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1. What's in a name?

  • We've already met <name> and <rs> for any form of name or referring string.
  • The namesdates module also provides specialisations of these: <persName>, <placeName>, and <orgName>
  • Each can be further decomposed
  • They can also be associated with a named entity
  • (Names are also entities)

2. Personal Names

For example...
  • <persName> (personal name) a proper noun or proper-noun phrase referring to a person ... equivalent to <name type="person">
  • <surname> a family (inherited) name
  • <forename> a forename, given or baptismal name
  • <roleName> a name component indicating a particular role or position in society
  • <addName> (additional name) an additional name component such as a nickname, epithet, or alias, or any other descriptive phrase used within a personal name
  • <nameLink> a connecting phrase or link used within a name but not regarded as part of it
<persName xml:lang="ru">
 <forename type="first">Владимир</forename>
 <forename type="patronymic">Владимирович</forename>

3. Names as referents (1)

In a text we might find the same person referred to on different occasions in any number of different ways:
...<persName>Clara Schumann</persName>.... <persName>Clara</persName>
<persName>Frau Schumann</persName>

All of these names refer to the same entity

We can use an attribute on any naming element to specify which entity is being referenced:
  • key if we are supplying an externally-defined code for the entity
  • ref if we are pointing to a definition of the entity

4. Names as referents (2)

For example:-
...<persName ref="#CS">Clara Schumann</persName>.... <persName ref="#CS">Clara</persName>
<persName key="CS123">Frau Schumann</persName>
<!-- ... elsewhere -->
<person xml:id="CS">
 <persName xml:lang="de">
  <forename type="first">Clara</forename>
  <forename type="middle">Josephine</forename>
  <surname type="maiden">Wieck</surname>
  <surname type="married">Schumann</surname>

5. The thing itself (1)

TEI provides special-purpose elements for maintaining structured information about named entities (as well as their names):
  • <person>, <place>, <event>
  • may be grouped into <listPerson>, <listPlace>, (and soon <listEvent>)
  • relationships can also be modelled, explicitly using <relation> or implicitly by context
<person xml:id="VM1893">
 <persName xml:lang="ru">Владимир Владимирович Маяковский</persName>
 <persName xml:lang="fr">Wladimir Maïakowski</persName>
 <birth when="1893-07-19">7 July (OS) 1893, <placeName ref="#BGDTxml:lang="en">Baghdati, Georgia</placeName>
 <death when="1930-04-14"/>
  <p>Poet and playwright, among the foremost representatives of
     early-20th century Russian Futurism.</p>
<!-- ... -->

6. Traits, states, and events

The scope of elements one might record for a named entity is large. The TEI provides three generic elements, and some specific ones.

We identify three main classes of information:
  • characteristics or traits which do not, by and large, change over time
  • characteristics or states which hold true only at a specific time
  • events or incidents which may lead to a change of state or, less frequently, trait

For a person, typical traits are such things as <faith>, <sex>, <socEcStatus>; typical states are such things as <occupation>, <residence>, <education>; typical events are such things as <birth> and <death>.

7. Personal Relationships

  • <relationGrp> (relation group) provides information about relationships identified amongst people, places, and organizations
  • <relation> (relationship) describes any kind of relationship or linkage amongst a specified group of participants
    supplies a name for the kind of relationship of which this is an instance
    identifies the 'active' participants in a non-mutual relationship, or all the participants in a mutual one
    supplies a list of participants amongst all of whom the relationship holds equally
    identifies the ‘passive’ participants in a non-mutual relationship

7.1. Example

<person xml:id="jsbach">
 <persName>Johann Sebastian Bach</persName>
<person xml:id="cdbach">
 <persName>Catharina Dorothea Bach</persName>
<person xml:id="ghbach">
 <persName>Gottfried Heinrich Bach</persName>
<relationGrp type="childrensubtype="first-marriage">
 <relation name="parentactive="#jsbachpassive="#cdbach"/>
<relationGrp type="childrensubtype="second-marriage">
 <relation name="parentactive="#jsbachpassive="#ghbach"/>

8. Other kinds of entity

<org>: a named collection of people regarded as a single unit, such as a business, institution, or tribe.

<place>: a named location of any kind (including mythological and non-terrestrial places)

These can be grouped in the same way (using <listOrg> or <listPlace>), and also have states, traits, and events.

9. Places

  • Places can be identified solely in terms of geographical features or locations, e.g.
  • More usually, they are identified in geo-political terms, using
    • adminstrative units such as <bloc>, <country>, <region>, <settlement>, <district>
    • physical location using <geo> and <offset>
  • Note that all these things are traits -- they may change over time

10. For example: Mayakovsky's birth place

<place xml:id="BGDT">
 <placeName xml:lang="ka">ბაღდათი</placeName>
 <placeName xml:lang="en">Baghdati</placeName>
 <placeName notAfter="1990notBefore="1940"> Mayakovsky</placeName>
 <location type="geopolitical">
 <location type="physical">
  <offset>West of</offset>
 <population when="2007">
  <p>4,700 people</p>

11. Places can be nested (unlike people)

<place xml:id="LT">
 <country xml:lang="lt">Lietuva</country>
 <place xml:id="LT-VN">
 <place xml:id="LT-KA">

12. Sources

Responsibility and uncertainty about the sources can be asserted by using attributes from the att.editLike class:
<org xml:id="MXYtype="triberesp="#herodotus">
 <orgName>The Maxyans</orgName>
 <desc>According to Herodotus, they were a west Libyan
   tribe who said that they were descended from the men of

13. Names are also entities

For some purposes (onomastics, etymology...), names exist independently of their application to an entity.

The elements <nym> and <listNym> can be used to record information about a name regarded as an entity, and the attribute nymRef can be used to associate name/s with it.

<nym xml:id="VLAD">
  <form xml:lang="ru">Владимир</form>
  <etym>from <lang>Slavonic</lang>
     Влад (rule) + мѣр (fame), changed by folk etymology into мир (world)</etym>
  <form xml:lang="da">Valdemar</form>
  <form xml:lang="de">Waldemar</form>
<!-- ... -->
<forename type="firstnymref="#VLAD">Владимир</forename>

Date: 2008-07-14
Copyright University of Oxford