured in these preceptes and directions, they shall euen as the schoolemaister doth the childrē, call euery one particularly to ac­count, & examine them seuerely heerein, and to esteeme those for old and perfect souldiers, that know these lawes and their dutie by heart, and at their fingers endes, and the rest Bisonians and fresh-water souldiers, that are ignorant, although they haue ser­ued seuen yeares, yea & to place them in the most seruile serui­ces. And if there be any that maliciously or disdainfully persist in their blunt ignorance, either to disarme them, and discharge [Page 50] them, or else to punish them with open shame and infamie.

97 Item if there be any man that shall infringe, and not maintaine, confirme, and to his power diligently and dutifully kéepe and obserue these articles aforesaid, such shall as periu­red persons with all seueritie be punished: And if anie souldier or souldiers shall offend in anie maner of thing that doth be­long and appertaine to the dutie of a souldier, whereof there is no mention made in these articles, such an offender shalbe pu­nished at the discretion of the Marshal of the field and Generall.

These articles must be opēly read in the presence of the chief Captaines, by the notary or scribe of the Court, and after that they be read, the oth shall be ministred vnto euery man by the pretor in this wise, or the like wordes, to the same end and pur­pose: speaking vnto the whole companie, and saying: My bre­thren and friends, that are héere present, you haue heard the ar­ticles of our soueraigne, containing the chiefe and principall points of our rights and lawes of the field, and of the oath, and the maner thereof, which euery souldier ought to take. All you therefore that do meane faithfully and valiantly to obserue, maintaine, fulfill, confirme, and kéepe the foresaid articles, let him heere now either openly refuse to be a souldier, or with me hold vp his finger, and say after me.

All these articles which haue bene openly red vnto vs, we hold and allow as sacred and good, and those will we truely and stoutly confirme, fulfill, maintaine, and kéepe so helpe vs God, and his deuine word, Amen.

These articles with others, which for tediousnesse I omit, would be published, some vpon paine of death, some with grea­ter, and some with lesse punishment, to euerie one that doth of­fend, without anie remission or forgiuenesse, or regard of bloud, degrée, kindred, or friendship: specially at the beginning to lie in campe, whereby the army may the better be set in good or­der, and to make it fearefull of God, of iustice, and of the Ge­nerall, with loue and feare.

The execution heereof onely appertaineth to the Maister of the Campe, for the hearing, ordering, and determining of causes of iustice vnder the Generall, as the Lieutenant of a Citie or Towne, deputie, for the prince. For the maister of the Campe is [Page 51] the chief of the orders, who hath place in the field in many things as principall next to the Generall, who hath the chiefe gouern­ment in pitching the campe, and dislodging.

Briefly from the General downward, it is the greatest charge and burden that is in the armie, and therfore it is requisite that he haue good knowledge and remembrance of all the orders whereby the warres is to be gouerned, and that he be of good practise and experience, and duly obeyed.

But such cases as are capital and of great importance, should be heard and determined by the Generall and his iudges: It suf­ficeth that God is the knower and determiner, and next vnto him his deputies vpon earth: who failing to do iustice, either for zeale, loue, or hatred, shal yéeld account thereof before the di­uine iudge, and this law cannot be auoided by vs, but we shalbe cited and called by way of appeale.

Briefe notes of other meane offices, as Drums, Fifes, Sur­geans, and the Clarke of the Band.

DRums and Fifes must be chosen of able qualities and per­sonage, secret and ingenious, skilfull in the sound and vsing of their instruments, which must warne as the mouth of a man to all intentes of seruice, diligent in times conuenient to in­strust souldiers in the same, that none by ignorance neglect their duties. These be oftētimes sent on messages, importing charge, which of necessitie require languages, sometimes to summon or command the enemies to render, sometimes carrie ransomes, or redeeme, or conduct prisoners. Many other thinges to them do appertaine, as before is rehearsed, &c.

A chyrurgion is necessary to be had in euerie band, who ought to be an honest man, sober, and of good counsell, skill in his sci­ence, able to heale and cure all kind of sores, wounds, & griefes: to take a bullet out of the flesh and bone, and to slake the fire of the same, and that he haue all his tooles and instrumentes with other necessarie stuffe, as oyles, balmes, salues, step [...]es, roulers, bolsters, splenters, and all other things to the science belonging, which also ought to haue courage for his patient, and allowed stuffe, he shall readily imploy his industrie vpon the so [...]e and wounded, and not intermedling with others, to his own charge noisome. Such be placed with the ensigne, and lodged neere [Page 52] to the captaine, and neere their bal [...]rickes in time of fight, which by law of the field is their charter.

The Clarke of a band would be a man chosen of a discréete behauiour, such a one as hath the vse of his penne and skilfull in Arithmaticke, who must haue a booke in the which hee must write all the names of the souldiers appertaining to the band, diuiding euerie weapon by themselues, that they may be the redier to be mustred, & otherwise to be placed in order of march, at watch and ward the clarke must be attentiue with his booke to call euery mans name, to sée who is absent, and that certifi­cate thereof be made vnto the captaine, who must as before is rehearsed, without sicknesse or some licence of the head officers see him or them punished to the example of all others. He must sometimes in the watch and ward, read vnto the souldiers, the Militarie lawes and directions, causing first a solemne silence to be made, and then proceede in reading, examining, and con­ferring with euerie particular and common souldier, touching his memorie of these thinges, for his full instruction. Also the Clarke is to take charge of the captaines munition, who seeing it deliuered vnto the souldiers, must take note how much is de­liuered, vnto whom, and what daie of the moneth it is deliue­red, with the prise. Likewise he must repayre to the Clarke of the victuals, and by the Captains warrant receiue such bread, beere, and other victuals, as is to be had, and to deliuer it to those that shalbe thought by the Captaine to be of credite, to victuall the band by the princes price, and to take tickates of them as well for that it is deliuered vnto them, as what they doe deliuer vnto souldiers. Also he must in the captaines name and by his warrant repaire vnto the merchantes and other artificers, and take such wares as the officers and souldiers haue need of, who must at the paie daie by the Captaine be answered. Also pro­uided that the victualler alloweth but the Souldier six pence a daie, the ouerplus goeth to their paiment of furniture and apparell.

The Clarke must oft peruse the tickates to see that no more be deliuered them their wages come to, that the captains therby receiue no losse. The clark ought to inquire when any be depar­ted this world, also when any be slaine, and discharged the band, and to make a iust note thereof, wherby certificate may be made [Page 53] to the muster master, that ye Prince in no wayes may be hinde­red, neither the Captaines by the victuallers receiue any detri­ment or losse. Finally, he must vpon the report of the Corporals or other officers, finde and procure of the Captaines, reliefe for the sicke and wounded souldiers and prisoners, which ought to be redeemed out of the enimies hand.

The Prelates charge that takes care of souldiers of the Band.

TO knit vp this first discourse of Militarie directions, and martiall lawes, special care must be had to prouide one man amongst the many scores of souldiers, that may gouerne and direct in spiritual causes, who ought to be wise, learned, honest, sober, patient, and of exemplare life: who must offer vp dayly sacrifice of thankes for his whole companie, must instruct them to be penitent, confessant, and restore to euerie man his right: to communicate in Catholike and Christian manner, so often as they can, chiefly at speciall times appointed by the Church, and before any dangerous attempt, to feede them with holesome foode of learned instructions, wherein they may learne how to liue, and so consequently to teach their companies their dueties towards God and their Prince, and to giue ghostly counsel and spirituall reliefe vnto the sicke, wounded, weake in bodie or in conscience, and that such be well armed with spirituall ar­mour, that is, with good knowledge and good liuing, readie to perswade them manfully to withstand their enimies, the flesh, the diuel, the world and desperation, putting them in sure hope through ye equitie of their cause, their conformitie to the church, and their firme faith in our sauiour Iesus Christ, to enter into the campe of euerlasting life, where they shall ride amongst the souldiers on white horses, clothed in white and pure silke, crow­ned with bright triumphant garlands, as the scriptures do wit­nesse. This and such like belongs vnto such personages as take care of the souldiers in a warlike band.

Now then to conclude, & to make an end of my first discourse, I would wish all valiant minded souldiers, carefully to carrie in mind those precepts which are proper and due vnto a priuate souldier, which I partly haue collected and set downe in this [Page 54] short pamphlet, that when he shalbe called vnto a hyer office, he may deseruedly ascend the third steppe of martiall office, and so by degrées rise to the height of supreme gouernment.

How pikes are to be carried in aray, march, or battaile.

THose that are appointed to carrie pikes in aray of rankes or battell, must know that pikes amongst all other weapons that belongs to souldiers, is of greatest honor and credite: and truely, whosoeuer doth carie and manage the same weapon wel and with good grace, doth make a verie beautifull and pleasant shew to the beholders, and chiefly when it is caried vpon the shoulder, sustained and supported with a good grace, and the hand that doth sustaine it be on that side the shoulder where it is pla­ced, and with il Gombedo alto.

They must likewise be aduertised which march in the for­most ranckes, if they be vpon the right side, to hold their pikes continually in marching in the right hand, and vpon the right shoulder without euer changing it: and so likewise being vpon the left side of the ranck, to hold it alwayes vpon ye left shoulder: those that be in the midst of the ranckes haue libertie to vse that side yt is best for their commoditie, either vpon the right or left hand, and to moue their pikes from shoulder to shoulder at their choise and pleasure: It is true that the iust carying of the pike of those that march in the midst of the ranckes, is to hold it vpon the left shoulder, & to carie their right hand behind vpon their dagger, or vpon their side, and so generally all, as well they that be in the midst, as those that be in the head of the ranckes are to obserue this order, to carie that hand which is at libertie behind them, or vpon their sides. Let him march then with a good grace, holding vp his head galantly, his pace full of graui­tie and state, and such as is fit for his person, and let his bodie be straight and as much vpright as is possible, and that which most imports, is that they haue alwayes their eyes vpon their companions which are in rancke with them, and before them, going iust one with the other, & kéeping perfite distance with­out committing error in the least pace or step, and euerie pace and motion with one accord and consent, they ought to make at one instant time. And in this sort all the ranckes entyrely are [Page 55] to go, sometimes softly, sometimes fast, according to the stroke of the drum. The héele and tippe of their pikes would be equal­ly holden, both of length and height, as néere as is possible, to auoid that they fall not out to be by bearing them otherwise, like vnto Organ pipes, some long, some short. The measure & proportion thereof, to hold the héele of the pike is this. It is necessarie for him to haue an eye to the rancke that doth march before him, and so carrie the butte end or héele of his pike, that it may be iust ouer against the ioynt of the ham of the souldier, that in march shall be straight before him: and so euerie one from hand to hand must obserue the proportion of that height, that is right behind vpon the ioynt of the knée, for by doing so they cannot commit errour, carying in their march that legge that is vnder that arme that sustaines and carries the pike of iust and euen proportion, by mouing their pace right vnder the staffe of the pike, going in their march, as I haue said before, iust and euen, with a galant, stately, and sumpteous pace: for by doing so, they shalbe estéemed, honored, a [...]d commended of the lookers on, who shall take wonderfull delight to behold them march in that order.

THE SECOND BOOK OF MILITARIE DIRECTIONS, WHEREIN IS SET DOWNE THE office of a Sergeant, Ensigne bearer, Lieutenant, and the Gentlemen of a band, how to traine, skirmish, and discouer.
And first, the Office of the Sergeant of a Band.

SInce euerie officer through his continuall exercise and dayly diligence in executing his charge, doth attaine vnto perfite experience by dayly practise, which is as it were conuerted into nature: there­fore he which determines with himselfe to be ac­counted sufficient and of abilitie, to discharge the place of a good Sergeant of a band, with a forward intent to learne and bée thorowly instructed, ought first to be a souldier that hath séene much, and a Corporall of good experience, according to the dire­rections of my first booke: In which two roomes it is verie con­uenient, that he haue tasted and bene present at great diuersitie of seruice, & warlike enterprises, and to carrie a resolute mind to delight in ye exercise of this office, to the end he be not found therin irresolute and ignorant: and that likewise he faile not in the readie performing of any enterprise, when martiall affaires do call him forth to put the same in execution.

First of all it is verie requisite that he haue most perfitely in memorie, the number of all the souldiers of the band, and di­stinctly with what weapons they are armed, what quantitie of Cors [...]ets and pikes, how many armed and disarmed carrie short weapons, what number of hargabusiers with murrians and without, how many musket-eares, how many light armed pikes and targets of proofe, that the better & more redily vpon a sodaine, he may put the company in order.

He must euer plant the best armed in places most necessarie, as at the front and backe, the right and left side of a square. The [Page 57] first ranck in ordinarie long marching, ye targets of proofe must go in as a readie rouer and bulwarke against the enimies shot: next to them the musketyres, then the hargabuziers, and after them the armed & light armed pykes: amidst whose ranckes he must at al times place ye Ensigne, garded with halberds or bils▪ & then againe the light armed and armed pikes, hargabuse and musket-eares, and last of all targets of proofe: by this equalitie of deuision, ye whole band at one instant shalbe readie to receiue any suddain surprise of the enimy. The sergeant carrying these things in his mind, hauing laid a distinct plat, he may verie ea­sily varie their forme and order as he shall be appointed, and as the situation of the place doth require, or the accidents of warre do constraine.

He must neuer worke vnwarily, or at al aduentures, and ten­ding to no determined purpose, as those that doe not remember the perfite rules and reckonings of their office, whereof there be now adayes ouer many, for when it is necessarie for them to alter their order, and that perforce they must quite change the forme and fashion that then they obserue, they know not which way to begin. Therefore to the end his order and ranckes may be to the purpose duely and directly changed, and with facilitie disposed: let him euer disseuer and deuide one part of his wea­pons from another, causing euery one to turne and enter into their ranckes and order by themselues, so shall he procéed in ta­king away, setting forward, and intermixing one sort of rancks within another very orderly. And thereby the ful proportion of his bād shalbe framed, as he hath determined, or as it is deuised by him that commands, either in marching forward and back­ward, or in turning without disorder, by 3. 5. 7. or 9. in a ranck, as the Lieutenant, Captaine, or Sergeant Maior appoints.

He ought euer to beware that in ordering the rancks, and ap­pointing the souldiers their places, that they begin not to make debate or stomake one another for dignitie of place, the which doth oftentimes fal out to their great anoy and domage, and the officers tedious toile, for in enterprises of great importance, e­uen in the presence of the inuading enimy, some vaine glorious fellowes are accustomed to striue for the chiefest places: the which roomes by all reason & of duetie appertaine to the best ar­med, and not to any others, whose vnrewly rashnes may be the [Page 58] ruine of the whole band. Therefore fit and conuenient places are to be obserued with humilitie, the naked in their places, and the armed in theirs: but to touch one point which we haue alredie spoken of, I iudge it most conuenient that the armed (those for skirmish excepted) must remaine in Maine stands and battailes, as some say, so abide by the stake, who ought to be so wel armed as they may beare and support the blowes of their enimies, and resist any furious charge, either of horsemen or sootemen. Whereas besides their well ordered ranckes, by rea­son they be armed they make a more galant shew: giuing cou­rage to thy owne people, and discourage to the enimie, and in proofe are more profitable then the disarmed, who remaining in their roomes, the contrarie succéeds.

The Sergeant of the companie must haue speciall regard when victuals cannot be had for money, by forage or otherwise, to make repaire togither with the clarke of the band, to the prin­cipal munitions, that his companie [...]ast not of famine: and from thence procure to haue so much as he wel cā, or as is cōuenient, and according to his receiued order, so must he depart and distri­bute all manner of munitions amongst the Corporals, that eue­rie one of them may giue to their souldier their portion.

The like ought he to vse, touching powder for the Hargabu­syres and Musketyres, lead for bullets, match for them to burne, and ech thing else whereof they haue néede, to the end they may alwayes remaine in order, and be verie well prouided and sto­red, as néere as is possible, & as is most conuenient and to per­swade the souldier that to gaine a place of more account, he will spare his pay to arme himselfe the more brauely. He must like­wise haue diligent eye, that the said munition of match & pow­der be conserued warily from wetting, and kept with a speciall spare from vntimely spending: for this prouident precept doth import verie much in all enterprises, by reason that the negli­gence of the Sergeant, touching this necessarie foresight & care, hath bene the cause that the shot haue not bene able readily to performe their duties according to the appointed determinati­ons, or as necessitie did require, by reason of their vnwarie kée­ping their munition in wet weather, or their generall want through vain mispence, by which meanes many & most notable [...]rrors haue succéeded of great losse and moment, & to the hinde­rance, [Page 59] shame, and totall ruine of a whole companie or campe. Therfore it is most expedient that the Sergeant, togither with the seuerall corporals, do diligently and narrowly examine, vi­site, search, and view the proper flaskes, tutch-boxes, pockets, & other places where the souldiers are accustomed to carie & kéepe their powder and match, and peruse diligently all those things without negligence, faining, or fauouring: diuers haue receiued great ignomie & shame in their office, for want of ye performāce thereof: wheras by carying a contrary care, they haue bene vni­uersally wel thought of, and commended of al good souldiers and valiant Captaines. Therefore as occasion doth serue and offer, he may admonish, put in minde, and reprehend with dexteritie the souldiers vnder his charge and guiding. To him it apper­taines to lay his helping hand about al things necessarie for his companie, as well in prouiding for them, as dispencing, or de­ferring necessarie charges, except for the prouision and deuiding of lodgings, which is the office of the Furrier or Harbinger, who ought to be very tractable, diligent, & altogither officious, not being partial to any one for peculiar profite or pleasure, and therfore it is necessarie a Sergeant should know how to write, for it is hard by memorie to discharge his charge.

The Sergeant must be careful to accompanie, at the houre ap­pointed, the guard to the place of the watch, in going vp and downe alongst their stanckes when he hath placed them in or­der, to sée them kéepe due distance, make the Laumband, march in straight line, with their ranckes carrie their armes in con­formable proportion: and if vpon pleasure they giue a volée of shot in passing, to aduertise them to doe it orderly with due forme, one rancke after another, as they passe ouer against the Generall, or other great officer or personage, and not in a confused sort altogither, or by péeces.

When he is arriued at the Corps of gard, and hath placed euery one in order, and prouided for all things necessarie for the watch of that night, he must then giue his aduise and counsell to the Corporals, that they kéepe good order in their Sentinels, yea sometimes and verie often, it is good that he himselfe aide them to choose out the most fit places for them to stand in, to the end that the circuit of ground, which for all their safties is to be kept, may be conueniently garded.

[Page 60]At the ioyning of the day & the night, or somwhat later, he shal secretly giue the Corporals the watchword, with the which they are to gouerne the gard as wel by night as day: the which word by the commandement of his Captaine, he must procure the Sergeant maior to giue him, or of some other that shall haue the charge to giue the same for want of his presence, or in place of this great officer.

He must arme himselfe in such sort, that he be no lesse apt then any other souldier to be able at time of néed, both to defend him­selfe, and offend the enimie: touching which effect, Duke Octa­u [...]o Farnese in the expedition of 12000▪ footemen and 600. horse­men, which Paulus the third Pope of Rome sent into Germa­nie against the Lutherans in aid of Charles the fift, did dispose, that all the Sergeants of his bands should arme themselues with hargabuzes and murrians: saying, that so great a number of valiant men being Sergeants, as was in so great an assem­blie and expedition of such importance, it was neither good nor commendable, that they should onely be armed with their hal­berds, and therefore he ought to haue his Page or Muchacho second him with those furnitures: Neither séemes it inconue­nient, but hauing placed in order all things pertaining to his office, that he place himselfe in ranke with the rest of the soul­diers, yet in such a place as he may easily depart from thence when necessitie calles him away, to reforme or vse remedie to any disorder he vnderstands of.

He must with dexteritie procéed in reprehending and exhor­ting the souldiers to kéepe their due order, and not to disband and stray abroad, but vpon néedfull and lawfull occasions, and to take order in all other particular points, which are requisite to be obserued for the honour and profite of the companie, which thinges are chiefely to be procured and obserued by other of­ficers.

Let him beware and abstaine from beating of souldiers at any time, that thereby he grow not odius: for it is not conue­nient nor comely for an officer to strike a souldier, for thereby he so offends, that he doth incurre the paine to receiue pu­nishment for so doing, of his Captaine or the master of the Campe.

He must be diligent, carefull, and vigilant in all his affaires, [Page 61] for in this office, diligence and dexteritie is both to the purpose and most necessarie.

It is necessarie he be alwaies conformable vnto the sergeant Maior, by imitation and obedience in action, and like his sha­dow, to second him in all his doings: Of whom he may alwaies receiue information and order of all such things as be necessary for seruice of his band. And of him he may learne to proceede by conformitie, in that which is conuenient for his office. For hee that is in companie with men of vertue and valor, that be of more excellent qualitie then he himselfe, shall euer reape some profite, and the rather for that he is bound to be in the sight, and néere about the sergeant Maior, at all such times as anie thing is to be done: where he ought with a good [...]are, and diligent eye, giue readie attendance, to execute such commission as shall be giuen him: specially those which appertaines to the ordering of the ranckes, and euerie thing else whatsoeuer without do­ing anie thing vpon his owne iudgement, but conferre with that great officer, towards whom he mus [...] alwaies be courteous and conformable, and with an obedient and beneuolent minde, diligently imitate him.

I suppose it moreouer necessarie as I said before, that he be able to write and read, considering the infinit number of things which are to passe through his hands, and which he ought to exe­cute for the benefite of his companie, which cannot be alwaies ordered, disposed, and guided only by memorie: So consquently the sergeant is to take diligent & care of all the foresaid thinges to execute the pointes of his office spéedily, and to rebuke and teach such as do amisse with lenitie, and although hee cannot violently strike and hurt anie man, yet neuerthelesse no man can resist his authoritie, but obserue the same as to the Cap­taines owne person, if he were present.

He is not to heare anie mutinous or rebellious wordes amongst the companie, but immediatly to reueale the same, that speedie reformation may be had, and faults amended. And thus must he be still occupied to reform mens maners, mispence of munition, broken araies, and to be readie daie and night to seruice, by the captaine or Lieutenants commandement, to in­strust the companie, to march, traine, and trauaile, aswell by signes from him framed, as otherwise by wordes spoken, and to [Page 62] haue speciall regard to the companie, to see that their armour and weapons be in a readinesse alwayes for seruice, for the di­ligent and skilfull vsage of this office, is of no small momen­tanie good order throughout the whole band, no lesse then the Centurion amongest the Romaines, who was captaine ouer a hundreth, and so likewise euerie hundreth in ech band ought to haue a seuerall sergeant to direct and gouerne.

The office of an Alsierus or ensigne bearer.

IF it be a thing most requisite that a priuate soul­dier should haue a speciall zeale ouer his proper honour and credite, how much more is the same necessarie for a valiant Alfierus or Ensigne bea­rer. Therefore hée must with all carefull diligence, and due discretion, ascend the fourth degree of this honourable discipline, being alreadie trained vp in the thrée first degrees, which is, of a priuate souldier, a corporal, and a sergeant, where­by to his great commendation he may sufficiently merite the swaie of this office.

Hauing solemnly receiued the Ensigne of his Captaine, like a noble and expert Souldier, hée ought carefullie to keepe the same, and beare a certaine reuerent respect to it, as to a holie thing, yea and to be gelouse ouer the safetie thereof, no lesse then an amorous person ouer his louing mi­stresse: Since that onely with the sacred shade of the ensigne, being well guided, the generall reputation of all the band and companie is conseruer.

Therefore the Alfierus ought to be indowed with such cu­stome, and vse himselfe with such courtesie and ciuilitie, that he may not onely procure the loue of his confederates, and [Page 63] friends, but of all the entire companie.

Besides, it is necessarie to haue neere vnto him a couple of assistantes at the least, that be practised and good Souldiers, which may be of the number of the Halbardyres that go next his Ensigne, to the end that when hee is constrained to ab­sent himselfe from the same, through some vrgent and necessa­rie occasion (for otherwise it is not to be permitted) hée may cause one of them take care and charge of his Ensigne, in what accident soeuer might fall out during that time. For that thing ought neuer to be left alone or abandoned to a slender and loose gard, which is of such a great importance, whereupon euerie mans honour and estimation dependeth: wherefore it ought at all to be carefully kept, and well accom­panied.

Note that the Alsierus, to defend his ensigne and himselfe at one instant, must haue in his one hand his drawne sword, and in the other the Ensigne: which thing is conuenient of him particularly to be performed, when it is time to assault the ene­mies vpon a Wall, Trench, S [...]alade, Bulwarcke, Breach, or in anie strait passage, or enterprise, since that with the poynt of Iron of the Ensigne staffe small defence can be made, aswell for the weakenesse of the staffe, as through the trouble and continuall wauering of the silke which is about it, so that in bearing the same displayed, hée ought rather to haue regard where he shall set his foote, then to the top of the staffe, or anie other place lesse necessarie, aswell thereby to flée affectation, which in carying thereof, is made manifest, as also to conduct the same with more assured courage.

Moreouer note that the most honourable place of the threde or rancke is the right hand, and the second the left hand, which degrees likewise be obserued in all the rancks of other souldiers, a [...]wel as when diuers ensignes do march tog [...]ther in one ranck, for amongest the handes and squares of souldiers, the fiankes d [...]e alwaies resist the assaultes and furie of the enemie: as the sides which be néerest to them, be alwaies garded of those that be most practised, and the middle part not, onely except the first and last rancke of the ordinance or batta [...]le, wh [...] the middest is the place of greatest estimation: for the head or backe of the square being assaulted they then withstand the [Page 64] greatest furie. And by good reason, for this place of the midst is euer much more broken and endomaged of the enemies armes and force, then anie other part: wherefore amongest expert and valiant souldiers, this roome is of greatest honour, and of most estimation, as the place that hath greatest néed of defence, which being subiect to more open and manifest perill then the rest be, is of greatest dignitie. For Captaines are accustomed to shew notable and singular fauor to that souldier which they pre­ferre to an enterprise of perill and danger: so that it be capeable of issue and altogither desperate.

Neither is this to be accounted for a maruell, for as this pro­fession is altogither different from others, so likewise the or­ders, and ceremonies are diuersly managed: if a man may terme those things ceremonies, which of necessitie ought with dili­gence to be gouerned with great care, art, and industrie: It be­hooues the Alfierus, whilest he doth march in ordinance amidst the band, to go with a graue and stately pace, aduisedly and cou­ragiously ioyned with modesty, and without affectation or vain brauerie: neither eught he to bew or decline his bodie at any time to anie person, that thereby he may represent and main­taine the reputation and excellencie of armes, and the ensigne before his Prince, chiefe ruler, Lord Generall, Coronell, Cap­taine, Gouernour, &c. As he passeth before them, he ought to a­base the point and tip of the ensigne, or rather with his arme bow down néer-hand all the rest of the ensigne, & so much more, by how much he is of greater dignitie & authoritie. In this sort shall he make signe of reuerence, and not pull off his cap or hat, neither bend his knée, nor moue anie one part of his person, thereby to retaine that dignitie due to the ensigne & his office.

The Alfierus being in square, rancke, or ordinance, with the ensigne displaid, doth change (almost neuer) the place where he is planted to march, which is in the midst of the footmen, as a place most safe and best defended. Therefore those that other­wise would vse it, doe ground their opinion vpon some ancient order of the Romaines or Grecians, wherein they are deceiued, because at this day we are constrained to varie our order, consi­dering our armes be varied, which do now fetch and vound much more and further off, and are more pearcing then those of anti­ent time.

[Page 65]Neither is it expedient to put this officer, which is of such great respect, alwaies in hazard, aswell for the good qualitie of his person, ye which we must alwaies presuppose him to be of, as also for the office of great importance he supplyes, si [...]ce he doth sustaine the displaid ensigne wherein the reputation and honor of all the companie consists. But at such times as he shal march to a Scalade, breach and batterie: the valiant Alfierus with his ensigne in one hand and his sword in another, as is before said, ought to enforce himselfe to be the first, and by all meanes to mount vp, to enter amongest the enemies, and to aduance and inuite the rest forward, both his inferiours, compani­ons, & betters: for in effect at such times the particular guiding of the band appertains to him. Now to the intent that the soul­diers at the instāt time of a dangerous enterprise, andin a com­bersome & perilous time and place, may be inuited, & feruently stirred vp to follow the ensigne. He must therfore vse such cour­tesie to all men, that in all hazardes and great exployts, he be­ing beloued of the Souldiers, may be verie much ayded and de­fended by them, where as otherwise they doe either suffer open ignomie, or danger of death, when as they be either abandoned at the point of extremitie, or traiterously staine or wounded by their owne companions and followers: as at the assault of Da­lahani, and a skirmish of brauerie at Louaine, chanced vnto two seuerall Ensigne-bearers: of the Baron of Sheueran, Coronell ouer te [...]ne Ensignes of shot. Therefore since he is the shadow of the valor and good condition of his captaine and companie, let him be carfull of his dutie.

The Ensigne bearer may of his discretion and authoritie, espying the companie trauaile, or follow enemies to their dis­commoditie and perill, loosing the wind, hill, or ground of ad­uantage, disordering the aray, may stand still, and cause the drums and fifes to stand and sound the retreat, that the compa­nie may resort and come to the Ensigne, and order the aray by the aduantage of the ground, rather then abide the comming of the enemy.

He ought alwaies to haue about him, and to lodge where hée doth himselfe, so manie good Drums as there be hundreth in his band: that at all times he may make Raccolte, and gather his souldiers togither, and for such like necessarie respects.

[Page 66]He ought neuer craue licence to go to anie enteprise whatso­euer, for anie desire he hath to make himselfe known, or to win fame, but ought to remaine stedfast and firme, when his turne of seruice comes, in respect of the great charge he doth carie in the manage of the ensigne.

It is necssarie he haue a horse for his owne vse, the which whilest he marcheth ought to go neere the Ensigne, whether he be in square vattaile or long march, for by taking his ease on horse-backe, he may kéepe himselfe continually lus [...]y and fresh, and therewithall may accomodate his cariage, or bagage, as some souldiers may likewise doe among the ordinarie cariage, prouided for by the captaine.

Note that the Ensigne which he receiued of his Captaine, must by him be res [...]ored again at such times as he is discharged out of the company: if during the time of his seruice, there hath not chanced a battaile, assault, or other enterprise, wherein the Alfierus being present, he hath not made manifest apparance, that he hath merited and deserued the same. For in such cases it is to be vnderstood, that he hath wonne and gained the same and not otherwise, vnlesse the captaine of his free will doth not giue it him, which is a verie ancient custome, specally amongst the Italians.

It is verie requisite the Alfierus haue besides his two assi­stantes, a valiant and couragious seruant, who is a practised souldier, and not a nouice or yoongling, as some verie fondly and vnaduisedly do entertain now adaies, that continually being néere him, as well in the maine square battaile or elswhere, to second him with a péece, pike, or target of proofe, & may haue in such a one that intyre faith and assured credite that he should haue of a faithful companion, whom he must not kéepe as an ab­iect seruant, but he ought to maintaine him, apparell him, and arme him with conuenient armes of defence, for sometimes it shall fall out in the daie of a fought battaile of a whole armie, that those deputed seruants may haue the custodie of all the En­signes in the maine square battaile, and the Alfierus of ech com­panie, as men well armed be placed in the head of the battaile, or in some other principall or necessarie places which are to be gouerned and defended by practised and valiant Souldiers: as particularly fell out at [...]uch time as the Marques of Vasto, [Page 67] fought at Cresola in Lombardie against the Frenchmen, which iourney was lost by the Emperialistes, although that daie they fought valiantly, and besides in other enterprises, such men haue executed gallant seruice.

He must alwaies prouide a sufficient corpes de gard about his ensigne, as well by day as night, in what place soeuer he shal be, although no suspition were to be had of the enemy, that thereby he may remaine safe from all sodaine surprises, or vnprouided casualties, and the rather to maintaine the honour and reputa­tion due to the ensigne, whereby all sinister inconuenience may be auoyded, and the maiestie and office of the same generally well respected: Specially when time and place of suspect mini­sters occasion. The Alfierus must march to ye gard, either arme [...] with a Curase of proofe, or some other conuenient garment of defence, being still seconded with his seruant, who is to carie either target, halberd, péece or pike, or such weapon as he doth delight in, which at the seat of the gard, taking his Ensigne in his hand, he must let rest in the kéeping of his seruant. Neither is it requisite in going or marching, that he vnlose and display the ensigne, without some speciall occasion, but ought to reserue the aduancing and displaying of the same at full, vntill he come in the sight of chieftaine or prince, or in the sight of the enemy, or other places of seruice.

It is necessary his ensigne haue certain special countersignes and markes, that it may easily be knowne of his souldiers, both néere hand and farre off, to the intent that in all exployts, and at vnknowne sodains, his souldiers may perfectly perceiue the same amongst the other ensignes, different from the rest, wher­in the Alfierus must vse an exquisite manage, that by his wise and valorous actions without anie other mans relation, may discerne his vertuous actions and forward procéedinges, which he ought to make apparant by some notable enterprise.

The Alfierus must be a man of good account, of a good race, honest and vertuous, braue in apparell, therby to honour his of­fice, and continually armed as well when no perill is feared, as in time of danger, to giue example to the rest of the souldiers not to thinke their armor burthenous, but by vse to make it as familiar to him as his skin.

Finally he must be a man skilfull, hardy, and couragious, of [Page 68] able courage to aduance and beare vp the Ensigne in all extre­mities, secret, silent, and zealous, able often to comfort, animate and encurage the company to take in hand, and maintaine such extremisies, enterprises, as they are appointed vnto, and neuer to retyre, but whē of noble policie the higher officers command the same. Unto this officer there should be certaine ceremonies vsed in deliuerie of the Ensigne, reseruing it by oath in the pre­sence of his hand, at which time he must make vow and professe the same rather to be his winding shéete, and therein to lose his life, then through his default to lose the same: whereunto euery priuat souldier should likewise be sworn, as among the Romans it was vsed when he was not accounted a souldier, but a théefe, or robber, [...]ill he had taken his oth. And therefore their warres was called Militia Sacrata.

The office of the Lieutenant of a companie▪

THat persons vpon whom anie charge doth depend, and doth deseruedly manage anie affaire, must frame himselfe to vse due diligence, and with dexteritie suffer such tedious toyle, as in these serious affaires succéed, since that charge (as I haue al­readie said) signifieth nothing else but a burthen of affaires.

Therfore that a souldier may deseruedly mount vp to this de­grée of worthy honour and martiall dignitie, he must vse all cir­cumspect care to performe his office like an expert Lieutenant, that the companie be well gouerned, which he must accomplish with a forward and willing mind (though of duetie he is bound to performe the same) aswell to content the minde of his cap­taine, as to augment his own honour and reputation. He must neuer appropriat vnto himselfe any one point of authoritie, but diligently discipher and vnderstand all thinges, and make rela­tion thereof to his captaine, of whom it is necessarie he take all his commissions and directions. His part is to giue willingly and readily counsell and aduise to his captaine, as often as he is demanded, and otherwise neuer, vnlesse he sée that the same may do manifest good, or in case of present perill.

The Lieutenant ought to carie wt him a diligent care of con­cord, for that particularly the pacification of discords & difference amongst ye souldiers of his company, appertains vnto him, which [Page 69] must be done without choler or passion, and must still handle them verie indifferently and curteously. For his indifferencie, besides the gaining of him trustie credite, doth make easie the desciding of any difference or disagreement, and is one point which of necessitie is most conuenient to an honorable peace­maker, although it be a verie difficile thing to pro [...]ure peace in points of honour, specially amongst souldiers that stand much vpon their Punctos, and for that respect is it very hard to vse a iust balance: therefore in such causes it is most requisite that euerie one of the interessed, shew at the full his entire cause, th [...] which is a thing not vulgar, neither of small importance. And although the pacifier ought neuer to hang more vpon the one side then the other, yet it is conuenient he haue some small re­spect to him that is wronged against reason, rather then to him that is ye vnlawfull worker of ye iniurie. But if he finde any dif­ficultie in resoluing these differences, let him confer with the Captaine, to the end that he, who is knowne to be the occasion, and wil not agrée to an honest end, may be immediatly dischar­ged: but if it be thought good that he remaine to serue a time, for the execution of some speciall enterprise, then the word both of the one and the other ought to be taken, vntill the same be performed or the pay past, and then may discharge him, as is said, to shunne a greater scandale: for to enter into vnquiet quarrelling and discord, one equal with an other, and with one that receiues the like stipend, is not the part and qualitie of a subiect souldier, but of a frée carelesse cutter, and band buckle [...], and of an insolent and importunate person, whose nature doth argue in him that his doings tend to an other end, then to be­come excellent in the honorable exercise of armes. P [...]t the case that one of them should valiantly ouercome the other, yet vnto the Captaine doth arise no other then want, losse, and euill sa­tisfaction: for when first he did receiue them into his seruice, he did presume that they were both of them equally to be esteemed, men of good credite and behamour, and that for such they were conducted, and receiued stipend. So that quarelling and [...]illing one the other, as often it fals out in resolute persons o [...] putting him so a dishonour or open foile: such a one doth not o [...]ely de­priue the Captaine of a souldier, but also of himselfe likewise: For the law of reason doth binde the Captaine not to maintain [Page 70] an importunate person, a malefactour, and an homecide, in one band no lesse then a well ordered citie: Considering it is requi­site and conuenient his souldiers, rather then to imploy them­selues in such quarrels, should indeuour and aduenture their bodies so ouerthrow and kill the enimie, thereby to procure his owne proper praise and peculier profite. Always prouided, that the occasion of ye wars be concluded and published to be lawfull and honest, which easily in this respect doth remoue all difficul­ties, whilest a man doth place himselfe in the seruice of a prince that is religious, prudent, and iust, and that haue expresse and lawfull power to louie armes, and not with those which are of small authoritie, or tyrannous vsurpers of other mens states, and wicked blood suckers.

Therefore when the Lieutenant cannot by his owne dea­lings supply these wants, or pacifie and accord them, in such causes he may remit the care thereof vnto his superior & Cap­taine: And thus let him haue speciall care that by his meanes no quarrels do grow, neither that he suffer any faction or discē ­tion to take déepe roote, for feare of banding and mutinies.

He ought to haue speciall respect that the Corporals and Ser­geants be able duely to execute their office with due diligence, for the better performance of seruice, and personally aid them in setting the watch.

Likewise, to the intent that the Sergeant persist not igno­rantly, or fall in any one point of his office: it behooues the Lieutenant in many particular pointes to aid him, both in re­spect of his owne credite, and for the generall benefite of the whole band: as in vsing diuers directions, disciplines, inue [...] ­tions, putting the band in order, rancke, square, in accompany­ing them to the watch, and in executing such like enterprises which commonly are to be performed.

So ought he likewise to delight himselfe extraordenarily (besides the other necessarie parts of his office) in taking view of the Corps de gard, and the Sentinels of his proper companie, to the intent they may remaine continually vigilant and redie, and ech mans duetie duly executed, the martial lawes read and examined, and a solemne silence generally maintained.

He must obserue great affabilitie and fraternitie with the Alfierus, and friendly consult with him (specially if the Lieute­nant [Page 71] doth not manage both the one and the other office, as the Spaniards and other nations doe vse, and might very well be vsed of vs, if the Generall or Coronell thinke good, [...] ▪ for a­uoyding of emulation and charge of pay,) but if they [...] par­ticular officers, and beare distinct sway in the hand, then [...] the Lieutenant be very carefull (as he that is the chiefe) to auoide all stomaking and strife that might arise [...]etwixt him & the Al­sierus, for therby oftentimes great scandales haue fa [...]ne out, and the diuision of the company, a thing aboue all other to be care­fully forséene and shunned. He ought to vse a gracious iesture, & a curteous entertainment to all his souldiers, countenance eue­rie one ioyfully, and solicite their causes carefully towards the captaine & the other officers, as the treasurers, pay-masters, cō ­missaries and such like, yet euer by the captaines consent, yea & to the captain himselfe, by whose friendly fauour inferiour offi­cers may be relieued for their pay or other wantes. Besides he ought to giue order and direction to all the company, deuiding & distributing the Squadres indifferently and discréetly, to the in­tent the Corporals & other officers may be obeyed, & that ech en­terprise may be performed without reply or contradiction.

It is necessarie that he put in euerie Squadre an equal num­ber of euery sort of armes, and that ech weapon be sorted in a re­dinesse, to the intent ye in what place & time soeuer occasion doth require, euery one of them may to his great aduantage, procéede and front the inuading enimie with a forceable strength.

Like wise it is good sometimes not to suffer a Squadre or ra­ther a whole Corps de gard to consist of souldiers al of one coun­trie and nation, but ought rather to be artificially mixed, and to separate them, thereby to auoid quarrell and generalitie of fa­ctions, which by reason of their being togither may the rather a­rise amongst consorts of one natiue countrie, & that more com­modiously then if they were separated.

The Captain being absent, the Lieutenant possesseth ye prin­cipall and chiefe place, and ought to be obeyed as captaine. Ne­uerthelesse in his presence, it is requisite he vse a certaine br [...] ­therly friendship and familiaritie towards al, yet that notwith­standing, he must proceede in al things with such modestie and grauitie, as he may retaine such authoritie and reputation, as the office he doth hold, doth most worthily inuest him withall.

[Page 72]There ought to be in him a reasonable good knowledge and fa­ [...] in expressing his conceit and meaning sensiblie, that the [...] may vnderstand what they haue to do, to the intent he may [...] m [...]re easily imprint in the heartes and mindes of his [...]. [...], all such things as he determines, and that be necessa­rie for the better [...] of his Prince, and the benefite of his countrie and companie, whereunto he ought to apply himselfe with all possible diligence, since that of the Prince he is liberal­ly paid, hath his being of his countrie, and is diligently obeyed of his band, where he swayes his present office & charge, which is truely of great credite and no lesse commoditie.

Let him prouide himself of a horse to beare him, to ye intent he may be lustie and fresh in all enterprises▪ and that he may con­tinually take the view and diligently suruey the order which they are to kéepe in marching, or in making Alta, and at al other times besides in what enterprise soeuer.

He must take order that his baggage or carriage, which ought to be as little as may be, (which rule ye common souldiers ought likewise obserue) be borne and conuaide amongst the common cariage, which the Captaine hath ordained and prouided for the vse of the whole band.

He must take diligent care to the redéeming of prest or lent money, which the Captaine shall make according to occasion or neede amongst the companie, & to distribute the same conueni­ently amongst ye souldiers, & therof to rēder & yéeld good account to the Captaine, by doing whereof he shall pleasure the souldi­ers much, in which time of pay he hath verie good opertunitie to put the souldiers in minde, and to teach them to procéede in wel doing, and to desist from euill.

It appertaines generally to euerie Lieutenant of a band to be of great experience and ripenesse of seruice, whose authoritie in the absence of the Captaine (as partly I touched before) ex­tendeth to examine, trie, reforme, correct, and amend any of­fence committed within the band, and also day & night to bring the companie with the Ensigne to the place of assemblie, there in order traine and exercise the same, as to the necessitie of ser­uice doth appertaine, and being commanded by the higher pow­ers to march towards the enimie, must encounter and fight with them, as if the Captaine were in presence, who vpon im­pediment, [Page 73] must sometimes be absent.

Finally, it appertaines to the Lieutenant to watch, ward, approch, conduct, aduance against the enimies, and to encoun­ter, animate [...], comfort, and also to encourage the companie by word and déede as néed serueth: to retyre continually, maintai­ning skirmish, vntil he haue recouered some place of safegard.

The office and duetie that appertaines to the Lanze-spezzaté, volentarie Lieutenants, the Gentlemen of a Band, or Caualliere of S. Georges squadrons.

THe sundrie degrées whereunto valiant souldiers with aspi­ring minds séeke to ascend, for that they be many, & for that those which haue attained and serued in those roomes and other great offices, by diuers sinister meanes and accidents, be now and then disseuered and made frustrate from their charge, as ex­perience hath made many times apparant, who yet neuerthe­lesse being naturally desirous to continue in seruice, and per­chance through forrain necessitie are driuen to remaine in pay, in attending further preferment: Therefore this place was first inuented for such persons, as a speciall seat wherein the flower of warlike souldiers doe sit, like a gréene Laurell garland that doth enuiron the martiall head of a mightie armie, whose order for warlike force or fame, giues not place to the Grecian Fa­langes, the chiefest of the Romaine legions, or to the knightly cōstitution or couragious enterprises of those of Arthurs round table. For there neither hath bene, nor can be found any place of such honour or reputation, as to be a Gentleman of a Band, whether we serue for pleasure or for profite, or haue attained thereunto by merite: or whether we haue bene Corporal, Ser­geant, Alfierus or Lieutenant, wherein Captaines somtimes [...]o plant themselues, specially in the Collonels Squadre, and temporise the time, vntill preferment do fall: for thereby their former reputation is nothing disgraced, nor their charge had, in or of any other company, nothing derogated: Considering that those in these Squadrons either are, or ought to be souldiers of such policie and perfite experence, that they be capeable of any office vnder the degree of a Collonell, and may supplie any of those foresaid offices, or performe any other enterprise of great importance, commanded by the Captain, Collonel, or Generall.

[Page 74]And for that many youthes of [...] parentage, and Gentle­men of ancient houses do likewise follow the warres, I would that vpon due triall of their merite, they should enter into these Squadrons, which the Prince or Generall is to confirme, and make a distinct order of valiant aduenturous souldiers, and call them Caualliers of S. Georges Squadrons, at whose entrance thereinto, they shall take a solemne oth appertaining to their order, and their Corporall shall inuest them with some Band­ [...]oll, Medall or Scarfe, whereu [...]on is portrayed S. George his armes, which they must be bound to weare openly at all times and in all places, enterprises, skirmishes, battailes and as­saults.

It is requisite that a singular good souldier, being the Gentle­man of a band, and Cauallier of S. George his Squadron, if hée meane to gain the grace and fauour of his Captaine & Collonel, that not onely he be sufficiently valiant and wise, as of necessi­tie is required at his hands: but it is also conuenient for him to be reasonable well horsed, and to haue in store all sortes of armes, as a Halberd, Hargabuse for the match or firelocke, Ar­mour and Target of proofe, his Lance and case of Pistolets, his Pike, his Pertisan or Epieu to go the Round withall, that he may both day and night vary and change his armes at the offer of all enterprises is requisite, and as change of seruice doth call him foorth.

He must alwayes of necessitie haue more then one seruant, and ought to apparel him in galant order: these are to be néere his elbow to follow him with his armes. He ought alwayes to lodge himselfe as néere as is possible, to the lodging of his Col­lonel or captain, to the intent ye either armed, or without armes, he may alwayes, according as ye cause doth require, be about his person, either on horseback or on foote, for that the principal gard of this singular personage, yt is to say, the Collonel or Captaine, doth consist in the diligence and custodie of the Caualliers of S. George his Squadrons. These things notwithstanding, day & night whē it fals to his lot, or that he shalbe commanded by his Corporall to watch, he must dispose himselfe to be able to make particular gard, & that after a most exquisite order: wherein he must haue a special care (without making refusall at any time) to performe that which shalbe appointed him by his Corporall, [Page 75] or by any other that shal command in the name of his Collonell or Captaine. His office in time of watch, for the most part con­sistes in going the Round, searching the watch, kéeping good or­der in the Corps of Gard, in being a coadiutour to ye officer that guides the company or rules the watch, and is for the most part exempted from standing Sentinel, and such like dueties of a com­mon souldier, vnlesse great necessitie or special seruice cōstrain.

It appertaines to him to haue good experience in going the Round, that in performing the same, he may discréetely gouerne in the ouersight of the watch, called the Sopraguardia, for in this point doth very much consist the prouident good order and forme that is to be obserued, in auoyding the stratagems, surprises, Sallies and disceits of the enimie. Approching néere to ye Senti­nel, he must giue eye and diligent regard in what order and sort he doth finde him vigilant, how readie he is in demanding and taking the word, & after comming nearer him, he must examine all that hath passed or fallen out whilest he hath bene in Senti­nel, & the order he doth obserue, and what hath bene appointed him to do: the which if it be good he must confirme, and when he doth find it to be otherwise, he must rehearse & refer the same to the Corporal of the Sentinel, that he may vse diligent redresse.

Arriuing in any Corps de gard, he must aboue all things ad­uertise them, that they alwayes kéepe fire light for the necessary commoditie of Hargabusiers, and for light in the night, taking order with the souldiers that they and their armes may remain in a forceable redinesse: through which his good instruction, there may grow to be no want, & so consequently he must in like cases procéed with like prouident diligence.

After this he must with great consideration and modestie, ex­amine euerie particular thing, carrying a mind with himself to cōtinue & increase the same from better to better, & both in him­selfe and to them vse necessarie aduertisemēts, & in such sort shall he passe through all the Corps de gards and Sentinels.

If it chance him to incounter another Sopraguardia or round, to shun the occasion of dangerous difference, which somtimes is accustomed to follow: or for pollicie, in fearing to giue ye watch word to him that purposely comes to robbe the same, that com­ming from the enimie secretly, counterfaits the Sentinell, or by some other practise, as it sometimes hath caused domage [Page 76] to the grieuous losse and total preiudice of the armie, to preuent such inconuenience, let that Sopraguardia which shalbe nearest to the next adioyning Sentinell, turne backe, giuing the word after a due accustomed sort vnto the said Sentinel, to the intent the foresaid Sopraguardia may do the like▪ and when they are of accord, euerie one may follow his owne path, but if otherwise they do disagrée, the disceit remaines discouered: not onely in that counterfeit round, but also in the sained Sentinel, whom the Sopraguardia must examine and demand at his hand some speciall countersigne or double word, that thereby he may know him for an assured friend, or finde him an enimie or negligent person, the which of all men is verie well knowne to merite sharpe and extreame chastisement, which at no time, so néere as is possible, is to be omitted.

This former rule is to be obserued of those souldiers that be of one selfe nation: but when the Rounds or Sopraguardes be many and of sundrie nations, and the Corps of Gards likewise: then the Sopraguard comming into a quarter that is stranger vnto him, is bound to giue the word to the Sopraguard of that nation, & of that quarter: so that by such meanes as wel ye suspi­tion of disceit, as the occasion of discord shall be auoyded.

And if in case the said ordinarie Round or Sopraguard, do in­counter in their owne quarter, with the extraordinarie, those that be ordinarie shall indeuour themselues to take the word of those that be extraordinarie. For so is it conuenient and most conformable to that order beforesaid, wherein I haue set downe what is necessarie for a Sopraguard or Round to do in a strange quarter. And for that it is requisite, as I haue alredie touched, that the Caualliers be alwayes about the person of his chiefe captain, without either being bound to Standerd, Guidon, or o­ther Ensigne whatsoeuer, he must indeuour himselfe, when any enterprise or warlike affaires is committed to his charge, to be apt and readie to vse practised experience in directing & guiding a skirmish, in taking the view of a battery, in discouering of the enimie, in marching or making Alta, in Passa parde in the va­lia [...]nt repulse of a sodaine inuading enimie by Bawll en bouche, in taking view of the situation of a place, in guiding a Roade or troupe of Horsemen, in giuing Alarome to the eni­mie, in plucking aduertisementes from the enimie, in pla­cing [Page 77] Imbas [...]ades, in giuing Canuasados, and to know ve­rie well how to execute with sound iudgement these and such like important affaires, the which for the most part apper­taine to the Cauallieres of this Squadrone to performe. As likewise it hath bin the custome to giue thē the charge to plant Gabiones for the defence of the Artillarie, to batter and endo­mage the walles, the Trenches, the lodinges, and the enemies Squadrones.

Let him remember when hée hath bin at any exploite, to bring backe againe into his Quarter, those souldiers hee hath led foorth to any enterprise, vnited and in rancke, marching together behind him, and neuer suffer them to returne disban­ded one by one out of order, which is an occasion of great con­fusion, and brings but small reputation to the Captaine and conductor of them.

Moreouer it is verie necessarie hée knowe how to make a roade and distroie the enemies countrie, the which likewise doth oftentimes appertaine to him to performe: in which ex­ploite hee must beware aboue all thinges, that no souldier in those enterprises disperse or disband themselues, but with an assured good order, for the most part conformable to my follow­ing discourse, wherein I set downe directions, how to conduct Souldiers to the skirmish. And particularlie where I declare that he ought to kéepe and maintaine for his people the stron­gest place of situation, wherein he must skirmish, for that com­monly souldiers being in disorder, wearied and loaden with spoile, may bée easilie put to flight, broken and oppressed of the enemies, vnlesse they bée seconded or shaded by some force­able succour.

I suppose it likewise most necessarie, that hée indeuour him­selfe to bee apt and sufficient at all times, and in all places to sollicite and negociate for his Prince or Chieftaine, any cause of what weight or moment soeuer, considering that most men are not fit to attempt the performance of such doubtfull and dif­ficile causes: for although manie make great estimation of them selues, and presume much by their dailie reading and Theoricke of those weightie affaires, yet do they want and come farre short of that bold and readie practise, which plainly appeares, that the worthy professors of Armes possesse: and [Page 78] specially in the presence of great Princes, whose Maiestie and reuerence for the most part, doth make cold and bring out of countenance the hoatest and most resolute determination. As Demosthenes before Philip of Macedone made apparent, when he was not able to pronoūce thrée woords of a long premeditate Oration, in behalfe of the Athenians.

This worthie gentleman of a band, this Caualliere of Saint Georges squadre, and likewise all other professors of warlike armes, ought to carie in mind, that of him and his equals the exercise of Armes is to be applied, and diligentlie to practise the same, to the intent he bée not for want of knowledge dispised of others: and not ignorantlie to dispise them that deserue due commendations, but rather to carie and vse the countenance of authoritie to those persons that merite not to beare swaie and gouernement, then towards forward souldiers. Yet for all that towards the rest in [...]some other respects, hée ought to gratifie them and helpe them to his power, and so courteously win the good wils and friendly fauor of all souldiers his equals, to in­struct and courteously to admonish euerie souldier priuatelie and apart, what appertaines to his duetie.

This Caualliere must be able also to traine souldiers, to make them march in orderly proporcions, to cast them in Ringes, Esses, Snailes, Hearses, Squadres, to receiue and giue charge, to faine skirmishes, onsets, retraites, and how to order any number of Souldiers, from a hundreth to fiue hundreth, for so manie may be in a band, and vnder one Ensigne, as the Swi­ [...]ers and Germains yet vse at this day, and as in former ages our Countriemen haue vsed, which in some respects may passe without reprehension. If a Captaine be disposed to haue so ma­nie vnder his Ensigne, when hée is not able to bring the num­ber vnto a whole Collonelship, together with the knowledge of the order how to traine, hée must indeuour himselfe to be per­fect in drawing platformes, in the Mathematickes, in the mar­tiall Lawes, in besieging of townes, batteries, mynes, and ech thing else belonging to Martiall discipline.

Let this worthie Caualliere of Saint Georges squadre haue then before his eyes such like precepts, and manage of martiall affaires, that he may encrease his owne credite, win his coun­trie fame, fauor of his Prince, & honor of his house and friends, [Page 81] rather then for the regard of riches, statelie houses, liuings, and such like, but rather prefer prudent pollicie, courage, valor and approued experience before such base benefites, whereby hée may attaine to the lawrell Crowne, wherewith diuers mightie conquerors haue their heades adorned: That hée may be an ex­ample to the reproch of such as lewdlie spend their daies in idlenes, prodigalitie, lust and obloquie.

The order of trayning Footemen, necessarie to be obserued of all Sergeants, Lieutenants, and Cauallieres of the band.

FOr that the ignorance and decay of Armes in the be­ginning of this age, and in these partes of Europe haue brought great confusion to diuers, which haue rawlie and rashlie professed the same, to the hazard of their liues and countrie: And for that Mustering and trayning of souldiers to make them expert to seruice is one of the greatest errors hath bin committed: therefore I haue thought good to borrow out of Master Stywards Booke of Martial discipline, his maner and forme of trayning, which I find in him set downe in more plaine and exquisite maner, according to the moderne vse, then of any that hath hitherto written so particularlie ei­ther in our owne tongue, or in any other forraine language, wherein the Authour doth merite great commendations, whe­ther the same procéedes of his owne experience, or that he hath drawne it out of other mens trauailes.

But first before I enter into particulars, I thinke it good to set downe, what Charecters I meane to vse in these discripti­ons, that they may bée the better vnderstood, together with other notes appertaining to these present directions.

The Letters and Charecters.
  • C for Captaines.
  • L for Lieutenants.
  • S for Sergeants.
  • D for Drums.
  • F for Fiftes.
  • s for Hargabusiers.
  • a for Archers.
  • b for Halberdiers.
  • p for Pikes.
  • h for Horsemen.

The Orders which are to be obserued for the furnishing of the foresaid weapons.

Caliuers or Hargabuzieres, or Mu [...]ketieres

SUch must haue either of them a good and sufficient péece, flask, tutch-boxe, pouder, shot, yron, mold, worme, tyrebale, ram­mer, swoord and dagger, and a morrion. The like must the Muskete are haue, with a forked staffe brest hye, with a stringe to fasten to his wrest. Such as serue with shot in raine, mistes and windes, must haue their péeces chardged and primed: They must carie the tutch hoale of their péeces vnder their arme­hoales, match light in their hands couertly and drie, their péeces faire and cleane within and without, so bée they seruiceable at all times, hauing regard they kéepe their march and retyre of good distance in sunder, their match and pouder verie drie, and their péeces often chardged and discharged.

Archers or long Bowes.

NEcessarie it is that euery man haue a good and méete bowe, according to his draught and strength, light & easie, a light side iacke hanging loose to his knée, with a skul, swoord & dagger, nothing vpon his armes, wherby in time of seruice hée may ea­silie draw the arrow to the head, that they may deliuer the same with strength and art, as Englishmen bée accustomed. They must haue also a bracer and shooting gloue, their stringes whip­ped and waxed ouer with glew, their feathers drie: and so is h [...] seruiceable.


THose bearing that warlike weapons, especiallie the fronts, where sometimes Captaines, Lieutenants, Sergeants, and Cauallieres of bandes, be oftentimes planted with Pikes, and is the place for Gentlemen to serue in, must haue a fayre Millan corsse [...], with al peeces appertaining to the same: that is, the curats, the collers, the paldrons, wyth the vambraces, also the long taces with the burganet, with sword and dagger, their pykes of the vsuall length (for the strength of the battaile doth consist in the same) bearing the pykes on their sholders, setting their thumbes vnder the same, whereby it is ruled. They must oftentimes practise to trayle, push, ward, couch, crosse, &c. as for the necessitie of the skirmish or battaile appertaineth.

Halberdeares or Bill-men.

THese bée gards vnto Captaines & Ensignes, which be most times chosen gentlemen of experience, or Cauallieres of the squadre, who as occasion serueth, giue orders to the numbers in aray, and the enemie approching to giue an onset, certain of them bée appointed to aduance and maintaine the receit of them: whose discréete leading and valiant courage doth much comfort the rest to follow the same. These Cauallieres bee ar­med with corselets, and bée placed in the hart of the battail, vsu­allie called the slaughter of the field, or execution of the same, who commonlie doe not fight but in verie great extremitie.

Because there is great alteration and deuision of weapons, I meane to note vnto you the iust numbers to euerie hundreth at this present vsed, which shall greatly profit to the making of your battailes, from 100. vnto 1500.

Men.Pikes.Halberds & Tar­gets of proofe.Shot.
100 Men.40 P.10 H.50 Shot.
200 Men.80 P.20 H.100 Shot.
300 Men.120 P.30 H.150 Shot.
400 Men.160 P.40 H.200 Shot.
500 Men.200 P.50 H.250 Shot.
600 Men.240 P.60 H.300 Shot.
700 Men.280 P.70 H.350 Shot.
800 Men.320 P.80 H.400 Shot.
900 Men.340 P.90 H.450 Shot.
1000 Men.400 P.100 H.500 Shot.
1100 Men.440 P.110 H.550 Shot.
1200 Men.480 P.120 H.600 Shot.
1300 Men.520 P.130 H.650 Shot.
1400 Men.560 P.140 H.700 Shot.
1500 Men.600 P.150 H.750 Shot.

Of Mustering and Training.

A Band or Companie being furnished with Officers, Souldiers, Armour, Weapons and Munitions, as aforesaid: In times connenient resort whollie toge­ther, to some ground necessarie, to must [...]r, march and [Page 84] traine, exercise and instruct such as are not perfect in feates of warre, which bee ordered sometimes by wordes and déedes, and sometimes by framed signes from the officers, that souldiers may learne and obserue the meaning of the same. At such times of assemblie, as at watch or ward, the Clerke ought to read the bill, and to call euerie souldier by his name, that euerie man may aunswere for himselfe, and none to be absent vpon paine, without sicknes or licence. The Sergeant (as they bée called) putteth them in Aray, that euerie man follow his loades­man, kéeping his ranck-fellowes iustlie on both sides, placing the shot in voward and rerewarde: the Ensigne and Hal­berds in the midst of the Pikes, so bée they placed in beautie and strength, as is accustomed: sometimes to stand and aduance their weapons, turne their faces, and march any waie assig­ned: and sometimes to receiue a woord that shall passe from man to man, from the one end to the other, with such silence, that none heare the same, but those in aray assembled.

Certaine woords to be vsed of the Officer that traynes.

VVHen any Officer determines to exercise his companie to traine them, he must cast them into a King or such like necessarie forme, and vse these or like woords.

My louing friends, fellowes, and companions in Armes, wée bée gathered togither for the seruice of God, his holie Church, our Prince and Countrie, and for that none through ignorance shall perish or run in daunger of the lawes of the field, you shal from time to time by mée or other Officers of the band bée in­structed by woords or déedes in such points, as to your calling and the necessitie of seruice shall require, the which you must diligently obserue and follow, though the same shal séeme vnto you many times both dangerous and paynfull. Also if any of you my followes shall find an occasion conuenient to declare to [...] or any other officer, his mind and opinion in any thing tou­ching seruice, w [...] shall diligentlie heare, and gratifie the partie the double value thereof, and (God willing) equitie and iustice shall be ministred. Also regard that all souldiers know & obey their [...] in their place, according to their calling.

To teach and trayne Souldiers to march[figure] in Ranckes, Squares, bat­tailes, &c.

FIrst, for that one hundreth is the least num­ber that a Captaine can haue in charge, I wil therefore begin with 100. setting your weapons in this order following: that is, twentie fiue shot, next your shot twentie Pykes, then tenne Halberds to gard the Ensigne, and next your Halberds other twentie Pykes, and then your other fiue and twentie shotte, the which béeing thus placed may be brought to those proporti­ons here set downe, greatlie auailable to diuers seruices.

VVHen the souldiers are taught to march thrée in a ranke right forth, you shall bring them in this proportion of a ring, otherwise called a Limasson: & although it is not of any force, it is necessarie to traine ye vnperfect, also by bringing them in close compasse togither, they may better heare and vnderstand any preceptes touching their charge, spoken by the Captain or any other officers, as oft as is méete. This figure folow­ing of the ring is not of force, because the En­signe lieth open to the enimies without gard of Pikes.

[Page 86]

The Ring.

Sometimes vpon good occasion you shall bring your Pykes in order of an S. your Halberds planted in the midst with the Ensigne, whereby it may be enuironed with Pykes for defence of horse, your shot placed betwéene euerie rancke of Pikes, so that they may serue to the skirmish, either rescuing other with­in gard, the which retyring into the void place, the Pikes cou­ched euerie way for defence, the ouerplus of the shot with the Captaine and Lieutenant with other officers to be placed in the midst of the S. with the Ensigne.

[Page 87]

An S.

SOmetimes vpon the suddaine bring them into this order of a D. otherwise called a Snaile: Place your Halberds and En­signe in the Rereward of your Pikes, and cast your selfe round, so that you may enuiron your Ensigne, hauing first placed your shot amongst the ranckes of Pikes, euerie Captaine, Lieute­nant, and other officer togither with the ouerplus of shot, to be placed within the circuite of the weapons. This is a strength at néede, but in this order they cannot march or retire.

[Page 90]

A D. or a Snaile.

How to traine souldiers and bring them to the vse of their weapon.

AFter you haue taught your company to martch thrée in a rancke right forth, likewise to kéepe their order in Limasson or Ring, in S. or D. you shall command your officers to teach them how to vse their weapons. First deuide your shot from your pikes and Halberds, causing a marke to be set vpon the water, whereby you shall the better perceiue where the bullet falleth or striketh. Then cause your drumme to go before, and your shot to follow single, teaching thē how to hold their péeces, and to put pouder in the pan, the match in the cocke, how to couch and giue fire the better to bolden them: and that those haue experience to discharge at the marke, and euerie one for to follow his loadsman. This done, cast them all about round, and bring them to the place where they began, then afterward teach them to charge with bullet.

[Page 89]Sometimes deuide your pikes and halberds in[figure] two parts, commanding your officers that they turne their broad sides, as if they should encounter the enimie, causing your drums to sound. Then charge your officers to go in ye front of your pikes, to shew them how that they should vse their wea­pons, as first, to cause your pikes to sarie close to­gither, then to traile their pikes with the sharpe end towards the enimie, two yards from the end of the blade, and to offer the push one at another. This being done, cause your drums to sound re­trait, that is, to retire with your faces on the eni­mie. Then must you teach them to ward with their pikes when the push is offered against them: also to couch and crosse, for defence of horse. Like­wise to aduance, &c.

How to traine or place an hundreth men.

THis figure here placed doth sh [...]w how the hundred men before mentioned cast in a ring, may march three in a ranke, the which may be brought vnto these proportions of strength following.

SOmetimes marching in the ray before said, you shall deuide the same into thrée parts by [...]1. ranks in ech part, deuiding your shot into foure partes, and your pikes into foure parts also, placing your halberds to gard the Ensigne, so be they readie at the sodaine in quadrant as appeareth following.

[Page 90]


LIkewise you must instruct them from thrée to march fiue in ranke, to the intent when néede serueth to ioyne vnto other bands. In thus marching, place halfe your shot before the other in the rereward.

ALso you may practise them to march seuen in ranke, placing your halberds in the Rere­ward with your Ensigne, the which maketh a iust quad [...]ant, placing your shot in the wings and rereward as appeareth following.[figure] To augment from three vnto fiue.

[Page 91]


YOu may likewise by placing seuē in ranke, the which is the greatest force that 100. men may be brought into, place 21. shot in the front, and fiftéene in [...]ch wing, the which seruice be­ing very apt to skirmish, is greatly vnto the anoying of the eni­mie: also it is readie to retyre to serue round about the battaile of pikes, as before.


IF in marching you vnderstand or perceiue that horsemen will assault you, then place fiue pikes in ranke, and betwixt euerie pike a shot, so marching forward, they fall to be ten ranke quadrant, placing your halbe [...]ds and Ensigne in the midst

A quadrant mixed with shot.

LIkewise you may for ye defence of horsemen, place ten ranks of pikes euerie way, your shot next vnto thē, your halberds and Ensigne in the midst, the pikes ends couched on the ground the better to defend the enimie.

A quadrant defending the shot.

THis proportion sheweth the march or quadrant order at large of a hundreth men, verie necessary to bee vsed in shew to the enemies, when thou vnderstandest their [...]umbers to excéede thine: Placing 7. Pikes in the Uoward, also 7. pikes in the Rereward, next vnto them 6. pikes in the second rankes, your Billes or Halberds together with your Ensigne in the midst with the Drum and Fifte, as is before mentioned, the which number (when thou perceiuest the enemie to take view of thine) thou shalt alter and cause the second rankes of the Uoward and Rereward to steppe forward to furnish the voide spaces, the which shall make of 7. thirtéene in a ranke. Also if thou perceiuest the enemie pretending to encounter thee, ha­uing no place of refuge, shall cause the ranks that stepped for­ward to retire to their places, and to sarrie close together, remo­uing out of the second rankes into the winges, the Halberds to step forward in their places, wil be 7. euery way quadrāt, as in the order before is mentioned, your shot to bée placed in the Uoward & rereward, may skirmish & retire as occasion serueth,

The March at large,

Practises of training, appertaining to the[figure] charge of two hundreth Men.

FIrst marching fiue in Ranke, 40. rankes containe two hundreth men, suting their weapons, as before, they may bée brought to these orders following, auailable for diuers intents, although the same for a time séeme painfull, & although Archers bee not as heretofore they haue bin, yet is it good in some of my figures following, to shew you when you haue Archers how to place them.

SOmetimes deuide the Pikes and the Halberds into three parts, by 1 [...]. rankes, 7, to a ranke, placing your Ensigne in the midst, so ioining them together maketh a Hearse battaile, readie at the suddaine against the enemie, placing in the Uo­ward 40. Hargabuzers, and 20. Archers, and in the Rereward 10. Hargabuzers and 30. Archers.


LIkewise according to your ground you shall place your vt­termost rankes with your best and fairest Corselets, the which serueth not only to the shew, but otherwise to the strength of the battaile, commaunding your Officers to place 10. in a ranke, the rest to follow on their march 10. in a ranke. Likewise your Halberds and Ensigne in the midst, which fal­leth to bée 10. euery way quadrant, the which is a iust hundreth [...] your Hargabuzers placed in the Uoward and Rereward, and your Archers in the flankes, the which is a iust 100. also, as héere followeth▪

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SOmetimes by commaundement of the General or head Offi­cers, you are to accomplish some exploit by night, the which béeing led by your guides through straites, wrong ground, woods &c. It is nedefull that euerie pikeman and bilman take holde of his loadsmans weapon, placing your shot betwixt your Pikes, and your Ensigne in the midst, your Pykes to march fiue in a ranke, 16. rankes is iust 80. Pikes beside your Hal­berds. The ouerplus of your shot to bee placed in the Rere­ward.

[Page 97]


SOmetimes occasion scrueth to march through long broome, corne, fearne, &c. so that souldiers must traile their pikes from the ground, close together at the halfe pikes, in the Uo­ward the sharp ends of the pikes forward, and in the Rereward the sharp ends of the pikes to the ground, who may at the sud­daine béeing assailed with Horsemen, presently aduance and couch their pikes euery way for defence from the Horse, your Hargabuzers in the front and Rereward, the Archers in the flankes.

[Page 98]


ALso when you shall bée called to the assaults of Townes, Fortes, trenches, &c. you must endure the great shot, if it bée not dismounted, wherefore the Officers must cause the sol­diers to march a good distance a sunder, and euerie man close to his loadsman, march with expedition, the shot making [Page 99] way to the hand weapons, and all iointly together to employ themselues vnto victorie, your Hargabuzers vnto the Uoward, your Archers next to your Pikes, as this example sheweth.


Certaine pointes to exercise and traine 300. men to seruice.

A Captaine hauing charge of 300. men that bée expert in ser­uice, may oftentimes victoriouslie accomplish exploites and pointes of seruice to them com­mitted, which great numbers vnperfect may not attaine vn­to. The better to instruct the same, here follow certaine Or­ders and strengthes in aray, which practised in time conue­nient, may bring perfection of seruice at neede.

Sometime placing such numbers by 5. in ranke, may bée brought to diuerse points of seruice conuenient, 60. rankes containe 300. men, 5. in ranke.



TO bring the first march of 5. in a ranke into a quadrant pro­portion, you must deuide your long weapons into thrée parts, placing soure in ranke, your halbers and Ensigne in the midst, and ioyned close togither fall out to be 12. quadrant eue­rie way, your shot placed in the wings readie to skirmish, in the bodie of the battaile are 120. pikes, thirtie halberds, and in the wings 140. shot, in the rereward thirtie shot, thus is the num­ber at the sodaine brought to strength.


SOmetimes augment your rankes from fiue to seuen▪ [...]o [...] ▪ rankes containes 300. men, which are to be ioyned vnto other numbers, and to be brought to force.




SOmetimes augment these 7. rankes here adioyning to 9. the long weapons of the same containe 18. rankes, your shot placed in the voward & rereward, as the ground may serue, is a hearse or broade square.

[Page 103]By these exercises of augmenting rankes as doe appeare, souldiers may be brought to perfection of order in aray, and by the same be brought in quadrant or herse battaile, according as numbers and ground will serue.

Orders of training three hundred men.


SOmtimes the Captaines with their bandes afore­said, be appointed to some e [...] ­polits with such silence that Drums sound not, nor clap weapons, neither vse any noise vntill they haue reco­uered the place conuenient for their enterprises. Also sometimes the Officers in Rereward sendeth a woor [...] passing from man to [...] vntil it come to the voward, from one ranke to an other, which may bée said Sar [...]a, ad­uance, Bullet in the mouth▪ &c. or such like, appointing two or three rankes of Gen­tlemen▪ of the [...] of S. Georges Squa [...]ie, to lead the voward, who know the encounter and how to ioyne, and thereby that way by or­der of the officers, the shot doth issue to skirmish be­twixt the skilfull [...] be­foresaid. The battaile may ioyne close togither if o [...]casi­on requireth: also the rest of the shot may wa [...]e thorow to helpe the voward.

EUen as presently you haue placed 12. in ranke, with your hal­berds and Ensigne in the midst, so may they likewise fal out to be 12. in ranke in bredth, and 13. in length, if you place your shot in the front & rereward, the which as occasion serueth, may be brought to skirmish any wayes. This battell as the ground serueth is verie strong against the enimie.


SOmtimes marching in straights, and especially hauing some gard in the rereward for the safetie of the Ensigne, you may send certaine rankes of pikes in the front towards the enimie, which shall wade through to strengthen the battaile, placing the one halfe of your shot to skirmish in the front, the other halfe in the rereward.


SOmtimes hauing scope of ground, standing in doubt of horse­men, cause the numbers to march 12▪ in a ranke at large, a good distance a sunder, and so to stand stil, euerie man towards their quarters, placing their shot on al sides betwixt the pikes, which after they haue discharged, being charged with horse, may retire to the halberds, and your outward fronts farrie close togither vntil the shot haue charged, & at the repulse of the horsemen to open your pikes at large, and the shot to be commanded to issue and to skirmish as they were in the fronts. This battell is of great force.


To order and imbattell 400. in quadrant proportion.

FOure hundreth men, whether they serue in one band or vn­der two seuerall Ensignes, may be brought to this quadrant proportion against the defence of the enimie by placing 15. in the front, ioyning foure rankes of pikes in the voward, & foure in the rereward, and foure in the flanks, your halberds and En­signe in the midst, placing your shot in sixe wings for the rescu­ing of ech other, the rest of your shot in the voward and rere­ward in Diamond wise. This battell for so small a number is of great force.


THe ground may be such as it shalbe necessarie to place the same number in manner of a herse, or twofold battaile, placing ten in ranke in length, and 20. in bredth, placing your halberds and Ensigne in the midst, encountring the enimie on your broad side, so shall you occupie more hands then the quadrant battaile doth, taking vp lesse ground in marching, then the other battaile. You must cause them to sarrie close to­gither, trailing their pikes on the ground, being readie to offer the push to the footemen, and to crosse for the defence of horse­men, your shot to be placed as before you appeareth. This is of great strength, so that the enimie cannot enuiron you.


To embattaile 500. men in a quadrant proportion.

ACcording to the worthinesse of the Captaine, the greater is his charge, as one Captaine to haue charge of 500. men vn­der one Ensigne, the which if any Caualliere of the order would bring into quadrant battaile, hée must place 16 Pikes in front, making 4. rankes quadrant, placing his halberds in the midst with the Ensigne, so hath hée in the bodie of the battaile 250. men, his shot to be placed in the front and Rereward 110. and in the flanks of the battaile in the 8. winges 140. the which béeing discharged may discharge & retire, whereby to be rescued by the rest. They may in this proportion March any way vnto them néedefull, bée it either to trauaile, or else to win grounds by any aduantage.


SOmetimes by reason of the ground it is necessarie to bring such a number into an hearse or twofold battaile, which may bée more auailable then the Quadrant battaile. To bring them into this proportion, you must place 13. Pikes in breadth, and 21. in length, your Halberds and Ensigne in the midst, your shot in the f [...]onts and wings. Thus in order they may turne their faces, and march any way to them néedefull, which prac­tise may greatly auaile at time of néede, as vnto great numbers appertaineth.


In what sort Hargabuziers and Archers are to be guided to skirmish.

FOr that in all skirmishes shot is the first that beginneth the fight, I haue thought good in some few figures to set downe how they may March, skirmish, inuade, and retire in politik [...] maner, and how by rankes to rescue one another, whereof the practise in this smal number wil giue a light to greater know­ledge, which still may increase as the deuises of new inuenti­ons do spring, wherein I would wish all worthie Gentlemen & couragious minds to whet their politike industrie, that ther­by they may shun diuers discommodities and vnknowen daun­gers, & attaine to the tipe of true valiancie: but to procéede.

This number following vpon the sight of the enemies, must march thrée in a ranke, casting themselues in the proportion of a Ring, so to abide there, appointing themselues to approch stil in aray, there to discharge by rankes, and so in the Rereward to charge againe, being readie for seruice, still marching round and whéeling about like vnto the Rutters.


THis number encoūtring the Ring must discharge by ranks, and after the first ranke hath discharged, to retyre betwixt the rankes vntil they come to the Rereward, there to charge and [Page 112] to follow his loadsman to seruice againe. Thus may you con­tinually maintaine skirmish, how litle or great soeuer your number bée, it giueth great encouragement to the Souldiers standing but one shot and retireth.


THese two bands of Hargabuzers set to encounter the enemy on their broad sides, the fronts discharge & turne their faces, retyring betwixt the other, which aduance in like maner for their rescue. These retire and charge againe to seruice, by prac­tising the skirmish in this sort, you may bring bands of Archers to seruice, to the great anoying & discomfiting of the enemie.


These two bands change rankes, and place on their broade sides.

These bands of Archers be brought to seruice by the Callieuers afore them.

THese bands of Archers béeing brought to seruice by the Har­gabuziers, although the hargabuziers bée accompted to be of greater force then they bee of, and the Archers not now so much vsed in the field as they haue bin, yet hauing light shaftes made to shot 12. or 14. scoore, may kéepe their place, shooting al together ouer the heads of the hargabuziers, to the gauling, blemishing, and great annoy of the enemie.


THese two bands following discharge by rankes and returne to the Rereward, and charge againe, who béeing placed fiue in a ranke like to two hornes, are to bée brought to skirmish in like proportion to this figure. The fronts or voward hauing discharged, the one retyreth on the left hand, the other on the right hand vnto the Rereward, & there to charge againe euery one a fresh, following his loadsman to seruice.


Orders of shot verie necessarie for diuers intents of seruice auailable.

ACcording to the number of the enimies, you must answers them with like proportion and numbers, hauing great re­gard to obtaine the hill, wind, water, wood, marish, strength of vitch, coppes, &c. the which greatly auaileth. Sometimes the aduantage of ground is such, that small numbers may repulse greater numbers. The grounds large and plaine, make your main-ward of shot large and strong, the better to answere the enimie, the fronts to discharge and retyre to the Rereward, there to charge againe, and béeing thus ioined in skirmish with the enimie, the Officer or hée that guides, must foresée the best way to repulse and ouerthrow the enimie, sending two wings to slanke the enimies and to encounter them, the which béeing wisely foreseene will greatly profit.


SOuldiers likewise in marching, charging or discharging, inuading and skirmishing, may from the first rankes and front of the square, returne and wind himselfe thorow the [Page 115] ranke, béeing seconded by his companions, following this example.


THese thrée bands marching at large may wade thorough in skirmish, or retyre betwixt the rankes, as occasion serueth, either band rescuing other, to charge in the Rereward, and to aduance to seruice againe. Thus may you continually main­taine skirmish or volles of whole shot.


These practises and others of better inuention, together with such like warlike exercises in times conuentent, may bring per­fection to seruice with shot at néede, the rather through the good industrie and painfull trauaile of the Officers and the Souldi­ers, by whose gentle patience it is sooner obtained.

The order of skirmish, how it is to bee gouerned, when it is to bee accepted, and when to bee auoided.

IT béeing necessary for euery Sergeant, Lieutenant and Ca­ual liere of the band, to know when, where, and in what order a skirmish is to bee gouerned, when to bee auoided, and when to bée accepted to the benefite of the whole band, regiment, or Armie, I thought good to ioine to those proportions of training, somewhat touching the same: wherein for that there bée sundrie occasions which moue and constraine men to enter into skir­mish, I wil amongst the rest choose out thrée which I iudge most principall and of greatest importance.

The first is, when wee will giue the enimie experience and triall of our valour and force, and cunningly to perswade him (by a souldier that yéelds of purpose, or alter sides) to giue cre­dite to some thing which may arise to our commoditie and his domage. Likewise by taking some of his souldiers prisoners, to vnderstand the state of our enemies, the which may bée more aptly termed the winning of aduertisements, the which things is most expedient wée put in practise.

The second is, when wée determine to gaine any passage, or any fortresse or strength, which is in the enemies possession, or like to fall into his hands if preuention bee not vsed, and hauing occupied and gained the same, to retaine it for the seruice of our Campe.

The third is, when wée are of mind to kéepe the enimie so occupied as hée march not at his pleasure, or that when wée do march our selues he become not domageable to our own people, or to the bagage, or any thing that is ours being of importance.

When therfore wée will giue trial or experience of our selues to the enemie, & gaine intelligences, or win aduertisements of him: it is requisite there be election made of a leader, some wor­thie Caualliere, that is indued with prudent pollicie and noble valour, who must gouerne this skirmish: which leader, must take with him a quantitie of chosen souldiers, & according as the accustomed vse is, must haue culled out of euery band so many as wil amount to the number of 10. out of ech hundreth, a hun­dreth out of a thousand, and a thousand out of ten thousand, or some such like reasonable portion.

[Page 117]When the leader of the skirmish hath made choise of the place and ground (fit for his purpose) wherein hée meanes to méete with the enimies (the which will not be difficile for that he is the chooser, inuentor, and author thereof,) he must then conduct thither a quantitie of good souldiers, with an assu­red array and order. Hauing first and beforehand exhorted thē to due obedience, and opened and conferred with them ye chiefe circumstance of his meaning, both how long, and in what man­ner the enterprise is to be performed, to the intent that when he hath accomplished and erecuted so much as he was determi­ned, it do not séeme strange vnto them to make retire. For the which there did arise great quarrell and bloodie issue in Germa­nie, betwixt two Italian captaines, Giouan Dominico Napo­lello of Naples, and captaine Loatello of Cremen [...], both valiant gentlemen, the one of them perswading the other to retyre from a skirmish, begin to the purpose before mentioned, by appoint­ment of their superiours, but by reason the one would not obey, it was the cause of great disorder. He must likewise haue a pro­uident foresight and be verie circumspect, that like a good soul­dier he go verie warily & considerately into the fight and skir­mish, euer watching & attending for his continuall aduantage, to the end that retyring himselfe vpon a sodaine, the enimy may remaine & rest repulsed, amazed, and oppressed, that the whole armie may conceiue and be kept in a good impression, and opi­nion of victorie.

Now this foresaid leader being arriued with the people in the sight of the enimie, he must immediatly with his souldiers, occupie and take possession of the ground, which doth best please him, which is most apt for his purpose, & in effect is ye strongest▪ He must take order yt these hargabussers be accompanied with armed pikes and corselets, without whose fellowship hargab [...] ­siers ought neuer to be sent about any enterprise, specially whē they suspect they shall méete with the enimy, or with horsemen.

Whensoeuer souldiers are to enter into skirmi [...]h, their lea­der must deuide them into so manie parts as he shall think ex­pedient, which diuision must be vsed according as the quantitie of the people will beare, so that in euerie part their ought to be at the least 50. souldiers, and 5. or 6. seuerall parts and compa­nies: Neuerthelesse alwayes foreséeing and prouiding, that [Page 118] as well all the parts togither, as the number of the souldiers of euer to part by themselues, be like in proportion to the qualitie and force of the enimy, and equal to the quantitie of their num­ber, the which may be knowne verie well, there by view and discouered by meanes of spies, or by manifest and assured fame. To euerie which part he must appoint a sufficient head & guid, a noble Cauallier of Saint Georges squadre.

Then must he send out certaine souldiers that be most nim­ble and readie to prouoke the enimie, and when they be ioyned in skirmish, he must sodainely increase the fight with sending forth the second part: and then rest a little to behold, to the in­tent the skirmish may begin to grow whotter: at which time he must likewise send the third troope for a new supplie, and so consequently [...]ne after another▪ continue on the incounter.

The most fit and apt time when the souldiers must enter the skirmish, make retyre, & giue a fresh onset, ought to be shewed and made manifest by the sound of trumpets to horsemen, and stroke or batterie of drummes to the footemen, from the maine stand, which is placed in some plot of ground, resting vigilant in a forceable squadron, for the sure defence and retrait of those that skirmish: to the end they may both couragiously fight, and the enimie rest confounded & despaire of his victorie, when hée doth perceiue so perfect and pollitike an order. The which for ye most part makes euerie hard difficultie to be performed with great facilitie, specially in ye discréet & famous exercise of armes.

To giue more light to some new inuentions of skirmish, I cannot omit to declare in what sort I haue séene skirmish a gui­don of horsemen Rutters, who comming to the fight in their accustomed squadres, and from thence pricking forward some of the first rankes and threds prouoke the enimie▪, and when these of the first ranks haue discharged their Pistolets, making Carier & being charged, they place thēselues againe at the backe of their owne squadre, from whence at the same instant time others of the first ranks do disband themselues, and giue charge vpon the enimie: but being charged themselues of the enimie, retyring, they conuey themselues behind their owne people, which already before them are ranged for their saftie in their square, so that as many more immediatly giuing a fresh onset, by breaking out of the squadre, which is maintained and renued [Page 119] by this speciall order, doe with maruellous furie force the eni­mie, & in this order skirmishing in a winding ring, in round, as is before set downe by figure, do still maintaine themselues lusty and fresh, the which forme of fight may in some respectes serue in this place for an example.

But to returne to my former matter, I say, when the skir­mish and fight hath bene maintained valiantly in the front and face of the enimie an houre and a halfe, or else two houres, and that he hath taken some of his enimies prisoners, for the obtai­ning whereof he must very couragiously and whotly procéede, which is to be vnderstood, the winning of aduertisements and intelligences from the enimie: since by that meanes he may haue of them choise and contentation, he may then at his plea­sure make retraite and take vp the skirmish.

Moreouer, to the intent he may retyre with aduantage and with safetie, he must send to sustaine the fight, a fresh band of souldiers that with greater facilitie he may front the surie of the enimie, if there rise desire in them to vrge or pursue him in his retyre.

There is one note most necessarie to be obserued in an army, regiment or band, that neither any famous Generall or prince, any pollitike personage, or worthy souldier of estimation, enter into the faction of a skirmish, but rather that the same be guided and gouerned prudently by others of meaner calling. For al­though the enterprise did fall out to the aduantage of the same partie, yet if there should follow the losse of any famous and no­table person, the same hath not onely bene of great domage, but also hath bene oftentimes of such force, that it hath stroken a terror and feare in the minds of the souldiers, specially amongst those that were not at the enterprise, neither in like cases will it satisfie or suffice them to declare or solemnely expresse vnto them the truth, but that vpon such special losse, they will grow into vnaduised iudgementes and timerous dispositi­ons.

If in case the enimie take the charge and malte retyre, it is good to haue takē order with the Caualliers, heads & guids of the skirmish, that as néere as possible they can, they force their peo­ple to make stay, and that they follow the enimie no further, since that in this point they do not contend to any other end, [Page 120] then to bréede a certaine impression and good opinion in the minds of our owne souldiers, to the confusion of the contrarie part, and to winne aduertisements, if it be possible, the which is all the effect they haue to performe, the which was the onely motion that moued them to attempt this enterprise.

Now when he determines to gaine a passage, or any other strong place against the enimie, which will arise to their dis­profite and our owne commoditie, and hauing wonne it, to su­staine and defend the same: first choise must be made of a vigi­lant and valiant leader, although it hath often fallen out that without entring into skirmish a diligent captaine or leader, hath with his people taken possession of such passages or strong places. And by this prouidence, it ariseth to be neither difficile nor hard to be defended against the enimie, considering that all such suspected extremities & bands, be accustomed to be strong by nature, whereunto afterwards ioyning some little Art, for the most part they become expugnable. But neuerthelesse if by incountring with the enimie it is requisite he should skirmish, I iudge it verie good that he should rashly go no further, then so farre as the souldiers which he hath sent to the skirmish haue gained.

To obserue perfite gouernement, it is neuer good to depart from the order before rehersed, saue onely when he doth sée the enimie bend and shrinke away, in place of aduised stay & polli­tike retention in procéeding, I thē iudge it worthie cōmendati­on to follow the victorie, but for al that, with such consideration and so aduisedly, that their ouer-great courage and carelesse ioy be not the occasion of disorder and confusion, togither with the which prosperitie, he must diligently procure his people to gaine the passage or strong place, to the end if the enimy should go about to succour his flying and broken people, he become not a let and hinderance to his determination.

It is verie requisite he likewise note, that when the enimie is so fresh and of such force, that it is impossible to ouerthrow or repulse him face to face: then shall it be to the purpose to mo­derate the same euen vntill night, at which time he must vse al the pollicies and stratagems he can possible to performe his de­termination: for the onely marke whereat this leader must shoote, must onely be to worke such meanes as he may gaine [Page 121] the passage, and take possession of the strong place, and not to passe the time in skirmish and fight: hauing wonne the same, he must indeuour himselfe to defend and repaire it, that they may be able to resist all the furie and force that the enimie is a­ble to make, vntill such time as succours come to him from his campe.

When he is of minde to entertaine and kéepe the enimie oc­cupied, to the intent he march nor iourney not at his pleasure, or that if your armie doe march, he worke not any domage to your people, to your baggage, to your munitions & other things of importance: It is verie expedient that the leader of this skir­mish be valiant and wise: who must determine to keepe occu­pied the enimie, that by the practise thereof it may arise to bee profitable to the performance of some other his purposed enter­prise.

After he hath made choise amongst his souldiers of those which must skirmish, he must deuide them as is before rehersed: and he with the rest of the people to him vnited, as néere as is possi­ble, must march alongst the strongest situation of the ground, & then must send those that are deputed and appointed to the skir­mish, one after another to the taile of the enimies battel, against whom they must skirmish and fight, euen as an old beaten dog about some Bul or furious beast doth here and there snatch, bite and turne about him, that in the end he doth kéepe him occupied & wearie him, if not ouercome. When he hath put these things in execution, he must gather togither his people in the best sort he can, in the aforesaid order.

If in marching his owne campe doe feare to be assaulted at the backe, or that he hath suspicion of his baggage, or doubts some impediments on the flankes: then must the leader of the skirmish make repaire with his people to that place, where hee suspects the enimie will take aduantage: and march farre off, and with such distance from his campe and his battailes, as he shall thinke conuenient, and as the nature of the place doth re­quire, to the intent he may bring to effect his determination, and prosecute the same to a good end, the which is to auoid the inconuenience, that the enimy neither hurt nor hinder his bag­gage and munition. And in this sort with good order he must follow and accompany his owne people, and with those that be [Page 122] appointed for the fight, must kéepe occupied and intertaine the enimy stil skirmishing, retyring, and marching as it alwayes fals out and chanceth to him that valiantly defends him­selfe.

Concluding then, I say, that it séemes good and verie requi­site that the skirmish for the most part should be fled and shun­ned, except it be in respect of some of the thrée foresaid occasions, or some such like, which thereunto may be adioyned, procéeding of a practised and aduised iudgement, for it is a verie rash and vnaduised thing to loose men of valour to no purpose, as of ne­cessitie in skirmishes doth succéede. And besides the losse of such persons of estimation, which ariseth by reason of rash disorder: Moreouer it hath bene oftentimes séene, that whilest he goeth about to succour one band presently enclosed by the enimie and put to flight (by reason it hath bene negligently gouerned, as for the most part it fals out, whē men go to skirmish moued by a fantastical rage, vain ambition, and to smal purpose without a sufficient appointed chiefe or head, or rather without speciall commission from the captaine Generall, the which aduertise­ment is principally to be noted) there hath such inconuenience succéeded, that an armie hath sometimes bene constrained to ha­zard and come to the fight of a maine battell vpon a suddaine, a thing maruellous perillous, and that ought of necessitie to be fled, without manifest aduantage of a perfite and a well practi­sed Generall.

Sundrie aduertisements fit for a worthie Cauallier to obserue.

  • 1 First in the view of a batterie.
  • 2 Secondly in describing the condition of a situation of any place.
  • 3 And thirdly in disclosing the order the enimie obserues, either encamping or marching.

Although an excellent and prudent captaine Generall in all his affaires must vse the seruice of practised souldiers, such as may be supposed to haue sufficient knowledge in these afore­said respects: yet doe I coniecture it verie necessarie to make choise of a man that besides his sufficient experience in diuerse [Page 123] warlike practises of training, ordering, directing, and leading souldiers, yet would I wish the said worthy Cauallier to carrie a hautie and hardie heart, a bold and valiant bodie, and more­ouer that he be accompanied with an excellent iudgement in matters appertaining to the exercise of Armes: specially in those causes cōuenient to be accomplished by him or his equals. Who after he hath receiued commission to view any batterie, and that he is sufficiently armed, able to defend himselfe (which as néere as is possible he must finde the meanes to be) he ought to take with him some one hargabusier, a man of valour, to re­pulse and annoy the enimies which are at the defence, if hée should stand in néede or be discouered, and to the intent he may aid him in other accidents that might fall out: but after he is guided and entred into the action of his enterprise, he must ad­uisedly enforme himselfe, and take the view how great the breach is, and how hye the entrance is of ruinated earth, and both what and how great the difficultie is to ascend thereupon, considering well what effect the fall of the wall hath made, and being ascended or at leastwise so néere as is possible, hauing done his indeuour to mount vp the breach, he must go about to view secreatly and sufficiently the largenesse within, which is betwixt the battered wall and the houses, and how much the fal of the battery is in that place: and togither with this he must indeuour himselfe to sée if the said batterie be flancked within or not, if it be safe or secure, if the place be plaine, easie, or hard and headlong to ascend: and in sum, he must consider by what means and which is the best way, that they within may defend themselues. Al the which, so néere as is possible, he ought to doe with great diligence and wisdome, as well in perfite discouery of all these important difficulties, as in spéedie returne, taking view and making choise at the same instant of the most close & couert way, wherein the souldiers may with greatest commo­ditie approch to giue assault to the breach and batterie. Ouer which troopes it doth for the most part appertaine to this Caual­lier to be the guide: Now vpon his returne, he must make full discourse of euerie particular to him that hath sent him, to the intent that his prince or General may with al spéed appoint the order of the assault, that the lesse time may be giuē the enimy to make contermures, bulwarks, and trenches to defend himselfe.

[Page 124]I am of opinion likewise, that that souldier or worthy Cauallier ought to be no lesse then the foresaid, of a practised and pregnant wit, to whom charge is giuen to discouer the qualitie and condition of the situation of the enimies countrie, or the place where he remaines: who after he hath considered of the same, although he that sent him hath not expresly declared him his meaning and intention touching the same, or his ful mea­ning: yet being conducted to the place, he must with the least shew, rumour or noise possible, cause the people that go with him to enter into ambush, to the intent he be not discouered or disturbed by the enimie, which done, he must warily and dis­créetly view and ouerview, search and go through euery place, noting out the quantitie of the waters which run through the countrie, the capacitie of ye plains, if therein be marish grounds or not, the depth and bredth of the vales, the roughnesse of the mountaines, their height and capacitie, if they be naked, clo­thed with hye or lowe wood, or else plowed and pasture ground: and if there be townes and habitations, whether they be placed vpon plaines, mountaines, or néere the water, whether they be inclosed with wals and fortified or not, and of what bignesse and qualitie of forme they be: and so consequently he shal make note of euerie particular point, as I haue written in a speciall discourse hereunto adioyned, considering that some of these and like particulars, may verie often helpe and do good seruice, and arise to be of great importance. In this selfe sort & order he may very well discouer all the passages and wayes from the time he doth depart, euen vntill he ariue againe, alwayes marking and making aduised choise of the best and shortest: so that he may giue to his prince or Generall a true information and full rela­tion of euerie thing, to the intent his Generall may with great reason and to his most aduantage, determine of that which shall arise to his greatest profite, and to the enimies disaduantage: as was by Charles the fift obserued at the riuer Alba, by the Spaniards at Sirick sea, and by that famous Prince Don Iohn D'austria at sundrie times, specially when in person the day af­ter he returned from Luxemburge to Namures, he made discouerie of the ground about the prince of Orange and States Campe, lying at Templo, where by the commaundement of my Collonell the Baron of Cherau, I amongst the rest of his owne [Page 125] squadrons lay in Ambascade, for the safetie of our Gene­rals retire, by whose prudent discouerie and valiant courage, the next day with two thousand fiue hundred footemen and nine hundred horsemen, wée ouerthrew eightéene thousand of the enimies, slew 12000 ▪ tooke all their bagage and Artil­larie.

Now lastlie when it is requisite to disclose and discouer the order and maner which the enimie obserues, either béeing en­camped or in marching, it behooues a good souldier aduisedly to take the view and knowledge thereof, in as good order as time and occasion wil permit. And if in case the enimie remaine firme and encamped, I iudge it verie requisite if it bée possible, to take view of the Campe round about, at leastwise as much as hée can well, taking notice how many Corps de garde they kéepe without their Campe, and so likewise what part of the situation thereof doth make it most weake, what part is stron­gest, and which part is betwixt both, béeing able to render ac­compt with good reason of all these things in discourse like a po­litike and practised souldier: The performance whereof some­times is with more assurance and better brought to passe in the night then in the day.

If in case the enimie bée in his iourney and do march, I sup­pose it verie necessary to discouer in what order they march, and in what manner and forme they haue planted their squadrons, set in order and armed the Rereward, the battaile & vantgard, and both the one flanke and the other, if they haue Artillarie, or that they bée without, and together with this he must discouer the condition and situation of the ground where they march, and which way they bend their course to encamp, where they make alta and stay. Hée must likewise search out and diligently dis­cipher, whether they march with feare, whether they kéepe good order, whether they make hast: all this as néere as is possible hée must discerne, and with spéede indeuour himselfe to giue infor­mation of ech particular thing vnto his Prince or Generall, to the intent when the first occasion doth offer, (which is common­ly when they make stay at their lodging) hée may determine to molest them by suddaine Alarums, Canuasados, and other such like surprises or attemptes. And that in this second and last dis­couery which is of marching, to the end (béeing informed of their [Page 126] qualitie) hée may determine what to doe, if not than, at least [...] wise when occasion doth offer: wherefore I am of opinion, that together with approued practise, and the due consideration of these Rules and aduertisements, it makes much to the purpose that a good souldier should haue some knowledge of drawing and painting proportions of Cities, fortresses, bulwarkes, &c. toge­ther with some vnderstanding in the art prospectiue & of pro­portion: for it often chanceth to be a thing verie difficile to giue directions, and driue him that gouernes or is Generall to vnderstand some particularities, like to these onely by plaine woordes, although they were ample and manifest, whereof the discription by draught béeing well knowen, accompanied with the liuely voice of the Relator, it makes the Prince more capa­ble to determine what is to bee executed for performance of his important enterprises.

Diuerse notes due for a singuler good Souldier and Caual­liere to obserue, when hee must giue to his Captaine Generall or Prince, a true discription and full rela­tion of the Countries, Cities, and Castels of a whole state or kingdome.

IT is the opinion of all men that bee of perfect experience in Armes, that it particularlie appertaines to the Captain Ge­nerall, to haue a perfect discription, and diligent relation of the fortified places, & the particular state in euery point of all the Prouince that is committed to the Generals custodie, whether generally or particularlie.

Therefore a worthy souldier & noble Caualliere may alwaies increase in his Princes sauor: hée must be euer readie to pre­fer his important affaires, chiefly in this speciall seruice of ad­uertisement & discouerie: (Touching which Guichardines dis­criptions of the low Countries may bée a patterne), for the per­formance whereof, hauing receiued his full Commission of au­thoritie, it is most conuenient for him, both particularly and in generall, to examine, discouer, view, take notice, the prospectiue & plot of euery place with aduised iudgement, & not by fortune as many are accustomed, for that they cannot otherwise do, not hauing sufficient knowledge of the Bussola, which with great industrie hath bin to this end found out and made more ample [Page 127] by the Conte Iulio de Tiene.

For which respect it is conuenient he take the platforme of euery walled towne in that state, and with due measured dis­tance therein, must note & make the proportion of the walles, bulwarkes, the mounts, rockes, gates, ditches, the market pla­ces with their bignes, the principall stréetes with their circum­stances, specially whether there bée any hanging or high hill or ground, that vpon any side is opposite of a iust space and reaso­nable distance, from whence according to sufficiēt consideration and examination therein, artillarie or any other engine may offend and endomage the same.

Hée must set out likewise, whether the bulwarkes, walles or rocks be weake or strong, old or new, repaired or ruinous, ram­piers, or otherwise, if their situation lie hie or low, on marish ground, sand, grauell, or rockes, or vpon auncient buildings or ruines. Likewise let him discribe towards what part of the world they stand, whether East, West, South or North: If they will suffer or bée in danger to bée myned, to bée battered, to bée assaulted with ladders, or with any other manifest or secret er [...] pugnation, and vpon what side and place.

Hée must set downe notice if there bée fountains or cesternes, if great ryuers or floodes, and if the said water bée possible to bee taken away, stopt, or infected of the enimie: and must aduertise what remedie may bée vsed to the contrarie.

Moreouer hee must consider in what ayre those Cities stand, if in whoat or cold, drie or moist, or rather mirt and temperate, & if the places be apt to be kept & defended: If the ayre wil suffer that victuales, munitions, and souldiers will bee conserued, or otherwise.

What store of victuales is in ech Towne or Fortresse, or the countrie adioining, and whether there bee fit commoditie to carie and recarie the same by water or by land. And if the place bée vpon the sea coast, whether it bée a hauen Towne or fisher towne, what depth the barre is of at the ebbe and full, the capaci­tie of the harbour, and what s [...]oare of vessels belong to the same, together with the disposition of the sea faring men, the goodnes of the shippes, both for swift saile and fight, how they are stoar [...] with ordinance and munitions, and armde with netting, grates and feightes &c▪

[Page 128]Let him diligently obserue how many housholds and houses bée in euerie towne, how many persons, how many able men for souldiers vpon foote, how many for horsemen, and how many for pioners, how many oxen, how many horses to dra [...] cartes or artillarie, how many beastes of burden to carrie victuales ech place is able to kéepe or make, what artillarie, what muni­tion and victuales bee found in ech Towne or fortresse, from whence euery place may be succoured and victualed, and from whence victuales may bée had to sustain those places which are apt to bée defended and kept.

How many souldiers there bée of the infantarie, and how many of the Cauallarie, if they oftentimes vse exercise of Armes, and make shewes or Musters, whether they bée well or euill armed, coragious or cowards, politike or rash, obedient or muti­nous, expert or ignorant, old or new bands, and shall in effect consider what is to bée looked for at their hands, or what their abilitie is apt to performe.

This done, hée may with all other requisite diligence, set downe notice of any other particular or necessarie thing. If the Riuers and floodes bée nauegable, if they ebbe or flow, if they bée easie to bée kept, and their bridges, foords, and passages be defen­ded, where they bée weake or stronge, ebbe or déepe, the which is easie to bée knowen: for where the water is most ebbe or shal­low & most fit for a foard, there doth appeare a rigge or streame caused of the substance and matter which doth run by the depth and doth make stay there, the which for that it hath oftentimes bin experimented, is most true as diuers haue tried.

Hée must discrie the condition of the hilles, of the vallies, the qualitie of the confines, of the waters, of the fennes, of the myres and lakes and other thinges worthie to bée noted, and in what part of the prouince the ground is fertile or barraine, if abundantly it bringes foorth graine, grapes, fruites, oyles, séedes, flaxe or hempe: what store of cattell and beastes there bée, and of what sorts: If that there bée woodes, and towards what part: If therein grow wood for building or for fire.

Let him likewise aduertise whether the entrance of the coun­trie bée difficile, and the issue easie: or contrarie.

And amongst other things to bée considered, it is a thing of great importance, to vnderstand perfectly whether the people [Page 129] bée industrious or ydle, if warlike or labourers, if quiet or dis­quiet, if friendly or factious. If the footemen for weapons vse the hargabuze, musket, halberd & pike, or the bow, the dart, and browne bill, if short swords and poynaldes, or long swords and great daggers. If the horsemen vse firelocke peeces, or snap­haunces, if pistolets, launces, and long chasing staues: or else what manner of weapon they vse, their nature and order in feight: and what policies and stratagemes they are accustomed to vse. And to conclude, hée must thus in writing, in notes, in plaine draughts and painting, let him with good deliberation and aduisement, and not rashlie make manifest and apparant euery small particular thing, to the intent that his Prince, Generall, Collonell, or Captaine, béeginning at the one end, may with the eye of his mind, run ouer & peruse the whole, one by one in due proportion, briefly & plainly in a table, as ye view of a gallant Theater, from whence the veile of the shading cur­taine is suddainlie drawne, and make apparant to the eyes of all the beholders, the sight of some sumpteous shew, or that taking hold at the one end, hée may draw altogether like a well linked chaine: so that any one which hath not séene the place, beholding the portrature thereof, may thinke hée doth view the same with his eyes, whereby all these discriptions of the said countrie in generall, or any parcel in particular, may verie wel serue, and with great aide direct him that must enter into or gouerne a Prouince, to the great increase of the honour of any noble Prince or worthy Captaine.

These and such like bée the qualities I would wish to bée in a valiant Caualliere of Saint Georges squadre, in a Lieute­nant, Sergeant, or any other good souldiers, that hée may know how to direct, guid, gouerne, traine, skirmish, view, discouer, and discribe the proportion and situation of Countries. And for the better performance thereof, to haue good knowledge in the Mathematikes, speciallie in Algarosme, Algebra, and Geo­metrie, whereby hée may worthily merite a good Souldiers name. [Page 128] [...] [Page 129] [...]

A rule to set any number of Souldiers in aray.

THe footemen béeing brought into the place where they are to bée put in aray: First you must foresée, that it bée fit for the purpose, and so capable, that the aray may commodiously turne on the right and the left hand, as much as may bée: ne­uerthelesse according to the number of the souldiers you haue, afterwardes proceede in this fort.

First the Pikes must bee drawen by themselues on one side together with the Ensignes, and vpon the other side all the Hargabuziers, somewhat aloofe off distant from the pikes, bée­ginning to make the hargabuziers march, so many in a ranke as you list, parting them neuerthelesse according to their num­ber: You may put them from 3. to 12. in a ranke, for it is not often séene that more then a leuen is put in a ranke, how great soeuer the number of the footmen bée, neither in troath ought they to bee more then a leuen, for when they passe a leuen or twelue they are not to bée accompted an aray, but rather a battaile.

Hauing then placed the number of the Hargabuziers you shal thinke good of, to bee in a ranke, you shall cause them to march in good proportion, sending foorth one ranke after another, the Sergeant standing still on one side, causing them to passe be­fore him, iudging by eye-sight from ranke to ranke of all the Souldiers one by one, whether they bee right in lyne, obserue distance, and whether they doe moue foorth of their order and aray, for this is the beautie and importance of an aray.

Moreouer, the Sergeant hauing speciall respect to accommo­date and place at the head of the aray, all the Corporals or Lancia Spezzata which carie Calliuers, placing next vnto them the best and the best furnished Souldiers, putting a Drumme behinde the second ranke, that is to say, before the third, placing at the taile of the aray the best and best armed, to the intent the aray may shew the better, forasmuch as when they are deuided into aray, the hargabuziers from the Pikes, and that they turne their faces, then the backe part is made the [Page 131] front, therefore the backe ought to bée as well furnished as the front, or the head of the aray, as you will please to tearme it: The which if you desire to doe, it is necessarie you put in the midst of the rankes the weakest and worst furnished, aduerti­sing the Sergeant that the souldiers are best furnished, when they haue all sortes of armes and furniments that bee ne­cessarie for them, and appertaines to a Hargabuzier, good match, fyer, coall, pouder and bullet, and moreouer L'az­zino: And this is to bee obserued with that spéede and dili­gence, that the time or occasion doth carie, and the suspition of the enimie doth import.

And in one present time, if the Sergeant haue commis­sion, hee must distribute munition to the Hargabuziers, as bullet, match, or pouder, and to haue a man about him to carrie the munition, and hee afterwardes goe about disper­sing of it, and in giuing the pouder, hee must haue a Tun­nell with a small and narrowe pipe, to the intent it may enter into the pipe of euery one of their flaskes, and with a measure that doth holde so much pouder, as hee will giue vnto euerie Hargabuzier at one time, or at twice: and so to euery ranke one by one as they goe passing forwardes, the Serge­ant causing to march forward his aray before him, faire and softlie ranke by ranke, by which meanes hée shall not con­found them.

If it chaunce that hée do not distribute munition at one selfe time, hee shall cause the Pikes on an other side to put themselues in aray, as manie in a ranke as the Hargabuzi­ers shall bee, deuiding the best armed with Corselets, the one halfe to the head, and the other halfe to the backe, and the dis­armed pikes in the midst, and in the midst of them place the Ensignes with their garde of Halberdes, with certaine Drummes about the said Ensignes, that is, in the Piazza or void place, where the Ensigne is to bée managed: those Drummes and Fiftes that you haue, shall march before the Standerd bearers:

And the Sergeant causing the Pikes to march foreward, shall number howe manie rankes they bée, and shall kéepe them in memorie, to the intent that if hee bee to make a battil­lion, hée may knowe how to gouerne himselfe, and so cause [Page 132] the said Pikes to march and turne once againe, and hauing then well accommodated the aray of the Pikes, with the En­signes placed iust in the midst, with the Drumm [...]s and Fiftes before them, as I haue said, causing the Ensignes to haue an ample and large roome and P [...]azzo, from the two rankes that bee about him, that is, from that which is before, and from the other that doth march right behind him, to the intent the En­signes may bee well shewed and managed.

When they bee well set in order, it is necessarie to cause the Pikes to stay and stand, and the Sergeant hauing staied them, hée shall then go where hée hath first accommodated the Harga­buziers, and shall cause them to march forward, néere where the Pikes are in order of aray. And the Sergeant hauing first numbred likewise the rankes of the Hargabuziers, and béeing staied where the Pikes, after the one halfe of the Hargabuziers is past, that is, if they bée in all 50. rankes, when 25. bée past, the Sergeant shall enter with his Halberd ouerthwart them, and staying and pressing backe the other 25. rankes, hée shall cause to enter after a goodlie and readie manner, all the Pikes and Ensignes, causing them euer to march forward, and when they bée all past away, vpon the approching of the last rankes of Pikes, hée shall cause the rest of the Hargabuziers to enter into aray, the which béeing done, the aray shall bée faire and perfect, and it will bée good that hée cause them to march and turne thrée or sower times, to the intent they may settle them­selues the better, and that they may enter into their pace, their aray, and the vnderstanding of the Drumme, for that makes them more apt to go iust, learning one of an other a stately and conuenient pace, and to beare their weapons of all sorts with a good grace, and specially the Pikes.

A good Sergeant must take care to make stay in euery dis­commodious place, or streit passage, as when they go downe or discend from some Mountaine, at the passage of a foarde or streit bridge, or at a ditch, or a water, or some such other vn­easie and streit passage, that hée iudgeth would breake the aray, as oftentimes is found in marching. And orderly with­out confusion cause them to passe ranke after ranke faire and easilie, holding back with the end of his Halberd the ranke next to that which is in passing, vntil it be thorowly ouer and placed [Page 133] in array as before, to the intent the order of aray be not con­founded in any ranke, neither let him depart from that place vntill such time as all the rankes be past, for so the aray wil not be disordered, but shall march right and iust, which is a thing of great importance, specially in marching in doubt of the eni­mie: and therefore hauing caused them all first to make Alta, he shall command them to obserue aray, distance and rankes, without thrusting or crouding vntill all be past the straite pas­sage.

A rule how to make the aray of the Bissa.

SInce there be sundry souldiers and persons, which presuppose they know much more then others, who discommend the ma­king of the Bissa or Caraguolo, as a thing not necessary amongst the orders of aray: saying that the same is superfluous and of small moment. I am of a contrarie opinion, and make answere that they are much deceiued, and haue small knowledge & lesse iudgement in the benefite and vse thereof: for it séemes to mee according to the opinion of diuers expert persons, that they are not onely commendable, but also most profitable, and doe helpe those souldiers much that do learne and exercise them: and the reason is this, That those souldiers which haue not as yet had discipline, and be litle practised in the managing of s [...]reite aray, and in turning thémselues in their aray, and in managing all sorts of weapons, as pikes, & specially the hargabusiers, with the which it is requisite to cause them make certaine salutati­ons in shooting of the Bissa, and also in opening of the same, in such sort as the hargabusiers may stand in continuall motion & redinesse to charge & discharge their péeces, alwayes marching in aray, sometimes large, sometimes straite, and sometimes softly, and sometimes fast, it makes them very disposed, nimble and readie, as wel in managing their weapons as in marching iustly, and with a good grace in their aray and in the battell, whereby it may appeare that the making of the Bissa and Cara­guolo, it of great profite and of importance, and those are to be reprehended that despi [...]e and forgoe them, as I haue said before, Therefore all good souldiers are to command the iudgement of him that was first the inuentor thereof, and we are to search [Page 134] with all diligence to imitate the same rule, which I will here God willing go about succinctly and at large to declare, because in my former proportions of a King, an S, a D and a Snaite, I haue not done, neither touched the manner of this Bissa or Ca­raguolo, the which I the rather thinke necessarie, to the intent euery souldier may sée with his eyes a perfect example and way how to make it, and to the end his error in this his wilfulnesse arise not to be his discredite in greater causes, and to those that hold them méere trifles, and feare to faile therin, with a litle ex­ercise shall find it easie. I haue séene some Captaines that hath made the same most gallantly to their great commendation by men of the greatest authorite in the field. If therfore you would make a single Bissa, obserue the order set downe in this propor­tion.


[Page 135]Presupposing that the figure of this Bissa here set downe, is the plaine or ground where the muster is made, you must be­gin to enter with your aray, where the taile of this Bissa is, tur­ning first on the right hand, & afterward on the left hand, win­ding your aray about another time on the right hand and on the left, vntil such time as you sée the Ensigne be come iust into the midst of the Bissa, and that you thinke it be well: issuing forth after out of the head of the Bissa, as here is set downe, causing them to make a goodly salutation, your Hargabusiers at the ope­ning and disclosing of the aray: aduertising you that these three and thrée in the Bissa, are the ranks of the footemen and the D signifying the Drums, & the E the Ensigne, so that beginning this order and well obseruing it, you cannot erre.

The double Bissa.


[Page 136]Desiring to make a double Bissa that is more inuironed and closed then the single, as here appeares, you must note that the rankes ought not to be past fiue in a ranke, or sixe, or seuen at the most: for when they are ouer large, they make the aray o­uer broad, taking care likewise that the place be commodious and capeable, that the footemen may be spred, that they may march without perill of entangling: aduertising them that are at the front of the aray, when they march in their entring into the place of armes, where they are to make the said Bissa to take so much space in the same, as is conuenient to do that which in your minde you haue determined. Alwayes in turning and doubling the aray, holding the path and way large, and mar­ching as streit as is possible, if you desire that the same shal fal out well, beginning the entrie at the taile, as in the single is declared: turning alwayes as you may perceiue is set downe by the figure before. And after that you haue made an end, to double it sufficiently in the last doubling, as in the single Bissa, you must issue forth making large: So in this double hauing en­ded all your turning, you must go compassing and making a cir­cuit: after issuing forth, you must make a generall Salua with your péeces, and this will be easie, and to the beholders shal ap­peare intricate firie.

A plaine rule to set the Ring in aray.

IT is requisite if you desire to make the King a Caraguolo, to hold the same order that is set down in making of the Bissa, which is, that the rankes do not passe the number of sixe or 7. footemen, to the intent they do not confound them in going out, although they may be made of a greater nūber, but thē it is re­quisite that those yt guide thē at the front of ye maine be wel pra­ctised, for that it is perilous to intangle themselues. Therefore you must take care to vse greater diligence in the ring and Ca­raguolo, then you doe in the Bissa, and the guider thereof must stand at the front of the aray, and conduct them into the market place or where the assemblie of Armes is.

[Page 137]


Presuppose therefore in your minde, hauing in charge to make this ring or Caraguolo, that here you sée set down in por­trature, to be likewise figured in your mind vpon the earth and vpon the place where you are to make it, entring first where you sée the crosse, and go forward marching at large, and frame a round circle, alwayes turning vpon the right hand, leauing betwixt one circle & another a large way, so great that at your returne you may come within the said way, where this word the issue out is set downe, which doth note the turning backe when you are in the midst of the King or Caraguolo: that is, when you do sée you haue closed and shut them togither suffici­ently, hauing left betwixt the one circle and the other of the a­ray, so much space that in the same you may returne backe, so the one do not touch another: Then shall you cause a goodly Salua to be made of all the Hargabusiers generally at one [Page 138] instant. Afterwards returning backe by the left hand, you shall issue foorth by that way that you haue left betwixt the one circle and the other, as it is drawne in the plat where this word The issue out is: marching alwayes right forth, and as equally as you can: and cause to be made at your issue forth another gene­rall Salua by the Hargabusiers. You may begin the said Cara­guolo vpon what side yée list, either vpon the right or vpon the left hand, hauing care that if you begin it vpon your right, in your issue forth to turne towards the left hand. And so likewise if you begin vpon the left, in your issuing forth to turne to the right, for so you shall finde the way to issue without any impe­diment. But it is verie néedfull for you in the beginning to make large and take roome inough.

THE THIRD BOOKE OF MILITARIE DIRECTIONS, ENTREATING OF OBSERVATIONS in gouerning of Bands, of Squadrons and battailes, of Captaines, Collonels, and Sergeant Maiors generall.
And first, the office of a Captaine which hath the guiding of a Band of men.

THat person which hath the charge to gouerne other men, specially in matters of weight and of great importance, the liues of men being committed to his handes, vnder whose conduct if any quaile through rashnesse or want of knowledge, he is bound to render account before God: and therefore he ought to be of notable capacitie, experience, and exemplare in al his acti­ons and enterprises, since it is a generall note that the eyes of all those that be subiectes, be turned towards their prin­cipall head and chiefe, in whom as it were in a glasse, they retaine an assured hope to behold most readie rules and per­fect examples, whereby they may guide and gouerne them­selues.

In this particular charge of a Captaine, the qualitie of his officers, make almost a manifest shew of his valour and experi­ence: Therefore like an old and expert souldier, as one that hath past through all those degrées and offices set downe in my two former bookes, he must vse a circumspect care in leuying and making choise of his companie, that is, to make election of a pollitike and practised Lieutenant, of a couragious Alfierus, of a carefull Sergeant, of gallant and valiant Caualliers of his squadre, of valiant Corporals, of a diligent Chancellour, secretary, or cleark of ye band, of a faithful furrier or Harbinger, [Page 138] [...] [Page 139] [...] [Page 140] being of good iudgement and consideration, and of a Surgian prouided of all things necessarie to minister according to his Act. But aboue all things let him pro [...]ide to retain in his band a preacher, or such a person which may take care to minister the Communion to the souldiers, and specially to roote obedience in their hearts: who likewise euerie day may celebrate that sacred sacrifice of thanks, which euen from the beginning hath bin vsed of the church. And finally must haue for euerie hundreth a prac­tised drummer of good vnderstanding.

When he hath gathered and vnited his companie, the whole band being present, his Minister must deuoutly reade certaine prayers, & afterward the Ensigne shalbe publikely placed in the hands, and recommended to the custodie of the Alfierus, and as in my former discourse of this point, command him to haue as much care thereof, as of his proper life, honour & credite, which he ought couragiously to aduance and display, to prefer his party in a rightful quarrel, according to my spéech where I set downe his duetie. This done he must priuatly make election amongst his chiefest souldiers of so many Caualliers or Lancia Spezzata, that is to say, Gentlemen of his band, as may amount to the number of two out of euerie squadre. Some nations vse 50. to a squadre, as the Suitzers and Germaines, some others lesse, ac­cording to their discretion: but in my opinion 2 [...]. is a more con­uenient number, both for that the Corporall may the more often and with greater diligent car [...] instruct & sée to his charge, thē if they were 50▪ Besides 25. souldiers deuided into 5. ranks makes a iust square, so that by the same account 300. may containe 12. squadres, and euerie one haue a Corporall of the same number: whereof 10. Corporals haue the leading of mixt weapons, the 1 [...] ▪ charge ouer the Halb [...]rdiers, & the 12. to consist of Gentlemen, old and expert souldiers, amongst whom the targets of proofe ought to be in number. The Captaine at the same time, when he con­secrates his Ensigne, must likewise solemnly constitute & con­firme a Corporall ouer the Caualliers of his squadre, which he must dedicate to S. George, and enrol their names by this title, The Corporall and Caualliers of S. George his squadre. He must inuest & bestow vpon the corporal a scarfe of red & white sar [...]net, and a Medall or iewell of gold or siluer double gilt, wherein the portrature of S. George is liuely wrought, to hang about [Page 141] his necke, at his skarfe or otherwise: and moreouer to him and all the rest of the squadre, must giue a litle Phane or Penon of silke vpon a wyre, whereof the Crosse must bée of red, and the rest of the square white, the other part of the sarsenet of the Captaines coulours, or with what woords or deuise therein shal please him best: They must weare this behind, either vpon their burganets, or vpon their hats if they will in a plume of red and white feathers, specially in all enterprises and warlike at­tempts: Besides this vpon their Casseckes or Mandillions to­wards their right brest a red Crosse of veluet, satten or scarlet, imbrothered or comlie stitched, that they may appeare manifest­ly and bée knowen from the rest of the souldiers, like worthie guides and leaders, whose corage and valour may incite others to ascend to their dignitie and degrée.

They must solemnlie promise, vowe and sweare to their possibilitie, not only to bée the first to force the breach of a batte­red towne, trench, or fortresse, to giue the first coragious onset vpon the maine battaile, or the enimies squadrons, to pearce a passage, and gallantly guid the souldiers to the skirmish, to sud­daine sallies, surprises, escalados, canuasados, and such like, but also to obserue, maintaine, and instruct the ignorant in all Mili­tarie directions; obseruations and martiall lawes of the field.

In respect hereof those that bée Cauallieres and Gentlemen of this squadre, must bée intertained with a stipend and greater pay then the common souldier, and with other notable signes of manifest difference, by reason they either are or ought to bée the best and most practised souldiers in his whole band: for this woord Lancia spezzata amongst the Italians, is of no other signi­fication, then a tried experience in the warres. To which Cauallieres he may fréelie and faithfully with great confidence and trust, commit the charge of any office in his companie that is vacant▪ or the performan [...]e of any other enterprise or accident, and may if hée will tearme them extraordinarie Lieutenants, which hée must alwaies haue about him vpon any suddaine to execute his commaundement, and supplie other Offices when time shall serue.

A Captaine ought to haue special and particular knowledge of al those things that appertaine to the office of a Lieutenant, and the office of an Alfierus, which if hée thinke good hée may [Page 142] linke both in one, for amongst diuers nations now a daies, one man commonly supplies both their Offices.

The office and dutie of the Sergeants of the Cauallieres of Saint Georges squadre, whom he must estéeme as extraordi­narie Lieutenants of the Corporals, Clerke of the band, Har­binger, Drummes and Fiftes: and finally, the dutie of euery particular and common souldier, that hée may presently redresse any thing a misse, and vpon any new accident to instruct them either in marching, encamping or feighting, so that hée may [...]ée able to commaund them, according as time, place, & reason doth require, without contradiction or appointing that to bée done of one Officer, which ought to be done of an other: or that hée doth commaund them to do thinges not conuenient, and much lesse that which is not lawful or not honorable. Which order of pro­céeding doth verie much displease & bring m [...]n of warre in mis­like of such vndirect dealings; Since the principall point and practise whereunto▪ their exercise in Armes doth tende, is to at­taine Reputation, Honor & Credite, hee must continually court his Collonel and chieftain, forceing himself to be one of the first that doth salute him in the morning, & of the last to depart from him in the euening, [...]hat thereby he may bée sufficiently instruc­ted & informed in euery particular act and practise, which is to be put in execution, touching the performance of any enterprise or warlike act, since that in those cases a warie man may best take hold of occasion, wherof hée ought to make triall in time of war▪ the which hee is likewise to accomplish, aswell for the seruice of his chiefe and Prince, as also for his owne satisfaction, and the honor, benefit, and reputation of his souldiers.

Let him in some sort prouide with as much aduantage, and commoditie as he can, that his souldiers baggage bee alwaies conducted from place to place, alwaies prohibiting superfluitie, and in long voiages, their corslets and arme [...] of heauie burden: prouided that hée march not in suspected places, and in the eni­mies countrie, but not otherwise.

Let him take order that his souldiers bée light in apparell▪ so that it be warme, and haue as litle baggage & otherwise loade [...] as may bee, to the intent they may vse all their diligence about their weapons, and not to hale back for feare of loosing the same, but rather haue respect to the warie kéeping of their Armes, [Page 143] and that they may rather, more [...]ent and determined to feight, in hope of gaine and honor, then suspected through the doubt of loosing that which they already possesse.

Hée must not bee couetous, neither retaine one penie of pay from his souldiers, but rather distribute amongst them, all the aduantages, dead paies, and Capisoldi: to the intent they may bée well pa [...]ed and rewarded which merite the same, so shall hée gayne honour and make them assured in perillous seruice.

Let him restraine souldiers from hauing horses, thereby to auoid confusion, for that commonly euery one must march about the Ensigne, to the intent the rankes bée not broken and dis­turbed by horses: And that souldiers bée not occupied in going abroad for forrage for their horses, as of necessitie they must, which is proper to horsemen and not to footmen, but onely those which are to bée permitted with the Lieutenant, the Alsierus, and some of the Cauallieres of Saint Georges squadre, that are Gentlemen of greatest experience, for that they may serue in stéede and place of light horsemen, to view, discouer, conduct and carie a [...] or commaundement with great spéede, when and where néede [...]oth require.

It is necessarie for him to haue some knowledge and sight in making bulwarkes, trenches, platformes, skonces, fortresses, and such like, & to know the nature and qualitie of them, aswel that with aduantage hée may bée able to know how to assault, as also to make them with facil [...]tie, in times and places most necessarie: which vnderstanding and art, is particularly con­uenient for him, considering the defence of men of warre in the field, for the most part consistes aswell in trenches, bul­warkes, and perfect platformes, as in a good and well gouer­néd squadre and maine battaile.

Hée must haue with him a p [...]ire of Lanternes for the campe, some cressets, linkes, or torches that blowe not out with the winde, and such like to vse in the night, and in stormes and tempestes for seruice of the companie, as in Roundes, Alar [...]nis &c.

And for his proper commoditie and ornament a Pauillion or Lent of sufficient capacitie, vessels to accommodate his victu­als and furniment for the fire and kitchin, of small weight [Page 144] and disturbance in carriage, and certain houshold stuffe necessa­rie for himselfe and his traine, to the intent hée may so néere as is possible commodiously make supplie to the continuation of things requisite for victuals.

Hée ought alwaies to lodge with his band, and remain with the same both in good and euill, and continually shewe himselfe louing and courteous, and take such part as the souldiers do: for contrariwise, taking his ease, and suffering them to bée lod­ged or fed miserably, bréedeth him hatred or contempt.

Neither ought hée to shun toile and trauaile, but carefullie take delight and liking to bée alwaies the first, that with proui­dent prudence doth lay his hand to any worke, or performe any enterprise which is conuenient to bée done: for that for the most part the rude stubborne multitude of souldiers is not constrai­ned and forced so much, to do his dutie by compulsion, as they be voluntarie moued therunto through shame, and a reuerent res­pect they haue to the example of their superiour: Neither let the practise of the same bée painfull vnto him, for that to liue at ease and to bée curious of his owne commodious being, and suffer his souldiers tast the toiles of trauaile, is rather the order of a deli­cate Prince, then of a carefull and coragious Captaine.

Let him not faile euery night that hée is of the watch, to send his Sergeant to take the woord secretly of the Sergeant maior, (where with the watch of that night ought to bée gouerned) or of some other that shall bée appointed to giue it, which hée must vse wisely and warely, since that negligence in like cases may bée the ruine of him and his companie, and consequently of a whole armie.

Hée must haue tried experience, and full practise in all the points noted of mée in my two first Bookes, and bée perfect in the conduct of Martiall affaires, that with great facilitie hée may bée able to know, and with great aduise to deale in all the particulars belonging to all the degrées of souldiers vnder his estate, and of lesse estimation then a Captaine.

It behooues him to carie a valiant and coragious hart, that vpon all suddaines hée may bée able to execute all enterprises, and that hauing ouer viewed, ordered and disposed those things that bée necessarie, hée may bée able to execute the same with such prompt and readie dexteritie, as appertaines to the terrible and [Page 145] bloodie accidents of armes. And although there bée verie few who haue such happie successe, as they may bee accompted for­tunate and politike both together: Neuerthelesse it is requisite he bée prudent, & discypher and looke before hand into such things as are like to fall out, that hée may with discréete modestie vse either good or euill fortune, whether soeuer shall arise: for the life of man is to bée compared to the play at Tables, in the which the p [...]er may desire and deuise which is his best cast, but yet which way soeuer the dyce turne, either good or euill, hée ought with as great discretion and art as hée can, accommodate himselfe and serue his turne withall.

Hée should possesse and bée indued with a noble mind, that hée may alwaies haue the same inclined to discréete liberalitie, and [...] to nigardl [...] [...], by which vice wee sée many [...] and fall into most opprobrious chances, into treasons and pernicious rebellions, which are men worthie of most shamefull corrections.

I iudge it likewise verie necessarie for him to bée eloquent, [...]nce that qualitie hath great efficacie in perswading of mens [...]nds, which often times haue much néede to bée wakened and pricked forward with a spu [...]re, specially in those terrible acci­dents that fall out in the exercise of armes, which in painfull perillous actions, would otherwise languish, faint, and become fearefull: Therefore l [...]t the loue towards God, the care of their Countrie, their present perill, the example of magnani­mitie in their forefathers, the quarrel, cause, and benefits to soule and bodie, bée meanes to make them valiantly accomplish their actes.

Hée ought neuer to make conference, concerning that which hée is to put in execution, neither of any one thought, imagina­tion, or inuention appertaining to the state of these warlike at­tempts and affaires, but with those persons of whom hée may assuredly reserue faithfull and friendly counsell, for that the importance of such and so great dealings, ought euer to be had in suspition of discouerie. Therefore a wise and carefull man will euer haue a warie & iealous eye ouer such weighty affaires.

Now the order for him to punish his souldiers in cases wher­in they are not guiltie of death, I thinke the most important punishment which appertaines to the Captaine to giue them, [Page 146] is openly amidst the whole companie & band, shamefully to dis­arme them, to take away their money & chiefest garmēts, & so to banish them & send them packing: for to put them to death, or furiously to beate them, belonges to the office of ye Master of the camp & Marshal of the field, & not to the Captain, for if hée should beate his souldiers, hée should make himself hated & embase him self, & bring his souldiers either to become mutinous or abiects.

Note, that it is not sufficient only for a Captaine to haue or­dained his companie discréetely, & therin to haue great numbers of good men, which is to say, in warlike affaires valiant men, but aboue all thnigs it is very necessary when hée shall come to blowes & fight, hée should aduenture & performe the same to his manifest aduantage, or else constrained therunto by pure neces­sity, although hée ought to flie the last so much as hée is able, ob­seruing this for a generall rule, not to fight either by chance, either for pleasure or for ambition, as many times wée sée done by rash & ambitious chiefes and Captaines.

Moreouer, hée must worke in such sort, that his souldiers haue very good occasion & apt meanes to win the victorie, & that they be fresh & lusty, to the intēt that in fighting they may ouercome: for without these and like aduertisements by tempting fortune, men for the most part both loose, and are ouerthrowne.

It is very conuenient hée procure the hauing of an ample and autentike Patent of his Collonel, with as large woords of fauor as may be, wherein must bée declared at the instance & appoint­ment of what Prince the expedition is made, & so with modestie and prudence hée shall vse the aucthority that is giuen him, but neuerthelesse there, as it behooues him so to doe.

It is not requisite that in all places hée suffer his Ensigne to bée displayed: the maner & doing wherof shewes force & aucthori­tie, the which many times is not to bée vsed, neither in ech place. When a man is inferior to others, hée ought to vse great dexte­ritie & modesty, which euer fals out both to be commodious and cōmendable. And moreouer according to ye order of passa parole, of aduertisements from mouth to mouth, hée ought euer to ob­serue a silent & assured plaine information to his▪ whole band, wherby they may vpon the suddain alter aray, make alta, march slow or fast, close or in wide ranks, or prepare their péece, match and [...]ullet for a suddain Alarum, inuasion, skirmish or defence▪

[Page 147]A Captain that must leauy a band, is to make his election and choise of his officers & souldiers, not only approued & sufficiētly, but also vse such spéedy march in his expedition & iourney, that hée may ioyne his company to the rest of the armie, at or before the appointed day and place.

When hée may march by land with his company, let him neuer haue desire to go by sea, hoping to spare cost & shorten time, for by becomming subiect to the indiscretion of the wind, either through long aboad, or some accident by shipwracke or tempestes, there hath risen many times great disturbance & ruine without reme­die, since by this defect many good occasions and of great impor­tance hath bin lost and made frustrate.

Hée ought neuer to take iourney in hand without a guide, the which he must procure to bee giuen him by the chiefe that doth command him, to the intent he may alwaies remain execused & faultles from those errors, that by such defects may or do cōmon­ly arise, which diligence is not only particularly to be vsed, when any iourney of smal length is to be guided: but if any long iour­ney is to bée made (not being able to do better) hée must circum­spectly haue him alwaies by his side, neither ought to haue him slip away from him or absent, since that euery smal error or going out of ye way in a iourney & marching, doth displease soul­diers & warlik persons, & yéelds lesse reputation to the Captain, who ought alwaies to march with them, & to prouide & procure through his aucthority all things necessarie, with the greatest fauor & aduantage possible. Hée ought alwaies to keepe his soul­diers exercised, by often taking view & muster of them, marching sometimes along in ranks by 3. 5. 7. & 9. &c. in a rank: sometimes in training them in Kings, esses, dées, battailes, squadrons, tur­ning one rank through an other, in leading them to skirmish, & in such sort as I haue set down in my second booke, practise them daily. And sometimes he must cause his souldiers to shoot vollées of shot, sometimes all at once, sometimes by ranks, & sometimes mixed. The which vollées vpon ye signe or sound of drum or word of mouth by the Captain must be accomplished with celeritie, & closely together & cunningly, & not out of disorder or by péeces, a great while one after another, but vpon their discharge, iointly together, without rumor, noise or tumult they must all charge a­gain, & vpon a signe giuen by th [...] Captain, giue a fresh vollée &c.

[Page 148]Hée must likewise delight to sée them well armed with all sortes of armes, euery one according to the weapon hée beares: and sometimes likewise exercise them in running, leaping, wrastling, throwing the barre, and ordinarilie cause them to bée wakened in the morning betimes, charging the Drummes to strike the Diana through out all the quarter.

A Captaine may at all times accompanie his band with the sound of Drum & Fift, which must giue order to their continual March and directes: all their other enterprises, vnlesse to accom­pany prisoner, to entrench, make plain the way, to make & carie fagots, baskets, or gabions from the wood, & such like seruile and peasantly seruice, hardly digested of honorable souldiers.

Hée to the intent hée may bée both loued and obeyed of his soul­diers, must applie himselfe to be prouident and politike in paci­fiyng discordes, & al such difference as shall arise amongst them, wherein if hée find any obstinate, so soone as hée hath performed his indeuor, and that thereby they will not agrée and become friends, so soone as their pay is ended, hée ought to discharge them. In times past it hath bin vsed of notable Collonels to permit the combate, and cause them fight it out, therby to extin­guish their obstination, to bridle their furie, and giue notable ex­ample to the rest: the which order although it hath bin tried to auaile verie much for their good gouernment, yet it is not to bée vsed amongst Christians, the generall Counsell hauing forbid­den the same: vnlesse to feare the parties he faine that the same shall bée performed of them to the vttermost, and at the ioyning in fight to cause them stay, and take other order of punishment, except they accord, and to discharge them.

A Captaine ought to vse all art and industrie to inuade, en­domage, and ouerthrow the enimy, specially infidels: and aboue all things to bée franke of minde, and to feare nothing but disho­nest fame. Likewise that hée purchase aucthoritie amongst his souldiers by the meanes of vertue and valour, let him procure by practise and effectuall experience to bée accompted a wise and a worthie valiant Captaine, rather then to beare the name of a simple, weake, and vndiscréete Collonel, for the name of a Cap­taine is a type and title of speciall honour.

Hée must likewise in respect of a certaine inward desire of emulation, not carie a base and abiect mind, but still aspiring [Page 149] with great subtiltie, by good inuention and industrie, of a firme and faithfull disposition, and neuer subiect to forgetfulnesse, to the intent he may retaine in memorie those things that be wel done, and all commendable enterprises, the which do maruel­lous and incredibly delight and féede mens minds and disposi­tions.

A Captaine must euer take care that his whole charge be still furnished with men, armour, weapons and munitions, with all things néedfull, and distributed at conuenient times.

He must suffer none through idlenesse to neglect his armour, weapons, and other furniture, whereby he shall grow vnready to seruice at néede, but giue his officers commandement cir­cumspectly to looke to the same.

Souldiers should be prohibited from ouermuch libertie, nei­ther to vse whoorehunting, drunkennes, common swearing, quarelling, feighting, cosining, or such like, but that spéedie cor­rection is to be vsed.

Prouision of victuals, armour and munition being made, it must discréetely be vsed in due time by victuallers appointed, and to be distributed vnto the souldiers, and to sée that the vic­tuallers & other artificiers, lending vnto souldiers vpon their credite at néede, vntill their pay day, may be truely satisfied.

If any souldiers be taken prisoners, to be ransomed home in due time that his hands remaine not vnfurnished.

Diuers points of seruice are committed to ye Captaine, wher­in great discretion and seruice is to be vsed, as in a Conuoy, Canuisado, Ambush, skirmish, approch, assault, retrait, surprise, passage of riuers, streights, sodaine fortifications, discoueries, &c. As in these and such like occurrences, it is necessarie to vse the aduise of expert souldiers, whose opinions are worthy to be obserued, gratifying and rewarding them according to the va­lue of their counsels. So likewise a Captaine must sometimes proue and circumspectly try by fained pretenses, affirming that he meanes to performe certaine exploites, and will march to some place nothing pretending the same, to the intent to disci­pher those that be busie bodies, rash and vnsecreat in counsell, and such as presume without knowledge or experience: after­ward reuealing the same, may trie the truth and punish the of­fenders, as to his duetie and office is conuenient.

The office of a Collonel.

A Ualiant and worthie Collonel, after he hath a lawfull dis­patch of his Prince, and hath obtained his patent and prest money, to conduct that number of souldiers his charge and expe­dition shall containe, with all conuenient diligence, and accor­ding as he is appointed, he must make election of as many cap­taines as be néedfull, distributing to euerie one 300. for a band, which number is of most conuenient quantitie: for by reducing companies to a lesse number, as in our time is vsed, specially amongst the Spaniards and Italions, and well followed by the French and our English, they may rather carrie the name of Lieutenants and centurions, then beare the title of Captaines. Besides a band being made of a small number, the treasurers consume much more money amongst the great store of officers, the which ought to be by al meanes possible auoyded of a polli­tike Generall, and of a prudent Prince, to auoyd extraordinarie expence and confusion, which doth easily arise amongst the mul­titude of officers.

He must be prouident to entertaine those that be old captains, practised, and beare a good port, and that be loued and desired of the souldiers, whom he ought to accompanie and preferre with the greatest authoritie he can giue, with ample, sealed, and au­tentike Patents, thereby more spéedily and more easily he may accomplish his affaires.

It is requisite he equally depart to euerie one, the quantitie of that prest money he hath receiued, to the intent the Captaine and the officers arise not to be burdened, taxed, and consumed by ordinarie and extraordinarie meanes, and other manifest wayes in spending about those affaires. And to the intent the souldiers may tast of the beneuolence of their Collonel, for by that meanes credite is sustained, and his traine augmented, a thing most necessarie to personages that supply so great a place. For it is requisite that men in the beginning be not discoura­ged for want of necessarie prouision, yea rather to lend of his owne (considering he is to be paid againe) then his souldiers should be brought to any extremitie.

The distribution of thè prest money ought to be preferred [Page 151] with great prudence, for afterwards at the bancke, the same otherwise may be retained, and substraction made of all the whole money, either in the first pay or those that follow, more or lesse as it séemes expedient, principally for the vse and com­moditie of the souldiers, considering (that according to the pro­uerbe) A man can hardly at any time serue two masters, and therefore he must stand vpon this speciall point, to be more carefull not to doe any thing preiudiciall to the honorable ex­ercise of Armes, then to please the couetous and insatiable hu­mour of some Captaines, whom in effect it pleasures but lit­tle, in respect their gréedie desire is neuer satisfied: Neuerthe­lesse it fals out to be a maruellous losse and hinderance to the enterprise, specially to men of valour and souldiers, without whose aid a Collonel is but of smal force and value: and to con­clude, money must alwayes be procured, dispersed, and spent with great discretion, order, and consideration, since the same is so necessarie to man, as it is called the sine wes of warres.

It is a thing most requisite that he carrie with him at the least, one Minister, a man of good life, who exemplarly attende about the care of Ecclesiasticall matters, wherin aboue al other things we ought thorowly to be staid and instructed.

He must likewise haue in his Regiment besides the ordina­rie Surgeans, an excellent and tried Phisition, well prouided of all drugs and spiceries, and of other things necessarie to be ministred to those that be sicke.

His Lieutenant for his Regiment must be of a singular qua­litie and excellent experience, who not onely must particularly gouerne his owne band and companie, but also with great prudence and pollicie take care and charge ouer all the people which are in the bands vnder his Collonell, wherin the Lieute­nant must procéede according to my rules for the Lieutenant of a priuate band, and the notes in my second and third booke. His awne Alfierus as Generall and superiour to the rest of the En­signe bearers vnder his Collonnelship, must be guided and go­uerned by a singular and substanciall souldier, a Gentleman of an ancient house, courteous, wise and endewed with good con­ditions.

The same order he ought likewise to obserue, in the election [Page 152] of his Caualliers of S. Georges squadre, of his Sergeants, of his Corporals, of his drummers, and euerie other officer.

It is a thing most necessary and conuenient, as in my second booke, and the office of a Captaine I haue touched, That a Col­lonel should retaine in his regiment, and specially in his owne band about him, a number of wise and worthy souldiers, to bée the Gentlemen of his Companie, Lance Spezzate, or serue for extraordinarie Lieutenants, whom I in the memorie of the ancient valour of our nation, entitle by the name of the Caual­liers of S. Georges squadre, whom the Collonell must not onely vse and entreat well with an aduantage in their pay, but also feast them, cherish them, and set them oftentimes by course at his owne table, and alwayes shew them a courteous counte­nance, with which shew of friendly courtisie, souldiers be in­credibly fedde, and contrariwise maruellously displeased with the hautie lookes of proud disdaine. For al those that make pro­fession of this worthie art, are of great curiositie and courage, and therefore men of warre ought neuer (against right) be vil­lanously handled, either in word, déede, or countenance.

He must create a Sergeant Maior, that is a souldier of great experience, and that particularly is a professour of that office, to the end he know precisely what is to be preferred in euery pra­ctise: such a one as can yéelde thereof a perfect account and dis­course, and that consequently can much better by déede then by word execute any enterprise. And for that in his office it is ne­cessarie for him to varie and change purpose, with infinite ad­uertisements and considerations, as the shortnesse of time now and then requires, the discommoditie of the place and seat ther­of doth inforce, the order of the enimies doth constraine, or ac­cording to his owne proper pollicie, or the prouident prudence of his Collonel: but for that this place doth not permit to speak particularly of euerie point, I will passe ouer the same, and onely referre all to the prouidence of his long and approoued experience, which of necessitie is required vnto him, which I further referre to my following discourse of the Sergeant Maior generall.

He ought to make a Marshall of his lodgings, who must bée his principall Furrier and Harbinger, that must attend with great diligence, to procure lodging for all, without pleasing any [Page 153] one particular person for any priuate commoditie whatsoeuer, but must equally distribute, and depart the quarters & lodgings according as néede requires: neither is it to be borne withall, that he do make frée any houses or lodgings, neither go about any such like gaine, a most dishonest and vnlawfull robberie, which oftentimes doth cause great losse and discommoditie to men of warre, small reputation to their conductour, and great vexation and disturbance to the poore people, who for the most part are innocent. The Collonels harbinger hauing allotted out lodgings to euery band, he must prefer the particular distur­bation to the vnder harbingers.

A general Drummer ought likewise to be created and appoi­ted, who may take charge and care ouer al the rest of the Drum­mers, whose office & custome amongst them is to conserue and keepe orders, to the intent they may bée obeyed, and that euerie one performe his duty appertaining to his office, as to strike the batterie in marching in battaile, or disseuered, to make ge­nerall bands and cries, to strike the Diana in the morning, and the Salue or Aue maria in the euining at ye closing of the night, and in sounding the march, the call, the charge, the battell, the retrait, with such other like obseruations and necessarie things to be done.

He must procure to haue part of euerie munition for his re­giment, out of the principal and generall munition, as Corstets, Pikes, Halberds, Hargabuses with their furniture, match, lead, powder, of all sort of victual, and ech thing else as occasion and necessitie requires, which he must cause his Sergeant Ma­ior to distribute amongst his bands, that his souldiers be not exacted on in the prise. The like deuision he must cause him to make by money it selfe, but neuer more then that which rests as due to them, as manie verie maliciously haue accustomed to do, making merchandise thereof to the losse & ruine of their soul­diers: towards whom they are bound continually to procure manifest commoditie & profite. The like is to be obserued in all other things necessary & conformable to this before said, without selling of furniture to them of excessiue prise, for nothing is more dishonorable or more miserable, then to extort vpon soul­diers.

It is verie requisite that he examine the election and choise, [Page 154] that euerie Captaine hath made of his officers in euery band, and whether they do thorowly possesse or approch verie néere to the perfite experience they ought to do, of whom and not other­wise he shall like and allow. Note that these aduertisements, make manifest apparence, and sets forth to the view of the world, the inward valour of the conductour and Collonel: for if he neglect these obseruations, the contrarie doth easily ensue.

I iudge it a thing not out of square, but rather most expedient that the one halfe of the Caualliers of S. Georges squadre should be Hargabusiers on horseback, specially when warres be made in large and open countries, or else howsoeuer it be situate, for being men of valour, they may both on horsebacke and foote doe great seruice, as often hath bene tried by manifest experience in our time, specially in the late warres of Flanders, vnder my Collonel the Baron of Sheuerau, in seruice of Don Iohn of Au­stria, and the Prince of Parma, where I being of the number of the Gentlemen of his owne band, haue séene dayly excellent good seruice done by them, as well by discouering the enimies ambuscades, as to draw them into the danger of our footemen. And likewise in the spéedie taking and kéeping a passage of im­portance, in winning aduertisements and the watch word from the enimie, in taking prisoners, in breaking the way for frée passage, in clearing and beating the hye wayes, and scowring them frée from the enimie and fléebooters, in making roades, courses and incursions, in discouering the countrie and taking view there of like to light horsemen, specially in the absence of the Cauallerie of the Campe. And therfore I conclude that they shall be found to be a knot and kind of necessarie souldiers, pro­uided that they be practised, and aboue al ful of valour and aspi­ring minds, & not to be common souldiers, taken at vnawares out of ordinarie bands of footemen, neither such as carrie a dull▪ base and abiect mind or disposition.

If the Collonell had the authoritie to be able to kéepe togi­ther a band with a standerd or Guidon, and a trumpet to them, would do singuler good seruice, which neuerthelesse when ser­uice on foote did call them forth, might deliuer vp their horses, Lances, & Hargabushes with firelocks vnto their seruants, kept and maintained for that purpose, & enter into ranke or battaile amongst the rest of the Caualliers squadre, and so should the or­dinarie [Page 155] and common custome of hauing horses amongst priuate souldiers be auoided, saue such as are permitted and granted to some officers, as in my former discourses I haue alredie de­clared. The which obseruation shal bring to passe that the soul­diers in marching and in other enterprises shall go togithers, and be vnited about the Ensigne, which is a thing most conue­nient and necessarie, and ought greatly to be shunned, for that horses by ouerthwart trauersing are accustomed to deface th [...] squares, and break the rankes of the footemens battailes, which truely is verie odious and of great disturbance and discommo­ditie: but that which I speake of this extraordinarie band is to be vnderstood and taken, when there is no ordinarie bands of horsemen ioyned to a Collonels Regiment.

He ought to take vigilant care that the Gentlemen of his band and Caualliers of his squadre, being continually about his person do diligently performe, that which they are appointed of him to do by commission or otherwise, and that they make faith­full and true relation to him of euerie particular thing, that hée may be euer fully informed of all things, and chiefly of that which doth passe in the watch worthy & necessarie to be noted, as wel by day as by night▪ since that by going the Round, which doth appertaine principally to these Caualliers, many things of moment & importance may verie well be obserued, being able to execute any of the inferiour offices, & both quickly conceiue and sensibly vtter any new accident.

The Collonel must most carefully with humble courtisie court his captaine generall, vse great respect towards him, obey him, & giue him faithfull counsell: and to the end he may performe this thorowly well, he must neuer refuse toile or trauell, since that to take pain about matters of like importance, is agréeable and conuenient to honorable personages his equals, whereas easie delicacie & curiositie appertaines to women, or other effe­minate persons, who estéeme more of belly cheere, gallant at­tyre and riches, then of the péerelesse prise of valor & vertue, and that prefer a fraile bodie before an immortall soule.

Some hold opinion that a Collonel hauing to allot ou [...] what number of pikes, short weapons, and shot is to be in euery band, that it is farre better to haue but one sort of weapons, so shall the Captaine euer accompanie his owne souldiers, whereas [Page 156] otherwise they being disseuered in a stand battaile, he must ei­ther loose the companie of his shot or pykes, the one of them be­ing committed to a second, and the short weapons to a third, which doth nothing so much encourage the souldier, as to see his Captaine companion of his perils, and the contrarie no lesse dismaieth him: but for that foughten fields chance seldome in our time, I cease to wade further therein, only aduertising that amongst the rest of his souldiers, the armed pikes must be gent­ly vsed, shewing them a chéerefull and good countenance, who must be chosen men, verie hardie and valiant.

He must procure that his officers diligently performe his co­missions, and that faithfully they make relation of euerie par­ticular thing, that he may be enformed of all, & in specially that which happens in wards, as well in the day as in the night, for they going in circuit as appertaines vnto them, may well per­ceiue what chanceth of any great importance. So that by obser­uing these aduertisements, the industrie of the Leader doth ap­peare, wheras not being wel looked vnto great ruine doth arise.

To conclude, when his Regiment is discharged, either at the end of the warres or otherwise, he ought to take care that he in any wise procure, that they may be conducted wholly togither, and afterwards disband them in such a place, as from thence e­uerie souldier may easily and without feare transport himselfe into his owne countrie, and if it be possible, hauing his health, his armes, and his apparell entyre: for otherwise if souldiers be disseuered in far countries, they suffer great inconuenience, in hard & difficile passages, in victuals and lodgings, the which doth cause their destruction, the discredite and dishonour of their conductour, and is a great blot in the fame of our nation, as those that haue séene Holland & the Lowcountries can witnes: wher­fore it is a thing to be reformed for the increase of our credite and old naturall valour.

The election, office and duetie of the foure Corporals of the field.

GReat regard would be had to the choosing of these, as wel for their calling, yeares, and valiantnes, as otherwise for their experience, lenitie and wisedome.

Whereby these warlike affaires may be the readier & sooner executed, otherwise it may be preiudiciall to the whole armie.

[Page 157]These 4. bée vnder the Sergeant Maior generall, to appoint, set order, and make battaile and battailes, and to guide euery particular person therein▪ according to their degrée and office, and as the necessitie of the same shall require, to instruct and re­forme, whose commaundements all Captaines and souldiers with their officers must obey, but in march, approch, Canuisado, skirmish, retraite, watch, ward, or what other seruice by them shal bée commaunded, whose authoritie likewise is such, as if any resist, they shall by the Prouost Martiall bée punished as Rebels, of what calling or degrée soeuer they bée.

Two of these are appointed to the placing and ordering of shot, and the other two for the [...]mbattelling of the Pikes and Halberdes, who according to their worthines if death happe­neth, are to succéede the Sergeant Maior.

The Office appertaining to the Sergeant Maior generall.

DEw order and politike proportion, by how much they bée necessarie in all humane affaires, by so much more the weightie office of the Sergeant Maior generall is to bée had in estimation, for vpon his charge & aucthoritie doth depend only the good ordering of all causes, but also the forme, fashion, and execution of the most principall matters, for the readie and ex­pedient seruice of the armie. And likewise of ech other assem­blie that is made, through occasion of defence or offence, of wha [...] number of souldiers soeuer, the which if this worthy Office [...] should want, can neuer bée brought to passe and performed, in such requisite sort as is conuenient: Since that he is that per­son neutrall, who doth kéepe together in accord the Captaines, other Officers and souldiers, manie times abused by their par­ticular companie, charge, and offices, more then is honest o [...] conuenient. And in effect it is hée that holdes a iust and equall ballance amongst the souldiers of euery in the Armie. Proui­ded alwaies that it bée in those warlike affaires that are subiect [...]o order, how to kéepe and obserue the same, and such like mat­ters, and not in those things that appertaine to iustice, and the rest of the office of the Marshal generall of the field, as I meane to touch in the discourse of his Office.

[Page 158]Therefore this great Officer ought to haue certain sufficient and old trained souldiers about him to bée his continuall aide, that is, fower Corporals which may bée his consorts and coad­iutors, and in absence succéede him both in office and aucthority: So that the Sergeant Maior by meanes of the aucthority giuen him by his Prince, and through that which of custome hée doth carie by his office: It is necessarie hée obserue diligent, artifi­ciall, and readie meanes, not only to maintain the said aucthori­tie, but requisitely to augment the same, in the minds & hartes of the Captaines, of the officers & souldiers contained vnder his charge and expedition, to the end that in those orders & fashions of squadrons & battailes, which hée hath determined with him selfe to vse, or in those hée is to execute by the commaundement of his Captain general, hée may haue such entire & ready obedi­ence as is requisite, wtout the which what great diligence soeuer hée can vse, is not sufficient to make any affaires or enterprises come to good issue in this important office, the which might bée proued by many examples passed, if wée would examine them.

It is most necessarie for him in his office, to presuppose with himself, consider of, & foresée al chances & causes before the euent therof succéede, & before hand to foretell & take order with others what is requisite to bée executed, considering the time wherin he is to work, is for ye most part very short, since ordinarily it doth fall in suddain rumors of Alarums, so that in this hastie occasion of breuitie it is conuenient he procéede expediently, orderly, and readily, not béeing dismaied of the enimies presence, for the most part of all his actions, are to bée performed euen in the face of the enimie: Wherefore if hée did not gouerne himselfe warely, politikely, & prouided with good consideration, and if hée had not ordained before hand what is to bée done, neuer any thing a­mongst so many things, which hée ought to performe with per­fection, would succéede with happie felicitie, for particularly in that time that Alarum is giuen to the souldiers, vniuersally en­tire attention is not giuen vnto that which is commanded: for the eares of all are occupied, part with the rumor & noise, & part through the clashing and clattering of the armour & weapons they weare, & with other confusions that arise, but béeing of a quicke inuention hée may suddainly perceiue and conceiue, the nature, situation, & order of the enimies aray, altering and dis­posing accordingly his owne.

[Page 159]Besides, this it is very conuenient for him to know distinctly how many Collonels & priuate Captains there bée in the army, & of what qualitie & kind their conduct & guiding is, and what grosse number of armed pikes & halberds hée hath to command, how many light armed or disarmed, both of the one sort and the other: the number of the Musket & hargabuziers on foote, & the quantity of horsemen, how many lances, how many light horse­men, & how many Argoloteares, & what number of other souldi­ers, & of what valour or moment they are able to preuaile: to the end that hée may afterwards order them about any exploit, these to make the front, these to bée the backe, others for the wings, flanks & sléeues, others to empale the squadrons, others to enui­ron the enimy, & others for the fit conuenient places to execute a slaughter, & such like, others to defend the bagage, artillarie, & munition, others to entertain & skirmish with the enimie, & for the forlorne hope, others to guide and Ascolt or conuoy, & others to performe such other like seruice. And for his better instruction must likewise accordingly haue a Roll of al the bands, from the Lord high Marshal, with their difference of weapon, which ha­uing alwaies about him may reprehend the want, and informe the muster Master & Treasorer. Hée shall likewise take order with euery Collonel, Captain, & chieftain, that in the day vpon any Alarum, they conduct their bands into ye market or place ap­pointed for ye main battail, néere wher the artillary or munition is kept, that they come not in a fond sort stragling ordispersed, or vpon heapes, as in disorder they are sometimes accustomed, but orderly & warely about ye ensigne, that they may make a forcea­ble front & gallant resistance where occasion offers, & giue a va­liant onset wher néede requires: for it hath bin oftentimes séene that this place of armes hath bin assaulted & possest of the enimy, it béeing a cōmon custome, that the munition of the Artillary is hoatly assaulted by the enimies, the more to disseuer, to break, to deceiue, & disperse the army with more assurance & ease, yt therby they may force the fort, or break in where ye munition is garded. When they be entred into the place of armes, euery band wt the ensigne must attend to follow the sergeant Maior, & the Corpo­rals in obedience & silence, & after euery particular company is placed together in ye order, appointed by ye Corporals & sergeant Maior general: the main & real square battail of earth must bée [Page 160] made, and not of number of men, or of a fewe combatants and pikemen: to the intent the head and the backe may bée of suffi­cient strength to shoulder downe the enimie, by presenting a greater number of souldiers in one thréede of a ranke, both to fight and giue the enimie the shocke: The which thing doth not fal out in many other battails, & that likewise doth embrace and occupie in euery respect lesse compasse of ground, both the one and the other aduertisement is very substanciall, & for the most part of greatest aduantage, for euery man of experience doth know how much it doth profit, so néere as is possible, to be plan­ted & placed in one vnited order, and to take on hand to defend a small circuite of ground, as by this forme doth verie well en­sue and succéede.

Hée must set both in the one and the other of these places, that is to say, at the head and backe of the battaile, the onely choise souldiers and best armed men, which order hée ought likewise to obserue in those which must impale the rest, the face, the back and flankes of the battaile consisting of well armed Pikes, spe­cially if the situation of the ground and cariages do want, as by reason is requisite and conuenient, and place the Ensignes bée­ing accompanied with good Halberds, & men of valour in their accustomed standing of the footmens rankes. Hée must make to his battaile two wings of Hargabuziers, the one lesse, and the other greater, as the situation of the ground wil beare or suffer, the which wings are to defend and flanke the maine square, euen in the same sort, as curtaines or bulwarkes with their casamates, do flanke a fortresse.

It is verie necessarie for him to haue certaine souldiers, be­sides the battaile and wings in the front, vnder the name of the forlorne hoope, and an other part that readily and couragiously béeing kéept behind the battaile, may bée imploied in diuers néedefull enterprises, without discouering or disseuering the wings, or any other bodie of battaile ordained to other effect, & flanking himselfe with these wings, hee may sometimes fight with great aduantage on all sides, although the flankes of the said battaile be weaker, & containe a lesse quantitie of souldiers then the head or the backe: and therfore with great iudgements these flankes ought to bée placed towards the strongest part of the situation, & aided with the wings of Hargabuziers, and the [Page 161] [...]eregard, for that sometimes one of the [...]ankes béeing forced to b [...]ecome the front, the said hargabuziers by good reason and very aduisedly, may retire & thrust themselues into the thréede of the rankes of the Pikemen, from whence they may shoot and wound the enimie, and defend their owne partie. The forlorne hope in the front of the battaile, must bée succoured with n [...]w supplies from behind, and if néede require from the winges, that the front of the armed men bée neuer left naked and vncouered, till the battailes bée so néere that they bée ready to crosse their pikes, then must the other retire into the wings, or behind the battaile to the cariages.

To forme and set in order this battaile with facillitie, which in my opinion is the best founded, firme, profitable, and most ex­pedient, and if necessitie did require, more apt to iourney then many other forme of battailes bée: I therfore say it is conueni­ent for the Sergeant to haue a long practise in Millitarie pro­fession, or else very good Theoricke, or that which is better, both the one and the other together, for if a man do but only possess [...] practised experience, hee doth not alwaies direct and bring his enterprises to perfection, but doth worke with more spéede and facillitie, which is a thing verie necessarie and altogether re­quisite by Theorick only, matters be wrought with perfection, but much more coldly, slow, and with longer time: The which defects and imperfections ought to bée fled of men that bée of va­lour: It is an accustomed saying, that practise, for that it is a thing more material, is said to bée the bodie, and Theoricke the mind, for that the same looking into ye matter doth first dispose & set in order, and the other execute, whereby it followes that the one & the other ioined together, doth make vs aptly to conceiue and readily to execute this office, and euery other enterprise, so that wée cannot desire any further direction.

And for that euery man ought to apply himselfe in all his ac­tions to attaine to full perfection, for the absolute performance therof, hée ought to ioine practise with Theoricke, which is rea­ding, specially in Algorisme, Algebra, & the platformes of bat­tailes, the which in forming the order of this square battaile both instruct, that you must deuide the whole number, placing the souldiers which are to bée bestowed in this battaile by 21. ta­king from the quotient ye roote of the quadrant number, placing [Page 162] it in some part a side, then multiplying the said quadrant roote by 7. you shal haue the number of souldiers, which doth enter by rankes, then multiplying the same roote by 3. you may find the number of the rankes, which béeing done, if you multiplie the number of that which amounteth by 21. & the product shall shew the number of those souldiers which are not to be placed in main battail, which may serue in many profitable vses, and thus this quadrant battaile may bée formed.

Tartaglie Bresciano in his booke of Martiall inuentions, giues rule to forme the same perfectly in other sort. In the which it is necessarie to make quadrate the number 49. that is to multiply it in it selfe, which will make 2401. & this 2401. hée shal multi­ply by the number of souldiers hée would put in battaile, & shall deuide the product by the number of 100. and of the product hée shal after take the square roote, the which roote wil bée the num­ber of souldiers which shall enter into ranks, & shal deuide with the said roote the quotient already mentioned, which ought to bée put in battail, & that which shal arise is the number of the ranks and the surpluse which doth arise in this last quotient, are the souldiers which remaine out of the square, the which are other­wise to bée emploied. But to frame the square of men, there is nothing to bée done, but to take the square roote from the number of souldiers, and the same roote will bée the number of souldiers which must enter into rank, and the selfe same roote wil bee the number of the ranks, this béeing done hée must force himselfe to maintaine and kéepe them in due order and iust square.

To obserue good order, hauing made proclamation that euery one shall kéepe his place, béeing assisted by the 4. Corporals and the Sergeant Maiors of the Regiments in their quarters: Hée must diligently ryde héere and there about the squadrons, vsing certain manifest & knowne signes, wherin order must bée taken openly & not priuely, to the intent they may be credited & obeied of those that know the manner of this obseruation: for by decla­ring the same secréetly & priuately, it is vneasilie & very hardly executed of certain ambitious and ignorant persons, which are accustomed to make profession that they are not to bée comman­ded more of this man then of that, and do replie in contraries, wheras they ought to employ themselues to nothing more then obedience, without hauing respect to any other particular profit [Page 165] or commoditie.

Hée must take order and command expresly al Collonels, Cap­taines and Officers, that continually they remain firme, & kéep their appointed places, the which places ought to be such as bée feared to bée of greatest danger & importance, as the front, the backe, the flank, & the sléeues, & wings of the Hargabuziers, the like wherof may bée obserued in the other battailes, when it is necessary to forme more then one, as oftentimes it fals out.

Let him obserue diligently to procéede in all these respectes, with a modest & low voice, not with rough woords to souldiers, but with swéet & smooth spéech, & if it bée possible with signes and tokens rather then with words, for by that maner of procéeding souldiers remain more attentiue, & better instructed, then with crying & calling, which for the most part procures disobedience, & causeth contempt of aucthority, & moreouer in matters of im­portance procures smal effect. And so euery Captain hauing his place, some in the front, some in the rereward, some to lead shot in the winges, others to guide the forlorne hope, ech one must carefully, as I haue said, execute & obey the Sergeant Maiors commandement, whether it be by signe or by voice, by Drum or trumpet, or by any other manifest token & aduertisement.

These obseruations bée of great force, wherwithall amongst other his good qualities, in nature & custome requisite for this person to possesse, it is most necessarie that hée bee well giuen to Religion, that hée be charitable, courteous & louing towards the souldiers, & vse exquisite example for their better instruction, which aboue all things must not bee villanously entreated, nei­ther otherwise dispised, but as much as may be corrected with a gentle hand, and alwaies with lenitie fauored.

If in the night by reason of Alarums he bée to set the armie in order, hee must before hand haue appointed the Captaines, that their lanternes, quarieres, torches or cressets bee in a rea­dines, vpon any suddaine to bée light vp, the which they must doe: prouided alwaies that it bée necessarie and expedient, and that particularly it hath bin of purpose ordained and com­maunded, that then they guide behind them, euery band by themselues into the place of Armes, but the Hargabuziers of euery company disseuered from the Pikes and other weapons, which Pikemen shall gather within them▪ their Ensignes in [Page 164] safetie, and the Hargabuziers shal march iust after them and be­fore them, as shal bée appointed or séeme most expedient. And to the intent the same may bée more spéedely performed, the fower Corporats, and Sergeant Maiors of the regiments, shall verie aduisedly go to the assigned places & quarters of the lodgings, for this respect if it bée possible, that al the people may arise, may arme themselues, may ioine in one, & ariue at the same instant at the place of armes; where they are of this worthy Officer to bée receiued, and put in squadre in the forme of a halfe Moone or cressant, & within the compasse of the hornes of the said Moone, euery Alfierus as hée ariueth, must compasse & plant himselfe in the forme of a crowne, one by one with their Ensignes in their hands, & amongst them those that be armed with rondels & tar­gets if there bée any; as for a small competent number it is re­quisite ther should bée (vnlesse those of proofe which must lead ye shot,) then behind them the armed with halberds, & after these that bée light armed pikes, and about the vtmost compasse of the said circle, & in both the tippes & hornes of the moone the armed pikes are to be planted, and the Sergeants & Lieutenants must attend to apply themselues for the conseruation & kéeping of the order of these last Kinges without: Now the rest of the Collo­nels & Captaines; with the person of the Captain general, & the Cauallieres of his owne squadre, and a great part of the lightes & Drums, must stand in the void place betwixt both the hornes before the Ensignes, where reseruing the messages & ambassa­ges of aduertisements that go and come in such cases, they may consult and determin vpon such things as are to bée done. The entrance of this void place ought to bée turned towards ye stron­gest situation of the said ground, & if it bée conuenient, and the ground wil permit▪ let it be garded with certain field péeces and shot. The hargabuziers in the self same time are to be disposed & placed by the Sergeant Maior, so far distant from the foresaid squadre, & in so many places & so many proportions, as the situ­ation of the ground, parts and qualities doth require, being con­formable to that present seruice, therby the better to flank, forti­fie & assure the foresaid principal battail. And to euery troupe of hargabuziers hée shal appoint the other halfe and moity of the Officers, Drums & lights, if it bée conuenient, to the intent that in fight or otherwise in all causes they may readily worke and [Page 165] performe exploits, neither do I thinke it good that in these af­faires of the night, Geometricall measures be necessarie, and much lesse Arithmetical numbers: but the carefull diligence of valiant and discréete officers, is most expedient and necessarie, who must euer frame themselues conformable, and be in these actions altogither obedient to the Sergeant Maior, particularly putting in execution his order and pleasure: The proportion of this foresaid Cressant was vsed of Alexander Vitellus in the night vpon the toppe of a mountaine, against the mightis Lu­theran League.

In the day time the armie rising and setting forward to march and standing in doubt of the enimie, the Sergeant Maior must forme the ordinance and battaile of the armed and disarmed Pikes, of the Halberds and other weapons, in such sort, that hauing to double the rankes to make them greater, the battails may fall out in due proportion, that is to say, that the front and the backe way deuide equally the armed Corslets and. Pikes, alwayes prouided that the flankes be not left disarmed and void of Pikes, so shall he bring to passe that the short weapons shal enclose the Ensignes iust in the midst amongst them, kéeping defended betwixt them and the armed Corslets and Pikes, as well on the front as on the backe, the disarmed Pikes, ye which to make number and to fill vp roome, ought not to be refused a­mongst a great number of footemen in the field, since it is verie hard for all men to arme themselues, they being armed onely with a brest plate and burganet, or with a coate of plate or iack & a scul, are good to turne on amongst shot. And as the quantitie & number of Pikes, principally togither with other short wea­pons, is the verie strength & force of the armed footemen: So the musketeares & hargabusiers, serue to no other end but to flank, to raise ruine & deface all defences, to make imbuscades, to skir­mish diligently to execute such like enterprises: and finally to pursue ye enimy, defending or expugning some strong place, for­tresse, passage, or breach, or what other condition soeuer. When he hath put the ordenance and march in this foresaid forme and maner, & that he doth carry in mind ye Theorick & Rules which before are mentioned, he may so ingrosse and double the ranks, specially when he aspects and stayes for the enimie, that he may frame▪ the square battaile of ground or of number a [...]d of men, [Page 168] both the one and the other, without any difficultie.

He may likewise cause euerie particular Sergeant place all the Pikes armed and disarmed, with the other weapons they haue in charge, and also the Ensigne, in so many li [...]es & rankes as the people of the other bands likewise armed by their Ser­geant are formed and fashioned. Besides it would be very good for the Sergeant Maior, first of all, aduisedly to consider with the Sergeants, how many lines or ranks they are to be by com­panie: prouided alwayes that one band be like vnto another in quantitie of lines & rankes, that their proportion may answere and be correspondent. These bodies so ordained, are of many called maniples or scales, as thus.


which verie easily may be ingrossed thus,


And in this sort shal he cause one band to march behind another, being annexed and ioyned néere togither, and that euery one of thē be guided by an officer into a place & ground able to receiue them, causing the first company and maniple to march somwhat disseuered from the other, & to make space & stay, he may ordaine that the second comming forward it may be placed vpon his flanke: so in like sort shal the third to the second, the 4. to the 3. & the 5. to the 4. and so consequently continuing this order, he shal by & by forme a grosse square and gallant battell, that with ad­uantage may be able to contend with the enimie. And it is true yt some haue affirmed, that the fewer number of maniples there be, the case is so much better, but in this case it is very hard to obserue the iust order of so many men by rank, & of such number of ranks as the perfect rules of Theorick doth assigne, by reason that many times all the companies and bands are not of equall number, neither are they all armed alike one to another.

Marching in this order he may cause al the Alfieres of euerie Regiment to march in ranke vnited togither, without mixing [Page 171] themselues with others that pertain to other Collonels, or with other priuate captains, and when the maniple be doubled & the battel is complet & engrossed, euery Alfierus may go to his own band, and remain with the same, for the more satisfaction of his company and his greater saftie. And returning with the said or­der of maniples to march in long ordinance as before, euery Al­fierus shal turne amongst the other Alfierus or Ensigne bearers where he remained first. The Hargabusiers must march disseuered from the battaile, the one halfe in Uantgard, and the other half in reargard, or somwhat distant of, vpon ye right hand, & vpon the left hand, as the way shall serue with most commo­ditie, or as shall be thought most necessarie, if suspect be had of the enimie, so that according as néede doth require, redoubling the rankes, and causing one to enter into another, or knit and ioyne togither, he may engrosse them and put them in order with good aduisement, to flanke this foresaid principall battaile in as good forme as he possible may.

It is a most necessarie note to be had in memorie, that as wel the two wings or sléeues of Hargabusiers, as also the front or backe part of the ordained battaile or generall square, are al­wayes recommended, as before I said, to the worthy Collonels and Captaines, and honorable officers and souldiers, to the in­tent they may alwayes giue remedie, by discourse consider, and by courage determine of al matters, making choise of the chiefest part in those affaires of importance, without attending or aspe­cting for counsell▪ if in case such counsell be not present and rea­die at hand.

Neither is it to be misliked or out of course, but as I iudge a thing verie necessarie to send for Uantgard and Reargard, and on both sides some what farre off from the battaile, squadrons, troopes or hornes of Hargabusiers out of the forlorne hope: the which without mouing the souldiers of the battaile, the ordai­ned square and flankes may verie sufficiently performe all en­terprises, discoueries, and do great seruice of maruellous impor­tance and profite, and in effect may assure the way and passage to the squadrons that come behind or go before from surprises, &c. Marching out of danger or suspicion of the enimy, the Ser­geant Maior deuiding euerie armes by themselues, must forme the accustomed ordinance, and marching with this, hée may [Page 168] accept the companies which ariue, as they come, and send the Hargabusiers of the front of this companie to the Uantgard of the Hargabusiers of the foresaid formed rankes, and those of the backe to the reargard: the Ensignes to the place of the Ensignes and the forepart of the Pikes and Halberds to the front, and the hindermost part to the backe of this square battaile and ordinance: in the midst of the day when the Armie makes Al [...] to rest, in the morning when they dislodge, and at night when they encampe, let the Sergeant Maior accompanied with the Marshall of the fielde, range the armie into sundrie formes of battailes and squares, that ech one may be well acquainted with euerie sort of battaile, the which although part of them be not to march withall, and not in vse, yet for exercise sake, and for that sometimes they are found to be profitable, when they are diligētly ordained and disposed, being conformable to the situa­tion of the ground, and correspondent to that present enterprise, specially when they be contained and framed of a great number of people, I haue thought good in my figures hereunto annexed, to set downe some of old and some of newe inuentions, hoping that some of them may satisfie our curious conceited Captaines. But to delate further of these foresaid particulars, the Sergeant Maior must euerie day repaire to the Lord high marshal, or the Lieutenant generall, to receiue direction in what sort that day the armie is to march, whose pleasures knowne, he must, as [...] said before, sort euery kind of weapon by it selfe, and then dra [...] them forth in maniples or sléeues, in 3. 5. 02 7. in a ranke, or mor [...] as occasion serues, and so to place euerie band that their Cap taines may be with them to direct and animate them, which i [...] these our dayes is almost impossible to be done, euery smal ban [...] being deuided into seuerall weapons, so that he cannot in time of such generall seruice accompanie his owne band, which sure­ly is repugnant to antique Discipline.

Some hold opinion, vnlesse the souldiers bee rawe and vn­trained men, that it is not good to aduenture the brunt, in one maine square battaile, but rather in diuers squadrons and sundrie battillions, specially if by the continuance of many yeares seruice they be trained in such sort, as in the furie of the fight they can both march forward if they preuaile, or retyre vp­on disaduantage, and yet maintaine perfectly their arayes: then [Page 169] by no meanes the battaile is to be committed to one hazard of fortune, but imitating the Romaines ancient warlike discipline, to place themselues in thrée or foure seuerall fronts, with con­uenient spaces for the first to retire and vnite himselfe with the second, & both these (if occasion néede) to serue with the 3. the shot hauing conuenient issues and lanes, continually during the fight, to discharge their péeces, which will make an incredible spoile of the enimie, so that vpon the charge of horsemen rety­ring within the squadrons, who ioyning togither may bend and crosse their pikes to receiue the shocke, and repulse them, vp­on whose retyre, vnclosing their thorowfares, lanes, and gal­leries againe, the shot and musketeares may issue out vpon their backes, and either follow with the heat shore of their bul­lets, or he imployed vpon some other enterprises: but these things cannot be accomplished without long abode in warres & 7. yeares seruice at the least of an armie in sundrie hazards of fights and battailes.

Therefore it is necessarie for the Sergeant Maior, in time of rest when the enimie is absent, to cause the bands to assemble, and to put them in sundrie sorts of standing and marching bat­tailes, to reduce them sometimes into small squadrons of 400. 500. 600. 700. 800. 900. 1000. in a battaile, more or lesse at his pleasure, and to cause these battailes to march forwards swiftly or slowly, to sarrie, open, shut, close and disclose their squadrons, some times in sundrie battaillons, reduce themselues vpon a so­daine into one maine square, and from that againe to haue pas­sages & galleries for the shot through diuers places of the same, marching forwards and backward according to the stroke of the drumme, to stay and retyre in perfite measore, with no lesse fa­cilitie then Gentlemen dance their Measures by a noyse of vyo­lens, as hereafter ensueth. When the army can perfitely do this, then cause them sodainly to make any flacke or front, or turne entirely togither, as if it were one bodie without breaking a­ray, for it is a cunning point to make a squadre to march vpon one corner, maintaining his square forme. This and such like varietie in marching, brings the souldier to be verie readie, so that although he neuer saw the enimy in the face, yet he may be rather accounted a trained souldier, then he which hath bene 20, yeares in seruice, and in 20. battailes, if this skil be wanting [Page 170] in him, and merites the name of a raw souldier and Bisognia.

Note that there is no battaile apt to march but only the square battaile or the compound of squares, all others as the Lunule, the Triangle, the Pentagonall and the Hexagonall, the circular and ouall battailes, and others which easily may be inuented, neuer serue to any vse, but onely in fixed and immoueable bat­tailes, for presently and by and by in marching they disorder. Therefore great consideration is to be had betwixt a marching and standing battaile, which kinde of immoueable battailes, though of themselues they are smally seruiceable, considering that in all encounters continuall motion is required, it being vnpossible to train men to that perfection, but that in marching they shall breake their aray, yet for exercise sake, and for some speciall seruice, it is most conuenient for the Sergeant Maior, oftentimes to plant his souldiers into those fashions of imbat­telling, that appeare hereafter by figures: sodainely changing them from a triangle to a square, and from one shape to another, and thereby bring them into such perfection in these lesse neces­sarie and hard cunning toyes, that the other plaine seruiceable formes may séeme most plaine and easie.

He must beforehand premeditate, as partly I haue touched, and cast in his minde in what sort with most facilitie he may bring his men to order of battaile, committing to the peculiar Sergeant of euery band, the charge to draw thē forth in sléeues and maniples, and so cause one to march close vp by another till al the battailes be furnished, placing alwaies the Ensignes and drums in the middle rankes of the battaile.

There néede no such curious order to be vsed in placing the shot in any forme of battaile, but only to put them into certaine wings and flankes for the battailes, and if he thinke good, euery wing to be deuided into sundrie pettie troopes, of 25. 50. or 100. men a péece, and euerie of these troopes to haue a leader, which is either Corporall, Sergeant, or Cauallier of Saint Georges squadre: so that to maintaine a skirmish, first one Corporall or leader marcheth forth and bringeth to the face of the enimie his troope, who presently discharging retyre themselues, and in his place another leader with his companie presents himselfe, con­tinuing this order of supply, succouring, seconding, shadow­ing and encreasing the skirmish, continually maintaining the [Page 171] same without any intermission, either inuading, retyring, or in any charge or enterprise, a requisite obseruation for the for­lorne hope. But the place being large, it shall be requisite to present oftentimes many of these troopes at once to the face of the enimie, who hauing deliuered their volée of shot, may if it be thought good, march about and giue place to those that shall supply their place, & so relieue & succour one another by turnes. And this kind of discharging and supplying, may in the open field be verie well maintained in the ring march, as the rutters do, so that in whéeling about, the head shall be sure alwayes to haue charged before the taile haue discharged: and thus in a circular march the skirmish all day shall continue.

In plaine ground he shall neuer turne out any shot to the skirmish, without certaine sléeues of pikes to gard them vpon the retraite from the charge of horses, and also troopes of short weapons, as swords and targets, Halberds or such like to backe them, if at any time they should come to the sword, or ioyne pell mell with the enimie, and such were called of the Ro­maines vindices, but if euery shot had likewise at his backe a light leather or Uenecian target, to vse with his sword when he saw occasion, they would doe great good seruice. Our English bowes for want of shot and fornecessitie, to gall and disorder a troope of horsemen, drawing néere to them, may [...]erue to verie good purpose, but they must be garded with Pikes or shadowed with shot &c.

The Sergeant Maior must likewise haue knowledge in Arithmetike, Algebra, & of those proportions which are set out by M. Digges in his Stratioticos, whereby he may sodainely for all forme of battailes, resolue how many ranks, and how many in a ranke, to frame battailes, what number of Pikes, of Hal­berds, of Musket and Hargabuse shot is requisite, how manie maniples or sléeues euerie battaile may be resolued into, how many rankes of pikes in the front, backe and flankes, how ma­ny rankes of Halberds to gard the Ensigne, vpon sight of the ground to iudge whether it be capable of such a multitude, and what forme of imbattelling may best agrée vnto it, &c.

When he doth cause any squadron or battaile to turne his face or front, he must take order that the souldiers turne onely their bodie and face, but not their armes and weapons, whose points [Page 172] they ought to kéepe in their hands, thereby to shunne the noyse that by linking and striking togither they will make, and to a­uoid confusion, which oftentimes in such cases doth fallow, since that in this sort more readily and with greater silence this act is executed, all the weapons remaine readie and fast in the soul­diers hands: the which order makes a verie stately shew, and after brings great commoditie, when they must of new accom­modate themselues, and make large in the flanckes to march at large. Let al that which he determines and appoints to be done, be commanded and ordained from the backe of the rankes and squadron, and not from the front or from any other place: for in marching more attentiuely, and with lesse occasion of tu­mult and turning, those things be better vnderstood and are more capable which are spoken and proceede from behind the backe, then from the front and flankes, and with greater facili­tie doth runne all along the rankes, and as they say, according to the word Passa Parola, aduan [...] the word.

The Sergeant Maior, when his squadrons ariue at any strait passage or bridge, or other narrow or di [...]icile place that might disorder him, must cause them passe ranke by ranke one after another, so that the ranke being a little disseuered or broken, let him frame ye ranke a new, & so taking like order in euery rank, he shal immediatly forme behind the strait and bridge in the fa­shion of the first appointed squadron: and in this [...]ort may hée procéed with good consideration, with as manie squadrons & bat­tailes as there be.

When he giues a volée of shot, or makes a Salua of Musket & Hargabussers, it is much better for him to begin at the head, thē in any other place, that he may in due order ranke by ranke cause one to follow another, euen to the backe and last ranke, so that how much more it yéelds a gallant & readie grace, so much more makes it shew that those souldiers be practised, and argues the sufficiencie of him that guides them.

When nothing e [...]e of importance remains behind to be done, and that the forward and maine battaile hath stood in squadrons to attend and receiue the reregard, le [...] him, the same being ari­ [...]ed, disband the battaile, hauing beforehand taken order with the Herbingers of the bands, that euerie one guide the Al­fierus of his owne companie to his proper quarter.

[Page 173]In disbanding the battaile let him guide the Ensignes into such a place of aduantage in height, as from thence all the squa­dron, consisting of the vantgard, battaile, and Rereward, may with commoditie behold and sée them, to the intent that euery souldier following his proper Ensigne, may go therewith to his lodging and appointed quarter.

The order which is accustomed to bée obserued in assaulting the enemie, aswell in the day as in the night, I suppose it can­not expresly and particularly from point to point bee declared, considering it must bée conformable to the stratagemes of the Prince or Captain generall that gouernes: But I haue often­times séene them p [...]t in practise, and resolutely wrought with Incamisados, with assured and secreat rootes, and with imbusca­des placed in a conuenient and apt couert, such as growes to bée of aduantage to them that lies in ambush, who ought to attend the time, to assault silently and secretely, hauing his Sentinels, vedettes, countersignes and voices, such as bée plaine, manifest & able to bée vnderstood, & not double, doubtfull and obscure: The which sometimes with grea [...] error and infinite losse, hath caused one thing to bée taken for an other. And this is to be done, to the end that with good order & in perfect sort ech thing that is hurt­full to the enimie may bée performed and put in practise.

Likewise the Sergeant Maior by his office must take [...]are to prouide for the munition, principally al sortes of armes and ar­mour, victuals, and other munition necessarie for his people: Likewise to distribute the same, to performe his office alwaies in the companie of the Master of the campe, or Marshall of the field, in planting the gard round about the campe, and euer to procure the watchword, with the which the said gards are to bée gouerned, and after discharged, if such like causes still procéede in gouernment in one selfe order: but because they varie accor­ding to the custome of him that gouernes principally, and some­times as occasion [...]oth best require, therefore I passe ouer the same with silence, and it is sufficient that at this time I haue inferred, that such like actions and operations app [...]rtain to his office, to the intent hée may alwaies remaine in a readines, to accomp [...] them gallantly, and according to the rules and obser­uations, that shalbée appointed him by his Prince.

Hée must take order that the bodies of the watch or Corps d [...] ­gard, [Page 174] bée ful stoared with souldiers, according to the proportion of their capacitie, and that at the least there hée as many for eue­rie Corps de gard, as may commodiously supplie and maintain all the Sentinels, necessary to bée made during the night, allot­ting at the least one hower of the clocke to euery Sentinel, and chiefly in the vnseasonable time of winter, an hower & a halfe, at such time as the season is mean betwixt two, & two howers at the most at any other time that is serene and hoat time of the Summer: forséeing alwaies the Corps de gard consist of so ma­nie souldiers, that they may bée able, together with the commo­dious situation of the ground, by the perfect proportion and pla­cing of the Corps de gard, or by meanes of the trenches or other defences already made, they may in such sort sustaine the furie of any surprise at vnwares that the enimie is able to come or assault him withall.

Those Commissions of any importance that depend vpon his charge, and are of other Officers to bée performed, ought to bée committed to writing, whereof they must haue a copie, to the intent that they bée made void of vsing contradictions, if in case they do not obey. If there should arise any error of moment, by this meanes he shall not be charged to faile in his duetie, or be occasion of such casualties.

He must take order with the Sergeants, with ech Alfierus, with the Lieutenants, with all leaders, Captaines and Collo­nels, to the intent that al that which is to be done of them may be willingly executed, thereby with facilitie to shun the strife and emulation which oftentimes doth arise amongst them, and that euery one of them may enioy that which iustly appertains vnto him.

But when for any occasion he cannot in like causes orderly gouerne them, and that it shall not be good absolutely to com­mand them, let him then permit that there may be lots cast a­mongst them, and this manner is to be vsed in case of verie ex­traordinarie seruice: which sorte of procéeding doth not dimi­nish or plucke away any of his aucthoritie, since he commits to chaunce, that which was in his choyse expresly to commaunde. Finally, it is requisite for a Sergeant Maior, to be so studious in theorik reading, practise and inuention, that through his in­dustrie he may inuent new Artificiall formes of Battels, squa­drons [Page 175] marching, & such thinges as appertayne to this impor­tant office. For no man without inuention, can be accounted excellent in his arte and profession.

Necessarie practises set out in proportions and figures, for Captaines, Collonels, and Sergeant Maiors to vse in squadrons, battailes, and maine exploits in marching, skirmishing, retyring, rescewing and such like.

THe curious conceits of sundrie ouerweening warriours and superficiall Captaines is such at these dayes, as nothing can please their fantasie but such as doth best agrée to their own hu­mours and inuentions, specially in ordering and imbattelling souldiers: wherein euen as the sundrie vse of diuers nations at this day do differ, so do the minds of many new leaders alter, change, embrace, despise, inuent and set downe manifold wayes to plant an armie in ranged battell in the fielde, which I well considering, haue thought good in part to make collection out of diuers Authors, Italian, Spanish, French, Latine and Eng­lish, and part such as of my owne experience I haue séene put in practise of the Spaniards, and other warlike nations, vnder Don Iohn D'austria and the Prince of Parma, out of both which Callenders I haue chosen the greatest number that séeme any thing to the purpose, that thereby at leastwise the dainty tasted monthes of our age may light vpon some apt for their dige­stion. But before I wade into great numbers, M. Stewards formes shall serue my turne to satisfie the priuate Captaines, Lieutenants of Regiments, and Collonels, as fit for their pecu­liar offices, and will first begin with a table of discouerie of all marches within the compasse of 1500. men.

A Table to discouer numbers by hundreds, placed by 3. 5. 7. 9. &c. in ranke and aray, assembled from one hundreth vnto a 1500. As thus, marching 3. in ranke, 34. rankes containe 102. men, by which example you may plainly perceiue the methode following, and discouer like numbers.

3. in Ranke.34is 102
67is 201
100is 300
5. in ranke20is 100
40is 200
60is 300
80is 400
100is 500
7. in ranke.15is 105
29is 203
43is 301
57is 399
72is 504
86is 600
100is 700
9. in ranke.11is 99
22is 198
33is 296
45is 405
56is 504
67is 603
78is 702
89is 801
100is 900
11. in ranke.9is 99
18is 198
27is 297
37is 406
46is 506
56is 616
64is 715
74is 820
81is 897
91is 1017
100is 1100
13. in ranke8is 104
16is 208
2 [...]is 299
31is 404
39is 507
46is 70 [...]
54is [...]
62is [...]
69is 1014
78is 1105
8 [...]is 1196
92is 1230
100is 1300
15. in ranke7is 10 [...]
14is 210
20is 300
27is 404
34is 510
40is 600
47is 707
54is 810
60is 900
67is 1005
74is 1110
80is 1200
87is 1305
94is 1410
100is 1500

An order to imbattell 600. men at the sodaine against horsemen and footemen.

IT is appointed vnto the Lieutenant of a Regiment, or vnto two or thrée Captaines to bring 600. men to conuey, charge, or do exploits, as the commandement of the higher officers shall appoint them. The Leader or Captaines aduertised of straites, passages, and situations of the countries: also on what part the enimies be most like to assault them, must giue order vnto your officers to place 13▪ in front, as here is set downe by proportion of figure, your Ensigne in the midst with the halberds, your shot placed in the wings as appeareth. At such times as the enimies shall assault you, ioyne both your bands & become one strength as the ground doth serue. This order is verie necessarie to doe many exploits.


How the like number may be brought into the manner of a hearse to defend horsemen.

SOmetimes marching by 10. in rank, vpon the fight of the eni­mies, diuide into two parts and ioyne their broad sides diui­ded tog [...]ther, & become in one strength, which bring thus placed, is in length 24 & in bredth 10. Against horsemen they must pitch their pikes on the ground, and crosse them, against footemen beare aboue hand. They must sarri [...] close togither, and not disse­uer to follow or flie, le [...]t their disorders make place for the eni­mies to enter, as by this proportion doth appeare. Somtimes for the saftie of your shot you must receiue them within the gard of your pikes. This H signifieth horsemen galloping the fielde to break vpon you, where they may best enter & most easily, as by the void space appeareth, the ouerplus of your shot to be placed in 4. wings without ye battel. This proportion to disseuer is verie perillous.


How to imbattell 900. souldiers at the sodaine.

MArching with 900. men, and vnderstanding by scout or spie that the enimie pretendeth to skirmish with them, or other­wise to ioyne battel, you may diuide your bands in thrée parts, marching 9. in a ranke, placing officers betwixt euerie band, that being assaulted may ioyne the Uoward and the Rereward to the middleward, so fall they out to be an hearse battell, placing your shot in the wings that they may the better resort to the skirmish, likewise to retyre as occasion scrueth: this is a singular good order for the obtaining of any grounds or doing of exploites.

An order how to imbattell 900. men at the sodaine.


An order to imbattell the like number in Quadrant proportion.

WHen battels are to be made, if the Sergeant Maior should chance to be absent, giue commandement vn­to the Sergeants of the bands to bring their compa­nies seuerall, and then ioyne your bands and sorted weapons the brode sides togither, as your number serues, your Captaines, drums and [...], with your Ensigne placed in the midst of the execution, as well for the saftie of the same, as for the comforting of the souldiers: neuerthelesse, such order is ta­ken, that Lieutenants and Sergeants of bands with other ser­uiceable Gentlemen of S. Georges squadre, be placed to leade the Uoward and Rereward of the battell, where onsets be vn­certaine, whose beautifull Armours, pollitike and couragious charge is a great terrour to the enimie, and a great comfort to their owne companie: the shot to be placed in foure froupes, with two wings in the Rereward, for that they may easier maintain skirmish round about the battell, on which side soeuer they be assaulted.

[Page 182]


An order to imbattell 1200. men quadrantly at the sodaine.

THe foure Quarters ioyned in one, seeme to be 1200. men vn­der 4. Ensignes euerie way, who at the enimies sight must place 13. in ranke, which fall to be a quadrant euerie way, which [...]odainly may ioyne their long weapons togither, making one Quadrant of the foure: your drummes and fiffes with the Cap­tain placed next to the Ensigne, the Lieutenants in the wings, and the Sergeants in the Uoward and Rereward, wherby they may the better giue intelligence by signe or word what is best to be done, 300. men being shot in the wings, and the 300. in Demie Diamondwise, after the Almaine manner in the midst, the which being discharged, the musket and hargabus shot will greatly preuaile.


[Page 184]This wayes they may march wholly togither, or retyre any wayes to seruice néedful, ready with their shot to encounter the enimie any wayes in skirmish, either wing rescuing other, as néede shall require. And although the Sergeants maior appoin­teth order for the same, yet the Sergeants of euery band hauing experience, onely ruleth and giueth order to their owne charge, and appoint and place such in the fronts, Rereward and wings, as to them séeme most conuenient.

This proportion is after the Almaine manner of imbattel­ling, much like vnto the order of the Romaines: who deuided their Legions into diuers Cohorts, to this intent, that when the fronts were wearied, the Mainward and Rereward succée­ded, which the late experience of the Frenchmen hath tried, that the deuiding of the battell into many bands, so that they haue pikes sufficient to impale the Halberds or Bils, and to euerie Band their number of shot and Horse, is more auaileable then any battel being made of a whole bodie, or as the Gréeks tearme it, a Phalange: for they are to be drawne out in length or bredth as the ground or occasion serueth, to charge and encounter the enimie placed in one battell, vpon euery quarter to their de­triment, and ouerthrowing of any so placed, being of sufficient strength for defence of horse: and though the first or second, or third should be ouerthrowne, yet be rest kéeping their order are to succéede. Whereas the battell being one, after the frontes be ouerthrowne, the Rereward is readie to run, the which being disordered, can hardly recouer to place them in order againe.

An order to imbattell a Collonels charge.

COllonels and Chieftaines, who oftentimes according to their experience and worthinesse of seruice, haue the charge and leading of 1500. men more or lesse, to whom is committed di­uers sundrie exploits and points of seruice in the fielde, where­of they discrie any multitude of horsemen, pretending for to charge them, and to enuiron your battel, hauing no waghon, bo­rough, or pale of carriages, water, hedge, ditch, or other succours, but only ye strength of their manual weapons, & pollicy of defēce vpon the sight of the enimies, must cast in this sort the Uoward & Rereward to become one strength, & to serue and sarrie close [Page] [Page] [Page 185] togither, to couch, to crosse and defend, as by this order may ap­peare. The thrée vtmost rankes must consist of faire armed and skilfull Gentlemen, and Caualliers and others, pitching their pikes on the ground, couching & crossing them, the two rankes next giuing the push at the length of the pikes, the shot placed within the pikes for safegard, stand readie to shoote & charge stil in their places. This order to encounter with footemen, if it be possible, will recouer the aduantage of wind, hil, and full, in good order, on the one side of the hill, to ioyne in fight, where God gi­ueth the victorie before these same encounters. An excellent or­der to repulse horsemen. Reuiue your souldiers with meat, drinke, and good counsell, and with comfortable words, to animate and encou­rage them withall.

How to imbattell 1500. men in quadrant proportion.

AS before I haue set forth the order or imbattelling of 1500. men in two fold wise, the which in some ground is much a­uaileable, for that it occupieth more hands then the iust square in fight at one instant, notwithstanding such must be assured that the enimie can approch but one way, which else may be preiudiciall, therefore in the plaine field, the iust square or qua­drant is the strongest order that may be: neuertheles it is conue­nient that at such times as you purpose to ioyne battel with the enimie, hauing Ordinance and other carriage, to place the same on the wings and Rereward, thereby to impale the squadron to the intent ye enimie enter not but in the fronts. Also the expert Captaines must foresée to obtaine hill, wind, sun, or any other aduantage, the which diuers wayes greatly profiteth. If your battell be assaulted with horsemen and lances, then couch and crosse your pikes, as appeares in the last figure, & against foote­men sarrie close, trailing your pikes vntill the encounter, and then to offer the push till repulse be giuen, and God giue victo­rie. In the fronts you must place your best armed and most vali­ant men, as well to encourage the rest, as to be a terrour to the enimies, your shot to be placed in the wings and rereward, for being placed in the fronts, they cannot well retyre, but vpon their owne pikes, or else vpon the shot in the wings. To bring 1500. men to this proportion, you must place sixe rankes of pikes 59. in ranke euerie wayes, which comes to 500. and 12. the shot to [Page 186] be placed in 4. troups in the wings 10. in ranke, which is 400. And 300. ten in ranke, and 29. in bredth in the Rereward, the which are to succéed ye other troupes after they haue discharged, the 50. shot and 48. pikes are to be placed about the Artillarie, or otherwise at the discretion of the Collonell, the Captaines and Lieutenants with the Sergeants to be placed about the battell, to giue order as may best preuaile: The Chieftaine & Collonel to be placed within the battell, as appeareth in this figure.


The Characters to be vsed in proportions of greater Squadrons.

BUt to touch more at large greater numbers, both how they are ranged and battelled, wherein the Sergeant Maior ge­nerall of an armie is called to vse his office, I do here according to my promise set downe sundrie proportions of diuers kinds, for the better vnderstanding whereof, it is requisite to carrie in minde the signification of these Characters.

These Cha­racters
  • S Signifie Shot.
  • ☌ or this P Signifie Pikes.
  • ✚ or this H Signifie Halberds.
  • E Signifie Ensignes.
  • □ Signifie Launces.
  • ▵ Signifie Light horsemen.
  • * Signifie Argoletteares.

A Quadrant or twofold battell of 2000. men.

THe form of this battel following which represēts a quadrāt, hath bene oftē vsed as very profitable of many Italians, wel experienced & of great authoritie in the field: it is as it doth ap­peare, flanked & enuironed with two great bodies or sléeues of Hargabusiers, the which containe in number for ech flank 380. men, & in the Uoward 100. and in the Rereward 140. which shot are to be carried about the battel very commodiously for seruice, and as they shall séeme otherwise to be imployed by ye Sergeant Maior. In the bodie of the battell are 800. pikes, 200. Halberds or Bils, and ten Ensignes, hauing to euery Ensigne 200. men, ye which to be brought to this forme, you must place 45. in rank for the breadth, and 22. in ranke for the length. The Captaines, Lieutenants and Sergeants, as appeareth by this figure in the heart of ye battel, & although this manner or forme giueth scope to mooue which way they list, yet I hold it best not to suffer thē to stir much: and ye litle mouing which is to be granted to them, must not be ouer hastie but in pace, [...]loe, sober & well measured, vnlesse he hath to set againe the like battel of the enimie, for then the last rankes must be somewhat quicker in stirring. And to bring tenne thousand or twentie thousand to this order readily, they must in setting forward, march with maniples, [Page 188] well seuered and deuided, hauing a Sergeant, Lieutenant or Cauallier at the head and backe, the better to discerne them one from another. This manner, as I haue alreadie touched, is ve­rie easie: So that placing them in length doubling their ranks, it brings them likewise to a verie formall order of battell, as I haue sufficiently touched beforehand.

A Battell in forme of a crosse, verie necessarie to be vsed, as well in the night as by day, because all the weapons are deuided by themselues.

THis battell following in forme of a full Crosse, consisteth of 10. Ensignes, euerie Ensigne hauing vnder it two hundreth souldiers, so that the whole number cōtaineth 2000. mē. It hath 4. fronts or faces, whereof euerie one is accompanied with har­gabusiers, which may in time of necessitie be couered & defended by the armed pikes, so yt the formost rankes be moued forwards all alongst the flankes & sides of the shot. This forme hath bene vsed of Spaniards and Italians. It is a gallant battell, and of force sufficient to resist the enimie in open fielde, although they should set vpon you at vnwares, & besides superior both against horsemen and footemen, the hargabusiers are 1000. the which are the halfe of the number. These hargabusiers being deuided into 4. parts, must be in euerie flanke 200. placing 14 in ranke euery way, the halberds and Ensignes placed in the midst of ye crosse, are 200. and the whole number of pikes are 800. the which are to be placed on euerie quarter of the halberds 200. placing 14. euery way, which make a iust quadrant of people, so that there re­maine to be placed by the Sergeant maior 16. pikes, 4. halberds and 200. shot. This rule may serue in proportion for any num­ber being verie excellent for the night, because ech weapon be­ing deuided by themselues, may be readie at the sodaine for any seruice, either to giue battell, or for defence of the Campe, the horsemen and the field péeces to be placed as shall séeme best by the Chieftaines or the Sergeant Maior.

The bodie of a battell to be made in the night.

THe proportion of this Cressant or Moone, is very conuenient and fit to be executed in the night, there being a round ring [Page] [Page 188] [Page 189] drawne with a cord and a stake, so that the Sergeant Maior ac­cording to my description in his office, may place the companies that come to him, and from hand to hand part them into seuerall companies, according to this proportion: for this forme doth re­quire that it be done with expedition, and it is no great labour to deuide ye weapons without cōfusion, either to march or other­wise to vse themselues seuerally from the rest, in great or small companies as shal be néedful: for that euerie weapon doth stand at his owne defence by it selfe, the general artillerie, Ensignes & short weapons being safely enuironed with the armed pikes, which may vpon the sodain by the Sergeant maior, or the Cor­porals of the fielde, be brought to any other forme of battell. Also the Sergeant generall may place the Hargabusiers in so manie companies, and so many formes, and so farre distant one from an other, as the situation of the place or the seruice thē present doth require, to the intent that the maine bodie of the battell may be flanked and defended. But for that I haue more largely touched this in the Sergeant maiors office, I referre the Reader to the same: aduertising him withall, that all squadrons and battels in the night, must haue euerie sort of weapons seueral by them­selues, whereby confusion may both be auoided, and the troupes of souldiers remaine readie, when they shall be called forth to execute any seruice, what necessitie or sodaine assault soeuer be­fall. Prouided alwayes that good watch & scout be kept on horse­backe and on soote, as néere the enimie as is possible, by whose aduertisemēts you may know what is best to be accomplished.

The order of imbattelling before the fight.

THe Oration being made by the Generall, and prayers fini­shed to the immortal God, it is requisite that thou haue care to bring forth thy army to ye field with bright & shining armour, which easily may be done, by giuing charge in time to the Cap­taines, and so to the officers, that their burgonets, [...], calée­uers, halberds, swords, & euerie other péece of [...] be made cleane & bright, forasmuch as the cleannes and brightnes of the weapons, maketh the armie séeme terrible, and putteth feare & trauel in ye minds of the enimies. Then cal forth thy bands, the [Page 190] which béeing set in araie, the Generall béeing expert, hauing seene the preparation of the enimies, giueth in charge to the Sergeant maior and the principall Corporalles to accommo­date and ordaine his Souldiers in battaile according to the ar­mie, the men, and the manners of them. And if the enimie bee more puissent of Horsmen: thou hauing the commoditie, choose thée straight and difficult places, or at the foote of mountaines and where the horse cannot easilie serue. If in footemen he ex­céedeth, then it is requisite to get the hilles and places of ad­uantage, as the Sunne and winde, &c. and that with diligence to choose such fit places, which either be néere Rockes or Riuers: and aboue all things, where thou maist put in araie thy bat­tailes, and by the qualitie of thy place be able to let thy enimies, that they neither compasse thée about nor inclose thée, the which requires not onely the counsaile and prudence of a wise Cap­taine, but the counsaile of the most expert in the Campe: be­cause oftentimes an Armie hapneth vpon such places. And not­withstanding the Captaine is ignorant how to choose such situa­tion of ground as is best for him, but of those that are present it is good to choose the best, and to foresée which may be most profitable, is surely a signe of a wise Captaine: Caius Sulpitius, to feare his enimies got a great manie of Mules and other beasts vnprofitable for the warres, causing a great number of sackes to be gotten, which were so ordered vpon the backes of the beasts as they séemed men at armes, giuing in charge whiles hee was a fighting they should appeare vpon a hill, whereby grew his victorie against the Frenchmen. The Spa­niards to ouercome Amilcar, set in the fronts of their battels, Cartes full of Towe, drawne with Oxen, that béeing ready for the encounter, they set it on fire, causing the Oxen vehemently to thrust forwards into the armie of the enimie, deuiding the same. Thy number small, and the fields large and open, it is good to make ditches, the which being filled with boughes, and slightly couered with earth, leauing voide spaces for thy horse and shot to procure skirmish, the which being of the enimie en­countered may faine a running awaie, and béeing prosecuted by the enemie, shall bee ouerthrowne in the ditches, where they are easilie slaine, manie such notable deuises by wise Captaines hath béene practised, the which vpon the suddaine [Page 191] put in vse, will greatly profit. Thy Battels being made and set in order, it is requisite that thou leaue the warde within the trenches of the Campe for the defence of thy lodgings, mu­nition, and carriages, least the enimie vnderstanding the place to be left voide, sende his Souldiers to take the Campe, and so to spoile all: vpon occasion some Captaines will de­stroie their owne lodgings, or els passe riuers, or leaue behinde them hils and déepe places, to the ende that the Souldiers stan­ding constantly, may ouercome the aduersarie and obtaine the victorie, or otherwise altogether to perish, for that if they should thinke to saue themselues by running away, they shall sée by all manner of meanes taken from the possibilitie to escape.

Nowe béeing come to ioyne battaile with thy enimie, cause thy Souldiers somewhat before, to flourishe oft their naked Swordes and Halberds against the Sunne, for that the gli­stering of the weapons, and their shining pointes, through the brightnesse nowe of the one and nowe of the other, a­gainst the resplendant Beames of the Sunne, dooth shew a certaine horrible terrour of warre, the which will strike a dread and feare into the mindes of the enemies. Like­wise it is sometimes requisite that thy battailes goe for­wardes with rumours and showtings, sometimes running with violence, forasmuch as the semblaunce of such thinges with the noise of Trumpets, Drummes, and great Ordi­nance, woonderfully troubleth and feareth the heartes of the aduersaries: also it is great wisedome in a Captaine, not with desire to bée drawne to bée the first to giue the on­set, but to staie thée néere thy trench till thou hast viewed thy selfe and the Rendies of the enemies: that is, howe ma­nie battailes, howe they are placed, of what condition, and where they are disposed to fight, for after this manner thou maist more commodiouslie sée to thine affaires: considering which of thine thou hast to sette against those of thy eni­mies, and in what manner thy men are to bée ordeined and placed, dooing in like sort to a good Physition, the which con­sidering first the infirmitie, and knowing the cause, commeth afterwards to giue remedie, therefore ordeine thy men so as may turne most vtilitie to thy businesse.

[Page 192]The manner of ordering of battels lately vsed, I cannot greatly command, for the armie being 20. 30 or 40. thousand, they are de­uided but into 3. battels, whereby ensueth many perils and dis­commodities, because the Pike being but fiue yards thrée quar­ters long, euerie man occupying a yard and halfe a quarter of pike, can occupie but foure or fiue rankes at the most, so that the rest are superfluous and lost: besides, they are easily to bée compassed and to be charged on euerie side: wherefore I haue set downe an order of one of the battels in figure, according to my opinion, the which if it may turne profite to my countrie I would be most glad. The occasion of the prosperous successe of the Romaines, was onely through their good orders, by diuiding their Legions into cohorts, the which were bands of 400. and 50. the 50. were shot, the 400. were armed, their weapons, pikes, swords and targets, the which were placed in quadrant man­ner, 20. euerie wayes, being 10. battels in front, leauing a cer­taine space betwéene euerie battell for their retrait vpon occasi­on vnto the next order, which were but sixe battels, and the rereward foure battels, all in like number, kéeping one bredth, the voward were called Hastatie, their battels thicke and close, the Maineward were called Principie, who had such space be­twéene their rankes as they might receiue the Hastatie: the rereward were called Triarij, whose spaces betwéene their rankes were such, as they might receiue the Principie and Ha­statie, on the wings were placed seauen rankes of Pikes of strangers, which did distend in length from the voward to the rereward: through these good orders they became conquerours of many countries. Now because of the diuersitie of the wea­pons, hauing 20000. footemen, I would deuide them into tenne battels, to euerie one of the battels shall be according to my proportion set downe 1000. shot, 800. pikes, and 200. Billes, the which placed in twofold wise, according to my proportion set downe in figure, will be in bredth 45. and in length 22. and ten ouerplus, the which are to be placed at the discretion of the Ser­geant Maior, the shot placed in the wings and rereward in ma­niples for the readier seruice, who must be placed a good distance from thy battel, thy men at armes vpon ye wings of the shot, thy Lances as two hornes in the front of the battell, the light horse in the fronts of thy Lances, the hargulaters in the fronts of thy [Page] [Page 192] [Page 193] light horse, who with the pistoleters are the first that begins the battel: thy great ordinance to be placed in the fronts of the bat­tels, or in such conuenient place as may most terrifie the eni­mie: there would be appointed certaine troupes of Lances, whose guidons would be contrary to the rest, the which the Ger­maine cals their Forlorne hope, the French Infants perdus, who must at such time and instant as shall be thought good by the General, giue the charge vpon the enimies battels, whatsoeuer shall happen: who are for the same to receiue double pay. The second battell not to be placed in the front with the first battell, as the Romaines did, but in the rereward of the first so far wide and with such distance, as the horsemen and shot a foote giuing the first charge may retire themselues without disturbance to the battels, hauing thy shot placed as in the voward with the lances and shot on horsebacke: the third battell to be placed in the rereward of the second, with like distance with shot and horse: and so to the fourth, fift, and the tenth, in the rereward of the which, if occasion require, thou maist as in the rereward of the battell, place for the defence certaine of thy carriages. Thy battels being thus ordered, thou shalt be sure no wayes to be compassed by the enimies, whereas thou maist easily compasse in him, not ordered in the like manner, and thy battels being but little, yet as strong as the greater, being strongly fortified euerie way with pikes, and when a signe is giuen, your hargo­lateares, pistolateares and lances, may at the sodaine be with the formost, or readie for any other place of seruice. Also your second battell may ioyne with the first, and the third with the second, and so to strengthen your battels at pleasure, as other­wise two or thrée of thy battels to giue the charge to one of his battels, and if it should so happen that thy first and second bat­tels should be ouerthrowne, thy battel placed in this order, thou maist retire thy selfe and leaue of the field, maugre the head of thy enimie, who in prosecuting thée, disorder themselues, as many times happens, may be easily conquered, vsing thy bat­tels in this order, I hold to be of greatest force and most auail­able. [Page 194]

THese 4. foresaid battels were taken by M. T. Steward out of his second booke, Captaine Francesco Ferretti della Osseruan­ [...]a Militare, out of whom he hath likewise borrowed the grea­test part of his Pathway to Militarie Discipline, wherein he hath followed the steppes of Leonard and Thomas Digges Gen­tlemen, in their Stratioticos, for the which they merite great commendations, by the benefite our country may reap by their trauels. But neuerthelesse, because I will not attribute that vnto my selfe, which is none of my owne, I haue thought good to deale more directly, and not to reape the fruites of other mens toyles, and therefore in following my determi­nation in setting downe diuers battels, this battell following I borrow out of M. Digges his Stratioticos.

The proportion of a battell out of M. Digges Strat [...]oticos.

MAster Digges in his third booke, intituled Stratioticos, hath imbattelled an army of 30000. footmen and 6000. horsemen▪ which h [...] for an excellent forme of imbattelling figures thus.


First as you may behold, he hath diuided the Armie into two Fronts or faces, & hath separated them into 8. battaillons, euery of them hauing 30. in a ranke, and 33. rankes: They are armed in the front with 7. ranks of pikes, all the rest of the short wea­pons, as swords and targets, halberds, billes, or such like. Euery battaillon containeth 1000. men lacking 10. and are placed 3. or [...]. paces one from another.

[Page 196]The second front is diuided into fiue great battaillons, eue­rie one of them being of 2000. men, 40. in ranke, and 50. rankes: euerie battaillon armed in the front with 6. rankes of pikes▪ These battaillons ought to be one from another at the least 25▪ paces, & the one front of battels from the other at least 60. paces: in or nigh the middle battaillon of this second front shalbe the Generall himselfe, when he séeth time.

These battaillons are impaled on either side with 100. ranks of pikes 7. in a ranke, and on the backe with 6. rankes of pikes: without these hath he placed the shot in 24. troups, euery troup containing 100. There is also the forlorne hope before the face of the battell: likewise 18. troupes of shot 100. a péece, who after they come to the face of the enimie, disband and maintaine s [...]ir▪ mish.

Last of al the wings of horsemen which M. Digges hath placed in a preposterous order, by placing the Argolat [...]ares last, but I both altering their course & names, say that two of the first are Argolateares 50. in a ranke, 25. rankes: the second light horse­men, 30. in a ranke, 33. rankes, and the last Demie lances 30. in a ranke 25. ranks. Thus there is in the first front of pikes 1680 In the second front 1200. In the impalement 3800. These in all amount to 6680 so is there left 320. pikes to be imployed in loose fléeues to accompanie such th [...]t & short weapon, as shal remaine for the gard of the Ordinance.

Likewise in the first front there are of short weapons 6240. in the second front 8800. so there do remaine 960. short weapons to be imployed togither with the remnant of the pikes for gard of the Artillerie or carriages, or else to mingle with the shot in the forlorne hope, the which when they shall grow to pell mell with the enimie, will do great seruice.

Also after ye battels approch, they may retire with the forlor [...]e hope to assist their horsemen. The shot you may behold sorted in troupes 1800. in the front and in either wing 2400. so doe there remaine 400. shot more to ioyne with the pikes and short wea­pons extraordinarie in any seruice. Thus after the great Or­dinance on either side haue discharged, the Forlorne hope is continually to be supplied with new troupes of shot from the flankes and wings, and these troupes of the Forlorne hope that haue discharged, should retire betwéene the battaile and the [Page 197] troopes of horse to the backe of the wings, so maintaining the flanckes alwaies furnished: and thus skirmish may continual­ly be maintained with fresh men, & the battell alwaies impaled. But after the battell begins to approch, the forlorne hope must withdrawe themselues: then is your first battell strongly fron­ted, and impaled with pikes to abide any charge of horsemen, and after their pikes are broken, are together with the rest of the short weapon, to deale with the enemie, and during the con­tinuance of the fight, betwéen these battailons the shot may con­tinually discharge in the face of the enemie. Likewise there may be certaine small carriages, some laden with muskets, some with Calabashes, others with murdering fire balles: and these cariages may during the battell continually spoile the enemies front, being safely garded betwéen the battaillons: but if fortune should abandon them in the first encounter, and that they be bro­ken by the enemies, yet haue they those ample spaces betwéene the battaillons of the second front to retire vnto, there to make head, and giue the enemie battell againe. And these spaces or lanes betwéene the battaillons, serue not onely to receiue the skirmishers or other that shall retyre, but also for the messen­gers, which among the Romans were called M [...]ndatores, to passe to and fro, and to signifie vnto all parts from time to time the Generals pleasure.

The Argolateares are to gallop the field and scale the side of a squadron, the light horsemen to charge vpon the skirmishers, and the lances to breake vpon the scaled battel, and one to helpe an others course, as néed dooth require.

Thus farre M. Digges prefers this battell, which he would haue vsed when no aduantage is gained by the nature of the place, but that the Generall must trust to the strength of his good order, wherein hee dooth wish such perfection in ou [...] souldiorie, as was in the Romane, that they might be able to fight and retire in order, and so make many sundry heads vpon the enemie, if fortune did abandon them in the first or se­cond encounter: the which is farre better, in respect of our com­mon brute maine battel, or 3 battailes in one front, committing the whole field to one brunt of seruice, which is a barbarous or­der, therefore it were good the soldiours of our time did applye, practise, and reforme diuers errors.

The figure of a Battell out of Monsieur de Bellay his instructions in the Arte of warre.

MOnsieur de Bellay in his first booke of Militarie discipline, sets downe this proportion of a battell.


This battell euen as the other before, consists of receipts one into an other, so that the front being broken, they must retire into the voide spaces of the second front, and they both conse­quently being repulsed, to plant themselues within the thirde & last succours, the pikes of both flankes ought to retire, as the battels retire, that is to say: the first ranke ought to retire with­in the 2, and the 2 within the 3, the 3 within the 4, the 4 within the 5, the 5 within the 6, & so consequently the rest. The Harga­busiers and horsemen must likewise do their duetie according to all warlike order. But for your further and perfect instruction, [Page 199] howe this battell and all other of like qualitie are to be directed, read the Chapter following, which is intituled A notable dis­course of sundrie obseruations to be had in memorie of Cap­taines, Collonels, Sergeant Maiors, &c. whereby a discreet leader may' learne what he hath to accomplish in all sortes of battels and encounters whatsoeuer.

Diuers proportions of new inuented squadrons.

THis battell following hath beene vsed of the Spaniards, marching alongst the side of a riuer, two squares, and a tri­angle battell of pikes, flanked with shot, empaled on the front, rereward and left flanke with 7 rankes of pikes, the forlorne hope in the front, & their horsemen on the left wing, in this sort.


[Page 200]The proportion of this battell was caried by the Almains into Italy against the Zwitzers, be­ing enuironed round about with a raile, fastned with iron hookes, to be taken in sunder & carried with them, planted with musket and base shot, to resist horsmen, and the squares of footmen.


This figure ensuing consists of a square battell of Pikes flan­ked by shot, seconded by sléeues of Halberdeares, for execution and reléefe, or deffence in skirmish when it comes to pell mell, with 4 smal squadrons of musketeres at ye corners of the maine battell, all the whole being enuironed and impaled with pikes, before whose vaward & front are placed the forlorne hope, & two wings of horsmen, marching along the sides of the battell.


THe proportion of this battell next following is onely for the safe retire of shot, being repulsed by horsemen, or otherwise, who may at eight places retire into this squadron, which stands in the proportion of a fortresse, which vpō the charge of the ene­mie may ioyne close in one maine square, by causing the flanks to march vp to the corners of the square, which vpon occasion disclosing againe may let out the shot, which may enter into skirmish in circular wise as followeth.


THe manner of this battell next adioyning which is to be vsed of a great armie, dooth somewhat resemble a cressant, consist­ing of battaillons, the Generall in the midst of the 4 chéefe squa­drons, the whole impaled with pikes, flanked with shot, fronted with the forlorne hope, and winged with horsemen.

[Page 202]


This battell following is both strong and ready for the safe­tie of the shot, for that either the forlorne hope in the forward or rereward, 'may succor one another, retire or issue out vpon any side, through the lanes and galleries betwixt euery battaillon, and yet vpon the enemies onset may sarrie close together, and make one firme and sole battaile, the shot being before hand drawne in, out of the enemies danger. This squadron is like­wise flanked with Musket and Hargabuziers, and winged with horsemen.

A notable discourse of sundrie obseruations to be had in memo­rie, of Captaines, Collonels, and Sergeant Maiors, in directing, training, exercising, imbattelling and instructing of soldiors, for the better planting of any of the foresaid Battels or proportions.


EAch Captaine, Collonell, and Sergeant Maior, must in his degrée, take care of his charge. The Captaines must sée that his officers do acquaint & teach his souldiors all the particulars in my first booke, and that his other officers be able to execute so much as I haue set downe in my second Booke of Militarie directions, whereby together with some notes written pre­sently, they may learne such particular knowledge, as when they come to put generall matters in execution, the same séeme not strange vnto them, for in the exercise of armes we ought to indeuour our selues to be perfect in such things as belong to a band when it is by it selfe, and that which a band is [Page 204] to performe when it is ioyned with others in campe, so that those souldiers which be cunning in the first, may easily obserue all occurrences and commaundements in the second. Therefore a band is to learne by it selfe, to kéepe ranke in each kind of mo­tion, that is to say, in marching slowlie, softlie & fast, & to learne all the sounds, all the signes, and all the blasts, voices and cries, wherewith the officers commaund in a battell: and that euery one know perfectly the signification thereof, no lesse then the Mariners the whistle of the maister of the ship, in which soul­diours must be readie and diligent to obey incontinently & aptly at the stroke & battery of the drums, whether it be to march for­ward, to stay, or to recoile, or to turne their faces and weapons towards any place. To this end all Collonels must ordaine, that all the drums haue one kind and maner of battery, and that they do vse al one forme of sounding to the field, of sounding ye alarme, and to vse one proper sound, to plant themselues in battell, to aduance themselues, to recoyle, to turne in battell themselues from one side to another, to make retraite, and in sum to signifie all other points, that the voice of one person alone cannot make so easily to be vnderstood, as dooth the sound of many drums, the which make themselues to be hard in the greatest tumults and throngs. The souldiors also ought to be so attentiue, to hearken and giue eare to that which is spoken and commanded, that they néed neuer to be deceiued: the drums likewise ought to be ready to batter their caisses according to ye sound of the collonels trum­pets, by the which they must altogether direct and gouerne their batteries. The Collonels trumpet ought to be expert in all these sounds, & that he be able to vtter them so plainly, that the drums take not one thing for an other, but that he know how to expres the same according to his Collonels commandement, néere vnto whose person he ought to be euer, & not to abandon him: & to yéeld a reason what mooues me to appoint trumpets for footmen, it is in respect yt they may be more cléerly vnderstood then drums can be if any great tumult should arise, & that the drums should alter & change their sound: for they are to be directed by trumpets, the sound wherof is hier thē the battery of drums, the which y Zwi­zers who first inuented drums haue very wel [...]ried: therfore let collo [...]ls prouide yt they haue trūpets before their battaillōs that ye Chieftains may signifie & admonish thē what they haue to do. [Page 205] All these things togither with ech seueral sound, must be taught & shewed from point to point to ech particular band apart, be­fore they be ranged togither in battel, to ye intent they may haue the full art to maintaine their order & ranks, without that any place how difficile soeuer, be able to disband or disseuer them. And also that the sound of the trumpet be so familiar vnto them, that they cānot erre, neither take one thing for another, but that the Collonels bands be ech one priuatly & fully instructed in all that which the battaillons ought to do, being assembled with the armie. And for that armes are brought to seuerall kinds of bat­tels, either in respect of the enimies in sight, or for feare of some sodaine assault, ech band ought to be exercised in such sort and so instructed, that they may with great assurance march through ye enimies countrie & fight if néed require, the officers instructing & shewing the souldiers, that which they haue to do, if they were assaulted on one side or other at vnawares.

And that they be taught the order to resist the enimie in a day of battell, or when the enimie doth approch in sight, they ought to learne how a battel must begin, and how one battaillon doth abord another battaillon of the enimies: and to shew them the place where they ought to retyre if they be repulsed: and who must enter into and supply their places: and to what signes, to what sounds, to what voyces they ought to obey: and that which they must do when they heare these voyces and sounds, and sée those tokens & signes: and to accustome them with the sundrie sorts of battels and fained assaults, in such sort, that afterwards they may not onely dare to abide, but also desire the fight in good earnest: the which assurance shal so much the rather encrease, by how much they sée themselues wel instructed, ordered, & ranged, rather then by their proper hardines, chiefly if these battailons be ranged in such sort that they may easily succour one another, which is of no small importance to encourage & assure the soul­diers: For admit that I should be of the first combatants, & that I know into what part I ought to retire my selfe, being ouer­matched, and likewise who he is that must come in my place, I shall alwayes fight with a better heart, beholding my succours néere at hand, rather then if I neither knew them nor saw thē. Likewise if I be in the second place (although the first be repul­sed, & that I behold them to recoile) yet the same shal not astonish [Page 206] nor appale me, for that I alredie know what this recoile doth signifie: a thing which beforehand I shal desire to come to passe, to the intent that I may be he that shall gaine the victorie, and that the first do not carrie away the honour of the fielde alone to themselues.

These exercises therefore be most necessarie both for young and olde souldiers, for it appeares, that although the Ro­maines knew perfitely what were to be accomplished in a parti­cular band, and so consequently in a whole armie, and that they did learne all these things in their youth in C [...]mpo Martio, yet neuerthelesse they were afterwards continually exercised, as wel in the time of peace, as when their enimies did front them. Ioseph in his historie saith, that the continuall exercise of the Romaine armie, did make the common multitude of those that followed the campe, serue in a day of battell as well as the soul­diers: for both the one and the other knew how to kéepe their ranks, and in kéeping them how to fight in them. But an armie of new souldiers, whether they be leuied to serue presently, or that an order be taken to haue them in readines to be imployed in time to come, they will arise to proue vnprofitable without these practises and exercises. Therefore order being so necessa­rie, all Captaines, Collonels, and Sergeant Maiors, must with double industrie and trauell instruct or cause to be instructed, those which be ignorant, and to continue and maintaine the same in those which are perfect, imitating the steps of those ex­cellent Captaines which haue trauelled to maintaine this disci­pline.

The souldiers therefore in priuate bands being instructed to kéepe their rankes by 3. and 3. fiue and 5. or 8. and 8. without ha­uing respect to the number, euen or odde, for that it is a thing of no importance, but an obseruation brought vp without founda­tion, & specially Vegetius can yéeld no reason therefore, but on­ly vse. They must then in marching softly or in hast, learne to multiplie, as two ranks of fiue to make 10. & two of 10. to make 20. and by and by at one instant to bring them from the same rankes and to place them in their first and simple order of a­ray.

And to the end they may assure and accustome themselues [Page 207] the better, it is necessarie they make Lymassons when they are in simple and single aray, and to aduertise them that the second person in ranke, doe kéepe alwayes iust behind the first without loosing him, and the 3. right behind the second, and so of the rest.

This done togither with the directions of my second booke, e [...]h band must apart be set in order, and in the estate that is re­quired and requisite to range them, when a whole battell is planted togither. To performe which the Pikes of the flankes and the Hargabusiers shall come out of aray, and shall place themselues on the one side and the Corporals of the Pikes shall make head, one of the Corporals and his people first, and another of the Corporals and his people next, the Corporall of the Halberdeares shall follow, hauing the Alfierus with his Ensigne in the middest of the Halberds. Then the other Corporals with their Pikes, shal make the reregard with their people.

It must be shewed to euerie Corporall the place which he ought to kéepe at all times, who likewise must declare the same plainely and particularly to euerie priuate souldier of his squadre.

The Captaine must be at the head of the aray, and the Lieu­tenant at the backe, the Sergeant hath no staying place, vn­lesse the Captaine do appoint him one, but must alwayes trot here and there all alongst the rankes, to see good order kept, and to commaunde the performance of his Captaines plea­sure.

Let continuall vse accustome the souldiers, to know of themselues, how to range themselues in battell: for the bet­ter learning whereof, they must be made to march forward and backward, and to passe difficile places without trou­bling and breaking their aray, the which if they be not able to doe, they are not to be esteemed old souldiers, although they haue serued twentie yeares.

The difficultie likewise is great, to cause them place them­selues vpon a sodaine in their first aray being broken or dis­persed, by reason of vneasie passages, or that the enimies haue disseuered them, for in this it is requisite to haue had good and great exercise of a long continuance. Therefore [Page 208] that the same may be accomplished, it is necessarie to haue two things obserued & maintained, the one that the Ensignes may be easily knowne by colours and figures of number, and that the chiefe members and officers haue certaine cognisances or markes vpon their armes and apparell: and the other is, that one selfe band be ranged alwayes in one certaine and knowne place of the battaillon, without causing the same to alter roomes: and that the Corporals know the places that they must enter into, without shifting at any time, but if that one Corporall be accustomed to be in the formost ranke, that he remaine there al­wayes, and the souldiers in the places which hath ben ordained them from the beginning. And if that any one band hath bene taught to be in the right corner of the battell, that the same doe not stirre from thence, and so consequently that which is vsed to the left shall go to the left. By this meanes if the souldiers be accustomed to know their places (put case they should be out of order) yet should they be able to place themselues againe easily. For the Ensignes do know alredie the place where they are ac­customed to be planted in the battel: and the Corporals know­ing likewise their place, may iudge also by ranke of eye vpon what part it is that they should place themselues: so that those of the front shall steppe forwards to the front, and those of the backe shall in like sort retire to their places.

Therefore the Corporals knowing in how many and what rankes they haue to arrange themselues, it will follow that the souldiers, not hauing any thing else to do, but to imitate their Leaders and heads, will readily range themselues euerie one in his owne place, without hauing néede of any sergeant of a band, nor any other to place them, prouided that vse and practise hath made them perfect masters. These things are instructed & lear­ned spéedily, so that diligence be vsed, & that mē accustome them­selues by little & little and often, the which after they haue once well learned, they shall hardly forget. It is moreouer necessarie to teach them to turne al at one time, for it is somtimes requisite to make of the rereward the front, or of one of the flankes the rereward, according to the enimies face, and according to the place of assault. Now to answere towards the place néedful, you haue no more to do, but to turne your person towards the place appointed, and so shall that part towards which the souldiers [Page 209] haue turned their faces be the front. But he that would haue a whole battaillon turne all in one péece, & as if it were a massie body, in this it were necessarie to haue great practise & discretiō, for to turne it vpon the left hand, it is requisite to haue the left corner stay, & that those which be néere adioyning vnto the same, do aduance themselues so slowly, that those vpon ye right corner, be not constrained to run: otherwise al wil be confounded, but this may better be made apparant by experience then words.

The forlorne hope, & the light armed & armed pikes, are to be ranged in ye front, flanks & rereward, according to the proportion of the battell, or as the seruice requires, for these are to execute particular functions, in cōuoyes, forrages, inuasions & such like, when it is not requisite to send great numbers of people. The forlorne hope, the pikemen & hargabusiers, are to begin ye battel, to fight amongst the horsemen without kéeping any order: and therfore being lightly armed, their office is to fight without stā ­ding still or firme, & in running & trauersing here & there, whe­ther they pursue the enimies, or be followed of them, in which the pikemen wil do good seruice in backing & sustaining the har­gabusiers, and may be able to make front to these that charge vp­on them, whether they be on horseback or foote, or to follow those that be in flight, & to make entrance & to thrust in amongst the enimies, when they begin to stagger or sway. Therfore al soul­diers, whether they be in maine battel, in flanke, forlorne hope, in the impale or rereward, haue néede to be well exercised, that being disbanded, they may immediatly finde againe their places & rang themselues in the same aray they kept before, wherein it is necessarie that all officers become more vigilant in execution then heretofore, and the souldiers more obedient and expert in performing, then at this day they be. Our age brings forth Captaines more curious of gaine then of conseruing good order, and troupes of officers rather to supplie number then sufficient to instruct: The Ensignes thēselues are more in vse for a gal­lant shew, then for any Militarie direction, whereas the ancient Romaines did vse them for a guid: whereby they knew how to put thēselues in order, for euery one after the Ensigne did stay, knew incontinently ye place where they were to plant thēselues, they knew yt if the same did remoue or stand stil, yt they likewise ought to march or stay. Therfore it is necessary that a camp haue diuers bands, & euery band his Ensigne, wherin figures of num­ber [Page 210] are to be portraited, to shew what roome and place the same is of in euery regiment or armie, and so consequently where the same is accustomed to be ranged. And also necessarie Lea­ders and officers, that the campe may haue diuers soules, and so likewise diuers liues: all souldiers then ought to gouerne thēselues according to their Ensignes & according to the sounds the which being ordained & set down according as they ought, do command & gouerne a whole regiment and armie. The which, so that it march in such sort as answeres to the batterie of the drums: they shall easily kéepe their order and aray. And to this end were the Flutes and fiffes found out, and sounds of perfect accord: for euen as men that dance by the measures of Musicke do not erre, so likewise a whole battaillon, which in march obeys the sound of the drum cannot breake aray, and therefore the Ro­maines, when they would change their pace, when they would inflame, appcase, or assure the souldiers they did change sounds, & as the sounds did varie, so likewise vsed they variety of names to them, for they had the Dorike, and the Phrigien sound: the one did inflame ye hearts of ye souldiers, the other did make méek & appease them. They had likewise other kinds of sounds as the Aeolien, Iasien, Lydien & others, the which did al serue to incite or coole the courage of men, which diuersitie of batteries, the Spa­niards do presently verie well imitate, a thing to be obserued of all good souldiers. An armie that consists of diuers battaillons & two or thrée fronts, when they are constrained to break and are repulsed, must retire one within another into the rankes of the next squadrons, which of purpose are planted more thin, & so the first retyring enters into the 2. and ye second into the 3. Note that in the first front of a square vpon ye fal of any wounded or slaine souldier, he ye is next behind him in rank, & is his follower must enter and step into his roome, and fill vp the void place, that the front of the battel may still be maintained, and so obseruing the retire of the battaillons, and the renuing of their ranks, we may accomplish both the Romain & Gréeke discipline. Those battail­lons which are most necessarie to be had in vse, ought to consist of pikes marching before the Ensigne, behind it and on ye flanks, carrying light Uenecian rundels and targets on their backes: and in the midst about the Ensigne the halberdeares must stand, prouided alwayes that the notable personages & good souldiers for seruice be dispersed as well in the flanks & behind as before, [Page 211] and not to put them all to one brunt in the front, as though they were immortall and not able to be ouercome. By this or­der a battell shall be able to sustaine a charge of horsemen or footmen to repulse them, & after enter into the enimies throng: for experience declares that the pikes are made voide of seruice when the rankes be closed pell mell togither, for then the soul­diers are almost one vpon the bodie & backe of another. Where­fore if the pikemen should haue no other weapons but their pikes and swords, they should remaine naked, which doth moue me to commend the rondell to receiue the blowes: and to fight withall in any presse or throng whatsoeuer. The halberdeares may verie well fight in a presse likewise with their halberds, rather then the pikemen with their pikes: The which halber­deares are expresly appointed for execution: and so consequen­ly to follow the said rondels at the héeles, to frée them from the charge of those that be armed, through the great & heauie blowes which they shall giue with their halberds. But touching the rondels, I would haue them alwayes to thrust with the point of their swords, although it were but at the face, the legges and féete, if the enimie be not disarmed in other parts.

The ground that euery souldier doth occupie at large in mar­ching in simple and single aray, is thrée pace, and being in bat­tell two, and when they fight one. The distance of one ranke from another, in simple and single ordinance and aray, is foure, and being ranged in battell two, and in fight one.

The first sound of the Collonels trumpet is to enter into the ranke and march, the second to alter the single aray into forme of battell, and the thirde is to aduance and plant the bat­tell. The Collonel being in such a place as from thence he may sée his whole Regiment, hauing the Caualliers of his squadre of S. George about him, being such expert souldiers as I haue set downe in my second booke of directions, togither with the Sergeant Maior and such as can execute any commission of im­portance, his drum and trumpet maior about him to sound and cause his pleasure to be sodainly and spéedily vnderstood. The Collonel must commande the sound to be made of his trumpet, which is appointed for the ordinarie march, and soone after to sounde that which is to trot, and then at the selfe time that which commands and appoints the fight and combat.

[Page 212]When a battell doth consist of diuers battaillons, he must not forget to exercise ye first to retire within ye battaillons of the second, & the second to retire within the battaillons of the third. And to accomplish the same without breaking or disordering the squadrons. The pikes in the flankes must retire as the battail­lons retire, the first into the second, the 3. within the 4. the fourth within the 5. the fift into the 6. of the ranks, and so consequently to the end. The forlorne hope and horsmen shal likewise do their dutie. These things done, the retrait must sound, and euery En­signe must recoile his people apart, to put them again in a new and single ordinance of aray for the march.

The enimie aduancing to fight in triangular battel with the point forward, frame the battell of sheares to receiue, enuiron and fight with the said pointed battaillon. If the enimie march with a front stretched out in length, make a triangle or pointed battel to pearce the same. The baggage of an armie ought either to be in a place strong by nature, or well defended by art and in­dustrie, togither with the followers of the campe, pages and mu­chachos, who must be chosen able to fight in a day of seruice, for the defence of themselues and their masters baggage.

The spaces, interualles, galeries and passages, which are a­mongst the ranks, amongst the bands, and amongst the battail­lons, do serue not onely to receiue one another, either in retire, or when the first ranke doth retire through the midst of the se­cond, and the 2. 3. 4. and 5. &c. following him like a Laborinthus mase, going forward to the last ranks and turning backe again, or that his next follower steps a side and lets him passe and en­ter into ranke againe, but also those spaces betwixt the battail­lons serue the Caualliers & such like that come & go, which car­rie & bring directions of ye Chieftaines, Collonels or Generals.

The forlorne hope and extraordinarie pikes must inuade the enimie with continuall & great cries, the battaillons or maine battell likewise at the first must giue a chearefull shout, when encounter is giuen in the beginning and ioyning of the battels, but afterward maintain a solemne silence, yt they may ye better vnderstand what commandements and directions procéeds from their chieftain, either for ye altering of order or otherwise, which cannot be heard or vnderstood, if they continue a barbarous crie. Squadrons & battaillons must sometimes assault in great hast, chiefly if the enimies artillery doe endomage them verie much, [Page 213] and sometimes must abide the charge without remoouing, when the place is vneasie, & that they shall be in danger to dismember, specially if they be such as be not accustomed to the march & ma­ner of battels. Therefore in conclusion, these 4 things ought to be obserued of all armies: first that all soldiors & priuate bands be exercised a part in all things belonging to the wars: second­ly, that they know how to range themselues in battell, how to varie, exercise, and march in the same, softly, apace, and in full course, kéeping their araic. Thirdly to learne that which apper­taines to the exercise which they must accomplish in a day of battell, and how to drawe forward and retire the artillarie, to giue way and cause the Hargabuziers to issue out of the flanks, hauing shot sixe or 7 Hargabusades a péece in running héere and there, and without kéeping order, so that they know how to ioyne and agrée with the pikemen and horsemen, to whom the care ouer their safety belongs. They shall retire by the flankes and by the interuals and passages, each one into his place: that is to say, the hargabuziers of the flankes into the flanks, the for­lorne hope to the reregard, there to range themselues according to the Collonels appointment, & as the day of seruice requires, for if they should remaine and continue before the squadre or battel, they shall hinder the maine battaillons in their fight, and bring confusion. The light armed pikes & horsemen must like­wise retire to their places vpon the ioyning of the battels. The fourth exercise is, as partly I haue touched before, that euery one apply himselfe to vnderstand the commaundement of the Chéeftains, the signification of the sounds and trumpets, and the batterie of the drums: by which be signified all that which is generally to be vnderstood: that is to say, when it shall be time to plant themselues in battell, when they ought to march, when to stay or go forward, when to turne visage to one part or other, to crosse the ground, sarrie close, & fight. In like sort the sound of the said trumpets shall signifie, when it is time for the artillary to discharge, when to retire, when the Musket & Hargabusiers, the forlorne hope, and others, are to set forward, and when they are to retire, and also when the first battels ought to retire to the second fronts and battaillons, and when both together they are to arange themselues with those of the third, & finally at what time they must all retire from the battel, the which things must in a plaine & knowne vulgar sort, be al set downe by the collonel [Page 214] and Chieftaine, and suddenlye be signified by his trumpet, the noise whereof shall giue sufficient intelligence to the other trumpets, which are néerest him, that it may so go from hand to hand, to the furthest trumpet of the armie. It should be good to vse a Cornet or a hunts mans horne, for the retraite, &c. and a trumpet to begin the battell, or contrariwise: for it is a most difficile thing, that the trumpetor should signifie so many diuers things with one instrument, considering that the sound of a re­traite, dooth approch very néere vnto the sounding to the stan­dard, in such sort that then when as all men be troubled, and as it were besides themselues, they shall very hardly be able to discerne whether of these two things the trumpet sounds.

What the Sergeant Maior is to obserue touching the length of Pikes.

A Pike ought neuer to want in length any thing of fiftéene foot, for this respect, when the footemen are streightned and setled in order of battell, they may for the aduantage and profite of the said armie, in respect that the assaults of the enemie is to giue to the said battell, couching & bending their pikes against them, worke so that the greatest number of rankes that is possi­ble for the defence of the battell, may endamage and offend the said enemies, and therefore their pikes being shorter then fif­téene foote, it prooues that no more of the ranks can fight, but the first, second and third, standing all in order in their places, and yet can the third ranke fight but discommodiously, & not aduance forward his pike to succor and defend the first ranke, forsomuch as the distance of the ground, from one ranke to another, in any battell, how straight and close soeuer it be, would be neuerthe­lesse so much, that men may manage and handle their weapons and sturre themselues, without being a hinderance or trouble one to another. Therefore it is to be considered, that the distance of the ground, which is betwixt one ranke and an other, dooth take away a good portion of length, in such sort that by reason we may sée, that a pike ought to be in length fiftéene foot, and no lesse, for being so long, footemen standing in order of battell in their places, the third and fourth ranke may commodiouslye abasing themselues, come in aright to succour with their pikes, the first and formost rankes, & this is as much as I can imagine [Page 215] to be necessarie, touching the length of pikes, by reason of the succour, the third and fourth ranke may giue to them before.

How pikes are to be raised vp and abased, in closing and opening of a battell.

I Will not omit to put those in memorie, that know not of the particular of those things that is required in making a battell of footmen. Therefore those which would make a battell of foot­men, must be aduertised, that in shutting vp of the said battell, the rankes of the pikes, aswell armed as vnarmed, must not raise them vp confusedly, but with order, that is, when the Ser­geant, Captaine, or Sergeant Maior shall say, raise or right vp your pikes, then it is requisite that the first and formost ranke must begin to raise vp it selfe, and that the second do not mooue to raise vp it selfe, vntill the first be all raised vp, & so the third, and fourth. And finally the same order is to be obserued in all o­ther rankes, not to raise vp their pikes vntill such time that the rankes that are before them haue raised them vp: and so from one to another, all the rankes of the footmen must obserue this order, aswell in battell as in araye. The like order is to be ob­serued in battell and araye, in laying downe their pikes vpon their shoulders, forsomuch as ranke by ranke, in order and with­out confusion, they ought to let fall their pikes, letting the first fall after the second, the third and fourth, following from one to another, in the selfe same maner as hath béene declared in the raising vp of their pikes, for by obseruing this order they can­not commit, but rather make a gallant showe, and preuent ma­nie confusions.

How the Sergeant Maior, Captaine, or simple Sergeant are to gouerne themselues, when their battell shall chaunce to be assaulted, on foote and on horsebacke.

IN sundry and diuers manners, and moreouer in diuers pla­ces and grounds battels are fought, according to the occa­sions, and the accidents that in Militarie occurrences doe chaunce at vnawares, in time of warrefare, abroade in Cam­pania, in Townes and in Fortresses: for which causes it [Page 216] is necessarie, that the wit of those that haue ye managing there­of, be prompt & ready, aswell in this, as moreouer in finding out a good partie for himselfe, all for the honor & safetie of the prince whom he serues, ioining to his couragious hart, wit, experience, policie, & each aduantage that is possible to be vsed against his e­nemie, therfore in two sorts do arise the means to fight: one is when he doth séeke to fight with his enemie, & the other when he is sought of the enemie, in such sort that it is néedfull he defend himselfe, and therefore I say, when the first occasion doothrise, & that the séekes the enemie, speaking héere of striking battell in Campania: it is requisite first he consider how the enemies ar­mie is furnished with horsemen and footmen, and if he looke to fight with horsmen that are to come to breake his battell, in this case he is to be aduertised, that he suffer himselfe not to be found (if it be possible) in Campania Rasa, in ye open fields, or in plains, but rather must accomodate his battell in some place of a hill or a mountaine, or vpon some seat of ground which hath vpon one side either riuer or ditch, or some other impediment, against the enemies horsemen, which on some side may be a difference, as in some places be, trées, vines, and diuers other such like, as nature brings foorth in diuers places, which are of great impediment vnto the enemies horsemen, & vnto foote battels are verie profi­table, and although the number of the souldiors are very small, yet oftentimes by much aduantage remaine victorious: but ad­uertisement is to be had, that in such cases it is requisite, that there be accomodated many hargabusiers in the battell, & many pikes, for they be good against the enemies horsemen: hauing to fight with footmen, the open fields is the best, with a square bat­tell, and many pikes, placing hargabuziers according to his dis­cretion. Since I haue spoken of the first maner of fight, I will speake of the second, which is, when the enemie dooth assault at vnawares, it is necessarie then couragiouslie not to loose any point of courage, to place his people in square battell, for that it is the most ready and most sure way, that is, making himselfe good flanks with the Hargabuziers of the band, afterwards ex­pecting the assault, cause his battell to shut and close it selfe wel, causing them to couche and abase, 4 or 5 or somtimes 6 ranks of pikes in that case, round about all the sides of the battel, and the others to stand vpright vntill time of néede: and the Hargabu­ziers are to hold their pikes vpon their thighes, with their mat­ches [Page 217] in their cockes, a morce in their pan, and all vigilant in a readinesse. And the captaine before the battell, valiantly giuing courage to his souldiors, to performe the dutie of a leader: ad­uertising, that when the assault is giuen by horsemen, that the pikemen couching and abasing themselues, do hold the great end of their pikes fastned hard in strong earth, to the end the pike may haue greater force.

What distance is vsed in Battell betwixt man and man, ranke and ranke.

IN this present chapter, you shall perceiue the order and ma­ner that is to be obserued in the distance and space of ground betwixt ranke and ranke of souldiours in battell, and how much space the souldiours do occupie, from shoulder to shoulder, aswell armed with Corslet as vnarmed. Note that it is to be vnderstood of a pikeman, I will first aduertise all Sergeant Maiors, and all good Captaines and Sergeants, and others, that delight in profession of battels, that there be two reasons, wherefore the vnderstanding of these distances, be of importance: the one is to know how much ground is necessary to manage a battell, & how much space the circumference of the battell will take round a­bout it, according to the quantitie of the souldiours, that are to be in the said battel. And the other is, that it is néedful to know, how much space is limited to a souldior from shoulder to shoul­der, and from one ranke to another. And this proportion hath bin found out and limited, of great practised and cunning men, to the intent that the said distance from one ranke to another, may in a certaine space of time be accomodated, that the souldiours may comodiously manage their pikes, may fight, and in such sort that one ranke of souldiours may succour an other that stand be­fore them, and deale in such sort that all the battell may worke good effect, forasmuch as when they do accommodate themselues ouerstraite and narrowe, they can neither fight nor yet hardlye mooue themselues. And the same inconuenience would chance, if souldiors were placed in battell one ouer farre from another, or one ranke too much distant from an other. Therefore it is a most conuenient thing, to vse in this case those limited rules, that the auncient and moderne souldiours haue set downe, and such as our Captaines haue obserued. The space therefore of [Page 218] grounde, that one Souldiour with his necessaries dooth holde from shoulder to shoulder shall be of thrée foote, and nothing lesse, in such sort, that when any battell is to bee made, let vs put this example, that if there be a ranke of 25 souldiours in a battell, it is néedfull to imagine, that the length of the said 25. footemen shall containe the space of 75. foote, which is fiftéene pace.

Speaking of the Venetian pace, which is fiue foote for the pace, whereof I meane alwaies to speake. The space moreouer of the ground that is to be obserued for the ouerthwart of a bat­tell, that is, from one ranke to another, that they may be able to manage themselues with their pikes aswell in marching as in fighting in maine battell, no lesse then seauen foote is obserued from one ranke to another. Moreouer to the intent he may more commodiously march with his pike on his shoulder, the ground would be no lesse then of ten foote, which is two pace, but after when they are to close and ioyne more straite, as I haue said before, of 7. foote: in such sort, that a man in ranke with his space before him, will amount to held vnto the other ranke, ten foote, which is two pace, accounting thrée foote of ground which he holds with his person, and the other 7 foote, the space vnto the other ranke, make 10 foote. Let vs then presuppose this figure or example: That he is to make a battell that is a perfect square of twentie euery way, we must count how much ground the said battell will take in circuite, and sée if the same be capable of the number of Souldiours, which are appointed to be put and set in battell.

Our rule therefore shall holde vpon two fides, that is, vpon the fronte and the backe, and taile of the battell, where the Souldiours stand shoulder to shoulder, in 60. foote, which is 12. pace, for both sides and both the foresaid sides be 24. pace. The other two sides which be the flankes of the said battell, where the space is left betwixt one ranke and an other of seauen foote, and therefore the person of the souldier which is séene one with an other, in such sorte that the battell which is to be made of 20 Souldiours for euery side, a perfect square of people, but not a perfect square of ground: forasmuch as two sides will be 12. pace on a side, which in both comes to 24. pace: the other two will be for euery side 40. pace, which is 80 pace, and so hauing [Page 219] ioyned vnto the same 24. pace, it will bee round about the said battell of 20 Souldiours on a side 104. pace, which is 520. foote of circumference of ground, and so alwaies this order is to be ob­serued, not that you are to take a corde or a rod, or pace, to mea­sure the distance of the said battell, but by racke of eye by your witte and discretion consider this measure, for whether it be more or lesse, it little imports. It dooth suffice that you obserue a certaine discretion, that may come to the marke I haue written, if it doe not light iust at leastwise néere the bounds and mea­sure I haue set downe. Now since we haue put this figure and example of a perfect square battel of people, but not of ground for 20. souldiers, we wil speak of an other forme or figure, some­what differing or disagréeing from such like battels, and yet for all that of the same number of twentie Souldiours, for euery side in perfect square, the which is square of people & of ground, as some doe vse to make, as may appeare in a battell of 400. Souldiours, square in ground and people: the which being in this forme, hath for space of ground about in circumference 800. foote, which is 160. pace. This is sufficient to remember you of the manner that is obserued in the distance and measure in the circumference of the battell.

And now returning to my discourse of one ranke from an­other, when the Souldiours are ioined & closed in battell with their pikes, & when they stand in terme to fight, to me it séemes, that then in that accident, the battell is to close and ioyne as straight together as is possible, in such sort as they may manage and bestir themselues with their weapons, without being an impediment one to another, to the intent that the rankes being straite in fighting, or that the souldiors be inuaded by their ene­mies, or that they recoile by force of an onset, they néed not to fal to the ground, but rather that they may by those ranks that bee behinde their backes receiue helpe, that vndersetting them with their brests, they may hold them straight vp vpon their féete. And this is not onely my opinion, but of diuers other mos [...] excellent wits.

The other rule of the distance of seauen foote from ranke to [...]anke, which we haue spoken of, is meant of marching and the managing and exercising of a battell, to the intent [Page 220] the soldiors may receiue exercise & discipline in the said battell, in the which alwaies the foresaid order of measure & distance is to be obserued, to the intent that the Sergeant & the other heads which do gouerne them, may the more comodiously manage and enter in and out through the space of the said ranks.

How battels of euery number of footmen are compoun­ded and placed together in order.

MAny & sundry be the waies which be obserued in compoun­ding together the battels of footmē, but I verely thinke that the most expedient & short way amongst practised soldiors is in these two sorts: that is the one to ioyne together the battel with diuided maniples, and the other to double the ranks of the aray. The sergeant Maior, Captaine, or other Sergeant, hauing first determined in his minde of how many men in a ranke he will make his battell, knowing first the number of the pikes that are to be had: so making of one company, as he may do of many one onely battell: & procéeding to make the battell in which of the [...] waies he list, either by parting it into maniples, or by doubling the ranks. It is therefore first requisite, to set the footmen in a­ray that are to be found there present, numbring all the pikes, and accomodating the araye in such sort that the battell may afterwards be made withall spéed, and that it may serue the turne, for either of those two waies, as I haue said. It is neces­sarie therefore to know the place where the battell is to be set, and to take care that there be so much space as may be capable thereof, knowing the rules of distance, which is vsed in warfare that is, how much ground the Souldiours hold from shoulder to shoulder, and how much distance is left betwixt ranke and ranke of pikes. But touching the measure I néed to speake no more, for that the officer may measure the ground by pases: yet I would commend a Souldiour that is of such discretion, that of himselfe can accomodate those things by racke of eye, without such precise trouble in measuring the grounde. And if a battell require 300. paces in circumference, hee by racke of his eye maye sée whether the place bee capable or no, noting that the rules to put the distance of ranckes, is made for this other respect, which is of much more importance, that the [Page 221] rankes of the battell may fight without any impediment of the Souldiers, foreséeing that euerie third ranke may succour the first with their pikes: and speaking of battels you must euer thinke that I speake of pikes, for battels are neuer made of hargabusiers: it is verie true that hauing made the battels of pikes, you may accommodate them afterwards as you list about the battels, by the flankes in ye corners & hornes, or betwixt one pike and another of the formost rankes of the battell, or in such other sundry wayes as may best aid and helpe the battell: let i [...] suffice that of Hargabusiers there is neuer any certaine rule set downe, but euer is to be vnderstood of the order of pikes in bat­tell: of the which two wayes, where I speake how a battell must be made wel and spéedily, I will endeuour my selfe to let you vnderstand the way the best I can. Desiring therefore to worke by the first way I haue spoken of: that is, to make any battell by maniples, if it be to be made of any one company a­lone, let it be of what number soeuer of footmen, it is first requi­site to set the aray with intent to diuide it into thrée parts, that is to say, into 3. maniples, which may be iust of as many rankes one as another, in the which maniples, you ought by numbring the rankes of the pikes, cause the Ensignes of the said aray to kéepe one ranke like vnto the pikes, and this is obserued when the thrée maniples be vneuen: that is to say, that two of them should chance to be of 20. ranks, and the 3. of 19. or 18. rankes, and then the Ensignes shalbe numbred for one ranke: but alwayes the other two maniples are to be of iust number, as for example. There is a company of 300. pikes, the which if you desire to put in aray before you make your battell, consider how many ranks they will be 5. in a rank, and you shal finde them to be 60. ranks: diuide the aray into 3. parts, cutting them off at euery 20. ranks, and after draw vp to the first ranke the second part, that is, the maniple of the middest, and ioyne in order the first ranke to the head of the first maniple, the which being on the right hand of the maniple with the Ensignes, you shal draw then the 3. maniple to the left side, ioyning the first rankes to the head of the other two maniples: so that the aray hauing bene of fiue for a ranke, the battel shalbe one way 15. and the other way of 20. pikes. Now desiring to haue the battell to be more large in the front, then in the flankes, the which I commend, of what number soeuer the [Page 222] pikes are of, he shall cause ye Sergeant to go to y flank where he would make the front, and standing still a little distance forth of the battel, he shal crie aloud, Turne your faces this way, the which being heard of the souldiers, sodainly they shall turne them selues towards that side which he shall giue them notice of. Ob­serue then this order at all times: when you haue made a bat­tell, let the pikes be of what number soeuer, let it suffice yt I ad­uertise you, yt at al times when you list to make the front where the flanke is, so that the place where you would make it be cap­able and commodious, that you may frame and make the battell according to your determination, you must cause them to turne their faces towards that side where you would haue the front of the battell to be. I iudge it good likewise to aduertise you, that desiring to make any battell with maniples, for that it often­times fals out, that some rankes in the aray do remaine vnper­fite, which are called broken rankes: these are taken out & are accommodated about at the sides of the Ensignes, so diuided ne­uerthelesse that they may remaine in good order. The which Ensignes, alwayes when you make any battell, you must haue respect that they may haue a large roome and space, that they may accommodate themselues with the souldiers, which make the broken number, as for example in aray of fiue and fiue in a ranke, in the last ranks there remaines 3. or 4. souldiers, which do not furnish out the full ranke. And the like is to be obserued when you are to part your aray into 3. maniples, and that they haue some rankes more then the entire and full aray. As would fall out hauing to make an aray of 500. pikes, and put the case that you would place them 7. and 7. in a ranke, they would fall out to be 71. rankes, and 3. pikes more: and diuiding into thrée parts these 71. pikes and 3. pikes, they amount to 23. rankes, dou­bling the 3. maniples, as I haue said, so that 3. times 23. makes 69. rankes, and there is ouer and besides two rankes of the aray and 3. pikes, which is in all the brokē number 17. pikes, which in making of ye battell, must be set aside by themselues, vntil the 3. maniples be ioyned in battell, the which on one side will be 23. pikes, & on the other 21. The 17. pikes then that are taken out, shal be accommodated, diuided here & there where the Ensignes stand. And when it fals out that there doth arise to be pikes or broken rankes, that are so many as were able to make a whole [Page 223] ranke in the battel, then it is to be made, ioyning it either before or behind the Ensignes, or at the flankes of the battell, or where it shal fal out to be best, for it imports not much: and so you work by this rule of maniples, in one companie alone as well as with many. And hauing to make a battell of sundrie companies, the true rule is to work by these maniples, and you must procéed in this sort. First take order with all the heads of the companies, that they frame all their order of aray in one manner and sort, & if any of the said heads haue any greater number of pikes then his commission doth allow, let him take them forth & giue them in supplie to those Captaines that are found to haue lesse then he hath appointed for their aray. Let vs then vse this example in this sort, that is, that if there be found in companie or in any other place, vnder the gouernmēt of ten Captaines, to the num­ber of 3. thousand souldiers in aray, that is to say, only pikes, af­ter the rate of thrée hundred vnder euerie Captaine, being iust 3000. of which the Sergeant Maior hauing to make a battaillon must do in this sort. He must giue order to all the Sergeants of the bands, that they make all their araies after one sort, & after one number, and the one head or front being distant from the other a little, he shall cause their arayes to march, and let vs put the case that the Sergeant Maior haue giuen them order, that they place themselues sixe and sixe, there will be in euerie com­panie 50. rankes, and so it is néedfull that euerie one haue put their aray 6. and 6. in 50. rankes, and desiring to ioyne and close these battels, he shal cause these companies to march one after an other, & shall close them togither, ioyning the first rankes to the head of the aray one of another, knitting the maniples to their portion: and this battell will fall out to be on one side 50. pikes, which wil be flanks, and the other which wil be the front, wil be of 60. pikes, for so much as being 10. maniples, 6. in a rank, it wil fal out to be iust, as I haue said before: to make it a right square, it wil be of 54. on euery side remaining out of ye battel 84, which at pleasure may be put in ranke, & so taking 54. out of 84, there remaines 30. pikes, which being not able to make a ranke, are to be placed about the Ensignes, as I haue said before.

There be othersome, that hold this other manner in making of battels, to double the ranks, that is, hauing set his araie, and marching with them, they begin at the head of the aray, where [Page 224] the Sergeant staying, doth cause them to march forward, and the first beginning to passe, doth appoint the second that it ioyne it selfe with the first, and so the third with the fourth. And fi­nally the ray going forward, doth cause the rankes to double two by two: so that if first the ranke were 9. and 9. they arise to be 18. in a ranke. And desiring to make them more large, he may put 3. rankes in one, which will be 27. in a ranke, and so he may double them to what number he wil, and of as many ranks as he will, but it is requisite before he make his aray, to consider well how many pikes he hath, and afterward accommodating his aray to his appointed number, that by doubling it by two or thrée rankes, it may become as square as is possible, neither is he to do it without this consideration, for otherwise working by haphazard, it fals out to be euill fauoured, to be by halfe more long then large, and sometimes double: But it is first necessarie for him to number the rankes of the aray, and consider if dou­bling two rankes at a time, it will fall out to be well, or better to double it thrée at a time. And this must be well considered, for otherwise he shall make and vnmake to his great disgrace. Therefore now I conclude, that the first way is euer best & most readie without toile or trouble in doubling and redoubling: So that helping your memorie with certain Tablei or Tariffas made of purpose to know the numbers of the souldiers that are to en­ter into ranke, and what number of rankes will performe the iust square, you can neuer erre, but vpon any sodaine, set in bat­tell any number of souldiers whatsoeuer.

THE FOVRTH BOOK OF MILITARIE DIRECTIONS, ENTREATING OF THE OFFICES AP­pertaining to the Generall of Horsemen, the Scout master, and the office of the Marshall of the Field.
And first of the office of the Lieutenat or Generall of the Horsmen.

THe Maine squares of all sorts of battels receiue great safetie & accomplish worthy seruice by the companies of the couragious Cauallarie, chie [...]ie when their bands be guided by those that be of perfite experience and of approued practise in armes, whereas the contrarie effect doth follow, being directed by light heads, and such as onely make profession, but of cleane and gallant riding, or to run in comly order with a Lance vp­on the euen grauell & sand. And therefore this officer, that hath vnder his charge all the horsemen of the fielde, as the Hargala­teares, Lighthorsemen, Lances, and men at Armes, or barded horses seruing to breake into a battallion of Pikes, or to backe other horsemen being repulsed, must be a personage of singular courage, industry and experience, that he may be able worthily to performe his Lieutenant and Generalship.

And albeit I meane not in this place particularly to entreat of the seuerall charges of euerie Captaines duetie, yet thus much I thought good to note that a Captain of a hundreth men at armes, may be compared with a Collonel of footemen, & other Captaines of lightorsemen, with the Captaines of footemen, subiect to the Collonel: and as it is the part of the Collonell, to haue a special regard to the arming, lodging and training of his footemen, so is it the duetie of the Captaine of men at Armes to foresée, that neither they be disfurnished of their horse and ar­mour, with other necessarie, nor yet vntrained in all such Mili­tarie exercises, as to their profession is agréeable.

[Page 226]This Lieutenant must discypher the election of the appointed captaines, whether they be méete for such a charge, or vsurpe the same by fauour, and to aduértise the Generall of the armie ther­of, that he may remoue the one and place others of sufficient ex­perience. He must likewise ouersée ye actions of these captaines, and giue them great charge for the training of their bands, and set down an order in what sort, in what place and time they shal practise and exercise their companies: amongst whom if he finde any default of furniture or otherwise, let him make certificate thereof to the Generall or high marshall, that the same may be redressed. For the better performance whereof, immediatly af­ter he enters into his charge, let him kéepe a booke and roll of al the bands committed to his gouernement, with the names of their Captaines & officers, and to examine and peruse whether they containe their full number of men, and be sufficiently fur­nished with horse, armour, cassocks, péeces, lances, with their Pennons of their Captaines colours, guidons, trumpets, & such like necessaries as appertaines to their warlike profession, otherwise to procure supply. Let him dispose his seueral sorts of weapons & horsmen into seueral troups by themselues, ye barbed horses in one part, the lances in another, the light horsemen in another: the hargabusiers likewise seueral from the rest, & here­in he doth resemble the Sergeant maior, for yt he is to be directed from ye General or high marshal, euē as he, to dispose these bands according to their order & resolution. The Lieutenant must ap­point which bāds of horse shal go to ye watch, to be vantcouriers, and to scoure the passages, & must accordingly prouide that they which watch ye night may rest the next day & night, & others that haue rested supply their places, in such sort, that fresh men may alwaies be supplied in their places, & the wearied to take their rest, for neither man nor horse, without their conuenient rest cā cōtinue any long time. So soone as ye trumpet shal sound in the morning, to make ready to horse, he shal forth with repaire to the Generals tent to know his pleasure, & then immediatly to set forth his Generals Standerd, & cause al the horsemen forth with to repaire to yt place, & as euery captaine shal come, he shal cause them to put their bands euery one after his standard or guidon, into a certain number of rankes, that the said Lieutenant may redily at any sodain draw forth any number of any sort of horse­men that he shalbe required by the General or high marshall. [Page 227] In the morning he must giue notice & warning to such horsmen as he entendeth shal watch ye night ensuing, to ye intent they may féed & spare their horses yt day, & likewise rest thēselues, that they may the better be able to do such seruice, as they shal the night fol­lowing be enioyned. When the high marshal goeth to view the ground to encampe vpon, it is this Lieutenants dutie to select a conuenient band to attend vpon his person, and to appoint such a company as may afterward take their rest, and féede their horses til such time as he shal deliuer them to the scout master at night, who then shal enioyne them what to do all the night after, & shal also deliuer them the watchword. This Lieutenant, as a coadiu­tour to the lord Marshall and Sergeant maior, ought all the day whiles the battels march, diligently to note the orders of euerie band, & if he sée any disorder, forth with to send for the Captaine, & cause him immediatly to sée it redressed. At night when the army entreth into the campe, the Litutenant shall still cause the horse­men to kéepe the field, vntil al the footmen be encamped, then may he enter with his bands of horse orderly, causing first one band to enter & all the rest to kéepe the fielde, & when they haue their con­uenient place, then another band to enter, and so orderly to place themselues, wherin the Lieutenant is to foresee yt the last bands be not worst lodged, but such conuenient place left, as they haue no iust cause to complaine: and this is to be obserued in places of suspect, otherwise they may lodge abrode amongst ye Uillages for their greater ease. Let him giue order that ye Couriers & scourers come not out of the field, till ye trumpet sound to ye watch at night, nor thē neither, vntil such time as they shall perceiue the scout & Sentinel, to be come from the camp, & to haue taken their places in the field: then may they returne into the Campe. It is his part likewise to assigne a sufficient number of horse to attend on the forrage master, to gard & defend the forragiers, which horsemen must not come out of the field vntil al ye forragers be returned to the camp with the forrage master. Then shal these horsemen rest & not watch, neither that night, nor go forth for vauntcourrier al the next day. He must appoint a reasonable conuoy of horsmē, for the saftie of such as bring victuals to the campe, to sée that no vio­lence or iniurie be offered them, & so order the change of his horse in these seuerall seruices, that some be not ouer burthened, and others spared ouermuch, but the matter so indifferently vsed, that men haue no cause to murmure or repine.

[Page 228]In making of Roads with horsemen onely, or in a day of bat­tell, he must send out the Hargolateares, light horsemen & such like to discouer, or to begin the seruice first, then to diuide the Lances and men at armes into diuers troups & squadrons, and with such distance following one another, as one may rescue an other. The sides of these massie squadrons should haue one rank of Argolateares, a pretie distance off. In this sort if one squa­dron happen to be broken, yet shal another make head vpon the enimie, while they may retyre & troupe againe, which is the on­ly safetie as wel of Horsemen as footmen: And albeit in the day of seruice it is the part of the high marshall himselfe, to giue or­der in what sort, and with what troupes the charges shalbe gi­uen or receiued: it is also the Lieutenants part as well to giue his aduise, as also to be a leader in all these actions.

He ought therefore to take great regard to the ground where he meaneth to giue the charge, for if he charge in troupe, the fal­ling of a few horse in the for most rankes may disorder and foile the whole troupe. Before the front of his owne footmen let him neuer giue charge, for it hath bin séene that horsemen being re­pulsed, haue bene foreed in vpon their own footmen, & disordered them. Let the horse therefore charge vpon the flanke of the eni­mie, and diligently attend if by any accident they can perceiue any breaking or opening in the side of his enimies battell, and then sodainly to charge that breach: for as horsemen are inferi­ours to wel ordered footmen, so vpon any smal disorder, they car­rie with them victory. And for that in our age there hath arisen diuers & fodaine effects not looked for, wrought by the good and well guiding of horsemen, I thinke it good somewhat more am­plie to delate vpon this point: specially, as I said before, in ap­pointing out a place, apart from the battel & ranks, wherin the Cauallarie may be ranged: to ye intent they may with good scope fréely and fitly turne and run with their squadrons and ranks in charging the enimy, in taking charge likewise of them, and in all other enterprises, considering that the troopes of horsemen in retyring or turning round, do often disorder and break their own infanterie, either through the discommoditie of the place, or through the want of the good and warie guiding of them.

Contrariwise at other times, by their aduised and spéedie ser­ [...], a small number of horsemen, well bent and better guided, [Page 229] haue bêene séene to enter very couragiously into a great battaite of the enimies footemen, and either for that they were slenderly flanked with Hargabuziers, or by the disaduantage of the groūd, or being disordered by meanes of some errour, or through some other sinister chance, or by meanes the said battaile was guided by vnequall or vncertaine pase, or through the naughtie indeuor and diligence of rawe and vnpractised souldiers, or in going through a streight place or passage of water or otherwise, horse­men haue easilie disordered and broken their battailes, and all the rest of a whole armie. But yet are they not able to encoun­ter with a well ordered & square battell of pikes, if their coura­gious and well ranged rankes keepe their araie, and when the horsemen charge doe clinge and sarrie verie néere together in the fore rancke, and set shoulder to shoulder with their pikes well couched and crossed, bending them in both their handes straight before them, and their followers at their backes, laying theyr pikes ouer their foregoers shouldiers, and so stand at the push, besides the shouldering of the foreranks together, hauing pitched their pikes vnder one of their feete in the ground, they stoope and bow downe so loe with their bodies, that their fol­lowers may easilie come to seruice behinde their backes, where some doe vse to place the light armed pikes, who amongst some nations for want of brest plates of Iron, vse tand lether, paper, platecoates, iackets, &c. For a gorget, thicke folded kerchefes a­bout their neck, a scull of Iron for a head péece, and a Uenetian or lether Shéeld and Target at their backes, to vse with their short Swordes at the close of a battaile, and in a throng. The squadron of pikemen, hauing couched and crossed their pikes brest high, closely sarred together, are as hard to be pearst with horsemen, as an angrie Porcapine or Hedgehog with the end of a bare finger. Wherefore to ouerthrowe a maine square battaile planted in that order, it is good to vse the aide of Hargolateares, who must first scale the fronte and ranks of the battels, and then being seconded by the lances & men at armes, breake their araie and whole battaile. In the erecution whereof it is good to vse the Rutters order, which somewhat differs from the French mans fight, for he encountring the enemie cannot indure any troope to be néere his long stretched ranckes, because of breaking his course; but the retire fighteth in this sort.

[Page 230]When the retire is approched néere enough vnto the enemie, the first ranke dooth aduance vpon them, and when he hath dis­charged his Pistolet, he doth run still in forward (as dooth the French, who doth still pursue his point) but more short on the right hand or on the left, according vnto the place where he is, and so is also spéedely followed by the second ranke which dooth the same. Then the third followeth the second, to giue the charge as soone as euer he séeth him departed that stood before him: all the rankes following one another in such maner, euen vnto the last, the hindermost runneth, (they fighting with Pistolets one­ly) for to come vnto their foreriders, they standing all along one at anothers backe. And for so much as it is impossible, but that when they do present themselues, some of them or else their hor­ses be slaine: Therefore so soone as euer one of the formost ranke is séene to fall downe, he that is in the second ranke, directly be­hinde him that is departed, or else disabled, must take his place, and the next behind him in the third ranke, must furnish the same voide ranke wherein he was in the second, and so the rest in like order, so that they alwaies make their formost rankes of the most assured: for in all things, namely in [...]eates of armes) the beginning is of greatest moment: some to break the front of armed pikes do vse to cause the men at armes dismount, and in their complet armor, to charge them with their launces.

Some others hold an opinion, that the maner of the Germans is best, who kéepe alwaies their maine troopes standing, & cause only one ranke from the front to charge, & the same being repul­sed, to retire to the taile and backe of the standing troope, & then an other to charge and retire to the taile & backe, as the former, whereby they maintaine the whole troope in full strength, vntil they sée the footmen sway or breake, & that their horsemen enter. Then presently they back them with an other ranke, & those a­gaine with an other, vntill they sée cause either to follow with the whole troope, or to staie: & this is thought to be the surest and most orderly forme of charging of all others: notwithstanding the accustomed whéeling about of the rutters, which they vse with their whole troopes, euery one after an other, giuing the e­nemie a volée of their Pistolets.

For execution of iustice on such as are offendors in any bands of horsmen: albeit in some countrie it be vsed, that euery Cap­taine [Page 231] of an hundred men at armes, may call vnto him certaine of the chéefe of his band, and heare and determine all causes and offences by any of his bande committed, yet surelye I holde it more conuenient, that all matters concerning life be harde by the Lord high marshall, who may cause to sit with him the said Captaine, whose souldior is to be adiudged, and such other of the said band as to him shall séeme méete, and the souldiour condem­ned to death, to be executed by the said band, euen as the footmen are: and by the same kind of weapons that the offendors vsed. In conclusion it is therefore requisite, that the Cauallerie be stil paide, punished, [...] kept in good order: that they haue suffici­ent horses, armor, weapons, péece, and launce: that they be ready in all exploits, both in Sentinels, Couriers, forrages, marching vpon theyr gard in time of suspect, and without suspect, in skir­mish and in fight. But for that my onely meaning was to set downe a discourse for footmen, I therefore say that the infantery be the veines for warres, and the Cauallerie the flesh. Horsmen be likewise good to make couriers or roades to discouer, to charge with spéed vpon the enemies back or flanke: to make an imbus­cade in a roade or otherwise, (which are rather to consist of ge [...] ­dings, thē of stoned horses, for doubt of naying.) To make waye & force a passage through the midst of the enemies with money or munition behind them, for the succour of a fortresse besieged, for the passage of waters, in breaking the course of the water, for the more easie wading through of the footmen, to pursue the ene­mie that is put to flight, to carry and conuey secretly behinde them footmen, both with péeces and pikes, who ought to carrie their pikes lowe, & their matches close, vntill in this sort vndis­couered, they become vnto the place appointed: For these and such like exploits horsemen be necessarie in a Campe, being a great commoditie and reputation to a Prince, and sharpe spurs to a well ordered armie.

The office of the Scoute maister, or Maister of the watch.

THis Officer must take a solemne oath to be true and iust in his office, & nightly to attend vpō the General, to receiue the watch word, the which at the setting of the watch he shal [...] [Page 232] deliuer vnto the Captaines, conferring first with the Sergeant Maior Generall, and shall diuers times prooue the same watch, as well to sée if they sléepe not, as if he finde them in such fault to accuse thē to the higher officers, who ought to appoint theyr pu­nishment according to the tenor of the articles of martial lawes.

He ought diligently to view & note round about the Campe, all the places of suspect, where the enemies in the night time might approch, that he may accordingly afterwards dispose of his Scoutes, and therefore he should attend vpon the high mar­shall, at such time as he goeth to make choise of a méete plat to incampe on, and then to speake his fancie touching the conue­nience or inconuenience of the seat, in respect of due place for the scouts. So soone as the Trumpet soundeth to the watch at night, he must immediatly repaire to the Lieutenant of the horsemen, requesting him to assigne a compotent number of horsemē to at­tend vpon the scoute that night, and then m [...]st hee giue them charge vpon paine of death, that none of them abandon theyr places, vntill the discouerers be come into the field, and haue taken their places.

For the setting of the watch and order how to plant the same, peruse my two first bookes of directions, specially in the Corpo­rals, Sergeants, Lieutenants, and Caualliers of S. Georges squadrons orders: neuertheles if it shall be thought good of those that gouerne, this maner ensuing may now and then be vsed.

First he shall set the ring watch round about the impalement of the Campe, viz. a Halberd or Bill, a Bowe, Hargabushe or Musket, and a Pike, and euerie one a pike length from an o­ther: then without them, certaine little troopes, fiue or sixe in a troope, of footmen of different weapons, vi. shot, pikemen, and short weapons, and these troopes alwaies to send foorth a couple, whereof a Hargubuzier alwaies to be one, and these to prie and harken what they can discerne. Againe without this foote scout, other small troopes of horsemen, fiue or sixe in a company, & these likewise to disperse thēselues abroade, to discouer what they can. And if they happen to sée or heare any thing, presently to report the same to the foote scoute, and one or two of the foote scoutes to repaire to the Scoutmaster, who must (if it be matter of impor­tance) open the same presently to the high Marshall. Besides all this in time of suspect it were requisite that a stand watch be [Page 233] maintained within & about the ordinance, but because that ap­pertaineth not to the scoutmaster, I let it passe. It is requisite in the long cold winter nights to change and relieue the watch at euerie houres end, in autumne & the spring, at ye end of an houre and a halfe: and in the hoate season of summer at two houres end, but these things must be ordered more or lesse as the scoute maister and other principall officers shall thinke méete, for the better preseruation of the people, and the accomplishment of the seruice, sending forth rounds euerie houre. In the morning so soone as the trumpet soundeth to the reléefe of the watch, he must repaire to the sayd Liuetenants tent, there to receiue by his as­signement, a conuenient number of horsemen to scoure that day, and then shal he giue order vnto some, to ride to the highest hils to view round about what they can espie, and others to the val­leys and other obscure passages, woods, or such like, and to ride one from another a good distance: so as if one chance to be sur­prised by the enemie, yet the rest may escape, and bring intelli­gence therof: & so soone as the scoutmaister shall receiue any ad­uertisment by the Courriers, he shall forthwith repaire to the high Marshall, and informe him of euery particularitie.

In the placing of his night watches & sentinels, he must vse great consideration, first in setting his little troopes or bodies of the watch, in some places of strength, so as they may be able, when the enemie shall approach, to make resistance, and defend themselues, vntill such time as the campe may put themselues in armes: and besides these troopes, he shall giue order that two or thrée shall walke foorth one waie, and as many another way, and if they happen to sée any matches light, or heare any noyse, foorthwith one to repaire to the body of the watch, and so to the scoutemaister, and the other to stay till they can more plainely perceiue what ye matter is. And it shalbe alwaies good to match some Hargabuse or Musketeare, together with pikemen, as well that they may be the better able to defend themselues, as also by the discharge of their hargabuze, to giue warning to the rest, if any of them should happen to be surprised by the enemie.

This officer ought to be both diligent & painefull, considering how great a charge dependeth vpon these scouts, no lesse thē the preseruation or destruction of the whole campe, and therefore he ought continually both day & night, either himselfe in person, or [Page 234] by some other of great trust in his absence, from time to time, to peruse and examine the order and demeanour of these Scoutes and courriers, giuing order for reformation of all that he shall finde amisse, and so soone as he shall receiue any intelligence, forthwith to aduertise the Lord High Marshall. This officer in the auncient Romaine warres was neuer in vse, for they would neuer admit any watch without the trenches of their campe, but obserued this order, that euery night one third part of the armie remained armed, the other two thirds tooke their rest: and this armed part they deuided into 4 quarters, and appointed to eue­rie watch of the night one quarter, which went and walked con­tinually about the trenches of the Campe, to heare and sée if they could discerne any noise or stirring néere the Campe: the other thrée quarters resting in the meane time returned to the place of assemblie. And when the first watch of the night was ended, then departed an other quarter to the reléefe of the watch, and the quarter that had watched returned to the place of assem­blie. And thus they continued reléeuing the watch vntill day: so that the enemie could neuer approch their campe, but they found one third part in armes, who were able to kéepe them play, vntil the rest had put themselues in order. But after that Militarie discipline grew to corruption, & that souldiors neglecting honor and securitie, would no longer abide the hardnesse and the seue­ritie of the auncient discipline, they inuented this kind of forren scoute, that the paines of a few might leaue the rest at ease. But what mischiefe hath and may thereby ensue, histories will shew vs, and common reason may soone teach vs. Therefore in time of danger and suspect of the enemie, I would notwithstanding the forren scoutes and left sentinels, vse this Romaine diuision and strong order of watch.

The office of the high Marshall of the field, or maister of the Campe.

SUndry famous writers affirme, that a Prince dooth no lesse execute his kingly authoritie & dignitie, when with a sincéere iudgement and equall ballance, he dooth chastise offendors, and oppresse malefactors: then when by good gouerment and cle­mencie herewardes the meritorious, and exalts and raiseth vp [Page 235] those that be good. Therefore the Knight Marshall of the field, being created with entire and full authority in his office, ought to prouide, that assured iustice be ministred in the armie, and that he heare and determine controuersies, and punish disorders no lesse then is vsed in the gouernment of a well ordered cittie, state or kingdome, since that in an armie there commonly be such men of excellent qualitie, that they for the most part merit the gouernment of great kingdomes and monarchies. For this respect he ought to prouide himselfe of Auditors and Pret [...]res of sufficient excellencie, and that they be of good practise, learned and such as be resolute in the knowledge and rules of iustice, Neuerthelesse conformable to the stile and order vsed in the lawes and exercise of armes, and that can thereby vnderstand, decide, and giue sentence, touching all causes and martial lawes: since that men of warre are not bound of dutie to obserue any thing, but that which is ordained them of their Captaine gene­rall, being principally grounded vpon naturall reason, and the same to be published by open proclamation, that the whole campe may haue notice thereof: and to obserue and haue in re­uerence the holy Cannons of the Catholike Christian lawes, the which in respect of the cause, and casualties of death, is chéef­ly to be respected.

He must prouide himselfe of a prouost, which hath knowledge and skill in that profession: and that he haue about him a con­uenient number of coadiutors, and amongst them one to be the executor of iustice. It is very requisite he take order, that the said prouost with his folowers & familie, yea euen he that doth execute iustice, that is to say, the hangman, go in their apparrell ciuilly and not abiectly, as some in sundry countries are accusto­med, to the end that they may be accounted of reputation in their office, and obeyed as of dutie is conuenient: for the ciuili­tie of habite and apparrell amongst the greatest part of peo­ple, carries and procures a certaine credit and respect, al­though besides their office ought publikely to bee pronounced with a generall proclamation vnder paine of life to bee o­beyed.

He ought to prohibite all souldiors, except the sergeants (who for diuers respects ought to haue their weapons at hand) that they do not carrie their weapons in the campe, at what time so­ [...]uer [Page 236] as pikes, halberds, muskets, or caliuers, or any others, ther­by to preuent and auoid as much as may be, the slaughters and treasons which in like places men of naughtie nature are accu­stomed to worke one against another. In respect whereof it is necessary for him to banish all quarrels, & by all possible means to barre the rehearsall and pursuites of discords in time of war, the which carries with it great disquiet and hinderance to the principall intent and dutie, which a discréete and practised soul­diour is bound vnto: for there hath bin found many which haue departed from their owne nations, cities & houses, and followed the warres, not with minds to do seruice, nor to become expert in the exercise of armes, neither to become of account amongst other men of valoure, whereby they might afterwards merit a conformable recompence equall to their vertue and valiancie: but they are caried thither with a determination to liue as néere as they can licentiously: or rather to kill their fathers enemies, to reuenge some priuate quarrell, &c. and so execute traiterous slaughters, in place of obeying and susteining iustice, whereas it is the part of all good souldiors, to maintaine the due execution thereof, and to punish the contemners.

Merchants, victualers, artificers, and such others, as bring wares to the campe, he must take order that they be courteously & fauourably vsed, to the intent that they may vtter their wares willingly & safely, foreséeing that they be paid with good money, vsing towards them a louing countenance, & procuring them a conuoy & sufficient gard, as well for their cōming as for their de­parting, to the intent they may with good wils, be occasioned to returne the more spéedely, & so remaine altogether satisfied, with­out suspect of being robbed or spoiled of théeues and flibutors, for which he ought diligently & sufficiently to prouide, since that by their meanes an armie is made abundant of all things propre, commodious and necessary. Furthermore he must make and set reasonable prises vpon the victuals, in such sort as the souldiors be not taxed and pinched, neither the victuallers so vsed but that they may be honest gainers (which I meane of things necessa­rie) as bread, béere, corne & wine, with such like: but touching other things lesse necessarie, he must suffer them to sell as they can, that is to say, all sort of stuffe & cloth for garments, sadles, & furniture for horses, spicerie, armor, and such like merchandize.

[Page 237]After that he hath verie well consulted, and taken aduise (be­ing accompanied with worthy Caualliers and old souldiers of sound iudgement) and hath visited, oueruewed, wel discouered & considered of al plots and places where the campe is to lodge or be planted, he must with great reason & iudgement depart the lodgings & quarters, as I haue séene duely obserued vnder Do [...] Iohn of Austria and the Prince of Parma. When the campe is to make long abode in any place, he ought with a capable & con­uenient diuision measure the same, either by view of eye, by cord or other ingenious order, after an experimented sort & good iudg­ment, as partly appeares by figure hereafter ensuing.

The Artilerie, munition and victuals must be lodged in the strongest and safest place of the camp, euery one of them hauing their ordinarie gard. Let him haue a vigilant respect that about the munition and pouder, there be no fire made, neither any har­gabusiers or light matches approch néere vnto the same, but such souldiers as are armed with other sorts of weapons, as pikes, halberds &c. to auoid the perillous scandale of fire.

Then must he appoint out and ordaine quarter by quarter, and specially that euerie Nation may haue a commodious plot of ground for an assembly or an Alarme, the which continually ought to be void, and not occupied of any qualitie of person, but garded both day and night with a good Corps de gard, for their securitie. Note that the said place of armes be so lotted out in [...]uerie quarter, that from thence the front towards the enimie, may be commodiously succoured, and that souldiers may conuey themselues thither with all expedition, togither with their En­signes, & there to range thēselues in battel: & therfore this place ought principally to be capable of such effects, & either by nature or art, to be repaired & strengthened with trenches, towards the face & front of ye enimie, prouided that ye souldiers be not pest [...]red for want of roome, nor by euerlarge space, ye camp not sufficiently fortified: & therfore must he haue a note of al the names & num­bers of bands of horsemen and footemen, and according to tha [...] proportion, cast their ground and scope of encamping togither with all their munition, prouision and carriages.

Encamping with an armie in the field, at the siege of a town [...] &c. I haue séene quarters for euerie nation first appointed out, & then seuerally euerie band lodged in forme of battell, the pikes [Page 238] in the midst, and the shot in the flankes, and at the head of euery band and lodging of euery company, the Ensigne planted and stucke in the ground, towards the face of the enimie or citie, ha­uing an equal & iust propotion of ground before the Ensignes & betwixt them & the trenches, to range thēselues in battel, which must be betwixt the Corps de gard of the priuate Ensignes, and betwixt the other generall Corps de gard for the whole campe, whether they be placed in trenches, or otherwise for the saftie of the whole campe, & that plot of ground wherein the assembly of armes is to be: but these directions I will hereafter set downe with greater diuersity, that ech man may make choise according to his fancie. Moreouer he must appoint out the market place for victuallers & merchants, in a large, safe & commodious place for all the campe. He must likewise appoint out for euery quar­ter in some place out of the way, a place for men to disburthē na­ture, & to kill cattle & beasts, & for victuallers to rost meate in, to the intent that the rest of lodgings may be kept cleane, and in­fection of aire auoided, a general benefite for health.

In most manner of encampings, he must so diuide ye quarters as euery nation may be placed by it selfe, and euery Collonel by himself, & dispose the horsmen & footmen distinctly in sunder, that euery quarter may haue his place of armes, & market place for victuals: touching which, he ought to take great care of equall distribution, that he may entertaine & gratifie with special com­modity, euery nation that serues in the army. And that not only euery sort of weapon haue their seueral stréets, but also yt euery quarter & company in the campe, haue his seueral charge of Ar­tillery. It is most necessarie yt he take great respect to lodge the army in a strong situation, whereunto he must principally haue a vigilant eye, as a thing that consists in great practise, long ex­perience & in many cōsiderations. He must likewise haue respect that the place be of good aire, & that aboue al things there be good store of water & springs, and specially of wood in time of winter. Likewise that in the country adioyning, frée from the enimies inuasion & danger, there be forage for horses & straw for ye souldi­ers to lie vpon & make their cabbines withal, & that the ground be sandie or drie where they encampe, &c. Touching al the con­ditions belonging to encamping, he must take a very speciall [...] circumspect care, taking view of the same diuers & many times [Page 239] with great cōsideration. It belongs vnto him likewise to learne out and know the most commodious way, that is most fit & ex­pedient for the armie to march & be conducted through, whether it be in the ordinarie & high way, or ouerthwart & a trauerse the countrie, and that they do march that way whereas the passage is most commodious, & must assigne to euery battell a guide or two to conduct them the best and most easie wayes.

Let him prouide that the Pioners accommodate & make easie, euerie foule way, strait passage & encombrance, and to cleare the wayes before the great ordenance: whereupon one partie must attend, and therein to performe so much as is conuenient, with­out hauing respect to the commoditie or losse of any particular person, or to the preiudice or discommoditie of ye countrie wher­in you march: which things do lesse import, then the perill, the hinderance & reputation of an army being an assembly of mē of so great valour & importance, for whom the Marshall ought al­wayes to procure with al possible diligence, al commodities and aduantage to kéepe the armie in reputation, and to maintaine it sound & lusty, to the intent that with an vndoubted presage the Generall may promise himselfe victorie in due time and place.

Togither with the other aduertisements, for the commodity & enioying of victuals & merchandise, he must yet further care to lodge his armie in such a place, that as néere as is possible, it may be an impediment to the enimies prouision or commodity.

He must ordaine that the footmen and horsemen of euery na­tion be placed & diuided in such sort, that by their orderly lodg­ing, the seat of the campe may be well garded, easily and frank­ly defended.

Besides this, it is necessarie to dispose and plant the Corps de gard, and the bodie of the watch about the Camp in places most suspected, and best for the purpose, which in the day must consist of horsemen, & in the night of footmen, to ye intent the army may at all times remaine without feare of sodaine surprises, or be assaulted vnprouided: which thing as it is of maruellous mole­station, so sometimes it may be incrediblie preiudiciall.

When the strength and force of the souldiers and al the camp following, are constrained to take armes, and to put them­selues in squadrons either in the day or night, by occasion of the enimie or any other necessarie acccident that may happen,

[Page 240]The high marshall of the fielde ought diligently to prouide, that the Artillerie, the munition, and the victuals be safely kept with their ordinarie appointed gard.

The like care ought he to haue, that vpon any sodaine surprise, Camisado, or sally out of a besieged towne, the gard about the campe and in the trenches be strengthened and renforced with a new supplie for the more saftie of the munition, tents, cabbens, and other baggage: and therefore the said gard ought at the first to be planted in places strong by nature, or else fortified by art. These things he must perf [...]rme with a certaine diligent mode­stie, thereby not to displease any person, that either particularly or principally, either is or hath bin inuested with ye like charge, as the Sergeant Maior, the general of ye Artillerie, or the Lieu­tenant of the whole armie, besides other priuate Collonels and Captaines, &c. which aduertisement I only giue by the way, for that he may endeuour himselfe to please euerie one, although the authority of his office doth expresly extend resolutely to com­mand in things pertaining to the saftie of the field and campe.

Let him moreouer call continually to memory, that the art of warre doth require a sharpe and exemplar manner and conditi­on of chastisement, therby to remaine the better obeyed, ye which thing is of principall & great importance: for since that in that place his Prince doth not only fight for the dearest thing he hath, but also for the health of his proper person, and all his subiects, it behooues him to be readie and perfite in such causes.

Besides, it is a most necessarie thing for him to note, that there is gathered togither in the Armie, great numbers of people of diuers customes, of sundrie ages, and of minde and disposition not alwayes correspondent. Therefore he that through insolen­cy wil not obserue the lawes of armes, so important as nothing more in the honorable exercise of Militarie profession, let him be constrained to obserue due obedience, through horrour & feare of punishment.

To the Marshal of the fielde, it appertaines to take order eue­rie day, soone after the Diana, that the Conuoyes, Ascoltes, and safegards do appeare before and come to his lodging to receiue their Commission, not only for the safegard and assurance of the merchants and victuallers, which come and go from the campe, but also as wel for the baggage of ye footmen, as the horsemē, who [Page 241] are of custome enforced to prouide both for forrage, from time to time, and for manie thinges necessarie for prouision for their horses & other beasts, cabbins & things néedful to be vsed in the campe. These connoyes, safgards & Ascoltes ought to be of horse­men, and guided by a Captaine of great discretion & experience.

When the armie shall remoue, the high marshall must first giue order to the master of the Ordinance, that he set forth the Artillerie, with all the carriages, munition, &c. then the master of the victuals and cariages afterwards.

He must after giue order to the Sergeant Maior, in what sort he will haue the battell to march that day: and to the scout­master which way he will send his vauntcurrours to discouer if all be cleare, who must from time to time giue intelligence what occurrence he discouereth. The high Marshall when he goeth to view the ground where he intendeth to incampe, may by his authoritie take such number of horsmen, as he shal think conuenient, and then is he to consider that there be nigh at hand, as I said before, wood, water, and forrage enough for the Army: and if he intend long to lodge in that place, then must he make his campe the larger, and prouidently consider, that euery Regi­ment haue his conuenient place, that the tents and cabbins be not pitched and made nigh the ring of the campe: that there bée large places of assemblie within the campe: that it be well in­trenched and fortified, for which respectes it is requisite that the Martial haue knowledge in Geometrie & Arithmetike, and that he haue in a readinesse sundrie plats, models & formes, as partly I haue annexed hereunto, whereby he may be able to resolue for any number or situation, what forme or quantitie of Campe is most conuenient, and presently stake it out, assigning [...]ue place for euery Regiment of footmē & horsmen, carriages, Ordinance, Munition & euery particularitie, as hereafter shal more plainly be declared. For lodging of footmen, especially in a running campe, I haue partly in this chapter touched, but for lodging of horsemen it is not amisse to imitate the Rutters, who common­ly alwayes lodge in such closes as they finde enuironed with trées or quicke set hedges and ditches, placing their horses in due order round about the fielde, two paces one from another, with railes betwéene them, leauing al the void ground in the middle for the Captaines tents & cabbines for the horsemen. So that in [Page 242] that sort in a field of two or thrée acres, I haue séene a guydon of Rutters very well lodged & commodiously, with railes or poles betwéene their horses, and bowes about them for the winde or heat, some with hales ouer them to kéepe them from the raine: their saddels, bridels, and al other their furniture, hanging vpon poles readie by them, neatly kept & blacked, their mangers also before them: for all such necessaries the Ruiters carrie with thē in their wagons and carriages, besides little whéele barrowes to carrie away their doung, so that their campe is no lesse cleane & orderly, then a princes stable. A faire stréete they alwayes leaue betwéene their owne cabbines & their horses: They haue certain troopes of their seruants, whom they cal their knights, and these troupes alwayes attend, that so soone as the Marshall hath limi­ted their quarters, they depart immediatly to the next woods, for poles, bowes, stakes and other necessaries to build their campe, stables, and cabbines: other go for forrage, that before the army approch, the lodgings alwayes are in a readines. To euerie 12. Ruiters commonly there is allowed a wagon with 4 horses, or to sixe a cart with two horses, and their knights are about one third part of the number of their horsemen. The Lance knights also encampe alwayes in the field verie strongly, two or thrée to a cabinet, their pikes & armour standing vp by them in a redi­nes, & so orderly placed with stréets, so conuenient & cleanly pre­serued, that their campe is no lesse holesome then strong: I haue séene sixe thousand of them lodge in sixe or seuen acre of ground, which proportion differeth not much from that of the old Ro­mains.

The high Marshall, as well for the ordering of sconts, as all other matters of importance in the campe, is to giue order, and at the setting of the watch his trumpets ought first to sound, and then all the residue of the trumpets in order to answere euerie one to his seueral quarter, and in the morning al the trumpets should assemble before the Lord Lieutenants tent, and there to sound the reliefe of the watch, but no man must vpon paine of death remoue from his charge, vntill the warders be come out, then may euerie man depart to his rest.

In the fielde at a day of seruice, though there be a Generall of the horsemen, yet is it the place of the high Marshall to serue there as chiefe, & to appoint in how manie troopes the horsemen [Page 243] shall diuide themselues, and which shall charge, & which stand for their rescue, and to prohibite, that vpon euerie crie amongst the footemen, of march Cauallarie, or forward horsemen, they do [...] not remoue, disband or giue charge, but onely by knowne coun­ter signes and watch words from the Generall, that inuasions may be made at due times and when necessitie requires, & not for euerie trifle or priuate danger of some persons, for otherwise their disbanding out of time may arise to be ruine and losse of an armie in a day of battell.

If any prisoners be taken in the fielde, they ought forthwith to be enrold in the Marshals booke, and then if any make claime to any other mans prisoner, the Marshal as iudge to determine who shall haue him, and for euerie prisoner brought into the Marshall sea and enrolled in the Marshals booke, his fée is eight pence: he is also to haue of al booties taken in the field & brought into the campe the third part: but as well for this as other his fées, they are by the General to be limited at the beginning, as shall be thought reasonable. Finally the high Marshal ought to be a man of such perfection, that he know the duetie of euerie inferiour officer, and be able to reforme their misdéeds, and that of his owne knowledge. The handling of small matters must be committed to his Prouost, who ought to be a chosen person, alwayes retaining the greater causes, and such as concerne life to be heard by himselfe, who for his greater reputation, and to be knowne from other officers, he should haue a Cornet or gui­don borne before him in the fielde, as I haue séene the pages, seruants, wiues and women in Don Iohn of Austria his campe, attend in no lesse good order, then any well gouerned band.

And for as much as it appertaineth chiefly to the high Mashal to gouerne the execution of the Militarie lawes, I therein refer him to my first booke, wherein I thought it more necessary to be set downe then in this place, to the intent the souldiers may dayly heare their dueties, and not to offend through ignorance: vnto which lawes some thinke it necessarie, that not onely eue­rie Captaine and Collonel should be sworne, but also after the old Romaine manner, euery particular souldier at his entring into pay, or at the consecration of the Ensigne, to make his oath ioyntly vnto them both, for which cause the Romaine warfare was termed Militia Sacrata.

The oathes that euerie officer ought to take of what office soeuer he be.

Of the Pretor.

THe Pretor, Aduocate or Coadiutor to the Marshall, being learned in the Martiall, Ciuill and commmon Lawes, shall take his oath giuen him by the Generall, & shall sweare by al­mighty God, that whatsoeuer he shal iudge, ordain, or determine in court or out of court, that he shal kéepe it close & secreat to his liues end, & that he shal be true and iust to the Lords, and that he shall execute iustice to his vtmost power, and that he shal not du­ring the wars take any gift of any man, for any matter in con­trouersie to be tried before him, but shall vse indifferent iustice to al mē, without respect of persons, friendship or malice, as God shall helpe him at the dreadfull day of iudgement.

Of the Prouost Marshall.

HIs oath is likewise giuen by the Generall, that he shall sée al faults duely and according to the lawes punished in al offen­ders, without regard or respect of persons. That he shall in the market place set vp a paire of gallowes, as well for the terrour of the wicked, as to do execution vpon them that offend ye lawes. Also that he shall set on al victuals brought to the market a rea­sonable price, that the seller & the buyer may reasonably liue by it, and that he exact nothing behind his duetie of any man, that he neither vse extorcion or briberie, that he let no prisoner takē of the enimie, or offender otherwise to his witting escape, with other Articles contained in his office, at the discretion of the Ge­neral, the which he must be sworne vnto. The master of ye watch, the Purueyor for victuals & the fire master, must likewise take their oathes as it is here set downe in the 4. 5. and sixt booke of these Directions.

The Clarke or Notarie of the Court.

THe Notarie shall be sworne before the twelue Iudges of the court, that he shall truely and without fraude exercise his office, not adding or diminishing, for friendship, malice or briberie, any thing deliuered to him in court or elsewhere, [Page 245] to the hinderance of equitie and iustice, & that he precisely kéepe vndefaced and vncancelled all the records, and the whole actes and dealings of all men hanging in the court, whether they be tried or vntried in controuersie, and not determined, and that he kéepe and conceale all things which he heareth in the court, ei­ther said or doone, as ended or determined, secret and close to his liues end, and if he do otherwise, he shall haue the lawe, proui­ded for such an offendour.

Of the common Cryer of the court.

HE shall take the like oath before the Iudge, to doe trulie and faithfully his office, at all times, and in all places, according as the Iudge shall commaund him, so that through his diligence there be no fault found in him at the court day, and that he kéepe close and secret all such matters as he shall heare handled by the Iudges vntill his liues end, as God helpe him.

Directions for the marching of an armie, whether it be inferiour or equall to the enemie.

VVHen an armie dooth march néere vnto the enemies bat­tels, the high marshall, Sergeant Maior, and Collonels, ought to vse diuers considerations. First a Prince or his Gene­rall, not being of like force to the enemie, or that he is not wil­ling to giue battell, because he will not hazard all his state and armie in one day into the hands of fortune, he must prouide (specially if he be inferior in Caualarie) that he march through a countrie that is rough, full of hils, and where the situation of the ground is of such aduautage, that the enemie haue not any motion to assault him. But when he cannot shun the same, then must he prouide at leastwise, to enter into the action thereof, to his great aduantage, and almost with a certaine hope of victory, the which will not arise to be difficile, if he can apply the aduan­tage of situations to serue his turne.

In marching, I would wish him to haue one part of his light horsemen so neere the enemie, that euery houre he may haue no­tice what way he dooth march, notwithstanding in a countrie where mounts and hils be not fauourable, but that of necessitie you must march through plaines and champaine countries, and [Page 246] that the enemie is néere at hand, and that it is very hard to shun the battell, I iudge it not farre amisse, to accept the battell, so that you be of greater strength in horsemen, for being the stronger, the iourney in no respect is to be fled, for so much as horsemen yéeld the greatest part of the victorie, when they bee well guided.

Charles the fift in Germany against the protestants armie, by reason of the commoditie of the ground, for the most part, did not lodge his army further off from his enemies, then common­ly the shot of a Coluerine, although he was far inferior in num­ber. Neuerthelesse that order cannot be alwaies vsed when an armie is in the champaine countrie, for he that is in plaines and is not desirous to fight, he must march from the enemie 9 or 10 miles, and must determine to fortifie himselfe at each lodging, in such sort that neither the enemies Cauallarie or infanterie, may be able in battell to enter into his campe, if not with great difficultie.

A meane fortification is sufficient in a champaine countrie, chiefely when it is to be made with spéede, which beginning of fortification, when you meane to continue, may encrease and be made as strong as you sée the case doth require. When an armie dooth march inplaines and champaine countries, & that it comes to that point, ye it is able to haue any little riuer or wood which may couer one flanke of the said armie, you must go about with all diligence to take this aduantage, for that the same will arise to be of great importance. Prouide euer that the bagage and the artillarie go continually on the contrarie side to the enemie, or at leastwise in the midst of the armie. The squadrons of men at armes must as appertaineth, flanke the battels and rankes of footmen towards the enemie.

It is a laudable custome to deuide an armie into thrée squa­drons, that is to say, into the auantgard battell, and arrear­gard, and that euery day they do exchange, making of the auant­gard the battell, and of the battell the reargard, & it is requisite, that euery one of them haue his necessary number of horsmen & Hargaloteares, & that each one be disposed and placed in his due ranke. Order must be carefully taken, that amongst the ranks of the footmen, vnprofitable people be not intermedled, but that all the baggage be in a place deputed for the same, vnder the Pro­uosts [Page 247] guidon. Also that amongst the squadrons of the horsemen, there be no vnprofitable horses nor other impediments. The Rutters Cauallaries vse héerein a meruailous strict order, and extreame diligence, which verily dooth merit to be imitated. It is a commendable thing also, when the light horsmen be in such sort deuided and dispersed for discouerie of the countrie, and es­pying the actions of the enemies armie, as that they may conti­nually returne and giue intelligences of the enemies demeanor, whereby if néede require, commoditie and leasure may be had to prouide for fight.

If the marshall of the field haue no experience of the countrie himselfe, it is requisite that he carrie such a personage, or wor­thie Cauallier with him, as he knowes to haue experience, that with them he may consider well of the situation and place, whe­ther he is to march with his armie through plaines, by or néere hils, or in valleys that haue hils ou both sides, or by or néere to woods, or alongst or néere a riuer. It is also requisite ye the light horse, aswell for the discouerie of the enemie, as otherwise to take the bredth of the straits & passages go before, and to make certificate, that according to the bredth the hoast may march.

And put case that one part of the way be 15. foot broode, the hoast shall be made to march by fiue in a ranke, because euery footman will haue thrée foote in breadth from shoulder to shoulder, and sixe foote in ranke betwixt ranke and ranke, and one foote for e­uerie person, so that 21 foote in breadth and 2 myles in length, will containe an armie of ten thousand. After the same reason, whether there be 20 or 30 thousand footemen, according to the measuring of ground by the foote, they may be set in order very easily, neither can the leader be deceiued, whē he knoweth how many armed men euery place can containe: and after the same order as the place dooth enlarge, he must enlarge the rankes, causing part of the shot to goe before the aray, and part behind, and others to go in succoures of the horsemen, that go in view­ing the passages, and the ambushments, with the whole dooings of the enemie: and let an other part be for vantgard & retrogard to the aray, to be able to serue them at néed, and an other part to go alwaies at the flankes of the raie, the which if there be dit­ches, shal serue as a countermure against the enemies horsmen. And if they be men at armes, they must march on both the sides [Page 248] of the battell, and also of the Hargabuzies that do march by the flankes of the battell, and the light horsemen to serue for scoutes both before and behind the aray.

There must be likewise abundance of Pyoners and labou­rers to make places plaine, and to cast downe ditches & bridges, and to make defences and other necessarie things that are re­quired in marching, the which must be garded by your light horse and shot, and when you depart to faine to go to some other place, then that you go so, and if there be no men at armes to appoint to euery regiment certaine Hargabuziers to serue on horsebacke, the which may serue in stéed of men at armes, and when occasion serues to serue on foote againe, wherein the Ca­ualiers of S. Georges squadre, may very well be imployed. It is requisite that all souldiers follow their leaders, and carrie a great care and diligence in marching, to the intent that by sud­den assaults they be not at euerie step to arise in a rumor, and confusedly to runne héere and there, and the one to go contrarie to the other, and finally comming about them, not to be able to do any thing of any profit.

For which cause thou oughtest to march with thine armie through euery place in battell ray, whereby the souldiers may be made more apt and spéedie to make a voyage, and quicke and ready to resist if néed shall be. The Souldiers according to my former directions, being trained to follow the Ensignes, & apt to obey commaundements, and to behaue themselues valiantly according to their place and order, if thou march in a plaine countrie, it is requisite that thy pikes march in battell ray, re­tiring thine armie into a little space, so that by the straightnes and facilitie of inlarging, thou be not constrained to extend thy selfe into too much length, which fashion of marching séemes to giue occasion and power to the enemie, to assault commodiously their aduersaries, & according to the occasion to endomage them, he beholding the commoditie to defend themselues to be taken away, forasmuch either with more largenesse comming against thée, the which is woont to happen both the hornes being com­passed, it is like that he shall easily disorder thée, and put thée to flight, or els giuing charge on the flanke in the midst of the bat­tell, hauing already broken thine order, sodenly stop thy men from being able to go forward, being closed in the arayes of the [Page 249] enemies. Wherefore minding to retire in a maine battell, and to returne to resist, they shall be able to do little good, as those that haue vsed such a maine battell, which for want of thicknes is nothing strong, but altogether weake. Also if the enemie should charge thée on the rearward, thou shalt be brought to the very same necessitie, because thou shalt be so compassed, as thy fronts shall not be able to succour the last, or the last to succour the first. For the which thing it is alwaies better and more sure and easier to gouerne the bands that march close and square, thē thin and long: especially, forasmuch as to an army that marcheth long, oftentimes happens that of some thing séeme doubtful and vncertaine, there groweth suddenly feare and terror, because sometimes it hath chaunced, that men discending from high and hillie places into the plaine, to places expedient and open, and the formost séeing the last of the same band by a great distance to come after, supposing themselues to be assaulted of some am­bush of enemies, it hath béene séene that they haue suddenly tur­ned to fight, & afterwards no otherwise thē enemies gone toge­ther by the eares with their owne companions. If, as I said be­fore, the victuales, carriages, and munition, be not conducted in the midst of the armie, but if otherwise the hindermost part would be garded & defended of the most valiant souldiers, as in the fronts, because that at vnawares may happen many things, thy light horsmen going before, disciphering and espying where they may passe, hauing occasion to passe by mountaines, woodes, places closed with hils, and most great desarts, because the ene­mie many times will lay an ambush priuilie by the passage to assault his aduersarie, who taking little héed thereof, haue béene easily broken and brought to vtter decay. The which ambush, if the conductor by way of exploratoures shall foresée, with a little paine, hauing preuented the suares of the enemie, may win a worthie name of politike prudence, and likewise saue his armie from imminent ruine. And as for the plaines, thou with thine owne eies maist sée a far of, forasmuch as in the day dust mooued and lifted vp into the aire, dooth shew the moouing and stirring of the enemy, and in the night the fires and flames signifieth the campe to be there. When thy men are to be conducted, and not fight, thou oughtest to remooue by day, if peraduenture some thing do not constraine thée, for the which thou thinkest it good [Page 250] to go in hast to come before thine enemie, where in déed for such occasion thou must remooue in the night, so that thou know it may safely be doone to fight with the enemie. Lead th [...] me [...] not in hast, but softly, & inforce them not to make two long a iourney, forasmuch as labour taken before a man come to fight, is se [...]ne very often vainly to consume and waste the strength of their ho­bies. And marching in the country of thy friends, it is néedful to commaund thy souldiers, that in no manner of wise they touch or spoile any thing, but rather altogether to refraine, considering that souldiers hauing weapons and liberty to doe what shall please them, will fauour nothing, especially for that the [...]ight of things that please men, out of doubt is woo [...]t most dange­rously to lead ignorant and vnwarie men to desire them, and with the swéetnesse of robbing to eutice them to all manner of mischéefe: wherevnto if thou prouide not, thy fréends & thy con­federates, for very small occasions will become enemies: not­withstanding, the countrie of thy enemies, thou shalt suffer thy souldiers openly to destroy, bur [...]e & consume, because by ye dearth of victuals & lack of money, wars are woont to deminish and be extinguished, and contrariwise through aboundance and riches, they are nourished and maint [...]ined: but first before thou suffer thine enemies countrie to be destroyed, thou shouldest giue ad­uise to thy enemies, threatning them what thou wilt do, if they will not yéeld vnto thée, for ye the perril of the misery prepared, & the feare of the ruine looked for, oftentimes constraines men to grant many things, the which at the first by no maner of means had bin possible to haue brought thē to passe: but after they haue once receaued the hurt, they will make little account of thée, and dispise all other things, as though thou couldest do them no more harme. Albeit i [...] thou knowest surely that in the country of thine enemies thou must tarrie long with thine army, suffer to be ta­ken & spoiled those things only, which thou séest wil not be great­ly profitable vnto thée: but the same which is to be thought may be preserued for thy commodity, cōmand openly to thy souldiers, that they for beare. Hauing made ready and set in order thy men, tarry not long in thy owne country, nor yet in thy confederates, least that consuming all thy prouision, it séeme not that thou art of greater hurt to thy fréends thē to thy enemies, but rather con­duct thy army spéedily into thy enemies country, whereby if it [Page 251] be fertile and aboundant, there may be taken at thy néede most plentiously those things that thou list: but if it be otherwise, thou shalt cause to be knowne, yt thou séekest to prouide most louingly both for ye wealth & profit of thy fréends. Besides this thou ough­test to care with al diligence, that marching or incamping by sea or land, victuals may safely be brought, for somuch as by such means the merchants with all diligence will bring all things, which for ye vse of an army wil be necessary. Moreouer whē thou most passe by straights, or march through rough & hilly wayes, thē is it cōuenient, principally for ye preseruation of thy things, to send before shot on horseback & on foot, for the kéeping of those places, rocks, or inclosed waies, least the enemy taking it before thée, may both let thy passage to thy great hinderance & losse: the contrary thou ought enforce thy selfe to do, when thou vnderstan­dest the enemy to passe, the like thou hast not onely to take héede for receiuing harme, but to inforce thy selfe to turne against the enemy those deceits whereby he thought to deceaue thée. And when thou purposest to go against him, it is requisite to pro­uide before him, & at vnawares oppresse him: so diligently thou must find means to let & endomage him euery way, if thou vn­derstandest that he intends to pursue thée. The marshall of the field must foresée, ye whether soeuer ye army doth retire, or vse an ordinary march & iourney, that the captains that lead distinct & seuerall bands, must with mutuall diligence by horsemē, riding to and fro, measure the march of the army, neither suffer the En­signes to go any thing out of sight. The auantgard to obserue with what pace the middle battell marcheth, and so likewise the middle battell the rereward, that euery battell may be ready at hand for all sodaine incursions of the enemy, & to succor ye battell which is circumuented, & finally fight if a man be forced, or ad­uantage doth serue, with al ye power of the army vnited together.

Of the order of the march in figure, and of the placing of the weapons.

Forsomuch as there are diuers formes of marching, according to the ground and diuersities of mens minds, I haue onely thought it good to set downe this figure ensuing, as very necessa­rie, and of great force for an armie, with his whole carriages to [Page 252] march withall: Wherein I partly imitate the antiquitie, as otherwise the order now vsed, as for example. Let there be an armie of 40000. footemen, and 14000. horsemen, according to the proportion set downe, there is allowed to euerie 100 footmen 40. pikes, 50 shot, and 10 halberds, the which falles out to be 20000 shot, 16000 pikes, and 4000 halberds, the which with the horsmē are to be deuided into thrée battels. The voward, the mainward and the rearward battell: In the voward shall be placed 10000 footemen, whereof 4000 pikes, 1000 halberds, and 5000 shot: In the front of the voward battel are to be placed 2000 argolateares on horsebacke, 1000 launces: Then there are to be placed the pi­oners, who are to be garded with 500 shot of each wing. The Sergeaat Maior must giue in charge, that these pioners beate downe and make plaine the ground before them in their march, in such bredth as occasion shall serue to make your battels, or necessity procure, or the straightnes of the place permit. Also the Sergeant hath to appoint these pioners, that if they be charged by the enemies, hauing their weapons to defend themselues a­mongst the shot, or otherwise to retire themselues by the wings of the battell, and to be placed at the discretion of the Sergeant Maior in the battell: Next after these Pioners shall follow 2000 shot, next vnto the shot the carriages of the first battell, with all the impediments: Then followeth 2000 pikes, and 1000 halber­deares, with the Chiefetaine in the midst, then followeth the o­ther 2000 pikes, after the pikes the carriages of the merchants and purueyours, who must by the appointment of the Generall march armed, for the defence of their charge: thē follow the other 2000 shot, and if you passe through any dangerous places, it is requisite so to march, as you may suddenly bring them to a qua­drant battell, sending alwayes before 100 Hargaloteares on horsebacke, and 100 lighthorsmen, for vauntcurriers, to discouer and view the straights and passages, as otherwise to take their bredth, and to giue certificate to the officers, whereby they may make their march thereafter, and to view that all places be frée from [...]mbushes and traines of the enemie, whereby the armie may the more safelier and quietlier passe, sending from the frontes as necessitie requires, ayde to assist the Curri­ers: Then must follow your maine battell of footemen, the which is 20000. footemen, whereof 10000. shot, 8000. pikes, [Page] [Page] [Page 253] and 2000 Halberds, the which are to be diuided in this manner: next vnto the shot of the voward battell, must be placed the car­riages of the maine battell with bagge and baggage, who must be placed by quarter: then 4000 pikes, next the pikes 2000 hal­berds with the General in the midst, then the other 4000 pikes, after the pikes the carriages of the merchants, as appeares by this figure.

The weapons of the rearward battell to be diuided as in the voward, who must send forth courriers from the rearward, to espie whether the enimie doth prosecute thée to take aduantage to thy hinderance or no, and you must place next your shot in the rearward one thousand Lances, and 2000 Hargolateares, your 10500 shot of the maine battell are to be placed as wings in all your battels, who must be placed 16 paces from the sides of the battels: Next vnto the shot must go the Artillerie of the fielde with their carriages, with like distance on both the sides of the battels: then must be placed 1000 men at armes, of ech side of the battels: Likewise 1000 Lances of ech side, and 2000 Har­golateares, as appeareth by the foresaid figure.

The high marshal must giue in charge that in al dangers on­till ye footmen may be brought to forme of battell, that the Orde­nance & Artillerie may be readily and equally diuided into the two hornes of the battel, to terrifie the enimie to the vttermost: and if so be that the enimie wil attempt the battel on the wings, let the Hargolateares with the rest of the horse and shot in the wings make the like difference: thus euery part shalbe of like sort defended, vntill thou hast made thy battell as pleaseth thée. If this order cannot please the march withall, through a sus­pected place, you may practise that which is thought of the Generall and his wise counsellours and Captaines to be most expedient: neuerthelesse I thought it not amisse to set downe this order in figure, with the diuision of the weapons, for that being well considered, and with aduise well ordered, you may make presently as many battels as you will, and in what order you please, euen by hand without any great trouble or toile.

THe proportion of this march ensuing, was vsed of the Lant­graue of Hesson, & the buke of Saxonie, in their wars against [Page 254] the Emperour Charles the fift, their maine square battell of pikes being flanked; fronted and backt with shot, was empaled with Lances & men at armes, with a bat [...]aillon of Argolat [...]ares on horsebacke in the [...]auntgard. The whole battell [...] with Artillerie, and the carriages of the campe and munition on the side from the emperialists, garded with a squadron of [...] ▪ shot, and lances. The victuallers betwixt the rearward and the main battel, empaled with horsemen, bring backed with [...] and Argolateares.


The order how to encampe an armie, and to accommodate the same according to the situation of the ground.

IN respo [...]t [...] no resolu [...]e rule can be giuen to the [...] an [...] ▪ since that the same so often alters and changes, according to the quality of the ground, the quantity for distance, o [...] [...] of the enimie, & diuersiti [...] in minde of the Marshall or Generall. I will therefore procéede to speake of the [...] of the [...]ampe, of his situation, forme, compasse, and for­tification, and the commodities and orders which be thereunto necessarie. First touching the situation, I say, that being in a plaine farre from hils, it is necessarie to haue a riuer or such quantitie of water, as the same may commodiously nourish a whole armie, and the Cauallarie: and prouide that from the ad­ioyning woods, if there be any, you may fetch al sort of wood and fewell for the necessitie of the armie: and that likewise proui­sion he had of hay and straw for the horsemen, for these be the things that an armie cannot carrie about with it. When proui­sion is made of these necessaries, the armie must be so well for­tified as the enimy cannot [...]aise the same.

The greatnes and circuite of the lodgings must not be so great, that the same may be an impediment, that a man cannot at all times vse succour and defence when néede doth require: n [...]ither ought it to be so little that the armie cannot haue al his commo­dities & necessarie places for victuals, and for merchants which follow the armie. Touching the forme & fashion of the campe, ye same must be such as these portratures following make shew, accōmodating ye same neuerthelesse to the situation of ye ground.

In the portrature is described and drawne all the quarters, with their places, the lodgings for the Generall, and the wayes to issue out, where in for further instruction, I will somewhat delate, but he that is more curious, let him reade Ieronemo Ca­taneo his example, out of whom I tooke this.

If it chance that an armie must lodge amongst mountaines in a ground full of hils, & diuersly situated, as in vales, croupes of mountaines, riuers, woods, caues, & such inequalities: If the Marshal be a man of experience in the wars, and know how to lodge an army, he may serue his turne therwith greatly, & with smal labor fortifie his camp & lodgings. But aboue all things he must be careful ye he do not plāt himself in such a place, ye the same [Page 256] be subiect to any hils or other height of ground that doth com­mand ouer him, from whence the enimie might looke into his lodgings, and so batter the cortines of his rempares: For if the enimies armie occupie this mountaine or hill, the Generall of the campe shall be constrained to dislodge his armie, and so be forced to fight to his great disaduantage.

To lodge an armie in the fielde, with his due measures being of good proportion, according to the situation of the ground, you must know how much space of ground must be had for the quar­ters of the Cauallarie, and how much for the Infanterie, with their places of armes, stréetes, and other necessaries for the ser­uice of their lodgings.

For example, suppose there is a campe of 60000 fighting men, that is to say, 2000 men at armes, 10000 light horsemen, & 48000 hargabusiers, Corslets, light armed pikes and halberds. To eue­rie man of armes I giue 7 lodgings, and to euerie light horse­man 4, and euerie lodging as well of men at armes, as light horsemen, shall containe 50 foote of earth, that is to say, fiue foote large, and 10 foote long, as this figure declares.


To euerie souldier on foote, with a seruant or a page, I will giue 64 foote of earth for his lodging, which shall be 8 foote in square, as this figure declares.


This done, you must accommodate the place for the General, from 200 to 250 foot, euen in the midst of the campe, and from that place shall be drawne two straight stréetes, which shal crosse ouerthwart with two straight angles, right in the midst of the place for the Generall, which two stréetes shalbe called the principall stréetes, and shall serue for a Corps de gard towards the enimie.

Suppose that next of all I will lodge 500 braue souldiers, or gallant warlike Caualliers next to the Generals lodging, to [Page 257] euerie one of these I will giue two lodgings, that shalbe of the same circuit that the men at armes are.

Besides this, about the Generals plot, I wil draw two plots, the one for the market and the other for victuals, which two shall containe as much ground as the lodging of the volentarie Caualliers of the Generals traine, or Caualliers of S. Georges squadre to the General, which termes doth best fit all such Gen­tlemen, as volentarily follow the campe, to sée seruice & to court the Generall.

About the plots and lodgings of these Caualliers, I will draw out a stréete of 25. foote, about the which shall be the quarters of men at Armes and light horsemen, with their stréetes and voide places in the midst.

About the horsemens quarters shalbe drawne a stréete of 50. foote large, round about which is to be compast out the quarters for the footemen, with their stréetes and void places.

At the end of one of the principall streetes towards the enimy, you must draw out the generall place of armes, which must containe as much at the least, as halfe the lodgings for the foote­men do containe. In one of my figures I haue not drawne this void place, for that I haue set the trench so farre from the lodg­ings, that going about the campe within the circuit of the said trench, you may easily make a generall place for armes.

At one corner of the campe towards the enimie, must be ap­pointed a place for the munition of the Artillarie, and at the backe of the campe must be drawne out the lodgings for the pio­ners, and for the cattell that is killed for the nourishment of the campe, with other necessarie things.

The victuallers must lodge in the void places of the quarters, and all along the streetes. The trench must be made far distant from the lodging, from 200 to 250 foote.

The place of Artillerie is comprehended in the Calcull of the footmens quarters, and would be distant from the trenches that enuirons the lodgings, from 200 pace to 250 at the least, as in my discription it is drawne 250 foote distant. The places necessarie to be accommodated for quarters for souldiers to do their natu­rall businesse in, and to lodge other persons which are lodged in the said quarters, may be taken in that which is supersl [...]ous in the place of Armes: for in drawing the circuit of the said place, [Page 258] I haue allotted out sufficient substance of ground.

In my draughts I haue set downe 50 foote for the largenesse of the stréets, by reason this largenes ought not to passe the boord of the largenes of the place of armes. This 50▪ is not so much to forme and frame the largenes of the stréetes, as to make large by the said 50 fóote, the length and largenes of the place of armes for the quarters, whereby they be enlarged. The cattel for victu­al for the campe, the pioners and other vnprofitable things shal lodge at the backe of the campe, as I said before.

The victuallers lodge in the place of Armes in the Quarters, and all along the principall stréetes.

The whole portrature hereof may be more apparent by my figures following, for the better vnderstanding whereof, these Characters shall direct.

A. Signifieth the place of Armes in the quarters both of horsemen and footemen, and the place for the Generall which is in the midst, togither with their stréetes and the space which is betwixt the trenches and the lodgings.

  • ▵* Signifieth the quarters of the light horsemen.
  • □ Signifieth for the Lances and men at Armes.
  • 🜃 Signifieth the quarters for the footmen.
  • M Signifieth the place sor Munition.
  • C Signifieth the Caualhers lodgings néere the Generall▪
  • Mar. Signifieth the Market place.
  • V Signifieth the place of Munition for victuals▪
  • P Signifieth the lodgings for the pioners and for cattell, which is kild for the nourishing of the Campe, and other things vnprofitable that follow the Armie.
  • F Signifieth the Fort vpon the hil; for the defence of ye Camp.

The portrature of these thrée Campes following, may seru [...] for example to draw any other by, in what situation or of what number of men so euer they be, so that it be well practised.

The Marshall for the most part must by racke of eye, and by quicke iudgement, allot out and readily set downe and impart the lodgings of the Campe, and sticking downe a little rod with a paper fastened in the nocke or clift of ye same, thereby in euerie due place allot and appoint to al Collonels and their Quarters, whose Marshals for lodging shall in like sort by billet limit out the place for euerie band, and thus shall the arriuing armie [Page 259] finde the quarters, places, stréetes and other things alwayes in readinesse, but if you will more Arithmetically worke, reade Cataneo.

The situation of a Campe adioyning to a riuer neere a mountaine.


The situation of a Campe in a vale betwixt two mountaines, the one is capable of a Campe, the other not,


The situation of a Campe aioyning vpon a wood and a Ri [...]er.


The manner of encamping, where the situation yeeldeth no aduantage.

TO encampe an armie strongly and commodiously: The Lord high Marshall is first to finde such a place to encampe vpon, as may be conueniently woodded and watred, not subiect to any hill within Cul [...]erine shot, and to apply the forme of his campe to the nature of the situation. But this plat following I haue drawne out of M. Digges Stratioticos, which he hath prescribed, where the naturall helpes faile, and that the generall is to trust onely to his owne order and artificiall strength. When any ar­mie is therefore in such place to be encamped, you shall first in the most commodious place about the midst of the ground, where you meane to encampe, set vp the generall standard or Guidon, and about the same, stake out a square plot of ground 40 pace square for the Generals pauillion. Directly from this towards the North, runneth one maine stréete 40 pace brode, that deui­deth the horse campe from the foot campe: & on either side of the Generals tent runneth two other crosse waies, 30 pace in bredth, which deuide the armed frō the vnarmed, as héerafter appeares. These two waies embrace two long squares of ground 40 pace brode, and 550 pace long a péece. These may be either of them deuided into 5 lodgings of 100 pace in length, and 40 in bredth, leauing betwéene them certaine passages of ten pace in bredth, that souldiers vpon euery sodaine may the more readily repaire to the place of assemblie. One of these lodgings next the Gene­rals tent, may serue for the high marshall himselfe and his re­tinue, & the other on the other side for the treasurer: the rest may be assigned at the marshals discretion to the other officers of the field, and for Ambassadors, and such Noblemen and Gentlemen as follow the wars on their owne charge, and such like. In the Northeast quarter of the campe are the horsemen lodged, in the northwest the footemen, either of these campes are deuided into thrée parts by stréetes running East and West. These stréetes are 20 pace in bredth, and 580 pace in length. In euerie one of these thrée spaces of the foote campe, there are lodged a regiment of 10000 men: & in the horsecampe the middlemost of them shall serue for 1500 men at armes: the northen space may serue for the 2500 light horsemen, & the other for 2000 launces. On the other [Page 263] side of this maine stréete are the lodgings assigned for the lea­ders or gouernors of euery regiment, and their officers: euery space being 30 pace brode and 170 long. A is for the Captaine of the launces, B for the Captaine of men at armes, and C for the Captaine of the lighthorsmen. Likewise D E F for the lea­ders of the thrée principall regiments of footmen, the which you may distinguish with the vsuall names, vaward, battel, & rere­garde, calling the vaward that which lieth next the Generals tent, and aunswereth to the Launces: the battell that which an­swereth to the men at armes: & the rereward the other against the light horsemen.

Euerie of these principall Regiments you may againe diuide into fiue smaller Regiments by stréetes of ten pace brode, run­ning North and South, so haue you 15 lesse Regiments in the foote Campe, and 5 a péece in euery of the horse Campe, and eue­rie of these Regiments are 100 pace brode, & 170 pace in length, and shall containe euerie of them of footemen 2000. of men at Armes 300. of Lances 400. of light horsemen 500. with their Collonels, Captaines, Officers, &c.

These Collonels & Captaines of men at armes, may be lodged at the head of their Regiments, as you may behold in the camp: These marked with G are for the Collonel of footemen, H for ye Captain of light horsemen, I for the Captaine of men at armes, and K for the Captaine of the Lances. So remaine their Regi­ments of 100 pace brode, and 150 pace long for lodging of the soul­diers, which may by small stréetes of fiue pace brode, be diuided into as many spaces as there are seuerall bands in euerie Regi­ment, and then the harbinger of euerie band must set downe the officers and souldiers of their bands.

These last diuision of bonds I haue omitted, because in so smal a plat it would bréede but confusion, and the thing being of it self most plaine, it should be tedious to rest longer thereupon This only I would wish the Marshal or campemaster to obserue, that his shot be lodged toward the outside of ye camp, yt they may be al­ways ready at yt ring of ye camp vpon any alarme, ye which he may do by diuiding ye vttermost seuen regimēts into halfe, as you sée by ye pricked lines, leauing the seuē spaces marked with L for ye 7000 shot, & the other noted wt M for 7000 pikes, al ye other regi­mēts marked wt N, shalbe ye lodgings of ye 16000 short weapons▪ [Page 264] Thus in the north moity of your campe, are al your armed, both horsemen & footmen lodged. Now the other moity must serue for the lodgings of the vnarmed, as Pioners, Carters, Carpenters, Smithes, Butchers, Uictuallers, & all other sorts of Mecanicall artificers, togither with a large place of assembly for ye souldiers to retire vnto, to put themselues in order vpon any alarme, and also to exercise themselues in sundry sorts of actiuitie. You shall therefore from the southside of the Generals pauilion 600 pace southward, extend out your first maine stréete of 40. pace broade, and crosse him againe with an other stréet, running east & weast 360 pace distant frō the southside of the Generals pauilion. This streete néede to be but 300 pace in breadth. Againe extend out the second narrow stréets, that run parallel to the first maine stréete, till you come to the crosse stréete last made: so haue you O your place of assemblie 330 pace brode, and 540 pace long. P shalbe ap­pointed for the munition, and officers attendant on the artilla­rie, Q the market place: round about this market place may be lodged the Butchers, Bakers, Cookes, and victualers of all sorts. About the munition quarter, besides the officers and Gun­ners, may the Smithes, Carpenters, Whéele wrights, & labou­rers, attendant on the ordinance be placed. About the place of as­sembly may be the tents of all such as furnish the campe with things néedfull for the souldiers, as Armorers, Taylers, Shoo­makers, and all such like artificers. Yet remaine there two long swares of earth, either of them 540 pace long, & 190 pace brode: héere you may settle the Carters & Wagoners with their horse and Oxen, for the carriages themselues must alwaies impale that part of the campe, that is not otherwise by nature and arte fortified. In these two quarters also may be lodged the pioners and all other sort of labourers, that aptly cannot or ought not be placed in or about the former courtes or quarters of assemblie. Last of all, you shall discribe 60 pace distant, from all those regi­ments, and their quarters already set downe. The ring of the campe, causing some prettie trenche and vaumure to be throwne vp, placing your ordinance vpon the same, as in this figure is described, and betwéene the ordinance your carriages: and this may suffice, if the enemie be not very puissant, or néere at hand: but if you suspect the ariual of the enemy, or that you know him stronger in the field then your selfe, & would therefore encampe [Page 265] surely, vntill further aid come vnto you: then shall you without this ring 100 pace distant, cause your pioners and souldiers (for vpon such an occasion he is not worthie to beare the name of a souldier that will not set his hand to the Spade) you shall cause them, I say, throw vp another rampire with certaine bulwarks at euery corner, and likewise in the middle of the Curtaine, that Musket shot may play betwéene them, or if time would permit, it were conuenient euerie 12 score to haue of these circular plat­formes with a Uamure to defend the small shot, for in so short time it is impossible to make any sufficient rampire to abide a batterie, neither can a campe be furnished of victuals to abide a­ny long time, and that is the cause why I haue discribed those plaine circular formes, which in fortification of a fowne or for were more ridiculous, and in a campe to make them more ex­quisite, were no lesse foolish curious.

The forme and proportion of the Campe.


The forme of another Campe.

IN the second booke of Marshall discipline, Maister Steward, as I take it out some Italian translation sets downe this maner of Campe, which I will bréefely touch. After the returne of the discouerers and espials, he must according to their relation, march to such a place where he may encampe, to store himselfe, and hinder the passage of victuals to his enemies, wherein he must conferre with the chéefe Purueyour, and with the Serge­ant Maiors and others, whether it be fit for the fight, well defen­ced, wholesome in aire, drie vnder foote, plentie in water, wood, and medowe, and haue frée passage for forrage, victuals, muniti­ons, &c. If there be any pallace, hall, or house, the same is to be allotted for the Generall, otherwise a sit proportion of encamp­ing, so as the men at armes may lodge about the Generall, which I note thus. □. The Launces and light horse about them thus noted. ▵. Then next Merchants and victualers, thus M. V. The pikemen thus, ☌. being next about thē. The Hargabuziers in the square about them thus S. Thē haue you the lodgings for the artillarie, thus DD, or a Gun. Then next the Bulwarkes & the trenches 80 pace in breadth. The crosse broade wayes to the campe 30 pace, wherein Marchants, artificers, and victualers may lodge, but his speciall drift is, that vpon any suddaine Ca­misado, whilst the shot, pikes, and light Hargolateares, make re­sistance, the light horsemen, Launces, with the men at armes, may haue leasure to arme themselues, and repaire to the Gene­rals Pauillion or pallace, where with their Launces and cha­sing staues in fronte on foote, they are in the manner of Pike­men to trie the vttermost of their strength, to saue their Gene­rall and the armie, together with their owne honour, and with their Launces encounter couragiously with the enemies Pike­men, who being already wearied with their former encounter, shall be able to maintaine the fight vntill the footemen of their part being refreshed, giue a new onset and put their enemies to flight. Thus would he haue the footmen, the horsemen, the mar­chants and purueyours, the craftsmen, souldier to souldier, back to backe, and ridge to ridge, making the lodgings double, vpon the banke of the ditche, and in the curtaines he may place artil­larie round about, and before it for safetie, or els with the cari­age [Page 268] of the Munition, and the cariage of the whole armie, enui­ron it for his defence, in which he shall immitate the Turke, who with his carriage with Cammels, and the artillarie, dooth e [...]chaine and fortifie the Campe, which we in liew therof plant Gabions, Baskets and Barrels full of earth, if the campe make continuance: néere vnto the artillarie the Gunners must lodge who haue charge thereof, and then the Hargabuziers, &c. as be­fore, and as this figure sets out.

Heere place the Plat of incamping, at this marke *******

An other proportion of Encamping.

MEssire Guillaume du Bellay Seigneur de Langeay, Knight of the Order, and Lientenant to the king of Fraunce at Turin, in his first booke of Millitarie Discipline, dooth in this sort follow­ing lodge one of his legions of footemen, consisting of 12 bands, with two bands of horsemen, containing euerie one 100 men at armes, 100 light horse, 50 Estradiots, and 50 Hargolateares.

The Collonell is placed in the miost, two crosse stréetes of 300 pace long, and 60 large, for marchants, artificers, and victualers, the place before the trenches 60 pace, to set the watch, to exercise armes, and to range the souldiers in battel. There be two quar­ters for footmen, 6 bands a péece, and two quarters for horsemen, the which their vallets are to entrench with a smal french, for to auoide the stealing of their horses, which the footemen often do, the ends of the 4 stréetes are to be shut with railes or gates.


The proportion of a twofold campe.

IN this proportion the greatest part of the armie is placed in the one halfe, with the Generals lodging: The market place noted thus. M. The place for munition at the one side, and that for victuals at the other. The place for cattel is thus marked. C The place for artificers is thus, A. As by this figure appeareth, being enuironed with souldiers lodgings.


The manner how to dislodge and march away from the enimies Armie.

HAuing, as I suppose, sufficiently declared what an Armie ought to obserue, as well in marching as in camping, I haue thought good in briefe sort to shew what is to be done in the dis­lodging of an armie, presupposing that the two armies being enimies, are lodged in the view one of another, or at the least­wise but small distance betwixt them. And for that it is a thing which imports the high Marshall verie much, to know how he ought to gouerne himselfe in such an affaire, he must therein haue speciall considerations.

To retire in the night and so to get away from the enimie, séemes to be the onely & most assured way that can be chosen, ne­uerthelesse that way is not sufficient to accomplish his determi­nations, if he which meanes to retire, be not aided by the situa­tion of the ground, and other qualities of the place and countrie, whether he meanes to retire▪

To touch particulars I say, when you dislodge in the night, it behoones you to vse the greatest diligence you can, which ne­uerthelesse, as I said, is no wayes sufficient, vnlesse you be ai­ded by ye situation of the ground: for he that is to march through plaines and open places, without hauing any wood or vallie to retire his armie vnto: when the enimie doth perceiue his re­trait, verie hardly (as I haue said) shal he be able to procure his saftie. For when ye enimies Cauallarie haue attained him, they will easily constraine him to stay, and force him to fight against his will with great disorder, and specially if he conduct Artille­rie and other impediments appertaining to an armie, which no reason would that he should leaue in pray and spoile to the ene­mies. Moreouer an army must not be made to march faster then his ordinarie pace: for if it should be hastned with an extraor­dinarie spéedie pace, the same would augment the euill opinion the souldier [...] haue had to cōceaue by reason of their retire, which is a very dangerous thing, for thereby may arise a disorder without redresse, as oftentimes hath béene experimented. The armie which pursues hath not these difficulties, besides she may leaue behind all her bagage: and if their souldiers be pressed to march fast, their armie thereby shall become so much the more [Page 272] couragious, specially if the Generall, Collonels and Captaines vse magnificent spéeches, and words of aduantage, as is conue­nient should be vsed in such cases. Therefore howsoeuer it [...]all out, the retraite made in the night, séemes to me not [...] assured, if the same be not accompanied with the situation of the place: the which was very well foreséene and put in practi [...]e by Frauncis the French king of Cambrasis, when in the night he did march awaye from Charles the fift, for by the succour of a great wood, he put all his armie in safetie, the which had entire past the said wood, before the enemies Cauallarie could ouertake them: and then hauing made Alta by reason of the aduantage they had, & through the commodity of the situation of the ground where he was encamped, he was able to fight with the emperi­alists. Contrariwise, they hauing ouer hastily followed th [...] French army, at the issue of the word setting vpon them, remai­ned for the most part either taken, or slaine, or repulsed. The Protestants in Germanie did vse the same pollici [...], when they retired away from the Emperor, who was so [...] [...] [...] vnto them, that they could not, no not in the night [...], but the empecialists did follow them, for whilst the Protestants did enter into a valley, in the which they could not [...] out great disaduantage, they did spéedely seaze vpon a hil, where they placed a good troope of horsemen and footmen, with certaine field péeces, by meanes of this hill, & of a [...] hand, which they had fild full of Hargabuziers, they did barre the Emperors campe from following them, euen accordingly as they had deter­mined: when as the Emperor being approched▪ and perceiuing them to be retired into so strange a place, both by nature & arte, he suffered them to passe. Therefore I say, by the [...] of the situation of the ground and countrie, a man may assure his re­traite, as by these examples appeares. And so the retraite made by night is alwaies best, for then you may with greater oportu­nitie and leasure winne or attaine to any place of aduantage: whereas the retire made by day, without assurance of some place of aduantage, is most dangerous, vnlesse it be that he which makes the retraite, be much more stronger in horsemen. There­fore the armie which is the weakest, ought to kéepe himselfe as farre off from the enemie, as he can: to the intent that when he will retire, he be not constrained to fall into some notable dis­order.

THE FIFT BOOKE OF MILITARIE DIRECTIONS, EN­treating of the great Master of the Attillarie, of the Master Gunner, of generall Notes of Fortification, of the be­sieging, expugning, and defending of a Portresse, &c.
And first, The Office of the great Master of the Artillarie.

THIS great Officer, and man of singuler estima­tion, after hee is by hys Prince or Generall Cap­taine, appointed to take charge of ye Artillarie, he must make an inuentory of euerie small & parti­culer persell, that accompany the peeces of Orde­nance: for that they be almost infinite in number, to the intent the same may alwaies remain ready, at time of néed, & that therof he may make good account, as appertayneth to hym that doth possesse an office of such importaunce.

When he is to march in Campania, (as it is to be presuppo­sed he shall) it is requisite that he make prouision, that euery peece haue hys sufficient number of draught-Horses and Oxen, apt to carry the same according to the nature of the Countrey, with con­uenient speede and great facilitie.

The sayd Horses or Oxen, ought alwaies to haue men for the purpose to gouerne them, who at all times in all places, ought e­uerie one to lodge neere hys owne Péece day and night, that they may alwayes be ready to do theyr office, thereby to auoyde confu­sion, that vnawares in such cases doe oftentimes fall, when things be not well placed in order.

Likewise it is conuenient that euerie heauie Peece, as the Cannon, Culuerine, Demiculuerine, or Demicannō, haue a Gun­ner [Page 274] to attend thereupon: and euery Gunner haue his Coadiutor or [...], and they both a man to serue them and to ayde them to [...], dischardge, mounte, wadde, clense, scoure, and coole the [...], [...] they are ouerheated: For which there must be al­wayes [...], [...], Uineger, colde water, &c. Besides that, eu [...]rie heauie Peece in some certayne respect, must haue alone by himselfe, a Master of the wood and a Smyth, that together they may aptly supply the needfull force and strength, for the weelding of so huge and heauie a Machine as is a Cannon.

It is necessary that h [...] create a sufficient Corporal or C [...]nsta­ble ouer the Gunners, who may take care and charge ouer them, and that hee may maintayne and keepe order amongst them: yea, and continually ouerviewe, examine, and search the Instruments to charge, to sp [...]nge, make cleane the Peeces, coole them, with vi­neger and colde water, and such lyke.

This Corporall or Cunstable, must likewise looke to the lyfe and behauiour of the Gunners, their gouernment and customes, theyr committed and conuenient orders, their obedience and acti­ons: and it is conuenient, that he prayse and confirme the good doo­ings of them, and reprehend and disprayse the euill vse of others, making report thereof to his chiefe Captaine & master, for that he may readily, by hys meanes, who hath authoritie, vse remedie a­gaynst such inconuenience as wold aryse, the which sometimes is occasion of great disturbance and of errours of importance.

For the better performance of this great Officers seruice, hée ought to be very curious and carefull for the safe-keeping of the Munition of powder, which is allotted for the seruice of Artillary, Musket and Hargabuziers, and fyre works: so lykewyse he must haue regard to the Bulletes, to the Lead, to the Match, whether it be of Cotton, Hempe or Flex: to the Ladders, ye Iron worke, the wood worke, the Salt-peter, the Coales and Brimstone. For som­times, euery one of these things is caried by it selfe, for more safty agaynst burning and artificiall fyres, which are accustomed to be carryed for the seruyce of the armie, and to furnish and suffice, du­ring the warres: and therefore hee must take care, that hee haue good prouision of Cartes or Wagons, or some other sufficient meane, apt to carry these Munitions and necessary preparations, together with the whole quantity of Ropes, of wood, fitte and com [Page 275] modious to serue for the vse of hys office: Of tables, apt to make Bridges ouer ditches, & in all other places where ye passage of the Artillarie or Armie is stauled. And so consequently of many other things, that be cōmitted to hys gouernment to conduct: since that the Ordenance with the impediments belonging thereunto, be of greater trauayle and toyle then the rest of the Campe.

To this Officer therefore appertaynes a Cunstable or Lieue­tenant, as I sayd before, and certayne Clarkes in wages, who are to haue regard vnto the foresayde causes, and to attend vppon in­ferior matters, rendering account of all their dooings to the Ma­ster of the Ordenance. From time to time he must fore-see, as I sayd before, to prouyde that there remayne stuffe enough in store, for all kind of necessaries, belonging to the Artillarie: as whéeles for Ordenance, Axeltrees, Ladles, Spunges, bullets, chayne shot, crosse barres, corne powder, & serpentine powder, Mattockes, sho­uelles, Crowes of yro [...], hand Axes, Engines for the mounting of Ordenance, Graund Maundes or Gabions, little hand basketes, Ropes, and all other Carte ware.

To haue the Gunners not only skilful in the ready managing of theyr peeces, but also in the making of Trunckes Balles, Ar­rowes, and all other sortes of wylde fyre and fyre worke: and for the continuall supply of them, they ought to haue in a readinesse, great store of Sulphure, Saltpeter, Rosine, Calx viue, Quicke peall, Lintesede oile and cōmon Lampe oyle, Pitch, Tarre, Cam­fere, Waxe, Tutia, Arsenicke, Quick siluer, and Aqua vite. Here­of let him frame balles of fyre, to burne in the water: Cressets and Torches that stormes or windes canont extinguish: murthering buullets, to be shot out of great morter péeces, and such lyke.

If any band in the Campe, want Powder, or Match, or shot: the Master of the Ordenance, vpon request of the Captaine, is to giue order, that his Clarkes deliuer the same, taking a bill of the Captaynes hand for theyr discharge. The which bill must at the pay day, bee deliuered to the Treasurer, who is to stoppe so much vpon the pay of the Captaine and hys band.

Let him prouide that there be of whéele-wrights, Carpenters, Coopers, Smithes, Bowyers, Fletchers, Masons, and such other skilful Artisans, with all tooles and necessary néedfull, to preserue, repayre & make all such thinges, as to the Artillarie and munition appertaineth.

[Page 276]To him likewise it appertayneth, to cast bridges ouer waters, Riuers, and Ditches, for the commoditie of the army: and conse­quently for that respect, must take great care to carrie wyth hym, men apt, sufficient, and fitte for that kinde of seruice: as Ship­wrightes, Wagon-wrightes, Makers of Cables, and such as be practised in sayling, to the intent that at time of neeede, they may be the better able to performe any enterprise.

So likewise he must cause certaine boates or barks to be made, somwhat massiue, with fitte and apt peeces of plancks and boords in square forme, for a bridge to be fastned and nayled vpon the said Barke, in such sorte, that being ioyned peece to péece, with a great Rope or Cable, thrust through and turned double, through certain ringes of yron, which are fastened vppon the extreame partes of the poyntes or corners of euerie peece of the bridge, and for euerie peece foure Kinges, one at euery corner, which beeing prepared, the bridge may be put together entyre and whole. Upon that side the Riuer your Armie doth remayne, where two stakes, two pil­lers, or two Trées stifly planted, one ende of the bridge must bee tyed and accommodated, with ropes of sufficient strength: the which ende being already turned towards the fall of the Water, and the other towards the running of ye streame, must afterwards be sette frée & loose, and thrust forth and disseuered from ye bancke, by certaine of the foresaid men practised in sayling, who ought at due time cast Anckers into the Riuer, which are of force to su­staine the bridge, from béeing carried downe further then his pre­fixed and limitted bonds of the other bancke, by the violent course of the running of the water. The which bounds & marks ought to be fore-seene, and the largenes of the Riuer artificially measured, if the same be desired to be doone exactly: that iustly & at the same instant when néede doth require he may serue his turne, neyther with more nor lesse number of barkes or boates, then so manie as is necessary for the breadth of the Riuer: for if there shoulde bee more or lesse, there would arise great confusion or disturbance.

Thys arteficiall brydge, is an instrument very much vsed a­mongst great Armies in the warres at these dayes, as was ma­nifest by the preparation of one made at Namures, for Don Iohn of Austria, and this figure following is the forme thereof.

[Page 277]


It shall be sometimes good to plant Souldiours vppon this bridge, who may be able to withstande, and repulse the enemies vpon the other shore, that they doo not displant the same, but that you may be able to recouer the shore, and sustaine the bridge. The Anckers béeing cast, and Cables ready to let at large, it is neces­sarie to let the head of the bridge slyppe downe slackly, and be dis­seuered from the banckside where it was ioyned together▪ & which you are determined to leaue, and to aspect the running of the wa­ter, carry the bridge to the otherside of the Riuer, ayded by the in­dustry of those men that be vpō it, to make the passage more easie.

The Armie béeing passed the Riuer, & the bridge being disse­uered péece from péece, & drawne on lande, the boords nayled to the boates euen as they bee, must be layde vppon a broade Waine or Wagon, made of purpose for the carriage of them after the [Page 278] Armie, so shall the boate remaine with the bottome turned vp to­wardes the skyes, and the boordes ioyned together, lye flat vpon the wagon vnderneath, readie for any other action.

Prouision of Horses and Oxen, will easily conduct these En­gines after the Campe, whilst the boate and the boords be nailed together, and layde vppon a carriage prepared of purpose for the same, as before appeareth.

Hee must make meanes to haue a sufficient number of people, and of apt proportion to make gard and watch about ye Artillary, munition, arteficiall fire, waines, wagons, & other things necessa­ry for ye siege of the enemy, with diuers other accidents: the which people must goe with him continually day and night, to kéepe good and perfect watch.

Besides this he must haue a band of Pyoners, of conuenient and sufficient quantitie, who ought to haue a carefull and vigi­lant Captayn, that may alwayes guide them vnder an Ensigne, that they may be the more vnited together, and the better conduc­ted and gouerned. Hée must moreouer fore-sée, that lykewise they be defended and assured from inuasion of the enemies, with a good number of souldiours, whilst they make the wayes euen and per­fect, where the impediments thereunto appertayning and all the Campe must passe.

The sayd Pyoners, must be prouided o [...] Spades, Pickeares, some with Leauers, Crowes of Iron, Baskets, Whéele barrows, and other Instruments apt to such vse and affayres: [...]o plant Ar­tillarie, and to entrench the place in the Campe, that shall be by the prouest Martiall assigned for Munition.

It shall be very conuenient if it were possible, to pay thē their wages euery night: for since they are not men of estimation and honour, such as men of warre be, and right souldiours, they of­tentimes wil depart without lycence at their own pleasure. Nei­ther haue they respect of incurring danger of punishment, or ha­zarde of life, no nor to bring great discommoditie to an Armie. The which through the benefite of theyr worke is very well ac­commodate and strengthened in diuers respects, not onely touch­ching the foresaid causes, but also to make Trenches, Gabions, Mynes, Ditches, straight and crooked, and all other platformes conuenient and necessary for the Armie.

The great Maister of the Artillarie, must haue about him a [Page 279] Squadron, which may be called the Gentlemen of the Artillarie, Lanze spezzate, or Caualiers of the Cannon, such as I haue de­scribed in my seconde Booke to be of S. George his squadron, in which booke they may reade speciall notes about their duties, spe­ciallie in the Chapters of discoueries. These Caualieres, euerie one hauing the ouersight of a Péece, especially at a battery, when they must see continually that the Gunners doe their duety, I would wishe to be very sufficient personages, to the intent they may be able to know how to execute the great Maisters ordinan­ces, in things necessary to be performed in so great actions: and that particulerlie they desire to be accounted discréete and modest souldiours, whose office is, continually to sollicite and kéepe in order such men as be vndiscreet and rude.

Not onely the great Maister, and his other Officers, but also these worthy Caualieres, ought to be of sufficient vnderstanding and experience, to know howe to charge euery Péece, and after­wardes be able to perceiue (as néere as is possible) what effects the shotte of euery Cannon will worke, the shotte of euery Cul­uerine, the demie of them both, and likewise what euery Peece is able to performe, to the intent he be not alwaies ouer-ruled by the iudgement of euery Gunner: which his experience, is both profitable to his Prince, and commendable to his proper credite and reputation.

It is a speciall note for them to obserue, that Wine & Uine­ger, be apt to coole and refresh the Artillarie when it is ouer hote through often shooting. In these and such like matters, hee must delight himselfe, that he may be of perfect experience, and be fullie prouided for all exployts that may fall, and for any other notable respect, worthy of great consideration.

Hée must take assured order, that the Péeces of Artillarie, be well planted vpon theyr cariages, forceablie & substantially, and in respect of the performance of this seruice, hee must carrie with him more then the ordinarie store of Spades, Shouels, Bar­rels, Salt, Spokes, Plates, Naues, Ax [...]ltrées, broad Nailes, Spykings, and other ordinarie yron worke, that he may vpon a suddaine, with the helpe of a Smith and Carpenter, and other like Artificers, which are appointed in cases of such néede, yéeld a sup­ply to all such things, which shall be lost, broken, and destroied in a long voyage, or els by many volles of shot.

[Page 280]Note that the great Maister ought to haue good vnderstan­ding and experience, how to prepare with great aduantage, with Gabions and Rampiers of earth, or with wooll packs, the place where the batterie must be planted, to the intent the said batterie may take effect, that the flankers and curtine may spéedily and with little charge be battered & ruinate, that all things may suc­céede according to his determination, in as perfect order as is pos­sible, and that it may take away and make frustrate all the ene­mies defences, bursting and displanting theyr Péeces, & tormen­ting them in as terrible sort as he can deuise, procuring, and al­waies fore-séeing, that there be a sufficient battery made, & that it be easie for the souldiours to ascend vp vpon their assault, that they be not forced to make a shamefull retire, to theyr great dys­credite and destruction.

Therefore it is most necessarie, and altogether requisite, that in batterie, or in any other naturall forme of assault, not only the breach be sufficient, large, and easie, to mount vppon and ascend, but also that hee vse dilligence to dismount the enemies defences, that is to say, such Péeces as annoy the Campe, and that the flan­kers be cut off before any assault be giuen, as I shal more at large héereafter declare, to the intent the meaning of theyr assault take effect, which is, to enter the Towne, that the slaughter and great destruction of many notable Captaines and souldiours may bée a­uoyded.

Hée must endeuour himselfe to haue knowledge in making of Mynes, Ouens, and Caues, and to know howe to order and vse them: the which things, if they be made conformable to their due as they ought, are of meruailous ayde to those ye besiedge a For­tresse: but aboue all things, hee must be very warie and circum­spect in making them, that the besieged doo not perceiue they are myned, to the intent they preuent not the same by making coun­termines: the which sort of working dooth easily hinder Mynes, or otherwise by sincking of déepe wels, or profound holes & pits, the which choke vp the Mynes when they encounter with them. And if by Mynes hee performe any thing, to giue order that the Captaine of the Minors and Pyoners, accomplish his directions.

Hée should likwise take delight, to cause powder be made, and arteficiall fire of all sorts, and to the intent he may commodiously performe these things, and make them with greater facilitie, hee [Page 281] must carry with him necessary instrumēts for the same, as Mor­ters, pestles, troughes, Cribles to sift, tables to dry vpon, yron work to refyne saltpeter, Cawdrons, Coullanders, or strayners, and such like.

Hée ought to be learned in auncient and moderne hystories, and to consider and compare the manifold stratagems that other notable Souldiers haue héeretofore vsed. To deuise sundry En­gines for assaults defences, and to be cunning in framing sundrie sorts of bridges for passage of waters, to diuert the course of wa­ters, or to drowne any Country or Fort subiect therunto, to con­uey great Ordenaunce ouer Marishes, and other ingenious in­uentions.

Hée must likewise haue exquisite knowledge in the Mathe­maticals, considering thereby he shall be able, certainly to shoote at all randons, to conuey Mynes vnder earth, to any Curtine, Bulwarke, or other place, that hee determines by violence of powder to rent in péeces. To make a coniecture & forecast, what quantitie of shotte, powder, &c. shall be requisite to serue the Campe, to suffise a battery, myne, or any other exployt. To sette out in due proportion euery particuler fortification, of Campe, Towne or Fort, where Ordenaunce is to be vsed, which cannot possibly without knowledge in these Sciences be sufficiently dis­charged. And that Maister of the Ordenaunce that is ignoraunt héerein himselfe, and trusteth to the skyll of others, shal be abused by audacious presumptuous persons, that taking vpon them the knowledge they vtterly want, will shame themselues, dishonour him, and foyle the enterprise.

In the fielde, when soeuer any day of seruice is, it is the of­fice of the great Maister of the Orednaunce, to select a conuenient place to plant his Ordenaunce, as well to annoy the enemie, as also to be in such sort garded and fortified, that it be not surprised of the enemie.

In the Campe he onely ought to giue order for the planting of the Artillarie, and fortification of the flankes. And that the Ordenaunce be planted to the best aduantage, and also to fore-see that the Maister Gunner, and ye other Gunners doo their duties, which doo appertaine to theyr office.

Finally, thys office is of great reputation in the fielde, vppon the execution whereof great seruice dependeth. And therefore the [Page 282] great Maister of the Ordenance, ought to be a man of great lear­ning and experience: whereby he may bee able to conceiue & per­forme many particuler actions. Since he is one of the principall Officers of the field, hauing (as I haue already said) charge of the Artillary, munition, and fortification, in which exployts, a ve­rie good wit, without trayning and experience, shall stagger and be amazed. But because it is neither possible nor conuenient, that the Maister of the Ordenaunce, shoulde attend vppon all the pre­misses himselfe, hee may commit (as I haue sayd) inferiour cau­ses to the execution of his Lieuetenant or Constable, and to the Gentlemen of the Artillarie, Caualieres of the Canon, or volun­tarie Lieuetenants, reseruing alwaies to himselfe the dispositi­on of the great and most important.

The Office of the Maister Gunner.

The Maister Gunner is but an Officer appertaining to the great Maister of the Artillarie, and his Office is, to see all the inferiour Gunners to doo theyr dueties, to be skilfull and readie in theyr charging, discharging, cooling, leueling, and mounting of the Ordenance, and to haue in readines, bullets, powder, la­dles, and spunges, to wadde, ramme, coole, and charge the péeces, also to peruse the cariages and whéeles, that they be strong, and the Péeces themselues, that they haue no honie-combes or flawes in them, whereby they should be in danger of breaking.

To haue in store crosse-barres, chaynshot, cases of haileshot, in manner of Cartages, trunckes and bals of wild fyre, with ar­tificiall barrels of preble stones charged with powder, to throwe into Ditches, or to defend a breach vpon any suddaine attempt. These and such like, are matters for the Maister Gunner to oc­cupie himselfe in, and to make proofes of them in the presence of the Maister of the Ordenance, that he may sée the effect & violence of them.

The Office of the fyre Maister.

Thys Officer, the better to performe his duetie, at the ente­rance into his Office, must take his oth, to be true and iust in his Office, and that without speciall commaundement of the Gene­rall, [Page 283] not to aduenture to set any thing on fire, vnlesse that the e­nemie be inuaded and encountered withall, and then without de­lay, all matters layd apart, to annoy the enemie by hysskill what he may. And that he doo not burne or wast any Corne-houses or other thing that may any wayes profit the Campe. And that to his knowledge he shall not hurt or hinder any poore creature or a­ged person that he may well spare, but extend mercy and pittie on them.

Hys Office is, to make and carry with the Campe all sorts of arteficiall fire-works, and Engines of fire to endomage the e­nemie.

Certaine generall notes of fortification, necessarie for a singuler souldiour or ingenior to knowe.

ALthough many Authours haue in long discourses written of fortifications, neuerthelesse, for that it seemes vnto me a thing necessary to be vnderstood of a Souldiour, at leastwise of hym, which by way of merite, meanes to obtaine recompence of such Captaine Generals, as be famous professors of thys honourable discipline, I therefore resolue with my selfe, to declare my opini­on, but onely in generall and not in particuler, which I leaue to those that be Maisters of this warlike Architecture.

Thys arte for the most part, is grounded vppon the know­ledge how to accomodate all things with a requisite forme, agrée­able to the situation of the ground where one determines to forti­fie. The which ought to be made with Trenches, and conuenient workmanshyp, well flanked, and the circute of the ground wyth­in, as néere as is possible, large on euery side, and so towards the manifest oppositions of the enemies, there ought to be planted and made round and sharpe corners. The meanes howe to doe the same, is to leaue them beneath in the Ditch as they bee, and from the midst vpwarde rounded or pared, for aboue where they be most easily battered, they be round, to the intent they may be the stronger, and beneath sharpe, which may be very well defen­ded from the shotte, which the enemie cannot lay so low, as if the angle were round beneath, and thys is the best order that may be vsed touching the sharp corners of Bulwarks.

[Page 284]Towards the opposition of the enemie, these foresaid angles, or corners, curtines, couers, or other such like workes of bulwarks ought to be turned, with theyr defence of Casamatte, with theyr coūtercouers, that is to say, shadowed in such sort as they cannot be battered or choked, of the foresaide platformes placed opposite by the enemy, and much lesse be séene or discerned if it be possible.

Neyther let him put his confidence in counterscarpes, or els in adioyned platformes, bulwarks, or Caualieres, sholdered and arteficially made, which doo couer or shadow thē, neither in déepe Ditches that doo incompasse them: for that the oppositions bee­ing manifest, the one may be scaled and the other broken downe with Pickaxe & Spade, for by the fauourable couer of close and crooked Ditches and Trenches, Pyoners may very easily be gui­ded, with those and such like instruments vnto them, beeing euer accompanied with a good garde of Souldiours.

Note that the Bastillions be massiue, the Parapettes grosse, the Gabions strong and stifly radled, and full of good matter of earth, purged from stones, apt to be incorporated, and cleaue together: and aboue all, it is requisite, the Fortresse be compassed wyth strong Ditches, that is to say, cutte out of firme and naturall grounde, and not forced vppe of heaped earth, which is remooue­able, and that they be large, profound and deepe, in the which the fortification may remaine couered, and closely hid, euen to the height of the Scarpe, and edge of the same, to the intent the Para­pettes be onely seene and no other.

Take speciall care that the Scarpe of the wall or the Tren­ches, doo not so much decline, that by theyr ouer-much declinati­on, the circuit of the Forte, the which is in making, be not deuou­red and made straighter then was determined, and the worke did require: the want of the obseruation wherof, hath brought many fortifications to great defects.

When these fortifications be redused, into a reasonable con­dition & perfect forme: it is an easie thing for a Mason to man­tle the same with a wall of stone, sande, and chalke, being a mor­ter more firme and stable, doone by the ayde neuerthelesse, of those that haue knowledge in Architecture. For that in the greatest part of thys worke it is not necessarie, that the wall therof cause any other effect, thē onely to sustaine, wyth his counterforts and other arteficiall deuises, the weight of the earth, and to prouide [Page 285] in the one and in the other of them, as neere as it is possible, Countermines, lyghtes, breathings, hoales or windowes, and pittes, wrought in theyr right places, and in due sorte: therby to auoyde and make frustrate, the Mynes, hoales and Ouens, that the enimy shall cause to be made. By ye comoditie of which Coun­termines, is vnderstoode and known very comodiously, when the enemy dooth secretly labour vnderneath the earth, to annoy the besieged.

To bee aduertised therof, place within these Caues vpon the playne ground, a Drum, on the one end, and lay certaine dice vp­pon the skinne, which dice, the enemy labouring vnder the earth, neere vnto the wall, cannot lye still and quiet: but by reason of theyr worke vnder the earth, (although not séene of the Defen­dants) doe remoue and leape. Otherwise placing within the sayd Countermynes, and vpon the playne ground, a bason of Copper, Tinne, or Brasse, or of such like mettall, full of Water, the ene­mie labouring vnder the earth, neere vnto the wall, by reason of the sayd strokes and working, although the same remayne vn­séene of the eye, neuerthelesse the water shall be séene to remooue and tremble, a manifest shewe of their myning, which may sud­daynly be preuented, by meanes of these Countermynes, or such like preparation as dooth serue for that purpose.

Some vse to lay a sacke of Wooll in the Countermines, and vpon the same a bason of Copper wherein is put thrée or 4. round harde pease, the which will mooue and ring against the side of the bottome of the bason, at the strokes of the Miners of the enemie.

These walled Countermines, séeme to be sufficient to finde out any other hidden or secrete deceite of ye enemie, neither ought they in my iudgement, to be dispraysed, as some doe, which cause them not to be made in their fortifications, alledging for their er­cuse, the auoyding of expence, which presumption, perchance in the ende, will become the cause of theyr ruine.

Note that the firme and reall deefnce, consistes more in the thicke and grosse platformes of earth, béeing well compounded and made of good matter, rather then in stone walles, although they be meruailous massiue, and of extreame thicknes, conside­ring that against the force and violent furie of Artillarie, that substaunce dooth most resist, and receiue lesse domage by theyr blowes, giuing place with an arteficiall yeelding, rather then by [Page 286] the force of stubborne resistaunce.

It is manifest, that to ruinate or make that wall to fal, which dooth lightly giue place to the blowes of the Artillarie, and suffers the bullets to enter and pearse the same with smal difficultie, that the same be shaken, cut and loosed with the often blowes of Artil­larie, and by the often reiterating of vollées of shot, (as of necessi­tie you must) to breake and beate downe the same: yet notwith­standing there followes very small effect, for that sometimes the same is battered lesse, and with lesse furie then is requisite. But the massiue wall of stone, greater ruine is made by the enemy thē sometimes he desires, and with small labour, which onely comes to passe by the stubborne resistance of the firme and massiue deade wall: the which the Artillarie for the most part, as well farre of the battery, as néere it, only by ye forceable shaking therof, brings great confusion to the defenders.

Therefore besides these foresaid aduertisements, it is conue­nient a good Souldiour, haue long practise of the effects, & extreme force of the Artillarie, and of the diligent arte and infinite polli­cies, vsed of souldiours of valour, the which is farre more then a­ny witte of small practise can imagine, since that he is not capable of any thing, but that his simple iudgement doth behold.

And for thys respect, besides a particuler profession in this art, it behoues hym of necessity to be able to draw proportions. That he haue knowledge in the art prospectiue, in numbers, in measure, in making of Gabions, in making of Lotte, compounde & simple, to nayle them dispearse and sowe them, to compounde Fagote of good boughes, to know how to ioyne and mayle with wood, these kynde of workes, to dispearse and distribute the earth with suffici­ency, and that it be well deuided or sifted amongst the Fagots and cliftes, to the ende that they may be easyly endomaged with fyre, and thereby to make them stedfast.

To beate well downe and fasten the labour with maules of wood, to giue reasonable and easie issue to the course of water, that might chaunce to make corruption, and to make cloach large and walled, and not otherwise: for that by meanes of water, such lyke workes are accustomed to receiue great ruines and hinderance. And it is necessary moreouer for him to knowe: howe with due measures to forme Bulwarkes, Caualieres, Platformes, straight and crooked, Casemates, Couers, Canoneres, Merlones, Cur­tines [Page] [Page] [Page 287] Scarpes, false Portes, secrete issues for footemen and horse men, Counterditches, Ditches, Sholders and Counterscarpes, and he must beware that in hys parapettes, he make no windows nor loope holes neyther small nor great, to the intent they be not choked, neyther strooken by leuill, nor displanted of the Enimye, with hys Artillarie. But he must prouyde that the sayd Para­pettes be so placed, that very commodiously the Artillarie, the Muskets, the Hargabuziers, and all other sortes of offensiue wea­pons, may play and trouble the Enimy, without being (as is af­foresayde) manifestly disturbed and displanted by the enimy.

Touching the entryes or Gates which bee made to enter into Fortresses: they ought to bee made in the midst of the Curtine, or rather neere adioyning to the flanke of the Bulwarke: with a bridge of wood, to the intent that in time of siege, the same may be cut downe or burnt. The Porte ought to be so lowe, that being on the Counterscarpe without, the same remayne discouerd. It is requisite also, that at the entrie of the sayd Porte, there be a safe place for diuers respects: and specially to keepe assured the Soul­diours Armes.

In the bottome of the Merlone, or rather néere adioyning to the flancke of the Bulwarke, an issue must be made, which may serue for the Souldiours (whilst the batterie is in making) to issue foorth: to the intent also they may defende the Dytch, and take a­way the ruines of the batterie, because they would hinder the Cannoniers, and be a meanes that the enemie myght approch the néerer.

There be many which require that the Curtines shold com­passe, or be bended inward towardes the Fortresse, with a plat­forme eyther within or without, or a Caualiere vpon the brinke of the sayd Curtine. They alledge for theyr reason, that the enemy thereby is much more endomaged, and that his battery is more crooked, and therefore procures lesse danger to the Fortresse then if it were straight. But I am of an opinion, that if a man worke in that sort, the bulwarks cannot haue theyr ample places, and thicke sholders, to be able to sustaine the blowes of the Artillarie, and euen so it should be likewise difficile to make retraites.

Therefore I thinke it is not good to haue the Curtines folded compasse wise or crooked, if the situation of the place doo not re­quire the same. But I would rather they should be straight from [Page 288] one Bulwarke to another.

And furthermore, it were good that they were of such length, that not only the great Cannons of the first place, but also the smal Peeces may clense the front of ye Bulwarke. Some perchance wil affirme, that the Curtyne being short, the great Cannons would become hurtfull to the Bulwarks of the Fortresse. For aunswere whereof, I say: That in the first place when the enimie doth as­sault the Forte, the great Cannons ought not to bee charged with bullets, for defence of the sayd Forte: but rather filde with peeces of yron, or of some other Mettall, or with stones or chaynes, for these thinges worke a marueilous effect, against the assaults and Escalades which the Enimie doth giue.

To shoote bullets in great Cannons were good, when the Ditch is full of Rockes and heapes of stones: for the sayd Bullet striking amidst the sayd he apes of stones, dispearsing & sparkeling them, will make a great slaughter of those which giue the assault. Bullets in the great Cannons be good also to break the Trenches and Engines, which the enimies make within the Dith: Moreo­uer the length of the Curtine beeing correspondent to the carying of the small Peeces, is cause that the shot of the sayde Peeces, be­comes the dispatch and mortalitie of the Enimies, and the defence and sustentation of the Fortresse: for almost against all Fortres­ses, the Enimie worketh vnder the Curtine with Trenches, in cutting through the Counterscarpe, or rather by filling of y ditch, thereby the more commodiously to cut the sayde Curtine or Bul­warke, and so make steppes or degrees, to ascende to giue assault to the Fortresse: as I sawe performed at the siege of Limbourgh, the head Citty of that Dutchie, where the Prince of Parma being Lieuete [...]ant of the Armie, in Don Iohn d'austria hys absence, betwixt the batterie and the breach in bottome of the dry Ditch, certaine close couerts were made, from whence the Souldiers might ascend vp to giue the assault, by certayne steppes cut out of the hyll and Bulwarke it selfe, by which the towne was entred, although in ende it yeelded.

It is profitable to haue water in the ditch, when a Fortresse is situate in such a place, that it borders vppon diuers Enimies: for water brings with it this comodity, that vnawares in the night, it cannot be assaulted by Escalade. Water likewise is profitable to small Fortresses, wherein there is not such great numbers of peo­ple, [Page 289] as one may be able to make issue for the defence thereof.

But for a great Fortresse where it is necessary to make sal­lies, it is requisite the ditch be dry, for that in the same a man hath space to make retraites, and is farre more commodious to make issues and sallies, to defende the sayd Ditch, specially if the bancke descending from the Curtine, bee cutte rounde with couert and close Trenches, euen with the Counterscarpe: as was about the dry Ditch of Louayne, vnder the gouernment of my Collonell the Baron of Cheuerau, when we did dayly attend the siege of 60000. men in Campe by Machlin, guided by Casamire and the Counte Bossu. 1578.

Lyke wise a Ditch being dry, one may comodiously take away the ruines, which the Enimyes make with theyr batteries: to the intent the sayde ruines, doe not serue the Enimie for a Ladder or steppes, to mount vp to the Fortresse, and for a Trench.

A dry Ditch hath likewise thys good cōmoditie, that when the Enimy would fill it with Fagotes, they may be the more easilie burnt, the which woulde not come to passe, if water were in the same, which doth extinguish fyre, and make the Ditch more easie to be filde.

Water is lykewise more daungerous in the time of Frost: for that being frosen, it maketh the walles more apt and easie to bee scaled and surprised. The dry Ditch is in this to be commended, that when the Souldiers sallie out to skirmishe, or do any other action, and would retyre by reason of the violent charge the Eni­mye giues them, they may saue themselues in the dry Ditch, if the draw bridge of the Fortresse were forced to be drawn vp.

A drye Ditch is lykewise good, that vpon any suddayne affaire or inuasion in tyme of warre, one may saue the Cattell of the ad­ioyning Country, within the sayd Ditches.

Notwithstanding all these deuises for ye defending of a Fortres being cōsidered, yet am I of a groūded opinion, that it is no wyse­dome to put such assured repose and trust in a Fortresse, howe strong soeuer it be, and how well victualled and furnished with all necessary thinges, that it is able of it selfe continually or any long tyme, to resist the force of a Royall Armie: For ether the Defen­dours become wearie, or by warlike sallies deuoured, wasted, and so by little and little, remayne consumed, or else the munition and the victualles, the which consists of infinite thinges, do fayle, if [Page 290] not in all respects, at leastwise in some particulers: the which, al­though it séeme to haue beene very little, yet hath it béene manie times the occasion of a generall losse: so that it dooth much more ensue when the principall things doo want, as water, wood, bread, wine, beare, vineger, salt, dryed flesh, and such like particulari­ties, necessary for mans life.

Moreouer, these things following, may procure the losse and ruine of a Fortresse, fyring of the Munition, the vaine consuming of the same, or by the meanes of Mutinies, secrete treasons, the death of some principall person, or els the deuouring domage which the sundry shots of the Artillary hath made: and cheefelie where somtimes dooth want matter to repaire ye ruine of a breach, and to stop vp ye battered wall. Sometimes the carelesse dilligence of the Captaines and souldiours defendants, suffer the Towne to be wonne by Mynes. And others haue béen gained by onely spade and pickaxe, as was attempted by Duke Charles at Metz, and performed by the great Turke before Famagosta in Cypres, the which they performe in thys sort. With fiue or sixe thousande Pyoners, they begin a rowling Trench, somwhat far from the Ditches, and neuer cease day nor night, vntill they haue perfor­med theyr enterprise, wherfore they place their Pyoners by garde and course, that one part workes whilst another rests, and when the earth is at the beginning raised the height of a man, and of the largenes that the same Trenches is to be made, there doe some of the Pyoners stand aloft, to cast vp the earth that those beneath cast vnto them, and so they alwaies continue, euen vntil such time as they haue made a Mountaine, neere to the Ditch. And when they be there, they make Bastillions, to withstand the sallies that those of the Towne might make vpon the Pyoners, & so alwaies wyth great numbers of Pyoners, they cast thys Mountaine into the Ditch, the which consequently béeing as high or higher then the wall, they enter with the same into the Fortresse, and so at their pleasure expugne the same, against which, it séemes that nei­ther men nor Artillary can preuaile to vse defence, but that time will eate them out.

Yet thys notwithstanding, euery Fortresse in a Frontire, or vpon the border of any Country of importance, ought to be made as strong as is possible, without sparing of any cost, who although they cannot as is aforesaid, resist the reall force of an Armie, ne­uerthelesse [Page 291] they may entertaine and deferre time after time, vn­till such time as the part assaulted doo resolue to entreate of peace, truce, or accord: or els procure such prouision, as shall be suffici­ent for his defence vntil succour arriue to relieue the besi [...]ged. As in the yéere 1565. when the Ile of Malta was succourd against the mightie Turkish Armie, a thing no lesse wisely then coura­giously performed: the same being galantly defended 4. Monthes against continuall assaults, infinite furie, and innumerable shotte of Artillarie, to the eternall memory of the defenders. Yet for all this theyr braue disposition, if they had not béene succoured, the strong Fortresse had béene lost, a thing to be noted of such as be Opiniatro.

Therefore all the foresaid aduertisements and many others, which appertaine to like matter, that I heere for breuities sake omit to write, ought to be well vnderstood, searched and disciphe­red, and with the practise and right iudgement of a notable Soul­diour, not onely conceiue and carrie in minde euery perfect subiect and discourse, but also haue at his fingers ends, all that eyther he hath séene or may be séene, or any thing able to be put in executi­on touching such important affayres.

Likewise he must be of profound knowledge, and apt to yéeld ayde and giue counsayle when néede requires, or when he is cal­led thereunto by his Prince. For by such vertuous meanes, more then by other that be lesse lawfull, idle and vicious, hee may vn­doubtedly make himselfe acceptable, and become gratefull to eue­rie great personage: to which good disposition and sufficiencie it followes, that of them he shall be very much employed & estéemed, and so consequently shall come to merite the honour, profit, and recompence due for so great trauaile.

The which, although it doo not succéede and fall out spéedily, yet time doth bring forth the same, who béeing the father of truth, dooth faithfully in the end, manifest the merite or demerite of the man, to the confusion of the wicked and vicious worldlings, who by vile iniquitie work to blind the excellencie of other mens ver­tues and valour.

Two things therefore there be that time can not deuoure, although that intirely it discouer the same, neyther can Fortune destroy them, and they be: The vertue of those men which bee written in Bookes: And the knowne truth. The which although [Page 292] for a tyme they may be hydd [...]n, yet in the end they appeare to be cléere and manifest. And therefore the woorthy actions of a good man, is the occasion that we should haue him in great estimation: for which respect, in the ende he ariseth to be wonderfully rewar­ded.

The order that is to be obserued, when a Fortresse is not able to be wonne by Batterie, Assault, Escalade, Mynes or Rowling Trench, but by Famine.

WHen a Generall that hath taken the charge of a siege, shall assuredly know, that the Cittie or Fortresse that hee shall besiege, cannot be taken by force in any sort whatsoeuer, but that he must gaine the same by a long siege. Fyrst he must with al dil­ligence and good counsaile, oftentimes discouer and view the situ­ation of the place, and choose the seate where hee may Encampe and lodge his Souldiours. Aboue all things he must beware that he plant himselfe in such a place, as that the ayre become not cor­rupted, taking for example Mounsieur de Law [...]rec at the siege of Naples, who by his occasion, besides the ouerthrowe of his enter­prise, lost both all hys Armie and his owne lyfe, with the ruine of a great part of the Nobility of Fraunce.

That he choose likewise a place that is proper for his purpose, through the commoditie of wood and water, and other necessary things for mans sustenaunce, and couert and safe from danger of the enemies Artillary, as much as is possible. If the place that hée dooth besiege be great, and furnished with great number of Foote­men and Horsemen, which be able to make sallies and come to skyrmish, he must incontinently take order, that hys Campe bee fortifyed in such sort, as he shall thinke most conuenient to fronte the force of the enemie.

Thys doone, he must take from the enemies, all the commo­dities he can, as water and all other things, which may yéeld them sustenaunce or reliefe, and to reduse them to the greatest necessity he can.

Moreouer, it hath béene séene by experience, that to deuide an Armie, and to make it ouerweake when it is neere a Cittie, is a very dangerous thing, principally when there is great force of [Page 293] braue and valiant Souldiours within the Towne. As fell out at the siege of Florence, where two Chiefes were elected, the one on thys side the Riuer Arno towards the North, which were the Al­maines, and the other towards the South, where was the person of the Generall with the greatest force of the Armie. Florence therefore to deliuer it selfe from such continuall toyle, did sallie out by night, and assault the Almaine Armie with such furie, that had there not béen great disorder amongst the assailants, the Almaine Armie had entirely béene ouerthrowne, and Florence had béen de­liuered from siege on that side.

Wherefore I thinke the most assured and the easiest way is, to enclose and restraine the besieged Towne by means of Forts, as was practised in the warres at Mirandell and Sienna.

Uisite dilligently all the waies and passages, by the which succours may be giuen to the Towne besieged. At euery such place you ought to make a Forte, and to approoch so néere, as with foure Forts or more you may enuiron all the Cittie. I woulde not haue these Forts for that they be litle, to be feeble, neither that they should be situate in such a place, but that they might ayde one another. The forme which I would wish them to be of, I haue héere sette foorth.


Afterwardes, with the rest of his Armie, he must plant him selfe in such a place, as from thence at time of neede, he may suc­cour his Forts, or at the least with one part thereof, hauing fyrst sounded the force of the enemie: then taking the Artillary which he shall thinke most necessary, hee shall endeuour himselfe to be­come the Maister of the Countrey round about him: specially of such places as he is able to force. Héereby he may reape great cō ­modity, [Page 294] as well by victualles, wherby he may nourish his Armie, as that thereby hee shall take away from the besieged all hope of succour, and likewise by that meanes, cause his Armie to be fea­red: so that the Countrey eyther through loue or feare, shall ney­ther take occasion to rebell, or yéeld him any resistance.

What is to be obserued, when any Cittie or For­tresse is able to be expugned by battery &c. to approach and besiege the same.

[...] Presently haue declared, howe much it importeth to choose for encamping a plotte of ground, commodious, healthfull and as­sured: now I will speake of the order which is to be vsed, and ne­cessary to be obserued, when a Generall supposeth himselfe able to gayne a Fortresse or Cittie by maine force of Armes.

Fyrst the Marshall of the fielde must goe with practised soul­diours, and of tryed experience in the warres, well accompanied, to the intent they may safely viewe and consider the circuite and situation of the Towne, and to sée vpon what side Trenches may be made for the planting of the Artillarie.

Aboue all he must be careful and prouident, that the earth be of such nature and qualitie, that it will receiue the Spade & Pick­axe, and be apt to make Trenches in, and other necessary thinges to couer themselues against the enemie.

To thinke that a man may perfectly discouer & view a Towne or Fortresse eyther in the day or in the nyght, it is impossible: for in the day, the enemie will not giue a man leaue or leysure, at leastwise if they be men of courage. In the night one cannot di­rectly and thorowly, neyther discouer the flankes, Bulwarks and Ditches, neither behold many particularities, which be necessary to him, which will aptly & in good order prepare himselfe to make an assault.

But the same discouery may be well and commodiously doone, when the Trenches shall be made, the which may bring him euen to the Ditches. There the Generall himselfe may at his ease, be­hold and discerne all that he desires to know.

Touching the manner and fashion to make the Trenches, al­though there be diuers opinions, neuerthelesse for the greater sa­tis-faction [Page 295] of the Reader, I haue drawne out diuers fashions, which séeme to be most commodious, most sure, and most easie, as in the sundry portratures of thys Booke dooth appeare.

But aboue all he must prouide, that in the Trenches there be places to plant the bodie of the watch assured: and in such sort as they may be able to giue succoure one to another.

Likewise there ought to be issues or passages to goe out of them, as you may behold by thys figure.


Thys doone, you must choose a place to plant your Artillarie, with Gabions, Wooll-packs, and other Engines proper to those affayres, and carefully take order and foresee, that the Maister Gunner, and Cunstable of the Artillarie, and other inferiour Of­ficers, haue experience and good knowledge herein.

Accomodate thicke boardes or tymber close together, where the battery is planted, for the Artillarie to run vpon: and foresee that those planckes, yeelde a certaine fall and discending to to­wards the Cannones, to the intent that after they bee recueled, they may be the more easily brought againe into theyr places. By this meanes the péeces shall remaine assured from running and sincking into the grounde in wette and rainie weather.

Diuers are of opinion, that the Artillarie ought not to bee planted any further distance of from the Fortresse, more then one hundred and fyftie pases, if the situation of the grounde will permitte.

[Page 296]I will omitte to speake of the qualitie of the Artillarie. One­ly I say, that according to the vse in this age, the Cannons ought to bee of thréescore, renforced in such sort, that a man neede not to feare that they shall not remaine firme and iust, although they be shotte from the morning euen vnto the euening.

The greater the battery is made, and with the greater num­ber of péeces, the more shall he astonish the enemie, and make ea­sie his enterprise: specially if the battarie may be crossed and tra­uersed.

If you can haue the commoditie to rayse vppe a Caualier or Mount, so that thereby the Curtine may be discouered, the same shall remaine of great aduantage.

Note that you must continually shoote without ceasing if it be possible, for it imports very much, when ye giue the besieged no leysure to take breath or make repayre. Cease not likewise to shoote in the night, for the performaunce whereof there is manie good meanes, as héereafter (if leysure will permitte) I meane to write of.

You shall make your Trenches néere to the Ditch, principal­lie on that side where the batterie is made, and there you shall place a good troupe of Hargubuziers, and those of the most expert and brauest Souldiours in the Armie, who likewise must haue theyr Corpes de garde, with theyr issue and passage, theyr Corpes de garde, may behaue themselues in that order as you may be­hold, in such sort, as they may likewise serue for the flancks, the enemies Artillary first displanted.

These Hargabuziers or rather Musketeares, must haue Pée­ces of two ounces of Calibre, for by such like ye besieged are great­lie troubled, principally when the walles and Bulwarkes begin to ruinate. This figure next following makes my former words more apparant.

[Page 297]


By reason that for the most parte, the [...] couer the flanckes, so that a man cannot easily endomage them, the said Counterscarpes must be cutte and opened in such sorte, that the flanckes may be battered

But touching the filling vp of the Ditches, and to couer and choake them, is a worke both difficile and long, if they within the Fortresse be men of courage and experience, vnlesse it bee a row­ling Trench. If the fortification be of earth, the ruine thereof may be attempted, by entering into the Ditch, and cut it downe, as oftentimes it hath béene experienced.

Nowe resteth it to speake somewhat of Mynes and Ca [...]es, for that they be matters of great effect, as hath béene often tryed, [Page 298] aswell in times past as in these dayes. And although sometymes they haue not fallen out according to mans pretence, the same did aryse rather, because they were not well made, then for any other respect. Heerein diuers reasons may be alleaged. Amongst others it hath béene tryed, that going about to mine walles or Platformes, the fyre hath burst out, and forced that part towards the mouth, which was artificially stopt, rather then to ouerthrow and ruine the Bulwarke as was determined.

The same might easily fall out, by reason there was small height giuen to the Caue or vaute, and that by that meanes, shee coulde not take her accustomed force, to ryse vpwarde and worke the effect: but contrariwise she bursteth out, by that parte which is most féeble, without working very little or any domage at all to the Fortresse.

To confirme this saying, I will speake that which hath béen seene by experience, that is, hauing put powder not in great quan titie within Caues and Chambers, which haue not béene entyre­ly stopt: but haue diuers issues, as doores and windows, the same hath procured great ruines, and much more then a man woulde thinke.

Therefore in mine opinion, the same hath come to passe, for that the fyre hath had both space and height to worke his forces: the which hath beene such, as there hath beene no obstacle or en­counter, which woulde haue béene sufficient to haue repressed the same, and sent it to the open places, but it hath wrought and per­formed his course, according to the effect of his nature. Therfore when these Caues or Uautes are made, as dooth appertaine, gy­uing them such forme, as this Element may worke his force and effect, certaynely they bring foorth marueilous effects.

But for that these thinges are necessary to be entreated of in particulers, I will beginne a fresh to d [...]late somewhat more largely thereof. Therefore when an Armie doth march to besiege any Citty: It is necessary before hand, to examine the intelli­gences of such persons, as perfectly knowe the situation thereof, the strength, and all the wayes and passages vnto the same. And hauing together with the principall Captaynes, made full dis­course thereof, for theyr perfect instruction: determination must be made, what is to be done vppon theyr approch to the Towne, and what lodgings must be ceased vpon at the first, whether one, [Page 299] two, or more according to the situation of the place, and as is most conuenient. For it is euer much better, for two reasons, to lodge euen at the first, as neere vnto the Portes and Gates as it is pos­sible.

The one is, that the enemy thereby shall be much abashed and discouraged: the other is, that they shall haue no leysure to burne, the adioyning houses, where the Army may lodge, if before it be not already done: neither shall these bee hindered, to take their Lodgings, or mount their Artillarie, to goe to that lodging a fresh vpon an other day. Sometime it hath béene séene, that the Armie hath planted & lodged it selfe, before 3 or 4 gates at one in­stant, one part of the Campe as soone as an other, the which hath beene tryed very good, so that there were people enough in the Armie. The Marshall of the hoast must be accompanied, with so forcible and strong a band of horsemen and footemen, that he may ouermatch those of the Town: who, if they chaunce to sallie forth either on foote or on horse-backe, to repulse them as furiously as is possible, euen within the Gates: for sometimes there falles out such disorder and confusion, that either they may enter Pesle Mesle, or kill some Chiestana, or make such a slaughter of Souldi­ours, that the Towne shal be much the sooner taken: at the least­wise vpon the repulse, the Master Gunner or Ingeniour, follow­ing the great Marshall, may haue commodity to view and disco­uer the places and plottes, where the Artillarie is to be planted, &c. Which beeing accomplished, the Marshall is to sound the re­traite, and to lodge as néere the Towne as is possible, so that it be without the batterie.

The approches be made by Trenches, and Maunds, & Wooll sackes, as before I haue declared, and as heereafter may appeare by figures, in the defence of a Town. Neuerthelesse, they must be accommodated according to the situation of the grounde, and tur­ned and compassed according to the opposite Bulwarkes of the e­nemy, the which are to bee begun [...]e in the night, specially the planting of the batterie.

The Trenches are to be made, high, great, large, and déepe, for the safety of the Soldiours, and such men of account as vse to come into them: in respect that the Prince himselfe, may some­times goe into them, neuertheles verie seldome.

The Trenches beeing begunne where the Artillarie is, they [Page 300] must be continued on euen to the Gates, thereby to cut of sallies. And against all the Portes, make a Bulwarke of Gabions, one vppon an other, and if it bee possible, néerer the Towne then the Trenches, both to stoppe their battery alongst the Trenches, and to barre theyr sallies.

Upon that side towardes the Campe, must be made Ditches & little Trenches, for ye Corps de Garde, of those that must guard the Trenches, wherein must remayne such number of Combat­tants, as they may be able to repulse the enemie vntil succour ar­riue, which must be vpon great necessity: and then beeing ayded with some mayne squadrone, to repulse them with great furie.

For the better prohibiting and knowledg of which issues and sallies, it is not only requisite, to aduaunce the Trenches euen to the Counterscarpe and brincke of the Ditch, but also to haue lost Sentinelles euery night betwixt the Towne and the Trenches, within the sayd Ditch, if it be dry. Wherein lykewise a good In­geniour, may worke many good deuises.

The Marshall must if occasion serue, fortifie towardes the Champayne, place the Princes or Generals lodging in the midst of the Campe, that he may giue order to all mutinies, sallies, alla­rums, and disorders. And if the Towne be well peopled, to make certaine such Fortes as before I haue set downe, gouerned wyth valiant Captaynes, and good bandes of Soldiours, to kéepe shorte the enemy. And those lodgings or Campes so well distributed, that they may remayne safe from inuasion, yet so apt to come to­gether, that vpon the ariuall of any Armie, they may at one in­stant issue out, and be ranged together in battaile to fight: and therefore if a Riuer passe through the Towne, a bridge must be placed to passe ouer, guarded at both endes with bandes of Soul­diours, that thereby victualles and succours may be barred from the enemy. It is rather to be placed aboue, then beneath vpon the Riuer, in respect to auoyde burning by artificiall fyre, or else to be planted where they looke chéefely for succours.

Obseruations for an assault, and the sacke of a Citty.

WHen the batterie of the Cannous haue made sufficient breach, and that the same is saultable, great diligence and celeritie is to be vsed, for that diuers thinges at one instant are to [Page 301] be done. The Campe must be all in armes, and in battayles: the Assaylants ready in the Trenches to giue assault, & the Pyoners to carry Ladders, or such Engines as are inuented for the safety of the Souldiours. If the Ditch be full of water, and that the same hath neither beene cut down, nor drawne drye by artificiall Milles, and buckets, such as béere Brewers vse. Then must the Pyoners roul forward the artificiall Bridge, made vpon Barrels of purpose for that respect, hauing before cut the Counterscarpe to put the same into the ditch: the which must be done nimblie, and at one instant. During which time, the Artillarie must beate to­wardes that place, to barre the besieged from endomaging the action.

Also when the great Master of the Artillarie, shall perceiue the batterie to haue made large, easie, and sufficient breach, & to haue displaced the flankers. He must giue aduertisement, that the Assailants may procéede, if the assault be first determined vpon. Which beeing concluded: the assailants must remayne ready and in order to aduance, when the last blow of the Cannon is gy­uen, and that they beholde the ruinous fall, of that which was de­termined to bée battered, & then shall all the Artillarie discharge, great and small. And when the Souldiours begin to march for­wardes to the assault, each one shal shoote to breake the remparts and other strengthes, which it may be the enemy hath made, and thereby to amaze them the more. But then must the great Artil­larie cease to shoote at the batterie, for feare of hurting your own people: but they shall shoote at the defences which shall be some­what further of, and the which might aryse to be hurtefull to the sayd Assailantes.

But the lesse Péeces shall alwayes shoote at the breach, vntil such time, as they sée their people past the Ditch, and that they be mounted as high as the sa [...]d breach, and so cease there.

It hath béene vsed of some, to put all the Campe in Armes, (hauing determined in what place they will assault, which is in the greater number the better, but in two at the least) for pollicie to make shew with inuaston, cryes and noyse of Drums, towards that place where hee meanes not to giue the ass [...]ult, to amaze those within the Forte, and also to seperat the [...] into diuers pla­ces, to the intent, they may haue lesse at the breach: and accor­dingly put his people in order, that is to say, at the two places [Page 302] where he meanes to make the assault in good earnest, consisting of strong and puissant bandes: all which companies must marche close and sacried together in this order following.

First if néede should require, there must bee certayne people ready to carry Ladders and such Engines, to addresse and reare them to the breach. After them must followe, the men at Armes, and other Souldiours well armed, which must goe ioyntly toge­ther with them that carry the Ladders.

The shotte, aswell Musket as Hargabuziers, ought to bee within the Trenches, and so euery band which is to assault, is to remayne in order, and must march aflote and in troupe: for whe­ther it be to ascend the breach, or Ladders, the last must thrust the formost forwardes and vpwardes. And from the time they begin to march, the Artillarie must shoote: to the end, the enemies haue no leysure, to shoote at them that march in the Ditches.

And when they are within the sayd Ditches, the small Ar­tillarie must alwaies batter at the defences and breach, vntill such time as thy come hande to hande. And likewise the shotte, aswell Musket as Hargabuziers, must be vpon the brincke of the Ditch, alwaies shooting and defending, that not one of the towne do so much as appeare at their defences or loope-holes.

The high Marshall of the fielde, must stand with the rest of the Armie ranged in battaile, and placed in such conuenient sort as is néedefull. And this for thrée reasons.

First, if the enemies should giue charge vpon the Armie, du­ring the assault: hee must bee of sufficient power to defende the Campe, which must bee so well fortified, that he may resist anie force or inuasion.

Secondly, if it bee necessary a fresh supplie, for the assault: hée must culle out such and so manie, as will serue the turne, and send them immediatly.

Thirdly, if the Assailants shoulde bee repulsed, and that they did retyre, which is to be presupposed, will be in disorder & confu­sedly, neither is it otherwise possible, and that those of the towne thereupon doe make a sallie, it being not like that those should be brought to make front, that were so lately forced to retyre. The high Marshall must then march in order, with some maine Bat­tillion to succour his people, & to repulse the enemies, and so may it appeare, to what ende the order and battailes ranged in the Campe doe serue.

[Page 303]If as I said before, it chaunce that the Assaylants be repul­sed, as great store of shotte as is possible, must be retained vppon the brinckes of the Ditches within the Trenches, to shoote al­waies at the defences. And likewise the Cannoniers ought to be readie at that instant to doo theyr duetie, if it so chaunce. For it is the custome of the besieged, at the repulse of an Assault, the soul­diours more willingly doo show themselues, and appeare carelesly at the breaches then at the beginning, through the hart and cou­rage they haue taken to sée theyr enemies repulsed, and likewise at the loope holes, and ouer the Rampiers, for they thinke thē that no man can hurt them. So that if the shotte be plyed, it shal great­ly endomage them, benefit the retraite very much, and shall saue many good Souldiours.

If the Armie be lodged in three or foure seueral Camps, & for­tefyed lodgings as before I haue touched, euery one in theyr quar ter must thus be guided. And during the assault, the General, Ser­giant Maiors, and other Counsellers of the warre, must haue an eye to all things, and specially to the nature and qualitie of the as­saults, ayding them with all artificiall and warlike inuentions. And if there be any that linger behinde at the tayle of the rest, there must be Officers appointed of purpose (without sparing of any) to chase them forwards, with naked swordes, and pe [...]force them with blowes to accompany the Assaylants.

The Generall, or the great Maister of the Artillarie, (as I haue already said) must vse dilligence, to cause the Gunners and the other shotte to ayde the assault, but so as they hurte not theyr owne companions. Neyther must the Generall euer rest in any one place, but ryde héere and there, and direct all thinges, vnlesse he haue the commoditie to see all the assaults and affayres of the Campe, from some place or platforme: from whence he must by some worthy Caualieres giue order what is to be doone.

If any alarum chaunce in the Armie, towardes the Cham­paigne during the assault, those which be at the assault, must not leaue nor slacke theyr duetie: for the Marshall and those Collo­nels appointed for that purpose, are to resist the same.

It hath béene somtimes likewise séene (although very seldom) that a number of Souldiours haue sallied out of the Towne, du­ring the assault, to be an impediment to the Assailants, and to af­fright them behind. And therefore the Marshall of the Fielde, ha­uing [Page 304] seuerall Squares by themselues for such like accidents, must sende one of them, that may incontinently marche to gyue them a furious repulse, and to enter pesle-mesle with them if it be possible. It is a thing almost neuer accomplished, yet neuerthe­lesse they must doo theyr deuoire.

Nowe if it chaunce that the Towne be taken by assaulte, a publique band or cry must be made, that the bootie and sacke, shal be gyuen as well to them that haue stood in battayle, as to those that were at the Assault. Other wise, it were almost impossible to constraine any one to kéepe order, but that euery one woulde be at the spoyle.

Immediatly vpon the taking of the Towne, the Prince or Generall, béeing accompanied with 20. or 30. Caualieres, and o­ther of his Garde, must enter into the Towne, with his sworde naked in his hand, and must goe to the principall Church to giue God thanks for his victorie, and also to defend, that the ornaments which appertaine to the Church be not pylled nor robbed, & must leaue people to garde the same. And if the enemie doo not stand to theyr defence in the Churches, he must prohibite and hinder to his power that no blood be shedde in them, for the house of God ought to be pure and frée from slaughters.

And from thence he must goe to other Churches, and by and in the streetes likewise, hinder such euils. Incontinently he must make cry through the Cittie, that none vppon payne of hanging, neither take nor spoyle any Churches.

Also that vpon thys paine, none doo violate, nor vse force to a­ny religious woman, and that not any also doo violate Maydes, or married women, or any others against theyr wils, which lawes must be strongly kept, and those seuerely punished that offends therein. &c.

Thys doone, he must sende for his Marshall of lodgings, and cause him to deuide the Quarters, for those people he would haue lodged in the Towne: wherein there is alwaies some trouble, and many debates doo arise. For those which haue pilled and taken the houses, will not auoide by theyr good willes, and therefore hée must haue a good eye, that these dissentions and debates doo not a­rise. For oftentimes whole bands doe trouble themselues wyth these particulers.

Some to auoyde these dissentions, doo sweare certaine sub­stantiall [Page 305] persons of euery Bande, to make booties for all the rest, and to become accountable that equall distribution may be vsed, it béeing brought to the Ensigne, which thing I iudge impossible to be obserued in our age.

It hath béene the vse in some Armies, that after the winning of a Towne, to retyre to the Campe. And of some, that they did all withdrawe themselues within the Towne, and lodge there. Which two contrarieties, I leaue to the discretion of the Chiefe­taines: vnlesse the Campe béeing very well fortefyed and acco­modated, and contrariwise the Towne small and straight of lod­ging: in this case I would wish them to retire to the Campe, es­pecially if you meane to put a Garison in the Towne, thereby to auoyde the spoyle of victuals, and other confusions.

But if the Campe be not well fortefied, and that you doo feare the comming of the Enemie, and that the Towne be wide and great, sufficient to lodge your Armie: then shal it be good to enter the Towne, for it shall be hard vpon occasion when necessitie re­quires, to cause all the Souldiours to retyre out of the Towne to the fielde, but that a great part will remaine behind, vnlesse a man will sette the whole Towne on fyre, which is the onely way to cause them abandon the Towne, and otherwise not, but with great labour and length of time.

Thus haue I partly touched what is to be doone at the assault of a Towne, at the sacke thereof, and after the spoyle. Onelie I haue omitted, that the great Maister of the Artillary, to procure a spéedie battery, must now and then, to harten and encourage the Gunners, giue them seuerally and vpon occasion, certaine péeces of money or gold, to make them apply a pace the battery.

And likewise that the Generall, when the souldiours stande readie to giue the assault, and that they be in order to march, that he cause to be published before the Assailants, that the first which foreseth the breach and enters the Towne, shal haue such a sum of money by him limitted, and the second so much, which is lesse, and the third not so much as the other two. The which shal make them more couragiously to kisse the ground, and to aduance them selues forwarde, to repulse the Enemie valiantly, and to enter tryumphantly.

What is to be obserued of those, which haue charge giuen them to keepe and defende a Fortresse, and what re­medies they haue to saue themselues at a siege, batterie, and assault.

HAuing presently declared, how to besiege and expugne a hold, I will now declare the order of the kéeping of a Fortresse, and the meanes wherewith the besieged are to defend themselues, an action to be performed, as well with the quicknes of the spirit, as the prowesse of the body.

Now for that the defence of a Cittie or any Fortresse, is one of the most important affayres, that can in the warres be com­mitted to any mans charge, it is very necessary for him that is to carrie such a burden, that he be very hardie, of good experience, very vigilant, and excéeding rich in inuentions, to the intent hée may be able, redily to resolue vpon all suddaine chaunces, as well to repayre the ruine the Artillary makes, as to furnish himselfe a­gainst diuers accidents that doo fall out, not onely through the want of courage in the Souldiours, but also by reason of the co­wardise and clamours of the people, whereby many inconueni­ences doe arise.

Wherefore he must with his prudent and haughtie courage, resist and striue against the feare and ignoraunce of hys people, carrying in his countenaunce such a maiestie and grauitie, that his commaundements may be of euery one reuerenced, approo­ued for good and performed.

But he cannot enioy these qualities, if hee be not a person of experience, and that in times past hath yéelded good account, and honourable effects of himselfe in his actions.

Moreouer, it is necessary that he shew himselfe most forward of all men, each where, as greatest dangers of importaunce doe principally fall out. Hée must likewise be able with his spéech to encourage his people, for in great affaires & dangers, if a Chiefe­taine cannot serue turne by these meanes, feare wil easily slide in­to the harts of his Souldiours, which afterwards can not bee plucked out but with great paine.

It is likewise requisite he be of such a nature, that he willing­ly suffer to speake, and giue eare to those which would giue hym [Page 307] aduise and counsaile, yea euen of the simple Souldiours, for often times very profitable things be learned of such persons: and ma­ny good counsailes haue béene found hid in a man of base conditi­on. I doo not meane that he should alwaies followe euery aduise that is giuen him, but serue his turne with those that are for his purpose, and reiect the rest.

Let him with dexteritie procure himselfe to be obeyed, as wel by his Souldiours, as by the inhabitants of the place, for obedi­ence is one of the principall things which is necessary to be had in the warres, without the which, all enterprises are made frustrate and turne to nothing. But as the nature of many people is diffe­rent, so I thinke it not alwaies conuenient, to vse lenetie & curte­sie, principally towardes souldiours: Neyther also is it alwayes expedient, to vse terrour and threatnings. Wherefore it shall bee very good, yea and most necessary, to mixe seueritie with curte­sie, and to change nature according to occurrences, and to accomo­date himselfe to the qualitie of the fortune whereinto a man dooth fall.

I must not omit to aduertise the Captaine that shall chaunce to be in such a faction, specially to defend, vpon paine of greeuous punishment, that his people make no spéech with others, neyther amongst themselues, of any composition whatsoeuer with the E­nemie: for if this opinion should spring vp amongst a multitude, it behooues him to quench the same with as great dilligence as is possible: by reason it is a thing which of ordinary dooth happen in Townes that are battered, and that be redused to an extreame perrill. For if these rumors or opinions should once take roote, it shall be afterwards very difficile to stoppe the Souldiours from Mutintes. Let him therefore foresee, that hee preuent the follow­ing of these and all other daungerous euents. Wherefore euerie Chiefetaine, ought to haue this poynt in singuler recommendati­on, for that it toucheth him particulerly, and is of great impor­taunce for the conseruation of his credite and honour. And accor­ding to my iudgement, he shall much more content his Prince, if he loose the same intirely, with magnanimitie of courage, rather then he should yeelde the same with most honourable conditions. For in those conditions dooth not consist the entire satis-faction of his Prince, if it be not that hee be thereunto expresly commaun­ded, and in that case must accept the condition appointed him.

[Page 308]Hée must not haue regard to the sauing of his souldiours, nei­ther to theyr desire: for when the Chiefetaine dooth commit anie fault more then his duetie, the souldiours beare not the blame. It is he vpon whom euery one hath his eyes fixed, and to him it one­ly appertaines to yeeld account to his Prince, and to all ye world, both of his owne actions and of his honour, considering that it is a great griefe for a woorthy Captaine, to haue his honour come in doubt and in question.

But now, to discend to the particulers of kéeping & defending of a Fortresse. He must haue such number and store of Artilla­rie, as is sufficient to garnish the Bulwarks, Platformes, Caua­lieres, and other places where néede requires.

It shall be hard to giue any special particuler rule touching the places where they are to be planted: for according as occasiō doth offer, men are constrained to change aduise, sometimes planting many, and sometimes very fewe, in respect as well of the small number of the assailants, as of his small store of Munition.

It is requisite that euery Péece haue his instruments and ne­cessary furnitures, with sufficient store of bullets and powder.

Besides, a Fortresse must be stored with all sorts of instru­ments, which are knowne by experience, fit and propper for the defence thereof.

Yron worke of all sorts be likewise necessary, coales in great quantitie, with other Munition, which serue for the making of arteficiall fires.

Likewise there must be all prouisions and necessary matters to make powder, and chiefly Milnes of all sorts. Furthermore, instruments for the Pyoners, as Pickaxes, Spades, Shouels, Mattocks, Baskets for the hande, Whéelebarrowes, and other such like Instruments, to carrie earth, wood, fagots, & in summe, all other matters propper to make Ramparts, and to repayre the ruine the Artillary makes.

That there be likewise great numbers of Gabions, to couer and defend themselues from the Artillary, in the which neuerthe­lesse it is not good to trust ouer-much, although they be great and very well fild: for experience hath made proofe, that it is not good to put assured confidence in them: but yet they be altogether ne­cessary, when a man will vse them to couer his people, when hée begins to repayre or make any other worke.

[Page 309]Likewise he must haue all sorts of Artificers, as Carpenters, Smithes, Masons, Cutters of stone, and Quarels, & such like.

The Fortresse must likewise be well furnished, with all sorts of Armes and weapons, that they may be distributed to the soul­diours, people, seruants, prentises, and great Mnchaches when occasion doth require: for it is as great a praise to cōserue a place as to conquere it.

It behooues him moreouer to be very circumspect and carefull, against Camisades and suddaine surprises, cheefely when the E­nemie is so neere, that in one night he may come thither and giue a scalade, as Alba, Casall, and diuers other Fortresses haue felt. The Corpes de gardes and the Sentinels, be not sufficient, when a man hath to deale with an hardie Enemie, which willingly doth try fortune, and delights in actions of the night, the which when they be well conducted grow to meruailous issue.

Besides, the dilligence vsed in the placing of the bodies of the watch and Sentinels, I thinke it very requisite, there should bée sent foorth of the Cittie or Fortresse, eyght or tenne Horsemen, to skoure the way on that side that the Enemie might come to gyue the scalade and assault: for by this meanes you shall remaine as­sured, that there can nothing fall out, whereof you shall not be ad­uertised in due time to prepare your selfe for defence. For want of Horsemen, vse some Footemen, for lost Sentinels, a Culuerine shot from the Towne.

To preuent the dangers which a man may receiue by hys owne proper Souldiours, let not any of them know what Quar­ter they haue to kéepe, neyther in what place they must be sette in Sentinell, but euery night change Quarter, and sende out conti­nuall Rounds by the Gentlemen Caualiers of S. Georges Squa­dron, and Souldiours appointed for that purpose, who carefullie may visite both the bodies of the watch, the generall places of Armes in the Towne, and the Sentinels vpon the walles and in the stréetes, according to the dutie of theyr Office prescribed them in my second Booke.

I iudge it likewise requisite, that he which is Chiefe, which dooth commaund, and hath the kéeping of a Fortresse, must not in any case, permit his Souldiours to practise, deuise and become familiar with the Enemie, as hath béene oftentimes séene, and principally of the Italians and our Nation: but contrariwise [Page 310] ought to defend them the [...]ame, and altogether behaue themselues like Enemies.

Suffer not often to enter into ye Towne the Enemies Drums and Trumpets, for they may be of such craftie and practised qua­litie as might become very hurtfull, and as by experience was séene in the warres of Parma, at the taking of Torchaira, where, by the practise of a Drummer, which had the commodity to view, discerne, the measure and height of the Ramparts, the Towne was taken, and the Prince of Macedonia the Gouernour there­of slayne. Therfore to auoyd such inconuenience, some haue vsed to blindfield the Enemies Drum and Trumpetter, with a scarfe, vpon his first comming to the Sentinell without the Gates, and frō thence to send a Sergiant or other trustie Officer with him, to the Gouernour, who accompanying hym vntill hys returne, may disband hys eyes, a Hargabuze shot from the walles.

I cannot héere passe ouer with silence, one note amongst other great trauels and toyles in warfare, which fals out in the defence of a Fortresse. In that sometimes a Prince or Generall wil com­maund thee to goe into a Towne or Castell, which before hande you know by effect, to be of small defence: wherefore considering it is a difficile thing, for a Souldiour of approoued experience, to yeeld account of hys honor, together with the losse of a Fortresse, many haue thought it good to refuse such a charge, by meanes whereof, they haue lost the good grace of theyr Prince, and haue béene diffamed of him & of the people, and accounted as cowards and dastards. Wherefore in my iudgement, a Souldiour of ho­nour, ought rather to accept such a charge then to refuse it, yea, if it were to runne headlong into manifest danger, dooing his dutie neuerthelesse, with as great dilligence and valour as he can pos­sible.

It is good for all that, he giue his Prince or Generall to vn­derstand, that the same place is of no defence, neuerthelesse, to doo hym seruice, he is resolutly determined to hazard his life therein. Now if hys Chiefetaine be of discretion, as it is to be presupposed he is, and one that will not shewe himselfe ingratefull towardes his Souldiours, he wyll honour this Souldiour, and recompence hym for hys valour and loyaltie.

To come to the defence of a siege, I woulde first require the Chiefetaine, to reade my generall notes of fortification, wherin [Page 311] and in the other parts of this Booke, he shall finde many good ad­uertisements and obseruations.

Moreouer, let him aboue all things, victuall hys Fortresse well, for though it be otherwise inuinsible, yet for want of the same it may be lost: for a Towne beeing once besieged, it is hard to victuall the same, or to discharge it of improffitable mouthes, for the one is very hard & vncertaine, the other doth profit smally, touching which, Florence and Sienna in the wars of Italie may be an example, who going about to vse this remedie, were in the end smally discharged. But alas, with what difficultie and incredible compassion did they obtaine the least part of theyr intent, a thing more miserable then is necessary to be rehearsed, & therfore accor­ding to the place & persons, requisite prouision ought in due time to be made, and to be kept in Storehouses for the siege time.

The number of Souldiours to defende a Fortresse, ought to be greater then those for the ordinary defence of the same when it is not besieged, to the intent there may be store to make sallies and issues: and besides, in the time of a siege many be destroyed and faile, eyther by sworde or sicknes. It is accounted most ne­cessary for the defence of a Cittie or Fortresse, to haue a thousand Souldiours for euery thousand pase, yea and a farre greater num­ber according to the bignesse of the Bulwarks and circuit of o­ther places.

When the Enemie hath enuironed the Towne, and begunne hys approches, it is requisite the Souldiours should likewise en­uiron the walles, and lodge and make theyr Cabbens at the foote of the Curtines and Ramparts, that according to theyr due ap­pointed Quarter, they may be ready vpon all occasions of seruice, keeping neuerthelesse, sufficient Corpes de garde in the Market­place, Towne-house, and other strength, to brydle the mutinous mindes of the Townes men.

Hée must with all dilligence, vse all possible meanes to garde and kéepe the Ditch, with the way which is made in the Coun­terscarpe, which commonly is called the couert way. The same dooth very much import for his defence, and the better dooth hee trauaile the Enemie, if he can hinder the sayde Enemie from ap­proching: for if he make approch, he may easily enter within the Ditch, and open the Counterscarpe, to batter afterwardes the Casemates, and to Myne and dig downe the Ramparts. [Page 312] Hée must not fayle whilst the battery is in making, oftentimes to sende out to discouer and view the Ditch, and to clense the ru­ines which the Artillarie hath made: for these ruines doo hinder the Cannoniers.

But if the force of the Enemie be such, that by the meanes of hys Trenches, he take away the vse of the Ditch, make frustrate the flankes and defences, it is then very necessary, that you re­tyre so much inward, that you haue the cōmoditie to make Tren­ches to enuiron the batteries.

Moreouer, if you haue time, and that the situation be conue­nient, you may make new Ramparts and defences, as Counter­ditches, Flanckes, Caualieres, and other Ramparts, such as shal be necessary to furnish himselfe against the batteries & assaultes the Enemie shall make.

Note likewise that in so terrible an accident, being so daun­gerous, and specially when the walles be ruinate, you must not fayle to kéepe your people in battayle, so néere the battery as is possible, with a good number of people Armed on the head. And for that it fals out oftentimes, that certayne companies of m [...]n at Armes, and Launces, be in a Towne or Fortresse be [...]ieged, these Horsemen béeing Armed and sette on foote, are of great vti­litie and profit, if they be put in [...] head of the battaile, wyth a troupe of Hargabuziers by the flanck of the Trench, to flanck the battery withall. The Souldiours, both Hargabuziers and Pike­men, must accomodate themselues rounde about the Trench, as appeares by these two figures following.

[Page 313]


[Page 314]


[Page 315]It hath oftentimes come to passe, that neere adioyning to the place where the battery is made, there hath been found certaine houses, that the said bat­tery for the most part hath battered & ruinate, neuerthelesse, there doth re­maine as yet, some height of wall out of the earth, where there may be pla­ced vnder couert of the same, a good number of Musket and Hargabuziers, that flancking the Fortresse and breach, hath beene the safegard and the de­fence of the place, as appeares by this figure following. Therefore these things before considered, it is very necessary, that he which dooth gouerne a Fortresse, be of good vnderstanding and experience, and yt he perfectly knowe and be able to choose all his parties and aduantages.


[Page 316]It falles likewise out oftentimes, that Townes and Fortresses be subiect to Mountaines and vnto Caualiers, and Mounts made of purpose, in such sort as they be battered along the Curtine, by reason wherof they are with great difficultie defended, principally when they be of little circuit, for that there remaines no place, wherin Trauerses may be made. But if the Fortresse or place be great, and that leysure dooth permit, very good Trauerses may be wrought, to resist the battery of the Enemie, as appeareth by thys figure following.


[Page 317]If it fall so out that you cannot make Trauerses vppon the Terreplaine, for that the Enemy doth hinder it, either by ye means of Mountaines, or by the meanes of Caualiers raised vppe of pur­pose, the same will fall out to be very hurtfull; beeing constrained to leaue and abandon the height of the Terreplaine, or top of the Curtine to the Enemie, and to become farre distant off from the battery, neuerthelesse, you may accommodate your battery wyth Trenches by flancking it, and abase downward your selfe so lowe as is possible: thys is one of the best meanes that may be vsed.

For preparations against the assault, you must not be destitute of all sorts of arteficial fire, as Trompes, Granades, Bullets and o­ther such like, neither omit to cast Chausse traps, and Tables full of nayles which will giue great impediment to the Enemy. But when such things doo fayle, place great store of dry wood and straw vpon the battery, which béeing kindled with a trayne of powder, giues some leysure and opportunitie to the besieged, to prouide for theyr affayres.

Some haue spredde a netting, such as is vsed vpon shyps ouer the battery, and by the Mast of a shyp, a pole and a pullie artefici­ally made, haue taken Souldiours being entered vppon the same to giue assault, like Conies in a Pursnet, by hoysing it vp suddain­ly, as was put in practise at Harlen in Holland. Some vse to bloe vppe the breach with powder, when the Souldiours assailants doo swarme most thickest vpon it. But finally, the most part defend it by trenches, plan [...]ed ful of Muskets, murthering Péeces & Cham­bers, filled ful of nailes, old yron, and such like. And lastly, by ye va­liant & maine force of couragious [...], [...], and souldi­ours, that rather chose to die amongst the [...] of the breach, for the safety of theyr sayth, Christianitie and Country; then enioy a shamefull life, and die with infamie vpon a bed of Downe, and be buried in the pit of ignominie and darke obliuion.

Vpon what occasion it is lawfull to yeelde vp a For­tresse into the Enemies hands.

BErnardin Rocca in his second Booke of Millitarie stratagemes, and in his eyght Impresa, vppon thys note. That a Captaine ought not to giue into his Enemies hands any Fortresse, vnlesse he were more then constrained thereunto, hath these words.

[Page 318]The orders of antiquity are run so far out of course, specially in the arte of warres, that a Souldiour dooth not knowe howe to re­solue himselfe, whether hee doo well or euill in the affaires of hys Prince, and whether in one sortor another, hee ought to gouerne himselfe in his profession. And that the same is so, I find amongst other things in the arte of war, an order or statute of this tenoure. That whosoeuer dooth giue into the handes of the Enemie, anie Towne in his kéeping, dooth incurre the daunger of death, if by chaunce, he be not more then constrained to yéelde the same, and that it is likely a man of valour woulde haue doone the like. By this ordinaunce therfore is comprehended, that when a man of valour, shall be appointed to the garde of a Cittie, of a Castle, or any other place, he ought neuer to depart and giue ouer his enter­prise, for any words spoken, sent, or written vnto him by the E­nemy, neither for that he dooth enuiron him round about with hys Campe, and procéedes no fu [...]ther: for neither by words, neyther by séeing the enemy encamped round about him, it can neuer bée iudged, that a Castellane issuing foorth of his Castle, which is sto­red of all sorts of victuals, or lookes for succour, that therefore hee was forced to doo so, or that he hath issued foorth like a man of va­lour, or that euery man of valeur would haue doone the like.

Therefore he ought to haue respect, that when the place it selfe may be defended against an assault, without batterie, that at least­wise he ought to aspect and [...]arry one assault, and more, if he be a­ble to sustaine more. And if a battery were necessary for the ta­king of the same, for that it is apt to defend it selfe from some shot of Artillarie, some shot likewise it ought to abide.

But if the defendants did find themselues in such state & termes, that they could not, or did doubt themselues not to be able to resist, neither the one nor the other, I am of opinion, that not being pro­mised assured succours, at a certaine limitted time, in yéelding af­terwards, that the defendants doo not merite any punishment, by law of Armes, neyther of their Superiours, nor at the handes of the Enemy.

Thus farre Rocca writeth, touching the tearmes of yéelding vp a hold, in which Chapter he declares, that certaine souldiours yéelding themselues vpon thys foresaid necessity, vpon conditions to issue and depart without Armes, eyther offensiue or defensiue, the Enemie vpon theyr comming foorth, searching the souldiours [Page 319] vpon the wordes of thys paction, finding onely theyr hangers and buckles vpon their gyrdles, whereat they did hang theyr Rapiers, tooke occasion vpon the same to hang them vp. Wherefore the Ar­ticles of yéelding vp a Fort, (if it be lawfull at all to doo so,) is to be scanned thorowly, and euery doubt to be well discyphered, that neither he that is Captaine, nor his Souldiours, incur the displea­sure of his Prince, or the danger of the Enemie.

But when it imports the generall safetie, commoditie, and ad­uauncement of his Prince, his Country, his Campe and Confede­rates, he must then persist euen to the losse of the last man, as of late hath beene a great policie of sundry Generals, to stawle the fury of the Enemy, and by those blocks of delaye, to linger the time, thereby to preferre his owne safegarde, and the common cō ­moditie of the whole Campe.

Necessary aduertisements for the Captaine that ex­pects besieging.

THat Captaine which hath the gouernment of any Garrison, and lookes to be besteged, must haue respect to diuers thinges, as to expell certaine suspected housholdes, which séeme to drawe with the contrary part, likewise all vnprofitable persons, as olde men that are not able to kéepe watch, nor of strength to worke at repayres. To prouide necessary victuals, Surgions, Phisitions, drugges, spiceries, likewise all Munition for powder and Artilla­rie, wood and fagots for repayres, wood to bake bread, Smithes, Armourers, Carpenters, for making repayres, and all sortes of handy crafts, necessary.

Likewise when a Captaine doth enter into Garrison, hee must goe twise or thrise about the Towne, both within and without the walles, to behold and discerne where the Enemie might most en­domage, as well by scalade as by batterie, and diuers times tho­rowly consider of the same, and vse requisite fortifications, wyth repayres, bulwarks, Bastillions, Caualieres, Casemates, Counter­scarpes, Countergardes, halfe Moones, Trenches, Mounts. &c. ayded therein by the industry of good Ingeniours.

When wood and Fagots doo want for repayres, vse great numbers of rounde Gabions, with a space betwixt each one, for Artillary. For want of these, vse empty Barrels & Pypes, filled [Page 320] with earth and well fastened, but when these want, in great ex­treme [...]y, bring foorth flock-beds, Mattresses, Fetherbe [...]s, yea ta­pasary, &c. hauing euer great care yt no stones be mixed in any of these Bastiones, Bulwarks, or Fortifications, by reason they are more hurtfull to the souldiours within, then the Enemies Artil­larie without, & therfore Muddie or mossie walles, is euer better then the thickest stone wall.

Prouide that by Geometricall obseruations, one Bulwarke de­fend another, that likewise hee haue store of arteficiall fyre, and such like instruments for the defence of the walles. Neither must he forget, sometimes to fayne the losse of some Bulwarke, so that the Enemy béeing entered vpon the same, either he may be blowne vp with powder, or caught in a Nette of cordes, layd secretly vn­der loose dust, and hoysed vp at the end of a Mast, as was at Har­len, where diuers of the assailants were caught, like to Conies in a purse-net.

The Towne gates must be made lowe, the [...]oppe thereof ap­pearing very little aboue the Counterscarpe, from whence the ground must discend downe wards, with [...] crooked bending, euen to the Gates, which must but be onely capable to receiue [...] [...] or wagon, loden with Hay or Corne.

The proportion of a Plat for fortification.


A new inuention, and almost inuincible forme of fortifi­cation, against the furious battery of Artillarie.

IT hath béene the common vse in all fortifications héeretofore, to place the earth behind the walles of the Fortresse, and therof to make Bulwarks and Ramparts, but in the construction of this inuincible fortresse, against the infernall furie of Artillarie, it is necessary to vse a new inuention to fo [...]tefie. For the sayd earth be­ing placed in forme of Rampart behindthe wall, cannot serue to resist the blowes of the Cannon, but then onely when the saide wall is ruinated: which is quite contrary to the proportion I meane to preferre. For in stéede that ye wall dooth couer the earth, and dooth serue for defence vnto the same, I meane to make the earth to supply thys Office, and that it doo not onely hinder the Artillary from béeing able to batter the same wall, but also that it become a couer thereunto, to the intent the sight thereof may bée wholly taken away from the Enemie.

To performe which, it is necessary to plant and place the earth before the wall, & not as of ordinary is accustomed, to ioyne it close to the wall, but distant thirtie or thirtie fiue foote, in ma­king a dry Ditch without water betwixt them both.

Thys earth shall be sustained vpon that side, which doth behold the Fortresse, with a little wall of foure foote thicknes in the foun­dation, arising to be two foote thicke in the height. Upon that side which dooth looke towards the fieldes, it shall likewise be sustained with a little wall of sixe foote height from the toppe of the water, which is in the great Ditch, and dooth seperate this masse of earth from the Counterscarpe.

The plaine of thys earth shall be in thicknesse where it is most narrowe, which towardes the corners of the Flankers and Curtines, or more or lesse large as the proportion requires. And the largest, which is at the Angles, as well of the Curtines as Bulwarks 150. foote thick, which dooth arise to be 25. fadome, and for the gard of the sholders he shall haue 60. foote mounting to ten fadome. In sum, that the sholders in comprehending all the space, which is from the walles yt the flanck makes, vnto the little wall, which dooth sustaine the masse of earth vppon the side of the great Ditch, shalbe 150. foote. That is to say, the earth shal haue in this [Page 322] place 60. foote, the ditch betwixt the earth and the sholder of the wall 30. foote or more, and the sholder of the Bulwarke [...]0. foote.

Héere I wold demaund of those which haue searched out so ma­ny inuentions, to find the meanes to fortifie and make a Fortresse inexpugnable, wherein they haue thought to haue attained there­vnto. If to find meanes to preserue it against the blowes of Artil­lary, be the conseruation of Townes of war, I perswade iny selfe that this my inuention, doth approch very néere to that which they in vaine of long sought for, [...]nd so in part I doubt not I shall satis­fie their desire. For what store of Munition, what length of time, must be imployed, to batter this by the blowes of the Cannon, first 60. foote of the defence of the earth, and as much of the should [...]r made to the wall: this masse of earth béeing a matter soft, which cannot be disseuered or dispersed, as I presuppose it should be, shal it not defend the sholder that stands behinde from rece [...]uing any domage. And if the case be thus, what feare is to be had, ye Townes being fortified by this meanes, but that they shall be able to defend themselues from any violence or fury of Artillary. For whilst the defences remaine whole and entire, the which serue vnto Fortres­ses, in like case as armes, legs, and other members doo vnto the bo­die, it is certaine that they may assure themselues, from falling in­to the hands of the Enemy. Now this masse of earth, being placed as I haue said, may be named a Countergarde, ye which may be so placed, that it shal not any thing hinder the flankers or defences of euery Bulwark, but that they shall be able to behold, and fréely to discouer, all that whatsoeuer shal show and present it selfe alongst the same, as may be more plainly iudged, by the view of ye draughts and platforms of this inuention, which I haue set out at the ende of this discourse.

But to the end euery thing may be the more plainly vnderstood, I wil particulerly thus set downe all the parts. First, betwixt the Countergard, and the Counterscarpe, the which is the bounds and space of the ditch, the said ditch shal be at the least 80. foote large, and 25. or 30. déepe, as is shewed in this figure following, by the place marked with A. In the bothome of the said ditch, must bee made another little ditch, which shall be made 20. foote large, and 20. déepe, made in forme of this letter V. & marked with B. Thys little ditch shal be distant, and stretched out from the Countergard 10. or 12. foote, which space is marked C. At the foote of the sayde [Page 323] Countergard, the little wall must be placed, surmounting ye brinke of the water, as I haue made mention of héere before, coated with D. Betwixt this litt [...]e wal and the Countergard, a little Allie shal be left, or spare of 4. foote large, marked with this letter. E. The masse of earth called Countergard, must be made in the fashion of a Kampart, but quite contrary to those which haue béene accus [...]o­med, to be placed behind and against the walles of Fortresses For in stéed that the Ramparts ordinarily haue theyr accesse towards the body of the Cittie, this shall haue his back turned towards the Champaine, and the Front towards the Cittie, the which backe shall be made in the forme of a ridge, slyding and leaning downe all alongst, from the top euen to the bothome, as doth the side of a roofe of a house, except that in the very top and height of the Coun­tergar [...], there must be 8. or 10. foote of explanade or flat grounde, marked thus with F. And for that I haue before made mention of the wall, which must sustaine the Countergarde, also of the se­cond dry ditch, which must be betwixt the Countergarde and the w [...]ll, that doth enclose the Fortresse. Let this figure following suf­ [...] for the vnderstanding both of this and the rest.


But to the intent the Reader may vnderstande the perfection of this worke the better. I will in part expound the properties & cir­cumstances therof, & wherunto euery one doth particularly serue.

Touching the proportion and body of the fortification, as Cur­tins, bulwarks, sholders, flanckes, and Caualieres, I presuppose that they are made in such due forme and order as hath béen accu­stomed to be vsed, of those ye be perfect Maisters in this arte, saue that I would haue the Curtines from the [...] bend inward in Angle like a paire of tonges or forke, wherby it shal be very hard to place any Artillary to batter thē, and if it should be so that they were battered, yet might they bee well defended by the opposite sides, whereby an infinite number of Assailants should lose theyr [Page 324] lyues, béeing so wel defended on all sides, and doo moreouer make this fortification, more forceably and longer time, to resist & con­tinue against the Mattocke & Spade and such row [...]ing Trenches, as were made by the great Turke, at the expugnation of Rodes, and Famagosta.

But to procéede to my former promise, first the circute of the wall, and the enclosure of this Fortresse, is not needfull to be made so great, and so thicke as hath béene accustomed to fashion them, that is to say, from 12. to 15. foote, but it will suffi [...]e to giue them 7. or 8. foote in the foundation. For by this inuention, the wall is not subiect at all to the battery, neither to be thrust downe & loden by the Rampart, because there shall néed to be none, (if it to séeme good) as a thing not very necessary.

But if any Ramparts of earth be made, let them not with their massiue heauines thrust downe the standing wall, to auoy [...]e the which, in clothing the [...] and Curtines with walles, after you haue planted the foundations, which may be of the largenesse of 5. or 6. foote, or more straite, the wall on the outside must bee made according to the ordinary custome: but within, you [...] from 25. to 25. foote, apply thereunto Counterforts, other wise called Spurs, which are in length 15. foote, and large 2. or 3. foote, at the discretion of the workman, betwixt the which Spurres, the wall must not stand bolt vpright within according to the ordinary fashion, whether it be in height or in largenes, but the height must be like vnto a renuersed héele leaning, or as if it would fal reeling, and bend groueling vpon the Rampart. And if necessity require, to giue it more strength at the foote, to the intent it may ye better sup­port the heauy burden of earth. Moreouer, the space betwixt the one Counterfort and the other, must be made in round, like vnto a vaute, making the Spurres to serue for proppes and stayes.

The commodity which thys wall bringes, is, that it is exempt from great charge, from the violent thronging & thrusting of the earth. The stones thereof being battered in by the Cannon, wyll close and knit together with ye earth▪ and so make great resistance, besides, they will not very much fill the Ditch when they are aba­ted, rather falling toward the Rampart then otherwise. And the sayd Rampart hauing taken the proportion of a renuersed wall, wyll make a strait shape, like vnto the first face of the wall. And for thys respect, although the wall were taken away, & ruinated, [Page 325] it can neyther fall nor slyde, and wyll make Fronte receiuing anie domage.

But to continue on my first discourse, hauing begun with the wall which dooth enuiron the circuit of the Fortresse or Cittie, I wyll goe on, and presuppose that the Ditch, which is made be­twixt the wall and Countergarde, hath 36. foote in largenes, and is dry without water therby to haue commoditie to goe and come all along. The entrie thereunto, must be by the Cannoniers of the Flancks, which defend ye same, which will serue to be of no small commodity to the Souldiours, hauing the meane to transport themselues easily and without danger, into all places where ne­cessitie dooth call them.

The Countergard must be sustained on that side towardes the Cittie, with a little wall, which must be of lesse height then the earth, by thrée or foure foote, to the intent you may easily discouer, (béeing before the Counterscarpe) fiue or sixe foote of the Wall, which dooth enclose and shut vp the Fortresse.

This earth must bee spred vniformally, and couched betwixt the two walles, according to the [...] before prescribed, to the in­tent that there may be nothing but it may discouer, and defende on all sides, and that no hinderaunce may be giuen to the Flankers and Caualiers to shoote and behold each place.

This proportion shal be very little able to be battered, and least before the Angles of the Bulwarks, and the midst of ye Curtines, by reason of their thicknesse; and if it should receiue any batterie, it should be onely but vpon the height and top of the same. And in the space betwixt the one wall and the other, certaine hearbes for the nourishment of Cattle may be sowne, amongst which, to ioyne the earth more fast together, it is good to sowe a certaine Hearbe, called Medica, for that it was brought from Mede, which dooth bring forth a very long roote, specially when the ground hath béene plowed and laboured much before, which will procure it to be able to be defended, against the iniurie of the ayre, and of men, neyther néedes it to be sowne but from ten yéeres to ten. Shéepe that feede héereupon, become more fatte, and more sauerie then others, those that are nourished therwith, bring forth Lambes for the most part twise a yeere, as those of Brabant, Holland, and Lombardie haue tryed by experience, specially in Fraunce, where it is vulgarly cal­led Sainctfoin, and so it yéeldes two commodities, for the roote doth [Page 326] so binde the earth, that it will not easily dismember by the blowes of the Cannon, and the hearbe is good for the Cattle enclosed in the Towne, during the siege.

The little space or Allie, which is at the foote of the Counter­gard, of 4. foote large shall serue, to the intent you may haue the meane to place therein diuers Souldiours, which may come and goe, as well before the Bulwarks, as before the Cur [...]ines. And the little wall which is before the same, shall no [...] be vnprofitable, for first it will hide and serue for Paralell to couer the Souldiours, which are behind it, that they cannot be end [...]maged: but shal haue the meane and leysure, to be in such a readines, and apt order to offend the Enemy, during the siege, that no man shall be able to shew himselfe vppon the brinke of the ditch, but shall be in [...]anger of his person. And secondly, if it should fall out, that the Enemie shold assay, to breake downe and [...]uinate any part of the Counter­gard by the blowe of the Cannon, this little wall would [...], to stay that portion of earth, which might rowle & [...] [...]own be­neath. It wold likewise prohibite the beating waues of the wa­ter in the Ditch, from washing or wearing away the [...] of [...] Masse of earth. The little ditch [...] the Countergard, [...] forme of thys letter V. will likewise carrie this good [...], that [...] the great ditch were drawne dry, this should alwaies remain [...], and would stop the passage of those that would passe to endo [...]age the little wall, which doth cloth and co [...]passe the Countergard.

And if meanes were made to [...] all the water, the [...] might defend themselues with arteficiall fires, made for that e­fect: the which by reason of the forme of this little Ditch, made poynted at the bothome like a Romane V. will doo great executi­on. For the enemy entring into the same, and not finding anie place where to make stay, but in the extremitie of the depth, not being able to proceede, as in an vniforme and flat both [...]m, shall be burnt, wounded, and murthered most cruelly.

The great ditch, within the which the small one is comprehen­ded, shall containe the foresaid largenes, from the foote of the little wall, which doth sustaine the earth of the Countergarde, vnto the opposite foote of the Counterscarpe, at the which there shall be an Allie of 6. foote large, to receiue the Souldiours which shall passe the great Ditch, to mount vpon the Corridor of ye Counterscarpe, the which Allie shal be nothing séene of the enemy in any siege, but [Page 327] contrariwise, it shall be discouered and defended by the defences of the Fortresse, that it shall not be possible for the Enemie to possesse if any long time, although he had employed himselfe to gaine the same.

To say something touching the commodious largenes of the ditch, I iudge the meane to be obserued, which in respect of the o­ther two extreames, of great and narrow, doth carrie these com­modities, which in the other be hurtfull & contrary. First it hydes and couers the sight of the foote of the wall: the Counterscarpe therof, doth prohibite the flankes or Cannonieres, which defende the bothome of the ditch, that they cannot be battered. The sayde ditch is frée and secrete, and doth greatly fauour the souldiours in a Fortresse, beeing enuironed with a Campe, for they may enter and issue, without receiuing any domage by the Enemy, during the siege. True it is that it may be the sooner fild vp, but that im­perfection may be succoured, neyther shal the same haue such force in the straite ditch, as in that which is so large and very broade, in the which the Souldiours béeing easily discouered, and not hauing any great libertie to make residence therein▪ without danger, they must alwaies stand vpon the garde of theyr persons. The which will not fall out, if they be within a more straite ditch, exempt from all feare: for béeing couered by the bancks of the ditch, they onelie haue nothing to doo, but to apply themselues to make frustrate the Enemies attempts. The which kind of defence, is one of the best that can be inuented for the besieged, and most endomageable to the assaylants. For the enemy entering resolutely into the Ditch, and marching forward to assault, hee must haue regarde to three sides, the one, to the Front, which is the body of the Fortresse, and the two other, to the souldiours which are within the ditch, and may offend the Enemy by the sides, and specially vpon the banck, if he presume to march farre forward, and to passe further on then the Counterscarpe.

Now to giue thys Ditch his competent largenes, to the intent it may accomplish these foresaid good qualities, it ought but to be 100. foote broade at the most, and in depth if it be plaine, but 18. or 20. foote, giuing to the wall of the Counterscarpe such a conue­nient enclyning, (as for 5. or 6. foote 1. foote,) to ye intent it may be strong, & repulse the matter wherwith the Counterscarpe is to be filled. And for ye the Counterscarpe is one of ye most principal parts [Page 328] of the ditch, I will finally dilate somewhat therof, therby to make manifest the faults of Counterscarps now in vse. Untill thys pre­sent day, this part and member of the Fortresse hath béene made small account of, although it be one of the principal, and the which is as necessary to be valiantly defended, as any other part of the Fort, being the first which is assaulted, and possest by the Enemy. The negligence and sioth vsed héerein, falles out as I take it, ey­ther in respect of dispising the same, or through the couetousnesse of the owners, which eyther thinking the same not commodious for defence, or for feare of disbursing ouermuch money in making it substantially, neglect the same. But before I passe any further, I think it necessary to set downe, which are the most defencible and principall parts of thys warlike Architecture.

The whole body of thys worke, is compounded of diuers mem­bers being vnited together, for the particuler seruice and defence one of another, euen as the members of a well proportioned man.

Those parts which by the Architectes are named principall, be first the Flancks, within the which are made certain Cannonlers, which doo view and beholde the circute round about the Fortresse.

Secondly the sholders which doo hide & couer the flanks, and de­fend them, from being ruinated and displanted by the Enemie.

Thirdly the Ditch which enuironeth all the Fortresse, bringing safety against suddaine Surprises, Camisades, Escalades. &c.

The fourth and last is the Counterscarpe, which serues for a Bulwarke and bancke to couer the Ditch.

These things considered, the Enemy to expugne such a For­tresse, doth procéede by degrées, (not daring to bring theyr Soul­diours to the butchery, by a desperate assault at ye first,) and there­fore they seeke to inuade and occupie the Counterscarpe, whereup­on the Enemy, not hauing made his approches before hand, and entr [...]nched vppon the same, can performe nothing to the purpose, for by lodging farre from the Ditch, they are not able to discouer and endomage any of these foresaid defences, by rea [...]on of the im­pediment which the height of the Counterscarpe yéeldes, the which before they are able to possesse, being duly made, oftentimes whilst the approches are in making, there doth ensue the death of manie valiant and worthy persons, the which are continually stayne by the succours which the other defences, that be in the body of the Fortresse doo giue vnto the Counterscarpe.

[Page 329]The manner which at this day is vsed of the Assaylants, whē they possesse the Counterscarpe, to make it serue their turne, is thus.

First they do pearse and breake the Counterscarpe, euen vn­to the bottom, and to the brincke of the water, to the intent that by this way, they may haue means to batter the Forte of the wal about the Fortresse, with certayne Péeces which are conueyed through the Trenches, vnto that place, the which shall not be a­ble to suffer any domage by the defences of the Fortresse, in so much, as the sides of these opening, serue for sholders and couers to those within the Trenche. This Trench doth likewise bring an other comoditie, which is, that the entrie into the Ditch ther­by, shall be more easie and lesse painefull for the souldiours, then from the height of the Counterscarpe. And although this pollicie doth not serue to any great purpose, by reason it is impossible in any small time, to make such way in ye Counterscarpe, that como­diously it maybe capable therin to plant sufficient nūber of Pée­ces, to make a cōuenient breach, therby in the end to giue assault: neuerthelesse; it is good to inuent some meanes to hinder and de­lay the enemy from lodging there, so speedily as they are accusto­med.

To accomplish the which, it is not the way to make the Coun­scarpe with the earth of the Ditch, mixing among the same one bed of Faggots, & an other of earth and so from rancke to rancke to rayse it vp, neither with logs of wood and great piles of Tim­ber [...] these thinges being matter that in time corrupts, and wastes away, not being indurable: touching which point, I would wish the wise Ingeniour to consider [...], that the meane to ruinate the Bulwarke of a Fortresse, and to pearse a Counterscarpe, is not all one: for the one is cut down and mined by the many hundreth hands & force of men, and the other ruinated by the blowes of the Cannon, earth being proper to resist the furie of Artillarie, where it is not able to ayde agaynst the handie worke of man, as by ex­perience is daylie prooued, that a man will make a greater hole and opening in any masse of earth, in two howres, then a Cannō in foure. The cause is, that a man by his industrie doth mine the earth, and doth displace the foundation therof, and so makes it to disseuer and dismember: but the blow of the Artillarie, dooth but only pearse it, and makes a hole according to the bignes of the [Page 330] Bullet, leauing the masse of the earth entyre and whole.

These reasons receiued, we may conclude, that all soft matter, which doth suffer it selfe easily to be managed by ye Pyoners, and which doth carry a bodie able to sustaine it selfe, gyuing by thys meanes leysure and time to the enemy, to bee able to execute his enterprise, (as by the nature of the earth doth appeare) such mat­ters I say, bee not able to serue for the conseruation of the Coun­terscarpe.

Being desirous therefore, to exempt and make it frée, from the daungers which the enemie dooth ordinarily vse, by reason he findes it comodious. And beeing willing to haue it firme and stable, and that the more older it growes, the more stronge it shall wexe, and that when the enemy woulde pearse the same hauing wonne it, that he shall suffer infinite paynes and trauails to entrench. That the matter raysed vp for his Trench, in place of defending and sauing his Souldiours, shall become theyr hurte and distruction, being battered and dispearsed with those bulletes which come from the Fortresse.

It is necessary to compound and fill the same, with hard and so­lide matter, the which in tract of time, may incorpora [...] and be re­dused into a hard and difficile body, scarce able to be dismembred. That the enemy assaying to breake it, it may crumble and fall in to small péeces and powder: the which shall come to passe, if all these matters following be mixed together: as all broken péeces of stones, that matter which is found in the ruine of the walles, all rubbish, sheards of pottes, Tiles, Brick battes, olde Morter, &c. and all the fragments of stones, as well harde as softe, and so accommodating and filling the voyde holes with Morter and o­ther stuffe that is hard, as Flint, Pible stones, drosse of Smithes &c. ioining one within another, by the choise and difference of the matter, and powdered with grauell, rubbish, dust, &c. and left to the iniurie of the watrie heauens a certayne time, the matter cannot continue so entyre, but that the worke beeing eaten into, by the falling showers of rayne, and dissolued with frost and heat will intermixe and so incorporate together, that it will be impos­sible to be seperated without great labour. By these obseruati­ons and the direction of Geometricall proportions, this new kind of fortefication may be brought to great perfection.

The proportion of the Fortresse, which may be deuided into 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. or more Bulwarks at the Ingeniours discretion.

Forme of the Cano­nieres.

The Diametre of 5. Bulwarkes, is 360. fadome, of 6. 439. of 7. 518. of 8. 597. of 9. 676. of 10. 755. which beeing enuyroned with thrée circles one within another, distant 36. fadome eache from other, and that of 5. Bulwarkes deuided into 10. equall partes, that of 6. into 12. 7. into 14. 8. into 16. 9. into 18. 10. into 20. the 1. 3. 5. 7. 9. &c. is the angle of the Bulwarke, the 2. 4. 6. 8. 10. the corner of the innerward bending of the Curtine, the first cir­cle allots out the Canonieres and poynts of the Sholders, the 2. the angles of the Bulwarkes, the 3. the angles or poyntes of the Countergarde, and so procéeding Geometrically, bring the Bul­warkes, sholders, Curtines, dry ditch, Countergarde, wet Ditch, and Counterscarpe, in lyke forme to this forefa [...]d Figure.

THE SIXT BOOKE OF MILITA­RIE DIRECTIONS, INTREATING OF the office of the high Treasurer, the Master of the victualles and Purueyour, of the muster Master, of the warlike Coun­sellours, and of the generall Captayne or Lieuetenant of an Armie, &c.
And first, Of the office of the high Treasurer.

THE office of the high Treasurer is of great re­putation, and hath committed to his charge, the payment of the Collonelles, Captaynes, and all other Officers. He ought in the beginning, to re­ceiue from the Generall, the true number both of horsemen and footemen within the Campe or Army, & by perfect compunction to make a booke, how much is due euery month, to euery Collonell, Captayne, and other officers, as­well for themselues as their bandes.

The Treasurer ought to make his proportion of paye well known to ye General, wherby ye Generall may accordingly make prouision, that money be not wanting to pay the Souldiours. He ought in like sorte to make allowance (whe [...] néede shall be) to the Master of the Ordenance, for supplying his store of Municion as he shal sée cause, by reason of consuming the old, or any important seruice to be done.

Hee must conferre with the muster Master, to sée howe the hande [...] be furnished, what Souldiours be slayne, when and howe many, and how and when supplyed: deliuering pay to euery Col­lonell or Captayne accordingly, kéeping theyr warrants or notes of their handes for his discharge.

At the pay day he must conferre with the master of the Orde­nance, to se whether he ha [...]e any bils from the Captaines or Col lonels, for any powder or other Municion receiued, and to deduct so much in theyr wages.

[Page 333]Greatly may this Officer be ayded by Arithmaticke, without the which it shall be an extreame toyle, to make true compunctiō of such varietie of payments, or before hande, to preconiecture of all sortes of prouision and Municion, what shall bee ne­cessary: but by ayde of that art the most difficult doubts that can therein aryse, shall with facilitie be resolued and dispatched.

This Officer ought also to be a man of great wisedome, and well experienced in Militarie affayres: because he is vsed in Counsell, where he is to speake his opinion in all exployts of im­portaunce, although they concerne not directly his office.

The office of the Master of the victualles and Purueyour.

THe master of the victuals, séemeth to be an Officer altogether dependant on the Treasurer, hauing nothing else to doe but to prouide & take charge of the prouision in the Campe, and as corne or other victualles shall growe scant, to make the Treasurer pri­uie, that order may bee taken for further supply, either by money or sending fóorth the forrage Master [...]o take it by force. And a­gainst the pay day, he must bring in hys booke of accounts to the Treasurer, and there receiue allowance acordingly.

The Purueyours [...]ath is to be true and iust in his office, and not to be flacke any time, in procuring in his office, good, fitte, and wholesome victualles, as well for those Souldiours in extraordi­narie, as for those which are in ordinarie seruice prest. Not to wearie or driue away from the victualling of the Campe, any vic­tualler, by giuing him a more or lesse sūme then he is worthy, to procure as many to serue the Campe with good victualles as hée can: both in gyuing them good & fayre language, as also now and then to giue them some péece of money, to encourage the sayd vic­tuallers to take paynes with the like.

And that he shall with dilligence faithfully shun all thinges, that shall any wayes bee vnprofitable vnto the Prince and his Souldiours. And to deuise as farre as his witte and iudgement wil serue him, to profite his Lord and Master, and his Souldiors, aswell for wholesome victualles, béere & wine for their bodies, as for good sweet & wholsome meat for theyr horses, aswell for such as serue in the fielde, as such that trauell and worke in the wagō, Cart, or otherwise, which followe for the reliefe of the Campe: [Page 334] and that of al these dooings, he kéepe a true and perfect booke of ac­counts and recconings for the Treasurer, when and as often as it shall please him to call for it, that the high Marshall, the rest of the Councell, and the Generall, may be priuie to it, to make try­all of his dealings.

The office of the Muster Master.

THe Muster master also may be accoūted an Officer as it were dependant on the Treasurer, for that his duty is nothing else, but by often reuiewing of the bands, to sée how euery Captaines bande is furnished, noting the defaults from time to time, and the supplies: and therof to make a perfect booke, exhibiting the same at the paye day to the Treasurer, that allowance may bee made to the Collonels and Captaines accordingly. When he first takes the viewe and Muster of any band, he must not only write down the name of the Souldiour and his weapon, but also of what Countrie he is, the townes name where hee was borne and hys Fathers name, and what yéeres hee is of: and finally, shall take speciall care to set downe, some speciall marke or cicatric [...] vppon his face, together with the collour of his haire and beard. To the intent, his Prince bee not charged with paying of dead payes, to such as be hyred but for that day, as many Captaines vse to fill theyr Purses with vnlawfull gaynes.

The office of the Master of the intelligences.

THe Master of the intelligences, must receiue his office & oath secretly at the hands of the Generall and his Councell, so that his office be not knowne to any but to the Generall, and to those of the Counsell. To the intent, he may haue accesse vnto them at all times, vnder the colour of some other office, therby to remaine vnknown to the common sorte, and to auoyde the discouerie and dischyphering, of such as hunte and search after secrecies, and the rather, to the intent the enemie knowing the spyes, by reason of theyr recourse vnto him, doe not intercept them. It is requisite that hee both be a man, wise, serete, of quicke and déepe insight, and well languaged, faythfull, and aduenturous. A cunning Co­lourer of his Princes affayres of importance, & of a singular and [Page 335] good inuention. That hee delight in receiuing seeret occurrents from all places. That he diligently direct the priuie Spyes of the Campe, not acquainting them together. That he haue a stipend for himselfe, and allowance to yeeld reward to all sortes of Spyes That he bring them vppon vrgent occasion, to the presence of the Generall. That they generally receiue of him, a countersigne or watch-word, thereby to be knowne assured. That he dispearse a­broad Espyes, aswell for his owne parte, both for the Campe and Garrisons, as for the enemies Countrie & Campe, both to know priuie practises and forraine determinations. That he haue some secrete frendes, or stipendarie intelligences, in all Courtes, Coū ­tries, Citties, and places of the enemy and his Collegates, whe­ther they be apparant or priuie fauourers: from whom hee may daylie receiue letters, Cyphers, or countersignes, and secrete ad­uertisements of all occurrents, out of the enemies bosome.

That he haue knowledge in all secret sort of wrytings, spe­cially in that part of Polographia which serues best for his turne, and if it be possible, in Steganographia, & that part thereof which is lawfull for a Christian to vse. Neither let him neglect the se­cret sorts of wryting by ye ioyse of Lemmons, Orenges, Creame, dissolued Allome. &c. betwixt the lynes of a Letter of common oc­currence, and such other receits for wryting, as be sette out in Na­turalis Magia, Cardane Allexis, and others.

That he be cunning in sending secret aduertisements, where néede dooth require, by some of these foresayd kind of Letters, en­closed in the scaberd of a sword, shoe-sole, fold of a gyrdle, or dogs coller, and so worne, or wayting vpon him, passe with greater se­curitie. Some haue vsed to hide Letters in a loafe, béeing baken therein, and carried the same for victuals. Some haue enclosed the same in a compounde and arteficiall stone. Some in sweet bals. Some in the secret parts of their body, and such innumerable like deuises, which are to be chosen out according as they shall seeme conuenient to the Intelligencers turne. That he know the arte how to talke a farre off with lights, twincklings of Match for the night; and by smokes, fyre, flags, of blacke, white, red, &c. for the day: with perfect knowne countersignes, wherby they may know one anothers meaning. And when any is secretly to be sent into a besieged Cittie with directions, that he make prouision for the secret choyse and conueiance of such a one.

[Page 336]Finally, that chiefely he be very expert, and ready in the arte of disciphering, that at all times, when any Letters be sent him by his Generall, he may discipher them, and satis-fie his Superi­our therein.

The Office of the warlike Counsellers.

THere must twelue warlike Counsellers be appointed out by the Generall of the Armie, béeing chosen, honest, wise, and graue men, the which sayd 12. he shall appoint to be his Iudges, and together with the high Marshall, be partners in determining all Martiall discipline and correction. Hée may make his choyse amongst Captaines, or otherwise at his pleasure, so that hee be of stayed iudgement and honest sobrietie. The which said Counsel­lers or Iudges, béeing so elected and chosen, shall haue theyr wa­ges accordingly appointed them: who except in great extremitie shall be watch frée.

These shall sweare and protest, solemnly vnto the said Gene­rall, that they will serue theyr Prince by the Month, in that place which they are chosen & called to: that they will be trusty, faith­full, and obedient, and dutifull vnto the Generall, in all needful and lawfull affayres, and at all times vprightly and indifferently to iudge all causes comming before them, and to be obedient to the commaundement of the Generall, standing with equitie and the Lawes of the field. That they will to theyr vttermost power endenour themselues, to gyue counsaile and aduise to the Gene­rall, to the welfare and commoditie of the Prince & hys subiects, and iustly to iudge the rich as well as the poore, not regarding fréendshyp, kindred, or any other corrupting cause, which may leade affection to the hinderaunce of iustice: but to theyr know­ledge to minister equitie according to the tenor of the Lawes, as they wyll that GOD helpe them, at the last and dreadful day of iudgement.

Also that in mustering they doo dilligently foresée to their vt­termost power, that the Prince theyr Maister be not deceiued, in gyuing double pay to such as are not worthy: and that they shall also deliuer the names of the Souldiours vnto the Generall as they mustered them, wyth a note of theyr allowance and wages vnder theyr hands and seales, faythfully without any deceit.

The Office of the Generall and Lieuetenant of the Armie.

THat man which is careful to carry the name of wise and pru­dent, when he enters into the execution of any serious affaire, wyll not so wed himselfe to his owne will and fansie, as that he wyl put assured confidence in his owne proper counsel, (which for the most part is fallible, by reason of the infectious humour of selfe willie passion, which oftentimes is cause of great errors, ruines, calamities, and confusions,) but rather will leane to the assured aduise of sound and mature counsell.

Therfore a worthy and excellent Captaine Generall, since the greatnesse of his valour dooth not make him capable of so impor­tant a charge, in respect that neither high titles, neither fauors of the Prince, can make a man wise that is not: it is very requisite, that he like a prudent person, make election of certaine Counsel­lers, of great vnderstanding, and long experience in the warres, to follow the Campe, and accompany his owne person, to whom it is néedfull he propound matters of importance, and confer with them such accidents, as are with remedies to be preuented, or o­therwise to be executed, and gathering and selecting the best por­tion of many good parts, wyth his ripe and aduised iudgement, he must frame and forme, a sound and grounded resolution: with the which he must execute all hys enterprises, expediently and cou­ragiously.

For there was neuer man of so great prudence, and of such singuler experience, that hee was able to discide and discypher all things of himselfe: but it hath béene often séene, that by the help of others, many things haue béene performed, wherin of himselfe a­lone, he hath not had ful experience. It is most necessary for him, to be able to determine and take resolution of any thing in him­selfe, that therby he néed not to hinder nor disturbe the execution of any enterprise, neyther to make so many heads and commaun­ders in an Armie, which would growe to be manifest domage. Neyther can warres of importance without good counsell be per­fectly gouerned: wherein the victorious Emperour Charles the fift did prudently procéed in time of warre, specially in Germany, where ordinarily hee did serue his turne, with sixe honorable and principall men of experience béeing Italians, with sixe of the [Page 338] Spanish Nation in like sort, with sixe of the Germaines, and sixe of Flaunders and the Low Countries, by whose aduise, and his owne sound resoultion, there afterward ensued so notable and fa­mous a victory.

He must take good order that the Ministers and Priestes of hys Armie doo apply thēselues exemplarely to the seruice of God, not only at all times by the action of theyr Office, conformable to the vse of the sacred Catholicke Church, and to preach to the consola­tion of those that be in health, but also to communicate & giue good counsell to those that be sick, and bury those that be dead.

It seemes likewise very conuenient for the Generall, that as he is supreame heade ouer the rest, that euen so accordingly he take care, that the souldiours honours and Millitary orders be not dif­frauded. He therfore must carefully take the custody of the Soul­diours honour, praysing and rewarding by extraordinary means, those that be good, vertuous ful of valour, and valiant, and dys­commend and depresse those that be vicious, wicked, and naughty persons, thereby to enflame euery one to aspire to vertuous acti­ons: since that the hope of recompence and reward, and the feare of reprehension and punishment, both drawes and driues those that be Souldiours, to worke wonderfull things.

To the intent the Millitary orders become not diffrauded, let him shew himselfe curious and careful, to take resolute order, that the Treasurers and Pagaclores Colatorally, and the Secretaries, publikely at the Bancke, make their pay iust and entirely, to the Officers and those that be of estimation: as to the Collonell, and the Caualieres of hys Squadre, to ye Captaines & they Caualieres, to the Lieuetenants, Alfieres, Sergiants, and Corporalles of Squa­dres, &c. Fully so much as is concluded and capitulated to be con­uenient, and thought requisite of the Common wealth, ye Prince, or other Potentate or Generall. The which capitulations, and conclusions, ought to be set downe in autentike writing and reall forme, to the intent they may be obserued, being thinges as neces­sary to be performed as though they were sacred. Since that ma­ny times, through like wants and defects in the euill obseruing therof, many mighty Nations haue béene confounded, by loosing their souldiours of greatest valour, the most manifest and most mightiest occasion of the ruine of Armes. Considering that men are scarce able to growe perfect and practised within the compasse [Page 339] of a whole age, or in that time gaine a perfect habite in the profes­sion of Armes, which is a thing of most necessary & great impor­tance, for the safe sustaining of our Christian Religion, against the Turks tiranny, and barbarous Moores, which frō age to age, spring vp like the Hydraes against ye Militant Catholick Church.

But to come againe to our former spéech, these payes ought not to be reckoned & placed amongst the aduantages, or Capi sol­di, and to giue them afterwards priuatly and in Groppo, into the hands of the Captaine, wherby dooth oftentimes proceede incon­uenience of great importance, which comes to passe by the coue­tousnes of some insatiable persons, where otherwise they ought to kéepe the same carefully, and to disburst liberally: since he recei­ued it to keepe the same safely, and to distribute it discreetly, not as his owne, but as his Princes, not gyuen to hym, but to hys Souldiours. Ouer whom, a Captaine ought to take no lesse care, then a father doth ouer his children, or a brother towards his bro­ther: or to speake more properly, a faithfull companion towards hys friend, in respect that hee ought to terme those that be his fol­lowers, and are guided by him, hys companions in Armes.

It is good the Generall make election of a fat & fréendly Coun­try, which so néere as is possible is aboundant in all things, large, commodious, and of sound and open ayre, for the respect of gathe­ring together and making the Amasse of the people, and for ye con­ueiance of prouision for the Armie. In which place he must make stay, for the vniting of victuall, Munition, and Artillary, which is before hand ordained and prouided, with all other preparations necessary and expedient for the warres.

Hauing by his high Marshall, as well as is possible, deuided the Quarters and lodgings, he must attend to receiue with ioyful chéere the Bands and Companies, which shal arriue from day to day, as well Horsemen as Footmen. He must neuer permit the Captaines to depart from the place, where he made the Amasse and collection of the Companies, with their bands out of order or disseuered, although they should depart to some place neere ad­ioyning, vnlesse he were forced by some occasion of great necessity and importance: but ought rather, hauing placed the Ensignes to­gether, to march in Squadrons, and in good order and in perfect forme, both for the respect of his reputation and their exercise, and the better to maintain the whole body of his Campe in assurance.

[Page 340]It is conuenient for him to make election of an ingenious Mai­ster of the Artillarie: of a Maister or Marshall of the Campe, of great experience: of a Sergiant Maior generall, perfect & readie in that Office of great importance: of Collonels and other Cap­taines and Officers, of entire mindes, and as néere as is possible, such as be exercised in warlike affaires: to the intent they may be better able to execute theyr offices with the more efficacie, such as can performe rather in action, then promise by words. And so consequently, that the election of other Officers and Souldiours, depending vpon their choyse, be of good qualitie, as by all reason they ought to be, for we must perswade our selues, that, that num­ber is far lesse, which truely and exactly knowes, the importaunt and high secrets of the honourable arte of Armes, then those that are reputed meane and common. Therefore wise men affirme, that, that Prince, dooth most worthily merite the rule of a Monar­chie, that can make a good election of wise Counsellers and war­like Captaines.

After this, he must make choyse of a sufficient Comessarie Ge­nerall, who chéefely may haue charge, to giue carefull order, that all the people and Souldiours may be conducted, to the mayne A­masse and assembly, with speciall politique spéede, to the ende they may iourney without working domage to the Countrey where they passe: and that ye souldiours doo not fall to the spoile, through the ouer great pennury and want of necessary things.

Besides, thys great Comessary, obeyed by the particuler Pur­ueyours, béeing of accord with the Marshall of the Fielde: must vse his endeuour towards the prouision of ordinary victuals, that it may be well conducted, and better kept, sometimes if it be pos­sible renuing the same, specially in a Country that is aboundant, and distribute the old amongst the souldiours: but for al that, this must be doone, when as it cannot otherwise be spent or kept good, that he may drawe the money disbursed at the Officers and Col­lonels hands. Amongst these sufficient store of victuals, proui­ded by this Comessarie and his followers, I haue séene it thought very necessary, to conduct with the Armie, flockes and droues of beastes, great and small, the which is of little hinderance or impe­diment, because they are not of burden, and for that by themselues they may be kept in good disposition: and the rather béeing ayded by the Princes strong arme of authoritie.

[Page 341]This Comessary may vsually send out safe-gards or sealed Pa­tents, that there may be respect had vnto Townes and other pla­ces, aboundant in scraw, Corne, Meale, Beere, Wine, Oyle, Cattle, Powder, Flesh, Salt, Wood, Fruite, and such other neces­sary things, specially where such places be taken and comen vpon at vnawares by the Armie.

These commodities and Munitions, he must cause to be kept with good order, to the intent they may the longer serue, and with one of the Generals Trumpets, which may accompany the said safegards or patents, or with some small Troupes of souldiours, and nayle them vpon the gates of the Townes, Cattles, or hou­ses: these and the presence of the Trumpet, with a small ga [...]de of men of war, is of sufficient force to cause the said place to be re­spected so much as it ought or as is necessary: the which Office was very wel executed in the yéeres 1578. 1579. 1580. vn­der Don Iohn and the Prince of Parma.

The Generall of the Armie, ought to examine often and verie narrowly the principall Officers, that good orders may alwaies with great diligence be executed, and cōtinually with circumspect care, alwaies kéepe open the vigilant eyes of the minde, and those of the body, warie and still waking, as well in aspecting occasion, as also in accepting and executing thē, with rare prouidence and valour. It is very requisite, that he alwaies carrie with him a good and faithfull Guide, and to the intent he may not by craft or trechery be deceiued, such Guides ought alwaies to goe vnder a sure gard, giuen in charge and recommended to good Captaines, to good Officers and tryed Souldiours, and sometimes it shall bee good to carry them bound, and specially in a suspected Country, or that they be of a strange language and vnknowne to them. For sometimes, either of peruerse purpose, or fainting hart, in suddaine assaults which at vnawares arise by meanes of the Enemie, and by the suddaine noyse of Allarmes, they doo flée away and saue themselues. Sometimes eyther through the commodious dark­nes of the night, or els through the knowledge of the Country, vn­knowne to those they haue guided.

But to satis-fie both Guides and Spyes, instruments so neces­sary and profitable to the honourable profession of Armes, a man must neuer appoint or limit any certaine bound to expences, but rather largely and liberally, pay and recompence them, without [Page 342] making any spare. For as it is a thing most manifest and cleere, that hauing such as be good and faithful, the victory remaines as it were certaine, so the contrary dooth easily succeede, when his con­tinuall and wakefull eye hath not respect to these substantiall ad­uertisements.

Neyther can any Captaines execute or commaund with more assurance or better to the purpose, then those which are well con­ducted and led by Guides, and instructed so neere as is possible of all the Enemies determinations, and in what manner and forme he will worke by the intelligences of his Espyals. But hee must beware hee take carefull paynes to examine all things himselfe, without trusting to the indirect endeuor of any other person. And therfore it is a most necessary and excellent quality, to vnderstand and speake many languages by imitating that most famous and victorious Emperour Charles the fist, since that hee himselfe dyd vnderstand the speech of euery Nation accustomed to practise with him, and to the most part of them sententicusly and pithilie coulde aunswer: by reason that not onely for thys respect the beneuo­lence of diuers Nations and particuler persons is gained, which is a thing that much imports, but also moreouer deceite is auoi­ded, which through the defect and naturall vice of diuers malig­nent Interpreters might ensue: wherefore it is euer good to be doubtful.

Hée must of necessitie haue with him, such persons as be professed in Souldiours Architecture, for the most part properlie called by the name of Ingeniors, who must haue knowledge to cause and cast out the proportion of Trenches, to make them of sufficient defence, and to frame massiue Bulwarks, large and re­all Ditches, Gabions radled round about, to forme great Para­pets, and not onely to be good inuentors with iust proportions, but also more studious of the plots and formes, and those things that be therunto correspondent, and how to accomodate himselfe to the reasonable situation which is to be fortefied: and ye in effect they haue greater knowledge in warlike then in domesticall Archi­tecture, of which I haue in a particuler discourse intreated in my fist Booke.

Likwise it is very good, he take delight chiefly in cases of suspect (although he haue lodged his Armie, in a place that is of a good & strong situation) to compasse the most weake places thereof, with [Page 343] ditches & Trenches of good proportion, & reasonable wel flancked. That he take care to kéepe & repayre those places that be strong by nature, with all dilligent and arteficiall meanes. For so much as from those places that appeare most assured, manie great [...]u­ines are receiued, either through the negligence of the wearied watch, or through the secret policie & the aspiring mindes of the enemie: neither ought he to omit or flée any toyle or trauell, for good Souldiours in vrgent necessities by examplare incourage­ment, doe more willingly and readily worke, then the Pyoners themselues, as was very well performed in enuironing the Campe, against the Lanzgraue, and the rest of the Lutheran sect, in that trouble some time of Charles the fifth, Emperour, and as succéeded specially in Inglistate, one of the francke townes, where vpon the suddaine was made a wonderfull worke of Trenches, of sufficient force to resist the incredible furie of the enemies mighty Armie, who had the aduantage both in horse-men, foote­men, & Artillarie, with the which thrée daies continually, they did batter, assault, and made wonderfull slaughter amongst the Em­periall Squadrons, placed with great disaduantage in a discoue­red and open ground, by reason of the low situation, determining to force the Emperiall Armie to dislodge: the better after, ey­ther to conquer, or driue them the Country. The which through this great worke of Trenches, and together with many Carres planted vppon the one side, and vppon the other the great Riuer Danubie, and in front with certaine Pondes and Ditches of wa­ter, and vpon the backe, the town of Inglistate, it was altogether compassed and enuironed of sufficient force. But touching these respects, looke in my fourth booke, where I haue particularly tou­ched this matter.

Moreouer, it is necessary that the Captayne Generall, doe sometimes ryde by night about the Campe, and admonish the watch that they remaine ready and vigilant, since that in the eies and eares of so fewe, the health & sauegarde of all the Campe doth consist. As little as may be, he must suffer alarums to be gy­uen to his people, either by daye or by night, or at any tyme whatsoeuer: but if thereunto hee bee constrayned, lette him make it secretly, and without striking vp the Drums, or sounding Trompets, but rather vse Drum stickes and Surdines. Or o­therwise in respect and place of those Instruments, which in such [Page 344] cases are accustomed to be sounded. It is very conuenient he send some persons of authority, of purpose therunto appoynted, to passe round about and through the Campe, to aduertise & appoint spée­dily, such thinges as are to be performed, hauing before hand, had perfect discouerie of the enimie, and giuen resolute commission to make the alarum. Which quiet kinde of procéeding, shall after­wards cause lesse traueyle, and much more reputation to his peo­ple and to himselfe: and to his enemy great confusion and discon­ragement, perceiuing that by their pollitike and valiant procée­ding, they do smally estéeme or feare them. Which at sundrie a­larums in the Campe, surprises of Townes, Camisadoes, &c. I haue in the low Countries, vnder Don Iohn, seene pollitikely put in practise.

Hee ought when any alarum shall chaunce to bee gyuen, to take order with the high Marshall, with as great dilligence as he [...]anne, to double the Corps de garde and watch: which ought be­fore hande to be placed with great Iudgement, in places that bée strong by nature, or otherwise fortefied by arte. Besides, he must carry a speciall care, and vse a singuler dilligence, not to giue occa­sion of Mutinies, the which are accustomed for the most parte, to bring foorth extreame ruine: chiefly when they bee of naughtie nature, although the dignitie, authority, and power of the Cap­tayne Generall bee very great, for there is almost neuer any remedy vsed agaynst such vprores, without great losse of reputa­tion and authority, so great is the terrible furie of this franticke encounter.

He neuer ought to suffer his Collonelles, neither his Cap­taines, to haue any dead payes, or supply their roomes by others, that passe vnder their names in Muster: for in time of important neede, many times the Captayne Generall, shal finde his Forces very much weakened, contrarie to his expectation. A thing verie daungerous for the totall ruine of the whole Armie. Together with this aduertisement, hee ought to be alwayes courteous and liberall towards those that do follow him, to the intent his Chief­taine may courteously entertayne those that be good Souldiours. A thing worthy to be noted.

He must search by all meanes possible, to kéepe his Armie continually, couragions and wyth aspiring mindes, by arteficiall functions, to the enemies confusion. Sometimes dispearsing a [Page 345] rumor, that hee hath intercepted and taken, certayne aduertise­ments of importance. Somtimes to [...]aigne, that he hath the com­moditie to ayde himselfe, with the succours of many Princes and cōmon Princes, although there be no such matter. To make ioy­full Triumphes and shewes with Artillarie, arteficial fyres and bondfyres, in the euenings, and sometimes making shew that he hath a desire to assault and inuade the enemy by night, by Cami­sado, they beeing vnprouided: as did Charles the fift against the Lantzgraue, vppon the arriuall of Counte de Bure with succours out of Flaunders: or as did Iulian Romero, vnder the Duke of Al­ua, when the Prince of Orange was repulsed from before Moun­tes in he nault.

Besides this, hee may vse like functions, artes, or Strata­gemes, to aduance his warlike affayres: for, it is a vertue to vse deceit in Militarie actions, thereby to further the procéedings of iustice, against manifest enemies, when it is lawfull to assault, ei­ther with crafte or force, either openly or couertly, for that which doth succéede, whether it fall out by deceit or valour, is comenda­ble in warlike actions. As did Don Iohn, in suprising the Castell of Namures, a thing which fell out to be the safty of himselfe & the whole Countrey, and the cause whereby hee had meanes to re­uenge himselfe of his enemies, at such times as we gaue thē that famous ouerthrow, betwixt Namures and Gibloe.

Let the Generall haue great care to such chaunces and acci­dents, as haue néed of present remedy, repayring them with care­full prouidence, by reason that the most occasions which fal out in wars, can suffer no delayes: for whilst some haue béene in consul­ting, and deferring the matter but a little moment of time, they haue at that instant receiued losse not able to be recouered, & ther­fore to proceede with a wise and spéedie policie, is of infinite ad­uantage, yea and altogether necessary. He must alwayes haue in memory, ye not by reason he is Superior, in number & multitude of souldiours, he may make assured account of victory: but rather through the good order he doth obserue, in disposing & framing a ready obedience, and the exercise of a true & approued practise in warlike actions, is the only meanes to performe the same, & dooth cause the difference thorowly to bee discerned, betwixt one Cap­taine Generall and an other. For the art of Militarie profession dooth nourish in the breastes of men which follow this exercise, a valiant and aspiring mind to fight. Therfore as from thence safty [Page 346] and victory doth procéede: so contrariwise, by not possessing the same, losse and totall ruine doth follow: Since that practise, doth make a man abound with exquisite qualities, whereby courage is kindled in our harts: and contrariwise quenched in him that is a Nouice and fresh water souldier, in the exercise of these causes, which in euery respect is grounded vppon long experience, confe­rence and reading, and not by proud and presumptuous rashnes.

He must likewise remember, that many times in new begun wars, specially against straunge nations, a new forme of fight is requisite. The election of new armes is necessary, the varying of order, & the studie of a new art. Likewise it is good to Campe and discampe often, when it may be done without manifest perill, and without suspicion or daunger of the enemy: for thereby the infec­tion of the ayre is auoided, and souldiours kéept exercised, who by lying still become flouthfull and negligent. Moreouer, the Mar­shal of the field hauing at euery lodging, either planted or entren­ched the Campe: it is most necessary for the Generall, beeing accompanyed with some Caualieres of his owne Courte and guarde, hauing before hym hys generall Trumpet, and his Guidon or Cornet displayde (without which hee ought ne­uer to goe abroade) to ride vp and downe to visite the quarters, places of armes, Munitions, and Trenches. And to the intent he may kéepe the Souldiours in their Lodgings, and in their proper quarters, when it is expedient that they should not wander about the armie, for some good and speciall purpose. Let him cause some small stampe or countersigne to be giuen or dis [...]rsed to ye Cap­taynes, to the end, that they gyuing them to the Officers or soul­diours, they may accomplish all theyr necessary businesse, without being hindered or stayed of the prouost: who must carry a vigi­lant respect, touching this charg, so that those which haue not such countersignes or stampes, and bee founde foorth of their quarter, may be chastised without remission, according to the proclama­tion and bande, made to that effect.

When the Generall cannot in time, readily paye his Soul­diours, as many times it falles out through want of money, or by reason of some other accident, it is néedefull for him to make pro­uision, that the Countrey where he remaynes may beare them: or els let him carrie them into a barraine place, smally inhabited, to the intent, that not béeing able to liue but with great spare, through the want of many delicate thinges, they may bee more patient in attending theyr paie.

[Page 347]He must permit, that the baggage of all sort of people, the victu­als, the Munitions, with the other impediments, and finally al the disarmed, may haue a seueral Captaine, Chiefe, & Ensigne, euery one apart, if their number will beare the same, for that they must march vnited together, and in order, as shal be most expedient and conuenient, to the intent they doo not cause great disturbance and confusion, through their s [...]oe or ouer-hasty going, which is an or­dinary thing amongst them, béeing vnruly people.

Let the Generall, as before I saide, carry a speciall care to the choyse of his principall Officers, and that in the election, he haue more respect to the valour & vertue of the person, then to any parti­culer fauour, otherwise he may in time be brought to repent hys choise, and hardly redresse his calamities▪ Therfore let him often and vnlooked for, resort vnto the Captaines & Collonels Tents, to sée what towardly readines they are or may bee in of a suddaine, and that he cause the Captaines make often like resort vnto the souldiours and vnder Officers, to sée if they be in the like orderlie readines for any suddaine seruice: and by degrées discending frō one to another, to make speciall proofe of euery mans sufficiencie. For ye better performance wherof, he must receiue into his hands, the order of all Offices in writing, together with all the names of the souldiours in the Band, wherby he may likewise sée whether he haue his iust number. And consequently examine euery Offi­cer, whether they haue a sufficient proportion of Armour, wea­pon, shot, powder, artillary, fireworks, boates to make bridges to passe Riuers, spades, mattocks, and euery other particularity, be­fore the Armie march.

The Generall hauing receiued his whole Armie entirely, hee must assemble his Counsell, and to ordaine stai [...]ts and lawes for the gouernment of his souldiours, first communicating the same with his Collonels and Captaines, causing them also to impart them to their Bands, suffering euery man franckly with due re­uerence to speake, obiect, and by writing (if they list) to offer vnto the Counsell what they can against any of them, which obiections considered, they shal resolue vpon such like Lawes & Penalties as I haue adioyned to the dutie of a souldiour in my first Booke, be­ginning alwaies with Lawes for the feare of God, and the Chri­stian faith, and so follow on for the Prince, Country, and Campe. And then cause euery Collonel and Captaine to take his oath, and [Page 348] they likewise to cause euery souldiour at his Ensigne to take hys oath, to obserue, and as much as in them shall lye, to cause to be obserued euery of those lawes and Edicts so agréed vpon.

He must not onely cause the foresaid lawes to be written or im­printed in seuerall Bookes, giuen to the Collonels, Captaines, o­ther Officers and Corporals therby to instruct euery priuate soul­diour perfectly in thē, but also to prouide, that the Prouost Gene­ral doo prosecute ye offenders & breakers of these Edicts, who with his followers must be specially respected, as before is set downe.

The General is by good, speciall and perfit plots, Maps, & Mo­dels, to know the situation, nature, and property of the Country, and his parts where he is to passe with his Armie, whether it be plaine & champion, or woody & ful of waters, furnished with strong Townes, or no: and to proportion the Horsemen and Footmen of his Army accordingly. For if it be most part champion and full of forrage, it is meet to haue the more Horsemen: if it stand vppon straits and fortefyed places, he is to haue the more Footmen.

Light Horsmen are in all places for discouery, fetching in of boo­ties, & pursuing of victory, very seruiceable, and not to be spared.

The General ought also to learne by good espial how his enemy is appointed: for against the French, who abound with shot, and haue few pikes, the Launce & Light-horsmans staffe of the North is singuler good, especially in the plaine: but against the Switzers and Launce Knights, the Launce auaileth litle, but ye Argoleteares and Pistoleteares shall much more anoy them. It shal be likewise very cōmodious to haue some cariages allowed in pay, to attende on euery Band of footmen, as wel as on horsmen, who besides the carriage of necessaries for vse, may also in time of Skirmish, and other encounters, serue to carry hurt men out of the field. They be very good to empale the Armie, specially if the cartages & horses bee arteficially flancked and shadowed with boordes filled wyth quires of paper.

Whilst faire wether is, the Generall must acquaint hys Soul­diours to sleepe on bare ground, and though the Enemy be far ab­sent, yet duly to maintaine their Scoutes to watch and ward, and performe all Millitary orders, as curiously as if the Enemy were present, so shall it not séeme gréeuous when necessity requires it.

If he haue many horse, he must sée that the Marshall of the field plant his Campe, where good store of forrage is néere, otherwise, [Page 349] in forraging farre off, he may greatly hazard his companies, if good Conuoyes be not sent with his Forragers, and their iourneyes dis­creetly directed. Good regard must also be had, that the Camp be not subiect to any hill, from whence the enemy may beate with great Ar­tillary, nor so disioyned frō water, as the enemie may easily cut you from it, neither yet so low, as the Enemy cutting the bancks of anie Riuer, may drowne the Campe. If there be no great Riuers, but on­ly small Fountaines or Wels to water your Armie, then must good watch be kept, that they be not by the enemy poysoned and infected.

The Generall shold not so much séeke to place his Camp in seates strong by nature, as to fortify them by arte, as wel to kéep his Soul­diours from idlenes, (the only ruine of Armies) as also that due or­der in Camps may be maintained: let him therfore imitate the aun­cient Romans, the very Maisters of the arte of war, who neuer coue­ted other then y plaine to campe vpon: entrenching thēselues nightly in as strong & sure manner, as if the enemy had encamped by them, and that euen in places vtterly voide of all suspition, to make these millitary trauails familiar vnto them, and to auoide those idle, or ra­ther dissolute effrenate pastimes, that our Christian Campes are be­witched withal, to the vtter ruine of all good Millitary discipline, and confusion of our Armies.

In a running Campe, the readiest fortification is, to impale it round with the cariages chayned together, the sides of the carriages and horses shaded with thin boords, with certain quires of paper be­twixt, cunningly compacted together, which being accommodated to make sides, bottoms, and doores to the Carts & carriages, will serue wonderfully to empale an Army, to make approches, or to holde out Caliuer & Musket shot. Then let them bend the Artillary that waie where most suspicion is the enemy shall approch, and if time wil per­mit, to cast some Trench also without the carriages against Artilla­rie. He must kéepe his souldiours in continuall millitary exercise: and by fained allarmes, to sée in what readines his bands would be if necessitie required, to shew them all maner of waies how ye enemie may attempt them, discouering also to thē the remedy, and howe they are to aunswer to those attempts: for no man is borne a Souldiour, but by exercise and trayning it is attained, and by discontinuance a­gaine it is lost, as all other Artes and Sciences be.

In setling of a Campe, beside the commodities of wood, water, and forrage, the Generall must also cōsider how victuals may safely come vnto him, and to leaue no Castles at his back to anoy them, but that [Page 350] he séeke to possesse them ere he march forward, for great is the anoy­ance that a little pyle at the back of an Army may doo, as wel against forragers & straglers, as to cut off victuals from the Campe.

The Generall is also by good plots to consider, the situation of the Country, how both fréend and enemy Townes lie from the Campe, the hyls and vallies, waies, straits, passages, lakes, riuers & bridges, their number, quantity, distance, and euery particularity, which may be doone by conference with his Discouerers-Guides, Espyals, & o­ther persons that know ye Country, conferring their assertions with his plots. And so to consider whether ye enemy may conueniently cut off his victuals, or by Ambush anoy him in his march, and for preuen­tion therof, to send abroad Light-horsemen & Hargabuzers to garde the passages towards the enemies Garisons. Before the Armie dis­campe, all passages and waies for the souldiours and Artillary. &c. to passe; should be discouered, and skilful men appointed to lead them.

He ought not to suffer any band to march scattered, but in battails order, or at least in straits & narrow passages inforce to drawe them forth in Herses, and so soone as place serueth, to reduce them again in­to the order of battaile: and this is to be vsed in places of security for exercise, as in places of suspect for safetie. He ought to haue with him good Guides, that perfecty know all passages, hilles, vallies, &c. for of the Country in generallitie, the Generall himselfe ought perfectly to be informed by Plots & Models, wherby he shal the better conceiue any information that shal be brought him by espiall. If the General haue sundry Nations vnder his gouernment, it is not méete to gyue alwaies to any one Nation the Uaward, considering the same, being in marching towards the enemy the place of greatest honour, the o­thers will much repine against it, and not without good cause. The order therfore in marching, should so be framed, that euery Nation haue his turne, without partial fauor to any one. And if the number be great of any one Mercinary Nation, it is not amisse to deuide thē, both in marching & imbattelling, for sundry respects, which in thys place I omit to show. If any strait be kept by the enemie, it is not méet first to charge them vpon the very front, but to send Light-hors­men & shot to skyrmish with them on either flancke, and then wyth Targets of proofe to enter vpon them.

The Generall shold before he bring his Souldiours to deale with the enemy, first in some champion place, cause them to be ranged in forme of battaile, making of his footmen sundry Battillions, & of these Battillions, sundry Fronts, to deuide his Horsemen also into sundry [Page 351] Troupes, placing the men at Armes, Demilances, Light horsemen, and Argoleteares euery Fort in seueral Troupes by themselues, to cause the forlorne to issue out, and skirmish thē before the Battillions, as if the enemy were indéed present, and vpon a signe giuen, suddain­ly to retire. The horsmen to charge and returne again to their place, vpon their retire, to cause certain sleues of pykes and light Armed, to run out to their reskew, as though the enemy did pursue them. Then the Battillions of the first front to march forward, & bend their pikes, and suddainly after the sound of the retrait, to retire themselues or­derly, betwéen the Battillions of the second front: then ye second front to march forward, and bend their pikes, and ye other that first retired, to make head again vpon the enemy. Last of all, the Light-horsmen and light Armed footmen again to breake forth, as it were to doo exe­cution vpon the enemy fléeing, which forme of trayning, doth aun­swer Ma. Digs his proportion of imbattelling. These things, if in pastime the souldiours be able orderly to performe, there is good hope they wil honorably put it in execution vpon the enemy. Otherwise, to bring them without trayning to deale with the enemy, is nothing els but to leade them to the butcherie.

As there is nothing more perrillous in giuing of battaile, then to lay before ye souldiours eyes any place of refuge to flée vnto, but that the Generall should declare vnto them, that there is no hope to escape but only by victory, and heerin to imitate Hanniball: so there is no­thing more dangerous, then to giue ye enemy battaile in such a place, where in troth hee hath no refuge or possibility to escape, for that ne­cessity maketh men desperate, it vniteth them together, & it hath often béen séene, that very small cōpanies, by such like occasions, beeing re­duced to desperation, thereupon resoluing to sell their liues déerely, haue contrary to all expectation attained victory vpon their enemies, in number farre greater.

The General must haue special care, that the souldiours haue not in their faces, the dust to blind them, the wind to disturbe them, or the sun beames to anoy them, before they enter into any maine encoun­ter: the which impediments, not only altogether, but each one by him selfe alone, doth bring great toile, trouble, and disaduantage▪ Ney­ther let him lead his souldiours to performe any enterprise of impor­tance, if before hand he haue not had great and manifest experience of them. Note that it is much better to ouercome the enemy, by weari­ing him with delaies, then by furious fight put himselfe to ye hazarde of doubtful fortune, which oftentimes hath in battaile greater puis­sance [Page 352] then valour or vertue it selfe, therefore alway procéede in these vncertaine ends of Armes, rather assuredly then perrillously. The order which the enemies hold, ought first of all euer to be discouered.

The Generall being a man of iudgment, dooth attend and take re­spect with prudence and with carefulnes, both to his affaires, and to the enemies, and doth that is good, or that which is pernicious in the one and in the other, and doth preuent his traps and deceits, nei­ther suffers any thing negligently about himselfe, nor assured about them. In warres, for the most part, the victory comes by nothing els, but the euill counsell and base mind of his aduersary, therefore very hardly can he be ouercome, that can measure and knowe, both hys owne, and his enemies forces and order.

When a Prince or his Generall, hath fortefyed himselfe wyth Confederates, with good and experienced Captaines wyth valiant Souldiours, with Municion and weapons, with money and strong places: it followes that he endeuours himselfe to weaken the force, interrupt and breake in sunder the aduersaries determinations, the which thing may be performed spéedily or late, according as occasion shall offer it selfe, which is the fountaine and originall of all graci­ous acts.

To conclude, the Generall, the high Officers of the Army, Colo­nels, Captaines, and Souldiours, must daily serue God, for Religi­on causeth good orders, good orders brings good fortune, good fortune makes good successe to arise in all enterprises. The Armie wel paide, discipline must be vsed without respect of persons. Iustice to doo eue­ry man right, makes the Generall of great maiestie and reputati­on, beloued and feared, because hee dooth and is able to aduaunce the vertuous, and correct the wicked. For money is the flesh & sinewes of the warres, and ordeined for the same. That warre is iust, which a Prince commaunds, for to recouer that is lost, or to defende iniu­ries and wrongs offered to him by others.


FOR that there hath somwhat beene saide touching Townes of warre and fortifications, Souldiours of iudgement doth know, that a place besieged by the power of a mighty Prince, cannot long endure, without there be within the same, a suf­ficient number of men, Munition, & victuals: when any of these three things lacke, the enemy will soone haue the place besieged. Therefore the sayde Captaine Hychcocke, who hath beene the cause of printing this Booke of warre, doe think it good, to ioyne to the same worke, this short discourse, which declareth what proportion of victuals, will serue one thousande Souldiours in a Garrison, where the victuals must be prouided by her Maiesties Victualer. As for example, we wil make our proportion for Bar­wicke, wherein I will shewe howe the chiefe Victualer and the petty Victualers gaines and profits shall rise, that men may looke therein, whereby all doubts and questions that may grow for that seruice shall be auoyded, and the Garrison at all times well furni­shed with things necessary & needful, for victualing of one thou­sand Souldiours, and after that proportion, as the number shall fall out, more or lesse. Within this generall proportion heereafter, I doe declare first for Bread and Beere, the Bakehouse and Brew­house, the Grayners for store, the Windmilles, the Horsemylles, with theyr implements: the caske and other necessary things, the charges of men, horses, and carryages to the same belonging, with theyr wages and allowance for theyr trauaile and seruice. Howe thys proportion is to be prouided, vsed, deliuered and spent, in reading ouer thys little worke following, you shall find very short and playne. Robert Hichcock.

A generall proportion and order of prouision, for a yeere of three hundred, threescore and fiue dayes, to vic­tuall a Garrison of one thousande Souldiours.

The order for the Bakehouse.

THe Souldiours hauing one pounde and a halfe of good whea­ten bread for one pennie, or one pound and a halfe of good white bread for j. d'. ob. the Bakers to aunswer for euery quarter of wheate, beeing sweete, good, and marchantable, deliuered at Barwicke, xx. s̄. Cleere of all charges and was [...]e, which happe­neth afterward by keeping the grayners or any other, except ca­sualtie [Page 354] of the Enemy after the deliuery thereof.

Necessaries and implements, wood, wages of Clarkes, Ba­kers, Myllers, Carters, Labourers or any other, for the Bake­houses, Windmils, Grayners, or carriage of prouision, and for horse and Carts for the same are to be found by this rate & size of bread, without any other allowance to be demaunded, sauing for wast and charges of as much wheate, as the vse of baking shall be otherwise employed, then to be deliuered in bread by thē who were charged with the receite from the shippes, and keeping the grayners of the same.

The Bakehouses, Windmils, and Graynars, béeing furni­shed with implements and necessaries at the entrance into ser­uice, and in good order of repracion, are so to be maintained and kept, in and by all things, except casualtie of the Enemy. And are to be deliuered at the departure from seruice, in as good order and furniture of all things as they were first receiued.

And considering the charge to maintaine the Bakehouse, with the appurtenaunces and allowance to the pettie victualers of the Garrison, after xxj. loues of bread for xx. A quarter of good wheat will make in good bread, by order of this Booke xxv. s̄. so haue yée of euery quarter for charges v. s̄. and after foure quarters ye day, for the whole yéere iij. C. lxv. l. That is to say, for wood to bake a quarter of meale in loafe breade, xvj. d'. and after foure quarters the day, for a yéere, sum lxxx. xvij. l. vj. s̄. viij. d'. and for this re­pracion of the Bakehouse and the appurtenances yéerely. l. l.

Wages and victuall of two Clarkes, two Myllers, foure Ba­kers, and foure Labourers yéerely, one hundred & fiftie pounde.

Maintenance of horse for carriage in this charge yeerely, lxij. l. xiij. s̄. iiij. d'. All these allowances are found in the size of bread be­side the branne.

The whole Garison béeing as before one thousande Souldi­ours, will spend foure quarters of wheate a day, and for ye whole yéere xiiij. C. lxiiij. quarters. Although by order this number wil serue, yet the prouision to be at the least in Wheate for breade, xx. C. quarters for the prouision.

I account good wheate may be bought with ready money by former bargaines for seauen yeeres together, for xiij. s̄. iiij. d'. the quarter, in Yorkshire, Notinghamshire, and Lincolnshire. I account the charges of a quarter, from the place it was bought, [Page 355] to Barwick, at iij. s̄. iiij. d'. that is to say, where they sende it downe in Kéeles, to giue for kéeling of a quarter iiij. d'. for freight of a quarter to Barwicke, xvj. d'. and for the Purueyors charges for matts, or any other, of a quarter, xx. d'. And in other meete place where the freight is greater, the other charges are the lesse, so as it may be doone for the price.

I haue made no mention of waste, which is to be borne by the ouer measure, béeing bought for ready money by former bar­gaines, except shipwracke and casualtie of the Enemie. So I account wheate to be deliuered at Barwicke, cléere of all char­ges and freight, at xvj. s̄. viij. d'. the quarter, one time with ano­ther, as before.

And where the Baker alloweth to deliuer in Bread for eue­ry quarter of good wheate, xx. s̄. cléere of all charges and wast af­ter the deliuery there of at Barwicke, by this order of prouision, the freight, wast, and all other charges allowed, except casualtie of the Enemie and shypwracke, there remaineth profit in euerie quarter, iij. s. iiij. d'. Sum ij. C. xliij. l. vj. s. viij. d'.

These may suffise for the order of the Bakehouse, for Breade, and prouision of corne for the same: sauing there is to be conside­red, to haue in store at all times, in wood ij. C. loade, euery three Monethes to be renewed: to euery Mill, a paire of spare stones, and tymber for repration. All implements and necessaries to bee double furnished for the said charge, and for the horse and carts of the same.

Certaine notes for wheate-meale and bread.

A bushell of good wheate meale, as it commeth from the Myll, and weying lvj. l. will make in houshold breade lxxij. l. so that it will take in liquour, beside that is dryed in baking, beeing weyed within xxiiij. houres after the baking, xvj. l. that is, for vij. l. of meale, ix. l. of bread.

Take vij. l. of bran out of a bushell of good meale, weying lvj. l. & the xlix. l. remayning, will make in good wheaten bread, lxiij. l. and that paste, wil make in ordinary bisket, being conuer­ted to that vse, xlij. l. and taking thrée pounde and a halfe more of bran from the said meale, the forty fiue pounde and a halfe re­mayning, will make in white bread, xlij. l. or in white biskette, twentie eyght pound.

[Page 356]A bushell of wheate weying but fifty two pound to the Myll, if you will make it equal with good meale, take out of the same ten pound of bran, and the fortie two pound remaining will make in wheate n bread, fifty foure pound, or in ordinary bisket thirty sixe pounde, that is, of a quarter of such wheate, two hundred & two quarters, viij. l. taken out of the same for grinding, and it wyll make but two hundred, one quarter ordinary biskette, except ye take out lesse branne, and make courser bread then the ordinarie vse of the same. The lighter wheate, the courser, and more bran, and there is worse wheate then is héere mentioned. The heauier wheate, the finer meale, and lesse branne, and there is better also then is héere declared.

Some wheate wyll wey more then weight in a quarter four­téene pound, & some twenty eyght pound. So of light wheate the Baker maketh course breade, and to small profit: and of good weighty wheate fayre bread, to the Bakers honesty and profit.

Because diuersitie of measures shold be auoided, there is con­sidered for wast in prouision, the ouermeasure: and for waste in the Graynars, the Mylles to be parcell of the Bakehouse, so that the Baker to aunswere that wast as before. Thus much is de­clared for wheate, and the Bakers in theyr charge.

The order for the Brewhouse.

THE Brewer deliuering double béere at thirtie shyllings the Tunne, the Souldiour to haue a wine quarte for a halfe pe­nie, and deliuering strong beere at fortie eyght shillings the tun, the Souldiour to haue a wine quart for ob. q. And the Brewers to allow the Officers for euery quarter of Mault xiij. s̄. iiij. d'. and for euery quarter of wheate, xx. shyllings, cléere of all charges, and waste in the garners after the deliuery of the same at Bar­wicke, frō aboorde the shyps there, except casualty of the Enemy.

Necessaries and implements, wood & coale, wages of Clarks, Brewers, Myllers, Coopers, Carters, and Labourers for the Brewhouse, the appurtenaunces and carriage of prouision, with horse and cartes for the same, Hoppes, and Beerecorne, caske, and hoopes, or any other necessaries are to be founde by this rate and price of Beere, without any other allowance, sauing waste and charges, of as much Maulte, wheate, Beerecorne or caske, as shall be otherwise employed then with beere, to be deliuered [Page 357] by those which were charged with the receite and carryage from the shyps, and kéeping the garners of the same.

The Brew houses, horse myls, Garners, and store houses for this charge, beeing furnished with implements and necessaries, and in good order of repration at the entrance into seruice, are so to be maintained and kept, in and by all things, except casualtie of the Enemy. And to be deliuered at the departure from seruice, in as good order and furniture of all things, as they were recei­ued, without any other allowance then for carryage of Beere to the pettie Uictuallers, as hath béene, and is at Barwicke accu­stomed.

If there should be demaunded any greater price for Maulte, then must the Béere be smaller, and the water the Brewers freende for gayne to maintaine this charge.

And for that I haue considered, the great charges of the ap­purtenances before declared, I haue rated both kindes of Béere by the Tunne in proporcion, and howe allowance is founde for the maintenance of the same.

Double Beere in proporcion by the Tunne.

  • TO euery Tunne in Mault, x. Bushelles and a halfe allow­ance, for waste in the Garners, at xiij shillings iiij. pence the quarter. xvij s̄. vj d'.
  • In Wheate one Bushell, ij s̄. vj d'.
  • In Dates halfe a Bushell, v d'.
  • In Hoppes vij pound, at xx s̄. for a hundreth. xv d'.
  • Wood and Coales, to euery Tunne xx d'
  • Repration of the Houses, implements, necessaries, and waste of Caske, ij s̄. ij d'.
  • Mayntenaunce of men for the sayd charge, allowed of euery Tunne. iij s̄. iiij d.
  • Maintenance of horse to the Mylles, and Cartes for carri­age of prouision, xiiij d'.
  • So haue yée the Tunne of double Béere at xxx s.

Strong Beere in proportion by the Tunne.

  • To euery Tunne in Mault, two quarters and thrée peckes allowance for waste in the Garners xxviij s.
  • [Page 358]In Wheat two Bushels, v s.
  • In Oates one Bushell, x d'.
  • In Hoppes viij po [...]nd and a halfe, xviij d'.
  • Wood and Coale to euery Tunne. ij s. vj.
  • Reprations of the Houses, implements, necessaries, and waste of Caske, iij s. iiij d'.
  • Mayntenance of men for the sayde charge, allowed of euery Tunne, v s.
  • Mayntenaunce of Horse to the Mylles, and Cartes for car­riage of prouision, xxij d'.

So yée haue the Tun of stronge Béere as appeareth, at xlviij s.

The proportion for 600, cōmon souldiours a yéere in double Béere, after the order of this booke, 456, Tunne in hegsheades.

The proportiō for foure hundred, greater allowance a yéere in strong Béere after the order of this booke, thrée hundred foure Tunne Barrell, Summa 760. Tunn in Hogshead Barrell.

By these proportions of Beere▪ is considered for Wood and coale, thrée score sixtéene pound ten pence. Repration of the ap­purtenaunces, and the waste of the Caske, C l. ij s. iiij d'. ob. For mayntenaunce of ii, Clarkes, iiii. Brewers, one Mylller, ii. Cooperes, and iiii Labourers, one hundred Lii. pound, i. s. viii d' Mayntenance of Horse to the Mylles, and Cartes for cariage of prouision: beside, yéeste and graynes. Liiij. pound, ix s. vij d'. ob. So haue yée for mayntenaunce of the saide charge; thrée hunde­reth foure score two pound, fourtéene shillings six pence, founde in the rate and price of Béere.

And more by the petty victuallers, for carriage of Béere at xvj, d' the Tunne, vsed of custome, L. pound, xiij shillings x, d'.

Summa for maintenance of the Brew-houses, and the appurtenances, as appeareth, foure hundreth xxxiij l. viij s. iiij d'

And there appeareth also by the sayde proportions, wheate, store of Corne and Hoppes, will serue the same as followeth.

In Mault for double Béere, at ten bushelles the Tunnne, six hundereth thrée score and ten quarters, two bushelles and a halfe: allowance for waste, xxviij quarters & a halfe. In Mault for strong béere at two quarters the Tunne, vi, hundereth viij. quarters two bushelles and a halfe: allowance for waste xxx quarters iij bushels.

Summa in Mault 1237. quarters and a halfe.

[Page 359]In Wheat to both proportions as appeareth, 133. quarters and halfe a bushell. In Oates, Lxvi, quarters, foure bushelles. In Hops, fiue thousand foure hundreth two quarters, xi. pound, beside the weight of the Hoppe sackes.

And not withstanding, this proportion of Mault, Wheat▪ and Hoppes, will serue the like Garrison: yet considering the place, the prouision to bee yéerely in Mault, two thousand quarters. In Wheat for Béere two hundred fyftie quarters. In Oates, one hundred and fifty quarters. And in good Hoppes eight thou­sand weight.

In Cole as a continuall store euery thrée monthes, to be re­nued two hundreth Chadron.

Spare stones to the Horse myls. Double furniture of necessa­ries for the Brew houses, horse myls, and Garnars. Double fur­niture of necessaries for the horse and Carts.

To haue in store of good Caske, seruiceable for beere, beside that is daily occupyed, one hundred Tunne.

In good Clapboord, two great hundred.

In Wainescots, two hundred.

In Spruce deales, two hundred.

In seasoned Tunstaues, two hundred.

In hoopes, as a continuall store to be renued, 30. or 40000.

In good yron, foure Tunne.

Although some of these are of smal value, yet are they not to be spared, nor easily to be had in time of seruice, and therefore to bee considered.

All such prouision, with Brewe house, Bake house, and Gray­ners, I haue seene in the Pallace at Barwicke, the fift yeere of King Edward the sixt, I then hauing the charge of two hundred Pyonars, in the fortification there.

For prouision.

I count good Maulte may be bought in Cambridgshire, & such part of Norfolke where the Maulte is very good, and in Lincoln­shyre for seauen yeeres together, by former bargaines, for readie money, at sixe shyllings, and eyght pence the quarter.

As for Wheate for thys charge, is to be had in all places, and Oates also. Course wheate will serue for Béere, so that the best be reserued for bread. And wheate that hath taken heate, in the carriage, not béeing wette with salt water, will serue for thys [Page 360] charge to be occupied with other that is good.

I rate the charges of prouision, freight, waste, and all other, ex­cept casualtie of the Enemy, at iij. s. iiij. d'. the quarter: as before in the charge of the Bakehouse, so that Mault may be deliuered at Barwicke, cleere of all charges one time with another, at ten shillings the quarter.

There appeareth to be allowed by ye Brewer for euery quar­ter of Mault, xiij. s. iiij. d'. and for euery quarter of Wheate xx s. cléere of all charges and waste, after the deliuery thereof from a­boorde the shyps at Barwick, except casualtie of the Enemy, be­ing imployed for Béere deliuered in seruice.

And by the order of prouision, the freight, waste, and all other charges cléered, to be profit in euery quarter of Mault and wheat imployed as before, except casualtie of the Enemy & shipwracke, iij. s. iiij. d'. Sum ij. C. xxviij. l. viij. s. iiij. d'.

As I haue declared great difference in the goodnes of Wheate, so is there in Mault much more: for the common Mault of Nor­folke, is not to be compared to good Maulte, by foure quarters in euery xx. quarters. And Mault that is full of wyeuels, and wood dryed Mault, will make vnsauery drinke, to those that are vsed to drink Béere or Ale made with straw dryed Mault, yet in time of great seruice, both Norfolke Maulte and wood dryed Maulte will serue with other good Maulte, and make good drinke also to serue the time.

Thus for causes of seruice of Bread and Béere, I haue suffici­ently prooued in these few lynes declared, and the charges of the same in all poynts considered: adding thereunto a proportion for the rest of the victualing of such a Garison.

Prouision of Beefe by proportion.

THat is to say, the whole Garison by this order, will spende in Béefe xij. C. weight a day, for j. C. dayes. iij. C. Oxen, con­tayning iiij. C. weight euery Oxe. And for the sayd seruice there, they may be bought in Yorkshyre, Darbishire, Lankeshire, the Bishoprick of Durham, and deliuered at Barwick aliue, cleere of all charges, for thrée pound euery Oxe, those that are good fat, and so large, that the carkas dóo wey euery quarter round, fiftéene stone, at viij. l. the stone the one with the other, whereof to be al­lowed for the hyde, offall and tallow xv. shillings. And so of all o­ther [Page 361] Oxen after the rate the fourth part the same did cost aliue, ei­ther of small or great. Hauing licence to transport the hydes ouer sea to be sold to most aduauntage: and rating allowance for loo­king to the Pastures, for killing, dres [...]ing, and cutting out of eue­ry such Oxe, xxiij. d'. and yet remaineth profit in the Oxe by thys order, sixe shyllings eyght pence a peece.

Sum for the whole proportion, [...]. C. pound.

Prouision of Mutton by proportion

IN Mutton also for fiftie daies xij. C. weyght a day, rating the carkas of a shéepe about xlv. pounde the one with the other, that is, thirtie shéepe a day, in all xv. C. shéepe. Such sheepe bee­ing [...]at and good, are to be bought in Lincolnshire, Yorkshire, and D [...]rbishire, and deliuered at Barwick aliue, for vj. s. viij. pence a sheepe, cleere of all charges, whereof to be allowed xx. [...]. for the skin, [...] and tallowe. Hauing licence to transport the felles to be sold as before, to most aduauntage: and rating allowance for looking to the pastures, kylling and dressing of euery such shéepe, [...]oure pence, and yet remaineth profit in euery of the like sheepe, sixteene pence. Sum for the whole proportion. j. C. l.

Prouision of Porke by Proportion.

IN Porke also for thirty two dayes, xv. C. weight a day, the which I rate at xv. hogs, & in all iiij. C. lxxxiiij. hogs, where­of the two sides of euery hog to wey besides the offal one hundred weight: such hogs are to be bought in Nottinghamshire, Darbi­shire, and Yorkshire, and deliuered at Barwick aliue, being good, cléene, and fat, for viij. s̄. iiij. d'. a hog cleere of all charges, 00.

Whereof to be allowed for the offall of euery such hogge. xij. d'. And rating allowance for looking to them, kylling, scalding, and dressing of euery hogge, viij. d'. and yet remaineth profit in euery such hog. ij. s̄. Sum for the whole proportion. xlviij l.

Notwithstanding this proportion, yet the store of Oxen to be iiij. C. xx. C. shéepe, and viij. C. hogs, wherof thrée C. to be made Bacon, as parcell of a good store. And alwaies to haue at Bar­wick j. C. Oxen, & v. C. sheepe, and the rest in good pas [...]ure with­in xxx. or xl. mile, ready to serue at all times: and the hogs also in conuenient place for the same.

Prouision of Fish by proportion.

In stockfish for fiftie two Wednesdaies, two meales & halfe seruice, fiftie two Fridaies, one meale and whole seruice, iij. C. stockfishes a day, in all the whole, xxvi. laste xij. C. after v. score the hundred to euery last. The same are to be deliuered at Bar­wick, cléere of all charges, for xiij. l. vj. s̄. viij. d'. the last. And ra­ting allowance for beating, & kéeping the store of euery last, xxx. shillings, and yet remaineth profit in euery last, by order of thys booke, as in a proportion for the xx. part of the Garison héereafter following may appeare, v. l. iij. s̄. iiij. d'.

Sum for the whole proportion. j. C. xxxiij. l. iij. s̄. iiij. d'.

In shotland lyng, euery lyng rated at two stockfishes, for xxvi. Saterdayes, thirteene daies in Lent, and one day in Rogation wéeke, halfe seruice fortie dayes, one C. and fifty a day, which maketh after sixe score to the hundred, and 4. lynges to the pay, 5000. Lynges, which are to be deliuered at Barwick, cleere of all charges for l. s. the C. and rating allowance to the keepers of the store, of euery C. three shillings. foure pence, & yet remaines profit of euery C. by order of this booke, as in the souldiours pro­portion at large appeareth, sixteene shillings, eyghtpence.

Sum for the whole proportion. xli. l. xiii. s. iiii. d'.

In shotland Cod, rated at a stockfish and a halfe, for xxvi. Sa­terdaies, twelue dayes in Lent, and one day in Rogation wéeke, halfe seruice 39. dayes, 225. fishes a day, which maketh after 6 score to the hundred, and 4. pay fishes, 7. M. 3. C. 15. fishes: which are to be deliuered at Barwicke, cleere of all charges for thirty shillings the C. And rating allowance to the keepers of the store of euery C. two shyllings. And yet remaineth profit in e­uery hundred, by thys order, eyght shillings.

Sum for the whole proportion. xxix. l. iiij. s. j. d'. ob.

And where these proportions of fish, by the order of this booke allowed to the Souldiours, will serue: yet the yéerely prouision with the remaine, to be in stockfish xl. last, vij. M. v. C. Lynges, x. M. Codde.

Prouision of Butter and Cheese.

In Butter, for fifty two Wednesdaies, halfe seruice, iii. C. l. a day, fifty two Saterdaies, xxv. dayes in Lent, and two dayes in Rogation weeke, quarter seruice, 79. dayes, 150. pound a day, [Page 363] in all 27000. 300. 50. l. which maketh in Barrels, after 52. l. and a halfe, to euery Firken, 130. barrels. The same may bee bought in Holdernes, in Yorkeshire, & in Suffolke once a yeere, for xl. s. the barrell: and rating the charges of prouision & carri­age to the water side at xx. d'. the barrell, for freight to Barwick, euery barrell xx. d'. and rating allowance to the keepers of the store of euery Barrell xx. d'. and yet remaineth profite of euery barrell twenty fiue shillings.

Sum for the whole proportion. 162. l. 16. s. 3. d'.

In Cheese for fiftie two Saterdaies, twentie fiue dayes in Lent, and two dayes in Rogation weeke, quarter seruice, 300. l. a day, in all 23000. 700. l. and maketh in weyes, considering the allowance of 16. l. to the pettie victualers for the Souldiours, 98. wey, and thrée quarters: and rating allowance for waste, one wey in euery loade, that is for waste, 15. wey, and the odde quarter to goe in allowance of waste with the rest, which I am sure is sufficient: so that the prouision to be by this order, 113. wey of Cheese, with the waste.

The same may be bought in Suffolke once a yéere, for 20. s. the wey, and rating the prouision and carriage to the water side of a wey, 20. d'. for freight to Barwicke of a wey, 20. d'. and yet remaines profit of thys order of a wey, allowing other 20. d'. to the keepers of the store, nine shillings, seauen pence, farthing.

And in the whole, fiftie foure pound, fiue shillings.

Notwithstanding that the saide proportion of Butter & Chéese will serue, according to the order of thys booke: yet the yeerelie prouision to be with the remaine in Butter two hundred Bar­rels, and in Chéese two hundred Wey.

And to haue in store of bay salt vpon consideration of seruice, if it should so happen to occupy the same, one hundred wey.

By this generall proportion of prouisiō, appeareth to be main­tained sufficient number of men, and also the repracion of ye hou­ses, necessaries, and all other charges for the said seruice at Bar­wicke, without the Queenes highnesse charge. And also for the prouision and charges off eight and other before it come to Bar­wicke, and to stop the mouthes of those who delight to finde fault in that they vnderstand not. Héere followeth how the allowance is found to maintaine the same.

That is to say, for repracion of the bake houses, brew houses, [Page 364] wind mils, horse myls, Garners, with the appurtenaunces, and waste of caske in the sayd charge by this proportion, one hundred fiftie pound, two shyllings, foure pence.

Wood and Coale to bake and brewe the sayd proportion, one hundred seauenty foure pound, seauen shillings, sixe pence.

For horse and carts for the myls, & carrying of prouision wyth the allowance by the pettie victualers, for carrying of their beere, as is accustomed. one hundred seauenty two pounde, sixteene shyllings, nine pence.

For maintenaunce of twenty fiue men, for the bake houses, brew houses, wind myls, horse mils, Garners, and carrying of prouision in the said charge, three hundred two pounde, one shyl­ling, eyght pence.

For maintenaunce of men in the charge of Beefe, Mutton, and Porke, sixtie nine pound, sixteene shyllings.

In the charge of stockfish, Ling, and Cod, fiftie foure pounde, twelue shillings, and eleuen pence.

In charge of Butter and Chéese as appeareth, xx. l. v. s.

Summe ix. C. xliij. l. ix. d'.

All these are founde beside the prouision and freight, before it come to Barwick, as by the same may appeare.

And the better to maintaine ye cheese Officer of trust, the char­ges before rehearsed, and other vnknowne charges, which hap­peneth oftentimes in seruice: as also that all his saide ministers and seruaunts, be not any of the number allowed for souldiours, there is considered for profit in wheate for bread, as in the charge of the bake house appeareth, two hundred fortie three pounde, sixe shyllings, eyght pence.

In Mault and wheate for beere, as in the charge of the brewe house appeareth. 228. l. 8. s. 4. d'.

In Beefe, Mutton, and Porke▪ 248. l.

In stockfish, ling, and Cod, 204. l. 4. s. 1. d'.

In Butter and Chéese, 217. l. 1. s. 3. d'.

Summe xi. C. xli. l. iiij. d'.

All these allowances are found, beside maintenaunce of the pettie victualers, and their charge, as appeareth by proportion héereafter following. And for the sum of viii. M. iii. C. xlii. l. x. s. the Officers fee: and the souldiours scores paide euery sixe Mo­nethes, this seruice is to be doone in euery point of the same.

[Page 365]The Garrison being one thousand Souldiours as afforesaid, wherof account six hundred cōmon Souldiours, & foure hundred more of greater pay, or such as make more account of thēselues: and for that the Souldiours shall not bee troubled with dres­sing of their victualles, neither the Captayne in deliuering the proportion, appoynted within the Towne of Garrison: I do ap­poynt twentie petty Uictuallers, and to euery petty Uictualler, thirty common Souldiours, and twenty more of bigger paye, whose proportion of victuals for a yéere, shall hereafter appeare.

The common Souldiour shal pay two shillings eight pence by the wéeke, for his dyet, lodging, and washing: the Souldiour of bigger pay, at foure shillings the wéeke, for his dyet, lodging, and washing, as heereafter followeth: wherein it dooth also ap­peare, howe the petty Uictuallers are considered for their char­ges and trauell in the same, for a yéere of 365 dayes.

The thyrtie common Souldiours, to haue euery man a day in wheaten breade, one pounde and a halfe, rated at a penny. And the twentie greater allowance in white breade, euery man a day one pounde and a halfe, rated at thrée halfe pence. And in allowance to the petty Uictuallers, xxj. Loues for twentie. These L. Souldiours charge, Summa Xcj. pounde, v. s. The petty Uictuallers allowance found in the same, in vantage bread. Sum. foure pound, eleauen shillings, thrée pence.

The xxx. common Souldiours, to euery man a Wine pottle of double Béere a day, rated at a penny, their proportion for a yéere, xxij. Tun, iij. Hogsheads, xv. Gallons, deliuered the petty Uictuallers at xxx. s. the Tunne. The xx. greater allowance, e­uery man a Wine pottle of stronge Béere a day, rated at j d'. ob. Their proportion for a yéere, xv. Tunne. j. Barrell, x. gallons, deliuered the petty Uictuallers at xlviij. s. the Tunne. These L. Souldiours charge, Sum. Xci. pound, v. shillings.

The petty Uictuallers, sum xx l. x. s. i. d'. ob.

The 30. cōmon Souldiours, in Béefe euery man one pound a day, rated at j. d'. ob. For 100. dayes, 3000. pound, and the petty Uictuallers allowance of euery hundreth, twelue pounde: so is the proportion 3000, weight, at 12. s. 6. d'. the hundreth, in charge, Summa 18, l. 15. s. The 20, greater allowance, euery man one pound and a halfe a day, rated as before, with like al­lowance: to the petty Uictuallers the proportion is 30. hundred [Page 366] weight, at 12. s. 6. d'. the hundreth. Summa 18. l. 15. shillinges. The petty Uictuallers allowance in both. 4. l. 4. d'.

The 30, common Souldiours, in Mutton, euery man one pound a day, rated at two pence the pound: for 50▪ dayes 1500. weight, and the petty Uictuallers allowance, of euery hundred twelue pound. So is the proporcion 15. hundred weight, at 16. s. 8, d'. the hundred, in charge, Summa, 12. l. 10, s. The 20. grea­ter allowance, euery man one pound and a halfe a day, rated as before, with like allowance to the petty Uictuallers: the propor­tion is 15. hundreth weight, at 16. s. 8 d'. the hundred, in charge, Sum 12. l. 10. s. The petty Uictuallers allowāce in both, 53. s. 8. d'.

The 30. common Souldiours in Porke, euery man one pound f. quarter a day, rated at j. d'. ob. For 32. dayes 12 hundred, and the petty Uictuallers of euery hundred 12. pound. The proportion is 12, hundred weight, at 10. shillings the hundred. Summa 6. l. The 20. greater allowance, euery man one pound 3 quarters and a halfe a day, rated as before after the rate, with li [...]e allowance to the petty Uictuallers. The proportiō is 12 hundred weight at 10. shillings the hundred in charge. Sum 6. pound. The petty Uictuallers allowance, 25 shillings 9, pence.

The 30 common souldiours in Stockfish, to euerie foure men one Stockfish a day, for 52. wednesdaies, two meales a day, half seruice, and the like allowance to euery foure men one Stockfish for a meale, for 52. frydayes, whole seruice, in all 7. Fishes and a halfe a day, one hundred and foure dayes, 780 Fishes, rated at 4, pence the Fish in charge. Sum 13. l. The 20 greater allow­ance, to haue for the like dayes, to euery 4 men one stockfish and a halfe a day, as well for the halfe as whole seruice, euery day 7. Fyshes and a halfe, 780 Fyshes at 4 pence the Fysh in charge. Summa 13, pound

The 30 common Souldiours, to haue in shotland Linges, for 26 saterdayes, 13. daies in Lent, and 1. day in Ragation weeke, in all 40 dayes: to euery 8, men, one Ling a dayhalfe seruice, rated at 7. d'. the Ling. Sum. 150 And the allowance for pay Fish, to the petty Uictuallers, 5 Linges. Sum 4. l. 7. s. 6 d'. The 20. grea­ter allowance, for the lyke dayes, to euery 8 men [...]ne Ling and a halfe, rated as before at 7, pence the Linge, 150, and to the pet­ty Uictualler, 5. Linges, 4. pound, 7. shillings 6 pence. The petty Uictuallers allowance, fiue shillings ten pence.

[Page 367]The 30, common Souldiours to haue in shotland Codde, for 26 Saterdayes, 12 dayes in Lent, & one day in Rogation wéeke, to euery 8. men one Fysh and a halfe a day, halfe seruice, at 4, d'. the Fysh: and the petty Uictuallers in allowance, as before in Lings. The proportion is 219, Fyshes, one quarter and a halfe. The petty Uictuallers allowance, 7, Fyshes and a quarter, in charge for the same. Summa 3. pound, 13, shillings 3. halfe pence. The 20 greater allowance for the like dayes, to euery 8, men 2, Fishes one quarter a day, for halfe seruice, with lyke allowance to the petty Uictuallers, as before at 4 pence the Fysh. The pro portion is 219 Fishes, one quarter and a halfe. The petty Uictu­allers allowance, 7 Fishes one quarter, in charge for the same, Sum 3. pound, 13. shillinges, j. d'. ob. The petty Uictuallers al­lowance, 4. shillings, 10. pence.

The 30 common Souldiours, to haue in Butter to euery foure men one pounde a day, halfe seruice, for 52 wednesdayes, two meales a day: and to euery 8 men one pound a day, quarter seruice, for 52, Saterdaies, 25, dayes in Lent, and two daies in Rogation wéeke, at 4. pence the pound, 686, pound and a quar­ter, and is in charge, Summa 11. pounde, 8. shillinges, 9. pence. The 20. greater allowance, for the like of 52. wednesdayes, halfe seruice, to euery foure men one pounde and a halfe a day: and to euery eight men one pound and a halfe a day, for 52. Saterdaies, 25. dayes in Lent, and two dayes in Rogation wéeke, quarter seruice, at foure pence the pound. Summa 686 pound, 1. quarter, and is in charge. Summa 11 pound, 8 shillings, 9 pence.

The 30 common Souldiours, in Chéese for 52 Saterdaies, 25 dayes in Lent, and two dayes in Rogation wéeke, to euery foure men one pound a day quarter seruice, and allowance to the petty Uictuallers, 16. pound of a Wey, at two pence the pound. Sum. fiue hundred, foure score, twelue pound and a halfe.

In charge, summa 4 pound, 13 shillings, 9 pence.

The petty Uictuallers allowance, thirtie nine pound and a halfe.

The 20, greater allowance, for the lyke Satterdayes, the dayes in Lent an [...] Rogation wéeke, to euery foure men, one pound and a halfe a day, quarter seruice.

Sum, 592. l. and a halfe, at 2 d'. the pound.

In charge, summe 4. l. 18. s. 9. d'.

[Page 368]The pettie Uictualers allowance, 39. l. and a halfe. In money for both the parcels, thirteene shyllings, two pence.

Sum. 417. l. 2. s. 6. d'.

Euery pettie Uictualers allowance, that men may be wel or­dered, summe. 119. l. 11. s. 3. d'.

The whole Garison at twenty petty Uictualers a yeere, in charge, 8342. l. 10. s.

The twenty pettie Uictualers allowance, beside that in the generall proportion found out of the same. Sum. two thousand, three hundred, 91. l. 6. s. 8. d'.

Some Souldiours there are married, and keepe house, whose proporcion of victuals must be to thē deliuered accordingly, with the like allowance, as to the Petty Uictualer in euery thing.

Captaines and Gentlemen with theyr ordinary Seruaunts, keeping house of themselues, no proporcion deliuered, but wyth like allowance.

A Collonels charge in twofold wise, the pikes crost for the defence of horse.

Place this battell at 184 folio, at this marke *


A two-fold battell of 2000 men.

Place this battell at 187 folio, at this marke **

These Characters are to vsed in the place of the other, where this letter H was placed for B as here you may see.

These Cha­racters
  • S Signifie Shot.
  • ☌ or this P Signifie Pikes.
  • or this B Signifie Halberds.
  • E Signifie Ensignes.
  • □ Signifie Launces.
  • ▵ Signifie Light horsemen.
  • * Signifie Argoletteares.


The Battell called a Crosse, verie excellent both for night and daie

The Battell in forme of a Moone, being of great force for the night.

Place this battell at 189 folio, at this marke ****


The Battell in Figure, shewing how euerie Weapon should be placed to fight

Place this battell at 193 folio, at this marke *****


A waie to march, and to conduct foorth the armie.


The plat for incamping.

Place this battell 168 follio at this marke*******

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