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1. Verse

The TEI provides more elements to talk encode verse and metrical information than you might first suspect.

1.1. Verse

  • <l> (a line of verse)
  • <lg>(a line group such as stanza or paragraph)
<lg>
 <l>There were eight pretty walkers who went up a hill;</l>
 <l>They were Jessamine, Joseph and Japhet and Jill,</l>
 <l>And Allie and Sally and Tumbledown Bill,</l>
 <l rend="i10">And Farnaby Fullerton Rigby.</l>
</lg>

1.2. Divisions in Verse Texts

Many poems consist only of ungrouped lines. This short poem by Emily Dickinson is a simple case:

<body>
 <l>To make a prairie it takes a clover and one bee,</l>
 <l>One clover, and a bee,</l>
 <l>And revery.</l>
 <l>The revery alone will do,</l>
 <l>If bees are few.</l>
</body>

1.3. <lg> example

<body>
 <head>My Alba</head>
 <lg>
  <l>Now that I've wasted</l>
  <l>five years in Manhattan</l>
  <l>life decaying</l>
  <l>talent a blank</l>
 </lg>
 <lg>
  <l>talking disconnected</l>
  <l>patient and mental</l>
  <l>sliderule and number</l>
  <l>machine on a desk</l>
 </lg>
</body>

1.4. Regular verse layout

<lg>
 <l>Sire Thopas was a doghty swayn;</l>
 <l>White was his face as payndemayn,</l>
 <l>His lippes rede as rose;</l>
 <l>His rode is lyk scarlet in grayn,</l>
 <l>And I yow telle in good certayn,</l>
 <l>He hadde a semely nose.</l>
</lg>
<lg>
 <l>His heer, his ber was lyk saffroun,</l>
 <l>That to his girdel raughte adoun;</l>
</lg>

1.5. <lg> can nest!

<lg type="stanza">
 <lg type="sestet">
  <l>In the first year of Freedom's second dawn</l>
  <l>Died George the Third; although no tyrant, one</l>
  <l>Who shielded tyrants, till each sense withdrawn</l>
  <l>Left him nor mental nor external sun:</l>
  <l>A better farmer ne'er brushed dew from lawn,</l>
  <l>A worse king never left a realm undone!</l>
 </lg>
 <lg type="couplet">
  <l>He died — but left his subjects still behind,</l>
  <l>One half as mad — and t'other no less blind.</l>
 </lg>
</lg>

1.6. Shakespearean Sonnet with nested<lg>

<lg>
 <lg type="quatrain">
  <l>My Mistres eyes are nothing like the Sunne,</l>
<!-- 3 more lines -->
 </lg>
 <lg type="quatrain">
  <l>
<!-- 4 lines -->
  </l>
 </lg>
 <lg type="quatrain">
  <l>
<!-- 4 lines -->
  </l>
 </lg>
</lg>
<lg type="couplet">
 <l>And yet by heaven I think my love as rare,</l>
 <l>As any she beli'd with false compare.</l>
</lg>

1.7. Compare the structure...

<div n="Itype="book">
 <div n="I.1type="canto">
  <div n="I.1.1type="stanza">
   <l>A noble knight was pricking on the plain</l>
   <l>Ycladd in mightie armes and silver shielde...</l>
  </div>
 </div>
</div>
<div n="Itype="book">
 <div n="1type="canto">
  <lg n="I.1.1type="stanza">
   <l>A Gentle Knight was pricking on the plain</l>
   <l>Y cladd in mightie armes and silver shielde,</l>
  </lg>
 </div>
</div>

1.8. <seg> for verse segmentation

<l>
 <seg>In a somer seson,</seg>
 <seg>whan softe was the sonne,</seg>
</l>
<l>
 <seg>I shoop me into shroudes</seg>
 <seg>as I a sheep were,</seg>
</l>
<l>
 <seg>In habite as an heremite </seg>
 <seg>unholy of werkes,</seg>
</l>
<l>
 <seg>Went wide in this world </seg>
 <seg>wondres to here.</seg>
</l>

1.9. Feet vs Syllables

<l>
 <seg type="foot">
  <seg type="syll">Ar</seg>
  <seg type="syll">ma </seg>
  <seg type="syll">vi</seg>
 </seg>
 <seg type="foot">
  <seg type="syll">rum</seg>
  <seg type="syll">que </seg>
  <seg type="syll">ca</seg>
 </seg>
 <seg type="foot">
  <seg type="syll">no </seg>
  <seg type="syll">Tro</seg>
 </seg>...
</l>

1.10. <caesura>

<l>In a somer seson, <caesura/> whan softe was the sonne, </l>
<l>I shoop me into shroudes <caesura/> as I a sheep were, </l>
<l>In habite as an heremite <caesura/> unholy of werkes, </l>
<l>Went wide in this world <caesura/> wondres to here. </l>

1.11. Metrical Analysis

When the module for verse is in use, the following additional attributes are available to record information about rhyme and metrical form:
  • att.metrical defines a set of attributes which certain elements may use to represent metrical information.
    • met - (metrical structure, conventional) contains a user-specified encoding for the conventional metrical structure of the element.
    • real - (metrical structure, realized) contains a user-specified encoding for the actual realization of the conventional metrical structure applicable to the element.
    • rhyme - (rhyme scheme) specifies the rhyme scheme applicable to a group of verse lines.

1.12. Metrical Analysis Example

<div
  type="book"
  n="1"
  met="-+|-+|-+|-+|-+/"
  rhyme="aa">

 <lg n="1type="paragraph">
  <l>'Tis hard to say, if greater Want of Skill</l>
  <l>Appear in <hi>Writing</hi> or in <hi>Judging</hi> ill;</l>
  <l>But, of the two, less dang'rous is th'Offence,</l>
  <l>To tire our <hi>Patience</hi>, than mis-lead our <hi>Sense</hi>:</l>
 </lg>
</div>

1.13. real Attribute

The real (for ‘realization’) attribute may optionally be specified to indicate any deviation from the pattern defined by the met attribute which the encoder wishes to record
<l real="+-|-+|-+|-+|-+">But, of the two, ...</l>
But since this is so common, maybe just:
<l met="+-|-+|-+|-+|-+">But, of the two, ...</l>

1.14. More real usage

<lg
  type="chevy-chase-stanza"
  met="-+-+-+-+/-+-+-+"
  rhyme="ababcdcd">

 <l n="1"> Und frische Nahrung, neues Blut</l>
 <l n="2real="+--+-+"> Saug' ich aus freier Welt;</l>
 <l n="3real="+--+-+-+"> Wie ist Natur so hold und gut,</l>
 <l n="4real="---+-+"> Die mich am Busen hält!</l>
 <l n="5"> Die Welle wieget unsern Kahn</l>
 <l n="6"> Im Rudertakt hinauf,</l>
 <l n="7"> Und Berge, wolkig himmelan,</l>
 <l n="8"> Begegnen unserm Lauf.</l>
</lg>

1.15. met and real at the same time

<l n="356"> A needless alexandrine ends the song, </l>
<l n="357met="-+|-+|-+|-+|-+|-+real="++|-+|-+|+-|++|-+"> That, like a wounded snake, drags its slow length along.
</l>

1.16. rhyme vs <rhyme>

The rhyme attribute is used to specify the rhyme pattern of a verse form. It should not be confused with the <rhyme> element, which is used to mark the actual rhyming word or words:
  • <rhyme> - marks the rhyming part of a metrical line.

1.17. <rhyme> example

<lg type="coupletrhyme="aa">
 <l>Outside in the distance a wildcat did <rhyme>growl</rhyme>
 </l>
 <l>Two riders were approaching and the wind began to <rhyme>howl</rhyme>
 </l>
</lg>

1.18. Another <rhyme> example

<lg type="quatrainrhyme="abab">
 <l>I wander thro' each charter'd <rhyme label="a">street</rhyme>,</l>
 <l>Near where the charter'd Thames does <rhyme label="b">flow</rhyme>,</l>
 <l>And mark in every face I <rhyme label="a">meet</rhyme>
 </l>
 <l>Marks of weakness, marks of <rhyme label="b">woe</rhyme>.</l>
</lg>

1.19. Internal <rhyme> example

<lg rhyme="ABCCBBA">
 <l>The sunlight on the <rhyme label="A">garden</rhyme>
 </l>
 <l>
  <rhyme label="A">Harden</rhyme>s and grows <rhyme label="B">cold</rhyme>,</l>
 <l>We cannot cage the <rhyme label="C">minute</rhyme>
 </l>
 <l>Wi<rhyme label="C">thin it</rhyme>s nets of <rhyme label="B">gold</rhyme>
 </l>
 <l>When all is <rhyme label="B">told</rhyme>
 </l>
 <l>We cannot beg for <rhyme label="A">pardon</rhyme>.</l>
</lg>

1.20. Metrical Notation Declaration

  • <metDecl> (metrical notation declaration) documents the notation used to represent a metrical pattern
    • pattern (regular expression pattern) specifies a regular expression of legal values
  • <metSym> (metrical notation symbol) documents the intended significance of a particular character(s) within a metrical notation
    • value specifies the character or character sequence being documented
    • terminal specifies whether the symbol is defined in terms of other symbols (terminal is set to false) or in prose (terminal is set to true).

1.21. <metDecl> example

<metDecl pattern="[DTIS3A]+">
 <metSym n="dactylvalue="Dterminal="false">-oo</metSym>
 <metSym n="trocheevalue="Tterminal="false">-o</metSym>
 <metSym n="iambvalue="Iterminal="false">o-</metSym>
 <metSym n="spondeevalue="Sterminal="false">--</metSym>
 <metSym n="tribrachvalue="3terminal="false">ooo</metSym>
 <metSym n="anapaestvalue="Aterminal="false">oo-</metSym>
 <metSym value="o">short syllable</metSym>
 <metSym value="-">long syllable</metSym>
</metDecl>

2. Drama

Drama or ‘Performance Texts’ is a module of TEI elements for use when encoding printed dramatic texts, screen plays or radio scripts, and written transcriptions of any form of performance

2.1. The Programme

  • <performance> contains a section describing how a dramatic piece is to be performed in general or how it was performed on some specific occasion
  • <prologue> contains the prologue to a drama, typically spoken by an actor out of character
  • <epilogue> contains the epilogue to a drama, typically spoken by an actor out of character
  • <set> (setting) contains a description of the setting, time, locale, appearance, etc., of the action of a play
  • <castList> (cast list) contains a single cast list or dramatis personae.

2.2. <castList>, <castItem>, <set>

<front>
 <castList>
  <castItem>
   <role> ... </role>
   <actor> ... </actor>
  </castItem>
 </castList>
 <set>
  <p>The action of the play is set in Chicago's
     Southside, sometime between World War II and the
     present.</p>
 </set>
</front>

2.3. Inside <castItem>

  • <role> the name of a dramatic role, as given in a cast list
  • <roleDesc> (role description) describes a character's role in a drama
  • <actor> Name of an actor appearing within a cast list

2.4. <castItem> example

<castItem>
 <role>Tom Thumb the Great</role>
 <roleDesc>a little hero with a great soul, something violent in his temper, which is a little abated by his love for Huncamunca</roleDesc>
 <actor>Young Verhuyk</actor>
</castItem>

2.5. <castGroup> example

<castGroup rend="braced">
 <head>friends of Mathias</head>
 <castItem>
  <role>Walter</role>
  <actor>Mr Frank Hall</actor>
 </castItem>
 <castItem>
  <role>Hans</role>
  <actor>Mr F.W. Irish</actor>
 </castItem>
</castGroup>

2.6. Acts and Scenes

<div type="actn="2">
 <head>Act Two</head>
 <div type="scenen="1">
  <head>Scene One</head>
 </div>
 <div type="scenen="2">
  <head>Scene Two</head>
 </div>
</div>

2.7. Speeches and Speakers

  • <sp> (an individual speech in a performance text)
  • <speaker> (the name of the speaker(s) as given in the performance text)
  • <stage> (a stage direction of any sort within a dramatic text)

2.8. <sp> and <speaker> example

<sp who="#menae">
 <speaker>Menaechmus</speaker>
 <l>Responde, adulescens, quaeso, quid nomen tibist?</l>
</sp>
<sp who="#penic">
 <speaker>Peniculus</speaker>
 <l>Etiam derides, quasi nomen non noveris?</l>
</sp>
<sp who="#menae">
 <speaker>Menaechmus</speaker>
 <l>Non edepol ego te, quot sciam, umquam ante hunc diem</l>
 <l>Vidi neque novi; ...</l>
</sp>

2.9. Stage Directions

  • <stage> (stage direction) contains any kind of stage direction
    • type indicates the kind of stage direction
  • <move/> (movement) marks the actual entrance or exit of one or more characters on stage.
    • type characterizes the movement
    • where specifies the direction of a stage movement
    • perf (performance) identifies the performance(s) in which this movement occurred as specified.

2.10. An example

<div n="5type="scene">
 <stage>Elsinore. A room in the Castle.</stage>
 <stage type="setting">Enter Ophelia, distracted.</stage>
 <sp>
  <speaker>Ophelia</speaker>
  <p>Where is the beauteous Majesty of Denmark?</p>
 </sp>
 <sp>
  <speaker>Queen</speaker>
  <p>How now, Ophelia?</p>
 </sp>
<!-- ... -->
</div>

2.11. Dramatic example from Punch

<sp>
 <speaker>Greece.</speaker>
 <said> ISN'T IT TIME WE STARTED FIGHTING AGAIN?</said>
</sp>
<sp>
 <speaker>Turkey.</speaker>
 <said> YES, I DARESAY. HOW SOON COULD YOU BEGIN?</said>
</sp>
<sp>
 <speaker>Greece.</speaker>
 <said> OH, IN A FEW WEEKS.</said>
</sp>
<sp>
 <speaker>Turkey.</speaker>
 <said> NO GOOD FOR ME. SHAN'T BE READY TILL
   THE AUTUMN.</said>
</sp>

2.12. Other types of performance text

  • <view> describes the visual context of some part of a screen play in terms of what the spectator sees
  • <camera> describes a particular camera angle or viewpoint
  • <caption> contains the text of a caption or other text displayed
  • <sound> describes a sound effect or musical sequence
    • type categorizes the sound in some respect, e.g. as music, special effect, etc.
    • discrete indicates whether the sound overlaps the surrounding speeches or interrupts them

3. Dictionaries

The TEI defines a module for encoding human-oriented monolingual and multilingual dictionaries, glossaries, and similar documents. These are not just for standalone use, but could be for a wordlist or glossary accompanying a digital edition.

3.1. Dictionary Structures

  • <entry> contains a reasonably well-structured dictionary entry
  • <entryFree> (unstructured entry) contains a dictionary entry which does not necessarily conform to the constraints imposed by the entry element
  • <superEntry> groups successive entries for a set of homographs

3.2. And other structures like...

  • <hom> (homograph) groups information relating to one homograph within an entry
  • <sense> groups together all information relating to one word sense in a dictionary entry, for example definitions, examples, and translation equivalents

3.3. Inside these structures

  • <form> groups all the information on the written and spoken forms
  • <gramGrp> groups morpho-syntactic information about a lexical item
  • <def>contains a definition
  • <cit> contains a cited quotation
  • <usg> contains usage information
  • <xr> contains a cross-reference
  • <etym> encloses the etymological information
  • <re> contains a related entry
  • <note> contains a note or annotation.

3.4. <entry> example

<entry>
 <form>
  <orth>competitor</orth>
  <hyph>com|peti|tor</hyph>
  <pron>k@m"petit@(r)</pron>
 </form>
 <gramGrp>
  <pos>n</pos>
 </gramGrp>
 <def>person who competes.</def>
</entry>

3.5. Multiple senses

<entry>
 <form>
  <orth>disproof</orth>
  <pron>dIs"pru:f</pron>
 </form>
 <gramGrp>
  <pos>n</pos>
 </gramGrp>
 <sense n="1">
  <def>facts that disprove something.</def>
 </sense>
 <sense n="2">
  <def>the act of disproving.</def>
 </sense>
</entry>

3.6. Inside <form>

  • <orth> gives the orthographic form
  • <pron> contains the pronunciation(s)
  • <hyph> contains a hyphenated form
  • <syll> contains the syllabification
  • <stress> contains the stress pattern
  • <lbl> contains a label for a form, example, translation, or other piece of information

3.7. What? There is more inside <form>?

  • <gram> for grammatical information
  • <gen> identifies the morphological gender
  • <number> indicates grammatical number
  • <case> contains grammatical case
  • <per> contains the grammatical person (1st, 2nd, 3rd, etc.)
  • <tns> indicates the grammatical tense
  • <mood> contains information about the grammatical mood of verbs
  • <iType> indicates the inflectional class

3.8. <form> example

<form>
 <orth>brag</orth>
</form>
<gramGrp>
 <pos>vb</pos>
</gramGrp>
<form type="infl">
 <orth>brags</orth>
 <orth>bragging</orth>
 <orth>bragged</orth>
</form>

3.9. Multiple Forms

<entry>
 <form type="abbrev">
  <orth>MTBF</orth>
 </form>
 <form type="full">
  <lbl>abbrev. for</lbl>
  <orth>mean time between failures</orth>
 </form>
</entry>

3.10. Another tasty <entry>

<entry>
 <form>
  <orth>rémoulade</orth>
  <pron>Remulad</pron>
 </form>
 <gramGrp>
  <pos>n</pos>
  <gen>f</gen>
 </gramGrp>
 <cit type="translationxml:lang="en">
  <quote>remoulade</quote>
  <quote>rémoulade</quote>
  <def>dressing containing mustard and herbs</def>
 </cit>
</entry>


James Cummings. Date: April 2009
Copyright University of Oxford