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1. Transcription and editorial phenomena

Which features of a primary source might one want to include in a transcription?

  • variant letter forms
  • page layout
  • orthography
  • capitalisation
  • word division
  • punctuation
  • abbreviations
  • additions and deletions
  • errors and omissions

But wait! We also transcribe spoken texts and much of this applies to them as well!

1.1. Elements defined for transcription

Defined in 'core' module:
<abbr>, <add>, <choice>, <corr>, <del>, <expan>, <gap>, <sic>
Defined in 'transcr' module:
<addSpan>, <am>, <damage>, <damageSpan>, <delSpan>, <ex>, <facsimile>, <fw>, <handNotes>, <handShift>, <restore> <space>, <subst>, <supplied>, <surface>, <zone>

1.2. Using <choice> in transcriptions

  • <choice> (groups alternative editorial encodings)
  • Abbreviation:
    • <abbr> (abbreviated form)
    • <expan> (expanded form)
  • Errors:
    • <sic> (apparent error)
    • <corr> (corrected error)
  • Regularisation/normalisation:
    • <orig> (original form)
    • <reg> (regularised form)

1.3. Abbreviations

Abbreviations are highly characteristic of manuscript materials of all kinds. It is customary to distinguish between several types:
the first letter or letters of the word are written, generally followed by a point or other marker: for example e.g. for exempla gratia
both the first and last letters are written, often with some mark of abbreviation such as a superscript stroke, or, less commonly, a point: e.g. Mr. for Mister
Special signs or tittels, such as the Tironian nota used for ‘et’ or the letter p with a barred tail commonly used for per.
Superscript letters
Superscript letters (vowels or consonants) are often used to indicate various kinds of contraction: e.g. w followed by superscript ch for which.

1.4. Abbreviation and expansion

An abbreviation may be transcribed in two ways:
  • One may choose to give the unexpanded abbreviation, transcribing it simply as a particular sequence of letters or marks on the page: thus, a ‘p with a bar through the descender’ or an ‘a with a macron’
  • One may also interpret or ‘expand’ the abbreviation, supplying the letter or letters it is seen as standing for: thus, ‘per’, ‘an'

The TEI allows one to provide both the abbreviated and expanded forms.

1.5. Encoding abbreviations

The TEI proposes two levels of encoding:
  • the whole of an abbreviated word and the whole of its expansion can be encoded using <abbr> and <expan>
  • the mark or sign used to indicate the suppression of one or more letters, and the letters supplied in the process of expansion can be encoded using <am> and <ex>
Here too one may also use both levels simultaneously.

1.6. <am> and <ex>

Using these elements, from the 'transcr' module, the transcriber may indicate the status of the individual letters or signs within both the abbreviation and the expansion.
  • <ex> (editorial expansion) contains a sequence of letters added by an editor or transcriber when expanding an abbreviation.
  • <am> (abbreviation marker) contains a sequence of letters or signs present in an abbreviation which are omitted or replaced in the expanded form of the abbreviation.
Previously, people have re-purposed existing elements such as <hi> and <supplied> to mark individual letters/signs in abbreviations and expansions. The new P5 elements <am> and <ex> are the TEI's attempt to support this desire.

1.7. A simple example

The Icelandic word ‘hann’ (‘he’) is frequently written in medieval manuscripts as the letter h with a horizontal stroke or bar (Unicode character 0305, functionally similar to the modern tilde). It looks like this:

1.8. Encoding abbreviations 1

Depending on editorial policy, we might represent this in any one of the following ways:
<abbr>h&amp;#x305;</abbr> or
h<am>&amp;#x305;</am>or h
</abbr> or


1.9. Using <choice>

Any of these pairs can be wrapped in <choice> tags:

1.10. Classifying abbreviations

The type attribute on <abbr> allows us to distinguish between different types of abbreviation, either for statistical analysis or if they are to be rendered in varying ways, as is sometimes the case with suspensions, the expansions of which are placed in round brackets, while other types are italicised:
 <abbr type="susp">k<am>.</am>
 <abbr type="tittel">ml<am>̅</am>i</abbr>
These can then be made to display as follows:
k(onungr) mællti

As elsewhere, the resp and cert attributes can also be used to indicate who is responsible for an expansion, and the degree of certainty attached to it.

1.11. Corrections and emendations

The <sic> element can be used to indicate that the reading of the manuscript is erroneous or nonsensical, while <corr> (correction) can be used to provide what in the editor's opinion is the correct reading:
The two may be combined within a <choice> element:

1.12. Normalisation/regularisation

Source texts rarely use modern normalised orthography. For retrieval and other processing reasons, such information may be useful in a transcription. The <reg> (regularized) element is available used to mark a normalised form, while the <orig> (original) element indicates a non-standard spelling. These elements can optionally be grouped as alternatives using the <choice> element.

1.13. Normalisation/regularisation (example)

 <l>There was an Old Woman,</l>
  </choice> under a hill,</l>
 <l>And if she <choice>
  </choice> gone,</l>
 <l>She lives there still.</l>

1.14. Additions, deletions and substitutions

Alterations made to the text, whether by the scribe or in some later hand, can be encoded using <add> (addition) or <del> (deletion).
  • <add> (addition) contains letters, words, or phrases inserted in the text by an author, scribe, annotator, or corrector.
  • <del> (deletion) contains a letter, word, or passage deleted, marked as deleted, or otherwise indicated as superfluous or spurious in the copy text by an author, scribe, annotator, or corrector.
Where the addition and deletion are regarded as a single substitution, they can be grouped together using the <subst> (substitution) element .

1.15. Substitutions

<subst> (substitution) groups one or more deletions with one or more additions when the combination is to be regarded as a single intervention in the text. Examples:
  • one word/letter written over another
  • one word/letter deleted, replaced by another written above it by the same hand at one time
  • one word/letter deleted, replaced by a different hand some other time
  • a long chain of substitutions on the one stretch of text, with uncertainty as to the order of substitution and as to which of many possible readings should be preferred

1.16. <add> and <del> Examples

<l>In Flanders fields the <subst>

1.17. <add> and <del> Examples (2)

<l>Take up our <subst>
 </subst> with the foe:</l>

1.18. <subst> examples

 <delSpan rend="verticalStrikespanTo="#delend02"/> Tis
moonlight <subst>
 </subst> Oman's sky
<l>Her isles of pearl look lovelily<anchor xml:id="delend02"/>

Deletion precedes addition by default, but this may be over-ridden by means of the seq attribute indicating sequence.

One must have
lived longer with <subst>
 <del seq="1">this</del>
 <del seq="2">
  <add seq="1">such a</add>
 <add seq="2">a</add>
</subst> system, to appreciate its advantages.

1.19. Another <subst> example

<l>And towards our distant rest began to trudge,</l>
  <del>Helping the worst amongst us</del>
  <add>Dragging the worst amongt us</add>
 </subst>, who'd no boots
<l>But limped on, blood-shod. All went lame; <subst>
 </subst> blind;</l>
<l>Drunk with fatigue ; deaf even to the hoots</l>
<l>Of tired, outstripped <del>fif</del> five-nines that
dropped behind.</l>

1.20. <addSpan> and <delSpan>

These two elements delimit a span of text by pointing mechanisms rather than by enclosing it. This is useful if an addition or deletion overlaps another span of text.

spanTo indicates the end of a span initiated by the element bearing this attribute.

<addSpan spanTo="#id4"/>
<!-- added text -->
<anchor xml:id="id4"/>

1.21. Cancellation of deletions and other markings

<restore> indicates restoration of text to an earlier state by cancellation of an editorial or authorial marking or instruction.

If in the line ‘For I hate this my body’ from D.H. Lawrence's poem Eloi, Eloi, Lama Sabachthani?, the ‘my’ was first deleted then restored by writing ‘stet’ in the margin, this might be encoded thus:
For I hate this
<restore hand="#dhltype="marginalStetNote">
</restore> body

1.22. Text omitted from or supplied in the transcription

Where a word has been supplied by the editor, <supplied> can be used. It is customary to distinguish between text now illegible or lost through damage but assumed originally to have been in the manuscript (which in some editorial traditions is printed in square brackets), and text assumed to have been inadvertently omitted by the scribe (printed in angle brackets). This distinction is indicated in the mark-up through the use of the reason attribute:
…Dragging the
worst among<supplied reason="omitted">s</supplied>t

1.23. Metadata for supplied text

Attributes resp and cert can be used here as elsewhere. A source attribute is also available to indicate that another witness supports the reconstruction:
<p>ath þeir <supplied reason="omittedsource="AM02-152cert="high">mundu</supplied> sundr ganga</p>
When missing text cannot be confidently reconstructed, the <gap> element should be used. Its reason attribute explains the reason for the omission and its extent and unit attributes indicate its presumed size.
<gap reason="damageextent="7unit="chars"/>

1.24. Other uses of <gap>

The <gap> element can also be used where material present and legible has been omitted in a transcription, whether for editorial reasons or as part of sampling practice.
<div rend="slide">
 <head>Lectio x.</head>
 <p> Hic itaque paterfamilias ad excolendam <gap
    reason="not transcribed"

   congregare non desistit. </p>

1.25. Damage and illegibility

Use <unclear> if the text has been rendered partly illegible by deletion or damage so that the text can be read but without perfect confidence.

Use the reason attribute to state the cause (damage, deletion etc.) of the uncertainty in transcription and the cert attribute to indicate the confidence in the transcription.

shore of the
<unclear reason="damagecert="medium">the Hudson,
at</unclear> that broad

The <damage> element should be used to indicate areas of damage affecting the text, but normally where at least some of the text can be read with confidence. The attributes agent and extent indicate the cause and extent of the damage respectively.

1.26. Headers, footers, catchwords and so on

(forme work) contains a running head (e.g. a header, footer), catchword or similar material appearing on the current page.
<fw place="top-centretype="head">Poëms.</fw>
<fw place="top-righttype="pageno">29</fw>
<fw place="bot-centretype="sig">E3</fw>
<fw place="bot-righttype="catch">TEMPLE</fw>

1.27. <handNote> and <handShift>

The <handNote> element is used to provide information about each hand distinguished within the encoded document.

  • When the 'transcr' module is used, the element <handNotes> is available, within the <profileDesc> element of the Header, to hold one or more <handNote> elements. (brief)
  • When the 'msdescription' module is included, the <handDesc> element also becomes available as part of a structured manuscript description. (more robust)

It is possible to use the two elements together if, for example, the <handDesc> element contains a single summary describing all the hands discursively, while the <handNotes> element gives specific details of each.

1.28. <handShift>

<handShift> marks the beginning of a sequence of text written in a new hand, or the beginning of a scribal stint.

<l>When wolde the cat dwelle in his ynne</l>
<handShift medium="greenish-ink"/>
<l>And if the cattes skynne be slyk <handShift medium="black-ink"/> and gaye</l>
 <handNote xml:id="h1script="copperplate">Carefully written
   with regular descenders</handNote>
 <handNote xml:id="h2medium="pencil">Unschooled

1.29. <handShift> example

<handShift new="#h1resp="#das"/>... and that good Order
Decency and regular worship may be once more introduced and
Established in this Parish according to the Rules and
Ceremonies of the Church of England and as under a good
Consciencious and sober Curate there would and ought to be
<handShift new="#h2resp="#das"/> and for that purpose the
parishioners pray

1.30. hand, resp, cert

<add place="suprahand="#WJcert="medium"> But</add>
 <corr resp="#FBcert="high">one</corr>
</choice> must have lived ...
<!-- elsewhere -->
<respStmt xml:id="FB">
 <resp>editorial changes</resp>
 <name>Fredson Bowers</name>
<respStmt xml:id="WJ">
 <resp>authorial changes</resp>
 <name>William James</name>

1.31. Apparatus Criticus

The standard Apparatus Criticus provides a concise method of recording the variants for any size of text. To take an example, a line in Hamlet might be printed as:
LAERTES. Alas, then she is drowned.
with a critical apparatus provided (usually at the foot of the page) which contained:
4.7.156 Alas, then is she drowned.] HIBBARD; Alas
then, is she drown'd? F; Alas then is she drownd. Q3; Alas,
then, she is drownd. Q2; So, she is drownde: Q1.

1.32. Critical Apparatus: <app>, <rdg>, and <lem>

(apparatus entry) contains one entry in a critical apparatus, with an optional lemma and at least one reading.
(reading) contains a single reading within a textual variation.
(lemma) contains the lemma, or base text, of a textual variation.

1.33. Example of <app>, <rdg> and <lem>

  <lem wit="#El">Experience though noon Auctoritee</lem>
  <rdg wit="#Hg">Experience thogh noon Auctorite</rdg>
  <rdg wit="#La">Experiment thouh noon Auctoritee</rdg>
  <rdg wit="#Ra2">Eryment though none auctorite</rdg>

1.34. Or apparatus at smaller granularity

  <lem wit="#El #Hg">Experience</lem>
  <rdg type="substantivewit="#La">Experiment</rdg>
  <rdg type="substantivewit="#Ra2">Eryment</rdg>
  <lem wit="#El #Ra2">though</lem>
  <rdg type="orthographicwit="#Hg">thogh</rdg>
  <rdg type="orthographicwit="#La">thouh</rdg>
  <lem wit="#El #La #Hg">noon</lem>
  <rdg type="orthographicwit="#Ra2">none</rdg>
  <lem wit="#El #La">Auctoritee</lem>
  <rdg type="orthographicwit="#Hg">Auctorite</rdg>
  <rdg type="orthographicwit="#Ra2">auctorite</rdg>

1.35. Parallel Segmentation Example

<l n="1">
  <rdg wit="#Chi3">Auctoritee, though none experience</rdg>
    <rdg wit="#El #Hg">Experience</rdg>
    <rdg wit="#La">Experiment</rdg>
    <rdg wit="#Ra2">Eryment</rdg>
    <rdg wit="#El #Ra2">though</rdg>
    <rdg wit="#Hg">thogh</rdg>
    <rdg wit="#La">thouh</rdg>
    <rdg wit="#El #Hg">noon Auctorite</rdg>
    <rdg wit="#La #Ra2">none auctorite</rdg>

1.36. A Simple <app> With No <lem>

<ab> Populus domini et oves pascuae eius <app>
    wit="#CAO-B #CAO-V #CAO-R #CAO-D #CAO-F #CAO-S #Ely #Wor #Wcb">
venite adoremus eum</rdg>
  <rdg wit="#CAO-H #Pet"> venite adoremus deum</rdg>
  <rdg wit="#CAO-E #Alb2"> venite adoremus dominum</rdg>
  <rdg wit="#CAO-C #CAO-G #CAO-L #Hyd #Evm"> venite

1.37. Hamlet example

Think back to the example given from Hamlet:
LAERTES. Alas, then she is drowned.
Where the traditional critical apparatus contained:
Alas, then is she drowned.] HIBBARD; Alas then, is she
drown'd? F; Alas then is she drownd. Q3; Alas, then, she is
drownd. Q2; So, she is drownde: Q1.
How would you choose to mark it up in TEI?

1.38. How I'd do it (given time)

<l n="156">
  <rdg wit="#Hib">Alas, then</rdg>
  <rdg wit="#F">Alas then,</rdg>
  <rdg wit="#Q3">Alas then</rdg>
  <rdg wit="#Q2">Alas, then,</rdg>
  <rdg wit="#Q1">So,</rdg>
  <rdg wit="#Hib #F #Q3">is she</rdg>
  <rdg wit="#Q2 #Q1">she is</rdg>
  <rdg wit="#Hib">drowned.</rdg>
  <rdg wit="#F">drown'd?</rdg>
  <rdg wit="#Q3 #Q2">drownd.</rdg>
  <rdg wit="#Q1">drownde:</rdg>

2. Exercise: Adding detail to the transcription

Now we're going to do exercise 3, where we add more detail to our transcription by including the additions/deletions/substitutions that have been made to the text.

3. TEI Community and Questions

This talk gives a whirlwind survey of some of the other thing that the TEI provides for its community, starting with the TEI Guidelines.

3.1. TEI Chapters (1)

In addition to Front Matter and Back Matter, the TEI Guidelines contain chapters on:
  • 1. The TEI Infrastructure
  • 2. The TEI Header
  • 3. Elements Available in All TEI Documents
  • 4. Default Text Structure
  • 5. Representation of Non-standard Characters and Glyphs
  • 6. Verse
  • 7. Performance Texts
  • 8. Transcriptions of Speech
  • 9. Dictionaries
  • 10. Manuscript Description
  • 11. Representation of Primary Sources
  • 12. Critical Apparatus

3.2. TEI Chapters (2)

  • 13. Names, Dates, People, and Places
  • 14. Tables, Formulæ, and Graphics
  • 15. Language Corpora
  • 16. Linking, Segmentation, and Alignment
  • 17. Simple Analytic Mechanisms
  • 18. Feature Structures
  • 19. Graphs, Networks, and Trees
  • 20. Non-hierarchical Structures
  • 21. Certainty and Responsibility
  • 22. Documentation Elements
  • 23. Using the TEI

3.3. v. A Gentle Introduction to XML

  • Explains up-to-date use of XML, namespaces, schemas, etc.
  • A must-read for those new to XML
  • Considers the nature of markup, why XML is so special, and the structures we create with them

3.4. 6. Verse

  • <rhyme> element added to make rhyming part of metrical line
  • Core: <lg> (line-groups) enclose <l> (line) elements
  • Module Elements: <caesura>, <metDecl>, <metSym>, <rhyme>
<lg rhyme="abab">
 <l>A pleasing land of drowsy head it <rhyme label="a">was</rhyme>,</l>
 <l> Of dreams that wave before the half-shut <rhyme label="b">eye</rhyme>;</l>
 <l>And of gay castles in the clouds that <rhyme label="a">pass</rhyme>,</l>
 <l> For ever flushing round a summer <rhyme label="b">sky</rhyme>.</l>
 <trailer>CASTLE OF INDOLENCE.</trailer>

3.5. 7. Performance Texts

  • Core: <sp>, <speech>, <speaker>
  • Module Elements: <actor>, <camera>, <caption>, <castGroup>, <castItem>, <castList>, <epilogue>, <move>, <performance>, <prologue>, <role>, <roleDesc>, <set>, <sound>, <tech>, <view>
  <role>Ichabod Crane</role>
  <actor>James Cummings</actor>
  <role>Katrina Van Tassel</role>
  <actor>Dot Porter</actor>

3.6. 8. Transcriptions of Speech

  • Module Elements: <broadcast>, <equipment>, <incident>, <kinesic>, <pause>, <recording>, <recordingStmt>, <scriptStmt>, <shift>, <u>, <vocal>, <writing>
  • <incident> replaces <event> which has been re-purposed
<u>What passed at this interview I will not pretend to say, for
in fact I do not know.<pause dur="PT5S"/> Something, however,
I fear me, must have gone wrong.<gap/>
 <vocal dur="PT2S">
  <desc>cries in anguish</desc>
 </vocal>Oh these women! these women! <kinesic dur="PT1.5S">
  <desc>shakes head sadly</desc>
 </kinesic> Could that girl have been playing off any of her
coquettish tricks?</u>

3.7. 9. Dictionaries

  • Module Elements: <case>, <colloc>, <def>, <dictScrap>, <entry>, <entryFree>, <etym>, <form>, <gen>, <gram>, <gramGrp>, <hom>, <hyph>, <iType>, <lang>, <lbl>, <mood>, <number>, <oRef>, <oVar>, <orth>, <pRef>, <pVar>, <per>, <pos>, <pron>, <re>, <sense>, <stress>, <subc>, <superEntry>, <syll>, <tns>, <usg>, <xr>
 <sense n="1">
  <def>a rider or driver of horses; especially: one whose
     skill is exceptional</def>

3.8. 10. Manuscript Description

Module Elements: <accMat>, <acquisition>, <additional>, <additions>, <adminInfo>, <altIdentifier>, <binding>, <bindingDesc>, <catchwords>, <collation>, <collection>, <colophon>, <condition>, <custEvent>, <custodialHist>, <decoDesc>, <decoNote>, <depth>, <dimensions>, <explicit>, <filiation>, <finalRubric>, <foliation>, <handDesc>, <height>, <heraldry>, <history>, <incipit>, <institution>, <layout>, <layoutDesc>, <locus>, <locusGrp>, <material>, <msContents>, <msDesc>, <msIdentifier>, <msItem>, <msItemStruct>, <msName>, <msPart>, <musicNotation>, <objectDesc>, <origDate>, <origPlace>, <origin>, <physDesc>, <provenance>, <recordHist>, <repository>, <rubric>, <seal>, <sealDesc>, <secFol>, <signatures>, <source>, <stamp>, <summary>, <support>, <supportDesc>, <surrogates>, <textLang>, <typeDesc>, <watermark>, <width>

3.9. 10. Manuscript Description

  <repository>Bodleian Library</repository>
  <idno>MS. Add. A. 61</idno>
  <altIdentifier type="SC">
 <p>In Latin, on parchment: written in more than one hand of
   the 13th cent. in England: 7¼ x 5⅜ in., i + 55 leaves, in
   double columns: with a few coloured capitals.</p>
 <p>'Hic incipit Bruitus Anglie,' the De origine et gestis
   Regum Angliae of Geoffrey of Monmouth (Galfridus
   Monumetensis: beg. 'Cum mecum multa &amp; de multis.'</p>
 <p>On fol. 54v very faint is 'Iste liber est fratris
   guillelmi de buria de ... Roberti ordinis fratrum
   Pred[icatorum],' 14th cent. (?): 'hanauilla' is written at
   the foot of the page (15th cent.). Bought from the rev. W.
   D. Macray on March 17, 1863, for £1 10s.</p>

3.10. 11. Representation of Primary Sources

  • Elements defined: <addSpan>, <am>, <damage>, <damageSpan>, <delSpan>, <ex>, <facsimile>, <fw>, <handNotes>, <handShift>, <restore>, <space>, <subst>, <supplied>, <surface>, <zone>

3.11. 12. Critical Apparatus

  • Module Elements: <app>, <lacunaEnd>, <lacunaStart>, <lem>, <listWit>, <rdg>, <rdgGrp>, <variantEncoding>, <wit>, <witDetail>, <witEnd>, <witStart>, <witness>
<p>Certain it is, this was not the case with the redoubtable
Brom Bones; and <app>
  <rdg wit="#msA">from the moment Ichabod Crane made his
  <rdg wit="#msB">coincidentally when Ichabod Crane made his
  <rdg wit="#msC">from the moment Ichabod Crane started to
 </app> the interests of the former evidently declined;</p>

3.12. 13. Names, Dates, People, Places

  • Elements defined: <addName>, <affiliation>, <age>, <birth>, <bloc>, <climate>, <country>, <death>, <district>, <education>, <event>, <faith>, <floruit>, <forename>, <genName>, <geo>, <geogFeat>, <geogName>, <langKnowledge>, <langKnown>, <listEvent>, <listNym>, <listOrg>, <listPerson>, <listPlace>, <location>, <nameLink>, <nationality>, <nym>, <occupation>, <offset>, <org>, <orgName>, <persName>, <person>, <personGrp>, <place>, <placeName>, <population>, <region>, <relation>, <relationGrp>, <residence>, <roleName>, <settlement>, <sex>, <socecStatus>, <state>, <surname>, <terrain>, <trait>

3.13. 13. Names, Dates, People, Places

<p>... <name ref="#jsbachtype="person"> Johann Sebastian Bach
 </name> was a prolific German composer ... </p>
<listPerson type="composers">
 <person xml:id="kfabel">
  <persName>Karl Friedrich Abel</persName>
 <person xml:id="jsbach">
  <persName>Johann Sebastian Bach</persName>
 <person xml:id="cpebach">
  <persName>Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach</persName>

3.14. 14. Tables, Formulae, and Graphics

  • Module Elements: <cell>, <figDesc>, <figure>, <formula>, <row>, <table>
  <cell>Van Tassel, Katrina</cell>
  <cell>As beautiful as she is talented</cell>
<!-- more table rows of Ichabod's grading book-->

3.15. 15. Language Corpora

  • Module Elements: <activity>, <channel>, <constitution>, <derivation>, <domain>, <factuality>, <interaction>, <locale>, <particDesc>, <preparedness>, <purpose>, <setting>, <settingDesc>, <textDesc>
 <setting who="#p1 #p2">
  <name type="village">Sleep Hollow</name>
  <date>early spring, 1789</date>
  <locale>a farm house, sat by the hearth</locale>
 <setting who="#p3">
  <name type="city">Sleepy Hollow</name>
  <date>early spring, 1789</date>
  <locale>school house</locale>

3.16. 16. Linking, Segmentation, and Alignment

  • Module Elements: <ab>, <alt>, <altGrp>, <anchor>, <join>, <joinGrp>, <link>, <linkGrp>, <seg>, <timeline>, <when>
<p xml:id="p123">These magic books and the poetic scrawls were
forthwith consigned to the flames by <persName xml:id="HVR5">Hans Van Ripper</persName>; who from that time forward
determined to send his children no more to school; observing,
that he never knew any good come of this same reading and
writing. </p> [...]
 <link targets="#p123 facs.xml#graphic-p123"/>
 <link targets="#HVR5 people.xml#VanRipperH5"/>

3.17. 17. Simple Analytic Mechanisms

  • Module Elements: <c>, <cl>, <interp>, <interpGrp>, <m>, <phr>, <s>, <span>, <spanGrp>, <w>
  <w ana="#AT0">The</w>
  <w ana="#NN1">victim</w>
  <w ana="#POS">'s</w>
  <w ana="#NN2">friends</w>
  <w ana="#VVD">told</w>
  <w ana="#NN2">villagers</w>
  <w ana="#CJT">that</w>
  <w ana="#AT0">the</w>
  <w ana="NPO">Headless</w>
  <w ana="NPO">Horseman</w>
  <w ana="#VVD">rode</w>
  <w ana="#PRP">into</w>
  <w ana="#AT0">the</w>
  <w ana="#NN1">forest</w>
  <w ana="#CJC">and</w>
  <w ana="#AV0">never</w>
  <w ana="#VVD">surfaced</w>

3.18. 18. Feature Structures

  • Elements defined: <bicond>, <binary>, <cond>, <default>, <f>, <fDecl>, <fDescr>, <fLib>, <fs>, <fsConstraints>, <fsDecl>, <fsDescr>, <fsdDecl>, <fsdLink>, <fvLib>, <if>, <iff>, <numeric>, <string>, <symbol>, <then>, <vAlt>, <vColl>, <vDefault>, <vLabel>, <vMerge>, <vNot>, <vRange>
<fs type="real_estate_listing">
 <f name="selling.points">
  <vColl org="set">
   <string>alarm system</string>
   <string>good view</string>

3.19. 19. Graphs, Networks, and Trees

  • Elements defined: <arc>, <eLeaf>, <eTree>, <forest>, <forestGrp>, <graph>, <iNode>, <leaf>, <node>, <root>, <tree>, <triangle>
 <node xml:id="LAX2degree="2adj="#LVG2 #PHX2">
 <node xml:id="LVG2degree="2adj="#LAX2 #PHX2">
<!-- ... -->

3.20. 20. Non-hierarchical Structures

This chapter does not define a module, but explores methods to deal with overlapping structures while keeping XML well-formed. In particular:
  • 20.1 Multiple Encodings of the Same Information
  • 20.2 Boundary Marking with Empty Elements
  • 20.3 Fragmentation and Reconstitution of Virtual Elements
  • 20.4 Stand-off Markup
  • 20.5 Non-XML-based Approaches

3.21. 21. Certainty and Responsibility

  • Elements defined: <certainty>,<respons> and soon <precision>
<certainty target="#CE-pl1locus="namedegree="0.6">
 <desc>probably a placename, but possibly not</desc>

 <desc>may refer to the Earl of Essex</desc>

3.22. 22. Documentation Elements

  • This chapter defines the module which contains all the elements used in ODD.
<schemaSpec prefix="TEI_ident="testsvgstart="TEI svg">
 <moduleRef key="header"/>
 <moduleRef key="core"/>
 <moduleRef key="tei"/>
 <moduleRef key="textstructure"/>
 <moduleRef url="svg11.rng"/>

3.23. 23. Using the TEI

  • The 'Using the TEI' chapter does not define a module of elements
  • It contains sections on:
    • 23.1 Obtaining the TEI Schemas
    • 23.2 Personalization and Customization
    • 23.3 Conformance
    • 23.4 Implementation of an ODD system

4. Live Demos

Now if I have time, and an internet connection, I'll do some live demos looking around the Guidelines, Reference Material, Roma, TEI-by-Example, etc.

5. Listserv

http://listserv.brown.edu/archives/cgi-bin/wa?A0=TEI-L or http://tinyurl.com/teimailinglist

The official listserv of the TEI community. Most inter-community communication takes place on the list. People ask technical questions about using the Guidelines and specific elements. It's also a good place to learn about what is happening in the community, with announcements of upcoming meetings and conferences.

6. Guidelines


On the website you can read and refer to the online version, purchase printed copies of the Guidelines, download the PDF version, or download the schemas, source files, documentation and other materials as zip packages from the TEI Sourceforge site.

7. Reference


The Element Index (Appendix C of the Guidelines) provides lists of all elements defined by the TEI, both alphabetically and by module.

Each element is given a brief description and a link to the portion(s) of the Guidelines providing more extensive description. Also provided are information about the module in which the element is found, attributes, model(s) the element belings to, other elements the element may contained or which may be contained within it, the schema declaration (in both RNG compact and XML formats), examples pulled from throughout the Guidelines, and any notes.

8. Roma


Website to help users design TEI validators, as a DTD, RelaxNG, or W3C Schema. Build a new customization by either adding elements and modules to the smallest possible schema or removing elements and modules from the largest possible schema, or create customizations from templates (e.g., TEI for Manuscript Description, TEI with Drama).

9. Stylesheets


"This is a set of XSLT specifications to transform TEI XML documents to HTML, to LaTeX, and to XSL Formatting Objects. It can be downloaded from the Releases area of the TEI SourceForge site. It concentrates on TEI Lite, but adding support for other modules is fairly easy. These stylesheets are primarily for use on ‘new’ documents, i.e. reports and web pages that have been authored from scratch, rather than traditional TEI-encoded existing material."

10. Badges


"Many projects use the TEI Guidelines ‘behind the scenes’ while delivering their content to the public using HTML. The following buttons provide an easy way of letting others know that an individual, group, or project makes use of the Guidelines in its work. Publicising your use of the TEI is an important part of ensuring the continuing viability of the TEI community and the TEI's profile within your discipline. The code snippets associated with each button direct users to the TEI website, encouraging your visitors and colleagues to investigate the use of the TEI for their own digital work."

11. Wiki


The TEI Wiki provides a place for TEI users to share technical information and participate in a community in addition to the TEI Listserv. There are sections on technical issues, including markup samples, customizations, and stylesheets, as well as a section on the TEI community, with information on conferences and other events, and the Special Interest Groups (SIGs). SIGs focus on particular TEI issues, including Manuscripts, Scholarly Publishing, Education, Libraries, Music, and Text and Graphics.

12. Sourceforge


The TEI Sourceforge site is where the action really happens! All TEI code is stored here; there is also a bug tracker (where users can report bugs in the TEI) and a feature request area (where users can suggest new elements, attributes, models, or usage). The TEI depends on input from the community for continued improvement, both through Listserv discussion and feature requests.

James Cummings. Date: 2010-10
Copyright University of Oxford